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> /T '
FOR SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES
AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOL, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI
WILLIAM J. PELO, A.M. (Harv.)
FORMERLY, -SUPERINTENDENT OP SCHOOLS, SWAMP8COTT,
MASSACHUSETTS, ASSISTANT IN EDUCATION, HARVARD
UNIVERSITY, AND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF EDU-
CATION, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
WITH INTRODUCTION BY
CHARLES W. ELIOT
PRESIDENT EMERITUS, HARVARD UNIVERSITY
THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY
NEW YORK CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
For the use of copyrighted material grateful acknowledgment
is made to: D. Appleton & Company for "Song of Marion's
Men," by William Cullen Bryant; Archbishop John Ireland for
" Duty and Value of Patriotism "; Little, Brown & Company for
"The Man without a Country," by Edward Everett Hale;
Horace Traubel for "0 Captain! My Captain!," by Walt
Whitman; Houghton, Mifflin Company for " Barbara Frietchie,"
by John Greenleaf Whittier, " Ready," by Phoebe Cary, " Old
Ironsides," by Oliver Wendell Holmes, and "Paul Revere's
Ride," by Henry W. Longfellow; Harper & Brothers for "The
Ride of Jennie M'Neal," by Will Carleton; Rudyard Kipling
and Doubleday Page & Co., for "The Recessional"; Henry
van Dyke for "The Foot-path to Peace," from "The Friendly
Year," copyrighted by Charles Scribner's Sons; Henry Watter-
son for "Oration on Lincoln"; Henry H. Bennett for "The
Flag Goes By"; Franklin K. Lane for "Makers of the Flag";
Harr Wagner Publishing Company, publishers of Joaquin Miller's
Complete Works, for "Columbus"; John Haynes Holmes for
"America Triumphant"; Fleming H. Revell Co. for selection
from E. A. Steiner's " From Alien to Citizen."
COPYRIGHT, 191 9, BY THE
GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY
Dear Mr. Pelo:
I hope the children who use your Patriotic Reader
will ask themselves what patriotism really means.
There is much vague talk about patriotism; and
gregarious sentiment on the subject can be easily
perverted to wrong uses. Therefore every child
should somehow get a clear idea of what love of
country implies in the patriot's soul and should
lead to in the patriot's conduct.
The love of country is a compound of many ele-
ments; but it is always a combination of loves of the
places and scenes among which we grew up, of the
father, mother, brothers, and sisters with whom our
infancy was passed, of the sky and the weather at
the home of our youth, and of the natural and artifi-
cial environments of our plays and our labors.
A wandering life, with no stability of home or of
employment, is unfavorable to the development of
the warmest love of country; but warm and eager
love of country may be felt by persons living under
different forms of government and social organization.
Poor and uneducated people feel it quite as strongly
as the well-to-do and the educated, though they may
not be so conscious of the feeling and of its effects on
themselves. The subjects of a king or an emperor may
Columbus Joaquin Miller 91
The Boy Columbus Anonymous 92
Independence Day 94
Independence Bell Anonymous 95
Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson 98
Memorial Day William McKinley .... 103
Memorial Day James A, Garfield 104
The Blue and the Gray Francis M . Finch 105
PATRIOTIC BALLADS/ 106
My Land Thomas Osborne Davis. 106
The Ride of Jennie M 'Neal Will Carleton 107
The Rising in 1776 Thomas Buchanan Read 113
Paul Revere's Ride H. W. Longfellow 117
Song of Marion's Men William Cullen Bryant 121
Mollie Pitcher Kate Brownlee Sherwood 123
Old Ironsides Oliver Wendell Holmes. . 126
Barbara Frietchie John G. Whittier 127
Ready Phoebe Gary 130
The Song of Manila Stuart Sterne 131
PATRIOTIC SONGS 133
The Star-spangled Banner 133
America Samuel Francis Smith . 133
The Battle Hymn of the Republic. . Julia Ward Howe 135
Hail, Columbia Joseph Hophinson 136
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean. . . David Shaw 139
American Hymn Matthias Keller 141
WAR PROCLAMATION Woodrow Wilson 142
Recessional Rudyard Kipling 155
Advice to the Immigrant Edward A. Steiner 156
America Trumphant John Haynes Holmes 157
The Land of My Birth Eliza Cook 159
God Give us Men JG. Holland 159
The Foot-path to Peace Henry van Dyke 160
THE AMERICAN'S CREED
I BELIEVE in the United States of America as a
government of the people, by the people, for the
people; whose just powers are derived from the
consent of the governed ; a democracy in a republic ;
a sovereign nation of many sovereign states ; a per-
fect union, one and inseparable; established upon
those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and hu-
manity for which American patriots sacrificed their
lives and fortunes.
I therefore believe it is my duty to my country
to love it; to support its constitution; to obey its
laws; to respect its flag; and to defend it against
— William Tyler Page
THE NATION AND CITIZENSHIP
BREATHES THERE THE MAN WITH
SOUL SO DEAD
Breathes there the man with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,
"This is my own, my native land ,, ?
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned
From wandering on a foreign strand?
If such there breathe, go, mark him well;
For him no minstrel raptures swell;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim, —
Despite those titles, power, and pelf,
The wretch, concentered all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
Unwept, unhonored, and unsung.
— Waweb Scott, "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
10 AMERICAN IDEALS
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY
I suppose that very few casual readers of the New
York Herald of August 13, 1863, observed, in an ob-
scure corner, among the "Deaths," the announce-
"Nolan. Died, on board U. S. Corvette Levant, Lat. 2°
11' S., Long. 131'° W., on the 11th of May, Philip Nolan."
There are hundreds of readers who would have
paused at that announcement, if the officer of the
Levant who reported it had chosen to make it thus:
"Died, May 11, The Man without a Country."
For it was as "The Man without a Country" that
poor Philip Nolan had generally been known by the
officers who had him in charge during some fifty years,
as, indeed, by all the men who sailed under them.
I dare say there is many a man who has taken wine
with him once a fortnight, in a three years' cruise,
who never knew that his name was "Nolan," or whether
the poor wretch had any name at all.
Now that he is dead, it seems to me worth while
to tell a little of his story, by way of showing young
Americans of to-day what it is to be a man without
Philip Nolan was as fine a young officer as there
was in the "Legion of the West," as the Western
division of our army was then called. When Aaron
Burr made his first dashing expedition down to New
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 11
Orleans in 1805, at Fort Massac, or somewhere above
on the river, he met this gay, dashing, bright young
fellow, at some dinner-party, I think. Burr marked
him, talked to him, walked with him, took him a day
or two's voyage in his flatboat, and, in short, fasci-
nated him. For the next year, barrack-life was very
tame to poor Nolan. He occasionally availed himself
of the permission the great man had given him to
write to him. Long, high-worded, stilted letters the
poor boy wrote and rewrote and copied. But never
a line did he have in reply from the gay deceiver.
The other boys in the garrison sneered at him, because
he lost the fun which they found in shooting or rowing
while he was working away on these grand letters to
his grand friend. But before long the young fellow
had his revenge. For this time His Excellency,
Honorable Aaron Burr, appeared again under a very
different aspect. There were rumors that he had an
army behind him and everybody supposed that he
had an empire before him. At that time the young-
sters all envied him. Burr had not been talking twenty
minutes with the commander before he asked him to
send for Lieutenant Nolan. Then after a little talk
he asked Nolan if he could show him something of the
great river and the plans for the new post. He asked
Nolan to take him out in his skiff to show him a cane-
brake or a cotton-wood tree, as he said, — really to
seduce him; and by the time the sail was over, Nolan
was enlisted body and soul. From that time, though
he did not yet know it, he lived as a man without
What Burr meant to do I know no more than you,
12 AMERICAN IDEALS
dear reader. It is none of our business just now.
Only, when the grand catastrophe came, and Jefferson
and the House of Virginia of that day undertook to
break on the wheel all the possible Clarences of the
then House of York, by the great treason trial at Rich-
mond, some of the lesser fry in that distant Mississippi
Valley, which was farther from us than Puget's Sound
is to-day, introduced the like novelty on their pro-
vincial stage; and, to while away the monotony of
the summer at Fort Adams, got up, for spectacles, a
string of court-martials on the officers there. One
and another of the colonels and majors were tried, and,
to fill out the list, little Nolan, against whom, Heaven
knows, there was evidence enough, — that he was sick
of the service, had been willing to be false to it, and
would have obeyed any order to march anywhither
with anyone who would follow him had the order been
signed, "By command of His Exc. A. Burr. ,, The
courts dragged on. The big flies escaped, — rightly
for all I know. Nolan was proved guilty enough,
as I say; yet you and I would never have heard of
him, reader, but that, when the president of the court
asked him at the close whether he wished to say any-
thing to show that he had always been faithful to the
United States, he, in a fit of frenzy, cursed his country
and cried out, "I wish I may never hear of the United
States again !"
I suppose he did not know how the words shocked
old Colonel Morgan, who was holding the court.
Half the officers who sat in it had served through the
Revolution, and their lives, not to say their necks,
had been risked for the very idea which he so cava-
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 13
lierly cursed in his madness. He, on his part, had
grown up in the West of those days. He had been
educated on a plantation where the finest company
was a Spanish officer or a French merchant from
Orleans. His education, such as it was, had been
perfected in commercial expeditions to Vera Cruz,
and I think he told me his father once hired an English-
man to be a private tutor for a winter on the plantation.
He had spent half his youth with an older brother,
hunting horses in Texas; and, in a word, to him
" United States' ' was scarcely a reality. Yet he had
been fed by " United States" for all the years since he
had been in the army. He had sworn on his faith as
a Christian to be true to " United States." It was
" United States" which gave him the uniform he wore,
and the sword by his side. Nay, my poor Nolan, it
was only because " United States" had picked you out
first as one of her own confidential men of honor that
"A. Burr" cared for you a straw more than for the
flatboat men who sailed his ark for him. I do not
excuse Nolan; I only explain to the reader why he
cursed his country, and wished he might never hear
her name again.
He never did hear her name but once again. From
that moment, September 23, 1807, till the day he died,
May 11, 1863, he never heard her name again. For
that half century and more he was a man without a
Old Morgan, as I said, was terribly shocked. If
Nolan had compared George Washington to Benedict
Arnold, or had cried, "God save King George," Mor-
gan would not have felt worse. He called the court
14 AMERICAN IDEALS
into his private room, and returned in fifteen minutes,
with a face like a sheet, to say, —
"Prisoner, hear the sentence of the Court! The
Court decides, subject to the approval of the President,
that you never hear the name of the United States
Nolan laughed. But nobody else laughed. Old
Morgan was too solemn, and the whole room was
hushed dead as night for a minute. Even Nolan lost
his swagger in a moment. Then Morgan added, —
"Mr. Marshal, take the prisoner to Orleans in an
armed boat, and deliver him to the naval commander
The marshal gave his orders and the prisoner was
taken out of court.
"Mr. Marshal," continued old Morgan, "see that
no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.
Mr. Marshal, make my respects to Lieutenant Mitchell
at Orleans, and request him to order that no one shall
mention the United States to the prisoner while he is
on board ship. You will receive your written orders
from the officer on duty here this evening. The
Court is adjourned without day."
I have always supposed that Colonel Morgan him-
self took the proceedings of the court to Washington
city, and explained them to Mr. Jefferson. Certain
it is that the President approved them, — certain,
that is, if I may believe the men who say they have
seen his signature. Before the Nautilus got round
from New Orleans to the Northern Atlantic coast with
the prisoner on board, the sentence had been approved,
and he was a man without a country.
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 15
The plan then adopted was substantially the same
which was necessarily followed ever after. Perhaps
it was suggested by the necessity of sending him by
water from Fort Adams and Orleans. The Secretary
of the Navy, — it must have been the first Crownin-
shield, though he is a man I do not remember, — was
requested to put Nolan on board a government vessel
bound on a long cruise, and to direct that he should
be only so far confined there as to make it certain that
he never saw or heard of the country. The com-
mander to whom he was intrusted regulated the
etiquette and the precautions of the affair, and accord-
ing to his scheme they were carried out, I suppose,
till Nolan died.
When I was second officer of the Intrepid some thirty
years after, I saw the original paper of instructions.
I have been sorry ever since that I did not copy the
whole of it. It ran, however, much in this way:
Washington (with a date, which
must have been late in 1807).
Sir, — You will receive from Lieutenant Neale the per-
son of Philip Nolan, late a lieutenant in the United States
This person on his trial by court-martial expressed, with
an oath, the wish that he might "never hear of the United
The Court sentenced him to have his wish fulfilled.
For the present, the execution of the order is intrusted
by the President to .this Department.
You will take the prisoner on board your ship, and keep
him there with such precautions as shall prevent his escape.
You will provide him with such quarters, rations, and
clothing as would be proper for an officer of his late rank,
16 . AMERICAN IDEALS
if he were a passenger on your vessel on the business of his
The gentlemen on board will make any arrangements
agreeable to themselves regarding his society. He is to be
exposed to no indignity of any kind, nor is he ever unneces-
sarily to be reminded that he is a prisoner
But under no circumstances is he ever to hear of his
country or to see any information regarding it; and you will
especially caution all the officers under your command to
take care, that, in the various indulgences which may be
granted, this rule, in which his punishment is involved,
shall not be broken.
It is the intention of the Government that he shall never
again see the country which he has disowned. Before the
end of your cruise you will receive orders which will give
effect to this intention.
W. Southard, for the
Secretary of the Navy.
If I had only preserved the whole of this paper,
there would be no break in the beginning of my sketch
of this story. For Captain Shaw, if it were he, handed
it to his successor in the charge, and he to his, and I
suppose the commander of the Levant has it to-day
as his authority for keeping this man in this mild
The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have
met "the man without a country' ' was, I think,
transmitted from the beginning. No mess liked to
have him permanently, because his presence cut off
all talk of home or of the prospect of return, of politics
or letters, of peace or of war, — cut off more than half
the talk men liked to have at sea. But it was always
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 17
thought too hard that he should never meet the rest
of us, except to touch hats, and we finally sank into
one system. He was not permitted to talk with the
men, unless an officer was by. With officers he had
unrestrained intercourse, as far as they and he chose.
But he grew shy, though he had favorites: I was one.
Then the captain always asked him to dinner on Mon-
day. Every mess in succession took up the invitation
in its turn. According to the size of the ship, you had
him at your mess more or less often at dinner. His
breakfast he ate in his own stateroom, — he always
had a stateroom, — which was where a sentinel or
somebody on the watch could see the door. And
whatever else he ate or drank, he ate or drank alone.
Sometimes, when the marines or sailors had any
special jollification, they were permitted to invite
" Plain-Buttons/ ' as they called him. Then Nolan
was sent with some officer, and the men were forbidden
to speak of home while he was there. I believe the
theory was that the sight of his punishment did them
good. They called him " Plain-Buttons/ ' because,
while he always chose to wear a regulation army-
uniform, he was not permitted to wear the army-
button, for the reason that it bore either the initials
or the insignia of the country he had disowned.
I remember, soon after I joined the navy, I was on
shore with some of the older officers from our ship
and from the Brandywine, which we had met at Alex-
andria. We had leave to make a party and go up to
Cairo and the Pyramids. As we jogged along (you
went on donkeys then), some of the gentlemen (we
boys called them "Dons," but the phrase was long
18 AMERICAN IDEALS
since changed) fell to talking about Nolan, and some
one told the system which was adopted from the- first
about his books and other reading. As he was almost
never permitted to go on shore, even though the
vessel lay in port for months, his time at the best
hung heavy; and everybody was permitted to lend him
books, if they were not published in America and
made no allusion to it. These were common enough
in the old days, when people in the other hemisphere
talked of the United States as little as we do of Parar-
guay. He had almost all the foreign papers that came
into the ship, sooner or later; only somebody must go
over them first, and cut out any advertisement or
stray paragraph that alluded to America. This was
a little cruel sometimes, when the back of what was
cut out might be as innocent as Hesiod. Right in the
midst of one of Napoleon's battles, or one of Canning's
speeches, poor Nolan would find a great hole, because
on the back of the page of that paper there had been
an advertisement of a packet for New York, or a
scrap from the President's message. I say this was
the first time I ever heard of this plan, which after-
wards I had enough and more than enough to do with.
I remember it, because poor Phillips, who was of the
party, as soon as the allusion to reading was made,
told a story of something which happened at the
Cape of Good Hope on Nolan's first voyage; and it is
the only thing I ever knew of that voyage. They
had touched at the Cape, and had done the civil thing
with the English Admiral and the fleet, and then,
leaving for a long cruise up the Indian Ocean, Phillips
had borrowed a lot of English books from an officer,
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 19
which, in those days, as indeed in these, was quite a
windfall. Among them was "The Lay of the Last
Minstrel," which they had all of them heard of, but
which most of them had never seen. I think it could
not have been published long. Well, nobody thought
there could be any risk of anything national in that,
though Phillips swore old Shaw had cut out "The
Tempest" from Shakespeare before he let Nolan have
it, because he said "the Bermudas ought to be ours,
and, by Jove, should be one day." So Nolan was
permitted to join the circle one afternoon when a lot
of them sat on deck smoking and reading aloud.
People do not do such things so often now; but when
I was young we got rid of a great deal of time so.
Well, it so happened that in his turn Nolan took the
book and read to the others; and he read very well,
as I know. Nobody in the circle knew a line of the
poem, only it was all magic and Border chivalry,
and was ten thousand years ago. Poor Nolan read
steadily through the fifth canto, stopped a minute
and drank something, and then began, without a
thought of what was coming, —
"Breathes there the man, with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said," —
It seems impossible to us that anybody ever heard
this for the first time; but all these fellows did then,
and poor Nolan himself went on, still unconsciously
or mechanically, —
"'This is my own, my native land 7 ?"
Then they all saw that something was to pay;
but he expected to get through, I suppose, turned a
little pale, but plunged on, —
20 AMERICAN IDEALS
"Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned
From wandering on a foreign strand? —
If such there breathe, go, mark him well; " —
By this time the men were all beside themselves,
wishing there was any way to make him turn over
two pages; but he had not quite presence of mind for
that; he gagged a little, colored crimson, and stag-
gered on, —
"For him no minstrel raptures swell;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his* wealth as wish can claim,
Despite those titles, power, and pelf,
The wretch, concentered all in self," —
and here the poor fellow choked, could not go on,
but started up, swung the book into the sea, vanished
into his stateroom, "And by Jove," said Phillips, "we
did not see him for two months again. And I had to
make up some beggarly story to that .English surgeon
why I did not return his Walter Scott to him."
That story shows about the time when Nolan's
braggadocio must have broken down. At first, they
said, he took a very high tone, considered his imprison-
ment a mere farce, affected to enjoy the voyage, and
all that ; but Phillips said that after he came out of his
stateroom he never was the same man again. He
never read aloud again, unless it was the Bible or
Shakespeare, or something else he was sure of. But
it was not that merely. He never entered in with the
other young men exactly as a companion again. He
was always shy afterwards, when I knew him, —
very seldom spoke, unless he was spoken to, except
to a very few friends. He lighted up occasionally, —
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 21
but generally he had the nervous, tired look of a
When Captain Shaw was coming home, — if , as I
say, it was Shaw, — rather to the surprise of every-
body they made one of the Windward Islands, and lay
off and on for nearly a week. The boys said the
officers were sick of salt-junk, and meant to have
turtle-soup before they came home. But after several
days the Warren came to the same rendezvous; they
exchanged signals; she sent to Phillips and these
homeward-bound men letters and papers, and told
them she was outward-bound, perhaps to the Medi-
terranean, and took' poor Nolan and his traps on the
boat back to try his second cruise. He looked very
blank when he was told to get ready to join her. He
had known enough of the signs of the sky to know that
till that moment he was going "home." But this was
a distinct evidence of something he had not thought
of, perhaps, — that there was no going home for him,
even to a prison. And this was the first of some twenty
such transfers, which brought him sooner or later into
half our best vessels, but which kept him all his life
at least some hundred miles from the country he had
hoped he might never hear of again.
It may have been on that second cruise, — it was
once when he was up the Mediterranean, — that Mrs.
