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Full text of "American Indian painters; a biographical directory"

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE 

MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 

HEYE FOUNDATION 

VOL. XXI, PART 1 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

A Biographical Directory 

Compiled by 
JEANNE O. SNODGRASS 




NEW YORK 

MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 

HEYE FOUNDATION 

1968 



JUL 2 2000 



^ 




Library of Congress catalog card number 67-27949 

Printed in Germany at J . J . Augustin, Gliickstadt 

Price $ 7.50 



Dedicated to 

Dad and Mother, 

and 

our Cherokee ancestors 



111 



CONTENTS 

Foreword vii 

Preface ix 

Acknowledgments xi 

Artists i 

Tribal Index 228 

Key to Abbreviations 241 

Schools 241 

Collections 244 

Public 244 

Private 247 

Exhibitions 259 

Bibliography 264 



FOREWORD 

ALTHOUGH conventional interest in the American Indian and his cultural 
activities has tended to revolve around "artifacts" — the familiar objects 
of stone, wood, hide, clay and shell — a small but enthusiastic group of 
patrons has long realized the values inherent in the graphic arts of these people. 
That painting did not enjoy an equal stature in earlier collecting was due in 
large part to the relative rarity of this art expression as compared with the 
more numerous productions in the other media, plus the inescapable fact that 
most of the selective judgment followed European standards and taste. With 
greater maturity, the art world has increasingly accorded the ethnic artist a 
status such that today an exhibition of Indian art which does not include paint- 
ing is rare indeed. 

Accompanying this interest in painting has been a growing demand for in- 
formation relating to the lives of the artists. However, modesty, indifference 
to these details, and inability to communicate have resulted in a situation in 
which the most difficult Amerindian research data to obtain today are those facts 
concerning the careers of artists and craftsmen. It is the purpose of this book 
to help overcome some of that deficiency. 

This volume had its inception in an early meeting with the compiler, then 
Curator of Indian Art at Philbrook Art Center. During her career at that in- 
stitution she became acquainted with a large number of artists who regularly 
participated in the Philbrook Indian Art Annual; as part of her responsibilities 
she collected a large file of biographical data. When the existence of this rich 
resource was brought to my attention, we examined the possibility of organizing 
it for publication. In view of the long-time interest of this Museum, and its 
own extensive collection of Indian paintings, Mrs. Snodgrass was invited to 
submit a manuscript for inclusion in our Contributions series. 

Details of more than i,ioo Indian artists' careers have been located and 
compiled for this work, making it by far the largest single body of such data. 
All available information to the time of publication has been included, but it is 
readily acknowledged that many individuals and facts are missing. Since it is 
planned to bring this work up-to-date in subsequent revisions, it is the earnest 
hope of the compiler and this institution that any additional informat ionor 
corrections of existing data will be forwarded to the undersigned for inclusion. 
One of the primary problems in listing these individuals has been that of 
spelling Indian names. Since all transliterations are basically recorded in a 
foreign tongue, i.e., that of the White man, the net result has been a variety 
of forms in which these names have appeared over the years; in many instances 
the same name appears in several spellings. Even the Indian himself has been 
guilty of inconsistencies in signing his name to his work, making the task of the 
student even more difficult. Equally perplexing is the matter of hyphenation — 
that childish adoption of the 19th Century scribe — which is in itself equally 

vii 



Vlll FOREWORD 

inconsistent. At best, this is an awkward form; at worst, completely erroneous 
in meaning. As an example, the term Loloma in the Hopi tongue is a one-word 
concept as well as a proper noun; to spell it Lo-lo-ma is just as artificial as 
to transcribe the common English name Wil-ker-son; both lose grace by such 
rendering. Furthermore, incorrect hyphenation can change meanings, unless the 
language is well known to the transcriber. It has, therefore, seemed most prac- 
tical to use the least amount of hyphenation possible; the attempt has been to 
render Indian words in their meaningful context, rather than to break them 
into ambiguous fragments. In those instances where the artist consistently in- 
cludes hyphens, the form is retained. This practice has also been followed with 
regard to the use of separated syllables. 

It is clearly recognized that the format will present some problems to the 
reader. Unfortunately, with so much necessary duplication, printing costs alone 
made such abbreviation imperative; the forebearance of the reader is solicited. 

We join with the compiler of this directory in expressing our most sincere 
appreciation to those many individuals who have been so helpful in verifying 
information and supplying many of the facts included herein. It is sincerely 
hoped that this volume will serve as a further contribution to the establishment 
of Indian art and the Indian artist in their proper perspectives in the con- 
temporary art world. 

October 1968 Frederick J. Dockstader 

Director 



PREFACE 

DURING the past ten years, as curator of American Indian art at Philbrook 
Art Center, I received an increasing number of inquiries for information 
about Indian artists and it became apparent that a single biographical 
reference volume would be useful. Since the time that Philbrook had inaugur- 
ated the first annual exhibition of Indian art in 1946, elementary biographical 
files had been established. The need had become so acute that out of a dis- 
cussion with the Director of the Museum of the American Indian, the possib- 
ility arose of publishing a comprehensive volume for use by all those interested 
in the subject. It was from the records of the artists who submitted their work 
to this national competition that this compilation was initially organized. 

I have attempted to include all Indian painters of whom I had knowledge 
during the research period from January 1963 through December 1966. Inas- 
much as this work records data obtained during this three-year period, it 
cannot hope to include all worthy individuals nor supply the complete range 
of achievement for all those who are included. 

A total of 1,187 artists are included herein, approximately one-third of 
whom, or their descendants, have been contacted personally. In addition, 157 
public museum holdings and 973 private collections have been indexed. For 
the most part, sources for collections were derived from the records of artists, 
collectors, institutions, pubHcations, and sales personnel. Exhibition catalogs 
aided substantially in verifying tribal affiliations and providing leads for 
personal contacts. Some addresses may now be outdated, but they have been 
included to establish the residence of last contact. Failure to locate all the 
living artists and the unavailability of registrar records from the Indian schools 
account for most omissions and incompleteness in names and addresses. Any 
reader who can supply missing or incomplete information concerning the 
artists listed, is cordially requested to write to The Museum of the American 
Indian in New York City. 

No effort has been made to segregate artists by style. However, it may be 
of interest to note that of the total number represented, approximately 70 
per cent execute a fiat, two-dimensional painting style on paper and their 
preferred medium is a water-base paint or casein. These styles can be defined 
as traditional, primitive, pictographic (or hide type), European-derived re- 
presentational, abstract, and symbolic. Inasmuch as the term "traditional" 
has been affixed to a particular style employed by the larger majority of 
Indian artists, I also have used this, solely as a convenient frame of reference. 
A more definitive analysis might also determine the media each artist prefers. 
This compilation does not do so, simply because it was impossible to examine 
the work of all artists included. My inquiries were primarily confined to 
work in paint, crayon, chalk, pencil and ink, executed on paper, canvas, and 
hide, plus a small sampling of graphic media. 

ix 



X PREFACE 

Each artist appears under the name by which he is best known, and cross- 
filed by any other name he may use. All such secondary names appear in the 
individual resumes as well. Indian names have been spelled in the manner 
most often recorded. 

The extreme importance of artists, collectors, institutions and exhibitors 
maintaining adequate art history records cannot be overstressed. It is an all- 
too-common practice to overlook or ignore completely the value of good, basic 
record keeping, which should include the artists' tribe, address, schooling, 
history of participation in exhibits, and sales records. Since many artists have 
contacted me over the years for record of their own accomplishments, it is an 
obvious indication that they also maintain few, if any, personal files. It may 
be of added interest to many artists to note that, unknown to them, their 
works have been widely exhibited and purchased by institutions and indivi- 
duals. 

It is the hope of the writer that the material included in this volume will 
provide resources for future research, as well as result in an increased appre- 
ciation for and recognition of the important place American Indian painting 
occupies in our heritage. 

Tulsa, Oklahoma Jeanne O. Snodgrass 

October, 1967 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Grateful acknowledgment is extended to the following for their help during the three 
and one-half years this compilation was being prepared. 

To the artists themselves and private collectors, whose patience and generosity with 
their time made this detailed study possible; to the directors and curators of many 
museums and historical societies who provided basic lists of acquisitions and often ex- 
pressed their enthusiasm by volunteering more detailed data; to the literally hundreds 
of individuals who provided a date, or an address, or even pages of pertinent material for 
consideration. 

Special acknowledgment and thanks go to Dr. Frederick J. Dockstader, Director, 
Museum of the American Indian, for recognizing the need of this undertaking, extending 
guidance and constructive criticism, and for assistance and enthusiasm beyond my ex- 
pectations. 

To Dr. Victor C. Hurt, President, Southwestern Art Association; to Dr. Donald G. 
Humphrey, Director, Philbrook Art Center, for their interest and for giving me access 
to Philbrook's records; and to the Philbrook staff for their courtesies. 

To the late Dr. Oscar B. Jacobson, Professor Emeritus of Art, University of Okla- 
homa, and his wife, Mrs. Jeanne D'Ucel Jacobson, for compiling lists and granting 
numerous interviews that provided invaluable data; to Miss Edith Mahier, former pro- 
fessor under Dr. Jacobson at the University, for detailed recordings of her recollections 
in connection with her work at Oklahoma University; to Mr. Byron Harvey III, Phoenix, 
Arizona, who provided extensive material on many new-to-the-scene Hopi artists; to 
Mr. Joe H. Herrera, Santa Fe, New Mexico, who helped me obtain further information 
on Pueblo and Navaho artists. 

To Mr. Maurice DeVinna, Fine Arts Editor, Tulsa World, for his files from the Tulsa 
Art Association's WPA art center, as well as catalogs of early local exhibitions ; to Miss 
Anne Forbes, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Mrs. Dorothy Dunn Kramer, Los Altos, Cali- 
fornia, Mrs. Karen D. Petersen, St. Paul, Minnesota, and Mrs. Clara Lee Tanner, Tucson, 
Arizona, for providing research material I could not have obtained without their know- 
ledge and cooperation. 

To Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker, Archivist, Office of Anthropology, Smithonnian Institu- 
tion; Mr. John C. Ewers, Smithsonian Institution; The Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 
U.S. Dept. of the Interior; and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C., for 
making files available and giving assistance in numerous ways. 

To Mrs. Jacques Johnet, Novato, California, for editorial assistance and personal 
encouragement in the project, and to Mrs. Mary Jane Rutsch, who did the final editing. 

To Mr. Charles Stewart, Taos, New Mexico, for courtesies, assistance, and encourage- 
ment during an extended research period in that state; Mrs. Bettye Burley, and Miss 
Mary Leonard, Tulsa, Oklahoma, for assistance in typing and indexing; and to my 
parents Mr. and Mrs. Chester A. Owens, Muskogee, Oklahoma, for stenographic aid and 
for their encouragement, particularly during the nearly five months my typewriter was 
pounding away in their home. 

To my husband Tom and son Pat, for their aid in so many ways, and for understanding 
and encouraging me in this project. 

Jeanne O. Snodgrass 



XI 



ARTISTS 
Aanote (see Tohausen) 

Abeita, Tom Diego Isleta 

Collections: Private: Denman. 

Abeyta, Augustine Tesuqiie 

Born : 1917, Tesuque Pueblo. Son of Julio Abeyta, onetime governor of his 
pueblo and an excellent silversmith, and brother of Crucita, a well-known 
potter. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Collections: Private: Balph. 

Abeyta, Emiliano San Juan 

Sa Pa 

Exhibitions: OU/ET. 
Collections: Public: MAI, OU/MA. Private: Wyman. 

Abeyta, Narciso Platero Navaho 

Ha So Deh, Ascending; Hoskiel, Forceful. 

Born: December 15, 1918, Cafioncito, N.M. Son of Narciso Ortize [sic) 
Abeyta and Pablita. 

Married: Sylvia Ann, 1953. Three children: Pablita, 1953; Elizabeth, 1954; 
Rosemary, i960. 

It is recorded that Abe5rta drew his first creations in charcoal on canyon walls. 

Approximately 32 years later, in 1961, his work was published in Art in America. 

An excellent painter with a unique style, his production has suffered because of 

shellshock in WWII. 
Education: Graduated Santa Fe Indian School, 1939; attended Somerset 
Art School near Williamsburg, Pa., summer 1940; attended Ranger Combat 
School, Hawaii, 1943; B.A., New Mexico U., 1953. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, four years; participated in invasion of Okinawa 
and Iwo Jima. 

Career: Job placement interviewer and workman recruiter in the field. 
New Mexico State Employment Commission, Gallup, N.M., 1953-. 
Honors : While a student at Santa Fe, he was chosen as one of a small group 
of Indian artists to demonstrate painting at the SFWF; scholarship to 
Stanford U. (army induction prevented acceptance). 
Books Illustrated: Birney (1935). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Tanner (1957). Art in Amer- 
ica (No. 3, 1961). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIM, AIW, BAA, CAI, ITIC, JGS, MAI, MNM, NGA, 
NJSM, OU/ET, OU/MA, PAC, SFWF, SMM, SN. 

Awards: Fourteen, including ITIC Grand Award, MNM, SFWF poster 
contest. 



2 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Collections: P^lhlic: AU/ASM, MAI, MNM, OU/MA, PAC; Scottsdale 

(Ariz.) Chamber of Commerce. Private: Dietrich, Elkus, Frazier, Lockett, 

Thoeny. 

Address: 102 Viro Circle, Gallup, N.M. 
Able To Stand Up Again {see Eckiwaudah, Tennyson) 
Acenemah {see Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts) 

Acque, Philbert Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 
Address: Box 312, Zuni, N.M. 

Adakai, Pat Navaho 

Born: July 7, 1946, Blackrock, N.M. 
Education: Graduated Gallup, 1966. 
Exhibitions: NACG; Gallup Public Schools, N.M. 
Awards: Two from NACG during 1964. 
Collections: Private: Berg. 
Address: Blackrock, N.M. 

Adol Beak Ka {see Rowell, Charles Emery) 

Aguilar, Alfred San Ildefonso 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959; SN, 1963. 
Address: Route i. Box 318-A, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Aguilar, Jose Angela San Ildefonso 

Married: Rosalie Simbola (Picuris). One child: Jose Vicente Aguilar {q.v.). 
Exhibitions: JGS, 1955. 
Collections: Public: CU/LMA, DAM, MAI. 
Address: Route i, Box 317, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Aguilar, Jose Vicente San Ildefonso 

Sua Peen, Warm Mountain 

Born: January 8, 1924, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. Son of Jose Angela 
Aguilar, q.v. (San Ildefonso) and Rosalie Simbola (Picuris). Both parents 
have exhibited pottery nationally, and his father has exhibited paintings. 
Married: Darlene Rose Cordier, 1954. Two daughters: Virginia Susan, 
1955 ; Arlene Joyce, 1957. 

The artist has been actively engaged in art and related subjects since 1944. In 

1949, he began his painting experiments in new directions. 
Education : San Ildefonso, 1929-33 ; Montezuma Boys' School, Los Altos, 
Calif., 1933-35; Santa Fe, 1935-40; Monson (Mass.) High School, 1941-43; 
Hollywood High School, Hollywood, Cahf., 1943-44; Otis, 1947-49; New 
Mexico U. and Hill, 1949-50; Los Angeles Trade Technical Junior College, 
Calif., 1951; Los Angeles County Art Institute, Calif., 1954; Los Angeles 
Art Center School, 1958-59. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, two years; European Theater. 
Career: Technical artist, 1951-. Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif. ; 
Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif., 1951-53; North American Avia- 
tion, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., 1954-. 



ARTISTS 3 

Exhibitions: 1949-64: 31 group exhibitions in museums, art centers, libra- 
ries, universities, and Indian ceremonials, including DAM, FAIEAIP, FWG, 
HM, ITIC, MNM, PAC. One-man shows: San Gabriel, CaUf. Women's Club, 

1952. 

Awards: 1949-64: 11 from DAM, MNM, PAC; ITIC Grand Award, 1952. 

Collections: Public: DAM, MAI, MNM, PAC, SFRR. Private: Adlerblum, 

H. Cushman, W. Cushman, Denman, Elkus, V. Price, Sheets, Thoeny, Wy- 

man. 

Address : 9682 Mount Barnard Drive, Buena Park, Calif. 

Ahgupuk, George Aden Eskimo 

The artist began to draw while in the hospital recovering from a broken leg (be- 
fore 1946). His favorite medium is ink and he generally sketches on walrus 
skin, caribou hide or paper. 

Exhibitions: PAC, USDS. 

Collections: Public: lACB, MAI. Private: Elkus. 

Address: Box 134, Anchorage, Alaska. 
Ahhajumba (see Anderson, Jimmy) 
Ahmehate (see Goodbear, Paul J.) 
Ah Quade (see Alberty, Dewey) 
Ahsey Sututut (see Jake, Albin Roy) 
Ahsit (Also known as White Man and Whiteman.) Southern Cheyenne 

Born: ca. 1851. 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. After prison and government 
g schooling, he returned to Oklahoma in 1880. 

Career: Earned money by executing pictographic drawings on fans during 

years in prison and school. 

Collections: Public: AMNH, HI, YU/BRBML. 
Akima, Calvin Hopi 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Alberty, Dewey Cherokee 

Ah Quade, Limping 

Born: March 17, 1926, Sand Springs, Okla. 

Married: Maggie Proctor. Four children: Sue Ann, Ann Sue, James, David. 

Education: Graduated Chilocco, 1947; Bacone College, 1949; University 

of Oklahoma, 1953. 

Service: WWII and Korean War, U.S. Navy, five years. 

Career: Employed by American Airlines, Tulsa, Okla., and paints inter- 
mittently, 1950-. 

Address : 1632 South Cincinnati, Tulsa, Okla. 
Allen, Mary Navaho 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1938. 

Exhibitions : AIW. 
Al Qua Kou (see Toppah, Herman) 
AliLh Hochi (see Toledo, Jose Rey) 
Always Prepared (see Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts) 



4 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

American Horse Oglala Sioux 

Wasechun Tashunka 

Born: Date unknown. From Pine Ridge area. Killed at Slim Buttes, S. Dak., 
1875. His father was Sitting Bear and his father-in-law, Red Cloud (Cheyenne) . 
There were two men by the name of American Horse. See Hyde (1937). 
American Horse asserted that the Oglala Winter Count in his possession was 
started by his grandfather and continued by his father and himself. It contained 
i04pictographic drawings and covered the period from 1775 to 1879. Cloud Shield 
{q.v.) made copies of this Count. 
Honors: Appointed chief of the Smoke People by Indian Agent McGiUi- 
cuddy; later became chief of the True Oglala Band; signed the land agree- 
ment of 1889. 

Work Published: Ewers (1939), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). BAE, 4th AR. 
Collections: Public: AMNH, OAA/SI, OU/SM. (The last is a buffalo robe 
illustrating the artist's personal combats during the period circa 1870-80; 
this work is variously attributed to American Horse and to his nephew.) 
Amiotte, Arthur Douglas Oglala Sioux 

Warpa Tanka Kuciyela, Low Black Bird 

Born: March 25, 1942, Pine Ridge, S. Dak. Son of Walter Douglas Amiotte 
(Oglala Sioux) and Olive Louise Mesteth (Oglala Sioux). M/GGF: Standing 
Bear {q.v.) (Miniconjou Sioux). M/GGM: Louise Renick, the nurse whom 
Standing Bear married in 1886 during a tour of Europe with Buffalo Bill's 
Wild West Show. P/GGGF: Antoine Janis, one of the first fur traders in 
the upper Missouri River area. P/GGF: Steven Amiotte, an Indian trader. 
P/GGM: Zohy Labuff, daughter of an Indian trader. 
Married : Amelia Sue Wohlers, August 8, 1964. 
With his mother and stepfather, George A. Erring (Hunkpapa Sioux), the 
artist moved to Custer, S. Dak., in 1946. While a sophomore at Northern State, 
he became acquainted with Oscar Howe {q.v.), who introduced him to Indian 
art. Although he paints in the flat manner, he has developed a style bordering 
on cubism. 
Education: Graduated Custer (S. Dak.) High School, i960; attended 
Institute ; studied under Oscar Howe at University of South Dakota, summer, 
1961; B.S., Northern State, 1964. 

Career : Painter, lecturer, and teacher. Art instructor, Woodrow Wilson 
High School, Sioux City, Iowa, September 1964-. His current lectures are 
"Awareness Sioux Indian" and "Contemporary Indian Art," each having 
the purpose of revealing Sioux history, legends, lore, and religious beliefs. 
Honors: Four-year South Dakota Indian Scholarship; four-year BIA 
Scholarship Grant ; C.A. Schwarz Art Education Scholarship; 2 T A, National 
Honor English Fraternity; K A TT, National Honor Education Society; 
OAK, International Men's Professional Educators Fraternit}^; represented 
in Who's Who in American Universities and Colleges, 1963-64. 
Exhibitions BIA/A, BNIAS, FNAIC, PAC, USDI; Northern State Tea- 
chers College, Dakota Hall Gallery; University of South Dakota, William 
H. Over Gallery; Sioux City (Iowa) Art Center. One-man shows: BIA/A; 
Dakota Hall Gallery, Presentation Junior College, Aberdeen Civic Audito- 
rium, S. Dak. 



ARTISTS 5 

Awards: Five during 1963-64. 

Collections: Public: BIA/A, lACB; Northern State Teachers College; 

William H. Over Gallery; Office of Senator George Mc Govern, Washington, 

D.C. Private: O. Anderson, Burgess, P. Corwin, Hanson, Jasinsky, Lee, 

Pederson, Schwarz, O. Scott. 

Address : 504 38th Street Place, Sioux City, Iowa. 
Anasteen Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Anderson, Jimmy Creek 

Ahhajumba, Sweet Potato (clan name) 

Born: August 14, 1932, Kansas City, Mo. 

Education: Haskell; Bacone College; Central State College; University of 

Oklahoma. 

Career: One-time singer with the Indian quartet, "Osceola Four"; recording 

artist with Spike Jones Band. Currently active in Christian religious work. 

Exhibitions: AIE, JGS, PAC. 

Awards: 1954-57: six from AIE, PAC. 

Collections: Public: PAC. Private: Birchmore. 

Address: Navaho Baptist Mission, Fruitland, N.M. 
Andrews, William A. ? 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Box 299, Mesilla, N.M. 
Anko Kiowa 

Ankopaaingyadete, In The Middle Of Many Tracks (Also known as Aunko.) 

Born: Date unknown; died "early in the 20th century." 

Married: Bainmi, GA of Charles E. RoweU (q.v). 
Anko kept a Kiowa pictographic calendar, originally on brown wrapping paper 
and representing the years from 1863-64 to 1884-85. One copy was made for 
Gen. Hugh L. Scott before 1900 and is recorded as being at the Smithsonian 
Institution, although it cannot be located. Another calendar for the same years, 
executed in black pencil and kept in a notebook, is attributed to the artist. A 
copy was reportedly made on buckskin in the 1890's for James Mooney, and 
Charles E. Rowell has also reproduced it. 

Work Published: La Farge (1956). Mayhall (1962). BAE, lyth AR. 

Collections: Public: OA/USNM (?). Private: R. Hall. (As a young child, 

Mrs. Hall watched her grandfather, Anko, work on the canvas calendar now 

in her possession.) 
Ankopaaingyadete (see Anko) 
Annnanooruk (see Immana, Annie Weokluk) 
Anquoe, Evans Kiowa 

Collections:: Private: Deupree. 
Antelope, Louis Flathead 

Collections: Public: CCHM. 
Antelope, W. Cheyenne 

Collections: Public: ACM. 



6 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Apache Man (see Williams, David Emmett) 
Apie Begay {see Begay, Apie) 

Apomonu San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Apowmuckcon {see Racine, Albert Batiste) 
Aquino, Frank San Juan 

Education: Albuquerque, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions : School-sponsored exhibitions and local Indian functions. 

Address: c/o Albuquerque Indian School, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Aquino, Juan B. San Juan 

Shaking Eagle Tail 

Education: Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Address: Box 861, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Aquino, Robert San Juan 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: MNM, 1958. 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: Long. 

Address: San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Aragon, Ralph San Felipe 

Born : 1944, Algadones, N.M. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, YAIA. 
Archilta, Clara Kiowa-Apache 

Born: September 26, 1912, Tonkawa, Okla. Daughter of David Williams 

(Tonka wa) and Helen Sunrise (Kiowa- Apache) . 

Married: Widowed, 1956. Six children: Roger P. Williams, 1930; Maxie 

Williams, 1939; Leatrice J. Archilta, 1941; Arliss F. Archilta, 1943; Walsie 

B. Archilta, 1946; Roselene Archilta, 1949. 
Although handicapped by a severely injured arm, Mrs, Archilta began to paint 
in 1957 a-iid was selling her work shortly afterward. She has had no formal art 
training but received encouragement from Mrs. Susie Peters and Mrs. Catherine 
Cochran, Indian Welfare Service workers. 

Education: Boone School, Apache, Okla.; Chilocco, two years; schooHng 

through the eighth grade. 

Career: Part-time guide, Indian City U.S.A., Anadarko, Okla. 

Work Published: Program cover, Oklahoma Health and Welfare Admin- 
istration, November, 1959. 

Exhibitions: AIE, PAC. 

Awards: Four from AIE, 1961. 

Collections: Piiblic: BIA/D (Department of Welfare); Department of 

Public Welfare, Anadarko, Okla. 

Address: Route 2, Apache, Okla. 



ARTISTS 7 

Archuleta, Antonio Taos 

Born: Date unknown; deceased. 
Collections: Public: MNM 
Archuleta, Betty Keener Cherokee 

Qiied 

Born: May 22, 1928, Pawhuska, Olka. M/GGF: George Butler (Cherokee), 
active in tribal affairs. 
Married: Marcos Lawrance Archuleta, 1953. 

Although Mrs. Archuleta first showed an interest in drawing at the age of five, 

she did not start painting until 1961. 
Education: Dord Fitz School of Art, Woodward, Olda., 1961-. 
Career: Housewife. Active in local art club. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM; Lil-Red School, Shattuck, Okla.; Enid, Okla.; 
Spearman, Tex.; Amarillo, Tex.; Liberal, Kan.; New York, N.Y. ; Wood- 
ward County Fair, Woodward, Okla. 

Awards : 1962-63 : eight ribbons from Woodward County Fair. 
Collections: Private: Killebrew, Marken, Mercado, H. Roberts, Stiglets. 
Address: 1207 Sixth Street, Woodward, Okla. 
Archuleta, Trinidad Taos 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Arkeketa, Benjamin Oto-Missouri 

Ark Kaketa, Waiting Up 

Born: February 27, 1928, Red Rock, Okla. Son of George B. Arkeketa 
(Oto-Missouri) and Edna Jones (Oto-Missouri). P/GF: Benjamin Arkeketa. 
P/GGF: George (Bushy Tail) Arkeketa, Oto chief of the Buffalo Clan and 
medicine man. P/GA: Mary Arkeketa Thompson, daughter of Arkeketa, 
the last Oto chief. 

Married: Mary Freeman (Creek), 1953. Five daughters: Susan, 1955; Janice, 
1956; K^im, 1957; Annette, 1959, Ginger, i960. 

Inspired by Brummett Echohawk and Acee Blue Eagle (qq.v.), the artist has 

received several award ribbons. His paintings often reflect his strong interest in 

Indian archaeology and ethnology, and in Christian philosophy. 
Education : Oklahoma Public Schools ; X-Ray Technician Certificate, 1954, 
from St. John's Hospital, Tulsa, Okla. 
Service: Korean War, U.S. Marine Corps, four years. 

Career: X-Ray Technician, Clinton (Okla.) State Hospital, 1955-1965; 
Tulsa (Okla.) Hospital, 1965-. 

Exhibitions: SN; Ponca Indian Free Fair, Ponca City, Okla.; Public Li- 
brary, Clinton, Okla.; Henson Gallery, Yukon, Okla. 
Collections: Private: Curlechief, Fisher, Sukman. 
Address: 11608 West 32nd St., Sand Springs, Okla. 
Ark Kaketa (see Arkeketa, Benjamin) 

Armstrong, Tirador Cheyenne-Caddo 

Born: May 8, 1935, Chnton, Okla. 
Married: Dola Jean Tartsah (Kiowa), 1961. 

Encouraged, as many Plains Indian artists, by Mrs. Susie Peters, Mr. Armstrong 

has been interested in art since elementary school. 



8 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Education : Attended Concho. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Marine Corps, three years. 

Exhibitions: AAIE; Baltimore, Md. 

Awards : Several honorable mentions. 

Collections: Public: OHSM. Private: Beebe, Peters, C. West, E.Wilson. 

Address: 820 North 20th St., Clinton, Okla. 

Arqurero, Avelino Cochiti 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1938. 
Exhibitions: AIW. 

Asah, Spencer Kiowa 

Lallo, Little Boy 

Born : ca. 1905-10, near Carnegie, Okla. Died in 1954, Norman, Okla. Son 

of a Buffalo medicine man. 

Married: Ida (Comanche). Three children: Ola Mae, Ida L., and Kay, a son 

killed in 1953. 
Asah grew up in an atmosphere of tribal legends and rituals, the influence of 
which is evident in his paintings. Asah is one of the original Five Kiowas {q.v.). 

Education: Government Indian schools through the sixth grade; St. 

Patrick's Mission School, Anadarko, Okla. ; University of Oklahoma, special 

non-credit classes, 1926-27. 

Career : Artist and farmer. 

Honors : Represented in Indians of Today. 

Commissions: Murals: OHSM, OU; St. Patrick's Mission School; Federal 

Building, Anadarko, Okla. ; Fort Sill Indian School. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Blue 

Eagle (1959). Introduction to American Indian Art (1931), The American 

Magazine of Art (August 1932). 

Exhibitions: AIE, AIEC, EITA, OU/MA, PAC. 

Collections: PiMic: ACM, DAM, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, 

MNM, OSAF/GC, OU/MA, SPL. Private: Denman, O. Jacobson. 
Asaute [see Keahbone, George Campbell) 
Asawoya [?>ee Davis, Jesse Edwin, II) 
Ascending [see Abeyta, Narciso Platero) 
Atencio, Gilbert Benjamin San Ildefonso 

Wah Peen, Mountain of the Sacred Wind 

Born: 1930, Greeley, Colo. Son of Isabel M. Montoya (San Ildefonso) [q.v.). 

M/GA: Maria Martinez, San Ildefonso potter. M/U: Alfred Montoya [q.v.). 
Atencio's strong sense of family and tribal responsibility has resulted in his 
seldom venturing from his native pueblo. He has recently experimented with 
adaptations of his flat-style paintings. 

Education: San Ildefonso; graduated Santa Fe, 1947. 

Career: Artist. 

Honors : Governor of San Ildefonso Pueblo, 1966. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Tanner (1957). Arizona 

Highways (August 1952), Smoke Signals, lACB (No. 42, 1964), Southwest 

Indian Arts II, CPLH (1965). 



ARTISTS 9 

Exhibitions: AU/ASM, CPLH, FAIEAIP, FWG, HM, ITIC, JGS, NGA, 
OU, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T. SN, USDS, WRNGA; 26 other leading museums 
and galleries in North America. 

Awards: Seventeen top awards by 1949, including ITIC Grand Award; 
12 during 1950-64, including PAC Grand Award. 

Collections: Public: AF, BIA, GM, lACB, LNBTC, MAI, MNM, PAC. 
Private: E. Adkins, Denman, Dietrich, Elkus, A. Forbes, Lockett, D. Max- 
well, Mullan, W. S. Price, Schonwald, Thoeny. 
Address: Rural Route i. Box 306, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Atencio, John San Juan 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Atencio, Lorencita San Juan 

To Pove 

Until 1950, Lorencita Atencio was an active artist. Since she has become the 

mother of several children, she has seldom painted. 
Education: Santa Fe, under Dorothy Dunn. 
Career:: Crafts instructor at Santa Fe and Albuquerque. 
Work Published: La Farge (i960). 
Exhibitions: AIW, NGA, 1953; OU/ET. 
Collections: Private: Dietrich. 
Atencio, Pat San Ildejonso 

Koo Peen, Mountain Rock 

Born: January 22, 1932. Son of Isabel M. Montoya (San Ildefonso), and 
brother of Gilbert and Tony Atencio (qq. v.). 

Pat has painted infrequently in recent years. He lives at the pueblo with his six 

children. 

Education: Santa Fe. 

Collections: PvMic: MAI, MNM. 

Address: Rural Route i. Box 306, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Atencio, Tony San Ildefonso 

Su Ta, Painted Arrow 

Born: January 24, 1928. Son of Isabel M. Montoya (San Ildefonso), and 

brother of Gilbert and Pat Atencio (qq.v.). 
Tony painted only animals while he was in school. Since then, he has painted 
very little. Most of his adult life has been spent in the Navy. Now out of the 
service, he hopes to attend a vocational training school. 

Education: Santa Fe through the eleventh grade, ca. 1945. 

Service: U.S. Navy, 1945-61. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM, NMSF. 

Address: Rural Route i. Box 306, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Auchiah, James Kiowa 

Born: 1906, near Medicine Park, Okla. GF: Chief Satanta (Kiowa). GF: 

Red Tipi (Kiowa), a medicine man and tribal artist. 
Although not officially one of the Five Kiowas {q.v.), he joined the group in 
their special classes at the University of Oklahoma in the fall of 1927. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Coast Guard. 



10 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career: Part-time employee, U.S. Army Artillery and Missile Center Mu- 
seum, Fort Sill, Okla. ; civilian employee in Fort Sill painting shop. 

Honors : Certificate of Appreciation, lACB, 1966. 

Commissions: Murals: OHSM, USDI; Fort SiU Indian School; Northeastern 

State College; St. Patrick's Mission School; Muskogee Federal Building, 

Muskogee, Okla. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). The Art 

Digest (September i, 1931), The American Magazine of Art (August 1932), 

American Indian Exposition and Congress (Tulsa: Chamber of Commerce, 

1937), cover. 

Exhibitions: Throughout the U.S. in the 1930's; AIW, EITA, OU/ET, 

PAC/T. 

Awards: Southwest States Indian Art Show, Santa Fe, N.M., 1930; ITIC. 

Collections: Public: ACM, FSM, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNM, OHSM, 

OSAF/GC, OU/MA, PAC, SI; Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, 

St. Augustine, Fla. Private: Cone, Denman, Elkus, Field, O. Jacobson, 

D. Maxwell. 

Address: Carnegie, Okla. 
Augustine, Jiiumie Navaho 

Exhibitions: SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 
Aukemah {see Garcia, Maria) 
Aukemah [see Terasaz, Marian) 
Aunko (see Anko) 
Aun So Te [see Belindo, Dennis) 
Austin, Frank Navaho 

Bahah Zhonie, Happy Boy 

Born: April 10, 1938, Tsegi Canyon, near Tonalea, Ariz. Son of Buck Austin 

(Navaho) and Martha (Navaho). 

Married: Rose L. Adajie, i960. Two children: Camellia Rose, 1961 ; Dwayne, 

1964. 
Although he has been interested in art for as long as he can recall, it was in 1954 
that Austin, encouraged by Lloyd H. New, began to express himself as a creative 
artist. 

Education : Elementary school. Tuba City, Ariz. ; graduated Phoenix, 1958. 

Attended Arizona S.C./T. ; four summers of special classes. University of 

Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Career : Silk screen designer and textile painter, 1956-. 

Honors: International Design Award, American Institute of Interior De- 
signers, 1962; scholarship to University of Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art 

Project." 

Exhibitions : 1961-65 : AIAE/WSU, ASF, ITIC, SN, regional galleries and 

fairs. 

Awards: Seven during 1961-65, including SN Grand Award. 

Collections: Ptthlic: lACB, MAI. Private: Bimson, Elkus, Thoeny. 

Address: 1729^ East Second Street, Santa Fe, N.M. 



ARTISTS II 

Au Tup Ta {see Hood, Ranee) 

Awa Tsireh San Ildefonso 

Aiva Tsireh, Cattail Bird (Also known as Roybal, Alfonso.) 
Born: ca. 1895; died ca. 1955. Nephew of Crescencio Martinez [q.v.]. 
By 1917, Alice Corbin Henderson had commissioned the artist to execute paint- 
ings for her. Later, although without formal education beyond the primary 
grades, Awa Tsireh painted daily with Fred Kabotie [q.v.) and Velino Shije 
Herrera [q.v.) at the School of American Research, without outside influences. 
On September 6, 1925, the following appeared in the New York Times: "Awa 
Tsireh's drawings are, in their own field, as precise and sophisticated as a Persian 
miniature. The technique that has produced pottery designs as perfect as those 
of an Etruscan vase has gone into his training." 

The St. Louis Post Dispatch of November 5, 1933, quoting John Sloan, said: 
". . .when Awa Tsireh sits down to paint a leaping deer he remembers not only 
the way a deer looks when leaping over a log but he feels himself leaping in the 
dance, with antlers swaying on his forehead and two sticks braced in hands for 
forelegs." 

Later, he turned, for a time, to silversmithing and various jobs unrelated to art. 
"Because of his poor eyesight, shaky hands, and other personal reasons, this 
famous artist abandoned painting almost completely although there continued 
to be a demand for his work" [El Palacio, August 1950). 
Education : San Ildefonso. 
Honors : Palmes d'Academiques, 1954. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Josephy 
(1961). International Studio (March 1922), American Magazine of Art (Sep- 
tember 1928; August 1932), Travel (1931), Exposition of Inter-Tribal Arts, 
Inc. (December 1931), cover, Theatre Arts Monthly (August 1933), Cincin- 
nati Art Museum, Bulletin (January, 1938), Arizona Highways (August 
1952), El Palacio (1956), Paintings hy American Indians, CPLH (1962). 
Exhibitions: ACC, EITA, JGS, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, SI; Newberry Library, 
Chicago, 111., 1925; Society of Independent Artists, New York, N.Y., ca. 
1918, entered by John Sloan. 

Awards: AIM; AIW; EITA, first award and his painting reproduced on 
cover of exhibit's publication. 

Collections: Puhlic. AF, AMNH, BM/B, CAM, CGA, CGFA, CIS, DAM 
(42 works), DCC, MAI, MAM, MMA, MNA/KHC, MNM, MRFM, OU/MA, 
PAC, RM, SHSW, SI, SM, WRNGA. Private: H. Adams, Adlerblum, Den- 
man, Dietrich, Dockstader, Elkus, Hogue, Lockett, Thoeny, Walch, Waters, 
Wyman. 

Ayawat, William Comanche 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 
Collections: Public. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Au- 
gustine, Fla. 

Baby [see Collins, Martha Adele) 

Baca, Henry Santa Clara 

Okuwasta 

Born : Date unknown ; deceased. 
Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1936). 



12 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Backford, Alexandra Aleut 

Born: Alaska. 

Education: Institute, ca. 1954. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Collections: Public: lACB. 
Back Track (see Geionety, George) 
Bad Hand Boy (see Claymore, Thomas William) 
Bad Heart Buffalo (see Bad Heart Buffalo, Amos) 
Bad Heart Buffalo, Amos (Also known as Bad Heart Bull) Oglala Sioux 

Tatanka Cante Sice, Bad Heart Buffalo 

Born: ca. 1869; died, 1913. Son of Tatanka Cante Sice (Bad Heart Buffalo), 

Oglala warrior and participant in the Battle of Little Big Horn. Nephew of 

He Dog, a Sioux chief. 
From the stories told him by his father and uncle, the artist filled three army- 
ledgers with detailed pictographic drawings of the Battle of the Little Big Horn. 
(At the time of the battle, he was seven.) Alexander (1938) wrote that this artist 
was the "most notable northern Indian artist whose work is known." 

Career: Cowboy, Indian policeman. 

Work Published: Alexander (1938), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Josephy 

(1961a), Sandoz (1961), Blish (1967). 

Collections: Public: The University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Neb. 
Bad Heart Bull, Amos (see Bad Heart Buffalo, Amos) 
Badonie, Thomas Navaho 

Education: Received scholarship to Arizona, "Southwestern Indian Art 

Project," summer, 1961. 
Bahah Zhonie (see Austin, Frank) 
Bahe, Stanley K. Navaho 

Education : Attended Phoenix. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 
Ball, Lois Harjo Creek 

Born: Okmulgee, Okla. Her mother was related to the Paddy Carr family, 

well known in Creek history. GF : Menawa, Creek chief and warrior. 

Education: Graduated from Okmulgee High School, Okmulgee, Okla., 

1926; attended Oklahoma C.U. ; A. A., Stephens College, Columbia, Mo.; 

private study under Minta B. Walker. 

Collections: Public: CCHM. 
Ballard, Louis Wayne Quapaw-Cherokee 

Honganozhe, Grand Eagle 

Born: July 8, 1931, Quapaw, Okla. Son of Charles G. Ballard (Cherokee) 

and Leona Quapaw (Quapaw). Reared by M/GM, Newakis Quapaw, inter- 
preter for the Quapaw Indian Agency. P/GGF: Joel B. Mayes, a Cherokee 

chief. M/GGF: Pius Quapaw, Quapaw medicine chief. 

Married: Delores Lookout (Osage), 1954. Divorced January, 1964. Three 

children: Louis Anthony, 1954; Anne Marie, 1956; Charles Christopher, 

1957. Married Ruth Dore, 1965. 



ARTISTS 13 

Although active in the visual arts early in his career, Mr. Ballard's primary 

interest now is confined to music. 
Education: Graduated Bacone College High School, 1949; A. A., North- 
eastern A.M., 1951; Oklahoma, 1950; B.A. and B. Mus. Ed., 1954, and 
M.M., 1962, Tulsa; Darius Milhaud School of Music, Aspen, Colo., 1963. 
Career: Music teacher, Tulsa Pubhc Schools, 1956-58; draftsman and 
illustrator, Tulsa, 1958-61; Chairman, Music and Drama Dcpt., Institute 
of American Indian Arts, 1962-. 

Honors: F. B. Parriott Graduate Fellowship, 1961; O f K; presented a 
lecture tour of Switzerland, sponsored by USDS and Jelmoli, Inc., 1964. 
Exhibitions: AIE, BC, NAMC, PAC. 
Collections: Public: EOC, KM, OU, PAC. 

Address : c/o Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Bark Dye [see Moses, James Kivetoruk) 

Battese, Stanley Navaho 

Kehdoyah, Follower 

Born: January 29, 1936, Fort Defiance, Ariz. Son of CharHe Smith (Navaho) 
and Gee Eh Bah (Navaho), who hve on the reservation near Pine Springs, 
Ariz. The artist was adopted by Anthony Battese (Potawatomi) and Jo- 
sephine Bruner Battese (Creek- Shawnee). 

Battese began painting at an early age and made remarkable progress during 

his school 5'ears. Since his university graduation, however, he appears to have 

lost interest in painting and exhibiting. 
Education: Flagstaff Pubhc School, Wondow Rock School, Ariz. ; graduated 
from St. Michaels Cathohc High School, St. Michaels, Ariz., 1956; B.A., 
Arizona S.C./T., 1961. 

