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Irving Squire 


New York Chicago 




This Opera House was J?uUt by Oscar Hammer- 
stein in 1906 as a competitor of the Metropolitan of 
New York. For twenty vears oreviQUs to that time 
New York had healra^afict^iipefffe&y at the Metro- 
politan and only under the auspices of society. The 
Manhattan was built to be the home of popular 
grand opera, and more attention was given to Italian 
Opera than to German. The acoustic properties of 
the auditorium, which holds about 2000 people, are 
good, but no attempt was ma(^ij:9^'^4 expensive 



New York Chicago 



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New York Chicago 

Copyright 1908 by 


Entered Stationers' Hall 




Manhattan Opera House ----- Frontispiece 

Victor Herbert ----------16 

Joseph Joachim --------- 80 

Ruggiero Leoncavallo --------- 144 

Pietro Mascagni --------- 208 

Jules Frederic Emile Massenet ------ 272 

Ignace Jan Paderewski -------- 836 

John Philip Sousa -------._ 400 

Eugene Ysae --••-••-.. 4^4 



a as in ah 

a as in mate 

a as in cat 

b as in bat 

c used only in ch as in churlish. The 
Scotch and German gutteral, as 
loch and ich, is represented by kh. 

d as in deem 

dh as in thine 

dj as in adjure 

e as in be 

e as in get 

f as in file 

g as in go 

h as in hail 

i as in light 

! as in tin 

j as in joke 

k as in kite 

1 as in lump 

m as in mine 

n as m nme 

fi represents the French nasal n or m. 

6 as in mote 

6 as in on 

6 as in song 

oo as in loon 

ow as in bow 

p as in post 

r as in roll 

s as in sent 

t as in tap 

th as in thank 

th as these is represented by dh 

u as in blue 

u as in utter 

The French u and the German long 

u are represented by ti 
V as in survive 
w as in well 
y as in yet 
z as in zone 


MAAS (mas), Louis. 1852-1889. 
Pianist and composer of un- 
usual ability; born at Wies- 
baden, Germany. His father gave him 
his first instruction on the piano, and 
from 1867 to 1871 he studied with 
Papperitz and Reinecke at the Leipsic 
Conservatory, and for three sumrners 
was under the instruction of Liszt. 
From 1875 to 1880 he taught piano at 
the Leipsic Conservatory, and in 1880 
came to America, settling in Boston, 
where from 1881 to 1882 he conducted 
the Boston Philharmonic concerts. 
He had many private pupils and was 
for a time connected with the New 
England Conservatory of Music. As 
a concert pianist, he visited many of 
the principal cities of the United 
States. He died in Boston when only 
thirty-seven years old. Doctor Maas 
was a great addition to the musical 
circle of Boston and he contributed 
to music on American subjects the 
interesting symphony. On the Prai- 
ries. His other compositions are 
twelve Phantasiestiick for piano; vio- 
lin sonatas; fantasies; piano concerto 
in C minor; overtures; suites and 
marches for orchestra; a string quar- 
tet and some songs. 

Mabellini (ma-bel-le'-ne), Teodulo. 


Italian dramatic composer. Was 
born at Pistoia, and died at Florence. 
He was the pupil of G. Pilotti at his 
native town, and then studied at the 
Institutio Reale Musicale at Florence. 
His first opera, Matilda di Toledo, 
was produced at Florence when he 
was nineteen years old and pleased 

Grand Duke Leopold IL to such an 
extent that he had the young musician 
instructed further. His second opera, 
Rolla, appeared at Turin in 1840. In 
1843 he went back to Florence where 
he directed the Philharmonic Society 
and the grand annual concerts. In 

1847 he was made Court conductor, in 

1848 conductor at the Pergola Thea- 
tre, and in 1859 an instructor at the 
Royal Institute of Music, where he 
remained until 1887. Among his suc- 
cessful operas are Ginevra degli 
Almieri; II Conte di Savagna; I 
Veneziani a Constantinopoli; Maria di 
Francia; II Venturiero; Baldassare; 
and Fiammetta. He also wrote the 
oratorios, Eudossia e Paolo, and 
L'Ultimo Giorno di Gerusalemme; 
the cantatas La Caccia, II Ritorno, 
Elegiaca, Rafaele Sanzio, and _ Lo 
Spirito di Dante; and church-music. 

♦Macbeth, Allan. 1856- 

Organist, composer and teacher; 
son of Norman Macbeth, the painter. 
Was born in Greenock, Scotland. His 
early years were passed in Edinburgh, 
whither his family had moved soon 
after his birth; but in 1870 he went to 
Germany where his musical impulses 
were aroused during the course of his 
general education. He returned to 
Edinburgh to study music under the 
best masters that city could offer, 
then went to Leipsic, where he stud- 
ied in the Conservatory under Richter 
in theory, Wenzl in piano and Jadas- 
sohn in composition. He returned to 
Edinburgh in 1879, but after a year 
there went to Glasgow, where for 
seven years he conducted the Glasgow 



Choral Union. He has held various 
appointments as organist and conduc- 
tor, and at Woodside Parish Church, 
Glasgow, he organized the first boy- 
choir in Scotland. During nine years 
at St. George's-in-the-Fields Parish 
Church he developed the music to an 
unusual degree. His most important 
service to music has been, probably, 
in connection with the Glasgow 
Athenaeum School of Music of which 
he was principal from 1890 to 1902 
and the Glasgow College of Music 
which he formed in 1902. In these 
schools he has given particular atten- 
tion to the study of opera, and for 
the last fourteen years has presented 
annually an operatic masterpiece, usu- 
ally of the French Comic Opera 
School. Although the greater part of 
Mr. Macbeth's time has been taken up 
by teaching, he has composed a num- 
ber of pieces, among them Forget- 
me-not, an intermezzo for string or- 
chestra; The Land of Glory, a cantata 
which won the prize of the Glasgow 
Society of Music in 1890; incidental 
music to the drama, Bruce, Lord of 
the Isles; In Memoriam, for orches- 
tra; Silver Bells; Jubilee chorus; In- 
termezzo for strings; Serenata Danze; 
Pizzicate and Ballet for orchestra; 
string trios; piano trios; suite for 
violoncello and piano; piano-music 
and songs. 

MacCarthy, Maud. 1884- 

Violinist; born at Clonmel, Ireland. 
Her teacher from the age of eight to 
fifteen was Seiior Arbos. She made 
her debut at London in 1894 very suc- 
cessfully. She then studied two years 
more without appearing in public 
during that time. Since 1896 she 
has played at concerts in London, at 
the Saturday concerts at the Crystal 
Palace, and has made an extensive 
American tour with the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra and the New York 
Philharmonic Society. Her playing 
shows careful training and no effort. 
She has mastered the violin classics 
from Beethoven to Tschaikowsky, 
and her small hands in no way hinder 
her power or technical skill. 

MacCunn (m5k-kun), Hatnish. 1868- 

Dramatic composer, who is impor- 
tant among Scottish musicians. Was 
born at Greenock. His musical abili- 
ties were early apparent and he began 
to study when only six. In 1883, when 
the National Training School at South 


Kensington opened as the Royal Col- 
lege of Music, he won a scholarship 
for composition. Here he studied 
under Sir Hubert Parry. His first 
overture entitled, Cior Mhor, was per- 
formed at the Crystal Palace in 1885, 
and two years later the overture. The 
Land of the Mountain and the Flood, 
brought out by Sir August Manns, re- 
ceived wide notice. The following 
year the young composer produced 
his first cantata. Lord Ullin's Daugh- 
ter, a ballad for chorus and orchestra, 
and for a commission from the Glas- 
gow Choral Union he composed the 
cantata, erU:itIed The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel. In 1889 he was married to 
a daughter of John Pettie, R. A. 
From 1888 to 1894 he was professor 
of harmony at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and in 1892 he became con- 
ductor of the Hampstead Conserv- 
atory Orchestral Society. In 1894 his 
opera, Jeanie Deans, based on Scott's 
Heart of Midlothian, was given by the 
Royal Carl Rosa Opera Company in 
Edinburgh, and after a successful tour 
through the provinces appeared in 
London in 1896 and was exceedingly 
well received. In 1898 MacCunn 
became conductor of this company 
and for some years directed their 
performances. He has had much ex- 
perience in this work and was the con- 
ductor under whom the first English 
production of Wagner's later works 
were given. On the death of Sir 
Arthur Sullivan he took his place at 
the Savoy Theatre during the engage- 
ments of Merrie England and A 
Princess of Kensington. As a com- 
poser his work shows great merit and 
a high degree of individuality, being 
strongly Scottish in character. His 
list of compositions is large and cred- 
itable and contains the following: 
Operas, Jeanie Deans; Dairmid; The 
Masque of War and Peace; and The 
Golden Girl. Orchestral compositions 
are The Land of the Mountain and 
The Flood; Highland Memories; the 
Dowie Dens o' Yarrow; and The Ship 
of the Fiend. Other works are a num- 
ber of songs and part-songs; Scotch 
dances for piano; and The Eighth 
Psalm for chorus and organ. He also 
wrote the following ballads and can- 
tatas: Bonnie Kilmeny; The Lay of 
the Last Minstrel; Lord Ullin's 
Daughter; Queen Hynde of Caledon; 
The Death of Parry Reed; The 
Wreck of the Hesperus; and The 
Cameronian's Dream. 


* Macdougall, Hamilton Crawford. 


Head of the department of music 
at Wellesley College. Was born at 
Warwick, Rhode Island. He studied 
in the public schools of Providence, 
then studied music under Robert Bon- 
ner of Providence, and in Boston had 
private instruction under B. J. Lang, 
J. D. C. Parker and S. B. Whitney. 
In London, England, he studied under 
Dr. E. H. Turpin and became Asso- 
ciate of the Royal College of Organ- 
ists, where he studied in 1883, and 
from 1885 to 1886. From 1882 to 
1895 he played at the Central Baptist 
Church of Providence, then went to 
Boston and played in the Harvard 
Church at Brookline from 1896 to 
1900. In 1900 he became professor of 
music at Wellesley, where he has 
'classes in counterpoint, theory and 
history of music. In 1901 he received 
the degree of Doctor of Music from 
Brown University. He founded the 
American Guild of Organists and the 
American College of Music, and is 
president of the Rhode Island Musi- 
cal Association, and has been a mem- 
ber of the Clef Club of New York 
and of the Harvard Musical Associa- 
tion of Boston. He has written 
National Graded Course, in seven 
books; Studies in Melody Playing, 
in two volumes; Music for Women's 
Voices; Sacred Music, several songs 
and anthems, and a number of arti- 
cles for various musical periodicals. 

MacDowell, Edward Alexander. 1861- 


There has been much discussion as 
to whether or not America has a 
national music, but it is generally 
agreed that if such be the case, Ed- 
ward Alexander MacDowell is its 
most gifted and most characteristic- 
ally national representative. Educated 
in French and German Conserv- 
atories and surrounded during the 
formative j-ears of his life by foreign 
models and musicians, MacDowell so 
thoroughly assimilated the best that 
was presented to him that he can 
never be accused of having been 
unduly influenced by methods and 
characteristics of other countries, and 
even from the first he was singularly 
free from that unconscious imitation 
into which so many young composers 
fall. His music is as individual as the 
music of Chopin or Beethoven, but it 
will be for the future to prove how 


much of this individuality is national 
and how much personal. Thus far 
we can only accord him first place as 
an American composer. Edward 
Alexander MacDowell was born in 
New York City, Dec. 18, 1861. In 
religion his grandparents were 
Quakers, and from them we may trace 
an admirable earnestness and sim- 
plicity along with the strong Celtic 
strain which expressed itself in his 
fine understanding of and sensitive- 
ness to Nature and the moods inspired 
by her. When MacDowell was about 
eight years old he began taking piano 
lessons from Mr. Juan Buitrago. His 
next teacher was Paul Desvernine, 
with whom he studied until he was 
about fourteen, receiving lessons also 
from the noted Venezuelan pianist, 
Mme. Teresa Careno. In April, 
1876, he went to Paris with his 
mother and entered the Conservatory 
to study theory and composition under 
Savard, and piano under Marmontel. 
About this time his French teacher 
showed a sketch he had made to an 
instructor at the ficole des Beaux 
Arts, who saw so much promise in 
it that he agreed to give the young 
man three years of free instruction 
and to arrange for his support during 
that time. For a while MacDowell 
hesitated between the two arts, but 
finally decided to continue in the path 
he had chosen. 

At this time he heard of Carl Hey- 
mann, the pianist, who taught at the 
Frankfort Conservatory, and being 
dissatisfied at Paris, at the invitation 
of friends he went to Wiesbaden, met 
Heymann, and was most favorably 
impressed with him. He remained in 
Wiesbaden studying composition and 
theory with Louis Ehlert, and in the 
autumn of 1879 entered Frankfort 
Conservatory. Here he found what he 
wanted. Heymann proved to be all 
he had expected as a piano teacher, 
and in Raff, with whom he studied 
composition, he found a most under- 
standing and appreciative master. If 
MacDowell ever showed the influence 
of any one man it is that of Raff, and 
it is seen in the Suite No. 1 for 
orchestra, of which he has named the 
four movements as follows: In a 
Haunted Forest, Summer Idyll, The 
Shepherdess' Song, Forest Spirits, 
with a supplement, entitled In Octo- 
ber. MacDowell now went to the 
Darmstadt Conservatory to teach 
the piano, but soon discovered that 




no progress was to be made there and 
returned to Frankfort, where he gave 
private lessons and devoted much 
time to composition. He visited Liszt 
at Weimar, and the veteran musician, 
recognizing his abihty, invited him 
to play his first piano suite at the 
Allgemeiner Deutscher Musik-Verein 
held at Zurich in July, 1882. In 
Frankfort he met his wife, Marion 
Nevins, of New York, whom Raff had 
sent to MacDowell for lessons, be- 
cause she spoke little German. They 
were married in 1884 and the follow- 
ing year removed to Wiesbaden, 
where for about two years they lived 
a delightfully retired life. To this 
period belong the three songs, Mein 
Liebchen, Du Liebst mich nicht, and 
Oben, wo die Sterne gliihen, which 
comprise Op. 2; Nachtlied and Das 
Rosenband, included in Op. 12; a pre- 
lude and fugue; the second piano 
suite; the first piano concerto; the 
Serenade; two Fantasiestiicke; Erzah- 
lung; Hexantanz; Barcarolle and Hu- 
moresque. Op. 18; the Wald-Idyllen; 
Drei Poesin and Mondbilder for four 
hands; also the two tone-poems for 
orchestra, entitled Hamlet and 
Ophelia, and dedicated to Sir Henry 

In the autumn of 1888 MacDowell 
returned to America and settled in 
Boston. He was already well known as 
a composer, and made his first appear- 
ance as a pianist at Chickering Hall 
with the Kneisel Quartet in Novem- 
ber, 1888. In 1889 he played at a 
Thomas Orchestra concert in New 
York and achieved instant success. 
From that time forward his reputation 
as a composer and performer grew, 
until in 1896 at a concert in New 
York, the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra played the first piano concerto, 
The Indian Suite, on the same pro- 
gram. In the autumn of 1896 a Chair 
of Music was endowed at Columbia 
University in New York City and 
MacDowell was called to fill it. In- 
harmonious conditions at the Uni- 
versity and a desire to devote most of 
his time to composition led him to 
resign this position in 1904. About 
two years later in New York City he 
was knocked down by a cab, which 
passed over his neck. From that time 
an incurable mental and nervous dis- 
ease set in and he died in New York, 
Jan. 23, 1908. 

Picking out special compositions of 
MacDowell's for discussion is not an 

easy task, owing to the almost 
uniform excellence and the total dis- 
similarity of subject-matter and treat- 
ment. The selections in this case are 
made on the basis of those composi- 
tions probably best known to the 
public. Under this head the Indian 
Suite for orchestra probably comes 
first. In a prefatory note Mr. Mac- 
Dowell acknowledges the source of 
his themes for this to be the music 
of American Indian folk-songs, but 
the treatment is quite his own. Vigor- 
ous and strong in construction, mas- 
terly in arrangement of theme against 
theme, it is finished with a refinement 
and delicacy which adds much of 
smoothness in the sequence of its un- 
usual and at times almost bizarre 
motives. It is one of the very first 
American compositions for orchestra 
and holds its own when placed on a 
program with such works as Tschai- 
kowski's Sixth Symphony. The four 
piano sonatas are all masterly. In the 
fifst, the Tragica, unlike most of his 
compositions, the poetical inspiration 
is not definitely designated, but this 
is not necessary, and the directness 
and the dignity with which he has 
achieved his results are impressive. 
There is nothing theatrical or senti- 
mental about it. It is a simple but 
marvelously artistic statement of 
tragedy as one of the facts of life. 
The Eroica is the second sonata 
chronologically, and bears the sub- 
title, A Flower from the Realm of 
King Arthur. Expressive of the high- 
est human emotion, it is one of the 
most adequate musical versions of the 
Arthurian stories that has been made. 
Full of form and color, and wonderful 
in its descriptive power is the Norse 
Sonata, dedicated to Edvard Grieg. 
The picturesqueness of this subject 
appealed to the poetic side of the 
man, and the result is a tone-picture 
of almost barbaric splendor. Some 
of the passages are primitively vigor- 
ous in character, others are poignant 
with his own Gaelic tenderness. The 
Keltic Sonata is probably his master- 
piece. Hauntingly beautiful, with the 
strange, dim beauty of ancient leg- 
ends, this musical compostion mirrors 
all the dream glory of the heroic 
Gaelic world. Another field in which 
MacDowell has composed much is 
that of song-writing. In this smaller 
form of musical composition he has 
written some things that are wonder- 
ful bits of musical expression. It is 



often said that these songs demand 
almost impossible tone sequences of 
the human voice, yet for sheer beauty 
of conception and absolute union of 
poetic sentiment and musical expres- 
sion, they command admiration. In 
his smaller pieces for piano we have 
another development of his genius, 
one which is perhaps more intimate 
than all the others. A pianist of ex- 
cellent abilities, he was able to give 
his own interpretation to these pieces 
as a sort of key by which could be 
deciphered all the mystery and beauty 
of his larger works. The fascination 
of his sympathetic treatment of nature 
is keenly felt in such pieces as those 
which comprise the series he calls 
Woodland Sketches. The lightness 
and grace with which he has treated 
Will o' the Wisp and To a Wild 
Rose; the dignity and simple strength 
Jie has given the Indian theme in 
From an Indian Lodge; the tender- 
ness and poetic feeling shown in At 
an Old Trysting Place, a Deserted 
Farm, and in Autumn, place this set 
of sketches high in the list of his 
works. In his Sea Pieces he is wonder- 
fully true to nature and has caught and 
portrayed the majesty, the mystery 
and fascination of this mighty force 
with remarkable fidelity. And in his 
Moon Pictures, suggested by themes 
from Hans Christian Andersen, one 
feels the poetry, romance and charm 
all clearly expressed. The leading 
characteristics of this composer are 
imagination and poetic feeling. As a 
man he was retiring and modest, but 
staunch in the support of his ideals 
and convictions. We live too near to 
him to estimate the ultimate value of 
his work and its influence on our 
national music, or to rightly place 
him among the musicians of the 

M'Ewen, John Blackwood. 1868- 

Scottish composer of considerable 
importance; was born at Hawick. 
After studying at the Glasgow High 
School and University, where he re- 
ceived the degree of M. A., he entered 
the Royal Academy of Music, from 
which he received the degree of Fel- 
low. In 1896 he became professor and 
lecturer at the Glasgow Athenaeum, 
and two years later he became pro- 
fessor of composition and harmony 
at the Royal Academy of Music. He 
has written many compositions 
strongly Scotch in character, among 


them being Six Highland Dances for 
piano and violin; Three Highland 
Dances for strings; Graih, My Chree, 
a recitation with accompaniment of a 
string quartet, drum and piano. 
Other works are The Last Chantey, 
for chorus and orchestra; a Scene 
from Hellas, for female chorus and 
orchestra; an arrangement for Mil- 
ton's Hymn on the Nativity for 
soprano solo, chorus and orchestra; 
and orchestral suite in E; a symphony 
in A minor; two overtures; a string 
quartet in F and one in E minor. 

Macfarren, Sir George Alexander. 


English musician, who, though 
blind part of his life, accomplished an 
enormous amount of work, and won 
a remarkable musical reputation for 
himself in his own country. He was 
a son of the dramatist, George Mac- 
farren, and was born at London. He 
did not begin to study music until 
1827, and then became a pupil of 
Charles Lucas. In 1829 he entered 
the Royal Academy of Music, where 
he studied the piano, trombone and 
composition. In 1834 he became a 
professor at the Royal Academy and 
the same year produced his sym- 
phony in F minor. In 1836 his over- 
ture, Chevy Chase, appeared; in 1838 
his Devil's Opera was presented; and 
in 1840 his Emblematic Tribute on 
the Queen's marriage was given at 
Drury Lane. In 1843 he became a 
member of the Handel Society and 
edited Belshazzar, Judas Maccabaeus 
and Jephthah; in 1845 he directed 
Mendelssohn's Antigone at Covent 
Garden; in 1846 produced his own 
opera, Don Quixote; and in 1849 his 
opera, Charles II. In 1851 his can- 
tata, Leonora, appeared; in 1856 
another cantata, May Day, was given, 
and in 1859 his cantata, Christmas, 
was produced. In 1860 he brought 
out Robinhood, one of his most suc- 
cessful works, and in 1863 his masque, 
Freya's Gift, written in honor of the 
Prince of Wales' marriage; also his 
opera, Jessy Lea; and in 1864 three 
other operas. She Stoops to Con- 
quer, The Soldiers' Legacy, and 

About this time the composer 
became totally blind, but continued 
his work of teaching and writing with 
unceasing energy with the aid of 
helpers to take dictation from him. 
In 1873 his oratorio, St. John the 




Baptist, was produced, and in 1875 he 
was given the degrees of Bachelor 
and Doctor of Music and was made a 
professor of music at Cambridge. In 

1876 he became principal of the Royal 
Academy of Music and brought out 
his oratorio, The Resurrection. In 

1877 his oratorio, Joseph, and his can- 
tata, The Lady of the Lake, were pro- 
duced. In 1883 he again appeared 
with an oratorio. King David, and in 
the same year was knighted. Among 
his other compositions are overtures 
to The Merchant of Venice, Romeo 
and Juliet, and Hamlet. He wrote 
many excellent educational musical 
works which had much influence at 
the time, as The Rudiments of Har- 
mony, and Six Lectures on Harmony. 
He contributed to The Musical 
World and wrote the lives of musi- 
cians for the Imperial Dictionary of 
Universal Biography. He also de- 
livered many lectures in London and 
elsewhere. His active life ended in 
1877, and he was buried at Hamp- 
stead cemetery. A life of him by 
H. C. Banister was published in 1891. 
Macfarren wrote in almost every form 
of music and attracted much attention 
in his time, but his works seem to 
lack the life and spontaneity of mod- 
ern composers. 

Macfarren, Walter Cecil. 1826-1905. 

English musical composer and edi- 
tor; was the brother of Sir George 
Alexander Macfarren. He was born at 
London; was a chorister at Westmin- 
ster from 1836 to 1841, then studied 
piano at the Royal Academy of Music 
from 1842 to 1846 as the pupil of 
Holmes; Potter and his brother. He 
taught piano there from 1846 to 1903 
and also conducted the Academy con- 
certs. He was also director and treas- 
urer of the Philharmonic Society. He 
died at London. He wrote the over- 
tures to Henry V., Hero and Leander, 
Beppo, a Winter's Tale, Othello, and 
The Taming of the Shrew; two church 
services; piano concertos and sonatas; 
and various kinds of songs. He also 
edited Beethoven's sonatas; Mozart's 
piano works; and Popular Classics. 

Macirone (ma-che-ro'-ne), Clara An- 
gela. 1821- 

Composer of songs, pianist and 
teacher. Was born at London, and 
educated at the Royal Academy of 
Music as the pupil of Potter, Holmes, 
Lucas and Negri. She was made a 

professor of the Academy and an 
associate of the Philharmonic Society, 
and was for several years the head 
music-teacher at Aske's School for 
Girls, and later at the Church of 
England High School for Girls, and 
during this time she also conducted 
a singing society called The Village 
Minstrels. She has now retired. Her 
Te Deum and Jubilate, sung at Han- 
over Chapel, were the first service com- 
posed by a woman ever sung in tlie 
church. She has published an admir- 
able suite for the violin and piano, and 
many part-songs, some of which have 
been sung at the Crystal Palace by 
choruses of three thousand voices; 
she has also written anthems and 
many solos for the voice. 

Mackenzie, Alexander Campbell. 1847- 
Stands in the front rank of British 
composers. He was born in Edin- 
burgh, where he received his general 
education at Hunter's School. His 
father was probably his first teacher 
in music, but he was soon put under 
the care of Johann Durner, a com- 
poser. At the earnest recommendation 
of Durner he was taken to Schwartz- 
burg-Sondershausen, Germany, to 
begin his serious musical study, and 
placed in surroundings exceedingly 
favorable to his musical advancement. 
He obtained a position in the ducal 
orchestra and began the study of 
theory with the conductor, Edouard 
Stein, and the violin with Ulrich. His 
training was of the best, and he had 
frequent opportunities to play the 
music of such masters as Wagner, 
Berlioz and Liszt, besides becoming 
acquainted with many of the great mu- 
sicians, among them Liszt and Max 
Bruch. Returned to Scotland in 1862, 
and after a short stay in Edinburgh, 
went to London to study the violin 
under his father's old friend and mas- 
ter. Prosper Sainton, at whose advice 
he competed for the King's Scholar- 
ship in the Royal Academy of Music, 
an honor which he was so fortunate 
as to win. He supported himself by 
playing in an orchestra and studied 
violin under Sainton, harmony and 
counterpoint under Lucas, and piano 
under Jewson. At the close of his 
course at the Royal Academy in 1865 
he returned to Edinburgh and began 
to teach. He soon became known as 
a violinist and performer of chamber- 
music, and in 1873 became conductor 
of the Scottish Vocal Music Associ- 


ation and St. George's Church, besides 
teaching at the Church of Scotland 
Normal College. He played first vio- 
lin in the Edinburgh Classical Cham- 
ber concerts, at which were performed 
some of his own compositions, among 
them his piano quartet in E flat, 
which is in a measure the foundation 
of his success. Mackenzie's overture, 
Cervantes, was given with decided 
success. Other compositions which 
Mackenzie found time to work on dur- 
ing these busy years are a scherzo, 
and his beautiful Scotch rhapsody. 
He played in the orchestra at the Bir- 
mingham Festivals in 1864, 1867, 1870 
and 1873, until under the strain of so 
much work his health gave out and 
he was forced to rest. 

He had long wished to visit Italy, 
so went to Florence for six months, 
until his health had somewhat recov- 
*ered. Then he set about serious work, 
producing The Bride, and Jason, in 
which his power of writing descriptive 
music begins to appear. His next 
work, the opera Colomba, was under- 
taken to meet an offer from The Carl 
Rosa Opera Company. In spite of 
its uninspiring libretto it was a dis- 
tinct success. The Rose of Sharon, a 
dramatic oratorio written for a Nor- 
wich Festival, is regarded by some 
critics as his best work. In 1884 he 
received an offer from Novello to 
conduct a revival of the series of Ora- 
torio concerts. This offer he subse- 
quently accepted. While he was in 
London, at this time, he wrote the 
Troubadour, around a libretto which 
proved even more unworthy his music 
than his Colomba. During the years 
1886 and 1887 he produced his Story 
of Sayid, his Jubilee Ode, at the Crys- 
tal Palace, and his Twelfth Night 
Overture, and received the degree of 
Doctor of Music at St. Andrews. In 
1892 he was appointed conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society. He went 
back to Italy in 1887, but at the death 
of Sir George Macfarren he was 
elected principal of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, and, returning to Eng- 
land, he at once identified himself 
with that institution, which he has 
greatly benefited. 

His work in composition may be 
divided into three periods, the early 
period to which belong his piano quar- 
tet in E flat, his two Scotch rhap- 
sodies, the overture Cervantes, and 
the scherzo for orchestra; The Flor- 
entine period, including The Bride, 

Jason, Colomba, The Rose of Sharon, 
and his beautiful music for Keats' La 
Belle Dame sans Merci; his late 
period, including the Troubadour, the 
comic opera, His Majesty, Story of 
Sayid, Twelfth Night overture, music 
for Marmion and Ravenswood, and 
Veni Creator. It is generally con- 
ceded that the works which best ex- 
press his musical genius are La Belle 
Dame sans Merci and the overture, 
Twelfth Night. 

* Macmillen, Francis. 1885- 

Young American violinist, who dur- 
ing the past three years has taken a 
prominent place in the musical world. 
Was born in Marietta^ Ohio. His 
mother was a musician of ability, and 
has devoted herself to her son's musi- 
cal education. His remarkable talent 
was awakened during his fourth year, 
when he demanded a violin, and was 
soon in possession of an instrument 
which cost a dollar and a half. About 
this time the family moved to Spring- 
field, Ohio, where their next door 
neighbor was a violin-teacher, Mr. 
Robert Brain, who undertook to give 
the little boy lessons. The Christmas 
after his fifth birthday he played the 
overture from the Caliph of Bagdad 
in public with great success. He was 
taken immediately to Chicago and 
placed under the tutelage of Bernard 
Listeman of the Chicago Musical Col- 
lege, at the same time studying piano 
under Fraulein Clara Krause. He dis- 
played equal talent for this instru- 
ment, and is today a proficient 
performer on it. When only seven he 
performed with orchestra at the old 
Schiller Theatre in Chicago. At the 
age of eight Macmillen was taken to 
Germany, where he became the pupil 
of Herr Karl Markees in Berlin. 
From Herr Markees he passed to 
Herr Kalir, remaining in Berlin until 
he was thirteen years old, then enter- 
ing the Brussels Conservatory, where 
he became a pupil of Cesar Thom- 
son. When fifteen he won second 
prize with great distinction at the 
annual concour, and the following 
year was declared laureate of the 
Conservatory and given the first prize 
with the greatest distinction, together 
with the Van Hal cash prize of five 
thousand francs. These awards 
marked the first time in the history of 
the Conservatory that such honors 
had been given an American. In the 
autumn of 1902 he made his debut in 




the celebrated Vauxhall of Brussels, 
achieving instant success. This was 
followed by tours through Belgium 
and Germany and two tours of Eng- 
land, where he was enthusiastically 
received. Lady Palmer, wife of Sir 
Walter Palmer, M. P., presented him 
with an eight-thousand-dollar Strad- 
ivarius violin. Macmillen's American 
debut occurred at Carnegie Hall, Dec. 
7, 1906, on which occasion he was 
assisted by the New York Symphony 
Orchestra, Walter Damrosch conduct- 
ing. This was followed by a tour of 
ninety-eight concerts, which took him 
through the east and middle west. In 
the summer of 1907 he returned to 
London, where he gave three recitals, 
assisted by the Queen's Hall Orches- 
tra under Henry T. Wood. His tour 
of 1907-1908 includes one hundred and 
sixty concerts through the east, south 
and middle west in the United States. 
Tours of Russia, Germany and Eng- 
land have been planned for the next 
two years. Although only twenty-two 
years old, Macmillen has played as 
soloist with many great orchestras 
of the world, including the Theodore 
Thomas Orchestra of Chicago. 

* Macpherson, Charles. 1870- 

Composer and teacher. Was born 
in Edinburgh, where his father was 
city architect and engineer. In 1879 
he entered St. Paul's Cathedral, re- 
maining there until his appointment 
as choirmaster at St. Clement's, East- 
cheap, in 1887. He studied organ with 
Sir George Martin, and in 1890 en- 
tered the Royal Academy of Music, 
taking the Charles Lucas prize in 1892. 
He is at present teacher of counter- 
point and harmony in this institution, 
and in 1895 he became suborganist 
at St. Paul's Cathedral. He wrote 
nine anthems; an arrangement of the 
137th Psalm for orchestra and choir, 
and other church music; the overture, 
Cridhe an Ghaidhil, on a Scottish 
theme; three Gaelic melodies with 
accompaniment of strings and harp; 
a suite, Hallowe'en; a Highland suite 
for orchestra; the glee, There Sits 
a Bird, which took a prize at the 
Bristol Orpheus Glee Society in 1893; 
a quartet in E flat for piano and 
strings; and other music. 

* Macpherson, Stewart. 1865- 

Musical educator and composer; 
born in Liverpool, England. He went 
first to the City of London School, 


then winning the Sterndale Bennett 
open scholarship he entered the Royal 
Academy of Music in 1880 and studied 
composition under Sir G. A. Mac- 
farren and piano under Walter Mac- 
farren. His record in this school was 
a brilliant one, for he won the Balfe 
Scholarship in 1882, and the Charles 
Lucas medal for composition in 1884, 
and the Potter Exhibition prize in 
1885. On completing his course in 
1887 he was made professor of com- 
position and harmony and elected an 
associate of the institution, being ad- 
vanced to the rank of Fellow in 1892. 
In 1885 he became organist of the 
Immanuel Church of Streatham Com- 
mon, and from 1885 to 1902 he con- 
ducted the Westminster Orchestral 
Society, an institution which has done 
much good work in bringing out 
works by English composers. He 
also conducted the Streatham Choral 
Society from 1886 to 1904. In 1898 
he became an examiner to the Associ- 
ated Board of the Royal Academy of 
Music, in which position he has vis- 
ited Canada, Australia, New Zealand, 
Ceylon and South Africa. In 1903 he 
became professor of composition at 
the Royal Normal College for the 
Blind, and was appointed a member 
of the Board of Musical Studies at 
the University of London. He is also 
a lecturer at the Royal Academy of 
Music and the Royal College of Music, 
and a member of the Philharmonic 
Society of London. Among his theo- 
retical works widely known in Great 
Britain are Practical Harmony, which 
has been translated into German; 
Appendix to Practical Harmony; Prac- 
tical Counterpoint; Three Hundred 
and Fifty Exercises in Harmony; 
Counterpoint and Modulation; and 
Rudiments of Music. In 1907 he was 
engaged with the publication of Form 
in Music which it is expected will 
appear early in 1908. Among his mu- 
sical compositions may be mentioned 
the fine mass in D for soprano solo, 
chorus and orchestra; violin concerto 
in G minor; ballade for orchestra; 
nocturne and idyll for orchestra; 
many songs; piano-pieces; and church 

Mader (ma'-der), Raoul Maria. 1856- 
Hungarian dramatic composer; born 
at Presburg. He studied law at the 
University of Vienna from 1874 to 
1878, then attended the Conservatory 
from 1879 to 1882, studying composi- 


tion with Krenn, harmony with 
Bruckner, and piano with Schmitt and 
Schenner, and taking first prizes in 
composition and piano, the great sil- 
ver medal in 1880, and the Liszt piano 
prize. On leaving the Conservatory 
he took a position with the Vienna 
Court Opera as coach of solo singers 
and was also conductor of ballets and 
minor operas, and in 1895 he became 
chorusmaster of the Academy Gesang- 
verein. Both these positions were 
given up in 1895, when he became 
chief conductor of the Royal Opera. 
His compositions are the ballets. Die 
Hochzeit in Frisirsalon, Die rothen 
Schuhe, She, Die Sireneninsel, and 
Tanzblut; a parody on Mascagni's 
Cavalleria Rusticana; the three-act 
comic opera, Die Fliichtlinge and the 
three-act operetta, Cceur d'ange. He 
also wrote some songs and choruses. 

Maelzel (mel'-tsel), Johann Nepomuk. 


An early inventor of automatic 
musical instruments. He was born at 
Ratisbon, where his father was an 
organ-builder, and in 1792 he went to 
Vienna as a music-teacher. His first 
mechanical work was an automaton 
composed of a trumpet, drum and 
other instruments, which played selec- 
tions from ^lozart and Haydn and 
which he sold for three thousand 
florins. He next invented the pan- 
harmonicon by making some additions 
to his former instrument. This was 
exhibited at Vienna in 1804. Then he 
bought Kempelen's chessplayer and 
took it and his own instrument to 
Paris. He sold the former soon, and 
then made a trumpeter playing mili- 
tary marches and signals. He was 
made Court mechanic in 1808. He 
invented an ear-trumpet, and in 1812 
opened an Art Cabinet showing his 
inventions. He made a public chro- 
nometer which was an improvement on 
all similar instruments in existence. 
He was a friend of Beethoven's and 
at one time started to England with 
him for the purpose of exhibiting the 
panharmonicon. On the way Bee- 
thoven composed a battle-piece for 
the instrument which Maelzel appro- 
priated as his own. This made Bee- 
thoven so angry that he took the mat- 
ter to court, but the only result of 
the affair was that Maelzel gave up 
going to England and went to Munich 
instead with the panharmonicon, and 
also the battle-piece. He then went 

to Amsterdam, where he bought the 
metronome, an instrument for time- 
keeping, from the Dutch inventor, 
Winkel. In 1816 he established a 
metronome factory in Paris, advertis- 
ing the instrument as his own idea. 
Winkel objected and was finally 
recognized as the real inventor when 
it was too late to do much good. 
Maelzel then journey to Munich and 
Vienna to rebuy the chessplayer and 
help along the metronome. He at last 
went to the United States and ex- 
hibited his curious inventions there 
and in the West Indies. 

Maggini (mad-je'-ne), Giovanni Paolo. 

(Magino or Magicino.) 1581-1632. 

Italian fiddle-maker, called the father 
of the violin, because he was the first 
to create that instrument as a distinct 
type. He was born at the little mili- 
tary town of Brescia. Nothing is 
known of his early boyhood, but a 
legal document dated 1602 proves that 
he was then the apprentice of Gasparo 
da Salo, a famous old maker of 
doublebasses and violas. In 1615 he 
had started his business, with the aid 
of an apprentice, Jacopo de Lanfran- 
chini. He manufactured citharas, vio- 
loncellos, violas and violins, and 
seems to have been very successful, 
for in 1626 he bought another house, 
and also a residence and lands m the 
hill country. The date of his death 
is unknown, but it is very probable 
that Maggini was a victim of the 
plague in 1632. Naturally his first 
work was much like that of his mas- 
ter, Gasparo. His violins were of 
large size, resembling small viols, 
were rather roughly made, and had 
the wood cut across the grain and the 
dark varnish of Gasparo. After Gas- 
paro's death his pupil began using the 
wood the straight way of the grain, 
and cutting the sound-holes more deli- 
cately and beveled inwards. He used 
the best of material, produced beauti- 
ful purfling, gave up Gasparo's dark 
brown varnish for a rich orange and 
golden color, and greatly reduced the 
amount of ornamentation which had 
hitherto decorated similar instruments 
to the disadvantage of their tone. His 
violoncellos were in general rather 
small. The tone of his instrument is 
full, melodious, and plaintive. They 
are not dated and only about fifty 
violins and half that number of cellos 
and tenors are known to exist at 



Magnus (man-yoos'). Desire. (Prop- 
erly Magnus Deutz.) 1828-1884. 

A Belgian pianist, composer and 
teacher. Born at Brussels, and died at 
Paris. He was a pupil of Vollweiler at 
Heidelberg, and also studied at the 
Brussels Conservatory, winning the 
first prize there in 1843. He then 
toured England, Russia and Spain as 
a pianist. He afterwards remained at 
Paris as a teacher, critic and com- 
poser. He wrote La Toledane, a 
short opera presented at Paris; an 
Elementary Method of the Piano; a 
Grand sonata; studies for melody and 
velocity; and drawing-room compo- 

Magnard (man-yar'), Lucien Denis 
Gabriel Alberic. 1865- 

French composer of decided prom- 
ise, who was born in Paris. He stud- 
ied law at the Lycee Condorcet, but 
later decided to make music his life- 
work and entered the Paris Conserv- 
atory, where he studied under Massenet 
and Dubois and took the harmony 
prize in 1888. Then he studied with 
Vincent d'Indy. He is one of the 
most interesting of modern French 
composers, owing to the sincerity and 
boldness of his style. He has writ- 
ten Hymne a la Justice; Hymne a 
Venus; three symphonies, a chant 
Funebre and a suite in ancient style 
for orchestra; the one-act opera, 
Yolande, and the three-act opera, 
GuerccEur, to both of which he wrote 
the librettos; some chamber-music, 
including a string quartet; a trio for 
piano and strings; a quintet for piano 
and wind-instruments; and a violin 

Mahler (ma'-lcr), Gustav. 1860- 

One of the most prominent of con- 
temporary operatic conductors and a 
composer of symphonies in the modern 
German style. Born at Kalischt, Bo- 
hemia. His early education was re- 
ceived at the Gymnasium at Iglau, 
and at Prague, and in 1877 he went 
to Vienna, where he studied phil- 
osophy at the University, and at the 
Conservatory took counterpoint and 
composition of Bruckner and piano of 
Epstein. In 1880 he began his career 
as conductor, and for three years led 
theatrical orchestras in various towns 
in Austria, until his appointment as 
second conductor in the Court 
Theatre at Cassel, where he remained 
two years. In 1885 he went to 


Prague for a year as Anton Seidl's 
successor, and in 1886 to Leipsic, 
where he filled the place of Nikisch 
as director of the Opera for about six 
months. In 1888 he became conduc- 
tor of the Royal Opera at Pesth, 
which he completely reorganized and 
greatly improved. He stayed here 
until 1891, when he obtained the posi- 
tion of conductor of the Hamburg 
City Theatre, a post which he left in 
May, 1897, to become Court conductor 
at the Court Opera in Vienna. The 
following October he succeeded Wil- 
helm Jahns as director of the Opera, 
and Hans Richter as conductor of 
Philharmonic concerts, and from 1898 
to 1900 he also led the concerts of 
the Gesellschaft. 

In 1892 he conducted German 
Opera at Covent Garden and proved 
himself a masterly director of Wag- 
nerian music. He was engaged to 
conduct Grand Opera at the Metro- 
politan Opera House in New York 
during the season of 1907-1908. 
Temperamentally Mahler is extremely 
well qualified as an operatic conduc- 
tor. He rules orchestra and singers 
alike with iron hand. His firmness 
and energy make for good discipline, 
and his enthusiasm infuses itself into 
all who work for him. The perform- 
ances that he conducts are notable for 
their smoothness and artistic unity. 

As a composer Mahler arouses 
much discussion in Germany today, 
some critics declaring him a man of 
distinguished talents and others 
esteeming him mediocre. In operatic 
composition he is represented by 
Riibezahl and Die Argonauten, both 
unsuccessful, and Die drei Pintos, an 
opera which Weber began to write 
a short time before his death, and 
which Mahler arranged from his 
notes and sketches. This also proved 
unsuccessful. His six symphonies are 
his most important compositions. Of 
these the first to appear were the sym- 
phony in D major, called the Titan 
Symphony, written in 1891, and the 
symphony in C minor, called Ein 
Sommermorgentraum. Both of these 
works are tremendous, the C minor 
requiring two hours for performance, 
and the other being little shorter; 
both require the fullest of modern 
orchestras with an unusual number of 
percussion instruments and several 
kinds of bells, and on the first hear- 
ing, despite the admirable simplicity 
of the themes chosen, seem noisy and 



confused. The third symphony, writ- 
ten in F, is called the Xaturleben 
Symphony. It is pantheistic in idea. 
The fourth symphony, brought out in 
1901; the fifth, or D minor symphony, 
entitled Riesensymphonie, and the 
sixth, which appeared in 1906, are his 
other compositions in this form of 
music. They are all thoroughly Ger- 
man in character; their chief excel- 
lence lies in broadness and simplicity 
in theme and an intense richness of 
treatment. Mahler's elaborateness of 
orchestration is at times almost over- 
whelming. Two other important 
compositions are the Humoresken for 
orchestra, and the cantata. Das 
klagende Lied. As a man Mahler is 
quiet and studious and most modest 
concerning his own compositions, but 
full of unfailing energy and enthusi- 
asm. Comparatively a young man, he 
*is one of those of whom the musical 
world expects further development. 

Maillart (mi-yar), Louis Aime. 1817- 


Composer for the stage; best 
known as the writer of the opera, Les 
Dragons de Villars. He was born in 
Paris, where at the Conservatory he 
studied the violin with Guerin, com- 
position with Halevy, and harmony 
under Leborne. In 1841 he obtained 
the Grand Prize of Rome by a com- 
position entitled Lionel Foscari. 
After this he spent two years in 
Italy, besides visiting Vienna and 
traveling through Germany. In 1847 
he produced his opera, Gastibelza, 
which proved very successful. His 
other operas are Les Dragons de Vil- 
lars; Lara; and Les Pechers de Ca- 
tane; besides two cantatas. He died 
at Moulins, Alliers. 

Mailly (mi-ye), Jean Alphonse Ernest. 


Great Belgian organist and pianist. 
Was born at Brussels and educated 
at the Conservatory there as a pupil 
of Girschner. He then played at the 
Theatre de la Monnaie, was organist 
at St. Joseph's Church, in 1861 was 
piano professor at the Conservatory, 
in 1869 became organ professor there 
and also played the organ in the 
Carmelite Church. He made a good 
musical reputation for himself in 
France, England and Holland. He 
has written sonatas; fantasias; tj-pe 
pieces; music for the organ and other 
instrumental music. 


Mainzer (min'-tser), Joseph Abbe. 


Was born in Treves, where he re- 
ceived his musical education at the 
Maitrise of Treves Cathedral. He at 
first turned his attention to engineer- 
ing, then to the ministry, being or- 
dained priest in 1826, and later being 
made abbe. He began his musical 
career by teaching in Treves, writing 
his Singschule, or Method, which was 
published in 1831. His political 
beliefs caused him to leave Germany 
and go to Brussels, where he wrote 
his opera, Triomphe de la Pologne, 
and was musical editor on L'Artiste. 
In 1834 he went to Paris, where he 
opened classes and was on the staff 
of the Musical Gazette. In 1841 he 
settled at Manchester, England, 
where he conducted successful classes 
in Wilhelm's System. In 1842 he 
started a periodical called Mainzer's 
^lusical Times, which was the basis 
of the present Musical Times. He has 
written many musical treatises, chiefly 
educational, among them Methode du 
chant pour les enfants; Bibliotheque 
elementaire du chant; ficole chorale, 
and his Musical Anthenseum. His 
two operas, Triomphe de la Pologne, 
and La Jacquerie, were unsuccessful. 

Maitland (mat'-land), John Alexan- 
der Fuller. 1856- 

Musical writer, critic and per- 
former on harpsichord and piano. 
Was born in London. In 1882 he 
took his degree of M. A. at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and from 1882 to 
1884 was a writer on the Pall Mall 
Gazette, writing for the Guardian 
from 1884 to 1889. In 1890 he suc- 
ceeded Heuffer as musical critic on 
The Times. He was one of the con- 
tributors to Grove's Musical Diction- 
ary and edited the appendix. Beside 
his literary work he has delivered lec- 
tures on Music During the Reign of 
Queen Victoria, and a series on Pur- 
cell. He is known as an excellent 
piano-player, and appeared at a series 
of concerts of the Bach Choir. He is 
also a performer on the harpsichord, 
which instrument he played at a series 
of concerts of ancient music. His 
edition of Purcell's King Arthur was 
produced at the Birmingham Musical 
Festival in 1897. His contributions 
to musical literature consist of hvj 
Life of Schumann in the Great Mt^ 
sician Series; Catalogue of Music ih 
the Fiztwilliam Museum; Fitzwilliam 




Virginal Book; Masters of German 
Music; a translation of Spitta's Life 
of John Sebastian Bach, made with 
Clara Bell; an edition of English 
Country Songs; Purcell's twelve so- 
natas for three parts; and ode on St. 
Cecilia's Day. 

Malherbe (mal-arb), Charles Theo- 
dore. 1863- 

Composer and musical journalist; 
born in Paris. After studying law 
and being admitted to the bar he 
made music his profession, studying 
with Massenet, Danhauser and 
Wormser. He was secretary to M. 
Danhauser during a tour through 
Belgium, Holland and Switzerland, 
made with a view to investigating the 
systems of teaching music used in the 
public schools of those countries. 
Returning from this trip he settled in 
Paris, where in 1896 he was made 
assistant archivist to the Grand 
Opera, becoming archivist in 1899. He 
edits le Menestrel, writes for several 
other journals and periodicals and has 
published some original compositions 
and transcriptions. Among his com- 
positions are Duo Concertant, a 
piano composition for four hands; 
Menuet de Lucette; and other piano- 
pieces; a quickstep for orchestra; 
entitled En Route; several comic 
operas; orchestral and chamber-music. 
He has written notices of Ascanio 
and Esclarmonde and the Catalogue 
bibliographique des ceuvres de Doni- 
zetti. He is said to own the finest 
private collection of musical auto- 
graphs in the world. 

Malibran (mal-i-brah), Marie Felicita. 

Brilliant and popular opera-singer; 
born in Paris; coming from a family 
of famous musicians. Her father, 
Manuel Garcia, was a singer and 
teacher, as was her brother Manuel, 
and her sister, Pauline Viardot, was 
an opera-singer, composer and teacher. 
At the age of three she went 
to Italy, where at the age of five she 
took a child's part in Paer's opera, 
Agnese, which was being performed 
at Naples. At the age of seven she 
studied solfeggio with Panseron of 
Naples, and piano with Herold. In 
1816 she was taken back to Paris, 
and in 1817 to London, where she 
stayed for two years and a half, learn- 
ing English during this time. When 
she was fifteen years old her father 


took charge of her vocal training and 
proved a very stern but proficient 
teacher. Her voice was by no means 
a perfect one, and great credit is due 
Garcia for the remarkable mastery of 
it, which he taught her. In 1824 she 
made her debut before a musical club 
which her father had just organized. 
Two months later her father accepted 
a position as principal tenor in Lon- 
don and started a singing class, in 
which he continued his daughter's 
education. In 1825 Malibran made 
her debut in opera. Her first role 
was that of Rosina in the Barber ot 
Seville, which she sang with such 
success that she was immediately 
engaged for the remainder of the 
season. When the season was over 
she came to America under the man- 
agement of her father, who sought to 
introduce Italian Opera in New York. 
During her stay in this city she sang 
roles in the operas, Otello, Romeo, 
Don Giovanni, Tancredi, and Cener- 
entola; also in two operas written for 
her by her father, entitled L'amante 
astuto, and La Figlia dell' aria. She 
was received with the greatest en- 
thusiasm by her New York audiences, 
and had many extravagant admirers, 
among them P""rangois Eugene Mali- 
bran, a supposedly wealthy and mid- 
dle-aged merchant, whom she married 
in 1826. It was a very unhappy mar- 
riage, and when her husband went 
into bankruptcy, in 1827, she left him 
and returned to Paris, where in 1828 
she appeared in the role of Semiram- 
ide. Her ability was at once recog- 
nized and she was warmly received. 
She signed a contract with the Italian 
Opera Company for that season, and 
during 1829 appeared in London. In 
1830 and 1831 she sang with the 
Italian Opera Company in Paris, and 
it was during this period that she met 
Charles de Beriot, the violinist, whom 
she later married. She toured Italy 
in 1832, in the spring of 1833 sang in 
London, later that year went back to 
Italy, remaining there until 1835, 
when she sang again in London, after- 
ward making an extended tour of 
Italy. In 1836 her marriage to Mali- 
bran was annulled by the courts at 
Paris and immediately she married 
De Beriot, and went with him to a 
villa they had previously built near 
Brussels. In April, 1836, she went to 
London, and while there fell from her 
horse, sustaining injuries which after- 
wards proved fatal. She returned to 



Brussels, then to Aix-la-Chapelle, 
where with her husband she gave two 
concerts. In September, 1836, she 
went to England to sing at the Man- 
chester Festival, but while there she 
was taken ill of a fever brought on 
by the injuries she had received in 
the accident, and, though she fulfilled 
her engagement, she died a few days 
later. According to critics who heard 
her, Malibran's power lay not alone 
in^ her voice but in her remarkable 
originality and style and in her won- 
derfully magnetic personality. Her 
delightful mental powers constituted 
half her charms. 

Mallinger (mal'-ling-er), Mathilda. 

Opera-singer and teacher, who has 
been a great public favorite at Berhn. 
»She was born in Agram, in Croatia, and 
received her first music lessons from 
her father, a music-teacher there. She 
then studied with Professor Lichte- 
negger, with Gordigiani and VogI at 
the Prague Conservatory, which she 
attended from 1863 to 1866, and with 
Richard Lewy at Vienna. Lachner 
helped her to get a position at Munich, 
and she made her debut as Norma in 
1866. In 1868 she created the part of 
Eva in Die Meistersinger, and in 1869 
was engaged for the Court Opera at 
Berlin, where she appeared as Elsa 
and Norma, and where her popularity 
began. She married Baron Schimmel- 
pfennig von der Oye and stayed at 
Berlin until 1882. She also sang at 
Munich, Vienna, St. Petersburg and 
Moscow. Her best known roles are 
Fideho, Jessonda, Leonora, in Trova- 
tore; and Susanna. In 1890 she taught 
at the Prague Conservatory, and in 
1895 became an instructor at the 
Eichelberg Conservatory at Berlin. 

Malten (mal'-ten), Therese. 1855- 

Prussian opera-singer, especially 
noted for her representation of Wag- 
nerian roles. She was born in Inster- 
burg. Eastern Prussia, and appeared 
for the first time as Pamina and 
Agatha in Dresden. She continued 
singing the soprano parts in the 
Italian Opera in Dresden for many 
years, and was finally given a pension. 
In 1880 she was chamber-singer to 
the King of Saxony; in 1882 sang the 
part of Kundry at Bayreuth to the 
satisfaction of Wagner, and in 1884 
appeared in the same role before King 
Ludwig at Munich, for which he gave 


her a gold medal of Arts and Science. 
In 1882 she accompanied Richter on 
his successful Wagnerian enterprise, 
and in 1883 was appointed by Wagner 
to sing the part of Isolde at Bay- 
reuth, but his death prevented the pre- 
sentation. In 1886 she sang in Tristan 
and Siegfried at Richter's concerts, 
and it is said that her voice was never 
better than at this time. She appeared 
in 1896 at the Bristol Festival. Among 
her roles are Iphigenia; Fidelio; Leo- 
nora in Trovatore; Margaret; Gold- 
mark's Queen of Sheba; Fulvia in 
Hofmann's Arminus; and many Wag- 
nerian roles. 

Mancinelli (man-chi-nel'-li), Luigi. 

One of the most popular and suc- 
cessful of modern opera conductors. 
Was born at Orvieto, in the Papal 
States, Italy. Although his father 
intended him for a commercial career, 
he taught him piano when he was only 
about six years old. By the time 
he was twelve his love of music had 
developed to such an extent that he 
went to Florence to study with Pro- 
fessor Sbolci, a celebrated violoncel- 
list, and to take counterpoint and 
harmony for a short time of Mabelli. 
This was the only musical schooling 
he ever had, although he educated 
himself further by careful study of 
the compositions of the masters. 
When he was about fifteen years old 
he became third violoncellist at the 
Pergola Theatre in Florence, and for 
about eight years supported himself 
by playing, teaching and composing 
songs. He then went to Rome as 
violoncellist at the Apollo Theatre, 
and, when this theatre was unexpect- 
edly bereft of its conductor in 1875, 
he was given the position, which he 
filled satisfactorily. In 1876 he was 
musical director of the fetes in honor 
of Spontini's Centenary at Jesi, and 
revived that master's Le Vestale with 
such success that he was re-engaged 
as conductor of the Apollo Theatre. 
During this year his first composition 
appeared, an intermezzo to Pietro 
Cossa's Messalina, and in 1877 he 
wrote an intermezzo to the drama, 
Cleopatra, by the same author. In 
1881 he went to Bologna, where as 
director of the Conservatory he had 
great influence, improving that insti- 
tution until it became one of the best 
musical schools of Italy. He also 
held the position of conductor at his- 



toric San Petronio, Basilica, and at 
the Teatro Comunale. In 1884 he 
produced his first opera, Isora di Pro- 
venza, which was well received. In 
1886 he decided to try his fortune in 
London, where he gave a concert of 
classical music, interspersed with a 
few of his own compositions, which 
was such a success that he was asked 
to compose an oratorio for the Nor- 
wich Festival, and wrote Isaias, which 
was well received. In 1887 Sir Augus- 
tus Harris engaged him to conduct 
Italian Opera at Drury Lane, when 
he embarked on that enterprise, which 
not only introduced Mancinelli to the 
British public as a first-rate conductor 
but was the beginning of Jean de 
Reszke's immense popularity as a 
tenor. The following year Harris 
engaged Covent Garden Theatre, and 
Mancinelli conducted a company 
which included both De Reszkes, 
Melba, Nordica and Lasalle. He was 
also conductor for Harris' Italian 
Opera Company in New York. From 
1888 to 1895 he was conductor of the 
Royal Theatre at Madrid, returning to 
England every year for the season 
at Covent Garden, where he may still 
be found. His compositions include 
the operas, Isora di Provenza, and 
Ero e Leandro; the oratorio, Isaias; 
several orchestral suites; and masses. 

Mangold (man'-golt), Johann Wil- 
helm. 1796-1875. 

Composer of operas and instru- 
mental music, who was born and died 
at Darmstadt. He was the pupil of 
his father, Georg Mangold, on the 
violin, then of Rinck and Abt Vogler 
at the Paris Conservatory, and from 
1815 to 1818 of Mehul and Cherubini. 
He played the violin in an orchestra 
at the age of fourteen. When he 
returned to Darmstadt in 1819 he 
became Court musician and concert- 
master, and held the position of chap- 
elmaster from 1825 until 1858, when 
he was pensioned. Among his works 
are the operas, Merope, the best; Graf 
Ory, and Die vergeblische Vorsicht; 
overtures to Macbeth, and the Mer- 
chant of Venice; some well-known 
music for wind-instruments; some for 
stringed-instruments; and songs. 

Mangold, Karl. 1813-1889. 

Brother of Johann Wilhelm Man- 
gold; was a successful dramatic com- 
poser. He was born at Darmstadt, 
and died at Oberstdorf, in Algati. He 


was the pupil of his father and his 
brother, of Berton and Bordogni at 
the Paris Conservatory, and later of 
Neukomm and Saussaye. He went back 
to Darmstadt in 1839 and became 
director of the Musikverein, the Sang- 
erkranz and the Cacilia, and from 1869 
to 1875 of the Mozartverein. He was 
a violinist in the Court Orchestra 
from 1848 to 1869, and at the same 
time director of the Court music. He 
was pensioned in 1859. He wrote sev- 
eral successful operas, Das Kohler- 
madchen, Tannhauser, Gudrun, and 
Dornroschen; some oratorios, Abra- 
ham, Wittekind, and Israel in der 
Wiiste; the concert dramas, Frithjof, 
Hermann's Tod, Ein Morgen am 
Rhein, and Barbarossas Erwachen; a 
symphony cantata, Elysium; a dra- 
matic scene, Das Madchens Klage; a 
prize cantata. Die Weisheit des Mirza 
Schaffy; and male quartets. 

Mann, Arthur Henry. 1850- 

Noted organist, choirmaster and 
composer; born at Norwich, England. 
Under Dr. Buck, he was a chorister 
in Norwich Cathedral. In 1871 he was 
made a Fellow of the College of 
Organists. Received his degree of 
Bachelor of Music from Oxford in 
1874, and that of Doctor of Music in 
1882. His experience as an organist 
has been varied and began with the 
position of organist of St. Peter's, at 
Wolverhampton, in 1870. He played 
at Tottenhall Parish Church in 1871, 
and in 1875 at Beverly Minster. The 
following year he became director of 
the choir and organist at Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where his teaching 
has had most satisfactory results. He 
received the appointment of choirmas- 
ter at the Norwich Festival in 1902. 
He is well known as an admirer of 
Handel, and, with E. Prout, discovered 
the original wind-instrument parts of 
the Messiah, which was given com- 
plete with those parts in 1894. Mann 
was musical editor of the Church of 
England Hymnal, and is a writer of 
church-music, among his compositions 
being: the oratorio Ecce Homo; Te 
Deum; services; anthems; a number 
of popular hymn tunes; several suc- 
cessful hymn books; and an edition 
of Tallis' Forty Part-Songs. 

* Manney, Charles Tontejm. 1872- 

Composer and musical editor; born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y. He received his 
education at the Brooklyn Polytechnic 





Institute, and as a lad was soprano 
soloist at St. Paul's Church and at 
the Church of The Redeemer, Brook- 
lyn. In Brooklj'n he studied harmony 
with W. A. Fisher, and, on removing 
to Boston in 1898, he became the pupil 
of Wallace Goodrich and Dr. Percy 
Gottschius, with whom he studied 
counterpoint, composition and har- 
mony. He is associate editor with 
Oliver Ditson in Boston, and is well 
known as a composer of vocal and 
piano-pieces, having written canta- 
tas; songs and part-songs; anthems; 
two sacred cantatas; and a comic 
opera. The Duke's Double. He has 
also edited various collections and 
writings. He is a member of a num- 
ber of musical societies, among them 
The Boston Chorister Club, The Har- 
vard Musical Association and The 
Manuscript Society. 

Manners, Charles. (Real name South- 
cote Mansergh.) 1857- 
English opera-singer and manager; 
born at London. He studied in Dub- 
lin and London and then in Italy, and 
in 1881 was in the chorus in Carte's 
traveling opera company. In 1882 
he made his debut as Private Willis 
in lolanthe at the Savoy Theatre. He 
then toured in the provinces with the 
Carl Rosa Company, and in 1890 
appeared as Bertram at Covent Gar- 
den. In 1892 he sang the part of 
Prince Gremin in Tschaikowsky's 
Eugen Onegin at the Olympic, and 
later appeared as the King in Lohen- 
grin. In 1893 he visited America. 
From 1894 to 1896 he was with Har- 
ris, in English and Italian Opera. In 
1896 he made a South African tour. 
He then organized the Moody-Man- 
ners Opera Company and toured the 
provinces with it. In 1892 he was 
at Covent Garden and in 1894 at 
Drury Lane. His most recent musical 
venture was an operatic festival at 
Sheffield, for the University. 

Manners, Fanny Moody. 1866- 

Celebrated English opera-singer; 
born at Redruth, in Cornwall. Her 
teacher was Mme. Sainton-Dolby, and 
the young prima donna's first public 
appearance was made in 1885, when 
she sang the leading part in her 
teacher's cantata, Florimel. In 1887 
she made her operatic debut as Arline 
in The Bohemian Girl. She was 
then with the Carl Rosa Company, 
yrith which she rnade 3. three-years' 

tour in the provinces. In 1890 she 
made a very favorable impression as 
Mignon and Margaret at Drury Lane, 
and the same year married Charles 
Manners. In 1892 she created in Eng- 
lish the part of Tatiana in Tschai- 
kowsky's opera, Eugen Onegin. She 
made many tours with her husband, 
appearing in many roles, among them 
Elizabeth, Elsa and Briinnhilde. In 
1902 she appeared in Pizzi's Rosalda; 
in 1903 as Militza in M'Alpin's Cres- 
cent and Cross, and in 1904 in the 
Flying Dutchman. 

Manns (mans), Sir August Friedrich. 


Orchestra conductor, to whom the 
British public owes much of its knowl- 
edge of the works of great composers. 
He was born at Stolzenburg, North 
Germany. His earliest acquaintance 
with music began in a family quintet, 
and his first instruction was received 
at Torgelow, from the village musi- 
cian, with whom he studied violin, 
clarinet^ and flute. Later he was 
apprenticed to Urban at Elbing, where 
he played in the orchestra of the 
Danzig Opera Company when it came 
to Elbing. Finally he obtained a posi- 
tion to play first clarinet in a regi- 
mental band of Danzig, and at the 
same time played a first violin at the 
theatre. When his band was sent 
to Posen in 1848 Manns became 
acquainted with Wieprecht, who helped 
him get a place in Gungl's Orchestra 
in Berlin, where later he became con- 
ductor and solo violin at Kroll's 
Garden. In 1851 he was appointed 
bandmaster to Colonel von Roon's 
infantry regiment at Konigsberg, in 
which position he had unusual free- 
dom in his methods of work. When 
the regiment was moved to Cologne, 
its band enjoyed great reputation, and 
in 1854 Manns was offered a position 
of subconductor, under Schallehn, of 
the band at the Crystal Palace in 
London. Owing to trouble with 
Schallehn he resigned his position, and 
for a few months conducted the sum- 
mer concerts at Amsterdam, but in 
1855 he was appointed conductor in 
Schallehn's place. As conductor of 
the band at the Crystal Palace, Manns 
did great work. He transformed the 
band from a wind band into a full 
orchestra, succeeded in getting the 
concert-room enclosed and roofed in, 
and began his famous Saturday con- 
certs, through which he did much to 



develop the musical taste of his Lon- 
don public. With untiring zeal and 
energy he worked to place before the 
people the works of the classical mas- 
ters as a whole. He was also quick 
to recognize and encourage British 
musicians. He was a tremendous 
worker, and, beside his daily music 
and the Saturday concerts, had the 
arrangement of special music for many 
extra occasions and fetes. He re- 
placed Sir Michael Costa as con- 
ductor of the Handel festivals in 1883, 
continuing this work until 1900. In 
1896 and 1899 he conducted the music 
at the Sheffield Festival. In 1903 he 
was knighted. During forty-three 
years* work he is said to have con- 
ducted about twelve thousand con- 
certs. He died in London. 

Manzuoli (man-tsoo-6'-le), GiovannL 
1725-Date of death unknown. 

Italian opera-singer, having a won- 
derful soprano voice. Was born in 
Florence. He soon became well 
known in Italy, and was engaged by 
Farinelli to sing in opera at Sladrid 
in 1753. He sang in London from 
1764 to 1765, and was received with 
the greatest enthusiasm. Many operas 
were written for him, among them 
II Re Pastore, of which most of the 
rnusic is by Giordini; and the Olim- 
piade, by Dr. Arne. His most suc- 
cessful role was in Ezio. In 1771 he 
was made singer to the court of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, and the same 
year he sang at Milan in the Serenata 
composed by the young Mozart in 
honor of the marriage of Archduke 
Ferdinand.^ He was a friend of Mo- 
zart, and is mentioned in several of 
that musician's letters. In 1788 he 
retired from the stage at Florence. 

Mapleson, Col. James Henry. 1830- 

Well-known impresario, who for 
many years promoted Italian Opera 
in England and America. When 
fourteen years old he became a stu- 
dent at the Royal Academy of Music, 
where for about two years he studied 
violin under Watson and harmony 
under Lucas. In 1848 he played among 
the first violins in the orchestra of 
Her Majesty's Theatre. He studied 
singing with Balfe, Gardoni and Bel- 
leti, and determined to go to Italy 
for further vocal instruction. Before 
going, however, he spent several 
months during 1849 touring the prov- 


inces with a company which included 
Sontag, Calzolani, Belleti, Lablache 
and the pianist, Thalberg; in 1850 
taking out another company, in which 
were Madame Viardot and Rogers. 
Several times during these tours, when 
his tenors failed him, Mapleson him- 
self sang the tenor parts. During 
this period he contributed many arti- 
cles on musical subjects to various 
London journals and periodicals. 
After some time in Italy he returned 
to England, but, contracting a disease 
of the throat, he had to undergo an 
operation which ruined his voice. Bit- 
terly disappointed at this misfortune, 
he opened a musical agency in 1856, 
which enterprise was prospering, 
when, in 1858, he undertook the man- 
agement of Italian Opera for E. T. 
Smith. Encouraged by a very suc- 
cessful first season in 1860, he made 
an unsuccessful attempt to lease Her 
Majesty's. In 1861, at the Lyceum, he 
introduced the experiment of giving 
English Opera on alternate nights with 
Italian, engaging Charles Halle as his 
English conductor. In 1862 he 
obtained a lease of Her Majesty's and 
in 1863 produced Gounod's Faust, 
which had been indifferently received 
on the Continent, but which, owing to 
a clever maneuver on his part, was 
well received by the British public. 
During a long career of varying suc- 
cess and failure he produced many 
operas never before heard in England 
and introduced many stars to the 
British public. In 1867 Her Majesty's 
burned during the night, but the enter- 
prising impresario sent his agent early 
the next morning to negotiate a lease 
of Drury Lane. He joined Mr. Gye, 
in 1869, for a few seasons, carrying on 
Italian Opera at Drury Lane and the 
National Opera House, until Her 
Majesty's was rebuilt in 1877. In 1878 
he was induced to bring Italian Opera 
to New York, and came to America 
with a company of a hundred and 
forty persons, among whom were 
numbered Etelka Gerster, Minnie 
Hauk, Trebelli, Campanini, Galassi, 
Del Puente, Foli and his faithful con- 
ductor, Arditi. He made an extensive 
tour, going as far west as St. Louis, 
and south to Washington and Balti- 
more. This venture was so successful 
that Colonel Mapleson was embold- 
ened to come back almost every suc- 
ceeding season until 1886, with varying 
success. He is said to have had enor- 
mous receipts at the musical festivals 



at Cincinnati and at Chicago. 
Mapleson's direction a large r.t 
of stars have made their English and 
American debuts, among them bein^ 
Bolton, Minnie Hauk, Campanini, 
Etelka Gerster, Christine Nilsion, 
Patti and many others. Among the 
operas he was the first to put on the 
boards^ may be mentioned Verdi's 
Ballo in Maschera; Gounod's Faust; 
and Bizet's Carmen. From the delight- 
ful Mapleson Memoirs, published in 
1888, Colonel Mapleson seems to have 
been a man of infinite resource and 
diplomacy and much daring. He died 
in London. 



(mr-ra). GtrtrvtAt SKifdMf 



re she sang at the Handel 
. "".Vestminster Abbey. Her 
■n this occasion was of 
e that she was engaged 
^el Festival of the fol- 
and she also sang in the 
stivals of 1787 and 1788. In 
1791 she was in Italy, but 
rvi'.ii..t.a to London in 1792 for a ten- 
years' stay. In 1802 she went to Mos- 
cow. Here trouble came upon her, 
for her husband dissipated her earn- 
ings, and, in the burning of Moscow, 
in 1812, what little remained to her 
was swept away In 1816 she retired 
'" ' ' ''^c taught for some 

-^ returned to Lon- 


5ing m 

Qrchestra qoiMjHctGrj bandmaster and composer; 

•taraous. h^dm fc .©libliii m'-1859-. -He iS a grandson of Samuel 
Germany, her Jitter wr:.)--.-^?:- -; , , «? 
was SchJn§Ff^f, Wft greftt:J|-isk novelist. ., ^^ , 

mediocre abilAjJ ari'o^cltcsti^ ieader Herbert tS-^6nfe'W tft^fe 

<■ rmtv income by r;i>o:r!n^, v-.x:,u:.. , „ .;;,.,./,.; ^^aer defiaencies?' 



'"^iu 'h "ii'ii:'-S- - i • ^'^ . . • :rtit030 mi ihe , bass viol, who 

:5e*Mpilst-itnree;© AixmBU. hMQrJSti^bfiefipnsy adding 
poser- t5f'^s6tfi^ o^'tW'most''pobtiTai*i]tf^fedf<^ci5ttlR?^ing the 

■ :i'..:>c.n:\...-i^ ■ •.■<v •(*::^ ■■: the tnref' Tower sTrmffs by 

operas of the present time. ■- /; 

ilaished rau- 
' a soloist o! 

he made her debut at Ber- 
ing in an opera by Hasse. 
the Great, after hearing her, 
Tier as Court singer for life. 
'•":? in Berlin she met the 
Mara, with whom she 
-J being refused ' ^^ mn- 
f or her royal patron. ,!i 

;ra proved a dissolute a: ! 

band. Madam Mara was oev*. 
i all her life. For seven j-ear 
^ at Berlin, going to Vienna lu: 
years, then touring Germany, Rol- 
and Belgium. In 1782 she went 
: aris, where she received nrreat 
ons. In 1784 she wpv* tr, " .n- 

. Lully ;. 

. of the c _ _. 

He retired from active work in 1725, 
and died in 1728. Among his com- 
positions are his book, Pieces de 
Viole; the Idylle Dramatique, pro- 
duced at court; his opera, Alcide, 
written with Lully; Ariane et Bacchus; 
Alcione; Pantomime des Pages; trios 
for flute, violin and viol da gamba; 
and other books of instrumental 

Marcello (mar-chel'-lo), Benedetto. 


Italian composer of noble birth; 
borii at Venice. Was a pupil of 
T Tti -.-irj Gasparir* -•'»—-- ...-i.- 

P98oqrnoo bns i^ief.fnbnfid ,-to?oubnoD «=! 

, .„., .,,r,| :}gorn aril "io Dmo- 
.omii i£i9^ 




at Cincinnati and at Chicago. Under 
Mapleson's direction a large number 
of stars have made their English and 
American debuts, among them being 
Bolton, Minnie Hauk, Campanini, 
Etelka Gerster, Christine Nilsson, 
Patti and many others. Among the 
operas he was the first to put on the 
boards^ may be mentioned Verdi's 
Ballo in Maschera; Gounod's Faust; 
and Bizet's Carmen. From the delight- 
ful Mapleson Memoirs, published in 
1888, Colonel Mapleson seems to have 
been a man of infinite resource and 
diplomacy and much daring. He died 
in London. 

Mara (ma'-ra), Gertrude Elizabeth. 


Brilliant opera and concert-singer, 
whose rendition of Handel's music 
alone was enough to have made her 
famous. Was born at Hesse Cassel, 
Germany. Her father, whose name 
was Schmaling, was a musician of 
mediocre ability who eked out his 
scanty income by repairing musical 
instruments. One day he discovered 
his little daughter playing upon a 
violin he was repairing, and was so 
impressed with her ability that he 
began to give her lessons. Her prog- 
ress was rapid, and Schmaling took 
her to the fair at Frankfort, where 
she received much applause. Father 
and daughter then toured Germany 
and Holland, giving concerts, and 
when Mara was ten years old went 
to London, where she attracted much 
attention and played before royalty. 
Here she turned her attention to sing- 
ing, it is said, because violin-playing 
was then not considered a feminine 
accomphshment. Her first singing- 
teacher was an Italian named Para- 
disi. Later she studied at Hiller's 
Academy at Leipsic for five years. 
In 1771 she made her debut at Ber- 
lin, singing in an opera by Hasse. 
Frederick the Great, after hearing her, 
engaged her as Court singer for life. 
While singing in Berlin she met the 
violoncellist, Mara, with whom she 
eloped, twice being refused the con- 
sent of her royal patron. Although 
Mara proved a dissolute and brutal 
husband, Madam Mara was devoted to 
him all her life. For seven years she 
sang at Berlin, going to Vienna for 
two years, then touring Germany, Hol- 
land and Belgium. In 1782 she went 
to Paris, where she received great 
ovations. In 1784 she went to Lon- 

don, where she sang at the Handel 
Festival in Westminster Abbey. Her 
performance on this occasion was of 
such brilliance that she was engaged 
for the Handel Festival of the fol- 
lowing year, and she also sang in the 
Handel Festivals of 1787 and 1788. In 
1789 and 1791 she was in Italy, but 
returned to London in 1792 for a ten- 
years' stay. In 1802 she went to Mos- 
cow. Here trouble came upon her, 
for her husband dissipated her earn- 
ings, and, in the burning of Moscow, 
in 1812, what little remained to her 
was swept away. In 1816 she retired 
to Revel, where she taught for some 
years. In 1819 she returned to Lon- 
don, but, on attempting to sing in 
concert there, found that her voice 
was quite gone. She returned to 
Revel, where she died in poverty in 
1833, at the age of eighty-four. Upton 
says of her: "Insignificant in appear- 
ance, an indifferent actress, her sweet 
and powerful voice her unrivaled 
skill in bravura music more than 
atoned for other deficiencies." 

Marais (ma-re), Marin. 1656-1728. 

Virtuoso on the bass viol, who 
improved his instrument by adding 
the seventh string and increasing the 
depth of the three lower strings by 
twisting or covering them. He was 
born in Paris, where he entered the 
choir of Sainte-Chapelle, becoming 
the pupil of Chaperon. Later he 
began to study the bass viol with 
Hottemann and Sainte-Colombe, and 
after six months with the latter he 
was dismissed as a finished musician. 
In 1685 he became a soloist of the 
Royal band, and belonged to the 
orchestra of the Royal Academy of 
Music, where he studied composition 
under Lully and shared the director- 
ship of the orchestra with Colasse. 
He retired from active work in 1725, 
and died in 1728. Among his com- 
positions are his book. Pieces de 
Viole; the Idylle Dramatique, pro- 
duced at court; his opera, Alcide, 
written with Lully; .Ariane et Bacchus; 
Alcione; Pantomime des Pages; trios 
for flute, violin and viol da gamba; 
and other books of instrumental 

Marcello (mar-chel'-lo), Benedetto. 


Italian composer of noble birth; 
born at Venice. Was a pupil of 
Lotti and Gasparini, studying violin 




first and afterward turning his atten- 
tion to singing and composition. In 
obedience to his father he studied 
law, but when he returned to Venice, 
on his father's death, he gave as 
much attention to music as to his 
legal practice. He held important 
positions under the government, being 
a member of the Council of Forty in 
1711, and in 1730 receiving the appoint- 
ment of Provveditore of Pola. Owing 
to the climate of Pola, his health gave 
out, and he was made Camerlango at 
Brescia, where he died. He was made 
Cavaliere of the Filarmonici of 
Bologna and also a member of the 
Pastori Arcadi at Rome. The work 
for which he is remembered is his 
Estro poetico-armonico, Parifrasti 
sopra i primi 50 Psalmi, Poesia di 
Girolamo Giustiniani, a work in eight 
volumes, which appeared in Venice 
in 1724 to 1727. They are written for 
one, two, three and four voices, with 
figured basses, sometimes with two 
violins and violoncello obbligati, and 
are considered very fine work of the 
kind. An English edition of them 
appeared in London, 1757. Besides 
his music, Marcello showed great 
ability as a poet, and is said to have 
written the libretto for Ruggieni's 
Arato in Sparta. The manuscript of 
many of his musical works may be 
found in various libraries and muse- 
ums in Italy. Rossini is said to have 
used the whole of Marcello's twenty- 
first Psalm in his music for the over- 
ture of the Siege of Corinth. 

Marchand (mar-shah), Louis. 1669- 

Known principally for his wild, 
extravagant life and his connection 
with Sebastian Bach. He was born 
at Lyons, became organist at the 
Cathedral of Nevers in 1684, later at 
Auxerre and at the Jesuit Church in 
Paris, and at other churches. He 
became very popular at Paris and 
soon attained to the position of organ- 
ist at Versailles. His wild, dissipated 
life and a quarrel with the King ended 
in his exile in 1717. He then went 
to Dresden and again sought royal 
favor. The King of Poland wished 
to make him Court organist, but 
his Court chapelmaster, Volumier, 
strongly disapproving, had Bach come 
from Weimar in order to outdo 
M. Marchand. Bach challenged the 
Frenchman to a contest, but it proved 
too much for Marchand's courage, and 


he failed to appear. He then returned 
to Paris, as his sentence of banish- 
ment had been removed. There he 
became organist at St. Honore, and 
was very popular as a teacher. He 
charged enormous prices for his les- 
sons, but the money he received was 
not sufficient to pay his numerous 
expenses, and he died in poverty at 
Paris. He wrote an opera, Pyramus 
and Thisbe, which was never pro- 
duced; and harpsichord and piano 
music. His works on the whole are 
poor and insignificant. 

* Marchesi (mar-ka'-ze), Blanche. 

Brilliant dramatic soprano; a daugh- 
ter of Mathilde and Salvatore Mar- 
ches!. Was born in Paris. She 
received her early education in a 
boarding-school at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, and in 1878 was placed in a 
boarding-school in Paris. When only 
eleven years old she took violin les- 
sons of Arthur Nikisch, then a stu- 
dent in the Vienna Conservatory, and 
when she went to Paris in 1878 she 
continued with Davela at the Paris 
Conservatory, and later with Colonne. 
Her beautiful soprano voice was care- 
fully trained by her mother, who has 
done such wonderful work in forming 
female voices. She made her first 
appearance in Paris at a matinee musi- 
cale of her mother's school in 1881, 
but did not make her public debut 
until 1895, in BerHn. This was fol- 
lowed by severe illness, and it was 
not until 1896 that Blanche Marchesi 
appeared in London. She was well 
received, and soon made engagements 
to sing in all the important English 
concerts, appearing before Queen Vic- 
toria in 1897 and receiving from her 
the Diarnond Jubilee Medal. In 1898 
Marchesi made a notably successful 
tour in America. In 1899 she sang 
the Fidelio air at the Halle concert 
at Manchester, her conductor being 
Hans Richter. Impressed by the 
beauty of her voice and by her pro- 
nounced ability, Richter persuaded her 
to appear in opera, and in 1900 she 
appeared as Briinnhilde in Die Wal- 
kiire at the Prague Royal Opera 
House. After filling an engagement 
at the Brussels Royal Opera House, 
she sang two seasons in English Opera 
at Covent Garden, appearing in the 
roles of Isolde, Santuzza, Briinnhilde, 
Elsa, Elizabeth, Gioconda, Leonore, 
and Carmen. In 1904 she sang at the 




Sheffield Opera Festival, and at Leeds 
in 1906 she received command to sing 
at the Court of Brussels, where she 
was most graciously received. She 
then went to Berlin, after an absence 
of ten years, and scored a great tri- 
umph. In spite of much work in 
opera and concert Madame Blanche 
Marchesi has formed a large class in 
London, and has developed some very 
fine pupils. She is exceedingly versa- 
tile, and is said to regret that she 
was unable to follow a career as a 
dramatic writer, in which line of work 
she was encouraged by Dumas, Laube 
and Bjdrnson. 

Marchesi, Luigi or Lodovico. 1755- 

Called Marchesini. Handsome and 
brilliant opera-singer; born at Milan. 
His father played the horn at Modena 
and was his first teacher. He received 
training at Bergamo, as a sopranist, 
under Caironi and Albujoi, later com- 
pleting his musical education at Alilan 
under the conductor, Fioroni. In 1774 
he made his debut at Rome in a 
woman's part, and was immediately 
successful. In 1775 the Elector of 
Bavaria engaged him to sing at his 
chapel, but this engagement lasted 
only until the Elector's death, two 
years later. Marchesi now sang in 
Milan, Venice and Treviso, and also 
in Munich, receiving the greatest 
applause. By 1778 he had obtained a 
place in the San Carlo Theatre, where 
he sang two seasons. In 1780 he 
sang in the principal cities of Italy, in 
Vienna and Berlin, and in 1785 went 
to St. Petersburg, but, fearing the 
rigorous climate, he went to London 
in 1788, where he sang until 1790. He 
retired from the stage in 1806, passing 
the remainder of his life in Milan. He 
composed some songs. 

Marchesi, Mathilde. 1826- 

Concert-singer and teacher; born 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main, where her 
father was a wealthy merchant. In 
1843, on the loss of his fortune, she 
began to study singing at Vienna with 
Nicolai, going to Garcia in Paris in 
1845, and at the same time studying 
declamation with Samson, who was 
Rachel's teacher. In 1849 she settled in 
London, and became well known as a 
concert-singer. She married Salvatore 
Marchesi in 1852, and with him toured 
Germany, Holland, Belgium, Swit- 
zerland and France. In 1854 she 


became professor of singing at Vienna 
Conservatory, where she developed 
lima de Murska and Fricci Kraus. In 
1861 she went to Paris, where she 
published her ficole du Chant, consid- 
ered by such masters as Rossini as a 
superior text-book. From 1865 to 1868 
she taught at Cologne Conservatory, 
leaving to continue her work at the 
Vienna Conservatory, where she 
remained until 1878, having as her 
pupils Etelka Gerster, Madame 
Schuch, Proska and others. She 
returned to Paris in 1881, and, although 
advanced in years, she is still teaching, 
and is considered the foremost teacher 
for feminine voices. Among her for- 
mer pupils are Melba, Calve, Sander- 
son, Fames and Adams. The Emperor 
of Austria awarded her the Cross of 
Merit of the first class, besides which 
honor she has been decorated by the 
Emperor of Germany, the King of 
Saxony and the King of Italy. She 
belongs to the St. Cecilia Society at 
Rome and to the Academy at Flor- 
ence. She has published twenty- 
four books of vocal exercises; a Grand 
Practical Method; Exercises filemen- 
taires; fitudes d'agilite avec par les; 
ficole Marchesi, I'Art du Chant, Voca- 
lises pour une, deux et trois voix; 
besides her reminiscences, Marchesi 
and Music, which appeared in 1897. 

Marchesi, Salvatore, Cavaliere de Cas- 
trone, Marchese della Rojata. 1822- 

Italian barytone singer and teacher; 
born at Palermo. While studying law 
at Palermo he also took singing and 
composition of Raimonde; continuing 
his musical education at Milan under 
Fontana and Lamperti. Banished from 
Italy in 1848, he came to America, 
where he made his debut in the opera, 
Ernani. He went to London, study- 
ing there with Garcia, and appeared 
in concert for many years, marrying 
Mile. Graumann in 1852 and afterward 
appearing in concert with her in Ber- 
lin, Brussels, London and in Italy. 
In 1854 he taught singing at the Con- 
servatory in Vienna. In 1862 he was 
appointed Court singer to the Duke 
of Saxe-Weimar, and in 1865 he 
went to the Cologne Conservatory, 
remaining there until 1869. He was 
in Vienna again from 1869 to 1881, 
and has since then stayed in Paris. 
He has written some beautiful music 
for French, German and Italian words, 
as well as a Vocal Method, his twenty 
vocallizzi elementari e progressivi. 



and some Italian translations of Ger- 
man and French Opera librettos. He 
received the orders of St. Maurice and 
St. Lazarus from the King of Italy. 

Marchetti (mar-ket'-ti), Fillippo. 1831- 

Italian opera-singer and teacher; 
born in the Province of Macerata, 
Italy. When twelve years old he 
began the study of music under Bindi, 
going to Naples in 1850 to study at 
the Real Collegio di San Pietro a 
Manjello with Carlo, Conti and Giu- 
seppe Lillo. In 1854 he returned home, 
and devoted himself to writing the 
opera. Gentile da Verano, which was 
very successfully performed at the 
Teatro Nazionale at Turin in 1856. 
This was so well received that the 
manager of the theatre immediately 
secured the rights to produce La 
Demente, an opera, upon which he 
was then at work. This opera was 
performed at the Teatro Carignano at 
Turin in 1856 and the following year 
at Rome and Jesi. Although both 
these operas had been successful, Mar- 
chetti could get no one to stage II 
Paria, his next opera, and for a while 
wrote only ballads and chamber-music. 
In 1862 he moved to Milan, where he 
met the poet, Marcelliano Marcello, 
who prevailed upon him to write 
music for a libretto he had prepared 
from Romeo and Juliet. When this 
opera was performed at Trieste in 
1865 it received but little attention, 
but on its appearance at Milan two 
years later it was well received, 
although Gounod's Romeo and Juliet 
was running at La Scala at that time. 
His best work, Ruy Bias, came out at 
La Scala in 1869 and brought him wide 
recognition, being performed success- 
fully at Her Majesty's Theatre under 
the management of Mapleson. Gus- 
tavo Wasa, which appeared in 1875, 
and Don Giovanni d'Austria, per- 
formed in 1880, were neither very 
successful, and after these Marchetti 
gave all his attention to teaching. In 
1881 he became president of the Reale 
Accademia di Santa Cecilia of Rome, 
and in 1885 he was made director of 
the Liceo Musicale, a position which 
he occupied until his death. 

Marchettus (mar-ket-toos) of Padua. 

Early Fourteenth Century theorist, 
who made praiseworthy efforts to 
enlarge and simplify the means of 
musical expression. Nothing is 


known of his life except that he was 
at. one time employed by Rainier, the 
Prince of Monaco. His two great 
works, Lucidarium in arte musica 
planse, and Pomerium artis musicae 
miserabilis, may have been written at 
Verona and Cesena. Manuscripts of 
them at Milan and Rome indicate that 
the works date from 1274 to 1283, 
but their dedications lead to the belief 
that they did not appear until later 
than 1309. _ The Lucidarium is inter- 
esting for its peculiar system of chro- 
maticism, and the Pomerium as 
showing the change from the French 
to the Italian form of notation. The 
writer realized that improvement was 
necessary in writing the notes of small 
value, but his solution of this and 
other theoretical problems which he 
studied lacked the simplicity necessary 
for success. 

Marechal (mar-a-shal), Charles Henri. 

A French dramatic composer; born 
in Paris; studied at the Paris Con- 
servatory, where he took the Grand 
Prize of Rome in 1870. His first 
dramatic composition was the one- 
act comic-opera, Les amoureux de 
Catherine, which was produced at the 
Opera Comique in 1876. Other operas 
which have been produced are Der- 
damie; Calendal; La Taverne des 
Trabans; I'fitoile, also musique de 
scene for Les Rantzau; Crime et 
chatiment; I'Ami Fritz; the sacred 
drama, Le miracle de Naim; orches- 
tral-pieces; sacred music; piano-pieces; 
and songs. 

Marenzio (ma-ren'-tsi-6), Luca. 1550- 

Called by his Italian contempo- 
raries, " il piu dolce Cigno d'ltalia; " 
born at Coccaglia, between Brescia 
and Bergamo. The date of his birth 
is generally placed about 1550 to 1560. 
He was descended from a noble fam- 
ily of Brescia, to which city he went 
when very young to study music under 
the patronage of the Archpriest 
Andrea Mazetto. He became a choir- 
boy in the cathedral and studied under 
Contini, then cathedral organist. He 
began to publish his madrigals in 1581, 
in Venice, dedicating the first book to 
the Duke of Ferrara. He became 
Court musician to King Sigismond III. 
of Poland, who took great delight in 
him, paying him one thousand scudi 
a year for his services, besides giving 




him the order of knighthood. In 1591 
ill health compelled him to give up 
his post at the Court of Poland and 
return to Rome. He was warmly wel- 
comed in Rome, and in 1595 he was 
made cantor to the Pontifical Chapel 
by Cardinal Cintio Aldobrandino, which 
position he held until his death, 
in 1599. He was buried with great 
pomp at San Lorenzo, in Lucina. He 
perfected the madrigal, in which form 
he wrote much music, his principal 
works being nine books of madrigals 
for five voices; six books for six 
voices, each book containing from 
thirteen to twenty numbers; five 
books entitled Villanelle e Arie alia 
Napolitani; a hundred and thirteen 
numbers for three voices and one for 
four voices; one book of twenty-one 
numbers for four voices; and two 
books of four-part motets. Many of 
his madrigals were published in Eng- 
land, where they enjoyed great vogue 
for a while, and Avhere some of them 
were preserved by the Madrigal So- 

Maretzek (ma-ret'-shek), Max. 1821- 

Conductor and composer; born at 
Briinn, in Moravia. He graduated 
from the University of Vienna, study- 
ing medicine two years, and under 
Kapellmeister von Seyfried studying 
composition and theory. As conduc- 
tor of an orchestra he traveled in 
Germany, France and England, where, 
in 1844, he assisted Balfe in his duties 
at Her Majesty's Theatre. In 1848 
he came to the United States, where, 
from 1849 to 1878, he produced Italian 
Opera in New York, Havana and Mex- 
ico. Beside his work as conductor 
and manager of operas, he has written 
two operas, Hamlet, produced at 
Briinn in 1843, and Sleepy Hollow, 
which came out in 1879; also some 
piano-music; songs; and chamber and 
orchestral music. 

Mariani (ma-ri-a'-ne), Angelo. 1822- 


Italian orchestra conductor; born 
in Ravenna. As a child he studied 
violin with Pietro Casolini, later tak- 
ing up harmony and composition 
under Levrini, a monk of Rimini, and 
studying with Rossini in the Liceo 
Filarmonico at Bologna. For a while 
he appeared as solo violinist in con- 
certs, or played first violin in various 
orchestras, becoming conductor of the 


orchestra at Messina in 1844. Later 
he was conductor at Milan and 
Vicenza. In 1847 he went to Copen- 
hagen as conductor of the Court Thea- 
tre, writing his Requiem Mass for the 
funeral of Christian III., during this 
engagement. When revolution broke 
out in Italy in 1848 he returned to 
his native land and joined the ranks 
of the volunteers. At the close of 
the war he went to Constantinople, 
where he composed a hymn dedicated 
to the Sultan, also his two grand 
cantatas, La Fidanzata del guerriero, 
and Gli Esuli, works which both rep- 
resent Italy's struggles for freedom. 
In 1852 he returned to Genoa, where 
he was immediately appointed con- 
ductor of the Teatro Carlo Felice 
orchestra, which he made the first 
in Italy. He conducted at Venice and 
Bologna for short periods, but gave 
most of his attention to the orchestra 
at Genoa. At Pesaro in 1864 he 
directed the grand fetes arranged in 
honor of Rossini. In 1871 he intro- 
duced Lohengrin to the Italian pubhc 
at Bologna, conducting that opera so 
successfully that he received the 
enthusiastic commendation of Wag- 
ner himself. He died in Genoa in 
1873, and was buried at Ravenna. 
The city of Genoa placed a bust of 
him in the vestibule of Carlo Felice, 
gave his letters to the town library, 
had the portrait of Wagner, which 
that musician gave to him, hung in 
the Palazzo Civico, and placed his 
baton in the Civic Museum, beside 
the violin of Paganini. He was a 
man of magnetic personality, beloved 
by all the members of his orchestra. 
He published several collections of 
charming songs: Rimembranze del 
Bosforo; II Trovatore nella Liguria; 
Liete e tristi rimembranze; Nuovo 
Album Vocale; and Alto pezzi vocali. 

Marin (ma-rah), Marie Martin Mar- 
cel. 1769-1830. 

French violinist, harpist and com- 
poser; born at Saint-Jean-de-Luz, near 
Bayonne; first taught music by his 
father, Guillaume Marcel de Marin, 
then studied the violin with Nardini, 
and the harp for a short time under 
Hockbunker in France, though he 
taught himself nearly all he knew of 
the latter instrument. In 1783 he went 
to Italy, and was made a member of 
the Society of Arcadians in Rome. 
He then went to a military school at 
Versailles, where he remained until 



1786, and became a captain of dra- 
goons. After a short military service 
he was given a leave of absence, and 
toured Austria, Prussia and Spain. 
During the French Revolution he 
went to England, where he became 
a successful teacher. He returned to 
France during the Consulate, and set- 
tled at Toulouse, where he died about 
1830. He was a thorough musician 
both of the harp and violin, being 
especially known for his remarkable 
harp compositions of various kinds. 

Mario (ma-ri-6), Giuseppe, Conte di 

Candia. 1810-1883. 

Operatic tenor, whose elegance and 
personal beauty helped to make him 
a great favorite of his time. Cagliari 
is generally conceded to be his birth- 
place, and though the date is uncer- 
tain, being given as 1808, 1810 and 
1812, there is reason to believe 1810 is 
correct. Of noble family, his father 
had been a general in the Piedmontese 
Army and he himself studied the pro- 
fession of arms in the Military Acad- 
emy at Turin, and later became an 
oflficer in the Piedmontese Guard. In 
1836 he went to Paris, where he was 
urged to go on the stage. He hesi- 
tated, but at last signed a contract 
with the manager of the Opera, where, 
in 1838, he appeared in Robert le 
Diable. He had spent some time 
studying under the direction of 
Michelet, Ponchard and Bordogni, 
but was not a finished singer on his 
first appearance,, and* owed his imme- 
diate success in great measure to the 
natural beauty of his voice and to 
his personal charm. In 1839 he sang 
in London in Lucrezia Borgia, and 
in 1840 he became a member of the 
Italian Opera Company in Paris. 
From 1843 to 1846 he sang in Rubini's 
place in the quartet with Tanborini, 
Lablache and Mme. Grisi, who after- 
ward became his wife. For twenty- 
five years he and Grisi appeared in 
opera in Paris, London and St. Peters- 
burg. They came to America for the 
season of 1854 under Hackett's man- 
agement, and opened the new build- 
ing of the Academy of Music, New 
York., with a performance of Norma. 
In 1867 Mario retired from the stage, 
living for a while in Paris, then going 
to Rome, where he died. Among the 
operas he has appeared in are Don 
Pasquale, Ugonotti, La Favorita, and 
Don Giovanni; and the roles of Alma- 
vivo, Raoul, and Gennaro. He was 

more than ordinarily successful in 
chamber-concerts, where his elegance 
and grace appeared to the best advan- 
tage. His voice was delightful, and 
his style of delivery and stage pres- 
ence unusually charming. He had 
also great taste in the matter of 
costume, and always appeared on the 
stage artistically dressed. 

Markull (mar-kool'), Friedrich Wil- 

helm. 1816-1887. 

Organist, pianist, composer and 
critic; was born at Reichenbach, near 
Elbing, in Prussia. He was the pupil 
of his father and of Karl Kloss at 
Urban, and studied the organ and 
composition with Friedrich Schneider 
at Dessau. In 1836 he was made first 
organist of the Marienkirche at Dan- 
zig and conductor of the Gesang- 
verein. He was also critic for the 
Danziger Zeitung. In 1847 he became 
Royal musical director. He composed 
three operas, Maja und Alpino, or Die 
bezauberte Rose; Der Konig von Zion, 
and Das Walpurgest; the oratorios 
Johannes der Taufer, and Das Ge- 
dachtniss der Entschlafenen; sympho- 
nies; piano works; and a Choralbuch. 

Marmontel (mar-mon-tel), Antoine 

Frangois. 1816-1898. 

Piano-player and teacher; was born 
at Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D6me. 
He received his musical education at 
the Paris Conservatory, studying 
piano under Zimmermann, composi- 
tion under Lesueur, fugue under 
Halevy and harmony under Dourlen. 
In 1832 he received first prize for 
piano-playing, and in 1848 he was made 
professor of piano at the Conserva- 
tory, succeeding Zimmermann. In 
this capacity he gained a wide repu- 
tation and was the master of such 
pupils as Bizet, Th. Dubois, Plante, 
Wieniawski, E. Duvernoy and Thome. 
He composed a great deal of piano 
music, mostly of an instructive nature, 
among his writings being a hundred 
easy studies, entitled L'Art de 
dechiffrer, fitudes, ficole de mecan- 
isme, fitudes de salon, and ficole 
elementaire de mecanisme et de style; 
besides sonatas, serenades, salon- 
music, and some dances. Besides his 
compositions he has written much on 
musical subjects, his literary work 
including Virtuoses contemporains; 
Les Pianistes celebres; L'Art clas- 
sique et moderne du piano; and a 
Petite Grammaire populaire. 



Marpurg (mar'-poorkh), Friedrich. 

Distinguished violinist and pianist; 
grandson of Friedrich Wilhelm Mar- 
purg; born at Paderborn. Studied 
in Leipsic under Mendelssohn and 
Hauptmann, and after completing his 
musical education toured Poland, 
Prussia and Pomerania. Was appointed 
conductor of the Opera at Konigsberg 
and also led the local symphony and 
chamber concerts. Taught for a 
while as director at the Musical Acad- 
emy and later at a school of his own. 
In 1854 he was appointed director of 
the Liedertafel at Mainz and in 1864 
Hofkapellmeister at Sondershausen. 
From 1866 to 1868 he lived at Wies- 
baden, then went to Darmstadt, suc- 
ceeding Mangold in the directorship 
of the Court Orchestra. In 1872 he 
gave up this position to become 
Chapelmaster at Freiburg, 'going to 
Laybach in 1875, then returning to 
Wiesbaden. He is accredited with 
three operas, Musa, der letzte Maur- 
enkonig; Agnes von Hohenstaufen 
and Die Lichtensteiner. 

Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm. 1718- 


Eminent German writer on the 
theory of music; was born at See- 
hausen, in Altmark, Saxony. In 1746 
he was appointed secretary to Gen- 
eral Rothenburg at Paris, where he 
came in contact with Voltaire, 
d'Alembert and Rameau. He lived 
for a while in Berhn, then in Harn- 
burg, and in 1763 he settled in Berlin 
to take charge of the government 
lottery. In 1750 he started a musical 
journal, entitled Der Kritische Musi- 
kus an der Spree, of which only fifty 
numbers were issued. In 1754 he 
began to publish Historisch-Kritsche 
Beytrage zur aufnahne der Musik, 
and from 1759 to 1764 he published 
Kritsche Briefe iiber die Tonkunst. 
He also wrote the celebrated Hand- 
buch bei dem Generalbasse und der 
Composition, which exploits Ra- 
meau's system, Anleitung zur Singe- 
composition, Abhandlung von der 
Fuge, six sonatas for piano, and some 
sacred and secular songs. He was 
preparing a History of the Organ 
when he died. 

Marschner (marsh'-ncr), Heinrich. 


One of the most talented disciples 
of Weber and Spohr in German 


romantic opera; was born at Zittau. 
In childhood he studied music and 
made such rapid progress that he soon 
outgrew the teachers under whom he 
was placed. He studied at the Gym- 
nasium and sang in the choir of the 
church at Bautzen. He went to Leip- 
sic to study law in 1813 and while 
there pursued the study of music 
under the cantor, Schicht. In 1817 
he went to Vienna with Count Thad- 
daus von Amadee, and while there 
met Beethoven, Klein and Kozeluch, 
who advised him to devote himself 
to the composition of sonatas, sym- 
phonies and such music. He taught 
music for a time in Presburg, and 
wrote Der Kyffhauserberg, Saidor 
and Heinrich IV., which Weber pro- 
duced at the German Opera in 
Dresden in 1820. This made so favor- 
able an impression that in 1823 
Marschner was made chapelmaster of 
German Opera, acting with Weber. 
This relationship proved a harmoni- 
ous one, and in 1824 Marschner was 
made music-director. He resigned his 
position on the death of Weber and 
became chapelmaster of the Leipsic 
Theatre. The following year he pro- 
duced Der Vampyr, which in spite 
of its gruesome libretto attained re- 
markable success, and was even pro- 
duced in England in 1829, where it 
ran for about two months and re- 
ceived great applause. In 1829 he 
produced Der Templer und die Jiidin, 
for which with his brother-in-law, 
Wohlbriick, he constructed the libretto 
from Scott's Ivanhoe. In 1831 he 
became Court chapelmaster at Han- 
over, a post he held for twenty-eight 
years. In 1833 he produced his mas- 
terpiece, Hans Heiling, to a libretto 
by Eduard Devrient. This opera im- 
mediately attained the greatest suc- 
cess and has ever since held a place 
on the stage in Germany. In 1830 
he directed its performance at Copen- 
hagen and made so good an impres- 
sion that he was offered the general 
music directorship of Denmark, which 
honor he declined. This opera proved 
his last important work; in 1859 he 
was pensioned and given the title of 
General - music - director; two years 
later he died at Hanover. Some of 
his other compositions are Schon Ell; 
Der Babu; Adolf von Nassau; La 
Fiancee du Fauconnier; Le Chateau 
au Pied du Mont Etna; overture to 
Le Prince de Hombourg; Austin; 
Lucretia; Der Holzdiet; Incidental 




music to Die Hermannsschlacht; ten 
collections of songs for four male 
voices; twenty collections of songs; 
romances; German and Italian airs 
for high voice with piano accompani- 
ment; sonatas; songs and fantasies. 

As a writer of the dramatic roman- 
tic school, Marschner ranks next to 
Weber and Spohr. His compositions 
are smooth and melodious and have 
excellent and full orchestration, which 
shows him a master of his craft. His 
ideas show the influence of Rossini 
and still more of Weber. His favor- 
ite subject seems to have been the 
ghostly and uncanny, which he treated 
with unusual skill. He wrote rapidly 
in spite of the elaborate orchestration 
of most of his works and the difficult 
harmony he _ employed. Although 
most of his minor works are forgot- 
ten, Der Vampyr, Hans Heiling and 
Der Templer und die Jiidin are 
standards of the German opera stage 

* Marshall, John Patton. 1877- 

Composer and musical instructor; 
born at Rockfort, Massachusetts. In 
1894 he went to Boston, where he 
studied piano with B. J. Lang and 
Edward MacDowell, and composition 
under H. A. Norris and G. W. Chad- 
wick. In 1895 he became organist and 
choirmaster of St. John's Church, 
Boston, and held this position for 
ten years. When the Department of 
Music was founded at Boston Univer- 
sity in 1903 he was appointed profes- 
sor of h'istory and theory of music, 
and is still serving in this capacity, 
1908. He has published a number of 
songs and piano-pieces. 

Marsick (mar-sik), Martin Pierre 

Joseph. 1848- 

Belgian violinist, celebrated as a 
quartet and solo-player; born at 
Jupille, near Liege. When eight 
years old he entered the music-school 
at Liege and after two years' study, 
was given first prize in preparatory 
classes. In 1864 he gained the gold 
medal awarded to pupils showing 
unusual talent. The following year 
he entered the Brussels Conservatory 
where he studied violin with Leonard 
and composition under Kufferath until 
1867. In 1868 he went to Paris for a 
year of study under Massart and in 
1870, receiving an allowance from 
the Belgian government, he went to 
Joachim. He made a successful debut 


at the Concerts Populaires in Paris, 
in 1873, then traveled in Belgium, 
England, France and Germany with 
good success. In 1877 he organized 
a quartet in Paris which consisted of 
Delsart, Remy, Waefelghem and him- 
self and which became noted through- 
out Europe. In 1892 he received the 
appointment of professor of violin at 
the Paris Conservatory, succeeding 
Massart. He toured the United States 
in 1895 and 1896 and was well re- 
ceived although he did not create so 
profound an impression as have 
Ysaye, Kubelik and others. His 
technique is marvelous, his tone light 
and clear, and his rendition smooth 
and graceful, but there is a coldness 
about his playing that keeps him from 
making a deep or lasting impres- 
sion. He has composed three violin 
concertos; two reveries; intermezzo; 
berceuse; tarentelle; agitate; romance; 
adagio in G minor; adagio scherzando 
and other concert pieces for his 

Marston, George W. 1840- 

American composer of piano-music; 
born at Sandwich, Massachusetts. 
When twelve years old he began the 
study of music in his native town, 
and at the age of sixteen was organ- 
ist in a church. Removing to Port- 
land, Maine, he studied under John 
W. Tufts, and has been twice to 
Europe studying at Florence, Lon- 
don and Munich. Especially note- 
worthy is his music written for 
Heine's Du bist wie eine blume, and 
his score to There Was an Aged 
Monarch. Among other well-known 
pieces are Ariel's Songs, from The 
Tempest; Im Wunderschonen Monat 
Mai; Wen der Friihling auf die Berge 
Steigt; Douglas, Tender and True; 
The Boat of My Lover; and On the 
Water. He has also written a sacred 
cantata, David; Te Deums and an- 
thems for church use. 

Marteau (mar-to), HenrL 1874- 

Noted French violinist; born at 
Rheims. His musical talents were 
early fostered because his parents 
were both musically inclined, his 
father being an amateur violinist, 
president of the local Philharmonic 
Society and his mother a finished 
pianist who had studied with Clara 
Schumann. When he was five years 
old Sivori visited his parents and 
took the greatest interest in him, 




giving him a violin and persuading 
his father to educate him to be a 
professional violinist. For three years 
he was taught by Bunzl, then sent to 
Leonard in Paris, and when ten years 
old he made his debut under Richter 
at a concert of the Vienna Philhar- 
monic Society, and afterward played 
in Germany and Switzerland. In 1885 
Gounod chose him to play the violin 
obbligato of a piece he had written for 
the Joan of Arc Centenary celebration 
at Rheims, which he had dedicated 
to him. At the Paris Conserv- 
atory he received first prize for violin 
playing in 1892 and Massenet wrote 
a concerto for him. He came to 
America first in 1893, when he was 
most cordially received and his ren- 
dering of Bruch's G minor concerto 
was given twelve recalls at a Boston 
Symphony concert He also played 
in Russia in 1897 and the spfing of 
1899. He returned to America in 
1898 and this time he played a violin 
concerto written for him by Dubois, 
with whom he had studied composi- 
tion and harmony at the Conserv- 
atory, Marteau's tone is warm and 
brilliant and his technique is re- 
markable for its sureness and delicacy. 
His violin is a fine Maggini which 
once belonged to Maria Theresa of 
Austria, and was given by her to one 
of her chamber musicians who car- 
ried it back to Belgium, where it fell 
into the hands of a collector who sold 
it to Leonard, from whom Marteau 
received it at that master's death. It 
is an instrument of almost viola-like 
depth of tone and is heard to special 
advantage in the marvelous chords of 
a Bach sonata. In the field of com- 
position Marteau is represented by a 
cantata, entitled La Voix de Jeanne 
d'Arc. At the present he is occupy- 
ing the position of professor of vio- 
lin at Geneva Conservatory. 

Martin, Sir George Clement. 1844- 

English organist, composer and 
teacher; born at Chipping-Lambourn, 
Berkshire. When sixteen years old 
he took up the study of music alone, 
studied with J. Pearson, and later 
with Sir John Stainer, organist and 
composer at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, receiving his degree of Bachelor 
of Music in 1868, and becoming Fel- 
low of the College of Organists in 
1871. He was made organist at Lam- 
bourn and while filling that position 
he organized a choral society which 

Martin y Solar 

later performed many standard works. 
He used the village brass band in 
connection with his church-music and 
in after years he wrote church-music 
with a part for brasses. In 1871 he 
was made organist at Balkeith Palace, 
and for a time played the organ of 
St. Peter's Church in Edinburgh; in 
1873 he went to London to take 
charge of the choir in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, where Sir John Stainer had 
become organist, and where in 1876 
he became suborganist, succeeding 
Stainer in • 1888. He took charge of 
the music for Queen Victoria's Dia- 
mond Jubilee, and for his services 
on that occasion was knighted. In 
1883 he received the degree of Doctor 
of Music from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and was appointed teacher 
of organ at the Royal College of 
Music, a position which he has since 
resigned. Among his church compo- 
sitions may be mentioned Morning 
and Evening Communion and Even- 
ing Service in C for voices and 
orchestra; a Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis in A; Communion Service in 
A; seven anthems; songs and part- 

Martin y Solar (mar-ten' e s6-lar'), 
Vicente. 1754-1810. 

Spanish writer of operas, who for 
a time rivaled Mozart in popular 
favor; born at Valencia. He sang in 
the choir of Valencia and later be- 
came organist at Alicante. In 1871 
he went to Florence, where he wrote 
the opera, Ifigenia in Aulide, to be 
performed at the following carnival. 
His next works were Astartea and the 
ballet, La Regina di Golconda. In 
1783 he produced La Donna festig- 
giata and L'accorta cameriera at 
Turin, and in 1784 he brought out 
Ipermestra in Rome. In 1785 he 
went to Vienna, where he met Da 
Ponte who wrote the libretto to his 
II burbero di buon cuore, which was 
so successful that he published La 
capricciosa coretta, L'arbore di Diana 
and Une Cosa Rara very soon after- 
ward. Of these Une Cosa Rara 
becam^e immensely popular, quite over- 
shadowing Mozart's Figaro which 
came out about that time. In 1788 
Martin went to St. Petersburg, where 
he became director of Italian Opera 
and was made an Imperial councillor 
by Emperor Paul I. When French 
Opera was substituted for Italian in 
1801 Martin was deprived of his posi- 



Martin y Solar 

tion and forced to fall back upon 
teaching for a living. He died at St. 
Petersburg in 1810. Besides his 
operas mentioned he wrote the operas 
Gli sposi in contrasto and Ille de 
I'amour and the cantata, II Sogno; 
a mass; Domine salvum fac; some 
canons and twelve Italian ariettas. 

Martinez (mar-te'-neth), Marianne. 


Pianist and composer; well known 
and esteemed in the musical circles 
of her time; born at Vienna. Her 
father was in the service of the Pope, 
and Metastasio, who lived for many 
years in their household, superin- 
tended her education. Haydn, who 
also lived with them in an attic-room, 
taught her harpsichord lessons and 
Porpora taught her singing. The 
hopes of these illustrious instructors 
for her were fully realized, for she 
became an excellent musician and a 
brilliant woman. Her musical even- 
ings were frequented by such men 
as Mozart, Hasse, Gerbert and Bur- 
ney She devoted much of her time 
to the instruction of prominent 
young musicians, and in 1773 became 
a member of the Musical Academy 
of Bologna. In 1788 her oratorio, 
Isacco, with words by Metastasio, was 
given with great success by the 
Tonkunstler Societat and is thought 
to be her masterpiece. Among her 
other works are two oratorios; a 
mass; a Miserere, in four parts; sev- 
eral songs for four and eight voices; 
motets and other sacred music; or- 
chestral symphonies and ' overtures; 
and concertos for the piano. 

Martini (mar-te'-ne), Giambattista or 
Giovanni Baptista. 1706-1784. 

Composer and writer, whose vast 
musical knowledge brought him world- 
wide reputation; born at Bologna. 
His father began his musical educa- 
tion by teaching him violin and piano; 
later he sent him to Padre Predieri 
for singing and to Riecieri for coun- 
terpoint. He entered the Franciscan 
Convent at Lago, taking orders in 
1822, and in 1825 returning to Bologna, 
where he became conductor at San 
Francisco Church. With Giacomo 
Perti he studied music, and with 
Zanotti, the mathematician, he is said 
to have studied mathematics eagerly 
in order to fit himself thoroughly for 
the work he wished to do. He grad- 
ually acquired the most comprehen- 


sive knowledge of music and amassed 
a library on that subject which out- 
classed every other library in exist- 
ence. He became famous throughout 
Europe, and from every country musi- 
cians flocked to him for advice or 
criticism. The very greatest musi- 
cians of his day considered him the 
final authority on disputed questions 
and were glad to accept his opinion. 
He had many students and his gentle- 
ness and eagerness to serve them 
coupled with his vast knowledge won 
him universal admiration and affec- 
tion. Among his most celebrated 
students were Ruttini, Ottani Stan- 
islao Paolucci, Sarti and his favorite 
pupil, Mattel, with whom he after- 
ward founded the Liceo Filarmonico 
of Bologna. Among the many famous 
personages whose friendship he en- 
joyed were Frederick the Great and 
Pope Clement XIV. He died at 
Bologna in 1784 and so great was the 
mourning of his countrymen and the 
esteem in which he was held that a 
medal was struck in his honor by 
Tadolini. Most of his magnificent 
library was given to the Liceo Filar- 
monico of Bologna, and the remainder 
became the property of the Imperial 
Library at Vienna. Martini was a 
member of the two academies at 
Bologna and of the Arcadians of 
Rome. His two greatest works are 
Storia della Musica, in three volumes; 
and Esemplare ossia Saggio a di con- 
trapunto, in two volumes; besides 
which he has written, Litanse; 
twelve Sonata d'intavolatura; Duetta 
da camera a diversi voci, which were 
printed. In manuscript form we have 
two oratorios, masses a farsetti and 
three intermezzi. 

Martini, Jean Paul £gide. 1741-1816. 

Composer of stage music, whose 
real surname is Schwartzendorf; born 
at Freistadt in Upper Palatine. At 
the age of ten played the organ in 
the Jesuit Seminary at Neustadt, and 
during his studies at the University 
of Freiburg he was organist at the 
Franciscan Convent. He went to 
France, and, arriving penniless at 
Nancy in 1760, he was befriended by 
the organ-builder Dupont, and saw 
the building of an organ with fifty 
stops for the Nancy Cathedral, which 
inspired his ficole d'Orgue In 1864 
he won a prize offered for a march 
for a regiment of Swiss Guards. By 
the influence of the Due de Choiseul 




he was made officer of a hussar regi- 
ment, and given an opportunity to 
compose much miHtary music. In 
1771 he brought out his first opera, 
L'Amoreux de Quinze Ans, which 
proved so successful that he left the 
army and became musical director to 
the Prince de Conde, later being made 
conductor of the Theatre Feydeau, a 
position which he held until the 
French Revolution. After the Revo- 
lution he Hved in Lyons, returning to 
Paris in 1794 and being made inspec- 
tor at the Conservatory in 1798, where 
he remained until 1802. At the res- 
toration in 1814 he became superin- 
tendent of Court music and wrote a 
Requiem Mass for Louis XVI., which 
was performed in 1816, and for which 
he was decorated with the Grand 
Cordon of the Order of St. Michael. 
His music was very brillian^ and his 
church-music more dramatic than re- 
ligious. Among his writings are his 
operas, L'Amoreux de Quinze Ans; Le 
Rendezvous nocturne; Le Poete sup- 
pose; La Bataille d'lvry and Le Fer- 
mier cru sourd. He also wrote his 
cantata for the marriage of Napoleon 
and Marie Louise; the charming song, 
Plaisir d'amour and much chamber- 
music as well as some church-music. 

* Martucci (mar-toot'-che), Giuseppe. 

Composer, concert pianist and con- 
ductor; born at Capua, January 6, 
1856. His early musical education 
was directed by his father who was 
a trumpet-player. When ten years 
old Martucci began appearing in pub- 
lic, and in his eleventh year scored 
a pronounced success in Naples. He 
was admitted to the Royal Conserv- 
atory of Music in that city in 1867 
and for five years studied there, tak- 
ing counterpoint and composition of 
Lauro Rossi and P. Serrao, harmony 
of Carlo Casta and piano of Cesi. 
After graduating from the Conserv- 
atory he taught and played piano in 
concerts for about two years, and in 
1874 competed for a professorship at 
the University, winning it from such 
competitors as Bonchard, Palumbo 
and Simonetti, although he was then 
but a youth of eighteen. At about 
the same time he became leader of 
the Neapolitan Quartet Society, di- 
recting the work for eight years with 
pronounced success. He was also 
conductor of the Orchestral concerts 
instituted by the Prince of Ardore, 


and in that position did excellent 
work, giving a series of concerts at 
the Exposition of Turin in 1884. In 
1888 he had charge of all vocal and 
orchestral music performed at the 
Exposition of Bologna. In 1902 he 
was made director of the Royal Con- 
servatory of Music at Naples. He is 
now at the head of the Musical Ly- 
ceum at Bologna. 

In 1875 he made an extended tour 
through Germany, France and Eng- 
land, remaining four months in Lon- 
don, and plaj-ing in Dublin. In 1878 
he appeared in Paris and was heard 
by Rubinstein, who expressed the 
highest admiration for him, calling 
him the " Glory of Italy," and per- 
sonally conducting a performance of 
Martucci's Concerto in B minor. He 
greatly broadened musical knowledge 
in Italy and introduced the English 
composers Parry and Stanford. Iri 
1866 he succeeded Luigi Mancinelli 
as director of the Lyceum at Bologna 
and devoted most of his time and 
energy to orchestral direction. Under 
his baton the orchestral concerts of 
Bologna and Milan developed into the 
highest type of artistic and intellec- 
tual interpretation. He is a member 
of the Accademia Reale of Naples, as 
well as Cavaliere dei San Maurizio e 
San Lazzaro and Commentadore della 
Corona d'ltalia. 

Of Martucci's one hundred and fifty 
compositions the first symphony, in 
D minor is usually considered the 
finest. It was performed at the Royal 
College of Music in London in 1898. 
Others are the piano concerto in B 
flat minor and an admirable quintet in 
E flat; piano quintet in C; variations 
and fantasia for two pianos; capriccio 
and toccata for piano; novelletta, 
scherzo and notturno for piano; a 
concerto for piano and orchestra in 
D minor; a sonata for organ; piano 
trio in E flat; sonata for piano and 
cello; six volumes of compositions 
for piano; Pagine Sparse for voice 
and piano; also many other composi- 

* Marty (raar-te), Eugene Georges. 