Graff, the celebrated Southern beauty of those days,
danced with him. They had been lying a long time
in the Bay of Naples, and the officers were very inti-
mate in the English fleet, and there had been great
festivities, and our men thought they must give a
great ball on board the ship. How they ever did it
22 AMERICAN IDEALS
on board the Warren I am sure I do not know. Per-
haps it was not the Warren, or perhaps ladies did not
take up so much room as they do now. They wanted
to use Nolan's stateroom for something, and they
hated to do it without asking him to the ball; so the
captain said they might ask him, if they would be
responsible that he did not talk with the wrong people,
"who would give him intelligence." So the dance
went on, the finest party that had ever been known,
I dare say; for I never heard of a man-of-war ball
that was not. For ladies they had the family of the
American consul, one or two travelers who had ad-
ventured so far, and a nice bevy of English girls and
matrons, perhaps Lady Hamilton herself.
Well, different officers relieved each other in stand-
ing and talking with Nolan in a friendly way, so as to be
sure that nobody else spoke to him.
As the dancing went on, Nolan and our fellows all
got at ease, — so much so, that it seemed quite natural
for him to bow to that splendid Mrs. Graff , and say, —
"I hope you have not forgotten me, Miss Rutledge.
Shall I have the honor of dancing?"
He did it so quickly, that Fellows, who was with him,
could not hinder him. She laughed and said, —
"I am not Miss Rutledge any longer, Mr. Nolan;
but I will dance all the same," just nodded to Fel-
lows, as if to say he must leave Mr. Nolan to her, and
led him off to the place where the dance was forming.
Nolan thought he had got his chance. He had
known her at Philadelphia, and at other places had
met her, and this was a Godsend. He began to talk
of her travels, and Europe, and Vesuvius, and the
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 23
French ; and then, he said boldly, — a little pale, she
said, as she told me the story years after, —
"And what do you hear from home, Mrs. Graff?"
And that splendid creature looked through him.
Jove! how she must have looked through him!
"Home! ! Mr. Nolan! ! ! I thought you were the
man who never wanted to hear of home again!" —
and she walked directly up the deck to her husband,
and left poor Nolan alone, as he always was. — He
did not dance again. I cannot give any history of
him in order; nobody can now; and, indeed, I am not
A happier story than either of these I have told is
of the war. That came along soon after. I have
heard this affair told in three or four ways, — and,
indeed, it may have happened more than once. But
which ship it was on I cannot tell. However, in one,
at least, of the great frigate duels with the English,
in which the navy was really baptized, it happened
that a round-shot from the enemy entered one of our
ports square, and took right down the officer of the
gun himself, and almost every man of the gun's crew.
Now you may say what you choose about courage,
but that is not a nice thing to see. But, as the men who
were not killed picked themselves up, and as they and
the surgeon's people were carrying off the bodies,
there appeared Nolan, in his shirt-sleeves, with the
rammer in his hand, and, just as if he had been the
officer, told them off with authority, — who should go
to the cock-pit with the wounded men, who should
stay with him, — perfectly cheery, and with that way
which makes men feel sure all is right and is going to
24 AMERICAN IDEALS
"She walked away and left Nolan alone."
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 25
be right. And he finished loading the gun with his
own hands, aimed it, and bade the men fire. And
there he stayed, captain of that gun, keeping those
fellows in spirits, till the enemy struck, — sitting on
the carriage while the gun was cooling, though he was
exposed all the time, — showing them easier ways to
handle heavy shot, — making the raw hands laugh
at their own blunders, — and when the gun cooled
again, getting it loaded and fired twice as often as any
other gun on the ship. The captain walked forward
by way of encouraging the men, and Nolan touched
his hat and said, —
"I am showing them how we do this in the artillery,
And this is the part of the story where all the legends
agree; the commodore said: —
"I see you are, and I thank you, sir; and I shall
never forget this day, sir, and you never shall, sir."
And after the whole thing was over, and he had the
Englishman's sword, in the midst of the state and
ceremony of the quarter-deck, he said: —
" Where is Mr. Nolan? Ask Mr. Nolan to come
And when Nolan came, he said: —
"Mr. Nolan, we are all very grateful to you to-day;
you are one of us to-day; you will be named in the
And then the old man took off his own sword of
ceremony, and gave it to Nolan, and made him put
it on. The man told me this who saw it. Nolan
cried like a baby, and well he might. He had not
worn a sword since that infernal day at Fort Adams.
26 AMERICAN IDEALS
But always afterwards on occasions of ceremony, he
wore that quaint old French sword of the commodore's.
The captain did mention him in the despatches.
It was always said he asked that he might be pardoned.
He wrote a special letter to the Secretary of War.
But nothing ever came of it. As I said, that was about
the time when they began to ignore the whole trans-
action at Washington, and when Nolan's imprisonment
began to carry itself on because there was nobody
to stop it without any new orders from home.
I have heard it said that he was with Porter when
he took possession of the Nukahiva Islands. Not
this Porter, you know, but old Porter, his father,
Efcsex Porter, — that is, the old Essex Porter, not this
Essex. As an artillery officer, who had seen service
in the West, Nolan knew more about fortifications,
embrasures, ravelins, stockades, and all that, than
any of them did; and he worked with a right good-
will in fixing that battery all right. I have always
thought it was a pity Porter did not leave him in com-
mand there with Gamble. That would have settled
all the question about his punishment. We should
have kept the islands, and at this moment we should
have one station in the Pacific Ocean. Our French
friends, too, when they wanted this little watering-
place, would have found it was preoccupied. But
Madison and the Virginians, of course, flung all that
All that was near fifty years ago. If Nolan was
thirty then, he must have been near eighty when he
died. He looked sixty when he was forty. But he
never seemed to me to change a hair afterwards.
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 27
As I imagine his life, from what I have seen and heard
of it, he must have been in every sea, and yet almost
never on land. He must have known, in a formal
way, more officers in our service than any man living
knows. He told me once, with a grave smile, that no
man in the world lived so methodical a life as he.
"You know the boys say I am the Iron Mask, and
you know how busy he was." He said it did not do
for any one to try to read all the time, more than to
do anything else all the time; and that he used to
read just five hours a day. "Then," he said, "I keep
up my notebooks, writing in them at such and such
hours from what I have been reading; and I include
in these my scrapbooks." Thesa were very curious
indeed. He had six or eight, of different subjects.
There was one of History, one of Natural Science,
one which he called "Odds and Ends." But they
were not merely books of extracts from newspapers.
They had bits of plants and ribbons, shells tied on, and
carved scraps of bone and wood, which he had taught
the men to cut for him, and they were beautifully
illustrated. He drew admirably. He had some of
the funniest drawings there, and some of the most
pathetic, that I have ever seen in my life. I wonder
who will have Nolan's scrapbooks.
Well, he said his reading and his notes were his
profession, and that they took five hours and two hours
respectively of each day. "Then," said he, "every
man should have a diversion as well as a profession.
My Natural History is my diversion." That took
two hours a day more. The men used to bring him
birds and fish, but on a long cruise he had to satisfy
28 AMERICAN IDEALS
himself with centipedes and cockroaches and such
small game. He was the only naturalist I ever met
who knew anything about the habits of the house-fly
and the mosquito. These nine hours made Nolan's
regular daily " occupation/ ' The rest of the time he
talked or walked. Till he grew very old, he went
aloft a great deal. He always kept up his exercise;
and I never heard that he was ill. If any other
man was ill, he was the kindest nurse in the world;
and he knew more than half the surgeons do. Then
if anybody was sick or died, or if the captain wanted
him to, on any other occasion, he was always ready
to read prayers. I have said that he read * beauti-
My own acquaintance with Philip Nolan began
six or eight years after the English war, on my first
voyage after I was appointed a midshipman. It was
in the first days after our slave-trade treaty, while the
reigning house, which was still the House of Virginia,
had still a sort of sentimentalism about the suppres-
sion of the horrors of the Middle Passage, and some-
thing was sometimes done that way. We were in the
South Atlantic on that business. From the time I joined,
I believe I thought Nolan was a sort of lay chaplain,
— a chaplain with a blue coat. I never asked about
him. Everything in the ship was strange to me.
I knew it was green to ask questions, and I suppose
I thought there was a "Plain-Buttons" on every
ship. We had him to dine in our mess once a week,
and the caution was given that on that day nothing
was to be said about home. But if they had told us
not to say anything about the planet Mars or the Book
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 29
of Deuteronomy, I should not have asked why; there
were a great many things which seemed to me to
have as little reason. I first came to understand any-
thing about "the man without a country " one day
when we overhauled a dirty little schooner which had
slaves on board. An officer was sent to take charge
of her, and, after a few minutes, he sent back his boat
to ask that some one might be sent him who could speak
Portuguese. We> were all looking over the rail when
the message came, and we all wished we could inter-
pret, when the captain asked who spoke Portuguese.
But none of the officers did; and just as the captain
was sending forward to ask if any of the people could,
Nolan stepped out and said he should be glad to inter-
pret, if the captain wished, as he understood the
language. The captain thanked him, fitted out another
boat with him, and in this boat it was my luck to go.
When we got there, it was such a scene as you
seldom see, and never want to. There were not a
great many of the negroes; but by way of making
what there were understand that they were free,
Vaughan had had their handcuffs and anklecuffs
knocked off, and, for convenience' sake, was put-
ting them upon the rascals of the schooner's crew.
The negroes were, most of them, out of the hold,
and swarming all round the dirty deck, with a cen-
tral throng surrounding Vaughan and addressing him
in every dialect.
As we came on deck, Vaughan looked down from
a hogshead, on which he had mounted in desperation,
and said : —
"For God's love, is there anybody who can make
30 AMERICAN IDEALS
these wretches understand something? The men gave
them rum, and that did not quiet them. I knocked
that big fellow down twice, and that did not soothe
him. And then I talked Choctaw to all of them
together; and I'll be hanged if they understood that
as well as they understood the English."
Nolan said he could speak Portuguese, and one or
two fine-looking Krumen were dragged out, who, as
it had been found already, had worked for the Portu-
guese on the coast at Fernando Po.
"Tell them they are free," said Vaughan.
Nolan "put that into Spanish," — that is, he
explained it in such Portuguese as the Krumen could
understand, and they in turn to such of the negroes
as could understand them. Then there was a yell of
delight, clinching of fists, leaping and dancing, kissing
of Nolan's feet, and a general rush made to the hogs-
head by way of spontaneous worship of Vaughan.
"Tell them," said Vaughan, well pleased, "that I
will take them all to Cape Palmas."
This did not answer so well. Cape Palmas was
practically as far from the homes of most of them as
New Orleans or Rio Janeiro was; that is, they would
be eternally separated from home there. And their
interpreters, as we could understand, instantly said,
"Ah, non Palmos" and began to propose infinite
other expedients in most voluble language. Vaughan
was rather disappointed at this result of his liberality,
and asked Nolan eagerly what they said. The drops
stood on poor Nolan's white forehead, as he hushed
the men down, and said : —
"He says, 'Not Palmas.' He says, 'Take us home,
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 31
take us to our own country, take us to our own house,
take us to our own pickaninnies and our own women.'
He says he has an old father and mother who will die
if they do not see him. And this one says he left his
people all sick, and paddled down to Fernando to
beg the white doctor to come and help them, and that
these devils caught him in the bay just in sight of
home, and that he has never seen anybody from home
since then. And this one says," choked out Nolan,
"that he has not heard a word from his home in six
Even the negroes themselves stopped howling,
as they saw Nolan's agony, and Vaughan's almost
equal agony of sympathy. As quick as he could get
words, he said : —
"T6ll them yes, yes, yes; tell them they shall go
to the Mountains of the Moon, if they will. If I
sail the schooner through the Great White Desert,
they shall go home!"
And after some fashion Nolan said so. And then
they all fell to kissing him again, and wanted to rub
his nose with theirs.
But he could not stand it long ; and getting Vaughan
to say he might go back, he beckoned me down into our
boat. As we lay back in the stern-sheets and the men
ga,ve way, he said to me: "Youngster, let that show
you what it is to be without a family, without a home,
and without a country. And if you are ever tempted
to say a word or to do a thing that shall put a bar
between you and your family, your home, and your
country, pray God in His mercy to take you that
instant home to His own heaven. Stick by your
32 AMERICAN IDEALS
family, boy; forget you have a self, while you do
everything for them. Think of your home, boy;
write and send, and talk about it. Let it be nearer
and nearer to your thought, the farther you have to
travel from it; and rush back to it when you are free,
as that poor black slave is doing now. And for your
country, boy/' and the words rattled in his throat,
"and for that flag," and he pointed to the ship, "never
dream a dream but of serving her as she bids you,
though the service carry you through a thousand
hells. No matter what happens to you, no matter
who flatters you or who abuses you, never look at
another flag, never let a night pass but you pray God
to bless that flag. Remember, boy, that behind all
these men you have to do with, behind officers, and
government, and people even, there is the Country
Herself, your Country, and that you belong to Her as
you belong to your own mother. Stand by H$r,
boy, as you would stand by your mother, if those
devils there had got hold of her to-day!"
I was frightened to death by his calm, hard passion;
but I blundered out that I would, by all that was holy,
and that I had never thought of doing anything else.
He hardly seemed to hear me; but he did, almost
in a whisper, say: "0, if anybody had said so to me
when I was of your age!"
I think it was this half-confidence of his, which I
never abused, for I never told this story till now,
which afterward made us great friends. He was very
kind to me. Often he sat up, or even got up, at night,
to walk the deck with me, wh^n it was my watch.
He explained to me a great deal of my mathematics,
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 33
and I owe to him my taste for mathematics. He lent
me books, and helped me about my reading. He never
alluded so directly to his story again; but from one
and another officer I have learned, in thirty years,
what I am telling. When we parted from him in
St. Thomas harbor j at the end of our cruise, I was more
sorry than I can tell. I was very glad to meet him
again in 1830; and later in life, when I thought I had
some influence in Washington, I moved heaven and
earth to have him discharged. But it was like getting
a ghost out of prison. They pretended there was no
such man, and never was such a man. They will say
so at the Department now! Perhaps they do not
know. It will not be the first thing in the service
of which the Department appears to know nothing!
Philip Nolan, poor fellow, repented of his folly,
and then, like a man, submitted to the fate he had
asked for. He nevet intentionally added to the
difficulty or delicacy of the charge of those who had
him in hold. Accidents would happen; but never
from his fault. Lieutenant Truxton told me that,
when Texas was annexed, there was & careful discussion
among the officers, whether they should get hold of
Nolan's handsome set of maps and cut Texas out of
it, — from the map of the world and the jnap of Mexico.
The United States had been cut out when the atlas
was bought for him. But it was voted, rightly enough,
that to do this would be virtually to reveal to him
what had happened, or, as Harry Cole said, to make
him think Old Burr had succeeded. So it was from
no fault of Nolan's that a great botch happened at my
34 AMERICAN IDEALS
own table, when, for a short time, I was in command
of the George Washington Corvette, on the South
American station. We were lying in the La Plata,
and some of the officers, who had been on shore and
had just joined again, were entertaining us with
accounts of their misadventures in riding the half-wild
horses of Buenos Aires. Nolan was at table, and
was in an unusually bright and talkative mood. Some
story of a tumble reminded him of an adventure of
his own when he was catching wild horses in Texas *
with his adventurous cousin, at a time when he must
have been quite a boy. He told the story with a good
deal of spirit, — so much so, that the silence which
often follows a 'good story hung over the table for an
instant, to be broken by Nolan himself. For he asked
perfectly unconsciously : —
"Pray, what has become of Texas? After the Mexi-
cans got their independence, I thought that province
of Texas would come forward Very fast. It is really
one of the finest regions on earth; it is the Italy of
this continent. But I have not seen or heard a word
of Texas for near twenty years."
There were two Texan officers at the table. The
reason he had never heard of Texas was that Texas
and her affairs had been painfully cut out of his news-
papers since Austin began his settlements; so that,
while he read of Honduras and Tamaulipas, and, till
quite lately, of California, — this virgin province, in
which his brother had traveled so far, and, I believe,
had died, had ceased to be to him. Waters and Wil-
liams, the two Texas men, looked grimly at each other
and tried not to laugh. Edward Morris had his
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 35
attention attracted by the third link in the chain of the
captain's chandelier. Watrous was seized with a
convulsion of sneezing. Nolan himself saw that
something was to pay, he did not know what. And
I, as master of the feast, had to say : —
" Texas is out of the map, Mr. Nolan. Have you
seen Captain Back's curious account of Sir Thomas
After that cruise I never saw Nolan again. I
wrote to him at least twice a year, for in that voyage
we became even confidentially intimate; but he never
wrote to me. The other men tell me that in those
fifteen years he aged very fast, as well he might indeed,
but that he was still the same gentle, uncomplaining,
silent sufferer that he ever was, bearing as best he
could his self-appointed punishment, — rather less
social, perhaps, with new men whom he did not know,
but more anxious, apparently, than ever to serve and
befriend and teach the boys, some of whom fairly
seemed to worship him. And now it seems the dear
old fellow is dead. He has found a home at last, and
Since writing this, and while considering whether
or no I would print it, as a warning to the young
Nolans and Vallandighams and Tatnalls of to-day of
what it is to throw away a country, I have received
from Danforth, who is on board the Levant, a letter
which gives an account of Nolan's last hours. It
removes all my doubts about telling this story.
Here is the letter : —
36 AMERICAN IDEALS
Levant, 2° 2' S. @ 131° W.
Dear Fred: — I try to find heart and life to tell you that
it is all over with dear old Nolan. I have been with him on
this voyage more than I ever was, and I can understand
wholly now the way in which you used to speak of the dear
old fellow. I could see that he was not strong, but I had
no idea the end was so near. The doctor has been watching
him very carefully, and yesterday morning came to me and
told me that Nolan was not so well, and had not left his
stateroom, — a thing I never remember before. He had
let the doctor come and see him as he lay there, — the
first time the doctor had been in the stateroom, — and he
said he should like to see me. Oh, dear! do you remember
the mysteries we boys used to invent about his room in the
old Intrepid days? Well, I went in, and there, to be sure,
the poor fellow lay in his berth, smiling pleasantly as he
gave me his hand, but looking very frail. I could not help
a glance round, which showed me what a little shrine he had
made of the box he was lying in. The stars and stripes
were triced up above and around a picture of Washington,
and he had painted a majestic eagle, with lightnings blazing
from his beak and his foot just clasping the whole globe,
which his wings overshadowed. The dear old boy saw my
glance, and said, with a sad smile, "Here, you see, I have a
country !" And then he pointed to the foot of his bed,
where I had not seen before a great map of the United States,
as he had drawn it from memory, and which he had there
to look upon as he lay. Quaint, queer old names were on it,
in large letters: " Indiana Territory," "Mississippi Terri-
tory/ ' and "Louisiana Territory," as I suppose our fathers
learned such things: but the old fellow had patched in
Texas, too; he had carried his western boundary all the
way to the Pacific, but on that shore he had defined nothing.
"O Captain," he said, "I know I am dying. I cannot
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 37
get home. Surely you will tell me something now? — Stop!
stop! Do not speak till I say what I am sure you know,
that there is not in this ship, that there is not in America,
— God bless her! — a more loyal man than I. There can-
not be a man who loves the old flag as I do, or prays for it as
I do, or hopes for it as I do. There are thirty-four stars
in it now, Danforth. I thank God for that, though I do
not know what their names are. There has never been one
taken away: I thank God for that. I know by that that
there has never been any successful Burr. Danforth,
Danforth/' he sighed out, "how like a wretched night's
dream a boy's idea of personal fame or of separate sover-
eignty seems, when one looks back on it after such a life as
mine! But tell me, '■ — tell me something, — tell me every-
thing, Danforth, before I die!"
Ingham, I swear to you that I felt like a monster that I
had not told him everything before. Danger or no danger,
delicacy or no delicacy, who was I, that I should have been
acting the tyrant all this time over this dear, sainted old
man, who had years ago expiated, in his whole manhood's
life, the madness of a boy's treason? "Mr, Nolan," said I,
"I will tell you everything you ask about. Only, where
shall I begin? "
Oh, the blessed smile that crept over his white face!
,and he pressed my hand and said, "God bless you! Tell
me their names," he said, and he pointed to the stars on the
flag. "The last I know is Ohio. My father lived in Ken-
tucky. But I have guessed Michigan and Indiana and
Mississippi, — that was where Fort Adams is, — they make
twenty. But where are your other fourteen? You have
not cut up any of the old ones, I hope?"