Career: Arts and crafts teacher, Shiprock Junior High School, Shiprock, 
N.M., 1962; teacher in adult education program. White Cone Day School, 
White Cone, Ariz., 1962; warehouse employee, Navaho Tribal SawmiU, 
1962-63; carpenter, Ciniza Refinery, Gallup, N.M., 1963; welder. Steel 
Tank Construction Co. of Houston, 1963; gas department, Navaho Tribal 
Utilities Authority, Window Rock, Ariz., 1964. 

Commissions: Murals: Hayden Hall, T K E Fraternity House, Arizona 
S.C./T. 

Work Published: Tanner (1957). Arizona Highways (July 1956). 
Exhibitions: GCIC, ITIC, MNM/T, NTF, PAC; Concord Art Association, 
Concord, Mass. ; DAR Exhibit, Greenwich, Conn. ; Riverside Art Center, 
Riverside, Cahf. ; Charles Reynolds Gallery, Taos, N.M.; Valley National 
Bank, Phoenix, Ariz. ; National High School Art Exhibit, Carnegie. 
Awards: Nineteen during 1952-57. 
Collections: Private: R. Moore, Mullan, Thoeny. 
Address: 1611 Red Rock Drive, Gallup, N.M. 

Bear (see Robinson, John) 
Bear, J. Michael (see Byrnes, James Michael) 
Bear, James (see Byrnes, James Michael) 
Bear, Jobie (see Byrnes, James Michael) 



14 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Bear Claw (see Byrnes, James Michael) 
Bear Feathers (see Bushyhead, Allan) 

Beard, Lorenzo Cheyenne- Arapaho 

Horse Chief 
Born: 1914. 

Education: Concho; graduated Santa Fe. 
Work Published : La Farge (1956) . 
Exhibitions: AIEC, NGA, OU/ET. 

Collections: Puhlic: OU/MA, SM. Private: Denman, Dietrich. 
Address : Box 232, Watonga, Okla. 
Bear's Arm, Martin Mandan 

Bear's Arm, considered a tribal historian, executed a pictographic chart on heavy- 
canvas long before the late 1890's. The drawings represent the Like-a-Fish-Hook 
Village on the Ft. Berthold Reservation in central North Dakota. 

Collections: Public: SHSND. 
Bear's Face Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictograph on paper). 

Bear's Heart, James Cheyenne or Kiowa 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Work Published: National Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 163 (Ottawa). 

Collections: Public: HI, MAI, MHS/B, OA/USNM, YU/BRBML. 

Private: R. Robinson, Rodee. 
BeatienYazz (Also known as Jimmy Toddy.) Navaho 

Beatien Yazz (Bea Etin Yazz), Little No Shirt 

Born : March 5, 1928, near Wide Ruins, Ariz. 

Married: Ehzabeth Roan (Navaho). Divorced. Five children: Irvin, 1951; 

Marvin, 1952; Calvin, 1959; Velma, 1955; Jan, 1957. 
The artist was drawing with crayons at eight years of age. Sallie and Bill Lipin- 
cott, operators of the Wide Ruins Trading Post, influenced him most by recogniz- 
ing and encouraging his talents. While still a student, he sometimes worked in 
oils from a model. Today, Jimmy prefers to paint "animals and people, not land- 
scapes" in the casein medium. Spin a Silver Dollar and Paint the Wind together 
provide an insight into the young artist's struggles and pleasures and the parti- 
cular situations and individuals that have helped to shape his career. 

Education: Wide Ruins Day School; Santa Fe, two years; Fort Wingate, 

three years; Sherman, one year; schools in Stewart, Nev., two years; Mills, 

1949, under Yasuo Kuniyoshi. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Marine Corps, two years; South Pacific and China 

Theaters (Navaho code unit). 

Career: Navaho Police Dept., Fort Defiance, Ariz.; art teacher, Carson 

Indian School; full-time artist. 

Honors : Received scholarship to Mills ; two books by Alberta Hannum are 

based on his life and career. 

Commissions: Murals: Navaho Tribal Court Room, Navaho Police Head- 
quarters Building, Fort Defiance, Ariz. Tiles: Gila Pottery, designs. Fabric: 

Tumble-weed Prints, designs. Greeting Cards: Reproduction of the artist's 

designs by several companies. 



ARTISTS 15 

Books Illustrated: Hannum (1945; 1958), Steiner (1961). 
Work Published: Hannum (1945; 1958), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 
TheGallup Independent (May 14, 1953), Arizona Highways (July 1956; De- 
cember 1958; July 1959), New Mexico (December i960), The Amerindian 
(May- June 1961). 

Exhibitions: AAIE, AIAE/WSU, BG, CAI, DAM, DMFA, FAIEAIP, 
FWG, HM, ITIC, JGS, MAI, MHDYMM, MNM, NGA, PAC, PAC/T, 
SAIEAIP, SN ; Mandell Brothers GaUery, Chicago, 111. ; Riverside Museum 
of Art, Riverside, Calif. ; Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio ; Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, Calif. ; lUinois State Museum, 
Springfield, lUinois; represented in five permanent sales galleries. One-man 
shows: BG, HM, SM; La Jolla Gallery of Art, La Jolla, CaUf. 
Collections: Public: BM, GM, LMA/BC, MAI, MNA/KHC, PAC, SMNAI, 
SM. Private: Berg, Bialac, Canavan, Denman, Dietrich, Dockstader, Elkus, 
C. Fenton, A. Forbes, Goff, Kemm, Lockett, D. Maxwell, R. Moore, Morris, 
MuUan, Schreiber, Sewell, Thoeny, M. Vann, Wyman. 
Address : Box 607, Chambers, Ariz. 

Beautiful {see Susunkewa, Manfred) 

Beaver (see Scott, Johnson Lee) 

Beaver, Fred Creek 

Eka La Nee, Brown Head 

Born: July 2, 1911, Eufaula, Okla. Son of Willie Beaver (Creek) and Annie 
Johnson (Creek). P/GF: Itshaus Micco, subchief of Okfuskee town group 
in Alabama, who moved his people to Oklahoma where the town of Eufaula 
now stands. 

Married: Juanita D. Brown, 1945. 
At first interested in music and athletics, Beaver began to paint as a hobby in 
1945. Since then, he has achieved a distinguished record. 
Education : Graduated Eufaula (Okla.) High School, 1931 ; attended Bacone 
College, 1931; graduated Haskell, Business College, 1935; private instruc- 
tion in art and voice, Italy, 1944. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Corps, three years; European Theater. 
Career: Entered BIA Field Service, Okmulgee, Okla., July i, 1935, as clerk 
and interpreter under Five CiviHzed Tribes Agency; remained with BIA 
until 1942, when he was inducted into the armed services; returned and 
resigned July 8, i960, to devote himself to his art and music interests. 
Honors: Oklahoma All- State, football and basketball, 1930-31; Waite 
Phillips Outstanding Indian Artist Trophy, PAC, 1963. 
Commissions: Murals: Thunderbird Restaurant and Motel, Oklahoma City, 
Okla.; Seminole Arts and Crafts Center, West Hollywood, Fla. 
Work Published: Pierson and Davidson (i960). Newsweek (September 4, 
1950), American Indian Exposition Program Booklet (1956), cover, Ana- 
darko, Okla., Museum News (June 1962), Sunday Oklahoman, Orbit Maga- 
zine (May 10, 1964; January 23, 1966). 

Exhibitions: 1946-65: 103, in 34 states and District of Columbia: AIE, 
BNIAS, DAM, FAIEAIP, ITIC, JAM, MNM, OHSM, PAC, PAC/T, SPIM, 



1 6 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

USDS; Agra Gallery, Washington, D.C. One-man shows: Nineteen, in- 
cluding DAM, JAM, PAC, SPIM. 

Awards: Thirty-two during 1951-65, including PAC Grand Award. 
Collections: Public: BIA, GM, lACB, KM, MAI, PAC; YMCA, Hotel 
Lawtonka, Carnegie Library, Ardmore Sanitorium, Ardmore, Okla. ; Stephen 
A. Foster Memorial, White Springs, Fla. Private: G. Alexander, Alford, 
Austin, John Brown, Callaway, Clay, Coke, Cone, Cox, DeLong, Edwards, 
Eisenhower, Field, Fields, Fleishman, Franks, Hodges, D. Maxwell, McCra- 
cken, R. McPherson, Medina, Merrick, R. Moore, Phillips II, B. Sanders, 
W. Schofield, Schonwald, J. Snodgrass, Steed, Sutton, Wearin. 
Address: 437 Locust Street, NW., Ardmore, Okla. 

Beck, Clifford, Jr. Navaho 

Born: January 11, 1946, Keams Canyon, Ariz. Son of Clifford Beck (Nava- 
ho), tribal councilman in 1965, and Ester Yellowhair (Navaho). 
Education: Pifion Boarding School, Holbrook Elementary School, Hol- 
brook, Ariz.; graduated Flagstaff, 1963; California C, 1964-. 
Career: Probation and Parole Department, Navaho Tribe, Window Rock, 
Ariz., summer 1965; illustrator, Navajo Times. 
Honors : Scholarship to California C. 
Work Published: Navajo Times (September 9, 1965). 
Exhibitions: 1964-65: NACG, NTF; United Bay Area Art Festival, Oak- 
land, Calif., 1964; Morwear Art Gallery, Berkeley, Calif. Two-man shows: 
With Patrick Swazo Hinds (q.v.), Berkeley, Calif., 1965. 
Awards: Six from NTF, 1965. 
Collections : Private : Reagan, Tikker. 

Address: 2133 Harrison Street, Oakland, Calif., or, c/o Clifford Beck, Sr., 
General Delivery, Pifion, Ariz. 

Bedah, Timothy Navaho 

Born: October 4, 1945, Tohatchi, N.M. 

Listed as a promising student by Duane O. Berg, his art instructor, Bedah has 

been painting since i960. 
Education: Graduated Gallup public schools, Gallup, N.M., 1965. 
Exhibitions: ITIC; Gallup Community Indian Center, Gallup, N.M. 
Awards: Three as of 1962 from ITIC. 
Address: Tohatchi, N.M. 

Bedonni Quid (see Maulson, Gerald) 

Beeler, Joe Cherokee 

Born: December 25, 1931, Jophn, Mo. Son of Jack Beeler (Cherokee) and 
Lena Setser. P/GGM: Cherokee, known for her knowledge of native medi- 
cines, who traveled the Tennessee hill country on horseback ministering to 
the sick. 
Married: Sharon. Two children: Tracy, 1958; Jody, 1964. 

"I am goin' (sic) full steam ahead now with sculpturing and casting bronzes, and 
the paintings I do are done on commission only," said the artist in 1965. Beeler's 
early paintings were inspired by the "old Devil's Promenade Pow Wow at Qua- 
paw, Okla." Today he paints the West as a westerner sees it. 



ARTISTS 17 

Education: Graduated Joplin High School, Jophn, Mo.; attended Los 
Angeles and Tulsa; graduated Kansas S. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Army (while overseas he did art work for Stars 
and Stripes). 

Career: Worked in "Fats" Jones' Stables, North Hollywood, Calif., paint- 
ing signs and decorating "old-time" wagons, stagecoaches, and other props 
used in motion pictures, ca. 1957; full-time painter, sculptor, and writer, 
ca. 1958-. 

CoMMissiONS: Baptistry. Spring River Indian Baptist Church, Quapaw, 
Okla. 

Books Illustrated: "About 15 for University of Oklahoma Press, six for 
Grosset and Dunlap," according to a letter from Beeler. 
Work Published: Montana (Summer 1961; April 1964); "An Artist Looks 
at the American Indian," author and illustrator; Western Horseman (Sep- 
tember 1961), cover. 

Exhibitions: Represented in four permanent sales galleries. One-man shows: 
BG, GM, MHS/H, NCHF. 

Collections: Public: GM, MHS/H, NCHF. Private: R.Anderson, Bimson, 
Britt Brown, Justin, Kidd, Light, Pabst, PhiUips, Schonwald, W. Smith, 
S. Stewart, J. Woodard, Woodruff. 
Address: Sedona, Ariz. 

Begay Apie {see Begay, Apie) 

Begay, Apie Navaho 

Begay Apie, Son of Milk 

(Also known as Apie Be Gay.) 

Born: Date unknown; died "many years before 1936." 
In 1902, Dr. Kenneth Chapman found the artist sitting on the floor of his hogan 
attempting to reproduce sandpainting designs in the only two colors he had: 
red and black. When Dr. Chapman gave Begay a full box of crayons, he imme- 
diately set out to execute detailed replicas of sandpaintings. Three of these first 
crayon drawings are now in the Indian Arts Fund Collection at the MNM. 

Work Published: El Palacio (December 1948). 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Begay, Arthur C. Navaho 

Born: December 15, 1932, Newcomb, N.M. 

Education : Correspondence school, Westport, Conn. 

Career: Electrician and artist. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, NTF, PAC. 

Collections: Public: AF. 

Address: Box 412, Shiprock, N.M. 
Begay, Fred Navaho 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU. 
Begay, Harrison Navaho 

Haskay Yah Ne Yah, Warrior Who Walked Up To His Enemy 

Born: November 15, 1917, White Cone, Ariz. Son of Black- Rock Begay 

(Navaho) and Zonnie Tachinie (Navaho), and stepson of Katherine Begay. 



l8 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Married: Ramona Espinosa, 1940. Divorced, 1945. 
Begay's paintings have exerted greater influence on Navaho artists than any 
others. His work is internationally known. 

Education : Fort Wingate, 1927 ; Fort Defiance Indian School, Fort Defiance, 

N.M.; Tohatchi Indian School, Tohatchi, N.M.; graduated Santa Fe, 1939; 

attended Black Mt., 1940-41; Phoenix J.C., 1941. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, three years; European Theater and Iceland. 

Career : Full-time artist ; co-founder of Tewa Enterprises. 

Honors: High school salutatorian ; Palmes d'Academiques, 1945; listed in 

Indians of Today. 

Commissions: Murals: Maisel's Trading Post, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1957). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Tanner (1957), LaFarge 

(1956; i960), Dockstader (1961), Bahti (1964). Arizona Highways {Febiudcryy 

1950; December 1958). 

Exhibitions: 1946-65: AIAE/WSU, AIHA, AIW, ASF, CPLH, DAM, 

FAIEAIP, FNAIC, FWG, HM, ITIC, JGS, MNM, NGA, NJSM, OU/ET, 

PAC, PAC/T, SAIEAIP, SI, WRNGA. 

Awards: Thirteen, including ITIC, PAC, state and tribal fairs; two ITIC 

Grand Awards. 

Collections: Public: AF, AU/ASM, BIA, DAM, GM, lACB, JAM, MAI, 

MAM, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, MRFM, OU/MA, PAC, SM, SMNAI. 

Private: Denman, Dietrich, Dockstader, Elkus, Finley, A. Forbes, O. Ja- 
cobson, Lockett, R. Moore, Mullan, Newmann, Pace, Pritzlaff, Schonwald, 

Thoeny, Wyman. 

Address : Greasewood Trading Post, Ganado, Ariz. 
Begay, Harry B. Navaho 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM. 

Awards: MNM. 
Begay, Jerome Navaho 

Born: 1953. 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, ''Southwestern Indian Art Project," 

summers, 1960-61 (sculpture major). 
Begay, Jimmy Navaho 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwestern Indian Art Project," 

summer, 1961 (textile major). 
Begay, Keats Navaho 

Exhibitions: AIW; NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC, MNM. Private: Denman, Dietrich. 
Begay, Paul Lee Navaho 

Collections: Public: JAM. 
Begay, Raymond Navaho 

Born: December 9, 1945, Crownpoint, N.M. 
The artist began painting in 1959. Duane O. Berg, his art instructor, listed him 
as a promising student. 



ARTISTS 19 

Education: Gallup and McKinley County, N.M.; graduated Gallup, 1964. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, NACG. 

Awards: Four during 1963-64. 

Address: General Delivery, Crownpoint, N.M. 

Begay, Richard Navaho 

Education: Fort Sill. 
Exhibitions: PAC. 

Begay, Timothy Navaho 

Born: Chinle, Ariz. 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe, 1942. 

Service : WWII ; European Theater. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM, PAC; Los Angeles PubUc School Exhibit. 

Belindo, Dennis Kiowa-Navaho 

Aim So Te, Foot 

Born: December 12, 1938, Phoenix, Ariz. Son of Damon Behndo (Navaho) 
and Ruby Goomda (Kiowa). His family's Kiowa ancestry seems to have 
originated when the Sioux captured a Kiowa woman, and, consequently, 
he can trace his Hneage to Red Cloud (Sioux) and Lone Wolf (Kiowa). 
M/GF: Devoted his Hfe as Keeper of the Tiame (Sun Dance God). P/GF: 
Red Whiskers, Navaho medicine man. 

Married: Juha Marie Bayhylle (Pawnee-Choctaw), i960. One child. 
Education: Pubhc schools in Oklahoma City, Okla.; Fort Wingate; gra- 
duated Bacone College, 1958; B.F.A., Oklahoma, 1962. 
Career : Artist, Times Journal Pubhshing Co., Oklahoma City, Okla., 1962-66. 
Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP. One-man show: OU. 
Awards: PAC, 1961. 

Collections: Public: LNBTC, OHSM. Private: Deupree, HoUon, Humphrey, 
R. Moore, Payne, Schonwald. 
Address: 902 East Campbell, Edmond, Okla. 

BeUrock, Buster Crow 

Collections: Public: GM. 

Benally, Chee B. Navaho 

Born: June 6, 1947, Blackrock, N.M. 

Education: Thoreau Boarding School, N.M.; Gallup public schools, Gallup, 
N.M., sincefourth grade ; graduated Gallup, 1966. Engineering Drafting School, 
Denver, Colo., 1966-. 
Exhibitions : 1963 : ITIC, NACG. 

Collections: Private: Berg, Newell, Shippy, L. WiUiams. 
Address: Box 312, Vanderwagen, N.M. 

Bercier, Mary Navaho 

Exhibitions: 1967: Heard. 
Collections: Harvey. 

Bernal, Eloisa Taos 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 



20 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Bernal, Pauline Taos 

The artist's father, Paul Bernal, is a native of Taos Pueblo; her mother is non- 
Indian, 
Education : Attended Taos. 

Big Back Cheyenne 

Born : Date unknown ; deceased. 
Richard Irving Dodge's Our Wild Indians (1883) has "reproduced in exact fac- 
simile from the original drawings, expressly for this work, drawings done with 
colored pencil by Big Back. ..." 
Work Published: Dodge (1883), Hamilton (1950). 

Big Black [see Hollowbreast, Donald) 

Big Bow (see Big Bow, Woody) 

Big Bow (Chief) Kiowa 

Zepko Ettee, Big Bow Man 
(Also known as Bow Big Man.) 

Born: ca. 1845; died 1901, Hobart, Okla. Brother of White Horse (q.v.). 
Service: U.S. Army; sergeant in charge of a detachment of Kiowa scouts 
stationed on Sweetwater Creek; served under Lt. Richard H. Pratt and 
Gen. Hugh L. Scott ; honorably discharged a few years before his death. 
Career: Chief, warrior, and artist; active with Kicking Bird and Satanta 
(q.v.) in Texas and Oklahoma raids during the mid-i8oo's. 
Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Deupree, Wiesendanger (pictographic 
drawings in ledger books) . 
Big Bow, Abel Kiowa 

Collections: Public: GM (pictographic style on paper). 
Big Bow, "Old Man" Kiowa 

Born: Date unknown; died 1934. 

Manuscript notes at Gilcrease Museum refer to a Kiowa calendar in book form 

by "Old Man" Big Bow in the collection of Woody Big Bow [q.v.). 
Big Bow, Woodrow Wilson (see Big Bow, Woody) 

Big Bow, Woody Kiowa 

Tse Ko Yate, Big Bow 
(Also known as Big Bow, Woodrow Wilson.) 

Born: January 29, 1914, Carnegie, Okla. GF: Chief Big Bow (q.v.). Three 
children: Larry, Steven, Vivian. 

Woody designed the red and yellow thunderbird insignia of the Oklahoma 45th 

Infantry Division. 
Education: Oklahoma, 1939. 

Career : Set painter for western movies ; contractor and builder. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 
Exhibitions: PAC, PSC; Tulsa County Libraries, Tulsa, Okla. 
Collections: Public: GM, KM, MAI, OAC, OHSM, OU/L, PAC, SM; Utica 
Square National Bank and the YMCA, Tulsa, Okla. Private: Andelman, 
Deupree, Feemster III, Germundson, R. Moore, Obermire, Owens, Schon- 
wald, W. S. Price. 
Big Brave Piegan Blackfoot 

The artist assisted in the execution of a 61-year count {see Elk Horn). 



ARTISTS 21 

Big Leftbanded Navaho 

Klah Tso, Lefthanded Big 

(also known as Old Hostin Claw; see also Choh.) 

Born: Date unknown. "Lived either near Indian Wells or near Tuba City, 

Ariz., probably the former." 
The artist "made paintings bet^veen'"i905 and 19 12 ... on dark tan-colored 
cotton cloth. The pigments employed 'were native pigments in some native ad- 
hesive, opaque commercial watercolors, and some commercial oils." One painting 
(USNM) of "galloping horses and the dust thrown up by their flying hooves, and 
the attitudes of the riders make this one of the loveliest known early American 
Indian paintings." Wyman (1965). 

Work Published: Wyman (1965). 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC, USNM (five secular paintings). 
Big Little (see Kahn, Chester) 
Big Man, Max Crow 

Born: Crow Agency, Mont. Deceased. 
Painting was Big Man's hobby. He was active in tribal functions, promoted the 
Custer Battlefield Association, and conducted an educational program about 
Indians for CBS radio and New York schools. His paintings reflect his own 
activities and tribal life. 

Honors: Represented in Indians of Today; made an honorary chief by 

Chief Plenty Coups; received Commercial Club Medal of Servdce, Rapid 

City, S. Dak. 

Big Missouri Teton Sioux 

Big Missouri is known to have executed a Dakota Winter Count for the years 
1796 to 1926 {see BAE Bull. 173). 
Collections: Private: J. A. Anderson. 

Big Road, Chief Sioux 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 
Big Springs, William, Sr. Blackfoot 

Born : 1919, East Glacier Park, Mont. 

Career: He operates an T8,ooo-acre ranch near Glacier Park, Mont., with 

his son. Bill, Jr. 

Honors: Chairman, First Annual Western Art Show, Glacier Park, Mont. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, FAIEAIP. 

Address: Box 531, East Glacier Park, Mont. 
Bill Nix {see Red Corn) 
Bilokila (see Lujan, Lorenzo A.) 
A Bird (see Herrera, Justino) 
Bird, Larry Santo Domingo -Laguna 

Little Bird 

Born: 1941. 

Education: Institute. 

Career: Emplo^^ed by MNM, ca. 1965. 

Awards : Interior Design Magazine Award for Painting. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, MNM, SN, YAIA. 

Collections: Private: McGrath. 



22 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Biss, Earl Crow 

Born: 1947, Renton, Wash. 
Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: MNM, YAIA. 
Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Biter [see Zotom) 
Black [see Sweezy, Carl) 

Black Bear Miniconjou Sioux 

Mato Safo, Bear Black 

Born: Date unknown; in 1868-69, lived on the Cheyenne Agency Reserva- 
tion on the Missouri River near the mouth of the Cheyenne River, near Fort 
Sully, Dakota Territory. 
The artist executed a Winter Count chart (1800-01 to 1868-69), referred to as a 
"History of the Miniconjous, "which covers almost the same period as that 
recorded by The Flame, The Swan, and Lone Dog [qq.v.). 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 

Black Cloud (see Levings, Martin) 

Black Crow Sioux 

Black Crow, chief of the Milk River Band, painted a buffalo hide record of 
exploits occuring in the 1870's. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th and loth AR. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Black Heart Oglala Sioux 

At the Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak., 12 men drew their autographs in a book. 
Among them is the signature of Black Heart — a figure with a triangular black 
heart. 
Collections: Public: MAI. 

Black Horse Sioux 

Shunka Sapa, Black Horse 
One of the five artists whose works, now referred to as the Cronau Album {see 
Sinte),were commissioned and collected by Rudolf Cronau during 1880-83. 

Collections: Public: AMNH. 

Black Moon (see Riddles, Leonard) 

Black Thunder Teton Sioux 

Work Published : BAE, Bull. 61. 

Blackbear (see Bosin, Blackbear) 

Blackbear, Levi Plains 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Blackmore, Bill Athabascan 

Nazia, Great Hunter 

(Also known as Blackmore, William Arvin.) 

Born: July 3, 1940, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada. Son of Mickey 
Alvin Blackmore and Bessie Johnson (Athabascan). 
Interested more in textile and fashion design than in painting, the artist received 
encouragement from Lloyd H. New and Carl Heinmiller. 



ARTISTS 23 

Education: Elementary school, Dawson City, Y.T. ; high school, Clesta 

and Salmon Arm, British Columbia, Canada; Institute. 

Service: U.S. Army, December, 1963-. 

Career: Construction worker; hunting guide. 

Exhibitions: MNM; British Columbia, Canada; Juneau, Alaska. 

Address: c/o Mr. and Mrs. Berry Germans, Salmon Arm, B.C., Canada. 

Blackmore, William Arvin (see Blackmore, Bill) 

Blackowl, Archie Cheyenne 

Mis Ta Moo To Va, Flying Hawk 

Born: November 23, 1911, in Custer County, Okla. M/GGF: Crow Neck- 
lace, chief of the Cheyennes. The artist is a descendant of Roman Nose 
(Cheyenne). 

Married: MoUie Curtis. Seven children: George, Jasper, Daniel, Joseph, 
Bryon, Richard, Archie, Jr. 
Blackowl became aware of art at the age of six when he saw old Red Tooth 
painting a skin tipi. Encouraged by Woodrow Wilson Cnimbo {q.v.), he began 
to paint seriously in the early 1930's. 
Education : Fort Sill ; Haskell ; Kansas ; Chicago ; studied various painting 
techniques under murahst Olaf Nordmark. 

Career: Civil Service employee in the 1940's, Fort Sill, Okla.; industrial 
painter during WWII, Douglas Airplane Co., Tulsa, Okla.; with Convair 
Aircraft Corp., San Francisco, Calif., during the 1940's. 
Commissions: Murals: PAC; The Palmer House, Chicago, 111.; Cafeteria 
and gymnasium. Fort Sill Officer's Club, Fort Sill, Okla. ; Riverside Indian 
School ; Kiowa Hospital, Lawton, Okla. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Jacobson (1964). 
Exhibitions: 1946-65: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, MNM, OHSM, PAC, PAC/T, 
USDS; Agra Gallery, Washington, D.C. 
Awards: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, PAC; state and tribal fairs. 
Collections: Public: ACM, GM, lACB, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MRFM, 
OHSM, OU/SM, PAC, SPIM. Private: CaUaway, Choteau, Deupree, Dock- 
stader, C. Fenton, Fields, Haddock, Hogue, 0. Jacobson, D. Maxwell, 
B. McCormick, R. Moore, Owens, W. S. Price, Schonwald, Thoeny, Walch. 
Address: 911 North 17th, Clinton, Okla. 

The Blaze {see The Flame) 

Bloody Knife Sioux 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (photographs of a pictographic robe). 

Blue Bird {see Herrera, Joe Hilario) 

Blue Eagle, Acee Creek-Pawnee 

Che Bon Ah Bu La, Laughing Boy; Lumhee Holattee. 
(Also known as Mcintosh, Alex C.) 

Born: August 17, 1907, on the Wichita Reservation, north of Anadarko, 
Okla. Died, June 18, 1959. Son of Solomon Mcintosh (Creek) and Mattie 
Odom (Pawnee). P/GF: William Mcintosh, Creek chief. Blue Eagle's parents 
died before he was five and shortly afterward he was adopted by his grand- 
parents. After their deaths, W. R. Thompson of Henryetta, Okla., was ap- 



24 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

pointed his guardian. Although he never used it professionally, the artist's 
given name was Alex C. Mcintosh ; rather, he adopted the name Blue Eagle 
from his paternal grandfather. His desire to paint the various tribes authen- 
tically took him to museum archives throughout North America and Europe. 
Blue Eagle is buried in the U.S. National Cemetery at Fort Gibson, Okla. 
Married: Loretto Thornton Kendrick (Cherokee), 1937. Divorced 1937. 
Later married and divorced Devi Dja (Javanese), ca. 1946. 
Education: Indian Schools at Anadarko, Nuyaka, and Euchee, Okla.; 
Haskell; graduated Chilocco, 1928; Oxford University, Oxford, England, 
non-credit classes, 1935; Bacone College; Oklahoma; Oklahoma S.U./S.T., 
commercial art classes, 1951-52. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force, three years. 

Career: Painter, craftsman, writer, lecturer, teacher, and dancer. Toured 
U.S. and Europe giving lecture-exhibition program, "Life and Character 
of the American Indian," 1935; established and headed Art Department at 
Bacone College, 1935-38; toured U.S. West Coast exhibiting and lecturing 
on ways to improve TV programs for children; conducted TV program, 
Muskogee, Okla., ca. 1954; free-lance artist. 

Honors: Invited to lecture on Indian art, ' 'International Education Con- 
ference," Oxford University, England, 1935; represented Oklahoma Boy 
Scouts on Europe tour, 1929; listed in Who's Who in Oklahoma, Who's Who 
in American Artists, Who's Who in American Art, Indians of Today, honored 
as one of nine "Colorful Personalities" and "foremost living Indian artist," 
by American Magazine (April 1937); named "Outstanding Indian in the 
United States," Anadarko, Okla., 1958; memorial biography, Indian Life, 
Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonials (i960); resolution honoring him post- 
humously for service to the state, Oklahoma Legislature, 1959 ; building on 
Haskell campus named for him. 

Commissions: Murals: Edmond Teachers College; Oklahoma College for 
Women, Chickasha; Muskogee Public Library; Federal Building, Colgate 
and Seminole, Black Hawk Club, Oklahoma City, Okla.; U.S.S. Oklahoma. 
Blue Eagle spent the greater part of 1934 painting murals in Oklahoma as 
part of a Public Works of Art Project (WPA). 
Books Illustrated: Blue Eagle (1959). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950); Pierson and Davidson 
(i960); Jacobson (1964). Dancing Moccasins, Indian Pageant, Tulsa, Okla. 
(1957), cover; Blue Eagle — A Retrospective Exhibition, PAC (1959); Indians 
of Oklahoma, BIA (1966). His work has been silk screened commercially. 
Exhibitions: 1932-65: AAIE, AIE, AIEC, AIW, CCP, CWC/I, DAM, 
EITA, FANEA, FCTM, GCG, GM, lAESS, JGS, PAC, PAC/T, USDS. 
One-man shows: PAC; Young Gallery, Chicago, 111.; Muskogee Public 
Library, Muskogee, Okla. Retrospective: PAC. Memorial: GM. 
Awards: Forty: AIE, DAM, lAESS, ITIC, PAC. Fairs and Indian cere- 
monials. 

Collections: Public: BC, BIA, CCHM, DAM, GM, KM, MNM, MRFM, 
OHSM, OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SPL. Private: Abbott, Alfonso, Bilhngslea, 



ARTISTS 25 

Bishop, Bruner, Bush, Callaway, Corkille, Covelle, Curnow, Deupree, 
Fite, Foreman, W. Hunt, O. Jacobson, Jamell, Kinkade, Leathers, D. Max- 
well, Maytubby, McMahan, Mileham, Obermire, I. Oldham, Powhatan, 
W. S. Price, Roosevelt, Schonwald, Selassie, Thoeny, Toller, Vernon, Walch, 
Weaver, N. Wheeler, Woodring, Wyman. 

Blue Flower (see Pop Chalee) 

Blue Horse (see Keith, C. Hobart) 

Blue Jay (see De Groat, Jay) 

Bluehorse, George Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, i960. 
Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 

Bobb, Henrietta Navaho 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," 1962. 
Address : 28 Res Road, Reno, Nev. 

Boide (see The Flame) 

Bolin, Floyd Cherokee 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: YAIA. 

Bosin, Blackbear Kiowa-Comanche 

Tsate Kongia, Blackbear 
(Also known as Bosin, Francis Blackbear.) 

Born: June 5, 1921, near Anadarko, Okla. Son of Frank Blackbear Bosin 
(Kiowa) and Ada Tivis (Comanche). P/GGF: Tsate Kongia, Kiowa sub- 
chief. P/GM: Mahnkee. M/GM: Kahchatscha, Comanche Awl Band medicine 
woman. 

Married: Nola Davidson Simmonds, November 26, 1953. Four children by 
previous marriage: Rowena Marie, 1939; Patricia, 1940; Francis Blackbear, 
Jr., 1942; Niles Raymond, 1944. Stepson: David Wayne Simmonds, 1945. 
The artist was the eldest of four children. At 17, he helped maintain the family 
farm, painting in spare moments. Although unable to accept two university art 
scholarships because of family obligations, he achieved success with little formal 
training and became the only American Indian artist to be represented in the 
1965 White House Festival of the Arts. 
Education: St. Patrick's; public schools in Anadarko, Okla.; graduated 
Cyril High School, CjTil, Okla., 1940. 

Service: WW^II, U.S. Marine Corps, two years; Pacific Theater. 
Career: Color separator and platemaker, Western Lithograph Co., Wichita, 
Kan.; illustrator, Boeing Aircraft Co., Wichita, Kan.; Graphic Arts Section 
of Training Aids Division, McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita, Kan.; co- 
owner. Great Plains Studio and Gallery, 1960-64, and owTier, 1964-. 
Honors: 1959 Civil Servant Award, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; member. 
Board of Directors, Wichita Art Guild, Wichita, Kan. ; Certificate of Appre- 
ciation, lACB, 1966; listed in Who's Who in American Art, Who's Who in 
Greater Wichita, and Indians of Today. 

Commissions : Murals : McConnell Air Force Base, North High School, and 
Broadview Hotel, all in Wichita, Kan. 



26 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Work Published: Stirling (1955), LaFarge (1956; i960), Pierson and 
Davidson (i960), Dockstader (1961). National Geographic Magazine (March 
1955), Oklahoma Today (Summer 1958), Life International (March 16, 1959), 
American Indian Paintings from the Collection of Philbrook Art Center (1964), 
cover; Sunday Bonanza, San Francisco Chronicle (August 22, 1965), Okla- 
homa Today (Winter 1965). 

Exhibitions: 1945-65: 58 museums, galleries, and art centers, including 
AMD, CAI, CPLH, JGS, NGA, PAC, PAC/T, SI, TAI, WRNGA; White 
House Festival of the Arts, Washington, D.C. One-man shows: AHNHG, 
HM, PAC, WAAG, WMWA. 

Awards: During 1946-65: 33 from AAID, CPLH, DAM, ITIC, MNM, PAC, 
and SN, including four grand awards. 

Collections: Public: BIA, DAM, GM, HM, lACB, PAC, WAAG, WAM. 
Private: Beach, Britt Brown, Dickinson, Dowell, Fry, Goff, Harvey, Hum- 
phries, J. McPherson, Melville, G. Milburn, Mullan, Pritzloff, Schonwald, 
Thoeny, N. Thorne, Vickery, Whitridge, Zavatsky. 
Address: 1032 West 13th, Wichita, Kan. 

Bosin, Francis Blackbear (see Bosin, Blackbear) 

Boswell, Helen Cherokee-Chippewa 

Born: 1906, Chicago, 111. 
Married : Richard F. Howard. 

Exhibitions: BMA, FAIEAIP, ITIC, JGS, PAC. One-man shows: HM. 
Two-man shows: PAC. 
Address : 4183 Cliff Road, Birmingham, Ala. 

Botella, Emmett Mescalero Apache 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1957. 
Address: Mescalero, N.M. 

Boudetah {see Smoky, Lois) 

Bougeta (see Smoky, Lois) 

Bougetah (see Smoky, Lois) 

Bow-Arrow (see Waano-Gano, Joe T.N.) 

Bow Big Man (see Big Bow [Chief]) 

Boy (see Gorman, Alfred Kee) 

Boy Of The Woods (see Des Jarlait, Patrick Robert) 

Boyd, George, Jr. Sioux-Assinihoin 

Born: January 20, 1910, Blare, Mont. 

Married: Helen R. Sparks, 1933. Seven children: Roberta, 1932; Winona, 
1934; Pattsy, 1939; Lionel, 1944; Doyle, 1947; Judith, 1950; Terry, 1952. 
Mr. Boyd has worked with livestock nearly all his life, an interest reflected in his 
representational paintings. 
Education: Brockton Public Schools, Brockton, Mont. 
Career : Rancher for 25 years ; board member, Sioux Tribal Credit Program 
Committee. 

Awards: First award, Montana State Fair, 1934. 
Collections: Private: Feiock. 
Address: Brockton, Mont. 



ARTISTS 27 

Boyiddle, Parker, Jr. Kiowa-Wichita-Delaware-Chickasaw 

Born: 1948. His father was a Kiowa and his mother was Wichita, Delaware, 

and Chickasaw. 

Education: Graduated Classen High School, Oklahoma City, Okla., 1965. 

Honors: Art scholarship, Oklahoma Science and Art Foundation, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 

Address: 1730 North West 13th, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Bradley, Roberta C. [see Weckeah) 
Branded Corn [see Sanchez, Ramos) 
Brando, Stephen Chippewa-Ottawa 

Born: July 27, 1949. Son of Vincent Brando and Marian (Chippewa-Ottawa). 
This young artist is interested in many art forms and has received considerable 
local recognition. 

Education : Crestwood High School, Crestwood, Pa. 

Exhibitions: Local. 

Address: 722 Church Road, Mountain Top, Pa. 
Brave, Franklin P. Osage-Cherokee 

Wa Shun Keh, Thorn (or Sand Burr) 

Born: December 21, 1932, Pawhuska, Okla. 

Education : Haskell ; Kansas City. 

Ser\^ce: U.S. Army Airborne Paratroopers, 18 months. 

Career: Advertising artist, Western Auto Supply Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Private: Nordling. 
Brave Bull Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictograph on paper). 
Bright Wing [see Fox, Guy) 
Brim, Mary Cherokee 

Exhibitions: AAIE, 1959. 
Broken Leg [see Cohoe, William) . 
Brown Hat [see Good, Baptiste) 
Brown Head [see Beaver, Fred) 
Brunette, J. M. 

Collections: Public: AU/SM. 

Buffalo Meat Apache or Cheyenne 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: MHS/B, OAA/SI, OHSM ("Apache" drawings 

thought to be the artist's), YU/BRBML. 
Buniyuk [see Smart, Clara Mary) 
Burdeau, George Henry Blackfoot 

Born: November 16, 1944, Great Falls, Mont. Son of George Burdeau 

(Blackfoot) and Ada C. Burbridge (Winnebago). 

Education: Loma Linda Elementary School, Phoenix, Ariz.; Wasatch 



28 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Academy, Mount Pleasant, Utah; Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," 
1961-62; Institute, ca. 1963. 
Career: Gallery assistant, BIA, 1965-. 

Honors: Scholarships to attend: Utah S. ; Utah; Arizona, summers, 1961-62. 
Work Published: Smoke Signals, lACB (Autumn 1965). 
Exhibitions: BNIAS, FAIEAIP, YAIA; Utah State High School Art Ex- 
hibition; National Scholastic Art Contest; University of Arizona Museum 
of Art. 

Awards: BNIAS; best painting in show, first award, and gold medallion 
for sculpture, Utah State High School Exhibition. 

Address: 2212 East Whitton, Phoenix, Ariz., and 1925 Calvert Street, 
Washington, D.C. 

Burton, Jimalee Creek-Cherokee 

Ho Chee Nee, Leader 

Born: January 23, 1906, El Reno, Indian Territory (now Okla.). Daughter 
of James A. Chitwood (Cherokee) and Mary Beck (Creek-Cherokee). Her 
father operated his first of four stores in Oklahoma City, Okla., shortly 
after taking part in the "Cherokee Run" of 1889. 
Married : Dan A. Burton, 1933 ; widowed, 1954. 

Shortly after her husband's death, Mrs. Burton moved from Tulsa to Florida 
and began to concentrate on writing and painting Indian legends. In her exten- 
sive research in the field of Indian lore, she has traveled throughout the 
Western Hemisphere. 
Education : Indian schools in Colony, Geary, and Weatherford, Okla. ; South- 
western Teachers College; Tulsa. Studied sculpture under H. Q. Edwards 
at Tulsa, 1938, and painting under Carlos Merida at Mexico. 
Career : Supervisor of a radio program featuring her poetry for nearly ten 
years in the 1930's; recorder of original songs and publisher of her poetry; 
associate editor. The Native Voice; artist. 

Honors: National Penwomen Association award for short story, "Indian 
Legend of Creation." 

Commissions: Movie: Indian Legends of Ho Chee Nee, documentary, 1963. 
Exhibitions: DAM, FAIEAIP, MHDYMM, PAC, RM; Glenbow Foundation, 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Lowe Gallery, Miami, Fla. ; Brown University, 
Ringling Museum; Galveston (Texas) Art Center, Oklahoma Art Center, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. One-man shows: El Centro Gallery, Miami, Fla.; Uni- 
versity of Florida; University of Georgia. 
Awards: PAC Purchase Award, 1947; honorable mentions. 
Collections: Public: PAC. 
Address: 700 John Ringhng Blvd., Sarasota, Fla. 

Bush Sioux 

This artist was known to have executed a Dakota Winter Count for the years 
1800-01 to 1869-70 (see BAE, Bull. 173). 

Bushotter, George Teton Sioux 

Born: December 24, i860, at the forks of Owl Creek, Dakota Territory (now 
Butte County, S. Dak.). Died, February 2, 1892, Hedgesville, W. Va. Son 



ARTISTS 29 

of Amos Bushotter (Yankton) and Gray Goodroad (Miniconjou). Bush- 
otter's stepfather belonged to the Society of Those Who Have Revelations 
From the Buffalo, whose mysteries the artist often illustrated. 
Married: Evalina HuU, March 8, 1888. 
The artist's collection (known as the Bushotter Collection) was described as 
"the most extensive that had been gained from among the tribes of the Siouan 
family, and it is the first contribution by an Indian" (BAE, 8th AR, 1886-87). 
Education : Hampton ; Virginia Theological Seminary. 
Career: March, 1887, began work for Bureau of American Ethnology 
assisting James Owen Dorsey with Teton dialect of the Dakota Indians; 
marriage license, 1888, states his occupation as teacher (taught school one 
year in Dakota Territory). 
Work Pxjblished: BAE, nth AR. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Bushyhead, Allan Cheyenne- Arapaho 

Nakowhoadoniidzi, Bear Feathers 
Born : 1917 ; childhood spent in Oklahoma. 
Education : Santa Fe. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army; Pacific Theater. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), LaFarge (i960). 
Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, OU/ET. 
Collections: Public: OU/MA. Private: Dietrich. 

Butterfly Mandan 

The artist executed a Winter Count covering the period 1833-76 (see Howard, i960). 

Buzzard Cheyenne 

Collections: OHSM, YU/BRBML (probably executed while a prisoner at 
Fort Marion). 

Byrnes, James {see Byrnes, James Michael) 

Byrnes, James Michael Acoma-Lagnna-Sioiix 

Kyash Petrach; Hofyee; Hotyee. 

(Also known as Bear, J.; Bear, J. Michael; Bear, James; Bear Claw; Byrnes, 
James; Jobie Bear; Standing Bear; Sunrise.) 