Modern French composer and con- 
ductor, whose work shows the influ- 
ence of Massenet; born in Paris. At 
the age of twelve he entered the 
Conservatory, where he took a course 
in tonality from Gillet, piano from 
Crohare, harmony from Dubois, organ 




and counterpoint for Cesar Franck, 
and fugue and composition from 
Massenet. He took first prize in har- 
mony and tonality in 1882 and by the 
unanimous vote of the jury was 
awarded the Grand Prize of Rome, 
for his cantata, Edith. Traveling in 
Germany, Sicily, Tunis and Italy, he 
sent home a number of compositions 
from Rome and returned to France in 
1890. He immediately became general 
director of the choir in the Lyric 
Theatre, and in this capacity mounted 
Samson and Delilah, In 1892 he was 
made professor of classics in choral 
singing at the National Conservatory, 
where he remained until 1904, when 
he was given the title of Professor 
of Harmony by the ministry. From 
1893 to 1896 he directed Grand Opera. 
In 1899 he was made leader of an 
orchestra at Barcelona, and from 1890 
to 1892 held a similar position at the 
Opera Comique in Paris and at the 
same time became chief of the orches- 
tra at the Conservatory concerts, a 
position which he is still filling. In 
1906 he was made director of orches- 
tra for Classic concerts at Vichy; in 
1898 he was named an officer of 
public instruction, and in 1900 was 
made Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor. His most important works 
are a two-act opera, Daria; the three- 
act opera, Le Due de Ferrare; La 
Grande Mademoiselle; the panto- 
mime, Lysic; Ballade d'hiver, for 
orchestra; overture de Balthasar; 
drarnatic poem, Merlin enchante; 
Matinee de printemps; orchestra 
suite; choruses and songs; and a 
suite, Les Saisons. 

Marx (marx), Adolf Bernhard. 1799- 

Editor, lecturer, musical director and 
composer; born in Halle. He studied 
for the bar, but his love for music 
soon led him to abandon the legal 
profession. He studied harmony 
under Tiirck at Halle, and in Berlin 
he was a pupil of Logier and Zelter. 
He taught composition, piano and 
singing until 1824 when, with a musi- 
cal publisher, Schlesinger, he founded 
the Berliner allgemeine musikalische 
Zeitung, which during the seven years 
of its existence had much influence 
on the musical development of Ger- 
many, widening the appreciation of 
Beethoven and bringing to the fore 
some little known works of Handel 
and Bach. In 1827 he received the 


degree of Doctor of Music from the 
University of Marburg, and in 1830 
was appointed professor in Berlin 
Conservatory, where he became direc- 
tor in 1832. In 1850 he was instru- 
mental in founding the Berlin Con- 
servatory, but in 1856 he withdrew 
from it to devote himself to his 
pupils, literary work, and lectures at 
the University. At one time he was 
intimate with Mendelssohn, but the 
latter's adverse criticism of his writ- 
ings offended him and the friendship 
cooled. His theoretical writings and 
his work on the musical paper which 
he edited did much for the advance- 
ment of music in Germany. Among 
his works are the oratorios Moses 
and Johannes der Taufer; music for 
the drama, Jery und Biitely; some 
cantatas; songs; and choruses. Among 
his literary works are Die Kunst des 
Gesangs; Die Lehre von der musi- 
kalischen komposition; and many 
other writings on the theory of music. 

Marxsen (marx'-zen), Eduard. 1806- 


German organist and pianist; was 
at one time instructor of Brahms. He 
was born at Nieustadten, near Al- 
tona, which was the place of his 
death. He began preparing for the 
ministry but gave it up for musical 
pursuits, studying first with his 
father, whom he assisted as organist, 
then with Clasing at Hamburg and 
later at Vienna with Bocklet and Sey- 
fried. He finally settled at Hamburg, 
gave a successful concert of his own 
compositions and became prominent 
as a teacher, Brahms and Deppe being 
among his pupils. He wrote Bee- 
thoven's Schatten, considered his best 
work; orchestral symphonies and 
overtures; marches; sonatas; and 
other piano-music. 


(mar-tsi-als'), Theophilus. 

Composer of vocal music and poet; 
born at Brussels. Was a pupil of 
Malcolm Leonard Lawson in London 
and later studied in Paris and Milan. 
Since 1870 he has superintended the 
musical department of the Library of 
the British Museum. He is a bary- 
tone singer of some merit. Among 
his compositions are the songs May 
Music, The Miller and the Maid, Ask 
Nothing More, When My Jim Comes 
Home, The Garland, Twichenham 
Ferry, and Three Sailor Boys. 



* Marzo (mar'-tso), Eduardo. 1852- 

Composer, teacher and at one time 
accompanist of many of the great 
singers; born in Naples, Italy, where 
he received his musical education 
under Nacciarone, Miceli and Pap- 
palardo. He came to the United 
States as pianist and accompanist for 
Carlotta Patti, and he also accom- 
panied De Murska, Titiens, Mario, 
Cary, Kellogg, Thursby, Sauret and 
Sarasate. In 1878 he settled in New 
York, teaching singing and playing 
the organ, first at St. Agnes Roman 
Catholic Church and then at All 
Saints. In 1881 he was knighted by 
the King of Italy and in 1892 elected 
member of the Academy of St. 
Cecilia in Rome. Of his compositions 
the church-music is ten masses, four 
vespers; over thirty anthems; besides 
forty songs, sacred and secular; also 
four operettas; twenty part-songs; 
orchestra and piano-music He has 
edited several collections, among them 
Folk-sones of Italy; Neapolitan 
Songs; and his text-book. The Art of 

Mascagni (mas-kan'-ye), Pietro. 1863- 

Italian operatic composer; born at 
Leghorn, December 7, 1863. His 
father, a baker, intended him for the 
law so he was compelled to study 
secretly, and took a course at the 
Instituto Luigi Cherubini, studying 
piano, counterpoint, composition and 
harmony, chiefly under Alfredo Sof- 
fredini. On learning of his son's 
musical studies the elder Mascagni 
would have stopped them at once, 
but a kindly uncle offered to adopt 
the young musician, and allow him 
to pursue his chosen career. In this 
uncle's house he wrote his first musi- 
cal compositions, a sj'mphony in C 
minor for small orchestra and a 
Kyrie in honor of Cherubini's birth- 
day which were both performed at 
the Instituto Luigi Cherubini in 1879. 
In 1881 appeared In Filanda, a can- 
tata for solo voices and orchestra, 
which was favorably mentioned at a 
prize composition arranged by the 
International Exhibition of Music at 
Milan. During this same year Mas- 
cagni's uncle died and he returned to 
his father, who had now become rec- 
onciled to his musical pursuits. His 
next effort was a musical setting for 
a translation of Schiller's Ode to Joy, 
which, performed at the Teatro degli 
Avvalorati, attracted the interest of 


Count Florestano de Larderel, a musi- 
cal amateur, who offered to send the 
young composer to Milan Conserv- 
atory. The offer was accepted, but 
Mascagni derived little benefit from 
study at this institution, although 
taught by such professors as Sala- 
dino and Ponchielli. He chafed under 
the restraint of the strict academic 
training for some time, then left to 
become conductor to a traveling opera 
troupe. For several years he traveled 
through Italy as conductor to various 
opera companies, and in this way 
gained his knowledge of orchestra- 
tion. Finally he married and settled 
at Cerignola as piano teacher, director 
of the Municipal School of Music and 
conductor of the Musical Society. He 
was rescued from this life of insig- 
nificance and poverty by his one-act 
opera, Cavalleria Rusticana, the 
libretto of which is by Targioni-Toz- 
zetti, after the book by Verga. This 
opera was offered to the publisher, 
Sonzogno, who awarded it first prize 
in a competition. The opera was pro- 
duced at the Costanza Theatre in 
Rome, in May, 1890, and from the 
night of its presentation was pro- 
claimed a success. The composer 
was awarded the order of the Crown 
of Italy by the King, and in 1895 
he was made director of the Conserv- 
atory at Pesaro, a position which he 
lost in 1903, owing to protracted 
absences from his post while leading 
a special orchestra with which he 
traveled through America and Europe. 
His other operas have not proved 
lasting successes, and it appears that 
all of his inventiveness and orig- 
inality were exhausted in the produc- 
tion of his first work. The names 
and dates of his other operas in 
chronological order are L'Amico 
Fritz, 1891; I Rantzau, 1892; Gug- 
lielmo Ratcliflf, rewritten in 1895 from 
a work of his student days; Silvano, 
1895; Zanetto, 1896; Iris, 1898; Le 
Maschere, produced simultaneously 
in seven Italian cities in 1901; Arnica, 
1905; to which may be added inciden- 
tal music to the play built from Hall 
Caine's Eternal City; a cantata for 
the Leopardi centenary in 1898, which 
was performed at Recanati, and a 
hymn in honor of Admiral Dewey in 

Masini (ma-se'-ne), Angelo. 1845- 

Italian tenor; born at Forli. In 
1875, when Verdi directed the singing 




of his Requiem Mass at Albert Hall, 
he sang in the quartet with Madame 
Waldmann, Madame Stolz and Signor 
Medini. In 1876 he sang the part of 
Rhadames in Aida when Verdi con- 
ducted its first performance in Paris. 
In 1879 he was engaged by Mapleson 
to sing in London, but he failed to 
keep his contract and an injunction 
was brought against him_ which 
caused him never to appear in Eng- 
land. He sang in many cities includ- 
ing Paris, Madrid and Buenos Ayres 
and went to St. Petersburg where he 
san^ Italian Opera for many seasons, 
leaving finally on account of the 
rigorous climate. His voice was ex- 
ceedingly high and rather light in 
quality, though quite adequate to the 
demands he made upon it. His dis- 
position was exceedingly capricious. 

Mason, Lowell. 1792-1872. 

Called the father of American 
church-music; born at Medfield, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was mostly self-edu- 
cated, and owes more to perseverance 
and strict application than to instruc- 
tion his knowledge of music and the 
place he attained in the musical 
world. When sixteen he was leader 
of the choir in the Medfield Church 
and was also teaching singing. A 
bank clerk in Savannah, Georgia, in 
1812, he continued his musical work, 
leading choirs and teaching, and re- 
ceiving his first adequate musical in- 
struction from F. L. Abel. He made 
a collection of church-music which 
came under the notice of Dr. Jackson 
of the Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston, who got it published by the 
Handel and Haydn Society under the 
title of the Handel and Haydn Col- 
lection of Church Music Harmonized 
for Three or Four Voices. The im- 
mediate success of this work encour- 
aged Mason to come to Boston in 
1826, when he began his work in that 
city by lecturing on church-music. 
Through the influence of friends he 
was soon made director of music at 
the Hanover Street, Green Street 
and Park Street Churches, and had 
a permanent contract with the Bow- 
doin Street Church. In 1827 he was 
elected president of the Handel and 
Haydn Society. Although very suc- 
cessful Mr. Mason was not doing the 
work in which he was most deeply 
interested, or which he considered 
most important for the advancement 
of music. He believed that the 


knowledge of music could best be 
given to the American people through 
the medium of the public schools, 
and he worked unceasingly to advance 
this idea. He investigated various 
systems of teaching, and through Mr. 
George Wells became an enthusiastic 
advocate of the Pestalozzian System, 
which he obtained the privilege ot 
teaching in the public schools of Bos- 
ton in 1828. In 1832, in conjunction 
with Mr. Wells, he founded the Bos- 
ton Academy of Music. In 1837 and 
again in 1852 he went abroad to 
study music and methods of teaching; 
in 1853 publishing his interesting 
Musical Letters from Abroad. It was 
on the trip in 1852 that he purchased 
the valuable musical library of the 
organist, Rinck of Darmstadt, which, 
with his OAvn magnificent collection, 
he gave to Yale University after his 
death. By 1840 he had begun to hold 
his famous teachers' conventions, an 
idea which proved so helpful that 
teachers from far-away states often 
came. In 1851 he moved to New 
York, continuing to teach and in 1855 
receiving the degree of Doctor of 
Music from the University of New 
York. Several years before his death 
he retired to Orange, New Jersey, 
where he died in 1872. Although 
Lowell Mason does not come in the 
first rank of musical composers, his 
zeal and ability as a teacher and his 
energy in advancing the knowledge 
of music have won him the highest 
regard from his countrymen. His 
compositions, in the main correct and 
true to musical principles, are lacking 
in originality and power. Among 
them are The Juvenile Psalmist; 
Sabbath School Songs; The Psaltery; 
The Boston Anthem Book; The Bos- 
ton Academy Collection of Church 
Music; The Juvenile Lyre; and The 
Song Garden. 

Mason, Luther Whiting. 1828-1896. 

The man who introduced western 
music into the public schools of 
Japan. He was born at Turner, 
Maine, and was mostly self-educated. 
In 1853 he became superintendent of 
music in the public schools of 
Louisville, Kentucky, and later served 
in the same capacity in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. In 1865 he reformed the musi- 
cal instruction in the public schools 
of Boston, and in 1879 he was invited 
by the Japanese Government to super- 
intend the music in the schools of 



Japan. He was successful, and it is 
said that within ten minutes after the 
beginning of his first lesson his Jap- 
anese pupils were singing as American 
children sing. Today public school 
music in Japan is known as " Mason- 
Song." He was shown great favor at 
Court, and with the Imperial Orches- 
tra he worked to arrange the Japanese 
musical repertory. He experienced 
some difficulty in this at first because 
the Japanese scale is composed of five 
notes instead of seven, but when he 
explained our system, and aided by a 
Japanese professor of physics, related 
it to the colors of the spectrum, the 
Japanese voted to change their system, 
and a royal edict to that effect was 
given out. Mason helped the Japan- 
ese musicians restring and retune 
their instruments, organized a string 
and wind-instrument orchestra and 
gave successful concerts. Af^er three 
years' work in Japan he was recalled 
to America, and later went to Ger- 
many, where he perfected his Na- 
tional Music Course. His great 
success as a teacher in Europe, Asia 
and America lies in the simplicity and 
clearness of his methods and in his 
enthusiasm and power of inspiring his 
students. He died in Buckfield, Maine. 

Mason, William. 1829- 

Son of Lowell Mason; teacher and 
composer of church-music; born in 
Boston, Mass. He began the study 
of music under his father's careful 
direction, went to Newport, Rhode 
Island, in 1843 to study under the 
Rev. T. T. Thayer, and about 1846 
began to take piano lessons of 
Schmidt. At the age of seventeen he 
had so far advanced as to play the 
piano in a concert of the Academy of 
Music. When he was twenty years 
old he went to Europe. While cross- 
ing the ocean Mason met a musical 
publisher named Schuberth, who was 
personally acquainted with Liszt, and 
who warmly recommended him as a 
teacher. He had intended going to 
Moscheles in Leipsic, but owing to 
the insurrection raging at that time 
he stayed awhile in Paris, then went 
to visit Schuberth. At Schuberth's 
suggestion he dedicated to Liszt one 
of his compositions entitled Les Perles 
de Rpsee, at the same time asking per- 
mission to become his student. Liszt 
accepted the dedication, granted the 
desired permission and invited Mason 
to come to Weimar to the Goethe 

Festival, but Mason misread his letter, 
construing it into a refusal to take 
him as a pupil, and later on visiting 
Weimar took a casual speech of 
Liszt's as corroboration of this re- 
fusal. His mistake was not cleared up 
until almost four years later. Conse- 
quently he went to Leipsic to study 
harmony with Moritz Hauptmann, 
then cantor of the Thomasschule, and 
instrumentation with Hauptmann's 
pupil, Ernst Richter. In 1850 he went 
to Dreyschock in Prague. In 1852 
Albert Wagner gave him a letter of 
introduction to his brother, Richard 
Wagner, at Bayreuth. Mason pre- 
sented the letter and was most cor- 
dially received by the master. On 
parting from Wagner he requested 
his autograph and received from him 
the dragon theme from the Ring of 
the Nibelung, which was not heard 
by the public until twenty-five years 
later. In 1853 Sir Julius Benedict 
invited Mason to London to play at 
a concert of the Harmonic Union 
Society given in Exeter Hall. In his 
Memoirs of a Musical Life, Mason 
records that his choice of music for 
this occasion was Weber's Concert- 
stuck. On his return from England 
he went to Weimar to see Liszt, and 
this time his former misunderstanding 
was straightened out and he was cor- 
dially welcomed by the great com- 

He returned to America in 1855 and 
shortly afterward was married to the 
daughter of George Webb, with whom 
his father had founded the Boston 
Academy of Music. He made a suc- 
cessful concert tour, the first ex- 
clusivel}' piano tour ever undertaken 
in the United States, during which 
he introduced Liszt's Twelfth Rhap- 
sody and Chopin's Fantasie Im- 
promptu to American audiences. Mr. 
Mason found concert tour work too 
great a tax, so he abandoned it and 
took up teaching in New York. In 
this line of work he introduced several 
innovations, such as the application 
of rhythmic forms to finger exercises. 
He introduced Schumann to his 
students, and also played Chopin and 
Brahms. With the help of the orches- 
tra conductor, Carl Bergmann, he 
organized a quartet to give matinee 
chamber concerts, which became 
famous as the Mason and Thomas 
Quartet. The members were Theo- 
dore Thomas, first violin; Joseph 
Mosenthal, second violin; George 




Matzka, viola; Bergmann, violon- 
cellist, and after the first year Bergner 
as cellist in Bergmann's place. At a 
musical festival in New York in 
1873 Mason played a triple concerto 
with Mills and Anton Rubinstein. In 
1872 he was given the degree of Doc- 
tor of Music by Yale University. On 
.his seventieth birthday an assembly 
of his pupils met and presented him 
with a loving-cup. For many years 
he has lived in Orange, New Jersey. 

William Mason is regarded as the 
first American piano virtuoso, a man 
of brilliant technical skill and of great 
taste and refinement of interpreta- 
tion. As a teacher he is second to 
none, and has formed some of our 
most successful American pianists, 
among them William Sherwood and 
E. M. Bowman. His books on peda- 
gogy for music are Touch and 
Technic, a Method for Piano; A 
System for Beginners; and Mason's 
Piano Technics. His compositions 
show the influence of the classics in 
form and ideas and give evidence of 
sound training. Some of them are 
Amitie pour moi; Silver Spring; 
Ballade in B; Monody in B flat; 
Spring Dawn; Mazurka Caprice; 
Toujours, a waltz; Reverie Poetique; 
Berceuse, a cradle song; Danse 
Rustique, a la Gigue; Romance Idyll; 
Romance fitude, an Improvisation, 
besides many others. 

Massart (mas-sar'), Lambert Joseph. 

Violinist and teacher; born in 
Liege, well known on account of his 
excellence as a teacher, and because 
of the great number of brilliant vio- 
linists whom he has developed. His 
earliest instruction came from Dela- 
vau, an amateur of his native town, 
who became so interested in him 
that he prevailed upon the municipal 
authorities of Liege to grant Massart 
a scholarship which would enable 
him to study at the Paris Conserv- 
atory. He was greatly disappointed 
on arriving in Paris to be refused 
admission to the Conservatory by its 
director, Cherubini, on account of his 
being a foreigner. He began to study 
under Rudolph Kreutzer, who soon 
recognized his ability and became 
much interested in him. In 1843 he 
entered the Paris Conservatory to fill 
a position as professor of violin, in 
which capacity he gained great repu- 
tation on account of his carefulness 

and thoroughness. Some of his bril- 
liant pupils are Henri Wieniawski, 
Tcresina Tua, Martin Marsick, Pablo 
de Sarasate, Lotti, Camilla Urso and 
Charles M. Loefifler. Beside teaching 
Massart played in concert, although 
his diffidence prevented him from 
being very well known in this line. 
Massart had some success as quartet 
player, often performing in chamber- 
concerts with his wife, Louise Aglae 
Marson, who became professor of 
piano at the Paris Conservatory in 
place of Farrenc. 

Masse (mas-sa), Felix Marie Victor. 

French opera composer; born at 
Lorient. At the age of twelve he 
entered the Conservatory, where he 
won the first prizes for fugue, har- 
mony and piano. He studied with 
Halevy, and in 1844 won the Grand 
Prize of Rome for a composition. In 
1845 his cantata, Le Renegat, was 
well received, being performed three 
times before the public, and in 1846, 
Messe Solennelle, which he composed 
in Rome, was given successfully at the 
Church of St. Louis des Fran?ais. 
After two years in Rome, and travel 
through Italy and Germany, he re- 
turned to Paris and began his career 
as a writer of operas. His first 
dramatic composition. La Chambre 
gothique, was a decided success, as 
were La Chanteuse violee, Galathee, 
Les Noces de Jeannette and La Reine 
Topaze, which followed. His other 
operas. La Fiancee du Diable; Miss 
Fauvette; Les Saisons; Les Chaises 
a porteus; La Fee Carabosse; Mari- 
ette la Promise; La Mule de Pedro; 
Fior d'Aliza and Les Fils du Briga- 
dier, all succeeded for a time but did 
not long hold the interest of the pub- 
lic. In 1860 Masse was made chorus- 
master at the Academy of Music. In 
1860 he became professor of compo- 
sition at the Conservatory in Le- 
borne's place, and in 1872 he suc- 
ceeded Auber at the Institut. The 
work of these institutions occupied so 
much time that he practically aban- 
doned composition until 1876, when 
Paul and Virginia appeared. Ill 
health caused him to resign from the 
Academy in 1876, after which his com- 
position. La Mort de Cleopatre, was 
written. In 1877 he became a member 
of the Legion of Honor. Beside the 
works mentioned he has written the 
operas, La Favorita e la Schiava; Le 




Cousin Maribaux; two operettas, Une 
loi Somptuaire, and Le Prix de 
Famille, as well as three collections 
containing twenty songs each. Most 
of his work was produced at the 
Opera Comique, where for a short 
time it was successful, but was soon 
forgotten. His operas are pleasing 
and melodious, often containing 
charming little songs, but lacking in 
force and originality. 

Massenet (mas-na), Jules Frederic 

£mile. 1842- 

The most popular of modern French 
composers of opera. He was born at 
Montaud, near St. fitienne, and was 
given his first music lessons by his 
mother. Later he went to the Paris 
Conservatory, where he won the first 
piano prize in 1859, the second fugue 
prize in 1862, and the first fugue prize, 
and the great Roman Prize, which he 
obtained through his cantata, David 
Rizzio, in 1863. Up to this time he 
had been very poor and had earned a 
scanty living by playing in a restau- 
rant orchestra, but he married a 
wealthy woman about this time, and 
spent two years at the Villa Medici, 
which awakened in him his greatest 
genius. When he returned to Paris 
his comic opera, La Grand' tante, was 
performed at the Opera Comique in 
1867, but was not much of a success. 
It was followed in 1872 by Don Cesar 
de Bazan, which gave him his first 
prominence. His other works were 
brought out in quick succession. In 
1873 he wrote the overture and inci- 
dental music to Les Erinnyes; in the 
same year Mary Magdalen, a sort of 
sacred drama, modeled on the ora- 
torio, appeared, and five, another 
piece like it, was given in 1875. His 
first great opera, Le Roi de Lahore, 
was performed in 1877, and later the 
same year his cantata, Narcisse; in 
1880 he presented his oratorio. La 
Vierge, in 1881 his biblical opera, 
Herodiade, in 1884 Manon, and in 1885 
Le Cid. During this time he had 
written incidental music to Sardou's 
dramas, Theodora, and Le Crocodile. 
He served in the Franco-Prussian 
war, taught advanced composition in 
the Paris Conservatory from 1878 
to 1896, was decorated with the 
cross of the Legion of Honor 
in 1878, and became an officer 
in 1888; and also in 1878 was 
made a member of the Academy. 
He replaced Bazin. and was the 

youngest man who had ever been 
admitted at that time. His later 
works are the operas, Esclarmonde; 
Le Mage; Werther and Le Carillon; 
Thais; Le Portrait de Manon; La 
Navarraise; Sapho; and Cendrillon; 
the oratorios. La Terre Promise; the 
opera, Griselidis, and incidental music 
to the drama, Phedre; and the operas, 
Le Jongleur de Notre Dame; Cher- 
ubin; and Ariane. He has also writ- 
ten many very popular orchestral 
suites, among them Scenes Pittor- 
esques; Scenes Dramatiques, based on 
Shakespeare; Scenes Hongroiseo; and 
Scenes Alsaciennes. 

Hervey says that Massenet is 
" typical of his epoch and nation." 
Elson says " He is essentially French 
in his music, in his personal tempera- 
ment, in his operatic subjects." These 
statements are as true as applied to 
his biblical works as to Manon or La 
Navarraise, which are as characteris- 
tically French as anything he has pro- 

Le Roi de Lahore, his first distinct 
success, is a subject of much glamor 
and romance, and the spectacular part 
of this piece probably had as much 
to do with its success as the music. 
Manon, which is generally considered 
the composer's masterpiece, has be ■ 
come a classic. It is based on Abbe 
Provost's novel of that name, and the 
music and text are admirably suited 
to each other. In this opera Massenet 
brought out the entirely new idea at 
that time of having an orchestral ac- 
companiment to the dialogue. Le Cid 
was a failure, but Esclarmonde, which 
appeared next, was very successful. 
It belongs to the romantic school, 
and shows unmistakable signs of 
Bayreuth influence. Le Mage, another 
Oriental subject, was not successful, 
and Werther, based on Goethe's 
novel, was not popular with the 
masses, because it lacked action and 
was monotonous in places, though it 
was full of sentiment and had some 
beautiful passages. It resembles 
Esclarmonde in form, but the idea is 
like that of Manon. Thais, the story 
of the conversion of an Egyptian 
courtesan by a hermit, who afterwards 
fell in love with her, gained a perma- 
nent place at the Opera Comique. La 
Navarraise, which was given at 
Covent Garden and at Brussels and 
Paris, was intensely melodramtic. 
• The music is noisy and martial and 
the story goes well with it. The 




libretto is really better than the music. 
Griselidis was fairly successful, as was 
also Le Jongleur de Notre Dame. 

Massenet continued the work of 
Gounod, but used his own methods 
or style in doing it, and all of his 
works bear the stamp of his individu- 
ality. His greatest power is represent- 
ing the tender passions, and he is also 
especially successful in portraying the 
eternal feminine. However, ^ his 
women can hardly be called indi- 
viduals, for they are all alike whether 
biblical characters, fairy creations, or 
modern French women, all resemble 
the Parisienne of the present, and 
most of them are the extremely weak 
type as in the case of Manon. He has 
adopted no one particular form, but 
takes sentiment in general and the 
taste of the Parisian public for the 
basis upon which he works. 

Masson, Elizabeth. 1806-1865. 

Prominent English concert-singer 
and composer of songs; was the pupil 
of Mrs. Henry Smart, and of Pasta in 
Italy. She first appeared in public at 
Ella's Second Subscription concert in 
1831. She also sang at the Ancient 
concerts in 1831, and at the Phil- 
harmonic concerts in 1833, usually 
giving selections from the old masters 
as Gluck, Handel and Mozart. In 
1834 she sang at a festival in West- 
minster Abbey, and several times at 
the Sacred Harmonic Society in ora- 
torios. Later she devoted her time 
to teaching and composing, writing 
music for the poems of Scott, Procter 
and Byron. In 1839 she established 
a Royal Society of Female Musicians, 
which was finally joined to the Royal 
Society of Musicians in 1856. She had 
good technique surpassing her natural 
ability and an original personality. 
Her published works are Original 
Jacobite Songs; and Songs for the 
Classical Vocalist. 

Materna (ma-ter'-na), Amelia. 1847- 

Soprano, famous for her interpre- 
tation of Wagnerian roles; born at 
St. Georgen, Styria. When she was 
twelve years old her father died, leav- 
ing his family penniless. Amelia and 
an older brother went to Vienna, but 
on arriving there were disappointed 
to find that no one would teach her 
^o sing on account of her lack of 
funds. From Vienna she went to St. 
Petersburg, and three years later to 
Gxatz, where she was discovered by 

Suppe, who got her into the chorus 
at the Landes Theatre and later 
helped her get a position in Vienna. 
Here she sang in operetta at the Karl 
Theatre for several years, at the same 
time preparing for heavier work under 
Proch in 1868 she sang before 
Court Conductor Esser so successfully 
that she obtained a position at the 
Imperial Opera House, where she 
made her debut in 1869 in L'Africaine 
with pronounced success. She had 
meantime been married to a popular 
German actor, Karl Friedrich. In 
1876 she was given the role of Brunn- 
hilde at the performance of Der Ring 
des Nibelungen given at Bayreuth 
during that year. Her interpretation 
was received with the greatest en- 
thusiasm by Wagner himself, and her 
rendition of Wagnerian roles has not 
been equaled in some respects. She 
sang in the Wagner Festival in Lon- 
don in 1877, and in 1882 created the 
role of Kundry in Parsifal, visiting the 
United States that year and in 1884. 
She retired from the stage in 1897, 
the occasion being a concert given at 
the hall of the Musical Union in 
Vienna. Her greatness lies not only 
in the exceptional quality and beauty 
of her voice but also in her dramatic 

Mathews, William Smythe Babcock. 


Critic and writer on musical sub- 
jects, who has greatly advanced music 
in Chicago; born in London, New 
Hampshire. His father was a clergy- 
man, who encouraged the early mani- 
festations of his son's talent and, 
when he was about eleven years old, 
had him take lessons of Mr. Folsom 
of Lowell. He afterward went to 
Boston to study with Mr. L. H. 
Southard, and there he enjoyed the 
friendship and encouragement of 
Lowell Mason. In 1852 he took a 
position in Appleton Academy at Mt. 
Vernon, New Hampshire, although 
not yet fifteen years of age. In 1860 
he became professor of music in the 
Wesleyan Female College at Macon, 
Georgia, but in 1861 he was forced to 
resign his position owing to the Civil 
war. He supported himself till after 
the close of the war by teaching at 
Macon, Georgia; Danville, West Vir- 
ginia and Marion, Alabama. In 1867 Mr. 
Mathews came to Chicago as organist 
of the Centenary Methodist Episcopal 
Church, where he remained until 



1893, and the following year he 
became editor of the Musical Inde- 
pendent, which went out of existence 
at the time of the Chicago fire, 1871. 
From 1877 to 1887 he was musical 
critic on the staffs of the Chicago 
Herald, Record, and Tribune, and v/as 
one of the best of western critics. In 
1891 he founded the magazine. Music, 
of which he was editor and one of the 
chief contributors until this magazine 
was incorporated in the Philharmonic 
in 1903. Mathews has written some 
excellent books on musical subjects, 
among them being The Great in 
Music; Popular History of Music; 
Music and Its Ideals; How to Under- 
stand Music; Complete School of 
Pedals; many collections of music for 
teaching; special editions of works of 
Chopin and Schumann; a revised edi- 
tion of Mason's Technics; The Mas- 
ters and Their Music; a Dictionary 
of Musical Terms; Primer of Musical 
Forms; and How to Understand 
Music. Beside his writings Mr. 
Mathews is a successful piano-teacher. 

Mathias (ma-te'-as), Georges Amedee 

Saint Clair. 1826- 

French teacher and composer; born 
in Paris, where he studied under 
Bazin, Barbereau, Halevy, Savard, at 
the Paris Conser\-atory, and took 
composition of Kalkbrenner, and 
piano of Chopin. He was given 
the cross of the Legion of Honor 
in 1872. He wrote overtures to 
Hamlet and Mazeppa; five morceaux 
s>Tnphoniques for piano and strings; 
two piano concertos; six piano trios; 
a symphony; CEuvres choisis pour le 
piano; fitudes de Genre; £tudes de 
style et de mecanisme; a collection of 
two and four-hand piano-pieces, and 
the preface to Daily Exercises from 
Chopin's works. 

* Mathieu (mat-yu), fimile. 1844- 

Teacher and composer; born of 
Belgian parentage at Lille, France. 
Both his father and his mother were 
professors of music at the music 
school at Louvain, and it was there 
that he received his first instruction. 
Later, at the Royal Conservatory at 
Brussels, he studied piano under 
Dupont, harmony under Bosselet, and 
counterpoint and fugue with Fetis. In 
1869 he won the second Prize of 
Rome for his cantata, La Mort du 
Tasse, and from 1867 to 1873 he 
taught at the school of music at 


Louvain, where he acted as director 
from 1891 to 1898. In 1898 he became 
director of the Royal Conservatory at 
Ghent, where he is still to be found. 
He was made Chevalier of the Order 
of Leopold in 1898, corresponding 
member of the Belgian Royal Acad- 
emy in 1897, and member in 1901. He 
has written the operas, Georges 
Daudin, Bathyle, I'fichange, La Ber- 
noise, I'Enfance de Roland, Richilde; 
the cantatas, Le Songe de Colomb, 
Debout Peuple, Torquato Tasso's 
dood, La Derniere Nuit de Faust; 
the ballet, Funeurs de Kiff; children's 
cantatas, I'ficole Fraternelle, and Les 
Bois; Le Hoyoux; Le Serbier; Frey- 
hir; French and Flemish songs; Tc 
Deums; three symphonic poems for 
orchestra; a violin concerto, and some 
male choruses. 

Mattei (mat-ta'-e), Abbate Stanislao. 


Favorite pupil and intimate of 
Giambattista Martini, the great theor- 
ist and musical savant; was born at 
Bologna. He attended the Latin 
school, and later, at the advice of 
Martini, entered into his novitiate at 
the Minorite Convent, becomitig the 
confessor and constant companion of 
Padre Martini immediately after his 
ordination. From 1770 he acted as 
Martini's deputy, and after his death, 
in 1784, succeeded him as maestro di 
cappella at the Convent of the Fran- 
ciscans. In 1798, on the suppression 
of the monasteries, Mattei lived with 
his mother and began to teach, later 
becoming maestro di cappella of San 
Petronio and teacher of counterpoint 
at the Liceo Filarmonico in 1804. 
Among his many distinguished pupils 
were Rossini, Donizetti, Perotti, 
Bertolotti and Robuschi. In 1790 and 
1794 he was president of the Filar- 
monico, also member of the Subalpine 
Academic, and after 1824 of the In- 
stitut de France. Most of his works 
are preserved in the Libraries of San 
Giorgrio and the ^linorite Convent 
at Bologna, and include his Prattica 
d'acompagnamento sopra bassi nu- 
merati, in three volumes; eight 
masses; an intermezzo; La Bottega 
de Libraio; and many oflFertories; 
psalms; hymns; motets and other 

Mattei, Tito. 1841- 

Noted Italian pianist, composer and 
conductor; was born at Campobasso. 




He was educated in Naples, where he 
studied with Thalberg, Conti, Mag- 
goni, Parisi and Ruta. When only 
eleven years old he was made Pro- 
fessore of the Accademia di Santa 
Cecilia, Rome. He played before 
Pope Pius IX., was given a special 
gold medal and appointed pianist to 
the King of Italy. In 1846 he gave 
his first concert, and afterward toured 
Italy, France and Germany. In 1863 
he settled in London, where he be- 
came conductor at Her Majesty's 
Theatre. In 1870 he organized a sea- 
son of Italian Opera, conducting it 
also. He has written a great number 
of piano-pieces and songs, among 
them The Spider and the Fly; For 
the Sake of the Past; Dear Heart; 
Non torno; Non e ver; and Oh! Ohf 
Hear the Wild Wind Blow. His 
operas are Maria di Grand, and the 
comic opera, La Prima Donna. 

Matteis (mat-ta'-es), Nicola. 

Seventeenth Century Italian violin- 
ist, composer for the violin and writer 
on musical topics; is said to have 
invented the half-shift for the violin. 
He has been praised by Evelyn and 
Roger North; but little is known 
about his life except that he was 
eccentric and inclined to luxurious 
living, which resulted in an early 
death. His works are collections of 
ayres for the violin, including fugues, 
preludes, alemands, sarabands, cour- 
ants, fancies, etc.; and Ode in honor 
of St. Cecilia's day, in 1696; The 
False Consonances of Music, or In- 
struction for Playing a True Base 
upon the Guitarre. His son Nicholas 
was also a fine violinist, and was the 
instructor of Berney. 

Mattheson (mat'-te-z6n), Johann. 

Exceedingly versatile and diligent 
student, diplomat and musical com- 
poser; born at Hamburg. His versa- 
tility showed itself early, for besides 
music he studied modern languages, 
law, and political science, and pos- 
sessed all the accomplishments of a 
cultivated gentleman of that time. 
When nine years old he played a 
composition of his own on the organ 
in Hamburg. In 1696 he made his 
debut in opera in a female part, and 
in 1699 produced his first opera, Die 
Pleyaden, appearing in Cleopatra as 
Antony in 1704. In 1703 Handel came 
to Hamburg and immediately became 


the friend of Mattheson and his rival 
for popular favor. In 1704 Mattheson 
became tutor to a son of Sir Cyril 
Wych, English envoy at Hamburg, 
and in 1706 was made Wych's secre- 
tary. In this capacity he was several 
times employed on various diplomatic 
affairs, but in spite of the great 
amount of labor he performed he still 
continued to compose, teach and write 
on musical subjects. In 1715 he was 
appointed cantor and canon of Ham- 
burg Cathedral, and was instrumental 
in introducing variations such as 
duets, choruses and airs into church 
service, finally introducing women as 
church singers. In 1719 he was given 
the title of Court-Kapellmeister by 
the Duke of Holstein. In 1728, owing 
to deafness, he retired from his work 
at the Cathedral and devoted himself 
chiefly to writing. Among his works 
are Das neu eroffnete Orchester; Das 
deschiitze and Das Forschende Or- 
chester; Critica musica; Der Musika- 
lische Patriot; Grundlage einer 
Ehrenpforte; and a collection of 
biographies of contemporary musi- 
cians. His theoretical works are 
Grosse Generalbassschule; Exemplar- 
ische Organisten Probe; Kleine Gen- 
eralsschule, the Kern melodischer 
Wissenschaft and Vollkommene Ca- 

Matthison-Hansen (mat'-ti-z6n han'- 

zen), Gotfred. 1832- 

Organist and composer; son of 
Hans Matthison-Hansen; born at 
Roeskilde, Denmark. He began to 
study law, but soon abandoned it in 
favor of music, in which art he was 
largely self-taught. In 1859 he be- 
came organist at the German Fried- 
richs-Kirche in Copenhagen, and on 
winning the Aucker Scholarship in 
1862 went to Leipsic for a year's 
study. In 1867 he obtained the posi- 
tion of organ-teacher at the Copen- 
hagen Conservatory; in 1871 he 
became organist of St. John's Church, 
and six years later became his father's 
assistant; in 1900 he was organist at 
Trinity Church, Copenhagen. From 
1874 to 1877 he gave many concerts 
in Denmark, and he has been heard a 
number of times in Germany. With 
Grieg, Horneman and Nordraak he 
was instrumental in organizing the 
Euterpe Society. His compositions 
include, for piano, three mazurkas; 
trio for piano and strings; a ballade 
entitled Vom nordischen Mythen- 



konig Frode Fredegod; three charac- 
ter pieces for piano; sonata for piano 
and violin; sonata for piano and vio- 
loncello; a fantasie and Conzert-Ton- 
stiicke for organ. 

Matthison-Hansen, Hans. 1807-1890. 

Danish organist and church com- 
poser; was born at Flensburg. He 
first studied art, and was to a certain 
extent self-taught in music, when he 
began to study organ under C. F. E. 
Weyse of Copenhagen. In 1832 he 
received the important appointment 
of organist at Roeskilde Cathedral. 
He was an excellent organist and 
gave concerts in Norway in 1861 and 
the following year in Sweden, and in 
1864 he appeared in England. He had 
received the Order of Danebrog in 
1857, and in 1869 he was given the 
title of professor. He composed a 
cycle of church-music for Christmas, 
Easter and Pentecost; preludes and 
postludes for organ; 130th Psalm; two 
Kyrie eleison; The Lord's Prayer; 
Johannis, an oratorio; music to the 
lOOth, 121st and 150th Psalms, with 
orchestral accompaniments, variations, 
symphonies, fantasies, and other 
music for organ. 

Maurel (mo-rcl), Victor. 1848- 

One of the greatest living bary- 
tones; born at Marseilles, and began 
his stage career in the comedy and 
light opera there. He finally went 
to Paris, however, and studied at the 
Conservatory under both Vauthrot 
and Duvernoy, winning honors for his 
work with both teachers. He made 
his debut as De Xevers in Les Hugue- 
nots at Paris in 1869. He then 
toured America, Spain and Italy. He 
first appeared in London in 1873, 
taking the role of Renato at the 
Royal Italian Opera, and his first 
appearance in America took place the 
following year. In 1879 he returned 
to Paris, where he made a successful 
Hamlet and Amonasro. He then 
took charge of the Italian Opera at 
the Theatre of Nations, now Sara 
Bernhardt's theatre, and though he 
surrounded himself with artists of the 
highest grade and produced Masse- 
net's Herodiade with wonderful suc- 
cess, the venture resulted in financial 
disaster. He went back to comic 
opera, playing Zampa, FalstaflF and 
Peter, and appeared again at Drury 
Lane and Covent Garden. His cre- 
ation of the part of lago in Verdi's 


Otello in 1887 is his great artistic 
success. In 1893 he brought out Fal- 
staff, and in 1896 he was the first to 
give the role of Mathias in Erlanger's 
Juif Polonais. Among his best known 
parts are Don Giovanni, William 
Tell, Almaviva, Cacique, Wolfram in 
the Flying Dutchman, and Domingo 
in Masse's Paul and Virginizu 

Maurer (mow'-rer), Ludwig Wilhelm. 


Violinist; born in Potsdam. He 
studied the violin under Haak, and at 
the age of thirteen he played at a 
concert g^ven by Mara in Berlin, and 
was permitted to join the Royal 
Orchestra. In 1806 Maurer traveled 
to Konigsberg and Riga, where he 
met Rode and Baillot, then to St- 
Petersburg, where he played in con- 
certs. Through Baillot he became 
conductor to the Chancellor Wsowo- 
logsky in Moscow, a position which 
he held until 1817, when he made 
another concert tour to Paris and 
Berlin. In 1818 he was made concert- 
master at Hanover, but he returned 
to Chancellor Wsowologsky in 1832, 
remaining with him until 1845, when 
he settled in Dresden. Among his 
writings, the best known is his Sym- 
phony Concertante for four violins 
with the orchestra, which he first 
played in Paris in 1838 with Wich, 
Spohr and Miiller. Other composi- 
tions are The Three Russian Airs 
with variations; his operas, Alonzo, 
Aloise, Der entdeckte Diebstahl, and 
Der Neue Paris, of which only the 
overtures are printed. 

May, Edward Collett. 1806-1887. 

Organist and widely known musical 
educator; born at Greenwich, Eng- 
land. His first musical training 
began with his brother, a musical 
amateur and composer, and was con- 
tinued under Thomas Adams, organ- 
ist at St. Paul's, Deptford, and a 
family friend. Some time later May 
was a student of piano under Cipri- 
ani Potter, and of singing under Cri- 
velli. In 1837 he became organist of 
Greenwich Hospital, remaining with 
that institution until it was abolished 
in 1869. In 1841 he organized classes 
in which thousands of grown people 
and children received musical in- 
struction. These classes were enor- 
mous, that in the National Societies' 
Central School numbering over a 
thousand teachers and many children 
besides, while at his classes in the 




Exeter Hall, the Apollonicon Rooms 
and St. Martin's Hall he taught sev- 
eral thousand. He was made pro- 
fessor of vocal music at Queen's 
College, London, in 1880, and he had 
also taught in Battersea, St. Mark's, 
the Training Schools, Hockerill, 
Whitelands Home, and Colonial. He 
has published some songs and a text- 
book entitled Progressive Vocal Ex- 
ercises for Daily Use. His daughter, 
Florence May, is well known as an 
interpreter of Brahms, under whom 
she studied, and also as his biogra- 
pher. She is a successful teacher. 

Maybrick, Michael. 1844- 

Excellent barytone concert-singer 
and a writer of popular songs; was 
born at Liverpool, England. His 
father was musical and gave him 
great encouragement, so that when he 
was eight years old he had partially 
mastered the art of piano-playing. 
Soon after he began taking organ 
lessons of W. T. Best, and at the age 
of fifteen was organist of St. Peter's 
Parish Church, Liverpool. From 1866 
to 1868 he studied at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory under Carl Richter, Plaidy 
and Moscheles. While he was in 
Leipsic it was discovered that he had 
a fine barytone voice, and at the 
advice of his instructors he went to 
Milan, where after about two years' 
study with Nava he made his debut 
in a theatre of that city. He returned 
to England in 1869 and was one of 
those who sang on the farewell tour 
of Mme. Sainton-Dolby. He sang in 
English Opera at St. James Theatre 
in 1871, but afterward devoted him- 
self to oratorio work, in which he has 
been heard at Bristol, Gloucester and 
Hereford. He has had distinguished 
success as a concert-singer, and was 
the first to sing the Telramund music 
from Lohengrin in England. In 1884 
he toured the United States and 
Canada. Under the nom de plume of 
Stephen Adams he has written many 
popular songs, of which probably the 
best known is Nancy Lee. Others are 
The Blue Alsatian Mountains; The 
Star of Bethlehem; The Holy City; 
The Tar's Farewell; By the Fountain; 
They All Love Jack; Valley by the 
Sea; A Warrior Bold; and in 1897 the 
Jubilee song. Her Majesty. 

Mayer (mi'-er), Charles. 1799-1862. 

Piano virtuoso, teacher and com- 
poser; born in Konigsberg. He re- 


ceived his first lessons from his 
mother, a piano-teacher, and later 
from Field. In 1814, with his father, 
he went to Warsaw, Germany and 
Holland, finally to Paris, playing his 
variations on God Save the King, in 
Amsterdam during this tour. He re- 
turned to St. Petersburg and began to 
teach in 1819, leaving in 1845 to tour 
through Stockholm, C9penhagen, 
Hamburg, Leipsic and Vienna, and 
settling in Dresden in 1850. He 
taught, composed, and gave concerts 
in Dresden until his death in 1862. 
His compositions number nearly nine 
hundred, among them being his con- 
certo with orchestra in D; variations 
and fantasias on opera airs; Polka 
Bohemienne in A; concerto sym- 
phonique; a mazurka in F sharp 
major, supposed for a time to have 
been written by Chopin; Concert 
Polonaise; Valse fitudes, and Toccata 
in E. His compositions are consid- 
ered exceeding well fitted to the in- 
struments for which they are written, 
and are correctly and effectively com- 

Mayer, Emilie. 1821-1883. 

Born at Friedland, Mecklenburg; 
was a composer of instrumental and 
vocal music. She received her educa- 
tion from Carl Lowe, from B. A. Marx 
in theory and from Wieprecht in 
orchestration. She gave a concert 
composed entirely of her own writ- 
ings, consisting of a concert overture 
for large orchestra; a string quartet; 
the 118th Psalm for chorus and 
orchestra; a symphonic in B minor; 
and the Symphonic Militaire; and . 
two piano solos which she her- 
self played. In recognition of her 
talents she was presented with the 
Gold Medal of Art by Queen Eliza- 
beth of Prussia. She wrote two 
string quartets; two quintets; several 
symphonies, one in B minor arranged 
for four hands; several overtures; two 
quartets; seven sonatas for cello and 
piano; eight violin and piano sonatas; 
ten trios for piano, violin and cello; 
about forty part-songs, and a number 
of songs and piano-pieces. Her 
Faust overture for Grand orchestra, 
Nocturne for violin and piano, and 
Allemande fantastique are considered 
among her best. 

Mayer, Wilhelm (Pseudonym, W. A. 

Remy). 1831-1898. 

Distinguished teacher of piano, com- 
position and counterpoint; born at 



Prague. Studied law until 1861. He 
studied music with C. F. Pietsh. In 
1862 he abandoned legal work and 
became conductor of the Musical 
Society of Graz, a position which he 
held until 1870, when he resigned to 
devote himself to teaching. He num- 
bered among his pupils \V. Kienzl, 
Reznicek, F. Weingartner, F. Busoni 
and Sahla. Among his compositions 
are three symphonies, songs and part- 
songs, his overture Sardanapel, the 
symphonic poem Helene, the Ostliche 
Rosen, and the Slavisches Liederspiel. 
He died in Graz. 

Mayr (mir), Johann Simon. 1763- 

Operatic composer; born at Men- 
dorf, Bavaria, but identified with the 
music of Italy. His musical talent 
was early cultivated by his father, 
the village schoolmaster and organist, 
and at the age of ten he entered the 
Jesuit Seminary at Ingolstadt. He 
became musical tutor for a nobleman 
named de Bessus, who sent him to 
study with Lenzi at Bergamo, in 
which city he spent the most of his 
life. Mayr found Lenzi a most iji- 
efficient teacher, and was just about 
to return to Germany when a canon 
of Bergamo, Count Presenti, sent 
him to Venice to study with Bertoni. 
Thrown on his own resources by the 
death of his patron, he took the 
advice of Piccini and began to write 
operas. In this he was very success- 
ful, producing more than seventy 
operas from 1794 to 1814. In 1802 he 
was made maestro di cappella of 
Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo, a 
position which he liked so well that 
he could not be induced to visit 
Paris, Dresden, Lisbon or London, 
and even declined the position of 
censor to the Milan Conservatory in 
1807. He was professor of composi- 
tion at the Musical ^Institute of Ber- 
gamo, founded in 1805 and reorganized 
in 1811, in which capacity he did 
much for the cause of music, and 
taught many great musicians, among 
them Donizetti. He was very benev- 
olent, founding the Scuola caritate- 
vole di Musica and the Pio Instituto 
di Bergamo for needy musicians and 
their widows. Seven years after his 
death, in 1845, the city of Bergamo 
erected a monument in his honor, and 
in 1875 removed his remains with 
those of Donizetti to Santa Maria 
Maggiore. His works were Italian 

in character and were performed 
chiefly in Italy. Among them are 
some" early songs published in Ratis- 
bon; some masses and vespers; his 
oratorios, Jacob a Labano fug^ens, 
David, Tabiae matrimonium, and 
Sisarae; his opera, SaflFo, ossia i rita 
d'Apollo Leucadio; Lauso e Lidia; 
Medea; Rosa bianca e Rosa rossa; 
Lodoiska and Ginevra di Scozia. He 
also wrote a life of Capuzzi and a 
book on Haydn. 

Mayseder (mi'-za-der), Joseph. 1789- 


Violin virtuoso, whose brilliance 
and elegance of execution won for 
him the foremost position on the con- 
certtstage at Vienna, his native town. 
At the age of eight he became the 
pupil of Suche and Wranitzky, making 
his first public appearance in Augarten 
in 1800. Eleven years later he re- 
ceived the Gold Salvator Medal, and 
in 1816 he entered the Court Chapel, 
becoming solo-violin in the Court 
Theatre in 1820, and chamber-violinist 
to the Emperor in 1835. While still 
very j-oung, Schuppanzigh, who took 
great interest in him, gave him the 
position of second violin in his famous 
quartet. As early as 1812 he was 
considered by Spohr himself to be 
the greatest violinist in Vienna. He 
received the order of .''■anz-Joseph 
from the Emperor of Ausi.'a in 1862. 
In concert work he gave concerts 
with Merk, the violoncellist, and with 
Hummel, Moscheles and Guiliani, but 
after 1837 he never appeared in pub- 
lic. He could scarcely be prevailed 
upon to play in strange cities, and his 
only performance when he visited 
Paris in 1820 was at a small gather- 
ing of distinguished musicians, among 
them Kreutzer, Lafont, Cherubini, 
Baudiot, Habeneck and Viotti. He 
was greatl}' admired for beauty and 
purity of tone and surety of touch. 
He published sixty-three works, with 
the exception of one mass, all being 
chamber-music, concertos, polonaises, 
quartets, etudes and duets for violin, 
and trios and sonatas for piano. 

Mazas (ma-zas), Jacques Fereol. 


Violin virtuoso and composer; born 
at Beziers. In 1802 he began three 
years of study at the Paris Conserv- 
atory under Baillot and won the first 
violin prize. His performance of a 
violin concerto written for him by 




Auber was very successful. He then 
became a member of the orchestra 
of an Italian Opera Company, and 
from 1811 to 1829 traveled through 
Spain, Russia, Belgium, Germany and 
Italy. After his return to Paris he 
was, for a while, first violin at the 
Palais Royal. Prom 1837 to 1841 he 
was director of a music school at 
Cambrai. As a violinist his tone was 
very brilliant and melodious. He 
wrote a method for the violin and a 
method for viola, beside many con- 
certos, trios, string quartets, fan- 
tasias, variations, romances and violin 

Mazzinghi (mad-zen'-gx), Joseph. 


Piano teacher, organist and com- 
poser; of ancient Corsican blood; 
born in London. He studied music 
with Bertolini, Sacchini, Anfossi and 
John Sebastian Bach, progressing so 
amazingly that in 17/5, when he was 
only ten years old, he was made 
organist of the Portuguese Chapel. 
In 1784 he became director at the 
King's Theatre. He became piano 
teacher of the Princess of Wales, 
afterward Queen Caroline, and in 1830 
was made a Count. He had a great 
many pupils on the piano, and be- 
sides this composed a large number 
of pieces and wrote some operas. 
Some of his operas are II Tesero; A 
Day in Turkey; The Magician no 
Conjuror; La belle Arsene; Paul and 
Virginia; The Blind Girl; Ramah 
Droog; Chains of the Heart; The 
Wife of Two Husbands; The Exile; 
and The Free Knights. He composed 
almost seventy sonatas, besides a 
great number of songs and glees, also 
a mass and some hymns. 

Mazzochi (mad-z6k'-ki), Domenico. 

A Sixteenth Century composer, 
chiefly known as the originator of the 
marks used at present to indicate 
crescendo and diminuendo; also the 
pf for pianoforte and the tr for trilo. 
Little is known of his life, except 
that he studied with Nanini, became 
a prominent lawyer in Rome, and was 
employed possibly in some musical 
capacity by Aldobrandini Borghese 
for a number of years. Among his 
works are La Catena d' Adone, an 
opera; a book of sacred music; a 
book of madrigals; several oratorios; 
and a collection of Dialoghi e Sonatti. 
His works date from 1626 to 1640. 

Mazzucato (mad-zoo-kat'-to), Albertd. 


Dramatic composer, teacher and 
musical writer; born at Udine, 
Fruili. He became the pupil of Bres- 
ciano at Padua, where in 1834 he pro- 
duced his first opera. La Fidanzeta di 
Lammermoor. This was temporarily 
successful, as were several other 
operas which followed. In 1839 he 
was appointed instructor in singing 
at Milan Conservatory, and in 1851 he 
taught composition there. In 1852 he 
became lecturer on history of music 
and aesthetics, and in 1872 director, 
succeeding Lauro Rossi. He was 
editor of the Gazzetta Musicale for 
some years, besides writing principi 
elementari di musica di Asioli, re- 
formati ed ampliati; an Atlas of 
Ancient Music; a Trottato d'estetica 
musicale; and Italian translations of 
musical works. His operas are La 
Fidanzeta di Lammermoor; Esmer- 
alda; I due sergenti, and I corsari. 

Meerts (marts), Lambert Joseph. 

Violinist and composer of valuable 
instructive music for the violin; born 
at Brussels. When sixteen he became 
a member of the theatre orchestra 
in Antwerp. He studied in Paris with 
Habeneck, Lafont and Baillot, then 
returned to Brussels and began to 
teach. In 1828 he commenced to play 
in the city orchestra; in 1832 he was 
made solo violinist, and in 1835 was 
appointed to teach violin at the local 
Conservatory. Among his instructive 
compositions for the violin is a series 
of duets for two violins, founded on 
rhythms from the symphonies of Bee- 
thoven. Some of his other writings 
are three books of etudes of the 
second, fourth and sixth position; 
three etudes in fugue and staccato; 
and Mecanisme du Violon. 

Mees (maz), Arthur. 1850- 

Musical conductor and writer on 
musical subjects; born at Columbus, 
Ohio. His early musical education 
was obtained at Concordia College, 
Fort Wayne, Ind., after which he 
went to Berlin, where he studied piano 
with Theodore Kullak, theory with 
C. F. Weitzmann and score-reading 
and conducting with Heinrich Dorn. 
He afterward studied at Leipsic. For 
six years he conducted the Cincinnati 
May Festival chorus. He was assist- 
ant conductor of an American opera 




company and, after 1896, assistant 
conductor of the Chicago Orchestra 
under Theodore Thomas and of the 
Chicago Orchestra chorus. He also 
conducted the New York Mendels- 
sohn Glee Club, the Albany Musical 
Association, the Orange Mendelssohn 
Society and the Newark Orpheus 
Society. From 1887 to 1896 he wrote 
analytical programs of the New York 
Philharmonic Society, and since 1896 
has written those of the Chicago 
Orchestra. He is the author of Choir 
and Choral Music, and of a set of 
Piano Studies on passages from 
important piano works. He succeeded 
Wallace Goodrich as conductor of the- 
celebrated Worcester Festivals. 

Mehlig (ma-likh), Anna. 1846- 

Gifted pianist; born at Stuttgart; 
received her early musical education 
in the Conservatory of her native 
town, later studying under Liszt at 
Weimar. Played in concert tours on 
the Continent, in England and Amer- 
ica. Made her London debut in 1866 
at a Philharmonic concert, and played 
there and at the Crystal Palace every 
season until 1869. She then came 
to America, but reappeared in Lon- 
don in 1875. Since her marriage to 
Herr Falk she has lived in Antwerp. 

Mehul (ma-iil), fitienne Nicolas. 


French writer of operas and songs; 
one of the last members of the old 
classical school of musicians in 
France, and a favorite composer of 
the great Napoleon. He was born 
at Givet, in Ardennes, where his 
father was a cook, and was able to 
grive him only a very limited edu- 
cation. The boy began organ lessons 
with an old blind musician, and made 
such good progress that he became 
the organist of the Recollets Con- 
vent at the age of ten. Later he 
studied with Hauser, who was organ- 
ist at the Convent of Lavaldieu, and, 
when he was fourteen, was made a 
deputy organist there. Went to Paris 
in 1778 and became a pupil of Ebel- 
mann, teaching and writing sonatas. 
In 1779 he saw the first performance 
of Gluck's Iphigenie en Tauride and 
was profoundly impressed by it. 
Gluck offered to give him some les- 
sons, and soon discovered that Mehul 
was not fitted for church composi- 
tion, which until that time had been 
his aim, and advised him to take up 

opera. His Cora et Alonzo was 
accepted by the Academy, but its 
appearance was postponed. Euphro- 
sine et Coradin was produced with 
excellent results at the Opera Comique 
in 1790. Then followed Stratonice, the 
romantic story of a prince who loved 
his father's betrothed; Phrosine et 
Melidor; Le Jeune Henri; and Ario- 
dant. By this time Mehul's musical 
reputation was firmly established, and 
in 1795 he was made a member of 
the Academy. During these years 
he had produced many works of lesser 
importance, among them compositions 
celebrating events of the Revolution 
and patriotic songs, as the famous 
Chant du Depart. This had caused 
him to be looked upon as a sort of 
musician of the people. In 1802 he 
was decorated with the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. His later works 
are LTrato, a satire on the Ital- 
ian opera buffa; Utal, a subject 
taken from Ossian, notable for the 
entire absence of violinns in the 
orchestral score; Les Aveugles de 
Tolede; and Joseph, considered his 
masterpiece. This last opera follows 
the simple story of the Bible and is 
entirely without women characters. 
It shows the influence of Gluck, but 
is original, having many beautiful pas- 
sages, the words being very appro- 
priate. Though generally using seri- 
ous subjects, the composer brought 
out a few comic operas. Among 
the best of them are Une Folie 
and Le Tresor Suppose. Mehul 
worked with unfailing industry, com- 
posing twenty-four operas in seven- 
teen years besides his other works, 
but he became a victim of consump- 
tion, and was obliged to retire to 
Provence. He died at Paris. The 
music of Mehul was representative 
of the revolutionary spirit of France 
in much the same way that the songs 
of Halfdan Kjerulf were characteris- 
tic of Norway's struggles for liberty. 
His directness and strong emotion 
are qualities in which this fact is 
exemplified. He is distinctly a fol- 
lower of Gluck, and still uses a form 
of his own. From a scientific stand- 
point he surpassed Gluck, but his dra- 
matic insight or instinct was inferior 
to that of Gluck. 

Meifred (me-fra), Joseph fimile. 1791- 


Horn virtuoso, who perfected the 
valve-horn; was born at Colmars, in 




the Lower Alps. At the Paris Con- 
servatory he studied under Dauprat, 
and was a professor from 1833 to 1865. 
He died in Paris, 1867. He perfected 
the valve-horn, on its introduction 
into France, and has written Methode 
de chor chromatique, avec trois pis- 
tons; Methode pour le cor a deux 
pistons; several horn duets; notice sur 
la fabrication des instruments de cui- 
ore en general et sur celle du cor 
chromatique en particulier; and de 
I'entendue de I'emploi et des res- 
sourses du cor en general et de ses 
corps de recharge en particulier. 

Meinardus (mi-nar'-doos), Ludwig 

Siegfried. 1827-1896. 

Composer and writer; born at 
Hooksiel, educated in the Gymnasium 
at Jever. His parents wished him to 
study theology, but his musical abil- 
ity was so pronounced that they 
finally consented to let him study 
music, and he began on the violoncello 
under the local teacher. In 1846 he 
entered the Leipsic Conservatory, 
leaving it after a year for private 
instruction from Riccius. In 1850 he 
went to Berlin to study with Marx, 
but for some reason the police would 
not allow him to remain, and he went 
to Liszt at Weimar. He conducted 
small theatrical orchestras at Erfurt 
and Nordhausen, and finally was 
established at Berlin in 1853. On 
completing his education he was made 
conductor of the Singakademie at 
Glogau, where he stayed until 1865, 
leaving to fill a position in the 
Dresden Conservatory. In 1874 he 
removed to Hamburg, where he 
worked as composer and critic on the 
Hamburger Korrespondent. In 1887 
he became organist at Bielefeld, 
where he died in 1896. Among his 
compositions are Gideon, Konig 
Salomo, Simon Petrus, Luther in 
Worms; two operas, Doktor Sassa- 
fras, and Bahnesa; the ballads, Frau 
Hitt, Die Nonne, Jung Baldurs Sieg, 
and Rolands Schwanenlied; besides 
some chamber-music. He has written 
a memoir of Mattheson and some col- 
lected criticisms. 

Melba (mel'-ba), Nellie. 1859- 

Probably the foremost prima donna 
of her time. Her maiden name was 
Nellie Mitchell, and she was born in 
Richmond, a suburb of Melbourne, 
Australia. Authorities differ as to 
the date of her birth. Her father 


was a Scotch conductor, who had been 
brought up strictly according to the 
principles of the Scotch Presbyterian 
Church; but he was fond of music, 
and is said to have played the violin 
and sung bass in the choir of his 
church. Her mother, who was of 
Spanish descent, was a good amateur 
pianist. Thei^ daughter early showed 
her love of music, and when she was 
six sang at a charity concert in the 
Melbourne Town Hall. She was sent 
to the Presbyterian Ladies' College 
at Melbourne, where she studied com- 
position and liarmony and took les- 
sons on piano, violin and organ, but 
gave no attention to her voice and 
held no hope of a public musical 
career because of her father's intense 
disapproval. In 1882 she married Cap- 
tain Charles Armstrong, son of Sir 
Archibald Armstrong, of Kings 
County, Ireland. It was not until 
after her marriage that she abandoned 
the idea of a career as a pianist and 
turned to singing. She sang three 
months in the Catholic Church of St. 
Francis at Melbourne, and, when her 
father became Australian Commis- 
sioner at the Colonial Exhibition in 
London in 1886, she accompanied him, 
determined to study singing. Going 
to Paris, she sought an interview 
with Madame Marchesi, who, on hear- 
ing her marvelous voice, its silvery 
purity and its wonderful natural trill, 
called to her husband that at last 
she had found a star. For twelve 
months pupil and teacher worked 
earnestly and carefully, becoming life 
friends during that time, and at the 
end of this short period the famous 
teacher pronounced her pupil ready 
for an operatic debut. In honor of 
her native city, her stage name, Melba, 
was chosen, and on October 12, 1887, 
she made her debut at the Theatre 
de la Monnaie at Brussels as Gilda 
in Rigoletto. Her supremely beautiful 
voice brought immediate success, 
although she was quite without expe- 
rience, especially as an actress. In 

1888 she appeared in Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor in Covent Garden, with only 
moderate success, owing to her lack 
of stage experience. In the spring of 

1889 she first sang at the Paris Opera, 
making her debut as Ophelie in Am- 
broise Thomas' opera, Hamlet. She 
studied the roles of Marguerite and 
Juliette under Gounod himself, who 
took the greatest delight in her, and 
listened rapturously to her rendering 



of his lovely music. June 15 she sang 
Romeo and Juliet at Covent Garden, 
completely captivating the London 
public, with whom she has increased 
in popularity ever since. In 1891 she 
went to St. Petersburg, where she 
received an ovation. The following 
year she made her debut in Milan under 
extraordinary circumstances. Jealous 
of the renown she had won in other 
cities before the verdict of La Scala 
had been given, the Milanese enter- 
tained a hostile feeling for her, which 
expressed itself even in threats against 
her life. Although unnerved by such 
preliminaries the diva made her 
appearance as Lucia, and with her 
first notes conquered her foes. She 
was given forty recalls, the final one 
lasting almost a half-hour, and the 
press extolled her singing in propor- 
tion to its former hostile criticism. 
In 1893 she appeared for' the first 
time in America, making her debut 
at Chicago. In 1902 she returned to 
Australia, after sixteen years' absence, 
and was giv«n an almost royal wel- 
come. Madame Melba is not a gifted 
actress, but the wonderful beauty of 
her voice has placed her at the very 
head of opera-singers. It has a com- 
pass of two and a half octaves, is 
remarkably even and brilliant, and 
in flexibility and ease of tone pro- 
duction is comparable to Madame 
Patti's. The roles in which she has 
most frequently appeared are Gilda; 
Ophelie; Juliette; Marguerite; Esme- 
ralda; Elsa; Violetta; Rosina, the 
Queen, in Les Huguenots; Michaela in 
Carmen; Xedda in Pagliacci; Helene 
in the opera of that name written for 
her by Saint-Saens; and Mimi in Puc- 
cini's La Boheme. As a woman 
Madame Melba is charming. Warm- 
hearted and generous, she has num- 
berless times given aid to young and 
unknown musicians and artists, not- 
able among whom is Puccini, whom 
she helped to a deserved recognition 
by insisting upon singing La Boheme 
against the wishes of her manager, 
bringing to the part so much appre- 
ciation and interpretative beauty that 
the role was soon recognized as one 
of her best. Among her fellow-musi- 
cians she is loved and honored for 
her beauty and dignity of character. 

Melgounov (Mel'-goo-nof), Julius 

Nicholaevich. 1846-1893. 

Russian composer and musical 
writer; born at Vetlouga, in Kos- 

troma; began the study of music as 
a pupil of Dreyschock. Made his 
debut as a pianist in St. Petersburg 
at the age of eighteen. Laroche taught 
him theory, then he entered the Con- 
servatory at Moscow, where he met 
Rudolph Westphal, at that time pro- 
fessor in the Katkov Lycee. He 
became greatly interested in West- 
phal's theories on rhythm, and accom- 
panied that artist as pianist on a 
concert tour undertaken to introduce 
these theories into Germany. With 
Westphal he has written a book 
applying the principles of rhythm to 
ten of Bach's fugues. He has also 
written several books on Russian 
folk-songs, and a treatise on Russian 
National Music. 

MeUon, Alfred, 1821-1867. 

Prominent English conductor and 
composer; was born at London. He 
first played the violin in the Birming- 
ham and other orchestras and then 
led the ballet at the Royal Italian 
Opera at Covent Garden, directed the 
music at the Haj'market and Adelphi 
Theatres, and managed the Pyne and 
Harrison English Opera Companies. 
He married the well-known actress, 
Miss Woolgar. In 1859 his opera, 
Victorine, was produced at Covent 
Garden. He afterwards conducted the 
Musical Society and the Promenade 
concerts at Covent Garden, and in 
1865 was made director of the Liver- 
pool Philharmonic Society. His works 
are Victorine, an opera; piano and 
instrumental music; songs and ballads. 

Membree (man-bra), Edmond. 1820- 


Dramatic composer and teacher; 
was born at Valenciennes, France. 
At the Paris Conservatory he studied 
piano under Alkan and Zimmermann, 
composition under Carafa and har- 
mony under Dourlen. He became a 
teacher of music, was made president 
of the Society of Musical Amateurs, 
and in 1876 was decorated with the 
cross of the Legion of Honor. Among 
his writings are his operas, L'esclave, 
Frangois Villon, La fille de I'orfevre, 
Les Parias, La Court echelle, Le 
moine rouge, Freyghor, and Colomba, 
which last two he did not finish. He 
has written also the two cantatas, 
Polytheme et Galatee, and Fingal, as 
well as the music of the choruses of 
.(Edipe roi; some ballads and chan- 



Mendel (men'-dcl), Hermann. 1834- 

Interesting as a writer of the most 
comprehensive musical lexicon which 
has yet been published; was born at 
Halle. At Leipsic he studied under 
Moscheles and Mendelssohn, and at 
Berlin under Wieprecht. He had a 
musical business in Berlin from 1862 
to 1868, besides contributing to such 
periodicals as The Echo, Der Ton- 
halle, the Berliner Montageszeitung 
and Theaterdiener. He was editor 
of Deutsche Musiker Zeitung, which 
published his short biography of Nico- 
lai. He wrote a biography of Meyer- 
beer, entitled G. Meyerbeer, his Life 
and Works, and a Volkliederbuch, and 
edited Mode's Opernbibiothek. He 
died in Berlin, before completing his 
dictionary, which in eleven volumes 
was edited by Dr. August Reimann. 

Mendelssohn (men'-d'l-z5n), Felix 
Bartholdy. 1809-1847. 

To this musician the world owes 
a double debt of gratitude, for, 
besides composing some of the finest 
music ever written and founding a 
great Conservatory, he revived the 
works of John Sebastian Bach and 
taught us to appreciate them. A 
grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, the 
Jewish philosopher, son of a wealthy 
father and a refined and cultured 
mother, he had every advantage that 
could foster his genius. He was born 
in Hamburg, but went to live in Ber- 
lin when about three years old. His 
mother taught Felix and his sister, 
Fanny, who was also very talented, 
and throughout her life his greatest 
friend. During a visit to Paris, in 
1816, the children were taught piano 
by Madam Bigot, and on their return 
to Berlin began their general educa- 
tion, including a thorough course of 
counterpoint and composition, with 
Zelter, through whom Mendelssohn 
formed his friendship with Goethe, 
which lasted until the latter's death. 
In 1822, on returning from a trip 
through Switzerland with his family, 
he again stopped at Weimar. At 
that time, only thirteen years old, 
Mendelssohn had already composed 
a Kyrie for two choirs, a Psalm with 
a grand double fugue for the Sing- 
akademie, a quartet for piano and 
strings, a number of symphonies and 
concertos, and had begun to write 
his piano quartet in C minor and com- 
pleted his fourth operetta, Die beiden 


Neffen, which was performed in his 
father's house on his fifteenth birth- 
day. He had unusual opportunities 
for perfecting himself in the art of 
conducting, because it was the cus- 
tom of his family and musical friends 
to give Sunday morning concerts in 
his father's house, which he always 
conducted and at which he often per- 
formed his own compositions. In 
December, 1824, Moscheles came to 
Berlin, and was persuaded to give 
him some lessons, although he recog- 
nized Mendelssohn as already his 
superior. This was the beginning of 
their lifelong friendship. In 1825 
he accompanied his father to Paris, 
where an interview with Cherubini 
convinced the elder Mendelssohn that 
Felix was justified in following a 
musical career. He met Moscheles 
again in Paris, and became acquainted 
with all the great musicians of that 
city. On his way home he visited 
Goethe and played the piano quartet 
in B minor, which he had dedicated 
to him. About this t^me the Men- 
delssohn family moved to a house on 
the outskirts of Berlin, which boasted 
large grounds and a summer-house in 
the garden capable of holding several 
hundred people. This was an ideal 
place for the Sunday morning con- 
certs. During this year Mendelssohn 
completed the opera, Camacho's Wed- 
ding, and wrote his Octet for strings, 
usually regarded as his first mature 
composition. During the summer of 
1826 he read Schlegel and Teick's 
translation of Shakespeare with his 
sisters, and thus inspired, he wrote 
the wonderful Midsummer Night's 
Dream Overture. After being several 
times played on the piano it was per- 
formed by an orchestra in the house 
in the garden. Its first public pro- 
duction occurred at Stettin in Febru- 
ary, 1827. Early this same year 
Camacho's Wedding was produced at 
Berlin, and favorably received, but, 
owing to the illness of the tenor and 
disputes and delays by the manager, 
it was postponed and never repeated. 
It was the only opera of Mendels- 
sohn's that was publicly produced. 
Mendelssohn was an earnest student 
of John Sebastian Bach, and during 
the winter of 1827-1828 formed a choir 
of sixteen voices to practise the 
Matthew Passion music. The results 
were so good that in 1829 a public 
performance of the music was given, 
which was repeated on Bach's birth- 




day, March 21. Thus Mendels,sohn, 
just one century after the composer's 
death, performed the greatest of ora- 
torios and revived interest in the fore- 
most musicians of the world. In 1829 
Mendelssohn made his first trip to 
England, the country where he was 
first appreciated, and to which he 
always referred with loving gratitude. 
On Midsummer Night he conducted 
the Midsummer Night's Dream Over- 
ture. He became the idol of the 
British public and was received with 
enthusiasm wherever he went. At the 
close of the London season he made 
an extended tour through Scotland and 
Ireland, which proved rich in inspira- 
tion and gave him material for The 
Hebrides Overture, The Scotch Sym- 
phony, and a Scotch Sonata. During 
that year he wrote a violin quartet in 
E fiat, an organ composition- in honor 
of his sister's wedding; the Scotch 
Sonata, and the Reformation Sym- 
phony to be played at the tercentennial 
celebration of the AugsburgConfession 
of Faith in 1830. In March, after 
a fortnight with Goethe and a month 
spent at Munich, he went to Italy. He 
visited all the principal cities, stayed 
some time in Rome and did not return 
home until the following September, 
when he made a walking trip from 
Interlaken to Munich. During this 
time in Italy he worked on Goethe's 
Walpurgisnacht, finished Fingal's 
Cave, and wrote his Scotch and Italian 
symphonies. While he was in Munich 
he composed and played his G minor 
concerto and received a commission 
to write an opera, which caused him 
to go to Diisseldorf to consult Immer- 
mann in regard to a libretto from The 
Tempest. During this time he laid 
the foundation for his future work 
there. His last visit to Paris, made 
during the latter part of this year, 
was embittered by the rejection of his 
Reformation Symphony as too pedan- 
tic by the orchestra, and saddened by 
the news of the death of Goethe. 
Although he had been warmly 
received by all the great musicians 
of the city, and his Midsummer 
Night's Dream music had been enthusi- 
astically applauded at a Conservatory 
concert, he was glad to return to 
England in April, 1832. The season 
that followed was a brilliant one. The 
Philharmonic Society performed the 
Hebrides Overture, he played his G 
minor concerto and he wrote the Ca- 
priccio bfillante in B, and published 

a four-hand arrangement of the Mid- 
summer Night's Dream Overture and 
the First Book of Songs Without 
Words. The spring of 1834 he went 
to London to conduct the Italian 
Symphony, finished that year for the 
Philharmonic Society,and on his return 
went to Diisseldorf to conduct the 
Lower Rhine Festival. This was so suc- 
cessful that the authorities asked 
Mendelssohn to take charge of their 
town music, an offer which he gladly 
accepted. He began by reforming 
the church-music; he introduced many 
improvements into the theatre, but 
found the work so uncongenial that 
after a short time he gave it up. 
During 1834 he wrote Infelice for the 
Philharmonic Society, completed Me- 
lusina, composed the Rondo Brillante 
in E flat and the Capriccio in A 
minor, and began work on St. Paul, 
a commission from the Ciicilien-Ver- 
ein of Frankfort. After conducting 
the Lower Rhine Festival for 1835 he 
went to Leipsic, where he had accepted 
the position of leader of the Gewand- 
haus concerts. Considered by many 
the foremost of all conductors, he 
was especially fitted to this work, and 
brought the concerts to a degree of 
excellence never before reached. The 
death of his father saddened this win- 
ter, but in spite of that he continued 
to work very hard, completing St. 
Paul and revising the Melusina Over- 
ture. The following May he again 
conducted the Lower Rhine Festival 
at Diisseldorf, then went to Frank- 
fort to take charge of the Cacilien- 
Verein. During this summer he met 
Mile. Cecile Jeanrenaud, who became 
his wife in March, 1837. This mar- 
riage proved a very happy one and 
did not at all detract from his work, 
as may be seen by the fact that even 
on the honeymoon he wrote a num- 
ber of compositions. During August 
of that year he conducted the ora- 
torio, St. Paul, at the Birmingham 
Festival. During the next three 
years most of his work was done in 
connection with the Gewandhaus con- 
certs. He conducted the Lower Rhine 
Festival at Cologne in 1838 and spent 
his vacation at Berlin writing a string 
quartet in D and a sonata in F for 
piano and violin. During the follow- 
ing winter he finished the overture, 
Ruy Bias, composed the 114th Psalm, 
and worked on the oratorio, Elijah. 
He conducted the Festival at Diis- 
seldorf, and spent the following sum- 



mer at Frankfort writing some of 
his finest songs during this time. At 
the Birmingham Festival of 1840 he 
gave Lobgesang, composed for a fes- 
tival in honor of the discovery of 
printing, held at Leipsic during that 
year, and during the following winter 
he produced it at a Gewandhaus con- 
cert and at a special concert to the 
King of Saxony. 

In 1840 the King of Prussia founded 
an Academy of Fine Arts at Berlin 
and appointed Mendelssohn director 
of the musical department. This was 
not a welcome appointment to the 
composer because he dreaded court 
restriction and disliked returning to 
Berlin to live. He did not remove 
his family from Leipsic and returned 
there often, on one occasion to con- 
duct his Scotch Symphony at a Ge- 
wandhaus concert. He directed the 
Rhine Festival at Diisseldorf that 
year, and in the spring went to Eng- 
land to conduct his Scotch Symphony 
at a Philharmonic concert. The po- 
sition at Berlin was more intoler- 
able than before; plans for the Acad- 
emy had fallen through, and as a 
substitute the King proposed giving 
him charge of a select choir and 
orchestra which he should organize 
and permission to live wherever he 
wished. He was given the title of 
General Music Director to the King 
of Prussia, and in consequence had 
to resign the position he held as 
chapelmaster to the King of Saxony. 
During an interview with the King of 
Saxony regarding this resignation he 
persuaded that monarch to devote a 
legacy left to the state to the found- 
ing of a musical conservatory at Leip- 
sic. Such a project had always been 
the work nearest his heart, and he 
started at once to organize this insti- 
tution. While at Leipsic on this work 
he set to music Racine's Athalie, 
CEdipus Coloneus, and The Tempest 
for the King of Prussia. In Decem- 
ber, 1842, he lost his mother, but, as 
in his former bereavement, hard work 
proved his solace. In January, 1843, 
the prospectus of a conservatory 
appeared, bearing the names of Men- 
delssohn, Becker, David Hauptmann 
and Schumann, In April the great 
Bach monument opposite the Thomas 
School was unveiled, and he conducted 
a concert composed wholly of Bach's 
compositions. Thus in the same year 
two of his dearest wishes were accom- 
plished. After a quiet summer at 


Leipsic he resumed his duties at Ber- 
lin in August, conducting Antigone 
and the Midsummer Night's Dream 
music at Potsdam. Seeing that he 
would have to stay in Berlin during 
the winter, he arranged to have Fer- 
dinand Hiller conduct the Gewand- 
haus concerts. In February he 
received an invitation to conduct the 
last six concerts of the London Phil- 
harmonic Society and gladly accepted. 
After the coldness of Berlin the 
enthusiastic reception he was given 
in London was very grateful. He 
played at concerts of the Sacred Har- 
mony Society and at the Society of 
British Musicians, and everywhere 
was greeted with an ovation. After 
this and a summer spent near Frank- 
fort with his wife and children return 
to Berlin was out of the question. 
He obtained a release from the King, 
then returned to Frankfort to rest 
until September. During this time he 
completed six organ sonatas; a trio 
in C minor; a string quartet in B 
flat; and the sixth book of Songs 
Without Words. 

In September, 1845, Mendelssohn 
returned to Leipsic. His first appear- 
ance at the Gewandhaus received an 
ovation. His work at the Conserva- 
tory was a source of unfailing inspira- 
tion to his students. He taught no 
regular classes, but his lectures, 
enlivened by the fire of his genius, 
inspired every one present. He talked 
sometimes on_ composition, some- 
times on technical matter, often illus- 
trating by brilliant playing on piano 
and organ, of which he was the first 
master of his time, and often drawing 
on his beloved Bach for suggestion or 
example. His marvelous memory was 
stored with the works of the masters 
and his resources were unfailing. 
Among other things, he organized an 
orchestra among the students of the 
Conservatory, which played at the 
Gewandhaus, and which has since 
become famous as one of the finest 
orchestras in Germany. Beside all 
his work at the Gewandhaus and the 
Conservatory, he worked on Elijah, 
and during 1846 conducted the Lower 
Rhine Festival, composing Lauda Sion 
for this occasion and, for the first 
festival of the German-Flemish Asso- 
ciation which he conducted at Cologne, 
arranged a Festsang on Schiller's An 
die Kunstler. He went to Birming- 
ham to conduct Elijah, which he had 
sadly overworked himself to finish, 




and instead of resting on his return 
set to work on some compositions 
for the King of Prussia. His last 
visit to England was in April, 1847, 
when he went to London and con- 
ducted four performances of Elijah 
with the Sacred Harmony Society. 
Soon after his return he received news 
of the death of his beloved sister, 
Fanny. Added to overwork this pros- 
trated him, and was a direct cause of 
his death. He retired to Switzerland 
until September, then, after conduct- 
ing Elijah at Berlin and Vienna, 
returned home. But a sight of his 
sister's home in Berlin had brought 
his grief freshly before him, and he 
never recovered his spirits. He wrote 
the string quartet in F minor, an 
andante and a scherzo in E major 
and A minor, and some parts of an 
opera, Lorely, and an oratorio, 
Christus. When apparently busy with 
plans and work for the future he 
was taken ill late in October, 1847, 
and died on November 4. For the 
great funeral given him by the Con- 
servatory, Moscheles arranged one of 
the Songs Without Words as a fu- 
neral march, and it was played by the 
orchestra of the Gewandhaus when 
his body was being taken into the 


Bartholdy, P. M., ed. — Letters of Felix 
Mendelssohn Bartholdy. 

Benedict, Jules. — Sketch of the life 
and works of the late Felix Men- 
delssohn Bartholdy. 

Blackburn, Vernon. — Mendelssohn. 

Devrient, Eduard. — Meine Ermner- 
unger an Felix Mendelssohn. 

Hensel, Sebastian. — Die Familie Men- 
delssohn. 3 volumes. 

Hiller, Ferdinand. — Mendelssohn. 

Lampadius, W. A. — Felix Mendels- 
sohn Bartholdy. 

Rockstro, W. S. — Mendelssohn. 

Stratton, S. S. — Mendelssohn. 

Wolflf, Ernst. — Felix Mendelssohn 

Mengal (man-gal), Martin Joseph. 


Composer, conductor and player of 
the horn; born in Ghent. He began 
his musical education with his father, 
and at the age of twelve is said to 
have written compositions for the 
horn. Entering the Conservatory of 
Paris in 1804, he studied the horn 
with Duvernoy, harmony with Catel 
and composition under Reicha. He 

joined the band of the Imperial Guard 
and went through the Austrian cam- 
paign, 1805, and the Prussian campaign 
in 1806. In 1807 he joined the orches- 
tra of the Odeon Theatre at Paris, 
changing in 1812 to that of the Fey- 
deau. In 1824 he assumed the man- 
agement of a theatre at Ghent, but 
when this proved unsuccessful he be- 
came conductor, filling a similar posi- 
tion at Antwerp until 1832, and at 
The Hague from 1832 to 1835. He 
was appointed director of the Con- 
servatory of Ghent in 1835. Among 
his writings are two horn concertos, 
duets for horn and harp; fantasias for 
horn and piano; besides his operas, 
Une nuit au chateau; L'ile de Babi- 
lary, and Les Infideles. 

Mengozzi (men-god'-ze), Bernardo. 


Italian tenor opera-singer and com- 
poser; born in Florence. Began his 
musical studies in his native city, and 
later went to Venice, where he studied 
under Pasquale Potenza, then cantor 
of St. Mark's. In 1785 he sang in 
oratorio at Naples with Signora 
Benini, who later became his wife, 
and in 1786 they went to England. In 
1787 he went Ito Paris, where he sang 
before Marie Antoinette and became 
associated with Mandini and Viganoni 
of the Italian Opera Company of the 
Theatre de Monsieur. He stayed in 
Paris after the Revolution, and 
in 1795 became professor of singing in 
the Conservatory. He also wrote sev- 
eral operettas for the Feydeau and 
Montausier Theatres. He died in 
Paris before he finished his most 
important work, A Method of Singing 
for the Conservatory, which has been 
edited by Langle. 

Menter (men'-ter), Joseph. 1808- 

Well-known virtuoso on the violon- 
cello; born at Deutenkofen, Bavaria; 
began his musical education^ on the 
violin, but later studied the violoncello 
with Moralt at Munich. In 1829 he 
became a member of the orchestra 
of the Prince of Hohenzollern at 
Heckingen, but in 1833 resigned his 
position and took a place in the band 
of the Royal Opera at Munich. He 
became well known by his concert 
tours through Austria, Holland, Ger- 
many, Belgium and England. He 
composed several fantasies and arias 
with orchestral accompaniments. 





Menter, Sophie. 1848- 

Daughter of Joseph Menter; a piano 
player and teacher; born at Munich. 
Showed her musical ability very early, 
studying first with Schonchen, later 
with Leonhard at Munich Conserva- 
tory, then at the age of thirteen taking 
private lessons of Niest, _ In 1863 she 
made her debut, and in 1867 she 
appeared at Frankfort, where she so 
impressed Tausig that he prevailed 
upon her to come to Leipsic as his 
pupil. In 1869 she began studying 
with Liszt, who was much interested 
in her, and contributed much to her 
musical education. In 1872 she mar- 
ried David Popper, a violoncellist, 
but was divorced in 1886. She was 
pianist at the Court of Prince of 
Hohenzollern and the Emperor of 
Austria, and from 1883 to 1887 she 
was professor at the Conservatory at 
St. Petersburg. She appeared in Eng- 
land in 1881. She is noted for her 
wonderful style and technique. 

Mercadante (mer-ka-dan'-te), Fran- 
cesco Saverio. 1795-1870. 
Composer, who ranks high in the 
list of Italian opera-writers; born at 
Altamura, near Bari. When only 
twelve years old he was sent to the 
College of St. Sebastian at Naples, 
where under Zingarelli he studied 
composition, flute and violin, and after 
a time was made the leader of the 
orchestra. For about six years he 
composed only instrumental music, 
but, on being dismissed from the col- 
lege, he turned to dramatic composi- 
tion. In 1818 appeared his first work, 
a cantata for the Teatro del Fondo, 
and in 1819 his L'Apoteosi d'Ercole 
was produced at San Carlo Theatre 
with gratifying success. He com- 
posed industriously, producing the 
opera buffa, Violenza e costanzo, and 
Elisa e Claudio by which his reputa- 
tion was established. He composed 
Andronico for the Venetian Carnival. 
The performance of some of his works 
at Vienna brought him into favor with 
the Viennese. In 1827 he went to 
Spain, returning to Naples in 1831. 
He was appointed to succeed Pietro 
Generali as maestro di cappella of the 
Novara Cathedral in 1833. In 1836 he 
went to Paris to superintend the pro- 
duction of his opera, I Briganti, and 
in 1837 II Giuramento was performed 
at Milan. The opera buffa, I due 
illustri rivali, produced in 1838, intro- 
duced an innovation in the use of 

brass instruments to mark the accent 
of the accompaniment, which proved 
a disagreeable characteristic of the 
instrumentation of Italian Opera of a 
later period. He was made director 
of music at the Cathedral at Lanciano 
in 1839, and in 1840 director of the 
Naples Conservatory. Owing to the 
loss of an eye at Novara, he became 
totally blind in 1862, and had to dic- 
tate his compositions. He died at 
Naples eight years later. Mercadante 
was a member of the Institute of 
France and the Italians ranked him 
very high as a dramatic writer. He 
is one of the best of the composers of 
the school headed by Rossini and is 
usually named with Bellini and Doni- 
zetti. He produced litanies; canta- 
tas; psalms; vespers; about twenty 
masses; a hymn to Garibaldi in 1861, 
and one to Rossini in 1866; funeral 
symphonies to Bellini, Donizetti, Ros- 
sini and Pacini; II lamento di Bardo, 
after he became blind, Messa solenne; 
Le sette parole di Nostro Signore; 
La Rimembrance; II Lamento dell' 
Arabo; besides his operas, which num- 
bered about sixt3^ Of these, I Bri- 
ganti, produced at Paris, and Elisa e 
Claudio and II Giuramento, both given 
at La Scala in Milan, are usually con- 
sidered his best. 

Mereaux (ma-ro), Jean Amedee Le- 
froid de. 1803-1874. 

Grandson of Jean Nicolas Lefroid, 
son of Joseph; was a pianist, teacher 
and musical writer. He was born in 
Paris and began his piano training at 
the age of ten under Reicha. He 
appeared successfully in concert in 
Paris and London. In 1835 he began 
to teach in Rouen, remaining there 
until his death. His most important 
work is his collection of clavecin 
music, Les Clavecinistes de 1637 a 
1790, which he published in 1867. 

Mereaux, Jean Nicolas Amedee Le- 
froid de. 1745-1797. 
Organist and dramatic composer; 
is best known for his two oratorios, 
Esther and Samson. He studied 
under French and Italian masters, 
and was made organist of the church 
of St. Jacques du Haut Pas in Paris. 
Among his works are his operas La 
Ressource comique; Le Retour de 
Tendresse; Laurette; Alexandre aux 
Indes; Le Duel comique; CEdipe et 
Jocaste, and Fabius. His ode on the 
birth of the Dauphin is well known. 



Mereaux, Joseph Nicolas Lefroid de. 


Son of Jean Nicolas Lefroid. French 
organist and pianist; born in Paris. 
He studied music with his father. He 
was professor in the royal school of 
singing and subsequently professor of 
piano and organist of the Protestant 
Temple of Oratory. He is said to have 
played the organ at the Feast of the 
Federation in 1789. Some of his com- 
positions are Cantata for the Coro- 
nation of Napoleon I., with full 
orchestra accompaniment; sonatas and 
fantasies for piano; nocturne for piano 
and violin; some sonatas for piano 
and violin. 
Meriel (ma-ri-el), Paul. 1818- 

Violinist and composer; born at 
Mondontheau, Loire-et-Cher. As a 
boy he supported himself by violin- 
playing. He was a student with 
Alessandro Napolepne at Lisbon and 
with Somma at Perpignau. He became 
conductor of a traveling orchestra 
which played at Amiens, where he 
produced his comic opera Cornelius 
I'argentier. In 1847 he began teach- 
ing in Toulouse, where later he 
became director of the Conservatory. 
He was later made Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. He produced sev- 
eral comic operas, Les Precieuses rid- 
icules, Le Retour au pays, L'Orpheon 
en voyage, Les Paques de la Reine, 
as well as his symphony, Le Tasse; 
his dramatic oratorio, Cain; and his 
grand opera, I'Armorique. 

Merk (mark), Joseph. 1795-1852. 

Austrian violoncellist; born in 
Vienna. As a child he studied sing- 
ing and the violin, but later under 
Schindlocker he took up the violon- 
cello and soon became very proficient. 
He traveled about for a few years, 
finally obtaining the position of first 
violoncellist at the Opera at Vienna 
in 1818. In 1823 he was made pro- 
fessor at the Conservatory then 
founded, and in 1834 he became vir- 
tuoso of chamber-music to the Em- 
peror. He wrote six studies for the 
violoncello, which are considered val- 
uable contributions to the literature 
for that instrument, besides concer- 
tos; polonaises; variations; fantasies; 
and twenty exercises. 

Merkel (mar-kel), Gustav Adolf. 

One of the best organists and organ 
composers of the Nineteenth Century; 

born at Oberoderwitz, Saxony. He 
studied the organ under Johann 
Schneider and counterpoint under 
Julius Otto, and was also a pupil of 
Schumann and Reisiger. In 1858 he 
was made organist of the Waisenhaus- 
kirche at Dresden; in 1860 of the 
Kreuzkirche, and in 1864 he was 
appointed Court organist. From 1867 
to 1873 he directed the Singakademie 
at Dresden, and in 1861 he became a 
professor at the Dresden Conserva- 
tory. The number of his composi- 
tions reached one hundred and eighty 
and were of such very high standard 
as to prove him a true disciple of the 
lofty Bach. Among his writings are 
a large number of fugues, preludes, 
variations, fantasies, and sonatas; also 
some compositions for organ, violin, 
and violoncello. 

Mermet (mar-ma), Auguste. 1815-1888. 

Dramatic composer; son of a 
French general; abandoned his mili- 
tary profession and turned his atten- 
tion to music. He studied the flute 
and under Halevy and Lesueur took 
up composition. After struggling for 
fifteen years he succeeded in getting 
his opera, Roland a Roncevaux, per- 
formed, but it proved only moderately 
successful, being commonplace musi- 
cally and interesting only because of 
the martial character of its libretto. 
He then wrote Joan of Arc which 
was not so well received as his other 
opera had been. In 1865 he received 
cross of the Legion of Honor. Be- 
sides the operas mentioned he has 
written La Banniere du roi and Pais, 
and other French compositions, also 
an opera-bouflfe entitled Pierrot pendu. 

Mersenne (mer-sen'), Marie. 1588- 

Franciscan monk; interesting as the 
author of a rare and voluminous his- 
tory of music, now very valuable 
because of the specimens of compo- 
sitions it contains, also because of 
its rarity. He lived in Paris and is 
said to have known Descartes. Among 
his works are his curious Preludes de 
I'Harmonie Universelle with its quaint 
discussion of the horoscope necessary 
to produce the perfect musician and 
his L'Harmonie Universelle, which 
appeared in 1636 and which con- 
tained over fifteen hundred pages. 

Mertens (mar'-tens), Joseph. 1834- 

Flemish violinist and dramatic com- 
poser; was born in Antwerp, where 




he became first violin at the opera, 
and teacher of violin at the local 
conservatory. Between 1878 and 1879 
he conducted the Flemish Opera in 
Brussels. Some of his one-act operas 
which proved popular are De zwarte 
Capitan; Les trois etudiants; L' ego- 
iste; De Vergissing and De Vriger. 
Besides these he wrote some instru- 
mental music, some romances and 
sacred choruses. 

Mertke (mert'-ke), Eduard. 1833-1895. 

Pianist, teacher and composer; was 
born at Riga. He studied theory 
under Agthe and piano under S. von 
Liitzau, and is said to have played 
before the public at the age of ten. 
In 1850 he played in concert in St. 
Petersburg and Moscow. His ver- 
satility is shown by the fact that 
from 1853 until 1859 he was first 
violinist at the Gewandhaus at Leip- 
sic. He made a piano concert tour 
in 1859, then taught in Wesselung, 
Lucerne, Freiburg and Mannheim 
until 1869, when he became teacher 
of piano at Cologne Conservatory. 
He has written an opera, Lisa, oder 
die Sprache des Herzens; a cantata 
called Des Liedes Verklarung; some 
piano arrangements of Mendelssohn's, 
vVeber's and Hummel's concerted 
pieces; and some Russian folk-songs 
beside editing Chopin's works. 

Merulo (ma-roo'-l6), Claudio da 
Correggio. 1533-1604. 

Born at Correggio, Italy. He re- 
ceived a good musical education, 
probably at Venice or at Brescia, and 
at the age of twenty-four he became 
second organist at St. Mark's, defeat- 
ing nine other candidates for the post, 
and succeeding Annibale Padovano 
as first organist in 1566. The same 
year he became a publisher, but was 
not successful and soon abandoned 
this venture. In 1579 he began to 
write rnotets and madrigals, but this, 
too, failed him. He was associated 
with such men as Willaert, Zarlino, 
A. Gabrielli, Padovano and Costanzo 
Porta, and the greatness of his organ 
playing made him well known to the 
musicians of Italy, Germany and 
Northern Europe. In 1584 he went 
to Mantua, then to Parma in 1586, 
where he became organist to Duke 
Ranuccio Farnese at La Steccata. 
He was knighted by the Duke and 
filled^ his position as organist until 
he died at the age of seventy-one. 


His work is valuable historically, par- 
ticularly his organ pieces, which com- 
pare favorably with the compositions 
of German organists of that period. 
Of his compositions which exist to- 
day, six vocal pieces are in Torchi's 
L'Arte Musical in Italia, in volume 
one, and four organ toccatas in vol- 
ume three. 

Merz (marts), KarL 1834-1890. 

Teacher and writer on musical sub- 
jects; born at Bensheim, near Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main. He received some 
lessons from his father who was or- 
ganist at Bensheim and from F. 
Kunkel, and when only eight or nine 
years old played the violin in a quar- 
tet club at the home of Baron Roden- 
stein. When eleven years old he 
took his father's place as organist, 
continuing to fill it until he left Bens- 
heim to go to school. After gradu- 
ating from college in 1853 he taught 
school near Bingen-on-the-Rhine until 
1854, when he came to America. 
Through J. H. Bonawitz he obtained 
a position in an orchestra in Phila- 
delphia, and later became organist in 
the Sixth Presbyterian Church, also 
serving in the capacity of critic on a 
German musical journal headed by 
Wolsieflfer. In 1856 he went to Lan- 
caster County, Pennsylvania, to teach 
in a seminary, and in 1859 he went 
south, remaining until 1861, when he 
settled at Oxford, Ohio, and became 
professor of music at the Oxford 
Female College. In 1868 he began 
his literary career, contributing musi- 
cal hints to Brainard's Musical 
World, and in 1873 becoming editor 
of that magazine. In 1882 he moved 
to Wooster, Ohio, becoming professor 
of music in Wooster University. His 
works consist of operettas, sacred 
pieces, choruses and songs, also dance 
music, and pieces for violin and vio- 
loncello. His instructive works are 
Modern Method for Reed Organ, 
Karl Alerz Piano Method, and Har- 
mony and Musical Composition. 

Messager (mes-sa-zha), Andre Charles 
Prosper. 1853- 

Contemporary French composer and 
operatic conductor of distinguished 
ability; born at Montlu(;on, Allier. 
After studying for some time at the 
Niedermeyer School in Paris, he 
went to the School of Religious Music 
to take composition and harmony 
lessons of Camille Saint-Saens. In 

1874 he became organist at Saint- 
Sulpice, and he afterward was organ- 
ist at St.-Paul-St.-Louis and maitre de 
chapelle at Sainte-Marie des Batign- 
olles. In 1876 he was awarded gold 
medal by the Societe des Composi- 
teurs for a symphony in four move- 
ments which fidouard Colonne di- 
rected at the Chatelet concerts, and 
his cantata for chorus and orchestra 
entitled Promethee enchaine won 
second Premier prize at a Concours 
de la Ville de Paris. In 1883 he made 
his debut as an operatic composer by 
finishing Frangois les Bas-bleus which 
Firnini Bernicot left incomplete at 
his death. Two years later his own 
three-act operetta, La Fauvette du 
Temple was successfully produced at 
the Folies-Dramatiques and during 
that same year came his first pro- 
nounced success, La Bearnaise, a 
three-act operetta, which was intro- 
duced at the Bouflfes Parisiens, and in 
October, 1886, was given at the 
Prince of Wales Theatre, in London, 
with Marie Tempest and Florence St. 
John in leading roles. The three-act 
comic opera, La Basoche, which ap- 
peared at the Opera Comique in 1890 
was immensely successful, and in 1891 
•was translated into English by Sir 
Augustus Harris and Eugene Oudin, 
and given at the Royal English Opera, 
with Esther Pallister, Ben Davies 
and David Bispham, then a debutant, 
as the chief singers. La Basoche is 
delightfully tuneful and is written in 
the brilliant, sparkling style charac- 
teristic of Parisian comic opera. His 
next interesting opera was a lyric 
comedy on the subject, Madame 
Crysantheme from Pierre Loti's novel, 
and this appeared in the Theatre 
Lyrique in 1893. Other composi- 
tions to be performed during that 
j'ear were the ballet, Scaramouche 
and the operetta. Miss Dollar, both 
played at the Nouveau Theatre. In 
1894 he wrote Mirette for the Savoy 
Theatre, London; in 1895 he com- 
posed Le Chevalier d'Harmontel, 
given at the Opera Comique; in the 
following year Les Petites Michus 
was played at Bouflfes Parisiens.. In 
1898 Carre gave him the position of 
conductor of orchestra at the Opera 
Comique and Veronique was played 
at the BouflFes Parisiens. Une Aven- 
ture de la Guimart was performed at 
the Opera Comique in 1900 and Les 
Dragons de I'lmperatrice came out at 
the Varietes in 1905. In 1901 Mes- 


sager succeeded Maurice 


Grau as 
artistic director of Royal Opera at 
Covent Garden and up to the present 
time, 1908, still fills that position. 
He is married to Hope Temple, a 
popular song-writer. 

Metastasio (ma-tas-ta'-zi-6), Pietro 
Antonio Domenico Bonaventura. 

Italian poet, who won glory for his 
country in her time of deepest deg- 
radation, and distinction for him- 
self, by perfecting the musical drama, 
invented by Zeno, and raising it to a 
recognized literary form. He was 
born at Rome and was the son of 
Trapassi, a very humble man in the 
service of the Pope, who did his best 
to educate his precocious child. The 
boy was adopted by a famous lawyer, 
Gravina, who heard him singing in 
the street. He changed his name to 
Mestastasio the Greek form of Tra- 
passi, and had him thoroughly in- 
structed in literature, philosophy and 
the law. Gravina's death in 1718 left 
him in fairly good circumstances, but 
through his own extravagance and 
the schemes of his rivals he lost all 
he had and was obliged to go to 
Naples to escape his creditors. There 
he found employment with a lawyer, 
Castagnola, who strictly forbade him 
to have anything to do with literary 
pursuits. Secretly he produced a 
masque, The Garden of Hesperides, 
which attracted the attention of the 
singer, Maria Bulgarini, called La 
Romanina, who at once became his 
patroness and took him into her 
household. His first great success, 
the production of his Deserted Dido 
in 1734, was largely due to her per- 
formance. The piece was almost a 
parody on Virgil, but the public was 
wildly enthusiastic over it and the 
receipts from it were sufficient to pay 
Metastasio's Roman debts. In 1729 
Emperor Charles VI. sent for him 
to take Zeno's place as Court poet at 
Vienna and he went after bidding 
farewell to La Romanina, who wished 
to follow him. She died suddenly 
soon afterwards, possibly by some 
unnatural means, for Metastasio had 
soon become attached to Countess 
Althan at Vienna. His career as 
Court poet was brilliant and he re- 
mained a favorite showered with 
honors until the close of his romantic 
life, the only interruption of his work 
being the Austrian war of succession 



in 1740. On his death-bed he was 
given the blessing of Pope Pius VI., 
then visiting at the Court of Joseph 
II. As a man Metastasio was selfish 
but had an intensely passionate and 
emotional nature, and as a poet he 
united the playwright's cleverness of 
Scribe and a wonderful poetic power, 
which made his verses veritable 
melody. His characters were weak 
and artificial, and his drarnas seem 
lifeless now, because of their classic 
form. He was a musical composer 
and singer as well as a poet. Of his 
twenty-nine dramas, the best are 
Olimpiade; Achille in Sciro; Clem- 
enza di Tito, set to music by Mozart; 
AtiUo Regolo; Artaserse; Temistocle; 
and Zenobia. He also wrote oratorios, 
cantatas, pieces of circumstance, son- 
nets and elegies. His opera texts 
have been set to music by Gluck, 
Hasse, Porpora, Handel, Jommelli, 
Mozart and others. 

Methfessel (mat'-fes-sel), Albert 
Gottlieb. 1785-1869. 

German song-writer and conductor; 
was born at Stadtilm, in Thuringia, 
and died at Heckenbeck. He played 
at the Court of Rudolstadt in 1810, 
was musical director at Hamburg in 
1822, and in 1832 became Court 
chapelmaster at Brunswick, a posi- 
tion which he held for ten years, 
when he retired on a pension. He is 
chiefly known for his German stu- 
dent songs, as Rheinweinhed, 
Deutscher Ehrenpreis and Krieger's 
Abschied. He composed an opera, Der 
Prinz von Basra; an oratorio, Das 
befreite Jerusalem; piano-music and 
collections of songs. 

Metra (ma-tra), Jules Louis Olivier. 

Composer of popular French dance- 
music; born at Rheims. His father 
was an actor and he also played 
juvenile parts. He studied music with 
Edmond Roche and in several small 
theatres of Paris he played on the 
violin, violoncello and doublebass 
viol. From 1849 to 1854 he studied 
harmony with Elwart at the Paris 
Conservatory, then composition with 
Ambroise Thomas. He conducted 
orchestra at the Beaumarchais Thea- 
tre and afterward at the dance halls, 
Bal Robert, Mabille, Chateau des 
Fleurs, Athnee musicale, filysee 
Montmartre, Casino-Cadet and Bal 
Frascati; he also conducted for the 


masked balls of the Opera Comique 
and the opera balls and the Theatre 
de la Monnaie, Brussels, and for sev- 
eral years was conductor at the 
Folies-Bergeres. Among his composi- 
tions are his waltzes, La Vague, Les 
Roses, and Le tour du monde; 
mazurkas; quadrilles; and polkas, as 
well as eighteen operettas and ballet- 
divertissements, which he produced at 
the Folies-Bergeres and the ballet 
Yedda, which he brought out at the 
opera. He died in Paris. 

Mettenleiter (met'-ten-li-ter), Johann 
Georg. 1812-1858. 

Organist, choirmaster and musical 
composer; born at St. Ulrich, near 
Ulm, where later he became choir- 
master and organist. He is known 
chiefly on account of his scholarly 
church compositions of which he pub- 
lished Manuale breve cantionum ac 
precum and Enchiridion chorale, both 
with organ accompaniments; and 
95th Psalm for six male voices. In 
manuscript he has left some masses, 
two Misereres, a Stabat Mater and 
an Ave Maria for double chorus. His 
brother has written a biography, en- 
titled Johann Georg Mettenleiter, ein 

Metzdorff (mets'-dorf), Richard. 1844- 

Composer of vocal and instrumental 
music; born at Danzig; studied in 
Berlin under Geyer, Dehn and Kiel. 
He became chapelmaster of orches- 
tras at Berlin, Nuremburg, Bruns- 
wick, Hanover and Diisseldorf. 
Among his compositions are his 
opera, Rosamund, produced at Wei- 
mar, 1875, and Haybart und Signe 
which appeared in 1893. He also 
wrote three symphonies; an overture 
to King Lear; the ballad, Frau Alice, 
for contralto, chorus and orchestra; 
several collections of song; trios for 
piano and strings; sonatas and other 
pieces for piano; two symphonies, 
one in F, one in D minor. 

Meyer (mi'-er), Gustav. 1859- 

Composer and conductor; born at 
Konigsberg, Prussia; began his musi- 
cal education in his native town under 
Robert Schwalm. From 1880 to 1884 
he studied with Reinecke and Jadas- 
sohn in the Conservatory at Leipsic. 
He was chapelmaster at Leignitz, 
Gorlitz, Eisenach, Dorpat and Bres- 
lau, where he stayed five years, then 
at Stettin. In 1895 he became con- 
ductor at the Leipsic City Theatre, 




His compositions include the three- 
act operetta, Der Hochstappler; the 
ballet pantomime, Kiinstlerfest; the 
four-act farce with songs, Aus beweg- 
ter; the ballet, Elektra, and many 
charming songs. 

Meyer, Jenny. 1834-1894. 

A concert-singer and excellent 
teacher; was born in Berlin, where 
she taught singing from 1865 at 
Stern's Conservatory, which she pur- 
chased and became directoress of in 
1888. She died in Berlin. 

Meyer, Leopold von. 1816-1883. 

Pianist of brilliant and showy man- 
ner of playing; born at Baden, near 
Vienna. He studied with Czerny and 
Fischof, making his professional 
debut in 1835. Most of his life was 
spent in extensive concert tours 
through Europe and America. During 
his tour of Amerka, from 1845 to 
1847, he gave concerts in New York 
at the Broadway Tabernacle and he 
played in Boston where he aroused 
great enthusiasm in the young pian- 
ist, William Alason, who heard him 
during that engagement. He is said 
to have preferred his own light and 
effective compositions to the less 
showy works of the classicists and 
was known as a brilliant rather than 
an accurate player. Of his composi- 
tions the best known is his waltz. 
Souvenir de Vienne. 

Meyer, Waldemer. 1853- 

Violin virtuoso of distinguished 
ability; was born in Berlin. His talent 
was so remarkable that the great 
Joachim himself instructed him for 
four years receiving no remuneration 
for his teaching. He obtained for 
Meyer a position as first violin in 
the Berlin Court band, where he 
played from 1873 to 1881. He made 
a concert tour with Pauline Lucca, 
and later alone toured France, Eng- 
land, Belgium and Germany, every- 
where achieving a brilliant success. 

Meyer-Helmund (mi'-er hel-moont), 

Erik. 1861- 

German opera and song-writer; 
born at Petersburg. Began the study 
of music with his father, then at Ber- 
lin took up composition with Kiel and 
singing with Stockhausen. He has 
been a very successful concert-singer 
and has composed a large number of 
delicate and charming songs. He 
took up his permanent residence in 


St. Petersburg in 1900, giving a song 
recital there at which Herr Gorski 
sang his songs and compositions. He 
has written two very successful 
operas, Der Liebeskamp and Mar- 
gitta; the one-act burlesque, Trischka; 
the ballet Riibezahl, Der Berggeist, 
given with great success at Leipsic, 
and many songs. 

Meyer- Lutz (mi-er loots), Wilhelm. 


Organist and conductor; born at 
Miinnerstadt, near Kissingen. At 
Wiirtzburg he studied under Eisen- 
hofer and Keller. In 1848 he went 
to England, where he played the 
organ at Birmingham and Leeds and 
later at St. George's Roman Catholic 
Church in London. From 1851 to 
1855 he conducted the orchestra at 
the Surrey Theatre, and since 1869 
he has been conductor at the Gaiety 
Theatre. He has written eight operas, 
some chamber-music and several 

Meyer-Olbersleben (mi'-er ol'-bers-la- 
ben), Max. 1850- 

Teacher and composer; born at 
Olbersleben, near Weimar; began his 
musical studies with his father, later 
studying with Miiller-Hartung and 
finally with Liszt at Weimar. Liszt 
recommended him to the patronage 
of the Duke who sent him to Munich 
for two years' study under Cornelius, 
Wiillner and Rheinberger. After 
spending a year at Brussels and an- 
other at Munich he returned to VVei- 
mar and became professor of piano 
and theory at the Orchestra School 
of his old master, Muller-Hartung. In 
1877 he went to Wiirzburg to teach 
counterpoint and composition in the 
Royal Conservatory of Music and in 
1879 he became conductor of the cele- 
brated Wiirzburger Liedertafel. He 
was made a Royal professor in 1885, 
and in 1896 his ability was so widely 
recognized that he was made a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the 
Deutscher Sangerbund in collabora- 
tion with Kremser, directing the Fifth 
National Song Festival at Stuttgart. 
In 1907 he was appointed to succeed 
Dr. Khebert as director of the Royal 
Conservatory of Wiirzburg. Meyer 
has showed great ability as a com- 
poser, having written a large number 
of compositions, among them Der 
Hauben Krieg and Clare Dettin; two 
overtures, Feierklange and Festouver- 



Meyer- Olbersleben 
ture as well as some chamber-music; 
piano-pieces; songs; choruses; a piano 
trio; some pieces for piano and cello; 
a cantata, The Blind Elf; and many 
other vocal and instrumental pieces. 

Meyerbeer (mi'-er-bar), G i a c o m o. 

"The idol of the Parisian public, 
the Monarch of the Grand Opera," as 
Hervey calls him, did more to ad- 
vance the opera of the Nineteenth 
Century than any other composer ex- 
cept Wagner. He was born at Ber- 
lin, and was of Jewish extraction, his 
name being properly Jakob Liebmann 
Beer. The prefix Meyer was added 
on the death of a rich relative who 
left Jakob his fortune on that con- 
dition. The Jakob became Giacomo 
after Meyerbeer's sojourn in Italy. 
His father, Herz Beer, was a wealthy 
banker, his mother, Amalie Wulf, 
was a refined and well-educated 
woman, and two of his brothers be- 
came famous like himself, Wilhelm 
as an astronomer, and Michael as a 
poet. When a very young child 
Meyerbeer showed a remarkable tal- 
ent for music, which was encouraged 
by his parents, and when he was 
only seven years old, he made his 
debut as a pianist, playing one of 
Mozart's concertos. He studied first 
under Lauska. At the age of nine he 
had made wonderful progress. He 
studied composition for some time 
under Zelter, whom he thoroughly 
disliked, and finally gave up in favor 
of Bernard Anselm Weber, who was 
then directing the Berlin Opera. 
Weber proved to be a devoted teacher 
to the young Meyerbeer, and at one 
time sent a fugue of his pupil's, which 
he thought admirable work, to Vog- 
ler. The Abbe, far from commending 
it, finally returned it with a treatise 
of the fugue^ and a fugue by himself 
on the same theme, showing the nu- 
merous errors which he thought the 
young composer's work contained. 
Meyerbeer then wrote another fugue, 
using the Abbe's suggestions, and this 
so pleased the old man that he in- 
vited Meyerbeer to spend two years 
with him at Darmstadt as a pupil and 
member of his household. There the 
young man worked with unlimited 
diligence, wrote a fugue or other 
sacred composition every day for the 
instructor's criticism, and formed his 
life-long friendship with Carl Marie 
von V/eber. His first published works 


were Sacred Songs of Klopstoclc, and 
an oratorio, God and Nature, which 
was played before the Grand Duke, 
and won for the writer the position 
of composer to the court. 

His first opera, Jephthah's Vow, 
which appeared at Munich in 1813, 
was not a success, owing probably 
to its oratorio form and biblical sub- 
ject. A comic opera, Alimelek, or 
The Two Caliphs, given at Stuttgart 
the same year, was received a little 
better. Meyerbeer then went to 
Vienna as a concert pianist and pro- 
duced The Two Caliphs there, but it 
failed again. The young musician 
was by this time becoming thoroughly 
discouraged, and was on the point of 
giving up music entirely when he 
was advised by Salieri to go to Italy 
and make a thorough study of the 
voice before writing any more 
operas. In 1815 he went to Venice 
and there he soon abandoned the 
scholasticism of Abbe Vogler and 
adapted himself to the flowing ex- 
travagant style of Rossini, who then 
held supreme power over Italian 
Opera. Meyerbeer actually succeeded 
in rivaling him and gained at once 
the public admiration and immediate 
success which was his aim throughout 
his life. Among his Italian works 
were Romilda e Costanza, ^iven at 
Padua in 1818 with Pisaroni in the 
leading part; Semiramide ricono- 
sciuta; Eduardo e Cristina; Emma di 
Resburgo, played in Germany as 
Emma von Leicester; Marghenta d' 
Anjou, written for Scala, which was 
the best example of his work of this 
period; L'esule di Granata; Alman- 
sor; and the beginning of Crociato. 

This borrowed success so easily 
attained, did not content the com- 
poser long, however. His German 
friends had become dissatisfied with 
him, among them Carl von Weber, 
who did everything in his power to 
induce him to return to his native 
land and to devote himself to her 
musical advancement. Meyerbeer 
then tried to produce a three-act 
opera. Das Brandenburger Thor, at 
Berlin, but failed, and having finished 
Crociato, which he had begun in 
Italy, he brought it out at Vienna, 
where it caused such a sensation that 
the composer was crowned on the 
stage. It was the last of his Italian 
triumphs and has been called the 
link between his period of " wild 
oats " as he considered his Italian 




writings, and his period of the great 
works which have made him known 
as a master today. 

In 1826 he went to Paris to see a 
performance of Crociato there, and 
this resulted in his almost constant 
residence in that city from that time 
until his death and in the develop- 
ment of his genius to its fullest ex- 
tent. It was a time when Paris typi- 
fied the chaotic condition of all 
Europe. Everything was in a state 
of unrest. The old order of things 
had been abandoned for new, untried 
systems of government, society, 
learning and art. It was a time of 
experiment, where nothing was estab- 
lished and where the bold or unique 
held sway and dominated the public 
rather than the artistic or refined. 
The years from 1824 to 1831 were so 
taken up with other interests, such 
as the death of his father, his mar- 
riage and the death of two children, 
that he put no works before the 
public. Nevertheless, they were val- 
uable as a preparation for his great 
works to follow, for it was during this 
time that he made his exhaustive 
study of the French as a people, and 
of the French Opera from the works 
of Lully down to his own time. Dur- 
ing this time also his connection with 
Eugene Scribe, who became his 
librettist, began. 