Well, that was not a bad text, and I told him the names
in as good order as I could, and he bade me take down his
beautiful map and draw them in as I best could with my
pencil. He was wild with delight about Texas, told me how
38 AMERICAN IDEALS
his cousin died there; he had marked a gold cross near
where he supposed his grave was; and he had guessed at
Texas. Then he was delighted as he saw California and
Oregon; — that, he said, he had suspected partly, because
he had never been permitted to land on that shore, though
the ships were there so much. "And the men," said he,
laughing, " brought off a good deal besides furs." Then he
went back — heavens, how far! — to ask about the Chesa-
peake, and what was done to Barron for surrendering her
to the Leopard, and whether Burr ever tried again, — and
he ground his teeth with the only passion he showed. But
in a moment that was over, and he said, "God forgive me,
for I am sure I forgive him." Then he asked about the old
war> — told me the true story of his serving the gun the day
we took Java, — asked about dear old David Porter, as he
called him. Then he settled down more quietly, and very
happily, to hear me tell in an hour the history of fifty years.
How I wished it had been somebody who knew something!
But I did as well as I could. I told him of the English war.
I told him about Fulton and the steamboat beginning.
I told him about old Scott, and Jackson; told him all I
could think of about the Mississippi, and New Orleans,
and Texas, and his own old Kentucky. And do you think,
he asked who was in command of the "Legion of the West."
I told him it was a very gallant officer named Grant, and
that, by our last news, he was about to establish his head-
quarters at Vicksburg. Then, "Where was Vicksburg?"
I worked that out on the map; it was about a hundred miles
more or less, above his old Fort Adams; and I thought
Fort Adams must be a ruin now. "It must be at old Vick's
plantation, at Walnut Hills," said he: "well, that is a
I tell you, Ingham, it was a hard thing to condense the
history of half a century into that talk with a sick man.
And I do not now know what I told him, — of emigration,
THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 39
and the means of it, — of steamboats, and railroads, and
telegraphs, — of inventions, and books, and literature, —
of the colleges, and West Point, and the Naval School, —
but with the queerest interruptions that ever you heard.
You see it was Robinson Crusoe asking all the accumulated
questions of fifty-six years!
I remember he asked, all of a sudden, who was President
now; and when I told him, he asked if Old Abe was General
Benjamin Lincoln's son. He said he met old General Lin-
coln, when he was quite a boy himself, at some Indian treaty.
I said no, that Old Abe was a Kentuckian like himself, but
I could not tell him of what family; he had worked up
from the ranks. "Good for him!" cried Nolan; "I am glad
of that. As I have brooded and wondered, I have thought
our danger was in keeping up those regular successions in the
first families." Then I got talking about my visit to Wash-
ington. I told him of meeting the Oregon Congressman,
Harding; I told him about the Smithsonian, and the Explor-
ing Expedition; I told him about the Capitol, and the statues
for the pediment, and Crawford's Liberty, and Greenough's
Washington. Ingham, I told him everything I could think
of that would show the grandeur of his country and its
prosperity; but I could not make up my mouth to tell him
a word about this infernal rebellion!
And he drank it in and enjoyed it as I cannot tell you.
He grew more and more silent, yet I never thought he was
tired or faint. I gave him a glass of water, but he just wet
his lips, and told me not to go away. Then he asked me to
bring the Episcopalian "Book of Public Prayer" which
lay there, and said, with a smile, that it would open at the
right place, — and so it did. There was his double red
mark down the page; and I knelt down and read, and he
repeated with me, "For ourselves and our country, O gra-
cious God, we thank Thee, that, notwithstanding our
manifold trangressions of Thy holy laws, Thou has continued
40 AMERICAN IDEALS
to us Thy marvelous kindness," — and so to the end of that
thanksgiving. Then he turned to the end of the same book,
arid I read the words more familiar to me: "Most heartily
we beseech Thee with Thy favor to behold and bless Thy
servant, the President of the United States, and all others
in authority," — and the rest of the Episcopal collect.
"Danforth," said he, "I have repeated those prayers night
and morning, it is now fifty-five years." And then he said
he would go to sleep. He bent me down over him and
said, "Look in my Bible, Captain, when I am gone." And
I went away.
But I had no thought it was the end. I thought he was
tired and would sleep. I know he was happy, and I wanted
him to be alone.
But in an hour, when the doctor went in gently, he found
Nolan had breathed his life away with a smile. He had
something pressed close to his lips. . It was his father's
badge of the Order of the Cincinnati.
We looked in his Bible, and there was a slip of paper
at the place where he had marked the text:
"They desire a country, even a heavenly: wherefore
God is not ashamed to be called their God: for He hath
prepared for them a city."
On this slip of paper he had written:
"Bury me in the sea; it has been my home, and I love it.
But will not some one set up a stone for my memory at
Fort Adams or at Orleans, that my disgrace may not be
more than I ought to bear? Say on it:
"In Memory of
"Lieutenant in the Army of the United States,
"He loved his country as no other man has
loved her; but no man deserved less at her hands."
— Edward Everett Hale (Abridged)
WHAT CONSTITUTES A STATE 41
Liberty, my countrymen, is responsibility; re-
sponsibility is duty; duty is God's order, and when
faithfully obeyed will preserve liberty. We need have
no fears of the future if we will' perform every obli-
gation of duty and of citizenship. If we lose the small-
est share of our freedom we have no one to blame but
ourselves. This country is ours — ours to govern,
ours to guide, ours to enjoy. We are both sovereign
and subject. All are now free, subject henceforth to
ourselves alpne. We pay no homage to an earthly
throne; only to God we bend the knee. The soldier
did his work and did it well. The present and the
future are with the citizen, whose judgment in our
free country is supreme.
— William McKinlby
WHAT CONSTITUTES A STATE
What constitutes a state?
Not high-raised battlements or labored mound,
Thick wall or moated gate;
Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned;
Not bays and broad-arm ports,
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride;
Not starred and spangled courts,
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride.
No ! men — high-minded men —
42 AMERICAN IDEALS
With powers as far above dull brutes endued,
In forest, brake, or den,
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude;
Men, who their duties know,
But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain;
Prevent the long-aimed blow,
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain.
These constitute a state;
And sovereign law, that state's collected will,
O'er thrones and globes elate
Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill.
• • ■ • • . • . . .
— Sir William Jones
THE DUTY AND VALUE OF
Patriotism is love of country, and loyalty to its
life and weal — love tender and strong: tender as
the love of son for mother, strong as the pillars of
death; loyalty generous and disinterested, shrinking
from no sacrifice, seeking no reward save country's
honor and country's triumph.
Patriotism! There is magic in the word. It is
bliss to repeat it. Through ages the human race
burnt the incense of admiration and reverence at the
shrines of patriotism. The most beautiful pages of
history are those that count its deeds. Fireside tales,
the outpourings of the memories of peoples, borrow
from it their warmest glow. Poets are sweetest when
they reecho its whisperings; orators are most potent
when they thrill its chords to music.
THE DUTY AND VALUE OF PATRIOTISM 43
The human race pays homage to patriotism because
of its supreme value. Patriotism is the vital spark of
national honor; it is the fount of the nation's pros-
perity, the shield of the nation's safety. Take patriot-
ism away, — the nation's soul has fled, bloom and
beauty have vanished from the nation's countenance.
The human race pays homage to patriotism because
of its supreme loveliness. Patriotism goes out to what
is among earth's possessions the most previous, the
first and dearest, — country; and its effusion is the
fragrant flowering of the purest and noblest sentiments
of the heart.
Patriotism is innate in all men; the absence of it
betokens a perversion of human nature; but it grows its
full growth only where thoughts are elevated and heart-
beatings are generous.
Man is born a social being. A condition of his
existence and of his growth to mature age is the family.
Nor does the family suffice to itself. A larger social
organism is needed, into which families gather, so as
to obtain from one another security to life and prop-
erty, and aid in the development of the faculties and
powers with which nature has endowed the children
of men. The whole human race is too extensive and
too diversified in interests to serve those ends; hence,
its subdivisions into countries and peoples. Countries
have their providential limits, — the waters of the
sea, a mountain range, the lines of similarity of re-
quirements for all methods of living.
In America the government takes from the liberty
of the citizen only so much as is necessary for the
weal of the nation, which the citizen by his own act
44 AMERICAN IDEALS
freely concedes. In America there are no masters who
govern in their own right, for their own interest, or
at their own will. We have over us no Louis XIV,
saying, "The State, it is I"; no Hohenzollern, announc-
ing that in his acts as sovereign he is responsible only
to his conscience and to God. Ours is the government
of the people, by the people, and for the people. The
government is our own organized will.
Our Republic is liberty's native home — America.
The God-given mission of the Republic of America
is not only to its own people; it is to all the peoples
of the earth, before whose eyes it is the symbol of
human rights and human liberty, toward whom its
flag flutters hopes of future happiness fpr themselves.
Is there not for Americans a meaning in the word
Country? Is there for Americans reason to live for
country, and if need there be, to die for country?
Whatever the country, patriotism is a duty; in America
the duty is thrice sacred. The duty of patriotism is
the duty of justice and of gratitude. The country
fosters and protects our dearest interests, — our
altars and hearthstones. Without it there is no
safety for life or property, no opportunities for develop-
ment and progress. All that the country is, she makes
ours, and to-day how significant the world over are
the words! I am a citizen of America.
The days when patriotism was a duty have not
departed. The safety of the Republic lies in the
vigilant and active patriotism of the American people.
Day by day the spirit of Americanism waxes strong;
narrowness of thought and increasing strife cannot
resist its influences.
THE MEN TO MAKE A STATE 45
Noblest Ship of State, sail on over billows, and
through storms, undaunted, imperishable! Within
thy bulwarks the fairy goddess is enthroned, hold-
ing in her hands the dreams and hopes of humanity.
Oh, for her sake guard well thyself! Sail thou on,
peerless ship, safe from shoals and malign winds, ever
strong in keel, ever beauteous in prow and canvas,
ever guided by heaven's polar star! Sail thou 6n, I
pray thee, undaunted and imperishable!
— Archbishop John Ireland (Abridged)
THE MEN TO MAKE A STATE
The Men to Make a State Must Be Intelligent
Men. The right of suffrage is a fearful thing. It
calls for wisdom, and discretion, and intelligence, of no
ordinary interests of all the nation. It takes in, at
every exercise, the interests of all the nation. Its
results reach forward through time into eternity.
Who will go to it blindly? Who will go to it passion-
ately? Who will go to it as a sycophant, a tool, a
slave? How many do! These are not the men to
make a state.
The Men to Make a State Must be Honest
Men. I mean men with a single face. I mean men
with a single eye. I mean men with a single tongue.
I mean men that consider always what is right, and
do it at whatever cost. I mean men whom no king
on earth can buy.
Men who are in the market for the highest bidder;
men that make politics their trade, and look to office for
46 AMERICAN IDEALS
a living; men that will crawl, where they cannot
climb, — these are not the men to make a state.
The Men to Make a State Must be Brave
Men. I mean the men that do, but do not talk.
I mean the men that dare to stand alone. I mean
the men that are to-day where they were yesterday,
and will be there to-morrow. I mean the men that
can stand still and take the storm. I mean the men
that are afraid to kill, but not afraid to die.
.The man that calls hard names and uses threats;
the man that stabs in secret with his tongue or with
his pen; the man that moves a mob to deeds of vio-
lence and self-destruction; the man that freely offers
his last drop of blood, but never sheds the first, —
these are not the men to make a state.
— George W. Doane (Abridged)
TWO GREAT AMERICANS
George Washington was born in Virginia, February
22, 1732. He received a common school education, and in
addition, he perfected himself in surveying and bookkeeping.
He was a major in the militia at the age of nineteen, and
served in the army along the Ohio River.
Washington was a member of the First and Second
Continental Congresses. From this period, the story of his
life becomes the history of his country. In 1775 he was
appointed commander in chief of the Revolutionary War.
He was elected first President of the United States by a
GEORGE WASHINGTON 47
unanimous vote, and filled that high office for eight years.
At the close of his second term as President, he retired to his
home at Mount Vernon, where he died December 14, 1799.
The following lines were found written on the back of a
portrait of Washington, in the mansion at Mount Vernon.
The author is unknown.
"The defender of his country — the founder of
liberty — the friend of man. History and tradition
are explored in vain for a parallel to his character.
In the annals of modern greatness he stands alone;
and the noblest names of antiquity lose their luster
in his presence. Born the benefactor of mankind,
he united all the qualities necessary to an illustrious
career. Nature made him great; he made himself
virtuous. Called by his country to the defense of her
liberties, he triumphantly vindicated the rights of
humanity and on the pillars of national independence
laid the foundations of a great republic.
Twice invested with Supreme Magistracy by the
unanimous vote of a free people, he surpassed in the
cabinet the glories of the field, and voluntarily resign-
ing the scepter and the sword, retired to the shades of
private life. A spectacle so new and so sublime was
contemplated with the prof oundest admiration, and the
name of Washington, adding new luster to humanity,
resounded to the remotest regions of the earth; mag-
nanimous in youth, glorious through life, great in
death; his highest ambition, — the happiness of man-
kind; his noblest victory, the conquest of himself.
Bequeathing to posterity the inheritance of his fame,
and building his monument in the hearts of his country-
48 AMERICAN IDEALS
men, he lived the ornament of the eighteenth century;
he died regretted by a mourning world.
IN YOUTH TRUE
IN MANHOOD BRAVE
IN AGE WISE
IN MEMORY IMMORTAL' '
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS
In the discharge of this trust the [Presidency] I will
only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed
towards the organization and administration of the
government the best exertions of which a very fallible
judgment was capable. Not unconscious, in the
outset, of the inferiority of my qualifications, experi-
ence in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of
others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of
myself; and every day the increasing weight of years
admonishes me more and more that the shade of retire-
ment is as necessary to me as it will be welcome.
Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar
value to my services, they were temporary, I have
the consolation to believe that while choice and pru-
dence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism
does not forbid it.
In looking forward to the moment which is intended
to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings
do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledg-
ment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my
beloved country for the many honors which it has
conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast con-
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS 49
fidence with which it has supported me; and for the
opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting
my inviolable attachment by services faithful and
persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal.
If benefits have resulted to our country for these
services, let it always be remembered to your praise;
and as an instructive example in our annals that,
under circumstances in which the passions — agitated
in every direction — were liable to mislead, amidst
appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of for-
tune often discouraging, in situations in which not in-
frequently want of success has countenanced the
spirit of criticism, — the constancy of your support
was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee
of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly
penetrated by this idea, I shall carry it with me to
the grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows
that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens
of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly
affection may be perpetual; that the free constitution,
which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly
maintained; that its administration in every depart-
ment may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; —
that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these states,
under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete,
by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of
this blessing, as will acquire to them the glory to
recommending it to the applause, the affection, and
adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.
50 AMERICAN IDEALS
RULES OF BEHAVIOR
The following rules of behavior are said to have been
copied by Washington when a boy, from a book that he
found in his father's library.
Every action in company ought to be with some
sign of respect to those present.
Turn not your back to others, especially in speaking;
jog not the table or desk on which another reads or
writes; lean not 6n any one.
Be no flatterer; neither play with any one that
delights not to be played with.
Read no letters, books, or papers in company; but
when there is a necessity for doing it, you must ask
leave. Come not near the books or writings of any
one so as to read them, unless desired, nor give your
opinion of them unasked; also, look not nigh when
another is writing a letter.
Make no show of taking great delight in your vic-
tuals; feed not with greediness; lean not on the table;
neither find fault with what you eat.
Be not angry at table, whatever happens; and if
you have reason to be so, show it not; put on a cheer-
ful countenance, especially if there be strangers, for
good humor makes one dish of meat a feast.
When you meet with one of greater quality than
yourself, stop and retire, especially if it be at a door
or any strait place, to give way to him to pass.
In writing or speaking, give to every person his due
title, according to his degree and the custom of the
RULES OF BEHAVIOR 51
Strive not with your superiors in argument, but
always submit your judgment to others with modesty.
Be not forward, but friendly and courteous; the
first to salute, hear, and answer; and be not pensive
when it is time to converse.
Play not the peacock, looking everywhere about you
to see if you be well decked, if your shoes fit well, if
your stockings set neatly, and clothes handsomely.
Think before you speak; pronounce not imperfectly,
nor J)ring out your words too hastily, but orderly and
Undertake not what you cannot perform, but be
careful to keep your promise.
Be not tedious in discourse. Make not many digres-
sions nor repeat often the same manner of discourse.
When you deliver a matter, do it without passion,
and with discretion, however mean the person may
be you do it to.
Associate yourself with men of good quality, if you
esteem your own reputation; for it is better to be
alone than in bad company.
Go not thither where you know not whether you will
be welcome or not. Give not advice without being
asked; and when desired, do it briefly.
Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the dis-
paragement of any.
Speak not injurious words, neither in jest nor ear-
nest; scoff at none, although they give occasion.
Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another
though he were your enemy.
When a man does all he can, though it succeeds not
well, blame not him that did it.
52 AMERICAN IDEALS
Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Ken-
tucky, February 12, 1809. His early life was filled with
struggles to overcome the hardships that pioneer settlers
encountered. He had little chance to gain an education
through the schools, as his attendance, he said "did not
amount to more than a year." But he read every book he
could obtain, and through his own efforts he gained a wide
knowledge of the world and a mental training that made
him one of the greatest men in the history of our country.
He was successively farmer, carpenter, storekeeper, sur-
veyor, and lawyer. His first public office was that of post-
master. He was later elected to the State Legislature of
Illinois, and was a representative in Congress, for four
Lincoln was elected President of the United States in
1860. He was reelected, and had just begun his second
term when he was assassinated. He died April 15, 1865.
His great ability as a statesman and his upright character
gained for him the confidence of the people of the country.
His name is cherished as is that of no other great American,
Where shall we find an example so impressive as
Abraham Lincoln, whose career might be chanted by a
Greek chorus as at once the prelude and the epilogue
of the most imperial theme of modern times?
Born as lowly as the Son of God, in a hovel; reared
in penury, squalor, with no gleam of light or fair sur-
rounding; without graces, actual or acquired; without
name or fame, or official training, it was reserved for
this strange being, late in life, to be snatched from
ABRAHAM LINCOLN 53
obscurity, raised to supreme command at a supreme
moment, and entrusted with the destiny of a nation.
The great leaders of his party, the most experienced
and accomplished public men of the day, were made
to stand aside, were sent to the rear, whilst this fan-
tastic figure was led by unseen hands to the front and
given the reins of power. It is immaterial whether
we were for him or against him; wholly immaterial.
That during four years, carrying with them such a
weigh£ of responsibility as the world never witnessed
before, he filled the vast space allotted him in the'
eyes and actions of mankind, is to say that he was
inspired of God, for nowhere else could he have ac-
quired the wisdom and the virtue.
A thousand years hence, no drama, no tragedy, no
epic poem, will be filled with greater wonder, or be
followed by mankind with a deeper feeling, than that
which tells the story of his life and death.
I look into the crystal globe that, slowly turning,
tells the story of his life, and I see a little heart-broken
boy, weeping by the outstretched form of a dead
mother, then bravely, nobly trudging a hundred miles
to obtain her Christian burial; I see this motherless
lad growing to manhood amid scenes that seem to lead
to nothing but abasement; no teachers; no books, no
chart, except his own untutored mind; no compass,
except his own undisciplined will; no light, save from
Heaven; yet, like the caravel of Columbus, struggling
on and on through the trough of the sea always
toward the destined land. I see the full-grown man,
stalwart and brave, an athlete in activity of movement,
in strength of limb, yet vexed by weird dreams and
64 AMERICAN IDEALS
visions — of life, of love, of religion, sometimes verg-
ing on despair. I see the mind, grown as robust as
the body, throw off the phantasms of the imagination,
and give itself wholly to the workaday uses of the
world — the rearing of children, the earning of bread,
the multiplied duties of life. I see the party leader,
self-confident in conscious rectitude; original, because
he was fearless, pursuing his convictions with earnest
zeal, and urging them upon his fellows with the re-
sources of an oratory which was hardly more impres-
sive than it was many-sided. I see him, the preferred
among his fellows, ascend the eminence reserved for
him; and him alone of all the statesmen of the time,
and the derision of opponents and the distrust of
supporters, yet unawed and unmoved because thor-
oughly equipped to meet the emergency.
The same being, from first to last; the poor child
weeping over a dead mother; the great chief sobbing
amid the cruel horrors of war; flinching not from duty,
not changing his lifelong ways of dealing with the
stern realities which pressed upon him and hurried
him onward. And, last scene of all, that ends the
strange, eventful history, I see him lying dead there
in the Capitol of the nation to which he had rendered
"the last, full measure of his devotion/ ' the flag of
his country around him, the world in mourning.