Born: 1938, N.M. His father was Sioux and his mother Acoma-Laguna. 
Education : Graduated from Albuquerque, ca. 1956. 
Career : Hospital orderly. 

Commissions: Murals: Barelos Community Center, with Charles Vicenti 
and Dixon Shebola (qq.v.). 

Exhibitions: MNM, NMSF. One-man shows: HM, 1964 (Byron Harvey HI 
Collection). 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. Private: Harvey. 
Address: 1718 Gold SE, Albuquerque, N.M.; Genl. Del, Denver, Colo. 

C.D.T. Zuni 

(Last name possibly Tullma.) 
Collections: Public: DAM (dated 1905). 



30 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Caje, Richard Apache 

Born: 1941. 

Education: Albuquerque, i960; Arizona, ''Southwest Indian Art Project." 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: ITIC, MNM. 

Awards: Four: ITIC, MNM. 

Address: Mescalero, N.M. 
Calvert, John San Juan 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Candelario, James San Felipe 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1963 (student division). 

Address: San Felipe Pueblo, Algodones, N.M. 
Cannon, Tommy Caddo 

Born: 1946, Lawton, Okla. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: 1964-66: AIE, SAIEAIP. 

Awards: AIE, 1964. 
Cante Wani Ca [see No Heart) 
Cariz, Santiago Pueblo (?) 

Collections: Public: RM. 

Carraher, Ronald G. Colville 

Born: 1935, Colville Indian Reservation, Omak, Wash. 
Education: B.A., Washington, 1956; M.A., San Jose, 1961; studied photo- 
graphy under Ansel Adams, 1962. 
Service: U.S. Army, 1956-58; Germany. 

Career: Assistant, Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, 1954-56; 
adult education teacher, San Jose Unified School District, San Jose, CaHf., 
1960-61; part-time teacher, San Jose City (junior) CoUege, 1962; part-time 
instructor, San Jose State CoUege, 1961-62; art instructor, Central Wash- 
ington State CoUege, 1961, 1962-63; Assistant Professor of Design, Rhode 
Island School of Design, 1964-65; art instructor, San Jose State CoUege, 
1965-. 

Honors : Scholarship to University of Washington, 1956 ; graduate assistant- 
ship. Central Washington State College, 1959; Art Editor, Columns (Univer- 
sity of Washington magazine), 1954-55 ; Chairman of catalogs and brochures, 
Central Washington State CoUege, 1964. 

Commissions: Educational Films: Assisted in production, "Print with a 
Brayer" (16 mm color, eight-minute, sound), "Mosaics for Schools'* (19 mm 
color, ten-minute, sound) ; graphic artist-photographer, National Defense 
Education Title VII Project, San Jose State CoUege, 1959-61. 
Books Illustrated: Kemp (1962). 

Exhibitions: PAC; Washington State Fair Art Exhibit; Kingsley Art 
Annual, Crocker GaUery, Sacramento, Calif.; San Jose City College Arts 
Festival Invitational; Pacific Northwest Arts and Crafts Fair, Bellevue, 
Wash.; San Jose Art Center Invitational; 8ist San Francisco Art Institute 



ARTISTS 31 

Painting Annual; 48th Northwest Painting Annual, Seattle Art Museum; 
20th American Drawing Annual, Norfolk, Va. ; Stone Court Gallery, Yakima, 
Wash.; Northwest Watercolor Society Annual, Seattle Art Museum; Palace 
of the Legion of Honor, Winter Invitational, San Francisco; Pacific Arts 
Associations Invitational ; represented in an exchange exhibit with Fukuoka, 
Japan. One-man shows: Central Washington State College. Tours: Western 
Association of Art Museums Traveling Exhibit. 

Awards: 1954-64: six, including two purchase awards and a PAC Grand 
Award; Washington State Fair Art Exhibit; Pacific Northwest Arts and 
Crafts National Fair; San Jose Spring Arts Festival. 
Collections: Public: lACB. Private: D. Foster, Lincoln. 
Address: RED i, Ellensburg, Wash. 

Casias, Johnny Gabriel San Juan-Navaho 

Cea Shoe Pin, Pine Mountain 

Born: December 26, 1934, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. Son of Miguel L. Casias 
(San Juan) and Aurelia H. Casias (Navaho). 
Married: EHcia M. One child: Jonna Marie, 1964. 

Education: San Juan, 1944-52; Santa Cruz, 1953-54; graduated Espaiiola, 
1956. 

Service: U.S. Navy, 1956-60; New Mexico National Guard, 1953-56. 
Career: Artist, 1953-; storekeeper, Casias Cash Store, San Juan, N.M., 
i960-; editor, Voice of Youth, San Juan Youth Club Bulletin (active in 
promotion of the Pueblo art program) ; art instructor, San Juan Day School, 
siunmer, 1952. 

Work Published: Tah-Weh, Espanola High School yearbook cover, 1956; 
USS Hooper-Wespac, U.S. Navy Cruise pubhcation, cover, i960. 
Exhibitions: BNIAS; Espanola High School. 
Collections: Private: Forkner. 
Address: Box 813, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 

Casiquito, Lucy Jemez 

Education: Jemez, 1961. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 

Casiquito, Vidal, Jr. Jemez 

Born: Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 
Education: Jemez, ca. 1954. 

Career: Education department. United Pueblo Agency, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Awards : At age 14, while attending Jemez Day School under Al Momaday 
(q.v.), Casiquito was one of 12 winners in a national poster contest sponsored 
by the National Cartoonists' Society and the Savings Bond Division of the 
U.S. Treasury Dept. His poster, based on "the dream you save for," received 
national recognition, and he was granted a personal interview with President 
Harry S. Truman. 
Collections: Public: MNM. 



32 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Cassady, Ann Virginia Cherokee 

Dhealdh Yazzie Bitsi, Little Mustache's Daughter 

Born: July 12, 1909, Durango, Colo. Her parents left Oklahoma for the 

Navaho Reservation where they operated a trading post at Red Rock, N.M. 

Married : Harvey Cassady, 1934. Five children. 

Education: Public schools in Reno and Carson City, Nev., in Vallejo and 

San Francisco, Calif., and in Tulsa, Okla. Instruction in art under Doris 

Robertson, Hilda Reake, Dorothy Herger, and Elizabeth Polly in Vallejo, 

under Warren Brandon in San Francisco, and under Virginia Harsh in 

Carson City. 

Career: Commercial artist and professional painter; active in Vallejo 

Potter's Guild and Art League. 

Honors: Nevada Art Gallery, coordinator for exhibition, "Indian Heritage 

'62"; accepted by National League of American Penwomen, rating of Art, 

Design, and Mosaic. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, PAC; extensively in Nevada and Cahfornia. One- 
man shows: Three. 

Awards: Seven, in pottery, mosaic, watercolor, and collage. 

Address: 200 D wight Way, VaUejo, Calif. 
Cattail Bird (see Awa Tsireh) 
Cawastuma Lagtma 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Cehu'pa {see Jaw) 

Ce Komo Pyn {see Naranjo, Jose Dolores) 
Cetaniyatake ( ?) {see Sitting Hawk) 
Cetan Luta {see Red Hawk) 
Chamon, John A. Jemez 

(Also known as Chamon, Juan.) 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Chamon, Juan {see Chamon, John A.) 
Chapita, Dempsey Zuni 

Born: 1922, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 
During his schooling, the artist painted for pleasure. He has not painted since 
he left school, ca. 1939. 

Service: Discharged from armed services, 1945. 

Career: Laborer near Zuni, N.M. 

Work PublIvShed: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Collections: Private: Denman. 
Chapito, Tony Zuni 

Education : Santa Fe, 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Charges Strong Crow 

Work Published: Anthrolopogical Papers (AMNH, Vol. 21, Pt. 4., autobio- 
graphical pictographic style painting on a buffalo robe). 
Charging Bear {see Grass, John) 



ARTISTS 33 

Charging Man {see Whitehorse, Roland N.) 

Charlie Boy Zuni 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Chauncey, Florence Nupok Eskimo 

Nupok, Upright Post 

(Also known as Nupok, Florence.) 

Born: March 4, 1906, Gambell, Alaska. 

Married: Malegotkuk (or Malegoohtik) Chauncey. One adopted son, 1933. 
Florence started drawing at home at the age of eight. Her uncle purchased old 
drawing tablets for her use. Later, she executed drawings on sealskin for the 
Gambell Weather Bureau. In 1947, she wrote, ". . .looking for good sealskins, 
but hard to get, but I will make pictures in February, it wait 2 months to dry in 
very coldest weather — make very white." The artist draws by the light of an 
Eskimo lamp. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC, PAC/T; Alaska U.; Philander Smith College. 

Collections: Public: MAI, PAC. Private: Elkus, J. Snodgrass. 

Address: Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. 
Chavarria, Elmer Pueblo ( ?) 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," 1962. 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM. 

Address: Espafiola, N.M. 
Chavez, Calvin Fenley San Felipe-Laguna 

Born: December 27, 1924, Winslow, Ariz. Son of Lazaro B. Chavez (San 

Felipe) and Amy Bell (Laguna) . 
The artist often exhibited his oil portraits at the Annual Indian Market, Santa 
Fe, N.M. He is also known as a carver of plaques with Kachina motifs. In 1964, 
he underwent brain surgery which, for a time, threatened his career in art. 

Education: Public schools, Winslow, 1938-47; Arizona S.C./F. ; Art In- 
struction, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1948-50. 

Career: Sign painter and commercial artist, Navaho Ordnance Depot, 

1952 ; full-time artist. 

Commissions: Murals: Chamber of Commerce, Flagstaff, Ariz. Portraits: 

J. Howard Pyle, Governor of Arizona, 1954. 

Honors : Outstanding Jaycee in State of Arizona, 1954. 

Exhibitions: AIM, ASC, ASF, ITIC, MNM, PAC. One-man shows: ASC, 

MNM. 

Awards: 1946-48: ASF, ITIC. 

Collections: Private: Harvey. 

Address: Box 8036, Cubero, N.M. 
Chavez, Manuel "Bob" Cochiti 

Owu Tewa 

Born: 1915, Cochiti Pueblo, N.M. 

Education: Santa Fe; graduated St. Catherine's; B.A., Loyola. 

Career : Artist ; employed at Santa Fe Statuary Mart. 

Work Published: La Turista (June 7, 1957). 

Exhibitions: AIM, SAIEAIP. 

Collections: Public: MKMcNAI; Cornwall Heights, Philadelphia, Pa.; 



34 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Oklahoma State University. Private: Denman, R. Moore. 

Address: 130 Spruce Street, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Chea Sequah {see Hill, Joan) 
Che Bon Ah Bu La (see Blue Eagle, Acee) 
Che Chilly Tsosie [see MitcheU, Stanley C.) 
Chee, Robert Navaho 

Born: 1938. 

Education : Attended school in Bellemont, Ariz. ; Inter-Mt. 

Service : 1958-61 ; nine months in Germany. 

Career: Full-time artist. 

Work Published: New Mexico Magazine (December i960), Inter-Tribal 

Indian Ceremonial Annual Magazine (1961; 1962). 

Exhibitions: 1957-65: AIAE/WSU, FAIEAIP, MNM, PAC, PAC/T, SN; 

Philander Smith College. 

Awards: 1960-64: nine, from AIAE/WSU, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM, BIA, lACB, KM, MAI, MNA, MNM, PAC, 

SMNAI. Private: Berg, Bush, Dockstader, Elkus, C. Fenton, A. Forbes, 

R. Moore, Silberman, J. Snodgrass, Thoeny, Wyman. 

Address: Box 71, Saint Michaels, Ariz. 
Chenenaete [see Shave Head) 
Chester, Eddie Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Chester, Richard Apache 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1958. 

Awards: ITIC, 1958. 
Chetlahe Navaho (?) 

Exhibitions: 1962-63: ITIC, SN. 

Awards : 1962 : SN, special award for non-traditional style painting. 
Chet-toint, Charles [see Ohet Toint) 
Chevarillo, Dario San Felipe 

Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1926). 
Cheyatie, Patone Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1928). Private: Denman. 
Chief Bull [see SanderviUe, Richard) 
Chief Charging Skunk [see Newton, Ranzy Alison) 

Chief Killer Cheyenne 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Chief Of Humor [see Wagoshe, Russell William) 
Chinana, Christina Jemez 

Education: Jemez, 1962. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962 (student show); SN, 1963. 

Awards: MNM, honorable mention, 1962. 



ARTISTS 35 

Chinana, Felipe Jimez 

Born: 1944. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1957-60: AAIE, AIE, PAC. 

Awards: AIE, 1957. 
Chinana, Lawrence Jimez 

Collections: Private: Adlerblum. 
Chinana, Paul Jemez 

Born: 1946. 

Education: Jemez, 1958. 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: AAIE, MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1958. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. 
Chinana, Ricky Jemez 

Education: Jemez, 1962. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 

Awards: MNM, 1962. 
Chinosa {see Lone Dog) 
Chisholm, Calvin Cherokee-Shawnee 

Born: 1924, Sperry, Okla. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 

Chin Tah [see Mirabel, Vicente) 

Choh Navaho 

"In 1886, a Navaho by the name of Choh was making colored drawings of native 
men and women, birds and animals, a 'gaudily dressed chief riding at full tilt 
upon his Indian steed,' and occasional other subjects." Tanner (1950). {See also 
Big Lefthanded.) 
Work Published: Shufeldt (1889). 

Chulundit {see Jones, Ruthe Blalock) 

Chuokaichi, Linland ? 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 
Chuyate, Charles Ziini 

Collections: Private: Harvey. 

Clah, Alfred Navaho 

Education: Institute, ca. 1962-64. 
Exhibitions: PAC, YAIA. 
Collections: Public: BIA. Private: McGrath. 

Clarke, John Louis Blackfooi 

Man Who Speaks Not 
Born: Highwood, Mont. 

Scarlet fever in childhood left the artist unable to hear or speak. Well-known as 
a painter and sculptor, he is now blind. 
Education: Fort Shaw Indian School, Fort Shaw, Mont.; after iUness, 
attended a school for the deaf in Milwaukee, Wise. 
Honors : Represented in Indians of Today. 



36 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions : CAI ; Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, Pa. 

Awards: Gold medal, Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, 1919; silver 

medal, Spokane Art Association, 1928. 

Address: East Glacier Park, Mont. 

Claymore, Thomas William Sioux 

Nape Sica Hoksila, Bad Hand Boy 

Born: March 30, 1909. Cheyenne Agency, Cheyenne River, S. Dak. Son of 

John Claymore (Sioux) and Katherine Carter (Sioux). 

Married: Idita M. Three children: Paul T., 1935; Gayle, 1940; Tommie 

Cheryl, 1941. 
"Albert Yardley, Carlisle graduate, gave me my first small tips on drawing and a 
definite understanding of depth perception. Later, a cousin, George Claymore, 
showed me about shading." 

Education: Elementary school in La Plant, S. Dak.; Haskell, 1927-30; 

Bacone College, 1936-38; Redlands, 1949-51; Northern, 1963; B.F.A., 

N. Dak., 1965 ; oil painting instruction under WiUiam Dietz at Haskell, 1929. 

Career: Artist; art instructor '*in various schools over the years;'* com- 
pleted Office of Economic Opportunity program with youth, 1965. 

Exhibitions: 1954-65: Bismarck, N. Dak.; Aberdeen, S. Dak.; Charlotte, 

N.C. ; Washington, D.C. ; Phoenix, Ariz. ; Rapid City, S. Dak. 

Awards: 1965: Territorial Art Show, Range Days; Wahpiya Luta Club 

Art Show, Rapid City, S. Dak. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. 

Address: 1734 Beverly Glen Boulevard, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Cleveland, Frederick ? 

Education : Albuquerque. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 

Cloud Shield Oglala Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; from the Pine Ridge Agency area, S. Dak. 
Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (a 34-page book containing 102 sketches 
copied by Cloud Shield from the original Winter Count of 1777-1879 in his 
possession; 104 sketches copied by Cloud Shield from the original Winter 
Count of 1775-1879 in the possession of American Horse, q.v.). 

Clutesi, George Charles Nootka 

Born: January i, 1905, Alberni, B.C., Canada 

Married: Name unknown. Five children. 
The artist has said it is his desire to depict on canvas the "past culture of my 
own race on the west coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada." 

Education : Alberni Boarding School through the eighth grade. 

Career: British Columbia Packers, Ltd., B. Gregory Branch, Port Alberni, 

B.C., 13 years; piledriver, bridge and dockworker, 20 years. 

Honors: Canadian Council Grant, 1961-62; named one of the "Indians of 

North America," 1961. 

Books Illustrated: Street (1963). 



ARTISTS 37 

Exhibitions: 1945-64: throughout Canada and the U.S., induding Seattle 

World's Fair. One-man shows: Victoria, Port Alberni, Ogama, Edmonton, 

Toronto, and Seattle. 

Collections: Public: UBC. Private: Frost. 

Address: Rural Route # 3, Alberni, B.C., Canada. 

Cochran, George McKee Cherokee 

Man Alone 

Born: October 5, 1908, Stilwell, Okla. Son of Oscar Cochran (Cherokee) 
and Ada Redbird (Cherokee). 

Married: Avanell Hooks. Seven children: Joan, Betty, William, Thomas, 
Oscar, Sue Nell, James. 

After WWII, the artist traveled around the country sketching various tribes. 

He later organized the Northwest Cartoonists' and Gagwriters' Association. 
Education: Wyandotte; Chilocco; Hominy High School, Hominy, Okla.; 
Haskell, 1927. 

Honors: American Indian Festival of Arts, member of board of directors; 
represented in Who's Who in the West, Who's Who in American Art, and the 
World Almanac of Art. 

Commissions: Murals: Church of Latter Day Saints, Eugene, Oreg. 
Books Illustrated: Cochran (1939). 

Exhibitions: AAID; Oregon State Fair; Hollywood (Calif.) Park Gallery, 
University of Oregon; American Indian Festival of Arts, La Grande, Oreg. 
Awards: 1952-61: AAID Grand Award; Oregon State Fair. 
Collections: Public: BIA; Haskell Institute; Truman Library, Indepen- 
dence, Mo.; Seattle Public Library; Oregonian, Portland, Oreg.; Warm 
Springs Tribal Council, Oreg. 
Address: 681 Chase Street, Eugene, Oreg. 

Cochran, J. Woody Cherokee 

Born: September 28, 1919, Tahlequah, Okla. Son of George W. Cochran 
(Cherokee) and NelHe Ann BaUard. 

Married: Geraldine lone Berg, 1943. Two children: Melanie Jo, 1943; 
Woody Kim, 195 1. 

Education: Oklahoma S.U., 1937-41; Chicago, 1946-47; B.A., Tulsa, 1950; 
M.A., Tulsa, 1956. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force, four years; Southwest Pacific Theater 
(Distinguished Fljdng Cross, Silver Star, Purple Heart, Air Medal, four 
Presidential Citations for combat action). 

Career: Associate Professor of Art, University of Tulsa, 1950-. 
Honors: Selected by the U.S. War Department as "An Indian American" 
to represent minority Americans at the New York Herald Tribune Forum, 
"Pioneering for a Civilized World," Waldorf-Astoria, New York, N.Y., 
November, 1943. 

Exhibitions: BM/B, CAI, DMFA, NYWF, OAC, PAC, SAM/S, SN, TAI, 
WAM; Mid- America Exhibition, WRNGA; Invitational Print Show, 
Philadelphia Art Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa.; i8th Annual International 
Exhibition, The National Serigraph Society, 1957, Meltzer Gallery, New 



38 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

York, N.Y. One-man shows: PAC; University of Tulsa; East Branch 

Library, Tulsa, Okla. ; Northeastern State Teachers College. 

Awards: 1948-65: Six from DMFA, OAC, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: DMFA. Private: Bruestle, Cadenhead, Enlows, Grubb, 

Ch. Harris, Hayden, Henneke, Humphrey, E. Johnson, Kaho, Livingston, 

McMorris, Patman, Place, W. S. Price, Randolph, Underwood. 

Address : 1553 East 46th Place, Tulsa, Okla. 

Coffee Cheyenne (?) 

There was a Coffee, formerly a Southern Cheyenne but living with the 
Northern Cheyenne, who was a helper to the chief medicine man of the 
tribal medicine lodge. The artist Coffee may be the same man. 

With the aid of an old man, he painted a war record of mounted men on deerskin. 

The skin was heavily damaged when a torrential rain flooded a portion of the 

Lowe Gallery. 
Work Published: Alexander (1938). 
Collections: Public: UM/LG. 

Coho, Vernon Navaho 

Education: Riverside, ca. 1961; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian 
Art Project," 1962. 
Exhibitions: PAC. 
Collections: Private: Frazier. 

Address: Box 21, Ramah, N.M., and 2515 Reagon Street, Apt. 202, Dallas, 
Tex. 

Cohoe, William ^ Southern Cheyenne 

Mohe, Elk ; Mapera Mohe, Water Elk (or Moose) ; Nohnicas, Lame Man. 
(Also known as Broken Leg, Co jo, and Cripple.) 

Born: ca. 1854, in Colo.; died, March 18, 1924, in Blaine Co., near Bickford, 
Okla. Son of Sleeping Bear and Plain Looking. The artist's father was killed 
in the massacre of Black Kettle's camp. Sand Creek, 1864. 
Married: Small Woman (Cheyenne), who married him before he was sent 
to prison and remained his wife until his death. One child: Walking Coj^ote 
(Charles Cohoe), 1882. After his return from prison and school, Cohoe was 
given his wife's sister, PeUcan (or Surprise) Woman (also known as Vister) 
as a second wife. They had one son. Black Bird (Bruce Cohoe), ca. 1885. 
Cohoe was one of 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, Okla., to 
Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. During his three years there, he drew 
pictures of his relatives and of the events in his life. He apparently drew little, 
if at all, after leaving prison. 
Education : After imprisonment, one of the first Indian students admitted 
to Hampton, April 1878 ; among the first students enrolled at Carlisle, 1879. 
Service: U.S. Army, scout at Fort Supply, 1887-88. 

Career: Apprentice tailor, 1879; laborer, millhand, teamster (transported 
supplies), farmer, and butcher, Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency (present site of 
Darlington), Okla., 1880; appointed baker of bread, Cheyenne-Arapaho 
Agency School, December i, 1881; later worked as a clerk in a local trading 
post for about six years. By 1891, he was farming his own land. 



ARTISTS 39 

Honors: Head chief of the Onihanotria (War Dancers Society) in his last 

years. 

Work Published: Cohoe (1964). 

Collections: Public: MHS/B, YU/BRBML. Private: Petersen. 

Cojo {see Cohoe, William) 

Colbert, Frank Overton Chickasaw 

Red Feather 

(Also known as Colbert, Chief F. Overton.) 

Born: August 10, 1896, Riverside, Okla. Died March 20, 1935, Fort Lyon, 
Colo. Son of Holmes Colbert (Chickasaw), who with Sampson Folsom 
drafted a constitution for the Chickasaw Nation in 1856. Holmes Colbert 
was elected first national secretary of the bicameral legislature of his tribe. 
P/GF: B. F. Colbert, who built and operated the first ferry across the Red 
River near Colbert, Okla. The artist was a descendant of Dougherty "Win- 
chester" Colbert, governor of the Chickasaws from 1858 to i860. 
Married: Kate London; divorced, 1933. One son: Robert Holmes, 1926. 
The artist is descended from a long line of distinguished and prosperous Chicka- 
saws (see Oklahoma Almanac, 1959). He lived in Paris from 1923 to 1926 and in 
Greenwich Village, New York City, after WWI. A member of the Whitney Club, 
he was a well-known "Village" personality in the 1920's. He later moved to 
Santa Fe, N.M., traveled extensively, and studied the arts and crafts of many 
Indian tribes. 
Education: Calera (Okla.) Public School, Murray State Agricultural Col- 
lege, Tishomingo, Okla. ; attended art classes in New York City and Paris, 
1918-25. 

Service: WWI, U.S. Navy, two years. 
Career: Artist. 

Exhibitions: Before 1923, Architectural League, New York; The Indepen- 
dents, Groupe de Parnasse, Paris; with sculptress Renee Prahar. One-man 
shows: Three, including Montrose Gallery, New York, and a retrospective 
show of 100 paintings and drawings, Galerie Paula Insel, New York, 1963. 
Collections: Public: OHSM. Private: Colbert, Garland, Taylor. 

Collins, Howard Rufus (see Ducee Blue Buzzard) 

Collins, Martha Adele Chickasaw-Choctaw 

Puctmubbi, Baby 

Born: January 14, 1908, Blanchard, Okla. Daughter of Emmett L. Victor 
(Chickasaw) and Lee Desmond. P/GU: Douglas Johnston, governor of the 
Chickasaws. P/GM: Lucy Moncrief, half sister of Johnston. 
Married: Patrick CoUins, 1934. 

Education: Criner (Okla.) Rural School, 1914; Lindsay (Okla.) Elementary 
Schools, Mt. Mary's Academy, Oklahoma City, Okla., ca. 1912-26: St. 
EHzabeth's Indian School, Purcell, Okla., ca. 1927; private art instruction 
under Emalita Newton Terry, i960-. 

Career: Housewife; active in community art affairs; member of Las Vegas 
(Nev.) Art League, 195 1-. 

Exhibitions: MNM, OAC, PAC, SAIEAIP; Art Fair, Community Fair, 
Art Roundup, Art Show, Mobile Home Show, Art League Exhibition, and 



40 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Sierra Vista Ranches Exhibition (all in Las Vegas, Nev.). One-man shows: 

HM. 

Awards: 1957-64: 18 from ITIC, MNM, and various Las Vegas competi- 
tions; two trophies, Sierra Vista Ranchos Exhibition. 

Collections: Public: lACB. Private: L. Allen, Greenberg, R. Maxwell, 

Noble, Ried, H. Roberts, H. Snodgrass, Stalcup, Zellehofer. 

Address: 1631 Curtis Drive, Las Vegas, Nev. 
Colo que, Mary Nancy Jimez 

Education: Jemez, i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 

Awards: MNM, i960. 
Colville, Clyde Navaho 

Collections: Public: PU/M. 

Comanche Enemy (see Geionety, George) 

Coma Pesva (see Lomayesva, Louis) 

Concha, John Taos 

The artist was still painting in 1950, although his work was not readily available 
to the general public. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Connery, Stanley ? 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address : 2749 West 33 Avenue, Denver, Colo. 
Conte Feri (see Hard Heart) 
Coochwatewa, Victor H. Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Cooke, Connie Hopi 

Exhibitions: PAC. 
Cooyama, Homer Hopi 

(Also known as Coyama.) 
The artist began his art career at 12. He has painted church fonts throughout 
the U.S. In 1927, he executed a painting on a curtain for the stage of the West- 
ern Navaho Indian School. He operated a painting shop in Flagstaff for several 
years. 

Education: Government Indian school, Keams Canyon, Ariz.; Sherman; 

Kansas City; School of Applied Arts, Bear Creek, Mich. 

Career: Artist, cabinetmaker, sign-painter. 

Exhibitions: FWG, HM. 

Collections: Public: AF (signed H. S. Cooyama). 
Cordova, Louis Santa Clara 

(Also known as Cordova, Luis.) 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Collections: Public: MAI (painting dated ca. 1920's). 
Coriz, Fidel Santo Domingo 

Education: Santa Fe, 1953. 

Collections: Private: Wyman. 



ARTISTS 41 

Coriz, Nat Tesuque 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA. 
Cornine, Barbara Cherokee 

Education: Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1958. 

Awards: PAC. 
Cornplanter, Carrie Seneca 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Cornplanter, Jesse Seneca 

Born: Cattaraugus Reservation, N.Y. Died ca. 1961. Last living descendant 

of the well-known Cornplanter of George Washington's era. 

Married: Elsina Billy (Seneca). 
The artist held many distinguished tribal positions, including: ritual chief of the 
Long House; chief of New Town, Indian village of Snipe Clan; singer for the 
Great Feather Dance; head singer for many tribal ceremonies. 

Service: WWI, 20 months. 

Career: Instructor of False Face mask carving, WPA Indian Arts and 

Crafts Project; master carver of ceremonial False Face masks; author, 

singer, and painter. 

Honors : Represented in Indians of Today. 

Commissions : Illustrations : At the age of nine, he executed sketches relating 

to the life of the Long House people (commissioned by the State of New 

York). 

Books Illustrated: Cornplanterj [ca. [1903; 1938), Parker (1910; 1913; 

1923), Hamilton (1950). 

Collections: Public: MAI, RMAS; New York State Library. 

Cosen, Gilbert Apache 

Education: Bacone College, 1960-61; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest 
Indian Art Project," 1962. 
Exhibitions: PAC. 
Address: Box 182, Whiteriver, Ariz. 
Cosen, Lydia M. Apache 

Born: 1935. 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project." 
Address: Whiteriver, Ariz. 
Costilow, Eunice Cherokee 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965. 
Address : Lake Euchee, Jay, Okla. 
Coyama {see Cooyama, Homer) 

Cree Crow 

Born: Date unknown; from Fort Benton, Mont. 
A medallion of strouding outlined with a band of black and white beads, quilled 
horizontal strips, and painted drawings of horses and men, was given by the 
artist to W. M. Gary. In 1861, this gift was acquired by M. H. Schiefflin and is 
now in MAI collections. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 



42 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Cripple {see Cohoe, William) 

Crispin, Santiago ? 

Education: Santa Fe, 1924. 
Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1924). 
Crispin, Sutero Navaho 

Education: Santa Fe, 1958; Albuquerque, 1959. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1958-59. 
The Crow (Chief) Sioux 

Kanribeloka, The Crow 
One of five artists whose works, commissioned and collected by Rudolf Cronau, 
1880-83, are now referred to as the Cronau Album {see Sinte). 

Collections: Public: AMNH. 
Crow Indian (see YeUow Nose) 
Crow Nose (see Roman Nose) 

Crumbo, Woodrow Wilson Creek- Potawatomi 

(Also known as Crumbo, Woody.) 

Born : January 31, 191 2, Lexington, Okla. Son of Alex Crumbo and Mary. 
Married: Lillian Faye Hogue, 1941. Two children: Minisa, 1942; Woody 
Max, 1946. 
At the end of the third grade, Crumbo's schooling was interrupted for nearly 
ten years. During this period he, and other young Indian boys of Anadarko, 
Okla., were encouraged by Mrs. Susie Peters {see Five Kiowas), who worked 
with them, finding them materials with which to paint and a market for their 
work. "Some of us were so small," Crumbo said, "that we sat on gallon buckets 
and used the backs of chairs for easels". The artist returned to school at 17 to 
study art, anthropology, and history and to pursue his many talents. In 1952, he 
said, "Half of my life passed in striving to complete the pictorial record of Indian 
history, religion, rituals, customs, way of life, and philosophies. It is now ac- 
complished — a graphic record that a million words could not begin to tell." In 
i939» Philbrook Art Center was given the first Indian painting in its collection, 
Crumbo's "Deer and Birds." 
Education: Fort Sill; Chilocco; scholarship to American, 1931-33; Wichita, 
1933-36; Oklahoma, 1936-38; studied mural technique under Olaf Nord- 
mark, watercolor under Clayton Henri Staples and painting and drawing 
under O. B. Jacobson. 

Career: Conducted a dance group in a government-sponsored tour of re- 
servations throughout the U.S., 1933; camp director of arts and crafts, 
Estes Park, Colo., summer, 1934; instructor of hobbies, Wichita Public 
Schools, 1934-35; director of arts and crafts. Kit Carson Summer Camp 
for Boys, Colo., summer, 1935; director of arts and crafts, Rancho Verde 
Camp for Boys, Colo., summer, 1936; silversmithing instructor. University 
of Oklahoma, 1936-37; director of art, Bacone College, 1938-41; aircraft 
designer in Tool and Die Dept., Cessna Aircraft, Wichita, Kan., 1941-42; 
designer in Tool and Die Dept., Douglas Aircraft, Tulsa, Okla., ca. 1942; 
freelance artist, Taos, N.M.; artist in residence, Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, 
Okla. ; assistant director, El Paso (Tex.) Museum of Art, ca. 1962-. 
Honors: High school valedictorian; scholarship to American Indian 
Institute; won National Dance Contest (with partner), ITIC, 1935; Julius 



ARTISTS 43 

Rosenwald Fellowship, 1945-46; represented in Indians of Today; member 
A O A (National Collegiate Art Fraternity.) 

Commissions: Murals: OU, PAC, USDI; Fort Sill Indian School; Nowata 
Federal Building; Home of Sequoyah, Sallisaw, Okla. ; home of G. A. Hoult, 
Wichita, Kan. Stained Glass Window: Rose Chapel, Bacone College. 
Work Published: La Farge (1956). 3rd Anmial American Indian Week 
Brochure, Tulsa (October 18-22, 1938), Tzilsa Sunday World Magazine 
(December 7, 1952), Sooner Magazine (November 1954); Oklahoma Today 
(Summer 1958); Life International (March 16, 1959). 

Exhibitions: 1936-65 : Over 200 exhibitions in Europe and North and South 
America: AAUW, AIEC, AIW, AMNH, CGA, DAR (Washington, D.C.), 
FWG, HM, ITIC, KM, MNM, OAC, OU, PAC, PAC/T, SFMA, SN; Yale 
University; Texas State; City Library, Bartlesville, Okla.; Junior League of 
Tulsa Building, City Library, Fayetteville, Ark. ; Enid (Okla.) Art Association, 
One-man shows: AMNH, MNM, OAC, OU, PAC, USDI, WAM, WU. 
Awards: Sixteen during 1938-60. 

Collections: Pitblic: BIA, CCHM, GM, lACB, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC. 
OU/L, OU/SM, PAC, SMNAI. Private: Callaway, Denman, Elkus, Field, 
Schonwald, Thoeny, Walch, Wurlitzer, Wyman. 
Address: 1516 Murchison Street, El Paso, Tex. 

Crumbo, Woody (see Crumbo, Woodrow Wilson) 

Cruz, Ramoncita San Juan 

Education: Santa Fe, 1938. 
Exhibitions: AIW. 

Crying Wind (see Doonkeen, Eulamae Narcomey) 

Cusick, David Tiiscarora 

Although his education was not extensive, the artist was "thought to be a good 
doctor by both whites and Indians." 
Books Illustrated: Cusick (1828). 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (watercolor and ink sketches credited to 
Cusick) . 

Cut Ear Apache 

Collections: Public: OHSM (the artist was one of the 72 prisoners taken 
from Fort Sill, Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875). 

Da, Anthony San Ildefonso 

The artist, the son of Popovi Da {q.v.), has attended schools of higher learning 
and recently served in the armed services. 

Exhibitions: 1959-60: ITIC, MNM, PAC; Tulsa (Okla.) Central Library. 

Awards: ITIC, MNM. 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: A. Forbes. 

Da, Popovi San Ildefonso 

Born: In New Mexico. Son of Julian Martinez (q.v.) and Maria Montoya, 
the internationally known potter (both San Ildefonso). The artist has 
legally changed his name from Tony Martinez to Popovi Da. 
Married : Anita Cata (Santa Clara) . 



44 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Like his father, the artist has done his best work with sjrmbolic designs and 
geometric figures. After his father's death in 1943, he did most of the designing 
and decorating of his mother's pottery. 

Service: WWII. 

Honors: Governor of his pueblo, ca. 1952. 

Career : Owner and operator of an arts and crafts shop in San Ildef onso 

Pueblo, ca. 1948-. 

Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Private: Denman, D. Kramer, Thoeny. 

Address:: Route i. Box 160, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Da, Tony (see Da, Anthony) 
Dagadahga {see Dick, Cecil) 
Dage, Lynn Choctaw 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address: 1835 Cruse, Las Cruces, N.M. 
Dahadid, Posey Navaho 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Damrow, Charles Cherokee 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Dancing Boy {see Mirabel, Vicente) 
Darby, Raymond Lee Kiowa 

Thayhaiya (and Hunting Horse) 

Born: August i, 1938, Carnegie, Okla. Son of Ethelene Darby (Kiowa). 

Married : Karen Ann. Three children. 

Education: Cache Elementary and High Schools; Cameron Junior College, 

Lawton, Okla. 

Career: Night club entertainer, Nashville, Tenn. ; artist. 

Collections: Private: Deupree, R. Moore, Thoeny. 

Address: 2113 Arlington, Lawton, Okla. 
Darling, Marcell J. Potawatomi 

Wasconadie, Prairie Flower 

Born: 1911, Mayetta, Kan. 

Education: Haskell. 

Career: House painter, artist. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Address: 1808 North Atlanta Court, Tulsa, Okla. 
Davenport, Julia Chisholm Chickasaw-Cherokee 

Collections: Public: OHSM. 
David, Neal Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Davis, Jesse Edwin, II Comanche 

Asawoya, Running Wolf 

Born: July 9, 1921, Anadarko, Okla. Son of William G. Davis (Creek- 
Seminole) and Richenda E. Merrick (Comanche-Cheyenne). P/GGM: Alice 



ARTISTS 45 

Brown Davis, only woman chief of the Seminoles (appointed by the Pre- 
sident) and postmistress of Okemah, Okla., she and her Scottish husband 
owned and operated the Arbeka Trading Post in Oklahoma Territory. 
P/GF: Jesse Edwin Davis, who inherited and operated the Arbeka Trading 
Post, later U.S. Marshal in Indian Territory. M/GGF: Comanche Jack, a 
scout for the U.S. Army at Fort Sill, Okla. M/GF: Eustace Merrick (Coman- 
che), a leader in resetthng the Indians of the area. M/GA: Mary Inkanish 
(Cheyenne), a noted beadworker at Anadarko, Okla 

Married: Vivian Saunkeah (Boiled Man) (Kiowa), 1944. One son: Jesse 
Edwin, III, 1944. 
The artist has never been a prolific painter, and each year he paints less as he 
becomes more active in photography and music. At the peak of his painting 
career, about 1957, ^^ showed promise of becoming one of the outstanding Plains 
Indian painters. 
Education: B.F.A., Oklahoma, 1949. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, three years; South Pacific Theater. 
Career: Production planner. Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Okla., 

1951-. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Oklahoma Today (Winter 

1961-62; Spring 1962); Hughesnews (March 12, 1965). 

Exhibitions: AAID, AIE, BNIAS, MNM, MNM/T, MPI, PAC; Frontier 

City, U.S.A. One-man shows: PAC. 

Awards: 1948-59: Six from PAC (Grand Award, 1957); AAID, Best in 

Show, 1957. 

Collections : Public : PAC. Private : Field, Holway, Marriott, Schonwald. 

Address: 517 Wildewood Terrace, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Davis, Ralph U. Navaho 

Collections: Public lACB (silk screened cards). 
Davis, Truman Navaho 

Education: Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 

Collections: Private: Hogue. 
Dawes, Ermaleen Cheyenne 

Education: Chilocco. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 
Dawn "Walker {see Pushetonequa, Charles) 
Day After Day [see Kabotie, Fred) 

De Cinq-Mars, Tahcawin Rosebud Josephine Marie Louise [see Tahcawin) 
Decker, Vernon Edward Shoshoni 

Little Bear 

Born: 1943, Schurz, Nev. Son of Evlyne Pete Decker. 

Education : Graduated Stewart. Attended Institute, 1963. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, 1965. 

Address: 852 J Wisconsin Street, Chico, Calif. 
De Cora, Angel Winnebago 

Married: WiUiam H. (Lone Star) Dietz (listed in Indians of Today). 



46 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Education: Art school, Boston, Mass.; Hampton. 

Career: Instructor, Carlisle Indian School. 

Commissions: Murals: Carlisle Indian School. 

Work Published: La Flesche (1900). 
Deere, Eli Creek 

Born: ca. 1914. Orphaned and reared by his grandfather, Mose Bird, who 

lived on Honey Creek, near Okmulgee, Okla. 

Education: Chilocco. 

Collections: Public. CCHM. 
Deere, Noah Creek 

Born : August 23, 1929, Eufaula, Okla. 

Education: Bacone College; Benedictine. 

Service: U.S. Army, two and one-half years; Japan and Korea. 

Career: Commercial artist and illustrator in 1958. 

Work Published: Stirling (1955). National Geographic Magazine (March, 

1955)- 

Exhibitions: JGS, NGA, PAC, PAC/T, SFWF. 

Awards: PAC, 1949-50. 

Collections: Public: MHDYMM, PAC. 
De Groat, Jay Navaho 

Joogii, Blue Jay 

Born: May 16, 1947. 

Education: Graduated Gallup, 1965. 

Exhibitions: Window Rock, Ariz.; Crownpoint and Gallup, N.M. 

Awards : Three during 1962-63. 

Collections: Private: Berg. 

Address: Box 222, Window Rock, Ariz. 
Delena, Sam Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
De Mott, Helen Seneca 

Born: 1923, New York, N.Y. 

Education : National Academy of Design ; Art Students League, N.Y. 

Exhibitions: RM; Seligman Gallery, Ashby Gallery, and Queens CoUege, 

N.Y. ; Research Institute, Maitland, Fla. 

Address: 43-30 48th Street, Long Island City, N.Y. 
Denetdale, Myron Navaho 

Exhibitions: HM, 1951. 
Denetsosie, Hoke Navaho 

Kiya Ahnii, Slim Navaho (or Kiyaa Nii, House Standing Upright) 

Born: Ca. 1919, near Cameron, Ariz., on the Navaho Reservation. 
Toward the end of his studies at Phoenix Indian School, the artist met Lloyd H. 
New, then art director, whose encouragement was his major influence during 
this period. The artist's most productive years were between 1930 and 1940. 

Education : Schools in Leupp and Tuba City, Ariz. ; graduated Phoenix. 

Career: Visual Aid Division, BIA, Window Rock, Ariz., 14 years; formerly 

a logger and commercial artist. 



ARTISTS 47 

Commissions: Mtirals: Arizona Craftsmen Building, Scottsdale, Ariz., ten 

panels. 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1939). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: FWG, HM. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Denton, Coye Elizabeth Cherokee 

Born : October 14, 1914, Romulus, Okla. Daughter of Lester Jerome Hath- 
cock (Cherokee) and Izetta Robins (Cherokee). 

Married: Booth Dewey Denton, 1938. Two sons: E. Q. Denton (stepson), 
1933; Ernest Dewey Denton (deceased, 1946). 
jVlrs. Denton is a nontraditionalist. She is a charter member of the Ada Artists' 
Association and was instrumental in establishing an art center in Ada, Okla. 
From 1950 to 1964, she toured numerous countries to study art. 
Education: Hays Elementary School, Ada, Okla.; graduated Ada High 
School, 1933; B.S., East, 1941; graduate studies, East, 1946. Private art 
studies under Ida Hoover, Kenneth F. Campbell, Lunda Gill, Glenn Swen- 
lund, Richard Van Wagoner, and with the Ada Artists' Association. 
Career: Housewife; active in civic and church affairs; arts and crafts 
teacher in the Salvation Army Bible School, ca. 1954-60; member of the 
Salvation Army Advisory Board. 

Exhibitions: 1947-63: FAIEAIP, ITIC, PAC; Oklahoma Federated 
Women's Clubs; East Central State College, Linschied Gallery; Ada Public 
Library (all in Ada, Okla.). 
Awards: Four during 1947-48. 