Robert le Diable, produced in 1831 
at the Academy of Music, was as 
great an event in the operatic world 
as Victor Hugo's Hernani in that of 
the drama. The fantastic story with 
its weird, supernatural vein made a 
deep impression everywhere. The 
music gave wonderful emphasis to 
the words, and the instrumentation of 
the piece was clever in the extreme. 
It is thought by many to be the most 
original and ingenious of all Meyer- 
beer's works. When Les Huguenots 
appeared in 1836 the public was at 
first disappointed, for it had expected 
a repetition of Robert, but the latter 
opera, with its sober grandeur in 
v.'hich the supernatural had no part, 
was wholly unlike the first great work 
of the composer. However, it was 
soon universally conceded that Les 
Huguenots surpassed Robert. In this 
opera the composer sometimes, as in 
the last duet, reaches a dramatic in- 
tensity unparalleled in any of his 
other works. The coloring of the 
whole is as rich and beautiful as that 
of Robert. In 1838 Meyerbeer began 


to work upon Scribe's libretto of 
L'Africaine, but his dissatisfaction and 
constant changing finally angered 
Scribe, and in order to pacify him 
Meyerbeer produced another one of 
his works, Le Prophete, in 1849. Like 
Les Huguenots it took time for this 
to succeed and it never became as 
popular as the two operas preceding 
it. Gounod thought it Meyerbeer's 
masterpiece. Meyerbeer had been 
made general musical director by 
the King in 1842, so from that date 
he spent much of his time at Berlin. 
He brought out a German opera in 
1844, Ein Feldlager, in Schlesien, in- 
troducing Jenny Lind in Germany. 
He produced Weber's Euryanthe and 
Wagner's first work, Rienzi, at Ber- 
lin, but afterwards conducted only his 
own works. In 1846 he wrote a very 
creditable overture and incidental 
music to his brother Michael's drama, 
Struensee, which was his most im- 
portant instrumental work. His next 
work in Paris was the production of 
two comic operas, L'fitoile du Nord, 
dealing with some adventures of Peter 
the Great, in 1854, and Le Pardon de 
Ploermel, or Dinorah, a Breton story 
of buried treasure, in 1859. Both 
were quite well received by the public 
and created much excitement among 
the French composers, who consid- 
ered them an invasion into their own 
private territory. The composer's 
health was beginning to fail by this 
time. Scribe had died, and he was 
still working on L'Africaine, with 
which he was never satisfied. He 
brought out two cantatas, a march for 
the Schiller Centenary Festival, and a 
march-overture for the London Inter- 
national Exhibition in 1862. In 1863 
he returned to Paris for the last time 
and died there, before having accom- 
plished the production of L'Africaine. 
This last of his works, the composi- 
tion of which had occupied part of 
his time during twenty-six years, was 
given at the Academy in Paris and 
also in London, in 1865. In this work 
there is less striving for effect than 
in his earlier ones, more polish, and 
perhaps some signs of return to the 
Italian influence. However, it was 
injured by the composer's constant 
changes, and while it has many won- 
derfully beautiful passages it lacks 

No composer has had more widely 
differing criticisms than Meyerbeer, 
and the severest fault with which he 



has been charged is that of surrender- 
ing to the public, and of striving for 
effect and immediate popularity. It 
is true that he adapted himself with- 
out effort to any school, that he 
seized the opportunities of his time 
and became its representative, but he 
introduced enough that was new to 
lyric drama in his time to pave the 
way for the modern music-drama. 
As Berlioz said of him, " He had the 
good fortune to have talent and the 
talent to have good fortune." His 
intense dramatic moments have made 
his musical reputation, and the only 
drag upon his powers was his fear of 
his own originality, probably inspired 
by the rigid instructions of his youth. 
He has been compared to Scott, 
painting men and women of the past 
as they appeared to each other. Her- 
vey says, " The Meyerbeer opera was 
just as characteristic an exoression of 
the artistic spirit of 1830 as Victor 
Hugo's and Dumas's dramas; Alfred 
de Musset's poetry; Delacroix's can- 
vases; Berlioz's symphonies; or Cho- 
pin's piano-music." 

M6zeray (maz-re'), Louis Charles 
Lazare Costard de. 1810-1887. 

Barytone singer, conductor, and 
dramatic composer; born in Bruns- 
wick. When fifteen years old he 
became second leader of the orchestra 
at the Strasburg Theatre, studying 
under Talliez and Wachenthal. At 
seventeen he became leader of the 
Liege Theatre, also conducting the 
Conservatory concerts and the Con- 
certs Gretry. In 1830 he was made 
conductor at the Royal Theatre at 
The Hague, but in 1833 he went to 
Paris, where he studied counterpoint 
and fugue under Reicha. He was 
orchestra conductor at Ghent, Rouen 
and Marseilles before becoming con- 
ductor at the Grand Theatre at Bor- 
deaux in 1843, a position which he 
filled successfully for thirty years. 
Previous to his accepting the con- 
ductorship at Bordeaux he had sung 
barytone at Montpelier, Antwerp and 
Nantes. In 1843 he founded the St. 
Cecilia Society. Two of his operas 
are Guillaume de Nassau; and Le 
Sicilien ou I'amour peintre. 

Micheli (tne-ka'-le), Romano. 1575- 

Italian contrapuntist and writer of 
church-music; born in Rome. He 
studied music under Francesco Sori- 

ano and Nanini, and traveled to Milan, 
Ferrara, Bologna, Venice, Florence 
and Naples in order to meet all the 
great musicians of the time and learn 
of them. He became a priest and for 
a while was sent to Aquileia, in 1616 
was maestro di capella at Con- 
cordia, Modena, and in 1625 returned 
to Rome to became maestro di cap- 
pella at San Luigi de' Francesi. He 
was a writer of canons and other 
forms of church-music and is the 
author of the following: Musica vaga 
ed artificiosa; Madrigale a sei voci in 
canoni; Canoni musicali composti 
sopra le vocali di piu parole; La 
potesta pontifica diritta della Sanc- 
tissima Trinita compieta a sei voci, 
and Letere di Romano Micheli ro- 
mano alii musici della Cappella di 
N. S. ed altri musici romani, which 
explains a kind of canon he had in- 
vented; many masses; psalms; re- 
sponses, and such compositions. 

* Mickwitz (fon mik'-wits), Harold 
von. 1859- 

Talented pianist; born at Helsing- 
fors, Finland, of German parentage. 
Began studying the piano at five and 
composed a number of works before 
he was eight. At the St. Petersburg 
Conservatory he studied under Ark, 
Johansen Brassin, and Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov; then in 1880 he went to Vienna 
for three years' study with Lesche- 
tiszky. In 1886 he obtained the posi- 
tion of teacher of advanced piano 
classes at Karlsruhe Conservatory, 
and in 1893 he accepted a similar posi- 
tion at Wiesbaden Conservatory. In 
1897 he accepted the directorship of 
the North Texas Conservatory at 
Sherman, Texas. In 1905 Mr. Von 
Mickwitz came to Chicago, where he 
has been at the head of the piano de- 
partment of the Bush Temple of 
Music. He intends, however, to re- 
turn to Sherman, Texas, to the Con- 
servatory, which is practically his own 
creation. He has published elegant 
piano-music, somewhat in the style in 
which Tschaikowsky wrote. 

Middelschulte (mid'-el-shool-te), Wil- 

helm. 1863- 

Organ virtuoso and composer; born 
near Dortmund, Westphalia. He was 
fond of music from boyhood, and at 
the age of twelve had attained suffi- 
cient knowledge of the organ to play 
the church service. Ill health, how- 
ever, delayed a regular course in 




music for several years, but before he 
was twenty he entered the Royal 
Academy of Church Music, Berlin, 
where for several years he studied, 
his teachers being August Haupt in 
organ and theory, August Loeschhorn 
in piano, Dr. Julius Alsleben in his- 
tory and conducting, and Franz Com- 
mer. While still a student he became 
Haupt's assistant at the organ of the 
Parochial Church, and associate 
teacher in the Academy. In 1888 he 
succeeded Rust as organist of St. 
Lucas Church in Berlin, retaining this 
post until 1891, when he came to the 
United States to accept that of organ- 
ist and choir-director of the Cathe- 
dral of the Holy Name, Chicago. 
Shortly before his departure from 
Germany he played by invitation the 
memorial service to Emperor Fried- 
rich III. at Bornstedt. At the Co- 
lumbian Exposition ' of 1893 in Chi- 
cago, he gave three recitals, and in 
1894 played with the Thomas Orches- 
tra. He was immediately appointed 
official organist of the orchestra, and 
has since appeared with them fre- 
quently as soloist, playing many of 
the best works for organ and orches- 
tra, among them his own concerto in 
A minor, which has been pronounced 
by Guilmant " a magnificent work." 
Under Theodore Thomas' direction 
he was organist of the Cincinnati 
May Festival. At present he is 
organist of St. James' Roman Catholic 
Church, Chicago. He is connected 
with the Wisconsin Conservatory of 
Music, Milwaukee, as professor of 
organ and of musical theory, and has 
been one of the directors of that insti- 
tution from its beginning. 

Mr. Middelschulte's reputation as 
an organist is cosmopolitan. He has 
appeared in the principal cities of the 
United States and also in Germany, 
where his playing has elicited the 
highest praises from both critics and 
musicians. He possesses a phenom- 
enal musical memory, playing all his 
recital programs without notes, a 
proceeding unusual among organists. 
He is an ardent admirer of Bach's 
works, and is conceded to be the 
greatest living interpreter of them. 
He has composed chiefly for the 
organ, his published works being a 
Passacaglia in D minor, pronounced 
by the eminent theorist, Bernhard 
Ziehn, to be worthy of mention 
beside that of Bach; canons and 
fup^ue on the choral. Vater unser in 

Himmelreich; concerto on a theme 
by Sebastian Bach; canonical fan- 
taisie on Bach; fugue on four themes 
by J. S. Bach; also a toccata, for 
which he has received congratulations 
from Guilmant. His unpublished 
works include Variations and Finale 
on an original theme; cadenzas to 
two of Handel's and one of Rhein- 
berger's concertos; and an etude for 
pedals alone. Perpetual Motion. Mr. 
Middelschulte has been twice repre- 
sented on the programs of the Ger- 
man Society of Tonal Art, of which 
Richard Strauss is president. His 
compositions combine the modern 
resources of advanced musical theory 
with strict classical forms, and are 
considered among the most difficult 
works for the organ. 

Mr. Middelschulte's influence on his 
pupils and friends is of the highest, 
both as a man and as a musician. His 
wife, formerly Miss Annette Musser, 
is a gifted and cultivated musician, 
for some years before her marriage an 
organist, pianist and teacher promi- 
nent in Memphis, Tennessee. She is 
at present the efficient organist of St. 
Paul's Universalist Church, Chicago. 

Mihalovich (me-ha'-lo-v!ch), Edmund 

von. 1842- 

Dramatic composer of the neo- 
German School; born at Fericsancze, 
Slavonia. He received his common 
school education and his early musical 
training at Pesth. In 1865 he studied 
theory with Hauptmann at Leipsic, 
and later he went to Munich, where 
Hans von Biilow taught him piano. 
He is an ardent admirer and disciple 
of Wagner and his writings reflect 
the standards of the new German 
Operatic School. He wrote the bal- 
lads, Hero and Leander; La ronde du 
sabbat: Das Geisterschifif, and Die 
Nixe; the three-act opera, Toldi, Hag- 
barth und Signe, and some piano- 

Mikuli (me'-koo-le), Karl. 1821-1897. 

Teacher and musical writer, best 
known for his edition of Chopin's 
works, which contains copies of 
marginal comments made by Chopin 
on Mikuli's student copies of that 
master's works, and which is in con- 
sequence considered standard. He 
was born in Czernowitz, Bukowina, 
and in 1839 went to Vienna as a 
student of medicine. He soon turned 
to music, however, and in 1844 went 



to Paris to study piano under Chopin, 
and composition under Reicha, re- 
turning to his own country in 1848. 
He toured Russia, Romania, Galicia, 
and in 1858 was appointed artistic 
director of the Leipsic Conservatory, 
leaving and founding a school of his 
own in 1888. Besides his edition of 
Chopin's works he has pubHshed sev- 
eral pieces which show the influence 
of that master. In 1858 he be<^"me 
director of the Galician Society 

MilanoUo (mi-lan-6r-15), Maria. 1832- 


Sister and inseparable companion oi 
Teresa Milanollo; born in SavigUano. 
Her sister began giving her violin 
lessons when she was a very small 
child, and her ability appeared from 
the first. She made her debut in 
Boulogne when only six years old, 
and after that traveled always with 
her sister, appearing in Belgium, Ger- 
many and France, and creating a sen- 
sation on her appearance with her 
sister in 1843. In 1845 she played at 
a Philharmonic concert in London, 
upon which occasion the English 
critics condemned her technique as 
over-elaborate and exaggerated. With 
her sister she returned to Paris in 
1848, and died there that same year. 

Milanollo, Teresa. 1827-1904. 

Gifted violinist; born at Savigliano, 
near Turin, Italy. Her parents were 
poor, but every sacrifice was made to 
give her and her sister a musical 
education. After some lessons on the 
violin from Giovanni Ferrero, a musi- 
cian of her native place, she was 
taken to Turin, where she became a 
pupil of Gebboro Mori at the Capella 
Carlo Alberto. She appeared a few 
times in concert and received such 
great applause that her parents de- 
cided to take her to Paris. At Mar- 
seilles, Teresa appeared in concert 
and was given a letter of introduction 
to Lafont. Arriving in Paris in 1837 
she immediately became his pupil, 
playing five times at the Opera Co- 
mique and making a tour with him 
through Holland and Belgium and 
England. Her sister Maria joined her 
and together they gave concerts in 
France, Holland and Belgium, return- 
ing to Paris in 1839. She appeared 
before Louis Philippe in Paris and at 
the Paris Conservatory, studied with 
De Beriot in Bologna, then traveled 
through Germany and Belgium. She 

appeared in London again in 1845. 
On the death of her sister in 1848 she 
retired, but gradually resumed concert 
work until her marriage to M. Charles 
Joseph Parmentier, when she retired 
permanently. From 1878 until she 
died she lived very quietly in Paris. 
Her compositions are Ave Maria, 
chorus for male voices; two romances; 
Fantaisie elegiaque for violin; tran- 
script and variations for violin and 

Milchmeyer (milkh'-mi-er), Philipp 

Jacob. 1750-1813. 

Piano-player and musical inventor; 
born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. In 
1780 he was Court mechanician at 
Mayence, and invented a piano key- 
board having three manuals, which, 
according to Cramer, in Magazin der 
Musik, produced a hundred and fifty 
varied combinations of sounds. He 
taught piano in Strasburg, and died 
there in 1813. His book, Anfangs- 
grunde der Musik um das Piano, 
sowohl in Riicksicht des Fingersatzes 
als auch der Manieren und des Aus- 
drucks richtig spielen zu lernen, pub- 
lished in 1797, is considered rather 

Milder-Hauptmann (mel'-der howpt'- 
man), Pauline Anna. 1785-1838. 

Dramatic soprano, with a voice of 
wonderful strength and beauty. Was 
born at Constantinople. She was liv- 
ing in Vienna as a maid to a lady of 
high rank when the manager, Schika- 
neder, found her and persuaded her to 
study for opera, offering to take 
charge of her musical education and 
debut. She became a pupil of To- 
mascelli, and later of Salieri, and made 
her debut in 1803 as Juno in Der 
Spiegel von Arkadien by Siissmayer. 
Owing to her commanding presence 
and really magnificent voice she was 
immediately successful and obtained 
a position to sing at the Imperial 
Court Theatre. After a tour in 1808, 
in which she was enthusiastically re- 
ceived wherever she sang, she 
returned to Vienna and was immedi- 
atley engaged as prima donna. In 
1810 she married Herr Hauptmann. 
In 1812 she appeared in Berlin in 
Iphigenia in Tauris, by Gluck, scoring 
such a triumph that in 1816 she was 
offered a permanent contract with the 
Royal Theatre of that city. This 
position she held until 1829, when, 
owing to constant disagreements with 



Spontini, the director, she left the 
company and traveled in Sweden, 
Denmark and Russia. Her last ap- 
pearance was in Vienna in 1836, and 
her death occurred two years later in 
Berlin. Mme. Milder-Hauptmann had 
a marvelous voice, but she was in- 
dolent and capricious and did not 
work or study conscientiously. Cheru- 
bini wrote Faniska, and Beethoven, 
Leonore in Fidelio especially for her. 
She appeared to best advantage in 
such roles as Iphigenia, Armida and 

Millard, Harrison. 1830- 

American composer and teacher of 
vocal music; born in Boston, Mass. 
As a child he sang in a church choir, 
and when only ten entered the chorus 
of the Handel and Haydn Society. 
From 1851 to 1854 he studied singing 
in Italy, and as tenor concert-singer 
traveled through Ireland and Scot- 
land with Catherine Hayes. While 
he was abroad he wrote articles for 
Dwight's Journal of Music and other 
American magazines. He returned to 
Boston in 1854, and in 1856 as a 
singer, teacher and composer he set- 
tled in New York. In 1859 he pro- 
duced Viva la America, the first 
important patriotic song. As first lieu- 
tenant in the Nineteenth New York 
Regiment he served in the Civil War, 
and was wounded at the battle of 
Chickamauga and sent home. After 
his recovery he was given a position 
in the New York custom house. He 
has published over three hundred 
songs, among them the well-known 
Flag of the Free, and has also 
adapted songs from the French and 
German. He has written a Grand 
Mass, four Te Deums; also the four- 
act opera, Deborah. 

Miller, Edward. 1731-1807. 

English organist and composer; 
born at Norwich. His early musical 
education was obtained at Lynn under 
Dr. Burney. In 1756 he was appointed 
organist of Doncaster, and continued 
to fill that position for fifty years. He 
died in Doncaster in 1807. Among the 
works he has published are six solos 
for German flute, with remarks on 
double tonguing; elegies for voice 
and piano; songs; an ode with instru- 
mental parts; six harpsichord so- 
natas; psalms and hymns, among 
them Psalms of David, for the use of 
parish churches, in which occurs the 

well-known hymn, Rockingham; also 
the Elements of Thorough-bass and 
Composition and Institute of Music, 
or Easy Instruction for the Harpsi- 

Millocker (mil'-lek-er), Karl. 1842- 


Conductor and composer of a very 
great number of operettas; born in 
Vienna. He studied at the Vienna 
Conservatory and in 1864 became 
chapelmaster at the Gratz Theatre, 
a position which he retained until 
1866, leaving then to take up similar 
work at the Harmonie Theatre in 
Vienna. This theatre failed in a very 
short time and Millocker removed to 
Budapest for a time, but returned to 
Vienna in 1869 and became chapel- 
master at the Theatre an der Wien. 
He died at Baden near Vienna. 
Among his compositions are a num- 
ber of musical farces and many piano- 
pieces, some of which have appeared 
in the monthly installments of the 
Musikalische Presse. Of his oper- 
ettas, Die lustigen Binder and Der 
todte Gast, appeared in Gratz; Die 
Fraueninsel came out in Budapest; 
Der Regimenstambour, Ein Aben- 
teuer in Wien; Diana; Drei Paar 
Schuhe; Das ver wunschene Schloss; 
Grafin Dubarry and Die Musik des 
Teufels were performed in Vienna. 
His music is sprightly and piquant 
and for a time enjoyed great popu- 

Mills, Sebastian Bach. 1838-1898. 

Piano virtuoso of unusual ability, 
who attained great popularity in 
America; born in Cirencester, Eng- 
land. His English instructors were 
Cipriani Potter and Stcrndale Ben- 
nett, and at the age of seven he had 
so far progressed as to play before 
Queen Victoria. At the Leipsic Con- 
servatory he was a pupil of Moscheles, 
Plaidy, Mayer, Rietz and Hauptmann, 
and later he became one of the young 
men of Liszt's circle at Weimar. In 
1855 he was made organist of the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral in Shef- 
field. In 1858 he appeared as soloist 
at a Gewandhaus concert in Leipsic, 
and in 1859 he came to the United 
States on a concert tour that proved 
so successful that he decided to settle 
here. He was a great favorite in 
New York, and from 1859 to 1877 
appeared every season in concerts of 
the Philharmonic Society, of which 




he became honorary member in 1866. 
In 1859, 1867 and 1878 he made con- 
cert tours through Germany, each 
time being warmly received. He died 
in Wiesbaden, Germany. He was a 
most successful teacher and has done 
much for the promotion of music in 
New York. All of his compositions 
are for piano and are graceful and 
light in form. Some of them are 
Alpine Horn, transcription; Murmur- 
ing Fountain; two Tarantelles; Recol- 
lections of Home; Fairy Fingers; the 
polka, Toujours gai; and Barcarole 
venitienne. Besides the Philharmonic 
Society, Mills was a member of the 
Tonkiinstler Verein of Cologne, and 
of the Arion Society of New York. 

Mingotti (men-got'-ti), Regina. 1728- 


Celebrated singer of Italian opera; 
born of German parentage at Naples. 
On the death of her father she was 
placed in an Ursuline Convent and 
here received her first musical in- 
struction, remaining until her fif- 
teenth year. While still very young 
she married Mingotti, impresario of 
the Dresden Opera, who immediately 
placed her under the care of Porpora, 
with whom she made rapid progress. 
Very soon after her debut in Dresden 
she had attained such popularity as 
to have become the rival of Faustina- 
Hasse. She left the Dresden Opera 
in 1751 to appear during two seasons 
under Farinelli's management in Ma- 
drid, and in 1754 went to England, 
where she became immensely popular. 
She toured Italy, and in 1772 settled 
in Munich, where she lived until 1787, 
retiring then to Neuburg- on - the- 
Danube, where she died. 

Minoja (me-no'-ya), Ambrosio. 1752- 


Italian composer of opera and 
church-music; born at Ospitaletto, 
near Brescia, Italy. He studied under 
Nicolo Sala at Naples, and in 1772 
succeeded Lampugnani at the Teatro 
della Scala, Milan, where from 1789 
to 1809 he was maestro al cembalo at 
La Scala, and from 1814 to 1824 In- 
spector of Studies at the Conserv- 
atory. He wrote the opera, Zenobia, 
in Rome in 1788, and the opera, Tito 
nelle Gallic, given at La Scala, Milan, 
in 1787. An excellent singing-teacher, 
he wrote Solfeggi, and Lettere sopra 
il canto. He composed a march and 
a funeral symphony on the death of 

General Hoche, for which he obtained 
a gold medal from Bonaparte, and 
on that hero's coronation as King of 
Italy he wrote a Veni Creator and a 
Te Deum, which were performed in 
Milan Cathedral. 

Mirecki (f rants me'-rek-e), Franz/ 


Piano composer; born at Cracow; 
began his career as pianist at four, 
appearing in concert when only six. 
Going to Vienna in 1814 he studied 
piano and composition with Hummel, 
and harmony wth Preindl, and 
became acquainted with Moscheles, 
Beethoven, Salieri and Pixis. In 
1816 he went to Venice to study, then 
was for several years in Paris and 
finally went to Milan and other cities 
of Italy. About 1825 he became di- 
rector of the San Carlo Theatre, but 
soon after went to England, and in 
1826 returned to_ Genoa, where he 
taught vocal music. In 1838 he be- 
came director of the School of Dra- 
matic Singing, and he died in Genoa 
in 1862. It is said that he was at one 
time a member of the Conservatory at 
Paris. He arranged a beautiful edi- 
tion of Marcello's celebrated psalms, 
in which work he is said to have been 
helped by Cherubini. He wrote ora- 
torios; symphonies for grand orches- 
tra; sonatas for piano and violin; and 
several collections of mazurkas and 
polonaises. He also wrote a treatise 
on instrumentation, Trattato intorno 
agli stromenti ed all' instrumenta- 

Miry (me'-re), Karel. 1823-1889. 

Writer of operas; born at Ghent, 
where he studied harmony and coun- 
terpoint of Mengal, and later of 
Gevaert at the Ghent Conservatory, 
afterward going to Paris to complete 
his education, but returning to Ghent 
to lead an orchestra in one of the 
local theatres. In 1857 he was 
appointed professor of counterpoint 
and composition a* the Conservatory. 
He wrote eighteen Flemish operas 
and operettas for Brussels, Antwerp 
and Ghent, among these being Bri- 
gitta. La Lanterne magique and 
Charles-Quint, Bouchard d'Avesnes, 
Maria van Burgondie, De Keizer bij 
de Boeren, De occasie maakt den dief, 
Brutus en Cesar, Le Mariage de Mar- 
guerite, La Saint Lucas, given in 
Ghent; Anne Mie, Ees Engel op 
Wacht, Drie Koningen Avond, in 




Antwerp; Frans Ackerman, Het Drie- 
koningenfeest, La rose d'or, Le poete 
et son ideal, Twee zusters, in Brus- 
sels. Also the ballets, La bouquetiere, 
La fee des eaux, and Klida. 

Mohr (mor), Hermann. 1830-1896. 

Composer and musical educator; 
born at Nieustadt. He studied at the 
Teachers' Seminary at Eisleben, and 
in 1850 went to Berlin, founding the 
Luisenstadt there. He also directed 
the Mohn Conservatory at Berlin. 
He taught in Zeckwer's Conservatory 
in Philadelphia after 1886, and died in 
Philadelphia ten years later. He has 
written the opera, Der Orakelspruch; 
the male choruses, Jauchzend erhebt 
sich die Schopfung and Am Altare der 
Wahrheit; the cantata, Bergmanns- 
gruss; songs and piano-compositions. 

Mohring (ma'-ring), Ferdinand. 1816- 

Composer and singing-teacher; born 
at Alt-Ruppin. Originally he de- 
cided to follow the profession of 
architecture, and accordingly attended 
the Polytechnic School at Berlin. -His 
education in musical composition he 
received at the Berlin Academy. He 
was organist and musical director at 
SaarbriJcken in 1840, and became 
Royal music director in 1844. In 
1845 he was organist and singing- 
teacher at Neu-Ruppin. Toward the 
latter part of his life he went to Wies- 
baden, passing the remainder of his 
days there in retirement. He wrote 
the two unsuccessful operas, Schloss 
Warren, and Das Pfarrhaus; many 
fine male choruses, among them Nor- 
rnannenzug, and some other unpub- 
lished music. 

Moir, Frank Lewis. 1852- 

English song composer; born at 
Market Harboro'; showed musical 
talent as a child. He studied painting 
at South Kensington, obtaining cer- 
tificates for model and free-hand 
drawing, and during his student days 
he sang in the choir of Royal Albert 
Hall, where Gounod was at that time 
conducting. Finally his love of music 
overcame his other art and he began 
to fit himself for musical composition. 
In 1890 he won a scholarship at the 
National School for Music founded 
by the Corporation of the City of 
London. Here he received excellent 
instruction in counterpoint of Dr. 
Bridge, in composition gf Ebenezer 


Prout, and in harmony of Sir John 
Stainer. After two years' study he 
received a certificate of highest honor 
in composition. He has writen the 
comic onera, The Royal Watchman; 
the madrigal. When at Chloe's Eyes 
I Gaze, which took the Madrigal So- 
ciety prize in 1881; a melody in A for 
violin and piano; the songs, Pest of 
All; Only Once More; Among the 
Passion Flowers; A Lark's Flight; 
The Golden Meadow; Love Shall 
Never Die; and many others. He 
married Eleanor Farnol, a soprano, 
who gives recitals of his songs. 

Molique (mol-ek'), Wilhelm Bemhard. 

Violin virtuoso and composer; born 
at Nuremberg. His father, the town 
chapelmaster, was his first instructor 
and taught him to play several instru 
ments, but soon selected the violin 
as the instrument upon which to per- 
fect his son. When Molique was 
fourteen, Spohr came to Nuremberg 
and was persuaded to teach him, 
praising the progress he had already 
made and prophesying a successful 
future. He showed so much talent 
that Maximilian I. of Bavaria became 
his patron, sending him to Munich, 
where in 1816 he began to study under 
Rovelli. After two years in Munich, 
he played in the orchestra of the 
Theatre an der Wien at Vienna, re- 
turning to Munich after Rovelli's 
death in 1820 and becoming conductor 
of the Royal band. In 1822 he made 
his first artistic tour, stopping at 
Leipsic, Dresden, Berlin and Hanover, 
and gaining wide recognition as an 
excellent violinst. In 1826 he became 
first violin and director of the Royal 
band at Stuttgart, a position which 
he held until 1849, spending his vaca- 
tions in concert tours to Paris, St. 
Petersburg and Vienna. In 1849 he 
moved to London, where he became 
well known as a solo and quartet 
player and a teacher of violin. His 
oratorio, Abraham, was first per- 
formed at the Norwich Festival in 
1860. In 1866 he retired to Cann- 
stadt, near Stuttgart, where he died in 
1869. He has written some excellent 
violin-music, of which the concerto 
in A minor is usually considered the 
best. His other works are nine other 
concertos; eight quartets; a sym- 
phony; a mass; three violin sonatas; 
duet for various combinations of in- 
struments, and a concertino. 



Mollenhauer (mol'-len-how-er), Ed- 
ward R. 1827- 

Violinist; the youngest of three 
brothers; born at Erfurt, Saxony. He 
received his first instruction under his 
brother Frederic, then studied under 
Ernst and Spohr. After playing in 
Germany and under the patronage of 
Archduchess of Dessau in St. Peters- 
burg, he was ordered back to Ger- 
many to do military service, but fled 
to England, joining JuUien's Orches- 
tra as solo violinist, and coming to 
America with that orchestra in 1853. 
He founded a school for violin-play- 
ing in New York. He was one of the 
first teachers in America to use the 
Conservatory system of teaching. 
Among his compositions are an opera, 
The Corsican Bride; two comic 
operas, Breakers, and the Masque 
Ball; violin-pieces; string quartet; 
some songs; a Passion symphony, and 
two other symphonies. 
Mollenhauer, Emil. 1855- 

One of the most talented of Ameri- 
can choral conductors; born at Brook- 
lyn, New York. He received his 
general education in the public schools 
of Brooklyn and at Russell's Acad- 
emy, New York. When only nine 
years old he played violin in Niblo's 
Garden, and when fourteen he played 
in the orchestra of Booth's Theatre. 
At the age of sixteen he was one of 
the first violinists in the Thomas Or- 
chestra. He was a member of the 
Damrosch Orchestra and of various 
musical societies of New York and 
Brooklj'n until 1884, when he moved 
to Boston. Here he was a member of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
from 1884 to 1888, then he conducted 
the Germania Orchestra and the Mu- 
nicipal concerts until 1903. His great- 
est work has been done in connection 
with the Handel and Haydn Society, 
of which he became conductor in 
1899 and which he has wholly reor- 
ganized, dismissing old members unfit 
for work and filling their places by 
new. Besides his work with this so- 
ciety he has been connected with clubs 
at Lynn, Brockton, Salem and New- 
buryport, and with the Boston Apollo 
Club and Festival Orchestra. 

Moller (mol'-ler), Joachim. 1541- 


Organist and notable composer of 
church-music, who in later years 
dropped his surname and was known 
as Joachim von Burck or von Burgk. 

He was born in Burg, then under the 
government of the Bishop of Magde- 
burg. His teacher was Herinann 
Noricus, but most of his musical 
knowledge was gained through careful 
study of the works of Orlando di 
Lasso, whom he greatly admired and 
tried to imitate. In 1566 he became 
cantor of the Church of St. Blasius 
at Miihlhausen, where he remained 
until his death, and where he was 
succeeded by many famous musicians, 
among them John Sebastian Bach. 
He was also Symphonista of Miihl- 
hausen and Alderman of the City 
Council, which in 1626 published at 
the expense of the city all the odes 
and hymns of Helmbold edited by 
him in a collection of six volumes. 
Schoberlein's Schatz contains many of 
his hymn arrangements, partly in 
motet and partly in choral form. Some 
of his compositions are Die Deutsche 
Passion, dedicated to the Lutheran 
Cathedral Chapter at Magdeburg; 
several books of Odae Sacrae of Helm- 
bold; Harmonise sacrae tan viva voce 
quam instrumentis; Sacro Cantiones; 
Passio Jesu Christi; twenty Deutsche 
Liedlein; Crepundia Sacra, a collection 
of school songs; thirty Geistlische 
Lieder; Symbolum Apostolicum Ni- 
caeum; Te Deum laudamus, and many 
other church compositions. 

Molloy, James Lyman. 1837- 

Irisli composer of songs; was born 
at Cornolore, King's County, Ireland. 
Having taken the degree of M. A. at 
the Catholic University of Ireland he 
was called to the English bar in 1864, 
and is a member of the Southeastern. 
Sessions and Brighton Circuit of the 
Middle Temple. He has written three 
operettas. Very Catching, The Stu- 
dent's Frolic, and My Aunt's Secret; 
and a great number of popular songs, 
among them being Blue Eyes; Col- 
leen; Will o' the Wisp; Clang of the 
Wooden Schoon; Loves Old Sweet 
Song; Because I Do; Old Chelsea 
Pensioner; Irish Piper; Darby and 
Joan; Thady O'FIynn; Kerry Dance; 
Child's Vision; Old Sailor Wife; 
Vagabond; Carnival; Eily's Reason. 
He has also edited Irish Melodies, 
with new accompaniments, and has 
written a book called Our Autumn 
Holiday on French Rivers. 

Momigny (mo-men'-ye), Jerome Jo- 
seph de. 1762-1855. 
Organist, teacher and musical 

theorist; born at Philippeville in Bel- 



gium. When twelve years old he was 
organist at St. Omer, and a little later 
at the Abbey of Sainte-Colombe, and 
in 1785 at Lyons. During the Revo- 
lution he retired to Switzerland, and 
in 1800 he went to Paris, where he 
founded a music business and taught, 
later removing to Tours. He wrote 
Complet d'Harmonie et de Composi- 
tion d'apres une Theorie Neuve, 
which purported to be a new discov- 
ery in regard to theory of music, but 
which does not seem to have been 
important. He was also musical edi- 
tor of the Encyclopedic Methodique, 
a work interrupted by the Revolution. 
He has composed string quartets; 
violin sonatas; trios; sonatas for piano 
and violin; premiere anee de lemons de 
piano; and sonatas and other pieces 
for piano. 

Monasterio (mo-nas-ta'-ri-o), Jesus 

de. 1836-1903. 

Eminent Spanish violinist, who was 
instrumental in developing a knowl- 
edge of classical music in Spain; born 
at Potes in Santander province. 
From his seventh year he was under 
royal patronage and was given the 
best instruction Madrid could furnish. 
In 1845 he made a debut as a child 
prodigy, and from 1849 to 1851 he was 
a pupil of De Beriot at the Brussels 
Conservatory, returning to Madrid in 
1852 and scoring an immediate suc- 
cess. In 1861 he made a successful 
tour through France, Belgium, Hol- 
land and Germany, and at Weimar he 
was offered the post of Court chapel- 
master, which he declined, preferring 
to return to his native land. He was 
professor of violin, and in 1894 be- 
came director at the Madrid Conserv- 
atory, and he was also Court violinist. 
He is said to have formed the Quartet 
Society in Madrid in 1861. He died at 
Santander. He wrote many successful 
compositions for violin, among them 
Adieux a I'Alhambra, and two ecclesi- 
astical compositions without accom- 

Mondonville (mori-doA-ve'-yu), Jean 
Joseph Cassanea. 1711-1772. 
French violinist and dramatic com- 
poser; born at Narbonne. His musi- 
cal ability appeared very early, and 
after studying violin he traveled 
about, finally settling at Lille. In 
Paris in 1737 he produced three 9f 
his motets with such success that in 
1744 he was appointed to succeed Ger- 


vais as superintendent of the Royal 
Chapel, Versailles. In 1752 when 
strife, known as <^uerre des Bouffons, 
arose between factions upholding the 
Italian or French Opera, Mondonville 
was appointed representative of 
National Art, and under the patronage 
of Mme. de Pompadour achieved suc- 
cess for his opera, Titon et I'Aurore. 
Owing to this success he became direc- 
tor of the Concerts Spirtituels in 
1755, conducting the concerts with 
pronounced success and producing 
three oratorios, Les Fureurs de Saiil, 
Les Israelites au mont oreb, and Les 
Titans. He wrote a number of operas, 
none of which was successful, among 
them being Isbe; Le Carnival du Par- 
nasse; La serva Padrona; Daphne et 
Alcimadura; Les Fetes de Paphos; 
Thesee; Pscyhe; Venus et Adonis; 
Bacchus et Erigone, written for Mme. 
de Pompadour's Theatre in Versailles; 
and the ballet, Les Projets de 
I'Amour, as well as violin sonatas and 
concertos, pieces for harpsichord and 
violin, trios and motets. 

Moniuszko (mo-ru-oosh'-ko), Stanis- 

law. 1820-1872. 

Dramatic composer; born in the 
department of Minsk, Lithuania. He 
first studied under August Freyer in 
Warsaw, then went to Berlin, where 
from 1837 to 1839 he was the pupil of 
Rugenhagen. He settled in Wilna as 
teacher and organist in the church of 
St. John, remaining until 1858 when 
he became chapelmaster of the Opera 
in Warsaw, where in 1846 he had pro- 
duced his first opera, Halka. He 
later became professor at the War- 
saw Conservatory He died at War- 
saw in 1872, and twenty years later a 
branch of the Warsaw Musical Soci- 
ety was organized to publish his 
manuscript works, and to found 
a museum. Among his composi- 
tions are The Bohemians; Jaw- 
nutz; Music for Hamlet; The Paria; 
The New Don Quixote: The Coun- 
tess; The Haunted Castle; Betty; 
The cantatas, Milda, Goddess of 
Beauty and Viola; a descriptive com- 
position, Night in the Apennines, be- 
sides the hymn. Madonna, for solo, 
chorus and orchestra; a mass; piano- 
pieces and songs. 

Monk, Edwin George. 1819-1900. 

Organist and composer of church 
music; born at Frome, Somersetshire, 
England. His father was his first 




teacher, but later he studied piano 
with Henry Field, and organ with 
George Field. He went to London 
where he studied vocal music in Hul- 
lah's classes and solo with Henry 
Philips. In England he held several 
appointments under G. A. Macfarren 
as organist and in 1844 he went to 
Ireland to become organist and music- 
master in the newly organized Col- 
lege of St. Colomba. In 1847 he set- 
tled in Oxford, where he was one of 
the founders of the University Motet 
and Madrigal Society. In 1848 he 
graduated as Bachelor of Music 
at Oxford and was made lay precen- 
tor, organist and musicmaster of the 
new College of St. Peter's at Radley. 
In 1856 he received his degree of 
Doctor of Music, and in 1859 he be- 
came choirmaster and organist at 
York Cathedral, succeeding Dr. Cam- 
idge. He died at Radley. His com- 
positions consist of a Veni Creator 
Spiritus, Anthems and a Service. With 
Rev. R. C. Singleton he edited the 
Anglican Chant Book; the Anglican 
Choral Service Book; the Anglican 
Hymn Book; and with Sir F. A. G. 
Ousley, The Psalter and Canticles 
and Anglican Psalter Chants. He 
compiled the librettos of Sir George 
Macfarren's Oratorios, John the Bap- 
tist, Joseph, and The Resurrection. 
He is also well known as an astrono- 
mer, and in 1871 became a Fellow of 
the Royal Astronomical Society. 

Monk, William Henry.. 1823-1889. 

Organist and musical director; born 
in London; received his musical train- 
ing from Thomas Adams, J. A. Hamil- 
ton and G. A. Griesbach. After acting as 
organist in Eton Chapel, Pimlico, St. 
George's Chapel, Albemarle Street, 
and Portman Chapel, St. Marylebone, 
he became musical director at King's 
College, London, in 1847, and in 1849 
was made organist. In 1874 he suc- 
ceeded Hullah as professor of vocal 
music. He was appointed professor 
at the School for the Indigent Blind 
in 1851 and organist of St. Mathias, 
Stoke Newington in 1852, and also 
delivered lectures on music at the 
London Institution, Edinburgh, and 
the Royal Institution, Manchester. In 
1876 he became a professor in the 
National Training School for Music 
and in 1878 he began to teach in Bed- 
ford College, London. He died in 
London. Beside his work as a 
teacher he was, for a while, editor of 


The Parish Choir and one of the edi- 
tors of Hymns, Ancient and Modern, 
and he composed Te Deums; Kyries; 
anthems and other church-music. 
Monpou (mori-poo), Franjois Louis 
Hippolyte. 1804-1841. 
Composer of songs and opera; born 
in Paris. When only five he was a 
chorister at Saint-Germain I'Auxer- 
rois and when nine he sang at Notre 
Dame. In 1817 he entered Choron's 
school and two years later went as 
organist to Tours. He proved incap- 
able of filling this position and re- 
turned to Choron, becoming assistant 
at his school and studying harmony 
with Porta, Chelard and Fetis. After 
this he held the post of organist at 
St. Nicholas des Chants, St. Thomas 
d'Aquin and the Sorbonne. He began 
his career of song composer in 1828 
with the publication of a nocturne for 
three voices written to Beranger's Si 
j'etais petit oiseau, and afterward 
composed many songs to the words 
of the poets of the romantic school, 
among them de Musset and Victor 
Hugo. In 1835 he began to compose 
operas and in five years produced Les 
deux Reines; Perugina; La chaste 
Suzanne; Le Luthier de Vienne; Un 
Conte d'Autrefois; La Reine Jeanne; 
La Planteur, and Piquillo. This tre- 
mendous amount of work broke down 
his health and he died at Orleans. The 
instrumentation and general compo- 
sition of his operas is very poor and 
they are now all forgotten. 
Monsigny (mori-sen-ye), Pierre Alex- 
andre. 1729-1817. 

French dramatic composer; born at 
Fauquemberge, near St. Omer, in the 
province of Artois. He studied the 
violin with no thought of becoming 
a musician. In 1749, soon after his 
father's death, he obtained a clerk- 
ship in the offices of the Chamber of 
Accounts of the Clergy of France. 
Was later appointed maitre d'hotel to 
the Due d'Orleans and was enabled to 
help his family by the large salary he 
received. Inspired by hearing Pergo- 
lesi's Serva Padrona he studied 
harmony with Gianotti, doublebass 
in the Opera orchestra, who taught 
after Rameau's system. After five 
months' instruction, Monsigny wrote 
Les Aveux indiscrets, which was pro- 
duced successfully at the Theatre de 
la Foire in 1759. For the same theatre 
he composed Le Maitre en droit; Le 
Cadi dupe, which attracted the libret- 




tist, Sedaine, with whom he after- 
ward worked, writing On ne s'avise 
jamais de tout, to his libretto. This 
was his last opera produced at the 
Theatre de la Foire. He wrote from 
1764 to 1777 for the Comedie Italienne. 
Although Felix, ou I'enfant trouve, was 
exceedingly successful, it was his last 
opera. Whether from fear of a ri- 
valry with Gretry or from fatigue, he 
never wrote again. As inspector-gen- 
eral of canals and maitre d'hotel to 
Due d'Orleans he had amassed a con- 
siderable fortune, which was swept 
away during the Revolution. In 1798 
the societaires of the Opera Comique 
made up a subscription which yielded 
him an annuity of about five hundred 
dollars On the death of Puccini in 
1800 he became inspector of instruc- 
tion at the Conservatory of Music, 
but, feeling that his own very inade- 
quate technical training had not ren- 
dered him competent to fill this posi- 
tion, he resigned in 1802. In 1813 he 
was appointed to Gretry's place in the 
Institut and in 1816 was decorated 
with the cross of the Legion of Honor. 
He died a year later in Paris. Owing to 
the meagre technical training he had 
received the orchestration for his 
operas was always poor, but his plays 
were full of melody and dramatic truth 
and were more natural and amusing 
than much of the work of his time. 
The best of them is Le Deserteur, per- 
formed in 1769; Le Cadi dupe is also 
notable for its animation and truly 
comic element. The other operas are 
L'lle sonnante; Le Roi et le Fermier; 
Le Faucon; Le Rendezvous bien em- 
ploye; Rose et Colas; Aline, Reine de 
Golconde, and La belle Arsene. 

Montagnana (mon-tay-na'-na), Do- 

menico. 1700-1740. 

Violin-maker who was an appren- 
tice to Antonius Stradivarius. He is 
not so well known as other master 
violin-makers owing to the insertion 
of false signatures into his instruments 
by unscrupulous dealers, but he ranks 
with Carlo Bergonzi. He worked at 
Cremona and later at Venice, where 
he made violas and superb violoncel- 
los, gaining from Charles Reade the 
title of the mighty Venetian. Though 
the pupil of Stradivarius, his instru- 
ments are quite different in shape, with 
much larger and bolder scroll and a 
varnish of wonderful smoothness and 
beauty. His instruments are now 
very rare and valuable. 

Monte (mon'-te), Fillippo de. 1521- 


Composer of madrigals and church 
music; born at Mons, or according to 
some authorities, Mechlin. He pub- 
lished his first book of masses in 1557 
in Antwerp, and tradition has it that 
he knew Lassus and also Orlando, at 
whose recommendation he became 
chapelmaster to Maximilian II., in 
Vienna, in 1568. He served Rudolph 
in the same capacity in Prague, and 
became canon and treasurer of the 
Cathedral of Cambrai. He died in 
Vienna. Among his many writings 
are nineteen books of madrigals to 
five voices; eight books of madrigals 
to six voices; canzonets and madri- 
gals to seven voices; Madrigali spir- 
ituali to five voices; masses to five 
voices; and mass to six voices; several 
masses to four and five voices; a Ben- 
edicta es; six books of motets to five 
and six voices; two books of motets 
to six and twelve voices; some French 
chansons; and Sonnets de Pierre de 

Monteclair (mon-ta-klar), Michel Pig- 

nolet de. 1666-1737. 

Dramatic and instrumental com- 
poser; born at Audelot. As a choris- 
ter at the Cathedral of Langres he 
studied under Jean Baptiste Moreau. 
He became musicmaster to the Prince 
of Vaudemont and went with him to 
Italy. Returning to Paris in 1700 he 
entered the orchestra of the Opera as 
a doublebass player, a position which 
he filled for thirty years and was then 
given a pension. He died at St. Denis. 
Among his compositions are the 
operas, Les Fetes de I'ete, and Jeptha; 
six concertos for two flutes; four col- 
lections of minuets; cantas for voice 
with_ basso continuo; motets; a 
requiem; six trios for strings; and his 
Methode pour apprendre la musique. 

Monteverde (mon-ta-ver'-de), Claudio. 


Originator of instrumentation in 
opera, and pioneer in the use of cer- 
tain musical forms contrary to ancient 
ideas of counterpoint; was born in 
Cremona, Italy. While very young he 
played the viola in the orchestra of 
the Duke of Mantua, and studied 
counterpoint under Marc^ Antonio 
Ingegneri, ducal maestro di cappella, 
although he probably derived more 
knowledge from the writings of the 
Florentine musical reformers, Casein! 



and Peri, than from the instruction of 
this master. In 1584 his Canzonettes 
for three voices was published m 
Venice and three years later his First 
Book of Madrigals appeared followed 
by five others in 1593, 1594, 1597, 
1599 and 1614. About this time Canon 
Artusi of St. Savior at Bologna pub- 
lished Imperfections of Modern Music, 
an attack on the modern schools as 
exemplified in Cruda AmarilH, the best 
known of Monteverde's Madrigals. 
The composer answered this attack in 
a letter, Agli studiosi lettori, which he 
inserted in a following book of Mad- 
rigals, and finally went to Rome to 
justify his position by presenting 
some of his compositions to Pope 
Clement VIII. for examination. In 
1602 he succeeded Ingegneri as 
maestro to the Duke. In 1607 he 
brought out his first opera, Orfeo, in 
honor of the marriage of the Duke's 
son, Francesco di Gonzaga, to the 
Infanta of Savoy. This was followed 
in 1608 by Arianna. Another compo- 
sition of this kind was II ballo delle 
ingrate, produced at the same time as 
Orfeo. He also wrote Scherzi musi- 
cali a tre voci, some vespers and 
motets. In 1613 he was appointed 
successor to Martinengo as maestro 
di cappella of St. Mark's in Venice. 
The salary of that office was increased 
a hundred ducats, and an additional 
fifty ducats was giv^n him to cover the 
expense of moving from Mantua. For 
several years he wrote only church- 
music, but in 1621 he composed a 
Grand Requiem in honor of Duke 
Cosmos II., which was more appro- 

friate to the stage than to the church, 
n 1624 he wrote II Combattimento di 
Tancredi and Clorinda, in which his 
use of the instrumental tremolo was 
an innovation. By this time he was 
generally considered the foremost 
musician of Italy and had impressed 
his musical ideas and principles on 
all his contemporaries. He composed 
Licori, la finta pazza, in 1627; the can- 
tata, II Rosajo fioritu in 1629; and the 
grand opera, Proserpina rapita in 
1630, and a Grand Thanksgiving mass 
having trombone accompaniment to 
the Gloria and Credo 

In 1633 he entered the priesthood. 
In 1637 the first opera house in the 
world was opened in Venice and in 
1639 Monteverde wrote L'Adone, to 
be performed there; in 1641 Arianna 
was revived at the new St. Mark's 
Theatre, and during that year he wrote 


two new operas, II Ritorno d'Ulissi in 
Patria and Le Nozze di Enea, also the 
ballet Vittoria d'Amore for a carnival 
at Piacenza. In 1642 he wrote his 
last opera, L'Incoronazione di Poppea. 
In 1643 he died and was buried in a 
chapel of the Chiesa dei Frari. 

Most of Monteverde's works were 
lost and we have only printed copies 
of three volumes of church-music, the 
complete score of Orfeo, eight books 
of Madrigals the Canzonettes pub- 
lished in 1584 and a volume of 
musical scherzos. Besides the compo- 
sitions we have mentioned he wrote 
much church-music, masses, psalms. 
Magnificats Salves and motets. Our 
debt to Monteverde is not for his 
compositions but for the freedom he 
brought, for the many new elements 
he introduced into the writing of 
harmony and for the great advance he 
made in musical drama. He may be 
called the first great modern musician. 
In the instrumentation to his opera, 
Orfeo, he seems almost to have fore- 
stalled Wagner in using certain instru- 
ments to accompany certain charac- 

Montigfny-Remaury (moA-ten-ye ra- 
mo-re), Fanny Marcalline Caroline. 

A piano virtuosa of remarkable 
ability; born at Pamiers, Ariege, 
France. Taught music at first by her 
elder sister, Elvire Remaury. In 1854 
she entered the pianoforte class of 
Professor Le Couppey at the Con- 
servatory. She took the first prize 
for piano-playing in 1858, a prize for 
solfege in 1859, and the first prize for 
harmony in 1862. Her rendering of 
Mendelssohn's G minor Concerto at 
a Conservatory concert immediately 
placed her among the finest piano 
virtuosi in France. She married Leon 
Montigny in 1860, but he lived only 
twelve years after the marriage. 
Madame Montignj^ has toured Eng- 
land and the Continent and is every- 
where looked upon as a performer of 
the first rank. Her style of playing 
is forcible and vigorous but full of 
refinement, and is chiefly remarkable 
for the faithfulness with which she 
portrays the characteristics of the 
composer whose music she is playing. 

Morales (mo-ral'-as), Cristofero. 1512- 

Spanish writer of religious music; 
born in Seville. From 1535 to 1540 he 




was a member of the Papal Chapel 
under Pope Paul III., and during the 
years spent there he composed much 
fine church-music, among which was 
his unsurpassed Lamentabatur Jacob, 
for many years sung by the Papal 
Choir on the fourth Sunday in Lent. 
From 1544 to 1545 he is said to have 
been master of the chapel at Toledo 
and to have sung in the Cathedral at 
Malaga in 1551. He returned to 
Seville in 1552 and in 1553 died, either 
at Seville or Malaga. His training 
seems to have been along the lines of 
the Netherlands school of counter- 
point, and his writings show great 
fire and originality. Reprints of por- 
tions of his masses, magnificats and 
motets have appeared. He wrote two 
collections of masses, one for five 
voices and one for four; a well-known 
Magnificat; his Lamentations of Jere- 
miah for four, five and six voices, 
besides many other church composi- 

Morel (mo-rel), Auguste Frangois. 

Writer of songs; best known for 
his chamber-music; born at Marseilles. 
He was _ chiefly self-educated, and 
appeared in Paris in 1836 as a com- 
poser of songs and a writer of musical 
articles In 1850 he returned to 
Marseilles, where in 1852 he became 
a director at the Conservatory, re- 
taining this position until 1873. In 
1877 he went again to Paris, where he 
remained until his death. In recogni- 
tion of his talents he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor 
in 1860. Some of his works are music 
to Autraris; La fille d'Eschyle; an 
opera, Le jugement de Dieu; the 
ballet, L'etoile du mario; two sym- 
phonies; some quintets; overtures; 
cantatas; five string quartets; and 
many songs. 

Morgan, George Washbourne. 1822- 

Born in Gloucester, England; was 
first great concert organist to come 
to America. _ His talents appeared 
early and it is said that he played a 
service at the Gloucester Cathedral 
when only eight years old. In 1834 
he sang in the Philharmonic Chorus 
at Gloucester. He was apprenticed 
to John Amott, was organist in sev- 
eral churches and in 1845 conductor 
of the Gloucester Philharmonic con- 
certs. In 1853 he came to New York, 
where he became organist at St. 


Thomas' Church, going to Grace 
Church in 1854 and remaining until 
1867, when he left to become 
organist of St. Ann's Church. Later 
he was organist at Dr. Tal- 
mage's Tabernacle at Brooklyn for 
fourteen years. He played in 
Boston in 1859 at Tremont Temple 
and later had the honor of being the 
first performer on the new organ in 
Music Hall. From 1886 to 1888 he 
was organist at the Dutch Reformed 
Church in New York. He died in 
Tacoma, Washington, in 1892. He 
was a brilliant organist, noted for his 
pedaling, and was probably the first 
to play Bach and Beethoven in con- 
cert in the United States. 
Morgan, John Paul 1841-1879. 

Talented organist and composer; 
was born in Oberlin, Ohio. In 1858 
he was organist at the Congrega- 
tional Church in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 
but later went to New York, where he 
studied for three years under J. Huss, 
meanwhile acting as organist and 
director of music at the South Fifth 
Street M. E. Church in East Brook- 
lyn. He went to Cleveland in 1862 
and there became organist at the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian Church and also 
taught music. The following spring 
he went to Germany to study theory 
and composition and worked with 
Hauptrnann, Richter, Reinecke and 
Papperitz, studying piano with Wen- 
zel, Plaidy and Moscheles and 
organ with Richter. He graduated 
from the Conservatory in 1865 and 
after spending some months with 
A. G. Ritter at Madgeburg he re- 
turned to America. At Oberlin, Ohio, 
he conducted a series of oratorio con- 
certs and founded the Oberlin Con- 
servatory. In 1866 he went to New 
York, becoming organist of the 
Church of the Messiah in Brooklyn, 
and in 1867 receiving an appointment 
to Trinity Church, New York; he also 
led several musical societies and taught 
organ in the schools of Mason and 
Thomas and Carl Anschutz. He be- 
came conductor for the Handel and 
Haydn Society of San Francisco and 
of the Oakland Harmonic Society, be- 
sides playing organ in the F^'rst Pres- 
byterian Church at Oakland, where 
he died. 

Morlacchi (mor-lak'-ke), Francesco. 


Italian composer of dramatic and 
church-music; was born at Perugia. 




His father gave him violin lessons 
when he was seven, and when he 
was twelve sent him to Caruso, mas- 
ter of the local Cathedral, who taught 
him singing, thorough-bass and cla- 
vier He learned to play the organ 
with Mazetti and by an oratorio, Gli 
angeli al sepulchuro, attracted the in- 
terest of Count Pietro Baglioni who 
sent him to Loretto to study coun- 
terpoint with Zingarelli. The severity 
and strictness of this master's teach- 
ings were so httle liked by him that 
after a year and a half he returned 
to Perugia, but soon went to Bologna, 
where he completed his studies under 
Padre Mattei, and in 1806 became a 
member of the Philharmonic Acad- 
emy of that city. His unusual talent 
was recognized even during his stu- 
dent days, and in 1805 he was asked 
to write a cantata for Bonaparte's 
coronation as King of Italy. About 
this time he produced a Pater Nos- 
ter, a Te Deum, a Miserere for six- 
teen voices and a cantata given at 
the Lyceum at Bologna. In 1807 he 
produced a musical farce entitled II 
Poeta inCampagna at the Pergola 
Theatre in Florence and the same 
year he was invited to Verona where 
he gave the opera bouffe, II Ritratto. 
His first real success came with the 
production of II Corrado, at Parma, 
in 1808. After this he wrote Enone 
a Paride, Oreste, Rinaldo d'Asti, La 
Principessa per ripiego, II Simoncino, 
La Aventure d'une Giornata and a 
grand mass and, lastly, Le Danaide, 
performed so successfully at the 
Argentino Theatre in Rome, in 1810, 
that his reputation was established as 
a writer of opera. He became chapel- 
master of the Italian Opera at 
Dresden, where he composed a grand 
mass for the Royal Chapel of Saxony, 
and in 1812 he wrote the much ad- 
mired Passion Oratorio. In 1813, 
when ^ Dresden was the center of 
operations for the allied army against 
Napoleon, he was forcibly compelled 
to write a cantata for the Emperor 
of Russia's birthday, and soon after, 
when the Russian government ordered 
the abolition of the chapel at Dresden 
he had to entreat an audience before 
the Czar in order to get the decree 
countermanded. In 1814, when the 
King returned to Dresden, he com- 
posed a grand mass and a sprightly 
and charming opera buffa, II Bar- 
biere di Siviglia, in honor of the oc- 
casion. Strangely enough, the same 


year he produced a triumphal can- 
tata on the capture of Paris by the 
allies and a mass in Slavonic, for un- 
accompanied voices, for Prince Re- 
puin who had been Russian governor 
at Dresden. In 1816 he returned to 
Italy on a visit and was everywhere 
greeted with enthusiasm; he was 
made a member of the Academy of 
Fine Arts at Florence, and at Perugia 
was honored by a special performance 
of Le Danaide and his Passion Ora- 
torio, receiving from Pope Pius VII. 
the order of the Golden Spur and the 
title of Count Palatine. The same 
year he wrote La Villanella Rapita 
di Pirna for an opera at the Theatre 
at Pilnitz. Three of his compositions 
bear the date, 1817; they are the ora- 
torio, Isacco, written with rhythmical 
instead of recitative declamation; the 
opera Laodicea, written for San 
Carlos at Naples, and Gianni di 
Parigi, for La Scala at Milan. During 
the years that followed he wrote 
many operas and much church-music, 
among which was the excellent 
requiem written on the death of the 
King of Saxony, 1827. In 1841 he 
died at Innsbruck. Some of his other 
compositions are La Morte d'Abel; 
II Colombo; La Gioventu di Enrico 
v.; Donna Aurora; La capricciosa 
pentita; II da d'Avenello; Tebaldo ed 
Isolma; I Saraceni in Sicilia; II Reni- 
gato; and II Disperato per eccesso di 
buon cuore; all operas. His church- 
music consisted of ten grand masses 
for the Dresden Chapel; ten oflfer- 
tories; a Miserere in three parts; 
six masses; twenty-three psalms and 
twelve antiphonies; he also wrote 
about twenty cantatas, six organ so- 
natas and some piano-music and 

Morley, Thomas. 1557-1604. 

One of the foremost composers of 
songs and madrigals of the Eliza- 
bethan era; began his early musical 
education under William Byrd, and 
received the degree of Bachelor of 
Music from Oxford, in 1588. He is 
supposed to have been organist of 
St. Giles Church, Cripplegate, from 
1588 to 1589, then to have taken a 
position as organist at St. Paul's 
Cathedral. In 1592 he was made gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal and also 
Gospeller, after having served for a 
time as Epistler. In 1602 he had 
resigned his position in Chapel Royal. 
He died about 1604. He is said to 




have known Shakespeare and to have 
written the music for the song, " It 
was a lover and his lass," in As You 
Like It, which song appeared in his 
Aires or Little Short Songs to Sing 
and Play to the Lute with the Bass 
Viole. His most valuable work is his 
A Plaine and Easie Introduction to 
Musick, which contains eight com- 
positions, chiefly motets. His other 
works are The First Booke of Can- 
zonets to two Voices; Canzonets or 
Little Songs to three Voices; Can- 
zonets, or Little Short Songs to four 
Voices; Madrigals to Foure Voyces; 
Madrigals to Five Voyces, Celected 
out of the best approved Italian 
Authors; The First Booke of Ballatts 
to Five Voyces; Canzonets or Little 
Short Aers to Five and Six Voyces; 
The Triumphs of Qriana to five and 
six voyces composed by diuers seue- 
rall aucthors; The First Booke of 
Consort Lessons made by diuers ex- 
quisite Authors for six Instruments; 
and The Whole Booke of Psalmes 
with their Wonted Tunes compiled 
by sundrie Authors. 

Morse, Charles Henry. 1853- 

American musical educator and or- 
ganist; born at Bradford, Massachu- 
setts. He studied at the New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music, taking 
harmony of S. A. Emery, organ of 
George E. Whiting and piano of 
J. C. D. Parker. In 1876 he was 
graduated from the Boston Univer- 
sity College of Music and the follow- 
ing year was awarded the degree of 
Bachelor of Music. From 1873 to 
1877 he was teacher of organ and 
piano at the New England Conserv- 
atory of Music and from 1875 to 1884 
he taught at Wellesley College. In 
1885 he founded the Northwestern 
Conservatory of Music at Minneapo- 
lis and directed it until 1891. From 
1891 to 1899 he was organist at Ply- 
mouth Church, Brooklyn, New York, 
and in 1901 he took charge of the 
music at Dartmouth College. Since 
its beginning he has been vice-presi- 
dent in the Music Department of 
the Brooklyn Ilnstitute of Arts and 
Sciences; he has been a trustee of the 
New England Conservatory of Music 
and president of its Alumni Associa- 
tion, and was one of the founders 
of the American Guild of Organists. 
He has compiled and arranged many 
excellent collections of church-music, 
some of the well-known ones being: 


Short and Easy Anthems; A March 
Album; The Contemporary Organist; 
The Junior Church Organist; The 
Wellesley Collection for Female 
Voices; The Plymouth Hymnal; 
Choral Songs; Christmas Carols; 
Agnus Dei. 

Mortier de Fontaine (mort-ya du-fon- 
ten), Henri Louis Stanislas. 1816- 

Russian pianist of great technical 
ability He made his professional 
debut at Danzig in 1832 and the fol- 
lowing year appeared in Paris. He 
went to Italy in 1837, returned to 
Paris in 1842 and in 1850 went back 
to Russia, settling in St. Petersburg, 
where he taught from 1853 to 1860. 
For the next eight years he lived 
in Munich, then visited Paris and 
London, where he spent the latter 
part of his life. He is said to have 
been the first musician who played 
Beethoven's Sonata, Opus 106, in 

Moscheles (mo'-she-les), Ignaz. 1794- 

Piano virtuoso and composer of the 
first rank; was born at Prague of a 
Jewish family of great refinement and 
culture. His father, a musical ama- 
teur, determined that one of his five 
children should be a thoroughly 
trained musician, and accordingly 
placed his eldest daughter under a 
piano teacher named Zadrakha. Young 
Moscheles was usually present at her 
music lessons and on one occasion 
showed such impatience at her stu- 
pidity that the teacher allowed him 
to take her place at the piano and 
was greatly astonished at his pro- 
ficiency. After that the lessons were 
given to Moscheles instead of his 
sister and the result was rapid prog- 
ress. _ In 1804 his father took him 
to Dionys Weber, who said that he 
had talent and would make a musi- 
cian if he would follow his directions 
explicitly. Moscheles became the 
pupil of Weber and thus was laid the 
solid foundation of his musicianship. 
When Moscheles was fourteen years 
old his father died, leaving the family 
in very moderate circumstances. It 
was decided that the young musi- 
cian's public career should begin and 
a musical was arranged in Prague at 
which he played a concerto of his 
own composition. This venture was 
so successful that the lad's mother 



decided to send him to Vienna to 
continue his studies and to earn his 
living. On arriving at Vienna he was 
warmly welcomed in the homes _ of 
Baroness Eskeles and the musical 
publisher Artaria, met Streicher and 
became a student of theory under 
Dom - Kapellmeister Albrechtsberger 
During all this time he earned his 
living as pianist and teacher. He 
knew all the prominent musicians in 
Vienna and often entered into friendly 
rivalry with Hummel and ^Meyerbeer, 
with whom he sometimes^ improvised, 
composing several duets in this way. 
During 1814, Artaria, the publisher, 
commissioned him to arrange piano 
scores of Beethoven's Fidelio, which 
he did under that master's supervision. 
Early in 1815 he wrote the famous 
Alexander Variations to be played at 
a charity concert. In the autumn of 
1816 Moscheles started on a profes- 
sional tour to Leipsic, Dresden, 
Munich and Augsburg where he wrote 
his popular concerto in G minor. He 
then went to Brussels, and the last 
of the year arrived in Paris. Here 
he was soon in demand as a teacher 
and pianist at the homes of the lead- 
ing families. In May, 1822, he went 
to London, where he repeated his so- 
cial and musical success and laid the 
foundation for his later achievements 
as a resident musician in _ that city. 
He appeared -rt^ith the Philharmonic 
Society, playing his E flat concerto 
and the Alexander Variations. He 
spent the summer of 1822 in the 
country with Kalkbrenner, and while 
there wrote his Allegri di Bravura 
and a Polonaise in E flat. After a 
brilliantly successful tour through 
Normandy with Lafont he returned 
to Paris and plunged into the social 
and musical life of that city. After 
playing at the Concerts Spirituels on 
Easter Sunday he went to London, 
arriving just in time to join Cramer 
in a concert for which as a finale of 
a sonata of Cramer's he wrote the 
allegro of his famous Hommage a 
Handel. _ Moscheles stayed in Eng- 
land until the summer of 1823 and 
during this time won for himself an 
enviable place in the musical world 
of London. In August of that year 
he started for home, and after stop- 
ping at Paris, Frankfort and Offen- 
bach, where he examined the Mozart 
manuscript, he arrivedat Prague. For 
four months after this he was very 
ill, but in May, 1824, was able to 


inaugurate the Redoutensaal with a 
concert, and in June appeared before 
the Emperor. In October he went to 
Leipsic and from there to Berlin, 
where he began his friendship with 
Mendelssohn, which was the most im- 
portant musical connection of his life. 
At the repeated request of Mendels- 
sohn's parents he gave him some les- 
sons, although he looked upon him 
then as a finished artist. 

In the middle of December Mo- 
scheles reluctantly left the Mendels- 
sohn family at Berlin, and after 
giving concerts at Potsdam, Magde- 
burg and Hanover arrived at Hamburg 
in the beginning of 1825. Here he met 
Charlotte Embden, to whom he was 
married in March of that year. The 
following May they went to London 
and Moscheles immediately began a 
busy life of teaching and concert 
work. Three of his favorite concert 
pieces during this time were Clair de 
Lune, Rondo in D major and Recol- 
lections of Ireland. In August he 
went to Hamburg and then to Leipsic, 
Dresden and to Prague to his sister's 
wedding, then to Berlin, where they 
again saw the Mendelssohns. He 
finished his important Twenty-four 
Studies in December, 1826, at Ham- 

The years that followed were busy 
ones for Moscheles, for he was ex- 
ceedingly popular as a teacher and 
concert player, was constantly at 
work on compositions and active in 
the social life of musical London. 
His home was a rendezvous for all 
German musicians who came to Lon- 
don, among whom he received Carl 
Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn 
and many others. During the sum- 
mer of 1829 he made a concert^ tour 
of Sweden and was enthusiastically 
received. In 1832 he was made a di- 
rector of the Philharmonic Society 
and during that year produced at the 
concerts two new works, a new sym- 
phony and his C major concerto. 
During 1833 Mendelssohn again came 
to London to act as godfather to 
Moscheles' little child. Moscheles* 
compositions for this year were the 
B major concerto, the impromptu in 
E flat major, and a composition made 
with Mendelssohn on the Gypsy 
March from Weber's Preciosa. In 
1834 besides his usual number of con- 
certs we find Moscheles playing at 
the Birmingham Festival and giving 
a private performance of Israel in 



Egypt. His most important compo- 
sition for that year was the overture, 
Joan of Arc. During the winter of 
1836 and 1837 Moscheles gave three 
piano concerts, which were then a 
novelty in London, and after an im- 
mense amount of labor brought out 
and himself conducted Beethoven's 
Ninth Symphony with brilliant suc- 
cess at a Philharmonic Society con- 
cert. His compositions for that year 
were two studies written during his 
vacation. Moscheles inaugurated the 
season of 1838 bj' a series of histori- 
cal concerts, and during the winter 
of 1838 to 1839 held chamber concerts 
every Saturday at his own home. 
During this winter he wrote the study 
in A and Liebesfriihling and w^orked 
on an edition of Beethoven's work. 
In 18.39 he appeared with Ferdinand 
David at the second concert of the 
Philharmonic Societ3% playing his Pas- 
toral Concerto on this occasion. The 
following year he was appointed 
Court pianist to Prince Albert. Dur- 
ing this year he prepared for publica- 
tion his Recollections of Beethoven, 
and brought out Methode des 
Methodes, written with Fetis. In 1841 
he again conducted the Ninth Sym- 
phony at a Philharmonic concert. 
During his holidays at Boulogne he 
wrote the serenade and a tarentella 
and arranged Beethoven's Septet as a 
piano duet. 

The year 1846 was an important 
one for Moscheles and marked a turn- 
ing point in his career In January 
he accepted the position of head of 
the department for playing and com- 
position at the Leipsic Conservatory, 
which enabled him to work at the side 
of his beloved Felix Mendelssohn. 
His four matinees for Classical Piano 
Music of that j'car were very success- 
ful, and after a brilliant farewell con- 
cert he left for Germany. After 
stopping at Frankfort, where he first 
met Jenny Lind, he arrived in Leipsic 
and immediately took up his duties 
at the Conservatory and began that 
system of careful teaching and that 
friendly service to his pupils which 
made him greatly beloved by them. 
His friendship with Mendelssohn and 
his family was a source of great pleas- 
ure to both musicians, and on Men- 
delssohn's death a year later he 
grieved not only for a great musician 
cut oflF from his work but also for a 
friend. During a visit to England in 
1861 he played at the Philharmonic 


concert, and on another visit in 1866 
he composed his Familienleben while 
at the seaside surrounded by children 
and grandchildren. Thus working at 
the Conservatory and spending vaca- 
tions in travel to various countries 
he passed a long and useful life. His 
death occurred at Leipsic, March 10, 
1870. He was a thorough disciple of 
classic music. As a piano-player he 
ranked with Hummel. He wrote a great 
number of compositions of rare ex- 
cellence. Some of the more important 
are Concerto Pathetique, Hommage 
a Handel for two pianos, Concerto in 
G minor, Alexander Variations, 
Twenty-four Studies, Concerto Pas- 
toral, Charactertistic Studies, the 
grand fantasie. Souvenirs of Ireland, 
grand trio for piano, violin and cello. 
Grand Senate Symphonique and Duo 
Concertant on the Gypsy March from 
Preciosa, written with Mendelssohn. 
With Fetis he wrote his Methode des 
Methodes for piano. 

Mosel (mo'-zel), Ignaz Franz. 1772- 

Composer and conductor; a native 
of Vienna. A pupil of Joseph Fischer 
from 1812 to 1816, he conducted the 
first festivals of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreude for which services he 
was ennobled and given the title of 
Hofrath. From 1820 to 1829 he held 
the position of conductor and vice- 
director of the two Court theatres and 
from 1829 until his death he was the 
chief custodian of the Imperial 
Library. For Paradies, the blind 
pianist, he arranged Haydn's Crea- 
tion and Cosi fan tutti for two pianos, 
and he also arranged the Creation, 
Cherubini's Deux journees and 
Medee for string quartet besides 
translating the text and putting addi- 
tional instrumentation to some of 
Haydn's oratorios for the use of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreude. Among 
his own compositions are the opera, 
Cyrus und Astyages; the comic operas 
Die Feuerprobe and Der Mann von 
vierzig jahrem; the cantata, Hermes 
und Flora; overtures, entr'actes; 
dances and songs. Of his writings 
on musical subjects there are t)ber 
das Leben imd die Werke des Antonio 
Salieri; Versuch einer ..^sthetik des 
dramatischen Tonsazts; Uber die 
Original partitur des Requiems von 
W. A. Mozart; Die Tonkunst in Wien 
wahrend der letzten fiinf Decennien, 
and Geschichte der Hofbibliothek. 



Mosenthal (mo'-zen-tal), Joseph. 1834- 

Conductor and musical writer; born 
at Hesse-Cassel, Germany, but was 
identified with the music of New York 
City during the latter half of the 
Nineteenth Century. He received a 
thorough musical education, being the 
pupil of Bott, Kraushaar and Spohr, 
under whom he led the second violins 
of the Court Orchestra for four years. 
Coming to America in 1853 he imme- 
diately became identified with musical 
work in New York, playing for a time 
in Jullien's Orchestra and in 1860 be- 
coming organist at Calvary Church, 
where he remained until 1878. He 
was a member of the famous Mason 
and Thomas String Quartet, playing 
second violin, and for forty years he 
played first violin in the Philharmonic 
Orchestra. Besides this work he was 
a prominent teacher in New York. 
He was the conductor of the New 
York Mendelssohn Glee Club, and 
died while conducting a rehearsal of 
this organization. 

Moskowa (moshk'-va), Joseph Na- 
poleon Ney, Prince de la. 1803- 

Eldest son of Marshal Ney; a 
musical writer and composer who 
contributed greatly to the advance- 
ment of music in France. He was 
born in Paris, and as a child showed 
great musical ability, composing a 
mass which was performed at Lucca. 
He acquired recognition for several 
articles which he had written for vari- 
ous periodicals, among them the 
Revue des deux Mondes and the Con- 
stitutionnel, and with Adolphe Adam, 
he founded the Societe des Concerts 
de musique religieuse et classique, and 
published for that society a catalog 
of the works in its fine collection, 
which catalog is now extremely rare. 
He was a friend of Delsarte and of 
the composer Niedermeyer whom he 
assisted in founding the ficole de 
musique Religieuse. In 1831 he com- 
posed a mass for voices and orchestra 
which was given by the pupils of 
Choron's School with great success, 
and in 1840 he brought out his one- 
act-opera, Le Cent-Suisse, at the Opera 
Comique, following it in 1855 by an- 
other one-act comic piece entitled 
Yvonne. Moskowa was also a briga- 
dier-general under Napoleon III. He 
died in St. Germain-en-Laye. 

Mosonyi (mo-son' -ye), Michael Brandt. 


A piano-player and composer; one 
of the ablest representatives of Hun- 
garian music; born at Boldog-Aszony, 
Hungary. In 1834 he went to Pres- 
burg, where for seven years he taught 
piano in the household of Count 
Pejachevits. In 1842 he moved to 
Pesth where he met Liszt, who ad- 
mired him greatly and in 1857 wished 
to produce his German opera, Max- 
imilian, in Weimar, but by suggesting 
several changes so discouraged its 
author that he threw the manuscript 
into the fire. About 1860 his compo- 
sitions began to assume a distinctly 
national tone, and he began to write 
under the nom de plume, Mosonyi, 
his name in the Magyar tongue, in 
stead of using Michael Brandt, as 
formerly. In 1861 he produced his 
Hungarian opera, Szep Ilonka, and 
soon followed this by Almos, which, 
however, he never finished. He also 
wrote a funeral symphony for Count 
Szechenyi; his symphonic poem. 
Triumph and Mourning of the 
Honved; Studies for the improvement 
of Hungarian Music; Childhood's 
Realm, besides an overture with the 
national song Szozat and other songs 
national in character. 

Moszkowski (mosh-kof'-shki), Moritz. 

Pianist and composer; born at 
Breslau, Silesia. He studied first at 
Breslau and the Conservatory in 
Dresden, then at Stern's Conservatory 
and Kullak's Academy in Berlin, in 
which city he has lived for over 
thirty years. His first concert, given 
in Berlin in 1873, was brilliantly suc- 
cessful and was followed by many 
others in Berlin, Paris, Warsaw and 
London. In 1897 he went to Paris 
to live and in 1899 he was made a 
member of the Berlin Academy. 
Although primarily a writer of cham- 
ber-music, he has produced an opera, 
Boabdil and a ballet, Laurin. His 
piano compositions are full of gaiety 
and life and are very popular Among 
them are Spanish dances for piano; 
Concertstiicke for violin and piano; a 
Humoresque; a Tarantella; his piano 
composition for four hands, entitled 
From Foreign Parts, in which he 
portrays vividly the characteristics of 
various nationalities, Spaniards Hun- 
garians, Russians and Italians. He 
has also w^ritten two orchestral suites, 



Jeanne d'arc, a symphony in four 
movements; and Phantastischer Zug 
for orchestra. 

His brother, Alexander, born at 
Pilica, Poland in 1851, is musical 
critic of the Deutsches IMontagsblatt 
and joint editor of Berliner Wespen 
at Berlin and has also written several 
humorous booklets. 

Mottl (mot'-'l), Felix. 1856- 

Gifted German orchestra conduc- 
tor; born at Unter St. Veit, near 
Vienna. As a boy, his beautiful 
soprano voice enabled him to enter 
the Lowenberg Konvikt, a prepara- 
tory school to the Imperial Court 
Chapel. Afterward, at Vienna Con- 
servatory he studied conducting under 
Josef Hellmesberger, composition 
under Dessoff, theory under Bruck- 
ner and Scheuer 'and piano under 
Door, and took many prizes. Intrusted 
with the conductorship of the Acad- 
emic Wagnerverein of Vienna, his 
talents for the work at once mani- 
fested themselves. In 1876 he was 
stage conductor of the Nibelungen- 
Kanzlei, an organization which took 
charge of the rehearsals for the musi- 
cal festival at Bayreuth. In 1880 he 
succeeded Dessoff as conductor of 
the Grand Ducal Opera House of 
Carlsruhe, a position which he held 
until 1903. He conducted the Phil- 
harmonic concerts until 1892. In 
1886 he conducted the festival per- 
formance of Tristan and Isolde at 
Bayreuth so successfully that he was 
offered the position of chapelmaster 
of the Berlin Opera, an honor which 
he declined. In 1898 he rejected a 
similar offer from Munich. Besides 
this work he has also conducted suc- 
cessfully in London and Paris, and 
in 1903 and 1904 he conducted the 
performance of Parsifal given in New 
York. In 1904 he was made a director 
of the Royal Academy of Music at 
Berlin, and in 1907 at Munich he re- 
ceived the order of St. Michel of the 
second class from Prince Regent. He 
is one of the most enterprising of 
modern conductors and at Carlsruhe 
brought performances of the Royal 
Opera House up to a very high stand- 
ard, producing all the Cycles of Ber- 
lioz and of Richard Wagner. As a 
conductor his work is distinguished 
by a careful mastery of detail and a 
conscientious rendition of the notes of 
the score rather than by any orig- 
inality or force of interpretation. 


Mottl has been successful as a com- 
poser. His opera, Agnes Bernauer, 
was given at Weimar in 1886 and his 
one-act opera, Fiirst und Sanger, came 
out at Carlsruhe in 1893. He also 
wrote Ranim and a festival piece en- 
titled Elberstein; the song cycle, Pan 
in Busch; and a string quartet. He 
arranged for orchestra, Liszt's piano 
solo, St. Francis Preaching to the 
Birds; and also edited Cornelius' Bar- 
ber of Bagdad and some of Berlioz's 

Moussorgsky (moos-sorg'-shki), Mo- 
deste Petrovich. 1835-1881. 

One of the strangest and most 
tragic figures in the history of mod- 
ern music. He was a man possessed 
of great native ability, but cursed with 
those qualities of an artistic tempera- 
ment which made it almost impos- 
sible for him to submit himself to 
discipline and restriction, or to pur- 
sue any one course for any length 
of time. He was incapable of enough 
concentration to study the technical 
part of music, and as a result, his 
writings have had to be edited by 
other musicians before they could be 
presented to the world. He was a 
realist of the most pronounced type, 
and his compositions, often quite lack- 
ing in form or beauty, make a direct 
appeal to the heart. Born at his 
father's country home at Kareve, in 
the government of Pskov, on March 
28, 1835, the early part of his life 
passed quietly in the country. His 
musical talents were early developed, 
for his parents were both musicians, 
and his mother gave him piano les- 
sons at which he showed such prog- 
ress that when only nine he could 
play several of Liszt's compositions. 
He went to the Ensigns' School at St. 
Petersburg, and while there continued 
his music under the pianist, Herke. 
When only seventeen he entered the 
Preobrajensky Regiment, famed as 
one of the smartest in the Russian 
service. But the restrictions of a 
military career and its constant in- 
terruptions of his musical pursuits 
caused him to resign from the service 
little more than a year after he had 
entered it. Through an acquaintance 
with Dargomysky, which he formed 
in 1857, he became associated with 
Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodini, Balaki- 
rev, Cui and the other musicians 
who formed the little circle of neo- 
Russian musicians. He turned his 



attention to the study of Beethoven 
and Schumann and GHnka, but could 
not confine himself to a serious study 
of technics and professed the great- 
est contempt for musicians whose 
jworks were purely examples of tech- 
nical skill. In order to make a living 
Moussorgsky did some translating 
and took a position in the Govern- 
ment Civil Engineering Department. 
A life of excess affected his health 
and caused the loss of his position, 
and in 1866 he went to live with a 
brother at Minkino. In 1868 having 
finished his opera, Boris Godounov, 
he took it to St. Petersburg, but no 
one would undertake it until he had 
revised and shortened it, so it was not 
performed until 1874. It reached its 
twentieth performance during that 
season, and in 1889 it was performed 
in Moscow. Thus encouraged, he be- 
gan to write an opera around the 
story of Princess Khovanstchina. In 
1870 he went to St. Petersburg to 
live, working for a time in the Gov- 
ernment Department of Forests and 
afterwards in the Department of Con- 
trol; but he was permanently dis- 
missed in 1879, when he went on a 
concert tour through Central and 
Eastern Russia with the distinguished 
singer, Mile. Leonov. This enter- 
prise promised to better^ Moussorg- 
sky's circumstances, but it came too 
late. After leading a life of excess, 
and in his latter years indulging in 
the use of drugs, his health was com- 
pletely gone and he died on his forty- 
second birthday in the St. Nicholas 
Military Hospital in St. Petersburg. 
His disposition seems to have been 
passionate and impatient of control, 
proud and self-willed. He had the 
greatest amount of self-confidence 
and of belief in_ his own originality. 
The most imaginative of musicians, 
his object was to copy nature as ex- 
actly as possible; regardless of laws 
and forms of music, to portray living 

His songs are usually regarded as 
his finest work, and though they are 
often formless, incoherent expressions 
of moods, their force always strikes 
to the heart. His series of children's 
songs, entitled The Nursery, gives re- 
markable pictures of the many phases 
of childhood, and the Song-Cycles, 
Sunlight, and Songs and Dances of 
Death, written near the end of his 
life, portray his own anguish and 
struggle. His opera, Boris Godounov, 


based on Pushkin's powerful histori- 
cal drama, is a wonderful piece of 
character painting, as is also his other 
opera, Khovanstchina. Many of his 
compositions have been revised and 
edited by other Russian musicians, 
among them Boris Godounov, revised 
by Rimsky-Korsakow in 1896, and the 
chorus, La Nuit au Mont-Chauve, and 
Khovanstchina also revised by Rimsky- 
Korsakow. Among other composi- 
tions are ten sketches for piano called 
Pictures from an Exhibition; Una 
Larne; On the Southern Shores of 
Crimea; A Child's Joke; The Semp- 
stress; The Matchmaker, of which he 
completed only one act; Joshua Navin 
and the Destruction of Sennacherib, 
both based on Hebraic themes; 
choruses, Salammbo and CEdipus; the 
songs, Gopak, The Little Feast, 
Dawn, Night, Peasant Cradle Song, 
The Seminarist, Savischna, Hebrew 
Song, The Dneiper, The Swaggerer, 
The Nurse and the Child. 

Mouton (moo-tori), Jean de HoUingue. 


Well-known contrapuntist and com- 
poser; born at Holling, near Metz, in 
the Department de la Somme, France. 
He was a pupil of Josquin Despres 
and afterward the teacher of Willaert. 
He was chapel-singer to Louis XII. 
and Francis I., and canon at Therou- 
anne and St. Quentin, where he died. 
An edition of five of his masses is 
one of the earliest examples of a 
whole book of compositions of one 
master. Among his published works 
are nine masses; seventy-five motets 
and psalms and some French songs. 
The book of five masses which Fetis 
thinks to have been published in 1508 
was at one time quite common, but 
is now very rare and the copy of the 
second edition is considered the only 
complete one. Twenty-one of the 
motets were printed during Mouton's 
lifetime and in the British Museum 
is a copy of the twenty-two motets 
printed in 1555 by Le Roy, and also 
a complete score of this work. 

Mozart (mo'-tsart), Leopold. 1719- 

His chief claim for interest is that 
he was the father of Wolfgang 
Amadeus Mozart, whose education he 
superintended with reverent care. His 
own musical education was obtained 
mainly as a chorister in Augsburg, his 
native town, and later in Salzburg, 




whither he went to study law. He 
was an excellent violinist and in 1743 
he entered the Prince Bishop's Or- 
chestra. He was appointed Court 
composer and vice-Kapellmeister in 
1762. On discovering the decided 
talent for music possessed by his 
daughter, Maria Anna, and his son, 
Wolfgang, he devoted his life to their 
training, traveling with them and 
carefully superintending their studies 
both at home and abroad. He died 
at Salzburg. He was a composer of 
pronounced ability and wrote much 
sacred music, twelve oratorios; sym- 
phonies; concertos; six trio sonatas 
for two violins with basso continuo; 
Offertorium de Sacramento for four 
voices; and many other pieces secular 
and sacred. Perhaps the most 
important is his Vexsuch einer griind- 
lischen Violinschule, long the only 
violin method, and a work of decided 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. 1756- 

One of the greatest composers the 
world has yet known; born at Salz- 
burg, Austria, 1756. His father, 
Leopold Mozart, was a man of fine 
education and prof ound religious feeling 
and a thorough musician. Of seven 
children there grew up only Wolf- 
gang and an elder sister, Maria Anna, 
who early showed great musical 
ability and as a child, traveled with 
her brother on his concert tours. 
When only three years old ]\Iozart 
took deep interest in his sister's 
music lessons and learned to pick out 
thirds on the piano. When only four 
he began learning little pieces and 
when five he dictated to his father 
some minuets and composed a con- 
certo so difficult that no one could 
play it. In 1762 the family made their 
first concert tour, playing at Munich, 
where the Elector received them 
kindly; at Linz and at Vienna. Here 
at court they made a most favor- 
able impression, especially Wolfgang, 
whose remarkable talent and childish 
naturalness charmed the Emperor and 
Empress. After appearing in several 
concerts the family journeyed to 
Presburg, returning to Salzburg 
early in 1763. The first tour had 
proved so successful that early in 
June, 1763, they started again, with 
Paris as their goal. In 1764 they 
went to London and played three 
times at court. Mozart also played 


the organ and, during an illness of his 
father, wrote his first symphony. His 
father had six of his sonatas for 
harpsichord and violin engraved and 
dedicated them to the Queen, and in 
1765 he presented to the British Mu- 
seum copies of all his printed com- 
positions and an engraving from the 
Carmontelle picture. They left Eng- 
land to play at the Court of Holland. 
After playing the organ at Ghent and 
Harlem they went to Paris, where 
Mozart played several times at court. 
On the way home they stopped at 
Munich, where the Elector was much 
pleased with Wolfgang's progress. 
They reached Salzburg in November, 

During all the time of their travels 
Leopold Mozart had educated his 
children most carefully and on their 
return to Salzburg guided his son in 
a careful study of Fux's Gradus ad 
Parnassum. The archbishop gave 
Wolfgang the first part of a sacred 
cantata to compose and during this 
period he also wrote a Passions-can- 
tate; his first piano concerto; and a 
Latin comedy, Apollo et Hyacinthus. 
In September, attracted by the ap- 
proaching betrothal of Archduchess 
Josepha, the family went to Vienna, 
but when smallpox broke out fled 
to Olmiitz, where both children were 
ill of the disease. They did not re- 
turn to Vienna until 1768, when they 
were well received at court. 

In December, 1769, with his father,' 
Mozart started for Italy. In Verona 
he performed one of his symphonies, 
composing and singing an air to 
words that were given him; in Milan 
after playing in concert he was com- 
missioned to write an opera for the 
next stagione. At Bologna he met 
Padre Martini, who delighted in him, 
instructing him and giving him fugues 
to work out, which he did to the 
great critic's satisfaction At Flor- 
ence he was graciously received by 
Archduke Leopold and played at 
court, accompanying Nardini, the 
great violinist, and solving hard musi- 
cal problems set before him by Mar- 
quis des Ligniville, director of Court 
music and a thorough contrapuntist. 
Reaching Rome on Wednesday of 
Holy Week he heard Allegri's famous 
Miserere in the Sistine Chapel and 
wrote out the entire composition from 
memory. On his return to Rome in 
June the Pope granted him the Order 
of the Golden Spur, with which he 




had also honored Gluck. When 
Mozart reached Bologna he was 
elected a member of the Accademia 
Filarmonica, of which he became 
maestro di cappella in 1771, and he 
received from Padre Martini a formal 
testimonial. He wrote a Miserere 
which shows the impression made on 
him by one he had heard in Rome. 
Returning to Milan he set to work 
on his opera, Mitridate, Re di Ponto, 
which after a deal of trouble with 
singers and musical rivals he brought 
out very successfully in December, 
1770. After stopping at Vicenza and 
Verona, he returned to Milan 
in August to compose the opera, 
Ascanio in Alba, which he had been 
commissioned to write for the car- 
nival. He reached Salzburg in 1771 
and was soon working on an opera, 
II Sogno di Scipione, which was per- 
formed in 1772. The next year he 
went again to Milan to work on the 
opera, Lucio Silla, produced most 
successfully in December. During 
this year he also composed the im- 
portant litany, De Venerabile. _ 

He returned to Salzburg in 1773 
and devoted himself to composing, 
going that summer to Vienna, where 
he first became familiar with Haydn's 
quartets, compositions by which he 
was strongly influenced. His position 
at Salzburg in time became so distaste- 
ful to him that after the Archbishop 
had refused his father permission to 
go with him on a concert tour, he 
applied for his discharge, which was 
angrily granted, and determined to 
set out in company with his mother. 

In September, 1777, after a sorrow- 
ful parting with his father, Mozart 
and his mother started for Munich, 
their first stop, where they received 
a most discouraging reception. At 
Mannheim they met many congenial 
people and remained for some time. 
There was Cannabich, to whose 
daughter Mozart gave piano lessons, 
Wieland and Freiherr von Gem- 
mingen, Holtzbauer and Schweitzer 
and the quartet, Raaff, Wendling, 
Ramm and Ritter and also the 
Webers, who played so important a 
part in Mozart's after life. About 
this time he fell in love with Aloysia 
Weber; he taught her singing and 
proposed to arrange for her appear- 
ance in opera in Italy. On hearing 
this his father peremptorily ordered 
him to Paris, whither he went reluc- 
tantly in March, 1778. He heard opera 


by Gluck, Gretry, Monsigny and Phili- 
dor, and wrote his Paris Symphony. 
In July his mother died suddenly in 
Paris, and heartbroken, he left in Sep- 
tember for Salzburg. He arrived in 
Salzburg the middle of June the fol- 
lowing year and worked steadily 
there until 1780, when he received a 
commission from Karl Theodore to 
write an opera for the Munich Car- 
nival of the following year. Ihi? 
opera, Idomeneo, King of Crete, writ- 
ten to a libretto of Abbate Varesco, 
was very successful and established 
Mozart's position as a dramatic writer. 
For a while after this he made a 
scant living teaching and composing, 
and had leisure to fulfil his plan of 
writing a German opera to a libretto 
furnished him through the influence 
of the Emperor. The result was The 
Escape from the Seraglio, performed 
very successfully, and at the Emper- 
or's special command in July, 1/82. 
About a month after this he married 
Constanze Weber, a sister of Aloysia. 
His married life proved a sad one, 
for although the tenderest affection 
existed between him and his wife they 
were constantly involved in pecuniary 

In 1785 his father visited him in 
Vienna, taking the greatest delight in 
his playing and composition, and while 
there joining the Free Masons, in 
which order Wolfgang was deeply 
interested. A performance of Ido- 
meneo, given at the palace of Prince 
Auersperg, attracted the attention of 
the dramatist. Da Ponte, who obtained 
the Emperor's consent to adapt Beau- 
marchais' Manage de Figaro for 
Mozart. The first performance of this 
opera, given in May, 1786, was re- 
ceived with the greatest enthusiasm. 
But even after this Mozart received 
no aid from court, and obtained his 
only encouragement from Prague, 
where Figaro had created a sensation. 
The composer was invited to come 
there and was greeted with an ovation; 
in fact this visit is one of the few 
bright spots in his latter years. Here 
was written Don Giovanni, to a lib- 
retto of Da Ponte's, and produced in 
the autumn of 1787. Soon after this 
Gluck died and IMozart went to 
Vienna, hoping to be given a suitable 
position, but was greatly disappointed 
to receive only the minor appointment 
of Kammercompositor, with a salary 
of about four hundred dollars a year. 
During 1787 he composed his three 




finest symphonies, those in E flat, G 
minor and C. During 1788 he con- 
ducted a series of concerts organized 
by van Swieten, for whom he added 
wind parts to Handel's Messiah, Ode 
to St. Cecilia's Day, and Acis and 

In 1789 he accepted an invitation 
from Prince Karl Lichnowsky to go 
to Berlin. On arriving there he was 
taken to Potsdam and presented to 
the King, who showed his apprecia- 
tion of Mozart's genius by offering 
him the position of chapelmaster, 
which he refused because he did not 
wish to leave his Emperor. He gave 
a concert in Leipsic, played before 
the Queen in Berlin, and returning in 
June to Vienna set to work to write 
some quartets ordered by the King. 
Receiving a commission from the 
Emperor he began C'osi fan tutti, of 
Da Ponte's, but before it was finished 
the Emperor died. On the coronation 
of his successor, Leopold II., at 
Frankfort, Mozart made his last pro- 
fessional tour. He gave a concert at 
the Frankfort Stadttheatre and after- 
ward played before the King of 
Naples and the Elector at Munich; 
but these concerts brought him no 
commission and he returned to Vienna 
greatly discouraged. Soon after he 
bade goodbye to Haydn, whom he 
had met in 1781, and whose friendship 
had been of the greatest benefit to 
him. He worked very hard during 
this time and produced a beautiful 
motet, Ave Verum, a forerunner of 
the Requiem and the Magic Flute. He 
wrote The Magic Flute to aid 
Schikaneder, who had a little theatre 
in the suburb of Wieden, and while 
hard at work on it received a com- 
mission to write a requiem from a 
mysterious personage who enjoined 
secrecy. Soon after he was asked to 
write an opera for the coronation of 
Leopold II., at Prague, in which city 
he composed and conducted La 
Clemenza de Tito, performed on the 
evening of the coronation, when it 
received but little attention from the 
Court audience. Disappointed and 
ill, Mozart returned home and finished 
The Magic Flute, which was intro- 
duced in September and after a few 
performances became very popular. 
He now turned his attention to the 
Requiem, but illness and disappoint- 
ment had induced a state of deep 
dejection and he was unable to pro- 
ceed. Seized with a haunting belief in 


his approaching death, the Requiem 
score was taken away from him. Then 
for a time he rallied, composing and 
even conducting a cantata for his 
lodge, but soon after relapsing and 
finally taking to his bed. About this 
time brighter prospects appeared for 
him; the nobles of Hungary raised a 
fund guaranteeing him a certain 
annuity, and the people of Amster- 
dam took a subscription, to have him 
write some compositions for them. 
But it was too late. He tried vainly 
to proceed with the Requiem, and 
on December 4 attempted to sing it 
through with Hofer, Shack, and Gerl, 
but on reaching the Lacrimosa burst 
into tears and put it by. He died 
Dec. 5, 1791, and was buried in a 
pauper's grave, the location of which 
is unknown. 

His life was one of struggle and 
disappointment, for through appreci- 
ation of his work did not come until 
after his death. He was unfailingly 
industrious, and in the short time that 
he lived he wrote many compositions. 
His religious writings comprise fifteen 
masses, four litanies, four Kyries, and 
many other sacred vocal compositions, 
of which may be mentioned as im- 
portant his Litania de Venerabili, 
Laurentanae; two Litanie de Venerabili 
in B flat and E flat; two vespers in 
C; the motet, Misericordias Domine 
Venite populi; the marvelous Ave 
Verum; the mass in C minor; and the 
unfinished Requiem, greatest of all. 
Of his forty-nine symphonies the best 
known are the dreamy one in E flat, 
the one in G minor, the Jupiter sym- 
phony, vigorous and dignified. His 
many beautiful quartets are equaled 
only by those of Haydn and Bee- 
thoven. Of his operas, Idomeneo; 
Figaro; Don Giovanni; and The 
Magic Flute are the most important. 
Besides these he has writen chamber- 
music, songs, and many beautiful 
sonatas. Throughout all his composi- 
tions there is a purity of conception, 
a wealth of beauty such as is found 
only in works of genius. In which- 
ever of the many branches of com- 
position he worked we see the 
greatest technical knowledge linked to 
loftiness and purity of thought. 


Breakspeare, E. J. — Mozart. 
Jahn, Otto — W. A. Mozart 3 vols. 
Kerst, Friedrich, comp. — Mozart, the 
man and the artist. 




Nissen, G. N. von — Biographic W. A. 

Nohl, Louis — Life of Mozart. 
Oulibicheff, Alexander von — Nou- 

velle Biographic de Mozart. 3 vols. 
Pohl, K. F. — Mozart und Haydn in 

London. 2 vols. 
Prout, Ebenezer — Mozart. 
Rau, H. — Mozart; a biographical 


Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus jr. 1791- 

Son of the great Mozart, and a piano- 
player and composer of considerable 
ability; was born in Vienna. He was 
the pupil of Neukomm, A. Streicher, 
Albrechtsberger and Salieri and made 
his first public appearance when four- 
teen years old, on which occasion he 
played a concerto of his father's and 
two compositions of his own, vari- 
ations on the minuet from Don Juan, 
and a cantata in honor of Haydn's 
seventy-third birthday. In 1808 he 
came under the patronage of Count 
Bawarowsky of Galicia, and in 1814 
he founded the Cecilia Society at 
Lemberg where he lived many years 
as a teacher of piano. From there he 
went to Vienna, then to Karlsbad, in 
Bohemia, where he died. Among his 
compositions are two piano concertos; 
a piano sonata; a piano tno; string 
quartet; variations; polonaises and 
other piano compositions; also some 

Muck (mook), Karl. 1859- 

Orchestra conductor and pianist; 
was born at Darmstadt, Bavaria. At 
Heidelberg and Leipsic he studied 
philosophy, graduating from the Uni- 
versity in Leipsic, studied at the Con- 
servatory for three years, making his 
musical debut in 1880 as a pianist in 
the Gewandhaus. He was conductor 
at Zurich, Salzburg, Briinn, and in 
1886 at Gratz. He was director of 
Neumann's Traveling Opera Com- 
pany, and in 1892 at Berlin became 
conductor of the Royal Opera until 
1906, then came to America to con- 
duct the Boston Symphony concerts. 
In 1899 he conducted German Opera 
at Covent Garden, and in 1902 he 
conducted at the Bayreuth Festival. 

Mudie, Thomas Molleson. 1809-1876. 

Composer and piano-player; born at 
Chelsea; was one of ten successful 
candidates to enter the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music under its first examina- 
tion in 1823. He studied piano with 

Cipriani Potter, composition with Dr. 
Crotch and with Willman the clari- 
net, the instrument which he played 
in the school orchestra, and upon 
which he is said to have become a 
delightful performer, although he 
abandoned it after his student days. 
During his study at the Academy he 
wrote several vocal pieces with 
orchestral accompaniments; a sym- 
phony in C and a symphony in B flat, 
as well as his Lungi dal caro bene, of 
which the committee of management 
paid the cost of publication. In 1832 
Mudie became a professor of piano at 
the Academy, acting in that capacity 
until 1844. He was organist at 
Gatton until 1844, going then to Edin- 
burgh to succeed Devaux as teacher, 
and remaining there until 1863, when 
he returned to London for the re- 
mainder of his life. In the library of 
the Royal Academy are all his scores 
that remain, and all of his printed 
works, among them being symphony 
in F; symphony in D; quintet in E flat 
for piano and strings; accompaniment 
to many of Wood's Collection of 
Songs of Scotland; an exceedingly 
fine collection of twenty-four sacred 
songs; three church anthems for 
three voices; three sacred duets; 
forty-two separate songs; two duets; 
and the forty-eight original piano 
solos, of which twelve are dedicated 
to Sterndale Bennett. 

Muff at (moof'-fat), Georg. 

Composer and harmonist of the 
latter part of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury, the date and place of whose 
birth are unknown. For six years he 
studied Lully's methods in Paris, and 
until 1675 was organist of the Stras- 
burg Cathedral. About 1678 he was 
made organist to the Bishop of Salz- 
burg, and traveled in Vienna and 
Rome. In 1690 he was made organist, 
and in 1695 master of the pages and 
chapelmaster to the Bishop of Pas- 
sau. He died in Passau in 1704. In 
1690 he published his important 
Apparatus musico-organist, which 
consists of twelve toccate and which 
he dedicated to Emperor Leopold I. 
Other works are Svaviores harmoni- 
cae — Florilegium I., and Florilegium 
mit Ernst und Lust Gemengte Instru- 
mental Music. 

Miihldorfer (mul'-derf-er), Wilhelm 

Karl. 1837- 

Born at Gratz, Styria; a writer of 
operas. His father was inspector of 




theatres at IMannheim, and he studied 
there and at Linz-on-the-Danube. He 
became an actor at Mannheim, but in 
1855 he took a position as chapel- 
master of the City Theatre at Ulm. 
From 1867 to 1881 he was chapel- 
master at Leipsic, and since 1881 he 
has occupied a similar position at 
Cologne. His writings are Prinzessin 
Rebenbliite and In Kyffhauser, Der 
Commandant von Konigstein; Der 
Goldmacher von Strasburg, all operas; 
besides the ballet, Waldensamkeit, 
incidental music to several plays, 
overtures, choruses and songs. 

Mullet (mul'-ler), Adolf. 1801-1886. 

Singer and composer; born at 
Tolna, Hungary; a pupil of Rieger, 
organist of Briinn Cathedral, later of 
Joseph Blumenthal in Vienna. Al- 
though when eight years old he 
played the piano in concert he later 
devoted himself to stage singing at 
Prague, Lemberg and Briinn and in 
1826 at the Karnther Court Theatre. 
In 1828 he was appointed chapel- 
master and composer at the Theatre 
an der Wien, at Vienna. He was a 
rapid composer, and in 1868 his 
operas, operettas, melodramas and 
other works reached the number of 
five hundred and seventy-nine. Among 
them are operas, Astraee, Sera- 
phine; and the operettas, Die Schwarze 
Frau, Die Erste Zusammenfunst, and 
Wer Andern eine Grube grabt, fallt 
selbst hinein; as well as about sixty 
Singspiels and various other compo- 

Muller, Adolf jr. 1839- 

Writer of operas; son of Adolf 
Miiller; born in Vienna. He studied 
with his father, became chapelmaster 
of the Opera at Posen in 1864, re- 
maining a year there, then filling a 
similar position at Magdeburg until 
1867. From 1868 to 1875 he was 
leader at Diisseldorf, and since 1875 
he has conducted German Opera in 
Rotterdam. He has produced two 
operas, Waldmeister's Brantfahrt, and 
Heinrich der Goldschmidt; and the 
operettas, Der Kleine Prinz; Der 
Hofnarr, Das Gespenst in der Spinns- 
tube; Der Liebeshof; Die Kammer- 
jungfer; Des Teufels Weib; Der 
Blondin von Namur; Der Millionen 
Onkel; and Lady Charlatan. 

Miiller, August Eberhard. 1767-1817. 

Composer and performer on the 

organ, piano and flute; born at Nord- 

heim, Hanover. Received his first 
musical instruction at Rinteln, where 
his father was organist. He pro- 
gressed so rapidly that at the age of 
eight he had appeared in concert in 
several cities. In 1785 he went to 
Leipsic, and spent several years in 
Brunswick, finally becoming organist 
at the Church of St. Ulrich at 
Magdeburg in 1789. In 1794 he be- 
came organist of St. Nicholas Church 
at Leipsic, and in 1800 was appointed 
assistant to Hiller in the Thomas- 
schule, becoming cantor there on 
Hiller's death in 1804. He moved to 
Weimar in 1810 and died there in 
1817. He was an excellent performer 
on organ, piano and flute, and left the 
following compositions: For organ, 
suites, choral variations and a sonata; 
for flute, method for flute, eleven con- 
certos, twenty-three duets for two 
fluteSj and a fantasia with orchestra; 
for piano, an excellent method, a trio 
for piano and strings, two concertos, 
two sonatas for violin and piano, ca- 
denzas to Mozart's concertos and 
sonatas for piano; also some vocal 
music, an operetta, a sacred cantata, 
motets and songs. 

* Muller, Carl Christian. 1837- 

Composer, conductor, and teacher 
of harmony in New York City; born 
in Saxe-Meiningen. He studied piano 
with F. W. Pfeifer and his son, Hein- 
rich; harmony with A. Zellner, and 
organ with Butzert. Coming to New 
York in 1854 he was engaged for a 
time in a piano factory, then entered 
the orchestra of Barnum's Museum, 
ultimately becoming its leader. He 
established^ himself as a teacher of 
harmony in New York and later 
became identified with the New York 
College of Music as teacher of har- 
mony and associated branches. In 
1907 he was teaching at Dr. Eber- 
hardt's Grand Conservatory, New 
York Conservatory, and the Uptown 
Conservatory. He translated Sechter's 
Grundsatze der Musikalischen Com- 
position or Fundamental Harmony, 
and supplemented it by four sets of 
tables on primary instruction, modu- 
lation, chord succession and har- 
monization. For piano he has pub- 
lished Pleasant Recollections; Golden 
Hours, and a great number of pieces 
for small bands; three sonatas for 
organ; a sonata for violin and piano; 
a string quartet in A minor; some 
four-part male choruses; songs; organ 
postludes. Among his works in 



manuscript is a symphony for orches- 
tra in D minor; two suites in G 
minor and E flat major; two over- 
tures; an Idyll on an excerpt from 
Hiawatha, and other compositions. 

MuUer, Friedrich. 1786-1871. 

Eminent clarinettist and composer; 
born at Orlamiinde, Altenburg, where 
he began the study of music under 
his father, who was town musician. 
He took up composition with Hein- 
rich Koch, and at the age of sixteen 
joined the orchestra of the Prince 
von Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt as vio- 
loncellist, then as clarinettist, and suc- 
ceeded Eberwein as chapelmaster in 
1831. He also made extensive concert 
tours. Some of his compositions are 
two symphonies; overtures; Romance 
varie for clarinet and orchestra; 
clarinet etudes; quartets and terzets 
for horns; Theme varie for bassoon 
and orchestra; four collections of 
dances for bassoon and orchestra; a 
prize quartet for clarinet concertos 
and concertinos for clarinet; diver- 
tissements for piano and clarinet; and 
musique militaire. 
Muller, Ivan. 1786-1854. 

Clarinet virtuoso, who made im- 
portant improvements in his instru- 
ment; was born at Revel, Russia. 
After a successful tour through Ger- 
many he went to Paris in 1809 and 
opened a clarinet factory in which he 
manufactured clarinets having thirteen 
keys and the altclarinet, but which 
failed, owing to the fact that the 
Conservatory refused to recognize his 
improvements on the clarinet, al- 
though afterward they were generally 
adopted. In 1820 he left Paris and 
after going to Russia, Germany, 
Switzerland and London he was made 
Court musician at Biickeburg, where 
he died. He wrote a method for the 
new thirteen-keyed clarinet and alto 
clarinet, and the following composi- 
tions: Gamme pour La nouvelle 
clarinet: divertissement for clarinet 
and orchestra; concertos for clarinet; 
symphonic concertante for two clari- 
nets;^ six concertos for flute; pieces 
for piano and clarinet; and grand solo 
for clarinet and orchestra. 
Muller, Wenzel. 1767-1835. 

Writer of German light opera; born 
at Tyrnau, in Moravia. After study- 
ing for a time under Dittersdorf he 
obtained a position as orchestra con- 
ductor at the Brunn Theatre in 1783, 

leaving it in 1786 to conduct in 
Marinelli's Theatre in Vienna. From 
1808 to 1813 he directed opera in 
Prague, where his daughter, known 
as Madame Griinbaum, was one of the 
singers. On his return to Vienna he 
was appointed conductor of the 
Leopoldstadt Theatre, a position 
which he held until a short time be- 
fore he died at Baden, near Vienna. 
Immensely popular as a writer of 
light operas, he was in the habit of 
incorporating in his operas themes 
from national melodies and dances, a 
device which greatly pleased the 
people. Among his productions may 
be mentioned Das Sonnenfest der 
Braminen; Das neue Sontagskind; 
Die Schwestern von Prag; Zauber- 
zither or Kasper der Fagottist; Die 
Teufelsmiihle auf dem Wienerberge; 
Tizzischi; Die Alte iiberall und 
nirgends; Die Entfiihring der Prin- 
zessin Europa; and travestierte Zau- 
berflote. He also wrote symphonies, 
masses and overtures. 

Mtiller, Karl Friedrich 
Muller, Theodore Heinrich Gustav 
Miiller, August Theodor 
Miiller, Franz Ferdinand Georg 

First Quartet. 
Four brothers, educated especially as 
quartet-players by their father -i^gi- 
dius Muller, Hofmusikus to the Duke 
of Brunswick. They were all born at 
Brunswick. Karl Friedrich, born in 
1797, was first violin in the quartet 
and concertmaster to the Duke; died 
in 1873. Theodor Heinrich Gustav, 
born in 1799, played viola; died in 
1855. August Theodor, who played 
the cello, was born in 1802 and died 
in 1875. Franz Ferdinand Georg was 
born in 1808 and died in 1855; played 
the second violin in the quartet and 
was chapelmaster to the Duke. The 
Duke of Brunswick permitted none 
of his musicians to play outside his 
Court, so in 1830 the brothers re- 
signed from his service. In 1831 they 
gave concerts in Hamburg, and in 
1832 in Berlin. In 1833 they made a 
concert tour of the principal cities 
of Germany and France, and in 1845 
they went as far as Russia, and visited 
Holland in 1852. They developed the 
art of quartet-playing to a degree 
approaching to perfection, and play- 
ing little except the works of Bee- 
thoven, Haydn and Mozart, had a 
decided effect on the development of 



MuUer, Bemhard 
MiiUer, Karl 
Miiller, Hugo 
Miiller, Wilhelm 

Second Quartet. 
This second string quartet was 
made up of the sons of Karl Fried- 
rich, first violin in the original Miiller 
Brothers' Quartet. Bernhard,__ the 
eldest, born in 1829, died in 1895; he 
played the viola. Karl, born in 1829, 
known after 


and ■ ~ and 

atteni y at 

F: jc^/c lo io/v. He 

b ' of piano and theory 

b\ Conservatory in 1879 

a- lis position until 1887, 

' to Dresden and c r, 
male chorus Orp 
^^ year. In 1889 he c 
tise Dreysig Singakademie, and \n 
1892 he beg^n to teach in the Con- 
servatory. He h?.s written the opera. 

violin. Hugo, born m .J ,,; 

1S86; played r^gg^j^^-ggj. vJoHnist of recent times; was bora 


helm, who 

the celloPiiJ^wish parents, near Presburg, Hungary ; w4'^ a 

F - '— "friend of Mendelssohn and ..Liszt, but did not agree • 

. with the principles of Liszt. 

Joachim composed a number of pieces for the 
violin and piano, but his greatest influence was ex- 
erted as a teacher. ^J^ took no ptipils at any price 
who Were not well/fgnJundfedring the principles of 

iruWf^Bh^^"^ ^" artist' of /taletii"tio':matt^i:.J^\^;^§^^ 

.•.igartanddlfiti'd^:%,place withihirri. : ; • -t -\': .^inris spent much of 

1 r McianSjTjoaqhJTn 'was recognized during his life. At -tings 

Niit was Mrif?^^ lield in his honor in Berlin in 1899 his ';'^^ 

MUller-riS^^tf^^ aad. friends assembled from all parts of the ed as 

helm Wofld. 

,d lUe Gym- 
■ '. and studied 

teacher at the Seminary v 
coming professor in 1864. ] r 
to 1859 he conducted opera at Dres- 
den, In 1865 he became director of 
church-music at Weimar, and in 1869 
Opera chapelmaster. In 1872 he 
founded and directed t!v 
Ducal Orchester - Und - M 
He resigned his other • 
1889. He wrote a sy 
theory, of which Vol 
1879; organ sonatas an ; 
p.nd part-songs for mal. 

Mailer-Reuter (mia-ler roi-tir). Theo- 
dor. 1858- 

Teacher, conductor and composer; 
born in Dresden. Studied composi- 
tion under Julius Otto^nd Ludwig 
Meinardus, and piano under Friedrich 

;- -ttnt oi 

ii, which 

Tt in 1508. The 

. may certainly be 


d in two 

. i-.^. ...... >t'-- ■■' '-"^ ^......^liieque Na- 

tionale at Paris. It consists of seven 

books, as follows: Miscellaneous; On 

Intervals; On Musical Oratorios; On 

Cf^^nsonance; Theory of Ancient Music 

Boetius; Church Modes and 

isation; Measured Music and 

tnt. The influence de *■■ •- ' -^! 

music was a restrainir 

■'1 in formality and v..^, ... .if 

on and decried the ten- 

\ various innovations in his 

1 h he thought threatened the 

! i structure of music. 

Murska (moor'-shka), lima dL 1836- 


Operatic soprano; born in Croatia. 
She studied with the Marchesis in 


mod ZRr/ ; agrriii iuaoai \o Jainiloiv }.53Jb91^ ariT : 

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aril }n g+7Bq Hb nioi'i b-jfcfmagafi abnaiii bnB aliqucR 





Miiller, Bernhard 
MuUer, Karl 
Miiller, Hugo 
MuUer, Wilhelm 

Second Quartet. 
This second string quartet was 
made up of the sons of Karl Fried- 
rich, first violin in the original Miiller 
Brothers' Quartet. Bernhard, the 
eldest, born in 1829, died in 1895; he 
played the viola. Karl, born in 1829, 
was known after his marriage as 
Miiller-Berghaus; played the first 
violin. Hugo, born in 1832, died in 
1886; played the second violin. Wil- 
helm, who was born in 1834, played 
the cello; died in New York in 1897. 
For ten years they formed the Court 
quartet to the Duke of Meiningen; 
they traveled through Russia, Den- 
mark and France, and in 1866 settled 
in Rosbeck, where Karl was appointed 
chapelmaster, and the other brothers 
members of the orchestra. In 1873 
the quartet was dissolved, when Wil- 
helm became first cellist in the Royal 
Orchestra and teacher at the Hoch- 
schule in Berlin. Karl has lived at 
Stuttgart and Hamburg, and is known 
as the composer of an operetta and 
the cantata, Jeptha's Tochter, and 
other pieces. This quartet never at- 
tained the perfection of the first one, 
but was favorably known. 

Muller-Hartung, Karl Ernst Wil- 
helm. 1834- 

Teacher and musical writer; born 
at Suiza. He attended the Gym- 
nasium at Nordhausen and studied 
theology at Jena, then began to study 
with Kiihmstedt at Eisenach, and suc- 
ceeded him as musical director and 
teacher at the Seminary in 1859, be- 
coming professor in 1864. From 1857 
to 1859 he conducted opera at Dres- 
den. In 1865 he became director of 
church-music at Weimar, and in 1869 
Opera chapelmaster. In 1872 he 
founded and directed the Grand 
Ducal Orchester - Und - Musikschule. 
He resigned his other positions in 
1889. He wrote a system of music 
theory, of which Vol. I appeared in 
1879; organ sonatas and church-music; 
and part-songs for male chorus. 

Miiller-Reuter (mul-ler roi-ter), Theo- 
dor. 1858- 

Teacher, conductor and composer; 
born in Dresden. Studied composi- 
tion under Julius Otto^nd Ludwig 
Meinardus, and piano under Friedrich 


and Alwin Wieck at Dresden, and 
attended the Hoch Conservatory at 
Frankfort from 1878 to 1879. He 
became teacher of piano and theory 
at Strasburg Conservatory in 1879 
and retained this position until 1887, 
when he went to Dresden and con- 
ducted the male chorus Orpheus, the 
following year. In 1889 he conducted 
the Dreysig Singakademie, and in 
1892 he began to teach in the Con- 
servatory. He has written the opera, 
Ondolina and Der tolle Graf; female 
choruses with piano accompaniment; 
a Paternoster for mixed chorus and 
orchestra; male chorus with and 
without accompaniment; studies, 
songs and piano-pieces. 

Muris (du mii'-res), Johannes de. 

A disciple of Franco; a mathema- 
tician and musical theorist of the 
early part of the Fourteenth Century 
of whom very little is certainly known. 
Neither the date nor the place of his 
birth has been found, some authorities 
claiming him as English. Although 
the matter of his birthplace will prob- 
ably never be settled, we are tolerably 
certain that de Muris spent much of 
his life in Paris, for he mentions hav- 
ing heard there a triplum composed 
by Franco, and some of his writings 
are dated from the Sorbonne, among 
them Musica Speculativa and Canones 
de eclipsi lunse. He is mentioned as 
a mathematician and musician in 
manuscripts of that time. In the 
British Museum is a copy of Musica 
Speculativa, an abridgment of Boe- 
tius attributed to him, which was 
printed in Frankfort in 1508. The 
only writing which may certainly be 
assigned to him is the Speculum 
Musice, which is to be found in two 
manuscripts in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale at Paris. It consists of seven 
books, as follows: Miscellaneous; On 
Intervals; On Musical Oratorios; On 
Consonance; Theory of Ancient Music 
after Boetius; Church Modes and 
Solmisation; Measured Music and 
Discant. The influence de Muris had 
upon music was a restraining one; he 
believed in formality and dignity of 
composition and decried the ten- 
dencies of various innovations in his 
time which he thought threatened the 
theory and structure of music. 
Murska (moor'-shka), lima dL 1836- 


Operatic soprano; born in Croatia. 
She studied with the Marchesis in 



Vienna, and made her debut in Flor- 
ence in 1862. After singing at Pesth, 
Berlin and Hamburg she obtained a 
position in Vienna, where she sang 
until 1865, when she made a London 
debut at Her Majesty's Theatre as 
Lucia, and sang at the Philharmonic 
Society concerts. She sang at Her 
Majesty's, Drury Lane and Covent 
Garden, in London, and in Paris and 
other European cities until 1873, 
when, under M. de Vivo, she came to 
America, and also visited Australia 
between 1873 and 1876, returning to 
London in 1879. She was married 
many times; one of her husbands was 
General Eider, by whom she had a 
daughter upon whom she lavished all 
her earnings. She was very eccentric 
and always had many pets which 
always traveled with her. While in 
Australia in 1876 she was married to 
Alfred Anderson, a musician of the 
company, and five months after his 
death to Mr. John T. Hill. Some 
years after her tour she returned to 
the United States and obtained a posi- 
tion as teacher in New York, but in 
this line of work she was not success- 
ful, and since her ability to sing in 
concerts had left her she became very 
poor. Musicians of New York sup- 
plied money to send her home. She 
died in Munich. Among the roles she 
sang were Lucia, Astrofiammente, Isa- 
bella, Martha, Dinorah, Ophelia, Gilda 
and Marguerite de Valois. She had 
a voice of three octaves range and 
sang easily and brilliantly. 

Musin (mu-zan), Ovide. 1854- 

VioHnist and teacher; born at 
Nandrin, near Liege, Belgium. When 
only seven years old he entered the 
Liege Conservatory, where he studied 
under Heyneberg, and later under 
Henri Leonard, and at the age ol 
eleven took the first prize for violin- 
playing. When Leonard removed to 
Paris Conservatory, Musin followed 
him, and there at the age of fourteen 
took the gold medal offered for solo 
and quartet playing on the violin. In 
1869 he made his debut, and after 
touring France, visited Holland in 
1875. He made a prolonged tour 
under Jarreth, and under Mapleson 
played in London from 1877 to 1882. 
In 1888 he played Leopold Damrosch's 
Concertstiicke at Princess Hall, Lon- 
don, under the conductorship of Wal- 
ter Damrosch. He made a tour of the 
world, from which he returned to 

Liege in 1897. He succeeded Cesar 
Thomson as professor of advanced 
violin class at the Conservatory, and 
now resides in Brussels, spending six 
months of every year in New York, 
where he prepares pupils for entrance 
into Liege Conservatory. He is an 
exceedingly successful teacher. 