— Henry Watterson
CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN! 55
O CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN!
O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;
The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we
sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and
But heart ! heart ! heart !
the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.
Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up — for you the flag is flung — for you the bugle
For you bouquets and ribboned wreaths — for you
the shores a-crowding;
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces
Here, Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head !
It is some dream that on the deck
YouVe fallen cold and dead.
My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor
The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object
56 AMERICAN IDEALS
Exult, shores! and ring, bells!
But I, with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.
— Walt Whitman
This address, given November 19, 1863, at the dedica-
tion of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, is regarded
as one of the finest pieces of oratory in the English
Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought
forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in
liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men
are created equal.. Now we are engaged in a great
civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation
so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We
are met on a great battle field of that war. We have
come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final
resting place for those who here gave their lives that
that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and
proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense
we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot
hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead,
who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our
poor power to add or detract. The world will little
note, nor long remember, what we say here; but it
can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the
living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished
work which they who fought here have thus far so
LINCOLN AND THE SLEEPING SENTINEL 57
nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedi-
cated to the great task remaining before us — that from
these honored dead we take increased devotion to
that cause for which they gave the last full measure
of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these
dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation,
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and
that government of the people, by the people, for the
people, shall not perish from the earth.
— Abraham Lincoln
LINCOLN AND THE SLEEPING
An anecdote, showing Lincoln's merciful nature in a
touching light, and related by Mr. L. E. Chittenden
in his " Recollections of President Lincoln and His
Administration/ ' from authentic sources, is the one of
the sleeping sentinel, William Scott, whose life Lincoln
saved after he had been condemned to be shot. Lin-
coln personally saw Scott and talked with him a long
time. Ijicott would not talk to his comrades of the
interview afterward until one night, when he had
received a letter from home, he finally opened his
heart to a friend in this wise:
"The President was the kindest man I had ever
seen. I was scared at first, for I had never before
talked with a great man. But Mr. Lincoln was so
easy with me, so gentle, that I soon forgot my fright.
. . . He stood up, and he said to me, 'My boy, stand
up here and look me in the face/ I did as he bade me.
58 AMERICAN IDEALS
'My boy/ he said, 'you are not going to be shot to-
morrow. I am going to trust you and send you back
to your regiment. I have come up here from Wash-
ington, where I have a great deal to do, and what I
want to know is how you are going to pay my bill.'
There was a big lump in my throat. I could scarcely
speak. But I got it crowded down and managed to
say: 'There is some way to pay you, and I will find
it after a little. There is the bounty in the savings
bank. I guess we could borrow some money on a
mortgage on the farm/ I was sure the boys would
help, so I thought we could raise it, if it wasn't more
than $500 or $600. 'But it is a great deal more than
$500 or $600/ he said. I said I didn't see how,
but I was sure I would find some way — if J lived.
Then Mr. Lincoln put his hands on my shoulders and
looked into my face as if he were sorry, and said:
'My boy, my bill is a very large one. Your friends
cannot pay it, nor your bounty, nor your farm, nor all
your comrades. There is only one man in all the
world who can pay it, and his name is William Scott.
If from this day William Scott does his duty, so that
if I were there when he comes to die he can look
me in the face as he does now, and say: "I have
kept my promise and I have done my duty as a sol-
dier!" then my bill will be paid. Will you make
that promise and try to keep it?' I said I would
make the promise and with God's help I would keep
it. He went away out of my sight forever. I know
I shall never see him again, but may God forget me
if I ever forget his kind words or my promise."
— Washington Star
LINCOLN AND THE SLEEPING SENTINEL 59
"My boy, stand up here and look me in the face."
60 AMERICAN IDEALS
THE KINDNESS OF LINCOLN
President Lincoln was walking with a friend and
turned back for some distance to assist a beetle that
had gotten on its back and lay on the walk, legs sprawl-
ing in air, vainly trying to turn itself over. The
friend expressed surprise that the President, burdened
with the care of a warring nation, should find time to
spare in assisting a bug.
"Well," said Lincoln, with that homely sincerity
that has touched the hearts of millions of his country-
men and placed him foremost in our affections as one
of the greatest Americans, "do you know that if I
had left that bug struggling there on his back, I
wouldn't have felt just right? I wanted to put him
on his feet and give him an equal chance with other
bugs of his class."
HARVEY BIRCH AND WASHINGTON
The following extract is taken from "The Spy," a story
of Revolutionary times, by J. Fenimore Cooper.
Harvey Birch, a peddler, had acted as a spy, bringing to
Washington many times, valuable information concerning
the enemy. In order to carry on this work successfully he
was obliged to appear as a friend to the British and thus
had seemed to be a traitor to the American cause. The
following chapter tells of his last interview with Washington.
It was at the close of a stormy day in the month of
September, that a large assemblage of officers was
collected near the door of a building that was situated
HARVEY BIRCH AND WASHINGTON 61
in the heart of the American troops, who held the
Jerseys. The age, the dress, and the dignity of de-
portment of most of these warriors, indicated them
to be of high rank: but to one in particular was paid
a deference and obedience that announced him to be
of the highest. His dress was plain, but it bore the
usual military distinctions of command. He was
mounted on a noble animal, of a deep bay; and a
group of young men, in gayer attire, evidently awaited
his pleasure, and did his bidding. Many a hat was
lifted as its owner addressed this officer; and when he
spoke, a profound attention, exceeding the respect of
mere professional etiquette, was exhibited on every
countenance. At length the general raised his own
hat, and bowed gravely to all around him. The
salute was returned, and the party dispersed, leaving
the officer without a single attendant, except his body-
servants and one aid. Dismounting, he stepped back
a few paces, and for a moment viewed the condition
of his horse with the eye of one who well understood
the animal, and then, casting a brief but expressive
glance at his aid, he retired into the building, followed
by that gentleman.
On entering an apartment that was apparently
fitted for his reception, he took a seat, and continued
for a long time in a thoughtful attitude, like one in
the habit of communing much with himself. During
this silence, the aid stood in expectation of his orders.
At length the general raised his eyes, and spoke in
those low, placid tones that seemed natural to him.
"Has the man whom I wished to see arrived, sir?"
"He waits the pleasure of your excellency.' }
62 AMERICAN IDEALS
"I will receive him here, and alone, if you please."
The aid bowed and withdrew. In a few minutes
the door again opened, and a figure, gliding into the
apartment, stood modestly at a distance from the
general, without speaking. His entrance was un-
heard by the officer, who sat gazing at th§ fire, still
absorbed in his own meditations. Several minutes
passed, when he spoke to himself in an undertone :
" To-morrow we must raise the curtain, and expose
our plans. May heaven prosper them! "
A slight movement made by the stranger caught his
ear, and he turned his head, and saw that he was not
alone. He pointed silently to the fire, toward which
the figure advanced, although the multitude of his
garments, which seemed 'more calculated for disguise
than comfort, rendered its warmth unnecessary. A
second mild and courteous gesture motioned to a
vacant chair, but the stranger refused it with a modest
acknowledgment. Another pause followed, and con-
tinued for some time. At length the officer arose, and
opening a desk that was laid upon the table near which
he sat, took from it a small, but apparently heavy bag.
" Harvey Birch," he said, turning to the stranger,
"the time has arrived when our connection must
cease; henceforth and forever we must be strangers."
The peddler dropped the folds of the greatcoat that
concealed his features, and gazed for a moment
earnestly at the face of the speaker; then, dropping
his head upon his bosom, he said meekly :
"If it be your excellency's pleasure."
"It is necessary. Since I have filled the station
which I now hold, it has become my duty to know
HARVEY BIRCH AND WASHINGTON 63
many men, who, like yourself, have been my instru-
ments in procuring intelligence. You have I trusted
more than all; I early saw in you a regard to truth
and principle, that, I am pleased to say, has never
deceived me — you alone know my secret agents in
the city, and on your fidelity depend, not only their
fortunes, but their lives."
He paused, as if to reflect, in order that full justice
might be done to the peddler, and then continued:
"I believe you are one of the very few that I have
employed who have acted with a strong attachment
to the liberties of America.' '
During this address, Harvey gradually raised his
head from his bosom, until it reached the highest
point of elevation; a faint tinge gathered in his cheeks,
and, as the officer concluded, it was diffused over his
whole countenance in a deep glow, while he stood
proudly swelling with his emotions, but with eyes that
modestly sought the feet of the speaker.
"It is now my duty to pay you for these services;
hitherto you have postponed receiving your reward,
and the debt has become a heavy one — I wish not
to undervalue your dangers; here are a hundred
doubloons; you will remember the poverty of our
country, and attribute .to it the smallness of your pay."
The peddler raised his eyes to the countenance of
the speaker; but, as the other held forth the money,
he moved back, as if refusing the bag.
"It is not much for your services and risks, I ac-
knowledge," continued the general, "but it is all that
I have to offer; at the end of the campaign, it may be
in my power to increase it."
64 AMERICAN IDEALS
"Does your excellency think that I have exposed
my life, and blasted my character, for money? "
"If not for money, what then?" •
"What has brought your excellency into the field?
For what do you daily and hourly expose your precious
life to battle and the halter? What is there about
me to mourn, when such men as you risk their all for
our country? No — no — no — not a dollar of your
gold will I touch; poor America has need of it all!"
The bag dropped from the hand of the officer, and
fell at the feet of the peddler, where it lay neglected
during the remainder of the interview. The officer
looked steadily at the face of his companion, and
"There are many motives which might govern me,
that to you are unknown. Our situations are different;
I am known as the leader of armies — but you must
descend into the grave with the reputation of a foe
to your native land. Remember that the veil which
conceals your true character cannot be raised in years
— perhaps never."
Birch again lowered his face, but there was no yield-
ing of the soul in the movement.
"You will soon be old; the prime of your days is
already past; what have you to subsist on?"
"These!" said the peddler, stretching forth his
hands, that were already browned with toil.
"But those may fail you; take enough to secure a
support to your age. Remember your risks and cares.
I have told you that the characters of men who are
much esteemed in life depend on your secrecy; what
pledge can I give them of your fidelity? "
HARVEY BIRCH AND WASHINGTON 65
"Tell them," said Birch, advancing, and uncon-
sciously resting one foot on the bag, "tell them that
I would not take the gold!"
The composed features of the officer relaxed into a
smile of benevolence, and he grasped the hand of the
"Now, indeed, I know you; and although the same
reasons which have hitherto compelled me to expose
your valuable life will still exist, and prevent my
openly asserting your character, in private I can always
be your friend; fail not to apply to me when in want
or suffering, and, so long as God giveth to me, so long
will I freely share with a man who feels so nobly and
acts so well. If sickness or want should ever assail
you, and peace once more smile upon our efforts, seek
the gate of him whom you have so often met as Harper,
and he will not blush to acknowledge you in his true
"It is little that I need in this life," said Harvey;
"so long as God gives me health and honest industry,
I can never want in this country; but to know that
your excellency is my friend is a blessing that I prize
more than all the gold of England's treasury."
The officer stood for a few moments in the attitude
of intense thought. He then drew to him the desk,
and wrote a few lines on a piece of paper, and gave it
to the peddler.
"That Providence destines this country to some
great and glorious fate I must believe, while I witness
the patriotism that pervades the bosoms of her lowest
citizens," he said. "It must be dreadful to a mind
Jike yours to descend into the grave, branded as a foe
66 AMERICAN IDEALS
to liberty; but you already know the lives that would
be sacrificed, should your real character be revealed.
It is impossible to do you justice now, but I fearlessly
entrust you with this certificate; should we never
meet again, it may be serviceable to your children.' '
" Children !" exclaimed the peddler. "Can I give to
a family the infamy of my name!"
The officer gazed at the strong emotion he exhibited
with pain, and he made a slight movement toward
the gold; but it was arrested by the expression of his
companion's face. Harvey saw the intention, and
shook his head, as he continued more mildly:
"It is, indeed, a treasure that your excellency gives
me; it is safe too. There are men living who could
say that my life was nothing to me, compared to your
secrets. The paper that I told you was lost I swallowed
when taken last by the Virginians. It was the only
time I ever deceived your excellency, and it shall be
the last; yes, this is, indeed, a treasure to me; per-
haps," he continued, with a melancholy smile, "it may
be known after my death who was my friend; but if
it should not, there are none to grieve for me."
"Remember," said the officer, with strong emotion,
"that in me you will always have a secret friend;
but openly I cannot know you."
"I know it, I know it," said Birch; "I knew it when
I took the service. Tis probably the last time that I
shall ever see your excellency. May God pour down
his choicest blessings on your head!" He paused,
and moved toward the door. The officer followed
him with eyes that expressed deep interest. Once
more the peddler turned, and seemed to gaze on the
THE GRAY CHAMPION 67
placid, but commanding features of the general with
regret and reverence, and then, bowing low, he with-
THE GRAY CHAMPION
There was once a time when New England groaned
under the actual pressure of heavier wrongs than those
threatened ones which brought on the Revolution.
James II had annulled the charters of all his colonies,
and sent a harsh and unprincipled soldier to take away
our liberties and endanger our religion. The admini&-
tration of Sir Edmund Andros lacked scarcely a single
characteristic of tyranny: a Governor and Council,
holding office from the King, and wholly independent
of the country; laws made and taxes levied without
concurrence of the people, immediate or by their
representatives; the rights of private citizens violated,
and the titles of all landed property declared void;
the voice of complaint stifled by restrictions on the
press; and, finally, disaffection, overawed by the
first band of mercenary troops that ever marched on
our free soil. For two years our ancestors were kept
in sullen submission by that filial love which had
invariably secured their allegiance to the mother coun-
try, whether its head chanced to be a parliament, pro-
tector, or monarch. Till these evil times, however,
such allegiance had been merely nominal, and the
colonists had ruled themselves, enjoying far more
freedom than was even yet the privilege of the native
subjects of Great Britain,
At length a rumor reached our shores that the Prince
68 AMERICAN IDEALS
of Orange had ventured on an enterprise, the success
of which would be the triumph of civil and religious
rights and the salvation of New England. It was but
a doubtful whisper. It might be false, or the attempt
might fail; and, in either case, the man that stirred
against King James would lose his head. Still, the
intelligence produced a marked effect. The people
smiled mysteriously in the streets, and threw bold
glances at their oppressors; while far and wide there
was a subdued and silent agitation, as if the slightest
signal would rouse the whole land from its sluggish
despondency. Aware of their danger, the rulers re-
solved to avert it by an imposing display of strength,
and perhaps to confirm their despotism by still harsher
measures. One afternoon in April, 1689, Sir Edmund
Andros and his favorite councilors, being warm
with wine, assembled the redcoats of the Governor's
Guard, and made their appearance in the streets of
Boston. The sun was near setting when the march
The roll of the drum, at that unquiet crisis, seemed
to go through the Streets less as the martial music of
the soldiers than as a muster call to the inhabitants
themselves. A multitude, by various avenues, assem-
bled in King Street, which was destined to be the scene,
nearly a century afterwards, of another encounter be-,
tween the troops of Britain and a people struggling
against her tyranny. Though more than sixty years
had elapsed since the Pilgrims came, this crowd of
their descendants showed the strong and somber fea-
tures of their character perhaps more strikingly in
such a stern emergency than on happier occasions.
THE GRAY CHAMPION 69
There were the sober garb, the general severity of the
mien, the gloomy and undismayed expression, the
Scriptural forms of speech, and the confidence in
Heaven's blessing on a righteous cause, which would
have marked a band of original Puritans when threat-
ened by some peril of the wilderness. Indeed, it was
not yet time for the old spirit to be extinct, since there
were men in the street that day who had worshiped
there beneath the trees, before a house was raised to
the God for whom they had become exiles. Several
ministers were scattered among the crowd, which, un-
like all other mobs, regarded them with such reverence
as if there were sanctity in their very garments. "These
holy men exerted their influence to quiet the people,
but not to disperse them. Meantime, the purpose of
the Governor in disturbing the peace of the town at a
period when the slightest commoti.on might throw the
country into a ferment was almost the universal subject
of inquiry, and variously explained.
" Satan will strike his master stroke presently/'
cried some, " because he knoweth his time is short.
All our godly pastors are to be dragged to prison !"
Hereupon the people of each parish gathered closer
around their minister, who looked calmly upward and
assumed a more apostolic dignity, as well befitted a
candidate for the highest honor of his profession, the
crown of martyrdom.
Neither was this rumor wholly discredited, although
the wiser class believed the Governor's object some-
what less atrocious. His predecessor under the old
charter, Bradstreet, a venerable companion of the
first settlers, was known to be in town. There were
70 AMERICAN IDEALS
grounds for conjecturing that Sir Edmund Andros
intended at once to strike terror by a parade of mili-
tary force, and to confound the opposite faction by
possessing himself of their chief.
" Stand firm for the old charter Governor!" shouted
the crowd, seizing upon the idea. "The good old
While this cry was at its loudest, the people were
surprised by the well-known figure of Governor Brad-
street himself, a patriarch of nearly ninety, who ap-
peared on the elevated steps of a door, and, with
characteristic mildness, besought them to submit to
the constituted authorities.
"My children/ ' concluded this venerable person,
"do nothing rashly. Cry not aloud, but pray for the
welfare of New England, and expect patiently what
the Lord will do in this matter!"
The event was soon to be decided. All this time,
the roll of the drum had been approaching through
Cornhill, louder and deeper, till with reverberations
from house to house, and the regular tramp of martial
footsteps, it burst into the street. A double rank of
soldiers made their appearance, occupying the whole
breadth of the passage, with shouldered matchlocks,
and matches burning, so as to present a row of fires
in the dusk. Their steady march was like the progress
of a machine, that would roll irresistibly over every-
thing in its way. Next, moving slowly, with a con-
fused clatter of hoofs on the pavement, rode a party
of mounted gentlemen, the central figure being Sir
Edmund Andros, elderly, but erect and soldier-like.
Those around him were his favorite councilors, and
THE GRAY CHAMPION 71
the bitterest foes of New England. At his right hand
rode Edward Randolph, our arch-enemy, that " blasted
wretch/ ' as Cotton Mather calls him, who achieved
the downfall of our ancient government, and was
followed through life with a sensible curse, and to the
grave. On the other side was Bullivant, scattering
jests and mockery as he rode along. Dudley came
behind, with a downcast look, dreading, as well he
might, to meet the indignant gaze of the people, who
beheld him, their only countryman by birth, among
the oppressors of his native land. The captain of a
frigate in the harbor, and two or three civil officers,
under Crown, were also there. But the figure which
most attracted the public eye, and stirred up the
deepest feeling, was the Episcopal clergyman of King's
Chapel, riding haughtily among the magistrates in his
priestly vestments, the fitting representative of prel-
acy and persecution, the union of church and state
and all those abominations which had driven the
Puritans to the wilderness. Another guard of soldiers,
in double rank, brought up the rear.
The whole scene was a picture of the condition of
New England, and its moral, the deformity of any
, government that does not grow out of the nature of
things and the character of the people. On one side
the religious multitude, with their sad visages and
dark attire; and on the other, the group of despotic
rulers, with the high churchman in the midst, and here
and there a crucifix at their bosoms, all magnificently
clad, flushed with wine, proud of unjust authority, and
scoffing at the universal groan. And the mercenary
soldiers, waiting but the word to deluge the street
72 AMERICAN IDEALS
with blood, showed the only means by which obedience
could be secured.
"0 Lord of Hosts," cried a voice among the crowd,
" provide a Champion for thy people!"
This ejaculation was loudly uttered, and served as
a herald's cry to introduce a remarkable personage.
The crowd had rolled back, and were now huddled
together nearly at the extremity of the street, while
the soldiers had advanced no more than a third of its
length. The intervening space was empty — a paved
solitude, between lofty edifices, which threw almost a
twilight shadow over it. Suddenly, there was seen the
figure of an ancient man, who seemed to have emerged
from among the people, and was walking by himself
along the center of the street, to confront the armed
band. He wore the old Puritan dress, a dark cloak and
a steeple-crowned hat, in the fashion of at least fifty
years before, with a heavy sword upon his thigh, but
a staff in his hand, to assist the tremulous gait of age.
When at some distance from the multitude, the old
man turned slowly round, displaying a face of antique
majesty, rendered doubly venerable by the hoary
beard that descended on his breast. He made a ges-
ture at once of encouragement and warning, then
turned again, and resumed his way.
"Who is the gray patriarch?" asked the young men
of their sires.
"Who is the venerable brother?" asked the old
men among themselves.