Collections: Private: Cravens, Downs, F. Fleet, M. Fleet, J. Harris, Hauger, 
R. Hoover, Love, Mayhue, Pherigo, R. Thomas, Welbom, Wray, Yagol. 
Address : Box 444, Ada, Okla. 

Desautel, Ernie Colville 

Born: March 14, 1944. 
Education : Santa Fe. 
Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 
Awards: MNM, 1962. 
Address: Box 1006, Elmer City, Wash. 

Des Jarlait, Patrick Robert Chippewa 

Nagawbo, Boy Of The Woods 

Born: March i, 1921, Red Lake, Minn., on the Chippewa Reservation. Son 

of Solomon Des Jarlait and EHzabeth Blake. 

Married: Ramona Needham, August 24, 1945. Five children: Robert, 1946; 

Patrick, 1952; Charmaine, 1953; Delmar, 1956,; Ronald, 1962. 
Before WWII, the artist organized an art department in an Arizona War Relo- 
cation Center. Although he was interested in both painting and music, he chose 
art as a more satisfying means of self-expression. 

Education: Graduated from Pipestone (Minn.) Indian Training School, 

1935; Red Lake (Minn.) High School, 1939; Phoenix J.C, 1940-41. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, four years; Visual Training. 



48 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career: Japanese War Relocation Center, Poston, Ariz., 1941; commercial 

artist specializing in film animation for TV, training and industrial films, 

and general commercial art, 1948-. 

Honors: Represented in Who's Who in American Art. 

Exhibitions: 1946-64: ITIC, PAC, PAC/T, SN. One-man shows: San Diego 

Fine Arts Gallery, St. Paul (Minn.) Art Gallery. 

Awards : Nine during 1946-64, including SN Grand Award. 

Collections: Public: PAC; Campbell Mitcun Advertising Agency, Minnea- 
polis, Minn. Private: Bimson, Needham. 

Address : 7641 62nd Avenue North, New Hope, Minn. 
Dewa, R. B. Zuni 

Collections: Public: OU/SM. 
Dewayesva (see Talahytewa, Gibson) 
Dewey, Wilson San Carlos Apache 

Sundust 

Born: June 25, 1915, on the San Carlos Reservation, Ariz. 

Education: Attended San Carlos, ca. 1923, 1927, 1931-33; St. John's 

Mission School, Komatke, Ariz., 1928; Santa Fe, ca. 1938. 

Service: WWH, U.S. Army. 

Career: Football and basketball player; rodeo calf roper. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Paintings by American 

Indians, CPLH (1962). 

Exhibitions: AIW, CPLH, FWG, HM, MNM, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T; Paul 

Elder Co., San Francisco, Cahf. 

Collections: Public: GM, MNM, MRFM, PAC. Private: Denman, Dietrich, 

Elkus, Hogue, Schonwald. 
Dhealdh Yazzie Bitsi [see Cassady, Ann Virginia) 
Dick, Cecil Cherokee 

Dagadahga, Standing Alone 

Born: 1915, Rose, Okla. Since deceased. 
Although orphaned at 12 and reared in Indian boarding schools, the artist be- 
came an authority on Cherokee mythology and the Cherokee written language. 

Education: Seneca; Sequoyah; Bacone College; Santa Fe; graduated 

Bagley High School, Tahlequah, Okla. 

Career: Art instructor, Chilocco Indian School, 1939-42; illustrator in air- 
craft plant during WWII. 

Commissions : Murals : Bagley High School ; Sequoyah ; Rocky Ford Indian 

Day School, Jay, Okla.; Chilocco; U.S. Indian Hospital, Claremore, Okla.; 

Oak Hill School, Valliant, Okla.; Santa Fe. Displays: John Wanamaker 

(International Sports Show), New York, N.Y., 1936; Sequoyah Weavers 

Exhibit, New York, N.Y., 1946. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Oklahoma Today (Summer 

1958), Life International (March, 16, 1959) ; Sunday Bonanza, San Francisco 

Chronicle (August 22, 1965). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, NGA, PAC, PAC/T. 

Collections: PiiUic: GM, MAI, PAC. Private: Deupree, Field, D. Maxwell, 

Middleton. 



ARTISTS 49 

Dickson, Larry Ziini 

Education: Albuquerque, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1963. 
Dineh Ligaai {see Mitchell, George Charlie) 
Dishta, Duane Zimi 

Exhibitions: AAIEAE. 

Collections: Private: Adlerblum. 

Dishta, Virgil, Jr. Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 
Awards: MNM, 1965, special award. 
Address: Box 223, Zuni, N.M. 

Dodge, Adee [see Dodge, Aydee) 

Dodge, Aydee Navaho 

Work Published : Arizona Highways (December 1958; July 1959; August 

1965). 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1958. 

Collections: Public: ASU. Private: Denman, MuUan, Thoeny. 

Doha (see Tohausen) 
Dohasan {see Tohausen) 
Dohate {see Tohausen) 
Dohausen {see Tohausen) 

Dolwiftema {see Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema) 
Donations {see Paukei, George) 

Don't Braid His Hair Sioux 

Collections : Public : MAI (pictographic painting on paper) . 

Doonkeen, Eulamae Narcomey Seminole 

Hah Gay Kee Hooduh Lee, Crying Wind 

Born: December 12, 1931, Oklahoma City, Okla. Daughter of John Osceola 
Narcomey (Seminole-Creek) and Maggie Coker (Seminole-Creek). P/GGGF: 
Narkome, killed in the Civil War serving under Gen. Stand Watie in the 
Confederate Home Brigade. M/GGGU: Ispahitcher, a circuit judge at 
Okmulgee, Okla., previously chief of the Creeks during the Green Peach 
War and a Confederate officer during the Civil War. M/GM: Jennie Lasley, 
whose ancestors were Hitchiti and Cheyaha. M/GF: Dave Coker. M/GGGF: 
London Coker, a lighthorseman. 

Married: A1 Doonkeen, March 15, 1953. Five children: Kotcha, 1957; 
Alfreda Margaret, 1958; Dana Charles, i960; Conchattee, 1962. 
Education: Attended Northeast Senior High School, Oklahoma City; 
Chilocco; graduated Bacone College High School, 1950; Central, 1963-. 
Service: WAF, Continental Air Command, 1951-54. 
Career: Stenographer; art student, with minor in education. 
Honors: Princess of Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma, 1946-56; model for 
artist Pierre Tarteau, three years. 



50 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: Conservative Artists' Sidewalk Show, Oklahoma City, Okla., 

1961. 

Collections: Private: W. Brown, S. Carter, LaughHn. 

Address : 1608 North West 35th, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Dorsey, Tom (see Two-Arrows, Tom) 
Dorsey, Tom, Jr. Onondaga 

Born: 1943. Son of Tom Two-Arrows {q.v.). 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Double Rmmer Blackfoot 

The artist assisted in the execution of a 61 -year count {see Elk Horn). 

Double Shields {see Pepion, Victor) 

Doyce, Clarence Jemez 

Education: Jemez, 1961. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 
Draper, Robert D. Navaho-Laguna 

Born : November 20, 1938, Chinle, Ariz. Son of Frank Draper (Laguna) and 

Janet Descheeny (Navaho). 

Married : Ruby S. Three children. 

Education: Chinle, 1947-51; Inter-Mt., 1951-56. 

Career: Art instructor, Chinle Boarding School; instructional aid, child 

guidance, BIA, Chinle Boarding School. 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, NTF, PAC, SAIEAIP. 

Awards: Five during 1964-65 from ITIC, NTF. 

Collections: Private: Leonard, Ruedin. 
Draper, Teddy, Sr. Navaho 

Keeti Bahi, Grey Boy 

Born: April 2, 1923, Chinle, Ariz. Son of Elsitty Draper (Navaho) and 

Margaret (Navaho). 

Married: Lucy (Navaho). Seven children. 

Education: Fort Wingate; Box High School, Brigham City, Utah; Utah S. ; 

graduated Arizona S.C./T., 1962. 

Service: WWII, three and one-half years; Pacific Theater. 

Career: Supervisory instructional aid, child guidance, Nazhni Boarding 

School, Ganado, Ariz. 

Exhibitions: HM. 

Collections: Public: Inter-Mountain Indian School. 

Address : c/o Nazlini Boarding School, Ganado, Ariz. 
Duahkapoo, Anthony Hopi 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Ducee Blue Buzzard Creek 

(Also known as Collins, Howard Rufus.) 

Born: July 8, 1894, Checotah, Okla. (formerly Indian Territory). Son of 

Henry R. Collins and Aurora (Creek). Related to the Creek chiefs, William 

F. Mcintosh and W. E. Mcintosh. 

Married: Margery McBee, 1939. One son: Gene, 1918. 



ARTISTS 51 

Education: Eufaula and Wetumka (Okla.) Creek Mission, ca. 1905; Oktaha 

(Okla.) High School, 1909; St. Joseph College, Muskogee, Okla., 1910-12. 

Career: Commercial artist. 

Exhibitions: MNM; local. 

Address: 2003 Columbus, Muskogee, Okla. 
Duncan, Clifford Northern Vie 

Exhibitions: MNM, Senior High-College Division, 1962; PAC, 1959. 

Address: Box 19, White Rocks, Utah. 
Duncan, Dallas Sauk-Fox 

Born: June 19, 1944. 

Education: Institute. 

Exhibitions: PAC, SN. 

Address: Tama, Iowa. 
Duncan, Marcellus Sauk-Fox 

Born: 1904. 

Education: Chilocco; Haskell. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Dupree, William Sioux 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Private: Dietrich, M. Kramer. 
Duran, George Picuris 

George is the son of Roland Duran {q.v.). In 1950 the artist was no longer paint- 
ing. 

Education : Santa Fe, 1946-47. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Duran, Joe Evan Tesuque 

Pove Peen 
His instructors encouraged him to develop his own style. Duran received advanc- 
ed training in the fields of art history, design, theory, and philosophy, as well as 
modern art. 

Education: Hiler; Hill. 

Commissions: Murals: DAM; SFWF (with Charles Loloma and Ignacio 

Moquino, qq.v.). 

Exhibitions: OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: OU/MA. 
Duran, Roland Picuris 

Tolene 

Born: Date unknown. Died ca. 1961. 
Roland Duran and his son, George [q.v.), were reportedly living in California 
in 1950, and had stopped painting. Roland's most productive period was between 
1930 and 1940. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Duvayestewa [see Polelonema, Tyler) 
Duwenie, Dick Hopi 

Education: Hopi. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1959. 

Awards: ITIC (student exhibit), 1959. 



52 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Eagle, Thomas, Jr. Ankara 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Address: Emmet, N. Dak. 
Eagle Crow Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM. 
Eagle Elk [see Red Elk, Herman) 
Eagle Feather, Eli {see Eagle Feather, Elijah) 
Eagle Feather, Elijah Sioux 

Hehon Womblee, Owl Eagle 

(Also known as Eagle Feather, Eli.) 

Born: June 15, 1926, Hamill, S. Dak., on the Rosebud Reservation. GF: 

Owl Eagle, and Felix Crazy Bull, a tribal officer and advisor, 1929-. 

Married : Teresa Stands. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, nth Airborne Division, two years. 

Career: Artist and farm laborer, 1951- . 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, PAC. 

Address: c/o James Dvorak, Winner, S. Dak. 
Eagle Shield Teton Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; a medicine man. 

Work Published: BAE, Bull. 61 (pictographic style). 
Eagle's Tail (see Tsabetsaye, Roger) 
Eah Ha Wa (see Mirabel, Eva) 

Echohawk, Brunuuett Pawnee 

Mr. Echohawk is a commercial artist and illustrator whose work is generally 
available through special commission and contract. His comic strip, "Little 
Chief," appearing in the Tulsa World, is familiar to many Oklahomans. 

Address: Box 1922, Tulsa, Okla. 
Eckiwaudah, Tennyson Comanche 

Yutsuwuna, Able To Stand Up Again 

Born: September 26, 1912, Cyril, Okla. Son of Bernice Looking Glass. 

M/GF: Big Looking Glass (Pianaronit), chief of the Comanches during the 

early settlement of Oklahoma. 

Married: Eva Geimausaddle, 1936. Four children: Colleen, 1937; Dennis, 

1939; Arnold, 1941; Donald, 1946. 
Although the artist has been painting since 1935, he has not exhibited often. 
His greatest encouragement came from Susie Peters and James Auchiah {q.v.). 

Career: Artist. 

Exhibitions: 1953-64: AIE, DAM, PAC. 

Awards: AIE, 1961-62. 

Collections: Public: Cyril State Bank, Cyril, Okla. Private: Schonwald. 

Address: Box 115, Cyril, Okla. 
Edaakie, Anthony P. Zuni 

Eedeeahkai 

(Also known as Edaakie, Tony; Tomahawk, A. E.) 

Career: Painter, Wallace Trading Post and Maisel's Trading Post, N.M. 

Exhibitions: AAIE, 1959. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNA/KHC. Private: Harvey. 



ARTISTS 53 

Edaakie, Tony (see Edaakie, Anthony P.) 

Eder, Earl Sioux 

Born: 1944, Poplar, Mont. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Honors: Galler}^ assistant, American Indian Performing Arts Exhibition, 

Washington, D.C., 1965. 

Work Published: Smoke Signals, lACB (Autumn, 1965). 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, SAIEAIP, YAIA. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. 

Address: Poplar, Mont. 
Edwards, Bronson Wilbur Ottawa 

Born : May 22, 1913, Miami, Okla. Son of Marvin E. Edwards and Elizabeth 

Jones (Ottawa). M/GM: Skash. M/GF: Mon Ton Kee, Ottawa chief, 1880- 

88, and veteran of the Union Army. M/GGF: John W. Early (Was Kas), 

Ottawa chief, born near Sandusky, Ohio, and removed from there to Indian 

Territory by the U.S. Government, ca. 1836. 

Married: Katherene Daisy Bonner, 1938. Three children: Larry Duane, 

1939 ; Karen Louana, 1942 ; Nina Jean, 1944. 
Mr. Edwards has been interested in art since childhood but did not begin to paint 
seriously until 1947. His work is similar to the European wash style, but, on close 
examination, it contains a degree of the flat technique so common to Indian paint- 
ing. The artist says, "I have had an undying ambition to improve my art work 
and to continue to paint for many years yet." 

Education: Graduated Miami (Okla.) High School, 1932; correspondence 

course in commercial art, Art Instruction, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1958-62. 

Career: Freelance artist; commercial artist. Video Theaters, 1954-62; 

Crane Co., Miami, Okla., 1962-. 

Honors : Secretary-treasurer, Ottawa Tribal Council, 1947-. 

Commissions: Murals: National Boy Scout Jamboree, Colorado Springs, 

Colo. 

Exhibitions: AMD, AIEC, AIW, BNIAS, DAM, FAIEAIP, ITIC, LAIC, 

MHDYMM, MNM, PAC, SN, SPIM; Greenville (S.C. Arts Festival); Miami 

County Historical Society, Ottawa Count}^ Fair, and Northeastern Okla- 
homa A & M. One-man shows: HM, SPIM. 

Awards : 1938-65 : 39, from PAC and county fairs. 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Bartlett, Burks, Caldwell, Dobson, 

Gilmore, Gunn, HoUis, Holt, Jordahm, R. Kennedy, D. Maxwell, J. Snod- 

grass, R. M. Thomas, S. Ward. 

Address: 1022 A Street, NW, Miami, Okla. 

Eedeeahkai (see Edaakie, Anthony P.) 

Eileohi, Antonio Zuni 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1951. 

Eka La Nee (see Beaver, Fred) 

Elk (see Cohoe, William) 

Elk (see Tyndall, Calvin T.) 



54 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Elk Horn Piegan Blackfoot 

Born: 1845. Died 1901. 

Along with Big Brave and Double Runner (qq.v.), the artist executed a 61-year 
count {see Wissler 191 1). 

Ellen, Mary Navaho 

Education : Santa Fe. 

One of the few women of her tribe to attempt watercolor painting. By 1950, 
she had apparently ceased to paint. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, NGA, OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: OU/MA, MNM, SM. Private: Denman, Dietrich, M. 

Kramer. 

Ember Of Fire {see Saul, C. Terry) 

Emerson, Roberta Joan Boyd Sioux-Assinihoin 

Born: June 18, 1931, Brockton, Mont. Daughter of George A. Boyd and 

Helen Roberta Sparks. 

Married: Emory Elwood Emerson, 1953. Four children: Roxanne, 1956; 

Roy, 1958; Eugene, 1959; Robert, i960. 

Education: Public schools, Brockton, Mont.; graduated high school, 

1951 ; Montana State College, Bozeman, Mont. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Indian Artist Award (in high school). 

Exhibitions: Several first awards in local school shows. 

Collections: Private: Larson. 

Address : Box 6, New Cuyama, CaUf . 

Enjady, Errol Mescalero Apache 

Education: Albuquerque, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1963. 

Este Songah {see Wolfe, Edmond Richard) 

Etahdleub Kiowa 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: PMic: HI, MHS/B, OAA/SI, YU/BRBML. 
Private: R. Robinson. 
Eustace, Lebeck Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Evarts, Mark Pawnee 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 
Collections: Public: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Au- 
gustine, Fla. 

Eya {see Johnson, Alfred) 

Falling In Winter {see Vigil, Romando) 

A Fan {see Patkotak, Paul) 

Farmer, Ernie Bannock-Shoshoni 

Education : Bacone College. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1950-51. 



ARTISTS 55 

Fast Deer Sioux 

Hechaka Lncahan, Fast Deer 
One of five artists whose works, commissioned and collected from 1880 to 1883 
by Rudolf Cronau, are now referred to as the Cronau Album {see Sinte). 

Collections: P^ihlic: AMNH. 
Fast Eagle Oglala Sioux 

Wanhle Orko 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. One of 12 auto- 
graphs {see Black Heart). 

Collections: Pttblic: MAI. 
Fawn (see Tahcawin) 
Feather, Buddy Sioux 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 
Feathers, Gerald T. Blackfoot 

Tail Feathers 

Married: Irene Good- Striker (Blood). Two children: Sherry Lynn, Pamela. 
The artist has been showing his paintings since he was about 16. He works in a 
variety of media and specializes in portraying the days of buffalo hunting. 

Education : Banff School of Fine Arts, Canada ; Provincial School of Tech- 
nology and Art, Banff. 

Career : Draftsman for a petroleum company in Canada. 

Honors: Received an art scholarship while in his teens; scholarship from 

Anghcan Church to complete art training. 

Address: Box 734, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 
Feathers, Kirby Ponca-Sioux 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Fife, PhyUis Creek 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Fire Bear {see Standing, William) 
Fireshaker, Franklin Ponca 

Ti Ookeah Bahze 

Born: August 12, 1918; Greyhorse, Okla. Son of Joseph Four Eyes (Ponca) 

and Anna Black Cloud (Ponca). At the age of 11, after his mother's death, 

he was adopted by McKinley Horse Chief Eagle and reared by his aunt, 

Mrs. Albert Four Eyes Roy. 

Married: Jerry Ann Marshall (Creek), 1942. Two children: Alona Robin, 

1950; Quannah Eagle, 1956. 
Mr. Fireshaker is a dedicated student of Ponca history and customs. He and his 
family have traveled "throughout the world and have learned to speak several 
languages." The artist is an authority on Indian dances and is a frequent judge 
at tribal dance contests. His paintings and murals are done as special commis- 
sions. 

Education: Pawnee (Okla.) Indian School; Chilocco; Bacone College. 

Career: House painter and artist. 

Honors: Listed in Who's Who in Oklahoma. 



56 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: GM, ITIC, MPI, PAC; Tulsa County Libraries, Okla. 
Awards: AIE, ITIC, PAC. 
Collections: Public: GM, PAC. 
Address: c/o 205 North Junction, Muskogee, Okla. 
Fireshaker, Quannah Eagle Ponca 

Born: 1956. Daughter of FrankHn Fireshaker {q.v.) and Jerry Ann Marshall 
(Creek) . 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 

Awards: ITIC (student classification), 1964. 
Address: c/o 205 North Junction, Muskogee, Okla. 

Fish In Water {see Poodry, C. Earl) 

Five Kiowas 

In 1926, at Anadarko, Oklahoma, the late Mrs. Susie C. Peters, then a govern- 
ment field matron, "organized a 'Fine Arts Club' for Indian girls and boys who 
showed talent in drawing and painting pictures, bead work, and other native 
work. Mrs. Willie Baze Lane gave them a few lessons and great encouragement." 

In 1936, Mrs. Peters recalled, "about this time I sent some of the fifteen or 
more boys' and girls' work to Mr. Ralph Mores, artist and dealer of Taos, N.M. 
He bought some of the drawings and asked for more to be sent to him. He wrote 
that these boys had something fine to give to the world. So we were encouraged. 
Mrs. Lane told me that if I could interest O.B. Jacobson at the University he 
could make them famous." 

Edith Mahier, member of the teaching staff at the art school of the University of 
Oklahoma, said, "Mrs. Peters brought Asah and Hokeah {qq.v.) to Norman one 
Sunday afternoon. Dr. Jacobson was out of town. She brought the boys' paintings 
of Indian dancers done on brown paper bags and the covers of shoe boxes. 
They looked like Leon Bakst and I felt that I was seeing for the first time an 
Oklahoma art expression, true and fresh, and deserving of interest from educa- 
tors." 

In the fall of 1926, Asah, Hokeah, Mopope, and Tsatoke [qq.v.) were taken to 
the University for an interview. In 1965, Dr. Jacobson recalled, "the boys had 
none of the necessary entrance requirements to be enrolled as students in the 
University and it was just as well since I did not wish for them to attend 
regular art classes and absorb the usual things deemed essential in white art." 

Jacobson, then head of the University art school, enlisted the understanding 
help of Miss Mahier, whose ofHce was used as a studio for the boys since at ' 'no 
time did they attend regular University art classes." Miss Mahier did a "splendid 
job, giving them instruction in technique, criticisms at the proper time and steady 
encouragement." And, as Asah said, "she understands us." 

Dr. Jacobson assumed the responsibility of more or less supporting the 
students financially during the first four or five months they remained at Norman 
in 1926-27. He did so by persuading friends and the University to purchase the 
boys' paintings. He lectured to clubs and eventually arranged for the group to 
give programs as further means of providing interest and income for them. 
"Tsatoke was the singer and drummer, Hokeah and Mopope performed the 
Eagle Dance. Asah, too, was a dancer. . .rhythmic, methodical, ritualistic. 
Martha, Tsatoke's wife, sang a lullaby," Miss Mahier also recalls, "it was never 
necessary to discuss design and composition or drawing or colors with these boys 
because they were dancers, singers, and drummers and rhythm was a natural 
living thing" for them. 

There were several prominent people who did not look with favor on Jacobson's 
work with the Indians. They "growled at [his] bringing troupes of Indians to 
give dances in Oklahoma, Texas, and at the noted National Folk Festival in St. 



ARTISTS 57 

Louis, where the performers received further acclaim. They claimed that [he] 
was wasting valuable time on something that 'we must get away from.'" 

In January, 1927, Lois Smoky joined the four boys at the University, and, 
in the late spring, the boys "returned to the Reservation to plant their crops. 
In the fall of 1927, the five returned with Auchiah. Lois later became the first 
to drop from the office-studio classes." 

The group required more financial aid than Dr. Jacobson or the programs 
could provide if they were to remain at the University. Dr. Jacobson said : "With 
the help of Lewis Ware, a Caddo-Kiowa member of the Oklahoma Legislature, 
we turned to Lew H. Wentz, an oil multimillionaire at Ponca City, Oklahoma. 
Mr. Wentz was agreeable to help, provided I gave my word that it was a worth- 
while project. I gave my word of honor that if he assisted, I would make the boys 
famous in a few years. Quite an order; one I fear he didn't believe. His support, 
while far from lavish, was enough to make it possible for the group to devote 
full time to painting with less financial worries. When the Kiowas were ready 
for shows I began to secure them a national hearing. I was able to book shows 
of their works at leading museums and universities throughout the country. At 
the First International Art Exposition, held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1928, 
they created a sensation. The outcome of this exhibit was Kiowa Indian Art, 
published in France in 1929, and later in 1950, American Indian Painters. Then 
after the world had acclaimed it, Oklahoma finally discovered Indian art as a 
living phenomenon, giving considerable attention to it in the press after such 
magazines as American Magazine of Art, International Studio, Creative Arts, 
Western Arts, Connoisseur of London, had acclaimed it much earlier. 

"During the great depression of the 1930's, I was a supervisor of artists on 
relief in Oklahoma. Among others, I placed all my competent Indian artists to 
work decorating public, state and federal buildings with murals. When two of 
the Kiowas were selected to execute murals at the Department of Interior 
Building in Washington, D.C., I sent a newspaper clipping and a note to Mr. 
Wentz saying, T hereby redeem my promise to you that I'd make these Indians 
famous.'" 

]\Irs. Peters had recognized the Kiowa's ability when they were ten years old 
and "gave them watercolors and encouraged them to paint what they knew." 
In 1936, however, she said that it was "through Mr. Jacobson that the small 
group of Kiowas gained fame." 

"All of our Indian artists, by remaining Indian, have made a magnificent con- 
tribution to American culture," said Jacobson, and continued, "I am happy to 
have had a small part in encouraging and coaxing many towards this goal. I fear 
that I am even guilty of 'Indianizing' some who had lost their heritage." 

(Auchiah, Hokeah, Mopope and Smoky still reside in Oklahoma. Asah and 
Tsatoke are deceased. See listing for individual artists.) 

The Flame Teton Sioux 

Boide 

(Also known as The Blaze.) 
In 1877, the artist lived at Peoria Bottom, 18 miles south of Fort Sully, Dakota 
Territory. He generally lived with the Sans Arcs, although by birth he was of the 
Two Kettle group. His Winter Count chart covered a longer period than that of 
Lone Dog and The Swan [qq.v.) 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Flaming Arrow [see Paytiamo, James P.) 
Fleetfoot {see Ladd, Edmund J.) 



58 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Flores, William Vann Cherokee-Papago 

Laughing Bull 

Born: October 2, 1927, Appleton, Wise. Son of Alonzo Flores (Papago) and 

Jesse E. Vann (Cherokee). 

Married: Marilyn P. Wells, 1950. One son: William Vann, Jr., 1958. 
Mr. Flores is best known as a cartoonist of Indian subjects. He says he feels 
certain "they know I'm not laughing at them, but rather laughing with them." 
Interested in drawing for fun and practice since schooldays, the artist has been 
called a "Master of Indian Humor" because of his spare time caricaturing. 

Education : Public schools in Anadarko, Okla. ; graduated Chilocco, 1947 ; 

Kansas City, 1950-52; Los Angeles, 1956-57; Oklahoma C.U. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Army, two years. 

Career: Printer, ca. 1942-52; medical illustrator. Civil Aero-Medical Rese- 
arch Institute, Federal Aviation Agency, Oklahoma City, Okla., 1958- ; 

presents color film-lectures on painting and care of art supplies. 

Work Published: FAA Horizons (July 1963), The Oklahoma Journal 

(February 20, 1965). 

Exhibitions: AAIE, BNIAS, FAIEAIP, PAC, SN; New York, N.Y.; Los 

Angeles, Calif.; Washington, D.C. ; Kansas City, Mo.; Art Originals, Inc., 

Oklahoma City, Okla. One-man shows: University of Arkansas. 

Collections: Private: Marriott, Rachlin. 

Address : Box 84, Concho, Okla. 
Flying Eagle {see Goodbear, Paul J.) 
Flying Hawk {see Blackowl, Archie) 
Follower {see Battese, Stanley) 
Foot {see Belindo, Dennis) 
Footprints Of A Buffalo {see Odle Pah) 
Forceful {see Abeyta, Narciso Platero) 
Four Bears Mandan 

Mato Tope (and Mah To Toh Pa) 

Born: Date unknown; near Fort Clark, N. Dak., 1833-34. 
Prince Maximilian's collection contains examples of paintings by Four Bears, 
collected during the winter sojourn of Karl Bodmer and the Prince at Fort Clark, 
1833-34 (^^^ Yellow Feather). It is quite possible that Four Bear's interest in 
painting was spurred by sitting for portraits for Bodmer and George Catlin, 
the latter having said, ' 'There is no man amongst the Mandans so generally loved. '* 

Career: Second chief and the most prominent warrior of the tribe. 

Work Published: Catlin (1841), Ewers (1939; 1965), Jacobson and D'Ucel 

(1950). Catlin, Bodmer, Miller, JAM (1963). 

Collections: Public: AMNH, BM (latter not confirmed), NNGCC. 
Four Hills {see Pahsetopah, Paul) 
Fox, Elaine Arikara-Sioux 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Address: Emmet, N. Dak. 
Fox, Guy Hidatsa Sioux 

Bright Wing 

Born: March 4, 1902, on the Fort Berthold Reservation, N. Dak. 



ARTISTS 59 

Married: Grace Parshall, 1931. Seven children: Maynard, 1945; Belinda, 

1947; Catherine, 1948; Gerald, 1949; Arhne, 1953; Dean, 1954; Theola, 1957. 
Mr. Fox is a self-taught nontraditionalist painter, who has been active since 
1948. His hobby, hunting, is often reflected in his paintings. 

Education: Attended Pipestone Indian School, Pipestone, Minn., through 

the seventh grade. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Collections: Private: Conroth, Leno, R. McAlpin, M. Peterson, R. Ward. 

Address: New Town, N. Dak. 
Fragua, Augiistine Jemez 

Born: 1945. 

Education: Jemez; graduated Albuquerque. 

Exhibitions: 1958-63: MNM, PAC. 
Franco, D. Papago 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Franklin, Ernest Navaho 

Born: 1942. 

Education: Albuquerque, i960; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian 

Art Project." 

Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 

Awards: MNM, i960. 
Franklin, Herman S auk-Fox 

Born: 1912. 

Education: Chilocco; Haskell. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Frazier, Carol Lee Paiitte 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 

Address: 1609 Frankhn Street, Apt. No. 2, San Francisco, CaHf. 
Fredericks, Oswald [see White Bear) 

Freeman, Brenda Cherokee 

Born: Muskogee, Okla. Daughter of Glen Freeman and Opal. 
Married: Jimmy Kilgore. Two children. 
Education: Bacone College. 
Collections: Private: W. Fenton, Johnet. 
Address: Muskogee, Okla. 

Freeman, Robert Lee Yankton Sioux 

Born: January 14, 1939, on the Rinc6n Indian Reservation, Calif. Son of 
Herman Edward Freeman (Mission) and Louise Pratt (Sioux). 
Married: Edwina Ophelia Alvarado, November 25, i960. Three children: 
Robert Lee, Jr. (by previous marriage), 1958; Robert Florentino, 1961; 
Tina Louise, 1966. 

Service: U.S. Army, 1957-60; Korea. 
Career: Laborer; artist, i960-. 
Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, SN; San Diego County Fair, CaHf. One-man shows: 



60 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Oceanside, Calif., 1962. 

Awards : 1964-65 : Three from SN. 

Collections: Private: Attridge, Binnici, Blackley, Britton, Chavez, D. Hill, 

L. Hill, F. Jones, Morrison, Pratt, Prieto, Ruggles, H. Smith, Thoeny, 

Williamson. 

Address : 3838 Linda Vista, Vista, Calif. 
Freimark, Robert M. Chippewa 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1954-55. 

Address: 223 Michigan Street, Toledo, Ohio. 
Froman, Robert Peoria-Miami 

Education : Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1954. 
From The Middle Of The Sky {see Smith, Ernest) 
Frost On The Mountain {see Peiia, Jose Encamacion) 

Gaehupin, Juan Jemez 

Collections: PuUic. MAI, MNM, SM. 
Gaehupin, Manuelino Zia 

Born: 1934. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Gaehupin, Maxine Jemez 

Born: 1948. 

Education: Jemez, St. Catherine's. 

Exhibitions: 1959-64: AAIE, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Awards: MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Address : Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 
Gaehupin, Paul Jemez 

Born: 1947. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: AAIE, ITIC. 

Awards: ITIC (student division), 1958. 
Gaehupin, Rose M. Jemez 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1962-63: MNM, SN. 

Awards: MNM, 1962. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Gaehupin, Wald Zia 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Gaeo, Philip Laguna 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 

Exhibitions: MNM; PAC, 1965. 

Collections: Private: Bush. 

Address: Paguate Pueblo, N.M. 
Ga Hes Ka {see Two-Arrows, Tom) 



ARTISTS 6l 

Galvan, Andreas Zia 

Henate 

Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Private: Denman. 

Gamble, Thomas J. Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1961. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 

Gaon Yah (see Smith, Ernest) 

Garcia, Alexander San Juan 

Born: N.M. 
Education: Institute. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, YAIA. 

Garcia, Carlos San Juan 

Nanatside 

Born: Date unknown; once lived at Chamita, N.M. 
Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 

Garcia, Ernest P. Isleta 

Oysla 

Born: January 25, 1944, Los Angeles, Calif. Son of Climoca D. Garcia 
(Isleta) and Ignacita B. Cordova. 

Education: Santa Fe; graduated Sierra High School, Whittier, Cahf., 1962; 
Rio Hondo Junior College, Whittier, Calif,, instruction under Yoshio Naka- 
mura (drawing and painting), classes in ceramics; Cerritos Junior College, 
Norwalk, Calif. 

Career: Commercial screen printer. Dyer Specialty Co., Inc., 1964-. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, PAC. 
Awards: SN (creative writing category), 1965. 
Collections: Private: Silberman. 
Address: 1163 Tilley Avenue, Whittier, Calif. 

Garcia, Jose J. Santo Domingo 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1937. 
Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 

Collections: Public: SM. Private: Denman, Dietrich, Elkus. 
Address: Santo Domingo Pueblo, Pefia Blanca, N.M. 

Garcia, Lorenzo Santo Domingo 

Education: Santa Fe, under Dorothy Dunn. 
Service: WWII. 

Exhibitions: AIW, 1938; NGA, 1953. 
Collections: PuUic: GM. Private: D. Kramer. 
Address: Santo Domingo Pueblo, Pefia Blanca, N.M. 

Garcia, Marcelino San Juan 

Born: 1932. 
Collections: Public: MNM. 



62 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Garcia, Maria Comanche 

Aukemah 

Education: Studied under Acee Blue Eagle {q.v.). 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Garcia, Peter San Juan 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: N.M. 

Collections: Public: SPL. 

Address: San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Garcia, Ruth Bussey Cherokee 

Born: August 24, 1916, Claremore, Okla. M/GGF: Chief Lewis Downing 

(Cherokee). Her M/GF, Willie Vann, and M/GM, Eliza Downing, arrived in 

Oklahoma on the 'Trail of Tears." 

Married: Florencio Garcia, 1937. Two children: Donald, 1933; Martha, 

1941. 

Education: Whitaker Orphanage, Pryor, Okla.; Hominy (Okla.) Pubhc 

Schools, Oaks Indian Mission, Okla. 

Career : Art instructor. Oaks Indian Mission : hospital occupational therapist, 

arts and crafts instructor; portrait artist. 

Exhibitions: YWCA; New Mexico Health Building, Bacas Restaurant, 

and New Mexico State Fair, in Albuquerque, N.M.; Cedars Supper Club, 

Cedar Crest, N.M. 

Collections: Private: C. Bussey, J. Bussey, W. Bussey, W. W. Bussey, 

Coffey, C. Dennis, A. Garcia, P. Garcia, Gonzales, A. Gutierrez, J. Gutierrez, 

N. Jaramillo, R. Jaramillo, Johnston, Salazar, Weller, E. West, H. Wister. 

Address: iioi Granite, NW, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Gaseoma, Lee Roy Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Gashwytewa, Ivan S. Hopi 

In addition to his paintings, the artist has been considered an outstanding 
carver of Kachina dolls. 

Collections: Public: MNM (painting). 
Gasper, Pete Zuni 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe, 1958. 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: AAIE, ITIC, MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1958; ITIC. 

Collections: Public: MNM, SMNAI. Private: Waters. 
Geionety, George Comanche 

Geionety, Comanche Enemy (or Back Track) ; Oyebi, Side of a Mountain. 

Born: 1913, Lawton, Okla. P/GF: "Old Man" Silverhorn. M/GF: Oyebi 

(Side of a Mountain). 

Collections : Private : R. Moore. 
Ghahatt, Barton Zuni 

Education: Fort Lewis A & M. College, Durango, Colo.; scholarship to 

Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, 1962. 

Address: Box 104, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 



ARTISTS 63 

Ghost Bear, Theodore Sioux 

Collections: Public : WRNGA. 
Ghost Wind Navaho 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Gifts (see Paukei, George) 
Gobin, Henry Snohomish 

Born: May 19, 1941, in Washington. 

Education: Santa Fe, 1960-61; Institute, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, MNM, PAC, YAIA. 

Awards: MNM, SN. 

Collections: Public: BIA. Private: L. Stewart. 

Address: 1413 Second Street, Marysville, Wash. 
Golden Dawn (see Velarde, Pablita) 
Gone Man (see Wolfe, Edmond Richard) 
Gonzales, Louis San Ildefonso 

Wo Peen, Medicine Mountain 

(Also known as Gonzales, Luis.) 

Born: September 10, 1907. Son of Juan Gonzales. 

Married: Juanita (San Ildefonso). Two children: Adelphia, 1937; Edmund, 

1949. 
Known as a pioneer Pueblo muralist, Wo Peen painted actively in the early 
1920's. A hunting accident caused the loss of his right hand; however, he still 
paints occasionally. 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe. 

Career: Model for sculptor Philip S. Sears, 1932; gave pottery demonstra- 
tions, exhibited paintings, and presented native songs and dances with his 

family, Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences and Buffalo Museum of 

Art, N.Y. ; traveled extensively for four years throughout the U.S., assisting 

W. Allen Cushman, lecturing, exhibiting his paintings, and demonstrating 

songs and dances. 

Honors: Governor of his pueblo, 1944-45. 

Commissions: Murals: YMCA's Lodge of 7 Fires, Springfield, Mass. (seven 

murals). 

Work Published: Alexander (1932), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). The 

Art Digest (September i, 1931). 

Exhibitions: 1932- : AIEC, BAC, CCP, EITA, ITIC, JGS, MNM, NGA. 

Collections: Piiblic: CU/LMA, DAM, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, 

MRFM, OU, PAC. Private: H. Adams, Dietrich, A. Forbes, Thoeny, Woffard. 

Address: Route i, Box 158, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Gonzales, Luis (see Gonzales, Louis) 
Good, Baptiste Brule Sioux 

Wapostangi; Brown Hat; High Hawk; Good, John. 

(See also High Hawk.) 

Born: Ca. 1822; was at Rosebud Agency, Dak., 1879-80. Died 1894. Son of 

Afraid Of Horse. His son, Joseph Good, continued his father's Winter 

Count and added the years 1894-1922 (BAE, loth AR). 



64 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Married : Susie, whom the Indians called Old Lady Good. 
Honors : Sub-chief for a time after 1865 ; his Winter Count was the only one 
among the Sioux that recorded events prior to 1775. See Hyde (1961). 
Work Published: BAE, 4th and loth AR. 

Collections: Public: DAM, OAA/SI (a copy of his Winter Count), SIECC 
(original Winter Count). 
Good, John Sioux 

May be grandson of Baptiste Good (q.v.), who was also named John. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Good Rain Taos 

Exhibitions: FWG. 

Goodbear, Paul J. Northern Cheyenne 

Ahmehate, Flying Eagle 

Born: 1913, on the Cheyenne Reservation, Mont. Deceased. GF: Chief 
Turkey Legs. GGF: Chief Star and Chief (Old) Whirlwind {q.v). 
Mr. Goodbear spent his childhood in Oklahoma where he attended public elemen- 
tary and high schools. Many of his illustrations and paintings have been "repro- 
duced in school books." 
Education: Wichita; New Mexico U. ; Chicago. 
Service: WWII; Okinawa. 

Career: Artist, dancer, singer, teacher, professional boxer; clerk, depart- 
ment store, Washington, D.C. 

Commissions : Murals : Coronado Monument, BernaHUo, N.M. ; Ranch Bar, 
Chicago, 111. ; Osceola Bar, Miami, Fla. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 
Collections: Public: GM, MNA/KHC, MNM, OU. 

Goodenough, James 

Gorman, Alfred Kee Navaho 

Kee, Boy 

Born: April 12, 1957, Encino, Calif. Died July, 1966. Son of Carl Nelson 
Gorman (q.v.) (Navaho) and Mary Excie Wilson, and brother of R. C. Gor- 
man (q.v.). 

Education: Napa Street School, Northridge, Cahf., kindergarten and first 
grade; Window Rock Public School, Ariz. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM, NTF, SN; Manchester Gallery, Taos, N.M.; 
first paintings were shown at Krogh Tile, Northridge, Calif. 
Awards: ITIC, MNM, NTF. 
Collections: P^iblic: MNM. Private: R. Corwin, Krogh. 

Gorman, Carl Nelson Navaho 

Kinyeonny Beyeh, Son Of The Towering House People 
Born: October 5, 1907, Chinle, Ariz. Son of Nelson Gorman (Navaho) and 
Alice Peshlakai (Navaho). The artist's parents founded the Presbyterian 
Mission at Chinle, Ariz. His father was well known as a cattleman and Indian 
trader, and his mother taught weaving to women in the Chinle area and 
translated many hymns into Navaho. M/GF: Beshlagai Ithline, a silver- 
smith and leader in the Crystal area. M/U : Fred Peshlakai (q.v.) and Frank 
Peshlakai. 



ARTISTS 65 

Married: Adella Katherine Brown (Navaho), 1930; divorced, November 
1945. One son: Rudolph Carl Gorman {q.v.), 1931. Married Mary Excie 
Wilson, March 24, 1956. Two children: Alfred Kee Gorman {q.v.), 1957; 
Zonnie Marie, 1963. 
As a boy, Carl liked to draw horses, but his stockman father warned him there 
was "no money in that kind of horses." Despite the passing years and the exten- 
sive action he saw at Guadalcanal, Tarawa, and Saipan, he never relinquished 
his desire to become an artist. The GI Bill made possible his dream of a formal 
education. He believes "not only in the traditional but in the adaptation of the 
traditional to the modern, whether in painting, silver, or music." He, with his 
good friend, the late Ralph Roanhorse, was one of the first to lead Navaho artists 
in art directions other than the traditional. 
Education: Chinle; Rehoboth Mission, Gallup, N.M.; graduated Albuquer- 
que, 1928; Otis, 1951; extension classes, Santa Monica Technical School, 
Santa Monica, Calif.; South Bay Adult School, Manhattan Beach, Calif.; 
Radio School, USMC. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Marine Corps; Pacific Theater (code talker). 
Career: Co-owner, mth his brother, Wallace, of a trucking business, Chinle, 
Ariz., until 1936; clerk, timekeeper, and rangerider, USDI, Land Manage- 
ment, 1936-42 ; clerk. Southwest Indian Jewelry Shop, Los Angeles, CaUf . ; 
technical illustrator, Douglas Aircraft, Santa Monica, Torrance, and Lawn- 
dale, Cahf., 1951-63; co-owner. Desert Designs (silk screening), 1963-64; 
manager, Navaho Arts and Crafts Guild, 1964-67. 