Musiol (moo'-zi-6l), Robert Paul 
Johann. 1846- 

Composer and writer on musical 
subjects; born at Breslau. After 
studying at the Seminary at Lieben- 
thal, Silesia, he became teacher and 
cantor at Rohrsdorf, near Fraustadt, 
Posen, in 1873, and was pensioned in 
1891. _He wrote for various musical 
periodicals and published Catechismus 
der Musikgeschichte; Musikalisches 
Frendworterbuch; Wilhelm Forster 
and Theodor Korner, und seine 
Beziehung zur Musik. He was editor 
of Tonger's Conversations-Lexikon 
der Tonkunst and Musikerlexikon, and 
also to the tenth edition of Musika- 
lisches Conversations-Lexikon by 
Schuberth. As a composer he has 
written songs, male part-songs and 
pieces for piano and organ. 

Musard (mii-sar), Philippe. 1793- 

Composer of dance-music; born in 
Paris, where he took private lessons 
under Reicha. For some time a vio- 
linist and conductor; he came promi- 
nently before the public when 
Dufresne introduced cornet-a-pistons 
at a series of concerts and bals mas- 
ques held in the bazar of the Rue St. 
Honore, on which occasion Musard 
was conductor and writer of some of 
the cornet solos. In 1835 and 1836 he 
conducted the masque balls of the 
Opera. In 1837 he moved to the new 
concert hall in the Rue Vivienne, in 
which situation he had to compete 
with the great Johann Strauss of 
Vienna. During this time he con- 
ducted the Concert Spirituel at which 
only the music of Handel was played. 
In 1840 be went to London as leader 
of the Promenade concerts at Drury 
Lane, and in 1841 he conducted 
another series of Promenade concerts 
at the Lyceum. Until 1852 he was 
considered the finest conductor and 
composer of dance-music in France. 
He lived near Paris until his death in 
1859. His music was well written and 
often contained manj' charming and 
novel effects. He was known as the 



Quadrille King, and was also famous 
as a writer of galop. Among his 
writings are Les Cloches Argentines; 
Les fitudiants de Paris; Les Echos; 
Vive la Danse; Les Gondoliers Veni- 
tiens; over a hundred and fifty quad- 
rilles, some original, some on themes 
from operas; many waltzes; three 
quartets and Xouvelle methode de 
composition musicale, which he dedi- 
cated to the noted master and theor- 
ist, Anton Reicha. 

Muzio (moo'-tsi-6), Emanuele. 1825- 
Singing-teacher and writer of 
operas; born at Zibello, Parma. He 
was a choir-boy of the Cathedral of 
Busseto, studied singing under Pro- 
vesi, piano of Margherita Barezzi, and 
composition with Verdi, of whose 
operas he arranged the piano scores. 
In 1852 he conducted the Italian 
Opera in Brussels, and in 1858 he 
conducted at Her Majesty's in Lon- 
don, and later in New York at the 
Academy of Music. Later he con- 
ducted at Venice, Barcelona and 
Cairo, and in 1876 at the Italian 
Theatre in Paris. He settled in Paris 
in 1875 and began to teach singing. 
Among his pupils have been Adelina 
and Carlotta Patti and Clara Louise 
Kellogg. His operas are Giovanni la 
pazza; Claudia; Le due Regine; and 


La^ Sorrentina. Besides these he has 
written many songs and piano-pieces. 

Mysliweczek (me-sle'-va-chek), Jo- 
seph. 1737-1781. 

Writer of operas; called by Ital- 
ians, II Boemo; born near Prague. 
He went to Prague, where he studied 
music under the organist, Segert, then 
went to Venice to study under Pes- 
cetti. From Venice he went to Parma, 
then to Naples, where his opera, 
II Bellerofonte, performed in 1764, 
brought him immediate recognition. 
During the nine years that followed 
he produced nine other operas in 
Naples, where he was a great favorite, 
particularly after his Olimpiade, given 
in 1778. In 1772 Mozart met him 
in Bologna and in 1777 in Munich, and 
is said to have greatly admired his 
piano sonatas. Gabrielli, the famous 
singer, considered his songs especially 
suited to her voice, and sang them 
everj'where. He is said to have been 
attached to the Court at Munich from 
1777 to 1778 and afterward he returned 
to Italy, where he died in Rome in 
great poverty, owing to his improvi- 
dent habits. He wrote about thirty- 
operas, among them Demetrio, Ezio 
et Demofoonte, Erifile; Ipermnestra; 
and Attaserse; and the oratorio, 
Abramo ed Isacco. 


Nachbaur (nakh'-bowr), Franz. 1835- 


Born at Gressen Castle, near Fried- 
richshafen, Wiirtemberg. While a 
pupil at the Polytechnic School of 
Stuttgart he attracted the attention 
of Pischek by his singing in the 
Gesang\'erein. Acting under Pischek's 
advice, he devoted himeslf to voice 
culture and became a famous tenor, 
winning great renown in opera until 
his retirement in 1890. He created 
the part of Walther in Die Meister- 
singer, and of Froh in Das Rheingold. 
He appeared as Lohengrin in Ger- 
many, Italy and England. Other 
favorite roles were Raoul, Prophet, 
and Arnold. He died in Munich. 

Nachez (na'-ches), Tivadar. 1859- 

Violin virtuoso and composer, noted 
for his brilliant playing and splendid 

tone. Born in Budapest ana given 
his first instruction by Sabathiel, who 
•was leader of the Hungarian Opera. 
In 1874 he won a scholarship, and for 
three years was a pupil of Joachim's 
in Berlin, and then finished his studies 
under Leonard in Paris in 1878. After 
several successful tours on the Con- 
tinent he settled iti London in 1889. 
His compositions include concertos; 
two Hungarian rhapsodies; four Hun- 
garian dances; two romances; a 
requiem mass; arrangements; songs; 
orchestra and violin pieces. 

Nadaud (na-do), Gustav. 1820-1893. 

Born at Roubaix, France; entered 
upon a business career, but some 
songs which he had written met witn 
such success that he gave his time 
henceforth to writing and publishing 
both words and music of chansons. 



Beside fifteen volumes of song-poems 
he wrote three operettas, Le Doc- 
teur Vieuxtemps; La Voliere; and 
Porte et fentre. Nadaud died in Paris. 
In 1861 the cross of the Legion of 
Honor was conferred upon him and 
since his death a monument has been 
erected to him in Roubaix. 

Nadermann (na'-der-man), Frangois 

Joseph. 1773-1835. 

Harpist and composer; son of a 
harp manufacturer. Born in Paris, 
where, in 1816, he was appointed Court 
harpist, and nine years after became 
professor of the harp at the Paris 
Conservatory. In 1798 he made a 
concert tour in Germany, meeting 
with great success. His best known 
compositions were for the harp, includ- 
ing trios, duos, sonatas, fastasias, etc. 
Other of his works were quartets for 
harp, violin, piano and violoncello, 
trios for harp and various instruments; 
and duos for harp and violin or flute. 
When his father died he, with his 
brother Henry, succeeded to the man- 
agement of the harp factory. 

Nagel (na'-gel), Wilibald. 1863- 

Author and teacher; born at Miil- 
heim-on-the-Ruhr; the son of Sieg- 
fried Nagel, a singer. His musical 
education he received in Berlin under 
Erlich, Treibs, Spitta and Bellermann. 
He became a teacher of musical his- 
tory at Zurich, and since 1898 has 
taught_ the science of music in the 
Technical High School of Darmstadt, 
and has been conductor of the Aca- 
demical Gesangverein. Two of Nagel's 
most important works are Geschichte 
der Musik in England, and Annalen 
der Engleschen Hofmusik, which he 
wrote after many researches and long 
study of English national music. A 
life of Brahms and a study of Bee- 
thoven's sonatas are other of his pub- 
lished works. 

Nageli (na'-gel-e), Johann Georg. 

Composer, publisher and writer; 
best known for his editions of classi- 
cal works of Handel and Bach, and of 
Beethoven's three grand solo sonatas. 
He will always be remembered for 
his audacity in interpolating four bars 
into the first movement of one of 
Beethoven's sonatas. Nageli was born 
near_ Zurich. In 1792, established the 
publishing business in Zurich and 
issued the editions mentioned. In 
}803 he published the periodical, 


Repertoire des Clavecinistes, in which 
new works of Clementi, Beethoven, 
Cramer and others appeared. He 
was the founder and president of the 
Swiss Association for the Culture of 
Music, and for many years was a 
teacher of singing. Nageli was a 
believer and follower of the Pesta- 
lozzian method of instruction. In 
1824 he traveled through Germany, 
lecturing on musical subjects. His 
compositions are mostly vocal cho- 
ruses and songs. His Lied vom 
Rhein, and Life let us Cherish are 
among the best. He died at Zurich. 

Nagiller (na'-gil-ler), Matthaus. 1815- 

Born at Miinster, Tyrol; received 
his first musical instruction at Schwaz, 
from the Choirmaster Pichler, and 
continued his studies under Martin 
Goller at Innsbruck and then at the 
Vienna Conservatory under Preyer. 
In 1842 he went to Paris. In 1846 
he introduced some of his own com- 
positions in Cologne, Munich and 
Berlin. In 1865 he went to Botzen 
as director of music of that city, and 
the next year to Innsbruck, where 
he became conductor of the Musik- 
verein. His works include masses; 
oflfertories; choruses; and songs. Na- 
giller died at Innsbruck. 

Nanini (na-ne'-ne), Giovanni Bernan- 

Neither the date of birth nor death 
of Bernandino Nanini is positively 
known. He was the younger brother 
of Giovanni Maria Nanini and it is 
supposed his death took place between 
the years 1612 and 1618. He was born 
in Vallerano and was a pupil of his 
brother. He was chapelmaster at St. 
Luigi de Francesi and then at 
St. Lorenzo in Damaso and assistant 
teacher in his brother's school of 
music in Rome. He was one of the 
first composers to put an organ 
accompaniment to church-music. His 
works include a volume of madrigals; 
several psalms; motets; and a Salve 
Regina. They have been preserved 
in collections, one of which is the 
Satini collection in the Palace at 

Nanini, Giovanni Maria. 1547-1607. 

Composer and teacher. Authorities 
differ as to the date of Nanini's birth, 
some placing him as a contemporary 
of Palestrina and giving the date 1540, 
but more recent research leads to the 



belief that it took place some time 
between 1545 and 1550. He was a 
native of Tivoli; a student at Rome, 
where he afterwards held positions as 
a tenor singer in the Papal Chapel 
and as maestro at St. Maria Maggiore. 
He was the founder of a public music 
school in Rome. This school was a 
great success, and among his pupils 
were Felice, and Giovanni Anerio and 
Gregorio Allegri, both composers of 
note. Nanini was one of the greatest 
composers of the Roman school, and 
his Hodie nobis ccelorum Rex, a 
motet for six voices, is still sung 
every Christmas by the choir of the 
Papal Chapel. Many of his works are 
still preserved in manuscript in vari- 
ous collections in Rome. Among his 
published works are a volume of Mot- 
teti; a number of madrigals and other 
pieces included in 'collections pub- 
lished in Italy and Antwerp. Nanini 
died in 1607 and was buried in the 
Church of St. Luigi de'Francesi. 

Napoleon, Arthur. 1843- 

Pianist, conductor and composer; 
born in Oporto, Portugal. His father 
was an Italian musicmaster and his 
mother a native of Portugal. His father 
very early began to instruct him on the 
piano, and when he was six years 
old he appeared in public as a pianist 
at the Philharmonic of Oporto. He 
played in Paris, London and Berlin, 
and twice before royalty. In Man- 
chester, at the age of eleven years, he 
began his studies with Halle. In 1856 
he again took up his concert tours 
through Germany and Poland, and in 
England with Sivori and Piatti, and 
finally to Brazil, through South Amer- 
ica and back to Portugal. In 1862 
appeared again in London. In 1865 he 
opened the fete at the Exhibition at 
Oporto and the year following made 
his last tour, a most successful one, 
during which he played before Queen 
Isabella. Napoleon has been success- 
ful also as a composer; among his 
works are piano and orchestra compo- 
sitions. In 1868 he gave up his musi- 
cal career as a concert pianist, and has 
established a successful music and 
piano business at Rio Janeiro, though 
he has upon several occasions con- 
ducted musical festivals. 

Napravnik (na-praf'-nek), Eduard. 


Composer and distinguished con- 
ductor; born at Beisht, Bohemia, but 

generally classed with Russian musi- 
cians. He received the foundation for 
his musical studies from Pugonny and 
in 1852 played for the village church. 
When he was fifteen years old his 
father died and he had to support 
himself and finish his musical educa- 
tion without further instruction. He 
had had one year at the Prague Organ 
School. From 1856 to 1861 he was 
a teacher at Maj'dl Music Institute 
of Prague and studied organ under 
Kitel. He next went to St. Peters- 
burg, where he became private chap- 
elmaster to Prince Yussupow. In 
1863 he was appointed assistant, then 
second conductor at the Imperial Rus- 
sian Theatre, and in 1869 succeeded 
Liadov as chief master. Nepravnik 
continued the work Liadov had begun, 
that of producing purely Russian com- 
positions at the Royal Theatre. He 
has succeeded so well as an organizer, 
diplomatic manager and accomplished 
director that he has placed the Impe- 
rial Russian Opera among the finest 
in the world. While best known as 
a conductor, his compositions are of 
value and have been well received. 
They include several operas. The 
Inhabitants of Nishnij Novgorod, 
Harold, Dubroffsky, and Francesca da 
Rimini; a symphonic poem. The 
Demon; Bohemian and Russian Songs; 
a Russian Fantasia for piano; three 
symphonies; an overture, Vlasta; and 

Nardini (nar-de'-ne), Pietro. 1722- 

Born at Fibiana, in Tuscany; he 
received his early education in violin- 
playing in Leghorn. Later became the 
pupil of the great violinist, Tartini, 
at Padua. From 1753 to 1767 he was 
solo violinist at the Court at Stutt- 
gart. During this engagement he 
made several concert tours, visiting 
Berlin. He then returned to Italy, 
for a short time resided in Leghorn, 
and from there he went to Padua to 
care for his old master, Tartini, remain- 
ing with him until his death, in 1770. 
After the death of Tartini he accepted 
the position of director of music 
at the Court of the Grand Duke 
Leopold II.. of Tuscany, and held this 
post until his death, in 1793. Leopold 
Mozart and Schubart both wrote in 
highest terms of Nardini's playing. 
From Tartini he learned great tender- 
ness of expression rather than tech- 
nical skill. His power of moving his 



audience was remarkable. His com- 
positions show him to have been a 
thorough musician and are marked by 
grace and sweet sentimentality, though 
they lack the depth of feeling and 
imity of his master. To Nardini is 
given credit for the development of 
the sonata in its present form. His 
compositions include six violin con- 
certos; six sonatas for violin and bass; 
six flute trios; six violin solos; six 
string quartets; six violin duets. A 
number of his sonatas have been edi- 
ted by Alard and F. David. 

Nates (narz), James. 1715-1783. 

English organist and composer; 
born in Stanwell, Middlesex, in 1715. 
Pupil of Gates, Dr. Pepusch and Dr. 
Croft, and succeeded Gates as chor- 
ister at the Chapel Royal. He was 
assistant organist of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, then succeeded Sal- 
isbury at York Minster, and in 1756 
became organist and composer at 
Chapel Royal; the same year he 
received his degree of Doctor of 
Music from Cambridge. In 1757 he 
received the appointment of master 
of the children of the Chapel Royal. 
Nares died in 1783 in London and 
was buried in St. Margaret's, West- 
minster. A number of his works were 
of an instructive nature, Harpsichord 
Lessons, a treatise on singing, etc. 
Other compositions were for organ; 
a dramatic ode, The Royal Pastoral; 
some catches and glees. His service 
in F and several of his anthems are 
still used in many cathedrals. 

Nathan, Isaac. 1791-1864. 

Born of Jewish parentage at Can- 
terbury, England, and educated at 
Cambridge for the priesthood. Be- 
came the pupil of Domenico Corri, 
an Italian teacher in singing; devel- 
oped a fine musical taste, and decided 
to follow the life of a musician. In 
1812 he met Byron; became very inti- 
mate with the poet, and from 1815 to 
1822 produced the songs he had com- 
posed to Lord Byron's poems, which he 
called Hebrew Alelodies. Nathan was 
a much esteemed singing master in 
London, and appeared there at Covent 
Garden in the opera, Guy Mannering. 
He early composed a number of songs, 
among them Infant Love, and The 
Sorrows of Absence; and wrote part 
of the music for the comedy, Sweet- 
hearts and Wives; a comic opera, 
Alcaid; the Illustrious Stranger, an 


operatic farce; and Merry Freaks in 
Troublous Times, produced in Sidney, 
Australia, where he went in 1841. He 
has also published an essay on the 
History and Theory of Music, and on 
the Capabilities and Management of 
the Human Voice, and the Life of 
Madame Malibran de Beriot. Nathan's 
death in Sidney was the result of an 

Nau (na'-oo), Maria Dolores Bene- 
dicta Josefine. 1818- 

Noted soprano singer, of Spanish 
parentage; born in New York City. 
She was a pupil at the Paris Con- 
servatory, where she developed a fine 
soprano voice, and in a competition 
among pupils, in 1834, won the first 
prize. Two years later she made a 
successful debut at the Paris Opera 
as Page in the Huguenots. She sang 
minor roles at the Opera until 1842, 
and then went to Brussels and Lon- 
don, where she was very popular, and 
returned for a four years' engagement 
at the Opera in Paris. In 1848 she 
went to London, then to the United 
States, winning great renown; back to 
London at the Princess Theatre, and 
was in Paris from 1851 to 1853. In 
1854 she came again to the United 
States, where she was most enthusi- 
astically welcomed. _ In 1854 Mile. 
Nau returned to Paris, and two years 
later retired from the stage. 

Naudin (na'-oo-den), Emilio. 1823- 

Opera-singer; born at Parma; pupil 
of Panizza of Milan. First appeared 
at Cremona, then in theatres of Italy, 
Vienna and St. Petersburg. He sang 
at various times at Drury Lane, Lon- 
don; in several cities of Spain, and for 
ten years in the Theatre Italien of 
Paris. Among his many operatic roles 
were Don Ottavio, Fra Diavolo,Raoul, 
Carlo, Don Carlos, Henrique, and 
Eleazar. He died in Boulogne. 

Naumann (now-man), Emil. 1827- 

Distinguished as an author of books 
on musical subjects and as a com- 
poser. Born in Berlin in 1827, the 
grandson of Johann Gottlieb Naumann. 
He received his first instruction at 
Bonn, from Johanna Matthieu and 
Franz Anton Ries. He then went to 
Frankfort and became the pupil of 
Schnyder von Wartensee and of 
Moser. At the Leipsic Conservatory 
he studied under Mendelssohn and 



Hauptmann. In 1856, as a result of 
his first attempt at musical literature, 
a study of church-music, he received 
the appointment in Berlin of Court 
director of sacred music. Three years 
later he was made Royal professor. 
He settled in Dresden in 1873, founded 
there a singing society, lectured at 
the Conservatory on music history 
and carried on his work as author and 
composer. In 1880 he succeeded W. 
Rust as organist at St. Thomas', Leip- 
sic. He died in Dresden in 1888. 
Among his books is his well-known 
History of Music, translated into Eng- 
lish by F. Praeger. This is an exhaus- 
tive and valuable work. Other notable 
works were his Die moderne musika- 
lische Zopf, and Die Tonkunst in der 
Culturgeschichte. Dr. Naumann was 
the composer of a solemn mass, 
psalrns, other church-music; sym- 
phonies; piano music; and songs. 

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb. 1741-1801. 
Dramatic composer, teacher and 
musician to royalty. Born at Blase- 
witz, near Dresden, the son of a 
peasant; educated at the Kreuzschule 
of Dresden, and expected to become 
a schoolmaster. His knowledge of 
music he gained by his own efforts, 
until Weestroem, a Swedish musician, 
discovered his musical ability and 
took him on a tour to Hamburg, then 
to Padua. Weestroem's object in tak- 
ing young Naumann was evidently a 
selfish one, for, while he was studying 
in Padua with the great teacher, Tar- 
tini, he gave his boy companion none 
of the benefit of that instruction, and 
in fact treated him so badly that Nau- 
mann left him. Tartini then gave 
Naumann lessons, and another musi- 
cian aided him financially, so he could 
continue his musical studies. In 1761 
he studied dramatic music in Naples. 
In Venice he produced his first opera, 
San Samuele, and then returned to 
Dresden, where, in 1763, he received 
the appointment of Court composer of 
sacred music to the Elector of Saxony. 
He again went to Italy, where he com- 
posed several dramatic works, some 
of which were produced in Italy, 
others in his own country. In 1774 
he received an invitation to Berlin 
from Frederick the Great, which he 
refused, and as a reward received the 
title of chapelmaster. Ten years 
later was made chief musicmaster, 
because he refused a flattering 
ofiFer at Cooenhagen. Naumann wrote 


equally well for church and stage. 
His Amphion Protisilao, Solimano La 
Drama Soldata, stage productions, 
very popular in their day; Cora, an 
opera written by him in 1782, was 
recently performed at Stockholm. His 
mass in A flat major and one in A 
minor, and his grand mass. Our 
Father, are still used in the Dresden 
Catholic Court Church. 

Naumann, Karl Ernst. 1832- 

Grandson of Johann Gottlieb Nau- 
mann, the composer, and son of Karl 
Friedrich Naumann, a mineralogist; 
born in Freiburg, Saxony. He studied 
with Hauptmann, Richter, Wenzel 
and Langer at Leipsic and johann 
Schneider at Dresden. In 1860 he 
became musical director of the Jena 
University and city organist and con- 
ductor of the Academy concerts. In 
1877 he was made professor. He pub- 
lished^ an excellent treatise on music 
at Leipsic in 1858. His compositions 
include a sonata for viola; a quartet 
for strings; a trio for piano, violin and 
viola; and a serenade for various 
instruments. His chamber-music has 
been most successful, in it, and in his 
sonata and serenade, he shows his per- 
fect mastery of art forms and genuine 
artistic talent. 

Navratil (na-vra'-tel), Carl. 1867- 

Born at Prague. Is the composer 
of many valuable works, among them 
two operas, Hermann, and Salammbo; 
a symphony in G minor; several sym- 
phonic poems, John Hus, Ziska, Zalov, 
Neklan, and Der Weisse Berg; con- 
certos for violin and piano with 
orchestra; trios for piano and strings; 
quartets for piano and strings; a 
sonata for violin and piano; a string 
quartet in D minor; and many songs. 
Navratil's instructor in theory was 
Guido Adler, and Ondricek was his 
violin teacher. He is the author of 
a biography of Smetana, the Bohe- 
mian composer and violinist. 

Naylor, John. 1838-1897. 

English organist and composer; 
born at Stanningley, near Leeds, in 
1838. He was a pupil of R. S. Bur- 
ton; graduated from Oxford in 1863 
as Bachelor of Alusic, and in 1872 
took the degree of Doctor of Music. 
He was a boy chorister in Leeds, in 
1856, organist at Scarborough parish 
church in 1873, organist of All Saints' 
Church of Scarborough, and in 1883 




he went to York Minster as organist 
and choirmaster, and was conductor 
of the York Musical Society for many 
years. His works include anthems, 
services; and cantatas with organ 
accompaniment, which were given in 
York Minster by a large chorus with 
great success. They are Jeremiah; 
The Brazen Serpent; Meribah and 
Manna. He died in 1897 while on a 
voyage to Australia. 

Neate (net), Charles. 1784-1877. 

EngHsh pianist and composer. A 
member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians, 1806; one of the original 
members of the Philharmonic Society 
in 1813, at whose concerts he was 
often a performer and occasionally 
conductor, and was first to introduce 
to England Beethoven's piano con- 
certos in C minor and E flat, Weber's 
Concertstiick, and Rummel's concerto 
in E and septour in D minor. Born in 
London and received his early instruc- 
tion on the piano and violoncello from 
William Sharp and John Field. He 
later studied composition under Woelfl. 
In 1815 he visited Vienna, met Bee- 
thoven and profited by his advice, and 
then went to Munich for study under 
Winter. Neate was esteemed as a 
pianist and teacher in England, though 
his compositions never met with any 
great success, as they lacked fancy 
and originality. They include sonatas, 
fantasias, trios, etc. He published an 
essay on Fingermg and General 
Observations on Piano Playing in 1855. 
Neate retired from his profession sev- 
eral years before his death, which took 
place at Brighton. 

Nedbal (ned'-bal), Oskar. 1874- 

Born at Tabor; a pupil of Dvorak at 
the Prague Conservatory. Nedbal is 
perhaps best known as viola player 
of the famous Bohemian Quartet, 
from its organization in 1891 until 
1906, when he withdrew, at the same 
time resigning the position of con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society of 
Prague. His playing is of rare excel- 
lence and his compositions have been 
successful. They include a scherzo- 
caprice for orchestra; sonata for piano 
and violin; and other small pieces. 

Neeb (nap), Heinrich. 1807-1878. 

Born at Lich, Hesse, in 1807. He 
was a dramatic composer, teacher and 
conductor of singing societies at 
Frankfort, among them Germania, 
Neeb's Quartet, Neeb's Mannerchor, 


and Teutonia, which is still in exist- 
ence. His compositions comprise three 
operas; several popular ballads; a can- 
tata; songs; and string quartets. 

Neefe (na'-fe). Christian Gottlob. 


Born at Chemnitz, Saxony; edu- 
cated to be a lawyer, but .gave up the 
study of law and devoted himself to 
music. He was one of Beethoven's 
teachers. He studied with J. A. Hil- 
ler, and in 1777 succeeded Hiller as 
conductor of the Seyler Society, a 
traveling orchestra. Later he was 
conductor of the Grossman-Hellmuth 
Society of Bonn, director of sacred 
and secular music at the court, and 
then accompanist and stage director 
of the Court Theatre. War inter- 
rupted his career and he was obliged 
to turn to something other than music 
for support. He died in Dessau, in 
1798, where he had finally obtained 
the position of conductor of a theatre. 
Neefe wrote eight works for the 
stage, vaudevilles and operas; an ode; 
a Paternoster; a double concerto for 
piano, violin and orchestra; piano 
sonatas; variations; fantasias; songs 
and children's songs; and arranged 
and adapted many operas. He also 
contributed to musical periodicals of 
the time and left his autobiography. 

Neidlinger (nlt'-ling-er), William Har- 
old. 1863- 

American composer; born in Brook- 
lyn. He studied under Dudley Buck 
and Miiller. He spent some time in 
Paris teaching, after which he taught 
in Chicago. His great work is as a 
composer and he has built up song- 
form both in its instrumental and vocal 
application. His works include a 
mass and other church-music; mixed 
and male choruses; many delightful 
songs which are very popular; and 
many valuable books of music for 

Neithardt (nlt'-hart), August Hein- 
rich. 1793-1861. 

Choirmaster, bandmaster and com- 
poser. Born at Schleiz in 1793; was 
a pupil of Brunow and Ebhardt. After 
serving as a volunteer in the wars of 
1813-1815 he was made bandmaster of 
the Garde-Schiitzen Battalion and held 
this position until 1822, composing 
and arranging a great number of 
military pieces for this band; he then 
became leader of the band of the 
Kaiser Franz Grenadiers. In 1843 he 




was commissioned to construct a reg- 
ular choir for the Berlin Cathedral, 
and in 1845 was made director. This 
became the famous Domchor, for 
which Mendelssohn composed many 
psalms and motets. After Neithardt 
visited St. Petersburg and Rome for 
study he raised his choir to such a 
degree of excellence that it created 
much wonder when he appeared with 
it in London in 1850. His composi- 
tions, aside from marches and other 
military music, are Julietta, an opera; 
sonatas, variations, and waltzes for 
piano; duets, trios, and quartets for 
horn; quartets for men's voices; and 
many songs. 

Neitzel (nit-tsel), Otto. 1852- 

Pianist, musical critic and teacher. 
Born at Falkenburg, Pomerania, in 
1852. He attended the Joachim Gym- 
nasium, became a student at KuUak's 
Academy, Berlin, and later at the 
University, where, in 1875, he was 
given the degree of Doctor of Phi- 
losophy. He has made a concert tour 
as pianist with Pauline Lucca and 
Sarasate; has been conductor of a mu- 
sical society and of the City Theatre 
of Strasburg; a teacher in the Moscow 
Conservatory and later in the Cologne 
Conservatory, and critic of the K61- 
nische Zeitung. Neitzel has written 
three fairly successful operas, Angela; 
Der alte Dessauer; and Dido, for 
which he wrote both text and music. 

Neruda (na-roo'-da), Franz. 1843- 

Member of the distinguished Ne- 
ruda family; born at Briinn in 1843. 
He became a violoncellist and com- 
poser. Neruda has held several 
important positions, such as member 
of the Royal Orchestra at Copen- 
hagen, director of a musical society 
there and another in Stockholm. His 
work as a composer is deservedly 
popular, and includes a concerto for 
violoncello; string quartet; chamber 
and orchestral music. 

Neruda, Wilma Maria Francisa. 1839- 

Violinist; daughter of Josef Neruda, 
the organist, and member of the dis- 
tinguished Neruda family; born at 
Briinn in 1839. She very early began 
to play the violin, and was a pupil of 
her father and then of Jansa. At the 
age of seven years she appeared in 
public in Vienna with her sister Ama- 
lie, a pianist, and three years later 
played at the Princess Theatre and at 
a Philharmonic concert in London. 


After several year's travel she played 
at the Pasdeloup concerts in Paris, 
and during that year, 1864, she was 
married to Ludwig Normann, a Swe- 
dish musician. In 1869 she was made 
a professor of the violin at the Royal 
Music Academy of Stockholm. She 
again went to London, and for many 
years played every winter and spring 
season at the Popular, Philharmonic 
and Manchester concerts and at 
Halle's recitals. After the death of 
Ludwig Normann she married Sir 
Charles Halle in 1888; with him made 
a grand tour of Australia, and was 
associated with him on the concert 
stage until his death in 1895. Her 
many admirers, among them the then 
Prince of _ Wales, now King of 
England, King of Sweden, King of 
Denmark, eminent musicians and 
statesmen, presented her a testi- 
monial, the title deeds of a palazzo 
at Asolo, near Venice. Queen Alex- 
andria has conferred on her the 
title of Violinist to the Queen. 
Since 1898 she has resided in Ber- 
lin, but has made many tours 
through Europe, annual appearances 
in London, and in 1899 toured Amer- 
ica. Lady Halle is equally great as a 
soloist or quartet player, and has 
always been greeted with the greatest 
enthusiasm wherever she has ap- 
peared. By some critics she has been 
considered the equal of Joachim. 

Nessler (nes'-ler), Victor Ernst. 1841- 

Dramatic composer; born at Bal- 
denheim, Alsace. Nessler studied the- 
ology at Strasburg, but soon gave 
up all thought of the church when his 
opera, Fleurette, met with success. 
He had had some musical training 
under Theophil Stern and now con- 
tinued his musical studies at Leipsic, 
where he became chorusmaster at the 
Stadttheater and director of a vocal 
society. Nessler met with success as 
a conductor, and his compositions 
were melodious and showed knowl- 
edge of stage technique, but lacked 
depth and originality, though they 
appealed strongly to the popular taste. 
Some of his operas were Die Hoch- 
zeitsreise Dornroschen's Brautfahrt; 
Nacht-Wachte und Student; Am Alex- 
andertag; Der Rattenfanger von Ham- 
elin; Der Trompeter von Sakkingen. 
The last two were immensely popular 
in Germany, but when Der Ratten- 
fanger von Hamelin was produced in 




English in London it proved a com- 
plete failure. Nessler also composed 
songs, ballads, and choruses, which 
have become widely known. He died 
in Strasburg. 

* Nesvera (nesh-va'-ra), Joseph. 1842- 
Composer; born in Proskoles, Bo- 
hemia. He was educated to be a 
schoolmaster, but, finding his talent 
for music, gave himself up to the study 
of that art, and soon became choir- 
master in a church of Prague. He 
held the position of director of music 
in the Episcopal Church at Konig- 
gratz in 1878, and later became chap- 
elmaster of Olmiitz Cathedral. He 
has written a number of masses and 
other sacred orchestral works, which 
have been well received. Among his 
three operas, Perdita, Waldelust, and 
Der Bergmonch, Perdita won for him 
the greatest triumph when produced 
at Prague in 1897. He has also com- 
posed piano and violin music; a sym- 
phony in G minor; a string septet; 
and a violin concerto. 

Netzer (net-tser), Josef. 1808-1864. 

Dramatic composer, teacher and 
conductor. Netzer was born in Tyrol, 
was a pupil of Goller at Innsbruck, 
and then of Gansbacher and Sechter 
in Vienna, where he became a popu- 
lar teacher of piano. Among his 
successful operas are Mara; Die Bel- 
angerung von Gothenburg; and Die 
selteue Hochzeit. He also wrote a 
number of overtures, symphonies, and 
string quartets, and many songs. Net- 
zer was conductor of the Euterpe 
concerts in 1844 and 1845, was assist- 
ant director of music at the Stadtthea- 
ter at Leipsic and director at the 
Theatre an der Wien, in Vienna. 

Neubauer (na'-oo-bow-er), Franz 

Christian. 1760-1795. 

Violinist and composer; born at 
Horzin, Bohemia, in 1760. He was 
the violin pupil of a village school- 
master. While still a youth he went 
to Prague, and then to Vienna, where 
he produced the operetta, Ferdinand 
and Yariko, and met eminent musi- 
cians, among them Mozart and Haydn. 
He gave concerts in many cities of 
Germany; in 1789 he became chapel- 
master to Prince Weilburg, and re- 
mained until the disbanding of the 
orchestra, then went to Minden, and 
later was made Court composer and 
director at Biickeburg. His pub- 
lished compositions comprise twelve 


symphonies, ten string quartets; con- 
certos for piano, for flute and for 
cello; cantatas; sonatas; songs, and 
the operetta before mentioned. Neu- 
bauer led a wandering, irregular life, 
ruining his health so that he died at 
Biickeburg when thirty-five years old. 

Neuendorff (noi'-en-dorf), Adolf. 1843- 
Born in Hamburg, but received 

most of his education and lived nearly 
all his life in America, as he came 
with his father to New York in 1855, 
already a fair pianist. From Joseph 
Weinlich and G. Matzka he received 
violin instruction, and when sixteen 
made his debut as pianist and then 
as first violinist in the old Stadtthea- 
tre of New York. After a tour as 
violinist through South America he 
took up the study of theory and com- 
position with Carl Anschiitz. He 
went to Milwaukee where he was 
made conductor of the German Thea- 
tre; for three years he conducted 
German Opera in New York; from 
1867 to 1871 was conductor of the 
Stadttheatre; he brought an opera 
company from Europe and gave the 
first performance of Lohengrin in 
America. He was also conductor of 
the Juch English Opera Company and 
of the English Grand Opera in New 
York. After his contract with the 
Stadttheatre expired he went back to 
his native land. When he returned to 
New York he brought with him Theo- 
dor Wachtel and they, with Carl Rosa, 
conducted Italian Opera at the New 
York Academy of Music for a sea- 
son. He was the founder of the 
Germania Theatre of New York and 
its manager for two years, and then 
with Wachtel and Mme. Poppenheim 
gave a season of German Opera at 
the Academy, and in 1877 The Flying 
Dutchman, Tannhauser and Die Wal- 
kiire. The next year he became con- 
ductor of the New York Philharmonic 
Society, and from 1884 to 1889 was a 
concert director in Boston. He after- 
wards gave concert tours over the 
United States, and when Josef Hoff- 
man made his first American tour, 
Neuendorff conducted his concerts. 
He went to Vienna in 1893, when his 
wife, Georgine V. Januschowsky, was 
prima donna at the Imperial Opera. 
Upon his return to New York in 
1896 he became director of music at 
the Temple Emanu-El, and in 1897 
succeeded Seidl as conductor of the 




Metropolitan Permanent Orchestra. 
His compositions are four comic 
operas, The Rat Charmer of Hame- 
lin, Don Quixote, Prince Woodruff 
and The Minstrel; two symphonies; 
several overtures; cantatas; male 
quartets and many songs. 

Neukomm (noi'-kom), Sigismund. 

A most prolific composer, whose 
works are said to number over one 
thousand and include oratorios, 
masses, morning and evening serv- 
ices, psalms, operas, symphonies, 
military marches, concertos, French, 
English, Italian and German songs. 
He was born at Salzburg in 1778; 
was a pupil of Weissauer and of 
Michael Haydn and when fifteen years 
old was University organist. In 1798 
he went to Vienna and there studied 
with Joseph Haydn who became his 
friend and almost guardian. He be- 
came a rnember of the Stockholm 
Academy in 1807 and then conductor 
of derman Opera in St. Petersburg. 
He returned to Vienna to be with 
Haydn during his last illness, and 
then went to Paris as pianist to 
Talleyrand. It >yas in Paris that he 
composed a requiem for Louis XVI., 
for which in 1815 Louis XVIII. made 
him Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
He remained in Talleyrand's service 
until 1826, after which he traveled for 
many years in Italy, Holland, Bel- 
gium, England and Scotland, with 
Talleyrand on his embassy to Eng- 
land in 1830; was in Germany in 1832, 
Italy 1833 and 1834 and the year fol- 
lowing in southern France and Algiers. 
Ill health prevented an intended visit 
to North America, and the last years 
of his life he spent in Paris and Lon- 
don, and died in Paris in 1858. He 
was very popular in England until 
the advent of Mendelssohn in 1837 
who eclipsed him as a rhusician; but 
though lacking real greatness as an 
artist he lacked none as a man, and 
held the friendship of Mendelssohn 
as long as he lived. He was also 
intimate with Cherubini, Cuvier, 
Gretry and Moscheles. Neukomm was 
an indefatigable worker and aside 
from his large number of composi- 
tion he contributed to several musi- 
cal periodicals. 

Neuseidler (noi'-zet-ler), Hans. 

Hans Neuseidler was one of a 
family of German lutenists. He was 


born in Presburg, date unknown, and 
spent the greater part of his life 
in Nuremburg. Aside from appearing 
as lutenist he was a manufacturer of 
his instrument and author of works 
on the subject of lute playing. He 
also published arrangements of pre- 
ludes, motets, fantasias, songs and 
dances for the lute. His work on lute 
playing is important for the history 
of harmony. Hans Neuseidler died 
in Nuremberg in 1563. 

Neuseidler, Melchior. 

Lutenist. Dates of birth and death 
are not positively known. He is 
thought to have been the son of Hans 
Neuseidler; born in Augsburg, where 
he lived much of his life. He lived 
at some time in Italy, where he pub- 
lished two books of pieces for the 
lute in Italian tablature. In Augs- 
burg he was with the family of Anton 
Fugger and probably held some city 
position as musician for small fes- 
tivities. In 1574 he published a book 
of secular songs and mt)tets written 
by composers of his time; this he 
called Teutsch Lautenbuch. The date 
of his death is usually given as 1590. 

Nevada (na-va'-da), Emma. 1862- 

Born in Nevada City, California. 
Her father, William Wallace Wixon, 
was a physician of Nevada City. 
When but three years old she sang 
in public. Her mother died when 
she was a child and she was educated 
at a seminary in Oakland, Cal., and 
in company of several other young 
women went to Berlin, where she 
was advised to seek Madame Mar- 
chesi at Vienna. Under her instruc- 
tion she further developed an already 
sweet and pure soprano voice and in 
1880 made her debut at the Majestic 
Theatre, London, in the Italian Opera, 
La Sonnambula. She now assumed the 
stage name of Emma Nevada. Al- 
though her voice has by many been 
considered too light for grand opera 
she was engaged at once to sing in 
Italy and later at the Opera Comique 
in Paris, in 1883 as Zora in Perle du 
Bresil, and then as Mignon, perhaps 
her most successful role, and appeared 
in 1884 at the Norwich Festival, Eng- 
land. In 1885 she sang in Italian 
Opera in New York, San Francisco 
and other American cities on alter- 
nate nights with Mme. Patti. She 
was most warmly welcomed in her 
own country. In October, 1885, she 




was married in Paris to Dr. Raymond 
Palmer, an English physician, but 
still continued her stage career, go- 
ing again to America on a concert 
tour, singing in Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, then in Holland, Germany, Rus- 
sia, Italy, Portugal and Spain. In 
1898 she again appeared in Paris at 
the Opera Comique, the following 
year in London at the Philharmonic 
and at Crystal Palace, and in 1901 and 
1902 revisited all the principal cities 
of America. Emma Nevada is con- 
sidered one of the most brilliant 
singers among American sopranos. 
The great merits of her voice lie in 
her staccato effects, chromatic runs 
and notes in altissimo. Her marvel- 
ous technique and beautiful flute-like 
quality of voice coupled with her 
gracious and charming womanly 
traits have won for her a host of 
admirers both here and abroad. She 
has a wide repertory, having sung in 
Mignon, Faust, Sonnambula, Rigo- 
letto, Traviata, Hamlet, Don Pas- 
quale, II Barbiere, Lakme, Mirella, 
Perle du Bresil and other well-known 

*Nevin, Arthur. 1871- 

Brother of Ethelbert Nevin; born at 
Edgeworth, Pa., in 1871; educated at 
Sewickley Academy and Park Uni- 
versity, Allegheny, Pa. He received 
no musical training until 1891, when 
he went to Boston and entered the 
Conservatory of Music. In 1895 he 
went to Berlin and studied under 
Klindworth and Boise. Although he 
has never enjoyed the renown ac- 
corded his brother, he is a composer 
of much merit. Among his compo- 
sitions is a book of four graceful 
sketches, two songs, Were I a Tone, 
and In Dreams, which Hughes de- 
scribes as emotionally rich, and a 
number of piano and orchestral 

Nevin, Ethelbert Woodbridge. 1862- 

One of the most popular American 
composers; born at Vineacre, near 
Pittsburg, Pa.; the son of Robert P. 
and Elizabeth Oliphant Nevin; from 
his father, who was editor and pro- 
prietor oi a Pittsburg newspaper and 
a contributor to many magazines, he 
received most of his early education. 
Robert Nevin encouraged the musical 
tendencies early evinced by his son 
and gave him every advantage, tak- 

ing him abroad for two years of 
travel and study in Dresden under 
Bohme, and then sending him to 
Boston for piano study under B. J. 
Lang and composition under Stephen 
A. Emery. Nevin then gave lessons 
in Pittsburg, earning money to take 
him abroad for further study. In 1884 
he went to Berlin and for three years 
was the pupil of Karl Klindworth. 
He now began to give most of his 
time to composition. In 1887 he re- 
turned to America, taught and played 
at concerts in Boston for three years 
and then went to France and Ger- 
many. In Paris he won much praise 
as a teacher; from there he went to 
Berlin and devoted himself so 
assiduously to composition that his 
health was impaired and he was com- 
pelled to take a year's rest in Algiers. 
In 1895 he gave a series of concerts 
in America and then took up his 
residence in Florence, where he com- 
posed some of his best works; from 
Florence he went to Venice, where he 
composed his Venetian suite; after a 
year in Venice and another in Paris 
he returned to his own country. He 
was married in 1888 to Anne Paul of 

His last years were spent in New 
Haven, Conn., where he died in 1901. 
Nevin wrote many piano-pieces and 
did a little work for orchestra, but 
will always be remembered by his 
songs. In Florence he composed his 
suite. May in Tuscany, the best num- 
ber of which is the Rusignuolo. His 
life and the scenes about him in 
Venice inspired his Venetian sketches, 
perhaps the best known being The 
Gondoliers. The Sketch Book, known 
to every rnusician and music lover of 
America, is a collection of thirteen 
songs and piano-pieces. Among its 
songs are the popular I' the Wondrous 
Month o' May; Love Song, a piano 
solo; and the serenade, O That We 
Two Vyere Maying, one of the rarest 
lyrics in the English language. His 
song. The Rosary, reached a phenom- 
enal sale. His child songs have a 
peculiar captivating charm and in- 
clude some of Stevenson's best child 
poems. In Winter I get up at Night 
and Little Boy Blue are two of the 
most popular. Water Scenes, includ- 
ing Narcissus, his most popular piano 
work. Dragon Fly, Ophelia and Bar- 
carolle, perhaps made Nevin best 
known. His book, In Arcady. con- 
tains pastoral scenes, and the lullaby, 




Sleep Little Tulip, is a remarkably 
artistic work. He wrote a suite for 
piano, En Passant, of which In 
Dreamland, a delicious reverie, is a 
number; a pantomime for piano and 
orchestra; a libretto to Lady Flor- 
aine's Dream, by Vance Thompson; 
a cantata, and many other songs and 
piano-pieces. The works of no other 
American composer have ever met 
with greater success nor have been 
in so great a demand. 

Ney, Jenny Biirde. See Biirde-Xey. 

Niccolini (nek-ko-le'ne), Giuseppe. 


Italian composer of a great number 
of dramatic and sacred works, popu- 
lar in their day but now almost for- 
gotten. Born in Piacenza, the son of 
a musicmaster who gave him his 
first instruction. He was a pupil at 
the Conservatory of San Onofrio of 
Naples until 1792. The next year he 
produced his first opera at Parma. 
This he followed with more than 
fifty others which met with success 
when presented in the principal cities 
of Italy. He received in 1819 the 
appointment of music-director at the 
Piacenza Cathedral and then com- 
posed mostly sacred works including 
thirty masses, two requiems, psalms, 
hymns, litanies, etc. Other of his 
pieces are for piano and strings. 

Nichelmann (nikh'-el-man), Christoph. 


Composer and author; born at 
Freuenbrietzen, in Brandenburg. He 
was a pupil in St. Thomas School, 
Leipsic, under Bach, and of Quantz 
in Berlin. He then lived for a time 
in Hamburg and in 1744 was ap- 
pointed harpsichord player to the 
Royal Chapel, acting as accompanist 
for Frederick the Great. In 1756 he 
left the chapel, dismissed for some 
unknown reason, and became a 
teacher of music in Berlin. He is 
now best remembered for his book, 
a treatise on melody, which caused 
much discussion among musicians of 
his time. His compositions are 
clavier pieces, sonatas and concertos: 
a serenade, songs for collections of 
Lange, Alarpurg and others; and a 
serenade. The Dream of Scipio, per- 
formed at Berlin before the King in 

*Nicholl, Horace Wadham. 1848- 

Born in Birmingham, England, 
which for many years has been fa- 


mous as a musical center. His father 
was a learned contrapuntist of the 
Albrechtsberger School and gave to 
his talented son the solid principles 
of harmony and musical rhetoric, 
upon which he has built his great 
works. Later he studied under Sam- 
uel Price, the organist. Nicholl held 
several positions as organist in the 
vicinity of Birmingham, at Dudley, 
then at Stoke-on-Trent, when he 
crossed the ocean to become organist 
of St. Paul's Cathedral at Pittsburg. 
Later he was organist at the Third 
Presbyterian Church. He was also 
a teacher in the Female College and 
gave recitals in Pittsburg, Indianapo- 
lis and elsewhere. He went to live 
in New York in 1878, where he was 
organist of St. Mark's. He became 
editor of the organ department of 
Freund's Music Trades' Review and 
his Church Articles were widely read. 
He was married to Cornelia Mather, 
an author, at Trenton, in 1889. From 
1888 to 1895 he was with B. Boekel- 
man as professor of harmony and 
ensemble-playing at Miss Porter's 
School at Farmington, Conn. He 
contributed to the Musical Courier 
and wrote analyses of symphonies 
for the American Musician and the 
Art Journal. When Rubinstein visited 
this country in 1872 he recognized 
Nicholl's talent and advised him to 
go to Leipsic where his work would 
be appreciated. Anton Seidl added 
his urging to that of Rubinstein's and 
Nicholl has lived much abroad of late 
years, making Berlin and Leipsic his 
places of residence though he spent 
the 3'ear of 1903 in London. He is 
well known by his organ works, which 
are distinctly modern, among them 
twelve symphonic preludes and 
fugues, a sj'mphonic poem, Life, in 
six movements. A cycle of four ora- 
torios, Adam, Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob are in manuscript; a setting of 
the Golden Legend and much else, 
besides numerous piano-pieces, songs, 
anthems, and some chamber-music 

Nicholls, Agnes. 1877- 

Concert-singer; born at Chelten- 
ham. Agnes Nicholls studied singing 
and violin at Bedford, singing under 
Visetti at the Royal College of Music 
and private instruction under John 
Acton of ^Manchester. She possesses 
a fine soprano voice. She appeared 
in opera, but has been most success- 
ful on the concert stage, and has 



sung at all the principal English 

festivals, at the Cincinnati Festival, 

and at the Jubilee concerts of Crystal 

Palace in 1904. She is the wife of 

Mr. Hamilton Harty, a well-known 


Nicholson, Charles. 1795-1837. 

Nicholson was born at Liverpool; 
the son of a flute-player. He was 
one of the most distingfuished English 
flutists of his time and was noted for 
his brilliant performances. He played 
in the orchestra at Drury Lane, then 
at Covent Garden and as principal 
flutist at the Philharmonic and Festi- 
val concerts. Nicholson published 
a flute preceptor, a number of con- 
certos, fantasias and solos for the lute. 

Nicode (ne'-ko-da), Jean Louis. 1853- 

Well-known German pianist, teacher 
and composer. He was born at 
Jerczeg, near Posen, in 1853. His 
father who had been a skilful ama- 
teur violinist went to Berlin after 
losing his small estate at Jerczeg. 
Here he gave his son his first lessons 
in violin-playing. The organist Hart- 
kass was also his instructor and then 
at the New Academy he studied un- 
der Kullak, Kiel and Wiierst. After 
graduating from the Academy he be- 
came a most successful teacher and 
established the Nicode concerts in 
Berlin. With Madame Artot he went 
on a concert tour through Galicia and 
Roumania. In 1878 he was made 
professor of piano at the Dresden 
Royal Conservatory and remained 
until 1885, when he left in order to 
conduct the Philharmonic concerts. 
For three years he held this position, 
winning recognition as a conductor, 
and then gave his time and attention 
entirely to composition until 1893, 
when he again resumed the duties of 
conductor and later became the first 
director of the Dresden Neustadt 
Chorgesangverein. His two most im- 
portant compositions and the two 
which have made for him a name out- 
side as well as in his own country 
are the symphonic variations, and a 
work for male chorus, soloists, or- 
chestra and organ called Das Meer. 
Others are his Carnival Pictures and 
Maria Stuart, symphonic poems; Die 
Jagd nach dem Gliick, a scherzo; a 
Jubilee March for orchestra; a choral 
symphony, Gloria; a violin romanza; 
two cello sonatas; piano solos and 
duets; numerous songs and Italian 
dances. All his work reaches a high 


standard of excellence and shows him 
to be an intelligent, clever and im- 
aginative artist, able to appeal favor- 
ably to the sound judgment of the 
trained musician and at the same time 
he speaks through his art to human- 
ity at large. His influence upon 
music in Germany is felt not only 
through his compositions but through 
his teaching and his brilliant piano 

Nicolai (ne'-ko-ll), Carl Otto Ehren- 
fried. 1810-1849. 

Successful composer of opera; born 
at Konigsberg in 1810. He was well 
grounded in piano study at home, but 
otherwise his education was neglected. 
When sixteen years old he ran away 
from an unhappy home and found in 
Justizrath Adler of Stargard a friend 
and guardian. With Adler's assist- 
ance he finished his musical studies 
at Berlin with Klein and Zelter. When 
Bunsen, ambassador at Rome, sent 
for Nicolai to take the place of or- 
ganist at the Chapel of the Prussian 
Embassy he had the opportunity of 
studying the Italian works of the old 
school, and this study had much in- 
fluence upon his compositions. While 
in Rome he produced several operas. 
He left Rome in 1837 for Vienna, 
where he became singing master of a 
theatre but returnd to Rome the fol- 
lowing year and for three years gave 
his time to the composition of a 
series of operas. Nicolai's mass, com- 
posed in 1843, which was dedicated 
to Frederick William IV., and in 1844 
a festival overture for the Jubilee of 
the University of Konigsberg led to 
his appointment as director of the 
famous Domchor, where many of his 
successful sacred compositions were 
rendered, and later of chapelmaster 
at the Royal Opera, where he proved 
himslf to be a most able conductor. 
In 1847 he gave a farewell concert 
in Vienna, at which Jenny Lind sang. 
His masterpiece he composed in 1848 
and it was produced in 1849, two 
months before his death. It was his 
comic opera The Merry Wives of 
Windsor, an excellent imaginative 
composition, full of keen humor and 
delightful romance. It was a most 
brilliant success, given in Vienna and 
London. Among his many operas 
were II Templario; Enrico Secondo; 
Odoardo e Gildippe; Rosmonda 
dTnghilterra and others produced in 
various cities of Italy and Germany. 



Nicolai, Willem Frederick Gerard. 


Eminent Dutch composer and writer 
on musical subjects. For twenty-five 
years he was the editor of the Caciha, 
a musical periodical which exercised 
great influence over the musicians of 
his time and country, helping them 
to a fuller understanding of such 
masters as Wagner and Liszt. In 
1852 he was appointed teacher of 
organ, piano and harmony at the 
Royal Music School at The Hague, 
and later became director. His Ger- 
man songs which were among his 
first compositions brought him recog- 
nition, and he then devoted himself 
to the composition of cantatas to 
Dutch words, and set Schiller's Lied 
von der Glocke to music for orches- 
tra, chorus and solo.s; composed an 
oratorio, Bonifacius; the cantata. The 
Swedish Nightingale, written in honor 
of Jenny Lind; and another cantata, 
Jehovah's Vengeance, which was pro- 
duced in Utrecht in 1892. Nicolai 
was born at Leyden and studied at 
the Leipsic Conservatory under 
Moscheles, Rietz, Hauptmann and 
Richter, and under Schneider at 
Dresden, and as we have stated, made 
his reputation as composer, conduc- 
tor and author. He died at The 
Hague in 1896. 

Nicolini (ne-ko-le'-ne), Ernest Nicho- 
las. 1834-1898. 

Nicolini was the stage name of 
Ernest Nicholas; a dramatic tenor 
born at Tours, France, in 1834. He 
was a student at the Paris Conserv'- 
atory, where he won a prize for his 
performance in Comic Opera in 1856. 
He sang at the Opera Comique in 
Paris for four years, and then went 
to Italy, where he adopted the name 
of Nicolini, and sang in all the prin- 
cipal Italian cities with some success. 
From 1862 to 1870 he was again in 
Paris and during that time visited 
London, singing at St. James' Hall 
and in 1871 in opera at Drury Lane, 
and the next year at Covent Garden. 
He was married in 1886 to Adelina 
Patti, with whom he had toured, and 
it is perhaps as her husband that he 
is best remembered, though for some 
time he was considered the best 
French tenor on the stage. His pop- 
ularity did not last owing to his 
peculiar use of tremolo which spoiled 
an otherwise pleasing and powerful 
voice. He died at Pau. 

Nicolini, Nicolino Grimaldi. About 


Known as the Cavalier Nicolini, as 
he was decorated with the Order of 
St. Mark in Venice. Born in Naples 
about 1673. The Hbrettos he wrote for 
operas show him to have been a man 
of good education. He is known to 
have sung as a boy soprano, and 
later as a fine contralto. He appeared 
in Rome in 1694 with the celebrated 
Pistocchi; in Naples for one year as 
principal singer in the operas and in 
1700 was in Rome again. He sang in 
other Italian cities and in 1708 went 
to England, where he met with great 
success, singing in Pyrrhus and 
Demetrius when the fashion of pre- 
senting an opera partly in Italian and 
partly in English was the vogue. He 
left England in 1714 for Italy, but 
returned the next winter. Addison 
wrote of him concerning his acting 
that " he gave new majesty to kings, 
resolution to heroes and softness to 
lovers." He sang roles in Almahide. 
Hydaspes of which he edited the 
libretto, Rinaldo, in which he created 
the principal part; Antioco, Ambleto, 
Lucio Vero, Amadigi and Clearte. He 
remained on the stage until 1726. The 
date of his death is not known. That 
he was a remarkable actor and singer 
is evident from the criticisms by such 
men as Steele and Addison.. 

* Niecks (neks), Friedrich. 1845- 

Born at Diisseldorf. He received 
his first instruction on the violin from 
Langhans, Griinewald and Auer and 
appeared before the public at the age 
of twelve years. In 1868 he became 
a teacher and organist at Dumfries, 
Scotland, and in 1877 he went to 
Leipsic and entered the University. 
He had already written articles for 
the Monthly Musical Record, and after 
leaving the University he became a 
regular contributor to the Musical 
Times. In 1890 he lectured at the 
Ro}'al Institution of Great Britain on 
the development of instrumental 
music, illustrating by musical per- 
formances, and the next year was 
appointed Reid professor of music at 
Edinburgh University. He was the 
founder of a Musical Education So- 
ciety in 1901, Among the instructive 
papers read before musical societies 
are the Flat, the Sharp and the Nat- 
ural, and the Teaching of Musical 
History; his Frederick Chopin as Man 
and Musician, is one of his most im- 




portant works. Other of his works 
are a Concise Dictionary of Musical 
Terms, A History of Programme 
Music from the Sixteenth Century to 
the Present Time, and The Nature 
and Capacity of Modern Music, a 
philosophical treatise. 

Niedermeyer (ne'-der-mi-er), Louis. 

Composer; born at Nyon, Switzer- 
land, in 1802. He was a pupil in 
Vienna under Forster and Moscheles, 
then went to Rome and Naples for 
further study. In Naples he _ met 
Rossini; they became staunch friends 
and Rossini's influence helped Nieder- 
meyer to produce his one-act opera, 
La Casa nel bosco at the Theatre 
Italien in Paris in 1828. This, how- 
ever, proved a failure and Nieder- 
meyer left Paris to become a music- 
master in a school in Brussels. He 
had previously lived in Geneva, and 
won recognition as a composer of 
songs, and when the duties of teacher 
became wearisome to him he returned 
to Paris and published a number of 
melodies set to poems by Victor 
Hugo, Lamartine and fimile Des- 
champs. They met with success and 
Niedermeyer then returned to opera, 
but his second production hke his 
first failed, as did Robert Bruce for 
which he adapted the libretto from 
Donna del Lago, when commissioned 
to the task by Rossini. He made one 
more unsuccessful attempt in the 
opera, La Fronde, and then turned 
his attention to the composition of 
sacred music. He reorganized 
Choron's Institute for church-music 
and, as the ficole Niederrneyer, it has 
become a flourishing institution. He 
founded the La Maitrise, a journal for 
church-music, and published a method 
of accompaniment for the plain-chant, 
and composed a number of masses, 
motets and hymns which were well 
received. Some of his melodies. The 
Light, Evening, The Sea and Autumn 
were popular and are still well known. 
He died in Paris. 

Nielsen (nel'-son), Alice. 

American light opera singer; born 
in Nashville, Tenn.; the daughter of 
Erasmus Ivarius Nielson a Dane, 
from whom she inherited her musical 
ability, and of Sarah Nielson, an Irish 
woman. Her father died when Alice 
was seven years old and the family 
jnoved to Kansas City, where she at- 


tended school at St. Theresa's Acad- 
emy, and studied music under Max 
Desci. She first sang in the choir 
of St. Patrick's Church. In 1892 she 
left Kansas City with a concert com- 
pany and while singing in St. Joseph, 
Mo., she attracted the attention of 
the manager of the Pike Opera Com- 
pany, which she joined and with it 
went to Oakland, Cal. Here she made 
her debut in professional opera as 
Yum Yum, in The Mikado. In San 
Francisco, George Lask, stage mana- 
ger of the Tivoli Theatre, engaged her 
for the Tivoli Company. She at first 
sang only small parts, but finally be- 
came the prima donna. She joined 
the Bostonians in 1896. Her first part 
with them was Anita in The War 
Time Wedding, then she took the role 
of Annabel in Robin Hood and the 
next season rose to the part of Maid 
Marian. She sang in the Bohemian 
Girl, and as Ninette in Prince Ananias, 
created Yvonne in The Serenade, and 
her success in these roles was so great 
that she became the star in Herbert's 
The Fortune Teller, and in 1898, mak- 
ing her stellar debut at the Grand 
Opera House, Toronto, Canada, and 
appeared later in The Singing Girl 
and has since starred in various pop- 
ular operas, among them Don Pas- 
qual.e. As an actress Alice Nielson's 
great charm lies in her stage youth- 
fulness, spontaneity, and lack of arti- 
ficial striving for effect. She sings 
easily and naturally and her voice, of 
great range and volume, is rich and 
syrnpathetic, pure and clear, and it 
is little wonder she has so captivated 
lovers of light opera. 

Niemann (ne'-man), Albert. 1831- 

Famous German tenor; born at 
Erxleben, Magdeburg. At the age of 
seventeen, in order to support him- 
self, he went on the stage at Dessau, 
appearing in small parts and some- 
times as a chorus singer. Friedrich 
Schneider, the Court chapelmaster, 
recognized the boy's talent and as- 
sisted him to gain a musical training. 
Nusch, the barytone, gave him les- 
sons and later he went to Paris and 
studied under Duprez. He won 
further recognition by his appearances 
in small theatres, and was engaged 
at Berlin where he became immensely 
and deservedly popular both as an 
actor and singer, and was considered 
by many as Germany's greatest tenor. 
His voice was magnificent and his 




appearance suitable for the imper- 
sonation of Wagner's heroes, in which 
he excelled. Wagner selected Nie- 
mann to play Siegmund at Bayreuth, 
in 1876. He came to America in 1886, 
but his voice then had begun to fail 
and as a singer he did not fulfil the 
expectations of the American public. 
The next year he formally retired 
from the stage. 

Niemann, Rudolf Friedrich. 1838- 

Pianist and composer; born in 1838 
at Wesselburen, Holstein; son of an 
organist who gave him his first musi- 
cal instruction. Later he was a pupil 
at the Leipsic Conservatory^ then at 
the Conservatory of Paris and finally 
in Berlin, a pupil of von Biilow and 
Kiel. He toured Germany, Russia and 
England from 1873 to 1877 as accom- 
panist to Wilhelmj and so won rec- 
ognition as a pianist. He lived for 
some years in Hamburg and later in 
Wiesbaden, Again he toured with 
Wilhelmj and taught in Wilhelmj's 
violin school at Biebrich. Niemann's 
compositions are mainly songs and 
small piano-pieces; a gavotte; violin 
sonata and some variations are his 
best works. 

Niggli (nig'-gle), Arnold. 1843- 

Author of works on musical sub- 
jects; born at Aarburg, Switzerland, 
where his father was principal of the 
girls' school. He studied law at 
Heidelberg, Zurich and Berlin. In 
1875 he was appointed secretary to 
the city council of Aarau. He had 
early learned to play the piano and 
had given much of his leisure time 
to the study of theory and history of 
music, and now became a regular con- 
tributor to several musical periodicals, 
and has been editor of a Swiss musi- 
cal magazine. Sammlung musika- 
lischer Vortrage is a collection of his 
essays upon the lives and work of 
Chopin, Schubert, Faustina Hasse, 
Gertrud Elizabeth Mara, Paganini and 
Meyerbeer; another is a collection of 
lectures given in Switzerland, includ- 
ing essays on Schumann and Haydn; 
a biography of Jensen and treatises 
upon jubilee work and one upon 
Swiss music in general. Much of his 
work is considered valuable, especially 
his criticisms of the masters. 

Nikisch (nik'-ish), Arthur. 1855- 

Hungarian conductor of orchestra; 
born at Lebeny, Szent-Miklos, in 1855. 


His father was head bookkeeper for 
Prince Liechtenstein. Nikisch began 
his musical study at the age of six 
years when he was a pupil of Franz 
Prochazka of Butschowitz, and at 
eight appeared as a pianist in public. 
He entered the Vienna Conservatory 
in 1866 as a pupil of Dessoff and 
Hellmesberger. When thirteen years 
old won the gold medal for composi- 
tion, first prize for violin-playing, and 
second prize for piano-playing. After 
seven years' study in the Conservatory 
he entered the Court Orchestra as 
violinist, and was under such famous 
masters as Wagner, Liszt, Rubinstein 
and Brahms. Secured his first en- 
gagement as conductor at the Leipsic 
Theatre, in 1877, where he remained 
for ten years as conductor of opera 
and of the Tonkiinstler Versammlung. 
He was warmly welcomed when he 
came to America in 1889 to succeed 
Gericke as leader of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra. He remained in 
this country four years and then re- 
turned to Europe to become director 
of Royal Opera at Pesth and con- 
ductor of the Pesth Philharmonic 
Society concerts. In 1895 he resigned 
his positions in Pesth to take the 
leadership of the famous Gewandhaus 
concerts of Leipsic. In 1905 and 
1906, in addition to his other work, 
he was director of the Leipsic Opera. 
He has also been conducting the 
Philharmonic of Berlin and traveling 
with the orchestra in France, Russia 
and Switzerland. Nikisch has visited 
London many times and wherever he 
has been he has met with the greatest 
triumph. His name will always be 
closely associated with the musical 
life and development in Leipsic dur- 
ing the Nineteenth and early Twen- 
tieth Century. 

Nilsson (nels'-son), Christine. 1843- 

Christine Nilsson was born at 
Sjoabal, near Wexio, Sweden; the 
only daughter of a poor farmer. Her 
younger brother played upon the vio- 
lin and when Christine was a very 
small child she often sang to her 
brother's accompaniment, and when 
nine years old had learned to play 
his instrument and sang and played 
Swedish melodies at village enter- 
tainments. At the age of twelve she 
was taken to country fairs to sing, 
and when thirteen the opportunity 
came which started her upon her 
brilliant career. She was singing at 



a fair in Llungby at a ventriloquist's 
booth, when Judge Toernerheljun was 
attracted by her sweet voice and her 
simple beauty and manner. He per- 
suaded her parents to let him send 
her to Baroness Leuhusen, who gave 
her her first real instruction. She 
also sent Christine to Halmstadt to 
school. Later, in Stockholm, she was 
the pupil of Franz Berwald and in 
less than a year appeared as a singer 
at court. Baroness Leuhusen took 
her to Paris and she became a pupil 
of Wartel, and when twenty-one years 
old made her debut at the Lyric 
Theatre of Paris as Violetta in La 
Traviata, and afterwards appeared as 
Lady Henrietta, Elvira in Don Gio- 
vanni, and other roles. She remained 
at the Lyric for three years, then went 
to London, taking the part of Violetta 
at Her Majesty's Theatre and later 
achieved immense success as Mar- 
guerite in Faust. Many critics agree 
that Nilsson has never been excelled 
in this character. During the same 
season she sang in oratorio at Crystal 
Palace and at the Birmingham Fes- 
tival. In 1868 she sang in Italian 
Opera at Drury Lane and at the 
Handel Festival, later in the year at 
Baden-Baden for the first time as 
Mignon, one of her most popular 
roles, and then returned to the Acad- 
emy at Paris. The following year she 
appeared as Ophelia at Covent Gar- 
den, and then at Exeter Hall, London, 
in the Messiah, Creation, and Hymn 
of Praise. 

Her first visit to America she made 
in 1870. In 1872 she was married in 
Westminster Abbey to M. Auguste 
Rouzeaud of Paris. She revisited 
America in 1873-1874. In 1881 she 
retired from the operatic stage, but 
continued in oratorios and concerts 
until 1888, when she gave up all public 
appearances. With Brignoli, Christine 
Nilsson gave a concert tour through 
the United States in_ 1884, and also 
through Spain, Russia and Sweden 
between 1881 and 1888. Her husband 
died in 1882, and five years after his 
death she was married to Count Casa 
di Miranda. Mme. Nilsson's only cre- 
ation was the part of Edith in Balfe's 
Talismano, though she gave new in- 
terpretations to well-known roles. 
Her voice was marvelously sweet, 
brilliant and_ even and she possessed 
great skill in vocalization, and was 
termed by some enthusiasts the new 
Swedish Nightingale. In her acting 


she showed great individuality, fine 
intuition, rare charm, and excellent 
power of expression. 

Nisard (ne-zar), Theodore. 1812- 

Pen name of Abbe Theodule Elea- 
zar Xavier Normand, who was born 
in 1812 at Quaregnon, near Mons, Bel- 
gium. Here he received his first in- 
struction in music. He was later in 
Cambrai as student and chorister, and 
in Douay as a cellist, then entered the 
priests' seminary at Tournay, and in 
1839 became director of the English 
Gymnasium, and in 1842 organist of 
St. Germain in Paris; he held this 
position for only a short time, as he 
wished to devote himself to litera- 
ture. His historical books are valu- 
able to those interested in the 
development of music. Among the 
most important are a manual or ex- 
planation of the organ, of plain chant 
and the manner in which it should 
be accompanied; La Science et la 
Pratique du Plain Chant; fitudes sur 
les anciennes notations niusicales de 
I'Europe, directed against Fetis; re- 
markable articles in d'Ortigue's Dic- 
tionary; history text, etc. of the plain 
chant; and Du rhythme dans le plain 
chant; monographs on Odo de Clu- 
gny, Palestrina, Lully, Rameau, Abbe 
Vogler, and others. 

Nissen-Saloman (nis'-sen), Henriette. 

Born at Gothenburg, Sweden. She 
early showed musical talent, and 
when twenty years old was in Paris, 
a piano pupil of Chopin, and a voice 
pupil of Manuel Garcia. In 1843 she 
made her first public appearance in 
Italian Opera in Paris as Adalgisa in 
Norma, and Elvira in Don Juan. She 
met with much success and sang for 
three years in various cities of Italy, 
Russia, England, Norway and Swe- 
den. She appeared at most of the 
Gewandhaus concerts at Leipsic for 
two years, and while in Berlin was 
favorably compared with Jenny Lind. 
She was married to Saloman, a Dan- 
ish musician, in 1850. In 1859 she was 
made teacher of singing at the St. 
Petersburg Conservatory, where she 
remained the rest of her life. She 
has published a method of singing in 
Russian, German and French. 

Nohl (nol), Carl Friedrich Ludwig. 

Writer on musical subjects, lec- 
turer and teacher. Nohl's contribu- 




tions to musical literature are of much 
value, many have been translated into 
English and are well known to 
students of music. Among the best 
known are his Mozart's Letters, Bee- 
thoven's Letters, Letters of Musi- 
cians, Gluck and Wagner, Life of 
Beethoven, Beethoven According to 
the Representations of his Contem- 
poraries, and Mozart According to 
the Representations of his Contem- 
poraries. He was born at Iserlohn, in 
Westphalia, educated to be a lawyer, 
and for many years pursued his study 
of jurisprudence at Bonn, Heidelberg 
and Berlin, because it was his father's 
wish, but he felt that his talents lay 
in the direction of music and litera- 
ture. He studied theory of music 
with Dehn at Berlin, and later became 
a pupil of Kiel. In 1850 he settled 
at Heidelberg, where in 1860 the 
University conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In 
1865 King Ludwig appointed him an 
honorary professor at the University 
in Munich, but in 1872 he returned to 
Heidelberg and_ remained as a teacher 
of musical history and aesthetics. 
Nohl died at Heidelberg. 

Nordica, Lillian. 1859- 

Lillian Norton, the daughter of 
Edwin and Amanda Elvira Norton, 
was born at Farmington, Maine, in 
1859. The family moved to Boston 
in 1863j and here she was educated in 
the public schools and then entered 
the New England Conservatory of 
Boston, studying singing under John 
O'Neill. She graduated in 1875, and 
sang in a vocal quartet in Dr. Put- 
nam's church. She also studied for a 
short time in New York with Ma- 
dame Maretzek, and several years 
later with San Giovanni in Milan. 
Her first concert work was with the 
Handel and Haydn Society of Bos- 
ton, and then with the Thomas 
Orchestra on tours through America, 
appearing in New York, Philadelphia, 
Cleveland, St. Louis and other large 
cities. In New York she took leading 
parts in the oratorios, Elijah, Creation 
and the Messiah. When nineteen 
years old she went to England with 
Gilmore's band as soprano soloist, 
appearing at Crystal Palace, London, 
in 1878. 

After study in Milan she made her 
debut on the operatic stage at Brescia 
as Violetta in Traviata and assumed 
the name of Nordica. Her next great 


success was in St. Petersburg as 
Philine, Amalia and other roles, and 
in 1882 made her first appearance in 
Paris as Marguerite in Faust, and 
there, after studying the leading so- 
prano parts under Gounod and 
Thomas, sang in Hamlet. She was 
enthusiastically received in Paris. In 
1882 Nordica was married to Freder- 
ick Gower, an aeronaut, and for a 
time retired to private life. During 
the second year of her married life 
her husband met with a balloon acci- 
dent while crossing the English 
Channel and he and his balloon were 
never found. In 1885 she returned to 
the stage, and then went on a tour 
under Colonel Mapleson through 
America and England, appearing as 
Violetta at Covent Garden, then at 
the Philharmonic and at Drury Lane 
in the roles of Lucia, Donna Elvira 
and Valentine. The Prince and 
Princess of Wales personally thanked 
her at one of her performances, and 
she was commanded to sing before 
Queen Victoria, a compliment which 
greatly pleased her fellow country- 
men. Her appearance in Berlin dur- 
ing the same year was an immense 
success. For five years she remained 
in London, singing each season at 
Covent Garden, and in 1893 sang in 
oratorio at St. James' and Albert 
Halls and at Crystal Palace and vari- 
ous festivals. The next year at Bay- 
reuth she assumed the role of Elsa in 
Lohengrin, which is perhaps the 
greatest she has ever portrayed. Her 
depth of feeling and artistic under- 
standing, added to her beautiful voice, 
made her an ideal Elsa. Her success 
in this part led her_ to devote her 
attention to Wagnerian roles. For 
several seasons Madame Nordica was 
again in her own country as a mem- 
ber of the Abbey and Grau Opera 
Company. In England during the 
season of 1898 and for several years 
following at Covent Garden, she added 
to her already large repertory the 
roles of Donna Anna, Susanna, 
Isolde, Briinnhilde and others. As 
Isolde she won great applause. Ma- 
dame Nordica was married in Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, in 1896 to Zoltan 
Dome, a Hungarian singer, but she 
was divorced from him, and in 1905 
married Captain Joseph Raphael de 
la Mar. Madame Nordica is one of 
the foremost singers of the day, 
possessing a soprano voice of the 
purest quality. 



Normann, Ludwig. 1831-1885. 

Composer and teacher; born in 
Stockholm. He was a pupil of Lind- 
blad, and then under the patronage 
of his teacher, of King Oscar and 
Jenny Lind, went to Leipsic Con- 
servatory. He became a teacher of 
composition at the Royal Academy of 
Stockholm in 1857. In 1859 he con- 
ducted the new Philharmonic con- 
certs, two years later was leader of 
Stockholm Opera and for five years 
was leader of the Symphonic con- 
certs and was president of the Music 
Academy. He married Wilma Maria 
Neruda, the famous violinist, in 1864. 
His compositions include a quartet 
for piano and strings; trio for same; 
sonata for vioHn; cello sonata; many 
piano-pieces for two and four hands; 
and good arrangements of Swedish 
melodies for piano. Normann died in 

Norris, Homer Albert. 1860- 

Talented American musician; born 
in Wayne, Kennebec County, Maine. 
He studied in the New England Con- 
servatory of Music under Marston, 
Hale, Chadwick and Emery, then 
spent four j^ears in Paris under 
Dubois, Godard, Gigout and Guil- 
mant. Returning to Boston he took 
up teaching, which he carries along 
the lines followed in the Paris Con- 
servatory. He also lectures on musi- 
cal aesthetics and is now organist and 
choirmaster at St. George's Episcopal 
Church, New York. He contributes 
theoretical articles to Chicago Music, 
Philadelphia fitude and Musical Cou- 
rier, New York, and has published the 
works entitled Practical Harmony on 
a French Basis and The Art of Coun- 
terpoint. His principal works are the 
cantatas, Nain, and The Flight of the 
Eagle, but his songs, about fifty in 
number, are excellent, among them 
possibly the best being Protestations 
with its well-developed vioHn obli- 
gato. His overture, Zoroaster, de- 
serves mention. 

Norris, Thomas. 1741-1790. 

Singer and composer; born at Mere, 
Wiltshire, in 1741. He was chorister 
in Salisbury Cathedral, sang at the 
Worcester and Hereford Festivals of 
1761 and 1762, and at Drury Lane. In 
1765 he was organist of Christ Church 
Cathedral, Oxford, and that year grad- 
uated from Oxford as Bachelor of 
Music, and then was appointed 


organist of St. John's College. He 
appeared at the Gloucester Festival 
in 1766 as tenor soloist, at the festivals 
of the Three Choirs until 1788, and 
was one of the principal soloists at 
the Handel commemoration festival 
in 1784. He became very popular and 
was engaged for many oratorios in 
London, appearing for the last time 
in the Birmingham Festival in 1790, 
as he died in September of that year. 
His compositions include glees; sym- 
phonies for strings, oboes and horns; 
several anthems, only one of which 
has been printed; and an overture to 
Purcell's Tempest. 

Noskowsky (nosh-kof'-shki), Sigis- 
mund. 1848- 

Gifted composer; born at Warsaw, 
where he became a teacher in a blind 
institution and invented a musical 
notation for the blind. The Musical 
Society of Warsaw assisted him to go 
to Berlin for study with Kiel and 
Raif. In 1876 he was made conduc- 
tor of the Bodau Society at Con- 
stance, returned to Warsaw in 1881 
to fill the position of director of the 
Musical Society, and became a pro- 
fessor at the Warsaw Conservatory 
in 1888. His works are an opera, 
l^ivia; an overture. Das Mierauge; 
he also composed symphonies; ballet- 
music; string quartets; piano-music 
and chansons et danses cracoviennes, 
and other music. 

Notker (not'-ker). 840-912. 

Distinguished from others of same 
name by title of Balbulus the Stam- 
merer. He was a St. Gallen monk, 
and to him are musicians indebted 
for a nobler and grander expression 
of the Sequences, of which he wrote 
thirty-five. They had great influence 
over French and Italian song. His 
Media Vita in Morte Sumus, a chant 
which was adopted by Christian war- 
riors as a battle song is still in use 
as well as other of his music which is 
sung at Pentecost, Easter and Christ- 
mas. A number of his chants are 
still preserved at St. Gall. Notker is 
often confused with a younger monk 
known as Notker Labeo, who was 
celebrated as the writer of the first 
German manuscript on the theory of 
music, though this treatise is some- 
times accredited to Notker the elder. 
He gained his renown as poet and 
vocalist. Notker died at St. Gall, 




Notot (nu-to), Joseph. 

Musician and composer; born at 
Arras about 1755. Xo exact dates in 
the life of Xotot are known. He 
early showed decided musical talent, 
but as his father had another career 
in view for his son he sent him to 
Paris in hopes of interesting him in 
the study of law. Here he met a 
friend who took him to Leclerc, the 
organist, who marveled at the boy's 
ability as a musician, and from that 
day his career was decided. He won 
great popularity when he returned 
to Arras. Xotot became eminent not 
only as organist but as a composer, 
and won the esteem of Christian 
Bach and critics of equal ability. He 
was noted for his manner of accom- 
panying from a full score and was 
much sought after by composers who 
could gain from his performances of 
their scores the effect of their works. 
At the beginning of the French Revo- 
lution X'otot gave up his career as a 
musician and went to England, where 
he resided for some time. 

Nottebohm (no'-te-bom), Martin. 

Gustav. 1817-1882. 

Celebrated author, composer and 
teacher: born in Westphalia in 1817 
and died at Gratz in 1882. His most 
important literary works are Ein 
Skizzenbach von Beethoven; Thema- 
tisches Verzeichniss der im Drucker- 
schienenen Werke von Beethoven; 
Beethoveniana; Beethoven's Studien, 
Neue Beethoveniana; Mozartiana; 
Thematisches Verzeichniss der in 
Druck erschienenen Werke Franz 
Schuberts. These works show great 
depth of reasoning and trustworthi- 
ness of form, and so are of highest 
value to ^ the student. X'ottebohm 
studied piano and composition with 
Dehn and Berger, and in 1847 coun- 
terpoint with Sechter. He was 
associated in Leipsic in 1840 with Schu- 
mann, and with Mendelssohn, who 
secured his release from the army, in 
which he was serving as a volunteer, 
and so assisted him in his career as 
a musician and writer. He settled 
in Vienna in 1847, and became a suc- 
cessful teacher of piano and com- 
position. His compositions include 
quartets, trios and solos for piano, and 
variations on a theme by Bach. 
Nourrit (noor-re), Louis. 1780-1831. 

Opera singer; born in 1780 at 
Montpelier, and was educated in 

music at the Paris Conservatory. His 
success as a singer was fair, and only 
a part of his time was given to his 
profession. He lacked ambition and 
was satisfied to take parts in operas 
created by others. He retired from 
the stage in 1826 and lived the re- 
mainder of his life at Brunoy. His 
son Adolph succeeded his father as 
tenor and became famous as creator 
of new operatic roles, and as a writer 
of words for songs and for librettos. 

Novacek (no-va-tchek), Ottaker. 1866- 


Violinist, and composer of a num- 
ber of Bulgarian dances for violin 
and piano, of several songs for which 
he used Tolstoi's words; string quar- 
tets; a piano concerto; caprices for 
piano and for violin; and three string 
quartets. Born in Hungary in 1866; 
studied in Vienna under Dont, then 
at the Conservatory of Leipsic. He 
appeared at the Gewandhaus concerts 
in Leipsic, and then came to America, 
where he remained the rest of his 
life. He was a member of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra in 1889, under 
Xikisch. During the year 1892-1893 
he played the viola in the Damrosch 
Orchestra of N^ew York. Ill health 
compelled him to give up his public 
performances and he devoted himself 
to composition. 

* Novak (no-vak), Vitezslav. 1870- 

Cqmposer; born at Kamenitz, Bo- 
hemia. Novak ^ is one of the 
Bohemian musicians who have done 
much to revive in their country the 
old standard of music and musical 
taste. He studied at the University 
and at the Conserv^atory at Prague, and 
has since lived there as a teacher 
and state examiner. His composi- 
tions include numerous songs, 
choruses, chamber-music, piano trios, 
string quartets. On the Lofty Tatra, 
a symphonic poem; another. Eternal 
Longing, a serenade; four ballads and 
a piano sonata, the Eroica. His first 
works, like those of many another of 
his country, were influenced by the 
German Romantic School, but his 
later compositions have been more 
truly Bohemian and show the na- 
tional element which has interested 
his fellow musicians. 

Novello (no-vel'-lo), CUu-a Anastasia. 


A distinguished oratorio singer; 
fourth daughter of Vincent Novello, 



the composer, and born in London in 
1818. In 1843 she became the wife of 
Count Giglincci; in 1860 she retired 
from the stage. Her first instruc- 
tion was received in York, where 
she learned singing and piano-play- 
ing; in 1829 she was a pupil at the 
Conservatory in Paris. When fifteen 
years old she appeared at Windsor 
and was immediately engaged for the 
Ancient and Philharmonic concerts 
and Worcester Festival. Mendels- 
sohn was attracted by her singing, 
and upon his invitation she went to 
Leipsic and sang at the Gewandhaus 
concerts, then in Berlin, Vienna, St. 
Petersburg and Diisseldorf. She 
studied for the stage in 1859 at Milan 
and appeared in opera at Padua in 
1841 in Rossini's Semiramide, and 
afterwards at Rome, Milan, Bologna 
and Modena, and in 1843 at Drury 
Lane, London, in opera. Her last 
public appearances were in a per- 
formance of the Messiah at Crystal 
Palace and a benefit concert at St, 
James' Hall. She then went to Italy 
to live. She is considered the greatest 
oratorio singer England has ever pro- 

Novello, Joseph Alfred. 1810-1896. 

Eldest son of Vincent Novello. 
Best known as a music publisher and 
manager of the firm, Novello & Co., 
established by his father in 1812, 
which business Joseph Novello en- 
tered at the age of nineteen. He was 
the first to introduce the printing of 
separate vocal parts for choir use, and 
published classical music at such 
prices as to make it popular in Eng- 
land. He was a bass-singer, and 
appeared in oratorios and concerts, 
and was an organist and choirmaster 
at Lincoln's Inn Chapel. In 1856 he 
retired from business and lived the 
remainder of his life in Italy. He died 
in Genoa. 

Novello, Vincent. 1781-1861. 

Born in London in 1781; son of 
Giuseppe Novello, an Italian, and of 
an English woman. His first instruc- 
tion in music was from a friend, 
Quellici, an Italian composer. With 
his brother Francis he later attended 
school at Huitmille, near Boulogne, 
and remained until France declared 
war against England in 1793, when he 
returned to London. Though but 
twelve years old he was made choris- 
ter at the Sardinian Chapel, Lincoln's 


Inn Fields, under the organist, Sam- 
uel Webbe. Later he assisted Webbe 
and also Dauby, the organist of the 
Spanish Chapel in Manchester Square. 
In 1797 he became organist of the 
Portuguese Chapel, Grosvenor Square. 
His organ performances here won 
him much commendation. George 
IV. was so attracted by his skill that 
he offered Novello a like position at 
Brighton Pavilion. Novello declined 
the offer, as his duties as conductor 
of musical societies and as teacher 
made his residence in London neces- 

In 1811 he founded the well-known 
music publishing house of Novello, 
Ewer & Company, of London, after- 
wards carried on by his son, Joseph 
Alfred. He also acted as pianist and 
conductor for the Italian Opera Com- 
pany at the Pantheon during 1812, 
and the next year became one of the 
thirty original members of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, and frequently con- 
ducted their concerts. At the Fes- 
tival at Westminster Abbey in 1834 
he played the organ in The Creation. 
During his last years in London he 
was organist of the Roman Catholic 
Chapel in Moorfields; helped establish 
the Classical Harmonist and Choral 
Harmonists Societies, and acted' for 
some time as conductor of both. For 
many years he had taught classes in 
piano-playing in Campbell's School, 
Brunswick Square, and in Hilbert's at 
Clapton, and also had a number of 
private pupils. As a composer he 
showed considerable musical knowl- 
edge and technical skill, but his work 
is not spontaneous and is that of the 
teacher rather than the artist. His 
cantata, Rosalba, was written for the 
Philharmonic Society. A glee. Old 
May Morning, gained for him a prize 
at Manchester in 1832, and his In- 
fant's Prayer, a recitative and air, 
became very popular in boy choirs. 
He also composed a number of 
masses, motets and sacred pieces to 
Latin words. He is best known as 
an editor and arranger of music. He 
published a collection of Italian com- 
positions, which he was allowed to 
copy from manuscript; eighteen of 
Mozart's and sixteen of Haydn's 
masses; Purcell's Sacred Music; Con- 
vent Music; Croft's, Green's and 
Boyce's anthems; Beethoven's and 
Hummel's masses. Novello had a fine 
literary taste, and such poets and 
writers as Shelley, Keats, Mary Lamb 




and Leigh Hunt were among the 
many famous friends who frequented 
the Xovello home. He was married 
in 1808 to Mary Sabilla Hehl, of Ger- 
man-English parentage, and to them 
were born eleven children, several of 
whom became more or less eminent 
as writers or musicians. In 1848 Mrs. 
Novello went to Rome to benefit her 
health, and later to Xice, where in 
1849 Novello joined her and remained 
the rest of his life. He died in 1861. 
A window in memory of him was 
placed in the north transept of West- 
minster Abbey in 1863. 

Noverre (no-var), Jean Georges. 1727- 


Authority on dancing and reformer 
of the French ballet; born in Paris; 
was a pupil of the celebrated dancer, 
Dupre. He was well received in Ber- 
lin and London, where some of his 
ballets met with success, but failed 
for many years to gain the position 
in Paris for which he hoped. He 
filled a position at the theatre of 
Lyons, producing three ballets, found 
a patron in the Duke of Wiirtemberg, 
and then was called to Vienna bj- 
Empress Maria Theresa as director of 
Court festivities and dancing-master 
of the Imperial family. At last, in 
1775, he gained the long sought for 
position, that of chief-master of the 
ballet at the Academy in Paris, 
through the influence of Marie An- 
toinette, then Queen of France, who 
had once been his pupil. He com- 


posed many ballets, and wrote a num- 
ber of books on the subject of the 
ballet, and through them he influenced 
the costume of dances, compelled 
composers to conform their music to 
the situations in the drama, and made 
pantomime appeal to the intellect as 
well as the eye by introducing dra- 
matic action. Perhaps the most im- 
portant of his publications is An 
Analysis of the Imitative Arts in 
General and of the Dance in Particu- 
lar; others are Lettres sur la Danse 
and Les Ballets et Les Arts. 

Nowakowski (no-va-kof'-shH), Jo- 
seph. 1805-1865. 

Distingruished pianist and composer 
of Poland; born at Muiszck in 1805. 
He was educated in the monastery at 
Wonchak and then in the Warsaw 
Conservatory, studj'ing under Eisner 
and Wiirfel. He made long concert 
tours through Germany, France and 
Italy and visited Paris at various 
times. He was a professor at the 
Alexander Institute, Warsaw. Over 
fifty of his compositions were pub- 
lished and he was considered by 
many to be the best composer in 
Poland at his time. His works are 
varied, including symphonies and 
overtures for orchestra, masses and 
other church-music, quintets for piano 
and strings, quartet for strings, polo- 
naises, fantaisies, nocturnes, ron- 
deaux and etudes for piano, and many 
songs. Nowakowski died in Warsaw 
in 1865. 


Oakeley (ok'-K), Sir Herbert Stanley. 


English organist, composer, pro- 
fessor and conductor; born at 
Ealing, Middlesex. After going to 
Rugby, and Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he studied harmony under 
Elvey, and from which he graduated 
Bachelor of Arts in 1853, and Master 
of Arts in 1856, he went to German}'. 
At Leipsic he entered the classes of 
Moscheles, Papperitz and Plaidy at 
the Conservatory; at Dresden he took 
organ lessons from Schneider and 
ended by studying the piano under 
Breindenstein at Bonn. He was pro- 
fessor of music at Edinburgh Uni- 

versity from 1865 to 1891, becoming 
Professor Emeritus the following 
year. He did great service for Scot- 
land's music, raising the standard of 
classical music, bringing the Reid 
concerts, which have become a yearly 
three days' festival, from a languish- 
ing condition to a very flourishing 
state of excellence, and spreading the 
love of organ and orchestral music 
by his organ recitals and the concerts 
of the University Music Society. His 
good work brought him many honors. 
In 1871 he was made Doctor of 
Music by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury and by Cambridge. He was 
knighted at the unveihng of a monu- 




ment to the late Prince Consort at 
Edinburgh in 1876; became Doctor 
of Music of Oxford in 1879. Many 
other honorary degrees were con- 
ferred on him. He was a good pianist 
and improvised on the organ. He 
composed a great many pieces, 
among them the instrumental works 
Edinburgh, and Liverpool Festival 
March; a Funeral March; Suite in 
Olden Style; a piano sonata; Romance 
and Rondo capriccioso; and preludes 
and fugues for the organ. In vocal 
compositions he has written the can- 
tata, Jubilee Lyric, for the Chelten- 
ham Festival of 1887; Edina, and 
other hymns; Service in E flat; Na- 
tional Scottish Melodies; choral 
songs; students' songs, among them 
an Alma Mater; part-songs; and 
songs set to German and English 
words, notably the Bugle Song, and 
some others, from The Princess, by 

Oberthiir (6'-ber-tur), Charles. 1819- 

German harpist and composer; born 
at Munich. He studied with Elsie 
Brauchle and G. V. Roder, and after 
playing in the theatre in Zurich from 
1837 to 1839 he made a tour of 
Switzerland; was then solo harpist 
at the Wiesbaden Court Theatre until 
1842, when he went to live at Mann- 
heim. From there he went to London, 
in 1844, which he made his per- 
manent home. For a short time after 
his arrival he played at the Italian 
Opera House, but afterwards spent 
his time in teaching and composing, 
sometimes appearing in concerts in 
England and on the Continent. He 
was highly esteemed as a teacher as 
well as an executant and composer. 
Among his works are the operas, 
Floris von Namur, given at Wies- 
baden, and The Spirit of the Hartz 
Mountains; two overtures, Macbeth, 
and Riibezhl; a grand mass, St. Philip 
di Neri; a legend for harp and orches- 
tra, called Lorely; two trios for harp, 
violin and cello in F and C; a harp 
quartet; a nocturne for three harps; 
for the harp a concertino; an Elegie; 
Pensees musicales; Miranda; The 
Sylph, etc.; the cantatas, The Pilgrim 
Queen, the Red Cross Knight, and 
Lady Jane Grey, beside some piano- 
music and part-songs. He died in 

Obrecht, Jacob. See Hobrecht, Jacob. 

O'CaroIan, Turlogh. 1670-1738. 

The last of the bards, sometimes 
called Turlough Carolan; was born 
at Newton, West Meath County. 
While still young he was made blind 
by smallpox. He learned to play the 
harp, using it chiefly to aid him in 
composing. He married Miss Mac- 
Guire of Tempo, and settled on a 
farm. In 1692 he became a wander- 
ing bard. His fine voice, genial dis- 
position and genius at composing 
songs made him welcome everywhere. 
His compositions were chiefly in cele- 
bration of his hosts and the ladies of 
the families who entertained him and 
his companions, but he also wrote 
some church-music, notably Gloria in 
excelsis Deo, and Resurrection. Of 
his compositions probably the best 
known are The Fairy Queen; The 
Princess Royal; Gracey Nugent; 
Bridget Cruise; Devotion, the only 
one of his two hundred songs that is 
written in English; O'Rourke's Feast 
or Carolan's Receipt; Why, Liquor of 
Life, Do I Love You So; Bumpers, 
Squire Jones; and a monody in mem- 
ory of his wife. He died at Alder- 
ford, the home of his childhood 
friends, the MacDermot Roes, and 
was buried in the churchyard at 
Killronan, after a four days' wake, 
which was attended by hundreds of 
his admirers. He was high in the 
esteem of Geminiani and others, be- 
side his own countrymen. Some of 
his songs were printed in Aria di 
Camera by Dwight in 1727, a collec- 
tion was published by his son in Lon-. 
don in 1747, and Terence Carolan's 
collection appeared in 1780. 

Ochs (okhs), Siegfried. 1858- 

German composer and conductor; 
born at Frankfort. After studying 
medicine and chemistry in his native 
city and at Heidelberg University he 
attended the Hochschule fiir musik at 
Berlin, and took private lessons from 
Kiel and Urban. In 1882 he founded 
at Berlin the Philharmonic Choir. 
He also directs the Porgeschor at 
Munich and the Riilschen Gesang- 
verein in Frankfort, and has intro- 
duced unknown worksof Bach, Bee- 
thoven. Brahms and Liszt,_ as well as 
those of his contemporaries, Briick- 
ner, Hugo Wolff and Arnold Men- 
delssohn. His works comprise a 
comic opera, Im Namen der Gesetzes 
(In the name of the law); songs, 
duets, choruses, and other excellent 




vocal music, as well as some piano- 
pieces. He is one of the directors of 
the new Bach Society, and a member 
of various other organizations. His 
home is at Berlin. 
Odenwald (o'-den-valt), Robert Theo- 

dor. 1838-1899. 

German teacher and conductor; 
born at Frankenthal. He studied 
under Tschirch and Heifer, and when 
eighteen years old became prefect of 
the choir of Gera Church; from 1859 
to 1860 he taught singing in the 
schools of that town, and in 1868 
founded a vocal society; went to 
Elbing in 1870 to become cantor of 
the Marienkirche and to teach in the 
college, and there in 1871 established 
the Elbing Church Choir, which proved 
a great success. In 1882 he settled 
in Hamburg and taught at the Real- 
gymnasium and at Wilhelm College 
until his death, April 22, 1899. His 
compositions consist of psalms and 

Odington, Walter de. 

Monk of Evesham Abbey, often 
wrongly identified with Walter 
Einesham who was chosen Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in 1228, but 
rejected by the Pope. He was prob- 
ably born during the reign of Henry 
III. (1216-1272), and is thought to 
have written his treatise on music 
during the early part of his life, about 
1280, devoting his later years to 
astronomy and science. De Specu- 
latione Musicae, which is preserved in 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, is 
of great importance in musical history 
since the sixth part is devoted to an 
elaborate study of mensurable music 
and the harmony of the Thirteenth 
Century. The first three parts treat 
of the monochord and its "intervals, 
and the ratio and length of stretched 
strings, organ-pipes, and bells. The 
fourth and fifth parts are on musical 
notation and ecclesiastical plain-song, 
giving many interesting definitions 
and rules for writing certain forms, 
with illustrations from his own music. 

Odo of Clugny (klun'-ye). 879-942. 

Old French musician; born in the 
Province of Maine, and educated at 
the Court of Foulques, Count of 
Anjou, or at that of William, Duke of 
Aquitaine. After taking Holy Orders 
he became canon and chapel-singer at 
St. Martin's in Tours, and later stud- 
ied music under Remi d'Auxerre at 


Paris. He returned to Tours, and in 
the capacity of archicantor composed 
three hymns and twelve antiphones to 
St. Martin. In 909 he went to Baume 
monastery, where he was choirmas- 
ter, and probably wrote the Dialog^s 
de musica. This book, in the form of 
a dialogue between master and pupij, 
is an important work on the mono- 
chord, and gives rules for antiphonal 
singing and the construction of plain- 
song. In it first appears the system 
of modern letter notation of the minor 
series. The authorship of this work, 
however, is much disputed, it being 
attributed by some to Guido, and by 
others is thought to be the same as 
the Enchiridion or Musica Enchiriadis, 
supposed to be the work of Hucbald. 
In 927 Odo became abbot of Clugny 
(now spelled Cluny), where he died in 
942. Dialogus de Musica was printed 
by Gerbert in his Scriptores, vol. I. 
Another work, Toniarum, attributed 
to Odo, appeared in the second vol- 
ume of Scriptores, printed by Cousse- 
maker, and in manuscript at St. Die. 

Oelsner (els'-ner), Friedrich Bruno. 

German violinist; born at Neudorf, 
in Saxony. Studied violin under 
Schrabieck and Hermann, and theory 
under Grill, at the Conservatory at 
Leipsic from 1877 to 1880. Became 
solo violin of the Court Orchestra at 
Darmstadt, and studied composition 
under De Haan. Since 1882 he has 
been violin-teacher in the Darmstadt 
Conservatory, and is chamber-musi- 
cian to the Grand Duke. He has 
Avritten two one-act operas, Vard- 
hamana, in 1893, and der Brautgang, 
in 1894; a cantata for tenor and bary- 
tone, chorus and orchestra; a piano 
trio; and songs. 

Oesten (a'-shten), Theodor. 1813- 

German pianist, composer and ar- 
ranger of instrumental music. Born 
and died in Berlin. He was a per- 
former on many instruments and a 
popular piano-teacher. He is said to 
have learned to play the piano from 
the instruction of a schoolmaster, and 
was taught the clarinet by a chamber- 
musician, Tanne, and other wind and 
string instruments by Politzki, the 
town musician at Fiirstenwald. After 
he had written a large number of 
dance-pieces, he took lessons in com- 
position under Bohmer privately, and 
from W. A. Bach, Schneider and 




Rubenhagen at the Royal Academy 
of Arts at Berlin. Abandoning the 
style of his masters, he catered to 
public taste and his light and brilliant 
compositions, especially the rondo, 
Les premieres violettes, enjoyed great 
popularity. Among his works are 
symphonies; fugues; quartets; masses; 
motets; and some good transcriptions 
from the well-known operas. Despite 
their shallowness they are still fre- 
quently used and much imitated. 

Offenbach (of'-fen-bakh), Jacques. 

Originator of opera bouflfe; a natur- 
alized Frenchman, although he came 
of German-Jewish stock, and was born 
at Cologne, where his father was can- 
tor of the Synagogue. He went to 
Paris and attended Vaslin's violon- 
cello class at the Conservatory in 
1833. In 1842 he permanently settled 
at the French capital and obtained a 
position as violoncellist in the or- 
chestra of the Opera Comique. He 
appeared in concerts, visiting England 
in 1844; wrote a few compositions, 
and published settings on parodies on 
La Fontaine's fables, which brought 
his name before the public. In 1848 
or 1849 he was given charge of the 
orchestra at the Theatre Frangais, 
and there he made his first real suc- 
cess with the setting of Alfred de 
Musset's Chanson de Fortunio, in one 
act. Previously he had produced Les 
Alcoves at a concert in Paris in 1847, 
and in 1849 his Marietta came out in 
Cologne. Ambitious to keep in the 
public eye, he wrote Pepito, a one-act 
operetta, produced at the Opera 
Comique, but it could hardly be called 
a great success. It was not until 1855, 
when he boldly assumed the direction 
of a theatre of his own, that he gained 
the popularity which he so eagerly 
desired. The Bouflfes Parisiens, as he 
styled it, was opened in the Champs- 
Elysee, but when winter came he re- 
moved to the Theatre de Comte. Not 
long afterward he took his troupe to 
Germany and England, where he was 
well received. During the eleven 
years of his management of the 
Bouffes Parisiens, most of his best 
and most popular works were pro- 
duced. Beginning with a series of 
light and charming one-act pieces in 
Imitation of Auber — Les Deux Aveu- 
gles; Le Violoneux; Bataclan: Cro- 
quefer; Dragonette; and Le manage 
aux lanterrs, he came to his own in 


1858 in Orphee aux Enfers, where 
he gives full vent to his peculiar dia- 
bolical humor, stripping the Olympian 
deities of every vestige of dignity and 
making them utterly ridiculous for the 
pleasure of his audience. Then fol- 
lowed Genevieve de Brabant; Les 
Bavards; La belle Helene; Barbe- 
bleue; La Vie Parisienne; and La 
Grande Duchesse de Gerolstein. In 
1866 he gave up directing the Bouflfes 
Parisiens and his plays until 1873 
came out at various theatres. He then 
managed the Theatre de la Gaite from 
1873 to 1876. His later works, the 
most important of which are La 
Perichole, La Princesse de Trebizonde, 
La Jolie Parfumeuse, and Madam 
Favart, show a higher aim, and the 
caricature is not so broad; but when 
he attempted the higher form of comic 
opera, in Barkouf and Robinson Cru- 
soe, he failed signally. His last work, 
Contes d' Hoffman, was not given 
until 1881, a year after his death. 
Offenbach's works became popular in 
America in 1876, when Bateman intro- 
duced La Grande Duchesse in New 
York with Tostee as leading lady, 
but the composer's visit here the fol- 
lowing year was not very successful. 
Musicians and people of refinement 
have condemned Offenbach for his 
utter disregard of all established rules 
and for his shameless caricature of 
all that they held sacred. Yet his 
burlesques, immoral as they are, were 
the outgrowth of the age in which he 
lived and furnished great enjoyment 
to the masses. "The fundamental 
humor of them all," says a writer 
in Seidel's World of Modern Music, 
"consisted in the association of myth- 
ologic and majestic concepts with the 
tornfoolery of the most unscrupulous 
artists." He was a native genius of 
remarkable originality, as is shown 
not only by the fact that during his 
career he turned out one hundred and 
two pieces for the stage but that 
Lecocq, LitolfT and Planquette, Suppe 
and Straus have fallen short of him in 
following his lead, and have finally 
turned back to the comic and lyric 
fields. Unfortunately for his immor- 
talit3^ his works lack the external 
form indispensable to long life. Since 
his death they have been forgotten. 

Oginski (6-gen'-shki), Prince Michael 
Cleophas. 1765-1833. 

Polish composer, pianist and violin- 
ist. Grand Treasurer of Lithuania and 



Senator of Russia. Born at Gutzow, 
near Warsaw. He was the nephew 
of Michael Casimiro Oginski, of Lith- 
uania, a talented amateur musician, to 
whom is accredited the invention of 
pedals for the harp, and who is said 
to have suggested to Handel the ora- 
torio. Creation, as well as to have 
written the article on the harp in the 
First French Cyclopaedia. Cleophas 
studied music under Kozlowski and 
wrote fourteen fine polonaises; three 
marches; and romances for the piano. 
Twelve polonaises were published in 
the Harmonicon in 1824. One, called 
The Death Polonaise, composed in 
1793, was world-famed because of the 
romantic story attached to it. He died 
at Florence. 

Okeghem (och-ka'-gem), Jean de. 

Celebrated Flemish contrapuntist of 
the Fifteenth Century. Authorities 
differ widely about the dates of his 
birth and death, placing his birth as 
early as 1415 and as late as 1434, but 
the majority give approximately 1430. 
Termonde is generally considered his 
birthplace, and it is certain that he 
sang at the Cathedral at Antwerp 
from 1443 to 1444, where he studied 
under Binchois. Two years later he 
entered the service of Charles VII. 
of France and was first chaplain in 
1454. In 1461 he was Royal chapel- 
master and was made treasurer of St. 
Martin's Abbey at Tours by Louis 
XI. As founder of the second or Xew 
Netherland School, and the first great 
teacher, he holds an important place 
in the history of music. Agricola, 
Brumel, Compere, Josquin Despres, 
de la Rue and others studied under 
him and spread his teaching through- 
out Europe. Ambros states that all 
schools may be traced back to Oke- 
ghem. He did not invent canon, as 
some authorities once thought, but 
he did develop it to a high degree, 
employing many devices original with 
himself. His elaborate contrapuntal 
works are of great value to the musi- 
cal historian, showing a wonderful 
advance beyond the old school. Under 
him masses and motets became a 
little less artificial, a little more cap- 
able of expressing human emotion. 
He wrote chansons; motets; canons; 
and masses. Parts of Missa Prola- 
tionium, which was sung at Munich, 
where a manuscript copy still exists, 
appeared in a number of histories. 
Missa Cuiusvis toni, a fine example of 


Okeghem's skill, published by Petreius 
in the fifteenth book of masses at 
Louvain in 1838, is in manuscript at 
the Vienna Library. As its title sug- 
gests, it may be sung in any mode. 
Of his extant work in manuscript, 
some motets and the mass De plus en 
plus are in the Papal Chapel at Rome; 
the masses. Pour quelque peine, and 
Ecce ancilla Domini, at the library in 
Brussels; the Kyrie of Gaudeamus in 
the Royal Collection at Dresden, and 
the entire mass in the Vienna Library; 
the chansons, D'ung aultre mer, 
Aultre Venus, and Rondo Royal, and 
the motet. Alma redemptoris, in Flor- 
ence; and other motets at Dijon. 

* Oldberg, Professor Ame. 1874- 

Composer, concert- pianist and 
teacher; born at Youngstown, Ohio. 
Removing to Chicago, he studied 
music under August Hyllested, 
Adolph Koelling and Wilhelm Mid- 
delschulte. He then went to Vienna, 
where he studied piano with Theodor 
Leschetizky from 1893 to 1895 and 
with Josef Rheinberger in Munich, 
and from 1898 to 1899 pursued a 
three-years' course in composition in 
one season. He returned to America 
in 1899 and became professor of com- 
position and piano at Northwestern 
University School of Music at Evans- 
ton, Illinois, a position he has held 
ever since. From 1901 to 1903 he 
was president of the Chicago Manu- 
script Society. He is a member of 
the Cliff-Dwellers' Club of Chicago. 
Of his numerous piano compositions, 
the most important are an interesting 
concerto for piano and orchestra, 
marked Op. 17; a theme and varia- 
tions for piano. Op. 25; a legend, for 
piano. Op. 26; chamber-music, includ- 
ing two quintets for piano and string 
quartet; a woodwind quintet; and a 
string quartet. His orchestral works 
include a symphony; a theme and 
twelve variations; an overture to 
Paolo and Francesca; and a concerto 
for French horn. 

O'Leary (6-la'-ri), Arthur. 1834- 

Irish pianist and composer; born of 
a musical family at Tralee. Educated 
at Dublin, and received his first musi- 
cal training at home, becoming such 
a good pianist that he was noted by 
Mr. \Vyndham Goold, who, in 1847, 
sent him to Leipsic. Here he studied 
piano under Plaidy and Moscheles, 
theory from Hauptmann and compo- 




sition from Richter and Rietz, and 
made the acquaintance of Mendels- 
sohn and the Schumanns. Returning 
to England in 1852 he joined Ben- 
nett's class in composition and Pot- 
ter's piano class at the Royal Academy 
of Music. In 1856 he became pro- 
fessor there, where he taught until 
1903. In 1873 he was appointed to 
the newly erected National Training 
School of Music, and, according to 
Brown and Stratton, he has also been 
professor at the Guildhall School and 
the Crystal Palace School of Science 
and Art, and has lectured and written 
for musical papers. In 1860 he married 
Rosetta Vinning, of Newton Abbott, 
a pupil of the Royal Academy of 
Music and a successful song com- 
poser. O'Leary's compositions in- 
clude the instrumental works, overture 
and incidental music to The Spanish 
Student, by Longfellow, written in 
collaboration with Potter; a symphony 
in C; a concerto in E minor, for 
piano and orchestra; a theme in C 
minor, with variations; and a toccata 
in F; and songs, among them, Ask 
not why I love; He roamed in the 
forest; Listening; and 'Tis Jamie's 
foot I hear. He has edited Bennett's 
piano-music, Bach's Christmas ora- 
torio, and masses by Hummel, Sechter 
and Schubert. 

Oliphant, Thomas. 1799-1873. 

English poet, composer and 
arranger and writer on musical sub- 
jects; born on Christmas Day at 
Condie, Perthshire. Began life as 
a merchant, but _ soon turned to lit- 
erature and music. For forty years 
was secretary and in 1871 president of 
the_ Madrigal Society of London, 
which he joined in 1830. In 1834 he 
wrote A Brief Account of the Madri- 
gal Society, in 1836 A Short Account 
of Madrigals, and in 1837 La Musa 
Madrigalesca, a book containing the 
words of about four hundred madri- 
gals, ballets and roundelays, princi- 
pally of the Elizabethan Age. He 
edited copies of two works by Tallis, 
the Song of Forty Parts, and Service 
and Responses, and greatly assisted 
in interesting the public in the Flem- 
ish and Italian masters. In 1842 his 
Catalogue of the Manuscript Music in 
the British Museum was printed. 
Under the name of B. Tomasi he 
wrote a charming madrigal of his 
own. Stay one Moment, Gentle River. 
He also published German songs; 


Swedish part-songs; Ten Favorite 
Madrigals, with piano accompaniment; 
various collections of glees, madri- 
gals, catches, and rounds; and Ditties 
of Olden Times. He wrote an Eng- 
lish version of Beethoven's Fidelio, 
besides translating portions of Lohen- 
grin for the Philharmonic Society 
and writing words to a number of 
songs. He died in London. 

Oliver, Henry Kemble. 1800-1885. 

American amateur composer of 
church-music; born at Beverly, Mass. 
His father was a minister and he 
inherited his musical ability from his 
mother, who was the great-aunt of 
Oliver Wendell Holmes and related 
to the family of Wendell Phillips. He 
graduated from both Harvard and 
Dartmouth Colleges in 1818. Until 
1844 he taught school in Salem, where 
he married Sarah Cook in 1825. He 
became superintendent of the Atlantic 
Cotton Mills in Lawrence in 1848, 
and during the four years intervening 
he served as colonel and later adju- 
tant-general of the militia, serving at 
the head of a regiment in the Mexican 
War. After establishing a library 
and making many other improvements 
at Lawrence he gave up his position 
in the mills in 1858 and entered poli- 
tics. In 1859 he was mayor of Law- 
rence; during the Civil War he was 
treasurer of Massachusetts; and after 
investigating child labor was ap- 
pointed head of the Massachusetts 
Bureau of the Statistics of Labor in 
1869, and a judge at the Centennial 
Exposition in 1876. He was mayor 
of Salem from 1877 to 1880, and then 
removed to Boston, where he died 
five years later. Was made Doctor 
of Music by Dartmouth in 1883, hold- 
ing the degrees of Bachelor of Arts 
and Master of Arts of Harvard. His 
career as a musician began when he 
was but a boy of ten, in the choir of 
the Park Street Church, Boston, and 
from 1819 he was a professional organ- 
ist, playing and directing music in a 
number of churches in Salem and 
Lawrence. His first attempt at com- 
position was in 1832, when he wrote a 
hymn. Federal Street. In 1872, at 
the Peace Jubilee, this hymn was 
sung to his own words by twenty 
thousand singers, with Oliver leading 
and an assembly of forty thousand 
joining in. In 1860 appeared Oliver's 
Collection of Church-Music, and in 
1875 Oliver's Original Sacred Music. 




He also published the National Lyre, 
with the assistance of Dr. Tuckerman, 
in 1849. The familiar hymns, Beacon 
Street, Chestnut Street, Salisbury 
Plain, Vesper, Wendell, Walnut Grove, 
Elkton, Harmony Grove, Hudson, 
Merton, Morning, Oakland, and Wal- 
singham, were written by him. He 
founded a glee club in 1832 at Salem, 
and in 1826 organized a Mozart Soci- 
ety there. 

Olsen (ol'-zen), Ole. 1851- 

Norwegian critic, conductor and 
composer of extremely modern ten- 
dency. Born at Hammerfest. His 
father was a merchant by profession, 
but also organist of the parish church, 
and when Ole was only seven years 
old he was able to play at church. 
In 1865 he went to .Drontheim to 
study engineering, but two years later 
he took up music under Fust Lender- 
mann. For the next three years he 
spent the winter in hard study and 
the summer in conducting with vari- 
ous traveling theatrical companies; 
then, going to Leipsic, he studied for 
four years under Richter, Reinecke 
and Oscar Paul. On his return to 
Sweden in 1874 he made Christiania 
his home, and there established him- 
self as a teacher of piano and a choir- 
master. For several years he led the 
Musical Society there, and in 1884 
was appointed musical director of the 
Second Brigade of Norwegian Infan- 
try. In 1900 he was appointed musical 
director of the Military Board. In 
Denmark, Germany, Austria and Swe- 
den he has conducted his own com- 
positions, which include the grand 
operas, Stig Hvide, Stallo, and Lajla, 
for which he has written both poem 
and music; the elfin comedy, Svein 
Urad; an oratorio, Nideros; the can- 
tatas, Ludwig Holberg, Griffenfeld, 
Broderbud, and the Tourist Cantata. 
Probably his best known works are 
those for orchestra, notably Aasgaards- 
reien, and Elf-dance, symphonic 
poems; a symphonj' in G major; and 
a suite for piano and orchestra. Olsen 
knows his resources and writes in 
the broad, free style of the ultra mod- 
ernists. His compositions are popu- 
lar in Norway and greatly admired 
by those who hear them, but they 
have not yet become universally 

Ondricek (on'-dri-chek), Franz. 1859- 

_ Also spelled Ondriczek. Excellent 
violinist; born at Prague. His parents 

were Austrians. His father was vio- 
linist of the National Theatre and 
conductor of a band, of which Franz 
became a member when only seven. 
At fourteen he entered the Prague 
Conservatory, and, after three years 
there gave a concert, in 1876, at 
which he was embraced by Wieniaw- 
ski, so thoroughly did that virtuoso 
approve his playing. A rich mer- 
chant thereupon sent him to the Paris 
Conservatory, where he studied under 
Massart, and, after gaining the first 
prize in two years' time, he played 
at the Pasdeloup concerts at Paris 
and in other cities of France. He 
visited Brussels and London, appeared 
at Berlin and other German cities, 
in Russia, Holland and Italy, as well 
as the Orient. In America, whither 
he came in 1896, he has also achieved 
the same success that attended him on 
his European tours. His repertory 
includes the classic and the modern 
of all countries, but he is perhaps 
at his best in Dvorak's Concerto in A 

Onslow, George. 1780-1853. 

Composer of chamber-music. His 
father, son of the first Lord Onslow, 
married a Frenchwoman of Bran- 
tome, and George was born on his 
maternal estate at Clermont-Ferrand, 
in the Province of Auvergne. He 
studied music, taking piano lessons 
from Hullmandel, Dussek and Cramer. 
But his taste for music did not develop 
until he was enthused by the overture 
to Stratonice by Mehul. He then 
began a long series of compositions, 
and learned to play the violoncello 
and to take part in the performance 
of chamber-music with some friends. 
He went to Venice, where he studied 
composition for two years. Return- 
ing to France he wrote a large num- 
ber of salon-pieces, with Mozart for 
a model. He was ^ persuaded to 
attempt opera, and, in preparation, 
studied for a time under Reicha at 
Paris. But of his comic operas, 
L'Acalde de la Vega, Le Colporteur, 
and Le Due de Guise; the overture to 
Le Colporteur alone sur\-ived for any 
length of time. His chamber-music 
comprised thirty-four quintets and 
thirty-six quartets; six violin, and 
three cello sonatas; ten trios; a num- 
ber of duets; sonatas; toccatas; sex- 
tets; a septet; and a nonet. The 
quintets are his best and only sur- 
viving works. He was elected to 





take Cherubini's place at the Institute 
in 1842 and was a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. He died in 1853 at 
him home in Clermont. He was a 
gentleman of refined taste, and, 
although not a genius, he worked hard 
on his compositions, many of which, 
doubtless, were worthy of their pop- 

Ordenstein (or'-den-shtin), Heinrich. 

German pianist, teacher and writer; 
born at Ofifstein. From 1871 to 1875 
he studied at the Leipsic Conserva- 
tory under Coccius, Jadassohn, Rei- 
necke, Richter, Wenzel and Oscar 
Paul. He then toured with Madam 
Peschka-Leutner and Griitzmacher 
and studied in Paris. In 1878 he played 
successfully in Leipsic and the next 
year was engaged in Countess Reh- 
binder's school at Carlsruhe. In 1881 
and 1882 he taught at Kullak's Acad- 
emy in Berlin and gave concerts, but 
returned to Carlsruhe in 1884 and 
founded the now thriving conservatory 
which he still directs. His protector, 
the Grand Duke of Baden, made him 
professor, and he is a member of the 
Sachverstandigenkommiss fiir Baden, 
Wiirtemberg und Hesse. He has 
written some excellent articles on 
music, Musikmachen und Musikhoren; 
Beiter. z. Charakterist. d. Ipstrument- 
almus; vor stud. z. Bachspiel. 

Orgeni (6r-ga'-ne), Anna Maria Ag- 
laja. 1843- 

Soprano singer, whose real name 
is Gorger Saint Jorgen. Born at Tis- 
menice, Sambor, in Galicia, a province 
of Austria. She studied under Mad- 
ame Viardot-Garcia at Baden-Baden, 
and in 1865 and 1866 played at the 
Court Opera in Berlin, where she 
made her debut as Amina. In 1866 
she made her London debut at Cov- 
ent Garden as Violetta in La Travi- 
ata, and after singing in concerts there 
went to Vienna. She sang at Berlin, 
Leipsic and elsewhere, revisited Lon- 
don in 1870 and 1881, and since 1886 
has taught singing at the Dresden 

Ortigue (or'-teg), Joseph Louis d'. 