But none could make reply. The fathers of the
people, those of fourscore years and upwards, were
disturbed, deeming it strange that they should forget
THE GRAY CHAMPION 73
one of such evident authority, whom they must have
known in their early days, the associate of Winthrop,
and all the old councilors, giving laws, and making
prayers, and leading them against the savage. The
elderly men ought to have remembered him, too, with
locks as gray in their youth, as their own were now.
And the young! How could he have passed so utterly
from their memories — that hoary sire, the relic of
long-departed times, whose awful benediction had
surely been bestowed on their uncovered heads in
" Whence did he come? What is his purpose? Who
can this old man be?" whispered the wondering crowd.
Meanwhile, the venerable stranger, staff in hand,
was pursuing his solitary walk along the center of the
street. As he drew near the advancing soldiers, and
as the roll of their drum came full upon his ear, the
old man raised himself to a loftier mien, while the
decrepitude of age seemed to fall from his shoulders,
leaving him in gray but unbroken dignity. Now,
he marched onward with a warrior's step, keeping time
to the military music. Thus the aged form advanced
on one side, and the whole parade of soldier and mag-
istrate on the other, till, when scarcely twenty yards
remained between, the old man grasped his staff by
the middle, and held it before him like a leader's
" Stand!" cried he.
The eye, the face, and the attitude of command,
the solemn yet warlike peal of that voice, fit either to
rule a host in the battlefield or to be raised to God in
prayer, were irresistible. At the old man's word and
74 AMERICAN IDEALS
outstretched arm, the roll of the drum was hushed at
once, and the advancing line stood still. A tremulous
enthusiasm seized upon the multitude. That stately
form, combining the leader and the saint, so gray, so
dinjly seen, in such an ancient garb, could only belong
to some old champion of the righteous cause whom
the oppressor's drum had summoned from his grave.
They raised a shout of awe and exultation, and looked
for the deliverance of New England.
The Governor and the gentlemen of his party, per-
ceiving themselves brought to an unexpected stand,
rode hastily forward, as if they would have pressed
their snorting and affrighted horses right against the
hoary apparition. He, however, blenched not a step,
but, glancing his severe eye round the group, which
half encompassed him, at last bent it sternly on Sir
Edmund Andros. One would have thought that the
dark old man was chief ruler there, and that the Gov-
ernor and council, with their soldiers at their back,
representing the whole power and authority of the
Crown, had no alternative but obedience.
"What does this fellow here?" cried Edward Ran-
dolph, fiercely. "On, Sir Edmund! Bid the soldiers
forward, and give the dotard the same choice that you
give all his countrymen — to stand aside or be tram-
"Nay, nay, let us show respect for the good grand-
sire," said Bullivant, laughing. "See you not, he is
some old round-headed dignitary, who hath lain asleep
these thirty years, and knows nothing of the change of
times? Doubtless, he thinks to put us down with a
proclamation in Old Noll's name!"
THE GRAY CHAMPION x 75
"Are you mad, old man?" demanded Sir Edmund
Andros, in loud and harsh tones. "How dare you stay
the march of King James's Governor? "
"I have stayed the march of a King himself, ere
now," replied the gray figure, with stern composure.
"I am here, Sir Governor, because the cry of an op-
pressed people Hath disturbed me in my secret place;
and beseeching this favor earnestly of the Lord, it
was vouchsafed me to appear once again on earth, in
the good old cause of his saints. And what speak ye
of James? There is no longer a tyrant on the throne
of England, and by to-morrow noon his name shall
be a byword in this very street, where ye would make
it a word of terror. Back, thou that wast a Governor,
back! With this night thy power is ended — to-
morrow, the prison! — back, lest I foretell the scaffold! "
The people had been drawing nearer and nearer,
and drinking in the words of their champion, who
spoke in accents long disused, like one unaccustomed
to converse, except with the dead of many years ago.
But his voice stirred their souls. They confronted
the soldiers, not wholly without arms, and ready to
convert the very stones of the street into deadly
weapons. Sir Edmund Andros looked at the old man;
then he cast his hard and cruel eye over the multitude,
and beheld them burning with that lurid wrath so
difficult to kindle or to quench; and again he fixed
his gaze on the aged form, which stood obscurely in
an open square, where neither friend nor foe had thrust
himself. What were his thoughts, he uttered no word
which might discover. But whether the oppressor
were overawed by the Gray Champion's look, or per-
76 AMERICAN IDEALS
ceived his peril in the threatening attitude of the
people, it is certain that he gave back, and ordered
his soldiers to commence a slow and guarded retreat.
Before another sunset, the Governor, and all that
rode so proudly with him, were prisoners, and long
before it was known that James had abdicated, King
William was proclaimed throughout New England.
But where was the Gray Champion? Some reported
that, when the troops had gone from King Street, and
the people were thronging tumultuously in the rear,
Bradstreet, the aged Governor, was seen to embrace
a form more aged than his own. Others soberly af-
firmed that, while they marveled at the venerable gran-
deur of his aspect, the old man had faded from their
eyes, melting slowly into the hues of twilight, till, where
he stood, there was an empty space. But all agreed
that the hoary shape was gone. The men of that gen-
eration watched for his reappearance, in sunshine and
in twilight, but never saw him more, nor knew when
his funeral passed, nor where his gravestone was.
And who was the Gray Champion? Perhaps his
name might be found in the records of that stern
Court of Justice, which passed a sentence, too mighty
for the age, but glorious in all after-times for its hum-
bling lesson to the monarch and its high example to
the subject. I have heard, that, whenever the descend-
ants of the Puritans are to show the spirit of their
sires, the old man appears again. When eighty years
had passed, he walked once more in King Street.
Five years later, in the twilight of an April morning,
he stood on the green, beside the meeting-house, at
Lexington, where now the obelisk of granite, with a
THE AMERICAN FLAG 77
slab of slate inlaid, commemorates the first fallen of
the Revolution. And when our fathers were toiling
at the breastwork on Bunker's Hill, all through that
night the old warrior walked his rounds. Long, long
may it be ere he comes again! His hour is one of
darkness, and adversity, and peril. But should do-
mestic tyranny oppress us, or the invader's step pol-
lute our soil, still may the Gray Champion come; for
he is the type of New England's hereditary spirit,
and his shadowy march, on the eve of danger, must
ever be the pledge that New England's sons will vindi-
cate tneiT ancestry. — Nathaniel Hawthorne
(From " New England Tales")
THE AMERICAN FLAG
It has been impossible to decide with a certainty
who designed the American Flag, but the best evidence
gives part of the credit of planning and all the credit
of making it to Mrs. John Ross, better known as Betsy
Ross, who lived in Philadelphia.
This flag had thirteen stripes, seven red and six
white, and thirteen stars in a field of blue at the upper
corner next to the staff. Congress adopted this as the
national banner with the understanding that whenever
a new state entered the Union a star should be added.
The American Flag is the symbol of the brotherhood
of man and the emblem of freedom and justice. Like
the flag of every nation, it represents the nation's
authority and right to rule. A mere piece of bunting
78 AMERICAN IDEALS
it may be, but it speaks sublimely, and each part of it
has its special significance.
The stripes of alternate red and white proclaim the
original union of the Thirteen Colonies for maintaining
the Declaration of Independence. The white stars on
the field of blue proclaim the union of - the several
states, each state being represented by a star. Thus
the stripes and stars together signify the Union, past
and present, while the colors speak a language pecul-
iarly their own. "White is for purity; red for valor;
blue for justice; and all together — bunting, stars,
stripes, colors — blazing in the sky, make the Flag of
our country — to be cherished by all our hearts, to
be upheld by all our hands."
THE FLAG IN USE
The Flag should £ot be hoisted before sunrise nor
left flying after sunset. When being raised or lowered
it should not be allowed to touch the ground.
When the Flag is passing on parade or in review, or
when it is being lowered and the Star-spangled Banner
is being played, every one should halt if walking, and
should rise if sitting, and stand at attention with head
bare. The Flag at half-staff is a sign of mourning.
In placing the Flag at half-staff it should first be hoisted
to the top of the flag-staff, and then lowered into
position; when it is to be lowered from half-staff it
should first be raised to the top of the staff and then
lowered. On Memorial Day the Flag should fly at
half-staff until noon, and from noon until sunset at
the top of the staff.
To "dip the Flag," it is lowered, then quickly
THE FLAG IN USE
Betsy Ross sewing the first flag.
80 AMERICAN IDEALS
hoisted to its original position. This is done as a
To "strike the Flag," means submission or surrender.
A white flag signifies a truce, and indicates to the
enemy a desire for a conference or parley.
A white flag with a red cross in the center is the
sign of peace and protection. In times of war its
use enables each side to go on the battlefield; without
danger, to look after the slain and wounded. The
"red cross flag" is the emblem of the Red Cross
Society, which in times of war is organized for hospital
or ambulance service, and in times of peace for reliev-
ing the sufferings of the sick and oppressed, and also
for giving aid and relief in times of great calamity.
A yellow flag indicates that a ship flying it is in
quarantine because of the presence aboard of con-
The red flag is a sign of danger. It is used by
vessels when loading ammunition or when carrying
other deadly explosives.
THE AMERICAN FLAG
When Freedom, from her mountain height
Unfurled her standard to the air,
She tore the azure robe of night,
And set the stars of glory there.
She mingled with its gorgeous dyes
The milky baldric of the skies,
And striped its pure celestial white
With streakings of the morning light;
THE AMERICAN FLAG 81
Then, from his mansion in the sun
She called her eagle bearer down,
And gave into his mighty hand
The symbol of her chosen land.
Majestic monarch of the cloud,
Who rear'st aloft thy regal form,
To hear the tempest trumpings loud
And see the lightning lances driven,
When strive the warriors of the storm,
And rolls the thunder drum of Heaven, —
Child of the Sun! to thee 'tis given
To guard the banner of the free,
To hover in the sulphur smoke,
To ward away the battle stroke,
And bid its Mendings shine afar,
Like rainbows on the cloud of war,
The harbingers of victory!
Flag of the brave! thy folds shall fly
The sign of hope and triumph high!
When speaks the signal trumpet tone,
And the long line comes gleaming on.
Ere yet the lifeblood, warm and wet,
Has dimmed the glistening bayonet, —
Each soldier eye shall brightly turn
To where thy sky-born glories burn,
And, as his springing steps advance,
Catch war and vengeance from the glance.
And, when the cannon mouthings loud
Heave in wild wreaths the battle shroud,
And gory sabers rise and fall
Like shoots of flame on midnight's pall,
Then shall thy meteor glances glow,
And cowering foes shall shrink beneath
Each gallant arm that strikes below
That lovely messenger of death.
Flag of the seas! on ocean wave
Thy stars shall glitter o'er the brave;
When death, careering on the gale,
Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail,
And frighted waves rush wildly back
Before the broadside's reeling rack,
Each dying wanderer of the sea
Shall look at once to Heaven and thee,
And smile to see thy splendors fly
In triumph, o'er his closing eye.
Flag of the free heart's hope and home,
By angel hands to Valor given!
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome,
And all thy hues were born in heaven.
Forever float that standard sheet!
Where breathes the foe but falls before us,
With Freedom's soil beneath our feet,
And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us!
— Joseph Rodman Dsikk
THE FLAG GOES BY 88
THE FLAG GOES BY
Along the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums,
A flash of color beneath the sky:
The flag is passing by.
Blue and crimson and white it shines,
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines.
The colors before us fly;
But more than the flag is passing by.
Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great,
Fought to make and to save the State:
Weary marches and sinking ships;
Chan of victory on dying flips; '
Days of plenty and years of peace;
March of a strong land's swift increase;
Equal justice, right, and law,
Stately honor and reverend awe;
Sign of a nation, great and strong
To ward her people from foreign wrong;
Pride and glory and honor, — all
Live in the colors to stand or fall.
84 , AMERICAN IDEALS
Along the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums;
And loyal hearts are beating high:
The flag is, passing by!
— Henry Holcomb Bennett
MAKERS OF THE FLAG 1
This morning, as I passed into the Land Office,
The Flag dropped me a most cordial salutation, and
from its rippling folds I heard it say: "Good morning,
"I beg your pardon, Old Glory," I said, " aren't
you mistaken? I am not the President of the United
States, nor a member of Congress, nor even a general
in the army. I am only a government clerk."
"I greet you again, Mr. Flag-maker," replied the
gay voice, "I know you well. You are the man who
worked in the swelter of yesterday straightening out
the tangle of that farmer's homestead in Idaho, or
perhaps you found the mistake in that Indian contract
in Oklahoma, or helped to clear that patent for the
hopeful inventor in New York, or pushed the opening
of that new ditch in Colorado, or made that mine in
Illinois more safe, or brought relief to the old soldier
in Wyoming. No matter; whichever one of these
1 Delivered on Flag Day, 1914, before the employees of the Depart-
ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C, by Franklin K. Lane, Secretary
of the Interior.
MAKERS OF THE FLAG 85
beneficent individuals you may happen to be, I give
you greeting, Mr. Flag-maker/'
I was about to pass on, when The Flag stopped me
with these words :
" Yesterday the President spoke a word that made
happier the future of ten million peons in Mexico;
but that act looms no larger on the flag than the
struggle which the boy in Georgia is making to win
the Corn Club prize this summer.
"Yesterday the Congress spoke a word which will
J open the door of Alaska; but a mother in Michigan
worked from sunrise until far into the night, to give
her boy an education. She, too, is making the flag.
" Yesterday we made a new law to prevent financial
panics, and yesterday, maybe, a school teacher in
Ohio taught his first letters to a boy who will one day
write a song that will give cheer to the millions of our
race. We are all making the flag. ,,
"But," I said impatiently, "these people were only
Then came a great shout from The Flag:
"The work that we do is the making of the flag.
"I am not the flag; not at all. I am but its shadow.
"I am whatever you make me, nothing more.
"I am your belief in yourself, your dream of what
a People may become.
"I live a changing life, a life of moods and passions,
of heart-breaks and tired muscles.
"Sometimes I am strong with pride, when men do
an honest work, fitting the rails together truly.
"Sometimes I droop, for then purpose has gone from
me, and cynically I play the coward.
86 AMERICAN IDEALS
" Sometimes I am loud, garish, and full of that ego
that blasts judgment.
"But always, I am all that you hope to be, and have
the courage to try for.
"I am song and fear, struggle and panic, and en-
"I am the day's work of the weakest man, arid the
largest dream of the most daring.
"I am the Constitution and the courts, statutes
and the statute makers, soldier and dreadnaught,
drayman and street sweep, cook, counselor, and clerk.
"I am the battle of yesterday, and the mistake of
"I am the mystery of the men who do without
"I am the clutch of an idea, and the reasoned pur-
pose of resolution.
"I am no more than what you believe me to be and
I am all that you believe I can be.
"I am what you make me, nothing more.
"I swing before your eyes as a bright gleam of color,
a symbol of yourself, the pictured suggestion of that
big thing which makes this nation. My stars and my
stripes are your dream and your labors. They are
bright with cheer, brilliant with courage, firm with
faith, because you have made them so out of your
hearts. For you are the makers of the flag and it is
well that you glory in the making."
— Franklin K. Lane
ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG
PLEDGES OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG
1. "I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Re-
public for which it stands, — one nation, indivisible,
with liberty and justice for all."
At the words "to my flag," extend the right hand,
palm upward, toward the flag, and hold it there until -
the pledge is given; then lower it to the side.
2. "I give my head and my heart to God and my
Country, r— one Country, one Language, one Flag."
Extend the right arm and point toward the flag.
Bring the tips of the fingers to the forehead, saying,
"I give my head" — place the hand over the heart,
saying, "And my heart" — point and look upward,
saying, ' ' To God ' ' — drop the hand to the side. When
saving "One Flag" point to the flag.
The following salute is sometimes given by foreigners:
3. "Flag of our great republic, inspirer of battle,
guardian of our homes, whose stars and stripes stand
for bravery, purity, truth, and union, we salute thee!
We, the natives of distant lands, who find rest under
thy folds, do pledge our hearts, our lives, and our
sacred honor to love and protect thee, our country,
and the liberty of the American people forever."
88 AMERICAN IDEALS
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER
say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave, proof through the night that our flag was still
say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On that shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines on the stream.
'Tis the star-spangled banner! O long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their lov'd homes and the war's desolation!
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued
Praise the power that hath made and preserved *is a
OUR FLAG 89
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto — "In God is our trust!"
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave .
O *er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
— Francis Scott Key
Our flag means, then, all that our fathers meant in
the Revolutionary War; it means all that the Decla-
ration of Independence meant; it means all that the
Constitution of our people organizing for justice, for
liberty, and for happiness meant. Our flag carries
American ideas, American history, and American
feelings. Beginning with the colonies and coming
down to our time, in its sacred heraldry, in its glorious
insignia, it has gathered and stored chiefly this supreme
idea : Divine right of liberty in man.
Every color means liberty, every thread means
liberty, every form of star and beam of light means
liberty. Not lawlessness, not license, but organized
institutional liberty — liberty through law, and laws
Accept it then, in all its fullness of meaning. It is
not a painted rag. It is a whole national history.
It is the Constitution. It is the Government. It is
the emblem of the sovereignty of the people. It is
— Henry Ward Beecher
90 AMERICAN IDEALS
Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America, was
born in Genoa, Italy, in 1435 or 1436. When only a
young lad he went to sea. Later he married an Italian
girl whose father taught him how to make maps and how
to use them. While studying these he conceived the idea
that there might be land to the westward.
He laid his scheme of discovery before the king t)f
Portugal but he met with ridicule. Leaving Portugal
he started for Spain. On his way he stopped at a convent
to get food. The Superior of the convent became much
interested in his plans, and through her he obtained an
audience with Isabella, the queen.
After much delay Ferdinand, the king, agreed to furnish
him with three small ships, named Santa Maria, Pinta, and
Nina. So with one hundred and twenty men, on Friday,
August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed westward.
Many discouragements attended the voyage. The men
became disheartened, and begged to return to their homes,
but, on September 18, birds were seen, indicating that land
was near; a few days later a log and a branch covered with
flowers were found floating in the water.
Soon land was sighted and on October 12, 1492, Columbus
planted the flag of Spain on an island, which he named
Behind him lay the gray Azores,
Behind, the Gates of Hercules;
Before him not the ghost of shores,
Before him only shoreless seas.
The good mate said: "Now must we pray,
For lo! the very stars are gone.
Brave Admiral, speak; what shall I say?"
"Why say: 'Sail on! sail on! and on!'"
"My men grow mutinous day by day;
My men grow ghastly wan and weak."
The stout mate thought of home; a spray
Of salt wave dashed his swarthy cheek.
"What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,
If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"
"Why you shall say, at break of day:
'Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!'"
They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow,
Until at last the blanched mate said:
"Why, now not even God would know
Should I and all my men fall dead.
These very winds forget their way,
For God from these dread seas is gone.
Now speak, brave Admiral; speak and say — "
He said: "Sail on! sail on! and on!"
They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate:
"This mad sea shows his teeth to-night;
He curls his lips, he lies in wait,
With lifted teeth, as if to bite!
02 AMERICAN IDEALS
Brave Admiral, say but one good word;
What shall we do when hope is gone ? "
The words leapt as a leaping sword;
"Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!"
Then, pale and worn, he kept his deck,
And peered through darkness* Ah, that night
Of all dark nights! And then a speck —
A light! A light! A light! A light!
It grew, a starlit flag unfurled!
It grew to be Time's burst of dawn.
He gained a world; he gave that world
Its grainiest lesson: "On! sail on!"
— Joaquin Miller
THE BOY COLUMBUS
"Tis a wonderful story," I hear you say,
"How he struggled and worked and plead and prayed,
And faced every danger undismayed,
With a will that would neither break nor bend,
And discovered a new world in the end —
But what does it teach to a boy of to-day?
All the worlds are discovered, you know, of course,
All the rivers are traced to their utmost source :
There is nothing left for a boy to find,
If he had ever so much a mind
To become a discoverer famous;
And if we'd much rather read a book
About some one else, and the risks he took,
Why nobody, surely, can blame us."
Columbus before Queen Isabella.
94 . AMERICAN IDEALS
So you think all the worlds are discovered now;
All the lands have been charted and sailed about,
Their mountains climbed, their secrets found out;
All the seas have been sailed, and their currents
To the uttermost isles the winds have blown,
They have carried a venturing prow?
Yet there lie all about us new worlds, everywhere,
That await their -discoverer's footfall; spread fair
Are electrical worlds that no eye has yet seen,
And mechanical worlds that lie hidden serene
And await their Columbus securely.