Honors: Los Angeles Indian Center Art Committee; member, Board of 
Directors, Treasurer, Vice-Chairman, Chairman of Exhibit Committee; 
Navaho Club of Los Angeles; Arts and Crafts Guild Exhibit Committee. 
Chairman, NTF; member. Exhibit Committee, ITIC. 

Work Published: Westways Magazine (August 1956; August 1962), cover. 
Numerous ceremonial designs for Los Angeles Indian Center and Los Angeles 
Navaho Club. 

Exhibitions: 1947-65: ASF, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNM, MYDYMM, NMSF, 
NTF, PAC; SN; Pacific Coast Club Gallery, Ceramic Spectacular Show, 
Long Beach, Cahf.; Los Angeles County Aboretum, Arcadia, Calif.; Otis 
Art Institute Alumni Association, Descanso Gardens, La Canada, Calif.; 
Douglas Annual Art Exhibits, Santa Monica, Calif.; The Art Wagon, 
Phoenix, Ariz. ; Manchester Gallery, Taos, N.M. ; The Little Gallery, North- 
ridge, Calif.; American Friends Service Committee Indian Art Exhibit, 
Seattle, Wash. ; Ljmda Kay Gift Shop, Ganado, Ariz. ; Gallup Chamber of 
Commerce, Gallup, N.M.; Management and Procedures Ofhce, Navaho 
Tribe, Window Rock, Ariz. ; BIA, Chinle, Ariz. ; Duncan Vail Gallery, Sham- 
brey Gardens-International Art Festival, Los Angeles, Calif. One-man shows : 
Gallup Public Library, Gallup, N.M. ; Open Gallery, Playa Del Rey, Cahf. ; 
Pow Wow Indian Trading Post, Woodland HiUs, CaUf. ; United Nations 
Delegation Dinner, Window Rock, Ariz. ; Los Angeles YMCA and Women's 
University Club, Los Angeles, Calif. Two-man shows : HM, PAC. 
Awards: ITIC, NMSF, NTF, SN; Hobby Recreation Show, Los Angeles, 
Cahf. ; Indian Center Art Show, Douglas Aircraft Annual Art Show, Santa 
Monica, Cahf.; Compton Gem and Mineral Club Show, Long Beach, Cahf. 



66 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Collections: Public. SM; Trinity Presbyterian Church, Chinle, Ariz.; 
Westways Magazine, Los Angeles, CaHf. ; Ganado Mission, Ganado, Ariz. 
Private: P. Allen, Balcomb, Bimson, D. Brock, Bryant, Butler, Carroll, 
Dalton, Dentzel, Dorfman, Farwell, J. Forbes, Gorman, Hunter, Krogh, 
Lauritzen, McCabe, McDonald, McLarens, Plummer, Russell, Tatgenhorst, 
Thoeny, Tso, E. Vance, D. Vann, A. WiUiams. 
Address : Box 8, Window Rock, Ariz. 

Gorinan,''R. C. Navaho 

(Also known as Gorman, Rudolph Carl.) 

Born : July 26, 1932, Chinle, Ariz. Son of Carl Nelson Gorman (q.v.) (Navaho) 
and Adella Katherine Brown (Navaho) . 
Although R.C. majored in literature at Arizona State College and is a gifted wri- 
ter, he has chosen painting, his first love, as a career. The artist has said: "The 
reservation is my source of inspiration for what I paint; but yet I never come to 
realize this until I find myself in some far-flung place like the tip of Yucatan or 
where-have-you. Perhaps when I stay on the reservation I take too much for 
granted. While there, it is my inspiration and I paint very little, and off the 
reservation it is my realization." 

In addition to the encouragement he%as received from his father, the artist 
says that Miss Jenny Louis Lind, his high school art teacher, ' 'made art impor- 
tant" to him and that too often art teachers neglect to do so. 
Education: Chinle; St. Michaels; graduated Ganado (Ariz.) High School, 
1950; attended Guam Territorial College, Marianas Islands; Mexico C.C. ; 
San Francisco ; Arizona S. C./F. 
Service: U.S. Navy, ca. 1952-56. 
Career: Artist. 

Honors: Recipient of the first scholarship for study outside the U.S. given 
by the Navaho Tribe to a student of outstanding merit ; Chairman, Painting 
Committee, American Indian Artists, San Francisco. 
Work Published: Bahti (1964). Western Review, (Winter 1965). 
Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, FAIEAIP, ITIC, NACG, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, 
USDI, USDS; Madonna Festival, All-City Outdoor Art Festival, Los Angeles, 
Calif. ; Poorman's Gallery, Coffee Gallery, Zieniewicz Gallery, San Francisco, 
Calif.; The Harlequin Gallery, Vallejo, Calif.; Jack London Square Art 
Show, Oakland, Cahf. ; El Cerrito (Cahf.) Art Festival. One-man shows: 
Student Union, University of California ; The Bridgeway, Sausalito, Cahf. ; 
Friendship House, Oakland, Calif. ; The Arizona State Bank, Phoenix, Ariz. ; 
Manchester Gallery, Taos, N.M. Two-man shows: HM, PAC. 
Awards: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, NTF, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, MAI, PAC; Mexico City College; Ganado 
High School, Ganado, Ariz. ; Zieniewicz Gallery, San Francisco, Calif. ; Gibbs 
Art Gallery, Charleston, S.C. Private: E. Adkins, R. Anderson, C. Baker, 
Basehart, Browgh, Burdick, Dalton, Deaner, DiRe, Dodds, Dutton, Elkus, 
R. Evans, Fontaine, Gerash, Hamilton, Hammond, Henry, Huckstein, 
Huldermann, Humphrey, E. Jacobson, Kael, Klotz, Lipelt, Lohr, Loweiro, 
Manchester, Perlman, O. Perry, R. Perry, Pettinger, Poland, R. Potter, 
W. Price, Roundtree, L. Scott, Shackelford, Silva, Sneider, Snell, J. Snod- 



ARTISTS 67 

grass, Stephenson, Tsosy, VanVoorhuyscn, Ventura, A. Williams, Wixnrian. 

Address: 4135 Army Street, No. 10, San Francisco, Calif. 
Gorman, Rudolph Carl {see Gorman, R. C.) 
Gorospe, Josephine Laguna 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Laguna Pueblo, N.M. 

Cough, Agnes Eskimo 

Exhibitions: PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards : PAC. 

Collections: Pttblic: DAM, PAC. 

Address: Box 922, Anchorage, Alaska. 
Gould, Jay Navaho 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Grand Eagle (see Ballard, Louis Wajme) 
Grass (see Grass, John) 
Grass, John (Chief) Blackfoot(})-Hiinkpapa Sioux 

Pezi, Grass; Mato Wantakpe, Charging Bear; Wahacanka Yapi, Used As 

A Shield. 

(Also known as Jumping Bear.) 
Chief Grass was one of four Sioux chiefs who relinquished all claims to the Black 
Hills and Powder River Country to the government at Standing Rock Agency, 
ca. 1883. [See Hyde (1956), Vestal (1933) and BAE Bull. 61. ] 

Career : Army scout ; presiding judge for more than 30 years. Court of Indian 

Offenses, Standing Rock Reservation, N. Dak. 

Collections: Public \ MAI (autograph sketch; see Black Heart). 

Grass, John, Jr. Hunkpapa-Teton Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; in 1902 was on the Standing Rock Reservation in 

N. Dak. Son of John Grass (q.v.). L 

Work Published: News Letter, CIS (November 1945). 

Collections: Public: CIS. 
The Greatest (see Speck, Henry) 
Great Hunter (see Blackmore, Bill) 
Green, Homer Peoria-Cherokee 

Born : 1938, Fort Defiance, Ariz. 

Education: Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: AAIE, FAIEAIP, PAC, USDS. 

Address: 1811 Kanawha Street, Hyattsville, Md. ; Adelphi, Md. 
Green Corn (see Mirabel, Eva) 
Green Rainbow (see Mofsie, Louis BiUingsly) 
Gregg, Wilkie White Mountain Apache 

Born: 1942. 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, ''Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 

5* 



68 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Grey Boy (see Draper, Teddy, Sr.) 

Grey Squirrel (see Hinds, Patrick Swazo) 

Gritts, Franklin Cherokee-Potawatomi 

Oati Nah Jusah, They Have Returned ; Oon Nah Susah, They Have Gone 

Back. 

Born : August 8, 1914. 

Married: Non-Indian, former Hbrarian at Haskell Institute. 

Gritts received his first art lessons from his father; he recalls liking to draw 
from the very first time he held a pencil. The artist prefers to paint only what 
he has seen. 

Education: Fort Sill; Riverside; Haskell; B.F.A., Oklahoma, ca. 1939. 

Studied mural technique under Olaf Nordmark and painting under Acee 

Blue Eagle (q.v.). Summer classes in anthropology, New Mexico U. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy (aerial photographer); Pacific Theater. Medical 

discharge after two years hospitaUzation for combat injuries. 

Career: Formerly an art instructor, Haskell Institute. 

Commissions: Murals: Haskell Institute. Assisted in the preparation of a 

series of exhibits shown at the Progressive Education Convention, Chicago, 

111., 1940. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: 1938-58: AIW, DAM, ITIC, PAC, PAC/T; Palmer House, 

Mandel Bros., Chicago, 111.; St. Louis, Mo. 

Awards: ITIC, 1938. 

Collections: Public: GM, JAM, MNA/KHC, OU/MA. Private: 0. Jacobson. 

Address: 12552 Pepperwood, St. Louis, Mo. 
Growing Plant (see Hunt, Wolf Robe) 
Gruber, Raymond Navaho 

Collections: Private: R. Moore. 
Guatogue, Leo Zuni 

Exhibitions: EITA. 

Collections: Private: A. White. 
Gutierrez, Clarence Santa Clara 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 
Gutierrez, Jose la Cruz Santa Clara 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Career: Employed at U.S. Naval Station, Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1963. 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Gutierrez, Jose Leandro Santa Clara 

Kgoo Ya 

(also known as Leandro, Jose) 

Exhibitions: OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: OU. Private: Denman, Dietrich. 
Gutierrez, Juan B. Santa Clara 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 

Collections: Pitblic: OU/SM. 



ARTISTS 69 

Ha A Tee {see Ouintana, Ben) 

Hadaaiitse [see Red Corn) 

Hadley, Wade Navaho 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943; NGS. 

Collections: Private: Dietrich. 
Hah Gay Kee Hooduh Lee {see Doonkeen, Eulamae Narcomey) 
Hanemi Da {see Whitehorse, Roland N.) 
Haney, Kelly Enoch Seminole 

Born: 1940, Seminole, Okla. 

Education: Bacone College; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian 

Art Project," summer, 1962. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, PAC, SN. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Private: Gridley, G. Maxwell. 

Address: 909 North East 28th Street, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Hanna, R. W. Kiowa 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Hanson, Joan Stone Cherokee 

Born: 1945, New Orleans, La. 

Exhibitions: PAC, FAIEAIP, 1965. 

Address: 2310 East Broadway, Muskogee, Okla. 
Haozous {see Houser, Allan) 
Hapaha, L. Navaho 

Exhibitions: EITA. 

Collections: Private: Newcomb. 

Happy Boy {see Austin, Frank) 

Hard Heart Oglala Sioux 

Conte Feri 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. 
Collections: Public: MAI (see Black Heart), 

Hardin, Helen Santa Clara 

Tsa Sah Wee Eh 

(Also known as Terrazas, Helen Hardin.) 

Born: 1946. Daughter of Herbert O. Hardin and Pablita Velarde {q.v.) 
(Santa Clara). 
Married: (?) Terrazas. 
Miss Hardin is a regular co-exhibitor with her famous mother, and has rightly 
achieved her own success as a painter. 
Education: Graduated from Pius X High School, Albuquerque, N.]\I.; 
scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, i960. 
Work Published: American Artist (April 1965). 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, AIM, ITIC, MNM, SN. One-man shows: En- 
chanted Mesa Trading Post, Albuquerque, N.M., 1964. 



70 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Awards: 1959-64: ITIC, MNM. 
Collections: Private: Elkus, Schonwald. 
Address: Box yy^, Espanola, N.M. 

Harris, Ed Paiute 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Harry Hand {see Sitting Eagle) 
Harvey, Pete, Jr. Navaho 

Education: Fort Sill. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 
Harvier, Michael Taos 

Quameomah 

Born : Date unknown. Son of Tonita Harvier, who lives and works in Taos. 

Education: Bacone College. 

Career: Employed by USDI; BIA. 

Exhibitions: 1952-56: DAM, FWG, MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: A. Forbes. 

Haskay Yah Ne Yah [see Begay, Harrison) 

Ha So Deh [see Abeyta, Narciso Platero) 

Hastings, Cain Navaho 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1963. 

Address: Box 232, Whiteriver, Ariz. 
Hatch, Glenn Ute 

Collections: Piihlic: SMNAI. 
Haungooah [see Silverhorn) 
Haungoonpau [see Silverhorn) 
Hawelana [see Herrera, Marcelina) 
Hawgone [see Silverhorn) 
Hawk Gros Ventres 

Collections: Public: HSP/L (three sheets, 1858-60). 
Hawk Man Sioux 

Born : Date unknown ; from Standing Rock Reservation, Dakota Territory. 

Died 1890 (?). 

Career: Hawk Man is thought to have been among the Indian police from 

the Fort when the 1890 skirmish at Sitting BuU's camp took place and the 

chief was killed. See Vestal (1933). 

Collections: Public: MAI (dated ca, 1884). 

Haydah, William D. Hopi 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Hayokah [see Mana) 

Hehaka Wambdi [see Red Elk, Herman) 
Hehon Womblee [see Eagle Feather, EUjah) 
Helele [see Ladd, Edmund J.) 



ARTISTS 71 

Henry, Fred Hopi 

Born: Date unknown. The artist is from Shungopovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Collections: Public: MAI. 

Henry, Gary ? 

Education: Phoenix, 1964. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 
Henry, Woodworth V. Snohomish 

Born: May 8, 1931, Oso, Wash. 

Education: The Burnley School of Art and Design, Seattle, Wash. 

Service: U.S. Air Force, three years. 

Career: Cartoonist and commercial artist, D.S. Wood and Associates, 

Tacoma, Wash. 

Exhibitions: PAC; Pacific Gallery Artist's Annual; College of Puget 

Sound Annual Exhibition, Tacoma, Wash.; Lakewood Artist's Annual. 

Awards: FAIEAIP, PAC; Pacific Gallery Artist's Annual. 

Address: 421 Perkins Building, Tacoma, Wash. 
Herman, Jake Oglala Sioux 

Career : Writer of the column, Wa Ho Si, in The Shannon County News, Pine 

Ridge, S. Dak. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1962. 

Address: Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 
Herrera, Delphino Cochiti 

Education : Albuquerque. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962-63. 
Herrera, Diego Tesuqite 

Career: Farmer. 

Exhibitions: AIW; FWG, 1943. 

Collections: PuUic. CU/LMA, OU/MA. 

Address: Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. 
Herrera, Elroy Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Herrera, Ernest Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959-61. 

Awards: MNM, two. 

Address: Route i, Box 59, Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. 
Herrera, Joe Hilario Cochiti 

See Ru, Blue Bird 

(Also known as Herrera, Joe H.) 

Born: May 17, 1923, Cochiti Pueblo, N.M. Son of FeHpe Herrera (Cochiti) 

and Tonita Pefia, q.v. (San Ildefonso). 

Married: JuUa Paisano, 1944 (Laguna). Two children: Joseph, Yvonne. 
Mr. Herrera is closely associated with tribal and state affairs. He conducts a 
radio program from Santa Fe that serves as an information center to the 
Pueblos. In recent years his many-faceted interests unfortunately have taken 
him away from painting his well-known symbolic expressions. 



72 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Education: Albuquerque; graduated Santa Fe, 1940; B.A., New Mexico U., 

1953; M.A., Ed., New Mexico U., 1962; studied under Raymond Johnson, 

and, for a short while, at the University of Puerto Rico. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force; Caribbean Theater. 

Career: Instructor, Highland High School, Albuquerque, N.M., 1953-56; 

instructor. University of Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, 

i960; placement officer and Assistant Director of Indian Education, New 

Mexico State Department of Education, 1956-. 

Honors: Palmes d'Academiques, 1954; Executive Secretary, All-Pueblo 

Council; area consultant. Save the Children Federation, Inc.; subject of an 

educational movie, Joe Herrera — Pueblo Artist; listed in Indians of Today; 

Chairman, Annual Governors' Inter- State Indian Council, 1964-65. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School; Maisel's Trading Post, 

Albuquerque, N.M. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Tanner (1957). Arizona 

Highways (February 1950) ; El Palacio (August 1950; December 1952) ; New 

Mexico Magazine (January i960) ; America Ilhistrated, USDS, Office of 

International Information (No. 33). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, DAM, FWG, HM, ITIC, MNA, MNM, MNM/T, 

OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards : 1947-63 : Eight top awards including ITIC Grand Awards ; Ameri- 
can Youth Forum Contest, when he was very young. 

Collections: Public: AF, DAM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MRFM, OU/MA, TM. 

Private: Denman, Dietrich, Elkus, A. Forbes, Lockett, Patania, SeweU, 

Thoeny, Wyman. 

Address : 576 Camino del Monte Sol, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Herrera, Jose Tesuque 

Collections: Private: Hogue. 
Herrera, Justino Cochiti 

Stimone, A Bird 

Born: 1920. 
In the 1940's the artist wrote: "I figured a plan to do while I was in the army 
when I come home. I'd marry my sweetheart and have our own home on my farm, 
raise stock and I could keep painting, too. Well, it happened. We got married 
and we had a little girl. Couple months later my wife took sick. . . it took her 
strong and she left me and my little baby daughter to raise. I am employed as a 
farmer here at St. Michael's Indian School." 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1937-40. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, three years; North African, Italian, and 

European Theaters. 

Exhibitions: AIM, MNM, PAC. 

Awards: AIM. 

Collections: Public: CAMSL, GM, MAI, MNM, PAC. Private: Adlerblum, 

Elkus, Wyman. 
Herrera, Marcelina Zia 

Hawelana 

Married: B. Trujillo. 



ARTISTS 73 

Education : Santa Fe, under Dorothy Dunn ; New Mexico U. 
Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 
Collections: Private: D. Kramer. 
Address: San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Herrera, Martin Santo Domingo 

Collections: Public: SM. 

Herrera, Senefore {see Herrera, Senofre) 

Herrera, Senofre Tesuque 

Oye Gi 

(Also known as Herrera, Senefore.) 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: AIE; FWG, 1943. 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA. 
Herrera, Velino Shije Zia 

Ma Pe Wi, Oriole (or Red Bird) 

(Also known as Velino Shije.) 

Born: October 22, 1902, Zia Pueblo, N.M. Son of Pedro Herrera and Reyes 

Ancero. 

Married: A Nambe girl, ca. 1925; later married Mary Simbola (Picuris). 

Five children: Ola, 1930; Calvin, 1938; Velino, Jr., 1933; Harold, 1937; 

Clifford, 1944. 
The artist adopted his childhood nickname Ma Pe Wi as a nom-de-plume. The 
name has a punning significance, meaning either "oriole" or "bad egg." He has 
credited Dr. Edgar L. Hewett for getting him started in the field of art. When 
the State of New Mexico adopted the sun symbol of the Pueblo Indians as its 
official insignia, he was accused by his own people of betraying them by giving 
the design to the whites. Jose Rey Toledo [q.v.) describes Herrera as a "singing 
artist" — one would know which ceremony he was painting by the song he sang 
at the drawing board. A tragic auto accident in the 1950's killed his wife Mary 
and injured him for life. He no longer paints. 

Education: Zia; Santa Fe. 

Career: Began painting ca. 1917; had a successful studio in Santa Fe, 

1932; painted briefly for School of American Research; painting instructor, 

Albuquerque Indian School, 1936; rancher. 

Honors: Palmes d'Academiques, 1954. 

Commissions: Murals: KM, USDI; Abuquerque Indian School; Rancho 

San Ignacio, Sapello, N.M.; Tecoletenos Ranch, near Las Vegas, N.M.; 

reproduced (in fresco) the kiva drawings at Kuaua, near BernaliUo, N.M. 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1941; 1943), Underhill (1938; 1941; 1945; 

1946; 1951). 

Work Published: Alexander (1932), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), La Farge 

(1956; i960), Pierson and Davidson (i960), Dockstader (1961). School Arts 

Magazine (March 1931) ; Introduction to American Indian Art, Part I (1931) ; 

American Magazine of Art (September 1928; August 1932); Arizona High- 
ways (February 1950), Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia (1957). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIM, AIW, EITA, HM, ITIC, JGS, MNM, OU/ET, 

PAC, PAC/T, SM. 



74 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Awards: AIM; ITIC Grand Award, 1948; PAC. 

Collections: Public: AMNH, CAM, CAMSL, CGA, CGFA, DAM, GM, 

KM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, MRFM, PAC, PU/M, W/JSC. 

Private: H. Adams, Bates, Denman, Dietrich, Dockstader, Elkus, A. Forbes, 

Hewett, Lockett, Mullan, Pritzlaff, Rockefeller, Thoeny, Wheelright, 

Woffard, Wyman. 

Address: 142 Bob Street, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Herrera, Victor Cochiti 

Education : Santa Fe. 
Collections: Public: MAI. 

Hessing, Valjean McCarty Choctaw 

Born: August 30, 1934, Tulsa, Okla. Daughter of Vernon Clay McCarty 
(honorary chief of the Choctaws) and Madelyn Helen Beck. Sister of Carol 
Jane McCarty Mauldin [q.v.). The artist was reared by her mother's parents, 
the F.L. Becks. P/GM: Etta Regina Davis (Choctaw). P/GF: Carl McCarty 
(Choctaw). 

Married : Robert C. Hessing, 1954. Four children : Robert Bart, 1947 ; Jane 
Ann, 1958; Lauri Lynn, 1959; Bradly Lewis, 1962. 
The artist's interest in painting began in grade school. After high school, and 
until 1964, she had devoted most of her time to rearing a family. Now she is 
painting again and giving more time to exhibiting regularly. 
Education : Public schools in Tulsa, Okla. ; graduated Tulsa Central High 
School, 1942; attended Mary Hardin-Baylor College, Belton, Tex., 1952--54; 
Tulsa, 1954-55- 

Honors : Received scholarship, PAC art classes, 1945 ; scholarship to Mary 
Hardin-Baylor College, 1952; yearbook artist, Tulsa Central High School, 
1949-52; yearbook art editor, cover artist for journalism magazine, and 
Student Union staff artist, Mary Hardin-Baylor College ; member of Alpha 
Epsilon Chapter of K TT Fraternity ; Secretary, Art Unlimited (Tulsa artists' 
association), 1965. 

Commissions: Ad for Triangle Blue Print and Supply Co., Tulsa, which also 
appeared in Today's Art (April 1956). 

Exhibitions: 1945-65: PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, USDI; Art Unhmited Ex- 
hibitions; Tulsa Council of Indians 1965 Exhibition. 

Awards: 1948-65: 17 from local, state, and national high school Scholastic 
Art Exhibits; Paint and Palette Award, Mary Hardin-Baylor College; Art 
Unlimited Exhibits ; first place in writing, designing, producing, and direct- 
ing a short musical in college, 1954. 

Collections: Public: PAC. Private: Combs, Cook, Ewing, Hammett, J. 
Mauldin, Rexroth, Rhodd, Woolley. 
Address: Box 169 R.C., Route i, Owasso, Okla. 

Hevoyitastamiutsts [see Whirlwind) 

Hicks, Al ? 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 

Hicks, Bobby Navaho 

Born: 1934. 
Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 



ARTISTS 75 

Career: Art instructor, Fort Defiance Public School, Fort Defiance, Ariz. 
Exhibitions: 1957-63: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 
Awards: Four during 1958, from ITIC, PAC. 
Collections: Piihlic. RM. Private: C. Fenton. 
Address: Box 382, Window Rock, Ariz. 
Hide Away [see Watchetaker, George Smith) 

High Dog Sio2iX 

Born: Date unknown; from Standing Rock Reservation. 
High Dog's Winter Count on unbleached muslin covers 114 years (at SHSND). 

Collections: Public: SHSND. 

EQgh Hawk Teton Sioux 

Baptiste Good (q.v.) was also called High Hawk and executed a Winter Count. 
These names apparently refer to the same man. 
Work Published: Curtis (1907-30), a Winter Count illustrating 221 events. 

Hill, Bobby Kiowa 

White Buffalo 
Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Public: lACB; Carnegie High School, Carnegie, Okla. Private: 
Deupree, R. Moore, M^alch. 
Address: Box 571, Carnegie, Okla. 

Hill, Joan Creek-Cherokee 

Chea Seqiiah, Red Bird 

Born: December 19, 1930, Muskogee, Okla. Daughter of William McKinley 
Hill (Creek-Cherokee) and Winnie Davis Harris (Creek-Cherokee). P/GF: 
George Washington Hill (Creek). Operated Amanda Trading Post near 
Hoffman, Okla. and was formerly President of the Creek Board of Educa- 
tion; a member of the House of Kings and the House of Warriors; Chief 
of the Creeks, 1923, re-elected by the tribe until 1928. P/GM: Lucy Grayson 
Hill (Creek-Cherokee). P/GGF: William Grayson (Creek), Union soldier 
who fought in Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory. M/GF : Chea Sequah 
B. Harris (Creek-Cherokee), who, with two others, estabhshed Harris School 
(now Harris- Jobe School), Muskogee County, Okla. M/GM: NeUie Carter 
(Cherokee). M/GGM: Ellen Rogers Harris (Creek-Cherokee). M/GGF: Col. 
Red Bird Harris (Cherokee). M/GGU: C. J. Harris, a Cherokee chief, 1891. 
In 1956, Miss Hill decided to become a full-time artist. She has remained dedi- 
cated to her career, rightly earning national recognition. 
Education: Harris Elementary School, Alice Robertson Junior High 
School, and graduated Central High School, Muskogee, Okla., 1948; A. A., 
Muskogee, 1950; B.A. (Ed.), Northeastern, 1952. Additional art study 
under Dick West [q.v) at Bacone College, and under George E. Calvert, 
John Kennedy, Jack Vallee, Ruth M. White [q.v.), Laurie Wallace, Roger 
Lee White, John Arthur, Bob Barthohc, Paul MaxweU, and Frederic 
Taubes, 1956-64; under Dong Kingman (workshop tour of Europe, 1964); 
Famous Artists Commercial Art, Inc. 

Career: Art instructor, Roosevelt Junior High School, Tulsa, Okla., 1952- 
56; adult art instructor, Muskogee Art Guild, 1959; artist, 1956-. 



76 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Honors: Listed in Oklahoma Artists and Leadership Index (a ''Who's Who 
in Oklahoma"); member, O K (honorary scholastic society); art and 
publicity director, Muskogee Art Guild; publicity director, Annual Muskogee 
Art Show. 

Commissions: Commercial Art: FCTM brochure, 1957; trademark, Cos- 
Medic Specialities Co., 1959; Corning Glass Works in the Sooner State (i960), 
cover and 30 illustrations. Portraits: 34 completed; 11 famous Cherokees, 
commissioned by Hardin Nelson; FCTM, eight of the Five Tribes Chiefs. 
Work Published: Plamm and Inglish (i960), cover; Gregory and Strick- 
land (1967). The Sunday Oklahoman, Orbit Magazine (July 21, 1963); South- 
west Review (Summer 1966), cover. 

Exhibitions: 1956-65 (87 non-juried, 39 juried): AIE, BC, FAIEAIP, 
FCTM, lACB, ITIC, MNM, MNM/T, OAC, PAC, SN, USDI; Bazza Gallery 
and Oklahoma Museum of Conservative Art, Oklahoma City; Motorola 
Regional Art Exhibit, Tulsa; Northeastern State Teachers College Library; 
Annual Six- State Exhibition, Springfield, Mo.; American Indian and Es- 
kimo Cultural Foundation, Agra Gallery, Washington, D.C. ; Bartholic Gallery, 
Benedictine Heights College, Oklahoma Cattlemen's Association, Tulsa, 
Okla. ; Muskogee Annual Art Shows, Art Guild Studio, Muskogee, Okla. ; 
Conners State College; Carl Addington Gallery, Yukon, Okla. One-man 
shows: 1952-65: HM, PAC; Northeastern State College; Western Hills 
Lodge, Sequoyah State Park, Okla. ; Henson Gallery, Yukon, Okla. ; Leone 
Kahl Gallery, Dallas, Tex.; American Embassies abroad, 1965-67. 
Awards: 1959-65 : 34 from major juried shows, y8 from Tulsa and Muskogee 
State Fairs, also one Sweepstakes and one Grand Award. 
Collections: Public: BC, FCTM, lACB, MAI, MNM, PAC; Western HiUs 
Lodge, Sequoyah State Park; Private: Addington, E. Adkins, R. Adkins, 
A. Baker, Basore, Bock, Bynum, J. Carter, M. Carter, R. Clark, Connelly, 
Conry, Crickmer, J. Fletcher, M. Fletcher, Florence, Garrett, Girdler, Har- 
vey, Heughland, W. C. Hill, W. M. Hill, Hively, Hohn, Huldermann, E. 
Jacobson, J. James, N. Jones, O. Jones, Judkins, Kershaw, Leathers, 
Lynde, Marshall, T. Mason, McCann, McKee, McKeever, McNaught, J. 
Milburn, Myers, Nelson, B. Oldham, Perdue, D. Perry, Pierce, Rowsey, 
Satterwhite, Schreiber, J. Snodgrass, Spillers, G. Stevens, W. Stone, Stout, 
Summers, Swindler, Upton, VanCleve, J. Walker, C. Walkingstick, R. 
Wheeler, Witkamp. 
Address: Route 3, Box 151, Harris Road, Muskogee, Okla. 

Hinds, Patrick Swazo Tesuque 

Grey Squirrel 

Born: March 25, 1929, Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. In 1939, at the age of ten, 
the artist was adopted by Dr. Norman A. E. Hinds, an honorary member of 
Tesuque, who, for 45 years, was Professor of Geology at the University of 
California. 

Married: Rita Ann Gunther, 1958. Children: Mark Allen, 1959; Marita, 1961. 
Not long after he was adopted by Professor Hinds, the artist moved to California 
where, except for the years he was away at school, he has resided ever since. He 



ARTISTS ^'J 

usually spends summer vacations at Tesuque Pueblo. He is active in the Society 
of Western Artists, the Or.kland Art Association, the Berkeley Arts and Crafts 
Cooperative, and American Indian Artists. 

Education: Tesuque; Santa Fe, 1938-39; St. Catherine's, 1940; St. Mary's 

College High School, Berkeley, Calif., 1941-46; Hill, 1948; Mexico C. C, 

1952; Chicago, 1953-55; B.A., California C, 1951. 

Service: U.S. Marine Corps, two years. 

Career : Silk screen processor, Hawkins and Hawkins, Berkeley, Calif., 1961-. 

Honors : Chairman, Arts and Crafts Cooperative, Berkeley, Calif. ; Associate 

Chairman, Painting Committee, American Indian Artists, San Francisco. 

Exhibitions: Twenty-two, 1947-63: CAI, CPLH, ITIC, MNM; Cork Wall 

Gallery, Berkeley, Calif.; Oakland Art Museum, Rental Gallery, Oakland, 

Calif. One-man shows : HM ; Gallery Nine, Grey Shop, Oakland, Calif. 

Awards: SN Grand Award, 1966. 

Collections: Private: Boynoff, D. Brown, Dewey, Elkus, Giannini, D. 

Grifhn, Hammond, Hardy, D. Harris, Hearne, Herwick, Irby, Klick, Krue- 

ger, J. Lewis, Little, McGilliway, Mclune, Mills, Miner, Morford, Nortner, 

Ordon, Pina, Regan, Waller, Zeff, Zelonis. 

Address: 1912 McBee Avenue, Berkeley, Cahf. 
His Battle (see Jaw) 
His Crazy Horse Sioux 

Collections : Public : MPM (pictographic style) . 
His Fight Hunkpafa Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; lived near Fort Buford, Mont., 1868. 

Work Published: Smith (1943). 

Collections : Public : MAI (hne drawing executed in ink) , 
Histito, Alonzo Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Hiuwa Tuni ? 

Collections: Public: W/JSC (ca. 1940). 
Hobah Comanche 

Collections: Public: FSM (painting on deerskin in native colors, before 

1922). 
Ho Chee Nee (see Burton, Jimalee) 
Hoffman, Delores ? 

Exhibitions: AIM, 1964. 
Hogoon (see Silverhorn) 

Ho Haw Kiowa 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Work Published: Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society (October 1950), 

St. Louis Post Dispatch (August 13, 1950). 

Collections: Public: MHS, OAA/SI 
Hokeah, Jack Kiowa 

Born: 1902, western Oklahoma. GF: White Horse (q.v.), the warrior. 
Orphaned while still a young boy, he was reared by his grandmother. Although 
Hokeah was one of the Five Kiowas {q.v.), he has not recently contributed to 
the art world. 



78 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Education: St. Patrick's through the ninth grade; Santa Fe; Oklahoma, 

special non-credit classes. 

Career: On New York stage for a short period; later employed by BIA. 

Commissions : Murals : Santa Fe Indian School. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929; 1964), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

American Magazine of Art (August 1933), American Scene, GM (Vol. VI, 

No. 3). 

Exhibitions: AIE/T; EITA; 'The Five Kiowas on the 50th Anniversary 

of Statehood," PAC. 

Awards : lACB Certificate of Appreciation, 1966. 

Collections: Public: ACM, DAM, GM, JAM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, 

MNM, SPL. Private: Denman, Deupree, Dockstader, 0. Jacobson, W. S. 

Price. 

Address : Rural Route, Anadarko, Okla. 
Holgate, Eugene, Jr. Navaho 

Exhibitions: 1962-63: PAC, SN, USDS. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. 

Address: 4014 North Second Street, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Holgate, J. ? 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Hollowbreast, Donald Northern Cheyenne 

Maxhebaho, Big Black 

Born : May 17, 1917, Birney, Mont. 
The artist was interested in painting even as a child. He began to paint with oils 
in 1950. Since then, he has experimented with other media. [See "Donald Hol- 
lowbreast: Fighting Cheyenne Editor," Montana (Autumn 1964).] 

Education: Birney Day School and La Bre Mission, Ashland, Mont. ; Busby 

Public School and Tongue River Boarding School, Busby, Mont. ; Chemawa 

(Oreg.) PubHc School, Ashland (Mont.) Public School. 

Career: Assisted with Indian adult education program, Birney, Mont., 

1959; Editor, Birney Arrow, 1959-. 

WoRK Published: Montana (Autumn 1964). 

Exhibitions: 1952-63: 13, including AAID, BNIAS, DAM, ITIC, MHS/H, 

PAC; Rosebud County Fair, Forsyth, Mont.; Northern Cheyenne Indian 

Fair, Lame Deer, Mont. ; Midland Empire Fair, Billings, Mont. 

Awards: Many prizes in local fairs. 

Collections: Private: Arbouchon. 

Address: Box 145, Birney, Mont. 
Holmes, Art (see Lomayaktewa, V.) 
Holmes, Gordon Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Holmes, Roderick Hopi 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: JGS, 1955. 

Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1952). 

Address : Tuba City, Ariz. 



ARTISTS 79 

Holton, Anne Tennyson Cherokee 

Born: February i, 1921, McNairy County, Tenn. Daughter of H. Frank 

Tennyson and Mattie Lucille Jernigan. M/GP: Joseph Ingle and Delia. 

P/GGP: Hiram Olney Tennison and Sally Ann Vaughters. 

Married: Bob Holton, 1955. One son: Mark Douglas, 1958. 

Education: Central^High School, Bolivar, Tenn.; Memphis, Tenn., School 

of Commerce. 

Career: Employed by Walgreen Drug Co., five years; sales representative, 

Helena Rubinstein, Inc., eight years. 

Honors: Listed in 1964 Leadership Index (a "Who's Who in Oklahoma"); 

La Grande (Oreg.) Arts Festival, 1964, first award in poetry; American 

Poets Fellowship Society, New York, N.Y., 1964, third award. 

Work Published: Holton (1964). 

Awards: 1943-65: Several from Okmulgee County Annual Art Exhibit, 

Okmulgee, Okla. 

Exhibitions: 1963-65: CCHM, FANAIAE, PAC; Okmulgee Art Exhibit, 

and Library Art Exhibit, Okmulgee; Fort Gibson, Okla., Arts and Crafts 

Exhibit; Tahlequah, Okla., Arts and Crafts Exhibit; AAUW Arts Exhibit 

and Book Fair, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Collections: Private: T. Alexander, K. Chandler, H. Davidson, M. Grant, 

C. Jones, Lowry, Martin, McElroy, McGilhra, B. Peterson, L. Ross, Shelton, 

Simpson, Tennyson. 

Address : 1413 East Eighth, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Holy Buffalo (see Levings, Martin) 

Holy Standing Buffalo Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Home Of The Elk {see Martinez, Crescendo) 

Homer, Bernard Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 
Address: Box 117, Zuni, N.M. 

Honahni, Al Hopi 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC (dated ca. 1952). 

Honahniein, Ramson R. Hopi 

Suhonva 

(Also known as Honahnie.) 
Born: ca. 1928, Moenkopi, Ariz. 
Collections: Public: MNM. 

Honewytewa, Louis Calvin, Jr. Hopi 

Queyesva, Sitting Eagle 

Born : June 30, 1930, Keams Canyon, Ariz. 

Education: Hopi. 

Collections: Public: PAC. 

Address : Shungopovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Honganozhe (see Ballard, Louis Wayne) 



80 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Hood, Ranee Comanche 

Au Tup Ta, Yellow Hair 

Born: February 9, 1941, Lawton, Okla. Son of Tom Hood and June Tene- 

guar (Comanche). Son-in-law of Roland Whitehorse (q.v.). 

Married: Phyllis Whitehorse (Kiowa), February 4, 1963. Two children: 

Deanna, 1964; Andrea, 1965. 

Career: Sequoyah Mills, Anadarko, Okla., 1963-. 

Exhibitions: AIE, FAIEAIP, PAC, SN. 

Awards: AIE; Fourth Annual Texas-Oklahoma Sidewalk Art Exhibit, 

Lawton, Okla., 1965. 

Collections: Public: MAI, SPIM. 

Address : General Delivery, Cache, Okla. 
Hopkins, Merina Lujan (see Pop Chalee) 
Horn, Miles S. Ankara 

White Crow 

Born: Date unknown. GGGF: Chief One Star. Nephew of Red Star, a scout 

enlisted in the Seventh Cavalry under Gen. Custer. 

The artist was encouraged to paint by Charles Russell and has been a popular 
artist in the Upper Great Plains area for many years. 

Service: WWI; WWII. 

Career: Solo cornetist with all-Indian band; professional baseball player; 

cowboy; range rider; motion picture actor. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS painting entitled "Day Before Custer Battle." 

Collections: Public: BIA/B. 

Address : Box 580, Billings, Mont. 
Horse, Perry Kiowa 

Exhibitions: 1963-64: AAIEAE, USDS. 
Horse Chief {see Beard, Lorenzo) 
Horse Tail Crow 

Collections: Public: DAM. 
Hosetosavit, Arden Mescalero Apache 

Born: May 21, 1945, Mescalero, N.M. 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1962 ; Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: 1962-64: MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, USDI, USDS. 

Awards : Interior Design Magazine Award, 1964. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. 

Address: Box 74, Mescalero, N.M. 
Hoskie, Larry Navaho 

Commissions: Murals: ASF/CoHseum, 1965 (with four other Navahos). 
Hoskiel (see Abeyta, Narciso Platero) 
Hotyee (see Byrnes, James Michael) 
House Standing Upright (see Denetsosie, Hoke) 
Houser, Allan C. Chiricahua Apache 

Haozous, PuUing Roots 

Born: June 30, 1915, Apache, Okla. Son of Sam Haozous (Apache). GU: 

Geronimo, famous warrior who was imprisoned at Fort Sill, Okla. 



ARTISTS 8l 

Married: Anna Marie Callegos (Navaho). Four children: Roy, Lonnie, 
Robert, Stephen. 
Houser's parents were taken to Fort Sill and held prisoners with Ger6nimo's 
band. Later, after his father started to farm, the boy helped at home and attend- 
ed school intermittently. From a beginning of many hardships, he has attained 
an outstanding career and reputation in the art field. He first began painting 
about 1924 and is today equally well known as a sculptor. O. B. Jacobson 
regarded Houser as one of the most important artists of his day. 
Education: Boone County (Okla.) School, through 8th grade; Fort Sill; 
Chilocco; Haskell; Santa Fe. Mural instruction under Olaf Nordmark at 
Fort SiU. 

Career: Artist in residence and art instructor, Inter-Mountain Indian 
School; painting and sculpture instructor, Institute of American Indian 
Arts, 1962-. 

Honors: John Simon Guggenheim Scholarship for Sculpture and Painting, 
1948; Palmes d'Academiques, 1954; represented in Indians of Today, 
Certificate of Appreciation, lACB, 1967. 

Commissions: Miirals: SPIM, USDI; Fort Sill Indian School; Riverside 
Indian School; Jicarilla Indian School; Inter-Mountain Indian School. 
Sculpture'. Marble war memorial, "Comrades in Mourning," Haskell Institute, 
1948; portrait of Geronimo, capital building. State of Arizona. Medal: The 
Society of MedaUists, 59th medal issued. May, 1959. Dioramas: SPIM. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Carter (1954), Pierson and 
Davidson (i960), Arnold (i960) dust jacket, Dockstader (1961), Jacobson 
(1964). Arizona Highways (February 1950; November 1962), Compton's 
Pictured Encyclopedia (Vol. 7, 1957), Oklahoma Today (Summer 1958), 
Sunday Bonanza, San Francisco Chronicle (August 22, 1965), Indians from 
Oklahoma, BIA (1966). 

Exhibitions: AAIE, AIEC, AIW, CAI, DAM, EITA, ITIC, JGS, MNM, 
NGA, PAC, PAC/T, SFWF, SN; National Exhibition of American Art, 
New York, N.Y., 1937 (only Indian represented); New York World's Fair, 
1939; Blair House, Washington, D.C., 1964. One-man shows: CAI, DAM, 
MNM, OU, PAC. 

Awards: DAM, ITIC, PAC, SN; trophy for outstanding work in Indian 
art, Santa Fe Indian School, senior year; three Grand Awards. 
Collections: Public: AF, BIA, FSM, lACB, JAM, MNA/KHC, MNM. 
OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC. Private: H. Adams, Denman, Elkus, Finley, N, 
Hunt, 0. Jacobson, D. Kramer, Mullan, Neumann, Pritzlaff, Schonwald, 
Thoeny, Walch, Wyman. 
Address: 1020 Camino Carlos Rey, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Howe, Oscar Yanktonai Sioux 

Maziiha Hokshina, Trader Boy 

Born: May 13, 1915, Joe Creek, Crow Creek Reservation, S. Dak. Son of 
George T. Howe (Yanktonai) and Ella Not Afraid of Bear (Yanktonai). 
P/GGF: Bone Necklace, head chief of Yanktonais. M/GGF: White Bear 
(Yanktonai), awarded medal from federal government for outstanding 
service to the nation in 1862. M/GF: Not Afraid of Bear, Yanktonai chief. 