French critic and writer on musical 
subjects; born at Cavaillon. He first 
studied law, but his taste for music 
asserted itself and he became a musi- 
cal critic. In 1829 he wrote for the 
Memorial Catholique. He was a con- 

stant contributor to various periodi- 
cals, notably Les Journal des debats, 
Gazette Musicale, La France Musi- 
cale. Revue de musique ancienne et 
moderne, Le Menestrel, Le National, 
and L'Univers. He wrote Le Balcon 
de rOpera; Leaves from the News- 
papers; De I'ficole Italienne et de I'Ad- 
ministration de I'Academie Royale de 
Musique; Du Theatre Italien et son 
Influence sur le Gout Musical Fran- 
gais; Abecedaire du Plain-Chant; 
Palingenesie Musicale; and De la 
Memoire chez les Musiciens, reprinted 
from the Revue and Gazette Musicale; 
Introduction a I'fitude Comparee des 
Tonalites et Principalement du Chant 
Gregorien et de la Musique Moderne. 
His most important work is La Dic- 
tionaire Liturgique, Historique; et 
Theorique du Plain-Chant et de Mu- 
sique Religieuse, published in 1854 
and 1860. Ortigue was assisted in this 
work by Abbe Normand, known as 
Theodore Nisard. Two other pro- 
ductions of his are La Musique a 
I'figlise, and Traite Theorique et Pra- 
tique de I'Accompagniment du Plain- 
Chant, written in collaboration with 
Niedermeyer, with whom he founded 
La Maitrise, a sacred-music periodical, 
which he edited from 1858 to 1860 
and which he revived in 1862 with 
M. Clement under the name Journal 
des Maitrises. Ortigue died in Paris. 

Ortiz (6r-tes), Diego. 

Spanish contrapuntist; the date and 
place of his birth are unknown. He 
was chapelmaster at Naples in the 
Vice-regal Chapel of the Duke of Alva. 
A volume of hymns, magnificats, 
salves, motets, psalms, and other 
sacred compositions was published at 
Venice in 1565, and a theoretical work 
on instrumental music with practical 
examples was printed at Rome in 
1553. Moore states that in Dodeca- 
chordon, Glareanus praises one of the 
pieces by Ortiz. 

Orto (6r'-t6), Giovanni. 

Flemish contrapuntist, living dur- 
ing the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Cen- 
turies, and a contemporary of Josquin. 
Petrucci in his Odhecaton, 1500 to 
1503, published eleven chansons and an 
Ave Maria for four voices by Orto, and 
one of his Lamentations in the La- 
mentationium Jeremae, besides a sep- 
arate book of Orto's masses. In 
Fragments of Masses is the Kyrie 
of a mass by Orto. Some of his 





masses are in manuscript at the Papal 
Chapel Library at Rome; the masses, 
Le Serviteur, and Mi-Mi, which con- 
tain a wonderful Agnus; songs; and 
motets are in the library at Vienna. 
The Agnus and the Ave Maria are 
found in modern score in the Beilagen 
to Ambros' Geschichte der Musik. He 
sang in the Papal Chapel at Rome 
from 1484 to 1494, and from 1505 to 
1516 was first chaplain and singer in 
the service of Philip the Fair of Bur- 

Osborne, George Alexander. 1806- 


Irish pianist and composer. His 
father was organist and lay-vicar of 
the Cathedral at Limerick, where 
George was born. At eighteen he 
went to Brussels, where he studied 
the classical works in the Prince di 
Chimay's library. Here he met Mali- 
bran and Fetis, who gave him much 
helpful advice. He taught the Crown 
Prince of the Netherlands, and was 
decorated with the Order of the 
Crown of Oak. At Paris he formed 
lasting friendships with Berlioz and 
Chopin, at whose debut it is stated 
Osborne played one of his pianos. 
He studied under Pixis and later with 
Kalkbrenner. He settled in London 
in 1843, where he lived until his death. 
He belonged to the Musical Associa- 
tion, to which he gave his recollec- 
tions of Chopin and Berlioz. He was 
also a member of the Philharmonic 
Society, directed the Royal Academy 
of Music, and was vice-president of 
Trinity College. His works include 
some songs; three trios for piano 
and strings; a quartet; piano and 
violin duets, written in collaboration 
with other musicians; a piano and 
cello sonata; a sextet for piano, 
strings, and wind-instruments, in 
which he played at his last appear- 
ance at one of the Wind-instrument 
Society concerts about two years 
before his death; and many pieces 
for the drawing-room, which were 
very popular. Among them the best 
were La Pluie des Perles; A Summer 
Eve; Evening Dew; and Marche Mil- 

Osgood, George Laurie. 1844- 

American tenor singer, teacher and 
composer. Born at Chelsea, Mass. 
From 1860 to 1862 he studied organ 
and composition under Paine, and 
jifter graduating from Harvard in 

1866, where he conducted the Glee 
Club and the orchestra, he went to 
Berlin and took lessons in composi- 
tion from Haupt and in singing from 
Seiber. He studied German song 
with Franz at Halle and the Italian 
method at Milan for three years under 
Lamperti. Then followed a successful 
concert tour of Germany. On return- 
ing to America, in 1872, he was 
engaged by Theodore Thomas, spent 
the winter touring the United States 
under him, and then settled in Boston. 
Since 1875 he has been conductor of 
the Boylston Club and since 1890 
of the Boston Singers' Society, which 
under him has become famed for its 
brilliant performances. In 1882 he 
became choirmaster of the Emmanuel 
Church. He is well known as a 
teacher. His Guide to the Art of 
Singing has gone through many edi- 
tions. His compositions include more 
than fifty songs; part-songs; anthems; 
and choruses which are both excellent 
and popular. His home is at Brook- 
line, Mass., but his studio is in Bos- 

* O'Sullivan, Denis. 1868-1908. 

Barytone singer and actor; born at 
San Francisco, of Irish parentage; 
educated at St. Ignatius College, San 
Francisco; studied music as an ama 
teur under Hugo Talbo and Karl 
Formes, and was first violin of the 
Philharmonic Society, also playing 
the second violin, viola, cello, oboe, 
doublebass and practically every 
other instrument in the orchestra 
except the piano. Studied under Van- 
nuccini in Florence and Shakespeare 
and Santley in London, and spent six 
months under Sbriglia at Paris in 
1899. His professional career began 
in 1895. He joined the Carl Rosa 
Opera Company, and made his oper- 
atic debut at Dublin as Ferrando in II 
Trovatore and also sang Alfio 
in Cavalleria Rusticana, the Mayor in 
Son and Stranger, Prince John in 
Ivanhoe, Biterolf in Tannhauser, Lo- 
thario in Mignon, and Van der Decken 
in The Flying Dutchman. In 1896 
he made his reputation in Shamus 
P'Brien at the London Opera Com- 
ique. He returned to America in 1897, 
and appeared in Shamus O'Brien and 
recitals during 1897 and 1899. He 
also starred in Boucicault's Irish 
dramas, Arrah na Pogue. Shaughraun, 
and Colleen Bawn. In 1896 and 1901 
he appeared at the London Ballad 




concerts, and frequently appeared 
before the King with the Royal 
Orchestral Amateurs. Mr. O'Sullivan 
was noted especially for his true inter- 
pretation of Irish songs and for his 
versatility, as shown by his perfect 
rendering of songs in eight other lan- 
guages. In the summer of 1907 he 
sang Irish songs before the Colonial 
Convention, where were assembled 
the Premiers of all the British Col- 
onies. He died suddenly. 

Oswald, James. 

Scotch dancing-master and musician 
of the Eighteenth Century. He was 
a dancing teacher at Dunfermline, 
where he pubhshed in 1734 a collec- 
tion on minuets. From there he went 
to Edinburgh, where, in addition to 
his original vocation, he became 
known as a violinist, organist and 
composer, and edited a Curious Col- 
lection of Scots Tunes. He left Edin- 
burgh and settled in London, where 
he edited numerous collections of 
music, publishing his own composi- 
tions anonymously, or under an 
assumed name. He became chamber- 
composer to King George III. in 
1761, and is one of the many to 
whom God Save the King is attrib- 
uted. Several other collections of 
Scotch music, and. Airs for Spring, 
Summer, Autumn and Winter; The 
Caledonian Pocket Companion; Ten 
Favourite Songs; and fifty-five marches 
for the militia were published by him. 
Baptie accuses him of poor taste in 
the selection of Scotch tunes and 
declares that his information is not 

Otto (6t'-t6), Ernst Julius. 1804-1877. 

German composer; born at Konig- 
stein, Saxony. He studied at the 
Kreuzschule, in Dresden, from 1814 to 
1822, and then took a course in theol- 
ogy at the Leipsic University from 
1822 to 1825, also studying music 
under Weinlig and Schicht. Return- 
ing to Dresden he taught music for 
a number of years at Blochmann's 
Institute and in 1838 went to the 
Kreuzschule. Among his pupils was 
Gustav Meckel. From 1830 to 1875 
he was cantor at Kreuzkirche, and 
directed the music of the leading Lu- 
theran Churches as well as conducting 
the Liedertafel. He composed several 
oratorios, Hiob, Bitterfeld, Des Hei- 
lands letzte Worte, Die Feier der Er- 
losten am Grabe Jesu; motets; masses; 


two operas. Das Schloss am Rhein, 
and Der Schlosser von Augsberg; and 
four comic-operas, the best of them 
entitled, Die Mordgrundbruck bei 
Dresden; sonatas; trios; songs; and 
part-songs for men's voices; rondos, 
and etudes. He died at Dresden. 

His brother Franz, born at Konig- 
stein in 1809 and died in Mayence 
in 1842, was a bass-singer and com- 
poser of popular songs and part-songs, 
the best known being In Dem Hum- 
mel ruht die Erde, and Blauer Mon- 
tag. He wrote twelve dances for the 
orchestra, and went to England in 
1833 to direct a Part-Singing Society. 

Otto, Rudolf Karl Julius. 1829- 

German tenor singer and teacher; 
born in Berlin; as a boy was soloist 
of the choir at the Cathedral there. 
In 1852 he became one of the faculty 
of the Stern Conservatory, and since 
1873 has been at the Hochschule in 
Berlin. He has an enviable reputation 
as an oratorio singer. 

Otto - Alvsleben (6t'-t6 alf'-sla-ben), 

Melitta. 1842-1893. 

Opera-singer; born at Dresden. She 
entered Thiele's vocal class at the 
Conservatory in that city when four- 
teen years old, and studied under him 
for three years. In 1860 she made her 
debut at the Dresden Court Theatre, 
and from that time till 1873 she sang 
light soprano parts. In 1866 she mar- 
ried Max Otto. In 1873 she made her 
debut in London at a concert given 
by Clara Schumann in St. James' Hall. 
She made such a success that her 
stay lengthened into two years, dur- 
ing which she sang frequently at the 
important concerts in London and in 
the provinces. After her return to 
Germany she sang in opera at Ham- 
burg, going from there to Dresden, 
where she was engaged at the Court 
Theatre until 1883. She appeared at 
Cincinnati Music Festival of 1879. She 
died in Dresden. Among her roles 
were Anna in Hans Heiling; Rowena 
in the Templer und Jiidin; Alice; Eva; 
Martha; and the Queen of Night. 

Oudin (oo-dari), Eugene Esperance. 

_ Barytone operatic and concert- 
singer; born of French parents in New 
York City. Studied music under Mod- 
erati, graduated from Yale and was for 
a time a practising lawyer, but on go- 
ing to London he was persuaded to be- 
come a professional singer. He made 




a great success at private concerts 
while in London, and made his debut 
as an opera-singer at Wallack's Thea- 
tre, New York, in 1888, in a comic 
opera by Victor Roger. After a suc- 
cessful run in New York the company 
made a tour of the country, and while 
at Detroit Oudin married Miss Louise 
Parker, the leading lady. In 1889 Mr. 
Oudin was again singing at concerts 
in London, and two years later took 
the part of the Templar in Mr. Sul- 
livan's Ivanhoe at the Royal English 
Opera House, and in 1892 played the 
leading role in Eugen Onegin, by 
Tschaikowsky, and of Henri Quatre 
Ma Mie Rosette, by Lacome. He 
went to Russia in 1893; returned to 
England in 1894, made an especially 
great success of Dr. Marianus' music 
in Schumann's Faust, and died not 
long after from a stroke of apoplexy. 
His flexible voice and excellent inter- 
pretation of the romantic and senti- 
mental in music made him greatly 
sought after. He translated many 
modern songs, and also wrote the 
words and music of a few songs 

Oury (oo'-re), Antonio James. 1800- 

English violinist and teacher; born 
in London. His father was an Italian 
of fine family, who taught dancing 
and music. Antonio played the violin 
at three years of age; later took les- 
sons from Kiesewetter, an accom- 
plished German violinist, and in 1820 
went to study under Baillot, Kreutzer 
and Lafont at Paris. Returning to 
London in 1828 he made his first 
appearance at a benefit for his first 
master's widow and children. Soon 
afterward he made a great success at 
a Philharmonic concert, and played 
later at others given by that society. 
He was leader of the ballet at King's 
Theatre. In 1831 he married Mile. 
Belleville, the noted pianist, and 
together they spent nine years tour- 
ing Austria, France, Germany and 
Russia. In speaking ofOury's play- 
ing, Haweis in his Musical Memoirs 
says, " I can liken those astonishing 
violin passages to nothing but the 
elaborate embroidery of little notes 
which in Chopin's music are spangled 
in tiny type all round the subject. 


which is in large type. He had the 
fine large style of the De Beriot 
school, combined with a dash of the 
brilliant and romantic Paganini and 
the most exquisite taste of his own." 

Oury, Emilie. See Belleville-Oury. 

Ouseley (ooz'-le), Sir Frederick 
Arthur Gore. 1825-1889. 

Organist, composer and theorist; 
born at London. His father was a 
baronet, noted as an Orientalist and 
ambassador to Persia and Russia, and 
on his death in 1844 Frederick suc- 
ceeded to the title. Though untu- 
tored in music he had already shown 
considerable ability in an opera, 
L'Isola disabilita, written when only 
eight years old. He graduated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1846, and 
three years later took the Master's 
degree. He was ordained and became 
curate of St. Paul's Church, Knights- 
bridge, where he remained until 1850. 
He was then given the degree of 
Bachelor of Music on examination of 
his cantata, The Lord is the True 
God, and that of Doctor of Music in 

1854 for his oratorio, St. Polycarp. 
He took Sir Henry Bishop's place 
as professor of music at Oxford, 
where he reorganized the office of 
Choragus and prevailed upon the uni- 
versity to give honorary degrees, a 
practise which was started in 1879. In 

1855 he was put in charge of the 
choir at the Cathedral in Hereford. 
In 1856 he was appointed vicar of 
St. Michael's Church, Tenbury, and 
warden of St Michael's College. He 
was made Bachelor and Doctor of 
Music by Durham in 1856, Doctor of 
Music and Law by Cambridge, and 
Doctor of Law by Edinburgh. He 
died of heart failure at Hereford and 
^yas buried at Tenbury, leaving his 
library to the college. He was an 
excellent organist and was proficient 
in the science of music. He edited 
a number of collections, and wrote an 
oratorio, Hagar; solos; songs; part- 
songs; carols; glees; chants; hymn- 
tunes; eleven church services; seventy 
fine anthems; two string quartets, and 
a sextet; many preludes and fugues, 
andantes, etc., for the organ; and also 
some piano-music. 

Pabst (papst), Paul. 1854-1897. 

German pianist; son of August 
Pabst, a dramatic composer, singer 
and organist, who was director of the 
Riga Conservatory. Paul began his 
career as a concert player at nine 
years of age, and had the advantage 
of a number of years of instruction 
from Liszt. In 1878 he went to Mos- 
cow, by invitation of Nicholas Rubin- 
stein, to become professor of piano 
at the Conservatory. He also directed 
the Imperial Society of Music and 
wrote transcriptions from The Demon, 
by Rubinstein, and Eugene Onegin, by 
Tschaikowsky, and pieces for the 
piano, which have won popularity in 

Pacchierotti (pak-ki-a-rot'-tc), Gas- 
pare. 1744-1821. 

Italian soprano singer; one of the 
most noted of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury. He was born at Fabriano, not 
far from Ancona, and was trained in 
the choir of the Cathedral in Forli 
and at St. Mark's in Venice. After 
thorough training he took to opera- 
singing, making his debut at the San 
Benedetto Theatre, Venice, about 1770. 
From there he went to Palermo, 
Naples, and many other Italian cities, 
creating a reputation which soon 
spread to England. In 1778 he made 
his London debut, with great success. 
He again visited England in 1782 and 
1783; sang in Paris, and in 1790 was 
back in London. His last years 
were spent in retirement at Padua. 
His singing is described as intellect- 
ual and full of emotion. He not only 
made his hearers forget his plain and 
awkward appearance but frequently 
moved them to tears. He was gifted 
with a wonderful ability to improvise, 
as well as a keen perception of the 
intentions of the composers, which 
rendered him remarkable in interpre- 

Pachelbel (pakh'-el-bel), Johann. 


German organist and composer; of 
great importance in the development 
of organ-music in his country. He 

was born at Nuremberg and studied 
first under Schwemmer, then at the 
University at Altdorf and later at the 
Gymnasium Poeticium in Regensburg, 
now Ratisbon. He next went to 
Vienna, where he became deputy or- 
ganist at St. Steven's, from whose 
chapelmaster, Kerl, he received valuable 
instruction. Atter being Court organist 
at Eisenach he moved on to Erfurt, 
where he remained until 1690. He 
lived two years in Stuttgart and three 
years in Gotha, afterward returning 
to his native city, where he spent the 
remaining years of his life as organist 
of St. Sebaldus' Church. He was one 
of the most highly esteemed and influ- 
ential writers of his time, and it was 
he who first gave clearness and sym- 
metry to the fugue, laying the foun- 
dation of the modern tonal system 
and preparing the field for Bach. His 
forte was the organ choral, which he 
brought to a state bordering on per- 
fection. An intimate friend of the 
Bach family, he taught Johann Chris- 
toph, the eldest son, and was a potent 
factor in the youthful development of 
Sebastian. His works include Musi- 
kalische Sterbensgedanken; Musika- 
lische Ergotzen; six suites for two 
violins; Chorale zum praambuliren; 
and Hexachordum Apollinis, six sets 
of variations. His Tabulaturbuch 
geistlichen Gesange D Martini Lu- 
theri, and some of his chorals are in 
manuscript in the Grand Ducal 
Library at Weimar and other manu- 
scripts are in the Royal Institute for 
Church-Music at Berlin. Miscellan- 
eous compositions of his are contained 
in the first volume of Commer's 
Musica Sacra. 

Pachelbel, Wilhelm Hieronymus. 1685- 


Son of the preceding and a con- 
temporary of Sebastian Bach. He 
was born at Erfurt and learned com- 
position and the harpsichord from his 
father. His first position as organist 
was at Wohrd, near Nuremburg, and 
in 1706 he became organist at one 
of the Nuremburg churches. His 
book called Musical Amusements, 



which was published in 1725, contains 
a prelude, fugue, and fantasia for the 
organ or harpsichord. The same year 
a fugue in F for the harpsichord was 
published. A prelude in B minor, for- 
merly attributed to him, is now 
thought to be by Bach, and the dis- 
cussion of this disputed point is in 
Spitta's J. S. Bach. Besides the man- 
uscripts in various libraries, a few 
of his compositions are included with 
his father's in Denkmaler der Ton- 
kunst in Bayern, which gives 1764 
as the date of his death. This date, 
however, is not certain. 

Pachmann (pakh'-man), Vladimir de. 

One of the best known pianists of 
the day and an exponent of the roman- 
tic school. He was born at Odessa, 
where his father was professor in the 
University. After studying with his 
father, who was a talented amateur 
violinist, Vladimir went to Vienna in 
1866, where he joined Dachs' class at 
the Conservatory, and at the end of 
three j'^ears' study was presented with 
the gold medal. Returning to Russia 
he gave a series of successful concerts, 
but not feeling himself sufficiently edu- 
cated, he devoted eight years more to 
study. Even then his performances 
at Leipsic, Berlin and other great 
music centers failed to satisfy him, 
and again he retired to study. In 
two years he had accomplished what 
he desired, and appeared at Vienna 
and Paris. Since then he has played 
in nearly all of the great cities of 
Europe, appearing with great success 
in London in 1882 and being decorated 
with the order of Danebrog at Co- 
penhagen. On his first tour of Amer- 
ica, from 1890 to 1892, his wife, 
formerly Miss Okey, one of his pupils 
whom he had married in 1884, accorn- 
panied him and also gave recitals in 
New York. Since 1896 Berlin has 
been his home, but he was in America 
in 1899, 1900 and 1907. His technique 
is broad and his touch so soft and deli- 
cate that it is often called feline. He 
is a master of cantabile playing, but 
he is so individual that he is success- 
ful only as a soloist. In this line he 
is remarkable, especially for his inter- 
pretation of Chopin. His eccentricities 
lay him open to attack, but most fair- 
minded critics agree that, setting aside 
his amusing and absurd mannerisms, 
he is an artist of extraordinary 

Pacini (pa-che'-ne), Giovanni. 1796- 

This prolific composer of both oper- 
atic and sacred music was born at 
Catania, Sicily. His father, a noted 
tenor-singer, took him, as a child, to 
Rome to begin his musical education. 
He later went to Bologna, where he 
studied singing under Marches! and 
counterpoint and harmony with Mat- 
tei, and from 1808 to 1812 he was 
taught by Furlanetto in Venice. As 
he was educated for a choir-singer, 
his first compositions were naturally 
for the church, but his dramatic talent 
was not slow in making itself mani- 
fest, and in 1813 his first opera, An- 
netta e Lucindo, was written for the 
Santa Redegonda Theatre, Milan. It 
was favorably received at Venice the 
next year, and from that time until 
1834 the theatres of various Italian 
cities produced over forty of his 
operas, among them. La Sacerdotessa 
d' Irminsul; Atala; La schiava de Bag 
dad; Cesare in Egitto; La Vestale; 
Alessandro nelle Indie; Amazilea; L'ul- 
timo giorno di Pompei; Niobe; Gli 
Arabi nell Gallic; II Talismano; II 
Corsaro; and Ivanhoe. On the fail- 
ure of his Carlo di Borgogna, in Ven- 
ice in 1834, he stopped composing 
temporarily and retired to Viareggio, 
where he founded a very successful 
school of music, in connection with 
which he established a theatre. For 
the benefit of his pupils he wrote a 
number of treatises, Memoria sub 
migliore indirizzo degli studi musicali; 
Corso teoretico-prattico di lezioni di 
armonia; Cenni storicii sulla musica e 
trattato di contrapunto; Principi ele- 
mentari col metodo pel meloplasta; 
and other minor treatises. He also 
wrote for musical papers, and was 
director of music at Florence, where 
in 1865 his autobiography appeared. 
His school had meantime been trans- 
ferred to Lucca and he had resumed 
his composing, trying to rid himself 
of the Rossini style, which had per- 
vaded his earlier works. In 1840 
SaflFo was given at Naples, and in 
1842 Medea so delighted the people 
of Palermo, that a statue of Pacini 
was placed beside that of Bellini in 
the Royal Villa. Then followed 
Regini di Cipro, Lorenzino de 
Medice, II Cid, and many others. In 
all Pacini wrote about ninety operas, 
and over seventy other works, includ- 
ing A Dante cantata, or symphony 
as it is also called, and other can- 




tatas; masses; six string quartets; an 
octet; trios; duets; arias; and ora- 
torios, notably La Destruzione di 
Gerusalemme, Carrere Mamertino and 
II Trionfo di Giuditta. He was ap- 
pointed chapelmaster to the Empress 
Maria Louise, widow of Napoleon I., 
in 1825, the year of his first marriage. 
He was subsequently married twice 
and had nine children. Pacini was 
most popular in his day, but he was 
not original enough to become a 
great master. His imitation of 
Rossini is quite patent and his works, 
though melodious, are carelessly 
written. Consequently they have 
fallen into disuse, Safifo, which ^yas 
written in twenty-eight days, being 
the last to follow the fate of its com- 

Pacius (pa-tsi-oos), Friedrik (ch). 

Called "The father of Finnish 
music," though a native of Hamburg. 
He was a pupil of Spohr and Haupt- 
mann, and on emigrating from Ger- 
many was for some time Court vio- 
linist at Stockholm. In 1834 he went 
to Finland to become master of 
music at Helsingfors _ University, 
where he remained until his death. 
From limited resources he organized 
at the capital a symphony society 
in 1845, and a singing society in 1848, 
and stimulated a taste for good music 
by presenting the works of the great 
masters. He was a talented composer 
as well as violinist, and his works, 
though not essentially national in 
themselves, are the foundation of the 
national music of Finland. His 
Kung Carl's Jagt (King Carl's Hunt), 
the first Finnish opera, was given at 
Helsingfors in 1852. It was also given 
at Stockholm for the coronation of 
Charles XV., and was taken into the 
regular repertory of the Royal Thea- 
tre there. He also composed a 
singspiel, Die Princessan von Cypern 
(The Princess of Cyprus); the can- 
tatas, Weihe der Tone and Porthan 
Cantata; a Fantasia, and concerto for 
violin; Kvarnsangen; Miriam's Siegie- 
sang; and patriotic songs, among 
them the national hymn Vartland 
(Our Country) to Runeberg's poem, 
first sung at the Students' May Fes- 
tival in 1848; Suomis' Song, Soldat- 
gassen (The Soldier Boy); and 
Fridsboner (The Prayers for Peace). 
His music drama, Lorelei, was not 
presented till 1887. 

Paderewski (pad-e-ref'-shki), Ignace 

Jan. 1860- 

One of the greatest, and popularly, 
the greatest living pianist. He was 
born at Padolia, in Russian Poland, 
on the estate of his father, a gentle- 
man farmer and patriot. Ignace in- 
herited his musical taste from his 
mother, but her death when he was 
very small, left him to develop that 
taste unaided. His ear was always 
acutely sensitive to the sounds about 
him, and he soon learned to distin- 
guish notes unerringly. He frequently 
experimented with tonal efifects on 
the piano, and when only three years 
old played at a party for the children 
to dance. At six years of age he 
had his first piano lessons from a 
fiddler, and soon after an old teacher 
paid monthly visits to his home to 
instruct him and his sister in piano. 
His first composition, written at the 
age of seven, was a set of dances. 
When twelve he began his systematic 
study at the Warsaw Conservatory 
under Roguski in harmony, and in 
piano under Janothra, then eighty 
years old, from whom he received 
the traditions of the past generation. 
In the Conservatory library he be- 
came familiar with the masterpieces 
of both classical and romantic com- 
posers, and laid the foundation of his 
splendid general education. At six- 
teen he made a tour of Russia, play- 
ing his own compositions, and those 
of others, though the difficult pas- 
sages forced him to improvise in 
nearly every number on his pro- 
grams, making them all practically 
his own. On his return he renewed 
his studies with great zeal, and after 
being graduated was appointed pro- 
fessor at the early age of eighteen. 
The next year he married, but in an- 
other j'ear was a widower with an 
invalid son. To assuage his grief, 
Paderewski applied himself more 
closely to his studies and in a short 
time went to Berlin, where he studied 
composition under Kiel and Urban, 
and about 1882 published some of his 
compositions. In 1884, then but 
twenty-three years old, he became a 
teacher in the Strasburg Conserv- 
atory, and had it not been for a 
chance meeting with Mme. Modjeska 
during a vacation he might have con- 
tinued his career merely as a teacher. 
It was she who gave him the hope 
of better things, and, encouraged by 
her he went to Vienna and placed 





himself under Leschetizky in 1886. 
These two compatriots Paderewski 
holds in the highest esteem, for to 
them he feels his success is due. He 
made his debut as a virtuoso at 
Vienna in 1887, but did not make a 
remarkable impression, and it was not 
until he was almost thirty that he 
was made famous by the great en- 
thusiasm which the people and the 
press showed on his Paris debut in 
1888. He next went to England, 
where, though his first appearance 
failed to make a favorable impression, 
his second recital not only gained 
popular favor but caused a reversion 
of feeling among the critics, who, 
to use Paderewski's own words, 
"joined in the campaign of kindness 
which has since been my reward in 
every part of England." In America, 
where the former excess of enthu- 
siasm, practical idolatry, has been 
replaced by a healthier and more 
genuine admiration, he made his first 
appearance in 1891, and at New York 
as in London, his genius was not 
recognized until after the second per- 
formance, and even more tardily by 
the critics. During his visit in 1900 
and 1901 he founded the Paderewski 
Fund, for the encouragement of na- 
tive American composers, which 
every three years gives prizes for the 
best orchestral, choral and chamber 
work presented. To the original gift 
of $10,000 he added $1,500 more in 
1897. He toured Russia in 1899 and 
was in England the same year, but 
has not appeared very often in Ger- 
many, though in that country too he 
has become popular. Of late his 
tours are becoming less frequent, and 
it is said that he would like to give 
them up entirely and devote himself 
to composition. His works already 
number twenty-three compositions, of 
which the latest is Variations et 
Fugue sur un Theme original, played 
for the first time on his seventh 
American tour 1907 and 1908. Others 
are a Prelude; Minuet; Legende; 
Melodie; Theme varie in A; Noc- 
turne in B flat; filegie; Introduction 
and Toccata; four songs; Chant du 
Voyageur; Album de Mai, five roman- 
tic scenes; Variations and fugue; 
two sonatas; Humoresques de Con- 
cert, in two parts of three pieces 
each, among which is the Minuet en 
Sol, which IS his most popular work; 
toccata, Dans le Desert; Concerto in 
A minor; Fantaisie Polonaise for 

piano and orchestra; four songs of 
which Ach die Qualem (Ah! the Tor- 
ment) is especially good; also Polish 
dances, and Tatra Album. He also 
edited The Century Library of Music 
published in 1900 and 1902. His 
gypsy opera, Manru, was heartily re- 
ceived on its first presentation at 
Dresden, May 19, 1901, and was given 
at the Metropolitan, New York, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1902. It is remarkably 
strong for a first attempt. The score 
shows delicate and beautiful music, 
and it is richly orchestrated. Pade- 
rewski's works all show great indi- 
viduality and promise much for the 
future, if, as has been his long-cher- 
ished wish, he retires and devotes 
himself to composition. Such sen- 
sational success as Paderewski's has 
been experienced only by Liszt and 
Rubinstein, and critics have been in- 
clined to be hard on him because of 
this great popularity, some even laying 
his great charm to hypnotism. His 
playing is phenomenally brilliant and 
has a magic power of holding at once 
the rnusically educated, and ignorant. 
His interpretations are poetic and 
emotional but also intellectual. His 
touch is perfect, his tonal effects, his 
shading, remarkably varied, at times 
even orchestral, which to a great ex- 
tent is due to his peculiar use of 
the pedal, upon which he lays espe- 
cial stress in teaching, but his great 
power lies in that indescribable some- 
thing called personality. In February, 
1908, Paderewski accepted the direc- 
torship of the Warsaw Conservatory. 
In 1899 he married Baroness Gorsky 
von Rossen, widow of the Polish vio- 
linist. Paderewski, the gentleman 
farmer at his home, Riond-Bosson, 
on Lake Geneva, near Morges, Swit- 
zerland, or at Kasnia, his Polish 
estate, is a most interesting individ- 
ual, gentle, charitable and modest; 
beloved by his tenants and the peo- 
ple round about. In 1908 an inter- 
esting volume on Paderewski by 
Edward Baughan was added to the 
Living Masters of Music series. 

Paer (pa'-ar), Ferdinando. 1771-1839. 

Italian operatic composer; born at 
Parma, where he studied composition 
under Ghiretti, and in 1789 wrote his 
first opera, La locanda de vagabondi, 
in which he displayed his talent for 
comedy. I pretendenti burlati fol- 
lowed the next year, and in 1791 he 
went to Venice on being oflfered the 




mastership of a chapel. Beginning 
with Circe in 1791, he wrote busily 
for Italian theatres until 1797, not a 
year passing but that at least one 
and usually several of his operas came 
out. His patron, the Duke of Parma, 
having given him a pension, he went 
to Vienna, where his style, formerly 
in imitation of Paisiello and Cimaroso, 
grew richer and stronger in harmony 
and instrumentation under the influ- 
ence of Mozart. Here in 1801 he 
wrote Camilla, ossia il sotterraneo, 
perhaps his best work, and, receiving 
an invitation from the Elector of Sax- 
ony to take a place as chapelmaster, 
he went to Dresden about 1802, where 
three of his best known pieces, Sar- 
gino, ossia I'allievo dell' amore; 
Eleonora, or Lenora, which gave rise 
to Beethoven's Fidelio; and Achille, 
appeared. In 1806 he was engaged 
by Napoleon, whom he followed to 
Posen and Warsaw, and in 1807 he 
settled in Paris as chapelmaster and 
conductor of the Opera Comique. In 
1812 he received the baton of the 
Theatre des Italiens. Through the 
troubled period of Catalani's manage- 
ment, and a period of joint authority 
with Rossini, from 1824 to 1826, he 
retained his position, but the next 
year he was obliged to resign on ac- 
count of the poor financial condition 
of the house, for which he received 
the blame. Although he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 
1828, and became a member of the 
Academie in 1831 and was also a 
director of chamber-music to the 
King from 1832 until his death, his 
success at Paris was not great, owing 
to his inability to write French Opera 
and the much greater genius of 
Rossini in the Italian. Agnese, how- 
ever, was quite popular during 1811, 
and Le maitre de chapelle, played in 
1821, is the best known of his works, 
which are long since forgotten. Paer, 
the man, was too dissolute to be ad- 
mired, but Paer the composer, with 
his pleasing melody, comic genius, 
and mastery of the simple forms, 
though he lacked depth and serious- 
ness, holds an important place in the 
history of the Eighteenth Century 
Italian Opera. He also wrote two 
oratorios, II San Sepolcro and II 
trionfo della Chisea; set the Passion; 
composed ten cantatas; also numer- 
ous duets, arias, motets and other 
vocal pieces; besides the Symphonie 
bacchante, and Vive Henri Quatre, 

Pagan ini 

for grand orchestra; four military 
marches; six waltzes; a fantasie, 
Sweet Victory; sonatas; and themes 
with variations. 

Paganini (pag-a-ne'-ne), Niccolo. 1784- 

Italian violinist; generally consid- 
ered the greatest violin virtuoso that 
ever lived. He was born at Genoa, 
where his father, Antonio, was a 
tradesman and an amateur mandolin 
player of some ability, who, perceiv- 
ing his son's talent, early began to 
cultivate it. Niccolo was naturally 
delicate and the unremitting practise 
to which his father forced him was 
most injurious to his health. Niccolo's 
mother, however, greatly encouraged 
him by the story of a dream in which 
an angel had promised her that he 
would be the greatest violinist in the 
world, and this encouragement coupled 
with his own passion for music led 
him to persevere. At six years of 
age he had become a remarkable 
player, and soon after, having learned 
all he could from his father, he was 
placed with Servetto, violinist in one 
of the theatres, and then under 
Giacomo Costa, chapelmaster of the 
principal churches of Genoa. In 1793, 
then but nine years old, Niccolo made 
his debut at a concert, playing orig- 
inal variations on La Carmagnole, to 
the great delight of the audience. He 
also played regularly at church, but 
in 1795, his father thinking^ that 
further study would make him of 
greater market value, decided to take 
him to Parma. The necessary funds 
were raised by a benefit concert, and 
father and son arrived at Parma to 
find the noted musician, Rolla, sick in 
bed. While waiting in an adjoining 
room Niccolo saw a violin and a new 
composition on the table, and taking 
the instrument played it at sight so 
perfectly that Rolla inquired what 
master was in the house. On seeing 
a mere boy he could hardly believe 
his eyes and protested that he could 
teach him nothing. However, he did 
direct Paganini's studies for a short 
time, and then the boy took three 
lessons a week in counterpoint and 
composition from Ghiretti. So rapidly 
did he advance that on his return to 
Genoa he composed works which he 
himself had to study hard to execute. 
After a period of ten or twelve hours 
a day practise he set out with his 
father on his first tour — through 



Lombardy, making so great a success 
that instead of returning home he 
went on to Pisa and neighboring 
towns, and being no longer under 
parental restraint he fell to gambling 
and leading a dissolute life. The 
money from several concerts would 
be lost in a night and he once had to 
sell his violin, arriving at Leghorn, 
where he was to give a concert, 
without an instrument. M. Levron, 
a kind French merchant, lent him a 
fine Guarnerius, and then refused to 
take it back, saying that he would 
but profane the instrument which 
Paganini's fingers had touched. Again 
he was almost compelled to sell this 
gift, which he held so dear, and in 
desperation staked his last money. 
He won, but the experience led him 
to give up gambling for good. 

From 1801 to 1804 he devoted him- 
self to the guitar and to agriculture, 
living in retirement. He then re- 
turned to Genoa and studied the vio- 
lin compositions of Locatelli and 
others, composing at this time his 
three grand quartets for violin, viola, 
guitar and cello. In 1805 he began 
touring again, and was made Court 
violinist to Napoleon's sister, Elisa 
Bacecocchi, Princess of Lucca. It 
was at her court that he began his 
astonishing feats on two and on one 
string, which he accounted for in the 
following manner: He wished to ex- 
press his affection for a certain lady 
of the court, and accordingly devised 
a Scene Amoureuse, a duet on the E 
and G strings, representing the lady 
and her lover. This clever invention 
pleased the Princess, who asked if 
one string would not suffice for his 
talent, and at that suggestion he 
wrote his sonata for the G string, 
called Napoleon, which so captivated 
his hearers. His roving disposition 
did not allow him to remain long in 
one place, and in 1808 he obtained 
permission from the Princess to make 
a tour. Leaving Florence about 1812 
he took up his residence in Milan, 
where in 1816 he played with Lafont, 
worsting him, as far as popular ap- 
plause was concerned, though he him- 
self said that the Frenchman's tone 
was probably better. He spent most 
of the year 1816 at Venice in rather 
poor health, but in 1817 he was travel- 
ing again, being at Rome during the 
Carnival. In 1818 he toured North- 
ern Italy, later visiting Naples, where 
opinion was inclined to be adverse. 


but he played so perfectly the diffi- 
cult piece prepared to stagger him 
that the enthusiasm became as great 
as in the rest of Italj'. His first visit 
to Sicily, about 1819, was not a very 
great success, but on again appearing 
at Palermo he was well received. The 
same year he had been in Rome and 
Naples, and the next he spent largely 
in Venice. In 1823 he was prevented 
by sickness from making a tour of 
Germany, but on recovering he ap- 
peared in the principal Italian cities 
mcluding Milan, where in 1820 he had 
founded the Gli Orfei Society, and 
Rome, where on a later visit in 1827 
Pope Leo XII. decorated him with 
the order of the Golden Spur. From 
Milan in 1828 he made his long looked 
for journey to Vienna and there 
created intense excitement. 

Paganini was tall and very thin, 
with a hawk nose, penetrating eyes, 
and a protruding chin, and around all 
was a mass of long black hair which 
intensified the livid color of his face. 
His strange looks and bearing added 
to his almost superhuman genius had 
given rise to all sorts of fanciful tales. 
He was said to have murdered his 
wife, or rival, accounts varied, and 
to have been imprisoned for eight 
years when his only comfort was an 
old violin with but one string, on 
which _ he learned to play so ex- 
cruciatingly that his jailers had to 
release him. Another story made him 
out to be the child of Satan, whom 
one man said he saw directing his 
bow at a concert, and at night the 
people near an old Florentine castle 
which Paganini frequently visited de- 
clared that he held intercourse with 
the devil, for they heard all manner 
of queer noises coming from the 
place. Such stories as these- circu- 
lated far and wide and found many 
to believe them, and so annoying had 
they become that at Vienna and later 
in Paris, Paganini took official steps 
to silence them. But in vain. They 
preceded him on his tour of Ger- 
many, where he was received with 
wild applause. He played in Berlin 
in 1829, visited Dresden, Munich, 
Frankfort and many other cities, and 
in March, 1831, arrived at Paris. 
After two months at the French 
capital, in which time he changed the 
attitude towards him from doubt to 
admiration, he made his first appear- 
ance in London, where throngs fol- 
lowed him in the streets, even pinch- 




ing him at times to see if he were 
real. After touring England, Ireland 
and Scotland, creating the usual furore 
everywhere, he returned to the Con- 
tinent in 1832; toured Holland and 
Belgium, and during the winter of 
1833 was at Paris. The receipts from 
Paganini's travels amounted to a 
large fortune, most of which he in- 
vested in real estate, and on return- 
ing to Italy in 1834 he retired to his 
newly acquired Villa Gajona, near 
Parma. In 1839 his health was so 
poor that he was ordered to Mar- 
seilles, where he recovered sufficiently 
to play in a Beethoven mass at 
church. Believing himself cured he 
returned to Genoa but was forced to 
seek the milder climate of Nice for 
the winter. He did not think that 
death was near and was so busy plan- 
ning a new tour that he sent away 
the priest who had come to give him 
the final rites of the church. So, 
unabsolved, death overtook him one 
beautiful May night in 1840, as he 
lay clasping his favorite violin and 
gazing out of the window at the 
moonlit scene. The Bishop of Nice 
refused to give him Christian burial, 
and while the matter was referred to 
the Spiritual Council the body was 
embalmed and removed to a sealed 
room in the lazaretto at Villa Franca. 
The fact that so many came from near 
and far to do honor to the poor re- 
mains made the priests very angry 
and when the Council returned a 
favorable verdict it was overruled by 
the Archbishop. After five years' de- 
lay, Achilles Paganini gained permis- 
sion from the Pope to bury his father 
in the churchyard at the Villa, near 
Parma. The son inherited the title 
of Baron, which had been conferred 
on Paganini in Germany, and the for- 
tune of about four hundred thousand 
dollars, with the exception of small 
legacies left to Paganini's sisters, and 
an annuity to the singer, Antonia 
Bianchi, the mother of Achilles. 
Paganini is accused of being avari- 
cious, but he was always generous 
with his mother, and also played fre- 
quently for charity. Despite his 
eccentricities, Paganini's patience with 
and love for his little son, whom he 
legitimized by a process of law, and 
his tenderness toward his mother 
command respect. 

Paganini seldom played anything 
but his own compositions, in which he 
could show to the best advantage his 


peculiar style, and never allowed 
anyone to see his solo score. He only 
permitted a few of his works to be 
printed during his life — the twenty- 
four caprices for solo violin, which 
are so famous, and which have been 
transcribed for the piano by Liszt and 
Schumann; two sets of six sonatas for 
the violin and guitar; and three grand 
quartets for violin, viola, guitar and 
cello. After his death were published 
Concerto in E with orchestral accom- 
paniment; Concerto in B minor with 
Rondo a la Clochette, for violin and 
orchestra; the famous variations, Le 
Streghe (Witches' Dance); God Save 
the King, variations for violin and 
orchestra; Le Carnaval de Venise; 
Moto Perpetuo, for violin and orches- 
tra; variations on Non piti mesta, 
from Rossini's La Cenerentola; vari- 
ations on the air Di tanti palpiti; 
and sixty variations in all keys on the 
air Barucaba, for violin with piano 
and guitar accompaniment. The rest 
of his compositions, including a num- 
ber of concertos and sonatas, have 
been lost. The original manuscripts 
of fourteen of his works were dis- 
covered at Perugia in 1907. His first 
composition was a sonata, written at 
the age of eight, which is among the 
lost. He promised to reveal the 
secret of his remarkable playing 
before he died, but as he did not it 
still remains a mystery. He used 
unusually thin strings, and tuned them 
differently for different effects, some- 
times pitching them a semi-tone higher 
than ordinary. His chromatic and 
staccato passages were remarkable, 
and the way in which he combined 
the pizzicato and arco, plucking the 
strings with his left hand and at 
the same time using his bow with the 
right, was most astonishing. Some 
of these effects he revived, but the 
others resulted from experiments 
which he was constantly trying from 
a very early age; and though he had 
instruction, his system was mostly 
his own, eked out by steady practise 
until he was thirty years old. After 
that time it is said that he never 
touched his instrument to do anything 
but tune it, except at concerts and 
to play a few passages at rehearsals, 
where he was very severe with the 
orchestra, yet ready to praise them 
when they did well. This unique 
figure, whose career so much resem- 
bled a meteor, wrought a revolution 
in the violin world, and though he 



left no direct disciple his influence is 
seen in the French and Belgium 
Schools. By many he has been 
severely criticized as a charlatan, but 
Vieuxtemps, himself so renowned a 
violinist, who had heard the wonderful 
virtuoso, is reported to have said, 
" He is the greatest of us all." 

Among the numerous biographies 
of Paganini, the following may be 

Anders, G. E. — Xicolo Paganini, sa 
vie, sa personne, et quelques mots 
sur son secret. 
Bruni, Oreste — Xiccolo Paganini. 
Conestiable Giancarlo — Vita di Xic- 
colo Paganini da Genova. 
Fetis, F. J. — Xotice biographique sur 

N^iccolo Paganini. 
Guhr, Carl — Uber Paganini's Kunst. 
Harris, Georges — Paganini in seinem 
Reisewagon und Zimmer (an inti- 
mate view of Paganini by one who 
was for a time his secretary). 
Schottky, Julius Max — Paganini's 
Leben und Treiben als Kiinstler 
und als Mensch. 
Schutz, J. — Paganini's Leben, Char- 
akter und Kunst. 

* Page, Nathaniel Clifford. 1866- 

Contemporary American composer, 
of old Xew England stock; born at 
San Francisco. At twelve years of 
age he was composing operas, and at 
sixteen began to study the theory of 
music seriously with several teachers, 
chief among them Edgar Stillman 
Kelley. In May, 1889, his first opera, 
The First Lieutenant, was produced 
at the Tivoli Opera House in San 
Francisco, and since then he has writ- 
ten five comic and dramatic light 
operas, including Villiers, descriptive 
of English life in Cromwell's time; an 
Oriental opera; and one with scenes 
laid in Brazil; also much incidental 
music for plays, notably, The Moon- 
light Blossom, a Japanese play, which 
met with cordial approval when given 
under his own direction at the Prince 
of Wales Theatre, London, in 1899; 
and The Japanese Xightingale, per- 
sonally conducted by him at Daly's 
Theatre, Xew York, in 1903. His 
Japanese music is based on recognized 
native themes and is especially good 
in coloring, while all his music is 
excellently descriptive and effectively 
orchestrated. He is particularly inter- 
ested in orchestral composition, and 
has written The Village Fete (Petite 
Suite in B flat), produced by the 


Manuscript Society of New York in 
1896, and several other suites, for 
grand orchestra. Many songs and a 
few small works for the piano also 
bear his name. He was president of 
the San Francisco Philharmonic So- 
ciety in 1893; has conducted various 
operatic and dramatic productions. 
He has also taught harmony and 
orchestration. During his long resi- 
dence in Xew York, from 1895 to 1905, 
he was a member of the Manuscript 
Society and of the Xew Music So- 
ciety of America. Since 1905 he has 
been a member of the editorial staff of 
the Oliver Ditson Company of Boston. 

Paine, John Knowles. 1839-1906. 

The first great American composer; 
born at Portland, Maine. With the 
intention of devoting himself to the 
organ he took lessons from Kotz- 
schmar, a teacher of repute in his 
native city, and in 1857 he made his 
debut as an organist. In order to 
perfect his training he went to Ger- 
many the next year, where he studied 
for three years under Haupt, Wie- 
precht and Teschner, and gave several 
concerts. In 1861 he returned to this 
country and, settling in Boston, 
became organist 6f West Church. 
The next year he resigned to take a 
position as musical instructor at Har- 
vard, an appointment then amounting 
to nothing but organist and chapel- 
master. Yet in his anxiety to make 
music a feature of importance, he gave 
lectures, for which he received no 
remuneration, and which were but 
slightly attended, since music counted 
nothing toward a degree. 

In 1866 he made a second trip to 
Germany, where he toured for a year, 
directing his Mass in D, when it was 
given by the Singakademie at Berlin 
in 1867, and then returned to his post 
of organist at Har\-ard. Despite the 
discouraging appearance of musical 
affairs in the college in 1862. the good 
seed had sprouted, and in 1870 music 
was made an elective course, and 
Paine renewed his lectures. Three 
years later he was appointed assistant 
professor of music, and in 1875 they 
created for him the chair of music, 
the first department of the kind to be 
founded in an American college. 
Until 1905 Paine retained his posi- 
tion in the University, where he so 
nobly advanced the cause of music. 

As an organist of the classical 
school Mr. Paine had a high reputa- 



tion. He had the distinction of being 
one of those to open the great organ 
at the Music Hall, Boston, in 1863. 
During his later years, however, he 
performed very seldom, and so 
brightly did he shine as a composer 
that his work as an organist was 
almost eclipsed. On his return from 
Germany, instilled with the traditions 
of Bach and the classical school, he 
was very conservative in style, but 
gradually, with the advance of roman- 
ticism, he, too, felt the impulse of the 
movement, as is evinced by his 
superb music for Sophocles' CEdipus 
Tyrannus, and the works which fol- 
lowed it. Paine is remarkable for 
many works in the large form, in 
which he has shown himself a master. 
In 1873 his oratorio, St. Peter, was 
first performed at Portland, Maine, 
and the next year was sung by the 
Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. 
In 1876 he had the honorable task 
of composing the Centennial Hymn 
to Whittier's poem for the Exposi- 
tion at Philadelphia; at the time of 
the Chicago World's Fair, in 1893, he 
wrote the Columbus March and 
Hymn; and for the opening of the St. 
Louis Exposition in 1904, he set Sted- 
man's Hymn of the West. His first 
symphony, in C minor, was played by 
the Thomas Orchestra at the Boston 
Music Hall in 1876, and the second. 
Spring, at Sanders Theatre, Cam- 
bridge, in 1880. Meanwhile the 
Thomas Orchestra had performed his 
symphonic poem in D minor, on The 
Tempest, in 1877 at New York, and 
in 1878 his overture to As You Like 
It was played at the Sanders Theatre, 
as was also a duo concertante for 
violin and cello with orchestra. In 
1888 the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
played his Island Fantasy. In 1901 
the Harvard Classical Club gave 
Aristophanes' Birds, for the music of 
which it was indebted to Professor 
Paine, and that year his opera, Azara, 
of which he wrote both words and 
music, was published. He has also 
written a number of minor works for 
the voice, piano, organ and strings. 
At the time of his death, April 25, 
1906, he was busy writing a sympho- 
nic poem illustrative of the character 
and death of Abraham Lincoln. 

Paisiello (pa-e-si-el'-lo), Giovanni. 


Sometimes spelled Paesiello. Cele- 
brated Italian operatic composer; 


born at Tarento. His father, a veter- 
inary surgeon, wishing his son to be a 
lawyer, put him in the Jesuit School 
of his native place, at the age of five. 
There his musical talent was dis- 
covered by Carducci, chapelmaster of 
the Capuchins, who urged the boy's 
parents to send him to Naples, After 
long hesitation they decided to let 
him go, and, in preparation, he was 
taught the rudiments of music by the 
priest, Resta. In 1754 he entered the 
Conservatory of San Onofrio, and 
there studied under Durante, Cotu- 
macci and Abos, and later taught and 
composed sacred music. In 1763 he 
ventured on a comic intermezzo, for 
the Conservatory Theatre, which 
called attention to its author and 
obtained him a contract for an opera 
for the Bologna Theatre. The opera, 
La Pupilla, and another, II Mondo a 
Rovescio, were produced in 1764. In 
1772 he married Cecile Pallini, and his 
married life proved a happy one. 
Until 1776 he composed a long list of 
operas for the theatres of Modena, 
Venice, Naples, Rome and other Ital- 
ian cities, of which II marchese di 
Tulipano, L'idolo Cinese, and La Serva 
Padrona are the best known. His 
name having now won a European 
celebrity, he was called to Russia in 
1776 as composer to Empress Cath- 
erine II. There he wrote two books 
of sonatas; caprices; and piano-music; 
and one of his best operas, II Bar- 
biere di Siviglia, which became so 
popular that Rossini was considered 
most presumptuous when he wrote 
new music for the same text. 

In 1784 Paisiello left St. Petersburg 
for Warsaw, where he set Metastasio's 
Passion, and proceeding to Vienna, 
composed II re Teodore, one of his 
best opera bouflfes, and twelve sym- 
phonies for Emperor Joseph. The 
next year he was back in Italy, re- 
turning to Naples to become chapel- 
master to King Ferdinand IV. Offers 
from St. Petersburg, where he had 
been so royally treated, also Berlin 
and London, were refused, and he 
remained in the service of the Bour- 
bons at Naples But when, by a revo- 
lution, Naples became a republic, 
Paisiello became a republican, and 
was appointed director of music in 
1799. On the restoration of the King 
this action was considered an offense, 
and it was two years before the com- 
poser was taken back into royal favor. 

In 1802, Napoleon, First Consul, 




who had in 1797 chosen Paisiello's 
funeral symphony for General Hoche, 
in preference to Cherubini's, requested 
the King to send him to France. Per- 
mission was granted, and on his 
arrival at Paris he was lavishly pro- 
vided for, and offered numerous high 
offices, accepting only the mastership 
of the Royal Chapel. For it he wrote 
much sacred music, and for the Royal 
Academy of Music he composed an 
unsuccessful opera, Proserpine. Dis- 
appointed at its failure, but with the 
pretext of his wife's ill health, he 
returned to Naples after two years 
and a half in Paris. When the Bona- 
parte family became rulers of Naples, 
they not only left Paisiello his posi- 
tions, but gave him the badges of the 
Legion of Honor and the Two Sicilies, 
and made him a member of the 
Accademia Napoleone at Lucca, the 
Italian Academy at Leghorn, the Sons 
of Apollo at Paris, and finally in 1809 
of the Institute. But with the fall of 
that family he lost all his appoint- 
ments except that of Royal chapel- 
master, and so, deprived of favor, he 
spent the last few years of his life, 
dying at the age of seventy-five in 
the city that had so long been his 
home. His funeral was publicly cele- 
brated; a requiem of his own was 
sung for him; and the performance 
of his opera, Nina, which took place 
that night, was attended by the King 
and court. Of his nearly one hundred 
operas, both serious and comic, there 
may be mentioned, besides those 
already spoken of. La Francatana; 
La Molinara; I zingari in fiera; Nina, 
La Pazza par Amore; and L'Elfrida; 
all given at Naples. He also wrote 
intermezzos; a great many cantatas; 
oratorios; masses; symphonies; piano 
concertos; and quartets for piano and 
strings and strings alone. He made 
a number of improvements in orches- 
tral composition, and brought the 
viola, clarinet and bassoon into use in 
Italian theatres. His music is natural 
and very simple, with no attempt at 
elaboration, and though not intensely 
dramatic, it is delicate and charming. 
The accompaniments are also simple 
and are now considered thin, but in 
spite of the disuse into which his 
works have fallen, they are generally 
considered of much merit. 

Paladilhe (pal-a-del), fimile. 1844- 

French composer; born at Mont- 
pellier. His father, a cultivated phy- 

sician, gave him his first instruction 
in music, and later he studied under 
Boixet, organist of the Montpellier 
Cathedral. At nine years of age he 
went to Paris to join the Conserv- 
atory, where he studied organ under 
Benoist, piano under Marraontel, and 
composition under Halevy. He took 
the first prize for piano in 1857, and 
in 1860 the organ prize, and also the 
Grand Prize of Rome for his cantata, 
Le Czar Ivan IV., given at the 
Opera, but not published. After a 
short stay in Italy he returned to 
Paris, where he still resides, and is a 
member of the tuition committee of 
the Conservatory, having received the 
cross of the Legion of Honor in 1881, 
and succeeded Guiraud in the Acad- 
emie in 1892. His non-dramatic works 
include two masses; six Scotch melo- 
dies; twenty melodies, and other songs 
with piano accompaniment; a sym- 
phony, and some other instrumental 
music. His first opera, Le Passant, 
was given at the Opera Comique in 
1872. But, aside from the very popu- 
lar song, Mandolinata, it was not a 
great success. Neither was L'Amour 
Africain, produced in 1875, although it 
has much intrinsic value. Suzanne, a 
three-act comic opera, which came out 
in 1878, shows " something beyond 
mere ingenuity in devising effects," 
and is rendered charming by its deli- 
cate and unique melodies. Though 
better received than the others its 
success was not flattering, and Pala- 
dilhe turned to concert composition, 
writing Fragments symphoniques in 
1882. But returning to the field of 
opera he brought out Diana in 1885, 
another failure. However, he at last 
achieved a brilliant success in 1886 
with La Patrie, a grand opera, for 
the text of which Sardou's drama was 
obtained. His late lyric-drama, Sainte 
Marie a la mer, was given in 1892. 
Paladilhe is said to have no great 
creative ability, and has not kept up 
with the progress of music, his style 
being old-fashioned. 

Palestrina (pa-les-tre'-na), Giovanni 

Pierluigi da. 1514-1594. 

Much is uncertain concerning the 
life of this man, the musical giant of 
the Sixteenth Century. Born in the 
rambling hill-town of Palestrina, a 
famous resort in the days of ancient 
Rome, from which it is but twenty- 
four miles distant, he is generally 
known by its name, though his real 




name was Giovanni (John) Pierluigi 
(Peter Lewis.) In familiar parlance 
he was Gianetto and his published 
works shows various other differ- 
ences in the spelling of his name. No 
biography of him was written until 
1828, and then Giuseppe Baini had to 
found his work, for the most part, on 
traditions. No record of his birth 
remained, as the town archives had 
been burned. So, probably, misin- 
terpreting a passage in the dedication 
of the eighth volume of Palestrina's 
masses published by his son Ignio in 
1594, stating that for nearly seventy 
years Palestrina had spent his time 
composing praises to God, Baini set 
1524 as the date of his birth, and he 
has been followed by many others. 
Yet Baini's pupil, Cicerchio, discov- 
ered some family papers from which, 
later, Schelle fixed the date as 1514, 
a conclusion to which Kandler had 
arrived from the inscription on a por- 
trait of Palestrina in the Sistine 
Chapel. Haberl, the founder of a 
Palestrina Society and chief editor 
of the complete set of his works, 
favors 1526, and another writer thinks 
that or the previous year most likely. 
The family name of Palestrina's 
father was Sante and his mother was 
Maria Gismondi, and they are now 
conceded to have been well-to-do- 
peasants. In 1540 Palestrina went to 
Rome and began his musical studies, 
but beyond this fact nothing about 
his student life is very certain. He 
is generally said to have attended the 
school of one Goudimel or Gaudio 
Mell, a Fleming or Frenchman, 
though much doubt exists on this 
point. Whoever his teacher was, 
Palestrina must have obtained a very 
thorough education, and in 1544 he 
returned to his native town, where 
he became canon in the Cathedral. 
There until 1551 he sang in the daily 
service, taught, and played the organ 
on festal occasions, and meantime, 
probably in 1547, he married Lucrezia 
Goris. The Bishop Cardinal of Pales- 
trina was a patron of his, and on 
becoming Pope, Julius III. appointed 
Palestrina master of the boys of the 
Cappella Giulia in St. Peter's, under 
the new title, Magister Cappellse 
(teacher or master of the chapel). 
Though the salary was small, the 
position was a very honorable one, 
and to show his gratitude Palestrina 
dedicated to the Pope his first volume 
of masses. This volume is interesting 

not only as the first work by this 
great composer but the first to be 
dedicated to any Pope by an Italian, 
so completely had the Netherland 
School held sway in Rome. Pope 
Julius appreciated this action and 
forthwith appointed Palestrina one of 
the singers in the Sistine Chapel, vio- 
lating his own rule that no layman 
could be a member of the choir, and 
overlooking the quality of Palestrina's 
voice. The Pontifical singers pro- 
tested, but the Pope insisted, and on 
Jan. 13, 1555, Palestrina was entered 
on the journal as becoming a member 
without the consent of the college. 
He himself hesitated to break the 
rules and moreover he was loath to 
leave the post which he enjoyed so 
much. Unfortunately for Palestrina 
the Pope died soon after and when 
Paul IV., the stern reformer, became 
Pope and ascertained that there were 
three married men in the choir, Pales- 
trina being one, he immediately dis- 
missed them with a pension, despite 
the intercession of the singers and 
the rule that members of the Pontif- 
ical Choir are chosen for life. So 
deeply did Palestrina feel this " dis- 
grace," as he considered it, that he 
became dangerously ill. On his re- 
covery he was straightway made 
chapelmaster of St. John at Lateran, 
where he remained from October, 1555 
until February, 1561, and there he 
wrote, among other things, his beau- 
tiful music for Holy Week: Lamen- 
tations of Jeremiah for four voices; 
Improperia, Reproaches of Christ; 
and the hymn. Crux Fidelis, all for. 
eight voices. These compositions 
were so enthusiastically received that 
Paul IV. had them sung in the Vati- 
can and added to the collection, and 
they are still sung in the Sistine 
Chapel. From the Lateran he went to 
the Liberian Chapel of Santa Maria 
Maggiore, _ where he remained until 
1571, and it was while there that he 
wrote the famous Missa Papse Mar- 
celli, _ which won him the nam.e of 
" Savior of church-music." The old 
Gregorian plain chant, formerly the 
only form of church-music, had, under 
the Netherland masters, given place 
to a more elaborate contrapuntal 
form, which in turn, influenced by the 
effect of the Renaissance and the 
striving of the contrapuntists to outdo 
each other in displaying their science, 
had become so intricate that the 
words of the service were hidden by 




the mass of interwoven passages. It 
had also become customary for com- 
posers to use a popular air for the 
theme of their mass, and frequently 
the original words were retained, with 
the final result that many of the choir 
and congregation would be singing 
the ribald words of some drinking 
song simultaneously with the words 
of the mass. The Catholic Church 
finding itself endangered by a de- 
graded condition internally, and by 
the reforms of Luther without, held 
the famous Council of Trent and 
there the condition of church-music 
was briefly discussed. The council 
was in favor of abolishing contra- 
puntal music altogether from the 
service, but a commission of eight 
cardinals was appointed to take 
charge of the matter, and after con- 
sulting with an equal number of the 
Pope's singers, gave to Palestrina the 
commission for a mass which would 
prove that music could be a help, not 
a hindrance, to the church service. 
But, fearing to intrust the destinies 
of music to a single work, Palestrina 
composed three masses, which were 
performed before the committee at 
the home of Cardinal Vitellozzi on 
April 28, 1565. All three were greatly 
praised, but especially the one dedi- 
cated to Pope Marcellus. It was 
given with great ceremony before the 
Pope at the Sistine Chapel, June 19, 
Cardinal Borromeo directing, and His 
Holiness was so pleased that he 
ordered it copied in the chapel books 
in letters twice as large and beautiful 
as usual. The light of modern re- 
search, however, shows this celebrated 
mass in a much less picturesque way. 
It has now been proven by docu- 
mentary evidence that the committee 
of eight was chiefly concerned in 
purifjnng the Pontifical Choir, and 
that the investigation of music itself 
was a secondary matter. The journal 
records the performance of certain 
works before the committee at Vitel- 
lozzi's, but gives no names. Nor in 
the record does it speak of a particu- 
lar mass by Palestrina being per- 
formed. Even further, Dr. Haberl is 
of the opinion that Palestrina's fa- 
mous mass was written before Mar- 
cellus became Pope, for it is found 
in the archives of Santa Maria Mag- 
giore and the Sistine Chapel, without 
dedication, previous to its publication 
in 1567 as the Missa Papge Marcelli. 
As to the reformation in church- 


music, it was more a purification of 
the words and methods of singing, 
than a radical change in the music 
itself, beyond the improvement which 
one of Palestrina's genius naturally 
made, for his music shows no direct 
departure from the old contrapuntal 
style, but the culmination of all the 
best in that style in him, the greatest 
and last composer of the old school. 
The production of the Missa Papse 
Marcelli is assigned as the reason for 
his being honored with a pension and 
the title of composer to the Sistine 

Until 1571, however, he continued at 
Santa Maria Maggiore, then he re- 
turned to his old post at St. Peter's, 
where he remained through the rule 
of seven pontiffs until his death. Out- 
side his duties Palestrina's time was 
occupied so fully with composing that 
he could not do much teaching. As 
often as he was able he taught in the 
school of Giovanni Nanini, the friend 
of his youth and his successor at the 
Liberian Chapel. This was the first 
pubHc_ music _ school in Rome, and 
from it, Baini says, " was derived all 
the beauty, the grandeur, the senti- 
ment, of the Roman School, mother 
and mistress of all." Though his sal- 
aries were never very large, great 
honor was bestowed upon Palestrina 
by the church and his fellowmen, one 
expression of which manifested itself 
in 1575, when Pope Gregory held a 
jubilee and the people of Palestrina, 
fifteen hundred strong, marched to 
Rome in gala attire singing the songs 
of their great townsman, while he 
led the procession. But among many 
honors there was one rebuff: In 1585 
Pope Sixtus V. wished to make Pales- 
trina chapelmaster of the Pontifical 
Chapel in return for the beauitful 
mass, Assumpta_ est Maria in Ccelum, 
dedicated to him, but the singers, 
jealous perhaps of Palestrina's re- 
nown, flatly refused to obey the 
Pope's commands. It was now five 
years since a great sorrow had come 
to him in the death of his wife, who 
for thirty years had been so dear to 
him,_ and some of his most beautiful 
music was written in his grief. Greg- 
ory XITI. commissioned him to 
revise the Graduate and Antifonario, 
and though he never completed the 
Graduale, the other part, which he 
intrusted to his pupil Giudetti, was 
published in 1582 as Directorium 
Chori. In 1587 Sixtus V., wanting the 





music to the lessons for Holy Week 
changed, Palestrina set the first les- 
son for Good Friday, and the next 
year published his first book of Lam- 
entations. He continued to com- 
pose up to the last, and when he felt 
the end approaching, called his only 
surviving son, Ignio, and later charg- 
ing him to publish the remainder of 
his works, blessed and dismissed him, 
and spent the last few hours of his 
life with St. Neri, his beloved friend 
and confessor, whose sanctity he him- 
self so nearly approached. Pales- 
trina was buried with great ceremony, 
all the musicians and ecclesiastics of 
Rome, as well as a concourse of 
people, attending at St. Peter's, where 
his own Libera me Domine was sung 
by the whole college of the Sistine 
Chapel. He was interred before the 
altar of St. Simon and St. Jude, and 
near by a tablet was placed bearing 
the inscription: 

Johannes Petrus Aloysius Praenestinus 
Musicse Princeps. 
The character of the " Prince of 
Music " (he has been given numerous 
appellations of this sort) must be 
sought in his works, and they show 
him to have been a grave, religious 
man, working not for self-aggrandize- 
ment but for " the glory of the Most 
High God" and these works, to quote 
Ambros, "breathe the holy spirit of 
devotion." His attitude toward his 
art is most clearly set forth in one of 
his dedications, where he says " Music 
exerts a great influence upon the 
minds of mankind, and is intended 
not only to cheer them, but also to 
guide and control them, a statement 
that has not only been made by the 
ancients, but which is found equally 
true today. The sharper blame there- 
fore do those deserve who misemploy 
so great and splendid a gift of God 
in light and unworthy things and 
thereby excite men who themselves 
are inclined to all evil, to sin and mis- 
doings. As regards myself, I have 
from youth been afifrighted at such 
misuse, and anxiously have avoided 
giving forth anything which could 
lead anyone to become more wicked 
or godless. All the more should I 
now, that I have attained to riper 
years, place my entire thoughts on 
lofty, earnest^ things such as are 
worthy a Christian." He surely ac- 
complished work "worthy a Chris- 
tian " for even today, as was true four 

centuries ago, his music has an in- 
spiring and uplifting power. Rosen- 
wald has given in a few words a vivid 
suggestion of the difference in style 
between Palestrina and Bach, the two 
greatest church composers, the one 
of the Catholic, the other of the 
Protestant faith, "Palestrina prays; 
Bach preaches." It was not by blazing 
a new trail that Palestrina attained 
his wonderful style. He worked with 
the tools left him by his predecessors, 
wrote in the old ecclesiastical key, in 
the old polyphonic style, only his 
master-hand did work more delicate 
and polished even than that of his 
great contemporary, Orlandus Lassus. 
New methods, new instruments, new 
views have broadened the musical 
horizon since his time, but Pales- 
trina's music is still magnificent and 
touching in its simple grandeur. Many 
tales of his poverty have been told, 
but they are now considered ground- 
less, for it has been found that he 
owned considerable land and a num- 
ber of vineyards, purchased from time 
to time. The house with its small 
back garden, where he lived at Pales- 
trina, can still be seen, and rumor has 
it that Cardinal Vannutelli is trying 
to have a statue to him raised in his 
native town. 

Palestrina's works were published at 
Rome and Venice and are not only 
of remarkable quality but amazing 
quantity. There were originally 
twelve books of masses. Another 
book of four masses appeared in 1601. 
A few of these masses need be men- 
tioned by name: .Sterna Christi 
Munera, Dies santificatus, Lauda Si- 
non, Pater Noster, Iste confessor, and 
Jesu Nostra redemptio, for four 
voices; Beatus Laurentius, Panem 
Nostrum, Salve Regina, O Sacrum 
Convivium, and Dilexi quoniam, for 
five voices; Ecce ego Joannes, Tu es 
Petrus, Veni Creator Spiritus, and Ut 
Re Me Fa Sol, for six voices; Con- 
fitebor, and Hodie Christus Natus est. 
But the most famous are Assumpta 
est Maria in Ccelum; Missa Papse 
Marcelli; Missa Brevis; and the 
Stabat Mater; the latter of which 
Wagner edited. Mendelssohn is said 
to have considered the Improperia 
Palestrina's best work. The first 
book of motets for four voices, a 
collection for the feast days of the 
year, Motecta Festorum Totius Anni, 
was printed in 1563. Five books of 
motets for from five to eight voices 



appeared later. Of these motets the 
Songs of Solomon; Fratres ego enim; 
Exaudi Domine; Viri Galilaei; Dune 
complirentur; Peccantem me; and 
Supra flumina Babylonis; are espe- 
cially fine. There are also four books 
of madrigals, Hymni Totius Anni was 
published in 1589; Book I of Lamenta- 
tions in 1588; Book I of Magnificats 
in 1591; offertorios for five voices in 
1593, and Litanies in 1600. Some 
madrigals were published separately 
in contemporary works, and nine of 
Palestrina's masses, motets, hymns, 
lamentations, offertorios and magnifi- 
cats form seven volumes of Alfieri's 
Raccolta di Musica, published at 
Rome in 1841. Burney pubhshed the 
Stabat Mater in 1771 and the Passion 
music in 1772. Robert Eitner made a 
complete alphabetical list of Pales- 
trina's works, but the latest and best 
collection is the complete edition of 
thirty-three volumes published by 
Breitkopf and Hartel from 1862 to 


Baini, Abbate Giuseppe — Memoire 
storio-critiche della vita e della 
opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Pal- 
estrina. 2 vols. 

Bartoloni, A. — Elogio di Giovanni 
Pierluigi da Palestrina. 

Baumker — Palestrina, ein Beitrag. 

Cametti, A. — Cenni biografici Gio- 
vanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. 

Naumann, Emil — Italienische Ton- 
dichter von Palestrina bis auf die 

Nisard — Monograph on Palestrina. 
(Re\'ue de musique ancienne et 
moderne, 1856.) 

Waldersee, Paul, ed. — Giovanni da 
Palestrina und die Gesammt. Aus- 
gabe seiner werke. 

Winterfield, C. — Palestrina, seine 
Werke und deren Bedeutung fiir 
die Geschichte der Tonkunst. 

Pallavicini (pal-la- ve-che'-ne). Carlo. 


Italian operatic composer of the 
Venetian School. Born at Brescia. 
His first operas were brought out at 
Venice. He then went to Dresden, 
where in 1667 he became assistant 
chapelmaster, and in 1672 Court 
chapelmaster.^ The next year he went 
back to Venice, where he produced 
Diocleziano; Enea in Italia; Galeno; II 
Vespasiano; II Nerone; Messalina; 
Bassiano, ossia il maggiore impossi- 
ble; Carlo, re d* Italia; II re infante; 

and Licinio. In 1685 he returned to 
Dresden, and in 1687 was formally 
appointed master of the New Italian 
Opera, where Recimero, re de' Van- 
dali; Massino Puppieno; Penelope la 
casta; Didone delirante; Amor inna- 
morato; L'amazzone corsara; and 
Elmiro, re di Corinto, were given. 
Gerusalemme liberata came out at 
Hamburg in 1693. He died at Dres- 
den, in 1688, before his Antiope was 
finished. It was completed by 
Strungk and produced the next year. 
Other works are cantatas; an ora- 
torio; fantasias; and masses in manu- 
script at Modena, Munich, Dresden 
and Christ's Church, Oxford. 

* Palmer, Horatio Richmond. 1834- 


Writer, composer, and teacher; 
born of American parentage at Sher- 
burne, New York. His father was a 
musician, and when only seven years 
old Horatio sang alto in a church 
choir, becoming organist and choir- 
master at seventeen. He studied at 
the Rushford Academy of Music in 
New York City, and latter in Berlin 
and Florence. He began his pro- 
fessional work at Rushford Academy, 
and two years later he was made 
director of that institution. He began 
his work as a conductor when only 
twenty, and after experience in the 
Northern States and Canada he 
organized the Church Choral Union 
of New York City, in 1873, and for 
seven years was leader of that society, 
which at times numbered four thou- 
sand singers. In 1877 he established 
the Chautauqua Summer School of 
Music, of which he was dean for 
fourteen years. He also led the choir 
there, and for seventeen years con- 
ducted the Musical Festival at Cort- 
land, N. Y. He served as choirmaster 
of the Broome Street Tabernacle 
for eleven years, and was a prominent 
member of the Clef Club in New 
York City. His great activity along 
musical lines was rewarded by the 
degree of Doctor of Music, conferred 
upon him by the Chicago University 
in 1881 and the Alfred University in 
1882. Dr. Palmer was a great student 
of literature and astronomy, as well 
as music, and lectured on all three 
subjects. He was the publisher of his 
own works, which include the Theory 
of Music; Class Method; Manual for 
Teachers: Pronouncing Pocket Dic- 
tionary of Musical Terms; Pronounc- 




ing Biographical Pocket Dictionary of 
Musicians; Peerless Piano Primer; 
Book of five hundred and sixteen short 
Interludes and Modulations; and the 
popular class books, The Song 
Queen; The Song King; Song Herald; 
Concert Choruses; and many other 
collections. He wrote quantities of 
sacred pieces, and among his well- 
known hymns are Just for Today; 
Yield Not to Temptation; Beautiful 
Home; The Rose of Sharon; Holy 
Spirit from Above; Galilee, Blue 
Galilee; and Peace be Still. 

Paminger (pa-ming-er), Leonhardt. 


Also spelled Paminger, Pamiger, 
Pammigerus and Pannigerus. Ger- 
man contrapuntist and a great friend 
of Luther's; noted for his church- 
music. He was born at Aschau, 
Upper Austria, and died at the Mon- 
astery of St. Nicholas at Passau, 
where he had studied, and where, 
after finishing his studies at Vienna 
in 1516, he became school rector and, 
later, secretary. Among his compo- 
sitions are four books of motets, pub- 
lished at Nuremburg under the name 
Ecclesiasticarum cantiorum, by _ his 
sons, Balthaser, Sophonias and Sigis- 
mund, who were also composers and 
a few of whose compositions appeared 
therein. Paminger also wrote con- 
troversial tracts; and his compositions 
are among the collections of his time. 

Panny, Joseph. 1794-1838. 

Austrian violinist, composer, and 
teacher; born at Kolmitzberg. His 
father was a violinist, and his grand- 
father an organist, and from them he 
received instruction in violin, organ 
and theory. In his youth he had to 
give up the study of music to earn 
his own living, but he went to Vienna 
in 1815 and studied under Eybler, and 
appeared in a concert of his own com- 
positions in 1824. _He attracted the 
attention of Paganini, and together 
they toured as far as Prague. From 
there Panny went to Germany, visit- 
ing the principal cities. In 1831 he 
set out on a tour through Norway, 
Sweden and England. On his return 
to Germany he founded a music 
school at Weisserling in Alsace, and 
after visting Paris in 1835, married, 
and made Mainz his home. Here he 
founded another school of music. 
Three masses; a requiem; male 
choruses; songs; a scene with orches- 


tral accompaniment, written for 
Paganini; a sonata; trio; string quar- 
tets; and other instrumental music, 
beside the opera. Das Madchen von 
Riigen, written in 1831, are the work 
of his hand. Some manuscripts on 
the musical history of England, 
France, Germany and Italy are also 

Panofka (pa-nof'-ke), Heinrich. 1807- 

German violinist and composer, 
better known as a singing-teacher in 
London. He was born at Breslau, 
and studied according to his father's 
wish. He himself was eager to com- 
plete his musical education, begun 
under his sister, a violinist, and the 
cantors, Strauch and Foerster, and at 
last his father acquiesced. He went 
to Vienna in 1824 and studied violin 
urider Mayseder, and composition 
with Hauptmann, making his concert 
debut in 1827. In 1834 he went to 
Paris, where he played at the con- 
certs of the Conservatory, and stud- 
ied singing and music-teaching with 
Bordogni, with whom he founded an 
Academic de Chant, which failed. 
From 1844 to 1852 London was his 
home, and there he became celebrated 
as a singing-teacher. During Jenny 
Lind's engagement at Her Majesty's 
Theatre in 1847 he was assistant con- 
ductor. From London he returned to 
Paris, but in 1866 he moved on to 
Florence, where he spent the rest of 
his life. The Practical Singing 
Tutor; L'art de chanter; Abecedaire 
vocal; twenty-four vocalises progres- 
sives ;_ Erholung und Studium; twelve 
vocalises d'artiste; eighty-six nou- 
veaux exercises; twelve vocalises pour 
contralto; and twelve Vokalisen fiir 
Bass are his most important works. 
He also wrote music for the violin, 
with piano and orchestral accompani- 
ment, and translated into German 
Baillot's book on violin. 

Panseron (pan-su-roii), Auguste 
Mathieu. 1796-1859. 

A noted French singing-teacher. 
Born and died at Paris. His father 
was a professor of music, and from 
him Auguste received his early train- 
ing. In 1804 he became a pupil of 
the Conservatory, studying counter- 
point with Gossec, violoncello with 
Levasseur, and harmony under Ber- 
tini, taking prizes in all three subjects. 
In 1813 his cantata, Hermine, won 




the Grand Prize of Rome, and going 
to Italy, he took up counterpoint 
under Mattei, at Bologna, and singing 
under good teachers at Naples and 
Rome. He then studied with Salieri 
in Vienna, and Winter in Munich. In 
1817 he was made chapelmaster to 
Prince Esterhazy, and settled as a 
teacher in Paris in 1818. He was 
soon made accompanist of the Opera 
Comique, and between 1820 and 1827 
he brought out the operas. La grille 
du pare; Les deux cousines; and Le 
mariage difficile. In 1826 he was 
appointed professor of Solfege at the 
Conservatory, professor of vocaliza- 
tion in 1831, and of singing in 1836. 
His experience there enabled him to 
write some excellent educational books, 
his most important works, which in- 
clude ABC Musical, progressive ex- 
ercises, written for his little girl; 
Solfege d'artiste, fifty exercises with 
change of clef; thirty-six lessons of 
advanced difficulty; Solfege for pian- 
ists; Solfege for violinists; Methode 
complete de vocalization, in three 
parts; and Traite de I'harmonie pra- 
tique et de modulation. As a corn- 
poser he is best known for his 
romances, numbering about two hun- 
dred. He also composed masses; and 
Mois de Marie, containing motets and 
hymns. He is given the credit of 
developing for the romance its indi- 
vidual style. 

Pape (pa'-pe), Johann Heinrich. 1789- 


Piano-builder; a native of Sarstedt, 
Germany, but most of his life a resi- 
dent of Paris, where he died in his 
eighty-sixth year. In 1811 he was 
engaged by Pleyel to take charge of 
the organizing of his piano factor};, 
and with whom he remained until 
1815, when he formed a business of 
his own. His fertile brain thought 
out all sorts of changes in the con- 
struction of the case and the mechan- 
ism of the instrument, and he is said 
to have taken out one hundred and 
twenty patents, though only a few 
of his inventions have been used. He 
turned out pianos of all shapes and 
sizes, with different arrangements of 
strings, sounding-boards and ham- 
mers. He built a few eight-octave 
grands, used springs instead of 
strings in one of his mstruments; in- 
troduced reed attachments and made 
a piano, which, by means of a key, 
would transpose without moving the 


keyboard. These were merely novel- 
ties, but in his table-pianos he intro- 
duced the system of over-striking 
hammers, which, though he claimed 
to have invented, had been in exist- 
ence in some of the old clavichords. 
This system has since been adopted, 
as well as his idea of padding the 
hammers with rabbit hair. 

Papini (pa-pe'-ne), Guido. 1847- 

Italian violinist and composer; born 
at Camagiore. He studied under 
Giorgetti at Florence, and made his 
debut there in 1860, executing the 
third concerto by Spohr. Later he 
led the Societa del Quartetto for a 
number of years. In 1874 he made 
his London debut at the Musical 
Union, where he afterward usually 
appeared, but he has also played at 
concerts of the Old and New Phil- 
harmonic Societies, and at the Crystal 
Palace. In 1876 he took part in the 
Pasdeloup concerts at Paris, and also 
at those of the Bordeaux Philhar- 
monic. He is the composer of a con- 
certo for the violin, and one for the 
cello; romances; nocturnes; and 
Feuilles d' album; Exercises du 
mecanisme, for the violin alone; and 
Violin School, arrangements and tran- 
scriptions. He also edited a number 
of classical works, among them 
twenty-four of Paganini's caprices. 
In 1893 he became head of the violin 
department of the Royal Academy of 
Music at Dublin, but gave up the 
position in 1896 and returned to Lon- 
don, where he has since lived, com- 
posing and giving a few private 

Papperitz (pap'-pe-rets), Benjamin 
Robert. 1826- 

Well-known German teacher of 
piano; born at Pirna, Saxony, and 
graduated Doctor of Philolo^. He 
studied music at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory under Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann and Richter, and was appointed 
teacher of harmony there in 1851. In 
1868 he became organist at the 
Nikolaikirche, a post from which he 
resigned in 1899. Some songs, choral 
pieces and organ-music by him have 
been published. He received the 
honorable title of Royal Professor in 

Paradis (pa-ra-des'), Maria Theresia 

von. 1759-1824. 

Austrian pianist, composer and so- 
prano singer, also skilled as an organ- 




ist. Her father, Joseph Anton, was a 
Councillor at the Court in Vienna, 
where she was born and died. Such a 
favorite was she with her godmother, 
the Empress, for whom she was 
named, that she received an annual 
pension of about two hundred florins 
as long as the Princess lived. When 
a little child Maria lost her eyesight, 
but that did not prevent her from 
studying the piano under Richter and 
Kozeluch, singing with Righini and 
Salieri, and composition from Fibertti 
and Vogler. Her repertory included 
no less than sixty concertos, which 
she learned perfectly by ear and 
through her wonderful memory was 
able to keep. More remarkable still, 
she was a composer. A family friend 
invented for her a system of notation. 
By means of this she was able to 
write a number of stage pieces, 
Ariadne und Bacchus; Der Schulecan- 
didat; and Rinaldo und Alcina; the 
cantata, Deutsches Monument Lud- 
wig's des Ungliicklichen, in com- 
memoration of Louis XVI.; a trio; 
sonatas and variations for the piano; 
a fantasia; and a number of songs. 
She founded a school of music for 
girls, and the last years of her life 
were spent in giving vocal and piano 

Parepa-Rosa (pa-ra'-pa ro'-za), Eu- 
phrosyne. 1836-1874. 

Well-known soprano-singer; born 
at Edinburgh. Her father was a 
native of Bucharest and her mother, 
a vocalist, was a sister of Edwin 
Seguin, the famous bass. She studied 
with her mother, and when her father 
died went on the stage, making her 
debut as Amina, at Malta, when only 
sixteen. She then sang with great 
success in Italy and Spain and went 
to London in 1857, where she first 
appeared as Elvira in I Puritani. In 
1865 she visited Germany and late the 
same year came to America on a con- 
cert tour with Carl Rosa. Captain de 
Wolfe Carvell, whom she had mar- 
ried in 1863, died at Lima, Peru, in 
1865, and, on her second trip to the 
United States in 1867, she married Mr. 
Rosa. She and her husband remained 
here for four years, during which 
the Parepa-Rosa Opera Company was 
formed. In 1871 she returned to Eng- 
land, but after visiting Egypt she 
came back to America, where she sang 
in Italian Opera. In 1873 she made 
her second trip to Egypt, returning to 


London to sing Elsa in a performance 
of Lohengrin. But she was taken ill 
suddenly and died Jan. 21, 1874. Her 
voice was sweet, clear and strong, 
her tone mellow and her register was 
two and a half octaves. She was 
successful in both English and Italian 
opera, singing in Zampa, Victorine, 
La Reine Topase, Helvellyn, and The 
Bohemian Girl, and as Satanella, Di- 
norah, and the Zerlinas. Not having 
much dramatic ability, she was better 
as an oratorio and concert-singer, in 
which capacity she constantly ap- 
peared, prominent occasions being the 
Handel Festivals in London in 1862 
and 1865 and the Peace Jubilee at 
Boston in 1869. 

Parish-Alvars, Elias. 1808-1849. 

Famous English harp virtuoso and 
an excellent composer for his instru- 
ment. He was born of Jewish parents 
at Teignmouth and the date of his 
birth is uncertain, sometimes being 
given as 1810 or 1816. He took les- 
sons from Boscha, Dizi and Labarre, 
and was also a proficient pianist. On 
his many journeys he visited Germany, 
Italy and England, finally settling at 
Vienna in 1847, after spending four 
years in the Orient. In Vienna he was 
made chamber-musician to the Em- 
peror. As a composer he was greatly 
improved by contact with Mendels- 
sohn on a visit to Leipsic. His works 
embrace two concertos for harp and 
orchestra, and one for two harps 
and orchestra; romances; character- 
pieces; and melodies, notably, Voyage 
d'un Harpiste en Orient, a collection 
of airs and melodies popular in Tur- 
key and Asia Minor, for solo harp; 
a march; and fantasies, some for harp 
and piano and some for the harp 

* Parker, Horatio William. 1863- 

Noted American composer, organist 
and teacher. Born, of old New Eng- 
land stock, at Auburndale, Mass. His 
father was a well-known architect and 
his mother, the daughter of a clergy- 
man, was an excellent organist and 
a highly cultured woman. Horatio 
disliked music until he was fourteen, 
when he suddenly conceived a passion 
for it, and it was with difficulty that he 
was forced to cease his musical studies 
long enough to attend to his general 
education and bodily development. 
His mother gave him a thorough 
foundation in organ and piano play- 
ing, and at sixteen he became organist 




of St. Paul's at Dedham and a short 
time later of St. John's at Roxbury. 
He continued his studies at Boston 
under Orth in piano, Emery in theory 
and Chadwick in composition, and in 
1881 went to Munich. There for three 
years he studied at the Royal School 
of Music, taking conducting from Abel 
and organ and composition under 
Rheinberger. At the age of fifteen 
he had, in two days and without any 
study in composition, set to music 
fifty of Kate Greenaway's poems, but 
his first works of importance were 
written at Munich. In 1885 he returned 
home, and was immediately appointed 
organist and director of music at St. 
Paul's and St. Mary's Cathedral 
Schools at Garden City, Long Island. 
In 1886 he became choirmaster and 
organist at St. Andrew's at Harlem, 
near New York, and two years later 
was given the same position at Holy 
Trinity, New York City. He also 
taught counterpoint at the New York 
National Conservatory for some time. 
In 1893, however, he went back to 
Boston to take the organ and direc- 
torship of Trinity Church there, which 
he held until 1901. Then, however, he 
found the journey from New Haven, 
which has been his home since 1894, 
when he became Battle Professor of 
Music at Yale University, too irk- 
some, and, giving up that post, he 
took a position at New York, which 
incurred less traveling. Dr. Parker's 
work at Yale is on the order of that 
established by Paine at Harvard. He 
teaches harmony, counterpoint, com- 
position and orchestral scoring; gives 
lectures on musical history, and con- 
ducts six orchestral concerts a year, 
at one of which the compositions of 
the students are played. Each con- 
cert is prefaced by a lecture in which 
the director anah-zes the program, 
thus adding to their educational value. 
To facilitate this work Woolsey Hall 
was built. This hall has a seating 
capacity of two thousand and a mag- 
nificent organ with eighty stops. 

In 1899 Dr. Parker's wonderful can- 
tata, Hora Novissima, was sung at 
the Worcester Festival, the first Amer- 
ican composition to receive such an 
honor. He himself conducted, as he 
did in 1900, when his Wanderer's 
Psalm, written for the Hereford Festi- 
val, was produced. On his visit to 
England in 1902 the third part of The 
Legend of St. Christopher was sung 
at the Worcester Festival and the 


whole oratorio at the Bristol Festival, 
both under his own direction, and he 
was further honored by having the 
degree of Doctor of Music conferred 
upon him by Cambridge University. 
The same year his cantata, A Star 
Song, was sung at the Norwich Fes- 
tival, and at the Gloucester Festival 
of 1907 his new organ concerto, with 
orchestral accompaniment, was played. 
Dr. Parker's greatest work, so far, is 
Hora Novissima, for which his mother 
translated about two hundred lines 
of Bernard de Morlaix's famous poem. 
Rhythm of the Celestial Country. 
Like his other church-music this ora- 
torio has been criticized as too dra- 
matic, but it has received the highest 
praise from many able critics. One 
writer says, " It has a cappella chorus 
which is one of the finest specimens 
of pure church polyphony that has 
been produced in recent years. The 
orchestration is extraordinarily rich, 
and as a whole the composition may 
be set down as one of the finest 
achievements of the present day." 
The dramatic oratorio. The Legend of 
St. Christopher, was written in 1896. 
and two years later had its first per- 
formance at the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary jubilee of the New York Oratorio 
Society. His other large vocal works 
are Ballad of a Knight and His 
Daughter; King Trojan, a ballad for 
chorus and orchestra; Ballad of the 
Normans, for male chorus and orches- 
tra; Idylle, a cantata, after Goethe; 
The Kobalds, for chorus and orches- 
tra; Harold Harfager, for chorus and 
orchestra; The Dream King and His 
Love, a cantata which took the New 
York National Conservatory prize in 
1893; and The Holy Child, a Christ- 
mas cantata. The motet, Adstant An- 
gelorum Chori, won the McCagg prize 
at the New York Musical Art Society 
in 1899, and the cantata, A Star Song, 
took the Paderewski prize in 1901. 
Among his other male choruses are 
The ShepTierd Boy, and Blow, Thou 
Winter Wind. His church-music in- 
cludes a Morning and Evening Serv- 
ice in E; a Communion Service in D 
flat; three sacred songs; three settings 
to ^lediaeval Hymns; anthems; and 
SQngs. For the organ he has written 
four sets of four pieces each; and two 
concertos, with orchestral accompani- 
ment; besides thirty arrangements 
and transcriptions of masterpieces. 
He has written also a little piano- 
music and some secular songs, includ- 




ing Union and Liberty, a song with 
orchestra for the inauguration of Pres- 
ident Roosevelt in 190S. His orches- 
tral works and chamber-music have 
not been published. They include an 
overture to Count Robert of Paris; 
concert overture in E fiat; overture, 
Regulus; symphony in C minor; 
string quartet in F; Venetian Overture 
in B flat; scherzo in G minor; and a 
Northern Ballad. 

Parker, James Cutler Dunn. 1828- 

Distinguished American teacher and 
composer. Doctor of Music of Alfred 
University. He was born at Boston, 
where his father was an active mem- 
ber of the Handel and Haydn Society. 
James loved music from his child- 
hood, and, after being graduated from 
Harvard in 1848 and studying law, he 
yielded to his natural inclination and 
took music lessons for a time in 
Boston. He was one of the earliest 
of American musicians to be educated 
abroad, having gone to Leipsic in 
1851, where for three years he studied 
under Moscheles and Plaidy in piano, 
Hauptmann in theory and Richter 
and Rietz in composition. On return- 
ing to Boston he became concert 
pianist of the Mendelssohn Quintet 
Club. His successful career as a 
teacher began in 1854, and many of 
his pupils have become famous. He 
was at one time professor in the Col- 
lege of Music of the Boston Univer- 
sity, and since 1871 has been a 
member of the faculty of the New 
England Conservatory, where he has 
taught organ, piano and harmony. 
About 1897 he gave up his active work 
there but continues as examiner. 
From 1864 to 1871 he was organist 
and choirmaster of Trinity Church. 
Was also organist for several years 
of the Boston Handel and Haydn 
Society, for whose festival in 1877 
he wrote his Redemption Hymn, a 
cantata with words taken from the 
51st chapter of Isaiah. He has 
also appeared successfully as a 
pianist at the Harvard Symphony con- 
certs. Has written an excellent Man- 
ual of Harmony and a Treatise on 
Theoretical and Practical Harmony, 
as well as a translation of Richter's 
work on harmony. As a composer he 
is most favorably known. His works 
include the cantata. The Blind King; 
St. John, a sacred cantata, with orches- 
tra; the oratorio. The Life of Man, 
probably his best work; also piano- 


music; part-songs; church services 
and sacred music; and some orches- 
tral pieces. His work shows a fine 
balance between the classic and the 

Parker, Louis Napoleon. 1852- 

English dramatist and composer; 
born in Calvadoz, France. He was 
educated in France and at Freiburg, 
also in Italy, and entered the Royal 
Academy of Music at London in 1870. 
There he studied under Banister, Wil- 
liam Sterndale Bennett, Cusins, Steg- 
gall, Harold Thomas and Walworth, 
and on being graduated in 1874 was 
elected associate, and in 1898 became 
fellow of that institution. From 1877 
to 1892 he was director of music at 
King's School, Sherbourne. He then 
removed to London, where he is now 
devoting^ his time to writing dramas. 
His musical compositions include the 
cantatas, Silvia, The Wreck of the 
Hesperus, Young Tamerlane, and the 
23d Psalm as a motet; overtures still 
in manuscript; songs and part-songs; 
and piano and violin music. He has 
also written for musical papers, Wag- 
ner being his particular theme. In 
1905 he had charge of the Sherbourne 
Pageant and in 1906 of the Warwick 
Pageant. He was on the United 
Wagner Society Committee and rep- 
resented England in the Revue Wag- 
nerienne in 1885. 

Parratt, Sir Walter. 1841- 

The most prominent organist in 
England at the present time. Born 
at Huddersfield, Yorkshire. His 
father, Thomas Parratt, was the first 
organist and professor of music at 
Huddersfield, and held the organship 
of the Parish Church from 1812, when 
the organ was built, until his death. 
Walter very early showed his musical 
taste, and was so thoroughly grounded 
by his father that at seven years of 
age he played at church, and at ten 
could play from memory Bach's Well- 
tempered Clavier. The next year he 
received his first appointment, suc- 
ceeding his brother at the Armitage 
Bridge Church, and when twelve was 
organist of St. Peter's Chapel, Pim- 
lico, where he lived in the choir 
school. Later on he took organ les- 
sons from George Cooper at Holborn, 
and once played a service at St. Paul's 
Cathedral. After his return from 
London he again succeeded his 
brother, this time at St. Paul's Church, 




Huddersfield, in 1854, and for seven 
years he was kept busy with concerts 
and opening organs beside his regular 
duties. In 1861 he was appointed 
organist to Lord Dudley at Witley 
Court, Worcestershire. He married 
Miss Gledhill, of Huddersfield, in 1864, 
and until 1868 they lived a quiet coun- 
try life at Witley. He then obtained 
the vacancy in the Parish Church at 
Wigan, and after officiating as organ- 
ist and conductor of the Wigan Church 
Choral Association for five years he 
became organist, in 1872, at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, from which he took 
the degree of Bachelor of Music the 
following year. For ten years he 
served as organist and choirmaster of 
that and other Oxford Colleges, 
directed a number of musical societies 
and lectured. He then became organ- 
ist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
the highest organship in England. 
Other honors quickly followed: He 
was appointed professor of organ and 
director of the choral class of the 
Royal College of Music in London, 
in 1883, a post which he still retains; 
was knighted by Queen Victoria in 
1892; in 1893 appointed master of 
music and private organist to Her 
Majesty, and he continues to act in 
the same capacity under King Edward 
Vn. His home is at The Cloisters, 
Windsor Castle. Aside from his offi- 
cial duties he conducts the Madrigal 
Society and various other societies at 
Windsor, gives recitals and opens new 
organs. He was given the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Music by Oxford 
in 1894;. is Past Grand Organist of the 
Free Masons; a member of the Royal 
Victorian Order, and is connected 
with many other societies. He is an 
organist of rare ability, and has formed 
many pupils now in prominent posi- 
tions. His compositions include music 
for ^schylus' Agamemnon, and The 
Story of Orestes; besides anthems; 
pieces for the organ, and the piano, 
on which he is an excellent per- 
former; and songs, one of which is 
in the volume of Choral Songs, dedi- 
cated to Queen Victoria, which he 
edited in 1899. He also wrote the 
chapter on music in Mr. Humphry 
Ward's reign of Queen Victoria, pub- 
lished in 1887. 

Parry, Sir Charles Hubert Hastings. 

Born at Bournemouth, England. His 
father, Thomas Gambier Parry, a 


country gentleman and owner of the 
old estate of Highman Court, was 
noted as a painter and inventor of a 
preserving process, known as " spirit 
frescoes." Hubert's early intimacy 
with his father's studio developed in 
his artistic nature the love of correct- 
ness and beauty of form — symme- 
try — which is so characteristic of his 
music. He probably inherited his in- 
dustrious energy and strong academic 
tendency from his mother's father, 
Henry F. Clinton, a noted classical 
writer. At seven years of age Hubert 
was sent to school, going first to Mal- 
vern, where he began to write chants 
and hymns when only eight, then to 
Twyford, where an organist, wholly 
incompetent as a teacher, attempted to 
instruct hirn in piano, and in 1861 to 
Eton. During his year at Twyford he 
had frequently visited Samuel Wesley 
at Winchester^ Cathedral, where he 
was always kindly received, and it 
was there that his great admiration 
for Bach commenced. While at Eton 
he took lessons in harmony of Sir 
George Elvey, organist of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, and distinguished 
himself as a pianist, composer and 
singer. When only eighteen his can- 
tata, O Lord, Thou Hast Cast Us Out, 
won him the degree of Bachelor of 
Music at Oxford, and was sung at 
Eton just before he left to enter 
Exeter College, Oxford, in 1867. He 
continued his work on the piano and 
organ; took part in the concerts of his 
own college's Musical Society, and 
founded the Oxford University Musi- 
cal Club. He also took lessons in 
composition from Sterndale Bennett 
and George A. Macfarren, and spent 
one vacation at Stuttgart, studying 
under Hugo Pierson. After taking 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1870 
he was bookkeeper in Lloyd's shipping 
house,_ his father objecting to his 
becoming a professional musician, but 
after the failure of that firm three or 
four years later he devoted himself 
entirely to music. In 1872 he had 
commenced taking piano lessons from 
Edward Dannreuther, from whom he 
benefited more than from any other 
teacher, and for about seven years 
studied under him, producing at the 
concerts given at Dannreuther's house 
in Orme Square his chamber-music, 
some of which is now lost. In 1879, 
at the Crystal Palace, was played his 
first orchestral work that commanded 
attention, the overture, Guillem de 




Cabestanh, though an intermezzo reli- 
gioso for strings had been produced 
at the Gloucester Festival in 1868. 
But the works which have won for 
him the great popularity which he 
now enjoys are his large choral pieces, 
without one of which- a musical fes- 
tival in England is now incomplete. 
Yet, the first of these. Scenes from 
Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, failed 
when first produced at the Gloucester 
Festival in 1880. 

In 1883 he was made choragus of 
Oxford University and professor of 
composition and musical history at 
the Royal College of Music, where he 
succeeded Sir George Grove as prin- 
cipal in 1894. In 1883 he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Music 
from Cambridge and in 1884 from 
Oxford, and since 1900 he has been 
professor of music at Oxford. _ He 
was knighted by Queen Victoria in 
1898 and made a Baronet by King 
Edward at the coronation in 1903, for 
which he wrote the processional music 
and an anthem, I am Glad. In 1905 
he became commander of the Vic- 
torian Order. Parry married Lady 
Elizabeth Maude Herbert, of Lea, sis- 
ter of the Earl of Pembroke in 1872. 
Their daughters, Mrs. Arthur Pon- 
sonby and Mrs. H. Plunket Greene, 
are both musical, the former a pianist, 
the latter a violinist. 

Besides being a prolific composer 
Parry is an excellent writer. He began 
his literary work with poems pub- 
lished in Macmillan's Magazine in 
1875. He has written the words to 
Judith, Job, and a number of his 
works, and contributed to the Acad- 
emy and other periodicals. He is the 
author of valuable text-books, and 
his lectures have extended beyond 
Oxford University and the Royal 
College of Music to the Royal Insti- 
tution, the Midland Institution, Bir- 
mingham, and elsewhere. As a 
composer Parry is ranked the suc- 
cessor of Purcell, England's greatest 
composer. In all his compositions 
form holds the first place. His works 
are nearly all sacred or semi-sacred 
in character, and possess that which 
makes a strong appeal to the nobler 
feelings of humanity. They are aca- 
demic in style, truly English in man- 
ner and almost faultless in their 
musicianship. Parry writes rapidly, 
but always revises everything care- 
fully before publication. His compo- 
sitions are very numerous, and he is 


constantly called upon to write for the 
provincial musical festivals, where he 
frequently conducts his productions. 
His works include the oratorios, Ju- 
dith, Job, and King Saul; the choral 
works, Prometheus Unbound, L'Al- 
legro ed il Pensieroso, Tennyson's 
Lotus Eaters, a choric song. Magnif- 
icat, A Song of Darkness and Light, 
De Profundis, Te Deum, Voces Cla- 
mantium, and the Pied Piper of 
Hamelin; the odes. The Glories of Our 
Blood and State, Ode at a Solemn 
Music, Ode on St. Cecilia's Day, Invo- 
cation to Music, War and Peace, and 
Ode to Music. He has also written 
dramatic music to The Birds, The 
Frogs, and The Clouds, by Aristoph- 
anes; to Stuart Ogilvie's Hypatia; 
and to .<^schylus' Agamemnon. Among 
his orchestral works are the over- 
tures, Guillem de Cabestanh, and To 
an Unwritten Tragedy; four sym- 
phonies; Suite Moderne; and Char- 
acteristic variations in E minor. He 
has also written much chamber-music 
and a large number of songs. His 
symphonic poem. The Vision of Life, 
was given for the first time at the 
Cardiff Festival in 1907. 

Parry, John. 1776-1851. 

Welsh composer and writer and a 
player on the harp, violin, piano, 
clarinet and flageolet. He was born 
at Denbigh, and in 1795 joined the 
band of the county militia, playing the 
clarinet, which he had learned from a 
dancing-master. Two years later he 
became bandmaster, a position which 
he resigned in 1807 to go to London. 
There he taught the flageolet, and in 
1809 was engaged to compose for 
Vauxhall Gardens. For several years 
he conducted the Congresses of Welsh 
Bards, called Eisteddfodau, at one of 
which, in 1821, he was given the title 
of Bardd Alaw, or Master of Song. 
From 1834 to 1848 he was musical 
critic of the Morning Post. To the 
literature of music he contributed sev- 
eral books of instruction for different 
instruments; An account of the Rise 
and Progress of the Harp; and II 
Puntello, or The Supporter, which 
contains the rudiments of music. He 
adapted English words to a number 
of Welsh airs, and published various 
collections, notably Cambrian Har- 
mony, and The Welsh Harper, having 
an historical introduction, and incor- 
porating nearly all of Jones' Relics 
of the Welsh Bards, with English 




translations of the words. Parry's 
compositions number over three hun- 
dred, including music for the harp, 
piano, flute, flageolet, violin, band 
and orchestra; incidental music to a 
large number of plays; many glees; 
and songs. 

Parry, John Orlando. 1810-1879. 

Son of the preceding. Barytone 
singer, composer and pianist of con- 
siderable ability; born in London. His 
father taught him harp, piano and 
singing, and he also took harp lessons 
from Bochsa and vocal from Smart 
and Lablache. He made his debut 
as a harpist in 1825 and as a singer 
in 1830. In 1833 he visited Italy, 
staying for some time at Naples. He 
was a capital imitator and very suc- 
cessful as a singer of humorous bal- 
lads. Notes, Vocal and Instrumental, 
an entertainment given by him in 
1849, won great popularity, as did his 
numerous songs. The words of most 
of his productions were written for 
him by Albert Smith, but he himself 
arranged the music, and usually was 
his own accompanist. His great activ- 
ity told on his health, and in 1853 
he had to give up public performances. 
He became organist of St. Jude's 
Church, Southsea, also giving a few 
vocal lessons. In 1860, however, he 
returned to the public, appearing for 
nine years in popular entertainments. 
His farewell appearance was made 
in 1877 at a benefit. 
Parry, Joseph. 1841-1903. 

Well-known composer; born in a 
poor family at Merthyr Tydvil, Wales. 
His musical taste came from his 
mother and developed from hearing 
the songs and band-music of his native 
land. When only ten years old he 
had to go to work in the puddling 
furnaces. In 1854 the family came to 
America, but not long afterward 
Joseph returned to his old home, 
where he was taught by local musi- 
cians, and won several prizes for his 
songs at the Eisteddfod. At last, 
through the efforts of Mr. Brinley 
Richards, a fund was raised to enable 
Parry to study at the Royal Academy 
of \Iusic, of which he became a fel- 
low. Beginning in 1868, Bennett, Gar- 
cia and Steggall gave him instruction, 
and under them he made great prog- 
ress, winning a bronze medal in 1870 
and a silver one in 1871. The next 
year he became professor of music at 
the University College of Aberystwith, 


and here he remained until 1878, the 
year in which he received the degree 
of Doctor of Music from Cambridge. 
From 1879 to 1886 he was principal of 
the Music College of Wales at Swan- 
sea, and in 1888 he was made musical 
lecturer of the University College of 
South Wales, at Cardiff. He edited 
six volumes of Cambrian Minstrelsy, 
and among his compositions are about 
four hundred songs; glees; anthems; 
and piano-music; overtures; an orches- 
tral ballad; and a string quartet; be- 
sides the larger works, The Prodigal 
Son, Nebuchadnezzar, and Cambria; 
the cantatas, Emanuel, and Saul of 
Tarsus; oratorios; and the operas, 
Blodwen, Virginia, Arianwen, Sylvia, 
and King Arthur. 

Parry, Joseph Haydn. 1864-1894. 

Promising composer; son of the 
preceding. Born at Philadelphia, but 
lived in England. His father gave 
him most of his musical education, yet 
he also studied at Aberystwith, win- 
ning a prize for a piano sonata in 
1884. In 1890 he became professor in 
the Guildhall School of Music, which 
position he only lived to fill for four 
years. He died at Hampstead when 
scarcely thirty years old, a musician 
of great promise though not remark- 
able achievement. His most success- 
ful works are Gwen, a cantata, and 
the comic opera. Cigarette, given at 
Cardiff in 1892. The next year his 
Miami, with a setting adapted from 
The Green Bushes, was produced at 
the Princess Theatre, London, but his 
last work. Marigold Farm, was not 
Parsons, Albert Ross. 1847- 

American organist, pianist and 
teacher. Born at Sandusky, Ohio. He 
began to take piano lessons when he 
was six years old from Robert Denton 
in Buffalo, and played at a concert 
there when nine years old. From 1858 
to 1863 he was organist in one of the 
Indianapolis churches, and then went 
to New York, where for three years 
he studied under Ritter. Going to 
Leipsic in 1867 he became a pupil of 
the Conservatory, where he took piano 
lessons from ^loscheles, Papperitz, 
Reinecke and Wenzel and counter- 
point and fug^e from Paul and Rich- 
ter. In 1870 he removed to Berlin, 
where he studied at Tausig's High 
School for pianists and at Kullak's 
New Academy of Music. Since 1873 
he has lived m New York, where he 




teaches and where, from 1874 to 1879, 
he was organist of the First Reformed 
Church, then of Holy Trinity, and 
since 1885 of Fifth Avenue Presby- 
terian Church. He became president 
of an American Society for the Pro- 
motion of Musical Art in 1890; was 
one of the founders of the American 
College of Musicians of the State Uni- 
versity of New York, of which society 
he has been president since 1893; also 
examiner for piano at Evelyn College, 
Princeton, and of the Metropolitan 
College of Music at New York. In 
1875 he was editor of Benham's Re- 
view, and held the same position on 
the staff of The Orpheus from 1879 
to 1885. He has written musical, 
archaeological and genealogical liter- 
ature and edited the Complete Works 
of Chopin and Schumann and Wag- 
ner's Beethoven. Of his songs and 
piano-music, may be mentioned: The 
Night Has a Thousand Eyes; Break, 
Break; Crossing the Bar; a national 
anthem, My Country 'Tis of Thee; 
Humoresque-Tarantelle; and The Lion 
and the Lizard. 

Pasdeloup (pa-du-loop), Jules £tienne. 

Celebrated French conductor; born 
at Paris. He studied at the Paris 
Conservatory in piano with Laurent 
and Zimmermann, and won the first 
prize in 1834. He was accorded first 
prize for solfege in 1832, and in 1841 
had a class in singing. Having stud- 
ied harmony under Dourlen and Ca- 
rafa, he taught a piano class from 1847 
to 1850. In 1848 he was appointed by 
the government to a position at St. 
Cloud, but often directed the concerts 
at the Louvre, and in 1851 organized 
and took direction of Societe des 
Jeunes artistes. In 1861 he removed 
to the Cirque d'hiver and the Cirque 
Napoleon, where concerts were held 
every Sunday afternoon, the famous 
Concerts Populaires, which proved so 
successful. There the French public 
were for the first time able to hear 
the music of the great classical and 
modern composers at a popular price. 
Between 1855 and 1868 Pasdeloup 
taught a vocal class at the Conserva- 
tory, and then for a little more than 
a year he tried with poor success to 
conduct the Theatre Lyrique, bringing 
out for the first time in Paris a Wag- 
ner opera, Rienzi. Gradually the fin- 
ances of the Concerts Populaires were 
weakened by the excessive demands 


of the soloists and the tax collectors. 
Then Colonne and Lamoureux started 
their concerts, and Pasdeloup's audi- 
ences fell off so much that in 1884 
the Concerts Populaires had to be 
abandoned. After a benefit festival 
held at Trocadero, bringing M. Pasde- 
loup nearly twenty thousand dollars, 
he retired, but, not satisfied with 
inaction, he gave concerts at Monte 
Carlo the next winter and later at the 
Conservatory. Then, in 1886 and 1887, 
Pasdeloup made a last and futile 
attempt to regain his lost place. Soon 
after this hopeless failure, deserted by 
the public which he had done so much 
to educate, he died at Fontainebleau. 

Pasmore, Henry Bickford. 1857- 

American organist, teacher and com- 
poser of note. Born in Jackson, Wis- 
consin. At twenty years of age he 
began his musical education at San 
Francisco, taking organ and harmony 
from John Paul Morgan and singing 
under S. J. Morgan. Going abroad in 
1882 he finished his studies in har- 
mony and composition under Jadas- 
sohn and Reinecke at the Leipsic 
Conservatory, and studied singing with 
Frau Unger-Haupt at Leipsic and 
Shakespeare and Cummings in Lon- 
don. He then settled in San Fran- 
cisco, where he was organist of St. 
John's Episcopal Church. He teaches 
vocal music and composition at the 
University of the Pacific in San Jose, 
being one of the most prominent 
teachers in that part of the country. 
At Leipsic in 1883 and 1884 his Con- 
clave march, and the overture. Miles 
Standish, both for orchestra, were 
played. He has composed other 
orchestral pieces; a suite for organ 
and strings; a tarantelle for piano; two 
masses; part-songs for men's voices; 
Northern Romance, Stars of the Sum- 
mer Night, and many other songs; 
and the score of an opera. 

Pasta (pas'-ta), Giuditta. 1798-1865. 

Celebrated Italian dramatic soprano, 
of Jewish origin. She was born at 
Como, where Lotte, organist of the 
Cathedral, was her first teacher. At 
fifteen she entered the Conservatory 
at Milan, and after studying for two 
years with Asioli she appeared at 
second-class theatres in Brescia, Parma 
and Leghorn. Then, having married 
Signor Pasta, she went to Paris, in 
1816, where she played subordinate 
parts at the Favart Theatre. In 1817 




she made her first visit to London, 
playing at the King's Theatre, first as 
Telemaceo in Cimarosa's Penelope, 
then as Cherubino in Xozze de Figaro, 
but her voice as yet was rather crude, 
and the season failed to bring her into 
notice. Returning to Italy, she devoted 
her time to study under Scappa, and, 
having conquered her unruly voice, 
made her first real success at Venice 
in 1819. After singing at Rome the 
same year and at Milan and Trieste 
in 1820, she appeared at the Theatre 
des Italiens at Paris in 1821. She made 
a marked impression at Verona during 
the Congress in 1822, and there met 
Rossini, whose operas she afterward 
so successfully sang. It was in the 
role of Desdemona in his Otello, 
given at Paris the same year, that she 
made her name famous, and the 
French were enthused with her excel- 
lent singing and wonderful acting. 
She appeared at the King's Theatre 
in 1824, completely conquering Lon- 
don, and was much sought after for 
concerts both private and public. 
After the season she returned to Paris, 
and was with diflSculty engaged to 
reappear in London in 1825 and in 
1827, when her presentation of Coc- 
cio's Maria Stuarta made a great im- 
pression. Instead of returning to 
Paris, a quarrel with Rossini caused 
her to visit Italy, where she sang, 
among other roles, Xiobe, which 
Pacini wrote for her. In 1828 she 
again appeared in London, Sontag 
and Malibran being her rivals. A great 
success in Vienna in 1829 resulted in 
Madame Pasta's appointment as Court 
singer to the Emperor. That same 
year at Bologna she gave twelve of 
Rossini's operas, under the direction 
of the composer himself. At Milan 
in 1830 she created the role of Anna 
Bolena, which Donizetti had written 
for her; in 1831 introduced Bellini's 
La Sonnambula, and the next year 
gave the initial performance of Norma 
at La Scala. This she played in Lon- 
don on her return in 1833, and during 
that year and the next she was again 
in Paris. Her voice was now begin- 
ning to fail, though her acting had 
lost none of its intense dramatic 
beauty. On account of the loss of her 
fortune, through the failure of a 
Vienna bank, she was forced to keep 
on with her work, singing in St. 
Petersburg in 1840 and Berlin in 1841. 
This was her farewell engagement, 
although in 1850 she sang at two con- 


certs in London. Her retirement was 
spent at her home on Lake Como dur- 
ing the summer and at Milan or 
Genoa during the winter, and she 
occupied herself with a few pupils. 
She died at her villa. Madame Pasta's 
voice was never perfectly equalized; 
it was inclined to flat and was a little 
muffled at the beginning of a per- 
formance, but her power and truth of 
expression and the simplicity and dra- 
matic intensity of her rendering left 
her imperfections unnoticed. 

Patey, Janet Monach. 1842-1894. 

Contralto concert and oratorio sing- 
er. Her father was a native of Glas- 
gow, but Janet was born in London. 
John Wass was her first teacher, and 
later she studied under Pinsuti and 
Mrs. Sim Reeves. When eighteen 
she sang in concerts at Birmingham 
and later became a member of Honry 
Leslie's choir. She did not become a 
professional singer until 1865, when 
she toured the provinces in Lemmen's 
Concert Party. The next year she 
married the barytone, John Patey, an 
operatic and concert singer, and later 
a music publisher, and he toured with 
her in America, where she sang Elijah 
in New York City. In England she 
appeared at many festivals and at 
other important musical gatherings, 
singling not only the old and tried 
but creating many new English works, 
among them Macfarren's cantata. 
Lady of the Lake. In 1875 she sang 
at Paris and received a medal from 
the Conservatory. In 1890 she and 
her husband went to Australia, and in 
1894, during her farewell concert tour, 
she died suddenly at Sheffield. 

Paton, Mary Anne. 1802-1864. 

Popular singer; born of a musical 
family at Edinburgh, and educated by 
her parents. This infant prodigy, 
when only two years old, could name 
any tone or semitone that she heard. 
She sang like a bird, and at four was 
able to play the harp, violin and piano, 
for which two years later she com- 
posed some fantasies and other music. 
In 1810, then but eight years old, she 
appeared as a singer, reciter and 
player. Then the family moved to 
London, and for three years she 
appeared at private concerts with lim- 
ited success. Having retired in 1814 
to complete her education and regain 
her health, she reappeared, making a 
remarkably successful debut in 1822 at 




the Haymarket Theatre, London, as 
Susanna in the Marriage of Figaro. 
She then sang successfully in The 
Barber of Seville, The Beggar's Opera, 
Artaxerxes, and in Weber's Der Frei- 
schiitz, on its first performance in 
London in 1824 and in Oberon when 
it was first produced in 1826. She 
created the role of Alice in an English 
version of Robert le Diable in 1832. 
In 1834 she came to the United States 
with her husband, Joseph Wood, an 
operatic tenor of considerable ability, 
and they repeated the trip in 1835 and 
1836. Retiring to her husband's es- 
tate at WooUey Moor, in 1843, she 
remained there until 1854, after which 
she lived abroad. She died soon after 
her return to England in 1864. 

Patti (pat'-te), Adelina. 1843- 

The most famous soprano of the 
Nineteenth Century. She was born 
in Madrid, her parents being Italian 
singers of note. When Patti was still 
very young the family came to New 
York, where her father directed the 
Italian opera for a time. Patti was 
a born singer, and though she learned 
from her step-brother, Ettore Barili, 
all that could be learned in the Italian 
School of singing, and finally a few 
operas under Maurice Strakosch, the 
impresario, she knew how to sing, 
intuitively, when only three years old, 
and sang the shake perfectly without 
instruction. As she expressed it her 
real teacher was " le bon Dieu." The 
family circumstances became such 
that it was necessary for Patti to 
put her talent to account, and in 1850 
she appeared with great success at 
Tripler's Hall, New York, as a child 
prodigy. Under the direction of 
Strakosch and her father she sang in 
concerts until she was eleven, but as 
her voice was beginning to break 
from such hard use she was with- 
drawn to rest. On her reappearance 
she accompanied Gottschalk on his 
visit to the West Indies, and, return- 
ing to New York made her operatic 
debut at the Academy of Music, No- 
vember 24, 1859, as Lucia di Lammer- 
moor. After singing in the southern 
states and at Havana, she sailed for 
England. There her first appearance 
as Amina in La Sonnambula, at 
Covent Garden, May 14, 1861, com- 
pletely conquered the audience, and 
her succeeding roles, Violetta, Zerlina, 
Martha and Rosina, were all triumph- 
ant successes. After singing at the 


Birmingham Festival, in Liverpool, 
Manchester and elsewhere in England, 
she appeared in Brussels and Berlin, 
and on November 19, 1862, brought 
all Paris to her feet by her rendering 
of Amina. The people of St. Peters- 
burg went wild over her, and in Spain 
and Italy, where she first appeared as 
Violetta at La Scala in 1877, the en- 
thusiasm was high. Throughout the 
world she reigned Queen of Singers, 
and it was this great popularity prob 
ably which made her so loath to 
retire. In London she sang in opera 
at Covent Garden each season until 

1884, and at Her Majesty's in 1885 
and 1887, and she gave brilliant con- 
certs in many other English cities, 
singing on numerous festival occa- 
sions. In 1881 she made a concert 
tour of America, and the next two 
seasons was in Mapleson's Company 
at the Academy of Music in New 
York. In 1890 she sang in the Metro- 
politan Company, and in 189S was 
again in this country. The last of 
her farewell tours in America began 
in the autumn of 1903, and then her 
voice was but a shadow of its former 
self. Nevertheless, she still sings oc- 
casionally at her home, and began a 
farewell tour of the English towns 
in 1907, appearing at Liverpool and 
at Birmingham, where the audience 
went wild over her singing of the 
simple old songs, especially Home, 
Sweet Home. 