There are new worlds in Science and new worlds in Art,
And the boy who will work with his head and his heart
Will discover his new world surely.
On July 4, 1776, representatives of the colonies, assembled
at Philadelphia, voted that the United Colonies should be
free and independent states, that they owed no allegiance
to the British Crown, and that all political connection
between them should be dissolved.
The announcement was hailed with the greatest en-
" Ring! ring!" shouted the lad stationed- below to give
the signal to the old bellman in the Statehouse tower;
and he did ring until the whole city shouted for joy.
Pictures of the king were burned on the streets, bonfires
were lighted, the city illuminated, and the exaltation was
prolonged far into the night.
INDEPENDENCE BELL 95
In New York, a lead statue of King George was melted
and molded into bullets, and in all great cities similar dem-
onstrations of enthusiasm were exhibited. Washington had
the Declaration read at the head of every brigade of the.
army, and the soldiers pledged fealty to the cause of
As soon as the Declaration could be printed, it went
forth, not only as a defiant answer of the colonies to the
demands of the mother country, but as a claini for the
political freedom of mankind.
When it was certain that the Declaration of American
Independence would be adopted by the Congress, then in
session in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776, it was determined to
announce the event by ringing the old Statehouse Bell,
which bore the inscription, "Proclaim liberty throughout
the land, to all the inhabitants thereof." The old bellman
posted his little grandson at the door of the hall, to await
the instruction of the doorkeeper when to ring. At the word
the young patriot rushed out, and, clapping his hands,
shouted, "Ring! Ring! Ring!"
There was a tumult in the city,
In the quaint old Quaker town,
And the streets were rife with people
Pacing restless up and down, —
People gathering at the corners,
Where they whispered each to each,
And the sweat stood on their temples
With the earnestness of speech.
96 AMERICAN IDEALS
As the bleak Atlantic currents
Lash the wild Newfoundland shore;
So they beat against the Statehouse,
So they surged against the door;
And the mingling of their voices
Made a harmony profound,
Till the quiet street of Chestnut
Was all turbulent with sound.
"Will they do it?" "Dare they do it?"
"Who is speaking?" "What's the news?"
"What of Adams?" "What of Sherman?"
"Oh, God grant they won't refuse!"
"Make some way there!" "Let me nearer!"
"I am stifling!" "Stifle, then!
When a nation's life's at hazard,
' We've no time to think of men!"
So they beat against the portal,
Man and woman, maid and child;
And the July sun in heaven
On the scene looked down and smiled;
The same sun that saw the Spartan
Shed his patriot blood in vain,
Now beheld the soul of freedom,
All unconquered, rise again.
See! See! The dense crowd quivers
Through all its lengthy line,
As the boy beside the portal
Looks forth to give the sign!
INDEPENDENCE BELL 97
With his little hands uplifted,
Breezes dallying with his hair,
Hark! with deep, clear intonation,
Breaks his young voice on the air.
Hushed the people's swelling murmur,
List the boy's exultant cry!
"Ring!" he shouts, "Ring! grandpa,
Ring! oh, ring for LIBERTY!"
Quickly at the given signal
The old bellman lifts his hand,
Forth he sends the good news, making
Iron music through the land.
How they, shouted! What rejoicing!
How the old bell shook the air,
Till the clang of freedom ruffled
The calmly gliding Delaware!
How the bonfires and the torches
Lighted up the night's repose,
And from the flames, like fabled Phoenix,
Our glorious Liberty arose!
That old Statehouse bell is silent;
Hushed is now its clamorous tongue;
But the spirit it awakened
Still is living — ever young;
And when we greet the smiling sunlight
On the Fourth of each July,
We will ne'er forget the bellman
Who, betwixt the earth and sky,
Rang out, loudly, "INDEPENDENCE, »
Which, please God, shall never die!
98 AMERICAN IDEALS
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776
THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE
THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
When in the course of human events, it becomes
necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands
which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the powers of the earth, the separate
and equal station to which the laws of nature and of
nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the
opinions of mankind requires that they should declare
the causes, which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men
are created equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among
these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
That to secure these rights, governments are instituted
among men, deriving their just powers from the coir-
sent of the governed, that whenever any form of
government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and
to institute a new government, laying its foundation on
such principles and organizing its powers in such form,
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety
and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that
governments long established should not -be changed
for light and transient causes; and accordingly all
experience hath shown, that mankind are more dis-
posed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to
right themselves by abolishing the forms to which
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 99
they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses
and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object
evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despo-
tism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
government, and to provide new guards for their
future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance
of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which
cbnstrains them to alter their former systems of
government. The history, of the present King of
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and
usurpations, all having, in direct object, the establish-
ment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To
prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his assent to laws, the most whole-
some and necessary for the public good,
r He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of
immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended
in their operation till his assent should be obtained;
and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to
attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accom-
modation of large districts of people, unless those
people would relinquish the right of representation in
the legislature, a right inestimable to them and for-
midable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places
unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the deposi-
tory of their public records, for the sole purpose of
fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly,
for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the
rights of the people.
100 AMERICAN IDEALS
He has refused for a long time, after such disso-
lutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the
legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have
returned to the people at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all
the dangers of invasion from without, and convul-
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of
these States; for that purpose obstructing the laws for
naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others
to encourage their migration hither, and raising the
conditions of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice, by
refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary
He has made judges dependent on his will alone,
for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and
payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent
hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and
eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing
armies without the consent of our legislature.
He has affected to render the military independent
of and superior to the civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a
jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowl-
edged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among
For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punish-
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 101
ment for any murders which they should commit on
the inhabitants of these states:
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world :
For imposing taxes on us without our consent :
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of
trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for
pretended offences :
For abolishing the free system of English laws in
a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbi-
trary government, and enlarging its boundaries so
as to render it at once an example and fit instrument
for introducing the same absolute rule into these
For taking away our charters, abolishing our most
valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms
of our governments:
For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring
themselves invested with power to legislate for us in
all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring
us out of his protection and waging war against us.
He has plundered our seatf, ravaged our coasts,
burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of
foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death,
desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circum-
stances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the
head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken cap-
tive on the high seas, to bear arms against their coun-
102 AMERICAN IDEALS
try, to become the executioners of their friends and
brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us,
and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our
frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known
rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of
all ages, sexes, and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions we have pe-
titioned for redress in the most humble terms; our
repeated petitions have been answered only by re-
peated injury. A prince, whose character is thus
marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is
unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attention to our
Brit^h brethren. We have warned them from time
to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an
unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have re-
minded them of the circumstances of our emigration
and settlement here. We have appealed to their
native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured
them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow
these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt
our connections and correspondence. They, too, have
been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which
denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold
the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace, friends.
We, therefore, the representatives of the United
States of America, in General Congress assembled,
appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by
the authority of the good people of these colonies,
MEMORIAL DAY 103
solemnly publish and declare, That these United
Colonies are, arid of right ought to be Free and In-
dependent States; -that they are absolved from all
allegiance to the British crown, and that all political
connection between them and the state of Great
Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and
that as Free and Independent States, they have full
power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances,
establish commerce, and to do all other acts and
things which Independent States may of right do.
And for the support of this declaration, with a firm
reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we
mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes,
and our sacred honor.
It has been the custom of several countries of the Old
World to decorate the graves of soldiers; but in no country
is it made a day of national observance as it is now known
in the north and south of the United States.
In various parts of the country on different days it became
the custom to carry flowers to the graves of the soldiers who
had lost their lives in battle. The practice gradually be-
came more general. In some instances Governors of states
recommended a day for its observance. The pulpit and press
urged that the same day in all parts of the country be made
a legal holiday in honor of the country's fallen soldiers.
At length at the recommendation of President Grant,
Congress decided upon May 30 as a legal holiday, now known
and recognized as Memorial Day in nearly every state of
104 AMERICAN IDEALS
This day has been given to the dead, but its lessons
are intended for the living. It has been the occasion
for a generous manifestation on the part of the people
of their gratitude to the men who saved the country
in war. But its true intent will have been lost if it
has failed to inspire in all our hearts a deeper sentiment
of patriotism and a stronger attachment to those
great ideas for which these men gave their lives. It
is an impressive fact to contemplate that to-day
millions of our fellow citizens from every part of the
country have abandoned all thoughts of business and
turned their footsteps to the places where sleep our
heroic dead, that they may with loving hands and
grateful hearts pay tender tribute to their virtues and
their valor. This consecration day is a popular
demonstration of affection for the patriotic dead,
and bears unmistakable evidence that patriotism in
the United States has not declined or abated.
— William McKinlbt
I am oppressed with a sense of the impropriety of
uttering words on this occasion. If silence is ever
golden, it must be here beside the graves of fifteen
thousand men, whose lives were more significant than
speech, and whose death was a poem, the music of
which can never be sung. With words we make
promises, plight faith, praise virtue. Promises may
not be kept; plighted faith may be broken; and
vaunted virtue be only the cunning mask of vice.
We do not know one promise these men made, one
THE BLUE AND THE GRAY 105
pledge they gave, one word they spoke; but we do
know they summed up and perfected, by one supreme
act, the highest virtues of men and citizens. For love
of country they accepted death, and thus resolved all
doubts, and made immortal their patriotism and their
virtue. For the noblest man that lives there still
remains a conflict. He must still withstand the
assaults of time and fortune, must still be assailed with
temptations, before which lofty natures have fallen; but
with these the conflict ended, the victory was won, when
death stamped on them' the great seal of heroic charac-
ter, and closed a record which years can never blot.
— James A. Garfield
THE BLUE AND THE GRAY
By the flow of the inland river,
Whence the fleets of iron have fled,
Where the blades of grave-grass quiver,
Asleep are the ranks of the dead.
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment day; —
Under the one, the Blue;
Under the other, the Gray.
From the silence of sorrowful hours
The desolate mourners go,
Lovingly laden with flowers
Alike for the friend and the foe; —
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment day; —
Under the roses, the Blue;
Under the lilies, the Gray.
106 AMERICAN IDEALS
So, when the summer calleth,
On forest and field of grain,
With an equal murmur falleth
The cooling drip of the rain.
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment day; —
Wet with the rain, the Blue;
Wet with the rain, the Gray.
No more shall the war-cry sever,
Or the winding rivers be red;
They banish our anger forever
When they laurel the graves of our dead!
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment day; —
Love and tears for the Blue,
Tears and love for the Gray.
— Francis M. Finch
She is a rich and rare land;
Oh! she's a fresh and fair land,-
She's a dear and rare land —
This native land of mine.
No men than hers are braver —
Her women's hearts ne'er waver;
I'd freely die to save her,
And think my lot divine.
THE RIDE OF JENNIE WNEAL 107
She's not a dull or cold land;
No! she's a warm and bold land;
Oh! she's a true and old land —
This native land of mine.
Could beauty ever guard her,
And virtue still reward her,
No foe would cross her border —
No friend within it pine.
Oh! she's a fresh and fair land,
Oh! she's true and rare land!
Yes, she's a rare and fair land —
This native land of mine.
— Thomas Osborne Davis
THE RIDE OF JENNIE M'NEAL
Paul Revere was a rider bold —
Well has his valorous deed been told ;
Sheridan's ride was a glorious one —
Often it has been dwelt upon ;
But why should men do all the deeds
On which the love of a patriot feeds?
Hearken to me, while I reveal
The dashing ride of Jennie M'Neal.
On a spot as pretty as might be found
In the dangerous length of the Neutral Ground,
In a cottage, cozy, and all their own,
She and her mother lived alone.
Safe were the two, with their frugal store,
108 AMERICAN IDEALS
From all of the many who passed their door;
For Jennie's mother was strange to fears,
And Jennie was large for fifteen years;
With vim her eyes were glistening,
Her hair was the hue of a blackbird's wing;
And while the friends who knew her well
The sweetness of her heart could tell,
A gun that hung on the kitchen wall
Looked solemnly quick to heed her call;
And they who were evil-minded knew
Her nerve was strong and her aim was true.
So all kind words and acts did deal
To generous, black-eyed Jennie M'Neal.
One night, when the sun had crept to bed,
And rain-clouds lingered overhead,
And sent their surly drops for proof
To drum a tune on the cottage roof,
Close after a knock at the outer door
There entered a dozen dragoons or more.
Their red coats, stained by the muddy road,
That they were British soldiers showed;
The captain his hostess bent to greet,
Saying, " Madam, please give us a bit to eat;
We will pay you well, and, if may be,
This bright-eyed girl for pouring our tea;
Then we must dash ten miles ahead,
To catch a rebel colonel abed.
He is visiting home, as doth appear;
We will make his pleasure cost him dear."
And they fell on the hasty supper with zeal,
Close-watched the while by Jennie M'Neal.
THE RIDE OF JENNIE M'NEAL 109
For the gray-haired colonel they hovered near,
Had been her true friend, kind and dear;
And oft, in her younger days, had he
Right proudly perched her upon his knee,
And told her stories many a one
Concerning the French war lately done.
And oft together the two friends were,
And many the arts he had taught to her;
She had hunted by his fatherly side,
He had shown her how to fence and ride;
And once had said, "The time may be,
Your skill and courage may stand by me."
So sorrow for him she could but feel,
Brave, grateful-hearted Jennie M'Neal.
With never a thought or a moment more,
Bare-headed she slipped from the cottage door,
Ran out where the horses were left to feed,
Unhitched and mounted the captain's steed,
And down the hilly and rock-strewn way
She urged the fiery horse of gray.
Around her slender and cloakless form
Pattered and moaned the ceaseless storm;
Secure and tight a gloveless hand
Grasped the reins with stern command;
And full and black her long hair streamed,
Whenever the ragged lightning gleamed.
And on she rushed for the colonel's weal,
Brave, lioness-hearted Jennie M'Neal.
Hark ! from the hills, a moment mute,
Came a clatter of hoofs in hot pursuit;
110 AMERICAN IUEALS
And a cry from the foremost trooper said,
"Halt! or your blood be on your head! "
She heeded it not, and not in vain
She lashed the horse with the bridle-rein.
So into the night the gray horse strode;
His shoes hewed fire from the rocky road;
And the high-born courage that never dies
Flashed from his rider's coal-black eyes.
The pebbles flew from the fearful race;
The rain-drops grasped at her glowing face.
"On, on, brave beast!" with loud appeal,
Cried eager, resolute Jennie M'Neal.
"Halt!" once more came the voice of dread;
"Halt! or your blood be on your head!"
Then, no one answering to the calls,
Sped after her a volley of balls.
They passed her in her rapid flight,
They screamed to her left, they screamed to her right;
She sent no token of answer back,
Except a silvery laughter-peal,
Brave, merry-hearted Jennie M'Neal.
So on she rushed, at her own good will,
Through wood and valley, o'er plain and hill;
The gray horse did his duty well,
Till all at once he stumbled and fell,
Himself escaping the nets of harm,
But flinging the girl with a broken arm.
Still undismayed by the numbing pain,
She clung to the horse's bridle-rein,
THE RIDE OF JENNIE M'NEAL 111
"So on she rushed, at her own good will."
112 AMERICAN IDEALS
And gently bidding him to stand,
Petted him with her able hand;
Then sprang again to the saddle-bow,
And shouted, "One more trial now!"
As if ashamed of the heedless fall,
He gathered his strength once more for all,
And, galloping down a hill-side steep,
Gained on the troopers at every leap;
No more the high-bred steed did reel,
But ran his best for Jennie M'Neal.
They were a furlong behind, or more,
When the girl burst through the colonel's door,
Her poor arm helpless hanging with pain,
And she all drabbled and drenched with rain,
But her cheeks as red as firebrands are,
And her eyes as bright as a blazing star,
And shouted, "Quick! be quick, I say!
They come ! they come ! Away ! away ! "
Then sunk on the rude white floor of deal,
Poor, brave, exhausted Jennie M'Neal.
The startled colonel sprung, and pressed
The wife and children to his breast,
And turned away from his fireside bright,
And glided into the stormy night;
Then soon and safely made his way
To where the patriot army lay.
But first he bent in the dim firelight,
And kissed the forehead broad and white,
And blessed the girl who had ridden so well
To keep him out of a prison-cell*.
THE RISING IN 1776 113
The girl roused up at the martial din,
Just as the troopers came rushing in,
And laughed, e'en in the midst of a moan,
Saying, "Good sirs, your bird has flown.
'Tis I who have scared him from his nest;
So deal with me now as you think best."
But the grand young captain bowed, and said,
"Never you hold a moment's dread.
Of womankind I must crown you queen;
So brave" a girl I have never seen.
Wear this gold ring as your valor's due;
And when peace comes I will come for you."
But Jennie's face an arch smile wore,
As she said, "There's a lad in Putnam's corps,
Who told me the same, long time ago ;
You two would never agree, I know.
I promised my love to be true as steel,"
Said good, sure-hearted Jennie M'Neal.
— Will Carleton
THE RISING IN 1776
Out of the North the wild news came,
Far flashing on its wings of flame,
Swift as the boreal light which flies
At midnight through the startled skies.
And there was tumult in the air,
The fife's shrill note, the drum's loud beat,
And through the wide land everywhere
The answering tread of hurrying feet;
114 AMERICAN IDEALS
While the first oath of Freedom's gun
Came on the blast from Lexington;
And Concord roused, no longer tame,
Forgot her old baptismal name,
Made bare her patriot's arm of power,
And swelled the discord of the hour.
Within its shade of elm and oak
The church of Berkeley Manor stood;
There Sunday found the rural folk,
And some esteemed of gentle blood.
In vain their feet, with loitering tread,
Passed 'mid the graves where rank is naught;
All could not read the lesson taught
In that republic of the dead.
How sweet the hour of Sabbath talk,
The vale with peace and sunshine full,
Where all the happy people walk,
Decked in their homespun flax and wool !
Where youths' gay hats with blossoms bloom,
And every maid, with simple art,
Wears on her breast, like her own heart,
A bud whose depths are all perfume;
While every garment's gentle stir
Is breathing rose and lavender.
The pastor came : his snowy locks
Hallowed his brow of thought and care;
And calmly, as shepherds lead their flocks,
He led into the house of prayer.
THE RISING IN 1776 115
Then soon he rose; the prayer was strong;
The psalm was warrior David's song;
The text, a few short words of might ;
"The Lord of hosts shall arm the right !"
He spoke of wrongs too long endured,
Of sacred rights to be secured ;
Then from his patriot tongue of flame
The startling words for Freedom came.
The stirring sentences he spake
Compelled the heart to glow or quake,
And, rising on his theme's broad wing,
And grasping in his nervous hand
The imaginary battle brand,
In face of death he dared to fling
Defiance to a tyrant king.
Even as he spoke, his frame, renewed
In eloquence of attitude,
Rose, as it seemed, a shoulder higher;
Then swept his kindling glance of fire
From startled pew to breathless choir;
When suddenly his mantle wide
His hands impatient flung aside,
And, lo ! he met their wondering eyes
Complete in all a warrior's guise.
A moment there was awful pause —
When Berkeley cried, "Cease, traitor! cease;
God's temple is the house of peace!"
The other shouted, "Nay! not so,
When God is with our righteous cause ;
116 AMERICAN IDEALS
His holiest places then are ours,
His temples are our forts and towers
That frown upon the tyrant foe;
In this, the dawn of Freedom's day,
There is a time to fight and pray!"
And now before the open door —
The warrior priest had ordered so —
The enlisting trumpet's sudden roar
Rang through the chapel, o'er and o'er,
Its long reverberating blow,
So loud and clear, it seemed the ear
Of dusty death must wake and hear.
And there the startling drum and fife
Fired the living with fiercer life;
While overhead, with wild increase,
Forgetting its ancient toll of peace,
The great bell swung as ne'er before.
It seemed as it would never cease;
And every word its ardor flung
From off its jubilant iron tongue
Was "War! War! War!"
"Who dares" — this was the patriot's cry,
As striding from the desk he came, —
"Come out with me, in Freedom's name,
For her to live, for her to die?"
A hundred hands flung up reply,
A hundred voices answered, "I!"
— Thomas Buchanan Read
PAUL REVERE' S RIDE 117
PAUL REVERED RIDE
Listen, my children, and you shall hear
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that famous day and year.