82 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Married: Heidi Hampel, July 29, 1947. One daughter: Ingre Dawn, 1948. 
While a child in government boarding school, the artist developed a serious skin 
disease and trachoma. He was sent home and given little chance to escape blind- 
ness and disfiguration, but he vowed to get well and "be the best." He returned 
to school and completed his education. 
Education: Pierre Indian School, Pierre, S. Dak., through ninth grade; 
graduated Santa Fe, 1938; B.A., Dakota Wesleyan University, Mitchell. 
S. Dak., 1952; M.F.A., University of Oklahoma, 1953. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Army, three and one-half years; European Theater, 
Career: Instructor in art, Pierre Indian School, 1939; artist in residence 
and Assistant Professor of Creative Arts, University of South Dakota, 
1957-. The artist conducts the annual American Indian Art Summer Work- 
shops, University of South Dakota. 

Honors : High School Salutatorian ; Harvey Dunn Medal of Art ; Certificate 
of Appreciation, lACB; Artist Laureate of South Dakota; Waite Phillips 
Outstanding Indian Artist Trophy, PAC, 1966 ; listed in Indians of Today, 
Who's Who in South Dakota, Who's Who in American Art. See Pennington, 
1961. 

Commissions: Murals: Carnegie Library and Corn Palace, Mitchell, S. Dak.; 
City Auditorium, Mobridge, S. Dak. ; Park Building, Nebraska City, Nebr. ; 
Proviso High School, Hinsdale, 111. 

Books Illustrated: Raabe (1942), Clark (1943a), Jacobson (1952) Hassrick 
(1964). Legend of the Mighty Sioux, South Dakota Writers' Project, (1941). 
Work Published: Douglas and D'Harnoncourt (1941); La Farge (1956; 
i960); Pierson and Davidson (i960), Pennington (1961). Oklahoma Today 
(Summer 1958) ; Museum News (June 1962) ; Smoke Signals, lACB (Autumn 

1965). 

Exhibitions: 1949-65: 75 museums and art associations in North America, 

including AIEC, BNIAS, CAI, DAM, MMA, MNM, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, 

PAC/T, SAIEAIP, SIECC, SM, SU, USDI, USDS. 1947-66: Indian art 

competitions, 22 showings; 1965-67: U.S. Embassies in Europe. One-man 

shows: 26, including AIW, DAM, HM, JAM, MNM, PAC, USDI. 

Awards: 1947-65: 28, including five PAC Grand Awards. 

Collections: Public: BIA, DAM, lACB, JAM, MAI, MAM, OU/MA, OU/SM, 

PAC, SIECC, SM. Private: Bush, Denman, Dietrich, Dockstader, Edwards, 

Eisenhower, A. Forbes, Grender, Hassrick, E. Jacobson, O. Jacobson, 

McGovern, Merits, Michels, Pickart, W. S. Price, Rue, Schonwald, Schrei- 

ber, Yulke. 

Address: 128 Walker Street, Vermillion, S. Dak. 

Howling Wolf Southern Cheyenne 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Minimic {Ma nim ik), who was in Black 
Kettle's camp at Big Timbers and was chief of his own band, which surren- 
dered to reservation life in 1869. 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. By 1880 he had returned to 
the area of the Darlington Cheyenne Agency, Darlington, Okla., where apparently 
he did no further painting. 



ARTISTS 83 

Work Published: Petersen (1968). 

Collections: Public: CMNH, HI, JAM/BL, MAI, YU/BRBML. Private: 

Curtin. 
Huan Toa [see Momaday, Al) 
Hugh, Victor C. Hopi 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Humetewa, Eric Hopi 

Born: Date unknown; from Tuba City, Ariz. area. Uncle of James Russell 

Humetewa, Jr. {q.v.). 

Collections: Private: Dockstader. 
Humetewa, James Russell, Jr. Hopi 

Humetewa, Shelling Corn; Soo Woea (or Saw Whu, Sato Whu), Morning Star. 

Born: May 28, 1926, east of Grand Canyon, near Tuba City, Ariz. His 

brother resides at Santo Domingo Pueblo. 
Records at the Museum of New Mexico disclose that the artist has exhibited 
extensively in New Mexico and Arizona. In 1950, he was reportedly the most 
profilic of the younger Hopi artists. 

Education: Hopi, ca. 1940; graduated Santa Fe, 1945. 

Career: Onetime employee of MNM. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: FWG, ITIC, MNA, MNM, NMSF, PAC, PAC/T, SFWF. 

One-man shows: 1947, MNM. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNM, PAC. Private: Denman, Elkus, A. 

Forbes. 

Address : Santa Ana Pueblo, Bemahllo, N.M. 

Hummingbird, Jerome Kiowa 

Born: 1930, Lawton, Okla. 

Education: Riverside. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Private: Truex. 

Address: Cache, Okla. 
Hunt, Clyde "Sunnyskies" A coma 

Collections: Private: W. S. Price. 
Hunt, Wayne Henry [see Hunt, Wolf Robe) 
Hunt, Wolf Robe Acoma 

Kewa, Growing Plant 

(Also known as Hunt, Wayne Henry.) 

Born: October 14, 1905, on the Acoma Reservation, N.M. Son of Edward 

Hunt (Acoma), Chief of the Dehght Makers, and Morning Star (Acoma), 

well-known potter and weaver. M/GGF : Martin Vallo, seven- time governor 

of Acoma Pueblo. 

Married: Glenal Davis, 1932. One daughter: Lo Waynenema, 1933. 
As a boy on the reservation, Wolf Robe herded sheep for his father and later 
became a member of the respected Hunters Society. He is an accomplished 
silversmith, and, yearly since 1936, has exhibited at the Inter-Tribal Indian 
Ceremonials. Since the 1930's, he has been active in the promotion of authentic 

6» 



84 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Pueblo dance groups. He is a Charter Member of the Tulsa Pow Wow Club, a 
member of the Masonic Lodge, Scottish Rite, and Akdar and President of the 
Masonic Lodge Indian Patrol of Tulsa, Okla. 
Education: Albuquerque; graduated Albuquerque Public High School, 
Albuquerque, N.M.; studied privately under Carl Redin in Albuquerque 
and under Frank Von Der Laucken in Tulsa. 

Career: Lecturer, author, painter, and silversmith. Toured Europe as a 
member of a dance group with loi Ranch Circus ; organized and led Pueblo 
dance group presenting educational programs throughout the U.S., 1936; 
director of Indian dances. Boy Scout Circus Pageant, St. Louis, Mo., 1937; 
Indian arts and crafts instructor, PAC, 1953; motel owner and operator, 
Tulsa, Okla., 1957-59; lecturer. University of Kansas, Extension Service; 
assisted BAE as interpreter; Indian trader, owner and operator of Indian 
arts and crafts shop, Tulsa, Okla., 1938-. 

Honors: Offered scholarship from University of Chicago, Department of 
Anthropology; selected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to represent 
American Indians at a food exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, 1964; repre- 
sented in Indians of Today. 
Books Illustrated: Rushmore and Hunt (1963). 

Exhibitions: AIE, FANAIAE, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, USDS; 
United States Food Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany. One-man shows: 1964- 
66, HM, PAC. 

Awards: 1964: FANAIAE, MNM. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, PAC. Private: Mayor (1965) of Segeberg, 
Germany. 
Address : Box 15606, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hunter, Elwood Navaho 

Exhibitions: FWG, HM. 

Hunting Horse (see Darby, Raymond Lee) 

Hunting Horse (see Tsatoke, Lee Monette) 

Hunting Horse (see Tsatoke, Monroe) 

Hunting Wolf Apache 

Hunting Wolf was among the 72 Plains Indian prisoners taken from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875; while there, he executed 
paintings and drawings on writing paper. 
Collections: Public: OHSM. 

Hushka Yelhayah (see Lee, Charlie) 

Huskett, John Navaho 

Education: Chilocco (commercial art course after WWH). 

Service: WWH, U.S. Navy, four years. 

Exhibitions: PAC; Midwest Rural Conference, Oklahoma State University, 

1959. 
Hyde, Douglas Nez Perce 

Born: 1946, Hermiston, Idaho. 
Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: SAIEAIP. 



ARTISTS 85 

Hyeoma, Lucille Hopi 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Ihunter [see Orr, Howell Sonny) 
Immana, Annie Weokluk Eskimo 

Annnanooruk 

Born: 1903, Big Diomede, Siberia. 
The artist's travels along the coast of Siberia in a skin boat have provided her 
with the subject matter for her paintings. 

Exhibitions: Nome Skin Sewers, Alaska; Poliet's Store, Nome, Alaska. 

Address: Nome, Alaska. 
In The Middle Of Many Tracks [see Anko) 
Ingram, Jerry Cleman Choctaw 

Born: December 13, 1941, Battiest, Okla. Son of Charley Ingram and Jincy 

Cobb (Choctaw). 

Married: Veronica Marie Orr, q.v. (Colville), February 14, 1964. One child: 

Teresa M., 1964. 

Education: Battiest Elementary School; graduated Chilocco, 1963; post- 
graduate work at Institute, six months; graduated Oklahoma S. U./S. T., 

1966. 

Commissions: Murals: Oklahoma State University, Oklahoma Room. 

Exhibitions: CCHM; Okmulgee Pow Wow, Okmulgee Art Show, Oklahoma 

State University Art Show. 

Awards: Okmulgee Art Show, 1965. 

Collections: Private: L. Brock, Frith, Robinett. 

Address: Oklahoma State University, School of Technology, Okmulgee. 

Ingram, Veronica Marie Colville 

Siictwa Qiiinkum, Musically Inclined 

Born: January 12, 1945, Omak, Wash. Daughter of Samuel A. Orr (We- 

natche) and Carohne Nelson (Colville). Sister of Carohne Louise Orr [q.v.). 

Married: Jerry Cleman Ingram, q.v. (Choctaw), February 14, 1964. One 

child: Teresa M., 1964. 

Education: Omak (Wash.) Pubhc School; graduated Institute, 1963; six 

months' postgraduate work. 

Career: Secretary (student trainee) and tourist guide at the Institute of 

American Indian Arts. 

Exhibitions: CCHM; lAIA Gallery; Okmulgee Art Show, Okmulgee Pow 

Wow, Okmulgee Library, Okla. 

Address : c/o Oklahoma State University, School of Technology, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
Inn, M. Riding [see Riding Inn, M.) 
Iromagaja [see Rain In The Face) 
Iron Tail (Chief) Oglala Sioux 

Sinte Maze, Iron Tail 

(Also known as Plenty Scalps.) 



86 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Born: 1851; once lived in Pine Ridge, S. Dak. Took part in Battle of 

Little Big Horn while his name was Plenty Scalps. Died, May 29, 1916 near 

Ft. Wayne, Indiana. 

Married : Indian woman ; lived on reservation. 

Honors : Succeeded Sitting Bull as chief. 

Collections: Public: MAI (autograph sketch, see Black Heart). 
Itchez Ha Biye [see Scott, Johnson Lee) 
Itkaminyauke Sioux 

Collections: Public. MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Jackson, Nathan Tlingit 

Born: 1938, Juneau, Alaska. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 

Address: Haines, Alaska. 
Jake, Albin Roy Pawnee 

Ahsey Sututuf, War Horse 

Born: June 22, 1922, Skedee, Pawnee County, Okla. Died, July i960. 

Brother of John Jake, Pawnee, Okla. 
In 1957, the artist wrote Philbrook Art Center: "My modernistic oil paintings are 
innovations of age old designs and patterns. The broken color designs bordering 
some of my paintings are to me representative of the geometric designs, patterns 
and hide paintings of the Indians of the Great Plains area, a glimpse into 
and out of something that is by-gone." 

Education: Bacone College, under Dick West (q.v.); graduated Haskell, 

where he studied under FrankHn Gritts (q.v.) ; graduated Northeastern ; at- 
tended Oklahoma. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Marine Corps, 34 months; Pacific Theater. 

Career: Artist-illustrator, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Okla.; 

resigned in 1957 to devote full-time to freelance art work and mural com- 
missions. 

Commissions : Murals : Tinker Air Force Base, conference room (with Bunny 

Randall, q.v., and LeRoy McAllister). 

Work Published: La Farge (1956) (i960), Pierson and Davidson (i960). 

The World Book Encyclopedia (i960). 

Exhibitions: 1949-60: DAM, JGS, MNM, PAC, PAC/T. One-man shows: 

PAC, 1957- 

Awards: 1949-56: MNM, PAC (including one Grand Award). 

Collections: Public: OHSM, PAC. Private: Deupree, Schonwald. 
James, Sammy Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Jaramillo, Edward Gilbert Isleta 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
JaramiUo, Joseph Louis ? 

Education: St. Catherine's. 

Collections: Public: MNM (colored pencil on cardboard). 



ARTISTS 87 

Jaw Hunkpapa-Sans Arcs Sioux 

Cehn'pa (and Oki'cize Tawa, His Battle) 

Born: 1850. His mother was a Hiinkpapa, and his father was a Sans Arcs. 
The artist was named Cchu'pa by his White brother-in-law; his childhood name 
was M^zaho Waste (Loud Sounding Metal), and at the age of 17 he was given 
the name of Oki'cize Tawa. 

Work Published: BAE, Bitll. 61, lyj (pictographic style). 
Jay, Tom Hopi 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1938. 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Collections: Private: Dietrich. 
Jefferson, Bennie Saiik-Fox 

Born: 1913. 

Education: Chilocco. 

Exhlbitions: AIEC. 

Jenkins, Nathan Hopi 

Exhibitions: HM [ca. 1951, while a student). 

Jim, Frank Navaho 

Born: September 17, 19? 8, Keams Canyon, Ariz. The artist is known to 
have exhibited in Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Jim, Wilson Navaho 

Born : In 1952, near Jeddito Trading Post, Arizona. 
Education: Santa Fe; Albuquerque, seventh grade, ca. 1964. 
Exhibitions: NMSF. 
Awards: 1964: NMSF. 

Jobie Bear {see Byrnes, James Michael) 

Joe, Ray Navaho-Zia 

Born: November 23, 1945, Fort Wingate, N.M. Son of Tom Joe (Navaho- 
Zia) and Mary Houston (Navaho) . P/GF : Black Joe (Man With Big Whiskers) . 
M/GF: Doan Houston. M/GM: Bah James Houston. 
Listed as an outstanding art student by Duane O. Berg, Gallup art instructor, 
he received his first award in the Gallup Lions' Club Rodeo Poster Contest while 
in the fourth grade. He hopes to become an art teacher at the elementary level. 
Education: Houck Mission School, Sanders Pubhc School, Tohatchi 
Boarding School, N.M., 1949-58; graduated Gallup, 1964. 
Exhibitions: ITIC, NACG, NMSF; Gallup Indian Community Center. 
Awards: Six from Gallup Indian Community Center; NACG Student 
Exhibit. 

Collections: Public: Paramount Resturant, Gallup, N.M.; Manuelito Hall, 
Gallup High School. Private: Berg, Stanley, M. Woodard. 
Address : General Delivery, Lupton, Ariz. 

John, Angelo Marvin Navaho 

Born: February 5, 1946, Flagstaff, Ariz. Son of CharUe John (Navaho). 
Education: Ganado Mission, Ganado, Ariz.; Mission School, Cottonwood, 
Ariz.; Fort Sill; Institute (senior, 1964-65). 



88 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Honors: Fifth Annual Navaho Youth Conference, Shiprock, N.M., 1965; 

Student-body President, Institute of American Indian Arts, 1965. 

Commissions: Murals: Cedar Point Great Hall, Mackinac Island, Mich. 

Exhibitions: PAC, YAIA. 

Collections: P^ihlic\ BIA, lAIA. Private: Bush, Egertson. 

Address: 5-B, Clark Homes, Flagstaff, Ariz. 
John, Johnny Shawnee 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Johns, David Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: E. Carter. 
Johns, Joe L. Seminole 

Education: Institute, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Johnson, Alfred Cherokee 

Eya 

Education: Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: PAC. 
Jojola, E. Isleta 

Collections: Public: MAI, 
Jones, Laura Asah Kiowa-Comanche 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1959. 

Address : 2338 North West 35th, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Jones, Ruthe Blaloek Delaware- Shawnee 

Chulundit, Little Bird 

Born: June 8, 1939, Claremore, Okla. Daughter of Joe Blaloek (Shawnee- 
Cherokee) and Lucy Parks (Delaware). 

Married: Carroll E. Jones Saumty (Kiowa), 1957. (Although his Indian 

name was Saumty, the artist's father-in-law was given the name of Jones, 

and the family has used the name ever since.) Three children: Deborah, 

1957; Carroll, Jr., 1959; Nancy Ann, 1965. 

Education : Junior high schools in Miami and Dewey, Okla. ; Bacone College 

High School; graduated correspondence school. Private art instruction 

under Ruth Steincamp. 

Exhibitions: AAID, AAUW, AIE, FAIEAIP, FNAIC, ITIC, PAC, SN; 

Ponca Indian Fair, Ponca City, Okla.; Okmulgee County Annual Art Ex- 
hibit; Okmulgee Public Library; Fort Gibson Traders Fair; Tulsa Arts 

Festival. One-man shows: 1964-65: Two at Shirley Paint Co., Okmulgee. 

Awards: 1953-65: Eight, including AAUW, AIE ; Okmulgee County Annual 

Art Exhibit ; Ponca Indian Fair. 

Collections: Public: Murrow Indian Children's Home, Muskogee, Okla. 

Private: T. Alexander, Ann Anderson, Blue Eagle, Dale, Deel, Dolan, W. 

Foster, Franklin, Holton, S. Jones, Kelly, Kiley, M. Martinez, Milner, 

Pickett, H. Robinson, Shelton, Strickland, E. Walters. 

Address: 1200 East 13th, Okmulgee, Okla. 



ARTISTS 89 

Joshongeva Hopi 

Collections: Public: CAM. 
Jumping Bear {see Grass, John) 

Kabotie, Fred Hopi 

Nakayoma, Day After Day 

Born: February 20, 1900, Shungopovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Married: Alice Talayaonema (Hopi), 1931. Two children: Hatti Lou, 1939; 
Michael {q.v.), 1943. 
In 1906, Kabotie's family, seeking to escape the efforts of the Government to 
force them to abandon their customs, joined other people of old Oraibi and estab- 
lished Hotevilla. Eventually they were forced to return to Oraibi and Shungo- 
povi, where, in 1913, the children were placed in schools for the first time. Later, 
as a disciplinary measure, Kabotie was sent to Santa Fe Indian School. There 
he was encouraged by Mr. and Mrs. DeHuff to develop his artistic talents. Since 
1920, his work and his name have usually appeared wherever Indian art is ment- 
ioned. His work as an educator has prevented him from painting extensively 
since 1959. 
Education : Shungopovi and Santa Fe, 1915-20 ; graduated Santa Fe Public 
School, 1924; attended summer sessions, Alfred. 

Career: Teacher, painter, author, lecturer, craftsman, and good-will am- 
bassador; art instructor, Oraibi High School, 1937-59; in charge of Indian 
artists exhibiting at SFWF; manager, Hopi Silvercraft Cooperative Guild, 
1941-46; field specialist, lACB, 1959-. 

Honors: Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship, 1945-46; Indian Achieve- 
ment Medal, awarded by Indian Council Fire of Chicago, 1949; Palmes 
d'Academiques, awarded by government of France, 1954; Certificate of 
Appreciation, lACB, 1958. Represented U.S. in India as goodwill envoy, 
i960 ; listed in Who's Who in American Art and in Indians of Today. 
Commissions: Murals: Grand Canyon's Desert View Tower; made repro- 
ductions of the Awatovi prehistoric murals in original size on panels in 
fresco for The Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
(late 1930's). Paintings'. Recorded Indian dances for the School of American 
Research and the Archaeological Society of New Mexico, 1920-26; com- 
missioned to paint Hopi life and customs for MAI, 1928-29. 
Books Illustrated : DeHuff (1927; 1929; 1932); Kennard (1941); Kabotie 

(1949)- 

Work Published: La Farge (1956, i960), Dockstader (1962), International 

Studio (March 1922), Travel (1931), Introduction to American Indian Art 

(1931), The American Magazine of Art (August 1932), Contemporary Arts of 

the South and Southwest (November-December 1932), Cincinnati Art Museum, 

Bulletin (January 1938), Arizona Highways (July 1951), Comptons Pictured 

Encyclopedia (1957), News Notes (December 1961), Paintings by American 

Indians, CPLH (1962). 

Exhibitions: ACC, AIW, DAM, DMFA, EITA, ITIC, MAI, MMA, MNA, 

MNM, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T, TM, WRNGA; Society of Fine Arts, 

Palm Beach, Fla. One-man shows: MNA, 1947; the artist's reproductions of 

the Awatovi murals toured the U.S. 

Awards: ASF, ITIC, MNM, PAC. Grand Awards: ITIC, PAC. 



90 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Collections: PiMic. AF, BIA, CAM, CGA, CGFA, DCC, GM, HM, MAI, 

MKMcNAI, MMA, MNA, MNA/KHC, OU/MA, PAC, TM. Private: Denman, 

Dietrich, Dockstader, Elkus, Waters. 

Address: Box 44, Oraibi, Ariz., and Box 37, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Kabotie, Michael Hopi 

Born : 1946. Son of Fred Kabotie, q.v. (Hopi) and Alice Talayaonema (Hopi). 

Married : Name unknown ; two children. 
"Of his son, Fred Kabotie says: 'Michael learned to paint by watching me work 
in my studio from the time he was a little boy. He had no formal art training 
Dther than my work and guidance. In the beginning of his development, Michael 
was mainly interested in subjects of a humorous nature but of late he has con- 
cerned himself with more serious subjects.'" Arizona Highways (August 1966). 

Education: Hopi; scholarship to Arizona, ''Southwest Indian Art Project,'' 

summer, i960; Arizona, ca. 1964-66. 

Work Published: Arizona Highways (August 1966). 

Exhibitions: HM, ITIC, PAC, SN. 

Awards: ITIC. 

Collections: Public: HM, MNA. Private: Elkus. 

Address : c/o Box 44, Oraibi, Ariz. 
Kacha Honawah [see White Bear) 
Kachina Town [see Sanchez, Ramos) 
Kagige, Francis Ottawa 

Born: 1931, Manitoulin Island, British Columbia, Canada. 
The artist's first work, executed on cardboard from old shoeboxes and on the 
backs of looseleaf notebooks, depicted Indian S3niibols in stylized designs. The 
artist attended school through the fourth grade and has never had formal art 
training. He first began to paint in 1962. 

Career : Road construction worker. 

Exhibitions: NYWF (Canadian Indian Exhibit); International Institute 

of Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Solveig West Arts and Crafts 

Shop, Manitoulin Island. 

Address: Manitouhn Island, B.C., Canada. 
Kahgegagahbowh (Chief) Ojihway 

Work Published: Hamilton (1950). 
Kahirpeya [see Runs Over) 
Kahn, Chester Navaho 

Tso Yazzie, Big Little 

Born : February 24, 1936, Pine Springs, Ariz. 

Married: Annie Tsosie, 1955. Six children: Neshah, 1956; Mariana, 1957; 

Charlotte, 1958; Norma, 1959; Gloria, 1961; Tony, 1962. 
Mr. Kahn recalls doing drawings on cardboards and on canyon walls with great 
joy while herding sheep when he was about seven. 

Education : Pine Springs Day School, 1943-47 ; Shiprock, 1947-48 ; Stewart, 

1948-53; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summers, 

1960-61 ; classes in summer school and night school toward a degree. 

Career : Painter, fabric designer, and silversmith ; Coordinator and teacher- 
aid, Stewart Indian School; professional sign and billboard painter, 1958- 

64; designer, Federal Signs and Signals, Corp., 1964-. 



ARTISTS 91 

Commissions: Murals: Gallup (N.M.) Indian Community Center. 

Work Published: Willoya and Brown (1962). 

Exhibitions: 1955-64: 17, including AIAE/WSU, ASF, ITIC, MNA, MNM, 

NTF, PAC; Nevada Artists' Association, Idlewild Park, Reno, Nev. ; Coco- 
nino Count}^ Fair, Flagstaff, Ariz. One-man shows: State Library, Carson 

City, Nev. ; Washoe County Library and Tower Theater, Reno, Nev. ; 

Gallup (N.M.) PubUc Library. 

Awards: 1956-64: 11 from AIAE/WSU, ASF, ITIC, NTF, PAC; Coconino 

County Fair, Flagstaff, Ariz.; Nevada Artists Association Exhibit, Reno, 

Nev. ; honorable mention, Fisher Body Craftsmen's Guild, 1957, for a model 

car design. 

Collections: PiiUic: AU/ASM; Randee Motel, Sedona, Ariz.; Window 

Rock (Ariz.) Lodge, Private: Burdock, Spell, Sward, P. Teny, Thoeny, H. 

Walters, Wright. 

Address: 301 Woodland Drive, Flagstaff, Ariz. 
Kai Sa {see Sandy, Percy Tsisete) 
Kakarook, Guy Eskimo 

Collections: PMic: SI (crayon sketches of river steamboats on the 

Yukon, executed about 1903). 
Kallestewa, Wiston Zuni 

Exhlbitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM. 

Address: Box 131, Zuni, N.M. 
Kanribeloka [see The Crow) 
Kapelva, Don Hopi 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Kasero, Joseph J. Lagiina 

Education: Bacone College, ca. i960; Santa Fe, ca. 1961. 

Service: U.S. Army. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 
Kaskalla, David Zuni 

Education: Zuni, ca. 1961. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 
Katahke {see Palmer, Woodrow Wilson) 
Katexac, Bernard T. Eskimo 

Born: 1922. 

The artist is from an isolated island in the Bering Sea. He branched out from 
ivory carving to painting in oils and watercolors and has been successful in 
applying the three-dimensional quality of ivory sculpture to wood. 
Education : University of Alaska, College, ca. 1964. 

Honors : First Eskimo to attend University of Alaska on a BIA scholarship 
for talented native Alaskan artists. 

Address: c/o University of Alaska, Art Department, College, Alaska. 
Ka Tside San Juan 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 
Katsiekodie, Charlie {see Washakie, Charles) 
Kaw^lahnohndaumah {see Odle pah) 



92 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Kayarvena, Walter Hopi 

Born : Shipaulovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: LMA/BC. 
Kaye, Wilmer Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Keahbone, George Campbell Kiowa 

A saute 

Born: January 29, 1916, Anadarko, Okla. Son of Mark Keahbone (Kiowa) 

and Frances Fletcher. M/U: Spencer Asah (q.v.). 

Married: Tonita Lujan, q.v. (Taos), 1936. Two children: Robert, 1940; 

Gordon Keahbone (q.v.), 1943. 
While at Bacone, Princess Ataloa, the arts and crafts instructor, encouraged him 
to develop his artistic talent and to attend Santa Fe Indian School where he 
could study under Dorothy Dunn. He has lived in the Southwest since going 
there to attend school. 

Education: St. Patrick's, 1921-27; Chilocco, 1927-28; graduated Bacone 

College High School, 1934; graduated Santa Fe, 1936; attended Taos, 

1947-48. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, two and one-half years; South Pacific and 

Asian Theaters. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), LaFarge (1956). Magazine 

Tulsa (May 1948), Paintings by American Indians, CPLH (1962). 

Exhibitions: AIW, CPLH, ITIC, MNM, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T, 

SFWF; Harwood Foundation, and Blue Door Gallery, Taos, N.M.; Vassar 

College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 

Awards: AIE, ITIC, MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: AMNH, GM, JAM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, MRFM, 

OU, PAC. Private: Denman, Dietrich, Grawe, D. Kramer, La Farge. 

Address: 102 Temblon Drive, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Keahbone, Gordon Kiowa-Taos 

Born: 1943. Son of George Campbell Keahbone, q.v. (Kiowa) and Tonita 

Lujan, q.v. (Taos). 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," 

summer, i960. 

Address: c/o 102 Temblon Drive, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Kee [see Gorman, Alfred Kee) 
Keejana, Oreston Hopi 

Collections: Public: OU/SM. 
Keep From The Water [see Wa Wa Chaw) 
Keeti Bahi [see Draper, Teddy, Sr.) 
Keevama, David Hopi 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 
Kehdoyah [see Battese, Stanley) 
Keith, C. Hobart Sioux 

Blue Horse 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1957. 

Address : Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 



ARTISTS 93 

Keith, Sidney John Sioux 

Little Chief 
Born: October 15, 1919, near Moreau River, S. Dak. 

Education: Phoenix, Ariz., two jxars; correspondence art school. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force, four years; Asian and Pacific Theaters. 

Exhibitions: In Arizona and Wyoming; has not exhibited for many years. 

Address: Box 73, Eagle Butte, S. Dak. 
Kelhoyoma, C. T. Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. 
Keloowise (see Kylesdawa, Dennis) 
Kemoha [see Patterson, Pat) 
Keno, Frankie Paiute-Shoshoni 

Born: September 13, 1943, Fallon, Nev. 

Education: Stewart, 1950-58, i960; Woodrow Wilson Junior High School, 

Tulsa, Okla., 1959; Las Vegas (Nev.) Public School, 1961; Institute, 1962. 

Exhibitions: 1963: PAC, SN, YAIA. 

Collections: Private: McGrath. 

Address: 280 Front Street, FaUon, Nev. 
Kerakahi-to [see Red Horn Elk) 
Kewa [see Hunt, Wolf Robe) 
Kewanwytewa, Riguel Zia-Hopi 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. 1962. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 
Kewanyouma, Leroy Hopi 

So Kiiva, Morning Star 

Born : October 14, 1922, Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Education: Shungopovi. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM. Private: D. Maxwell. 

Address : Box 704, Shungopovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
KgooYa [see Gutierrez, Jose Leandro) 
Khup Khu [see Lujan, Tonita) 
Kicking Bear Oglala Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; camped at the Big Bend of the Yellowstone River, 

1872. [See Vestal (1932; 1934).] 
In 1898, the aging veteran of the Battle of Little Big Horn was asked by Frederic 
Remington to paint his version of the fight. Kicking Bear complied, and the 
pictographic account is now at the Southwest Museum. 

Collections: Public: MAI, SM. 
Kie, Robert A. Laguna 

Born: 1948, Winslow, Ariz. 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: 1965: MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP. 

Collections: Private: R. Moore. 

Address: Laguna, N.M. 



94 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Kikekah Wahtiankah (see Wagoshe, Russell William) 

Kills Two Oglala Sioux 

Born : 1869. Died 1927 (it is reported that his wife placed a hide painting 

of a Sioux Winter Count in his cof&n). 

Married : Eagle Deer. 

Career : Indian policeman. 

Work Published: Alexander (1938) (including the cover). 

Collections: Public \ SIECC (a winter count) . 
Kimball, Yeffe Osage 

Mikaka Upawixe, Wandering Star 

Born : March 30, 1914, Mountain Park, Okla. Daughter of Other Good-Man 

(Osage) and Martha Smith. 

Married: Harry Slatin, ca. 1952. 
In 1946, a New York critic, Henry McBride, said of Miss Kimball: "Georgia 
O'Keeffe had better watch out. Her rival now appears on the desert horizon" 
{The Sun, New York, 1946). In 1965, Edgar J. Driscoll, Jr., remarked: "She has 
been involved with the outer reaches of space, fiery comets, and spheres, but in 
her more recent paintings, using acrylic resin medium and pure pigments, she 
works in oval shapes with concave and convex surfaces" {The Boston Globe, Mass.). 

Education: Richmond (Mo.) Public Elementary School; East; Oklahoma; 

Art. Private instruction in France and Italy, 1936-39; studied with Fernand 

Leger intermittently, 1936-41. 

Career: Painter, illustrator, textile designer, consultant on native arts. 

Consultant to: Chrysler Art Museum, Provincetown, Mass.; Portland 

Museum of Art, Portland, Oreg. Selected Indian art section of "America 

1953" for the State Department; advisor to Americana Foundation and 

Young America Films for 13 films, 1951-57; did research and illustrations 

for Book of Knowledge and World Book of Knowledge, 1957-58. 

Honors: Represented in Who's Who in American Art; Me member and 

former vice-president, now on Board of Control, Art Students League. 

Books Illustrated: Keech (1940), Brindze (1951), Gallenkamp (1954), 

Leekley (1965), Kimball and Anderson (1965). 

Work Published: Book of Knowledge (1957), American Indian Section. 

Author: Articles on American Indian art. Art Digest, 1945-49. 

Exhibitions: 1942-65: loi, including AGAA, BMFA, CAM, CIFA, FAIE- 

AIP, MHDYMM, MJG, MNM, SAIEAIP, SBM, TMA, UG, W, WA, 

WRNGA. One-man shows (first show, RG, 1946; fifty-fifth show, TKG, 

1966): CAG, DAI, DAM, DMG, FAG/S, GG, HAU, IDM, JAM, JKA, 

MHS/W, MNM, PAC, PAM, PAM/C, RAC/M, SBM, TKG, TMA, UNM, 

UVM, YK/T. Retrospective: PAC, 1966. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: BAM, BIA, BMFA, CAM, CAM/M, DAI, EB, lACB, 

MM, NMAS, PAC, PAM, TWA, WA, WLU. Private: Agoos, J. Anderson, 

Chrysler, Dana, M. Davidson, Fleishmann, Germeshausen, Grossman, B. 

Kronenberg, W. Rogers, Saltonstall, Slobodkin, Tishman, Weinberg, Wood. 

Address: ii Bank Street, New York, N.Y. 
Kinyeonny Beyeh (see Gorman, Carl Nelson) 



ARTISTS 95 

Kirk, Ernest Navaho 

Commissions: Murals'. ASF Coliseum, 1965 (with four other Navahos). 
Kishketon, George Kickapoo 

Narna Piaska, Splashing Water 

Born: February i, 1919, McLoud, Okla. Son of George Kishketon (Kicka- 
poo) and Mary Murdock (Kickapoo) . GF : Kickapoo chief. 

Married: Nemah Tomah, 1952. 

Education: McLoud (Okla.) High School, Bacone College, 1939-41. 

Career: Farmer, rancher, and artist. 

Commissions: Murals: Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: PAC; Skirvin Hotel, Oklahoma City, Okla., 1941. 

Collections: Public : GM, PAC. 

Address: Route 3, Walters, Okla. 
Kiyaa Nii {see Denetsosie, Hoke) 
Kiya Ahnii {see Denetsosie, Hoke) 
Klah Tso {see Big Lefthanded) 
Knight, L. Ponca 

Collections: Public: PAC. 
Koba {see Wild Horse) 
Kocha Honawu Hopi 

Collections: Public: DAM. 
Kodaseet, Alfred Calisay Kiowa 

Education: Bacone College, ca. 1938. 

Exhibitions: AIW. 
Koketha (see Murdock, Cecil) 
Koo Peen {see Atencio, Pat) 
Kopeley Hopi 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Kueha Honawuh {see White Bear) 
Kuka, King Blackfoot 

Born: 1946, Browning, Mont. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Work Published : YAIA catalog. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Kummok Quiwiokta {see Wooden Leg) 
Kuofde {see Sanchez, Ramos) 
Kuperu {see Suina, Theodore) 
Ku Se Peen {see Vigil, Tim) 
Kutca Honauu {see White Bear) 
Kyash Petrach {see Byrnes, James Michael) 
Kylesdawa, Dennis Zuni 

Keloowise 

Collections: Public: MNM (student work dated ninth grade, 1930). 



96 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Ladd, Edmund J. Zuni 

Fleetfoot; Helele; Lapilakwa; Lapilaokya. 

(Also known as Ladd, Edmond.) 

Career: Archaeologist, U.S. National Park Service. 

Education: Zuni; M.A., New Mexico U. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959-60. 

Collections: Public: BIA, MAI. 

Address : Box 215, Honaunau, Kona, Hawaii. 
Lady In The Sun {see Morgan, Judith PhilUs) 
Lalio, Ernie Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1951). 
Lamar, Elgin W. Wichita 

Born: June 22, 1918, Anadarko, Okla. 

Education: Tulsa. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 40 months; South Pacific Theater. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Address: 1116 South Birmingham Avenue, Tulsa, Okla. 
Lame Dog Teton Sioux 

Shunga Hushti 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 
Lame Man (see Cohoe, William) 
Lapilakwa {see Ladd, Edmund J.) 
Lapilaokya {see Ladd, Edmund J.) 
Larvie, Calvin Sioux 

Umpan Hanska, Tall Elk 

Born: July 6, 1920, Wood, S. Dak. P/GGF: Joe Larvie, homesteader at 

Hot Springs, S. Dak. with his Sioux wife. M/GF: White Yellow Fox (Brule 

Sioux), a medicine man who later became a scout for the U.S. Army. 
Woodrow Wilson Crumbo {q.v.) has said that Larvie was one of the finest artists 
he had ever had in class. Calvin left school during WWII to take part in the 
invasion of France. He later received the Bronze Star. For the past 18 years, he 
has spent most of his time in government hospitals, during which time he has 
done little painting. In 1963, he submitted his first completed paintings in 21 
years to a show in Bismarck, N. Dak. 

Education: Rosebud (S. Dak.) High School; graduated Bacone College 

High School, 1940; Wichita, 1965. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, six and one-half years; European Theater. 

Commissions: Murals: SFWF. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). National Geographic Maga- 
zine (March 1955). 

Exhibitions: 1939-65: BNIAS, FAIEAIP, FNAIC, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, 

PAC/T. One-man shows: PAC; Rosebud (S. Dak.) Arts and Crafts Museum. 

Awards: Statement of Recognition from the jury, BNIAS; FNAIC. 

Collections: Public: DAM, GM, lACB, OU/MA, PAC, SIECC. Private: 

J. Snodgrass, Solberg, Tarnasky, D. Young. 
Laughing Boy {see Blue Eagle, Acee) 



ARTISTS 97 

Laughing Bull {see Flores, William Vann) 

Lawasewa, V. C. Ziini 

The artist was one of the founders of the contemporary Zuni school of art {ca. 
1922) and apparently has done little painting since that time. He is known for 
his formal drawings of altars executed in the late 1920's. 
Collections: Public: MNA/KHC, MNM. Private: Denman. 

Lays Near Hair {see Rowell, Charles Emery) 

Leader {see Burton, Jimalee) 

Lean Wolf Hidatsa 

Born : Date unknown. At one time the artist was living in the area of Fort 
Buford and Fort Berthold, Dakota Territory. 
Work Published: BAE, 4th and loth AR. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Leandro, Jose (see Gutierrez, Jose Leandro) 

Le Coeur, Leon Huron 

Born : 1924, Hazel Park, Mich. Son of Arthur George Le Coeur and Goldie 
(Little Cloud) Brandimore. M/GGF: Chief Fleeting Cloud of the Alpena 
and Saginaw territory. P/GM: Le Coeur, daughter of Silent Cloud, Huron 
chief. His French ancestors — the Beauchamps, La Fonds, and Brandimores 
(as well as the Le Coeurs) — were among the first settlers of Fort Detroit. 
Married: Niki Doktor, October 17, 1963. 
An accident orphaning the artist at the age of seven also caused his loss of speech. 
Until he reached manhood, he attended numerous orphanages. As a young child, 
no medium adaptable to artistic creations escaped his imaginative mind. When 
he was taught to speak again through musical therapy, poetry and music were 
added to his skills. Although Le Coeur creates through many media, painting 
seems to be the one art which attracts him most. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, two years. 

Career: Painter, sculptor, playwright, poet and composer; accounting 
engineer, General Telephone and Electronics Corp. 

Honors : Named Artist of the Year by the American Education Assoc. ; 
Special Award from Liberty Amendment of Greater New York; original 
board member; Midwest Outdoor Art Exhibition. Outstanding reviews: 
". . .not since Picasso has a more definitive style and school of art been 
seen..." {Chicago Tribune); "...LeCoeur showed a unique talent and 
definite style that personalized his talents to the fullest. It is wonderful to 
find an artist who THINKS and not just paints" {Chicago Daily News). 
Exhibitions: Annual Rush Street Art Fair, Chicago, lU. ; Lynn Kottler 
Galerie, Village Art Show, N.Y. One-man shows: Paula Insel Galerie, N.Y. 
Address: 128 East 24th St., New York, N.Y. 

Lee, Charlie Navaho 

Hushka Yelhayah, Warrior Who Came Out 
Born : April 14, 1926, near the Four Corners area in Ariz. 
Married: Corahe Ann Christenson. Three children: Rebecca, Eric, Evan. 
As a child on the reservation, herding sheep and taking care of his grandfather's 
horses occupied the artist's extra hours. The horses became the subjects for his 



98 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

outstanding paintings. After graduation from high school, he enrolled at Santa 
Fe for special instruction in art, voice, and piano. While a soloist for a large 
Santa Fe choir, he developed an interest in the ministry, and is now active as a 
Christian minister on the Navaho reservation. 

Education: Indian schools; graduated Santa Fe, 1946; graduated Central 

Bible Institute, Springfield, Mo. 

Career: Previously a painter and silversmith, he is now a Christian minister 

on the Navaho reservation. 

Books Illustrated : Pathway to the Sky. 

Exhibitions: 1947-63: MNM, MNM/T, PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards: 1947-52: Five in N.M. and Okla. 

Collections: Public: AF, GM, MAI, MNM, MRFM, PAC, SI, UPA. Private: 

Dockstader, Elkus, A. Forbes, E. Hill, Lockett, Thoeny, Truex. 

Address: Box 162, Shiprock, N.M. 
Lee, Edward (see Natay, Ed) 
Lee, Frank ? 

Exhibitions: SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 
Lee, J. S. Navaho 

Exhibitions: 1961: PAC, MNM. 

Collections: Private: Long. 

Address: Window Rock, Ariz., and 4225 Seeley, Downers Grove, lU. 
Lee, Jerry Navaho 

Born: 1944, Pine Springs, Ariz. 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, FAIEAIP, SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 

Collections: Private: Downey, R. Moore, Mount, Thoeny, R. Walker. 
Lee, Nancy Isabel Navaho-Santo Domingo 

Born: Date unknown. Daughter of Edward H. Lee and Juanita C. Lee. 

Her mother retired after 32 years at Santa Fe Indian School and has re- 
cently adapted Indian designs to contemporary dress fashions. She is the 

sister of Edward H. Lee, Jr. 

Education: Public schools in Santa Fe, N.M.; Arizona S. C./F. ; currently 

an undergraduate at New Mexico U. 

Honors: Past-president of Future Teachers of America Club; member of 

Kiva Club, University of New Mexico; Indian Youth Council secretary, 

1961 ; Santo Domingo Educational Club Scholarship to University of New 

Mexico, 1963 ; United Pueblo Agency, scholarship for two years' study. See 

"Navajo Girl Majors in Art," The Navajo Times (June 11, 1964). 

Exhibitions: UNM. 

Awards: UNM, student show, 1964. 

Collections: Public: lABC. 

Address: 423 Cornell, SE, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Lee, Nelson Navaho 

Education: Fort Sill, 1962. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1955. 