From childhood Patti has had to 
live carefully, keeping constant watch 
over her voice. She never forced it 
or sang when she was not in perfect 
condition, and this probably is the 
reason that at sixty, her beauty is 
unimpaired and her voice still well 
preserved. Her method is perfect, 
her style elegant, easy and spontane- 
ous, her tone rich and clear and her 
compass unusual. Her wonderful 
memory enabled her to sing some 
forty operas in four different lan- 
guages. Of these Rosina in the Bar- 
ber of Seville, was perhaps her best, 
and Zerlina, her only classic role, 
Lucia, Violetta and Martha being 
also favorites. Mme. Patti, as she is 
still called, has been thrice married; 
in 1868 to the Marquis de Caux, 
equerry to Napoleon III., but it was 
not a happy union, and after separat- 
ing in 1877 they were divorced in 

1885. The next year she married the 
famous tenor, Ernest Niccolini, and 
their life was a happy one and Patti 




was most patient and devoted to him 
during his last sickness. She married 
Baron Cederstrom in 1899. They live 
at her beautiful home, Craig-y-Xos 
Castle, near Breconsture, South 
Wales, the splendid gifts showered 
upon her by an adoring world add- 
ing to the luxury of the place. There 
she has a private theatre, where she 
sometimes entertains her guests. She 
is said to be a charming hostess, and, 
at home, she holds court, beloved by 
the people round about for her many 
deeds of kindness. 

Patti, Carlotta. 1840-1889. 

Well-known Italian soprano, sister 
of the famous Adelina. She was born 
at Florence, and at first took piano 
lessons from Herz, afterwards devot- 
ing herself to singing, in which her 
mother and father drilled her. She 
made her debut in concert in New 
York, and appeared afterward in 
Italian Opera there, but because of her 
lameness she was obliged to confine 
her activity to concert-singing. In 
1863 she made her London debut at 
Coverit Garden Theatre. She toured 
America and Europe, and in 1879 mar- 
ried the Weimar violoncellist, Ernst 
de Munck, at last settling in Paris, 
where she taught until her death. 

Pattison, John Nelson. About 1843- 

American pianist and composer; 
born at Niagara Falls, New York. 
He early showed musical ability, and 
first became known as a performer 
in a traveling concert troupe. He 
studied under Haupt, Reinecke, Liszt, 
Thalberg, Stern, Marz, von Biilow 
and Henselt, and after a short visit 
to his native land went back to Ger- 
many, giving concerts there, also in 
Paris and in Italian cities. On his 
return, in 1862, he made New York 
his home, and has there taught suc- 
cessfully. He played at the Centen- 
nial Exposition and for the New York 
and Brooklyn Philharmonic Societies. 
He has composed a symphony, 
Niagara, for orchestra and military 
band; a concert overture, played by 
the Thomas Orchestra in New York; 
and a number of pieces for the piano, 
including a romantic concerto-fan- 
tasia, with orchestra; and about twen- 
ty piano solos, many of which are in 

Pauer (pow'-er), Ernst. 1826-1905. 

Noted Austrian pianist and teacher; 
born at Vienna. His father was a 


Lutheran minister. Superintendent 
General of the Protestant Churches 
of Austria, and his mother was a 
member of the Streicher family, the 
noted piano-makers. Ernst was given 
a liberal education by private tutors 
and devoted a part of his time up to 
1839 studying the piano with Dirzka, 
and from then until 1844 with W. A. 
Mozart, junior, and composition with 
Sechter. He performed in public and 
wrote his first composition in 1842. 
Three years later he went to Munich, 
where he studied with Franz Lach- 
ner until 1847. He then became direc- 
tor of music at Mayence, where he 
wrote a number of orchestral works, 
and the operas Don Riego, and the 
Red Mask. In 1851 he went to Lon- 
don and made so great a success as 
a pianist in concerts of the Philhar- 
monic and the Musical Union that he 
decided to remain. He was made 
professor of piano at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music in 1859 and in 1876 at 
the National Training School. From 
1883 to 1896 he taught in the Royal 
College of Music and then retired 
from public activity, spending the 
rest of his life at Jugenheim, in Ger- 
many. He represented Austria and 
Germany among the judges of the 
International Exposition, held in Lon- 
don in 1862, and among numerous 
honors bestowed upon him was that 
of pianist to the Imperial Court of 
Austria, in 1866. Pauer was a 
thoughful and serious pianist, and by 
his historical concerts, begun at Lon- 
don in 1861 and given in Europe as 
well, he brought before the public 
many hitherto unknown classical 
works. From 1870 date his lectures, 
given in London, Scotland and Ire- 
land. He composed a third opera, 
The Bride; also a quintet; sonatas, 
for violin and cello with piano, and 
for piano alone; and a number of 
piano solos, notably the Valse de 
Concert, Cascade; also valuable educa- 
tional piano studies; and arrangements 
of Beethoven's and Schumann's sym- 
phonies, and Mendelssohn's piano 
concertos. He edited the historical 
works, Alte Klaviermusik; Alte Meis- 
ter; Old English Composers for the 
Virginal and Harpsichord; and about 
thirty volumes on the classical com- 
posers from Bach to Schumann. He 
wrote the music primers. The Art of 
Piano playing; Elements of the Beau- 
tiful in Music; Alusical Forms; and 
The Pianist's Directory. 



Pauer, Max. 1866- 

Son of the preceding. Born at 
London. His proficiency as a pian- 
ist is due to his father's training, but 
he studied theory and composition 
under Vincenz Lachner at Carlsruhe 
from 1881 to 1885. Then for two 
years he appeared at concerts in Ger- 
many, Holland and England, spend- 
ing considerable time in London. In 
1887 he became teacher of piano at 
the Cologne Conservatory, changing 
in 1897 to Stuttgart. Since 1893 he 
has been pianist to the Grand Duke 
of Hesse. In 1898 received the title 
of professor from the King of Wiir- 
temburg. Besides writing music for 
the piano he has edited a new edition 
of the Klavierschule by Lebert and 
Stark, and has arranged Mozart's and 
Haydn's symphonies for two and four 

Paul (powl), Oscar. 1836-1898. 

German teacher and writer on musi- 
cal subjects; born at Freiwaldau, 
Silesia. His father was a priest, and 
he himself studied theology at the 
Leipsic University, where he was 
graduated in 1860, having previously 
attendedtheGorlitz Gymnasium, where 
he received his first musical training. 
After studying at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory and privately under Plaidy 
in piano, and Richter and Hauptmann 
in theory, he spent several years in 
other cities, principally Cologne. In 
1866 he returned to Leipsic, where he 
spent the rest of his life. That year 
because of his treatise. Die absolute 
Harmonik der Griechen, he was ap- 
pointed lecturer at the University, and 
m 1872 Professor Extraordinarius. 
Meanwhile, in 1869, he had been made 
teacher of musical history at the Con- 
servatory, and in 1872 his translation 
of Boetius' De Musica came out. His 
Lehrbuch der Harmonik, was pub- 
lished in 1880, and translated in New 
York in 1885. He also wrote 
Geschichte des Claviers; and Hand- 
book der Tonkunst; edited the Ton- 
halle for the year 1869, and 
Musikalisches Wochenblatt for three 
months in 1870; contributed to the 
Miisikaliches Conversation-Lexikon; 
and was critic on the Leipziger Tag- 

Paumann (pow'-man), Conrad. 1410- 


German organist and composer of 
organ-music; born blind at Nurem- 


burg. His name is sometimes spelled 
Paulmann or Baumann. He was 
adopted, educated and maintained by 
the burgher, Ulrich Grundherr, and his 
son, and was highly esteemed as an 
organist throughout Europe. In 1467 
he went as organist to Duke Albricht 
III. at Munich, where he remained 
until his death. His Fundamentum 
Organisandi, dated 1452, containing 
exercises for beginners, and composi- 
tions, some of them written by other 
composers, is the oldest extant book 
of organ-music. In 1867 it was pub- 
lished in the second edition of Chrys- 
ander's Jahrbucher. The manuscript 
was obtained by the library at Wer- 
nigerode in 1858. A few of his organ- 
pieces are found in an organ book in 
the Munich Royal Library. To him 
has been attributed the invention of 
the lute tablature. 

Paur (powrr), Emil. 1855- 

Violinist and musical conductor; a 
native of Czernowitz, Austria. His 
father first taught him and at eight 
years of age he appeared in public 
as a violinist and pianist. In 1866 
he entered the Vienna Conservatory, 
where he studied the violin under 
Hellmesberger and composition under 
Dessoff, being graduated with first 
prizes. In 1870 he became first violin 
at the Imperial Opera House, but six 
years later left Vienna to become 
chapelmaster conductor of Cassel, 
then at Konigsberg and Hanover. In 
1880 he went to Mannheim, where he 
directed the opera and conducted the 
Subscription concerts. From 1891 till 
1893 he conducted the opera at Leip- 
sic and taen came to America. In 
1893 he succeeded Nikisch as director 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
and in 1898 was made conductor of 
the New York Philharmonic Society 
in succession to Anton Seidl. At New 
York he organized an orchestra of 
his own, conducted at the Metropoli- 
tan Opera House for the season of 
1899 and 1900, and became director 
of the National Conservatory in 1899. 
The next three years he spent abroad, 
appearing sometimes as a solo pian- 
ist, conducting German Opera at 
Covent Garden, London, in 1900, and 
concerts there, as well as at Berlin 
and Madrid. Returning to the United 
States_ in 1904 he became director of 
the Pittsburg Symphony Orchestra. 
Mr. Paur has composed songs and 



Pauwels (pow'-vels), Jean Engelbert. 

German violinist; born at Brussels. 
Plis father was a musician, and Jean 
early showed his musical bent. As a 
boy he was a good violinist, and after 
studying in his native city he went 
to Paris when about twenty years 
old, finishing his musical education 
under Lesueur. He played the violin 
in the Italian Opera at the Theatre 
Feydeau at Paris, and in 1790 led the 
orchestra at the Strasburg Theatre. 
The next year he returned to Brus- 
sels, where he became first violin, 
and, in 1794, conductor of the theatre. 
After that he spent much time com- 
posing, and his three _ operas. La 
Maisonette dans le Bois; L'Auteur 
malgre lui; and Leontine et Penrose, 
a four-act opera, considered his mas- 
terpiece, were produced successfully 
at Brussels between 1791 and 1800. 
He also wrote concertos; three string 
quartets; and six duets for violin; be- 
sides symphonies; violin concertos; 
and masses in manuscript. He died 
at Brussels. 

Peace, Albert Lister. 1844- 

Well-known English organist; also 
pianist and composer. Born at Hud- 
dersfield. He early shov/ed remark- 
able musical talent and before he was 
five years old he could name unfail- 
ingly any note he heard. At six he 
began to take piano lessons from 
Henry Horn, and later studied under 
Henry Parratt. When only nine years 
old he was appointed organist of 
the Holmfirth Parish Church. After 
holding positions in a number of 
churches, when twenty-one years old, 
he became organist at Trinity Con- 
gregational Church, Glasgow. He was 
given the organship of Glasgow Uni- 
versity four years later, and of the 
Cathedral in 1879. He also appeared 
in concerts in all the large cities and 
towns in the kingdom with immense 
success. In 1890 he was placed on 
the Council of the Royal College of 
Organists, and in 1892 on the Ex- 
amining Board of that society as well 
as of the Royal College of Music, 
Londpn. Since 1897 he has held the 
prominent post^ of organist at St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool. Dr. Peace's 
repertory includes nearly all organ 
literature, a range made possible by 
the use of the extended pedal board. 
He has composed a setting to the 
138th Psalm, which brought him the 


degree of Bachelor of Music of Ox- 
ford; a cantata, St. John the Baptist, 
written for the Doctor's degree in 
1875; church services; anthems; organ 
music; and some orchestral works. 

Pearce, Stephen Austen. 1836- 

Organist, pianist and composer; 
born at London. He studied music 
under Hopkins at Cambridge, and in 
1859 took the degree of Bachelor of 
Music from New College, Oxford, and 
that of Doctor of Music in 1864. He 
visited the United States and Canada 
in 1864, and on his return was made 
the organist of two large London 
churches. In 1872 he came to the 
United States to live and was made 
professor of vocal music in Columbia 
College, New York. He has lectured 
on the theory of music in the General 
Theological Seminary, on the music 
of all nations at Peabody Institute, 
Baltimore, and on classical music at 
the Johns Hopkins University. In 
1874 he was made musical editor of 
the New York Evening Post. From 
1879 to 1885 he played the organ at 
the Fifth Avenue Collegiate Church, 
New York, then for three years at 
the Church of Zion, and afterwards 
at the Church of the Ascension. He 
has appeared at many recitals and has 
written a three-act opera for chil- 
dren, La belle Americaine; an ora- 
torio. Celestial Visions; a cantata, 
The Psalm of Praise; an allegro 
agitato in D minor, played by the 
Thomas Orchestra; an overture in E 
rninor; songs; sacred chorales; and 
piano and organ music. He is the 
author of a Dictionary of Musical 
Terms in twenty-one languages. 

Pearsall, Robert Lucas de. 1795-1856. 

English composer; born at Clifton, 
near Bristol. He was educated for 
the law and practised until 1825, when 
he went to Germany and made May- 
ence his home. There under Joseph 
Panny he studied music, in which he 
had early shown ability by a cantata, 
Saul and the Witch of Endor, written 
at thirteen years of age. In 1829 he 
went to live at Carlsruhe, where he 
began composing in earnest. He then 
lived in various other cities of Ger- 
many, having studied meanwhile with 
Ett of Munich. Finally, in 1842 he 
settled at the Castle of Wartensee, on 
Lake Constance, where he spent the 
rest of his life. He published a num- 
ber of treatises, among them one on 




Consecutive Fifths and Octaves in 
Counterpoint, and another in German 
on the English Madrigal Composers. 
He wrote a great many compositions 
for both the Catholic and Anglican 
Churches, including a requiem, psalms, 
and anthems; and pubHshed a Catho- 
lic Hymn-book based on that of St. 
Gall. He excelled in writing madri- 
gals and his setting of the ballad of 
Sir Patrick Spens, written in ten parts 
is wonderfully fine. He also wrote 
an overture to Macbeth, with witches' 
chorus. His songs number about one 
hundred, some sixty of them being 
published, and their originality, 
melody and spirit make them still 
popular, though they are written in 
an old style. 

Pease (pez), Alfred Humphries. 1838- 

American pianist and composer; 
born at Cleveland, Ohio. He received 
his education at Kenyon College, 
Gambier, Ohio, and then went to 
Berlin, where for three years he 
studied the piano under Kullak, com- 
position under Wiierst, and scoring 
from Wieprecht. He then made a 
short stay in the United States, but 
returned to Germany to study the 
piano for another three years under 
von Billow, and on his return to 
America^ he was well received as a 
pianist in the principal cities and 
towns. Among his nearly one hun- 
dred songs are Blow, Bugle, Blow; 
Good Night; Stars of the Summer 
Night; Absence; May Bell; Memory's 
Refrain; Rock Me to Sleep, Mother; 
and the Song of Freedom. He also 
wrote piano-pieces, and the orches- 
tral works, reverie and andante; 
andante and scherzo; romance; and 
a concerto, all of which were played 
by the Thomas Orchestra. 

Pech (peck), James. 1839- 

Also spelled Peck. Conductor, 
composer and lecturer; born at Han- 
over, Germany, but living at present 
in New York. He received his gen- 
eral education at Rochester, England, 
and New College, Oxford, from which 
he received the degree of Doctor of 
Music. H was a pupil of the London 
Academy of Music, and studied also 
in Germany, Czerny, Henselt and 
Dohler, being his teachers in piano, 
and Friedrich Schneider of Dresden 
in organ and theory. After holding 
the conductorship at the Drury Lane 


Theatre, the People's Philharmonic 
Society in Exeter Hall, and the Lon- 
don Orchestral Association, jointly 
with (Sir Julius) Benedict, he left 
London for America in 1864. He was 
the last conductor of the New York 
Sacred Harmonic Society, and in 1866 
became director and conductor of the 
Church Music Association in that 
city. Later conducted in opera at the 
old Academy of Music. He has lec- 
tured on aesthetics, history, theory 
and practice of music in numerous 
colleges of the United States and 
Canada, and has composed music for 
the piano and organ as well as an- 
thems and motets to Latin words. 

Pechatschek (pe-khat'-tchek), Fran- 
Sois. 1793-1840. 

Violinist and composer; born at 
Vienna. His father taught him the 
violin, and after playing at court and 
also in Prague in 1803, Frangois, or 
Franz as he is also called, studied 
composition under Forster. Having 
had experience as assistant manager 
of the Vienna Theatre, he was called 
to Hanover in 1818 to become leading 
violin in the orchestra. During 1824 
and 1825 he successfully concertized 
in various German cities, and in 1826 
became concertmaster at Carlsruhe- 
Baden, where he remained until his 
death. His compositions include a 
concerto; polonaises; themes varies; 
and rondos; string-quartets; and a 
duo concertant for two violins. 

Pedrell (pa'-dhrel), Felipe. 1841- 

The most notable figure in the mod- 
ern musical world of Spain. Born 
at Tortosa. His only instruction in 
music was what he obtained from a 
careful study of music itself and long 
archaelogical research. He wrote for 
the Illustracion musical Hispano- 
Americano; edited La musica re- 
ligiosa; and at last became so distin- 
guished as a critic and writer that 
he was made a member of the Acad- 
emy and professor of musical history 
and aesthetics at the Royal Conserv- 
atory in Madrid. He had already 
composed the operas. El ultimo Aben- 
cerrajo, Quasimodo; El Tasso a Fer- 
rara; Cleopatra; and Mazzepa. But 
the prophet is never first recognized 
in his own country, and of Cleopatra 
only the symphonic extract Invo- 
cazioni alia Notti was played at Bar- 
celona in 1885. Pedrell's great 
ambition is to form a national music, 




so nothing daunted by his failures 
he began in 1891 his great trilogy, Los 
Pireneos, based on Victor Balanger's 
poem, and in three months had it 
completed. In March, 1897, the So- 
cieta Benedetto Marcello at Venice 
produced the prologue with such suc- 
cess that Pedrell gained the attention 
of Italy and soon of all Europe. The 
entire work was produced at Bar- 
celona in 1902. In speaking of this 
trilogy' G. Tabaldini, in Revista Musi- 
cale Italiana says that a conception 
so grand, so original, and daring the 
lyric stage has not produced except 
in the case of Wagner's music. In 
1904 he wrote another opera, Celes- 
tine; in 1905, La Matinada; and re- 
cently Le Comte d'Arnan. He has 
also composed a mass; a symphonic 
scene; piano-music; and songs. But 
still more important are the books 
which he has edited, especially the 
Hispaniae Schola Musica Sacra, a set 
already comprising eight volumes, 
containing various works from the 
composers from the Fifteenth to the 
Eighteenth Centuries. This publica- 
tion was begun in 1894 and contains 
many works hitherto unknown. The 
same year his Diccionario tecnico de 
la Musica was published. He has also 
translated Ritter's book on Harmony; 
has written a series to illustrate his 
favorite theory that a national music 
must be based on a country's folk- 
song; also Practicas preparatorias de 
instrumentacion; and Emporio cien- 
tifico e historico de Organografia 
musical antiqua espagnola. 

Pedrotti (pa-drot'-te), Carlo. 1817- 


Italian composer of opera buffa; 
born at Verona. He studied under 
Domenico Foroni in his native city, 
and there in 1840 produced his first 
opera, Lina, with such success that 
he was immediately appointed con- 
ductor of the Italian Opera at Ams- 
terdam, a position which he filled for 
five years. During this time he 
brought out two of his operas. Ma- 
tilde, and La Figlia dell Arciere. Re- 
turning to Italy he remained in 
Verona until 1868, composing and di- 
recting theatres, and from there he 
moved to Turin, where he was con- 
ductor of the Teatro Regio, and in 
1870 he brought out II favorito, one 
of his best works. He was also ap- 
pointed director of the Liceo Musi- 
cale. In 1882 he was phpsen head of 

Pena y Goni 
the new Liceo Rossini at Pesara, 
where he taught until a short time be- 
fore his death. Then returning to 
the city of his birth he drowned him- 
self in the Adige. Among his other 
operas are Clara del Mainland; Romeo 
di Monfort; Fiorina; II Parrucchiere 
della Reggenza; Tutti in Maschera, 
considered his best; Gelmina; Geno- 
veffa del Brabante; La Guerra in 
quattro; Mazeppa; Marion Delorme; 
and his last opera, Olema la schiava. 
His music was bright and lively, but 
he did not keep abreast of the times 
and his music was soon neglected. 

♦Pembaur (pam'-bowr), Josef. 1848- 

Excellent composer and teacher; 
born at Innsbruck, Austria. He first 
studied law at the University in his 
native town, but deciding to make 
music his life-work went to the 
Vienna Conservatory, and later to the 
Royal Music School at Munich, where 
he studied under Wullner, Rheinber- 
ger and Cornelius. In 1875 he was 
appointed director and principal 
teacher of the School of the Musical 
Society at Innsbruck, a position which 
he still holds. As a composer, Pem- 
bauer is best known for his numerous 
songs and part-songs, but he has also 
written some larger works, notably 
" God the Creator of the Universe," 
for male chorus and orchestra; the 
oratorio, Walthers von der Vogel- 
weide; Klopstock; the Gravedigger's 
Wedding; Harnerling; the Autumn 
Hymns; the plaintive song; the opera 
Zigeunerleben (Gypsy Life), given in 
1898, and a symphony, In Tirol; also 
improvisation for the organ, and a 
Festival Mass in F. tjber das 
Dirigieren and Harmonie und Melo- 
dielehre are two of a number of tech- 
nical works written by Pembaur. 

Pena y Goni (pan'-ya e go'-ne), An- 
tonio. 1846-1896. 

Popular Spanish critic and writer 
on musical subjects. Born at San 
Sebastian, and studied under Man- 
terola. He was a friend of Gounod 
and many of the contemporary 
French musicians, as well as Wagner, 
whose cause he championed at Mad- 
rid through the Imparcial, a paper on 
which he was musical critic for more 
than thirty years. He is the author 
of a Historj' of Opera in Spain, and 
has composed some music, including 
the national hymn, Vida Hernani; a 
mass; and piano-pieces. 



Penfield, Smith Newell. 1837- 

Well-known organist, teacher and 
composer. Born at Oberlin, Ohio. 
After graduating from the college 
there and studying music for a time 
under James Fhnt in New York, he 
went to Leipsic. There he took les- 
sons in piano from Moscheles, Pap- 
peritz and Reinecke, organ from 
Richter, and theory and composition 
from Reinecke, Richter and Haupt- 
mann. Then, after a period of 
study under Delioux at Paris, he re- 
turned to America and settled in 
Rochester, N. Y. From there he 
removed to Savannah, Georgia, where 
he founded the Mozart Society and es- 
tablished a conservatory, but in 1882 
he made New York his home. He re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Music 
in 1883 from the New York University, 
organized the New York Harmony 
Society in 1885, and set up the Arion 
Conservatory in Brooklyn. He was 
once elected president of the Music 
Teachers' National Association and 
twice president of the Music Teach- 
ers' Association of New York state. 
He is a member of the Manuscript 
Society of New York, is organist of 
the Broadway Tabernacle; has given 
numerous recitals, written for the 
fitude and other musical papers, and 
has composed an overture for full or- 
chestra; a string-quartet; organ, and 
piano-music; a cantata to the 18th 
Psalm; anthems; glees; and songs. 

Pepusch (pa'-poosh), John Christo- 
pher. 1667-1752. 

Eminent theorist and composer; 
born in Berlin. His father was a 
poor Protestant minister and could 
only afford to give his son a year's 
tuition under Klingenberg in theory, 
and Grosses in organ playing. At 
fourteen the boy went to the court at 
Berlin, where he continued to teach 
and study until about 1697, when he 
left the court and went to Holland, 
and hence to London in 1700. He was 
immediately engaged at Dniry Larie, 
first as violinist, then as accompanist 
and composer, in which capacity he 
arranged the music for a number of 
plays. In 1710 he founded the Acad- 
emy of Ancient Music for the study 
of a lost art in which he vva.; always 
deeply interested, and from 1734 to 
1737 devoted most of his time to that 
institution. He was for a number of 
years director of music at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields Theatre, where were played 


his masques, Venus and Adonis: 
Apollo and Daphne; The Death or 
Dido; and The Union of the Three 
Sister Arts; as well as the operas, 
Polly, and The Wedding. ^But more 
important than any was Gay's Beg- 
gar's Opera, in 1727 or 1728, for 
which he arranged the music ironi 
old English and Scotch ballads, and 
popular songs of the day. Meanwhile 
he had married the noted singer 
Margarita de I'Epine, and in 1724 
joined Dr. Berkeley's unsuccessful 
project of forming a college in the 
Bermudas. Pepusch, who had been 
made Doctor of Music by Oxford in 
1713, realized that he lacked variety in 
his compositions, and consequently 
devoted himself to teaching the theory 
of music. He attempted to revive 
Guido's system of solmization by hexa- 
chords. In 1737 he became organist 
of Charter House, where he remained 
until his death, and where he lies 
buried, with a tablet near by, erected 
in 1757 by the Academy of Ancient 
Music. His last works were theo- 
retical — An Account of the Three 
Ancient Genera, and a Short Account 
of the Twelve Modes of Composition 
and their Progression in Every 
Octave. He scored his favorite, 
Corelli's sonatas, and also composed 
twenty-four sonatas for violin and 
bass as an introduction to them. 
Twelve cantatas, in two sets, pub- 
lished about 1716, contained his best 
composition, See, from the Silent 
Grove. Dr. Pepusch's knowledge was 
vast and his teaching excellent, but 
his works did not add much new 
material to the science of music^ 

* Perabo (pa'-ra-bo), Ernst. 1845- 

Distinguished pianist, native of 
Wiesbaden, Germany, but a resident 
of America since 1852, when his family 
settled in New York. He was one of 
a musical family and began to study 
under his father when five years old. 
His studies were continued in New 
York, and there he made a brilliant 
debut at nine years of age. At Dover, 
New Hampshire, his next home, he 
took violin lessons from William 
Schultze, and, on his removal to Bos- 
ton he appeared in a concert at the 
Music Hall. After that he lived in 
Chicago and Washington, and in 1858 
was sent to Germany by Wm. Scharf- 
enberg and other New Yorkers. At 
first he studied music and literature 
at Hamburg, then for four years with 


Professor Andresen at Eimsbuttel, anci 
in 1862 entered the Leipsic Conserv- 
atory, where he took lessons in piano 
from Moscheles and Wcnzel, in har- 
mony from Papperitz, Hauptmann and 
Richter, and m composition from 
Reinecke. He won the Helbig prize 
and played at the public examination 
in 1865. That year he returned to 
America and gave concerts in a num- 
ber of cities. At New York in 1866 
he won great success, and has since 
played annually at the Harvard con- 
certs and often at the Boston Synv 
phony concerts, i ' 
in B'-'Cf'-'n, f^f 'i 


I'lK i-'-.i -.•••/red his 
His operas were 
a — ., . .._uiber. 

• Perfall (p«r -fall), Karl Freiherr von, 

German conductor and composer; 
bf.'rn at Munich. He studied law and 
Jiciti a government position in Ba- 
varia. Then, deciding upon music as a 
career, he finished his studies under 
Hauptrnann at Leipsic, and resigning 
his position in 1850, became conductor 
c' thp Liedertafel in Iii? native city. 

j,RUQgIERO: LE^Q^jb'A'^^.LLO 

Sullivan'^ ioi.i- 

compositions include ■ Moy ion t .Must- ^ ■_ ^"^^ic oxc-ellent ■''•"-!'>i ,4 1+4 P^^'" 

cale; waltz; two dBEtfftdfl J^ftjW(€&;in l&:>^; 1*16 fir^t©pera,DoInK%ghen, 

introduction ff^d/nd^^; pr^^RI\5e&d fh=^^*iparf "fii ?8^^^d ^^s ^f^s 
lugutive and pensei^s in G^ minor; Tor fne Koval nvntrp ivT wnich 
Souvenir; Stuiimmedii^eoatwjceas9r$o ifiAlGhitadfa.thSttiit made his repvHcer 

piano-pieces p.^'^i^j^d inrff^^bWWa'4'-s s^d" to -^ 5'a^ed on afi incident'so 
well as m this cc.nfrv ^ , th. Tjan^ssa, Der 

in ^he composer's^ own life. .cval. He also 

Leoncavallo was i' ,pei;former on the ' pliaiio W' '• 

his early days, as well as a composer, and though 

his fame as a pianist was not very gteal, his playing 

enabled him to earn money to support himself while 

composing some of his operas. 


I c.-runca until 174^. Hjs iii'i 
Sir'c, was followed by L'ai^ 
L'Eroismo di Scipione; Astaiica; 
Medea; and L'Isola incantata; La 
Clemenzo di Tito; Semiramide; and a 
number of others written for different 
Italian theatres. He was caller! tn 
Lisbon in 1752, where the King 
hirn Royal chapelmaster. Aft 
curing the best singer? of 
opened the new Li.sbon I 
1/55 wiith a magnificeri' • 
of his Alessandro nell'- 
same year produced his ,. 
don, but the remainder ot i 
spent at Lisbon, where, desj 
ness and sickness, he dict?.tcd works 
to his amanuensis. He composed 
considerable excellent church-music, 
messes, motets and psalms, his Mat- 

ict the c:-te. 

/viiiung his in^w uiii',iiia' ivuik^^ arc a 

concerto in C minor for the violin; a 

serenade in B flat for violoncello and 

strings; a trio serenade in G; and a 

quartet in A. He has also written a 

•hrce-act comic opera, Der Richter 

on Granada, given successfully at 

vyne in 1889, and the vaudeville, 

Nothhelfer, produced at Vienna 


olesi (per-go-la'-se), Giovanni 

tista. 1710-1736. 
■ spelled Pergolese. The family 
ii.T»-><. was originally Draghi, but 
coming from Pergola, they were 
called f ergolesi. Giovanni was born 
in the little town of Jcsi, near An- 

-■jjc ,1 i:;- ,K7jqo j-ri'tn ain .ocoi ut -tvi 

riK efiv; brii". JLQ?8X ni n£liM :'' hgouho^q sbv "JoDfiil 

1: •'• " -■ ! '1 Dd oJ b.i^c ci Jiiaqo ^rfT .nortBl 

.'iVil nv/o e'-i:)fc;oqfnc)3 aril nl 
iji onck] dth ito to . £ r.n-7/ onBYi;:;ii09J 

ffprjoffj bnii ,i3?.oqfr:oj j; -i. Lbv/ er- ' rhs-o •i'lA 

-^jv\R[q girl ,lJS9'i^ ^{19V ion «r/// i^fn., - arriBl: sirl 

alirfv/ ilaamirl iioqqLfe ot •'(^■jiiorn niBS ol irrid bsMfins 
.smoqo ■ " ■ -. ■ ■ 




Professor Andresen at Eimsbiittel, and 
in 1862 entered the Leipsic Conserv- 
atory, where he took lessons in piano 
from Moscheles and Wenzel, in har- 
mony from Papperitz, Hauptmann and 
Richter, and in composition from 
Reinecke. He won the Helbig prize 
and played at the public examination 
in 1865. That year he returned to 
America and gave concerts in a num- 
ber of cities. At New York in 1866 
he %von great success, and has since 
played annually at the Harvard con- 
certs and often at the Boston Sym- 
phony concerts. He is now teaching 
in Boston. He has published collec- 
tions of piano-music for students; 
transcriptions of the ballads, The 
Dance of the Dead; Melek at the 
Spring; and The Secluded; all by 
Lowe; besides concert arrangements 
of Rubinstein's Dimitri Donoskoi and 
the first movement of his Ocean 
symphony, of Schumann's uncom- 
pleted symphony, and selections from 
Sullivan's lolanthe. His original 
compositions include Moment Musi- 
cale; waltz; two scherzos; prelude; 
introduction and andante; pensee 
fugutive and pensees in G minor; 
Souvenir; Studies; and other short 
piano-pieces published in Germany as 
well as in this country. 

Perez (pa'-reth), Davide. 1711-1778. 
Operatic and church composer; 
native of Naples, but of Spanish 
blood. He went to the Santa Alar'ia 
di Loreto Conservatory, studied the 
violin with Antonio Gallo, and coun- 
terpoint with Francesco Neancini, and 
in 1739 was appointed chapelmaster of 
the Palermo Cathedral, where he 
remained until 1748. His first opera, 
Siroe, was followed by L'amore; 
L'Eroismo di Scipione; Astartea; 
Medea; and L'Isola incantata; La 
Clemenzo di Tito; Semiramide; and a 
number of others written for different 
Italian theatres. He was called to 
Lisbon in 1752, where the King made 
hirn Royal chapelmaster. After se- 
curing the best singers of Italy he 
opened the new Lisbon Theatre in 
1/55 -w^ith a mag^nificent performance 
of his Alessandro nelle Indie, and the 
same year produced his Ezio in Lon- 
don, but the remainder of his life was 
spent at Lisbon, where, despite blind- 
ness and sickness, he dictated works 
to his amanuensis. He composed 
considerable excellent church-music, 
masses, motets and psalms, his Mat- 


tutini de' Morte being considered his 
best sacred work. His operas were 
about thirty in number. 

* Perfall (per'-fall), Karl Freiherr von. 


German conductor and composer; 
born at Munich. He studied law and 
held a government position in Ba- 
varia. Then, deciding upon music as a 
career, he finished his studies under 
Hauptmann at Leipsic, and resigning 
his position in 1850, became conductor 
of the Liedertafel in his native city. 
Four years later he founded the Ora- 
torio Society there, a society which 
is still flourishing, although he gave 
up the conductorship in 1864 to 
become Court conductor to King 
Ludwig II., and in 1867 director of 
the Court Theatre, a position which 
he resigned in 1893. He was an hon- 
orary member of the German Actors' 
National Association, and president 
of the ^Munich Royal Academy of 
Tonal Art. Among his compositions 
are some excellent songs and part- 
songs; the cantatas, Dornroschen, 
Undine, and Riibezahl, and operas 
for the Royal Theatre, of which 
Sakuntula, Raimondin, and Junker 
Heinz are the most important; also 
the melodramas Barbarossa, Der 
Friede, and Prinz Karneval. He also 
published a History of the Munich 

Perger (per'-ger), Richard von. 1854- 

Composer and conductor; native of 
Vienna, and pupil of Brahms. In 
1890 he took Gernscheim's place at 
the head of the Rotterdam Conserv- 
atory, and conducted concerts there, 
but in 1895 returned to Vienna to 
conduct the Gesellschaftsconcerte. 
Among his instrumental works are a 
concerto in C minor for the violin; a 
serenade in B flat for violoncello and 
strings; a trio serenade in G; and a 
quartet in A. He has also written a 
three-act comic opera, Der Richter 
von Granada, given successfully at 
Cologne in 1889, and the vaudeville. 
Die Nothhelfer, produced at Vienna 
in 1891. 

Pergolesi (per-go-la'-se), Giovanni 
Battista. 1710-1736. 

Also spelled Pergolese. The family 
name was originally Draghi, but 
coming from Pergola, they were 
called Pergolesi. Giovanni was born 
in the little town of Jesi, near An- 




cona, in the eastern part of Italy, 
where his father was a surveyor and 
his grandfather a shoemaker. They 
are said to have been very poor; but 
the boy studied music under Santini 
and Mondini in his native town until 
he was sixteen. Then he was sent 
to finish his education at Naples. 
There he continued his violin lessons 
under Matteis, and studied counter- 
point under Greco, Durante and Feo. 
He is said to have attracted much 
attention by improvising harmonic 
and chromatic passages on his instru- 
ment, for at that time harmony was 
as yet comparatively unknown. At the 
close of his student life he wrote an 
oratorio. La Conversione di San 
Guglielmo d'Aquitania, picturing the 
struggle between good and evil as 
personified in an angel and a demon. 
This was sung w'ith his comic inter- 
mezzo, II Maestro di Musica, at Sant' 
Agnello Maggiore in 1731. So great 
was the success of this performance 
that the Prince of Stigliano immedi- 
ately took the young composer under 
his protection and through his in- 
fluence Pergolesi's first serious opera, 
La Sallustia, was produced soon after 
with considerable success at the 
Teatro Nuovo, though his intermezzo, 
Nerino e Nibbia, was a failure. For 
the same theatre he wrote his next 
work, the serious opera Ricimero. It 
failed completely, and, greatly dis- 
couraged, he turned to other kinds 
of composition, writing for his patron, 
the Prince, thirty terzets or trios for 
two violins and harpsichord, twenty- 
four of which were afterward pub- 
lished in London; and a mass for a 
double chorus and orchestra, which 
was sung as an offering to the patron 
saint of Naples after the earthquake 
of 1731. This mass, though not in 
strict polyphonic style, shows an 
effective use of chorus against chorus, 
and greatly enhanced the reputation 
of its composer. The failure of the 
three-act serious opera, Ariano in 
Seria, in 1734, was mediated by the 
success of the intermezzo, Livietta e 
Tracolo, which was afterwards played 
separately as La- Contadina, II finto 
pazza, and under other titles. In 1734 
he visited Rome in the train of the 
Duke of Maddaloni, and was recalled 
to that city the next year to write an 
opera for the Tordinona theatre. 
Accordingly he set Metastasio's 
L'Olympiade, but the music was 
beyond its hearers and after a few 


days the piece was jeered off the 
stage, and Pergolesi returned to Na- 
ples downhearted. After the failure 
of L'Olympiade, Pergolesi devoted 
himself to church-music, but it was 
not long before failing health com- 
pelled him to go to Pozzuoli. Con- 
sumption had, however, made such 
terrible headway that he had barely 
time to complete a Salve Regina and 
his great Stabat Mater, which, even 
before he wrote L'Olympiade, had 
been ordered for a stipend of ten 
ducats, something over eight dollars, 
to replace the one by Alexander 
Scarlatti so long used by the Confra- 
ternity of San Luigi di Palazzo, before 
death cut short his career at twenty- 
six years of age. 

During his life his successes had 
not been many or great, but immedi- 
ately after his death he became very 
popular. L'Olympiade was enthusi- 
astically applauded at Rome, and 
even penetrated as far as London in 
1742. Most of his operas were writ- 
ten in the Neapolitan dialect, and 
the only ones which attained great 
European celebrity were II Maestro di 
Musica and La Serva Padrona. The 
former was given at Venice 'in 1743 
as L'Orazio, at Florence in 1760 as 
La Scolara alia moda, and at Paris 
in 1752 and subsequently. La Serva 
Padrona is of great importance in 
the development of comic opera, 
especially in France, where it was 
introduced by a company of Italian 
actors at the Italiens in Paris in 1746. 
It is written for two singers, Serpina, 
the designing servant, and Uberto, the 
master, whom she is determined to 
marry. The accompaniment consists 
of a string quartet, which is fre- 
quently in unison with the voices, yet 
the music is so natural and charming 
that the interest is sustained through- 
out, and in comparison with the stiff 
style of Lully's school at was a wel- 
come relief. Rousseau and others 
immediately took it up and made it 
the model for opera bouffe, and be- 
tween the adherents of the Italian 
and French styles a fierce war 
sprang up, called the " guerre aux 
bouffons," which ended in the estab- 
lishment of the French Opera Co- 
mique as a school separate from the 
Grand Opera. Mozart, too, is said to 
have drawn inspiration from La 
Serva Padrona. Pergolesi's orchestra 
usually consisted of str*ings, but 
occasionally was reinforced by horns 




and a trumpet. The work by which 
Pergolesi is known today is his 
Stabat Mater. It is a most beautiful 
work, full of grace, sweetness and 
melody, but learned musicians have 
condemned it as too dramatic. It was 
written for soprano and contralto 
with the accompaniment of a string 
orchestra and organ, but later Pai- 
siello added parts for wind instru- 
ments, and it has been differently 
arranged by many musicians. It has 
been sung all over the world and fre- 
quently reprinted. Besides the works 
already mentioned Pergolesi wrote 
another Oratorio, La Nativita; the 
cantatas, Orfeo, for solo voice and 
orchestra, Giasone for five voices; 
also five others for one voice and 
clavichord; and six for three voices 
and instruments; many masses; the 
motets, Conturbat mentem mean, 
Dies Irse, and Domine ad Adjuvan- 
dum; also psalms; a Miserere; and 
other church-music. He also wrote 
arias and scenes; sonatas and con- 
certos for the violin and other in- 
struments; two sinfonia; and two sets 
of eight lessons for the harpsichord. 
Many manuscript scores of Pergolesi's 
works are preserved in Naples, 
Rome, Paris, London, Brussels, Ber- 
lin and other German cities, but only 
a few are available in modern score. 
Over his grave in the Cathedral at 
Pozzuoli are the words Giovane e 
Moribundo, " Young and Dying," 
and in consideration of the fact that 
all his works were written before his 
genius had had time to mature, some 
lenience should be shown in comparing 
his works with those of his pred- 
ecessors and contemporaries, a com- 
parison which modern critics seem to 
find detrimental to his former high 
renown. The town of Jesi is pre- 
paring to celebrate, in 1910, the two- 
hundredth anniversary of his birth. 
Lazzari has been commissioned to 
build a monument and Radiocitte has 
started research in the archives in 
Naples, preparatory to writing a com- 
plete monograph of the life and 
works of this master, whom the Ital- 
ians call the Raphael of music. 


Blasis, Carlo — Biografica di Pergo- 
lese, 1817. 

Faustini-Fasini, E. — Life of Pergo- 

Florimo, Francesco — La Scuola Mu- 
§icale di Napoli e i suoi Conserv- 


atorii, con uno squardo sulla storia 
della Musica in Italy, 1882. 

Villarosa. Marchese — Lettera biog- 
rafica intorna alia patria ed alia vita 
di Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, 1831. 

Memorie dei compositiori di musica 
del Regno di Napoli, 1840. 

Peri (pa-re), Jacopo. 1561- 

Florence was the birthplace of the 
founder of Italian Opera, dubbed II 
Zazzerino, because of his beautiful 
golden ha'ir. He studied music under 
Malvezzi of Lucca, and became chap- 
elmaster to Duke Ferdinand of Tus- 
cany, later to Duke Como, and in 
1601 to the Duke of Ferrara. 
Whether his claim to noble birth was 
real or not, he married a rich lady of 
the Fortini family and associated 
with the most eminent men of his 
time, Count Giovanni Bardi, the 
nobleman; Jacopo Corsi and Pietro 
Strozzi, the poet Rinuccini, and the 
musician, Vincenzo Galilei, and 
Emilio Caccini, who called themselves 
the Academy and were working to 
revive ancient Greek tragedy. The 
first step was the monodies of Gali- 
lei, and in 1594, according to Peri's 
preface to Euridice, aided by Cac- 
cini, Peri wrote the first opera, Dafne, 
to a poem by Rinuccini. This opera 
was performed privately at the house 
of Corsi, Per^ taking the part of 
Apollo. In this work the recitative 
or stile rappresentativo, as it was 
then called, was used probably for 
the first time, though the invention 
of that style is also claimed for Cac- 
cini and Cavalieri. Dafne was so 
successful that in 1600 both Peri and 
Caccini were commissioned to write 
music to Rinuccini's Euridice; for the 
marriage ceremony of Henry IV. of 
France and Maria de' Medici. Peri's 
was chosen, and he was thus the 
author of the first opera ever given 
in public. It was mostly recitative, 
with two or three choruses, and an 
orchestral interlude for three flutes. 
It was immediately printed, and was 
reprinted in 1683, and again in 1688. 
The only extant copy of the original 
edition is in the museum of the New- 
berry Library, Chicago, and in the 
preface Peri tells of his work in de- 
veloping a style between singing and 
ordinary speech, which he believed 
must have been used by the Greeks. 
He also gives the names of those who 
took part in Euridice, and the players 
and instruments forming the orcheg- 




tra (a harpsichord, guitar, flute and 
viol), which played behind the scenes. 
He also states that in the presenta- 
tion some of Caccini's music was 
used, though the edition is printed as 
he originally composed it. The Brit- 
ish Museum has a copy of the second 
edition of Euridice, but of Dafne the 
only traces that remain are the frag- 
ments furnished by Caccini and 
printed in his Nuovo Musiche, at 
Florence, in 1602. Though the suc- 
cess of these two "dramas per music" 
was great, Peri wrote no more operas, 
and after the publication, at Florence, 
of La varie Musiche de Signor Jacopo 
Peri, no further mention of him 

♦Perkins, Henry Southwick. 1833- 

American teacher, writer, composer 
and conductor; born in Stockbridge, 
Vermont. His father was a singing- 
rnaster, and his mother a soprano 
singer of merit. He entered the Bos- 
ton Music School in 1857. There he 
studied voice with B. F. Baker, J. Q. 
Wetherbee and Dr. Chas. A. Guil- 
mette; piano, harmony and composi- 
tion with John W. Lufts and J. D. C. 
Parker; violin with Wm. Schultze; 
and was graduated with the highest 
honors in his class in 1861. He began 
his career as a teacher of voice, piano 
and composition. For five years, 
from 1867, he was professor of music 
in the Iowa State University and 
director of the Normal Academy of 
Music at the same place. From 1870 
to 1874 he held the position of di- 
rector of the Kansas Normal Acad- 
emy of Music at Leavenworth. For 
twenty-five years much of his time 
was devoted to conducting musical 
festivals and conventions in all parts 
of the country. He also conducted 
normal music schools. In 1875 he 
went to Europe to observe teaching 
methods, and studied voice with 
Wartel in Paris and Vannuccini in 

In 1876 he was one of the organ- 
izers and a charter member of the 
Music Teachers' National Association, 
of which he has been secretary-treas- 
urer since 1887. His history of this 
Association is a work of authority. 
In 1887 the Western College of Iowa 
conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Music. In 1886 he was the 
leading organizer of the Illinois 
Music Teachers' Association, and 
served as its president for the first 


ten consecutive years. Dr. Perkins 
has delivered many lectures upon 
musical subjects before the National 
and State Music Teachers' Associa- 
tions and other educational bodies. 
His musical works include thirty 
books and considerable music in sheet 
form. Among the books are The 
Church Bell; College Hymn and Tune 
Book; The Song Echo; The Advance; 
The Headlight; Convention Choruses; 
The New Century Glee and Chorus 
Book; Graded Music Readers; Per- 
kins' Graded Anthems; The Song 
Wave; Festival Choruses; and The 
Song Indicator. In 1891 Dr. Perkins 
organized the Chicago National Col- 
lege of Music, since which time he 
has been its president and director. 

Perkins, William Oscar. 1831-1902. 

American teacher, composer and 
writer; brother of preceding; born at 
Stockbridge, Vermont. He continued 
in Boston the study of music begun 
with his father, and then went to 
London, where he took lessons in 
voice culture from Wetherbee, and 
later of Perini in Milan. On return- 
ing to Boston he gave private les- 
sons, and taught in the summer 
normal music schools; lectured, and 
wrote on music, and conducted choral 
societies and concerts. He conducted 
many conventions in the Northern 
States and Canada. After two visits 
to Europe he finally settled in Boston. 
He did excellent work as a teacher, 
and was made Doctor of Music in 
1879 by Hamilton College, New 
York. His compositions are included 
in over forty collections of songs and 

Peme (parn), Frangois Louis. 1772- 

Learned French writer and teacher; 
born at Paris. He was first taught 
music when he was a chorister. In 
1792 he became one of the tenors in 
the chorus of the Opera, but in 1799 
he played the doublebass in the 
orchestra of that theatre. After writ- 
ing some minor instrumental pieces 
he produced a grand funeral mass in 
1800. Having studied deeply into the 
theory of music, he was rewarded by 
the position of professor of harmony 
at the Paris Conservatory in succes- 
sion to Catel, in 1811. In 1816, when 
the Conservatory was reopened after 
the political troubles, he became gen- 
eral inspector, and in 1819 librarian. 




Perne's works include a few masses 
in manuscript at the Conservatory 
library; a triple fugue which can be 
sung backwards by reversing the 
page, showing great technical skill; 
six easy sonatas for the piano; a book 
of piano variations; two piano 
methods; a course in harmony and 
accompaniment, and writings on 
ancient Greek music, and the songs of 
the troubadours. His masses were left 
to the Institute, of which he was a 
member, and his sacred manuscripts 
are now in the Brussels Royal Library. 

Perosi (pa-ro'-se), Don Lorenzo. 

The most prominent Italian church 
composer of the day. Born at Tor- 
tona, where his father, Giuseppe, was 
chapelmaster at the Cathedral. His 
family are musical, his father being 
not only an excellent organist and 
maestro but a composer of enough 
repute to be honored by a decoration 
from the Pope. Lorenzo began to 
study the piano at six years of age. 
In 1888 he received a diploma from 
the Musical Lyceum at Rome. After 
studying under Saladino at the Milan 
Conservatory he entered the Monas- 
tery of Monte Casino. There he 
showed such marked talent that the 
monks and his father persuaded him 
to go to Ratisbon to finish his educa- 
tion at the sacred music school of 
Franz Haberl. In 1897 he went to 
Venice to become chapelmaster of St. 
Mark's, and was ordained a priest. 
He is a rapid and prolific composer, 
and it was not long after conceiving 
the idea of picturing Christ's life in 
twelve oratorios, that his first large 
work, the sacred trilogy. The Pas- 
sion of Christ, was given before the 
Italian Congress for Sacred Music at 
Milan in 1897. The three parts are 
The Last Supper, The Sermon on the 
Mount, and The Death of the Re- 
deemer, and the work excited great 
enthusiasm. In 1898 The Trans- 
figuration of Christ was sung in 
Venice; and The Raising of Lazarus 
was presented in the same city. The 
Resurrection of Christ was intro- 
duced at Rome, and so much atten- 
tion did these works elicit that Pope 
Pius XII. made Perosi honorary mas- 
ter of the Papal Choir. In 1899 
another oratorio. The Birth of The 
Redeemer, was given for the first 
time, and later that year he was 
called to Rome to become deputy 


master of the Sistine Chapel. In 1902 
he became head master of the Papal 
Chapel. He has brought about a 
great change in the chapel, setting it 
upon a modern basis. Among his 
oratorios are Moses; The Last Judg- 
ment; The Massacre of the Inno- 
cents; Anima; and Transitus Animse. 
He has also written a sacred drama, 
Leo the Great; and many masses; 
besides two orchestral suites, Rome, 
and Venice. His music combines 
modern methods with old principles, 
and shows a blending of the styles of 
Palestrina, Bach and Wagner. His 
works are greatly admired in Italy, 
and many of the oratorios have been 
sung in Vienna, Paris, London, 
America and elsewhere, but critics 
disagree as to their real worth. 

Perry, Edward Baxter. 1855- 

Noted American pianist; born at 
Haverhill, Mass. By an accident, 
when he was about six years old, he 
became blind, but nevertheless he 
obtained a literary education at Per- 
kins' Institution for the Blind in 
South Boston. Later he took up 
music, studying the piano under Hill, 
and in 1875 went to Germany, where 
his teachers were Kullak at Berlin, 
Pruckner at Stuttgart, and Liszt at 
Weimar. After making a concert tour 
of Germany he returned to America. 
On a later trip abroad he studied for 
about two years under Clara Schu- 
mann at Frankfort. He has toured 
throughout the United States many 
times, giving lecture recitals, of 
which he was the originator, his sea- 
sons averaging a hundred recitals 
each. He has composed some piano- 
music, including the fantasia, Loreley; 
The Lost Island, and The Portent; 
and songs. Has also contributed to 
Music and other musical periodicals 
and written a Descriptive Analysis of 
Piano Works. For a few years he 
taught at the Oberlin Conservatory, 
and in 1885 he became one of the 
faculty of the Tremont School at 
Boston, which city is his home. 

Perry, George Frederick. 1793-1862. 

English organist and composer, of 
considerable talent. Born at Nor- 
wich. After studying the violin, 
piano and theory he went to London 
in 1822 and immediately became di- 
rector of music at the Haymarket 
Theatre. Later he was made organist 
of Quebec Chapel, but in 1846 he 




resigned this position to go to Trinity 
Church, Gray's Inn Road. He also 
led the orchestra of the Sacred Har- 
monic Society from 1832 to 1847, and 
the next year was for a short time 
conductor, leaving the society soon 
after. His compositions include an 
overture, The Persian Hunters; the 
oratorios, Elijah and the Priests of 
Baal, The Fall of Jerusalem, The 
Death of Abel, and Hezekiah; a can- 
tata, Belshazzar's Feast; the opera, 
Morning, Noon and Night; anthems; 
songs; and some piano-pieces. 

Persaini (per-si-a'-ne), Fanny. 1812- 

Celebrated Italian operatic soprano; 
born at Rome. She was taught by 
her father, the noted tenor, Niccolo 
Tacchinardi, and when eleven years 
old appeared at the private theatre 
in his Conservatory; three years later 
singing in public concerts and the- 
atricals. But she had no thought of 
the stage, and in 1830 married Signor 
Persiani, composer and conductor, and 
settled at her father's home. In 1832 
she took part in Fournier's Francesca 
di Rimini, at Leghorn, and soon re- 
ceived oflfers from Milan and Flor- 
ence. Her reputation was assured on 
her appearance at Venice in 1833. 
After playing at La Scala, Milan, and 
at Rome, where Misantropea e Pen- 
timento and I promessi sposi were 
written for her, she created Donizetti's 
Lucia di Lammermoor, at Naples in 
1835. It was in this, her favorite role, 
that, after playing in Genoa and else- 
where in Italy, she made her Paris 
debut in 1837,_ at the Theatre des 
Italiens, and with her performance of 
Carolina in II Matrimonio Segreto, 
she became the idol of the Parisians. 
In 1838 she appeared in London, first 
as Amina in La Sonnambula, then as 
Lucia, Linda, Elvira and other hero- 
ines, and for the next ten years, with 
the exception of a short engagement 
at Brussels and Wiesbaden, she was 
in Paris and London. In 1849 she 
began a tour of Holland and Russia, 
gave concerts in Germany, France, 
Spain and the British Isles, and after 
one last appearance at Drury Lane, 
in 1858, retired to Paris, where she 
was seen for the last time as Zerlina 
in Don Giovanni. Her appearance 
was not striking, but her voice, though 
rather thin, was clear and brilliant. 
Her register was wide and her vocal- 
ization remarkable. 

Persuis (per-swes), Louis Luc Loiseau 

de. 1769-1819. 

French conductor and composer; 
born at Metz. His father was a vio- 
linist and composer, and he taught his 
son. Louis' first appointment was vio- 
linist at the theatre in Metz. In 1787 
he went to Paris and played at the 
Concerts Spirituels, becoming in 1790 
first violin at the Theatre Montansier, 
and in 1793 at the Opera. From 1795 
to 1802 he had violin classes at the 
Conservatory, and in the latter year 
becam.e assistant conductor of Na- 
poleon's band and conductor of the 
Court concerts. His position at the 
Opera was raised in 1804 to chef du 
chant, and in 1810 he succeeded Rey 
as conductor of the orchestra. From 
1810 to 1815 he directed the orchestra 
at the Academic, and meantime, in 
1814, he was appointed general inspec- 
tor of the Opera and chapelmaster to 
Louis XVIII. His last position, and 
the one in which he made his name, 
was director of the Opera from 1817 
till his death. Besides twenty operas, 
including La Nuit Espagnole, Phanor 
et Angola, Fanny Morna, Le Fruit 
Defendu, his masterpiece, Jerusalem 
delivree, and others in collaboration; 
Le Carnival de Venise, etc., he wrote 
many ballets; two cantatas, Chant de 
victor, to Napoleon, and Chant fran- 
?ais; and a few sacred works in manu- 
script which are in the Conservatory 

Perti (per'-te), Jacopo Antonio. 1661- 

Important composer of the Seven- 
teenth Century Italian School. Born 
and died at Bologna. He was edu- 
cated at the Jesuit School at Bologna, 
and studied music first with his uncle, 
Lorenzo Perti, and later under Padre 
Petronio Franceschini. In 1679 his 
first opera, Atide, was produced in his 
native city; the next year his first 
mass was given under his direction at 
San Petronio; and in 1681 he became 
a member of the Accademia Filar- 
monica, of which he was afterwards 
many times president. Two more 
operas, Oreste, and Flavio, were given 
at Bologna, and Marzio Coriolano was 
brought out at Venice in 1683. In 
1690 he became chapelmaster of San 
Pietro, Bologna, and six years later 
was appointed to the same position at 
San Petrono, in which office he 
remained until his death. His operas, 
twenty-one in number, were nearly 




all given at Venice, notably, Rosauro, 
and L'incoronazione di Dario; Brenno 
in Efeso, L'inganno scoperto per ven- 
detta, Furio Camillo, Nerone Fatto 
Cesare, and Laodicea e Berenice. His 
sacred compositions include several 
Passions; the oratorios, Abramo vin- 
citor de propri aflfetti, Giesti al sepul- 
cro, and La Morte di Giesu; a cantata, 
morali e spirituali; motets; masses; 
and many choruses. 

Peschka (pesh'-ka), Minna. 1839- 

Popular Austrian coloratura so- 
prano; born at Vienna. She studied 
first under Proch, and made her debut 
at Breslau as Agatha in 1856. From 
1857 to 1861 she sang at Dessau, and 
in the latter year married Dr. M. 
Peschka, and left the stage for two 
years. In 1863 she appeared in 
Vienna, and while there studied under 
Madame Bockholtz-Falconi. In 1865 
she played at Darmstadt, and from 
1868 to 1876, then at her prime, she 
was in Leipsic, singing in opera and 
concert with brilliant success. In 
1872 she appeared at the Crystal Pal- 
ace and at the London Philharmonic, 
and in the fall came to America for 
the Peace Jubilee at Boston. In 1881 
she made her second visit to the 
United States. From the time of her 
retirement in 1887 until her death she 
made Wiesbaden her home. Her 
voice was full and flexible, and her 
compass wide, but she lost much of 
her charm before she retired. Her 
acting was excellent, and among her 
roles were Marguerite of Valois, 
Isabel, Almira in Handel's opera, and 
Eglantine in Euryanthe. 

Pessard (pes-sar), fimile Louis For- 
tune. 1843- 

French composer; born at Mont- 
martre, a suburb of Paris. He was 
educated in music at the Paris Con- 
servatory, studying harmony under 
Bazin, organ with Benoist, piano with 
Laurent, and composition under 
Carafa, and in 1862 took the first prize 
in harmony. In 1866 his cantata, 
Dalila, won the Grand Prize of Rome. 
From 1878 to 1880 he was inspector 
of singing in the public schools; in 
1881 became professor of harmony at 
the Conservatory; and since 1895 has 
been musical critic of L'fivenement. 
He is an officer of the Legion of 
Honor and director of musical in- 
struction for that society. Besides 


songs; masses; motets; orchestral 
suites; piano and chamber-music; he 
has composed the following operas: 
La Cruche Cassee, and Le Char, both 
in one act; Le Capitaine Fracasse; 
Tabarin; Les Folies amoreuses; 
Mam'zelle Carabin; Le Muet; and La 
Dame de Trefle. He also wrote inci- 
dental music to Tartarin sur les Alpes 
in 1887 and Une Nuit de Noel in 1893. 

Petersilea (pa-ter-se'-la-a), Carlyle. 


Eminent American pianist and 
teacher; born in Boston. His mother 
was English, and his father a Gerrnan 
musician; a pioneer in the profession 
in America. He gave Carlyle such 
thorough instruction that at seven 
years of age the boy himself gave 
music lessons. When only twelve he 
appeared lin public. In 1862 he en- 
tered the Leipsic Conservatory, study- 
ing under Plaidy, Moscheles and 
Wenzel in piano, and Reinecke, Richter 
and Hauptmann in theory. On grad- 
uating in 1865 he received the Helbig 
prize. He afterward studied with 
von Biilow. A short but successful 
concert tour preceded his return 
home; then, settling in Boston, he 
became known as a virtuoso and 
teacher. In 1871 he founded the 
Petersilea Academy of Music, but 
closed it in 1886 to become one of the 
faculty of the New England Conserv- 
atory, where he taught until his re- 
tirement. In 1884 he had been with 
Liszt at Weimar, and gave a concert 
at the Berlin Singakademie. He has 
been a frequent performer at the Bos- 
ton Philharmonic and the Harvard 
Symphony concerts, and was pianist 
of the Boylston Club, Boston. Ill 
health forced him to retire, and after 
spending several years in Europe he 
went to California in 1892, and made 
his home at Tropico, near Los An- 
geles, in which city he was for some 
time pianist at the Burbank Theatre. 
He died of paralysis in 1903. Mr. 
Petersilea was a remarkable sight- 
reader and possessed an excellent 
technique and a very retentive mem- 
ory. He wrote technical studies for 
the piano and educational works, 
greatly valued in Europe as well as in 

Peterson, Franklin Sievewright. 1861- 

Scotch professor and writer; born 
at Edinburgh. Franklin's musical 
education was received principally at 




Dresden, where C. A. Fisher was his 
organ teacher. In 1891 he was grad- 
uated Bachelor of Music from Oxford, 
receiving the same degree later from 
the University of Melbourne, where, 
since 1900, he has been Ormond Pro- 
fessor of Music. He has lectured at 
Edinburgh and other universities; 
been examiner at the University in 
his native city, at the Royal College 
of Music in London, and elsewhere. 
He founded and was president of the 
Edinburgh Bach Society. He has 
been a frequent contributor to the 
Musical Times, the Musical Monthly 
Record, and other papers; wrote 
nearly all the musical articles in the 
new edition of Chamber's Encyclo- 
pedia, and is the author of several 
educational works. Elements of Music; 
An Introduction to the Study of 
Theory; Pianists' Handbook; Hand- 
book of Form; Catechism of Music; 
and has written some anthems, songs, 
and part-songs. 

Petrella (pa-trel'-la), Errico. 1813- 


Italian operatic composer; born at 
Palermo. He studied from 1822 to 
1830 under Costa, Bellini, Furnio, 
Ruggi and Singarelli, taking violin 
lessons from Guidice as well. His 
maiden opera, II diavolo color di 
rosa, written while he was still study- 
ing at the Conservatory of San 
Pietro a Majella, was played at the 
Conservatory, and he was soon second 
only to Verdi in the opinion of the 
Italians. Yet even before his death, 
which occurred at Genoa, his reputa- 
tion had begun to decline. Of his 
operas, which number twenty or more, 
lone, and Giovanni II di Napoli are 
perhaps the best. Mention may also 
be made of Le Miniere di Freiberg; 
Le precauzione; Manfredo; Marco 
Viconti; Elnave, I'Assedio di Leyda; 
his best serious opera; La contessa 
d'Amalfi; and Bianca Orsini, his last 

* Petri (pa'-tre), Henri Wilhelm. 1856- 
Excellent contemporary violinist; 
born near Utrecht, Holland, and came 
from a musical family. He began the 
study of music under his father, a 
fine oboe player, and after his death 
studied under Dahmen At fifteen years 
of age he was sent to Berlin at the 
expense of King William III. He 
later spent a year and a half at Brus- 
sels, but w'ith that exception studied 


under Joachim until 1876, when he 
accompanied him to London, appear- 
ing in that city with success. In 1877 
he was appointed concertmaster of 
the Court Orchestra at Sonders- 
hausen, and during the four years in 
which he held this position he ad- 
vanced greatly in the knowledge of 
the orchestra and benefited by inter- 
course with Max Erdmannsdorfer, the 
conductor. From 1881 to 1883 he was 
conductor of the Royal Theatre in 
Hanover; then for six years was 
leader of the Gewandhaus concerts 
at Leipsic, and since 1889 has been 
concertmaster of the Court Orches- 
tra at Dresden. Besides his duties 
in the orchestra he teaches violin- 
playing at the Dresden Conservatory. 
With A. Spitzner, E. Warwas, and 
G. Wille he has organized a string 
quartet, which has toured a number 
of European countries, besides play- 
ing annually a series of concerts at 
Dresden. He has published a great 
number of instructive works, besides 
composing numerous pieces for the 
violin and many songs. 

Petrucci (pa-troot'-che), Ottavio da 

Fossombrone. 1466-1539. 

Italian printer; born at Fossom- 
brone, whence he has taken his name. 
He went to Venice in 1491, and in 
1498 was given the exclusive right 
to print music in Venice for twenty 
years. There he worked from 1501 
to 1511. He then turned over his 
business to- others and went back to 
Fossombrone, where, under a patent 
from Pope Leo X., giving him the 
sole right to print music in the Papal 
States for fifteen years, he worked 
from 1513 to 1523. He then retired, 
but lived until 1539. Petrucci is con- 
sidered the inventor of metal type 
music-printing. He used a double 
method, first printing the lines of 
the staff and then the notes, which 
thus fell exactly on the lines, making 
the work nearly perfect. He was 
immediately followed by German and 
Flemish printers, but his was the 
expensive process and was soon gen- 
erally replaced by the single impres- 
sion method. His first publication, 
Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A, 
came out from 1501, the second and 
third parts, Canti B and Canti C 
being printed in 1502 and 1503. This 
work contains, in all, some three 
hundred part-songs and about fifteen 
motets by Sixteenth Century com- 




posers. The last known work of his 
press was three choral masses, in 
1523. Many of his books are care- 
fully preserved in Rome, Bologna, 
Vienna, Munich, Berlin, and at the 
British Museum, London. 

Pevernage (pu-ver-nazh), Andreas. 

This contrapuntist ancf composer 
of sacred music was born at Court- 
rai, Flanders, where he was chapel- 
master until 1574. A few years later 
he removed to Antwerp to become 
chapelmaster, or choirmaster, at Notre 
Dame Cathedral, a position which he 
held until his death. He was one of 
the first, if not the first, to give pri- 
vate recitals, introducing the works 
of the best composers of the Nether- 
lands and foreign countries. He com- 
posed and edited much sacred musit, 
some of it being published after his 
death, which occurred, according to 
some authorities, in 1589, but 1591 is 
a more authentic date. His works 
comprise five books of chansons; a 
book of motets; a collection of mad- 
rigals; and masses. A gloria in Excel- 
sis; and O virgo generosa, a hymn 
to St. Cecilia, written for his opening 
concert, have been printed in modern 

PfeiflFer (pfif'-fer), Georges Jean. 1835- 

French pianist and composer; born 
at Versailles. His father's family 
were piano-makers and his mother 
had studied under Kalkbrenner and 
Chopin. She taught him the piano, 
and he studied harmony and compo- 
sition under Maleden and Damcke. 
In 1862 he made his debut with great 
success at the concerts of the Paris 
Conservatory and later visited Lon- 
don. He is one of the directors of 
the Plej'el-Wolff Piano concern and 
vice-president of the French Society 
of Composers. He has written a sym- 
phony; a symphonic poem, Jeanne 
d'Arc; and an overture to Le Cid; 
three concertos; trios; a quintet; sona- 
tas; mazurkas; melodies; etudes; etc.; 
also an oratorio, Agar; an operetta, 
Captaine-Roche; and a comic-opera, 

* Pfitzner (pfits'-ner), Hans Erich. 

German conductor, composer and 
teacher; born at Moscow. His father 
was violinist and conductor at the 
Stadttheatre in Frankfort, and from 
him he had his first instruction. 


Studied under Kwast in piano and 
Iwan Knorr in composition at the 
Frankfort Royal Conservatory and 
taught piano and theory at the Co- 
blentz Conservatory. In 1894 he went 
to Mayence to conduct the theatre 
there, and brought out his music- 
drama, Der Arnie Heinrich, with great 
success. Later he was third musical 
director at Mannheim, and in 1897 
became a member of the faculty of 
Stern Conservatory in Berlin, also 
conducting the Theater des Westens. 
He has recently been elected director 
of the Strasburg Conservatory. As 
a composer he is known for his suc- 
cessful operas, the one already men- 
tioned, and Die Rose vom Liebesgarten 
(The Rose from Love's Garden). He 
has also written incidental music to 
Ibsen's Fest auf Solhaug; a sonata 
for cello and piano; the ballads, Herr 
Oluf, and Die Heinzelmannchen; over- 
ture to Marchspiel Christ-Elflein; a 
piano-trio, and other chamber compo- 
sitions; some thirty songs, and other 
works, a number of which are still 
in manuscript. 

Pflughaupt (pflookh'-howpt), Robert. 

German pianist; born at Berlin. He 
studied under Dehn at Berlin and 
Henselt at St. Petersburg. Married 
the pianist, Sophie Stschepin, in 1854. 
He completed his studies under Liszt 
at Weimar, which city was his home 
from 1857 to 1862. He then removed 
to Aix-la-Chapelle, where his wife 
died in 1867. He survived her only 
four years, leaving his fortune to the 
Allgemeine deutscher Musikverein, 
with which a Beethoven scholarship 
was founded. He composed songs and 

Phelps, Ellsworth C. 1827- 

American composer; born at Mid- 
dletown. Conn. He was his own 
teacher, and became organist in New 
London when only nineteen. He 
taught not only there but in Syra- 
cuse and New York with great suc- 
cess, and in 1857 went to Brooklyn, 
where he has been organist and 
teacher in public schools for over 
thirty years. He has written some 
two hundred works, including two 
comic operas; a sacred opera, David; 
four symphonic poems; two sym- 
phonies, Hiawatha, and Emancipa- 
tion; two concert overtures; an elegie; 
145th Psalm; and military band-music. 



Philidor (fe-li-dor), Andre Danican. 

Member of a family of French musi- 
cians, founded by Jean Danican, 1620- 
1679, to whose elder brother, Michael 
Danican, of Dauphine, a remarkably 
fine hautboy player, King Louis 
XIII. gave the name Philidor, because 
his playing resembled that of the Ital- 
ian Filidori. Michael had no children 
but Jean, who was in the King's mil- 
itary band, had three sons; Andre, 
the eldest, and Jacques, 1657-1708, the 
youngest, being well known. Like all 
the rest of the family, Andre played 
the instruments on which his father 
and uncle had performed. He was 
also one of Louis XIV.'s chamber- 
musicians. He composed a number of 
military marches, fanfares, bugle calls, 
divertissements, and masques in com- 
petition with Lully; and ballet operas, 
Le canal de Versailles, Le mariage de 
la Couture avee le gross Cathos, La 
Princesse de Crete, La vaisseau mar- 
chand, Mascarade des Savoyards, and 
Mascarade du roi de la Chine. He 
was librarian of the Royal Musical 
Library at Versailles, and amassed a 
collection of all the music, both sacred 
and secular, that had been produced 
at the court since the reign of Fran- 
cois I. Part of the Philidor Collec- 
tion has been lost, but the rest is 
still at the Paris Conservatory, the 
National Library, and the Library of 
Versailles. Andre died at Dreux. 

His brother Jacques, also in the 
service of the King, had four sons who 
were musicians, Jacques, junior (1686- 
1709), Frangois II (1695-1726), Nicolas 
(1699-1769), and Pierre, the eldest and 
most important (1681-1731). Andre's 
children were more prominent. The 
eldest son, Anne (1681-1726), a fine 
flutist and oboist, was born and died 
in Paris. He took his father's position 
in the King's band and chamber in 
1702, and in the Chapelle in 1704. He 
published a number of piieces for flute, 
oboe, and violin; produced the pas- 
toral operas, L'amour vainqueur, 
Diane et Endymion, and Danae; and 
conducted the Concerts Spirituels. 
Another son, Francois (1689-1717 or 
1718), was a player in the King's serv- 
ice, and composed a few pieces for 
the flute. 

Philidor, Frangois Andre Danican. 

Youngest son of the preceding, and 
the most celebrated of the family. 

Born at Dreux, and at six years of 
age became a page in the Royal 
Chapel at Versailles, where he received 
an excellent education in music from 
Campra. Went to Paris, where he 
became a music-teacher and copier; 
but, finding the work discouraging, 
turned to chess, which he had learned 
during his leisure hours at the chapel. 
He was remarkably skilled in this 
game, and in 1745 started on a tri- 
umphal tour, defeating the best play- 
ers of Holland, Germany and England, 
and while at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, 
he wrote his Analyse de jeu d'echecs, 
which he published on going to Lon- 
don in 1749. In 1754 he wrote a 
motet, Lauda Jerusalem, in hope of 
becoming superintendent of the King's 
music. Failing, he turned to dramatic 
composition, and brought out the first 
of his twenty-one operas, most of 
which were played at the Theatre de 
la Foire, Saint Laurent, Diable a. 
quatre, and La retour du printemps, in 
1756. These failed, but his Blaise le 
Savetier, lin 1759, was an immense 
success. L'huitre et les plaideurs; 
Le quiproquo, or Le volage fixe; Le 
soldat magicien; Le jardinier et son 
seigneur are all one-act plays. He 
then ventured on a two-act comedy, 
Le marechal ferrant. This made his 
name famous, but he returned to one- 
act pieces in Sancho Panga, and Le 
biicheron or Les trois Souhaits. Then 
came two of his best light operas, 
Le sorcier and Tom Jones. His first 
grand opera, and one of the first of 
the class in France, Ernelinde Prin- 
cesse de Norvege, was given at the 
Opera, and revived in 1773 as Sando- 
mir. Prince de Danemark. In 1768 
Le Jardinier de Sidion was produced, 
and L'amant deguise. La rosiere de 
Salevey; La nouvelle ecole des femmes; 
Le bonfils; and Les femmes vengees 
followed. He went to England, where, 
on account of the Revolution, he was 
not allowed to return to Paris, and 
had to remain in London the last 
three years of his life. His grand 
operas, Persee, and Themistocle were 
not very successful. His last work, 
a grand opera, Belisaire, was finished 
by Berton. He also composed motets; 
quartets; L'art de la modulation; and 
Ariettes periodiques. He was one of 
the most learned musicians of his 
time, one of the founders of the mod- 
ern French comic opera, and his com- 
positions are considered superior to 
those of his rivals in originaHty, har- 




mony and orchestration, but not so 
good in melody and dramatic excel- 
lence. His Le marechal was the first 
stage-piece to contain descriptive airs, 
and in Tom Jones he introduced 
for the first time an unaccompanied 

Philipp, Isidor Edmond. 1863- 

Pianist and teacher; born at Buda- 
pest, but a naturalized citizen of 
France. He was a pupil of Mathias 
at the Paris Conservatory; won first 
prize for piano in 1883, and later 
had instruction from Heller, Ritter 
and Saint-Saens. He played in the 
Lamoureux and Colonne concerts as 
well as at the Conservatory. In 1890, 
with the aid of Berthelier and Loeb, 
he founded a Chamber-music Society 
in Paris and in 1896 he revived the 
Wind-instrument Society. He became 
president of the Societe d'Art, and 
since 1893 has been teaching at the 
Conservatory. His reputation as a 
pianist is also high and his works 
include Practising Exercises; Daily 
Exercises; a book of selections from 
the works of Bach and Handel to 
those of himself and his contempo- 
raries; fitudes d'Octaves; and a vast 
number of other educational studies 
for_ developing technique and accent- 
uation; also arrangements from Cho- 
pin and other masters. 

Philips, Peter. 

English contrapuntist; born about 
1560; known also as Petrus Philppus 
and Pietro Filippo. In 1591 he pub- 
lished, at Antwerp, Melodia Olympica 
di Diversi Eccellentissum Musici. 
Three books of madrigals followed. 
He was organist in the vice-regal 
chapel of Archduke Albert, Governor 
of the Low Countries. His Canones 
Sacrae, for five voices, was printed in 
1612, and the next year a like book 
for eight voices, as well as Gemmulae 
Sacrae, for two and three voices. 
Among his later works are Litanies, 
and the Paradisus Sacris Cantionibus. 
Burney gives him the credit of writ- 
ing the first regular fugue, which is 
contained in Queen Elizabeth's Vir- 
ginal Book in the Fitzwillian Library 
at Cambridge, England. 

Phillips, Philip. 1834-1895. 

American singer and hymn-writer; 
born in Chautauqua County, New York. 
He studied music under Lowell Mason 
and others, and in 1853 taught sing- 
ing-school in Alleghany and the 


neighboring New York towns. In 
1860 his first collection of hymns. 
Early Blossoms, was published, and 
had an immense sale, as did Musical 
Leaves, published in 1863 in Cincin- 
nati. Mr. Phillips not only visited 
all parts of this country and Can- 
ada, but made a tour of the world, 
singing in five hundred and seventy- 
four performances. Among his works 
are also the American Sacred Song- 
ster; Song Life; Hallowed Song; Song 
Ministry; Song Sermons; Interna- 
tional Song-Service; and numerous 
other collections and singing-books- 

Phillipps, Adelaide. 1833-1882. 

Contralto singer; born at Stratford- 
on-Avon. The family moved to Can- 
ada, and hence to Boston, when 
Adelaide was seven years old. She 
studied music w'ith Thomas Comer 
and Mme. Arnouldt, and in 1850 sang 
before Jenny Lind and was advised to 
devote herself to music. A subscrip- 
tion was raised. Miss Lind and Jonas 
Chickering being the chief contribu- 
tors, and in 1852 Adelaide went to 
London, where she studied under 
Manuel Garc'ia, and finished in Italy, 
where she made her first appearance 
at Brescia as Arsace in Semiramide. 
She made her real debut at Milan as 
Rosina in the Barber of Seville. In 
1855 she came back to the United 
States, and sang in Boston in English 
Opera, concert and oratorios; appeared 
in Italian Opera at the Academy of 
Music, New York, in 1856, in her 
favorite part, Azucena in II Trovatore. 
She went to Europe in 1861, and 
appeared in Paris, Hungary, Holland 
and London. From 1863 to 1881 she 
toured the United States, singing 
with the Handel and Haydn Society 
and at the Peace Jubilee in 1869 at 
Boston. In 1876 she formed a com- 
pany of her own, but from 1879 to 
1881 she sang in the Boston Ideal 
Opera Company. She died at Carls- 
bad, Germany, and was buried at 
Marshfield, Mass. 

Philp (flip), Elizabeth. 1827-1885. 

English vocalist and composer; 
born at Falmouth and died in London. 
She took vocal lessons from Manuel 
Garcia and harmony and counterpoint 
from Hiller, studying also under Mme. 
Marchesi. Her works include Tell 
Me, the Summer Stars; six songs 
from Longfellow; and numerous part- 
songs and songs, notably, Bye and 
Bye, River Ran Between Them, Vio- 




lets of the Spring, Wrecked Hope, 
Water Babies, Mrs. Browning's Inclu- 
sions, Hugo's Chant des lavandieres, 
and Sully Prudhomme's Le Soupir. 
She also wrote How to Sing English 
Ballad, published in London. 

Philpot, Stephen Rowland. 

English composer; studied with 
Macfarren at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and has written the operas, 
Dante and Beatrice; Zelica; and La 
Gitana; also piano and string music; 
and songs. 

Piatti (pe-at'-te), Alfredo Carlo. 1822- 

Probably the greatest violoncellist 
of recent times. Born and died at 
Bergamo, Italy. His father was a 
violinist of note, leader of the town 
orchestra, and his great-uncle, Zanetti, 
was an excellent musician. At five 
years of age Alfredo began to study 
the cello under his uncle, and advanced 
so rapidly that at the end of two years 
he played in the orchestra with his 
father, and .after the first season took 
his uncle's place. When ten years 
old he entered the Milan Conserva- 
tory, where he studied for five years, 
and where, in 1837, he made his debut 
as a soloist, playing one of his own 
concertos. He then returned to his 
old post at Bergamo, and from there 
made frequent visits to the neighbor- 
ing towns. Going to Paris in 1844, 
he played both in public and private, 
met Habeneck, and received a fine 
Amatis cello from Liszt. He made 
his London debut at a concert in 
Her Majesty's Theatre. He played at 
the Dohler concerts and elsewhere, 
and visited Moscheles, where he met 
Mendelssohn. The great composer 
immediately recognized his genius, 
and just before his death, in 1847, 
started to write a concerto for him, 
the manuscript of which is lost. In 
1846 he returned to London, which 
henceforth was his winter home. 
There he appeared with Sainton, 
Ernst, Sivori and Vieuxtemps. He 
took part in a concert given by 
the Beethoven Quartet Society to 
Mendelssohn, and was often soloist 
at the National concerts at Her Ma- 
jesty's Theatre. In 1851 he became 
a member of the Sacred Harmonic 
Society; in 1852 first cello of the 
New Philharmonic Society, and that 
year performed Bennett's Sonata Duo 
in A minoi for the first time at a 


concert of the Quartet Association. 
He also introduced at the Philhar- 
monic, in 1853, the concerto which 
Molique had composed for him, and, 
at the Crystal Palace in 1866, a con- 
certo written for him by Sullivan. He 
spent his summers in Italy at his villa 
on Lake Como. He was always very 
fond of England and was equally be- 
loved there. He was also honored by 
King Umberto of Italy with the 
Order of the Crown. 

His technique was perfect, his play- 
ing refined and artistic, the tone pure 
and large, the intonation true, and the 
phrasing beautiful, while his interpre- 
tation was intellectual and poetic. 
Like Joachim, he shone not only as 
a violinist but as a quartet player, his 
ensemble work nearing perfection. In 
composition Molique was his teacher, 
and his works are excellent. They 
include Introduction et variations sur 
un theme de Lucia di Lammermoor; 
Une Priere; Chant Religieux; 
Souvenir d'Ems; Souvenire de La 
Sonnambula; Mazurka Sentimentali; 
Fantasie Russe; Air Baskyr; Souvenir 
de I Puritani; Amour et Caprice; Fan- 
tasie; La Suedois, caprice; Divertis- 
sement sur un air Napolitain; 
Souvenir de Linda di Chamounix; 
Theme varie; Bergamasca; Serenade 
Italienne; Siciliana; nocturne; con- 
certo; Dodici Capricci; concerto; 
concertino; Fantasia Romanesca; ser- 
enata; songs with cello obligato, 
among them Tennyson's O Swallow, 
Swallow, Flying Forth; and tran- 
scriptions and arrangements. Piatti 
led a simple life, being a quiet and 
modest man. His daughter married 
Count Lochis, and at her home, near 
Bergamo, he spent the last few 
months of his life. He was buried 
with state ceremonies in the private 
chapel of the Lochis family. 

Piccinni (pit-chin'-ne), Luigi. 1766- 


Son of Nicola Piccinni; sometimes 
called Ludovico. He was born at 
Naples, and received his musical edu- 
cation from his father, whom he fol- 
lowed to Paris 'in 1783. His first work 
was a number of sonatas with a toc- 
cata for piano; but in 1^84 he started 
his unsuccessful career as an operatic 
composer with the comic opera, Les 
amours de Cherubin, and two or three 
others, at Paris. In 1791 he returned 
to Naples, and there his Gli Accidenti 
inaspetati was given in 1792. Other 




operas and a dramatic cantata, Ero e 
Leandro, were given at Venice, Genoa 
and Florence. In 1796 he became 
chapelmaster to the court at Stock- 
holm, and there produced II sonnam- 
bulo, but in 1801 he returned to Paris. 
He still brought out operas, and though 
Hippomene et Atalante, given at the 
Opera in 1810, was a flat failure, he 
produced La Raucune, his last, in 1819, 
but it was only played once. He 
died on his way from Paris to his 
home at Passy. 

Piccinni, Louis Alexandre. 1779-1850. 

Son of Giuseppe Piccinni, eldest 
son of Nicola. Born and died at 
Paris. Studied piano under Haus- 
mann and composition from Lesueur 
and his grandfather, and was accom- 
panist at the Theatre Feydeau, and 
from 1802 at the Opera. From 1803 
to 1816 he was conductor of the Thea- 
tre de la Porte Saint-Martin. From 
1804 to 1818 he was accompanist to 
the court. He taught singing and 
piano at Paris until 1836, when he 
removed to Boulogne to teach and 
direct the Conservatory. He gave up 
this appointment to go to Strasburg, 
and during his residence there 
directed the Baden-Baden concerts, 
but returned finally to Paris in 1849. 
He wrote melodramas: Romulus, and 
Robinson Crusoe; ballets; vaudeville 
airs; cantatas; romances; sonatas; and 
piano-music; besides numerous operas, 
notably, L'amoureux par surprise, 
Avis au public, lis sont chez eux. La 
maison en loterie, Le petite lampe 
merv eilleuse, Alcibiade solitaire, and 
Le prise de Jericho. 

Piccinni, Niccolo. 1728-1800. 

Italian operatic composer; born at 
Bari, in Naples. His father, who was 
a musician, wanted Niccolo to be a 
priest, but his musical taste asserted 
itself. The Bishop of Bari advised 
his father send him to a Conserva- 
tory. At fourteen years of age he 
entered San Onofrio in Naples.. He at 
first paid little heed to his studies, but 
spent his time composing; but Leo 
soon took him in hand, and when 
Leo died Durante became Piccinni's 
master, and grew so fond of him 
that he spoke of him as his son. On 
leaving the Conservatory he made an 
operatic debut with Le Donne dis- 
pettose. Le Gelosie, the next year, 
won equal favor, as did II Curioso del 
proprio danno, also in the comic vein. 


In 1756 he wrote Zenobia for the San 
Carlo Theatre, and proved that his 
genius was as great in serious as in 
buffa composition. He continued to 
enhance his reputation in Italy until 
he had become the idol of his country. 
La Cecchina, ossa La Buona Figlia, 
was the most popular opera buffa 
ever written, and was played to highly 
enthusiastic audiences all over Europe. 
The next year he produced six operas, 
notably, Olympiade, and his success 
continued unabated until 1773, when 
his former pupil, Anfossi, caught the 
public ear, and Piccinni's opera failed 
So greatly did this affect his sensitive 
nature that he accepted the offers 
from Gluck's opponents in Paris, ten- 
dered him by the French Ambassa- 
dor, and went to Paris in 1776. There 
Marmontel taught him the language 
and arranged Quinault's tragedies for 
his use, and in 1777 he produced Ro- 
land with great success. He gave 
singing lessons to Marie Antoinette, 
but received no remuneration, not 
even his traveling expenses. In 1778 
he was made director of the Italian 
Opera, which played every other night 
at the Grand Opera House, and there 
he brought out some of his old plays, 
Le finte Gemelle, and La Buona Fi 
glia in 1778, and II Vago disprezzato, 
and La buona Figliuola maritata in 
1779. The war between his followers 
the Piccinnists, and the Gluckists had 
been raging bitterly, society dividing 
to uphold the old style on one hand 
or the reformed method on the other. 
The loving and peaceable Piccinni had 
held aloof from the struggle, keeping 
busy at work and the bitterness was 
subsiding, when the manager of the 
Opera arranged to have both com- 
posers set Iphigenie en Tauride. Pic- 
cinni had the promise of the first 
performance and set to work, but the 
intriguing managers had given him a 
wretched libretto, and though Gin- 
guene partially rewrote it, it was 
enough to make even a genius fail. 
Meanwhile, in 1779, Gluck produced 
his opera with great success, and the 
hopes of his rival fell. The next year 
Gluck left Paris and Piccinni brought 
out Atys. In January, 1781, Iphigenie 
was produced, and though the opera 
was played for a short time it proved 
a failure. Adele de Pontineu also 
failed, but Didon, in 1783, played 
before the Court of Fontainbleau and 
later at the Grand Opera, was so 
popular that it was played for over 




forty years. Le Dormeur eveille and 
I.e faux Lord also appeared with suc- 
cess in 1783, and the next year Pic- 
cinni was appointed principal teacher 
in the Royal Singing School. Jealousy 
and intrigue, however, now again 
sprang up, and at the outbreak of the 
Revolution he returned to Naples, 
leaving behind his scores, which were 
sold and scattered. At Naples he was 
well received until, in 1792, the mar- 
riage of his daughter to a French 
republican caused the report that he, 
too, belonged to that party. His 
Hercules was scoffed at and he gladly 
accepted an offer to go to Venice, 
where he produced Greselda, and II 
serva onorata with success. On his 
return to Naples he and his family 
were held in confinement for four 
years, and on their release, in 1798, 
they were advised by friends to return 
to Paris. There his wife and daughters 
sang his operas in the charming, sim- 
ple style he loved. He was given 
five thousand^ francs for his needs and 
a small pension, but it was not paid 
regularly. A place as sixth inspector 
of the Conservatory was created for 
him, but the anxiety had been too 
much for him at seventy years of age, 
and he died at Passy, near Paris. 

Piccinni was a remarkably prolific 
composer. Besides operas he wrote 
songs; romances; and much sacred 
music, including psalms, and masses, 
by which he made a meager living 
during the time of his confinement at 
Naples. His friend, Ginguene, gives 
the number of his operas as one hun- 
dred and sixt}^-three, but in the com- 
plete list of his works, in the 8th 
volume of the Rivista Musicale Ital- 
iana (1901), Alberto Carmetti notes 
one hundred and thirty-nine. Pic- 
cinni's music is charming and melo- 
dious. While his works lack the 
strength of Gluck's, nevertheless they 
show their composer to have been a 
man of great genius. 

Piccolomini (pik-k6-16'-me-ne). Mari- 
etta. 1834-1899. 

Italian operatic mezzosoprano, who 
introduced the rapid, canary-bird 
style. She was also called Maria. 
She was born at Sienna, of noble fam- 
ily, the date of her birth being given 
as 1834 or 1836. She studied under 
Mazzarelli and Romani, and in 1852 
made her debut as Lucrezia Borgfa 
at the Pergola of Florence. She after- 
ward sang at Sienna, Rome, Bologna 


and other towns, and in 1855 at the 
Carignan Theatre in Turin sang Vio- 
letta in II Traviata. The next year 
she played at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
London, and at the Theatre des Ital- 
iens in Paris, and spent 1857 and 1858 
in London, coming from there to 
America, where she was very success- 
ful. In 1859 she was at Drury Lane, 
and in 1860 made her farewell appear- 
ance at Her Majesty's Theatre, mar- 
ried Marchese Gaetani, and retired, 
but returned to London in 1863 to 
sing at a benefit for her old manager, 
Lumley. Her best role was Violetta. 
Her intonation was rather uncertain 
and her compass not very great, but 
she was a charming actress. Arlene 
in the Bohemian Girl, Adina in L'EH- 
sir d'Amour, Maria in La Figlia di 
Regimento, Norma, and Luisa Miller 
were among her other parts. 

Pichel (pesh-'l), Wenzel. 1741-1805. 

Also spelled Vaclay Pichl. An able 
violinist and prolific composer; well 
known in his day. Born in Bohemia, 
at Bechin, Tabor, he began at seven 
years of age to study the violin under 
Pokomy. He also studied counter- 
point under Segert. He entered the 
service of the Bishop of Grosswardein, 
for whom he composed much church- 
music; masses; psalms; motets; grad- 
uals; and misereres. He became 
director of music to Count Louis von 
Hartig about 1769, but after two years 
left Prague and went to Vienna, where 
he joined the orchestra of the National 
Theatre. In 1775 he entered the serv- 
ice of Archduke Ferdinand of Milan. 
The French invasion in 1796 drove the 
Duke and his retainers to Vienna, 
and there Pichel remained until his 
sudden death from a stroke of apo- 
plexy. He translated Mozart's Zau- 
berflote into Bohemian and wrote over 
seven hundred compositions, includ- 
ing eighty-eight symphonies; more 
than a dozen serenades; a concertino; 
and an immense number of chamber- 

Pierne (p'yer-na), Henri Constant 

Gabriel. 1863. 

French pianist and composer; born 
at Metz. In 1871 he entered the Paris 
Conservatory, where he studied under 
Marmontel, Franck and Massenet, and 
received the prize for solfege in 1879 
and those for piano, counterpoint and 
fugue and organ in 1879,1881 and 1882, 
respectively. Was awarded the Grand 




Prize of Rome in 1882. He took 
Franck's place at the organ at Sainte- 
Clotilde in 1890. He is known as a 
composer of light operas and inciden- 
tal music. In 1894 he wrote inci- 
dental music for Izeil. In 1895 his 
lyric episode, Nuit de Xoel, and Sa- 
lome, La Princesse Lointaine, and La 
Coupe Enchantee, also appeared. In 
1897 he wrote La Samaritaine, and 
Vendee. La Fille de Tabarin appeared 
in 1901. He is the author of Pandora, 
and of the oratorio. The Children's 
Crusade. His instrumental works in- 
clude a scherzo-caorice; a fantaisie 
ballet; a concerto for piano and 
orchestra; and other music for the 

Pierre (pi-ar'), Constant Victor De- 
sire. 1855- 

French musical journalist and bas- 
soon player; born at Passy. Going 
to Paris, he studied music at the Con- 
servatory, of which he became assist- 
ant secretary. He has been bassoon 
player in a number of Paris orches- 
tras, but his work is chiefly literary. 
He contributes to many periodicals, 
and is at present editor of Le Monde 
Musical. His works include Les Noels 
populaires; La Marseillaise and its 
variations; History of the orchestra of 
the Paris Opera; La Facture des In- 
struments a I'Exposition de 1889; and 
Les Facteurs d'Instruments des Mu- 
sique et les luthiers; Magasin de 
decors de I'Opera; L'ficole de Chant 
de L'Opera; B. Sarette et les origines 
du Conservatoire; Notes inedites sur 
la musique de la Chapelle royale; Le 
Conservatoire National de musique et 
declamation, and Le Concert Spirituel: 
and Les Hymns et Chansons de la 

Pierson, Henry Hugo. 1815-1873. 

English composer, organist and 
pianist; born at Oxford. His real 
name was Henry Hugh Pearson, but 
he changed it on going to Germany 
to live. His father was Dean of 
Salisbury. Henry was educated at 
Harrow and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. While a student he published 
a set of songs, called Thoughts of 
Melody, to Byron's words. He studied 
under Attwood, Walmisley and Corfe. 
In 1839 he went to Germany, studied 
under Rinck, Tomaschek and Reis- 
siger, came into contact with Men- 
delssohn, and met Meyerbeer, Spohr 
and Schumann. In 1844 he returned 

and became Reid professor of music 
at Edinburgh University, in succession 
to Sir Henry Bishop, but soon re- 
signed and went back to Germany. 
He lived at Vienna, then Hamburg, 
and later Leipsic, where he died. He 
paid little heed to form in composi- 
tion, but was thoroughly original, and 
while his reputation in Germany was 
high he was criticized in England. 
His first important work was the 
opera, The Elves and the Earth King; 
then followed Leila, and other works, 
under the nom de plume of Edgar 
Mansfeldt. He also wrote two other 
operas, Contarini and Fenice. Jeru- 
salem, an oratorio, is his best work. 
He left parts of another oratorio, 
Hezekia. For his music to the sec- 
ond part of Faust he received the 
gold medal of Art and Science from 
Leopold I. of Belgium. He wrote 
five overtures, Romantique; and to 
Julius CjEsar; As You Like It; 
Romeo and Juliet; and Macbeth. A 
Funeral March for Hamlet; a dirge. 
Salve seternum; songs, both sacred 
and secular; and part-songs, among 
them Ye Mariners of England, are 
also among his works. Thelka's 
Lament, Now the Bright Morning 
Star, Claribel, and The White Owl, 
are examples of his lyric style. 

Pilotti (pe-16t'-te), Giuseppe. 1784- 

Italian composer and teacher; born 
and died at Bologna. His father was 
an organist and organ-builder. Giu- 
seppe followed this trade and played 
the organ at Bologna and the nearby 
towns to support the family, after his 
father's death. He studied counter- 
point under Mattei, and in 1805 he 
was admitted to the Accademia 
Filarmonica. He wrote compositions 
for the church and their merit ob- 
tained him the mastership of the 
Cathedral at Pistoja. He succeeded 
Mattei as master of San Petronio in 
Bologna, and later became professor 
of counterpoint at the Liceo Filar- 
monica, where he remained until his 
death. He published a treatise on 
instrumentation. His opera, L'ajo 
nell'imbarrazzo, his psalms and his 
Dies Irse, are the best known of his 

Pinelli (pin-el'-le), Ettore. 1843- 

Italian violinist and composer; born 
at Rome. After studying under 
Ramaciotti he went to Hanover to 




take lessons of Joachim, and on his 
return to Rome founded a society 
for classical chamber-music, in con- 
junction with Sgambati. He also 
started a violin and piano school at 
the Accademia di Santa Cecilia, later 
the Liceo Musicale, of which he has 
been the violin teacher since 1877. 
He founded, and became conductor 
of the Orchestral Society of Rome in 
1874, which has brought out St. Paul; 
The Creation; The Seasons; Bee- 
thoven's symphonies and many Ger- 
man masterpieces. Alternately with 
Sgambati he directs the Court con- 
certs. His works include an orches- 
tral overture; an Italian rhapsodic; 
and a string quartet. 

Pinsuti (pin-soo'-te). Giro. 1829- 


An Italian composer and singing- 
teacher; born at Sinalunga. When 
ten years old he appeared in public 
as a pianist, and the next year was 
made an honorary member of the 
Accademia Filarmonica at Rome. Mr. 
Henry Drummond took him to Lon- 
don, where he studied the piano 
under Cipriani Potter and the violin 
under Balgrove. In 1845 he returned 
to Italy, entered the Bologna Con- 
servatory, and studied privately under 
Rossini. In 1848 he returned to Eng- 
land and taught singing in London. 
In 1856 he was appointed professor 
in the Royal Academy of Music. He 
trained many voices and assisted by 
his advice, such artists as Bosio, 
Graziani, Grisi, Maro, Patti and Ron- 
coni. He represented Italy in the 
Exhibition at London in 1871, for 
which he wrote a hymn, O People of 
this Favored Land, to Lord Hough- 
ton's words, and in 1878 was made 
Cavaliere of the Order of the Italian 
Crown. He was a member of the 
orders of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 
He died at Florence. His composi- 
tions include the operas, II Mercante 
di Venezia, Mattia Corvino and Mar- 
gherita; a Te Deum, celebrating the 
acquisition of Tuscany by the Italian 
crown; nearly two hundred and fifty 
English and Italian songs, notably, I 
love my love; I fear no foe; The 
Outposts; Swallow; and Fly forth, O 
gentle dove. 

Pinto, George Frederick. 1786-1806. 

English violinist and composer; 
born at Lambeth. His real name was 
Sauters, but he took the name of his 


grandfather Thomas, an excellent 
violinist. George inherited the tal- 
ent of his predecessor. He studied 
with Salomon and played at concerts 
and in 1802 accompanied Salomon to 
Scotland and later went to Paris. He 
was also an excellent pianist, and 
sang well. Pinto might have been a 
second Mozart -if it had not been for 
the excesses which brought his bril- 
liant career prematurely to a close 
at Little Chelsea. A Shepherd Loved 
a Nymph so Fair; It Was a Winter's 
Evening; Little Warbler; and Nature, 
Sweet Mistress are mentioned as 
among Pinto's works. 

Pirani (pe-ra-ne), Eugenic. 1852- 

Italian pianist and composer; born 
at Bologna and studied at the Liceo 
Musicale at Bologna; took lessons in 
composition from Kiel, and in piano 
from Kullak, in whose school he 
taught piano from 1870 to 1880. He 
toured Germany, France, Italy and 
Russia, visited England several times, 
and on retiring from Kullak's Acad- 
emy went to live at Heidelberg; but 
in 1895 he returned to Berlin. He is 
a contributor to numerous German 
and Italian periodicals, was chairman 
of the committee frorn Germany at 
the Exposition of Music at Bologna 
in 1888, is a member of the Philhar- 
monic Societies of Florence, Bologna 
and Rome, and of a number of orders. 
His compositions include an orches- 
tral suite. In a Heidelberg Castle; 
Venetian Scenes, for piano and or- 
chestra; an orchestral ballad; songs 
and duets; and much piano-music. 

Pisari (pe-sa'-re), Pasquale. 1725- 

Italian church composer, whom 
Martini called the Palestrina of the 
Eighteenth Century. Son of a mason. 
Born and died at Rome. His voice 
was cultivated by Gasparino, and 
from 1752 till his death he was a 
supernumerary in the Papal Chapel, 
but he devoted his time chiefly to 
composition, in which Giovanni 
Biordi was his teacher. His poverty 
prevented his works from being pub- 
lished, but most of them are pre- 
served in manuscript in the Papal 
Chapel, and several are in the Santini 
collection. They include a nine-part 
miserere; masses; eight-part motets; 
psalms; and Te Deums. His best 
works are a Dixit and a collection 
of motets for the church year. 



Pisaroni (pe-sa-ro'-ne), Bennedetta 

Rosamunda. 1793-1872. 

Probably the best Italian contralto 
of her time. Born and died at Pia- 
cenza. After studying with Pino, 
Moschini and Marchesi, she appeared 
at Bergamo, in 1811, in Griselda, 
Camilla, and other high soprano 
parts, but lost her high notes during 
an illness at Parma in 1813. After 
having cultivated a rich and powerful 
contralto she reappeared; created 
Meyerbeer's Romilda e Costanzo, sang 
in the same composer's L'Esule di 
Granata, and in Themistocles, written 
for her by Pacini. In 1827 she made 
her Paris debut as Arsace in Semi- 
ramide and also played Malcolm in 
La Donna de Lago, one of her favor- 
ite roles. Her face was disfigured 
with smallpox and her figure un- 
gainly, yet her wonderful voice and 
fine acting won warm admiration for 
her, and she shone brilliantly in 
rivalry with Malibran and Sontag. 
Her London season in 1829 was a 
failure and she returned to Italy. The 
next two years were spent at Cadiz. 
She retired in 1835. 

Pischek (pe'-shek), Johann Baptist. 


Bohemian barytone singer; born at 
Melnick. In 1835 he made his debut 
in Prague. Later appeared at Briinn, 
Presburg, Vienna and Frankfort. He 
sang in London with great success, 
especially in ballad, and introduced 
I-indpainter's Standard Bearer into 
England, as well as numerous other 
excellent songs. Sang Elijah in the 
Birmingham Festival of 1849, and 
took part in the concert of the New 
Philharmonic, in 1853. He was a 
favorite in all the principal towns of 
Germany, particularly in Frankfort, 
where he sang every year up to 1848. 
From 1844 to 1863 he was Court 
singer to the King of Wurtemburg 
at Stuttgart. His repertory included 
operas and songs by Beethoven, 
Donizetti, Herold Mozart and Weber. 

Pisendel (pe'-zent-el), Georg Johann. 

German violinist; born at Carls- 
burg. As a choir-boy he was taught 
by Pistocchi and Torelli. At fifteen 
he was made violinist of the chapel, 
but in 1709 he went to Leipsic to 
study at the University. He took 
Melchior Hofmann's place as chapel- 
master. In 1712 he entered the serv- 


ice of the Elector in the orchestra 
at Dresden. In 1714 he was sent to 
Paris, and studied with Vivaldi in 
Venice in 1716, and with Montanari 
at Rome in 1717. He succeeded Volu- 
mier as concertmaster at Dresden 
about 1730, and from 1731 until his 
death he led the orchestra at the 
opera. He was an able conductor 
and one of the best violinists of his 
time. He composed a number of 
compositions, among them a sym- 
phony; eight violin concertos; two 
violin and bass solos; concertos and 
two concerti grossi. 

Pistocchi (pes-tok'-ke), Francesco 
Antonio. 1659-1726. 

Italian singing-master and com- 
poser; born at Palermo, and died at 
Bologna. He published his Capricci 
puerili variamente compositi in 40 
modi sopra un basso in 1667, at eight 
years of age. He studied under Vas- 
tamigli and Monari, and became 
chapelmaster of San Giovanni in 
Monte. He was a chorister at San 
Petronio in 1670. When less than 
twenty years of age he went on 
the stage, but as he did not succeed 
he joined the priests of the Oratorian 
Order. About 1697 he became chapel- 
rnaster at Ansbach. In 1700 estab- 
lished his famous School of Singing 
at Bologna, followed by others in 
various cities of Italy. He estab- 
lished the modern style of singing. 
In 1708 and 1710 he was president of 
the Bologna Accademia Filarmonica. 
Pistocchi's works include the operas, 
Leandro, II Girello, Narciso, and Le 
rise di Democrito; Scherzi musicali; 
the oratorios, II Martirio di S. Adri- 
ano, Maria Virgine addolorata, and 
La fuga di S. Teresia. He also wrote 
duos and trios and much church- 

Pitoni (pe-to'-ne), Giuseppe Ottavio. 


Musician of the Roman School; 
born at Rieti and died at Rome. At 
five years of age he began to study 
music at Pompeo Natale's School in 
Rome, and later was a choir-boy at 
San Giovanni de' Fiorentini and at 
the SS. Apostoli. He received les- 
sons in counterpoint from Foggia. 
In 1673 he was appointed chapel- 
master of Terra di Rotondo, and 
later in the same capacity at Assisi 
scored Palestrina's works in order to 
study his style. In 1676 he returned 




as chapelmaster to his birthplace, 
but the next year went back to Rome 
to take his place at the Collegio di 
San Marco, where he remained until 
his death. He also conducted the 
music of San Apollinare and San 
Lorenzo in Damasco, San Giovanni 
in Laterano and St. Peter's. A large 
number of his works in manuscript 
are still preserved in the different 
Italian libraries, and in Proske's 
Musica Divina are found a mass and 
requiem; six motets; a psalm; a 
hymn; and a Christus fatus est. His 
Dixit is given every year at St. 
Peter's during Holy Week. He also 
wrote a service book for the entire 
year for St. Peter's, many masses and 
psalms and a history of the chapel- 
masters of Rome from 1500 to 1700. 
As a teacher Pitoni was renowned, 
and among his pupils were Durante, 
Leo and Feo, all great teachers in 
their time. 

♦Pitt, Percy. 1870- 

English organist, composer, pianist 
and conductor. Born in London, but 
educated abroad, receiving some of 
his musical instruction at Paris. In 
1886 he went to Leipsic, where for 
two years he studied under Jadas- 
sohn and Reinecke, and then went to 
Munich, where Rheinberger was his 
teacher. In 1893 he returned to Lon- 
don and devoted himself to composi- 
tion. In 1895 he was chorusmaster 
of the Mottl concerts, given at 
Queen's Hall, and the next year was 
made organist and accompanist there. 
In 1902 he became connected with 
the Royal Opera at Covent Garden, 
first as pianist, then adviser of the 
Syndicate, assistant conductor in 1906, 
and in 1907 director of the Covent 
Graden Opera. Mr. Pitt is skilful 
in technique, broad minded and 
sympathetic, and is an excellent pro- 
gram analyst. Besides much cham- 
ber-music; piano compositions; songs 
and part-songs; he has written a num- 
ber of orchestra suites; a concerto; 
and a Coronation march; an Oriental 
rhapsody; overture to The Taming 
of the Shrew; a symphonic poem, Le 
San^ des Crepuscules; instrumental 
music to Paolo and Francesca, by 
Stephen Philips; to Alfred Austin's 
Flodden Field, and for Tree's per- 
formance of Richard II.; Hohenlin- 
den, a ballad for male voices and 
orchestra; The Blessed Damozel, and 
Schwerting, the Saxon. 


Pittrich (pit'-trikh), George Washing- 
ton. 1870- 

German composer and conductor; 
born at Dresden, where he attended 
the Conservatory, studying under 
Braunroth, Draeseke, Hagen, Hopp- 
ner, Kirchner and Roth. After gradu- 
ating with honors he was made 
chorusmaster of the Court Opera at 
Dresden, and also taught singing at 
the Conservatory. During 1898 and 
1899 he was director of the Hamburg 
Opera, and in September, 1899, went 
in the same capacity to Cologne. He 
wrote incidental music to Jungfrau 
von Orleans; As You Like It; Blonde 
Kathrein; and Meister von Clarinet; 
a fantasia for piano, strings and or- 
chestra; numerous songs; and orches- 
tral music. His opera, Marga, was 
given at Dresden in 1894. 

Piutti (pe-oot'-te), Karl. 1846-1902. 

German organist and composer; 
born at Elgersburg, Thuringia. Studied 
at the Conservatories of Cologne and 
Leipsic, and after 1875 was professor 
in the latter Conservatory. In 1880 
he took Rust's place as organist of 
St. Thomas' Church. His organ 
works comprise six fantasias; eight 
preludes, and five choral preludes; ten 
choral improvisations; three inter- 
ludes; five character-pieces; wedding 
sonata; and a Pentecost Celebration. 
He has also composed some piano- 
msuic and songs. He is the author 
of Regeln und Erlauterungen zum 
Studium der Musiktheorie. 

Piutti, Max. 1852-1885. 

German musician, born at Luisen- 
hall. Studied in Leipsic and Stutt- 
gart. Came to the United States in 
1874, and became a teacher at Wells 
College, Aurora, New York, of which 
he was for nine years director. He 
died at Jackson, Michigan, while 
writing a study of the Folk-songs 
of the Nations. 

Pixis (pex'-es), Johann Peter. 1788- 


German pianist, composer and 
teacher, and was born at Mannheim. 
His father was an organist, under 
whose tutelage Johann became an 
excellent pianist, and made tours with 
his father and brother. In 1809 he 
went to Munich, but in 1825 settled 
in Paris, and adopted Francilla Gohr- 
inger, whom he educated as an opera 
contralto, and toured Germany and 
Italy with her. He later settled at 




Baden-Baden and spent the rest of 
his life in giving private lessons at 
his villa there. He composed over a 
hundred and fifty pieces, including a 
symphony; concertos; sonatas, trios, 
quartets and quintets, fantasias, ron- 
dos; caprices; variations and other 
piano-music, as well as the operas, 
Bibiana, and Die Sprache des Herzens. 

Plaidy (pli'-de), Louis. 1810-1874. 

German pianist, teacher and writer; 
born at Hubertsberg, in Saxony. He 
was a pupil of Agthe in piano and 
Haase in violin, and first appeared 
as a violinist jn Dresden. In 1831 
he went to Leipsic, and took lessons 
in piano technique and teaching. In 
1843 Mendelssohn appointed him 
teacher of piano at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory, where he remained until 
1865, and where he made himself 
famous by his ability to teach the 
technique of piano-playing. The 
last part of his life was spent in giv- 
ing private lessons. The results of 
his knowledge and experience are 
preserved in his valuable book Tech- 
nische Studien fiir das Pianofortespiel. 
He is also the author of a pamphlet, 
Das Clavierlehrer, translated into 
English by F. L. Ritter and John S. 
Wight as the Pianoforte Teacher's 
Guide and the Piano Teacher. He 
was a simple and modest man, 
honored and loved by all who knew 
hjm. He died at Grimma. Among 
his pupils were Arthur Sullivan, and 
the Americans, Dudley Buck, Charles 
C. Converse, James C. D. Parker and 
Frederick Grant Gleason. 

Plangon (plan-son), Pol Henri. 1854- 
French basso profundo; born at 
Fumay. He came of a musical family 
and sang remarkably well when but 
four years old. He began the study 
of music at the ficole Duprez. Later 
Sbriglia was his teacher. He made 
his debut as St. Bris in Les Hugue- 
nots, at Lyons, in 1877, with such 
success that he was engaged for two 
years. Going to Paris, he sang in 
the Lamoureux concerts, and in 1883 
sang in the role of Mephistopheles. 
For ten years he sang at the Opera, 
in the meantime making his London 
debut at Covent Garden in 1891, in 
his favorite role Mephisto, which he 
has sung more than a hundred times. 
From 1891 until 1904 he visited Lon- 
don annually. His first trip to 
America, in 1893, was attended with 

such success that he has returned 
every winter. His repertory includes 
the bass parts of nearly all the stand- 
ard operas. He has created Francis 
I in Saint-Saen's Ascanio, as well as 
Pittacus in Gounod's Sapho, Don 
Gormas in Le Cid, by Massenet, and 
Norfolk in Henry VIII. He has 
sung in Alda, Romeo, Tannhauser, 
Lohengrin, Die Meistersinger, La 
Favorita, etc., also as General Gar- 
rido in La Navarraise, and Phanuel in 
Salome, Ariofarne in Ero e Leandro 
by Mancinelli, the Friar in Stanford's 
Much Ado About Nothing, and the 
King in Princesse Osra. 

Planquette (plah-ket), Jean Robert. 


French operatic composer; born 
and died at Paris. Studied under 
Duprato at the Conservatory, and 
made his essay in composition with 
chansonettes and songs for the Cafes- 
concerts. These made him popular 
and he soon brought out his first 
operettas, Le serment de Madam 
Gregoire and Le Paille d'Avoine, in 
1874. His best known operetta, Les 
Cloches de Corneville or The Chimes 
of Normandy, appeared at the Folies 
Dramatique in 1877. At first it was 
a failure but it suddenly became popu- 
lar and was such an immense success 
that it was played successively four 
hundred times. Then followed Le 
Chevalier Gaston; Les Voltigeurs de 
la 32me; Rip Van Winkle; Nell 
Gwynne, or Colombine; La Cremail- 
lerie; Surcouf; La Cocarde Tricolore, 
and Le Talisman, Panurge, and 
Mam'zelle Quat' Sous. The Old 
Guard and Paul Jones were written 
expressly, where they appeared in 
1887 and 1889. Planquette's music is 
clever, melodious and charming. His 
Marche des Sambre et Meuse was 
added to the list of songs of a number 
of regiments. He left an operetta, 
Paradis de Mahomet, found among 
his papers and recently performed at 
Paris with great success. 

Plantade (plan-tad), Charles Henri. 


French teacher, conductor and com- 
poser; born at Pontoise. He learned 
to sing and play the violoncello at 
the school for the King's pages, which 
he entered at the age of eight. Later 
he took lessons in composition from 
Langle, piano from Hullmandel, and 
harp under Petrini. In 1797 he be- 



came singing-teacher in the Campan 
School at Saint-Denis. In 1802 he 
was made professor at the Conserv- 
atory, later went to Holland as Court 
chapelmaster, but retnrned to Paris 
in 1810. In 1816 he became chapel- 
master to Louis XVIII., from whom 
he had received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor in 1814, but in 1818 
he returned to the Conservatory and 
there remained until 1828. Having 
lost all his appointments by the Revo- 
lution of 1830 he retired to Batign- 
olles, but removed again to Paris 
shortly before his death. His first 
operetta, Les Deux Soeurs, appeared 
in 1791, and was followed by twelve 
others, among them Les souliers 
mordores; Romagnesi; Bayard a la 
Ferte; Palma; Zoe; Le Mari de Cir- 
constance. From 1812 to 1815 he 
was stage director at the Opera. 

Plante (plah-ta), Frangois. 1839-1898. 

French pianist; born at Orthes, in 
the Basses Pyrenees, and died at 
Perigueux. He studied first under 
Madame Saint-Aubert, and when only 
ten he became a pupil of Marmontel 
at the Conservatory in Paris, and 
won the first prize within seven 
months. Spent three years in con- 
cert playing, but in 1853 went back 
to the Conservatory and took lessons 
in harmony and figured bass from 
Bazin. He then retired to his home 
for ten years and did not return to 
Paris until 1872, a finished virtuoso. 
He made successful tours on the Con- 
tinent, and in 1878 visited London. 
His style was intelligent, reposeful 
and charming, his repertory wide, and 
his few compositions, transcriptions 
of the classics, carefully written. He 
was a Chevalier of the Legion of 

Platel (pla-tel), Nicolas Joseph. 1777- 

French violoncellist and composer; 
born at Versailles. Studied under 
Duport and Lamare and in 1796 was 
engaged at the Theatre Feydeau, but 
the next year he followed a singer 
to Lyons and did not return to "Paris 
till 1801. For five years he was at 
the head of the Paris cellists. In 1805 
started on a concert-tour which took 
him through France and in 1813 to 
Antwerp, where he became cellist at 
the Opera. In 1824 he went to Brus- 
sels and there played at the Opera and 
taught cello at the Royal School of 


Music. Batta, Demunck and Servais 
were among his pupils. His published 
works include some six concertos; 
three sonatas; six romances; caprices; 
and eight variations for the cello; 
and six duets and three trios for cello 
and viohn. He died at Brussels. 

Piatt, Charles Easton. 1856- 

Teacher and composer; born of 
American parents, at Waterbury, 
Connecticut. He took organ lessons 
from Eugene Thayer in Boston in 
1875 and 1876, and was a pupil of 
the New England Conservatory of 
Music. He studied the piano under 
Hills and Lang, and harmony from 
Emery. Returning to Waterbury he 
continued his organ study with Julius 
Baier, junior, and in 1877 went to 
Germany to study under Haupt for 
organ, Ehrlich, Kullak and Raff for 
piano, and in theory and composition 
had Kiel, Bargiel and Neumann for 
teachers, and spent two summers with 
Liszt at Weimar. Since his return to 
the United States in 1882 he has been 
one of the faculty of the Detroit Con- 
servatory and a member of the Music 
Teachers* National Association. He 
has written theme and variations in 
B minor, for piano, violin and cello; 
variations in D minor for strings; a 
piano sonata; in four movements; 
nocturnes; waltzes; and mazurkas. 

Playford, Henry. 1657-1710. 

Son of John Playford, whom he 
succeeded in business in 1684. Born 
and died in London. Was a partner 
of Richard Carr at the Middle Tem- 
ple Gate, opposite St. Dunstan's 
Church, but later became proprietor. 
The date of his death is uncertain. 
He continued the publication of his 
father's works, and himself issued the 
Theatre of Musick; Banquet of 
Musick; Blow's Ode on the Death of 
Purcell; ten sonatas, and a Te Deum, 
and Jubilate for St. Cecilia's Day, 
both by Purcell; Purcell's Orpheus 
Britannicus; Blow's Amphion Angli- 
cus; a collection of original Scotch 
tunes. The publication of The Pleas- 
ant Musical Companion resulted in 
the organization of a club which gave 
concerts three times a week at a Lon- 
don coflFee-house and one which met 
weekly at Oxford. 

Playford, John. 1623-1687. 

An English music-publisher and 

composer; son of John Playford of 

Norwich. He was a bookseller in 



1648, and in 1650 published The Eng- 
lish Dancing Master, containing rules 
for country dances, with music to 
them for the treble violin. This 
work went through seventeen edi- 
tions up to 1728, after his death being 
brought out by Henry Playford and 
later by William Pearson and William 
Young. Playford's shop was near the 
Temple Church, of which he was 
clerk from 1653. He was an indus- 
trious worker, popular with the 
prominent men of his day, who called 
him Honest John Playford, and his 
works include all the prominent pub- 
lications up to 1685, when he was 
succeeded by his son Henry. The 
first edition of his Introduction to the 
Skill of Musick was published in 
1654. For almost a hundred years 
this was the standard text-book and 
from it many had their musical train- 
ing. Other books published were 
Psalms and Hymns in Solemn 
Musick; The Whole Booke of Psalms 
with the usual Hymns and Spiritual 
songs; Hilton's Catch that Catch 
Can; The Musical Companion; Courtly 
Masquing Ayres; Musick's Recreation 
pn the Viol, Harp-way; Musick's De- 
light of the Cither; Musick's Hand- 
maide, new lessons for the Virginals 
and harpsichord; Apollo's Banquet, 
and many others. 