He said to his friend: "If the British march
By land or sea from the town tonight,
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry-arch
Of the North Church tower, as a signal-light, —
One if by land, and two if by sea;
And I on the opposite shore will be,
Ready to ride and spread the alarm
Through every Middlesex village and farm,
For the country-folk to be up and to arm. ,,
Then he said "good night/ 9 and with muffled oar
Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore,
Just as the moon rose over the bay,
Where, swinging wide at her moorings, lay
The Somerset, British man-of-war:
A phantom ship, with each mast and spar
Across the moon, like a prison-bar,
And a huge black hulk, that was magnified
By its own reflection in the tide.
Meanwhile, his friend through alley and street
Wanders and watches with eager ears,
Till in the silence around him he hears
118 AMERICAN IDEALS
The muster of men at the barrack-door,
The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet,
And the measured tread of the grenadiers
Marching down to their boats on the shore.
Then he climbed to the tower of the church,
Up the wooden stairs, with stealthy tread,
To the belfry-chamber overhead,
And startled the pigeons from their perch
On the sombre rafters, that round him made
Masses and moving shapes of shade, —
Up the trembling ladder, steep and tall,
To the highest window in the wall,
Where he paused to listen and look down
A moment on the roofs of the town,
And the moonlight flowing over all.
Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead
In their night-encampment on the hill,
Wrapped in silence so deep and still,
That he could hear, like a sentinel's tread,
The watchful night-wind, as it went
Creeping along from tent to tent,
And seeming to whisper, "All is well! ,,
A moment only he feels the spell
Of the place and the hour, the secret dread
Of the lonely belfry and the dead;
For suddenly all his thoughts are bent
On a shadowy something far away,
Where the river widens to meet the bay, —
A line of black, that bends and floats
On the rising tide, like a bridge of boats.
PAUL REV ERE' S RIDE 119
Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride,
Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride,
On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere.
Now he patted his horse's side,
Now gazed at the landscape far and near,
Then impetuous stamped the earth,
And turned and tightened his saddle-girth;
But mostly he watched with eager search
The belfry-tower of the old North Church,
As it rose above the graves on the hill,
Lonely, and spectral, and sombre, and still.
And lo! as he looks, on the belfry's height,
A glimmer, and then a gleam of light!
He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns,
But lingers and gazes, till full on his sight
A second lamp in the belfry burns!
A hurry of hoofs in a village-street,
A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark,
And beneath from the pebbles, in passing, a spark
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet:
That was all ! And yet, through the gloom and the light,
The fate of a nation was riding that night;
And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight,
Kindled the land into flame with its heat.
He has left the village and mounted the steep,
And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep,
Is the Mystic, meeting the ocean tides;
And under the alders, that skirt its edge,
Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge,
Is heard the tramp of the steed as he rides.
120 AMERICAN IDEALS
It was twelve by the village-clock
When he crossed the bridge into Medford town.
He heard the crowing of the cock,
And the barking of the farmer's dog,
And felt the damp of the river-fog
That rises after the sun goes down.
It was one by the village-clock
When he galloped into Lexington.
He saw* the gilded weathercock
Swim in the moonlight as he passed,
And the meeting-house windows, blank and bare,
Gaze at him with a spectral glare,
As if they already stood aghast
At the bloody work they would look upon.
It was two by the village-clock
When he came to the bridge in Concord town.
He heard the bleating of the flock,
And the twitter of birds among the trees,
And felt the breath of the morning-breeze
Blowing over the meadows brown.
And one was safe and asleep in his bed
Who at the bridge would be first to fall,
Who that day would be lying dead,
Pierced by a British musket-ball.
You know the rest. In the books you have read
How the British regulars fired and fled —
How the farmers gave them ball for ball,
From behind each fence and farmyard-wall,
SONG OF MARION'S MEN 121
Chasing the redcoats down the lane,
Then crossing the fields to emerge again
Under the trees at the turn of the road,
And only pausing to fire and load.
So through the night rode Paul Revere;
And so through the night went his cry of alarm
To every Middlesex village and farm, —
A cry of defiance, and not of fear, —
A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door,
And a word that shall echo forevermore!
For, borne on the night-wind of the Past,
Through all our history, to the last,
In the hour of darkness and peril and need,
The people will waken and listen to hear
The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed,
And the midnight-message of Paul Revere.
— Henry W. Longfellow
SONG OF MARION'S MEN
Our band is few but true and tried,
Our leader frank and bold;
The British soldier trembles
When Marion's name is told.
Our fortress is the good greenwood,
Our tent the cypress-tree;
We know the forest round us,
As seamen know the sea.
122 AMERICAN IDEALS
We know its walls of thorny vines,
Its glades of reedy grass,
Its safe and silent islands
Within the dark morass.
Woe to the English soldiery
That little dread us near!
On them shall light at midnight
A strange and sudden fear
When, waking to their tents on fire,
They grasp their arms in vain,
And they who stand to face us
Are beat to earth again;
And they who fly in terror deem
A mighty host behind,
And hear the tramp . of thousands
Upon the hollow wind.
Then sweet the hour that brings release
From danger and from toil:
We talk the battle over,
And share the battle's spoil.
The woodland rings with laugh and shout,
As if a hunt were up,
And woodland flowers are gathered
To crown the soldier's cup.
With merry songs we mock the wind
That in the pine-top grieves,
And slumber long and sweetly
On beds of oaken leaves.
Well knows the fair and friendly moon
The band that Marion leads —
MOLLIE PITCHER 123
The glitter of their rifles,
The scampering of their steeds.
'Tis life to guide the fiery barb
Across the moonlight plain;
'Tis life to feel the night-wind
That lifts the tossitig mane.
A moment in the British camp — .
A moment — and away
Back to the pathless forest,
Before the peep of day.
Grave men there are by broad Santee,
Grave men with hoary hairs;
Their hearts are all with Marion,
For Marion are their prayers.
And lovely ladies greet our band,
With kindliest welcoming,
With smiles like those of summer,
And tears like those of spring.
For them we wear these trusty arms,
And lay them down no more
Till we have driven the Briton,
Forever from our shore.
— William Cullen Bryant
Mollie Pitcher was born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. She
won distinction at Fort Clinton by discharging the last gun
at the British. She also distinguished herself at the battle of
Monmouth (June, 1778). As she was carrying water to her
"Mollie Pitcher, you saved the day."
124 AMERICAN IDEALS
husband, a cannoneer, from a near-by well a shot killed him
instantly. She took his place at the gun, and saved it from
falling into the hands of the enemy. Washington made her
a sergeant for her bravery, and placed her name on the list
of half-pay officers for life. A monument to her memory is
on the Monmouth battlefield, and there is also one at
'Twas hurry and scurry at Monmouth town
For Lee was beating a wild retreat ;
The British were riding the Yankees down,
And panic was pressing on flying feet.
Galloping down like a hurricane
Washington rode with his sword swung high,
Mighty as he of the Trojan plain
Fired by a courage from the sky.
"Halt and stand to your guns!" he cried.
And a bombardier made swift reply.
Wheeling his cannon into the tide;
He fell 'neath the shot of a foeman nigh.
Mollie Pitcher sprang to his side,
Fired as she saw her husband do,
Telling the king in his stubborn pride
Women like men to their homes are true.
Washington rode from the bloody fray
Up to the gun that a woman manned.
" Mollie Pitcher, you saved the day,"
He said, as he gave her a hero's hand.
"MoUie Pitcher, you saved the day."
126 AMERICAN IDEALS
He named her sergeant with manly praise,
While her war-brown face was wet with tears —
A woman has ever a woman's ways,
And the Army was wild with cheers.
— Kate Brownlee Sherwood
During the war of 1812 a sea fight occurred between the
United States ship, Constitution, and the English man-of-
war, Guerriere. Within half an hour the Guerriere was
destroyed and the United States ship had won a splendid
victory. Because of this and other victories the people
called the Constitution "Old Ironsides." After many years
of service she was pronounced unsound and it was decided
that she should be destroyed. Oliver Wendell Holmes
opposed this plan and wrote the poem, "Old Ironsides,"
which was copied in newspapers throughout the country.
By means of this appeal the ship was saved and was after-
ward used as a training ship for naval cadets.
Ay, tear her tattered ensign down!
Long has it waved on high,
And many an eye has danced to see
That banner in the sky;
Beneath it rung the battle shout,
And burst the cannon's roar; —
The meteor of the ocean air
Shall sweep the clouds no more.
Her deck, once red with heroes' blood,
Where knelt the vanquished foe,
BARBARA FRIETCHIE 127
When winds were hurrying o'er ihe flood, .
And waves were white below,
No more shall feel the victor's tread,
Or know the conquered knee; .
The halpies of the shore shall pluck
The eagle of the sea!
O better that her shattered hulk
Should sink beneath the wave;
Her thunders shook the mighty deep,
And" there should be her grave;
Nail to the mast her holy flag,
Set every threadbare sail,
And give her to the god of storms,
The lightning and the gale!
— Oliver Wendell Holmes
Up from the meadows rich with corn,
Clear in the cool September morn,
The clustered spires of Frederick stand
Green-walled by the hills of Maryland.
Round about them orchards sweep,
Apple and peach tree fruited deep,
Fair as the garden of the Lord
To the eyes of the famished rebel horde,
On that pleasant morn of the early fall
When Lee marched over the mountain wall,
128 AMERICAN IDEALS
Over the mountains winding down,
Horse and foot, into Frederick town.
Forty flags with their silver stars,
Forty flags with their crimson bars,
Flapped in the morning wind: the sun
Of noon looked down, and saw not one.
Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then,
Bowed with her fourscore years and ten;
Bravest of all in Frederick town,
She took up the flag the men hauled down;
In her attic window the staff she set,
To show that one heart was loyal yet.
Up the street came the rebel tread,
Stonewall Jackson riding ahead.
Under his slouched hat left and right
He glanced; the old flag met his sight.
"Halt!" — the dust-brown ranks stood fast.
"Fire!" — out blazed the rifle blast.
It shivered the window, pane and sash;
It rent the banner with seam and gash.
Quick, as it fell, from the broken staff
Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf.
BARBARA FRIETCHIE • 129
She leaned far out on the windowsill,
And shook it forth with a royal will.
"•Shoot, if you must, this old gray head,
But spare your country's flag," she said.
A shade of sadness, a blush of shame,
Over the face of the leader came;
The nobler nature within him stirred -
To life at that woman's deed and word:
"Who touches a hair of yon gray head
Dies like a dog! March on!" he said.
All day long through Frederick street
Sounded the tread of marching feet:
All day long that free flag tossed
Over the heads of the rebel host.
Ever its torn folds rose and fell
On the loyal winds that loved it well;
And through the hill-gaps sunset light
Shone over it with a warm good-night.
Barbara Frietchie's work is o'er,
And the Rebel rides on his raids no more.
Honor to her! and let a tear
Fall, for her sake, on Stonewall's bier.
130 AMERICAN IDEALS
Over Barbara Frietchie's grave,
Flag of Freedom and Union, wave!
Peace and order and beauty draw
Round thy symbol of light and law;
And ever the stars above look down
On thy stars below in Frederick town!
— John Greenleaf WmrnEB
Loaded with gallant soldiers,
A boat shot unto the land,
And lay at the right of Rodman's Point,
With her keel upon the sand.
Lightly, gayly, they came ashore,
And never a man afraid,
When sudden the enemy opened fire,
From his deadly ambuscade.
Each man fell flat on the bottom
Of the boat; and the Captain said:
"If we lie here, we all are captured,
And the first who moves is dead!"
Then out spoke a negro sailor,
No slavish soul had he;
"Somebody's got to die, boys,
And it might as well be me."
THE SONG OF MANILA ' 131
Firmly he rose, and fearlessly-
Stepped out into the tide;
He pushed the vessel safely off,
Then fell across her side:
Fell, pierced by a dozen btdlets,
As the boat swung clear and free; —
But there wasn't a man of them that day
Who was fitter to die than he.
— Phoebe Caky
THE SONG OF MANILA
As it began to dawn, you know,
Just at the peep of day,
Ere yet the sun was fully up
Above Manila Bay, — .
We crept into their port, my boy,
Their crews were sound asleep;
Crept close upon their forts and ships,
Glassed in the quiet deep.
But when the Spanish sluggards woke,
Upspringing with the sun,
They sent across the shining wave
A booming, harmless gun.
No answer first, — we but swept on;
Then lo ! a flash of flame,
A sound of thunder, — ha, my boy,
And thus began our game !
132 AMERICAN IDEALS
How roared the cannon, sang the bombs,
And whistled shell and shot;
How crashed their splintered masts and spars
As all the air grew hot !
How worked our tars, — a hero each, —
Their sooty breasts swelled high,
Remembering that on us was fixed
Our country's grateful eye!
And that while through black clouds of smoke
The sun gleamed fiery red,
There flew, with every star undimmed.
Old Glory overhead!
And through it all God's hand, my boy,
In this fierce fight was plain ;
Not one brave lad of ours fell dead,
/ As we avenged the Maine !
But scores of Spanish, — and they, too,
Had done their duty well, —
May God have mercy on their souls,
Be they in heaven or hell!
Their ships we captured, sunk or burned;
And live a thousand years,
I'll thank the Lord I, too, was there, —
Hear still our ringing cheers!
Hail to our noble Commodore,
For deeds so glorious done,
Praise to a greater Captain still,
For such a victory won.
— Stuart Sterne
PATRIOTIC SONGS 133
HISTORY OF OUR NATIONAL SONGS
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER
Francis Scott Key was born in Maryland in 1779 and
died in 1843. During the war of 1812 between the United
States and Great Britain the English fleet bombarded Fort
McHenry near Baltimore on September 13, 1814. During
the whole of that day and night he witnessed the British
bombardment of the fort; and on the following morning he
and his American friends saw with delight that the fort
was still ours, and that the American flag, torn with shot
and shell, was still waving in its place. The story is told
in the poem.
The Star-spangled Banner is played by bands in the navy
and at military posts; foreign countries regard it as the
nation's anthem; and citizens of- the United States reverently
stand whenever it is heard.
For words of this Hymn, see p. 88.
Samuel Francis Smith, a young Harvard graduate,
was one day looking over some foreign music books when
the English national hymn, "God Save the King," caught
his attention. After humming the air a few times he took
his pen and wrote the inspiring words of "America," little
thinking that the verses would ever attain popularity.
.Mr. Smith, in writing about it later, said, "If I had antici-
pated the future of the song doubtless I would have taken
more pains with it. Such as it is, I am glad to have con-
tributed this much to the cause of American freedom."
134 AMERICAN IDEALS
My country! 'tis of thee,
Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing;
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the pilgrims' pride;
From every mountain side,
Let freedom ring.
My native country! thee,
Land of the noble free,
Thy name I love:
I love thy rocks, and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills;
My heart with rapture thrills,
Like that above.
Let music swell the breeze,
And ring from all the trees,
Sweet freedom's song;
Let mortal tongues awake,
Let all that breathe partake,
Let rocks their silence break,
The sound prolong.
Our fathers' God, to thee,
Author of Liberty!
To thee we sing;
Long may our land be bright,
With freedom's holy light;
Protect us by thy might,
Great God, our King!
— S. F. Smith
PATRIOTIC SONGS 135
THE BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC
Julia Ward Howe, the composer of the Battle Hymn,
was a resident of Washington during the Civil War. One
day she, with a party of friends, had been out to see a review
of the soldiers.
As they listened to the band playing "John Brown's
Body" onp of the party said to her, "Mrs. Howe, why don't
you write a hymn which the Boys in Blue can sing to that
Mrs. Howe replied that she had often wished she could,
and the matter was dropped. The next morning she awak-
ened in the gray dawn, and began to think about the hymn.
One line after another began to come to her until she had
the entire song in mind. She rose hastily and in dim
twilight she wrote it out, letting her pencil shape the words
she did not even try to see. Thus, as it were by inspiration,
were written the stirring words of our splendid Battle Hymn.
Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of
wrath are stored;
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible
His truth is marching on.
I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews
I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and
His day is marching on.
136 AMERICAN IDEALS
I have read a fiery gospel, writ in burnished rows of
"As ye deal with my contemners, so with you my
grace shall deal;
Let the Hero, born of woman, crush ,the serpent with
Since God is marching on."
He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment
Oh! be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant,
my feet !
Our God is marching on.
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men
While God is marching on.
— Julia Ward Howe
In 1798, Joseph Hopkinson wrote "Hail, Columbia" in
Philadelphia for an actor named Fox.
This young singer and actor called upon Mr. Hopkinson
one morning and said, "To-morrow evening is appointed
for my benefit at the theater. Not a single box has been
taken, and I fear there will be a thin house. If you will
PATRIOTIC SONGS 137
write me some patriotic verses to the tune of the President's
March, I feel sure there will be a large audience. Several
people have attempted it, but they have come to the con-
clusion it cannot be done, yet I think you may succeed."
Mr. Hopkinson retired to his study and in a short time
wrote the first stanza and chorus. The entire song was
soon finished and that evening the young actor received it.
The next morning the theater placards announced that
Mr. Fox would sing a new patriotic song. The house was
crowded and the song was sung to a delighted audience.
Eight times it was called for and repeated, and when sung
the ninth time, the whole audience stood up and joined in
Hail, Columbia ! happy land !
Hail, ye heroes ! heaven-born band !
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause,
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause,
And when the storm of war was gone,
Enjoyed the peace your valor won.
Let Independence be your boast,
Ever mindful what it cost ;
Ever grateful for the prize,
Let its altar reach the skies.
Firm, united, let us be,
Rallying round our Liberty;
As a band of brothers joined,
Peace and safety we shall find.
Immortal patriots! rise once more:
Defend your rights, defend your shore :
138 AMERICAN IDEALS
Let no rude foe, with impious hand,
Let no rude foe, with impious hand,
Invade the shrine where sacred lies
Of toil and blood the well-earned prize.
While offering peace, sincere and just,
In Heaven we place a manly trust,
That truth and justice will prevail,
And every scheme of bondage fail. — Cho.
Sound, sound the trump of fame !
Let WASHINGTON'S great name
Ring thro' the world with loud applause,
Ring thro' the world with loud applause;
Let every clime to Freedom dear
Listen with a joyful ear.
With equal skill, and godlike pow'r,
He governs in the fearful hour
Of horrid war, or guides with ease
The happier time of honest peace. — Cho.
Behold the chief who now commands,
Once more to serve his country stands!
The rock on which the storm will beat,
The rock on which the storm will beat;
But armed in virtue, firm, and true,
His hopes are fixed on Heaven and you.
When hope was sinking in dismay,
When glooms obscured Columbia's day,
His steady mind, from changes free,
Resolved on death or Liberty. — Cho.
— Joseph Hopkinson
PATRIOTIC SONGS • 139
COLUMBIA, THE GEM OF THE OCEAN
The honor of the production of this song must be divided
between two men. In 1843 in the city of Philadelphia,
David T. Shaw, a singer, wrote some patriotic lines which
he took to Thomas & Becket, asking him to set them to
music. Mr. Becket revised the lines and composed the
melody of this song, which is known sometimes as "The
Red, White, and Blue," and familiarly called, "The Army
and Navy Song."
O Columbia, the gem of the ocean,
The home of the brave and the free,
The shrine of each patriot's devotion,
A world offers homage to thee.
Thy mandates make heroes assemble,
When Liberty's form stands in view,
Thy banners make tyranny tremble,
When borne by the Red, White, and Blue.
When borne by the Red, White and Blue,
When borne by the Red, White and Blue,
Thy banners make tyranny tremble,
When borne by the Red, White and Blue.
When war winged its wide desolation,
And threatened the land to deform,
The ark then of Freedom's foundation,
Columbia, rode safe through the storm,
With the garlands of victory around her,
When so proudly she bore her brave crew,
140 AMERICAN IDEALS
With her flag proudly floating before her,
The boast of the Red, White, and Blue.
The boast of the Red, White, and Blue,
The boast of the Red, White, and Blue,
With her flag proudly floating before her,
The boast of the Red, White, and Blue.
The star-spangled banner bring hither,
O'er Columbia's true sons let it wave;
May the wreaths they have won never wither,
Nor its stars cease to shine on the brave.
May the service united ne'er sever,
But hold to their colors so true!
The Army and Navy forever,
Three cheers for the Red, White, and Blue!
Three cheers for the Red, White, and Blue !
Three cheers for the Red, White, and Blue!
The Army and Navy forever,
Three cheers for the Red, White, and Blue!