ARTISTS 99 

Lee, Paul Navaho 

Collections: Public: PAC. 
Leekela, Howard Zimi 

(Also known as Lekeela.) 

Collections: Puhlic. MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC. Private: Denman. 
Left Hand Cheyenne ( ? ) 

Na Mos, Left Hand 

Born: Date unknown; a Left Hand signed the Fort Wise Treaty in 1861; 

also, a Left Hand was listed as an Arapaho chief at Darlington, Okla., ca. 

1870. 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: HL 

Lefthanded, Big {see Big Lefthanded) 

Leholm, Mary Frances Piehette Colville-Iroquois 

Born: May 17, 1933, Inchelium, Wash., on the Colville Reservation. Daugh- 
ter of Joseph Lawrence Piehette (Cree-Colville) and Marquriete Christine 
MacDonald (Colville-Iroquois). P/GGGF: Louis Dupuois Piehette, a French- 
man, born in 1797, led a Hudsons Bay Co. exploring party in 1817 to 
Astoria. M/GU : Pierre Piehette, French artist and poet. 
Married: Bernard A. Leholm, 1951. 

Education: Public schools in Chemawa, Oreg. ; Inchelium High School, 
IncheHum, Wash. ; Columbia Basin College, Pasco, Wash. ; B.F. A., Washington 
State University, Pullman, Wash., 1966. Private instruction in art under 
Warren Wilder and Edgar Desautel. 

Career: Housewife; plans to teach art. Employed two years at Colville 
Indian Agency; freelance commercial artist. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SAM; Wenatchee 
(Wash.) Apple Blossom Festival, Benton-Franklin County Fair, Kennewick, 
Wash.; Central Washington Art Festival, Yakima, Washington Art Asso- 
ciation, Spokane. One-man shows: Wenatchee; Walla Walla: Pullman 
(Chamber of Commerce); Pasco; Kennewick; Colville Indian Agency 
(Coulee Dam). Also in Lewiston, Idaho. 
Awards : Several at local fairs. 
Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. Private: Hatfield. 
Address : Box 316, PuUman, Wash. 

Lekeela [see Leekela, Howard) 

Leleka [see Outie, George) 

Leno, Marce Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959; Institute, 1963. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 

Lente, Jose Bartolo Isleta 

A note regarding this artist's work in the collection of MNM states the painter 
was known to "hang around things he didn't belong to. We used to know he sold 
paintings. He would come back with money." This work was executed ca. 1930. 
The artist is deceased. 



100 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Books Illustrated: Goldfrank (1962; 1967). 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. A quantity of his unsigned work is 
known to exist, the use of which is restricted. 
Leslie, Ernest Navaho 

Commissions: Murals: AFS, Cohseum, 1965 (with four other Navahos). 
Levings, Martin Hidatsa 

Black Cloud; Holy Buffalo. 

Born: October 14, 1892. Son of Hard Horn (Hidatsa), a chief and medicine 
man. 
Upon his return from military service, Levings was given his second tribal name 
at a special ceremony to honor his war record. He started painting about 1923, 
"to while away the long snowbound days of winter." 

Service: WWI. 

Career: Rancher. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Address: c/o George Fox, Sr., Box 145, Mandaree, N. Dak. 
Lewis, Albert Artie Navaho 

Born: January 21, 1926. 

Exhibitions: Flagstaff, Ariz., 1947. 

Awards: Flagstaff, 1947. 

Address: c/o Pinedale Store, Gallup, N.M. 
Lewis, Jimmy Navaho 

Born: January i, 1946, Fort Defiance, Ariz. 
Listed as a promising student by Duane O. Berg, his Gallup art instructor, 
Jimmy has been painting since 1961. He plans to attend a trade school. 

Education: Gallup Public Schools, nine through twelfth grades, Gallup, 

N.M. ; graduated Gallup High School, 1965. 

Exhibitions: NACG (student show). 

Collections: Private: Berg. 

Address: Churchrock Store, Churchrock, N.M. 
Lewis, Roger Navaho 

Born: February i, 1948, Pinedale, N.M. GF: Jeff King, Navaho scout. 

Education: Gallup Public Schools, Gallup, N.M. 

Exhibitions: Gallup Public Schools, Gallup, N.M. 

Collections: Private: Berg, Shippy. 

Address: Churchrock, N.M. 
Leyestewa, Cyrus Hopi 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Lightning [see Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema) 
Lightfooted Runner [see West, Dick) 
Limping [see Albert y, Dewey) 
Little, Bernadette Mescalero Apache 

Born: 1948, Mescalero, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965; SAIEAIP. 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Silberman. 

Address: Mescalero, N.M. 



ARTISTS lOI 

Littlebear, Charles Plains 

Married : Esther Side Bear. 

Collections: Public: GM. 
Little Bear (see Sett'an) 
Little Bear (see Decker, Vernon Edward) 
Little Bear (see Woodring, Carl) 

Little Big Man Sioux 

Work Published: BAE, loth AR. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (pictorial census drawings prepared under 
the direction of Red Cloud). 

Little Bird (see Bird, Larry) 

Little Chief (see Keith, Sidney John) 

Little Chief (see Standingbear, George Eugene) 

Little Chief, Buddy Kiowa 

Collections: Public: Carnegie High School, Carnegie, Okla. 

Address: 1603 Euclid, Lawton, Okla. 

Little Chief, Daniel Northern Cheyenne 

Wuxpais 

Born: Date unknown. Died 1906. Son of Little Chief (Northern Cheyenne), 
a head chief who was sent south with his people to the Cheyenne Agency, 
DarHngton, Okla., ca. 1878-79; the government eventually permitted him 
to return north to the Pine Ridge Agency area, S. Dak., 1880-81, where he 
became head chief in 1891. 

Married: Wool Woman, who had previously been the wife of Walking 
White Man. 

Daniel executed the pictures now at the Smithsonian Institution during the 

time his father's band was at Pine Ridge. 
Career: Warrior and artist; "at Custer Battle. . .killed and wounded many 
soldiers." 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (30 drawings with notes of explanation from 
artist, translated by Albert S. Gatschet, 1891). 

Little Chief, William Southern Cheyenne 

Married: Niece of William Cohoe, q.v. (wife's sister's daughter). 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 
Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 

Little Cook Yankton Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI (watercolor and pencil, 1883). 
Little Daughter (see Smart, Clara Mary) 
Little Dog (see Parsons, Neil) 
Little Eagle Brule Sioux 

Wambalee Ches Challah, Little Eagle 

Career: Soldier, ca. 1879. 

Work Published: Newell (1912). 



102 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Little Finger Nail Northern Cheyenne 

Born: Date unknown. Killed in January, 1879, while traveling north with 

DuU Knife and Little Wolf. 

Work Published : Sandoz (1953). 

Collections: Public. AMNH. 

Little Grey {see Tsinajinnie, Andrew Van) 

Little Mustache's Daughter [see Cassady, Ann Virginia) 

Little No Shirt [see Beatien Yazz) 

Little Robe [see Yellow Nose) 

Little Sheep Navaho 

"The first name that can be suggested in the annals of Southwest Indian painting 
is Little Sheep. He is credited with the painting of several horsemen low on the 
wall in Canyon del Muerto in the early decades of the nineteenth century. . ." 
Tanner (1957). 

Little Robe [see Yellow Nose) 

Little Sky, Dawn Sioux 

Born: 1932, Fort Yates, N. Dak., on the Standing Rock Reservation. 
Daughter of John Gates (Hunkpapa- Yankton) and Ethel Brugier (Santee). 
P/GGF: Chief Two Bear (Sioux). M/GGF: Chief War Eagle (Sioux). 
Married: Eddie Little Sky (Oglala). Four children: Dawn Renee, 1951; 
Bruce Linden, 1953 ; Todd David, 1955 ; Stephen War Eagle, 1957. 
Mrs. Little Sky is a painter and actress. With her actor husband and four children 
she has organized a Sioux dance group, which gives exhibition dances for nume- 
rous organizations. 
Education : Graduated Haskell, 1949 ; attended Kansas, one year. 
Career: Artist, Walt Disney Productions, Burbank, CaHf. ; Indian enter- 
tainer, Disneyland, Inc.; various movie companies as an Indian actress. 
Exhibitions: 1955-63: ITIC, PAC. 
Address: Box 393, Palmdale, Calif. 

The Little Swan [see The Swan) 

Lizer, Vera Navaho 

Born: 1942. 
Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 

Loba Heit [see Taulbee, Dan) 

Locke, James Sioux 

Collections: Public: MNM (written on the back of the painting is "loth 
grade-1946"). 

Loco, Moses Apache 

Born: 1913, Apache, Okla. 
In 1936, the Oklahoma WPA Art Project noted that "Loco has unusual talent, 
but does not keep to primitive or original work. He would do more work but his 
eyes are weak. ..." 

Exhibitions: Local county fairs. 

Awards : County fairs. 



ARTISTS 103 

Lohmahaftewa, Linda Hopi 

Born: 1948, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: 1965: MNM, SAIEAIP, YAIA. 
Awards: MNM, 1965, 

Loloma, Charles Hopi 

Born: January 7, 1921, Hotevilla, Ariz. Son of Rex and Rachel Loloma. 
Married: Otellie (Sequaf enema), q.v., 1942. 
Initially known as a painter, the artist has received greater recognition since 
ca. 1959 as a potter, silversmith, and designer. 
Education: Hotevilla; Oraibi High School; graduated Phoenix, 1940; 
mural instruction under Olaf Nordmark, Fort Sill; ceramics instruction, 
Alfred University. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, four and one-half years; U.S. and Aleutian 
Islands tours. 

Career: Operator of Arts and Crafts Shop, Shungopovi, Ariz., ca. 1955; 
operator of Arts and Crafts Shop, Scottsdale, Ariz., 1956-60; instructor, 
special classes. University of Arizona and Arizona State University, Tempe ; 
head of Plastic Arts Dept., Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-65. 
Honors: John A. Whitney Fellowship, 1955, for research on native raw 
materials used in pottery. 

Commissions : Murals : At 16, assisted with the execution of murals SFWF 
(with Joe Evan Duran and Ignacio Moquino, qq.v.) ; Radio Station KOY, 
Phoenix, Ariz.; Oraibi High School; Kiami Lodge, Scottsdale, Ariz.; 
Phoenix Indian School. 
Books Illustrated: Kennard (1948). 

Exhibitions: ASF, MMA, NMSF; national exhibitions sponsored by 
American Craftsmen Council. 
Awards : State and national competitions. 
Collections: Public: DAM, lACB. Private: Denman. 
Address: Box 113, Hotevilla, Ariz. 

Loloma, OteUie Hopi 

Seqtiafenema 

Born: Second Mesa, Ariz., ca. 1922. 

Married: Charles Loloma (Hopi), q.v., 1942. 

Best known for her work in ceramic sculpture, the artist has recently also turned 

to painting with great success. 
Education : Oraibi High School ; special classes in ceramics, Alfred. 
Career: Co-operator of Arts and Crafts Shop, Shungopovi, Ariz., ca. 1955; 
co-operator of Arts and Crafts Shop, Scottsdale, Ariz., 1956-60; head of 
Ceramics Department, Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-. 
Collections :'Pw&/tc: lACB, MAI, PAC. 
Address : Institute of American Indian Arts. 

Loma, Helena {see Lomayesva, Helena) 

Lomadamocyia {see Polelonema, Otis) 



104 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Lomadesva Hopi 

Collections : Public : AF (a symbolic painting signed Lomadesva ; correctly 

the name should be spelled Lomayesva). 
Lomakema, Marshall Hopi 

Lomakema, Rainbow Around The Sun 

Born: 1935, Shungopovi, Ariz. Son of Charles and Jane Lomakema (Hopi). 

Married: Gertina McLean (Hopi), February 1957. 

Education: Shungopovi; graduated Oraibi High School. 

Career : Employed at Sombrero Theater, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Commissions: Painting Series: 62 paintings for Hopi Project (Byron Harvey 

III, Collection), 1964-65. 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Harvey. 

Address: 745 East Highland, Phoenix, Ariz, and Box 732, Shungopovi, Ariz. 
Lomay, Louis (see Lomayesva, Louis) 
Lomayaktewa, Narron Hopi 

Born: 1946, Shungopovi, Ariz. GF: Mishongnovi, village chief of Shungo- 
povi. 

Married: Trinidad (Santo Domingo). 

Education : Hopi ; graduated Albuquerque, 1964. 

Exhibitions: Hopi Craftsmen Exhibition, Phoenix, Ariz., 1959. 

Collections: Public: LMA/BC, MAI, MNM (while in sixth grade). 

Address : Shungopovi, Ariz. 
Lomayaktewa, V. Hopi 

(Also known as Holmes, Art) . 

Born : Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Lomayesva, Helena Hopi 

(Also known as Loma, Helena.) 

Born : Shungopovi, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Lomayesva, Louis Hopi 

(Also known as Lomay, Louis; Coma Pesva; Pesva, Coma.) 

Born : 1920's. Lived in Old Oraibi, Ariz. 
The artist is known for his fine paintings of Kachinas. He has also been both 
silversmith and house painter. He has often signed his paintings "Louis Lomay," 
as well as an elaborate rendering that appears to be "Coma Pesva." 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC, PAC/T. 

Collections: Public: BM/B, CU/LMA, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, 
OU/MA, PAC, SM. Private: Denman, Pritzlaff. 
Address: 709 Kathryn Street, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Lomayesva, William Hopi-Mission 

Born: Ariz. 
Education: Institute. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 



ARTISTS 105 

Loina}^!! Do Taos 

Collections: Public: AF. 

Lone Bear Oglala Sioux 

Born : Date unknown. He may have lived in the area of Fort Phil Kearny 
in the mid-i8oo's and was possibly a Miniconjou. See Vestal (1932; 1934). 
Collections: Public: MAI (ledger drawings). 

Lone Bull (see Schildt, Gary Joseph) 

Lone Dog Yanktonai Sioux 

Shunka Ishnala, Lone Dog; Chinosa, A Lone Wanderer, 
Born : Date unknown. There were several men named Lone Dog during the 
i8oo's. Chief White Bull listed a Lone Dog as one who fell during the Custer 
battle at Little Big Horn ; however, the artist was in the area of Fort Peck, 
Mont., in 1876. He was the son of Red War Bonnet (Tawapasha) (Sisseton), 
originally from Minnesota. Lone Dog and his father, with a group of immi- 
grant Miniconjou, moved into the camp of the Brule in the White River 
area in southern South Dakota, ca. 1810. 

Married : Name unknown. Two children : Swift Bear, second chief in rank 
in the Brule tribe after 1865 ; and a daughter who married James Bordeaux, 
a Sioux trader. 

Honors: Chief of the Red Lodge group, 1840-55. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). BAE, 4fh and loth AR. 
The artist's granddaughter, Mrs. Susan B. Bettelyoun, filed an informative 
manuscript on the Red Lodge (Tishayaote) group at the Nebraska Historical 
Society. 

Collections: Public: MAI (winter count). It is not thought that Lone Dog 
was old enough in 1800 to paint the winter count. Either he received the 
earlier records from a predecessor, or, when older, he gathered the tribal 
traditions from the elders and worked back {see Cloud Shield). 

Lone Horse Oglala Sioux ( ? ) 

Sunka Wonka Wanjila 

Born: Date unknown. From Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. (see Black Heart). 
Collections: Public: MAI. 

A Lone "Wanderer (see Lone Dog) 

Lone Wolf Kiowa 

Born: Date unknown. Died 1879. 

In 1868, Lone Wolf and Satanta (q.v.) painted a robe which told of their battles 

with the Utes and Navahos [see Keim 1870, p. 223). 
Career: Chief, warrior, artist; signed Little Arkansas Treaty, 1865; took 
part in Battle of Adobe Walls, 1874; surrendered February 26, 1875, and 
was one of 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, Okla., to 
Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Lone Wolf (see Schultz, Hart Merriam) 

Lonesome Polecat (see Patterson, Pat) 



I06 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Long, Charles Vee Navaho 

Education: Institute, 1962-63; Arizona. 

Honors: Full scholarship to Arizona (art major). 

Commissions: Mural: ASF (with four other Navahos). 

Address: Art Dept., University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 
Long Cat (Chief) Oglala Sioux 

Born : Date unknown. At various times he was on White River, on Chatren 

Creek, at Spotted Tail Agency (Camp Sheridan), and at Pine Ridge Agency, 

S. Dak. 

Honors: Dance chief, soldier chief, drum chief; presided at council meetings. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Looking Elk [see Martinez, Albert) 
Looks In The Clouds [see Standing, William) 
Loon {see Palmer, Woodrow Wilson) 
Loretto, Jose Richard Jemez 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1961. 
Loretto, Leonard Jemez 

Born: 1948. 

Education: Jemez, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: AAIE, MNM. 
Louis, James M. ? 

Collections: Public: CGA. 
Louis, Julian J. Pueblo 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Lovato, Ambrosio Santo Domingo 

Born: 1934. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Lover Of Home {see Orr, Howell Sonny) 
Low Black Bird {see Amiotte, Arthur Douglas) 
Loweka, Bill Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Lucero, Alondo Jemez 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1955. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1958. 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: Thoeny. 
Lucero, Guadalupe Jemez 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Lucero, Lupita Jemez 

Born: 1949. 

Education: Jemez, ca. 1960-63; Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: 1957-64: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Awards: 1960-64. Six, from ITIC, MNM, SN. 



ARTISTS 107 

Lucero, Mary Rose Jemez 

||Education: Jemez, ca. 1963. 

J Exhibitions: 1963-64: MNM, SN; Washington, D.C. 

Lucero, Nora Alice Jemez 

Collections: Public: MAI, 
Lucero, Victor Jemez 

Education: Jemez, ca. 1962. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 
Luci Jemez 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Denman. 
Lujan, Albert Taos 

(Also known as Lujan, Alfred). 

Career: Crafts instructor and assistant boys' advisor, Santa Fe Indian 

School; employed at radio station KKIT, Taos, N.M., 1962-. 

Exhibitions: USDS. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Address: Taos, N.M. 
Lujan, Alfred {see Lujan, Albert) 
Lujan, Alfred Taos 

Born: July 10, 1922. 

Married: Nettie (Taos). Four children. 
The artist has painted infrequently since a tragic accident in 1950 killed his 
small son. 

Education: Santa Fe; Taos. 

Career: United Pueblo Agency, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Commissions : Tourist brochure : Things to See and Do, Kiwanis International 

of Taos, N.M. 

Exhibitions: Taos Art Association; Phoenix, Ariz.; Santa Fe, N.M. 

Collections: Public: BIA. Private: Wyman. 
Lujan, Gilbert Taos 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1960-61. 

Awards: MNM. 

Address: c/o Box 1095, Taos, N.M. 
Lujan, James Taos 

Born: 1941. Brother of Jerry Lujan (q.v.). 

Education: Bacone College; Santa Fe; Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art 

Project," summer, i960; graduated Arizona S. U./T. 

Exhibitions: 1959-62: MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: lACB. Private: Frazier. 

Address: c/o Box 1095, Taos, N.M., and Box 781, Mesa, Ariz. 
Lujan, Jerry Taos 

Born: 1945. Brother of James Lujan [q.v.). 

Education: Central High Catholic School, Taos, N.M. 

Collections: Public: MNM (dated 1949). 

Address: c/o Box 1095, Taos, N.M. 



I08 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Lujan, Lorenzo A, Taos 

Bilokila, Floating Plumes 

Born: 1922, Taos, N.M. Died, 1962. His daughter is Emille Mirabel. 

Education : Santa Fe ; Taos. 

Exhibitions : Harwood Foundation, Taos, N.M. 

Address: Ramah, N.M. 
Lujan, Manuel Taos 

Collections: Public: WRNGA. 
Lujan, Margaret Taos 

Born: ca. 1928. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Lujan, Merina {see Pop Chalee) 

Lujan, Mike Taos 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 
Lujan, Tonita Taos 

Khup Khu 

Married: George Campbell Keahbone, q.v. (Kiowa), 1936. Two sons: Robert, 

1940; Gordon Keahbone (q.v.,) 1943. 
The artist has painted very little, if at all, since the late 1930's. 

Education: Santa Fe, under Dorothy Dunn. 

Commissions: Murals: Assisted with a frieze at Santa Fe Indian School. 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1940b). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937; AIW, NGA. 

Collections : Private : Dietrich. 

Address : 102 Temblon Drive, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Lujan, Vicente Taos 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Lujan, Wahleah Taos 

Education: Saint Catherine's, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965. 

Honors : Elected Miss Indian America, 1966. 

Address: Taos, N.M. 
Lumhee Holattee (see Blue Eagle, Acee) 

Lyons, Oren R. Iroquois 

Born: 1930, Gowanda, N.Y. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, ITIC, PAC. 

Awards: ITIC, 1964. 

Address: Roselle, N.J. 
MacMUlan, James H. Zia 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 
Maggino, Waka Ignacio Zia 

Collections: Public: OU/MA. 

This is probably the same person as Ignacio Moquino, q.v. 
Mahse Nompah (see Red Corn, Raymond Wesley) 



ARTISTS 109 

Mahthela (see Spybuck, Ernest) 

Mahtohn Ahzshe [see Standingbear, George Eugene) 

Mah To Toh Pa [see Four Bears) 

Making Medicine Cheyenne 

Born: ca. 1843. 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners irom Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Work Published: Grinnell (1915), De Camp (i960), LaFarge (i960), Dines 

and Price (1961) . 

Collections: Public: MHS/B, OAA/SI, SAHSL, YU/BRBML. 
Malegotkuk, Florence [see Chauncey, Florence Nupok) 

Mammedaty Kiowa 

With Lone Wolf and Tohausen [qq.v.) (Kiowas) and other warriors, the artist 
fought in a skirmish known as Lost Valley Fight, in Texas, July 16, 1874. Im- 
mediately following this encounter. Lone Wolf "made a gift of his name to 
Mammedaty" (the preferred family spelling). He succeeded his uncle, Chief Lone 
Wolf, as chief in 1879. A calendar executed by Mammedaty is in the possession 
of his descendant, Justin Poolow [see Momaday, Al). 
Man Alone (see Cochran, George McKee) 
Man Who Carries The Sword Oglala Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Man With Light Complexion [see Mitchell, George Charlie) 
Mana Apache 

Hayokah 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Manning, Ferdinand Ute 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Manuelito, Monte Navaho 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1963. 
Awards: MNM, 1963. 
Mapera Mohe [see Cohoe, William) 
Ma Pe Wi [see Herrera, VeHno Shije) 

Marmon, Miriam A. Laguna 

Married : Wallace Tyner. 
Education: New Mexico U., ca. 1936. 
Collections: Public: MNM. 
Martin, James, Jr. Osage 

Night Walker 

Born: September 16, 1927, Pawhuska, Okla. Son of Martin Take Away 
Gun (Osage) and (?) Logan (Osage). Brother of Mike Martin (q.v.). M/GF: 
John Logan (Osage). 
The artist became interested in art during his elementary school days. An eye 
injury during military service caused permanent damage to his sight. He return- 
ed from the service to Chilocco Indian School where he changed his major from 
art to business. 
Education: Graduated Chilocco; attended Haskell; Northeastern A.M. 
Service: WWII, three years; Pacific Theater. 
Exhibitions: PAC; Pawhuska, Okla. 



no AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Martin, Mike Caddo 

Silvermoon 

Born: Anadarko, Okla. His mother died when he was about six, and he 

was reared by his grandmother, Choah. 

Silvermoon began his art career early. As a young boy, he frequently had to leave 
his drawing to hoe corn or herd his grandmother's horses and cattle. In 1936, 
he was responsible for starting a fad for hand-painted hosiery in New York, at 
which time Collier's Magazine ran his photograph in full costume on its cover. 

Education: Carhsle. 

Service: WWI. 

Career: Worked with WilUam deForest Brush, New York artist. 

Exhibitions: GM, OHSM. 

Collections: Puhlic. GM, OHSM. 

Address: iio| North West First, Anadarko, Okla. 
Martin, Raymond Navaho 

Commissions : Murals : ASF CoUseum, 1965 (with four other Navahos) . 
Martin, Ringlin Apache 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 
Martine, Bob Navaho 

(Also known as Martinez, Bob.) 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: 1959-64: MNM, SN. 

Awards: 1960-64: Two, from MNM, SN. 
Martinez, Albert Taos 

Looking Elk 

Born: Date unknown. Diedc^. 1941. His wife died ca. 1950. His son is Jose 

R. Martinez [q.v.). 
The artist was known to have executed a number of paintings, each of which 
illustrated a creation myth and carried an explanation written by him. He was a 
close friend of the famed Taos artist, Oscar Berninghaus. He often worked in oils. 

Education : Santa Fe (no art training) . 

Honors : Served as Governor of Taos Pueblo. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. 
Martinez, Anecito (?) ? 

Collections: Public: MRFM. 
Martinez, Bob (see Martine, Bob) 
Martinez, Crescendo San Ildefonso 

Te E, Home Of The Elk 

Born: Date unknown. Died June 20, 1918. Uncle of Awa Tsireh (q.v.). 

Married: Anna. Their son is Jose Miguel Martinez (q.v.). 
Crescencio first began to draw before 19 10, when Dr. Edgar L. Hewett found 
him using the ends of cardboard boxes and gave him paper and watercolors. The 
artist was known to have painted pottery before this time. He is considered to be 
one of a small group at the pueblo who began the modern watercolor movement, 
for he painted extensively after he received Dr. Hewett's gift. His career lasted 
only two years, but during this period he almost completed a scries of paintings 
for the Museum of New Mexico and The School of American Research depicting 
all the costumed dances of San Ildefonso's summer and winter ceremonies. 



ARTISTS III 

Career: Janitor, San Ildefonso Day School, before 1910 (where he first 

obtained crayons) ; worked on the Pajarito Plateau excavations, ca. 1915. 

During WWI, he and his wife moved to Santa Fe, N.M., were employed by 

the Rocky Mountain Camp Co. (owners of the "old" La Fonda Hotel), and 

kept busy grooming and feeding horses, painting in their spare time. 

Commissions: Painting Series: MNM and The School of American Research, 

Santa Fe, N.M., 1917. 

Work Published : Tfay^Z (1931). 

Exhibitions: AMNH (1920 show arranged by Mary Austin); EITA; Society 

of Independent Artists, New York, N.Y., ca. 1918-19. 

Collections: Public. MNM, MRFM. Private: A. Henderson; Hewett. 
Martinez, Daisy San Ildefonso 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1964-65. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 

Awards: PAC, student award, 1965. 

Collections: Private: R. Moore. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Martinez, Dave ? 

Born: N.M. 

Education: Institute. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 
Martinez, Jerry Taos 

Born: Date unknown. Son of AveUna Lujan Martinez. 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1960-61. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Address: Taos Pueblo, N.M. 
Martinez, Joe {see Martinez, Jose R.) 
Martinez, John D. San Ildefonso 

(Also known as Martinez, Juan.) 

Born: November 12, ca. 1917-20, Santa Fe, N.M.; deceased. Son of Julian 

Martinez, q.v. (San Ildefonso) and Maria Montoya (San Ildefonso). Brother 

of Popovi Da, q.v. 

Married: Clara. Two children: Jeanette, Dennis. 

Education: Bacone College, ca. 1945; Santa Fe, ca. 1937; Santa Fe High 

School, ca. 1940; Georgia Military Academy, ca. 1942; Stanford, ca. 1946-48. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 1942-44. 

Career: Road engineer, engineering draftsman. 

Exhibitions : AIEC, UNM. One-man shows : Atlanta (Ga.) Museum of Fine 

Arts, Duke University, Durham, N.C. ; Stanford University. 

Collections: Public: GM, SU. Private: A. Forbes, Kamen-Kaye, Schon- 

wald, Thoeny, Wyman. 
Martinez, Jose Miguel San Ildefonso 

Wa Chin Cadi 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Crescendo Martinez, q.v. (San Ildefonso). 

Cousin of JuUan Martinez, q.v. (San Ildefonso). 



112 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career: Painter; in 1950 he was painting infrequently. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932). American Magazine of Art (August 

1933). 

Collections: Public: DAM. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Martinez, Jose R. Taos 

(Also known as Martinez, Joe.) 

Paaokela 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Albert Martinez {q.v.). 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: A. Forbes. 

Address: Taos, N.M. 
Martinez, Juan (see Martinez, John D.) 
Martinez, Juan Jose Picuris 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Martinez, Julian San Ildefonso 

Pocano 

Born: 1897. Died 1943. 

Married: Maria Montoya (San Ildefonso), internationally known potter, 

1904. His sons are John D. Martinez and Popovi Da (qq.v.). 
Julidn decorated his wife's famous pottery. Although he had been painting since 
before 1920 and had ventured into several periods of "realistic" paintings, his 
more outstanding works were designs of the type found on Maria's pottery. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School, among others. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Glubok 

(1964). American Magazine of Art (September 1928) (August 1933); Theatre 

Arts Monthly (August 1933). 

Exhibitions: ACC, AIEC, EITA, FWG, OU/ET; Corona Mundi Inter- 
national Art Center, New York, 1927; Fair Park Gallery, Dallas, Tex., 1928. 

Collections: Public: AF, AU/ASM, CAM, CGFA, CMA, DAM, DCC, GM, 

JAM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, OU/MA, RM, PU/M, RM. 

Private: Aldridge, Dietrich, Dockstader, A. Forbes, Hogue, Neumann, 

Patton, Schonwald, Walch. 
Martinez, Manuel Taos 

Good Rain 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Albert Martinez, q.v. (Taos). 

Career: U.S. Navy. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Martinez, Miguel San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: WRNGA. 
Martinez, Philip San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Martinez, R. M. [see Martinez, Ralph) 
Martinez, Ralph Taos 

(Also known as Martinez, R. M.) 

Born : Date unknown. Deceased. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 



ARTISTS 113 

Martinez, Raymond San Ildefonso 

Born: ca. 1942. 

Education: Haskell, ca. 1963. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Martinez, Ricardo (see Martinez, Richard) 

Martinez, Richard San Ildefonso 

Opa Mu Nu 

(Also known as Martinez, Ricardo.) 

Born: 1904. 

As one of the original students at Santa Fe Indian School, the artist assisted in 
the execution of a mural series in the student dining room in 1936. He painted 
as early as 1920, and, in 1950, he was still painting mythological and ceremonial 
subjects. He seldom paints now. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932). American Magazine of Art (September 

1928). 

Exhibitions: EITA. 

Collections: Public: CAM, CGA, CU/LMA, DAM (82 watercolors), GM, 

MAI, MNM, MRFM, SM. Private: A. Forbes, Howella. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Martinez, Santana R. San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: MKMcNAI (records say: "wife of the eldest son of 

Maria and Julian Martinez [q.v.), and one-time decorator of Maria's pottery"). 
Martinez, Tony [see Da, Popovi) 
Mathews, Fadie Mae Cherokee 

Born: March 10, 1909, Tenn. Daughter of Tom Blackwell and Alyie. M/ 

GGGF: Chief Taw (Cherokee). M/GGF: Last name Garrett, killed in Georgia 

before the Cherokee removal. 

Married: Homer H. Mathews, 1939. Three children by previous marriage: 

Norman Ray Eton, 1928; Mary Helen, 1929; Nelda Elaine, 1931. 

Education: Attended school in Nashville, Tenn.; EUis and Circle Park 

Schools, Fort Worth, Tex., 1919-25. 

Commissions : South Wayside Baptist Church, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Exhibitions: South Seminary Mall, Crump's Music Store, and Mason's 

Hobby Shop, of Fort Worth, Tex.; Englewood (Calif.) Art Center, New 

Orleans Treasure House, Arlington, Tex. 

Collections: Public: Security Life Insurance Co., and Faith Chapel, in 

Fort Worth, Tex.; New Orleans Treasure House, Arlington, Tex. Private: 

Betts, Michener. 

Address: 2321 McGuire Avenue, Fort Worth, Tex. 
Mathews, William P. [see Red Corn) 

Mato Hunka Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Mato Myaluta (see Red Living Bear) 
Mato Sapo (see Black Bear) 



114 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Mato Tope (see Four Bears) 
Mato Wantakpe {see Grass, John) 

Mauldin, Carol Jane McCarty Choctaw 

Born: January 19, 1936, Tulsa, Okla. Daughter of Vernon Clay McCarty 
(Choctaw) and Madelyn Helen Beck. Her sister is Valjean Hessing (q.v,) 
Married: Corwin Bobby Mauldin, 1955. Four children: Mark Corwin, 1957; 
Liza Carol, i960; Jerald Clay, 1961; Steven Carl, 1962. 
Upon graduation from high, school, the artist married and devoted herself to a 
family and career for about eight years. In 1963, she again began to paint and 
f enter her work in competitions. 

Education: Elementary schools in Okla. and Cahf. Graduated from Tulsa 
Central High School, 1954. 

Career : Commercial artist, Floyd Gates Studio, Tulsa, 1953-. 
Commissions: Portraits: Argie Lewis, L. D. Allen, in Tulsa, Okla. 
Exhibitions : 1964-65 : FAIEAIP, PAC, SN ; Mulvane Art Center, Indepen- 
dence, Kan. ; Art Unhmited Exhibitions; Gertie's Outdoor Art Show; Coun- 
cil of American Indians Exhibition, Tulsa, 1965. One-man shows: Jones' 
Frame Shop, Tulsa, Okla. 

Awards : Five in local exhibits, three in poster contests, and five in school- 
connected exhibitions. 

Collections: Public: BIA. Private: L. D. Allen, Bell, Haworth, Hayes, 
I. Johnson, A. Lewis, Jer. Mauldin, Poser, Stiefel, Woolley. 
Address : 1549 North Marion, Tulsa, Okla. 

Maulson, Gerald Chippewa 

Bedonni Quid, Slow Cloud 
Born: December 7, 1941, Haywood, Wise. 

Education: Lac Du Flambeau (Wis.) Pubhc School, 1946-55; graduated 
Lakeland Union High School, Winocqua, Wise, 1955; Santa Fe, 1960-61. 
Career: Roofer, Maulson and Sons. Presently coil winder, Advance Trans- 
former Co., Chicago, 111. 

Exhibitions: 1962-64: BNIAS, MNM, PAC, USDS. 
Awards: MNM, 1962-63. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. Private: Putnam, Thoeny. 
Address: 3755 North Sheffield, Chicago, 111. 

Maxhebaho [see Hollowbreast, Donald) 

Mayokok, Robert Eskimo 

Exhibitions: AAIEAE. 
Work Published : AAIEAE catalog. 
Mazuha Hokshina [see Howe, Oscar) 

McBride, Del Quinaiilt 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1961. 

Address: Box 145, Nisqually, Wash. 
McCombs, Solomon Creek 

Born: May 17, 1913, west of Eufaula, Okla. Son of James McCombs (Creek) 

and Ella Mcintosh (Creek). The artist's father was the pastor of Tuskegee 



ARTISTS 115 

Indian Baptist Church in Oklahoma for more than 30 years. His GGF and 
GGM traveled the 'Trail of Tears" from Georgia to Oklahoma. P/GU: 
William McCombs (Creek), one of the founders of Bacone College; McCombs 
Memorial Art Gallery there is named for him. Solomon's mother was a 
descendant of William Mcintosh, Creek chief. 
Married: Margarita Sauer, 1961. 
An injury in his youth confined the artist to his bed for considerable time, and it 
was then that he became interested in art. Mr. McCombs has exhibited in Phil- 
brook Art Center's "Indian Annual" every year since its inception in 1946. He 
has represented the Indian through exhibits and lectures abroad, as well as in 
the U.S. 
Education: Attended rural Oklahoma schools; graduated Bacone College 
High School, 1937; completed one year Bacone College, where he received 
instruction under "Princess Ataloa" and Acee Blue Eagle (q.v.). Attended 
art classes at Tulsa Downtown College, 1944, studying under Frank von 
der Lauchen. 

Career: Douglas Aircraft Co., Tulsa, 1943; U.S. Corps of Engineers, Tulsa, 
1944; Clovis (N.M.) Air Force Base, 1947; Bureau of Reclamation, Nebraska, 
1948; General Services Administration, Washington, D.C., 1950-56; U.S. 
Department of State, 1956-. Served as illustrator, architectural draftsman, 
cartographer, and mockup designer, engaging in audio-visual services in 
all these positions. 

Honors : Exhibited paintings and explained American Indian contributions 
to, the development of the U.S. and its culture on a tour sponsored by the 
U.S. Department of State to the Far East and Africa, 1954; member. 
Society of Federal Artists and Designers, Washington, D.C., and finance 
auditor and treasurer, 1956-57 ; a founder and President, American Indian 
and Eskimo Cultural Foundation, Washington, D.C. ; listed in Indians of 
Today. Has presented many illustrated lectures ; recipient of Waite Phillips' 
Special Indian Artist's Trophy Award, PAC, 1965. 

Commissions: Murals: U.S. Post Office, Marietta, Okla. Commissioned to 
execute a painting used in President Kennedy's Inaugural Parade, 1961; 
commissioned to design the floats representing North American Indians 
for President Johnson's Inaugural Parade, 1964. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Jacobson (1964). Sunday 
Oklahoman, Orbit Magazine (May 26, 1963) ; Smoke Signals, lACB (Autumn 

1965). 

Exhibitions: 1940-65: AAIE, AAUW, AIEC, AIE/T, AIW, BC, BNIAS, 
CGA, DAM, FANAIAE, GM, ITIC, JAM, JGS, MMA, MNM, OU/ET, PAC, 
PAC/T, SAIEAIP, SI, SN, USDS. One-man shows: HM, JAM, PAC, SPIM. 
Awards: 1948-65: 25, including AAID, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 
Collections: Public: BIA, CCHM, DAM, GM, lACB, JAM, MNM, OU/MA, 
PAC. Private: Arnold, Bouldin, Callaway, Cone, C. Deffer, P. Deffer, Den- 
man, Hedges, Huls, R. Kennedy, Kruss, McKinney, Mertz, MigUaccio, 
Myle, L. Peterson, Renner, Schonwald, Spielman, Stinson, Stinson, Jr., 
Wadley, Wallop, Watkins, Wofford. 
Address : 4501 Arlington Boulevard, Apt. 317, Arlington, Va. 



Il6 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Mcintosh, Alex C. {see Blue Eagle, Acee) 

Medicine Crow (Chief) Crow 

Born: Date unknown. Father of Joe Medicine Crow, anthropologist, Crow 

Reservation. p. 

The artist was known to have visited Washington, D.C. Upon his return to the 
reservation, he painted from memory the many animals he had seen in museums 
there. See Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Medicine Mountain (see Gonzales, Louis) 

Medina, James D. Zia 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Medina, Jose de la Cruz Zia 

(Also known as Medina, Jose la Cruz.) 
Education : Santa Fe. 
Exhibitions: MNM, PAC, SN. 
Collections: Public: MNM. Private: Henneke. 
Address: 3313 James Street, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Medina, Juan B. Zia 

Born: Date unknown. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: AIW; NGA, 1953; OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: MAI, SM. Private: Dietrich, D. Kramer. 

Medina, Rafael Zia 

Teeyacheena 

Born: September 10, 1929, Zia Pueblo, N.M. Parents active in the culture 

of the pueblo. P/GM: Trinidad Medina (Zia), the famous potter, toured the 

U.S. demonstrating Zia pottery-making in 1930-46, under the sponsorship 

of Wick Miller, a trader in the Southwest. 

Married : Sofia Pino, 1954. Eight children. 
As a young man, "barely old enough to hold the weight of a single shotgun," 
he often hunted. At the same time he studied the appearance of the animals 
and birds, which he believes has helped him greatly in his art work. While 
still a young student, he was encouraged and aided by Mary Mitchell. 

Education: Zia, through the fifth grade; Albuquerque; studied under Ve- 

lino Shije Herrera, Jose Rey Toledo, and Geronima Montoya (qq.v.) ; graduated 

Santa Fe. 

Commissions : His first sale was a commission for 50 Christmas dinner place- 
cards from Mary Mitchell, while he was still a student at Albuquerque 

Indian School. 

Exhibitions: 1949-66: AIAE/WSU, DAM, ITIC, JGS, MNM, PAC, SN. 

One-man shows : AU. 

Awards: 1955-66: Six from AIAE/WSU, ITIC, PAC, SN; 1966, PAC Grand 

Award. 

Collections: PtMc: AU/ASM, MAI, MNM, PAC. Private: E. Adkins, 

Adlerblum, Holway, Thoeny. 

Address: Zia Pueblo, San Ysidro, N.M. 



ARTISTS 117 

Meet Me In The Night Omaha-Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI (watercolor, 1882). 
Melchior, Ray Cochiti 

(Also known as Melchior, Reyes.) 

Born: 1924, Cochiti Pueblo. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: AIW, MNM; Old Town, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Address: Cochiti Pueblo, Pefia Blanca, N.M. 
Melchior, Reyes (see Melchior, Ray) 
Melford, Earl ? 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 

Awards: ITIC, 1964. 
Mepaa Kte (see Wife Eagle Deer) 
Mesquakie (see Pushetonequa, Charles) 
Mikaka Upawixe (see Kimball, Yeffe) 
Mike, Judy Winnebago 

Born: Washington. 

Education: Institute. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 

Address : c/o Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Miller, Frances ? 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 
Miller, George Omaha 

Born : Date unknown ; he was a member of the Ictasanda (Thunder) clan. 

Career: Informant and artist for BAE ethnologist James Owen Dorsey. 

Work Published: BAE, nth AR. 

Collections : Public : OAA/SI (original drawings which appear in the above 

publication) . 
Minoch, Milo Eskimo 

Collections: Public: SMNAI. 
Mirabel, Eva Taos 

Eah Ha Wa, Green Corn 

Born: 1920. 

Married: Manuel Gomez. 
Eva, who lives at Taos Pueblo with her children, paints infrequently. Her hus- 
band is making the Navy his career. 

Education : Graduated Santa Fe ; attended Taos. 

Service: WWII, WAC. 

Career : Artist in residence, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 111. ; 

counselor, girls' camp in Kentucky; active in Girl Scout work at one time. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School; Veteran Hospital, Library, 

Albuquerque, N.M. ; several in private homes. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). El Palacio (August 1950), 

G. I. Gertie, an Army publication. 



il8 american indian painters 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, GM, MNM, NGA, PAC. 

Awards: MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNM, PAC, UPA. Private: Dietrich, A. 

Forbes, M. Kramer, Lohman, Schonwald. 

Address: Box 827, Taos, N.M. 

Mirabel, Leon ? 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 
Awards: ITIC, 1964. 

Mirabel, Vicente Taos 

Chiu Tah, Dancing Boy 

Born: 1918. Deceased ca. 1946, WWII, Battle of the Bulge. 

Married : Navaho woman. Three sons. 
The artist's career as a painter was so promising when he entered military 
service that he was regarded as the most up-and-coming artist from Taos Pueblo. 

Education : Graduated Santa Fe. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army; European Theater. 

Career: Assistant painting instructor when he entered the army, Santa Fe 

Indian School. 

Honors: While teaching at Santa Fe, won SFWF poster contest, with the 

theme "Taos Turtle Dance." 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Arizona Highways (August 

1952). 

Exhibitions: AIW, NGA; 1953. 