Pleyel (pli'-el), Camille. 1788-1855. 

Son of Ignaz Pleyel; born at Stras- 
burg, and died at Paris. His father 
and Dussek were his teachers, and 
for a time he resided in London but 
returned to Paris and became a part- 
ner of his father's in the piano-house. 
On his death he was succeeded by 
Auguste Wolff. He composed a few 
pieces for piano, some with strings; 
duets; trios; quartets; sonatas; fan- 
tasias; nocturnes; etc., and was a good 

Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph. 1757-1831. 

Composer and founder of the firm 
of Pleyel, Wolf et Cie., the famous 
Paris piano-makers. Born at Rup- 
persthal, near Vienna. He studied 
piano under Vanhall and lived for five 
years with Haydn, whose favorite 
pupil he was. In 1777 he became 
chapelmaster to Count Erody, but 
was allowed to go to Italy, where he 
spent four years in study. In 1781 
he returned to Vienna, but went to 
Strasburg in 1783 as assistant chapel- 
master of the Cathedral. In 1791 he 


was invited to conduct the Profes- 
sional concerts in London, where he 
was a friendly rival of his old master, 
Haydn. He returned to Strasburg, 
but revolutionary troubles caused him 
to settle in Paris in 1795. Here he 
entered business as a music publisher, 
and, in 1807, founded a piano factory. 
He gave up composing and retired 
from active life to spend his last years 
on his estate, near Paris. His compo- 
sitions _ were extremely popular for 
some time and he promised to be a 
worthy successor of Haydn, but his 
work was so prolific that his inven- 
tion failed. His later compositions 
are only arrangements of the former 
ones, and consequently his better 
works are now neglected. He wrote 
twenty-nine symphonies; two con- 
certos; duets, trios, quartets, quin- 
tets, sextets for strings; a septet; six 
grand sonatas; songs; church-music, 
and two operas, Ifigenia en Aulide 
and Die Fee Urgele. His pianos are 
famous for their easy action and sing- 
ing tone. Chopin made his debut in 
Pleyel's rooms in 1831. 

Pleyel, Marie Felicite Denise. 1811- 


Wife of preceding. Born in Paris; 
studied piano under Moscheles, Harz 
and Kalkbrenner, and became a cele- 
brated pianist when only fifteen. She 
played in Belgium, Germany, Austria, 
Russia and England, as well as in her 
native land, and was highly regarded 
by Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt, 
Fetis and Thalberg. From 1848 to 
1872 she taught piano at the Brussels 
Conservatory. Her death occurred at 
St. Josse-ten-Noode, near Brussels. 

Poglietti (pol - ya' - te), Alessandro. 


Seventeenth Century composer of 
program music, _ organist of St. 
Steven's chapel, Vienna, from 1661 to 
his death, which occurred during the 
Turkish invasion in 1683. Nothing 
else has yet been found about his 
career. His name was formerly 
thought to be Polietti and he is some- 
times considered of German birth, 
but he was probably an Italian of 
the Venetian School, as his works 
attest. His compositions, chiefly for 
the organ and clavier, have, for the 
most part, remained in manuscript. 
His best known work is twelve 
ricerari for the organ, strikingly 
similar to Bach's fugues. Of his 




clavier music four suites have been 
published. Certain movements ^ of 
these suites are descriptive, imitating 
the cackling of a hen, the crowing of a 
cock, and the song of a nightingale. 
Other numbers bear such titles as the 
Bohemian Bagpipes, Dutch Flageolet, 
Hungarian Fiddles, and Juggler's 
Rope-dance. Three of these suites 
have been published recently in the 
Denkmaler der Tonkiinst in Oester- 

Pohl (pol), Karl Ferdinand. 1819- 

Learned German critic and biog- 
rapher; born at Darmstadt, of a mu- 
sical family. In 1841 he went to 
Vienna, where he studied under Sech- 
ter, and from 1849 to 1855 was organist 
at the Protestant Church in Gum- 
pendorf, a suburb of Vienna. In 1862 
his interesting history of the glass 
harmonica appeared, and in 1863 he 
went to London, where for three years 
he hunted the material used in his 
valuable work, Mozart and Haydn in 
London, which was published at Vi- 
enna in 1867. Then, at the instance of 
Otto Jahn, he began to collect infor- 
mation for a biography of Haydn, the 
first and second volumes of which 
came out in 1875 and 1882, but he 
died before it was completed, leaving 
the work to Mandyczewski to finish. 
On his return to Vienna he had been 
appointed archivist and librarian of 
the Society of the Friends of Music 
and filled the post ably until his death. 
He also published Die Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde und ihr Conserva- 
torium in Wien, and was correspond- 
ent for several periodicals. 

Pohl, Richard. 1826-1896. 

German writer of note, and strong 
advocate of the Wagner cause. He 
was born at Leipsic, and, after study- 
ing philosophy and music at Gottingen 
and Leipsic, taught for a short time 
at Gratz University, and in 1852 went 
to Dresden. Two years later he set- 
tled in Weimar, where his intimacy 
with Liszt made him a champion of 
the new school of music. In 1864 he 
he moved to Baden-Baden and there 
remained until his death. He was an 
editor of the Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik and published many pamphlets, 
and articles in the musical periodicals, 
at first under the name Hoplit. His 
works include a German translation 
of the collected writings of Berlioz; 


Richard Wagner, in Waldersee's Vor- 
trage; Richard Wagner, Studien und 
Kritiken; Franz Liszt; Hector Ber- 
lioz, Studien und Erinnerungen; and 
Die Hohenziige der Musikalischen 
Entwickelung. He also wrote the 
connecting text to Schumann's Man- 
fred and to Schumann's Prometheus, 
besides the comedy Musikalische Lei- 
den, and Gedichte. His songs, ballads 
and male choruses are pleasing and 
he has also composed a melodrama, 
Die Wallfahrt nach Kevelaar; a rev- 
erie, Abendlied, for string orchestra; 
and a nocturne, Wiegenlied, for piano 
and violin. 

Poise (pwaz), Jean Alexandre Ferdi- 
nand. 1828-1892. 

French operatic composer; born at 
Nimes. He studied at the Paris Con- 
servatory under Adam and Zimmer- 
mann and won the second Grand Prize 
of Rome, in 1852. His music flows 
easily and melodiously and has won 
popularity. His first opera, Bonsoir, 
voisin, was played for a hundred 
nights at the Theatre Lyrique, in 1853. 
Les Deux Billets; La Surprise dc 
I'Amour; and L' Amour Medecin, are 
among his best. He is also the 
author of Les Charmeurs; Le The 
de Polichinelle; Le Roi Don Pedre; 
Le Jardinier Galant; Les Absents; 
Corricolo; Les Trois Souhaits; Joli 
Gilles, and Medecin Malgre Lui, his 
last, played in 1887; and some four- 
part music. His opera, Carmosine, 
has not been given. His oratorio, 
Cecilie, was performed in 1888. He 
died at Paris. 

Poisot (pwa-z6), Charles fimile. 1822- 
A French pianist, composer, and 
writer; born at Dijon. He studied the 
piano under Senart, Adam, Stamaty, 
and Thalberg; counterpoint from Le- 
borne, and composition at the Con- 
servatory under Halevy from 1844 to 
1848. He returned to Dijon and 
founded the Conservatory, where he 
has been the director since 1868. A 
few years later he established a sa- 
cred and classical musical society 
at Dijon, and he is also one of the 
promoters of the Society of Compos- 
ers at Paris. He has written an Essai 
sur les Musiciens Bourguignons, and 
Histoire de la Musique en France, 
and many articles for the numerous 
musical periodicals with which he has 
been connected; also biographical 
notices of several great musicians, as 



well as treatises on harmony and 
counterpoint. Among his composi- 
tions are the operas, Le Paj-san; Le 
Prince de Galles; Les Spendlers; 
Francesco, and several parlor operas; 
the cantata, Jeanne d'Arc; motets; a 
Stabat Mater; a requiem; and other 
church-music; piano and string duets 
and trio; fantasies; a scherzo; and 
Exercises de Mecanisme, for the 

Polaroli. See Pollarolo. 

Pole, William. 1814-1900. 

English amateur composer, organ- 
ist and writer of considerable note; 
born at Birmingham. Although by 
profession a civil engineer, he held 
the post of organist at St. Mark's, 
London, from 1836 to 1866. In 1860 
he took the degree of Bachelor of 
Music from Oxford, and in 1867 the 
Doctor's degree. From 1878 to 1890 
he was examiner of musical degrees 
in London University. His composi- 
tions are few, a cantata on the hun- 
dredth psalm; some organ-music; and 
four-hand piano accompaniments to 
classical songs. He has written many 
excellent articles for musical and 
other periodicals, and a report on the 
musical instruments in the Exhibition 
of 1851. His most valuable works are 
the Philosophy of Music, and the 
Story of Mozart's Requiem. 

Polidoro (p6-li-d6'-r6), F e d e r i g o . 


Italian teacher, lecturer and writer; 
born at Naples. He studied singing 
and piano with his father, and theory 
and composition with Lillo and Conti. 
He became a noted lecturer in Naples, 
and since 1874 has been professor of 
aesthetics and musical history at the 
Naples Conservatory. Under the nom 
de plume Acuti, he has contributed 
much to the Gazzetta Musicale of 
Milan, and the Neapolitan Journal of 
Philosophy and Letters. He has 
written excellent biographical and 
critical sketches of great composers. 
His compositions are sacred and 
chamber-music; but most of them 
have not been printed. 

Polko (p61'-k6), Elise. 1823-1899. 

A mezzosoprano singer; born at 
Leipsic. She studied under Garcia at 
Paris, and sang in opera at Frankfort 
for a short time, but on marrying 
Eduard Polko, she retired from the 
stage. After her husband died she 


settled at Munich, where she remained 
until her death. Many of her books 
are intimately connected with music 
and have been approved in spite of 
their sentimentality, Ein Frauenleben 
and Unsere Pilgerfahrt as examples. 
Other works are Musikalische mar- 
chen; Faustina Hasse; Die Bettel- 
roper; Alte Herren, dealing with the 
six predecessors of Bach at St. 
Thomas' Church; Verklungene Ak- 
korde; Erinnerungen an F. Mendels- 
sohn-Bartholdy; Niccolo Paganini und 
die Geigenbauer; Vom Gesang; and 
Aus der Kunstlerwelt. Many of these 
have been translated into English, 
and nearly all printed twice or more. 

Pollarolo (p61-la-r6'-16). Carlo Fran- 
cesco. 1653-1722. 

Italian composer. Born at Brescia. 
Died at Venice. He studied under 
Legrenzi, and in 1665 entered St. 
Mark's Cathedral, Venice, as a chor- 
ister; became second organist in 1690; 
and from 1692 till his death was as- 
sistant chapelmaster there. His 
works include some sixty-eight operas, 
dating from 1684 to 1721, ten of 
which are extant — Le Pazzie degli 
amanti; Genuinda; Gl'inganni felici; 
Roderico; La Forza Delia Virin; 
Ottone; Faramondo; Semiramide; 
Marsia deluso; and Ariodante. 

Polledro (pol-la'-dro), Giovanni Bat- 

tista. 1781-1853. 

Noted Italian violinist, conductor 
and composer. Born and died at 
Piova, near Turin. After studying 
under lesser masters he had lessons 
for a while from Pugnani, through 
whom he obtained a place in the 
Court Theatre. He made his debut 
in 1797; went to Milan in 1801, and in 
1804 was appointed first violinist at 
the theatre in Bergamo. Shortly after 
he left for Russia, and after living at 
Moscow for five 3'ears visited St. 
Petersburg and Warsaw. Became 
leader of the Dresden Orchestra in 
1814. Ten years later he gave up that 
position to become director of the 
King's orchestra at Turin, and in 1844 
retired to Piova. Works: For violin, 
eight concertos, variations, duets, 
trios and solo studies; for orchestra, 
a pastoral symphony, a bassoon con- 
certo, and a mass and miserere. 

Pollini (p61-le-ne), Francesco Giu- 
seppe. 1763-1846. 
Italian pianist and composer; born 

at Laibach, in Illyria. Took piano 



lessons from Mozart in Vienna, and 
in 1793 went to Milan, where he stud- 
ied under Z'ingarelli. Was made pro- 
fessor of piano at the Milan Conserv- 
at9ry in 1809. In 1820 he published 
thirty-two Esercizi in forma di toc- 
cata, dedicated to Meyerbeer, in 
which the first use of three staves 
was made, thus enabling the melody 
to be sustained in the middle region 
of the instrument, while each hand 
plays elaborate passages above and 
beneath it, producing nearly the same 
effect as four hands. This method 
was later employed by Liszt and 
Thalberg. Bellini dedicated his La 
Sonnambula to Pollini. Pollini was a 
fine executant and held in great 
esteem by the musicians of his time. 
He wrote a method for piano, as well 
as sonatas; caprices; variations; toc- 
catas; fantasias; rondos; a Stabat 
Mater; a cantata; and stage pieces. 

PoUitzer (p61-lits-er), Adolphe. 1832- 

Hungarian violinist and teacher; 
born at Budapest. He early went to 
Vienna, studied the violin under 
Bohm, and composition under Preyer, 
and took the first violin prize at the 
Conservatory in 1846. He later had 
instruction from Alard at Paris. In 
1851 he went to London and there 
remained the rest of his life, for many 
years leading the orchestra of Her 
Majesty's Theatre; also the New Phil- 
harmonic and the Royal Choral 
Society. His reputation was made, 
however, as professor of violin at the 
London Academy of Music, where he 
was engaged from 1861 to the time of 
his death, becoming director of that 
institution in 1890. His original com- 
positions include ten caprices for the 
violin, and several small works for 
violin and piano. 

Ponchielli (pon-ki-cl'-le), Amilcare. 

Italian operatic composer of con- 
siderable talent; in his day ranked 
next to Verdi by the Italians. Born 
at Paderno Fasolara, near Cremona. 
Was a pupil of the Milan Conserv- 
atory from 1843 to 1854. For a time 
he was organist at Cremona, and 
there in 1856 brought out his first 
opera, I promessi sposi, but the 
libretto being poor it failed. In 1861 
he produced La Savojarda, later re- 
vised as Lina. Roderico, re de' Goti, 
La Stella del Monte, and Bertrand de 


Born followed; but his name was not 
made until 1872, when he was g'iven 
funds to revise and reproduce his first 
opera at the Teatro dal Verme in 
Milan. Its success was immediate. 
In 1873 he wrote a seven-act ballet, 
Le due gemelle, for La Scala, and 
followed it by the operas, I Lituani; 
La Gioconda; II Figliuol Prodigo; and 
Marion Delorme. The opera, I Mori 
Valenza, was found after his death, 
which occurred at Milan. The text 
of La Gioconda, his best work, was 
written by Arrigo Boito, and is based 
on Hugo's tragic story, Angelo, Tyran 
de Syracuse. It was given in London 
in 1883, and had its first production 
at New York the same year. Pon- 
chielli's style is unconventional for 
Italian Opera, being more like that of 
Wagner. His music is melodious, 
fanciful and dramatic. Besides operas 
and the ballet already mentioned he 
brought out another ballet, Clarina; 
the scherzo or farce, II parlatore 
eterno; a cantata to the memory of 
Donizetti; II 29 maggio, a funeral 
march for Manzoni; a hymn for Gari- 
baldi; and music for the Cathedral at 
Piacenza, of which he was made 
chapelmaster in 1881. 

Poniatowski (po-ni-a-tof'-shki), Prince 
Joseph Michel John. 1816-1873. 

Also given Josef Michel Xavery 
Franijiszek Jan. Composer and singer; 
born at Rome. His father, Stanislas 
II., was the last King of Poland. His 
uncle, Prince Poniatowski, died at the 
battle of Leipsic in 1812. Joseph be- 
came a naturalized Tuscan, and in 1848 
was created Prince of Monte-Rotondo 
by the Grand Duke Leopold II., who 
sent him as plenipotentiary to Paris. 
He settled there in 1854 and was 
made a naturalized citizen by an Im- 
perial decree, afterwards becoming a 
senator. He was a music pupil of 
the Lyceo at Florence, studied also 
under Ceccherini, and made his debut 
as a tenor-singer at the Pergola 
Theatre in that city. He took the 
title role in Giovanni da Procida, his 
first opera, on its production at 
Lucca, and after that wrote many 
operas for Italian and French theatres, 
including Don Desiderio; Ruy Bias; 
Bonifazio; I Lambertazzi; Malek 
Adel; Esmeralda; La Sposa d' Abido; 
Piene de Medicis; Au travers du Mur; 
L'Aventurier; and La Contessina. He 
also brought out Gelmina, and Au 
travers du Mur in London. Selections 




from his mass in F were also sung at 
His Majesty's Theatre in 1873. Among 
his songs the Yeoman's Wedding 
Spng is popular. His music is tech- 
nically good, but lacks the touch of 
genius. He died at Chiselhurst, Eng- 
land, whither he followed Napoleon 
III. into exile. 

Poole, Elizabeth. 1820-1906. 

English mezzosoprano singer; born 
and died in London. When seven 
years old she played in pantomime 
at the Olympic Theatre, and repre- 
sented the Duke of York with Mr. 
Kean as Richard, Albert to Mr. Ma- 
cready's Tell, Ariel, and other child 
parts. In 1834 she made her operatic 
debut, and, after visiting in America 
in 1839, was engaged at Drury Lane 
in 1841. From that time until her 
retirement in 1870 she sang 'in opera, 
appearing in Don Giovanni; Maid of 
Artois; Maritana; Bohemian Girl, in 
which she introduced into her part of 
the gypsy queen the song, 'Tis Gone, 
the Past is All a Dream, written for 
her by Mr. Balfe; Daughter of the 
Regiment; and the Huguenots. She 
was very popular in concerts, espe- 
cially for her ballad singing. Her 
voice was rich and sympathetic, her 
compass wide, and her acting simple 
and charming. She died at Langley, 

Popper (pop'-per), David. 1846- 

Violoncellist; born at Prague. He 
received his musical training at the 
Conservatory in his native city, under 
Goltermann. In 1863 he toured 
through Germany. Von Bulow played 
in concerts with him and obtained for 
him the title of chamber virtuoso to 
Prince Hohenzollern. Continued his 
tour through Holland, Switzerland, 
and England, and on returning to 
Austria in 1867 made his Vienna debut. 
For five years he was solo cellist at 
the Court Opera, but in 1873 he re- 
signed and resumed his journey, visit- 
ing the principal European cities, and 
touring the provinces, Ireland and 
Scotland. Since 1896 he has been 
professor at the Royal Conservatory 
in Budapest. Popper is one of the 
greatest of contemporary cellists. He 
plays in a polished, classical style, 
though full of expression, and his tone 
is large. His numerous works for 
his instrument are excellent and popu- 
lar. They include Sarabande and 
Gavotte; Drei Stiicke; Spinning Song; 


and suite in A; polonaise; serenade; 
suite, Im Walde; concertos in C and 
B minor; Scottish fantasie, etc.; 
besides forty studies, published in 
four volumes, called The Monumental 
Violoncello School. 

Porges (por'-ges), Heinrich. 1837- 

Bohemian musical journalist and 
conductor; born at Prague, and died 
at Munich. Studied piano under 
Muller, harmony under Rummel, and 
counterpoint under Zwonar. He com- 
posed some songs, taught in the Royal 
School of Music at Munich, and di- 
rected the King's music, after 1871, as 
well as the Porgesschen Gesang- 
verein, which he founded in 1886. He 
was one of the editors of the Neue 
Zeitschrift fiir Music in 1863, and of 
the Siiddeutsche Presse at Munich, 
and zealously championed Wagner 
and his cause. He also wrote some 
songs, and numerous essays, among 
them Uber die Auflfiihrung von Bee- 
thovens 9 symphonic unter Wagner, 
and Die Buhnenproben zu den 1876er 

Porpora (p6r-p6'-r6), Niccolo An- 
tonio. 1686-1766. 

Italian teacher and composer; born 
and died in Naples. He always wrote 
his name Niccola, but in his works it 
is printed Niccolo. His father was 
a bookseller and Niccolo was well 
educated. His musical training was 
received from Padre Gaetano of 
Perugia, and Mancini at the Conserv- 
atorio de San Loreto. He became 
chapelmaster to the Portuguese am- 
bassador, and produced his first opera, 
Basilio, re di Oriente, in 1709, at the 
Fiorentini Theatre in his native city, 
and in 1710 wrote the opera, Berenice, 
for the Capranica Theatre at Rome. 
About two years later he set up his 
famous singing school at Naples, and 
in 1719 he became one of the faculty 
of the Conservatory at San Onofrio. 
He is considered the greatest singing- 
teacher that ever lived, and his 
pupils, Farinelli, Caffarelli, Mingotti, 
Uberti, Tosi, and other famous sing- 
ers, bear witness to his perfect tech- 
nical training. He started for Vienna 
in 1725, but stopped en route at Ven- 
ice, where he taught at La Pieta, one 
of the schools for girls, and later at 
the Conservatorio degli Incurabili. 
In 1728 he went to Dresden, where he 
taught Princess Marie Antoinette and 




was director of the Court Opera. His 
compositions up to that time include 
the operas, Flavio Anicio Olibrio; 
Faramondo; Eumene; Issipile; Ade- 
laida; Semiramide; Imeneo in Atene; 
Siface; Meride e Selinunte; and 
Ezzio. In 1729 he was given leave of 
absence to go to London, where he 
was placed in rivalry with Handel. 
The next year he obtained a lease of 
the King's Theatre, displacing Han- 
del, and by introducing Far'inelli he 
nearly conquered his rival, but on the 
departure of Farinelli in 1736 Porpora 
was forced to close his house with 
almost as heavy loss as Handel sus- 
tained, when a few weeks later he 
became a bankrupt. He now settled 
at Venice and shortly became director 
of the Ospedaletto Conservatory. 

In 1745 he moved to Vienna in the 
retinue of the Venetian ambassador, 
and stayed there for three years, 
spending part of his time in teaching 
Haydn. From 1748 to 1751 he was in 
Dresden. He returned to Naples 
between 1755 and 1760, and there 
spent the remainder of his life as 
chapelmaster of the Cathedral, and 
head of the Conservatory of San 
Onofrio. At his death he was so 
poor that a subscription had to be 
raised for his burial expenses. His 
operas are almost entirely devoid of 
dramatic interest and are but elabo- 
rately ornamented pieces showing the 
qualities of the singers. His six ora- 
torios are also forgotten. He shows 
real ability in his cantatas. He also 
wrote many masses and other church- 
music. Biographies of him by Mar- 
chese Villarosa and Clement are in- 
cluded in Memorie dei Compositore 
and in Musiciens Celebres. 

Porta (p6r'-ta), Constanzo. 1530- 

Franciscan monk; known for his 
church-music and madrigals. Born at 
Cremona, Italy; he studied at Venice 
under Willaert, and there in 1555 pub- 
lished his first work, a book of mo- 
tets, which were followed by four 
other books up to 1585, containing 
motets. He was chapelmaster at the 
Cathedral in Osima from 1552 to 
1564; at the Franciscan Chapel in 
Padua from 1565 to 1567; at the lead- 
ing church in Ravenna till 1575; then 
at Santa Casa in Loreto, but again 
at Ravenna; and finally back to 
Padua, where he was at the Cathedral 
in 1585, and at San Antonio again 


from 1595 until his death. Porta pub- 
lished two volumes of introitus and 
a book of masses. He also wrote 
psalms, hymns, lamentations, madri- 
gals, and a treatise on counterpoint. 
In Hawkins' History is a piece for 
four voices, published in 1600 in 
L'Artusi Overo delle Imperfettioni 
della moderna musica by Artusi of 
Bologna, which may be sung back- 
wards and upside down. 

* Porter, Frank Addison. 1859- 

Teacher and composer; born at 
Dixmont, Maine. When eleven years 
old he began to study music in his 
native place, later studied in Bangor, 
Maine, where he sang in St. Mary's 
Catholic Church, and occasionally 
played the organ. Going to Boston 
he entered the New England Con- 
servatory of Music in 1879, taking 
lessons in piano, organ, voice, har- 
mony, theory, counterpoint and con- 
ducting from Turner, Emery, Tam- 
burello, Parker, Chadwick and Zer- 
rahn. In 1885 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of piano, and in 1892 organizer 
and superintendent of the Piano Nor- 
mal Department of the Conservatory, 
a position which he still retains. In 
1893 he went to Germany to finish his 
studies under Hofmann, Freitag and 
others at Leipsic. He has composed 
much piano-music, including prelude 
and fugue, and prelude and fughetta; 
two mazurkas; a nocturne; romance; 
melody; To the Woodlands, contain- 
ing seven numbers in different forms; 
In the Springtime; a sonatina; Four 
Easy Pieces; Practical Finger Exer- 
cises; the New England Conservatory 
Course for Piano; two books, and 
thirty-five other selected pieces with 
some original ones, and a number of 
songs for solo voice, as well as seven 
short responses for quartet or 
chorus. He has given occasional con- 
certs in Boston. Mr. Porter does not 
confine his activities to the Conserv- 
atory but gives private lessons at his 
studio in Steinert Hall, Boston. He 
ranks high among teachers of music, 
and his works are of great value to 
teachers as well as pupils. 

Portogallo (por-to-gal'-lo) (Portugal), 
Marcus Antonio. 1762-1830. 
A Portuguese operatic composer, 
whose real name was Marcus Antonio 
da Foseca. Born at Lisbon; he was 
educated at a seminary, where the 
priests gave him his first lessons in 




music. Borselli, the opera singer, was 
his vocal teacher, and he studied com- 
position under the chapelmaster at 
the Cathedral. In 1782 Borselli 
obtained for him a post as accom- 
panist in the Opera at Madrid, but in 
1787 he was sent to Italy to study 
by the Portuguese ambassador. His 
operas were L'Eroe cinese; La Bac- 
chetta portentosa; II Molinaro; 
L'Astuto, ossia La Vedova raggira- 
trice. In 1790, on returning to Lisbon, 
he was created chapelmaster to the 
court. The next nine years he spent 
in Italj', where he produced about 
twenty-five operas. Fernando in 
Messico, written for Mrs. Billington 
and played at Rome in 1798 is con- 
sidered by some his masterpiece. 
From 1799 to 1810 he wielded the 
baton at the San Carlos Theatre m 
Lisbon, where for some time Catalini 
sang; then, following the Royal family 
to Brazil, he was appointed general 
director of music in 1811. In 1813 
the Royal Theatre was opened at Rio 
de Janeiro, and the same j-ear he and 
his brother, Simao, a church com- 
poser, were placed in charge of the 
new Conservatory at Vera Cruz. Two 
years later he made a last visit to 
Italy, bringing out Adriano in Siria 
at Milan. He then returned to Brazil 
and spent the rest of his life at Rio 
de Janeiro. Some thirteen of his forty 
operas are now extant. He also wrote 
pieces for special occasions; farces 
and burlettas for Lisbon and Rio de 
Janeiro; masses, five with orchestra 
and five with organ, etc.; two Te 
Deums, with orchestra; psalms, with 
orchestra; and other church-music. 

Potter, Philip Cipriani Hambly. 1792- 


Pianist and teacher; born and died 
at London. He came from a musical 
family, and at seven years of age 
began to study the piano with his 
father, a teacher of repute in London. 
Later was a pupil of Attwood in 
counterpoint, Callcott and Crotch in 
theory, and for five years of Woelfl. 
In 1816 an overture of his was played 
at a Philharmonic concert, and shortly 
afterward he made his debut at a 
performance of that society. His works 
were coldly received and he went to 
Vienna, where during 1817 and 1818, 
he studied under Forster and held 
friendly intercourse with Beethoven, 
who commended his work. In 1821 
he became professor of piano at the 


Roj-al Academy of Music, and from 
1832 to 1859 was principal of that 
institution. He trained many pupils 
who later attained eminence, and set 
the Academy on a sure financial basis. 
From 1858 to 1865 he was treasurer 
of the Society of British Musicians. 
He did not give up his conductorship 
of the Madrigal Society, given him 
in 1855, until 1870. He also fre- 
quently directed the Philharmonic 
concerts and made a fine reputation 
as a conductor as well as a pianist. 
His works are now nearly all neg- 
lected. He wrote nine symphonies; 
four overtures; three concertos; a con- 
certante; sonatas, for piano solo, and 
a sonata di bravura; fantasias; two 
toccatas; six sets of variations; tran- 
scriptions; and many other composi- 
tions for piano. He also edited the 
Complete Piano Works of Mozart, 
and Schumann's Album fiir die 
Jugend, and wrote Recollections of 
Beethoven. His Hints on Orchestra- 
tion appeared in the Musical World 
in 1836. Onlj' a few months before 
his death he played at a private con- 
cert in the first performance of 
Brahms* requiem in London. An 
exhibition or scholarship, bearing his 
name, was founded at the Royal 
Academy of Music. 

Pougin (poo-jah'), Fransois Auguste 

Arthur Paroisse. 1834- 

Known as Arthur Pougin. A French 
musician and writer of note; born at 
Chateauroux, Indre. The son of 
itinerate actors; he was first in- 
structed in music by his mother. At 
the Paris Conservatory he studied the 
violin under Alard and Guerin, and 
harmony under Reber and Lhote, later 
finjshing in violin under Berou. In 
1855 he became conductor of the 
Theatre Beaumarchais; later led the 
Musard concerts, and from 1860 to 
1863 the orchestra of the Opera Co- 
mique, while from 1856 to 1859 he 
was assistant conductor and director 
of rehearsals at the Folies Nouvelles. 
He then gave up these positions, dis- 
continued teaching and devoted 
himself to literature of all kinds, espe- 
cially music. He was musical critic 
of the fivenement, Le Soir, Le Trib- 
une, and since 1878 of the Joiirnal 
Officiel. He also contributed to the 
France Musicale, Chronique musicale, 
L' Art Musical, Le Guide Musical, 
Revue de Monde Musical, and Le 
Theatre. He was editor of the Revue 



de la Musique in 1876, and has held 
that position on Le Menestrel since 
1885. Through h'is efforts a national 
festival was held at Rouen in 1875 in 
honor of the centennary of Boiel- 
dieu, and he has aided Lamoureux in 
forming a Societe d'Harmonie Sacree. 
He edited the articles on musical 
subjects in Larousse's Dictionnaire 
universel and the new edition of Dic- 
tionnaire Lyrique by Clement and 
Larousse. He is an officer of the 
Academy, and in 1905 was decorated 
with the Order of the Crown by the 
King of Italy. His largest work, the 
Supplement to Fetis' Biographie Uni- 
verselle des Musiciens, was published 
in two volumes in 1878 and 1880. 
Among his early works were Musi- 
ciens frangais du XVHIe siecle; a 
biography of Meyerbeer, and numer- 
ous biographies of important musi- 
cians. His essay on The Situation 
of Composers of Music, and the 
Future of Music in France appeared 
in 1867. He also wrote on Musical 
Literature in France; Figures of tlie 
Comic Opera; on the Question of the 
Liberty of Theatres; on the Question 
of the Theatre Lyrique; on the The- 
atre of France during the Revolution; 
The Real Creators of the French 
Opera, Perrin and Cambert; Histori- 
cal essay on Music in Russia; Actors 
and Actresses of Former Times; and 
Origin of the Gamut and the Seven 
Notes which Compose It. His most 
important work is his biography of 
Giuseppe Verdi, published in Italian 
in 1881, and translated by J. E. Mat- 
thew in 1887. He found the record 
of Verdi's birth and thus settled a 
much disputed point. 

Powell, Maud. 1868- 

American violinist; born at Peru, 
Illinois. The family moved to Aurora, 
and there she had her first training 
under Mr. Fickensher; studied under 
William Lewis at Chicago and laid the 
foundation of an excellent style, de- 
veloped later under_ Schradieck at 
Leipsic and Dancla in Paris. After 
playing in London, and touring Eng- 
land with Jose Sherrington, she 
became one of Professor Joachim's 
favorite pupils at the Hochschule in 
Berlin, and in 1885 made her debut 
at the Philharmonic Society, with 
Bruch's concerto in G minor. The 
same year she appeared for the first 
time in America at the concerts of 
the New York Philharmonic. She 


has toured this country under Thomas, 
Seidl, Damrosch, Gericke, Nikisch 
and others, and in 1892 visited Ger- 
many and Austria with the New York 
Arion Society. She played at the 
World's Columbian Exhibition in 
Chicago, read an article on Woman 
and the Violin before the Women's 
Musical Congress, and appeared in 
the Symphony concerts. She organ- 
ized a string-quartet in 1894; went 
abroad in 1898; performed at the 
Philharmonic and Saturday Popular 
concerts in London, and with Halle 
and Scottish Orchestras in other 
cities; visited Holland, Belgium, Ger- 
many, France, Austria, Russia and 
Denmark, and after a short tour 
through the United States returned to 
London in 1901. Early in 1906 she gave 
forty concerts in South Africa. During 
the fall of 1907 she appeared in New 
York, and also with the Thomas 
Orchestra in Chicago. She has intro- 
duced to America Saint-Saens' con- 
certo in C minor; Arensky's violin 
concerto; Lalo's concerto in G major, 
and works of American composers, 
as well as Dvorak's violin concerto, 
played under his own direction at a 
New York Philharmonic concert. 
Miss Powell, or rather Mrs. H. God- 
frey Turner (she was married in 
1904), possesses a technique so fine, 
a style so broad, and such excellent 
powers of expression and interpreta- 
tion that she is considered probably 
the greatest woman violinist of the 
world, as well as the best violinist of 
America. She is unaffected and calm 
in her playing, yet has spirit and 
personal charm which delight her 
hearers. Her home is at Mt. Vernon, 
New York. 

Pradher (pra-dar), Louis Barthelemy. 


Pianist and teacher, son of a vio- 
linist; born at Paris. Studied under 
his uncle, Lefevre, and at the Royal 
School of Music under Gobert. Ma- 
dame Montgeroult was his teacher 
for a short time, and later, at the 
Conservatory, he studied under Gobert 
and took theory from Berton. Mar- 
ried Andre Philidor's daughter. In 
1802 he took Hyacinthe Jadin's posi- 
tion as professor of piano at the Con- 
servatory. He taught the daughters 
of Louis Philippe, and was Court 
accompanist to Louis XVIII. and 
Charles X. He married for his second 
wife the opera singer, Felicite More, 



and in 1827 retired, on a pension, to 
Toulouse, where he was professor of 
the Conservatory for some time. He 
died at Gray, Haute Saone. His com- 
positions include the comic operas, 
Le Chevalier d'Industrie; La Folic 
Musicale: Jeune et Vieille; L'Em- 
prunte Secret; Philosophie en voyage; 
and Jenny la Bouquetiere; and numer- 
ous compositions for the piano. 

Prager (pra'-ger), Ferdinand Chris- 
tian Wilhelm. 1815-1891. 
German pianist, teacher, composer, 
and writer; born at Leipsic. His 
father was a violinist and composer, 
and Ferdinand early showed musical 
ability. He played the cello at nine 
years of age, but Hummel advised 
him to turn to the piano, and after 
studying under him and Pape he set 
up as a teacher at The Hague, though 
only sixteen years old. In 1834 he 
went to London and spent the rest 
of his life there, highly esteemed as 
a teacher. In 1842 Schumann ap- 
pointed him London correspondent to 
the Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik. He 
was a staunch Wagnerite and through 
his influence Wagner conducted the 
Philharmonic concerts at London in 
1855. His works include an overture, 
Abellino; a piano trio; and a sym- 
phonic prelude to Manfred. A collec- 
tion of his piano-pieces, Prager 
Album, was published at Leipsic. His 
book, Wagner as I Knew Him, was 
published in 1885, and republished in 
1892, despite contentions and criti- 
cisms. To him is also due the trans- 
lation of Xaumann's History of Music. 

Praetorius (pra-to'-ri-oos), Hierony- 
mus. 1560-1629. 

This name is the Latin equivalent 
of Schultz, the name of a number of 
German musicians. Hieronymus was 
born and died at Hamburg. He was 
taught by his father, studied at 
Cologne, and in 1580 became town 
cantor at Erfurt. Two years later he 
succeeded his father as organist of 
St. James' Church, Hamburg, a posi- 
tion which he held for the rest of his 
life. With Decker, Scheidemann, and 
his son Jacob, he brought out the 
Hamburger Melodeyen - Gesangbuch, 
in which are some twenty chorale 
settings, for four voices, by him. His 
other works are collected as Opus 
Musicum, in five books, containing 
cantiones sacrae; magnificat; Liber 
missarum; cantiones variae; and can- 

tiones novae. His son Jacob (1586- 
1651), a pupil of Sweelinck, was 
organist of St. Peter's Church at 
Hamburg, and was also known as a 
teacher and composer. His wedding 
songs were very fashionable. 

Praetorius, Michael. 1571-1621. 

German composer and writer; born 
at Kreuzburg, Thuringia. His first 
position was chapelmaster at Lune- 
burg. In 1604 he became organist to 
the Duke of Brunswick, who later 
made him chapelmaster and secretary. 
Praetorius was also Prior of the 
Monastery of Ringelheim, near Goz- 
lar, but did not spend all his time 
there. He died on his fiftieth birth- 
day, at Wolfenbiittel. He left a great 
mass of compositions, among them 
Musae Sioniae, in nine parts, some in 
Latin, the rest in German, including 
one thousand two hundred and forty- 
four pieces — parts 1-4, concert pieces, 
arranged from German sacred music; 
another part, songs and psalms; and 
four parts, church songs, written in 
strict counterpoint; Musarum Sion- 
iarum, consisting of eight volumes of 
motets and psalms; Kleine und Grosse 
Litanei; Eulogodia Sionia, sixty mo- 
tets; Missodia Sionia; Hymnodia 
Sionia, six volumes of hymns; and 
Megalynodia, six volumes of madri- 
gals and motets; and nine volumes of 
secular music, two entitled Terpsich- 
ore, two Calliope, two Thalia, and 
one each Erato, Diana Teutonica, and 
Regensburgische Echo, collected 
under the general title of Musa Aonia. 
His catalog of works is found at the 
end of Syntagma Musician, a rare 
and valuable treatise, for which his 
name is now known. It was planned 
to be a complete encyclopedia of the 
art and practise of music, in four vol- 
umes, but death prevented the com- 
pletion of the last one, which was to 
have been on counterpoint. Vol. I is 
devoted to ecclesiastical music, its 
use in different churches, the mass, 
and other forms of vocal music, as 
well as instrumental church-music, 
and the origin, structure, and use of 
the art of music and secular musical 
instruments. Vol. II, called Organ- 
ographia, deals with the instruments 
in use during the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury, especially the organ. Vol. Ill 
has three sections treating of the 
theory of music. The appendix of 
forty-two wood-cuts illustrates the 
instruments spoken of in Vol. II, 



Pratt, Silas Gamaliel. 1846- 

American composer; born at Addi- 
son, yermont, but raised at Plainfield, 
Illinois. At twelve years of age he 
came to Chicago and obtained a posi- 
tion, first in the music house of 
H. M. Higgins, and later with Lyon 
& Healy. He studied and practised 
the piano diligently, and in 1868 gave 
a series of recitals. Later that year 
he went to Berlin, where he studied 
the piano with Bendel and Kiel, 
working so assiduously that he dis- 
abled his right wrist and was forced 
to take a tour through Germany to 
restore his broken health. Returning 
to Berlin he turned to composition, 
studied under Wiierst and Kiel and 
wrote his first work for orchestra, 
Magdalena's Lament, a symphonic 
sketch, in 1870. The next year he 
returned to Chicago, and in April, 
1872, appeared in a concert of his own 
vocal and piano compositions. He 
accepted his old position at Lyon & 
Healy's and organized the Apollo 
Club. He returned to Europe in 1875, 
was at Bayreuth, played before Liszt, 
and studied score-reading under Hein- 
rich Dorn at Berlin, where in 1876 he 
produced his second symphony. The 
Prodigal Son, an overture for the 
Centennial Anniversary of our Inde- 
pendence. In 1877 he visited Paris 
and London, where he received warm 
praise for his Anniversary overture, 
played at the Crystal Palace concerts 
m honor of General Grant, and the 
march. Homage to Chicago, conducted 
by him at Alexander Palace. In 1878 
he gave symphony concerts in Chi- 
cago and began his opera, Zenobia, 
which was produced in 1880. He 
visited London again in 1885, giving 
recitals and producing The Prodigal 
Son and selections from Zenobia at 
the Crystal Palace. He had already 
organized and directed the Omaha 
Festival and the Chicago Grand Opera 
Festival in 1884, and on his return in 
1886 he devoted himself to directing 
festivals and teaching the piano. Late 
in 1889 he removed to New York, and 
in 1890 entered upon his duties as 
piano professor at the Metropolitan 
Conservatory. In 1893, however, he 
directed musical performances at the 
Chicago World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, and at the Antwerp Exhibition of 
1895 he conducted the Grand Ameri- 
can concerts. He is at present prin- 
cipal of the West End Private School 
of Piano-Playing in New York. Mr, 


Pratt is very ambitious for the cause 
of American music, and has written 
several large patriotic works, Centen- 
nary Hymn to Washington; Triumph 
of Columbus, an opera; and the or- 
chestral works, Paul Revere's Ride, 
The Battle Fantasia (descriptive of 
the Civil War), and The Battle of 
Manila. Besides the works already 
mentioned he has composed the opera 
Antonio, produced as Lucille; The 
Last Inca, a cantata; a symphonic 
suite on Shakespeare's Tempest; 
grotesque suite. The Brownies; sere- 
nade, and canon, for string orchestra; 
a number of small orchestral works; 
Soul Longings, for strings and piano; 
some fifty piano-pieces; and numerous 
songs and part-songs. 

♦ Pratt, Waldo Seldon. 1857- 

Musical educator and writer on 
musical subjects; born at Philadelphia. 
After being graduated from Williams 
College in 1878 he studied two years 
at Johns Hopkins University. From 
1880 to 1882 he was assistant director 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
From 1882 to 1891 he played the 
organ at Asylum Hill Congregational 
Church, Hartford, and during this 
time conducted the Hosmer Hall 
Choral Union of that city, and from 
1884 to 1888 led the St. Cecilia Club. 
He taught elocution at Trinity Col- 
lege in Hartford from 1891 to 1905, 
and is professor of music and hym- 
nology at Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary, a position he has held since 1882. 
He is also lecturer on history and 
musical science at Smith College and 
Mount Holyoke College. He is now 
president of the Music Teachers' Na- 
tional Association, honorary vice-pres- 
ident of the American Guild of 
Organists and a member of the Inter- 
national Society of Musicians, and has 
contributed addresses and articles to 
various musical societies. He wrote 
the article on music for the Interna- 
tional Encyclopaedia; articles for the 
Century Dictionary, and Musical Edi- 
tor; and has edited St. Nicholas Songs, 
Aids to Common Worship, and Songs 
of Worship. His latest work is the 
History of Music, published in 1907. 

Prentice, Thomas Ridley. 1842-1895. 

English pianist, teacher, composer 
and writer. Born at Paslow Hall, 
Ongar. He studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music from 1861, under 
Walter Macfarren in piano and George 
Macfarren in counterpoint, and in 1863 





took the silver medal and the Potter 
Exhibition prize. He was made an 
associate of the Academy and taught 
piano there. In 1872 he became organ- 
ist at Christ's Church, Lee Park, but 
poor health forced him to resign. Yet, 
in 1880, he was made professor of 
piano at the Guildhall School of 
Music. In 1881 he was professor of 
piano and harmony at the Blackheath 
Conservatory and two years later 
became director of the Beckenham 
and Windledon schools of music. His 
educational studies include Hand 
Gymnastics, one of the Novello Music 
Primers; and The Musician, a Guide 
for Piano Students. He wrote a ga- 
votte fantastique; elegy, and other 
piano-music; besides the cantata, Lin- 
da; anthems; and part-songs. He 
died at Hampstead. 

Presser, Theodore. 1848- 

Able American teacher, writer and 
publisher; born at Pittsburg, Pa., 
of German parents. He was educated 
at Mt. Union College, Ohio, and, hay- 
'ing studied music, entered a music 
store at Philadelphia, where in four 
years he rose from clerk to manager. 
After teaching music at a number of 
Ohio colleges he studied at Boston 
and at the Leipsic Conservatory. On 
his return Hollins Institute secured 
his services. He made for himself an 
excellent reputation as a teacher, and 
the experience thus gained has been 
of great importance in making The 
fitude, his monthly musical magazine, 
valuable to both teacher and pupil. 
He has lived in Philadelphia since 
1884, editing The fitude and. conduct- 
ing his music publishing house. He 
has given private lessons and written 
numerous piano studies for use in 
teaching, some of which have been 
published, and some sixty of which 
are still in manuscript. 

Prevost (pra-v6), Eugene Prosper. 

French conductor and opera com- 
poser; born at Paris. He studied at 
the Paris Conservatory, Jelensperger 
and Seuriot being his teachers in har- 
mony and Lesueur in composition. 
In 1831 he obtained the Grand Prize 
of Rome for the cantata, Bianca Ca- 
pello. He had already produced the 
one-act operas, L'Hotel des Princes, 
and Le Grenadier de Wagram, and 
after his return from Italy he brought 
out Cosimo and Le Bon gargon. He 
went to H&vre as conductor of the 

theatre there, but in 1838 he came 
to New Orleans, where he spent the 
rest of his life, with the exception of 
the years of the Civil War, when he 
conducted the Bouffes Parisiens and 
the Champs-filysees concerts at Paris. 
At New Orleans he produced Blanche 
et Rene, and Esmeralda at the French 
Theatre, of which he was conductor, 
and had a high reputation as a 
teacher. He also wrote masses, one 
of which, for full orchestra, was very 

Preyer (pri'-er), Gottfried, 1808-1901. 

Austrian conductor, organist and 
composer; born at Hausbrunn. He 
studied at Vienna under Sechter from 
1828 to 1834, and the next year became 
organist of the Reformed Church. In 
1844 he was appointed assistant chap- 
elmaster of the court. In 1844 he 
also was made director of the Con- 
servatorium fiir der Musikfreunde, 
where he taught harmony and coun- 
terpoint and conducted the concerts. 
In 1846 he became Court organist, 
and after 1853 was chapelmaster of St. 
Stephen's. In 1876 he was pensioned 
as vice Court chapelmaster. He died 
at Vienna. Works: The operas, Wal- 
ladmor; Freimannshohle, and Ama- 
ranth; the oratorio, Noah; a number 
of masses; a requiem; Te Deum; 
hymns for the Greek Catholic Church, 
in three books, and other church- 
music; a symphony; string quartet; 
three festival marches for military 
band; songs; and organ and piano- 

Prill (prll), Carl. 1864- 

German violinist; born at Berlin. 
He began to study the violin with 
his father when only a little boy, 
and, having taken piano lessons from 
Handwerg and toured Germany, Rus- 
sia, Sweden, Denmark and Holland 
with his father and brothers, he took 
lessons in Berlin from Helmich and 
Wirth and finished under Joachim at 
the Hochschule, meantime playing in 
Brenner's and Laube's Orchestras and 
as solo violinist from 1883 to 1885. 
He was then in the Hlawacz Orches- 
tra in Pawlowsk, Russia. He was 
engaged in 1891 for the Opera and the 
Gewandhaus Orchestras at Leipsic. 
He is now Court concertmaster, and 
professor in a Conservatory in Vienna. 

Proch (prokh), Heinrich. 1809-1878. 

Violinist, conductor and composer. 
The place of his birth is uncertain, 



probably being Vienna. He studied 
music under Benesch, and frequently 
played in public, becoming a member 
of the Imperial Chapel at Vienna in 
1834. _ In 1837 he was appointed musi- 
cal director of the Josephstadt Thea- 
tre and was in the same capacity at 
the Imperial Opera from 1840 to 
1870. He then retired on a pension, 
but in 1874 became director of the 
Comic Opera, which existed but a 
short time. He died in Vienna. His 
compositions include the operas, Ring 
und Maske, Die Blutrache, and Der 
gefahrliche Sprung; masses; offer- 
torios; and string quartets, and trios; 
also many songs with piano, cello, and 
horn accompaniment, notably Das 
Alpenhorn, and Wanderlied. He trans- 
lated into German II Trovatore, Don 
Pasquale, and other Italian operas. 

Prokscb (proksh), Josef. 1794-1864. 

Bohemian piano teacher, composer 
and writer. Born at Reichenberg. 
Died at Prague. Though he was 
blind from youth he studied the piano 
with Kozeluch and with Logier at 
Berlin. In 1830 he established the 
Musikbildungsanstalt, his excellent 
musical school at Prague. After his 
death it was continued by his son 
Theodor (1843-1876) and his daughter 
Marie. Bendel, Kuhe, Smetana, Ma- 
dame Szarvady and Madame Ausptiz- 
Kolar were pupils of this institute. 
Josef Proksch is the author of several 
volumes, including Versuch einer 
rationellen Lehrmethode im Piano- 
fortespiel; Allgemeine Musiklehre; 
Aphorismen iiber kathoHsche Kirch- 
enmusik. His compositions include 
cantatas; sacred songs; masses; sona- 
tas; a concerto for three pianos; and 
transcriptions of orchestral classics 
for four to eight pianos. 

Proske (prosh-ke), Karl. 1794-1861. 

German musicographer; born at 
Grobnig, in Upper Silesia. Having 
studied medicine he was an army 
surgeon during the war from 1813 to 
1815. He practised medicine for a 
time, but, becoming a religious enthu- 
siast, began in 1823 to study theology 
at Ratisbon University, and was or- 
dained in 1826. The next year he 
became choral vicar in the Church of 
Our Lady, and in 1830 was made 
chapelmaster and canon. He then 
began collecting and copying sacred 
manuscripts of the composers of the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 


first in Germany and later in Italy. 
His important collection, Musica 
Divina, contained these sacred compo- 
sitions, many of them by the early 
church composers. This work was in 
four volumes, each volume containing 
a preface and biographical notices of 
the composers represented. He also 
published Selectus Novus Missarum, 
containing masses. Proske's valuable 
library is now in the possession of 
the Episcopal authorities at Ratisbon. 

Prout, Ebenezer. 1835- 

English theorist and composer; 
born at Oundle, Northampton. Was 
graduated from London University in 
1854. Was very fond of music as a 
boy, but his father, a Congregational 
minister, objected to his following 
music as a career. After teaching for 
several years he adopted music as a 
profession in 1859, and became organ- 
ist successively of several different 
churches. In 1860 he had become pro- 
fessor of piano at the Crystal Palace 
School of Art, and retained that posi- 
tion until 1885, when he changed to 
the Guildhall School. When a boy 
he had taken a few lessons in piano 
and later a course from Charles Sal- 
aman, but this was the only instruc- 
tion he ever received. From 1876 to 
1882 he taught harmony and composi- 
tion at the National Training School, 
and in 1879 he took Sullivan's class at 
the Royal Academy of Music. As 
conductor of the Hackney Choral 
Association, from 1876 to 1890, he 
brought out many excellent works, 
some for the first time in England. 
As a writer he is very promment. 
From 1871 to 1874 he was editor of 
the Monthly Musical Review; was 
musical critic of the Academy from 
1874 to 1879, and of the Athenaeum 
for the next ten years. He is the 
author of a series of valuable educa- 
tional works, including Instrumenta- 
tion; Harmony, Theory and Practise; 
Counterpoint, Strict and Free; Double 
Counterpoint and Canon; Fugue; Fu- 
gal Analysis; Musical Form; Applied 
Forms; and The Orchestra, in two 
volumes. Since 1894 he has been pro- 
fessor of music at Dublin University, 
and in 1895 was given the Doctor's 
degree by both Dublin and Edinburgh 
Universities. He destroyed all his 
compositions written prior to 1856. 
Those which he preserved are the 
cantatas, Hereward, Alfred, Queen 
Aminee, The Red Cross Knight, and 




Damon and Phintias; an unfinished 
setting of Scott's drama, The Doom 
of Devorgoil; for orchestra, four sym- 
phonies, still in manuscript; a minuet 
and trio; overtures to Twelfth Night, 
and Rokeby; Suite de Ballet; a suite 
in D, unpublished; much chamber- 
music, including two string quartets, 
which took the prizes of the Society 
of British Musicians in 1862 and 1865; 
piano and organ music; church-music; 
also songs, part-songs, and choruses. 
There is in manuscript a comic opera, 
Love and Taxation, written in 1883. 
The speed, thoroughness and perse- 
verance shown in his work is mar- 
velous, as is his memory. He plays 
almost entirely without notes and 
transposes from key to key with the 
greatest ease. He is the owner of a 
splendid library, containing many full 
scores and complete editions. Prout 
is very fond of Bach, and has written 
amusing words to his forty-eight pre- 
ludes and fugues. 

Pruckner (prook-ner), Caroline. 1832- 

Excellent dramatic soprano; born 
at Vienna. In 1850 she began her 
engagement at the Hanover Court 
Theatre, going in 1852 to the Court 
Theatre at Mannheim, but in 1855 her 
voice suddenly failed, and, giving up 
the stage, she retired to Vienna, 
studied, and in 1870 opened a school 
for opera-singers.. Her reputation 
as a teacher is very high and she 
holds the title of professor, given 
her by the Grand Duke of Mecklen- 
burg on the publication of her treatise, 
Theorie und Praxis der Gesangskunst, 
in 1872. 

Pruckner, Dionys. 1834-1896. 

German pianist and teacher; born 
at Munich. He studied under Niest, 
and, after playing at the Gewandhaus 
concerts at seventeen years of age, 
was a pupil of Liszt, at Weimar, from 
1852 till about 1855. He then made 
Vienna his home, and from there went 
on concert tours. In 1859 he was 
appointed piano teacher at the Con- 
servatory in Stuttgart, and in that city 
he and Edmond Singer established 
successful chamber-music concerts. In 
1871 and 1872 he toured America with 
great success, and appeared for a 
short time at New York in 1874. He 
was appointed pianist to the King of 
Wiirtemburg in 1864, and in 1868 was 
given the title of professor. He died 
at Heidelberg. 

Prudent (prii-dan), fimile. 1817-1863. 
Able French pianist; born at An- 
gouleme. His parents both died when 
he was very young and he was 
adopted by the piano-tuner, Beunie, 
who first instructed him in music. At 
ten years of age he entered the Paris 
Conservatory, where he was in the 
classes of Le Couppey, Laurent and 
Zimmermann, and won the first prize 
for piano in 1833 and the second for 
harmony in 1834. He made his debut 
in 1840 at Rennes at a concert with 
Thalberg. In 1842 he appeared in 
Paris; visited other parts of France, 
and gave concerts in Germany, Bel- 
gium and other European countries. 
He played in London in 1848, 1852 and 
1853. Though at first he had a strug- 
gle to make himself known, he ulti- 
mately became very popular in Paris, 
both as a pianist and teacher. He was 
excellent in technique, and many of 
his pupils became distinguished. His 
compositions are not very original, 
but are melodious and charming and 
designed to show the qualities of the 
executant. They number about sev- 
enty, including a symphonic concerto, 
Les Trois Reves, for piano and 
orchestra; etudes, and numerous other 
salon-pieces; and transcriptions. 

Prume (priim), Francois Herbert. 


Talented Belgian violinist; son of 
the village organist; born and died at 
Stavelot. He played the vioHn when 
about three years old, and at five 
began to study under Malmedy. From 
1827 to 1830 he was a pupil of the 
then new Liege Conservatory, where, 
after two years of study under Habe- 
neck at the Paris Conservatory, he 
became professor of violin, though 
but seventeen years old. In 1839 
he made a tour through Germany, 
Hungary, Russia, Sweden, Norway 
and Denmark, later giving concerts 
in Holland and his own country, and 
again in Germany, where he received 
the honorary title of concertmaster. 
He appeared at Paris in 1844, but 
was summoned back to the Liege 
Conservatory to become head of the 
violin department. For the last few 
years of his hfe he was totally blind. 
His compositions comprise six violin 
studies; grand polonaise; a concerto, 
for violin and orchestra; and a few 
concert-pieces, La Melancolie, a ro- 
mantic piece for violin and orchestra 
or piano, being especially popular. 



Prumier (priim-ya), Ange Conrad. 

Son of the following. Born and 
died at Paris. In 1840 he became 
harpist of the Opera Comique; later 
was in the orchestra of the Opera, 
and in 1870 took Labarre's place as 
harp teacher in the Conservatory. He 
had studied in his father's class in 
the Conservatory, where he took sev- 
eral prizes, and was, like him, an 
excellent performer on, and composer 
for, the harp. Works: solos and 
studies for harp; two nocturnes for 
harp and horn; and sacred songs. 

Prumier, Antoine. 1794-1868. 

French harpist, composer and 
teacher. Born and died at Paris. His 
mother taught him the harp, and later 
he studied harmony under Catel at 
the Conservatory, winning second 
prize in 1812. He was then obliged 
to go to the ficole polytechnique, a 
military school, but in 1815 returned 
to the Conservatory as a pupil of Eler 
in counterpoint. His studies finished, 
he became harpist of the orchestra at 
the Theatre des Italiens. In 1835 he 
changed to the Opera Comique, where 
his son succeeded him in 1840. From 
1835 until 1867, when he was pen- 
sioned, he taught at the Conservatory. 
He received the cross of the Legion 
of Honor in 1845, and for seventeen 
years was president of the Association 
des artistes musiciens. His published 
works include some hundred fan- 
taisies, rondos, and airs with varia- 
tions for the harp. 

Puccini (poot-che'-ne), Giacomo. 1858- 
The leading composer of the day 
in Italy, and probably the greatest 
living opera-writer. Born at Lucca. 
For five generations members of his 
family have held positions of varying 
importance in the musical affairs of 
Italy. Michele, the present Puccini's 
father, was the pupil of his grand- 
father, Antonio, of Mattel, Mercadente 
and Donizetti, and, after returning to 
Lucca, was appointed inspector of the 
then new Institute of Music. He com- 
posed an opera, and several masses, 
but was better known as a teacher. 
He died in 1864, when Giacomo was 
but six years old, leaving the mother 
to raise a large family. 

Giacomo was too wayward to be 
successful in his studies, and an 
uncle's severe training also^ failed to 
make him a singer; but his mother 


felt that he was to be a musician, and 
managed to send him to the Pacini 
Institute, where Angeloni was his 
teacher. Having become a fair organ- 
ist, Puccini went from village to vil- 
lage, often scandalizing the priests 
by playing original variations on opera 
airs during the service. In 1877 a 
competition took place at Lucca, on a 
setting for the cantata Juno, and Puc- 
cini entered. When his work was 
rejected he did not despair, but had 
it performed on his own account, and 
it met with success. He now decided 
that he must study at Milan, and his 
mother, unable to meet the whole 
expense, applied for help to Queen 
Margarita. The Queen subscribed 
enough for the first year's tuition and 
his uncle provided for the other two 
years, but Giacomo and his brother, 
with whom he lived, had a hard strug- 
gle. Some of their experiences were 
used as details in La Boheme. He 
did not immediately succeed in pass- 
ing the examination, but in October, 
1880, he entered the Conservatory, the 
highest of all the candidates. He 
made such progress that on being 
graduated his composition, a Sinfonia 
Capriccio, showed strength surprising, 
even to his teachers, Bazzini and Pon- 
chielli. In this, his first work of any 
consequence, are found the freedom, 
boldness and grasp of resources, 
which have characterized his later 
works. It was produced by Faccio 
and met with great approval. 

Directly after this success Pon- 
chielli suggested that he write an 
opera, _ and introduced him to the 
librettist, Fontana. The Sozogno com- 
petition was drawing to a close, so 
they decided upon Le Villi for a one- 
act opera. Puccini's writing is almost 
undecipherable and it was perhaps for 
this reason that the score was returned 
unread. Nevertheless, with the assist- 
ance of Arrigo Boito and other 
friends, he was able to produce it at 
the Teatro dal Verme, May 31, 1884, 
the Conservatory pupils taking the 
roles, and its signal success prompted 
the Ricordi Company to buy the 
score. It was presented in its present 
revised form (two acts) at La Scala, 
Jan. 24, 1885, and given for the first 
time in England by the Rousby Com- 
pany at Manchester. 

Shortly after the production of Le 
Villi, Puccini's mother died, and be- 
sides the great sorrow which this 
loss brought him he had to bear even 




harder pinchings of poverty. Under 
these circumstances Edgar, a gypsy 
opera similar to Carmen, was written, 
again on a libretto by Fontana, and 
on April 21, 1889, it had its initial 
performance at La Scala. The music 
shows an advance over Le Villi, but 
the opera lacks sufficient interest to 
keep the stage, though it holds its 
place in Puccini's affection. The blame 
is laid on the libretto, which is even 
more impossible that De Musset's 
drama. La Coupe et les Levres (Twixt 
cup and lip) on which it was founded. 
His next opera, Manon Lescaut, was 
introduced at the Reggio Theatre at 
Turin, Feb. 1, 1893, and by its success 
assured Puccini's position. A string 
of detached scenes from Abbe Pre- 
vost's romance, which had already 
been the foundation of an opera by 
Auber, in 1856, and by Massenet in 
1884, were adapted for the libretto by 
Puccini and Ricordi. Auber's opera 
is now nearly forgotten, but com- 
parisons continually arise between 
Puccini's work and Massenet's, from 
which it differs widely in spirit and 
considerably in the selection of scenes. 
Puccini visited England for the first 
time for the initial performance of 
this work in London at Covent Gar- 
den, May 14, 1894. More popular is 
La Boheme, based on Henri Murger's 
novel. Vie de Boheme.. This opera 
was given at Turin, Feb. 1, 1896. 
Puccini went to England to rehearse 
the players for its first performance 
there by the Carl Rosa English Opera 
Company at Manchester, April 22, 
1897. The following October it was 
presented at Covent Garden. A good 
deal of the score was written at 
Castellaccio, near Pescia, where Puc- 
cini stayed for a time before set- 
tling on a site for his villa at Torre 
del Lago, which was built in 1900. 
Puccini, now master of his resources, 
produced in this work a score marked 
by continuity and polish, which has in 
it an unmistakable atmosphere of 
Bohemian life with its charm and 
pathos. In 1898 Puccini visited Paris 
for the first performance of this opera 
there, and at that time made arrange- 
ments with Sardou to use his play. 
La Tosca, for an opera. La Tosca 
is intensely dramatic and tragic almost 
to excess, and in it, perhaps better 
than in any other work, does the 
music fit the varying moods in 
the story, so much so, indeed, that the 
main interest lies in the action. It 


is the only one of Puccini's works 
called an opera. The first performance 
was at Costanzi Theatre, Rome, Jan. 
14, 1900. July 12 of the same year it 
was presented at Covent Garden. It 
was played for the first time in New 
York at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, Feb. 4, 1901, and not long 
after was given in English by the 
Henry W. Savage Company at Buf- 
falo. In orchestration this opera 
shows an advance over La Boheme, 
in symphonic fulness and a greater 
use of representative themes; that is, 
themes characteristic of certain indi- 
viduals which always accompany their 

The success of Madame Butterfly, 
his latest opera, has been almost phe- 
nomenal, yet when first produced at 
La Scala, Feb. 17, 1904, it met such 
disapproval that Puccini withdrew it 
after the first night, without giving 
the people a chance to change their 
minds. Madame Butterfly was re- 
touched and brought out with great 
success at Brescia, May 28, and since 
then has had an unabated triumph. In 
July, 1904, it was presented at Buenos 
Ayres; then at Montevideo and else- 
where in South America, at Alexan- 
dria in Egypt, again at Milan, at 
Turin, Naples, Palermo and Buda- 
pest, and for the first time in Amer- 
ica at Washington, D. C, October 15; 
and at the close of 1906 at the Opera 
Comique in Paris. Puccini visited 
New York in January, 1907, to super- 
intend its initial performance there, 
as well as to be present at the Puccini 
cycle, consisting of Manon Lescaut, 
La Boheme, La Tosca, and Madame 
Butterfly, given by the Metropolitan 
Company. The Savage Company has 
toured the United States with Madame 
Butterfly exclusively, and everywhere 
it is enthusiastically received. Puccini 
calls it a Japanese tragedy, and he 
has used some actual Japanese melo- 
dies obtained through the Japanese 
ambassadress at Rome to add local 
color, but it is essentially as Itahan 
as La Boheme. The plot is hardly 
adaptable to music, but, to quote 
Baughan's criticism, "The composer 
has overcome many of the difficulties 
with much cleverness. When the 
stage itself is not musically inspiring, 
he falls back on his orchestra with 
the happiest effect. The gradual 
smirching of this butterfly's bright- 
ness until in the end she becomes a 
wan little figure of tragedy is subtly 




expressed in the music. It is not deep 
music — indeed, it should not be — but 
it has all the more effect because it 
is thoroughly in character." 

It is said that Illica is at work on 
the librettos for The Girl of the Golden 
West, after Belasco's play, and Marie 
Antoinette. " My next plot," Wake- 
ling Dry reports Puccini to have said, 
" must be one of sentiment to allow 
me to work in my own way. I am 
determined not to go beyond the place 
in art where I find myself at home." 
And even this statement was hard 
to get from the modest and retiring 
composer. Puccini's rank seems des- 
tined to be a high one. The works he 
has already produced show him to be 
much superior to Mascagni and Leon- 
cavallo, and, indeed, worthy to be the 
successor of Verdi, as that master pre- 
dicted. In his music he combines the 
old and truly national characteristic 
of Italian Opera with modern dra- 
matic power and orchestral coloring, 
and his mastery of the light lyric 
style makes him very popular in the 
present day. At New York during 
the season of 1907 his four later 
operas were given twenty-one times, 
while eight of Wagner's had only 
twenty-four performances. 

Puccini married Elvira Bonturi, of 
Lucca, and their son, Antonio, was 
born in 1886. The composer spends 
most of his time at Torre del Lago, 
where wild ducks and other game is 
plenty, and delights in a " shoot " and 
in sailing the lakes in his American 
motor-boat, Butterfly, in which he 
conceives many of his ideas. He also 
has a villa at Chiatri Hill, across the 
lake from Torre del Lago, and a house 
in Milan, in which city he teaches 
composition at the Conservatory. He 
is a member of the committee which 
is preparing for the one hundredth 
anniversary of this Conservatory. For 
a most interesting account of Puccini 
and his works see Wakeling Dry's 
Giacomo Puccini, published in 1906, 
one of the Living Masters of Music 

Puccitta (poo-chit'-ta), Vincenzo. 1778- 

Also spelled Pucita. He composed 
about thirty operas; also songs, ten 
volumes of which, Mille Melodie, were 
published by Ricordi. He was born in 
Civitavecchia and studied at Naples in 
the Conservatorio della Pieta under 
Fenaroli and Sala. The operas, L'amor 

platonico and Le nozze senza spoza, 
were given at Lucca and Parma in 

1800, and II furoruscito at Milan in 

1801, but his first great success was 
I due prigionieri, at Rome in 1801, 
In 1809 he was in London directing 
the music of the Opera, where he 
produced I Villeggiatori bizarri; La 
Vestale, his best opera; Le tre sultane, 
and others. Then, after traveling 
with Catalani as accompanist, he was 
with her at the Italian Opera in Paris 
from 1815 to 1817; returned hence to 
Italy, and remained there until his 
death at Milan. Among his best 
operas are I prigionieri, and Adolfo e 
Chiara. He had considerable ability, 
but lacked originahty. 

Puchet (poo'-khat). Max. 1859- 

German composer and pianist; born 
at Breslau. He studied at Berlin under 
Kiel and in 1884 took the Mendels- 
sohn prize. Besides numerous songs 
he has written a concerto in C minor, 
for the piano; an overture; and the 
fine symphonic poems, Euphorion, in 
1888, and Tragodie eines Kiinstlers, 
five movements, in 1894. 

Pugnani (poon-ya'-ne), Gaetano. 1731- 


Famous Italian violinist, teacher 
and composer. Born and died at 
Turin. He studied first under Somis, 
a distinguished pupil of Corelli, and 
later, at Padua, under the great Tar- 
tini, combining the two styles to 
form the broad, sweeping method and 
agile bowing, which he transmitted to 
his most famous pupil, Viotti. In 1752 
he was appointed leader of the Court 
Orchestra at Turin and director of the 
King's concerts. In 1754 he began 
his travels; played at the Concerts 
Spirituels in Paris; led the orchestra 
of the Italian Opera at London, and 
appeared with great success in most 
of the European countries. He re- 
turned to Turin in 1770 and there he 
spent the rest of his life conducting 
the Court Theatre and teaching. He 
had a wonderful gift for conducting 
and imparted this to his pupils. 
Among his works are a dramatic 
cantata, Issea; L'Aurora, a cantata; 
the operas, Demetrio a Rodi, Tamas 
Koulikan, Adone e Venere, Nanetta e 
Lubiono; an opera buffa, Achille in 
Sciro; and the ballet, Coreso e Cal- 
liroe; besides a great quantity of 
instrumental music, some overtures, 
and twelve symphonies. 



Pugno (pun-yo), Stephane Raoul. 

Brilliant French pianist and com- 
poser; born at Montrouge, near Paris. 
He studied at the Paris Conservatory, 
and won the first prizes in piano, har- 
mony and organ in 1866, 1867 and 
1869. He was organist of Saint Eu- 
gene from 1872 to 1892, and for the 
next four years he taught harmony 
at the Conservatory and piano there 
from 1896 to 1901. He has written 
a number of pieces for the stage: the 
fairy play, Le fee Cocotte, Melusine, 
Les Pauvres Gens, and other light 
works; the comic operas, Ninetta, Le 
Sosie, Le Valet de Coeur, and Le 
Retour d'UIysse; the vaudeville oper- 
etta. La petite Poucette; the panto- 
mime, La Danseuse de Corde; the 
mimodrame. Pour le Drapeau; and the 
ballets, Les Papillons, Viviane, and 
Le Chevalier aux Fleurs. He is known 
chiefly as a pianist, however. He 
made his London debut in 1894, and 
toured the United States with Ysaye 
in the season of 1897-1898. In 1907 he 
visited England, and appears fre- 
quently at Brussels, where he played 
for the Ysaye concerts of the season 
of 1907-1908. His playing is refined 
and exquisite, combining delicacy of 
touch with boldness and dash. 

Puppo (poop'-p6), Giuseppe. 1749- 

Eccentric but talented Italian vio- 
linist. Born at Lucca. He studied at 
the Conservatory of San Onofrio in 
Naples, made rapid progress, and 
early set out on a tour of Italy and 
France. He was in Paris in 1775; then 
made a fortune in Spain and Portugal, 
and lived in London until 1784. He 
then returned to Paris and became 
leader of the orchestra at the Theatre 
de Monsieur, under Viotti, in 1789, 
and at the Theatre Frangais in 1799 
and also taught and played accompani- 
ments in fashionable society. In 1811 
he abandoned his family, returned to 
Italy, and conducted at the San Carlo 
Theatre in Naples. In 1817 he went 
to Lucca, and, utterly destitute, died 
in a hospice at Florence. Works: 
three concertos, two duets, and 
studies, for violin; six fantasias, and 
other piano-music, a few of which 
were published. 

Purcell, Daniel. 1660-1717. 

Youngest brother and probably pupil 
of the great Henry Purcell. Born 


and died at London. From 1688 to 
1695 he was organist of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, but then went to 
London, where he became known as 
a composer. In 1713 he was appointed 
organist of St. Andrew's, Holborn, a 
post which he retained until his death. 
Besides numerous odes for St. Ce- 
cilia's Day, the setting of Tate's ode 
on the Death of Henry Purcell; the 
Psalms set full for Organ and Harpsi- 
chord; anthems; songs; six cantatas; 
and sonatas, he wrote music for a 
large number of plays, including Ibra- 
him XIII.; Brutus of Alba; Love's 
Last Shift; Swaney, .the Scot, adapted 
from the Taming of the Shrew; The 
Grove of Love's Paradise, probably 
his best work; The Pilgrim; The Un- 
happy Penitent; The Humour of the 
Age; The Inconstant; and Orlando 

Purcell, Henry. 1658-1695. 

England's greatest composer. Tra- 
dition makes St. Ann's, Old Pye 
Street, Westminster, his birthplace. 
Yet it is not certain where he was 
born, nor when, but it must have 
been some time between Nov. 21, 
1658, and Nov. 20, 1659. The lad 
became one of the children of the 
Chapel Royal immediately after his 
father's death, and began his musical 
studies under Captain Henry Cooke, 
formerly a musician to Charles I., and 
afterwards master of the children of 
the Chapel Royal under Charles II. 
For eight years Purcell worked under 
Cooke's guidance, and a number of his 
anthems, still in use, were written at 
this time. In 1667 a three-part song, 
Sweet Tyranness, I Now Resign, was 
printed by Playford in the Musical 
Cornpanion. This has been attributed 
to his father, but is usually considered 
the work of Henry, junior. There is 
no doubt, however, that he wrote The 
Address of the Children of the Chapel 
Royal to the King, and their master. 
Captain Cooke, on his majesty's 
birthday, A. D. 1670. He is also 
thought to be the composer of the 
Macbeth music usually attributed to 
Matthew Locke, though Locke's 
music, some of which is still extant, 
is very diflferent. A copy of the score 
in Purcell's hand is in W. C. Cum- 
ming's library. In 1672 Cooke died, 
and his pupil, Pelham Humphreys, 
became master. Humphreys had 
shown such remarkable talent that 
Charles II, sent him to France to 



learn the method of Lully, and on his 
return he introduced the French style 
to his pupils; yet, during the two years 
in which Purcell was his pupil, the lad, 
though profiting by the study of the 
French master, kept his own individ- 
uality. When Dr. Blow succeeded to 
the post of master, Purcell stayed on, 
probably as a supernumerary, for his 
voice must have changed by this time. 
This kind, amiable and sound musi- 
ciian, whose tombstone announces him 
" Master to the famous Henry Pur- 
cell," exerted an excellent influence 
over his gifted pupil. In 1680 he 
resigned the post of organist at West- 
minster Abbey in Purcell's favor, but 
succeeded to it again after his death. 
The fact that he was so closely con- 
nected with the Cathedral did not pre- 
vent Purcell from composing for the 
stage, and he was in great demand to 
write incidental music for plays. Just 
when he began writing for the thea- 
tres is a disputed matter. 

In 1677 Purcell wrote an elegy on 
the death of Matthew Locke, and in 
1678 an arrangement of Sweet Tyran- 
ness, for one voice, and five other 
songs appeared. It was about this 
time that he composed anthems, espe- 
cially for the Rev. John Gosling, a 
favorite of the King, whose voice was 
a very low bass. One of these, They 
That Go Down to the Sea in Ships, 
written after the escape of the King 
and his party. Gosling among them, 
from drowning in a terrible storm ofif 
North Foreland, goes down to double 
D. In 1680 he wrote the music for 
Theodosius, or the Force of Love, and 
his first odes, a welcome song for his 
Royal Highness' return from Scotland, 
and a song to welcome His Majesty 
home from Windsor. These were fol- 
lowed the next year by another. 
Swifter, Isis, Swifter Flow, and from 
that time until his death many a spe- 
cial occasion was celebrated by an ode 
from him, particularly after his ap- 
pointment, in 1683, as composer in 
ordinary to the King. Among Pur- 
cell's odes are four for St. Cecilia's 
Day. He had been made organist 
of the Chapel Royal in 1682, and it was 
that year that his first son, John Bap- 
tista, was born and died. In 1683 he 
published his sonatas in three parts, 
composed, he says in his dedication, 
in imitation of the Italian composers. 
In 1684 occurred the competition over 
the new organ for Temple Church. 
It was probably at Purcell's sugges- 


tion that this instrument was built 
with two extra quarter tones in each 
octave, which gave an opportunity for 
more varied modulation. The next 
year Purcell superintended the build- 
ing of the new organ at Westminster 
Abbey for the coronation of James 
II., for which occasion he wrote the 
anthems, I Was Glad, and My Heart 
is Inditing. His march and quickstep, 
which is said to have helped to bring 
on the revolution of 1688, was printed 
in The Delightful Companion in 1686. 
This song, according to Lord Whar- 
ton, " Sung a deluded Prince out of 
three kingdoms." The music appeared 
as A New Irish Tune in Musick's 
Handmaid, in 1689. It is still sung 
in the north of Ireland as a party 
song. Of his music for plays in 1690, 
The Prophetess, or the History of 
Dioclesian, was printed, and in the 
dedication to the Duke of Somerset is 
an interesting expression of his opin- 
ions. " Music and poetry," he wrote, 
" have ever been acknowledged sisters, 
which, walking hand in hand, support 
each other; as poetry is the harmony 
of words, so music is that of notes; 
and as poetry is a rise above prose 
and oratory, so is music the exulta- 
tion of poetry. Both of them excel 
apart, but sure they are most excellent 
when they are joined, because nothing 
is then wanting to either of their per- 
fections." Dioclesian is the first of 
his incidental music to be elaborately 
scored. Selections from the Fairy 
Queen were published in 1692, but 
the score was lost. In 1700 a reward 
of twenty guineas was offered for it, 
but it was not recovered until 1891, 
when it was found in the library of the 
Royal Academy of Music. One of the 
airs, If Love's a Sweet Passion, was 
used in the Beggar's Opera._ The 
same year, 1692, he wrote his fine 
ode. Hail, Great Cecilia, but the most 
famous of his music for St. Cecilia's 
Day is the magnificent Te Deum and 
Jubilate in D, composed in 1694. 

At the close of 1694 Queen Mary 
died, and for her funeral, the follow- 
ing March, Purcell wrote two an- 
thems, Blessed is the Man that 
Feareth the Lord, and Thou Knowest, 
Lord, the Secrets of Our Hearts. 
The latter has been used at every cho- 
ral funeral service since at Westmins- 
ter Abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Purcell's health, never robust, now be- 
gan to grow very delicate, but that 
did not prevent him from composing 




music for The Mock Marriage; The 
Rival Sisters; Oroonsko; Bonduca; 
and the third part of Don Quixote, 
the first two parts of which had been 
written in 1694. The stirring song, To 
Arms, and Britons, Strike Home, are 
from Bonduca, and the remarkable 
bass solo, Let the Dreadful Engines, 
is from Don Quixote. His last piece, 
the cantata. From Rosie Bowers, for 
the same play, was written during his 
illness. He died November 21, on 
the eve of St. Cecilia's Day. Purcell 
was buried November 26, under the 
organ in the north aisle of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

Purcell must have been of amiable 
disposition and fond of jollity, for 
he is thought to have often enjoyed 
the company of the musical wits who 
gathered at Cobweb Hall, a tavern 
kept by Owen Swan, and at Purcell's 
Head, where a half-length portrait of 
the composer in a green nightgown 
and a full-bottomed wig was the sign, 
and there his catches and glees were 
sung. The story got abroad that his 
death resulted from a cold caught 
while staying outside the door all 
night because he came home later 
than the hour set by his wife and 
was refused admittance, but there is 
probably little truth in this tale. He 
IS thought to have died of consump- 
tion. Purcell and Dryden seem to 
have been intimate, for it is said that 
the latter often took refuge in Pur- 
cell's apartment in the clock tower 
of the Temple to escape debtors' 
prison. Purcell was held in the high- 
est esteem by his contemporaries. 
The admiration for bim did not con- 
fine itself to England, for it is said 
that Corelli was about to visit Eng- 
land to see him, whom he considered 
the only thing worth seeing in Eng- 
land, when he died. The sentiments 
of Purcell's English admirers were 
voiced in numerous poems, praising 
him as a man and artist. 

Purcell's works include twenty-nine 
odes or welcome songs for special 
occasions; music to fifty-one plays; 
about one hundred anthems, hymns, 
and church-services; some two hun- 
dred songs, duets, trios, and catches; 
fantasias for strings, similar to those 
of Orlando Gibbons; two sets of vio- 
lin sonatas; organ and harpsichord 
music. There was a Purcell Club 
from 1836 to 1863, but not until the 
Purcell Society was founded in 1876 
was a complete edition of his works 


started. Fourteen volumes have 
now been published. The Yorkshire 
Feast Song; Masque in Timon of 
Athens; Dido and .(Eneas; Duke of 
Gloucestershire's Ode; twelve sonatas 
of three parts; harpsichord and organ 
music; ten sonatas of four parts; ode 
on St. Cecilia's Day, Hail Great Ce- 
cilia; Dioclesian; three odes for 
St. Cecilia's Day, written in 1683; 
birthday odes for Queen Mary; The 
Fairy Queen; sacred music; and wel- 
come songs. A complete list of his 
works is given at the end of volume 
thirteen. The research which was 
necessary in publishing this set has 
brought about a considerable change 
of opinion about the dates of Purcell's 
dramatic compositions. 

Music was not in a very propitious 
state at the advent of Purcell, and it 
is remarkable that his works should 
have been so great. The Puritans had 
destroyed many of the organs and 
most of the church-music; there had 
never been opera in England, it being 
only in its beginning in Italy and 
France; and there were no great pred- 
ecessors to follow, for the great 
masters were yet unborn or in their 
infancy; yet here was a musical genius 
whose sacred works exercised a great 
influence over Handel, and whose dra- 
rnatic music foreshadowed the prin- 
ciples of Gluck and Wagner. In his 
works he not only showed himself 
a master of contrapuntal devices, but 
did not fear to introduce bold and 
unheard-of harmonies, frequently using 
false relations effectively, nor to ex- 
tend the existing melodic forms, and 
employ in a most ingenious way the 
meager orchestra at his command, 
not only in his stage but in his church- 
music. He often repeated his phrases, 
and sometimes overdid in illustrating 
the words, as by making the bass 
descend to double D on the word 
" down " in they that go down to 
the sea in ships. Perhaps his great- 
est accomplishment was his perfect 
accentuation, an art in itself. His 
beauties in composition were entirely 
his own, while his occasional bar- 
barisms may be considered as un- 
avoidable compliances with the age 
in which he lived. The following 
words of Charles Burney are often 
quoted by the zealous admirer of the 
great English composer: "While a 
Frenchman is loud in the praise of a 
Lully and a Rameau; the German in 
that of a Handel and a Bach; and 




the Italian of a Palestrina and a Per- 
golesi; not less is the pride of an 
Englishman in pointing to a name 
equally dear to his country, for Pur- 
cell is as much the boast of England 
in music as Shakespeare in the drama, 
Milton in epic poetry, Locke in meta- 
physics, or Sir Isaac Newton in 
mathematics and philosophy." The 
attitude is still the same, only, nowa- 
days. Englishmen are more active in 
showing their admiration. In Novem- 
ber, 1895, the bicentennial of Purcell's 
death was celebrated. The pupils of 
the Royal College of Music, under the 
direction of C. V. Stanford, gave Dido 
and -ilineas at the Lyceum Theatre on 
the 20th. On the 21st a service was 
held in Westminster Abbey, at which 
his Te Deum and several of his an- 
thems were sung as nearly like the 
original as possible, and at the British 
Museum an exhibit of manuscripts, 
portraits and letters, under the direc- 
tion of William Barkley Squire, was 


Cummings, W. H. — Purcell. 1881. 

Dole, Nathan. — A Score of Famous 

Famous Composers and Their 
Works, edited by Paine, Thomas 
and Klauser. 

Hogarth, George. — Musical His- 
tory. Memoires of the Opera. 

Rockstro, W. S. — History of Music. 

Smith, Fanny. — Century Library of 

Streatfield, R. A. — History of 
Opera. Modern Music Musicians. 

Pye, Kellow John. 1812-1901. 

English pianist and composer; born 
at Exeter. He studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music from 1823 to 1829 
under Cipriani Potter in piano and 
Doctor Crotch in composition, and 


the next year went back to his native 
place, where he lived until 1840. Took 
the degree of Bachelor of Music from 
Oxford in 1842, and then lived in Lon- 
don, where he was on various com- 
mittees of the Royal Academy of 
Music, the National Training School 
and the Royal College of Music. He 
was also a fellow of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music and a member of the 
Madrigal Society, of which he was 
vice-president in 1891. His works 
consist of anthems; madrigals; glees 
and songs; and some piano-music. 

Pyne (pin), Louisa Fanny. 1832-1904. 

Famous English soprano. Her 
father and uncle were both singers, 
and she early showed ability She 
studied under Sir George Smart, and 
in 1842 sang in public. In 1847 she 
created great enthusiasm in Paris, 
and in 1849 made a successful debut 
as Amina in La Sonnambula at Bou- 
logne. Returning to England she 
appeared on the stage for the first 
time in London, as Zerlina in Don 
Juan. In 1854 she came to America, 
and created quite a furor, while in 
New York giving free concerts for 
the high schools and asylums. Re- 
turning to England in 1856 she and 
Mr. Harrison formed their well- 
known English opera company, which 
played until 1862. Her last engage- 
ment was at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
and after marrj^ing Mr. Frank Bodda, 
in 1868, she retired and taught sing- 
ing. Her voice was exquisitely rich 
and flexible, her power of vocaliza- 
tion remarkable, and though she em- 
ployed ornament it was with good 
taste. Her acting was no less com- 
mendable than her singing. Among 
her roles were Bohemian Girl, Rose 
of Castile, Maritana, Lurline, Daugh- 
ter of the Regiment and Traviata. 


Quadri (kwa-dre), Domenico. 1801- 


Born at Vicenza, Italy. Studied 
under Marchesi and Pilotti. Aside 
from teaching he devoted his time to 
theoretical research. In 1830 he pub- 
lished two parts of a work, La 

Ragione armonJca, which advocated 
the system of building up chords by 
thirds. The next year he opened 
a school in Naples for teaching har- 
mony. In 1832 he published another 
work on the same order, Lezioni 
d'armonia. His innovation was not 




looked upon favorably by other 
musicians, and such was their oppo- 
sition that he was forced to submit. 
This ruined his life, and he died in 
poverty in Milan. 

Quagliati (kwal-ya'-te), Paolo. 

Lived in Rome. Was a harpsichord 
player, and in 1612 was chapelmaster 
of Santa Maria Maggiore. The year 
before receiving this appointment he 
published Carro di fedelta d'amore, 
one of the oldest musical dramas in 
existence. This work contained 
monodies and ensemble-numbers up 
to five voices. In 1620 he published 
Mottetti and Dialoghi. 

Quaisain (ka-saii), Adrian. 1766-1828. 

Parisian singer and dramatic com- 
poser. Studied under Berton and ap- 
peared in public in 1797. His first 
known composition was performed in 
1798, an operetta, entitled Silvain et 
Lusette, ou la Vendange. From 1799 
to 1819 he was leader of the orches- 
tra in the Theatre de I'Ambigu-Comi- 
que. He composed a large number 
of melodramas. Some of his works 
are La Musicomanie, Les deux 
ivrognes, and Les amants absents. 

Quantz (kvants), Johann Joachim. 


Born at Oberscheden, Hanover, 
where his father was a blacksmith; 
he early showed his tendency for 
music. When eight years old he 
played the doublebass at village fes- 
tivals. His father died when he was 
ten and his uncle, the town musician 
of Merseburg, undertook his musical 
education. When nineteen he ob- 
tained a position as oboeist under 
Heine in the town orchestra at 
Dresden. He went to Vienna, where 
he studied counterpoint under Zelenka 
and Fux. In 1718 he became a mem- 
ber of the Royal Polish Orchestra at 
Dresden and Warsaw. In 1724 he 
was sent by the Count of Saxony to 
Rome, where he at once took up the 
study of counterpoint with Gasparini. 
The next year he went to Naples, 
where he made the acquaintance of 
Hasse, Scarlatti, Leo and other em- 
inent musicians. After a tour of 
cities in Italy and France he arrived 
in Paris, where he spent seven 
months. Here he made some im- 
provements in the flute, which instru- 
ment he took up after a course of 
study under BuflEardin. In 1728 he 


played before Frederick the Great at 
Berlin, who was so pleased with him 
that he engaged him for lessons on 
the flute. When Frederick ascended 
the throne, in 1740, he appointed 
Quantz chamber musician and Court 
composer, which position he held 
until his death. He composed three 
hundred concertos and two hundred 
other pieces for the flute. He also 
published a flute method that was 
translated into French and Dutch; 
and a publication entitled Application 
pour la fliite traversiere a deux clefs. 

Quarenghi (kwa-ran-ge), Guglielmo. 


Violoncellist; born at Casalmag- 
giore. Studied in the Milan Conserv- 
atory from 1839 to 1842. In 1850 he 
was appointed first cello at La Scala 
Theatre, and the next year became 
professor of the cello at the Conserv- 
atory. He was also made chapter- 
master of the cathedral in 1879. His 
works include an opera, several 
masses, quartets, caprices, fantasies, 
etc., for violoncello, and some songs. 
He also published an excellent cello 

Queisser (kvls'-ser), Carl Traugott. 


Renowned as a trombone-player. 
Born at Doben, near Leipsic. His 
musical talent early asserted itself 
and, while still young, he learned to 
play the usual orchestra instruments. 
At seventeen years of age he obtained 
a position to play the violin and 
trombone in the town orchestra. In 
1830 he became principal trombone- 
player in the Gewandhaus Orchestra, 
Leipsic. For many years he belonged 
to Matthais' quartet, in which he 
played the viola. He also played that 
instrument in the Gewandhaus during 
his later years. He was one of the 
founders of the Leipsic Euterpe, and 
for some time was leader of its or- 
chestra. Though he was well known 
throughout Germany, there is no rec- 
ord of his ever leaving his country. 
He far surpassed any trombone- 
player of his time, and many works 
were composed especially for him by 
such authors as C. G. Miiller, F. 
David. Meyer and Kummer. 

Quidant (ke-dan), Alfred- 1815-1893. 

Eminent pianist and composer; born 
at Lyons. In 1831 he entered the 
Paris Conservatory, soon after ob- 
taining a position in firard's ware- 



rooms to exhibit pianos, which 
position he held for thirty years. His 
compositions are mostly piano-pieces 
which have become very popular. He 
died in Paris. 

Quinault (ke-no), Jean Baptiste 
Maurice. -1744. 

Very little is known of this accom- 
plished man. From 1712 to 1718 he 

had a position as singer in the 
Theatre Frangais in Paris, and until 
1733 was also an actor there. He set 
to music more than twenty pieces 
which include intermedes, ballets, 
etc. He composed a grand ballet in 
four acts which was produced at the 
Grand Opera in 1729. He retired 
about ten years before his death, 
which occurred in Gien. 


Raaff (raf), Anton. 1714-1797. 

Celebrated tenor; born at Holzen, 
near Bonn; was educated for a priest, 
and did not even learn to sing by 
note until he was twenty; but upon 
hearing him sing, the Elector placed 
him under Fernandini at Munich; 
later he studied under Bernacchi at 
Bologna, and made an Italian debut 
at Florence in 1738, singing after- 
wards on the Italian stage. In 1742 
he returned to Bonn, and for ten 
years sang at a number of German 
courts, notably Vienna. He went to 
Lisbon where he sang in Italian 
Opera; then to Madrid, where he 
sang under the direction of Farinelli 
with whom he went to Naples. He 
returned to Germany in 17/0, where 
he became a court musician to the 
Elector Karl Theodor at Mannheim 
and went with him to Munich, where 
he remained till his death. The year 
previous, however, he had been in 
Paris with Mozart, who wrote for 
him the part of Idomeneo, and also 
the air known as " Se al labro mio." 
He possessed an exceptional voice, 
both in quality and compass, un- 
usually distinct enunciation, and the 
ability to sing with a power of ex- 
pression that equaled his execution. 

Rachmaninoff (rakh-man' -ne-nof), 
Sergei Vasselievitch. 1873- 
Noted contemporary Russian com- 
poser; born in Novgorod, and received 
h'is first piano lessons from his 
mother. At nine years of age he 
entered the Conservatory in St. 
Petersburg, later was transferred to 
Moscow, where he became a pupil 
of Siloti for piano and Arensky for 
theory, and in 1891 won the great 

gold medal for piano-playing, also the 
next year was awarded highest honors 
for composition. He has made con- 
cert tours in Russia both as pianist 
and as director. In 1899 he visited 
London, and there conducted his 
fantasia for orchestra at a Philhar- 
monic concert, also appearing as a 
pianist. In 1902 he played at Vienna. 
His chief reputation is as a composer. 
By many he is considered the most 
promising of the Russian composers 
since Tschaikowsky. His one-act 
opera, Aleko, was successfully pro- 
duced at Moscow, but most of his 
compositions are for piano. His or- 
chestral compositions include a fan- 
tasia; The Cliff, based on a poem by 
Lermontov; Bohemian caprice, based 
on gypsy themes, and a symphony. 
His operas are Aleko; The Bohe- 
mians; The Avaricious Knight; and 
Francesca da Rimini. He has writ- 
ten between thirty-five and forty 
songs, about half in Russian, and 
fourteen with German words, also a 
cantata. Spring; an Elegiac trio, 
dedicated to Tschaikowsky; a sonata, 
a prelude and a dance. His piano 
compositions include two suites and a 
fantasie; two concertos; a set of 
twenty-two variations on a Chopin 
prelude; Morceaux de fantaisie; and 
a number of smaller piano-pieces, in- 
cluding a serenade in B minor, a 
Humoreske, a Barcarolle, six Musical 
Moments, a Nocturne, an Elegy, 
Polichinelle, a waltz, two melodies, 
and ten or twelve preludes. His 
Melodie in E minor is based on a 
folk-song theme, and is characteristic 
of the Russian spirit. These, at least, 
are not wanting in the deep feelincr 
and skill in contrast which are attrib- 

uted to his larger works. Edward 
Burlingame Hill, in an article in the 
£tude for May, 1905, says that while 
it is j'ct too early to determine the 
precise rank of Rachmaninoff among 
contemporary composers, he stands, 
together with Scriabine, at the head 
of the younger generation of Russian 

Radecke (ra-dek-e), Robert. (Albert 

Martin.) 1830- 

German pianist, organist and vio- 
linist; born at Dittmansdorf, Silesia; 
received his earlier musical education 
at the Gymnasium, Breslau, from 
Ernst Kohler in organ and piano, 
Liistner in violin, and Brosig in com- 
position. In 1848 he entered the 
Leipsic Conservatory, where he stud- 
ied under Moscheles and Haupt- 
mann. He became first violin in the 
Gewandhaus Orchestra in 1850, and 
second conductor of the Singing So- 
ciety in 1852, David being chief 
conductor; the next year he was musi- 
cal director of the City Theatre, 
Leipsic, for a short time, leaving this 
post to serve a year in the German 
army, after which he settled in Ber- 
lin, where he entered into a success- 
ful musical life, appearing in public 
as pianist, organist, and second vio- 
linist in a quartet, also giving con- 
certs, both choral and orchestral, from 
1858 to 1863. In the latter year he 
was appointed musical director of 
the Court Theatre, and Royal Court 
conductor in 1871. On the death of 
Stern, in 1883, he succeeded him as 
artistic director of the Stern Con- 
servatory, a post he held till 1888. In 
1887 he withdrew from the director- 
ship of the Court Opera, and in 1892 
became director of the Royal Insti- 
tute for Church Music in Berlin, suc- 
ceeding August Haupt, who had died 
the preceding year. He became a 
member of the Berlin Academy in 
1874, and of the Senate in 1882. Of 
his works, the songs, including solos, 
duets, trios and quartets, are most 
numerous; Die Monkguter, a one-act 
vaudeville, was produced at Berlin, 
1874; two piano trios and a number 
of orchestral works, comprising two 
overtures, two scherzos, a Nachtstiick, 
a symphony, a capriccio, etc., com- 
plete the list. 

Radecke, Rudolf. 1829-1893. 

Conductor and teacher of music; 
born at Dittmansdorf, Silesia, brother 



of Robert; was a pupil of Baumgart 
and Mosewius at the Academical In- 
stitute for Church Music in Breslau, 
and then entered the Leipsic Con- 
servatory, where he studied under 
Rietz, Hauptmann and Moscheles. 
From 1859 to 1864 he lived in Berlin 
as a private teacher, and in the latter 
jear began teaching in the Stern Con- 
servatory, where he remained till 
1871, and also conducted the Cecilian 
Society. In 1868 he gave up this lat- 
ter post, and organized a Choral So- 
ciety known by his name; the next 
year he founded and became director 
of a musical institute. He composed 
songs, choruses, orchestral and cham- 

Radotuc (ra-doo), Jean Theodore. 

Dramatic composer; born at Liege, 
son of an artisan, received his first 
lessons in music from his father, and 
later became a pupil of Daussoigne- 
Mehul in counterpoint and fugue, and 
Bacha in bassoon, at the Conserv- 
atory, where on the latter's death in 
1856, he succeeded him as teacher of 
the bassoon. In the same year he 
won the first prize for piano-playing. 
In 1857 his Te Deum was performed 
at the Liege Cathedral, and two years 
later his cantata, Le Juif errant, won 
the Grand Prize of Rome, at Brus- 
sels. This enabled him to study in 
Paris under Halevy, and in 1872 he 
became director of the Liege Con- 
servatory. In 1877 the order of Leo- 
pold was conferred upon him. He 
was a prolific composer of works 
which are held in estimation in his 
own country. They include the comic 
operas Le Bearnais and La coupe 
enchantee, an oratorio, The Daughter 
of Jephthah, Le Printemps, two sym- 
phonic tone-pictures, and Ahasuerus; 
The Feast of Balthasar; a symphonic 
overture, Epopee nationale; other 
national hymns and symphonies; 
church-music, male choruses, and 
songs; songs without words and other 
music for piano. 

Radziwill (rat-tse-vil), Prince Anton 

Heinrich. 1775-1833. 

Amateur violoncellist, vocalist and 
composer; a Prussian; born at Wilna; 
an enthusiastic music-lover and a gen- 
erous patron of the art, Beethoven's 
music being the especial object of his 
admiration. He married Princess 
Louise, sister of Prince Louis Fer- 





dinand of Prussia, well known as an 
able amateur musician. Radziwill 
was considered an excellent singer, 
and his musical activities were such 
that Beethoven dedicated to him his 
Namensfeier Overture. Radziwill's 
best known composition is the inci- 
dental music to Goethe's Faust, which 
was performed frequently in Ger- 
many. Other works are romances for 
voice and piano; other songs with 
cello and guitar; vocal duets; part- 
songs and male quartets; Complaint 
of Maria Stuart, with cello and piano. 

Raff (raf), Joseph Joachim. 1822- 

Follower of the romantic school of 
music and a prolific composer, who 
rose from poverty through his un- 
tiring energy and fortitude and made 
himself a leader of the Nineteenth 
Century musical world. He was born 
in the town of Lachen on Lake 
Zurich. His father, an organist and 
teacher, came from the Black Forest 
region of Germany. He studied at 
the Jesuit Lyceum at Schwyz, where 
he showed musical ability. At an 
early age he learned to play the organ 
and sang in the choir, but he was 
given no musical instruction. When 
he left the Lyceum he became a Latin 
tutor at St. Gallen, and later went to 
Rapperswyl. He studied piano and 
violin by himself and also started to 
compose. In 1843 he sent one of his 
compositions to Mendelssohn, who 
became interested in him and used 
his influence in getting some of the 
young musician's work published. 
Raff next met Liszt, who took him 
on a concert tour. While on this 
journey, he met Mendelssohn at 
Cologne. Mendelssohn persuaded him 
to leave Liszt and become his pupil 
at Leipsic; but the great master's 
death prevented the plan from mate- 
rializing, and Raff remained at 
Cologne. There he wrote criticisms 
for Siegfried Dehn's Cacilia, and also 
published a pamphlet on " The Wag- 
ner Question." He was still in 
straightened financial circumstances, 
so Liszt succeeded in interesting 
Mechetti, a publisher in Vienna, in the 
young composer; but while Raff was 
on the way to Vienna, the death of 
the publisher put an end to his hopes 
in that direction. Raff then divided 
his time between Weisenstelen and 
Stuttgart. He composed an opera. 
King Alfred, which was accepted by 

the Court Theatre, but was never 
performed. At Stuttgart in 1848 
he met von Biilow, at that time a 
law student though devoted to music. 
He brought Raff before the public by 
performing his Concertstiick for piano 
and orchestra. In 1850 he met Liszt 
at Hamburg and went with him to 
Weimar, where he became identified 
with the new German school of music. 
His opera, King Alfred, in revised 
form, was produced at the Court 
Theatre there. It still holds a place 
there but was never performed out- 
side of Weimar, and was not as well 
received as the composer had hoped 
it might be. Partly for this reason 
he turned his attention to instru- 
mental music, bringing out his Mes- 
senger of Spring, a collection of 
piano-pieces; a string quartet and a 
grand sonata. About this time he 
became engaged to an actress, Doris 
Genast, granddaughter of Goethe's 
favorite actor, and in 1856 he accom- 
panied her to Wiesbaden, where he 
became a successful piano teacher. In 

1858 he published his second violin 
sonata and music to William Genast's 
drama, Bernhard von Weismar. In 

1859 he was married. His first sym- 
phony. In the Fatherland, took the 
first prize of the Society of the 
Friends of Music of the Austrian 
Empire, in a trial of thirty-two com- 
petitors. Another symphony In the 
Forest, is considered his master- 
piece. His Dame Kobold, a comic 
opera, was given at Weimar. He 
composed another opera, Samson, 
of which he wrote both libretto and 
music, but it was never performed. 
In 1877 he became director of the 
New Conservatory at Frankfort, 
which he conducted with great suc- 
cess until his sudden death by heart 
disease in 1882. Raff composed an 
enormous amount of music, two hun- 
dred and thirty pieces in all. Much 
of it is drawing-room music of a 
rather trivial character, which he was 
forced to write from financial need. 
His nine symphonies, his concertos, 
and his chamber-music are his noblest 
efforts. Other works are thirty songs; 
two symphonies, In The Forest, and 
Lenore; a piano concerto and a suite 
for violin and orchestra. In general 
his musical style is impressionistic. 
He sacrificed technique and science to 
vivid impression and sentiment con- 
stantly, and had a strange fault of 
overestimating the power of music to 




give definite sensations or ideas. 
W. J. Henderson says of him, " Raff 
may not deserve a seat among the 
Titans of music, yet his originality, 
his grace of thought and his Oriental 
gorgeousness of utterance lift him 
above the level of mediocrity and 
stamp him as a man possessed of 
rare and valuable gifts. His larger 
works show every evidence of artistic 
earnestness, and had he been less 
imbued with impressionistic ideas and 
more free from the burdens of 
poverty, he might have attained per- 
fection of art." 

Raif (rif), Oscar, 1841-1899. 

Noted piano teacher; born at The 
Hague; of mixed descent, including 
Turkish, Italian and Swiss ancestors, 
he was " proud to call himself a 
Dutchman." His first music lessons 
were received from his father, Carl 
Raif, but he turned his attention to 
painting for several years. About the 
age of eighteen, he took up music 
study under Tausig, and soon rose 
into high esteem as a pianist, being 
distinguished from the majority of his 
contemporaries on the concert stage 
by his natural and artistic interpreta- 
tions. Raif's health failed and he was 
compelled to give up private practise 
as well as public playing. In this 
crisis he concentrated his attention 
on the work of teaching, and in 1875 
was appointed professor of piano at 
the Royal High School of Music, Ber- 
lin. He formulated an original system 
of technic, in which a prominent fea- 
ture is that of using the thumb very 
softly in technical practice. In com- 
mon with several prominent American 
teachers, Raif largely discarded the 
use of piano studies of purely tech- 
nical type, condensing essentials into 
a concise form, known as his " Pocket 
Technique," and thus leaving more 
time for the development of the musi- 
cal understanding, in which he is said 
to have been especially successful in 
training his pupils, making them in- 
dependent in working new numbers 
for their repertory, both in technic 
and interpretation. He left but few 
compositions, the only ones of which 
we can find any mention being a 
piano concerto, and a sonata for vio- 
lin and piano. Raif married one of 
his pupils. Unlike the majority of 
musicians, he found his most con- 
genial friends among other profes- 
sions; he was modest, very popular 


with his pupils, both as a teacher and 
as a man, and almost " too indifferent 
about public opinion." 

Raimondi (ra-e-mon'-de), P i e t r o. 


Italian composer and contrapunt- 
ist; born at Rome. His parents were 
poor, and the expenses of his musical 
education were paid by a relative. He 
spent six j'ears as a pupil of La Bar- 
bara and Tritto at the Conservatory 
called " della Pieta di Turchini," 
Naples, while quite young, then led a 
wandering life for some years, living 
at various tirnes in Rome, Florence 
and Genoa; in the latter place he 
brought out a comic opera. La Biz- 
zarria d'amore. Here he remained 
for two more years, producing as 
many operas, then began his travels 
once more, and up to 1824 spent a 
year at a time in Florence, Naples, 
^lilan and Rome, until proffered the 
directorship of the Court Theatre at 
Naples. In 1832 his first marked suc- 
cess, II ventaglio, a comic opera 
produced the previous year, which be- 
came popular, and was performed 
all over Italy, was instrumental in 
obtaining for him a professorship 
in composition in the Palermo Con- 
servatory, where he remained for 
eighteen years. Two years after his 
retirement from this post, he suc- 
ceeded Basili as chapelmaster of St. 
Peter's, Rome, in which city occurred 
in August, 1852, the performance of 
three separate oratorios of his own 
composition, viz., Potiphar, Pharaoh 
and Jacob. This musical feat aroused 
overwhelming applause, which, it is 
said, so overcame the composer that 
he fainted, and is thought to have led 
to the causes which produced his 
death the next year. Raimondi was 
a most prolific composer, having 
brought out in all about sixty operas, 
and over twenty ballets, most of 
which were successful at the time; 
also, besides the oratorios mentioned, 
five others; four masses with orches- 
tra, two masses for double choir with- 
out accompaniment; two four-part 
requiems with orchestra; one requiem 
in eight, and one in sixteen parts; a 
sixteen-part credo; much other 
sacred music, including the entire 
book of Psalms set in the st\'le of 
Palestrina and two Sinfonie religiose. 
These prodigious contrapuntal intri- 
cacies were, however, but the cul- 
minating works among a number of 




similar efforts, as Raimondi had also 
written a set of four vocal four-part 
fugues and another of six for four 
voices. Raimondi published several 
treatises explaining the methods he 
used in making these combinations; 
but, notwithstanding the skill, energy 
and patience requisite to such pro- 
ductions, his works have proved of 
little value to posterity. 

Rainforth, Elizabeth. 1814-1877. 

English dramatic soprano; was a 
pupil of George Perry and T. Cooke, 
and made a successful operatic debut 
as Mandane in Arne's Artaxerxcs; 
studied afterward under Crivelli, and 
from 1837 appeared in oratorio as 
well as many prominent concerts, in- 
cluding the Philharmonic and the 
Concert of Ancient Music. She sang 
for five years prior to 1843 at Covent 
Garden, and in that year created the 
part of Arline in Balfe's Bohemian 
Girl at its initial performance, Drury 
Lane. In the next year she sang in 
DubHn. From 1852 to 1856 she lived 
in Edinburgh, and then retired to 
private life, removing in 1858 to Old 
Windsor, teaching in that vicinity 
until 1871, and finally to her father's 
home in Bristol. She died at Red- 
land, Bristol. Her success vy^as due to 
intelligence and dramatic ability, com- 
bined with a sweet and equable voice 
of high range, which lacked, however, 
the power requisite for the heaviest 

Ratnann (ra'-man), Bruno. 1830- 

German teacher and composer; 
cousin of Lina; born at Erfurt, and 
began a commercial career, which he 
followed until nearly thirty years of 
age, and then laid aside for music. 
After some study under Brendel and 
Riedel, and five years' work under 
Hauptmann at Leipsic, he settled at 
Dresden as a teacher, and composed 
more than fifty works, including a 
number of songs and part-songs and 
piano-pieces, but nothing of real 

Ramann, Lina. 1833- 

German teacher of and writer on 
music; born at Mainstockheim, but 
was denied the advantage of lessons 
imtil the removal of her parents to 
Leipsic in 1850, when she became a 
pupil of the wife of Franz Brendel, 
and of Brendel also, Frau Brendel 
having been a pupil of Field. After 
a period of lessons for several years, 


she studied alone and in 1858 founded 
at Gluckstadt a normal school of 
music for women, where they received 
training for the profession of teach- 
ing. In 1865, together with Ida Volk- 
mann, she established a music school 
at Nuremburg, where she superin- 
tended a faculty of teachers selected 
for their excellence. From 1860 she 
was also musical correspondent of the 
Jahreszeiten, at Hamburg; and her 
contributions to this periodical were 
published in 1868 under the title, Aus 
der Gegenwart. The same year a 
didactic work. Die Musikals Gegen- 
stand der Erziehung, was published 
at Leipsic, and the next year, 1869, 
her Allgemeine Erzieh — und Unter- 
richts Jugend. In 1880 appeared a 
work on Liszt's oratorio, Christus, 
and she later edited a collection of 
all his writings. Other publications 
are a twelve volume Grundiss der 
Technik des Klavierspiels, and Bach 
und Handel. Her chief literary work 
was a biography of Liszt, much of the 
information for which was obtained 
direct from the great pianist. She 
also composed several sonatinas, and 
other music for piano. 

Rameau (ra-mo), Jean Philippe. 1683- 


Eminent French theorist, organist 
and dramatic composer, called the 
founder of modern harmony; was 
born at Dijon, the eldest son of musi- 
cal amateurs who gave him lessons. 
He read harpsichord music at sight 
when seven years old; was sent to 
the Jesuit College, but spent so much 
time at his music to the neglect of 
his studies that he was dismissed as 
incorrigible, and his father abandoned 
his original plan of making a magis- 
trate of him The boy now studied 
the violin and organ, but there being 
no competent teacher of harmony in 
his native town his theoretical edu- 
cation was left to take care of itself. 
A premature love-affair caused his 
father to send him to Italy in 1701, 
where he stayed but a short time, not 
liking Italian music, and joined a 
traveling French company as violin- 
ist. After several years of wandering 
he returned home, refused a position 
as organist in Dijon and went to 
Paris, where he studied under Mar- 
chand, then a favorite organist in that 
city, who discerned a probable rival 
in Rameau, and in a competition for 
the position of organist at St. Paul's, 



used his influence in favor of an 
inferior musician, while Rameau was 
obliged to accept a position outside 
of Paris, at Lille. He soon went to 
Auvergne to succeed his brother 
Claude. He retained this post for a 
number of years, during which time 
he composed and began the study of 
harmony, in which previous instruc- 
tion had been denied him. This re- 
sulted in the production of his treatise 
on harmony, setting forth a system 
of his own, based on certain theories, 
viz., the reduction of all possible 
chord combinations to a definite num- 
ber of primary chords, taking the 
common chord as the fundamental 
basis, and building others by thirds 
from its component tones; second, 
the harmonic identity of a chord and 
its various inversions; third, the con- 
struction of a fundamental bass which 
consisted of an assumed series of 
tones forming the roots of the respec- 
tive chords. Of these three hypoth- 
eses, the second has become an 
established principle in harmony, 
while the others, on subsequent in- 
vestigation and application, proved 
impracticable and misleading. Rameau 
himself recognized these early errors 
and his conceptions changed after 
the publication of his earlier works. 
Rameau's claim to the title of the 
founder of modern harmony consists, 
with the exception of the law of in- 
verted chords, rather in the impulse 
which his works gave to later inves- 
tigations than in the stability of his 
original system. It was left for later 
theorists to discover the true laws 
of the derivation of dissonant chords 
from consonant chords. The publicity 
and the fame which followed the 
printing of his works brought him 
many pupils. Rameau was not at 
liberty to remove to Paris as soon as 
he wished because of his contract as 
organist and, being much liked in this 
capacity, found it impossible to shorten 
his engagement by a request for re- 
lease; so he resorted to a stratagem, 
and began to play so badly that, pro- 
tests being of no avail, the authorities 
were at last glad to dismiss him, 
though, after securing the longed-for 
discharge, he plaj'ed his last service 
in his accustomed style for his own 
satisfaction and the pleasure of his 
listeners. In 1721 he reached Paris, 
and the next year his first work, 
Traite de I'harmonie, appeared. His 
compositions for clavier also attracted 


attention, and before long he became 
popular as a teacher and was ap- 
pomted organist of Ste. Croix de la 
Bretonnerie. In 1726 he married 
Marie Louise Mangot, an attractive 
young musician and singer, and the 
marriage proved happy in spite of 
Rameau's twenty-five years of senior- 
ity. This same year was published 
his Nouveau Systeme de Musique 
Theortique. Others followed, in- 
cluding a treatise concerning accom- 
paniment on clavecin or organ; 
Generation harmonique; Demonstra- 
tion du principe de I'harmonie; Nou- 
velles reflexions sur la demonstration; 
and Code de musique pratique, being 
his last published theoretical work. 

By middle life, Rameau turned 
aspiring efforts toward grand opera. 
He became acquainted with M. de la 
Popeliniere, the fermier-general who 
was a man of wealth and influence, 
and whose wife was a harpsichord 
pupil of Rameau. He introduced 
the composer to Voltaire, to whom 
Rameau is said to have borne a 
striking resemblance, and the result 
was a libretto by the famous writer, 
known by the title of Samson. 
Rameau worked eagerly at this, and 
the opera, when completed, fully sat- 
isfied both his librettist and his pa- 
tron, but not the manager of the 
Academie, who objected to the 
biblical subject. The next year he 
was successful in making his debut 
with Hippolyte et Aricie, founded on 
Racine's Phedre. It did not, how- 
ever, attain favor with the public. 
Rameau's style was characterized by 
improvements over the best of his 
rivals' works that were innovations, 
and therefore not enjoyed or appre- 
ciated at first. His originality em- 
bodied itself in bold harmonies, 
unusual rhythms, and a new manner 
of writing for the orchestra, especially 
for the wood wind-instruments, which 
were now for the first time given 
separate and individual parts. After 
the first shock subsided, the public 
began to like his music. His ballet- 
opera, Les Indes Galantes, was a suc- 
cess. Two years afterward csme his 
masterpiece. Castor et Pollux, and for 
over twenty years he dominated the 
French stage. Other operas were 
Les Fetes d'Hebe and Dardanus; La 
Princesse de Navarre; Les Fetes de 
Polyhymnie; Le Temple de la Gloire; 
Les Fetes de I'Hymen et de I'Amour; 
Zais; and Pygmalion; Platee ou 



Junon jalouse; Neis; Zoroastre; 
Acanthe et Cephise; La Guirlande; 
and La Naissance d'Osiris; Daphnis 
et Egle; Lycis et Deli'e; Le Retour 
d'Astree; Anacreon; Les Surprises de 
I'Amour; Les Sybarites; and Les 
Paladins, which, though written at the 
age of seventy-seven, showed no 
weakening of the composer's mental 
powers. He composed cantatas with 
choruses and also motets during the 
earlier part of his career, but never 
wrote so happily for voices as for 
instruments, a fact due in some meas- 
ure to his indifference or aversion to 
Italian music in his youth. That he 
realized this is evident from a con- 
fession he made at sixty years of age, 
declaring that if he were twenty years 
younger he would visit Italy and 
study Pergolesi's works with a view 
of supplementing his deficiencies in 
declamation and acquiring the grace- 
ful and melodious qualities in which 
LuUy was his superior. 

In the period from 1740 to 1745, 
during which he produced no operas, 
he composed considerable music for 
clavier, including sonatas, variations, 
etc., some of which were written with 
" accompaniments " for flute, violin 
and viola. Some numbers from his 
various collections of clavier-pieces 
have been published in later works; 
Pauer's Old French Composers, and 
Popular Pieces by Rameau, are ex- 
amples; also Mereaux's Les Clave- 
cinistes. Ferrenc's Tresor des 

pianistes contains a reprint of two 
collections entire, and Riemann edited 
a complete edition of all Rameau's 
works for clavier. Many of these are 
well worth the pianist's attention. In 
addition to these, he left some for 
organ, and a number of pamphlets, 
some being of a controversial nature. 

Rameau was appointed chamber 
composer to the King in 1745, and 
received honors in later life; a pen- 
sion from the director of the Grand 
Opera, a patent of nobility and the 
order of St. Michael from the King 
After his death, which occurred at the 
age of eighty-one, from typhoid fever, 
his funeral was solemnized at Paris 
by ceremonies befitting the foremost 
musician of his day, while memorial 
services were held in many other 
places. The music for the funeral 
was performed by the orchestra and 
chorus of the Grand Opera, and the 
mass embodied numbers arranged 
from Castor and Pollux, and other 


lyrical works by the composer. Sev- 
eral portraits of Rameau are in exist- 
ence, notably one in the Dijon Mu- 
seum, by Chardin. A bust was placed 
in the library of the Paris Conserv- 
atory, and at Dijon a memorial statue 
in bronze was unveiled in 1880. A 
life-size statue is placed in the vesti- 
bule of the Paris Opera House. 
Rameau is described as " tall and thin 
almost to emaciation," with a face 
" furrowed by deep wrinkles, an 
aquiline nose, broad and open fore- 
head, and prominent cheek-bones. 
The mouth was large, the look frank 
and bold, and indicative of energy, 
perseverance and will-power." Of 
his characteristics as a composer, 
W. J. Henderson says: "He was a 
more sincere artist (than LuUy), with 
a self-sacrificing devotion to high 
ideals of which Lully was quite in- 
capable. The story of Rameau's early 
struggles and of his late recognition 
by force of sheer merit is far different 
from_ that of Lully's courtier-like 
machinations . . . Rameau was a 
much more truthfully dramatic com- 
poser than Lully, and at the same 
time he was a better musician 
. . . that he was not wholly able 
to escape affectation is due largely to 
the taste of the period in which he 
lived." His work contains many pas- 
sages of true musical worth, and he 
exerted a strong influence upon 
French Opera, though perhaps not so 
much directly as indirectly through 
his legitimate successor, Gluck, He 
improved, however, the mode of writ- 
ing for chorus, as well as orchestra, 
in his operas; but many of his libret- 
tos were unworthy, and unfortunately, 
he seemed to look upon the words 
more as a framework upon which to 
hang the music than as an equally 
important part of the opera; his ideals 
required the best in music, but not 
necessarily the best in words. He is 
said to have been somewhat irascible, 
usually self-absorbed, resenting ordi- 
nary interruptions as intrusions on his 
time, yet ready and willing to respond 
to_ the calls of necessity, either in 
friends or relatives. All his known 
actions^ indicate straightforwardness, 
simplicity and indomitable persistence 
in pursuit of his artistic ambitions. 

* Randegger (ran'-ded-jer), Alberto. 