— David Shaw
It is a curious fact that "Dixie," the famous marching
song of the southern armies and now one of the most popular
songs of our country, was composed by a northern man
before the Civil War. It had no reference to war and was
written for the minstrel show of which Dan Emmett was a
In winter, the warm sunny South was a popular route
with circus and show people; those who were obliged to
remain in the North after the arrival of cold weather would
PATRIOTIC SONGS 141
often say, "I wish I were in Dixie." The phrase became a
current expression and so the composer placed it in his song.
I wish I was in de land ob cotton,
Old times dar am not forgotten,
Look away ! Look away ! Look away ! Dixie Land.
In Dixie Land whar I was born in,
Early on one frosty morning
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
Den I wish I was in Dixie,
Hooray ! Hooray !
In Dixie Land I '11 take my stand
To lib and die in Dixie,
Away down south in Dixie,
Away down south in Dixie.
— Daniel D. Emmbtt
This hymn was sung in Boston at the Peace Jubilee by
a chorus of ten thousand voices. The effect was magnifi-
cent. Since that time this song has been recognized as one
of the best of our national hymns.
Speed our Republic, Father on high;
Lead us in pathways of justice and right;
Rulers as well as the ruled, "One and all,"
Girdle with virtue, the armor of might!
Hail, three times hail, to our country and flag !
142 AMERICAN IDEALS
Foremost in battle for Freedom to stand,
We rush to arms when aroused by its call;
Still, as of yore, when George Washington led,
Thunders our war-cry, "We conquer or fall!"
Hail, three times hail, to our country and flag!
Faithful and honest to friend and to foe, —
Willing to die in humanity's cause, —
Thus we defy all tyrannical power,
While we contend for our Union and laws.
Hail, three times hail, to our country and flag!
Rise up, proud eagle, rise up to the clouds;
Spread thy broad wings o'er this fair western world ;
Fling from thy beak our dear banner of old, —
Show that it still is for Freedom unfurled !
Hail, three times hail, to our country and flag!
(Repeat last three lines as chorus.)
— Matthias KktjiEB
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT
OF THE UNITED STATES
DELIVERED AT A JOINT SESSION OF THE TWO
HOUSES OF CONGRESS
April 2, 1917
Gentlemen of the Congress:
I have called the Congress into extraordinary
session because there are serious, very serious, choices
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 143
of policy to be made and made immediately, which
it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible
that I should assume the responsibility of making.
On the third of February last I officially laid before
you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial
German Government that on and after the first day
of February it was its purpose to put aside all restraints
of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink
every vessel that sought to approach either the ports
of Great Britain and Ireland, or the western coasts of
Europe, or any of the ports controlled by the enemies
of Germany within the Mediterranean. That had
seemed to be the object of the German submarine
warfare earlier in the war, but since April of last
year the Imperial Government had somewhat re-
strained the commanders of its undersea craft in
conformity with its promise then given to us that
passenger boats should not be sunk and that due
warning would be given to all other vessels which its
submarines might seek to destroy when no resistance
was offered or escape attempted, and care taken that
their crews were given at least a fair chance to save
their lives in their open boats. The precautions taken
were meager and haphazard enough, as was proved in
distressing instance after instance in the progress of
the cruel and unmanly business, but a certain degree
of restraint was observed. The new policy has swept
every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind, what-
ever their flag, their character, their cargo, their
destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent
to the bottom without warning and without thought
of help or mercy for those on board, the vessels of
144 AMERICAN IDEALS
friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents. in
Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the I in
sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, ft
though the latter were provided with safe conduct !T
through the prescribed areas by the German Govern- n
ment itself and were distinguished by unmistakable
marks of identity, have been sunk with the same reck- b
less lack of compassion or of principle. i
I was for a little while unable to believe that such ]
things would in fact be done by any government that
had hitherto subscribed to the humane practices of
civilized nations. International law had its origin
in the attempt to set up some law which would be
respected and observed upon the seas where no nation
had right of dominion and where lay the free highways
of the world. By painful stage after stage has that
law been built up, with meager enough results indeed,
after all was accomplished that could be accomplished,
but always with a clear view, at least, of what the
heart and conscience of mankind demanded. This
minimum of right the German Government has swept
aside under the plea of retaliation and necessity and
because it had no weapons which it could use at sea
except those which it is impossible to employ as it is
employing them without throwing to the winds all
scruples of humanity or of respect for the under-
standings that were supposed to underlie the inter-
course of the world. I am not now thinking of the
loss of property involved, immense and serious as that
is, but only of the wanton and wholesale destruction
of the lives of noncombatants, men, women, and
children, engaged in pursuits which have always, even
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 145
in the darkest periods of modern history, begn deemed
innocent and legitimate. Property can be paid for;
the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be.
The present German submarine warfare against com-
merce is a warfare against mankind.
It is a war against all nations. American ships
have been sunk, American lives taken, in ways which
it has stirred us very deeply to learn of, but ships and
people of other neutral and friendly nations have
been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same
way. There has been no discrimination. The chal-
lenge is to all mankind. Each nation must decide
for itself how it will meet it. The choice we make for
ourselves must be made with a moderation of counsel
and a temperateness of judgment befitting our char-
acter and our motives as a nation. We must put
excited feeling away. Our motive will not be revenge
or the victorious assertion of the physical might of
the nation, but only the vindication of right, of human
right, of which we are only a single champion.
When I addressed the Congress on the twenty-
sixth of February last I thought that it would suffice
to assert our neutral rights with arms, our right to use
the seas against unlawful interference, our right to
keep our people safe against unlawful violence. But
armed neutrality, it now appears, is impracticable.
Because submarines are in effect outlaws when used
as the German submarines have been used against mer-
chant shipping, it is impossible to defend ships against
their attacks as the law of nations has assumed that mer-
chantmen would defend themselves against privateers
or cruisers, visible craft giving chase upon the open sea.
146 AMERICAN IDEALS
* It is coipmon prudence, in such circumstances, grim
necessity indeed, to endeavor to destroy them before
they have shown their own intention. They must be
dealt with upon sight, if dealt with at all. The German
Government denies the right of neutrals to use arms at
all within the areas of the sea which it has proscribed,
even in the defence of rights which no modern publicist
has ever before questioned their right to defend.
The intimation is conveyed that the armed guards
which we have placed on ovi merchant ships will be
treated as beyond the pale of law and subject to be
dealt with as pirates would be.
Armed neutrality is ineffectual enough at best;
in such circumstances and in the face of such preten-
sions it is worse than ineffectual; it is likely only to
produce what it was meant to prevent; it is practically
certain to draw us into the war without either the
rights or the effectiveness of belligerents. There is oi\e
choice we cannot make, we are incapable of making.
We will not choose the path of submission and suffer
the most sacred rights of our nation and our people
to be ignored or violated. The wrongs against which
we now array ourselves are no common wrongs;
they cut to the very roots of human life.
With a profound sense of the solemn and even
tragical character of the step I am taking and of the
grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesi-
tating obedience to what I deem my constitutional
duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent
course of the Imperial German Government to be in
fact nothing less than war against the government and
people of the United States; that it formally accept
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 147
the status of belligerent which has thus been thrust
upon it; and that it take immediate steps not only
to put the country in a more thorough state of defence,
but also to exert all its power and employ all its re-
sources to bring the government of the German empire
to terms and end the war.
What this will involve is clear. It will involve the
utmost practicable co-operation in counsel and action
with the governments now at war with Germany,
and, as incident to that, the extension to those govern-
ments of the most liberal financial credits in order
that our resources may, so far as possible, be added to
theirs. It will involve the organization and mobili-
zation of all the material resources of the country to
supply the materials of war and serve the incidental
needs of the nation in the most abundant, and yet
the most economical and efficient way possible.
It will involve the immediate full equipment of the
navy in all respects, but particularly in supplying it
with the best means of dealing with the enemy's
submarines. It will involve the immediate addition
to the armed forces of the United States already
provided for by law in case of war, at least 500,000
men, who should, in my opinion, be chosen upon the
principle of universal liability to service, and also the
authorization of subsequent additional increments of
equal force so soon as they may be needed and can be
handled in training.
It will involve, also, of course, the granting of ade-
quate credits to the Government, sustained, I hope,
so far as they can equitably be sustained by the present
generation, by well conceived taxation. I say sus-
148 AMERICAN IDEALS
tained so far as may be equitable by taxation because
it seems to me that it would be most unwise to base
the credits which will now be necessary entirely on
money borrowed. It is our duty, I most respectfully
urge, to protect our people so far as we may against
the very serious hardships and evils which would
be likely to arise out of the infliction which would be
produced by vast loans.
, In carrying out the measures by which these things
are to be accomplished, we should keep constantly in
mind the wisdom of interfering as little as possible in
our own preparation and in the equipment of our own
military forces with the duty — for it will be a very
practical duty — of supplying the nations already at
war with Germany with the materials which they can
obtain only from us or by our assistance. They are
in the field and we should help them in every way to
be effective there.
I shall take the liberty of suggesting, through the
several executive departments of the Government for
the consideration of your committees, measures for
the accomplishment of the several objects I have men-
tioned. I hope that it will be your pleasure to deal
with them as having been framed after very careful
thought by the branch of the government upon
which the responsibility of conducting the war and
safeguarding the nation will most directly fall.
While we do these things, these deeply momentous
things, let us be very clear and make very clear to all
the world what our motives and our objects are. My
own thought has not been driven from its habitual
and normal course by the unhappy events of the last
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 149
two months, and I do not believe that the thought of
the nation has been altered or clouded by them.
I have # exactly the same things in mind now that I
had in mind when I addressed the Senate on the
22d of January last ; the same that I had in mind when
I addressed the Congress on the 3d of February and
on the 26th of February. Our object now, as then,
is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the
life of the world as against selfish and autocratic
power, and to set up amongst the really free and
self-governed peoples of the world such a concert of
purpose and of action as will henceforth insure the
observance of those principles.
Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable where
the peace of the world is involved and the freedom of
its peoples, and the menace to that peace and freedom
lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed
by organized force which is controlled wholly by their
will, not by the will of their people. We have seen the
last of neutrality in such circumstances.
We are at the beginning of an age in which it will be
insisted that the same standards of conduct and of
responsibility for wrong done shall be observed among
nations and their governments that are observed
among the individual citizens of civilized states.
We have no quarrel with the German people. We
have no feeling towards them but one of sympathy and
friendship. It was not upon their impulse that their
Government acted in entering this war. It was not
with their previous knowledge or approval.
It was a war determined upon as wars used to be
determined upon in the old, unhappy days when
150 AMERICAN IDEALS
peoples were nowhere consulted by their rulers and
wars were provoked and waged in the interests of
dynasties or of little groups of ambitious men who were
accustomed to use their fellow men as pawns and tools.
Self-governed nations do not fill their neighbor
states with spies or set the course of intrigue to bring
about some critical posture of affairs which will give
them an opportunity to strike and make conquest.
Such designs can be successfully worked out only under
cover and where no one has the right to ask questions.
Cunningly contrived plans of deception or aggres-
sion, carried, it may be, from generation to generation,
can be worked out and kept from the light only within
the privacy of courts or behind the carefully guarded
confidences of a narrow and privileged class. They
are happily impossible where public opinion com-
mands and insists upon full information concerning
all the nation's affairs.
A steadfast concert for peace can never be main-
tained except by a partnership of democratic nations.
No autocratic government could be trusted to keep
faith within it or observe its covenants.
It must be a league of honor, a partnership of opinion.
Intrigue would eat its vitals away; the plottings of
inner circles who could plan what they would and
render account to no one would be a corruption seated
at its very heart. Only free peoples can hold their
purpose and their honor steady to a common end and
prefer the interests of mankind to any narrow interest
of their own.
One of the things that has served to convince us
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 151
that the Prussian autocracy was not and could never
be our friend is that from the very outset of the present
war it has filled our unsuspecting communities, and
even our offices of government, with spies and set
criminal intrigues everywhere afoot against our na-
tional unity of counsel, our peace within and without,
our industries and our commerce.
Indeed, it is now evident that its spies were here
even before the war began; and it is unhappily not
a matter of conjecture but a fact proved in our courts
of justice that the intrigues which have more than
once come perilously near to disturbing the peace and
dislocating the industries of the country have been
carried on at the instigation, with the support, and
even under the personal direction of official agents of
the Imperial Government accredited to the Govern-
ment of the. United States.
Even in checking these things and trying to extir-
pate them we have sought to put the most generous
interpretation possible upon them, because we knew
that their source lay, not in any hostile feeling or
purpose of the German people towards us (who were,
no doubt, as ignorant of them as we ourselves were),
but only in the selfish designs of a Government that
did what it pleased and told its people nothing. But
they have played their part in serving to convince us
at last that that Government entertains no real friend-
ship for us and means to act against our peace and
security at its convenience. That it means to stir
up enemies against us at our very doors the intercepted
note to the German Minister at Mexico City is elo-
152 AMERICAN IDEALS
We are accepting this challenge of hostile purpose
because we know that in such a government, following
such methods, we can never have a friend; and that
in the presence of its organized power, always lying
in wait to accomplish we know not what purpose,
there can be no assured security for the democratic
governments of the world.
We are now about to accept gage of battle with
this natural foe to liberty and shall, if necessary,
spend the whole force of the nation to check and
nullify its pretensions and its power. We are glad,
now that we see the facts with no veil of false pretence
about them, to fight thus for the ultimate peace of
the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the
German peoples included; for the rights of nations,
great and small, and the privilege of men everywhere
to choose their way of life and of obedience. The
world must be made safe for democracy; its peace
must be planted upon tested foundations of political
We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no
conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for
ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices
we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions
of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when
those rights have been made as secure as the faith
and the freedom of the nations can make them.
Just because we fight without rancor and without
selfish object, seeking nothing for ourselves but what*
we shall wish to share with all free peoples, we shall,
I feel confident, conduct our operations as belligerents
without passion and ourselves observe with proud
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 153
punctilio the principles of right and of fair play we
profess to be fighting for.
It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves
as belligerents in a high spirit of right and fairness
because we act without animus, not in enmity towards
a people or with the desire to bring any injury or dis-
advantage upon them, but only in armed opposition
to an irresponsible Government which has thrown
aside all considerations of humanity and of right and
is running amuck.
We are, let me say again, the sincere friends of the
German people, and shall desire nothing so much as
the early reestablishment of intimate relations of
mutual advantage between us, however hard it may
be for them, for the time being, to believe that this is
spoken from our hearts. We have borne with their
present government through all these bitter months
because of that friendship — exercising a patience and
forbearance which would otherwise have been im-
possible. We shall, happily, still have an opportunity
to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and
actions toward the millions of men and women of
German birth and native sympathy who live amongst
us and share our life, and we shall be proud to prove
it towards all who are in fact loyal to their neighbors
and to the Government in the hour of test. They are,
most of them, as true and loyal Americans as if they
had never known any other fealty or allegiance.
They will be prompt to stand with us in rebuking
and restraining the few who may be of a different
mind and purpose.
154 AMERICAN IDEALS
If there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with
with a firm hand of stern repression; but, if it lifts
its head at all, it will lift it only here and there and
without countenance except from a lawless and malig-
It is a distressing and oppressive duty, gentlemen
of the Congress, which I have performed in thus
addressing you. There are, it may be, many months
of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful
thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into
the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization
itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is
more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the
things which we have always carried nearest our
hearts — for democracy, for the right of those who
submit to authority to have a voice in their own govern-
ments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for
a universal dominion of .right by such a concert of
free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all
nations and make the world itself at last free.
To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our
fortunes, everything that we are and everything that
we have, with the pride of those who know that the
day has come when America is privileged to spend her
blood and her might for the principles that gave her
birth and happiness and the peace which she has
treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.
God of our fathers, known of old,
Lord of our far-flung battle-line,
Beneath whose awful hand we hold
Dominion over palm and pine —
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget — lest we forget!
The tumult and the shouting dies;
The captains and the kings depart;
Still stands thine ancient sacrifice,
An humble and a contrite heart.
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget — lest we forget!
Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire.
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet,
Lest we forget — lest we forget!
For heathen heart that puts her trust
In reeking tube and iron shard,
All valiant dust that builds on dust,
And guarding, calls not Thee to guard,
For frantic boast and foolish word —
Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord!
— Rudyard Kipling
156 AMERICAN IDEALS
ADVICE TO THE IMMIGRANT
I should like the entrance into the United States
to be a poem to all who come, and not the horrible
tragedy into which it often resolves itself when the
first ecstasy is over. All the way across the sea I
would make of every ship a school, with such fair
comforts as men are entitled to, for their money.
I should like to teach them that they may ^nter
without fear and without uttering a lie, so that those
at the gate might know that these new comers are
human, and treat them as such, so long as they con-
duct themselves properly.
I should like to teach the strangers that there is a
fair reward for hard struggle and an honest living wage
for an honest day's work. That they must guard
their health by abstinence from intoxicating drink,
and I should like to prohibit its sale on board of ship
and everywhere else. For to the immigrants, the
ignorant immigrants, alcohol is a lying curse. They
believe that it strengthens and that no hard labor can
be done without it. I should like to tell them also
that their health will be guarded in mines and fac-
tories and that their bodies and souls have value to
man and to God.
I should like to point to the Goddess of Liberty and
say that she welcomes all who come in her name, that
she guarantees freedom to all who obey law, that our
law is always reasonable and that, if it is a burden,
it falls upon the shoulders of rich and poor alike.
AMERICA TRIUMPHANT 157
I should like to tell them that they have nothing
to fear in this country except their own frailties, that
there are no barriers here but their own clannishness
and that the way to the best is open to all who walk
reverently. This and more I should like to be able
to teach; fragments of it I have taught, more of it
than many of them will find true, I fear. But to me
so* much of it has been true that I should like to have
all men find it so.
I have suffered much here, I have gone the whole
scale of hunger, sorrow and despair; yet, I say it
again and again, Holy America! Holy America! And
I want all men to be able to say it, as they said it
with me under the lee of the land where free men live.
— Edward A. Steiner
Brave land of pioneers!
On mountain peak and prairie
Their winding trail appears.
The wilderness is planted;
The deserts bloom and sing;
On coast and plain the cities
Their smoky' banners fling.
Dear homeland of the free!
Thy sons have fought and fallen,
To win release for thee.
They broke the chains of empire;
They smote the wrongs of state ;
And lies of law and custom
They blasted with their hate.
Grasp firm thy sword and shield!
Not yet have all thy foemen
Been driven from the field.
They lurk by forge and market,
They hide in mine and mill;
And bold with greed of conquest,
They flout thy blessed will.
Triumphant thou shalt be!
Thy hills and vales shall echo
The shouts of liberty.
Thy bards shall sing thy glory,
Thy prophets tell thy praise,
And all thy sons and daughters
Acclaim thy golden days.
— John Hatoes Houibb
sion of the author.
GOD GIVE US MEN 159
THE LAND OF MY BIRTH
There 's a magical tie to the land of our home,
Which the heart cannot break, though the footsteps
Be that land where it may, at the Line or the Pole,
It still holds the magnet that draws back the soul.
'Tis loved by the freeman, 'tis loved by the slave;
'Tis dear to the coward, more dear to the brave!
Ask of any the spot they like best on earth,
And they'll answer with pride, "The land of my
— Eliza Cook
GOD GIVE US MEN
God give us men. The time demands
Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and willing hands;
Men whom the lust of office does not kill;
Men whom the spoils of office cannot buy;
Men who possess opinions and a will;
Men who have honor; men who will not lie;
Men who can stand before a demagogue
And damn his treacherous flatteries without winking;
Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog
In public duty and in private thinking!
— J. G. Holland
THE FOOT-PATH TO PEACE
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pou ti)t cfjance to lobe anb to toorfe
anb to plap anb to look up at tf)e *tat*;
to be contenteb toit& pout possessions;,
but not iattefieb toitf) poutielf until
pou fjabe mabe tfre bt&t of t&em; to
htipiit nothing in tf)e tootlb except
fateefjoob anb meanne**, anb to feat
nothing except cotoatbice; to be gob-
etneb bj> pout abmitation* ratfter tfjan
bp pout bi*gu*t*; to cobet nothing
tfrat in pout neighbor's;, except bis;
feinbness of fceatt anb gentleness of
manners;; to tfjinfe ielbom of pout
enemies;, often of pout frtenbs;, anb
ebetp bap of Cfcttet; anb to *penb
as; mncb time as; pou can, toitf) bobp
anb toitf) spirit, in (Sob's; out -of -boot*
— tf)e*e ate little guibe-poit* on tf)e
foot = part) to peace.
— Henry van Dyke