Italian composer and vocal teacher; 
born at Trieste, and showed musical 




ability first at thirteen years of age. 
He was then placed under Tivoli, and 
later Lafont, an organist, for piano 
lessons, and Luigi Ricci for composi- 
tion. Through these teachers Ran- 
degger became familiar with operatic 
affairs and various compositions in a 
practical way. At eighteen he met 
Verdi; a little later he himself com- 
posed several pieces of church-music 
and two ballets, which were produced 
at Trieste, and in collaboration with 
several fellow-pupils of Ricci wrote a 
comic opera, II Lazzarone, which was 
also produced at Trieste. From 1852 
to 1854 he was musical director at 
theatres in five different Italian cities. 
While at Brescia he produced a grand 
opera of his own, Bianca Capello. He 
was engaged by an Italian manager, a 
coadjutor of ^lax Strakosch, to come 
to New York to conduct Italian 
Opera, and also to bring out his new 
opera, but was prevented by an epi- 
demic of cholera. He was induced to 
go to London instead, became a 
teacher of singing, and also conducted 
and composed. From 1859 to 1870 he 
was organist and choirmaster of a 
London church, and also studied com- 
position under Molique; but aside 
from his teaching he was most promi- 
nent as an operatic composer. In 
1857 he became conductor of Italian 
Opera at St. James' Theatre, and in 
1868 professor of singing at the Royal 
Academy of Music. From 1879 to 1885 
he was conductor of the Carl Rosa 
Opera Company; from 1887 to 1898 of 
grand opera at Drury Lane Theatre 
and Covent Garden, and for two years, 
from 1895 to 1897, of the Queen's 
Hall Choral Society, introducing 
Saint-Saens' Samson and Delilah. 
From the resignation of Julius Bene- 
dict in 1881 he was conductor of the 
Norwich Festival. He is recognized 
as an authority on oratorio, as well as 
opera, and edited vocal selections 
from the works of Handel and Men- 
delssohn. He is a careful student of 
scores, and has a fine library contain- 
ing many of these, which, together 
with his books, number about two 
thousand. He is now seventy-five 
years old. His compositions include 
The Rival Beauties; the dramatic can- 
tata, Fridolin; dramatic scenes, 
Medea, and SaflFo; funeral anthem in 
memory of Prince Albert; scene, The 
Prayer of Nature; also a setting of 
the 150th Psalm, written for the Bos- 
ton Jubilee of 1872. He has published 


numerous songs, and his Primer of 
Sineing is considered an important 

Randhartinger (rant - hart' -ing-cr), 
Benedict. 1802-1894. 

Austrian musician; born at Ru- 
prechtshofen. Lower Austria; studied 
under Salieri in Vienna, where at the 
age of ten he was a soprano soloist in 
the Court choir. During this period 
Schubert was his fellow-student and 
became his intimate friend. Rand- 
hartinger studied law, and was secre- 
tary to Count Szechenyi for ten years. 
In 1832 he became tenor singer in the 
Court choir, and twelve years later 
was appointed vice-chapelmaster to 
the court, succeeding Assmayer as 
chief chapelmaster in 1862. Four 
years later he retired. Randhart- 
mger's own compositions number 
over six hundred, more than one hun- 
dred having been published. These 
include an opera, Konig Enzio; two 
symphonies; a quintet and two quar- 
tets; twenty masses; sixty motets; 
several hundred songs; nearly one 
hundred part-songs; music for piano. 
He ajso published a book of Greek 
liturgies, and a collection of Greek 
national songs. 

Rappoldi (rap-pol'-dc), Eduard. 1839- 

Noted Austrian violinist and' com- 
poser; born at Vienna, and began his 
music study very early under Dole- 
schall. In his seventh year he ap- 
peared publicly as a violinist, pianist 
and composer. Studied under Jansa, 
later under Hellmesberger at the 
Vienna Conservatory, and under 
Bohm. He also studied composition 
at the Conservatory under Sechter 
and Hiller. He played in the Opera 
orchestra at Vienna from 1854 to 1861. 
From 1861 to 1866 he was leader of 
the German Opera at Rotterdam, and 
was conductor successively at Liibeck, 
Stettin and Prague. From 1870 he 
was teacher at the Royal School of 
Music, Berlin, where he was a col- 
league of Joachim and a member of 
his quartet. In 1876 he was made a 
Royal professor. In 1877 he became 
orchestral conductor of the Dresden 
Opera, and later became the headship 
of the violin department in the Dres- 
den Conservatory. In 1874 he married 
Laura Kahrer. He has composed a 
number of symphonies, sonatas, in- 
strumental quartets and sqIos, and 



Rappoldi, Laura Kahrer- 1853- 

Distinguished pianist; born at Mis- 
telbach, near Vienna; was a pupil of 
Dachs and Dessoff at the Vienna Con- 
servator}' for several years, taking first 
prize at the age of sixteen, and after 
traveling as a concert-player through 
the principal towns in Germany, 
studied under Liszt, and rose to the 
front rank of German pianists. 

Rasoumowsky (ra - zoo - mof - shki), 
Count Andreas Kyrillovitsch. 1752- 

Russian art-patron and amateur 
violinist, said to have been the son of 
a peasant, and to have been made a 
nobleman by the Empress. He was 
Russian ambassador at several differ- 
ent cities, last in Vienna, where he 
married in 1788 the Countess Eliza- 
beth, sister of Carl Lichnowsky, 
known to musical history as the 
patron of Beethoven. In 1808 he 
organized a string quartet in which he 
played second violin, and which per- 
formed Haydn's quartets. Beethoven 
dedicated to him the three quartets 
known as the Rasoumowsky quartets. 
The quartet as he organized it re- 
mained intact for eight years; at 
the end of that time his place in it 
was filled by Sina. The first violin was 
Schuppanzigh, the viola player was 
Weiss, and the violoncellist Lincke. 
Beethoven mentions the quartet in a 
letter written about 1825. 

Rastrelli (ras-trel'-le), Joseph. 1799- 

German violinist and composer; 
born at Dresden; the son of Vincenzo 
Rastrelli (1760-1839), a well-known 
teacher of singing, and composer to 
the Court Chapel m Dresden. Joseph 
studied the violin under Poland, and 
harmony under Feidler, and in 1814 
accompanied his father to Bologna, 
where he became a pupil in counter- 
point of his father's former teacher, 
Mattel. Returning to Dresden in 1817 
he became a violinist in the Court 
Orchestra, and in 1829 second conduc- 
tor of the Court Opera; the next year 
he was appointed Court conductor. 
He composed several operas, pro- 
duced at Ancona, Milan and Dresden; 
Salvator Rosa, given in the last 
named city in 1832, being the one of 
most importance; also motets, ves- 
pers and masses, one of the last in 
eight parts; a ballet, and incidental 
music to Macbeth. 

* Ratez (ra-tes), £mile Pierre. 1851- 

French composer; born at Besan- 
Qon; was a pupil of Demol in the 
music school of that city. He secured 
his musical education by studying in 
his leisure hours. He won first prize 
for violin-playing and musical theory 
in the Besancjon Music School, and 
from 1872 to 1881 studied under Mas- 
senet and afterward Bazin at the 
Paris Conservatory, where in 1876 he 
came out first in a contest in counter- 
point and fugue. In Paris he was 
viola-player in the orchestra of 
the Opera Comique, the Theatre 
Italien, and of the concerts given 
by Colonne, under whom he became 
chorusmaster in 1878, retaining this 
post for three years. In 1891 he 
became director of the Lille branch 
of the Paris Conservatory. His works 
include chamber-music; three trios, a 
quartet and a quintet for piano and 
strings; a string quartet and a string 
trio; a sonata for violin, one for viola, 
and one for violoncello, all with piano; 
a number of suites and other pieces 
for one or two violins with piano. He 
has written a large number of smaller 
pieces for various orchestral instru- 
ments, including an elegie for trom- 
bone and a legende for harp. He 
has composed two operas, Lyderic, 
and Paula Besanqon; also a sym- 
phonic poem. Scenes heroiques. Be- 
sides this latter, he has to his credit 
a sinfonietta, a symphonic overture, a 
rhapsodic, and a suite for trumpet and 
orchestra; has also published a trea- 
tise on harmony, a treatise on elemen- 
tary counterpoint and fugue, sets of 
vocal exercises, and studies for piano 
and for violin. 

Ratzenberger (rat - sen -berkh - er), 

Theodor. 1840- 

German pianist; born at Gross- 
breitenbach, Thuringia; was a pupil of 
Liszt in piano, and Cornelius in 
theory. He gave successful concerts 
at various Swiss cities, and in 1859 
became Court pianist at Sondershau- 
sen. After touring again in Switzer- 
land, also in Paris and Belgium, he 
settled as a teacher at Lausanne in 
1864, and finally in Dusseldorf, 1868. 
His compositions, songs and piano- 
pieces are few and unimportant. 

Rauchenecker ( row' - khe - nek - er ), 

Georg Wilhelm. 1844- 

German composer; born at Munich; 
was a pupil in piano and in violin of 



Theodor Lachner, in counterpoint of 
Baumgartner, and in violin of Joseph 
Walter. From 1860 to 1862 he was 
violinist at the Grand Theatre, Lyons, 
then became chapelmaster at Aix and 
Charpentras, and in 1868 became di- 
rector of the Avignon Conservatory; 
in 1873 he became musical director 
at Winterthur, and the next year his 
cantata, Niklaus von der Fliie, was 
produced at the Zurich Musical Fes- 
tival, and won a prize. For one sea- 
son he conducted the Philharmonic 
concerts at Berlin. In 1889 he became 
musical director at Elberfeld, where 
three operas of his composition were 
produced with success, Die Letzen, 
Tage von Thule, Ingo, and Sanna. 
Another opera, Le Florentin, and a 
symphony remain in manuscript. Two 
of his string quartets have often been 
played by the Florentine Quartet. 

Rauzzini (ra-ood-z8'-n«), Venanzio. 


Famous Italian tenor and composer; 
born at Rome; studied under a singer 
in the Pontifical Chapel, and made his 
debut in 1765; in 1767 sang first in 
Vienna, and soon afterward in Mu- 
nich, where four of his operas were 
produced. In 1774 he removed to 
London, where he sang in opera and 
in concert, and became the most fash- 
ionable vocal-teacher of his day. Here 
he brought out four more operas, and 
in 1787 went to Bath, where he con- 
tinued to teach, gave concerts, and 
entertained Haydn for several days. 
He died at Bath. 

His brother, Matteo, was born at 
Rome, 1754, and made his debut in 
Munich, bringing out a comic opera, 
Le finte gemelle, in 1772, having 
joined his brother there two years 
earlier. He went with him to Eng- 
land, but soon left for Dublin, where 
he taught singing till his death, in 
1791. He produced in Dublin, 1784, 
the opera II Re pastore. 

Ravenscroft, Thomas. 1582-1635. 

Chorister at St. Paul's, under Ed- 
ward Pearce; he received the degree 
of Bachelor of Music from Cambridge 
in 1607. He published several collec- 
tions of rounds and catches, including 
among others the first collection of its 
kind printed in England: Pammelia 
Musickes Miscellanie; or Mixed Vari- 
etie of pleasant Roundelays and de- 
lightful Catches of 3 to 10 Parts in 
one, 1609. The most important of his 


publications was The Whole Book of 
Psalms, with the Hymnes Evangeli- 
call and Spirituall. Several sonatas 
for stringed instruments of Ravens- 
croft's composition were published in 
1695 at Rome. 

Ravera (ra-va'-ra), Niccolo Teresio. 

Italian operatic composer; born at 
Alessandria; received his musical edu- 
cation at the Conservatory of Milan, 
where he won the first prize in each 
of three different branches — organ, 
piano, and composition. He later 
became conductor of the orchestra of 
the Theatre Lyrique de la Galerie- 
Vivienne in Paris. His operas are 
comic opera, Lucette et Colni; 
Fiamma; Le divorce de Pierrot, comic 
opera; La Mare au Diable, called a 
pastoral lyric; and Estelle. 

Ravina (ra-ve'-na), Jean Henri. 1818- 


French pianist and composer; born 
at Bordeaux; was a pupil of Laurent 
in theory, and Zimmermann in piano at 
the Paris Conservatory, where in 1832 
he won the second prize for piano and 
the first in 1834; the next year he also 
took the first prize for harmony and 
accompaniment, and was assistant 
teacher in the Conservatory. He 
studied also under Reicha and Lei- 
borne, and in 1837 began work as a 
concert pianist, and also taught in 
Paris, where he made his home. His 
tours included Russia and Spain, as 
well as France. In 1861 he was made 
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
His compositions include concerto for 
piano; twelve etudes de style; twenty- 
five etudes harmonieuses; twenty-five 
etudes mignonnes; and a number of 
graceful piano-pieces of the salon 
type, including variations and tran- 
scriptions. He also arranged for 
duets Beethoven's sets of variations 
and nine symphonies. 

Rea (ra), William. 1827- 

English organist, pianist and con- 
ductor; born in London; was an organ 
pupil of Pittman, and acted as his as- 
sistant. In 1843 he became organist 
of Christ Church, and continued his 
musical study under Sterndale Ben- 
nett, taking piano and composition, 
and appearing in concert as a pianist. 
His next post as organist was at St. 
Andrew's, Undershaft, and in 1849 he 
went to Leipsic, where he studied 




under Moscheles and Richter, and 
later under Dreyschock at Prague. In 
1853 he founded the Polyhymnian 
Choir, and proved an able and pains- 
taking director of this and of an ama- 
teur orchestral society. In 1858 he 
became organist at St. Michael's, 
Stockwell, and two years later was 
appointed organist to the corporation 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he held 
several consecutive church positions 
in addition, gave orchestral concerts, 
organ and piano recitals, and con- 
ducted various musical organizations. 
He also had Antigone performed in 
1876 at the Theatre Royal, and up to 
1897, or possibly later, conducted the 
Newcastle Amateur Vocal Society. In 
1880 he became organist at St. Hilda's, 
South Shields. He received an hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Music from 
Durham in 1886, was elected honorary 
Fellow of the College of Organists, 
and in 1888 resigned his corporation 
appointment. His wife was a pianist 
of local importance, and assisted him 
in the work of raising the musical 
standard of Newcastle. He composed 
anthems, songs and organ-pieces. 

Read, Daniel. 1757-1836. 

American composer and music- 
teacher; born at Rehoboth, Mass.; 
followed the trade of comb-maker, but 
also taught music and composed 
hymn-tunes, some of which are still 
used, including Lisbon, Russia, Sher- 
burne, Winter and Windham. He 
also published The American Singing 
Book; The American Musical Maga- 
zine; The Child's Instructor in Vocal 
Music; Columbian Harmonist; and 
the New Haven Collection. He died 
in New Haven. Read's work is inter- 
esting historically, and was prophetic 
of the versatility of the modern 
American musician. 

Reading, John. 

English organist; lay-vicar of Lin- 
coln Cathedral in 1667, and in 1670 
master of choristers. From 1675 to 
1681 he was organist of Winchester 
Cathedral, and in the latter year 
became organist of Winchester Col- 
lege. He was the composer of a 
hymn, Dulce Domum, contained in 
the collection. Harmonica Wiccamica, 
and presumably of the Adeste fideles, 
known as the Portuguese hymn. 

Reading, John. 1677-1764. 

English organist and composer; 
son of the preceding; was a chorister 


of the Chapel Royal under John 
Blow; in 1700 became organist of 
Dulwich College; in 1702 left this post 
and became lay-vicar of Lincoln 
Cathedral, and the next year also 
master of choristers. In 1707 he 
returned to London, where he held 
the position of organist in several 
different churches. He died in Lon- 
don. His compositions include A 
Book of New Songs with Symphonies; 
Thoroughbass fitted to the Harpsi- 
chord; and A Book of New Anthems. 
The Portuguese Hymn has also been 
ascribed to him. 

Reay (ra), SamueL 1822- 

English organist and composer; 
born at Hexham, England; was a 
choir-boy in Durham Cathedral, and 
pupil of Henshaw, the organist, after- 
ward studying under J. Stimpson at 
Newcastle, succeeding him as organist 
of St. Andrew's. About 1864 he 
became organist and song-school- 
master at the parish church of New- 
ark-on-Trent, and also conductor of 
the Newton Philharmonic Society. In 
1871 he received from Oxford the 
degree of Bachelor of Music. He has 
composed church-music as follows: 
Morning and evening services in F; 
anthems, hymns, madrigals, and nu- 
merous part-songs. He has edited, 
with Gauntlett and Bridge, the collec- 
tion, Tunes, New and Old, and also 
Songs and Ballads of Northern 
England, by Stokes. In 1879 he per- 
formed in London an English stage- 
setting of Bach's two cantatas. Coffee, 
and Peasants. This was their initial 
performance in England. 

Rebel (ru-bel), Frangois. 1701-1775. 

French violinist and operatic com- 
poser; born in Paris; son of Jean 
Ferry; was his father's pupil, and at 
thirteen entered the Opera orchestra, 
where he became an intimate friend 
of Francoeur, another member of the 
orchestra. They composed together 
ten operas, and were conjointly lead- 
ers of the Opera orchestra from 1733 
pointed inspector-general of the Opera 
mspectors, and from 1753 to 1757 
were still associated as directors of 
the Opera. In 1772 Rebel was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the Opera 
by Louis XV., to whom he was 
previously superintendent of music. 
He died at Paris. Besides operas he 
produced cantatas, a Te Deum, a De 
Profundis, etc. 



Rebel, Jean Ferry. 1669-1747. 

p'rench violinist and composer of 
chamber-music; born in Paris, and in 
1699 was violinist at the Grand 
Opera, becoming later accompanist, 
and in 1707 conductor. He also be- 
came Royal chamber composer, and 
one of the King's twenty-four violin- 
ists. His compositions include an 
opera, Ulysse, which contained a bal- 
let movement, La Caprice, which re- 
mained popular for years. He wrote 
violin solos for insertion in other 
similar works; also sonatas and trios 
for two violins. 

Rebello (ra-bel'-lo), Joao Scares. 


Portuguese composer; born at 
Caminha; entered at the age of fifteen 
the service of the royal family of 
Braganza, and was the teacher of 
King John IV., who dedicated to him 
his pamphlet on the " Defense of 
Modern Music." Rebello ranks among 
the greatest of Portuguese musicians. 
His published works include a book 
in seventeen volumes of Psalms in 
sixteen parts, lamentations, misereres 
and magnificats. The rest were never 
published, and a number of them, 
principally masses, are preserved in 
manuscript at Lisbon. He died at 
San Amaro, near Lisbon. 

Reber (ru-ba), Napoleon Henri. 1807- 

French composer and theorist; 
born at Muhlhausen, Alsace; received 
his musical education at the Paris 
Conservatory under Reicha and 
Lesueur, and became professor of 
harmony there in 1851 and of com- 
position in 1862, as Halevy's succes- 
sor. He was appointed in 1871 an 
inspector of the branches of the Con- 
servatory, and died in Paris nine 
years later, Saint-Saens succeeding 
him as professor of composition at 
the Conservatory. Reber was con- 
sidered one of the best instructors 
ever connected with that institution, 
and his Treatise on Harmony took a 
place among the best modern works 
on the subject, being especially dis- 
tinguished for clearness and sim- 
plicity. The following comic operas 
by him were brought out at the 
Opera Comique: Le diable amoureux; 
La nuit de Noel; Le pere Gaillard; 
Les papillotes de M. Benoist; Les 
dames capitaines. Another, Le mene- 
trier a la cour, and a grand opera. 

Nairn, were not produced, but the 
overtures to these were published. 
His instrumental works, which are 
considered of superior quahty and 
belong properly to the German 
School of classical composition, in- 
clude four symphonies; a suite; an 
overture, Roland; scenes lyriques; 
also a quintet and three quartets; 
quartet and seven trios; solos and 
duets; Ave Maria, and Agnus Dei; and 
over thirty songs with piano accom- 
paniment, and vocal exercises for 
high voice. 

Rebicek (ra'-bi-tsek), Josef. 1844- 

Violinist and conductor; born at 
Prague; was a pupil of the Conserv- 
atory there for six years. In 1861 he 
became a member of the Court Or- 
chestra at Weimar; in 1863 leader of 
the orchestra at the Bohernian Na- 
tional Theatre, and in 1865 of the 
German Royal Landestheatre, both at 
Prague; in 1868 leader at the Royal 
Theatre of Wiesbaden, and in 1875 
Royal music director; in 1882 opera 
director and leader at the Imperial 
Theatre of Warsaw; in 1891 conductor 
at the National Theatre at Pesth. In 
1893 he went once more to Wies- 
baden, as conductor of the Court 
Theatre; finally removing to Berlin, 
where he succeeded Mannstadt as 
conductor of the Philharmonic Or- 

Rebling (rap'-ling), Gustav. 1821- 

German organist and composer; 
was born at Barby, Magdeburg. 
Studied under Friedrich Schneider at 
Dessau from 1836 to 1839, and then 
became organist of the French church 
at Magdeburg. In 1847 he succeeded 
Miihling as instructor in music at the 
seminary; in 1853 was Cathedral choir- 
master and vocal-teacher at the Gym- 
nasium; and in 1856 musical director 
to the court. In 1858 he became 
organist of the Church of St. John. 
In 1846 he founded a church choral 
society, but retired in 1897. He com- 
posed psalms without accompaniment 
for from four to eight voices; motets; 
songs; organ and piano-music; and a 
sonata for cello. 

Redan, Karl. See Converse, Charles 

Redhead, Richard. 1820-1901. 

English organist and composer; 
born at Harrow; was a choir-boy at 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and a 





pupil of Vicary, the organist. From 
1839 to 1864 he was organist of Mar- 
garet Chapel, now known as All 
Saints' Church, London, and later 
became organist of St. Mary Magda- 
lene's Church, Paddington. He set 
the Psalms and Canticles to the 
Gregorian tones, under the name of 
Laudes Diurnae, considered his best 
work. He was also organist of St. 
Andrew's, laying the foundation of the 
choral service subsequently used there. 
His compositions are almost without 
exception for _ the Episcopal Church 
service, and include a selection of 
chants; responses; Laudes Diurnas, 
the Psalter and Canticles with Morn- 
ing and Evening service; the Order 
for Morning and Evening Prayer, 
with Litany and Proper Psalms; 
Proper Psalms, together with the 
Gospel Canticles set to Ancient Psalm 
Tunes; Metrical Litanies; music for 
the Office of the Holy Communion; 
O, My People, an anthem for Good 
Friday; numerous other collections of 
hymns and services, and anthems; 
also The Universal Organist, a col- 
lection of Short Classical and Modern 
Pieces, in five volumes. He edited 
the Cathedral and Church Choir 
Book. He was the composer of the 
familiar setting of the hymn. Rock of 
Ages. He died at Hellingly, Sussex. 

Ree (ra), Anton. 1820-1886. 

Pianist; born at Aarhus, Jutland; 
studied at Hamburg under Jacques 
Schmidt and Karl Krebs. From 1839 
to 1842 he traveled, appearing in con- 
cert in Vienna and Paris, where he 
studied under Chopin, and then set- 
tled at Copenhagen as a teacher. He 
contributed to various musical peri- 
odicals, and composed a number of 
piano-pieces, principally suitable for 
teaching. He also published a book 
of exercises and a book, Musik his- 
toriske Momenter. He died at Copen- 

Reed, Thomas German. 1817-1888. 

English singer, pianist and conduc- 
tor; born at Bristol; appeared at Bath 
as a singer and pianist when ten 
years old; was organist of the Cath- 
olic Chapel, Sloane Street, London; 
and in 1838 succeeded his father as 
musical director of the Haymarket 
Theatre, but gave up this post in 1851 
for a similar one at the Olympic, 
where he remained till 1853. In 1838 
he was chapelmaster of the Royal 

Bavarian Chapel. In 1844 he married 
Priscilla Horton, and with her estab- 
lished the series of quasi-theatrical 
performances known as " Mr. and 
Mrs. German Reed's Entertainments," 
giving small plays in dialogue form. 
Reed died at Upper East Sheen, 

Reed, Mrs. Thomas German. 1818- 


Priscilla Horton was an actress and 
contralto-singer of much ability who, 
prior to appearing in her husband's 
entertainments, was well known in 
the plays of Shakespeare as revived 
by Macready, and in pieces by 
Planche at the Haymarket. She re- 
tired in 1879, and died at Bexley 

Reeves, David Wallis. 1838- 

American bandmaster, cornet vir- 
tuoso, and military composer; born at 
Oswego, New York. He was chiefly 
self-instructed, but received some les- 
sons in violin and cornet from Thomas 
Canham. He was leader of a circus 
band, and subsequently went to New 
York, where he became a member of 
Dodworth's Orchestra, and studied 
harmony under Jacob Kochkeller. 
After a trip with a minstrel company 
to England he returned to this coun- 
try and took the position of solo 
cornet in Dodworth's band. In 1866 
he became director of the American 
band and orchestra at Providence, 
Rhode Island, in which position he 
remained for over twenty-five years. 
This organization improved greatly 
under his leadership. He has also 
been the bandmaster of several mili- 
tary organizations, conductor of the 
Rocky Point Musical Festivals from 
1875 to 1878, and director of the 
Rhode Island Choral Association; has 
made concert tours as cornetist in 
Europe, as well as America, playing 
in the chief cities of England, Ger- 
many, and the United States. His 
compositions include two comic 
operas. The Ambassador's Daughter, 
and The Mandarin Zune; over seventy 
marches for military bands, besides 
transcriptions and arrangements for 
band and orchestra. Some of his 
works have been very popular. 

Reeves, John Sims. 1818-1900. 

English tenor, known generally as 
Sims Reeves; the son of a musician 
in the Royal Artillery band, from 
whom he received his early instruc- 




tion in music. Biographers differ as 
to the time and place of his birth. As 
a boy he possessed a soprano voice 
and sang occasionally in concert; and 
at the age of fourteen he became 
organist of a church in North Cray, 
Kent, and a pupil of Callcott in har- 
mony and of J. B. Cramer in piano, 
also learning to play on the violin, 
cello, oboe and bassoon. In 1839 he 
made his debut as a barytone in the 
part of Rudolpho in La Sonnambula 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne. He next stud- 
ied under Hobbs and Cooke, and sang 
minor parts for tenor in various 
operas at Drury Lane from 1842 to 
1843. Further study followed under 
Bordogni at Paris and Mazzucato at 
Milan. His debut as tenor was made 
at La Scala Theatre, Milan, 1846, as 
Edgardo in Lucia di Lammermoor^ 
and the next year he appeared in the 
same role at Drury Lane, after which 
his fame was assured. In 1848 he 
ippeared in Italian Opera in London, 
and for over thirty years sang in 
opera, concert and oratorio, being 
known as the greatest tenor ever pro- 
duced by Great Britain, and a prime 
favorite in his own country and the 
provinces, to which his appearances 
were principally confined. After 1881 
he appeared in public but seldom, and 
in 1891 gave a farewell concert in 
London and turned his attention to 
teaching, but pecuniary troubles 
caused him to reappear in 1893, after 
which he sang in concert and in 
variety theatres. In 1896 he made a 
tour of South Africa. He died at 
Worthing, in 1900, while on a visit 
to his son. His first wife, Emma 
Lucombe, was herself a soprano of 
ability in opera and concert, and 
their son Herbert, also a tenor, made 
his London debut in 1880. 

Reger (ra'-ger), Max. 1873- 

Noted contemporary composer; 
born March 19, 1873, at Brand, near 
Weiden, Bavaria. His first lessons 
were on the piano, given by his 
mother when he was about five j^ears 
old. He attended school at Weiden, 
where his father, Joseph Reger, 
taught music at the preparatory school. 
After studying under the organist, 
Lindner, he took harmony and organ 
lessons from his father, and entered 
the preparatory school to fit himself 
for school-teaching. In 1888 he at- 
tended a performance of Parsifal and 
Die Meistersinger at Bayreuth, hear- 


ing an orchestra for the first time. 
The strong impressions received from 
this concert incited him to composi- 
tion, and the next year, after having 
passed his school examinations, he 
submitted his attempts at orchestral 
writing to Hugo Riemann, who there- 
upon advised him to follow music as 
a profession. In the spring of 1890 
he went to Sondershausen and con- 
tinued his study of piano, organ and 
theory under Riemann, who soon re- 
rnoved to Wiesbaden. Reger followed 
him, and while studying taught piano^ 
organ, and finally theory at the Con- 
servatory for several years. In 1891 he 
began to publish his compositions. 
Following his year of military service 
a severe illness compelled his return 
home in 1898. Two years later he 
settled in Munich, where he was pro- 
fessor of organ, harmony and coun- 
terpoint at the Academy, succeeding 
Erdmannsdorffer as conductor of the 
Porgesscher Gesangverein. In 1906 
he left Munich for Leipsic, where he 
is now director of the University. He 
has received the title of " royal pro- 
fessor" from the Saxon ministry de- 
cently. In the thirty-five years of his 
life he has attained a wide reputation 
as a prolific composer of works that 
are much discussed. So far they are 
principally for piano and for organ, 
and have reached the opus number 104. 
Several German critics have ranked 
him with the four greatest composers 
of variations, his works in that line 
outnumbering Brahms. His latest 
work, variations and fugue for orches- 
tra on a theme by Hiller, has excited 
considerable comment. It was per- 
formed in this country at a concert at 
the Academy of Music in Philadel- 
phia, in December, 1907. His organ- 
music includes a set of fifty-two 
choral preludes, which form an attrac- 
tive introduction to modern organ- 
playing; the two sonatas; a fantasia 
and fugue on the name Bach; a set 
of variations, and fantasias on old 
German chorales. These works show 
the influence of Bach, which is also 
said to be noticeable in his four vio- 
lin sonatas. A recent work is a violin 
concerto. Other chamber-music in- 
cludes a serenade for flute, violin and 
viola; sonatas for cello, for violin and 
for clarinet; a string quartet; a trio 
for strings; numerous piano solos, in- 
cluding waltzes and Lose Blatter 
(Loose Leaves), and duets. He has 
written no operas nor large choral 




works, but his three sacred cantatas, 
based on old German chorales, bear 
considerable resemblance to Bach's. 
Of his two hundred or more songs 
there are a few which are worthy to 
rank with the best of modern works 
in this line. Reger's talent, or genius, 
is purely instrumental, his accom- 
paniments to the songs being usually 
overelaborate, and the voice taking 
a part so subordinate that, in the 
words of Ernest Newman, it is 
" stretched out like a piece of elastic 
web in order to cover the distended 
frame upon which it is set." For 
orchestra, besides the recent work 
mentioned, he has published only a 
serenade of symphonic proportions 
and of much beauty. It was per- 
formed in London at a Promenade 
concert, and has been given by the 
Thomas Orchestra in Chicago. By 
many Reger is considered the greatest 
composer for the organ since Bach's 
time; at any rate, he is a leading 
figure in the musical world today. 
Personally he is said to be a striking 
figure, over six feet tall, with a large 
head, strong features, and somewhat 
stern expression, with a robust and 
aggressive individuality. 

Regibo (ra'-zhe-bo), Abel Benjamin 

Marie. 1835-1897. 

Belgian composer; born at Renaix; 
pupil of his father, choir-director of a 
college there. At thirteen was sent 
to the Conservatory at Ghent, where 
he studied piano under Heyndericks 
and harmony under Mengal, winning 
first prize for the latter in 1850; he 
also studied counterpoint under Ge- 
vaert. In 1854 he was sent to the 
Brussels Conservatory and placed 
under Lemmens in organ and Fetis in 
composition. He was a prolific com- 
poser but his works are of no par- 
ticular importance. Two of these 
were trios for cello, piano and harmo- 
nium. His especial and unique work 
was the collection of ancient Belgian 
musical instruments, clavecins, dulci- 
mers and spinets. By degrees he 
accumulated the largest collection 
known in his day of clavecins made by 
prominent firms in Antwerp. In 1872 
he accepted a call to the directorship 
of a music school in Renaix, where 
he died. 

Regis (ra'-zhes), Johannes. 

Belgian composer of note; lived in 
the latter half of the Fifteenth Cen- 

tury, and was a contemporary of Oke- 
ghem, Caron and Busnois. In a 
collection of fragments of masses by 
various composers esteemed in their 
day, published by Petrucci in 1508, is 
found a credo; and in other collec- 
tions by the same printer are several 
motets and a four-part song by this 
composer. The Pontifical Chapel at 
Rome also contains some manuscript 
masses by Regis. 

Regnart (rekh'-nart), Jacob. 1540- 


Netherlands composer; born in 1540 
at Douai, Flanders. He was a choir- 
boy in the Vienna Court Chapel, and 
later became vice-chapelmaster to tht 
Emperor at Prague. He held that 
office to the Archduke Ferdinand at 
Innsbruck, later becoming chief chap- 
elmaster, and then returned to the 
Imperial Court at Ferdinand's death. 
His works include masses, motets, 
magnificats, etc., are dated from 1552 
to 1611, some of which were pub- 
lished posthumously. He also wrote 
numerous German songs. 

Rehbaum (ra'-bowm), Theobald. 1835- 
German violinist, composer and 
writer on music; born in Berlin. Was 
a choir-boy at the Cathedral, after- 
ward studying violin under Ries and 
composition under Kiel. He later 
lived at Wiesbaden. He produced a 
number of compositions for his instru- 
ment, including instructive works; 
songs and part-songs; and a number 
of operas, of which he wrote the 
librettos as well as the music, Don 
Pablo, Das steinerne Herz, and Tur- 
andot, and Oberst Lumpus; also Die 
Konskribirten, Das Weib des Una, 
and Der Goldschmidt von Paris. He 
also wrote librettos for other com- 

Rehburg (ra'-berkh), Willy. 1863- 

Swiss pianist; born at Morges, Swit- 
zerland, and received early instruction 
in music from his father, who was 
a pupil of Moscheles and a well-known 
teacher of music in that town. Willy 
played in public as a small boy of five 
or six, and later studied under Freund, 
Weber and Hegar at the School of 
Music in Zurich, and from 1882 to 
1885 under Reinecke and Zwintscher 
at the Leipsic Conservatory, remain- 
ing there afterwards as teacher of 
piano. In 1888 he began to conduct 
the subscription concerts of the Court 



Orchestra and also the singing society 
at Altenburg. In 1890 he gave up 
his work in Leipsic to accept the post 
of head professor of piano in the Con- 
servatory at Geneva, and in 1892 be- 
came director of the orchestra of the 
City Theatre there. He was appointed 
Court pianist to the Duke of Saxony. 
He has written for piano a sonata, 
and other pieces and studies, also a 
sonata for violin and piano. 

Reicha (ri'-kha), Anton. 1770-1836. 

Instrumental composer and theorist 
of distinction; born at Prague; a 
nephew and pupil of Joseph Reicha, 
composer, violinist and leader, after- 
ward conductor, of the National The- 
atre orchestra at Bonn, which the 
young Anton entered as a flutist at 
the age of eighteen, having studied 
that instrument and the piano as well 
as the violin. Here he gained much 
from his friendly association with 
Beethoven, who at that time played 
the viola in this orchestra. Six years 
later it disbanded; Reicha settled in 
Hamburg, teaching piano and working 
industriously at an opera, Obaldi, ou 
les Franqais en figypte, in order to 
bring out which he went to Paris in 
1799. This project failing, he was 
consoled to some extent by the 
successful production of two of his 
symphonies and several smaller instru- 
mental works at a noted series of con- 
certs. From 1802 to 1808 he lived 
in Vienna, where he renewed his for- 
mer intimacy with Beethoven, won 
also the friendship of Haydn, Salieri 
and Albrechtsberger, and published a 
number of compositions. The French 
invasion induced him to return to 
Paris, where he produced three comic 
operas, with only a fair degree of 
success, Cagliostro, Natalie, and 
Sapho. He became eminent as a 
teacher of composition, and among 
his pupils were Dancla, Elwart and 
Jelensperger. In 1818 he was ap- 
pointed professor of composition at 
the Conservatory as Alehul's succes- 
sor; married a Parisian woman, and 
became a naturalized citizen of France 
in 1829. He received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor in 1831 and became 
a member of the Institut in 1835, suc- 
ceeding to Boieldieu's place, but died 
the next year of a pulmonary attack. 
His compositions are as follows: For 
orchestra, two symphonies and one 
overture; diecetto for five stringed and 
five wind-instruments; octet for four 


stringed and four wind-instruments. 
Chamber-music: twenty quartets for 
strings; six quartets for flute and 
strings; one for flutes; one for flute, 
cello, bassoon and piano; six trios for 
strings; twenty-four for horns; one 
for cello; six duets for violins; twen- 
ty-two for flutes, and twelve sonatas 
for violin; sonatas, fugues, variations, 
studies, etc., for piano. A number of 
theoretical works from his pen were 
published in Paris; fitudes ou theories 
pour le piano; Traite de melodie; 
Cours de composition musicale; Traite 
de haute composition musicale; L'art 
du compositeur dramatique; also Petit 
traite d'harmonie pratique. As a 
theorist Reicha was much esteemed, 
his treatises being clear and logical. 
In his works he sought after novel 
eflfect, cleverly offsetting a lack of 
melodic ideas or natural inspiration. 

Reichardt (ri'-khart), Alexander. 1825- 


Noted operatic tenor; born in Packs, 
Hungary; was his uncle's pupil; made 
his debut in 1843 at Lemberg, in Ros- 
sini's Otello; then sang in Vienna at 
the Court Opera, and was engaged in 
London for the six successive seasons 
from 1851 to 1857, appearing success- 
fully in oratorio as well as opera, and a favorite in England, Scot- 
land and the British provinces. In 
1860 he removed to Boulogne, where 
he founded and conducted a choral 
society, and became president of a 
music school. He died in Boulogne. 
Reichardt composed a number of songs 
of a pleasing and popular nature, of 
which the best known was Thou Art 
So Near and Yet So Far. 

Reichardt, Gustav. 1797-1884. 

German vocal composer; born at 
Schmarsow, near Demmin; originally 
studied theology, but decided on a 
musical career, and became a pupil of 
Bernhard Klein. He settled in Berlin 
as a teacher, among his pupils being 
the Emperor Frederick, and here con- 
ducted the choral society for young 
men. His works number thirty-six, 
for the most part songs. He is best 
known as the composer of Was ist des 
Deutschen Vaterland? (Where is the 
German's fatherland?), widely sung in 
Germany. He died in Berlin. 

Reichardt, Johann Friedrich. 1752- 


German composer, conductor and 
writer on music; born at Konigsberg; 




studied piano and musical theory 
under the organist, Carl Gottlieb Rich- 
ter, and violin under Veichtner and 
studied philosophy at Leipsic. In 1775 
he applied for and obtained the post 
of Court chapelmaster to Frederick 
the Great. The year after his visit 
to Italy, in 1782, he organized the 
Concerts Spirituels for the perform- 
ance of new compositions, and wrote 
for these brief analytical programs, 
composing in the meanwhile, but 
keeping his own works for the most 
part in the background, until 1785- 
1786, when he visited London and 
Paris; in both cities he produced his 
Passion Music, and received a com- 
mission in the latter for two operas, 
Tamerlane and Panthee, to be given 
at the Grand Opera. The death of 
Frederick the Great, however, recalled 
him to Berlin and prevented their 
production. Frederick's successor, 
Friedrich Wilhelm IL, supported 
Reichardt in his endeavors to improve 
the Court music; the orchestra was 
increased, and Reichardt was dis- 
patched to Italy in search of new 
singers. His energetic and confident 
career had made enemies among the 
conservatives at court, who lost no 
time in informing the King of Rei- 
chardt's sentiments toward the French 
Revolution, unwisely expressed before 
his departure; and the result was three 
years* leave of absence, and then dis- 
missal in 1794. A period of retirement 
followed, which was devoted to com- 
position and musico-literary labors; 
and in 1796 he was appointed inspec- 
tor of salt works near Halle, in the 
vicinity of which he owned an estate. 
The year following, on the death of 
Friedrich Wilhelm II., he returned 
to Berlin to produce the funeral can- 
tata, and a little later brought out 
several operas. He was reinstated as 
Court conductor by Friedrich Wil- 
helm III. The French invasion of 
1806 drove him to Konigsberg, but he 
returned under compulsion of Jerome 
Napoleon, who appointed him Court 
conductor at Cassel, where he did not 
remain because of some difficulties 
with the authorities at Cassel, but 
went to Vienna, and endeavored to 
make a mark in that city, and, failing, 
retired to his estate at Giebichenstein, 
where he died later. 

Reichardt's best work was done in 
his vocal compositions; his German 
songs, aside from their historical value, 
possess intrinsic merit. Mendelssohn 


was a warm admirer of Reichardt's 
vocal works, and especially of the 
Morning Hymn, a setting of Milton's 
poem of that name, which ranks first 
of all his compositions. Besides this 
there are several other large choral 
works to his credit; a Passion Music, 
various cantatas, both secular and sa- 
cred, and other church-music; his 
numerous songs include settings of 
about sixty of Goethe's poems, four 
of these being in the form of Sing- 
spielen (a kind of operetta), viz.: 
Claudina von Villabella, Erwin und 
Elmire, Jery und Biitely, and Lilla; 
these, with his four other Singspielen, 
are considered important as being an 
influential factor in the growth of Ger- 
man Opera. 

He also composed considerable 
orchestral and chamber-music, includ- 
ing seven symphonies, an overture, 
fourteen concertos, and seventeen 
sonatas for piano; one concerto and 
eleven sonatas for violin; concertante 
for string quartet and orchestra; a 
sonata for flute; quintet for piano, 
two flutes and two horns; six trios 
for strings; and quartet for piano and 
strings. In musical literature he was 
also energetic, editing several musical 
periodicals, contributing numerous 
articles, largely of a critical nature; 
also autobiographical notes in the 
Berlinische Musikalische Zeitung. His 
larger published works include Studien 
fiir Tonkiinstler und Musikfreunde; 
Ueber die deutsche komische Oper; 
Ueber die Pflichten des Ripienviolin- 
sten; Briefe eines aufmerksamen Rei- 
senden; Schreiben iiber die Berlinische 
Musik; Vertraute Briefe aus Paris, 
. . . 1802-1803-1804-1805; Vertraute 
Briefe geschrieben auf einer Reisenach 
Wien, 1808-1809-1810. 

Reichel (rl'-khel), Adolf Heinrich Jo- 

hann. 1816- 

German composer; born at Tur- 
sznitz, West Prussia; studied both 
vocal and instrumental music under 
Brandt, cantor at Elbing, and after- 
wards composition under Louis Ber- 
ger and Dehn at Berlin. He traveled 
for some time in Germany and Swit- 
zerland, then settled in Paris as a 
teacher of piano, where he lived for 
fourteen years. From 1857 to 1867 he 
was teacher of composition at the 
Conservatory in Dresden, where he 
also conducted the singing society 
known as Dreyssig's, and then became 
musical director of the city of Berne. 



His compositions include concertos; 
preludes and fugues, sonatas, and 
mazurkas for piano; trios for piano 
and strings; choruses; and numerous 

Reichel, Friedrich. 1833-1889. 

German conductor, composer and 
teacher; born at Oberoderwitz, Lusa- 
tia, near Zittau; showed musical talent 
early, and at the age of tweh'e played 
five different instruments, as well as 
singing, with sufficient skill to take 
part in the church-music of his home 
village. He studied at Dresden under 
F. Wieck in piano and under Julius 
Rietz and Julius Otto in theory, and 
also attended for four years the 
teachers' seminary at Bautzen. After 
two years of elementary teaching in 
Dresden he went to Poland as a 
teacher of music, but returned to 
Dresden in 1857, where he conducted 
several musical societies, choral and 
orchestral, and in 1878 became the 
organist and precentor of St. John's, 
a position he held until his death. His 
compositions comprise thirty-two pub- 
lished works, including choruses, sym- 
phonies, piano-music, and songs, the 
principal ones being a Friihlings sym- 
phonie (spring symphony); motets; 
studies; and part-songs for male 
voices. His music in manuscript in- 
cludes two string quartets and an 
octet for wind-instruments. His oper- 
etta, Die Geangsteten Diplomaten, was 
produced in Dresden in 1875. 

Reicher-Kindermann (rl'-kher kin'- 
der-man), Hedwig. 1853-1883. 
German dramatic soprano; born at 
Munich; the daughter of the well- 
known barytone, Augfust Kindermann. 
Her earliest lessons were received 
from her mother on the piano; she 
later attended the School of Music in 
in her native city, where, on the advice 
of Wiillner, she gave up instrumental 
for vocal music, which she studied 
under her father. Her debut was 
made in a boy's part in Die Meister- 
singer at the Opera, Munich; then, 
after various minor appearances in 
Leipsic, Berlin and Carlsruhe, at the 
Gartnerplatz Theatre, Munich, where 
she married the actor, Reicher, and 
sang in light opera. In 1876 she ap- 
peared in two of Wagner's cycles at 
Bayreuth, then at Hamburg, where 
she created the part of Leah in Rubin- 
stein's opera, Maccabaeus; subsequent 
appearances included Monte Carlo, 


where she sang with much success, 
and Leipsic, where she made her 
debut at Fidelio, and remaining under 
Neumann's management there for two 
seasons, touring with his Wagner 
Company in London, Berlin and other 
German cities, lastly in Trieste, 1883, 
where she died. Her gifts as an 
actress and strong dramatic soprano 
voice were admirably suited to the 
production of the heroic and super- 
natural roles in which Wagner's 
operas abound. 

Reichert (ri-khert), Mathieu Andre. 


Concert flute-player and composer 
for his instrument; born at Maestricht, 
and entered the Brussels Conserva- 
tory, where he took first prize. He 
traveled as a virtuoso on extended 
tours in both Europe md America. 
His compositions for flute are charac- 
terized by technical difficulties. 

Reichmann(rildi'-man),Theodor. 1849- 

Famous operatic barytone; born at 
Rostock; studied at Berlin under Els- 
ler and Mantius, at Prague under 
Ress and the barytone, Lamperti, at 
Milan. Up to 1874 he appeared in 
opera at Berlin, Rotterdam, Strasburg, 
Cologne, Hamburg and Munich. In 
1882 he created the role of Amfortas 
in Parsifal, and in the same year was 
engaged at the Vienna Court Opera, 
where he sang until 1889; then came 
to this country, singing in German 
Opera at Xew York for a season, and 
later made long tours as a star, after 
which he sang again in the Court 
Opera at Vienna. 

Reid, John. 1721-1807. 

Scotch musical amateur; chiefly dis- 
tinguished for his bequest to Edin- 
burgh University for the purpose of 
founding and maintaining a professor- 
ship of music there. Born at Stra- 
loch, Perthshire, and was a student 
at the University mentioned. In 1745 
he was a lieutenant in the army, later 
becoming a general. In his will he 
provided that after the death of his 
daughter all his property should go to 
the L'niversity, including his music 
books, and directed that an annual 
concert should be given on his birth- 
day, and at this concert some pieces of 
his own composition should be per- 
formed by the band. This, says James 
D. Brown, was to " show the style of 
music that prevailed about the middle 
of the Eighteenth Century." 



Reimann (ri-man), Heinrich. 1850- 

Eminent German organist and musi- 
cal critic; born at Rengensdorf, Silesia; 
the son and pupil of Ignaz Reimann, 
and acted occasionally as a substitute 
for his father at the organ or piano. 
His father sent him to the Glatz Gym- 
nasium and afterward to Breslau, 
where he studied philology, also con- 
ducting a students* singing society 
and taking lessons of Brosig. After 
his graduation he taught at various 
gymnasiums, but gave up teaching to 
devote his entire time to music. He 
had already found time to conduct 
several societies, found a vocal school 
at Ratisbon and act as musical critic 
to the Schlesische Zeitung, besides 
writing various compositions and 
essays. In 1887 he settled in Berlin, 
where he rose rapidly to distinction in 
several lines of work, becoming 
musical critic on the Allgemeine Musi- 
kalische^ Zeitung, organist at the Phil- 
harmonic Society and of the Emperor 
Wilhelm Memorial Church, assistant 
librarian at the Royal Library and 
teacher of organ and theory at the 
Scharwenka - IClindworth Conserva- 
tory. He was prominent both as a 
performer on and composer for the 
organ, his works comprising sonatas, 
and studies. He published a biography 
of Schumann; Zur Theorie und Ge- 
schichte der byzantinischen Musik; 
and a collection of old songs. Das 
Deutsche Lied, arranged for use in 
concert. He died in Berlin. 

Reimann, Ignaz. 1820-1885. 

German church composer; born at 
Allendorf, Silesia; was a student at 
the Seminary, Breslau, and has to his 
credit twenty-four requiems, seventy- 
four masses, thirty-seven litanies, four 
Te Deums, four oratorios, eighty- 
three oflfertories, fifty graduals, and 
many compositions for use at wed- 
dings, funerals, and other services; 
besides nine overtures and other in- 
strumental pieces. 

Reinecke (ri'-nek-e), Carl. 1824- 

Eminent pianist, teacher and com- 
poser; born at Altona; received his 
entire musical education from his 
father. The first instrument that he 
learned was the violin, but later he 
turned his entire attention to the 
piano. In 1843 he played at a 
Gewandhaus concert Mendelssohn's 
Serenade and Allegro giojoso, the 


composer being present. His first con- 
cert tour was made that year through 
Denmark and Sweden. While in Leipsic 
he enjoyed the friendship of Men- 
delssohn and Schumann. After a sec- 
ond tour through northern Germany 
he became, in 1846, Court pianist at 
Copenhagen. After 1848 he lived in 
Paras, and was at this time instructor 
of piano and counterpoint in the Con- 
servatory at Cologne; in 1854, musical 
director at Barmen, and in 1859 at the 
L'^niversity of Breslau, where he es- 
tablished a series of orchestral con- 
certs that hold an honorable place. 
The next year he became conductor 
in piano of the two daughters of 
Liszt. In 1858 he became professor 
of the Gewandhaus concerts at Leip- 
sic, a post he retained until 1895, and 
also became professor of piano and 
composition at the Conservatory there. 
In 1897 he was made director of 
studies, and in 1884 had the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy conferred upon 
him by the Leipsic University. The 
duties of his positions did not prevent 
him from making several additional 
concert tours in northern Europe. As 
a pianist, Reinecke is refined, quiet 
and intelligent in interpretation, and 
excels in the playing of Mozart's com- 
positions. He is also a sympathetic 

His own compositions number over 
two hundred, comprising piano-music; 
chamber-music; the operas. King 
Manfred, Die Teufelchen, a fairy 
opera, Ein Abenteuer Handels, Der 
vierjahrige Posten, Auf hohen Befehl, 
and Der Gouverneur von Tours; much 
choral music, including an oratorio, 
Belsazar; two masses; and five fairy 
cantatas, Schneewitchen, Aschenbro- 
del, Dornroschen, Die wilden Schwane, 
and Vorn Baumchen; and the orches- 
tral works, incidental music to Schil- 
ler's Wilhelm Tell; three symphonies; 
five overtures; and a funeral march 
for Emperor Wilhelm I. His vocal 
works include the concert arias, Mir- 
jams Siegesgeang, Das Hindumad- 
chen, and Almansor; twenty canons 
for female voices, with piano; and 

As one of the most prominent 
teachers in Germany, Reinecke has 
taught a number of famous musicians. 
Arnong his pupils in composition are 
Grieg, Svendsen, Chadwick, Sir Ar- 
thur Sullivan and Van der Stucken, 
Dr. Louis Maas and Rafael Joseflfy. As 
a composer Reinecke has a thorough 



knowledge of the various instruments 
and of musical form, but is somewhat 
deficient in invention. His future rep- 
utation will rest on his children's 
songs and fairj' cantatas. His shorter 
piano-pieces are gems of very moder- 
ate difficulty, especially Six Tone- 
Pictures based on Tennyson's poem, 
Enoch Arden. Some influence of 
Wagner and Brahms, as well as of 
Mendelssohn and Schumann, is evi- 
dent in his works, although his gene- 
ral tendency is toward classical forms. 
As an arranger he is perhaps more 
successful, an instance of merit being 
an improvisata for two pianos, based 
on a much-played gavotte by Gluck, 
into which Reinecke has woven skil- 
fully one of Bach's musettes. He has 
edited a number of works for Breit- 
kopf & Hartel, the well-known Ger- 
man publishers. He has received 
many orders and honors, and is much 
esteemed and loved for his personal 
character as well as honored for his 

Reiner (ri-ner), Jakob. 1560-1606. 

German composer; born at Altdorf, 
Wiirtemburg; was a student at the 
monastery school of Weingarten, near 
his birthplace, and later studied at 
Munich under Orlando Lasso. He 
was singing-teacher and later chorus- 
master at the school mentioned, and 
died there before his fiftieth j'ear. He 
published a number of collections, in- 
cluding Liber cantionum sacrarum, a 
collection of twenty-two motets for 
five and six voices; Schone, neue 
deutsche Lieder; Christliche Gesang, 
Teutsche Psalmen, fifteen three-part 
psalms; twenty motets; Selectae piaeque 
cantiones; Cantica sive mutetae. Liber 
motetarum, motets for six and eight 
voices; a second collection of motets; 
Sacrarum Missarum; Gloriosissimae 
Virginis. . . . Magnificat; Missae 
tres cum Litaniis; Missae aliquot sac- 
rae cum officio B. M. V. et antiphonis, 
three to four voices, 1608. Numerous 
songs remain in manuscript. 

* Reinhold (rin'-holt), Hugo. 1854- 

Austrian pianist and composer; born 
in Vienna; was a choir-boy in the 
Imperial Chapel, and studied there 
at the Conservatory from 1868 to 1874 
as an endowed pupil, under Bruckner, 
Epstein and DessoflF, winning a silver 
medal. Since 1895 he has been pro- 
fessor of piano at the Vienna Con- 
servatory. His compositions include 

a suite for piano and strings, and a 
prelude, minuet, and fugue for string 
orchestra; also a string quartet; and 
other orchestral and chamber-music; 
many piano-pieces; and songs. 

Reinken (rin'-ken), Johann Adam. 


Organist; born at Deventer, Hol- 
land; was a pupil of Sweelinck in Am- 
sterdam, and in 1858 became the 
assistant, and, in 1863, the successor 
of Scheidemann as organist of St. 
Catherine's Church at Hamburg, which 
position he held till his death. 
He was prominent among North 
Germari organists, and had a great 
reputation as a virtuoso. J. S. Bach 
walked from Liineburg to Hamburg 
to hear Reinken play. His composi- 
tions include a Hortus musicus, pro- 
duced at Hamburg in 1704. In 
manuscript there are two arrange- 
ments of chorales, and a toccata for 
organ; also two variations for clavier. 

Reinthaler (rin'-tal-er), Karl Martin. 


German composer; born at Erfurt; 
began music study early under G. A. 
Ritter; studied theology at Berlin for 
several years, then gave it up for a 
musical career, and studied further 
under Marx. Frederick William IV. 
was attracted by some of his compo- 
sitions, and made him an allowance 
which enabled him to study in Paris, 
where he was a pupil of Bordogni and 
Geraldi in singing and also in Rome, 
Milan and Naples. In 1853 he became 
teacher of singing in the Cologne 
Conservatory, and in 1858 organist 
and choirmaster of Bremen Cathe- 
dral, city rnusical director, and leader 
of the singing society, later conductor 
of the male choral society, all in 
Bremen. He was also made Royal 
Prussian musical director, and in 1882 
a member of the Berlin Academy, 
receiving the title of Royal professor 
in 1888. He died in Bremen. His 
oratorio, Jephtha, has been frequently 
performed in his own country and 
others, and published with English 
text; the Bismarck-Hymne won a 
prize for the best choral work; other 
compositions for chorus and orches- 
tra are In der Wiiste, and Das Mad- 
chen von Kolah; two successful 
operas, Edda, and Kathchen von 
Heilbronn, the latter winning a prize; 
also songs, psalms, choruses, and a 


Reisenauer (ri'-ze-now-er), Alfred. 


Celebrated German pianist; born at 
Konigsberg; was a pupil of his mother 
and also of Louis Kohler, and, from 
his eleventh year, of Liszt, with whom 
he spent his summer vacations at 
Weimar. He made his debut in 1881, 
at a public concert in Rome, and soon 
afterward set out on a concert tour, 
including London, Berlin and Leip- 
siic. He studied law for a year or 
two, and then again took up music. 
Liszt was instrumental in his securing 
the position of a teacher in the Son- 
dershausen Conservatory, where he 
met P'elix Weingartner, who wielded 
an important influence over him. 
About 1886 his concert travels were 
resumed, embracing Sweden, Norway, 
Germany, Austria, England, Russia, 
and even to Siberia, China and Persia. 
He published songs, or Wanderlieder, 
his only compositions. "A more cap- 
tivating and brilliant Liszt player," 
says Huneker, " has been seldom seen 
and heard." "With the exception of 
Walter Bache and Arthur F'riedheim," 
says Reisenauer's friend, Carl Lach- 
mund, in an obituary tribute, " no 
other of the pupils of Liszt was so 
thoroughly familiar with the master's 
life and compositions." Lachmund 
goes on to say that in sight-reading 
Reisenauer exhibited a readiness 
equaled only by Eugen D'Albert, and 
a most unusual repose and ease. 
Reisenauer's death occurred at Libau, 

Reiss (ris), Karl Heinrich Adolf. 1829- 

German conductor; born at Frank- 
fort-on-Main; studied harmony under 
Kessler and piano under Rosenheim 
in his native town, becorning later 
a pupil of Hauptmann in Leipsic. His 
first successful public performance 
was in concert at fourteen, and his 
first appointment as chorusmaster was 
before he was twenty, in the Mayence 
City Theatre. Up to 1854 he had 
filled the office of vice-conductor at 
several different theatres, and in that 
year was appointed chief director of 
the one first mentioned; but in 1856 
he was chosen second conductor to 
the Court Theatre at Cassel, where he 
succeeded Spohr as first conductor on 
the latter's death. From 1881 to 1886 
he was chief conductor at Wiesbaden. 
He wrote an opera, Otto der Schutz, 
produced at Mayence in 1856; also 
wrote songs, and piano-music. 

Reissiger (ris'-sikh-er), Friedrich Au- 
gust. 1809-1883. 

German conductor, bandmaster and 
composer; born at Belzig; brother of 
Karl Gottlieb. Was a pupil, first, of 
his father, then of Schicht and Wein- 
lig at the St. Thomas School, Leipsic, 
later studying under Dehn in Berlin. 
From 1840 to 1850 he was conductor 
of the theatre in Christiania, and 
afterward became a military band- 
master and organist at Frederikshald, 
Norway, where he died. His compo- 
sitions are in almost every form, but 
of little importance; his songs being 
the most numerous. 

Reissiger, Karl Gottlieb. 1798-1859. 

German dramatic composer and con- 
ductor; born at Belzig, near Witten- 
berg; son of the precentor there; 
entered the school of St. Thomas in 
Leipsic in 1811 as a pupil of Schicht. 
In 1818 he began to study theology, 
but soon gave it up and resumed his 
study of music, first under Schicht, 
then, in 1821, at Vienna. Here he 
appeared in concert as a singer and 
pianist and wrote an opera. Das Rock- 
enweibchen. Went to Munich, where 
he made a study of dramatic composi- 
tion and produced his overture and 
incidental music to Nero. He was 
sent by the Prussian government to 
Italy, France and Holland, for the 
study and inspection of musical con- 
ditions in those countries. On his 
return he submitted a plan to the 
government for a Conservatory. After 
teaching for a short time in the Royal 
Institute of Church-Music at Berlin, 
he was called to The Hague to organ- 
ize a Conservatory. In 1826 he became 
musical director of the German Opera 
in Dresden, and the next year was 
appointed Court conductor. He was 
a prolific composer; his works include 
eight operas, masses and other church- 
music; considerable piano and cham- 
ber-music; a symphony and an over- 
ture; an oratorio, David; a number of 
songs; and a popular waltz, known as 
Weber's Last Thought. He died in 

Reissmann (ris'-man), August. 1825- 

German musical writer and com- 
poser of note; born at Frankenstein, 
Silesia; received his early musical 
instruction from Heinrich Jung, the 
precentor of the town, and at the age 
of eighteen went to Breslau, where 
he studied piano and organ under 



E. L. Richter, theory under Mosewius 
and Baumgart, violin under Liistner 
and cello under Kahl. Studied in Wei- 
mar from 1850 to 1852, and took 
up musical literature. He lived for 
several years at Halle, and went to 
Berlin in 1863, where, from 1866 to 
1874, he lectured on musical history 
at the Stern Conservatory, and in 1880 
went to Leipsic, living at a later period 
in Wiesbaden, and finally returned to 
Berlin. In 1875 the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy was conferred upon 
h'im. His books are From Bach to 
Wagner; Das deutsche Lied; Allge- 
meine Geschichte der Musik; All- 
gemeine Musiklehre; Lehrbuch der 
Musikalischen Composition. His biog- 
raphies of Schumann, Mendelssohn, 
Schubert, Haydn, Bach, Handel, Gluck 
and Weber are of considerable value, 
also his editing, in 1871, of the Musik 
Conversations lexikon, begun by Men- 
del, in which he had previously 
assisted, and now completed after the 
death of his predecessor. In 1881 he 
published a supplement to this work, 
and in 1882 a one-volume epitome of 
the whole. His compositions include 
the operas of Gudrun, Die Biirgermeis- 
terin von Schorndorf, Das Gralspiel, 
Der Blumen Rache, and Konig Dros- 
selbart; an oratorio, Wittekind; two 
dramatic scenes for solo, chorus and 
orchestra; choruses, ballads, songs, 
and duets; two violin sonatas, violin 
concerto, and suite for violin and 
orchestra; piano music. While his 
works are methodical rather than 
original, his industry and learning have 
made him an authority in Germany. 

Rellstab (rel'-shtap), Heinrich Fried- 
rich Ludwig. 1799-1860. 
Novelist and musical critic; born in 
Berlin; son of Johann Karl; was des- 
tined for the musical profession, but, 
like his father, was prevented by war, 
which consumed the resources of the 
elder Rellstab and claimed the younger 
as a recruit. In 1816 he began piano 
lessons with Berger, and later studied 
theory under Klein. After short 
periods of residence in various other 
places he returned to Berlin in 1823, 
and from 1826 was editor and musical 
critic of the Vossische Zeitung. He 
was an enthusiastic advocate of class- 
ical music, with strong personal opin- 
ions, and a satirical pamphlet on Mme. 
Sontag caused his imprisonment for 
a short time. He also engaged in a 
controversy with Spontini, in which 

he condemned the latter's catering to 
the admiration of mere technical dis- 
play. In 1830 he started a musical 
journal, which existed some eleven 
or twelve years. His novels and 
essays were collected and published 
in a twenty-four-volume work, Ge- 
sammelte Werke. He also wrote 
biographies of Liszt, Berger, Klein 
and other musicians. 

Rellstab, Johann Karl Friedrich, 1759- 


Writer on music and printer and 
publisher of music; born at Berlin; 
was a pupil of Agricola and Fasch, 
and had intended to make a profes- 
sion of music, but was compelled by 
the death of his father, a printer, to 
take charge of the business, and added 
to the establishment a branch of 
music printing and selling. In 1785 
he opened a circulating library of 
music and in 1787 began a series of 
concerts which were of short duration, 
being absorbed by the Singakademie. 
The French invasion of 1806 forced 
him to close his business. He turned 
to practical account his musical knowl- 
edge, giving lessons, lectures on har- 
mony and writing critical reviews for 
the Vossische Zeitung, a Berlin peri- 
odical. He died of apoplexy at Char- 
lottenburg in 1813. His compositions 
are of little worth; they include an 
opera; several cantatas; an oratorio; 
a mass; a Te Deum; marches; sym- 
phonies; and overtures. His writings 
are interesting and show an observant 
and active mind. Among those pub- 
lished are a treatise on declamation; 
a guide to Bach's system of fingering; 
and a pamphlet concerning various 
Berlin musical performances. Of his 
three daughters, the eldest, Caroline 
(1794-1813), was a singer gifted with 
a voice of phenomenal compass, while 
the others were pianists of ability. 

Remenyi (rem'-an-ye), Eduard. 1830- 

This famous Hungarian violinist 
was born at Heves, Hungary. From 
1842 to 1845 he was a violin pupil of 
Bohm at the Vienna Conservatory. 
His active participation in the revolu- 
tion of 1848 led to his exile; it is 
said that he was pressed into service 
as a player of patriotic airs to stimu- 
late the soldiers, and so well did he 
succeed in this that "the government 
issued an edict forbidding him to play 
on penalty of death." He came to 




America as a steerage passenger, and 
for several years traveled in concert. 
In 1853 he returned to Europe and 
enlisted the interest of Liszt at Wei- 
mar; the next year he became solo 
violinist to Queen Victoria in London. 
Securing an amnesty in 1860 he took 
a similar place at the Austrian Court, 
and in 1865 resumed his public career, 
appearing first in Paris, where he met 
with dazzling success. After ten years 
spent in travel in Germany, Holland 
and Belgium he returned to Paris for 
a year or two. In 1877 he repeated 
his triumphs in London, and the next 
year came a second time to this coun- 
try, where he spent several years in 
concert work in the United States, 
Canada and Mexico, In 1886 he gave 
concerts in China, Japan and other 
Asiatic countries and in South Africa. 
In 1897 and 1898 he toured America 
for the third time, dying of apoplexy 
in San Francisco in the latter year. 
Liszt held a very high opinion of 
him, as the following extracts from 
his letters will show: "Of all the 
violinists I know, I could scarcely 
name three who could equal him as 
regards efifect. . . . For, both as 
a soloist and as a quartet player, his 
accomplishments are extraordinary. 
. . . He has deHghted and cap- 
tivated everyone here, and this is 
verily no small matter, for in Weimar 
we are accustomed to the most dis- 
tinguished violin-virtuosos." Liszt also 
pronounced him the " sole surviving 
possessor of the esoteric spirit in 
gipsy music." He played works from 
all schools, and was an enthusiastic 
admirer of Bach; his nationality, how- 
ever, made it but natural that he 
should best interpret the Magyar mel- 
odies. He has been called an *' incor- 
rigible globe-trotter," and it is said 
that he played one day on top of 
the Pyramid of Cheops and predicted 
that he would " die fiddling," which he 
did, just as he had commenced a solo 
at the Orpheum Theatre in San Fran- 
cisco. He collected rare violins and 
other curios. Although somewhat 
eccentric in manner he was popular, 
kind-hearted, intelligent, simple in his 
habits, of a sociable disposition, and 
met in his extended travels many 
of the most noted people. Remenyi 
left a wife and two children. 

Remusat (ra-mu-za), Jean. 1815-1880. 

Celebrated French flutist; born at 
Bordeaux, Gironde; was a pupil of 


Tulou at the Paris Conservatory, win- 
ning first prize there in 1832, and after 
a number of successful appearances 
on the concert stage was engaged as 
first flutist at the Queen's Theatre, 
London, and later at the Theatre 
Lyrique, Paris. He died at Shanghai. 
For his instrument he composed vari- 
ous solos; made operatic transcrip- 
tions; duets for flutes, and for flute 
and violin. 

Remy, W. A. See Mayer, Wilhelra. 

Renaud (rii-no), Albert. 1855- 

French organist and ballet com- 
poser; born in Paris; studied under 
Cesar Franck and Leo Delibes, and 
became organist of the Church of St. 
Frangois-Xavier and musical critic of 
the periodical, La Patrie. His com- 
positions are as follows: Aladin; a la 
Honzarde; ballets. The Awakened 
Shepherd; Rokneddin; Don Quichotte; 
folie-vaudeville Un voyage a Venise; 
Le soleil de minuit. 

Renaud, Maurice. 1862- 

Celebrated French basso; born at 
Bordeaux; studied at the Paris Con- 
servatory; sang in the Royal Opera 
at Brussels from 1883 to 1890; was 
next engaged at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, for a season, then at the Grand 
Opera for five years, and since then 
has had much success on Italian 
stages. His repertory is an extensive 
one, embracing bass and barytone 
roles in more than fifty operas, both 
tragic and comic; among these may 
be named Wilhelm Tell; Escamillo in 
Carmen; Telramund, and Fernando in 
Fidelio. His forte is the impersona- 
tion of the principal characters in the 
French versions of Wagner's operas. 
In this capacity he appeared in several 
first performances of the kind in Paris, 
and elicited highly favorable comment 
from visiting English and German 
critics. He was awarded the order 
of the Crown in 1907 by the German 
Emperor for his singing in several 
different operas at the Imperial Opera. 

Rendano (ren-da'-no), Alfonso. 1853- 

Italian pianist; born at Carolei, near 
Cosenza; was a pupil of Thalberg and 
of the Naples Conservatory, and for 
a time of the Leipsic Conservatory. 
He made successful appearances at 
the Gewandhaus concerts in 1872, and 
the same year at the Musical Union 
in London; also in 1873 at a Philhar- 




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country he rnnks high as a pianist, and 


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colder En^. nans, espe- 


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^iano; studied under Marx 

of touc' well of his 

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ulow, and became the con- 

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largely of the - ng 


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Res2k6. ^ejH)^' o'He'act opera, " CaValleria Rusticana," which 
Reubke (r-was first pTodtTcedi^H Rome in 1890, and has \^tn 


verv siiccessful. 

mainink' m 

In 1865 he c 

tute in Ra; 

director vp t,> ..^._ ,.v 

interested in oUI Gernaan uiia;in^n;-. - '/^'<-'. ,-.-, v^ • aino;ig. which 

and for the pWBftrJUceL^lifM^, Italy, m 180o. HCrcftMl^fi^d Die 

works compfl^V behemfeltri - a?ld was verv siiccesshif ^5§ k-^- <= 
Sixteenth Cfr'\;-\ \ i • , • , ' , , ""- •;-'-V-^'i>; P 

gal Qurr ouctor, in which capacity he traveled extensively in 

Europe. ^^a..7j<5. 

His greatest composition and chief title to fame at 


Mestra irom 
^ succeeded 
cr of the Gna- 
t's, and in 1715 
' " Cathe- 
•ed by 
orn at 
. i>il. At 
oi nineteen he composed an 
Abel, which attracted the 
->. of the court, and in conse- 
m order for a festival operar 
-, which brought forth Arch- 
In 1731 he was appoint«f 
rnMo=;fr H,» Succeeded to the 
ter at St. Ste- 
death, in 1738; 
became second Court chapel- 
;ind in 1751 acting chief chap- 
to the Court on Predien's 
'It, receiving the title on the 
lu-.i.-. ,- lieath. in 1769. His composi- 
tions for the court include operas. 


fiiree stops, and of the Mancnictrche 
at Kyritz. 

Reubke, Julius. 1834-1858. 

German r!- - 
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were pub- 

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monic concert. After spending some 
time in England he returned to Italy 
via Paris, where he gave a concert, 
also with marked success. In his own 
country he ranks high as a pianist, and 
has won commendations from the 
colder English and Germans, espe- 
cially for his interpretation of Bach. 
The chief characteristics of his play- 
ing are grace, refinement and delicacy 
of touch. Ehrlich speaks well of his 
compositions for piano, which are 
largely of the salon type, including 
waltzes, marches, gavottes, and sona- 

Renner, Joseph. 1832-1895. 

Music teacher and conductor; was 
born at Schmatzhausen, near Land- 
shut, Bavaria; was a pupil of his 
father and of Proske and Metten- 
leiter. In 1S58 he became choral con- 
ductor of the Aula Scholastica in 
Ratisbon, where he also taught, re- 
maining in this position until 1892. 
In 1865 he established a musical insti- 
tute in Ratisbon, of which he was 
director up to 1882. He was especially 
interested in old German madrigals, 
and for the performance of these 
works composed by musicians of the 
Sixteenth Century formed the Madri- 
gal Quartet. He also collected, edited 
and published a number of such com- 

Reszke. See De Reszke. 

Reubke (roip'-ke), Adolf, 1805-1875. 

Organ-builder of repute; born at 
Halberstadt; carried on his business 
at Hausneindorf, near Quedlinburg, 
but later retired from business and 
returned to the town of his birth, 
where he died. Among his instru- 
ments are those of the Town Cathe- 
dral with eighty-eight stops, of the 
St. James Church at Madgeburg, fifty- 
three stops, and of the Marienkirche 
at Kyritz. 

Reubke, Julius. 1834-1858. 

German pianist and composer of 
talent; the eldest son of Adolf; born 
at Hausneindorf; was a pupil of Kul- 
lak in piano and of Marx in compo- 
sition at Berlin and later of Liszt. A 
few compositions by him were pub- 
lished after his death and show much 
talent. They include a sonata for 
piano, dedicated to Liszt; one for 
organ, entitled the 94th Psalm; and 
also songs, and piano-pieces. Emil, 


the second son of Adolf, born at 
Hausneindorf, in 1836, learned his 
father's business, and in 1860 became 
a member of the firm. After 1872 
he carried it on alone. He introduced 
many improvements in the mechanism 
of the organ, notably the pneumatic 
tubes. He died in 1885. Otto, born 
in 1842, was a performer on both 
organ and piano; studied under Marx 
and von Biilow, and became the con- 
ductor at Halle, where, since 1892, 
he has been also musical director at 
the University. 

Reuling (roi'-ling), Ludwig Wilhelm. 


German composer and conductor; 
was born at Darmstadt; studied under 
Rinck first, then under Serfries and 
Forster at Vienna. He was in 1829 
director of the orchestra in the Joseph- 
stadt Theatre, and the next year of 
the Karntncrthor Theatre in Vienna, 
a position he held until 1854, when 
he retired to devote himself entirely 
to composition. He died in Vienna. 
His works include about thirty-seven 
operettas and operas, among which 
were Alfred der Grosse, and Die 
Feuerbrant; seventeen ballets; cham- 
ber-music; choruses; cantatas; panto- 
mimes; and overtures. 

Reutter (roi'-ter), Georg. 1656-1738. 

Organist and conductor; born at 
Vienna; oflficiated at St. Stephen's in 
1686, and in 1700 became Court and 
charnber organist. He played the 
theorbo in the Court Orchestra from 
1697 to 1703. In 1712 he succeeded 
Fux as the choirmaster of the Gna- 
denbild at St. Stephen's, and in 1715 
became chapelmaster of the Cathe- 
dral. In 1695 he was knighted by 
Count Francesco Sforza at Rome. 

His son, Georg Karl, was born at 
Vienna, and was also his pupil. At 
the age of nineteen he composed an 
oratorio, Abel, which attracted the 
attention of the court, and in conse- 
quence an order for a festival opera 
followed, which brought forth Arch- 
idamia. In 1731 he was appointed 
Court composer. He succeeded to the 
position of chapelmaster at St. Ste- 
phen's on his father's death, in 1738; 
in 1746 became second Court chapel- 
master, and in 1751 acting chief chap- 
elmaster to the Court on Predieri's 
retirement, receiving the title on the 
latter's death, in 1769. His composi- 
tions for the court include operas, 





cantatas, oratorios, and other dra- 
matic and sacred music. He pos- 
sessed the knack of currying favor at 
court, and thus attained to the title 
of Elder von Reutter in 1740; but he 
is remembered chiefly by his cruelty 
to Joseph Haydn, whom he engaged 
as a choir-boy at St. Stephen's, and 
also by the deterioration of the court 
music under his direction. He died 
in Vienna. 

Rey (re), Jean Baptiste. 1734-1810. 

French dramatic conductor and com- 
poser; born at Lauzerte, Tarn-et- 
Garonne. In 1754 he became conductor 
of opera at Toulouse, and up to 1776 
held similar posts at Montpellier, Mar- 
seilles, Bordeaux and Nantes. In the 
latter year he became assistant con- 
ductor at the Grand Opera, Paris, 
becoming conductor in 1781. He re- 
mained at the Grand Opera altogether 
thirty years. From 1781 to 1785 he 
was conductor of the Concerts Spir- 
ituels. He was also conductor to 
Louis XVI. in 1779 and chapelmaster 
to Napoleon in 1804. From 1795 to 
1802 he was professor of harmony at 
the Paris Conservatory. His compo- 
sitions include two operas; ballets; 
masses, with orchestra; and motets. 

Reyer (re-ya), Louis £tienne Ernest. 

Celebrated French composer; born 
at Marseilles; was a pupil of the Bar- 
sotti Free School of Music. At the 
age of sixteen he went to Algiers in 
an official capacity for the French 
government, meanwhile keeping up 
his piano practise and beginning to 
compose, though without previous 
training in this line. Among these 
early works were several songs and 
a mass. In 1848 the Revolution 
changed his prospects, and he decided 
to follow a musical career. Returning 
to Paris he became a pupil of his 
aunt, Mme. Louise Farrenc. In 1850 
his symphonic ode, Le Selam, with 
libretto by Theophile Gautier, was 
successfully produced at the Theatre 
Italien. This was followed by Maitre 
Wolfram, a comic opera in one act; 
Sacountala, a ballet; La Statue; 
and Erostrate. In 1884 the opera, 
Sigurd, was produced. The subject 
of this work is identical with that 
of Wagner's Gotterdammerung, but 
cannot be called a plagiarism, although 
Reyer's method of construction some- 
what resembles that of Wagner's ear- 

lier works, Salammbo, a second grand 
opera, based on Flaubert's romance of 
ancient Carthage, was produced at 
Brussels in 1890. It possesses both 
dramatic and instrinsic musical worth, 
but did not attract rnuch attention at 
first. His cantata, Victoire, an earlier 
work, was performed at the Grand 
Opera in 1859. Other works include 
a dramatic scene, several male cho- 
ruses, sacred music, and songs. 

Reyer is as well known in the capa- 
city of a writer on music as he is in 
that of a composer. He contributed 
to a number of Parisian periodicals, 
and was musical critic to the Journal 
des Debats. In 1876 he succeeded 
David as a member of the Institut. 
Reyer was a warm admirer of the 
latter, and has been called his legiti- 
mate successor in music and literature. 
A collection of his best articles was 
published in 1875 under the title. Notes 
de Musique. In 1862 he was made 
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
Of recent years he has been the 
librarian of the Grand Opera. This 
composer seems to have been unfor- 
tunate in producing his operas just a 
little after successful works with 
librettos sufficiently similar to prevent 
public appreciation of his own. Si- 
gurd has been mentioned as a case in 
point; Le Selam suffered a like fate 
from the comparison with David's 
Le Desert; while La Statue, says Her- 
vey, " arrived too soon," during the 
period when Tannhauser was hissed 
off the stage and Gounod's Faust was 
not yet unreservedly praised; how- 
ever, it made a mark for Reyer as a 
rising composer. Bizet considered La 
Statue the most remarkable opera 
given in France for twenty years. It 
brought its composer a membership 
in the Academic. 

Although a man of high ideals and 
firm convictions, Reyer has not been 
great enough to command public 
attention by the force of genius. His 
music is said to be deficient in orig- 
inality and to reveal, at various stages 
of its growth, influences of the style 
of Gluck and Weber and of the orches- 
tration of Berlioz and Wagner. Nev- 
ertheless, it exhibits an imagination, 
a knowledge and a dramatic instinct 
above the ordinary. 

Reznicek (rez'-ni-tsek), Emil Nico- 
laus Freiherr von. 1861- 

Gifted Czechish dramatic composer; 
born at Vienna; the son of an army 




officer and of Princess Clarissa Ghika. 
He first studied law at Gratz, then 
turned his attention to music, and en- 
tered the Leipsic Conservatory. After- 
ward he became prominent as a 
conductor of opera at Gratz, Zurich, 
Mayence, Stettin and Weimar. In 1896 
his ability was recognized by the ap- 
pointment as chief conductor at the 
Mannheim Court Theatre. His compo- 
sitions include the operas, Die Jung- 
f rau von Orleans, Santanella, Emmerich 
Fortunat and Donna Diana. Till 
Eulenspiegel, produced at Carlsruhe, 
was commented on by the Musical 
Times, which stated that Reznicek 
exhibited such a command of orches- 
tration as to produce the most intense 
and sonorous effects at times, al- 
though the heavier brass instruments 
•were omitted entirely; also that "the 
general effect of the music at a first 
hearing is the impression of remark- 
able inventive talent, great mastery of 
technical resource," and a " rich vein 
of new combinations," with especial 
strength in rhythmic devices. Donna 
Diana is said to have been his 
greatest success; of this he was 
librettist as well as composer, adapt- 
ing the text from a musical comedy 
by Moreto. His compositions in 
other lines are a symphonic suite for 
full orchestra; a string quartet, an 
overture, Lustspiel, and a number of 
songs and piano-pieces. In manu- 
script there are a six-voiced requiem, 
a tragic symphony, a mass, and a 
set of four songs entitled Ruhm und 

Rheinberger (rin'-berkh-er), Josef 

Gabriel. 1839-1902. 

Eminent German organist and com- 
poser; born at the little town of 
Vaduz, in the upper Rhine valley. Nei- 
ther of his parents was especially 
musical, but the child was most 
precocious, and at the age of four 
years showed such aptitude for music 
that his father placed him under piano 
instruction, and after two years of in- 
dustrious application, he was coached 
in musical theory by Pohly, a retired 
school teacher, who prepared him for 
the position of organist in the parish 
church, the duties of which he as- 
sumed at the age of seven. Within a 
year a tjiree-part mass of his own 
composition, with organ accompani- 
ment, was performed there. The ped- 
als of the organ were supplanted by a 
second set, placed where the child's 


feet could reach them — an invention 
attributed to Pohly. Josef's next 
study was under the choir-di'rector at 
the neighboring town of Feldkirch, 
where, beside his lessons, he had daily 
opportunity of practising concerted 
music with the violin, and of becom- 
ing familiar with the scores of the 
great masters. 

In 1850 the boy was sent to the 
Conservatory at Munich. Here he 
studied piano under Leonhard, organ 
under Herzog, and counterpoint under 
Maier, for several years, and after 
leaving that institution, continued pri- 
vate study under Franz Lachner. He 
also taught some pupils himself, and 
in 1859 succeeded Leonhard as piano 
teacher at the Conservatory. The fol- 
lowing year he was appointed profes- 
sor of composition, and became 
organist of the Court Church of St. 
Michael, a post he held till 1866. 
Maitland dates his conductorship of 
the Munich Oratorio Society from 
1864. In 1865, the Munich Conserva- 
tory was reorganized, and Rheinber- 
ger was transferred to the position 
of director of rehearsals, at the Court 
Opera, which he resigned in 1867, ac- 
cepting a recall to his former position 
at the .Conservatory, now under the 
direction of von Bulow, and known 
as the Royal Music School. In addi- 
tion to his work as professor of com- 
position and advanced organ-playing, 
he was appointed an inspector. The 
growing ascendency of Wagner at 
the Opera made this, no doubt, a wel- 
come change, as all through his life 
his unfeigned antipathy to the Bay- 
reuth master was well known. He 
has, indeed, been called fanatical in 
his opposition to all new tendencies 
in music. 

Rheinberger became world-famous 
as a teacher, and is said to have influ- 
enced the modern American School 
more than any other one European 
musician, through Chadwick, his most 
celebrated American pupil. Rhein- 
berger has been called the best 
teacher of composition since Haupt- 
mann, being thorough and systematic 
to a degree seldom manifested by men 
of equal talent. In 1877 he resigned 
his conductorship of the Munich Ora- 
torio Society, and assumed the direc- 
torship of the Royal Chapel choir. 
This position he held until his death, 
which was caused by complicated 
troubles, involving both the lungs and 
the nervous system. He was also 




director of the Academy of Music in 
Munich. at the time of his death. He 
received numerous honors and deco- 
rations, including a membership in 
the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, and 
in many choral societies of Germany 
and other countries. 

Rheinberger was especially fortu- 
nate in the sympathetic cornpanion- 
ship and cooperation of his wife, 
formerly Franziska von Hoffnass, a 
poetess, who wrote the text for many 
of his best known choral works, in- 
cluding the larger ones with solos and 
orchestra: Toggenburg; Montfort; 
Christoforus, an oratorio; and the 
Star of Bethlhem. His smaller choral 
works include King Erich, The Wil- 
low Tree, The Water Sprite, The 
Shepherdess from the Country, The 
Dead Bride, May Dew, Herald, and 
Night. His male choruses are said to 
be of an especially high order, inter- 
esting and original, notably. Valley 
of the Espingo, The Roses of Hilds- 
heim, Wittekind, and St. John's Eve. 
For orchestra he wrote two sym- 
phonies, the first known as the Wal- 
lenstein, the second commissioned by 
the Orchestral Society of Florence, 
from which it was called the Floren- 
tine. Among his overtures are De- 
metrius, built up from national 
themes; a Triumph Overture, and one 
to Shakespeare s Taming of the 
Shrew. While director at the theatre 
he brought out incidental music to 
dramas by Raimund and Calderon, the 
latter being very successful. His one 
romantic opera. Die Sieben Raben 
(The Seven Ravens), on a fairy leg- 
end, was not produced until 1869, 
after he had left his post at the thea- 
tre. A comic opera, Des Thiirmers 
Tochterlein, appeared in 1873.^ A de- 
vout Catholic, he wrote considerable 
music for the service of that church, 
including a mass dedicated to Xeo 
XIII., two settings of the Stabat 
Mater, hymns and_ motets, and a re- 
quiem for the soldiers of the Franco- 
Prussian war. His compositions 
number about two hundred in all. Of 
these, Maitland states, it is hard to 
find even one that is not perfectly 
suited to the possibilities of the in- 
strument or group of instruments for 
which it is written. His works are 
not, however, equally inspired, the 
earlier ones having met, on the whole, 
with the best success. This, how- 
ever, cannot be said to hold good in the 
^ase of his organ compositions, which 


did not appear until after he had 
quitted his first post of importance as 
organist. Rheinberger was forced to 
give up organ playing finally on ac- 
count of a lameness in his right hand. 
Besides over sixty smaller pieces for 
this instrument, there are his twenty 
sonatas, standard works that Maitland 
pronounces — with the possible excep- 
tion of Merkel's works — "by far the 
most valuable addition to the literature 
of the instrument since Mendelssohn's 
sonatas." Lahee, in The Or^an and 
Its Masters, goes farther, saymg that 
Rheinberger may be said to have 
undertaken, for the organ, in his 
development of the sonata what 
Beethoven did for the piano, and that 
in this respect he may be placed 
among the epoch-makers in music. 

Rheinberger's chamber-music is 
considered superior to his orchestral 
works. It embraces a trio and two 
quartets for strings; two trios and a 
quartet for piano and strings; a nonet 
for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, 
and strings; and sonatas for piano 
and violin. Besides his two organ 
sonatas there is one for piano, and a 
number of solos for that instrument 
also, including four sonatas; an effec- 
tive ballade; humoresques; toccatas, 
and a set of left-hand studies. Some 
of these are extremely difficult. His 
chorus ballads stand first among his 
vocal works, but he also composed 
smaller part-songs and some solos. 
As an organist, Rheinberger adhered 
strictly to the old German style of 
playing, giving the fugues of Bach 
and kindred compositions without 
changes of manual, and with very 
little change in registration. His 
opinion was that the modern methods 
of producing a variety of effects in the 
works of the greatest of organ com- 
posers was weakening and degrading. 

Ricci (rit'-che), Federico. 1809-1877. 

Celebrated Italian dramatic com- 
poser; younger brother of Luigi Ricci. 
Born at Naples, and studied at the 
Conservatory there under Furno, Zin- 
garelli, Raimondi, and Bellini. He 
followed Luigi to Rome in 1829, and 
from that time to the marriage of the 
elder, the two were almost msepara- 
ble. The success of some of their 
joint works is largely due to the unity 
resulting from a close similarity af 
style. The first four works of Federico 
were those written in this way, 
namely: II Colonnello; Monsieur 




Deschalumeaux; II Disertore per 
amore; and L'Aniante di richiama. 
His first marked success was La 
prigione d'Edimburgo, produced at 
Trieste in 1837. In 1853 he went to 
St. Petersburg as musical director of 
the Imperial Theatres, and after 
assuming the duties of this post, laid 
aside composition for some years, but 
was inspired to further work in 1866 
by the success of Crispino e la 
Comare, on which he worked jointly 
with his brother. In 1869 he brought 
out a French translation of Una follia 
a Roma, and a reproduction in French 
of Crispino e la Comare, in the same 
year, met with such success as to 
draw him to Paris. In 1872 he had 
performed, Docteur Rose, and Une 
fete a Venise, but these failed entirely, 
and he retired to Corregliano soon 
after, dying there at the age of sixty- 
six. In all he composed either alone 
or jointly with Luigi Ricci, nineteen 
operas. He also wrote six masses, 
numerous songs, and several cantatas. 

Ricci, Luigi. 1805-1859. 

Celebrated Italian opera-composer, 
born at Naples. Was a pupil at the 
Conservatory there, of Furno and 
Zingarelli, after studying privately 
under Generali. At the age of 
eighteen, his first work, L'impresario 
in angustie, a comic opera, was given 
by the students at the Conservatory, 
and the next year saw the production 
of La cena frastornata at the Teatro 
Nuovo. During the next twelve years 
he had brought out at various Italian 
theatres — Naples, Rome, Milan, etc. — 
no less than twenty operas, with vary- 
ing fortunes. In 1836 he became 
chorus director of the theatre and 
chapelmaster at the Cathedral in 
Trieste. Ricci composed five operas 
in collaboration with his brother 
Federico, one of which, Crispino e la 
Comare, Venice, 1850, was eminently 
successful, and is considered his best 
and most lasting opera. Luigi seems 
to have received the entire credit for 
this work. In 1859, II diavolo a quat- 
tro, his last opera, was successfully 
produced at Trieste; soon_ after he 
showed symptoms of insanity, which 
necessitated his removal to an asylum 
in Prague, where he died within the 

His most successful operas, besides 
those already named, are: Colombo; 
L'orfanella di Ginevra; Chiara di 
Rosemberg; Chi dura vince; II birrajo 


di Preston; and La festa di Piedi- 
grotta. He also composed a mass 
with orchestra, a cantata, Ulisse, and 
numerous other sacred works; also 
two albums of songs. 

Riccius (rek'-tsi-oos), August Ferdi- 
nand. 1819-1886. 

German conductor and composer; 
born at Bernstadt, Saxony. Studied 
music under Zimmermann at Zittau, 
and began to study theology at Leip- 
sic, but he gave it up for music, 
becoming in 1849 director of the 
Euterpe concerts in that city. In 
1854 he succeeded Rietz as conductor 
of the orchestra at the City Theatre, 
and in 1864 accepted a similar post at 
Hamburg, where he also became 
prominent as a teacher of singing, and 
as musical critic of the Nachrichten. 
He died at Carlsbad. He composed 
an overture to Schiller's Braut von 
Messina; incidental music to plays; a 
cantata. Die Weihe der Kraft; pieces 
for piano; songs; part-songs; and 

Riccius, Carl August. 1830-1893. 

Conductor and composer; nephew 
of August Ferdinand; also born at 
Bernstadt. Studied piano and violin 
at Dresden under F. Wieck, Kragen, 
and Schubert, the leader of the 
orchestra; and later, from 1844 to 
1846, at the Leipsic Conservatory 
under Mendelssohn, Schumann, Rich- 
ter, Hauptmann, and David. In 1847 
he entered the Court Orchestra at 
Dresden in the capacity of violinist, 
becoming chorusmaster in 1863, and 
third conductor in 1887, also librarian 
of the Royal Musical Library in 1889. 
His compositions include Es spukt, 
comic opera; incidental music to 
several operettas, and to Ella, a 
farce by Roder; setting of Schiller's 
Dithyrambe. None of the above was 
published, but some songs and music 
for piano were published. He died in 

Rice, Fenelon B. 1841-1901. 

American musician, prominent as 
the director of the Oberlin (Ohio) 
Conservatory of Music. Was born in 
Greensburg, Ohio, and received his 
early musical education at home. 
From the age of twenty he studied in 
Boston under Tufts, Bruce, and Baker, 
and while there held a position as 
organist for several years. Returning 
to the West, he became musical direc- 




tor at Hillsdale College, Michigan, a 
position he held until 1867, when he 
went to Europe with his wife, also a 
musician, and studied at the Leipsic 
Conservatory under Papperitz, Mosch- 
eles, Richter and Plaidy. In 1869 
he returned to this country, and two 
years later assumed the duties of the 
position in which he remained for t"he 
rest of his life, and in which he did 
more, perhaps, than any other one 
man, to bring the reputation of the 
Conservatory to its present high 
standard. As is well known, Oberlin 
Conservatory compares favorably with 
the best musical institutions of the 
world. When Professor Rice con- 
nected himself with it he found the 
moral and religious standard already 
very high, and found also a public 
" open to conviction," a fertile soil 
for the seeds of a higher musical art. 
W. S. B. Mathews has said of the 
comprehensive nature of his work 
there: "Though sacred music received 
some special attention, the aim was 
not so much to cultivate religious 
music as to cultivate all noble music 

Dr. Rice received the degree of 
Master of Arts from Oberlin College, 
and that of Doctor of Music from 
Hillsdale College, where he received 
his early general education. He was 
at one time president of the National 
Music Teachers' Association, and pre- 
pared many important papers for that 
body and other organizations. He 
was universally esteemed both as a 
man and as a musician. 

Richards, Brinley. 1817-1885. 

Welch composer, pianist and teacher. 
Was born at Carmarthen, Wales, the 
son of an organist there. He was a 
pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, and won the King's scholar- 
ship there in 1835 and 1837. As a 
teacher and pianist he was much 
esteemed, and had an unusually large 
following in London. He lectured on 
Welsh music, of which he made a 
special study, and also did much for 
the Choral Union of South Wales in 
the competition at London in 1872 
and 1873. He died in London. He 
composed considerable light music 
for the piano; songs; part-songs; and 
a hymn, God Bless the Prince of 
Wales, which became widely popular; 
also a symphony; a piano concerto; 
two overtures; and two marches for 
military band. 

Richardson, Joseph. 1814-1862. 

Eminent English flutist and com- 
poser for his instrument. Was en- 
gaged in a number of orchestras in 
London, for many years being solo 
flute in Jullien's orchestra, after which 
he became the chief flute-player in the 
private band of Queen Victoria. He 
was especially remarkable for extreme 
accuracy and rapidity of execution, 
and his compositions for his instru- 
ment are difficult and showy, including 
fantasias, variations, and arrange- 
ments; also a Russian national hymn. 

Richter (rikh'-ter), Ernst Friedrich 
Eduard. 1808-1879. 

Noted German theorist and com- 
poser; born at Gross-Schonau. Was 
the son of a schoolmaster; attended 
the Gymnasium at Zittau, and after- 
ward studied theology at the Univer- 
sity of Leipsic, where he became 
interested in music, and placed him- 
self under the tuition of Weinlig. In 
1843, on the foundation of the Leipsic 
Conservatory, he became teacher of 
harmony and counterpoint in that 
institution, and conductor of the Sing- 
akademie, retaining the post until 
1847. In 1868 he was made musical 
director of St. Nicholas' Church and of 
St. Thomas,* where he was also cantor, 
and received the title of professor. 
The honorary degree of University 
Musical Director was conferred upon 
him by the University of Leipsic. He 
died in Leipsic. He composed an ora- 
torio; Christus der Erloser; Schiller's 
Dithyrambe; string quartets; music 
for organ; sonatas for piano and for 
violin; songs; part-songs; masses; 
motets, and psalms, these being con- 
sidered the best of his compositions. 
His theoretical works, however, are 
of much more importance. His three- 
part treatise on harmony, fugue and 
counterpoint, was translated into 
English and was re-edited several 
times, in this country by J. P. Morgan 
and Arthur Foote, and the part on 
harmony has been translated into 
Russian, Italian, and other European 
languages, as well as running through 
numerous German editions. 

Richter, Ernest Heinrich Leopold. 

Teacher and composer; born at 
Thiergarten, Prussian Silesia. Was a 
pupil at Breslau of Hientzsch, Berner, 
and Siegert, later of Klein and Zelter, 
at the Royal Institute for Church 




Music, Berlin. In 1827 he settled at 
Breslau as teacher of music at the 
Seminary (Normal School), and also 
continued his work in the institution 
after its removal to Steinau in 1847. 
While in Breslau he conducted several 
choral societies. His comic opera. 
Die Contrebande, was produced at 
Breslau. Other compositions include 
a mass; a symphony; cantatas; motets 
and psalms, with orchestra; part- 
songs; male quartets; Silesian folk- 
songs and organ preludes. 

Richter, Franz Xaver. 1709-1789. 

Composer; born at Holleschau, 
Moravia. Was for several years a 
Court musician at Mannheim, and in 
1747 became chapelmaster of Stras- 
burg Cathedral, a post he retained 
till his death, although Pleyel acted 
as his assistant from 1783. His 
church-music, on which his reputa- 
tion rests, comprises seven masses, 
motets, hymns, and a Te Deum, 
which remain for the most part 
in manuscript at the Cathedral 
of St. Die, Vosges; six string quar- 
tets; three trios; twenty-six sympho- 
nies, of which six were published; and 
a piano concerto. He also wrote a 
treatise, Harmonische Belehrung oder 
griindliche Anweisung zu der musi- 
kalischen Tonkunst, never published 
in German; but Kalkbrenner's French 
translation, Traite d'harmonie et de 
Composition, was published in 1804. 

Richter, Hans. 1843- 

Celebrated conductor; born at Raab, 
Hungary. Was the son of the cathe- 
dral chapelmaster; his mother being a 
soprano who taught singing with 
success at Vienna as late as 1853. After 
his father's death in 1853 he entered 
the choir of the Vienna Court Chapel, 
and about his seventeenth year be- 
came a pupil of Sechter in composi- 
tion, Hellmesberger in piano, and 
Kleinecke in horn, at the Conserva- 
tory, where he studied for five years. 
For some time he played the horn in 
the orchestra of the Karntnerthor 
Theatre, and in 1866 was associated 
with Wagner at Lucerne. Through 
Wagner's recommendation he became 
chorusmaster of the Court and 
National Theatre at Munich in 1868, 
also conducting under von Billow for 
some months. Early in 1871 he be- 
came conductor of the National Thea- 
tre at Pesth, where he remained till 
1875, when he gave an orchestral con- 


cert at Vienna. This created such 
marked interest as to secure for him 
the conductorship of the Court Opera 
there, and of the Philharmonic con- 
certs. Meanwhile he conducted the 
Bayreuth rehearsals of the Nibelun- 
gen Ring, and in 1876 conducted the 
performances at that place. The next 
year brought out Wagner's Valkyrie 
at Vienna, and in 1878 the remainder 
of the Ring in that city, receiving 
immediately after the close of these 
performances the post of second con- 
ductor to the Court Chapel, and five 
years later that of first chapelmaster. 
He has continued to conduct the Bay- 
reuth Festivals, and from 1879 has 
conducted^ the series of prominent 
concerts in London known by his 
name. In 1885 he became conductor 
of the Birmingham Festivals, and re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Music from Oxford University. 
In addition he has conducted several 
festivals in the Lower Rhine district 
of Germany. Richter possesses a 
remarkable memory, often conducting 
rehearsals as well as performances of 
the greatest orchestral works without 
the score. His knowledge of the vari- 
ous instruments is such that he can 
give an object lesson to any player 
in the orchestra, when necessary, 
which enables him to understand the 
possibilities and limitations of a per- 
formance as few conductors do. He 
is also known as a broad-minded and 
generous patron of the less noted but 
worthy composers of the younger 
generation. Firm without being ag- 
gressive or dictatorial; conscientious, 
hberal and sympathetic toward his 
men, Richter's character, no less than 
his ability, has determined the meas- 
ure of his success, and won for him 
universal honor and respect. 

Riedel (re'-d'l), Carl. 1827-1888. 

German choral conductor and musi- 
cal editor; born at Kronenberg. 
Started in business as a silk-dyer, but 
at the age of twenty-one gave this up, 
and began study for the musical pro- 
fession, first under Carl Wilhelm, 
Krefeld, and later, in 1849, at the 
Leipsic Conservatory. He organized 
in 1854 a singing society known by 
his name, for the performance of 
ancient church music, which grew out 
of a male quartet into a large and 
celebrated mixed chorus. In 1868, he 
became president of the Universal 
German Musical Society; he also held 




the same office in the Wagner Society, 
and was instrumental in founding 
other musical unions. He received 
the title of professor from the Duke 
of Altenburg, in 1868; in 1883 the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Philo- 
sophy, from the University of Leip- 
sic, and the next year the title of 
Ducal Saxon professor. He published 
only a few songs and choruses, but 
was most active as an able editor of 
old German works by Franck, Eccard, 
Prsetorious, Schiitz, etc. His work in 
combining the four Passions by the 
last named composer into one has 
been commended as especially in- 

Riem (rem), Wilhelm Friedrich. 1779- 

German organist and composer; 
born at Colleda, Thuringia. Was a 
pupil of J. A. Hiller at the St. Thomas 
School, Leipsic, and in 1807 became 
organist of the New Reformed Church, 
and in 1814 of the St. Thomas School. 
In 1822 he was appointed cathedral 
organist in Bremen, where he also 
conducted the choral society, retain- 
ing both posts till his death. He com- 
posed, for the anniversary of the 
Augsburg Confession in 1830, a can- 
tata which was selected in preference 
to Mendelssohn's for the same occa- 
sion. He also wrote a quintet and 
three quartets for strings; sonatas for 
violin and for piano; a collection of 
organ music in two volumes for both 
church and concert use; a number of 
pieces and studies for piano; and 

Riemann (re'-man), Hugo. 1849- 

Celebrated German musical theorist, 
critic and writer; born at Gross- 
mehlra; received some early instruc- 
tion from his father, an amateur 
musician and_ composer, who was 
opposed to his son following music 
as a profession. Studied theory under 
Frankenburger at Sondershausen, and 
piano under Ratzenberger and Bar- 
thel. After a three years' course in 
the Rossleben Gymnasium, he studied 
law, philosophy and history at Berlin 
and Ttilingen, and joined the army 
for a year, entering the Leipsic Con- 
servatory at the age of twenty-two. 
In 1873 he took the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy at Gottingen and taught 
at Bielefeld. In 1878 he prepared 
himself to become lecturer on music 
at Leipsic University, but did not as- 


sume the duties of this position till 
1895, teaching at Bromberg, at the 
Hamburg Conservatory, and at the 
conservatories of Sondershausen and 
Wiesbaden. He has received honorary 
membership in the Cecilia Academy, 
Rome; the Society for the Promotion 
of Classical Music at Amsterdam, and 
the Royal Institute, Florence. His 
compositions include songs, piano- 
music, books of piano studies, and 
several pieces of chamber-music. He 
is the author of a large number of 
historical, theoretical and critical 
works, a number of which have been 
translated into English. The most 
important of these are Musik Lexi- 
kon; Die Entwickelung unserer 
Notenschrift; Die Mapruplai; der 
byzantinischen liturgischen Notation; 
Geschichte der Musiktheorie im 
X-XIX Jahrhundert; Handbuch der 
Harmonielehre; Neue Schule der 
Melodik; Vergleichende Klavier- 
schule; Musikalische Dynamik und 
Agogik; History of Musical Forms; 
Catechism of Musical Instruments; 
Catechism of Pianoforte Playing; 
Analysis of J. S. Bach's Well-tem- 
pered Clavichord; and Harmony Sim- 
plified. Riemann has also edited 
phrasing editions of classical piano 
works, including previously unpub- 
lished works of Friedemann Bach, the 
complete classical works of Rameau, 
etc.; also new edition of Komposi- 
tionslehre by Marx; translated 
Gevaert's Instrumentation, and Origi- 
nes du chant liturgique into German; 
contributed articles to various peri- 
odicals, along critical and historical 
lines, etc.; and was musical editor of 
Meyer's Konversations lexikon. 

Riepel (re'-pel), Joseph. 1708-1782. 

Austrian musical theorist; born at 
Horschlag Upper Austria; became in 
middle age chamber musician to the 
Prince of Thurn and Taxis at Ratis- 
fon, where he died. He is known to 
have published some violin concertos, 
and to have composed concertos for 
piano, symphonies and church-music, 
which never appeared in print. A few 
of those published are Anfangsgriinde 
zur Musikalischen Setkkuns't; Grun- 
dregeln zur Tonordnung; Griindliche 
Erklarung der Tonordnung; Erlante- 
rung der betraglichen Tonordnung; 
Unentbehrliche Anmerkung zum Kon- 
trapunkt; Bass-schliissel, das ist 
Anleitung fiir Anf anger; and Har- 
monisches Silbenmass. 





Ries (res), Ferdinand. 1784-1838. 

German pianist and composer, noted 
chiefly as Beethoven's biographer; 
born at Bonn, where his father was 
leader of orchestra and musical direc- 
tor to the Elector of Cologne. His 
first lessons were received from his 
father. Also studied under Bernhard 
Romberg, the cellist. In 1801 he 
became a piano pupil of Beethoven at 
Vienna. The great composer had 
been a friend of Ries' father at Bonn, 
and showed every favor to the youth. 
He studied composition under 
Albrechtsberger for a short time, and 
remained for years under the instruc- 
tion of Beethoven. After two years 
in Paris he made concert tours 
through parts of Germany, Scandi- 
navia, anrj Russia, joining his former 
teacher, Romberg, in St. Petersburg. 
The war of 1812 breaking out, he 
sought refuge in England, settling in 
London, and there became prominent 
as a teacher, pianist and composer. 
In 1824, having fallen heir to an estate 
near Bonn, he retired to devote him- 
self to composition, and six years 
later appeared in Frankfort, where his 
opera. La Fiancee du Brigand, was 
produced. In 1831 he again visited 
England, brought out a fairy opera, 
Liska (The Sorcerer), and conducted 
festivals at Dublin. Returning to his 
home in Frankfort he conducted sev- 
eral festivals on the Lower Rhine, 
and for a year before his death the 
Cecilia Society. From 1834 to 1836 he 
was musical director to the town of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, where he brought out 
an oratorio. The Adoration of the 
Magi. He wrote in all over two hun- 
dred compositions, including the 
operas mentioned and another, Eine 
Nacht auf dem Libanon, never per- 
formed; also two oratorios, Der Sieg 
des Glaubens, and Die Konige 
Israels; six symphonies for full 
orchestra; three overtures; six quin- 
tets; five trios, three quartets, one 
quintet, two sextets, one septet, and 
one octet for various instruments with 
piano; for strings, six quintets and 
fourteen quartets; for violin, a con- 
certo and two sonatas, also a sonata 
for cello, a trio for two pianos and 
harp; over fifty sonatas for piano, and 
other piano solos; songs and part- 
songs. Like most prolific composers, 
his compositions have not proved of 
lasting worth. The work by which he 
is best remembered is his Biographical 
Notices of Beethoven. 

Ries, Franz. 1846- 

Violinist and composer; born in 
Berlin; son of Hubert Ries; was a 
pupil of his father in vioUn and of 
Kiel in composition, and later of 
Massart at the Paris Conservatory, 
where in 1868 he won first prize for 
violin playing and subsequently ap- 
peared in concert both in Paris and 
London. A nervous disorder com- 
pelled him to relinquish a public 
career, and he became head partner of 
the music publishing firm of Ries and 
Erler, in BerHn. He continued to 
compose, however, and his works are 
considered excellent, evincing genuine 
natural gifts as well as thorough 
musicianship. They include a quintet 
and a quartet for strings, an orches- 
tral overture, two suites for violin, 
songs and piano-pieces. 

Ries, Hubert. 1802-1886. 

Brother of Ferdinand; a conductor 
and teacher, but is remembered now 
by his educational works for the 
violin. He was born at Bonn; studied 
the violin under his father, Franz 
Anton Ries, and afterward under 
Spohr; also composition under 
Hauptmann. In 1824 he became a 
member of the orchestra at the King's 
Theatre in Berlin, and the next year 
was connected with the Royal Opera. 
After an extended visit to Vienna he 
returned to Berlin, and with Bohmer, 
Maurer, and Just established a series 
of quartet concerts. From 1835 to 
1871 he directed the Philharmonic 
Academy of Arts. In 1851 he became 
leader of the Royal Orchestra, and in 
1839 was made a member of the Royal 
Academy of Arts. In 1851 he became 
the principal teacher at the school for 
instrumental music maintained in 
connection with the Royal Theatre. He 
was highly esteemed as a teacher, and 
taught numerous private pupils in 
addition to his work in the school. 
His didactic works for violin are much 
used and are considered models of 
excellence. _ His Violin Method was 
published in two editions and also 
translated into English. He also 
wrote a number of studies, duets, 
quartets, and two concertos for the 

Rietz (rets), Eduard. 1802-1832. 

Gifted violinist; an intimate friend 
of Mendelssohn; born at Berlin; elder 
son of Johann Friedrich, a viola- 
player in the Royal Orchestra, under 




whom he studied, later becoming a 
pupil of Rode. In 1821 he entered the 
Singakademie as a tenor, and for 
some time was a member of the Royal 
Orchestra, but had to give up public 
playing in 1824 because of ill health. 
In 1826 he founded and became con- 
ductor of the Berlin Philharmonic 
Society, but died of consumption at 
the age of thirty. Mendelssohn was 
fond of him, and held him also in high 
esteem as a musician; he wrote for 
and dedicated to Eduard an octet and 
one of his violin sonatas. 

Rietz, Julius. 1812-1877. 

German composer, conductor and 
violoncellist of much ability, still 
more noted as an editor and teacher 
of music. He was born at Berlin; 
younger brother of Eduard Rietz. He 
studied the cello under Schmidt, 
Bernhard Romberg, and Moritz Ganz, 
and composition under Zelter; at 
sixteen he entered the orchestra of 
the Konigstadter Theatre, and while 
there composed the incidental music 
to Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab, aplay 
by Holtei. In 1834 he became assist- 
ant conductor to Mendelssohn at the 
Diisseldorf Opera, succeeding him as 
chief conductor the next year. In 
1836 he was appointed town musical 
director, which included the conduc- 
torship of the Choral Society, of the 
music at the Andreaskirche and of 
the subscription concerts, a post 
which he held for twelve years, attain- 
ing a high reputation for his conduct- 
ing, and continuing his solo playing 
by appearances at various towns in 
that vicinity. In 1847 he was called 
to Leipsic as conductor of the Sing- 
akademie and the Opera, and the next 
year of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, 
also professor of composition at the 
Conservatory; in 1854 he resigned the 
directorship of the Opera. In 1860, 
after another dozen years of work, 
he received the appointment of Court 
chapelmaster at Dresden, where he 
had charge of the music at both the 
Opera and the Roman Catholic 
Church and a little later became artis- 
tic director of the Conservatory. The 
title of general musical director was 
conferred on him in 1874. He died 
at Dresden, just a few weeks before 
his projected retirement. As a com- 
poser Rietz was a classicist, and to 
him Mendelssohn had spoken the last 
word in music. While scholarly and 
intellectual hi all his work. Julius 


Reitz's music was somewhat deficient 
in inspiration and originality. 

Of his operas. Das Madchen aus der 
Fremde, Jery und Bately, Der Korsar, 
and Georg Neumark, the last two 
were failures. His incidental music to 
dramas by Goethe and other writers 
was more successful; but several of 
his instrumental works surpassed 
them. Among these were his syrn- 
phonies in E flat and G minor, his 
Lustspiel overture and concert over- 
ture m A minor, and also choral 
works with orchestra: Altdeutscher 
Schlachtgesang and a setting of 
Schiller's Dithyrambe. Besides these 
more prominent works are a third 
symphony, three more overtures; five 
concertos; sonatas; a concertstiick for 
orchestra; a capriccio; a string quar- 
tet; other music for piano; songs, 
choruses; masses, psalms, and other 
choral music. His editions of Mozart's 
symphonies and operas, of Beethov- 
en's overtures and symphonies, and 
of Mendelssohn's complete works, are 
very valuable; most of this work was 
done for Breitkopf und Hartel, and 
he also edited works for the Bach and 
Handel Societies in Germany, his 
additional accompaniments to the 
scores of the latter composer being 
regarded as of a high order. While 
a thorough musician and an able con- 
ductor Rietz's reputation is that of 
a musical editor and teacher, number- 
ing among his pupils Bargiel, Dessoflf, 
Radecke, Dudley Buck, Sir Arthur 
Sullivan, and others. For half a 
dozen different times he was conduc- 
tor of the Lower Rhine Festivals. 

Righini (re-ge'-ne), Vincenzo. 1756- 

Italian dramatic composer and con- 
ductor; born at Bologna; was a choir- 
boy in the cathedral there; studied 
singing under Bernacchi, and counter- 
point under Padre Martini. He made 
his debut as a tenor singer at Parma 
in 1775, and the next year was en- 
gaged in Prague as an actor and 
singer in comic opera. Here he re- 
mained for about three years, also 
producing three operas of his own, 
La Vedova scaltra. La bottega del 
Caffe, and Don Giovanni. In 1780 he 
settled in Vienna as director of the 
Italian light opera, and was chosen 
by Joseph II. as singing-teacher to 
Princess Elizabeth. In 1788 he re- 
ceived a call from the Elector at May- 
ence to act as his chapelmaster, and 



in 1793 was appointed conductor to 
the Court Opera at Berlin, where his 
grand opera, Enea nel Lazio, written 
for the Royal Theatre at the bidding 
of Emperor Frederick William II., 
had met with success. In 1794 he 
married a well-known singer, Hen- 
rietta Kneisel (1767-1801), who is said 
to have possessed much beauty of per- 
son and of voice. In 1806 the opera 
was discontinued. He died in his 
native place in 1812. He composed 
about twenty operas altogether, in- 
cluding besides those mentioned 
above, II trionfo d'Arianna; Armida; 
Tigrane; Gerusalemme liberati; and 
La Selva incantata. His Don Gio- 
vanni antedated Alozart's by ten 
years. He also published a ballet, 
Minerva die Statuen des Daedalus; a 
mass, a Te Deum, a requiem, and 
other church music; cantatas, songs, 
duets, and instrumental music. Of his 
orchestral compositions, the only one 
of any note is the overture to Tigrane. 
Righini was also an excellent teacher 
of singing, and in the early part of 
the Nineteenth Century published a 
set of vocal exercises that have been 
ranked among the best of their kind. 

Rimbault (rim'-bolt), Edward Francis. 


Eminent English lecturer and writer 
on musical subjects; born at Soho, 
London; was the pupil of his father, 
Stephen Francis Rimbault (1773-1837), 
an organist and composer, and later of 
Samuel Wesley. In 1832 he became 
organist of the Swiss Church in Soho, 
and later of several other churches in 
London. He was most prominent as 
a specialist in musical history and 
literature. In 1840 he cooperated with 
Chappell and Taylor in founding the 
Musical Antiquarian Society, and 
superintended in this connection the 
publication of iriany works by old 
English composers. In the same year 
he was also made secretary and editor 
of the Percy Society, and of the Motet 
Society, which published with English 
text, works by Palestrina, Lasso and 
other ancient composers. In 1842 he 
became a F. S. A., a member of the 
Stockholm Academy, and the recipi- 
ent of the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy from the University of 
Gottingen. In 1848 the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred on him by Oxford and 
also by Harvard, in which institution 
he had been offered the professorship 
of music. His time was divided 


chiefly between lectures at the Royal 
Institution, also at Liverpool and 
Edinburgh, and extensive editorial 
work, embracing works published by 
the musical societies above named; 
but he found time to compose two 
operettas. The Fair Maid of Islington, 
and The Castle Spectre; a cantata. 
Country Life; and part-songs. One 
of his songs, Happy Land, attained 
wide popularity. He was the author 
of numerous elementary musical 
works, arranged for piano many of 
the operas of his day, contributed 
articles to various periodicals, and 
edited a large number of collections, 
principally oi Cathedral music and 
church services, but including some of 
secular vocal and instrumental music, 
also other musical works, including 
three oratorios of Handel's for the 
Handel Society, an edition of Thomas 
Overbury's works, and others. He 
also published The Organ, its History 
and Construction; the Pianoforte, its 
Origin, Progress and Construction; a 
bibliography of musical and poetical 
works of the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries; musical illustrations 
to Percy's Reliques; articles in the 
Imperial Dictionary of Biography, 
and Grove's Dictionary of Music. His 
works are considered valuable, not 
only for his contributions to musical 
history in England, but also for the 
revival of a number of the best works 
of early English composers. He died 
at London, leaving a valuable musical 

Rimsky-Korsakov (rim'-shki kor'-sa- 
kof), Nikolas Andrejevitch. 1844- 

Russian composer; considered the 
greatest representative of the modern 
Russian School with the exception of 
Tschaikowsky. He was born at 
Tichvin; the son of a well-to-do land- 
owner, and like Glinka, had many 
opportunities for coming in contact 
with Russian peasant life and folk- 
song. He showed musical talent 
early, and attempted composition at 
nine. His parents intended him for 
the navy, and sent him to St. Peters- 
burg Naval Academy. Here he pur- 
sued music as a recreation, and met 
Balakirev, the leader of a band of 
young musical enthusiasts. They in- 
fected Rimsky-Korsakov with their 
disregard of and opposition to all 
theoretical education in music. He 
took piano lessons while in the Acad- 
emy, and at the end of his course was 




sent away as a midshipman for three 
years. During this voyage he erri- 
ployed his spare time in the composi- 
tion of a symphony, the first produced 
by a Russian, which was brought out 
through Balakirev's efforts in 1865, 
and attracted the attention of Tschai- 
kowsky, who recognized a genius in 
the composer, and interested himself 
in the youth with such success that 
the latter realized his need of theoreti- 
cal study, and forthwith took it up 
with such energy that he surprised 
his new friend and adviser with the 
progress he made. He continued in 
the naval service. In 1871 he became 
professor of composition at the St. 
Petersburg Conservatory, where, a 
number of the younger generation of 
Russian composers, including Aren- 
sky, Glazounov and Liadov, were his 
pupils. In 1873 he was appointed in- 
spector of marine bands, and the next 
year director of the Free School of 
Music, and also acting as assistant 
conductor at the Imperial Orchestra. 
In 1886 he became conductor of the 
Russian Symphony concerts, and the 
next year resigned his directorship 
of the Free School, his work as con- 
ductor there having ceased in 1881. 
In 1889 he directed two Russian con- 
certs at the Trocadero, Paris. He 
married a gifted pianist, Nadesha 
Pourgould, who arranged for the 
piano many of his scores and those 
of other Russian cornposers; her 
work in this line receiving the com- 
mendation of Liszt. In October, 
1907, he was appointed a member of 
the Paris Academy of Arts in the 
place of Edvard Grieg, recently de- 

Rimsky-Korsakov has for some 
years stood at the head of Russian 
composers. He is probably the 
sanest and best balanced of them all, 
his music presenting a decided con- 
trast to that of Tschaikowsky and 
many others of the school, in its 
optimism. He chooses subjects of a 
fanciful, romantic or grotesque na- 
ture, rather than the tragic or pas- 
sionate, such as his friend excels in 
treating; though they often selected 
the same material for the librettos of 
their operas, their temperaments 
diflfer so widely that there is no real 
resemblance in their corresponding 
works. Rimsky-Korsakov uses the 
Russian sun legends to such an extent 
that he has been called a " sun wor- 
shiper." He has a sense of humor 


that is genuinely Russian and that 
often shows itself in his music. His 
" robust temperament " of which 
Pougin speaks, and the health and good 
fortune which have continually at- 
tended his career, have not conduced 
to give him the tenderness and sym- 
pathy possessed by Tschaikowsky. 
He excels in the symphonic form, 
and in his operas balances this with 
the lyrical; uses leading themes in his 
orchestral works, assigning certain 
themes to fixed instruments. In his 
orchestration he is said to be allied 
to the new German School of which 
Strauss is the most striking represen- 
tative today, but in his melodic vein 
is inferior to the latter. He is a pro- 
lific composer, having written in 
almost every style, dramatic, orches- 
tral, instrumental, and chamber-music, 
in song and in chorus. An eminent 
French critic, Jean Marnold, sa3^s of 
him: "His inspiration is exquisite, 
and the inexhaustible transformation 
of his themes is most interesting. 
Like other Russians, he sins through 
lack of cohesion and unity, and espe- 
cially through a want of true po-