Collections: Public: CAMSL, MAI, OU. Private: H. Adams, Denman, 

Dietrich, D. Kramer. 

Mis Ta Moo To Va {see Blackowl, Archie) 

Misty {see Ortiz, Joseph) 

Mitchell, George Charlie Navaho 

Dineh Ligaai, Man With Light Complexion 

Born: March 2, 1926, Lukachukai, Ariz. Son of CharHe Bitsi (Navaho). GF: 
Charlie Mitchell, tribal pohceman who aided in locating Navaho outlaws 
after Fort Sumner ; also an interpreter and tribal leader. 
Married: Bobby Jo Erwin, 1956. One daughter: Sherry Lane, 1958. 
Education: BIA schools in Ariz.; graduated Chilocco, 1949. After high 
school, the artist attended a two-year school for printers, and after eight 
years of college courses (taken summers, Saturdays, nights, and by exten- 
sion), he graduated from Northeastern, B.A., Ed., 1963. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, two years; Pacific Theater. 
Career: Chilocco Indian School: interpreter for non-English-speaking 
students; counselor; elementary teacher, arts and crafts, 1954-58; general 
shop, 1957-58. Sequoyah Indian School: arts and crafts instructor, 1963. 
Dennehotso Boarding School, Kayenta, Ariz.: instructor, 1963. Tuba City 
Pubhc Health Indian Hospital, Tuba City, Ariz. : education speciaHst, 1964-. 
Honors: National Honor Society; chairman of many school committees 
responsible for pageants and class projects. 



ARTISTS 119 

Commissions: Illustrated textbooks for BIA; wrote captions and compiled 
pictures for educational brochure at Chilocco Indian School. 
Work Published : Greeting cards, copyrighted by Navaho tribe. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, PAC; Indian fairs. 
Address : General Delivery, Tuba City, Ariz. 

Mitchell, James Navaho ? 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 

Mitchell, Peter Navaho 

Education: Riverside; Good Shepherd's Mission School, Fort Defiance, 
Ariz.; scholarship to Arizona, ''Southwest Indian Art Project," summers, 
1961-62. 

Mitchell, Stanley C, Navaho 

Che Chilly Tsosie, Slim Curley Hair 

(Has also signed as Chi Chilly Tseiso.) 

Born: 1920, Sail Lee, Ariz. Brother of George Charlie Mitchell (q.v.). 
The artist began painting at Santa Fe Indian School and has received training 
as a silversmith. He has exhibited his silverwork regularly at the Inter-Tribal 
Indian Ceremonials but is no longer an active painter. 

Education: Santa Fe. 

Service: WWII. 

Career: Owner and operator of a silversmith shop in Las Vegas, Nev. 

Commissions : Murals : Fort Wingate Vocational High School, Fort Wingate, 

Ariz.; West Yellowstone business establishment. West Yellowstone, Wyo. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: AIW, ASF, PAC. 

Collections: Public: AF, MNA/KHC, OU, PAC. Private: Dietrich, Lockett. 

Address : 3220A East Patrick Lane, Las Vegas, Nev. 

Mofsie, Louis Billingsly Winnehago-Hopi 

Weepama Quedaecouka, Green Rainbow; Mofsie, Sharp Shooting. 
Born: May 3, 1936, Brooklyn, N.Y. Son of Morris Mofsie (Hopi), painter 
from Second Mesa, Ariz., deceased, and Alvina Lowery (Winnebago), from 
Winnebago, Nebr. GA: Red Wing St. Cyr, silent screen star. 
Education: Public School 94, and Joan of Arc Junior High School, New 
York, N.Y. ; graduated School of Industrial Arts High School, New York, 
N.Y. ; B.S., State University of New York, Teachers CoUege, Buffalo, N.Y., 
1958; Pratt Institute, New York (currently doing graduate work toward 
M.S. in art education). Special classes. Museum of Modern Art, and Ethical 
Culture School, New York. 

Career: Art instructor. East Meadow (N.Y.) PubUc School, 1957-. 
HoNORS: Past-president, Indian League of the Americas, New York; chair- 
man, Folk Arts Festival Council, New York. 
Exhibitions: ITIC, MMA (school exhibition), MNM, PAC. 
Awards: MNM. 

Collections: Private: BenAmi, Kimball, Tarrant, Weyr. 
Address: 323 Schermerhorn, Brooklyn, N.Y. 



120 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Momaday, Al Kiowa 

Huan Toa, War Lance 
(Also known as Momaday, Alfred Morris.) 

Born: July 2, 1913, Mountain View, Okla. Son of Mammedaty (Standing 
High) and A-ho (both Kiowa). P/GGF: Mammedaty, q.v. (Kiowa); M/GF: 
French Canadian. GGM: Non-Indian captured by the Kiowas. GF: First 
Indian judge when the Kiowa Agency was established, 1888. GF: George 
Poolaw, Kiowa medicine man. 

Married: Natachee Scott, 1933. One son: N. Scott, 1934. 
At J6mez Pueblo, Mr. Momaday initiated a program of arts and crafts whicli 
brought international recognition to the school. He organized parent groups 
to discuss problems and programs within the Pueblo, and was a progressive 
leader in many educational and Indian art activities. 

Education : Bacone College ; New Mexico U. ; University of California, Los 
Angeles. 

Career: U.S. Corps of Engineers, War Dept., 1942-44; director of arts and 
crafts, AAID, 1955-57; director of arts and crafts, AIE, 1956-57; assistant 
director of arts and crafts, NMSF, 1948- ; instructor of Indian arts and 
crafts, PAC, summer, 1958; principal and art teacher, BIA, Jemez Day 
School, 1947-67. 

Honors: Past chairman, New Mexico Indian Art Commission; Tribe of 
Teal Wing, Dallas Exchange Club, Outstanding Indian Artist Award, 1956 ; 
Ho-ennywe Society, Western (N.Y.) Art Association, Outstanding Indian 
Artist Award, 1962; listed in Who's Who in New Mexico and Indians of 
Today, presented plaques by New Mexico Arts and Crafts Fair for out- 
standing Indian exhibits, and by African Educators for outstanding art 
work and pubhc relations; lACB Certificate of Appreciation, 1967. 
Commissions: Altar Plaques: St. Luke's Lutheran Church, Albuquerque, 
N.M., eight plaques with Indian designs representing symbols of the Chris- 
tian church, 1958. 

Work Published: La Farge (1956; i960), Pierson and Davidson (i960), 
Haskell (i960), Willoya and Brown (1962). Tulsa Magazine (May 1948), The 
Lutheran (May 28, 1958), Indian Life (i960). Region VI American Camping 
Association Convention Program (Norman, Okla., 1965), cover. 
Exhibitions: AAID, AAIE, AIE, ASF, BG, DAM, DMFA, FAIEAIP, 
GM, HFA, HM, ITIC, LAIC, MNA, MNM, NMSF, PAC, PAC/T, PSC, 
SAIEAIP, SN, UNM, UO, USDS. One-man shows: BG, DMFA, MNA, 
OTP, PAC, UO. 

Awards: AAID (including two Grand Awards), AIE (including two Grand 
Awards), DAM, DMFA, HFA (best in show), ITIC, MNM, NMSF (including 
two Grand Awards), PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: BIA, CWC, GM, lACB, KM, MAI, MNM, iMRFM, 
NMSF, PAC, TWS, WM. Pttblic : Ballenger, Bamrook, Boles, Brenner, Briggs, 
Burshears, Cochran, Conners, Dicus, Deupree, Dustin, Eastman, Eggert, 
Elkus, Feinwiler, Grammer, Greenblatt, G. Harris, Hertz, F. Johnson, E. 
Jones, Link, Marriott, Owens, Riley, Wm. Schofield, Schonwald, Seligman, 
Shepard, Simonton, M. Smith, Smithson, Smoker, J. Snodgrass, Spencer, 



ARTISTS 121 

Springer, Steffens, J. Stevens, Stokes, Teague, Wayman, Wengard, E. 
White, Whiteman, Wisner, Worth, Ydens, Yellowhorse. 
Address: Box 67, Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 

Monignok, Gabriel Eskimo 

Born : Mekoryuk, Alaska. Died September 29, 1965 while fishing. 
Education : Santa Fe. 
Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 
Awards: MNM, PAC. 
Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Marriott. 

Montana, David Papago 

Born : 1947, Sells, Ariz. 
Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Work Published : YAIA catalog. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, SAIEAIP, YAIA. 

Montoya, Alfredo San Ildefonso 

Wen Tsireh, Pine Tree Bird 

Born: Date unknown. Died May 21, 1913. Brother of Isabelita Montoya. 

Married: Tonita Roybal (San Ildefonso), 1910. 
During excavations on Pajarito Plateau, ca. 1915, Alfredo was unable to work 
as a digger because of a tubercular condition. Therefore, he became a recorder, 
drawing replicas of the pueblo ceremonial life unearthed there. Bertha Button 
said that he was "perhaps the young man from San Ildefonso who initiated 
modern pueblo painting" {El Palacio, June 1942). 

Education: San Ildefonso. (In 1911, his instructor, Elizabeth Richards, 

sent his paintings to Barbara Freire-Marreco in England for display.) 

Career: Employed for a time by School of American Research; primarily 

an artist. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM (gift of the Fred Harveys, ca. 1909). 
Montoya, Charles San Ildefonso 

Oqowamono 

Collections: Public: WRNGA. 
Montoya, Geronima Cruz San Juan 

Po Tsunu, Shell 

Born: September 22, 1915, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. Daughter of Pablo Cruz 

(San Juan) and Crucita Trujillo (San Juan), the award- winning potter who 

exhibited in the Nationwide Pottery Exposition, Syracuse, N.Y., 1941. 

Married: Juan A. Montoya, 1939. Three sons: Robert, 1947; Paul, 1950; 

Eugene, 1954. 
This highly respected teacher has devoted the major portion of her career in- 
structing others. Only recently did she find the necessary time for her own 
painting. "She does not force their work into any preconceived pattern. . .she 
allows the student to project his own ideas, simply guides him into a more 
frounded development of his initial creative impulse" [Dorothy Morang, El Pala- 
fcio (May 1940), p. 118]. 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe, 1935; New Mexico U. ; Claremont; B.S., 
St. Joseph's, 1958. Studied under Dorothy Dunn, Alfredo Martinez, q.v., 
and Kenneth Chapman. 



122 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career: Teacher, lecturer, and artist; assistant to Dorothy Dunn, Santa 

Fe Indian School, 1935-37; chairman, art department, Santa Fe Indian 

School, 1937-61. Currently active in adult education. 

Honors: Credited by many Indian artists as being the teacher who gave 

them most encouragement ; Henry Dendahl Award for Outstanding Student, 

Santa Fe Indian School ; received honorarium when her student, Ben Quin- 

tana (q.v.), won the National Youth Forum's art contest; listed in Who*s 

Who in the West and Who*s Who in American Art. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: 1935-65: AIW, BNIAS, ITIC, JGS, MHDYMM, MNM, 

MNM/T, PAC, SN, USDS. One-man shows: MNM, PAC; Yonemoto Art 

Gallery, Albuquerque, N.M. ; Nuremberg, Germany. 

Awards: 1959-64: Six from ITIC, MHDYMM, MNM, NMSF, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, MAI, MHDYMM, MNM, MRFM. Private: 

H. Adams, Bluemenshein, Denman, Dietrich, Dixon, Dockstader, T. Garcia, 

Geis, H. Jones, D. Kramer, Thoeny, Woffard. 

Address : 1008 Calle De Suefios, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Montoya, Guadalupe San Juan 

Collections: Public: DAM. 
Montoya, Isabelita San Ildefonso 

Married: Benjamin Atencio, ca. 1925. Five children: one is Gilbert Atencio 

{q.v.). 
During her schooldays in Santa Fe, Isabelita executed charming pencil and 
crayon sketches. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Montoya, Joe (see Montoya, Jose L.) 
Montoya, Jose L. Isleta 

(Also known as Montoya, Joe.) 

Born: December 12, 1903, Isleta Pueblo, N.M. 

Married : Leona F. Montoya. 
The artist was known as a still-life painter. In 1950, he was working in Albuquerque, 
and no longer painting. 

Education: New Mexico U., B.F.A., 1951. 

Exhibitions: MNM, UNM. 

Address: c/o Johnnie Lujan's Trading Post, Isleta Pueblo, N.M. 
Montoya, Juan B. San Juan 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Montoya, Monty (see Montoya, Sidney, Jr.) 
Montoya, Ned San Juan 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 

Awards: MNM, 1958. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Montoya, Nellie San Juan 

Collections: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS 123 

Montoya, Sidney, Jr. San Juan-Navaho 

Thun Povi, Sun Flower 

(Also known as Montoya, Monty.) 

Born : September 4, 1928. 

Education: Graduated Albuquerque; B.A., Journalism, New Mexico; 

graduate work toward M.A., Drury College, Springfield, Mo. 

Career: Last known profession, photo-engraver. No longer painting. 

Exhibitions: MNA, MNM, NMSF, PAC. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Montoya, Thomas San Juan 

(Also known as Montoya, Tommy.) 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. i960; Institute, ca. 1963. 

Work Published : YAIA catalog. 

Exhibitions : 1960-63 : MNM, YAIA. 

Awards: MNM. 

Collections: Public: BIA. Private: McGrath. 
Moore, Georgianna Chippewa 

Exhibitions: PAC, USDS. 
Mootzka, Waldo Hopi 

Born: 1903, near Oraibi, Ariz. Died ca. 1935-40. 
Mootzka had no formal art training. He often observed Fred Kabotie {q.v.) 
painting at Oraibi Day School, and it may have been there that he learned the 
technique of watercolor painting. Later, in Santa Fe, he was sponsored by Frank 
Patania, who taught him silversmithing. At the time of his death, Mootzka was 
devoting almost all his artistic talents to silverwork. 

Education: Shungopovi; Albuquerque; Santa Fe. 

Career: Illustrator, painter, and silversmith. 

Work Published: Nelson (1937). Theatre Arts Monthly (August 1933). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, NGA, PAC, PAC/T. 

Collections: Public: AF, BM/B, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, OU, 

PAC, SM. Private: Aldridge, Denman, Dockstader, Elkus, A. Forbes, 

Lockett, Patania, Pritzlaff, Schonwald, Thoeny. 
Mopope, Stephen Kiowa 

Qued Koi, Painted Robe 

Born: August 27, 1898, near Red Stone Baptist Mission, on the Kiowa 

Reservation, Okla. His grandfather was a Spanish captive, kidnaped by 

the Kiowas from a wagon train crossing the prairie and reared by Chief 

Many Bears. The artist is a descendant of Appiatan, a noted Kiowa warrior; 

his granduncles are Silverhorn (Haungooah) and Hakok. 

Married : Janet Berry. Two daughters : Vanette and Laquinta. 
Mopope's childhood education by his grandmother was in the Kiowa tradition. 
He is one of the original Five Kiowas {q.v.) and has been primarily a painter and 
dancer most of his life. His granduncles, Silverhorn and Hakok, found him 
drawing designs in sand and taught him how to paint on tanned skins in the old 
Kiowa way. His expert and colorful dancing at Indian gatherings, even today, 
continues to draw the attention of spectators. 

Education: Finished seventh grade at mission school in Anadarko, Okla. 

Received special non-credit instruction at Oklahoma. 



124 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career : Artist ; retired farmer. 

Honors : Represented in Indians of Today ; speaker, National Folk Festival 

Conference, Chicago, 111., May, 1957; Certificate of Appreciation, lACB, 1966. 

Commissions: Murals: FSM, OHSM, OU, USDI; U.S. Navy Hospital, 

Carville, La. ; Federal Building, Anadarko, Okla. ; Northeastern Oklahoma 

A & M College; Muskogee Junior College, and Federal Building, Muskogee, 

Okla. ; St. Patrick's Mission School and First National Bank of Anadarko, 

Anadarko, Okla. ; Fort Sill Indian School; Northeastern State College, Tahle- 

quah, Okla. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929) (1964), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), 

La Farge (1956). American Indian Exposition Program, cover, 1946, 1948. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW (frescoes), EITA, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T, SI; 

Kermac Mural Design Exhibition, 1965. One-man shows: AIE, 1965. 

Collections: Public: ACM, DCC, GM, lACB, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, 

MNM, OAC, OHSM, OSAF/GC, OU/L, OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SPIM, 

SPL. Private: Callaway, Denman, Deupree, Dockstader, Field, Hogue, O. 

Jacobson, D. Maxwell, R. Moore, Thoeny, Wyman. 

Address: Route 2, Fort Cobb, Okla. 
Moqui Hopi 

Wickahtewah 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Moquino, Delfino Zia 

Yaka 

Collections: Private: Harvey. 
Moquino, Ignacio Zia 

Waki Yeni Dew a, Stratus Cloud 

Born: May 7, 1917, Zia Pueblo, N.M. 

Married: Marie Trujillo (San Juan). Three children. 
The artist left school after his father's death to care for his family. While work- 
ing part-time as a shoemaker, he began his art career by designing and painting 
pictures of various tribal costumes. He later turned his interests to silversmithing. 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe; two years graduate work in art under 

Dorothy Dunn and Geronima Montoya [q.v.). 

Service: WWH, U.S. Army. 

Career: Was employed at one time by University of Cahfornia; taught 

school for one year. 

Commissions: Murals: SFWF (with Charles Loloma and Joe Duran, qq.v.). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: AIW, ITIC, JGS, MNM, OU/ET, PAC, SFWF. 

Awards: ITIC. 

Collections: Public: DAM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, MRFM, OU, USDI. 

Private: Denman, Dietrich. 

Address: San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 

Moquino, Juanito Zia 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Address: Zia Pueblo. N.M. 



ARTISTS 125 

Moquino, Toribio Zia 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Morez, Mary Navaho 

Born: 1938. 
Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 

Morgan, Judith Phillis Tsimshian 

Simclosh, Lady In The Sun 

Born: April 27, 1930, at Kitwanga, British Columbia, Canada. Both her 
parents were hereditary chiefs. Her father was Chief of the Wolf clan whose 
family originated in Kitsegukla and moved to Kitwanga to be closer to 
their property rights. Her mother was a member of the Grouse clan whose 
family originated in Kitwanga on the Skeena River. Her brother, Raymond, 
carved the totem crests which still stand at Kitwanga. M/GF : Chief of the 
Eagle clan and consultant to the tribe on matters of high decision. 
Married: Willis O. Fitzpatrick, 1952. Five children. 
Mrs. Fitzpatrick has been painting since about 1953. She concentrates on depict- 
ing the northwest coast and her family tribe in non-traditional Indian style. 
Education: Kitwanga Day School, Kitwanga, B.C., Canada; Albernie 
Indian Residential School, B.C., Canada, four years; Cottey Junior College, 
Nevada, Mo. ; received Elementary Teacher Certificate for B.C. Studied art 
two years under G.N. Sinclair. 
Career: Housewife; artist. 

Exhibitions: Victoria (Canada) Provincial Museum, Pacific National Ex- 
hibition, Vancouver; Vancouver Art Gallery, B.C.; National Art Gallery, 
Toronto; Little Gallery, Kansas City, Mo.; Portland Art Museum, Portland, 
Oreg. ; University of British Columbia ; represented in a cross-country tour 
from Vancouver to Toronto. 

Awards: Won two poster contests in Victoria, B.C. 
Collections: Public: Provincial Government, Victoria, B.C. 
Address: c/o 1209 West Maple, Enid, Okla. 

Morgan, Robert Mescalero Apache 

Exhibitions: MNM (student division), 1963. 

Morning Star (see Humetewa, James Russell, Jr.) 

Morning Star (see Kewanyouma, Leroy) 

Morning Star (see Toledo, Jose Rey) 

Morris, Ruth Ella Navaho 

Born: 1944. 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 

Address : Window Rock, Ariz. 
Morrison, George Chippewa 

Born: September 30, 1919, Grand Marais, Minn. Son of James Morrison 

(Chippewa) and Barbara Mesaba (Chippewa). 

Married: Hazel Belvo, December, i960. One son: Briand Mesaba, 1961. 
Mr. Morrison has distinguished himself and his tribe by establishing what is 
probably the most outstanding record of any Indian painter in the fine arts field. 



126 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Education: Graduated Grand Marais (Minn.) High School, 1938. Minnea- 
pohs (Minn.) School of Art, 1943 ; Art, 1943-46 ; University of Aix-Marseille, 
Aix-en-Provence, France, 1952-53. 

Career: Teacher, special classes in painting, drawing, and related subjects; 
Rockport (Mass.) Art School, 1947; Cape Ann (Mass.) Art School, 1948; 
private art classes, N.Y., 1948-50; Camp Robinson Crusoe, 1949; Wiltwyck 
School for Boys, 1947 ; MinneapoHs School of Art, 1959 ; Dayton (Ohio) Art 
Institute, 1960-61; State College of Iowa, 1961; Cornell University, 1962; 
Pennsylvania State University, 1963; Assistant Professor of Art, Rhode 
Island School of Design, 1964-. 

Honors: John Hay Whitney Fellowship, 1953-54; Fulbright Scholarship 
to France, 1952-53 ; scholarship grants from Consolidated Chippewa Agency, 
1941-42; Bernay's Scholarship, 1943; Vanderlip Traveling Scholarship, 
1943; Women's Club Scholarship to MinneapoHs Art Institute, 1942; Lucy 
Gilbert Award, 1941. 

Exhibitions: 1946-63: 132 group and invitational exhibitions throughout 
the world. They include, in New York, the Pyramid Gallery, Grand Central 
Moderns, Riverside Museum, Whitney Museum Annual, Federation of 
Modern Painters and Sculptors Annual, Audubon Artists Annual Exhibi- 
tions, Brooklyn Museum Print Annual, Davida GaUery Drawing Invita- 
tional, Phoenix GaUery Invitational, James Gallery Invitational, the Na- 
tional Arts Club Invitational, Nonagon Gallery Invitational, Art U.S.A. at 
Madison Square Garden, and Pepsi-Cola Paintings of the Year. In Ohio, 
Toledo Museum of Art, Columbus Museum of Art, and the International 
Selected Artists Exhibition at the Dayton Art Museum. In Pennsylvania, 
the Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and at 
Lehigh University. Other U.S. exhibits include: the Detroit Institute of 
Arts Annual Exhibition, Detroit, Mich. ; Biennial Painting Exhibition, Co- 
lumbia Museum of Art, Columbia, S.C; Biennial Exhibition, Colorado 
Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, Colo.; Joslyn Art Museum, 
Omaha, Nebr. ; Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. ; M. H. De Young 
Memorial Museum, San Francisco, Calif.; Houston Museum of Fine Arts, 
Houston, Tex. ; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, Tex. ; Twin City Annual 
Exhibitions, Walker Art Center, Minneapohs, Minn.; Biennial Exhibition, 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washihgton, D.C. One-man shows: 1949-62: 
Twenty, including Cornell University and Grand Central Moderns in New 
York; State College of Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Dayton Art Institute, 
Dayton, Ohio; University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. ; Southern IlHnois 
University, Carbondale, 111. Two and three-man shows : 1945-58 : Philadelphia, 
Art Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa.; Stephens College, Columbia, Mo; Karhs 
Gallery, Provincetown, Mass.; Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, 
Ala. ; Ashby Gallery, New York, N.Y. 

Awards: 1965, First Award, Rhode Island Arts Festival, Providence, R.I. 
Collections: Public: AH, AHM, AK, BMJ, CAM/M, CCH, CCHS, DAI, 
DFNB, GCG, GO, lACB, IBM, JAM, LJMA, LS, MIA, MPWI, MSIC, 
NMAS, NYU, PMA, PSU, SCI, SC/MA, UM, VMA, W, WAC, WM/CU. 



ARTISTS 127 

Private: Abe, Bedlaender, Benacerraf, Bing, Brownstone, Colt, Cotner, 
Elsohn, Gershenson, Gess, Gomberg, Graubarth, Greene, Guillaume, M. 
Johnson, Koenig, S. Kramer, Bor. Kronenberg, Lannon, Leng, Lockwood, 
Neilson, Nevelson, Olson, C. Pereyma, E. Pereyma, Primrose, Roach, B. Ro- 
gers, Rouillon, A. Scott, Stueland, J. Weber, Whiteford, G. Williams. 
Address: 12 Cole Farm Court, Providence, R.I. 

Moses, James Kivetoruk Eskimo 

Kivetoruk, Bark Dye 
(Also known as Moses, Kivetoruk.) 

Born: February, 10 1903, near Cape Espenberg, Alaska. Son of Kivoluk, 
who, with his partner CharUe Browers, established whahng stations along 
the arctic coast using Eskimo crews and skin boats. 

Married: Bessie Ahgupuk, 1933. Children: James, Jr., 1934; Charles, 1936. 
Education: At Shishmaref, Alaska, through the third grade. 
Career: Deerherder, trapper, and hunter until he was crippled in a plane 
crash "back of Shishmaref," at Ear Mountain, 1953. Executed sketches of 
Eskimo Hfe on ivory carvings and, in 1954, began painting professionally. 
Exhibitions: BNIAS, FNAIC, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, USDS. 
Awards: 1959-64: BNIAS, FNAIC, MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: lACB. Private: Elkus, Leno, Solberg, L. Stewart. 
Address : Box 814, Nome, Alaska. 

Moses, Kivetoruk (see Moses, James Kivetoruk) 

Mountain Cougar [see Shipshee, Louis) 

Mountain Of The Sacred Wind (see Atencio, Gilbert Benjamin) 

Mountain Rock (see Atencio, Pat) 

Moving Whirlwind (see Whirlwind) 

Murdock, Cecil Kickapoo 

Koketha, Turning Bear (or Running Bear) 

Born : October 13, 1913, McLoud, Okla. Died December 14, 1954. The artist 

lived with his grandmother until he was 16, and "she developed and nourished 

my learning and the love of being an Indian.'' 

Married: Ida Mae Fredericks (Hopi). 
In 1946, Murdock wrote Philbrook Art Center that his accomplishments in art 
were "greatly due to Oscar B. Jacobson's guidance and encouragement." His 
military service resulted in 20 per cent disability, and he consequently painted 
less frequently after the war. 

Education: Chilocco; Friends University, Wichita, Kans. ; Oklahoma. 

Service : WWII, Fifth Air Force, four years ; New Guinea, the Netherlands, 

and India. 

Career: Demonstrated mural techniques at the Palmer House, Chicago, 

111., 1940-41. 

Commissions: Murals: Painted murals two years, WPA Project, Lawton 

and Anadarko, Okla.; University of Oklahoma; Ohio State University, 

Columbus, Ohio. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 



128 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: AIW, HM, PAC, PAC/T; Chicago, lU.; Washington, D.C.; 

Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Lawton, Okla. ; New York World's Fair, 1939-40. 

Awards: PAC, 1946. 

Collections: Public: GM, MNA/KHC, OU/MA, PAC. Private: Denman, 

J. Young. 
Murray, Alice Hearrell Chickasaw-Choctaw 

Collections: Public: OHSM. 
Murray, Daniel M. lowa-Oto 

Nhuschingyay, No Heart 

Born: May 28, 1934, Perkins, Okla. Son of Frank Murray (Iowa) and 

Martha McGlasin (lowa-Oto). M/GF: Ben McGlasin, last Oto chief. GGGF: 

One of several Iowa chiefs. Descendant of Chief White Cloud. 
The artist has just recently begun to exhibit his three-dimensional oil paintings. 
It is his ambition to ' 'expose the honors and the downfalls committed upon his 
people, to paint Indians of Oklahoma as well as the state's heritage and present 
daily life." 

Education: High school; Oklahoma S.U./S.T., one year. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Marine Corps, three years. 

Career: Previously employed by Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Cleveland, 

Ohio ; currently a freelance landscape artist. 

Work Published: Sunday Oklahoman, Orbit Magazine (February 2, 1964). 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965. 

Collections: Public: GWS. Private: Asip, J. Ross. 

Address: Perkins, Okla. 
Musically Inclined [see Ingram, Veronica Marie) 
Mus Truwi {see Toledo, Jose Rey) 
Nagawbo {see Des Jarlait, Patrick Robert) 
Naha, Archie A. Hopi 

Mr. Naha is the uncle of Raymond Naha {q.v.). 

Exhibitions: HM. 

Collections: Private: Bialac. 
Naha, Raymond Hopi 

Born : 1933, Hopi Reservation, Ariz. 

Education: As a high school student, he studied under Fred Kabotie {q.v.). 

Work Published: Arizona Highways (August 1966). 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, 

USDS. 

Awards: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: PiMic: AF, BIA, lACB, MAI, MNA/KHC. Private: Dock- 

stader. Hanks, McGee, Sangster, J. Snodgrass, Thoeny. 

Address: Box 374, Zuni, N.M. 
Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema Hopi 

Dolwiftema, Lightning 

(Also known as Nahsonhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema; Nasonhoya, Thomas 

Dolwiftema.) 

Born: October 15, 1929, Sichomovi, First Mesa, Ariz. 



ARTISTS 129 

Education: Hopi. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1948. 
Address: Polacca, Ariz. 

Nahsonhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema {see Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema) 

Naiche (Chief) Chiricahua A f ache 

Born : Date unknown. Son of Cochise, hereditary Apache chief. 
Naiche was Chief of the Apaches at Fort Sill, Okla., in 1899, and was well-known 
at that time as an artist. He lived to an old age at Mescalero. See Sonnichsen 
{1958). 
Career: In the spring of 1885, as prisoners of the Government, Naiche and 
Geronimo escaped near White Mountain Reservation in Arizona and began 
a campaign of resistance against White settlement. In September, 1886, 
he surrendered, and was taken to Fort Pickens, Fla. In May, 1888, he was 
transfered to Vermont, Va., where he worked for the Government until 
October, 1894. See Barrett (1906). 

Work Published: La Farge (1956). American Heritage (October 1956). 
Collections: Public: FSM, MAI, OHSM, SI/MNH. 

NaUor, Gerald Navaho 

Toh Yah, Walking By The River 
Born: 1917. Pinedale, N.M. Died, August, 1952. 

Married: A woman from Picuris. Their son may be Jerry Nailor (q.v.). 
In 1937, Nailor shared a studio in Santa Fe with Allan Houser [q.v.). His paintings 
were exhibited in the home of Mrs. Hall Adams from 1943 to 1952. At the time 
of his death, he was living with his family at Picuris Pueblo, N.M. 
Education: Elementary grades at mission boarding schools; attended 
Gallup (N.M.) Public School, on scholarship; graduated Albuquerque; 
attended Santa Fe (supplementary courses) ; Oklahoma. Special instruction 
under Dorothy Dunn, Kenneth Chapman, and the Swedish muralist, Olaf 
Nordmark. 
Service: WWII. 

Commissions : Murals : USDI ; Mesa Verde Post Office, Mesa Verde, Colo. ; 
Navaho Tribal Council House, Window Rock, Ariz. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Compton's Pictured Ency- 
clopedia (1957); Arizona Highways (February 1950); Indian Life (i960); 
American Scene (Vol. VI, No. 3), cover. Paintings have been silk-screened 
by Tewa Enterprises. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, DAM, ITIC, MAI, MMA, MNM, NGA, OU/ET, 
PAC, PAC/T. 

Collections: Pw6/^c: BIA, GM, MAI, MNM, MRFM, OU, PAC, SM. Private: 
H. Adams, Bates, Crawford, Denman, Dietrich, Elkus, Finley, A. Forbes, 
Hurr, D. Kramer, Lockett, Pritzlaff, Rosenwald, Rust, Thoeny, Woffard. 

Nailor, Jerry Picuris 

Born: Date unknown. May be the son of Gerald Nailor {q.v.). 
Education : Santa Fe, 1958. 
Exhibitions: MNM. 

Nakayoma {see Kabotie, Fred) 



130 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Nakowhoadoniulzi (see Bushyhead, Allan) 

Nama Piaska (see Kishketon, George) 

Namingha, Grifford Hopi 

Born : Date unknown. The artist is from Hot e villa, Ariz. 

Collections: Piihlic: MAI (painting executed at about age 15). 
Na Mos (see Left Hand) 

Nape Sica Hoksila (see Claymore, Thomas William) 
Naranjo, Adolph Santa Clara ( ? ) 

Ogowee, Road Runner 

Born: 1916, Santa Clara Pueblo, N.M. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Naranjo, Balardo Santo Domingo 

Collections: Public \ SM. 

Naranjo, Ben Santa Clara 

Collections: Public: WRNGA. 
Naranjo, Jose Dolores Santa Clara 

Ce Komo Pyn 

Exhibitions: NGA. 

Collections: Private: Dietrich. 

Address: Santa Clara Pueblo, Espafiola, N.M. 

Naranjo, Louis Santa Clara 

Education : Santa Fe, 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Naranjo, Victor Santa Clara 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Nash, Daniel San Carlos Apache 

Education: Mescalero High School, N.M. 
Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. Private: Dockstader, Elkus. 
Address: Box 143, San Carlos, Ariz. 
Nash, Joel Hopi 

Exhibitions: FWG (student) 1951; HM. 
Nash, Wesley Apache 

Born : September 22, 1926, San Carlos, Ariz. 

Married: Anne Goombi (Kiowa), 1953. Four children : Janet, 1954; Sharon, 
1958; Cynthia, i960; George Wesley, 1963. 
Nash recalls an interest in art as early as the third grade. In 1942, Wilma Fergu- 
son, now Mrs. James Watson, encouraged the artist to enter Santa Fe Indian 
School, where he remembers especially the help received from Vicente Mirabel, 
Ger6nima Cruz Montoya {qq.v.), and a Miss Kerwin. 
Education: San Carlos; graduated Santa Fe, 1948; Bacone College, 1952- 
53; Utah S., 1959-60. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, 1944-46. U.S. Army Paratroopers, 1948-52. 
Exhibitions: MNM, NGA, PAC, SN; tribal fairs. 



ARTISTS 131 

Awards: Tribal fairs. 

Collections: Public: MRFM. Private: Wyman. 

Address : 16 Freeman, Ardmore, Okla. 
Nashboo, William Ziini 

Education: Albuquerque, 1963. 

Exhibitions: MNM. 
Nasonhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema [see Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema) 
Natachu, Fred Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Box 533, Zuni, N.M. 
Natatches, James J. Navaho-Mohaivk 

Education: vSanta Fe, 1960-61; Rock Point Mission School, Chinle, Ariz.; 

scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summers, 1961-62. 

Exhibitions: MNM; PAC, 1961. 

Address : Rock Point Mission, Chinle, Ariz. 
Natay, Ed Navaho 

Nat Tay Yelth Le Galth, Walking Leader 

(Also known as Lee, Edward.) 

Born: December 15, 1915. Died, January 15, 1967. His father was a medi- 
cine man and Indian scout, and his mother was known for her fine weaving. 

Married: Pop Chalee {q.v.). 

Career: Instructor, Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, N.M.; iron worker; 

journeyman combination welder; recording artist of native songs; radio 

announcer; promoter for MGM movie studios and Santa Fe Railroad Co. 

Exhibitions: ASF, CAA, CU, ITIC. 

Awards: First award and bronze medal of honor, CAA, 1956. 

Nat Tay Yelth Le Galth {see Natay, Ed) 

Naumoff Eskimo 

The drawing illustrated in the BAE, loth AR was made in 1882. The "designs 
were traced upon a strip of wood, which was then stuck upon the roof of the 
house belonging to the draftsman." (BAE, loth AR, p. 350). 

Work Published: BAE, loth AR. 
Nazia [see Blackmore, Bill) 
Nehakije [see Vicenti, Steven) 
Nequatewa, Eddie Hopi 

Exhibitions: AIW, OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: OU/MA, SM. 

Address: Box 106, Hotevilla, Ariz. 
Netostimi [see Schildt, Gary Joseph) 
Nevamokewesa [see Saufkie, Morgan) 
Newini Z^mi 

(Also known as Newmi.) 
It has been recorded that the artist was painting in 1927. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

9* 



132 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Newmi (see Newini) 

Newton, Ranzy Alison Kiowa 

Chief Charging Skunk 

Born: April 21, 1894, Weatherford, Tex. During childhood, lived in Altus 

and Olustee, Okla. 

Service: WWII, Sixth Field Artillery, U.S. Army, eight years. 

Exhibitions : PAC ; Spring Hill (Ala.) College ; Desert Gallery, Palm Desert, 

Cahf. 

Address : 2324 North F Street, Stockton, Calif. 
Nez, D. M. Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Nez, Ford Navaho 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Nhuschingyay [see Murray, Daniel M.) 
Nichols, Katie Miwok 

Born: December 5, 1905, Merced, Calif. 

Education: Karl Thorpe Art School; Polytechnic High School, Riverside, 

Calif. ; Adult Evening College, Sacramento, Calif. 

Exhibitions: CSF; Northern California Art Fair, Sacramento, Calif. 
Nichols, Milton Hopi 

Exhibitions: HM (student) 1951. 
Nick Cheyenne 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Nieto, Balardo Santo Domingo 

Service : The artist was killed in WWII. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Nieto, Harry Zuni 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA. 
Night Walker [see Martin, James, Jr.) 
Nilchee, Betty Jean Navaho 

Education: Institute, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1963. 

Awards: MNM, 1963. 
Nitoh Mahkwii [see Schultz, Hart Merriam) 
Nix, Bill [see) Red Corn) 
No Braid (Chief) Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
No Heart [see Murray, Daniel M.) 
No Heart [see Tinzoni) 
No Heart Sioux 

Cante Wani Ca 

Born: Date unknown. A medicine man from Standing Rock Reservation. 

Collections: Public: SHSND (pictographic style drawings on cotton of the 

Dakota Sun Dance). 



ARTISTS 133 

No Two Horns Hunkpapa Sioux 

Born: Date unknown. From Standing Rock Reservation. 

Honors: Important chief and warrior who kept a winter count. 

Collections: Public: SHSND (43 paintings depicting Indian battles). 
Nofchissey, Alberta Navaho 

Born: Ariz. 

Education: Institute, ca. 1954. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, YAIA. 

Collections: Private: McGrath. 
Nohnicas [see Cohoe, WiUiam) 
Northcutt, Harrell Chickasaw 

Education: Bacone College, ca. 1951. 

Exhibitions: DAM; PAC, 1951-52. 
Norton, Jerry R. Eskimo 

Born : July 20, 1942. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC, USDS. 

Awards: MNM, two. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, MNM. Private: Elkus. 

Address: Kivalina, Alaska. 
Nosie, Montie Apache 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Notah, Ned Navaho 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1936-38. 

Exhibitions: AIW; NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Private: D. Kramer. 
Nova, A. M. Hopi 

Born : Date unknown. From Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Noyes, Phyllis Colville 

Born: 1947, Omak, Wash. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, YAIA. 
Numkena, Lewis, Jr. Hopi 

(Also known as Junior, Lewis Numkena; Junior, Lewis N.) 

Born: July 24, 1927, Moenkopi, Ariz. Son of Lems Numkena (Hopi), a 

village leader at Moenkopi. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Work Published: Arizona Highways (February 1950). 

Exhibitions: MNA, MNM, PAC. 

Awards: MNA; PAC, 1948. 

Address : Tuba City, Ariz. 
Nupok, Florence [see Chauncey, Florence Nupok) 
Nutchuck Eskimo 

Work Published: The artist wrote and illustrated Back to the Smoky Sea 

and Son of the Smoky Sea (no dates available) . 



134 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Nuvayouma, Arlo Hopi 

NuvayotLma, Snow Carry 

Born: September 6, 1923, Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Married: Elizabeth Tawamuniya (Hopi). Two children. 

Education : Second Mesa. 

Career: Employed at Arizona Country Club, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Commissions: Painting Series: 30 paintings illustrating Hopi village life 

(Byron Harvey III Collection), 1964-65. 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Harvey. 

Address: 4015 North Sixth Street, Phoenix, Ariz., and Shungopovi, Ariz. 
Oau Nah Jusah (see Gritts, Franklin) 
Octuck, J. Eskimo 

Collections: Pttblic: MAI (with the note: "Point Hope, Alaska, 1905"). 
Odle Pah Kiowa 

Kawlahnohndaumah, Footprints Of A Buffalo 

Married : Chief Satanta's second son. 
The artist executed a calendar history of the Kiowas, drawn with colored cray- 
ons in a ledger book. She began ca. 1885, and continued until her death in 1934. 

Collections: Public: FSM. 
Of The Dawn (see Smoky, Lois) 
Ogowee (see Naranjo, Adolph) 

Ohet Toint Kiowa ( ? ) 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML (hsted as Charles Chet-toint) . Private: 
R. Robinson. 
O'John, Calvin Ute 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Okicize Tawa (see Jaw) 
Okie, John Eskimo 

The following comment appears in a letter to Philbrook Art Center from 

Wilbur Wright Walluk (q.v.), written August 22, 1946: 
"... .he draws art pictures once in a great while. As matter of fact, he always 
have other works to do. He especially does ivory carving. He likes ivory business 
during the war, but now the ivory conditions are change after the war is over. 
The price of ivory is low down since the war is over. He probably give up his 
ivory business and start painting. Jack Okie is a very good Eskimo artist. His 
works use to be better than Ahgupuk {q.v.) and my works. My dear mama is 
Jack's cousin. Mama use to tell me that Jack sure like to draw pictures when he 
was a kid. He sure can draw pictures with a pen and ink and watercolor. He pro- 
bably knows how to work with oils too." 
Okuwasta (see Baca, Henry) 

Old Buffalo Sioux 

Tatankehanni 

Born: 1845. In 1913, the artist, with Swift Dog (q.v), went to McLaughhn, 

S. Dak., to confer with Frances Densmore. 

Work Published: BAE, Bull. 61 (pictographic style). 



ARTISTS 135 

Old Bull, Moses Sioux 

Collections: Public: Iowa State Department of History and Archives, 

Des Moines, Iowa (a calendar, dated 1812-79, marked "Bullhead, S. Dak."; 

also a pictographic listing cataloged as "the dead and wounded since coming 

to Standing Rock Reservation," 1831-33). 
Old Dog Sioux 

Collections: Public: SHSND (a muslin drawing labeled as "a party of 

Hidatsa Indians with Sioux in 1856"). 
Olney, Nathan Hale, III Yakima 

Born: January 30, 1937, Wapato, Wash. Son of Nathan Hale Olney, Jr. 

(Yakima), and Alice Pratt (Hupa). P/GGGF: Capt. Nathan H. Olney, 

Indian agent at Dallas, Oreg., in 1855, who married a Washo girl. 

Education : Graduated from Wapato (Wash.) High School, 1955 ; attended 

Washington S.C., 1956-59; University of Wlirzburg, Germany, during 

military service. 

Service: U.S. Army, 1960-62. Battle group artist. 

Career: BIA, four years. 

Exhibitions: 1955-64: AAID, FNAIC, ITIC; Central Washington and 

Western Washington Fairs; La Grande (Oreg.) Arts and Crafts Festival; 

Southern Command Art Show, Schweinfurt, Germany; Anacortes (Wash.) 

Arts and Crafts Show; Larson Gallery, Yakima (Wash.) Junior CoUege; 

Ohio Art Congress Exhibition. One-man shows: Yakima (Wash.) Library; 

Kamiath-Trinity High School, Hoopa, Calif. ; Seattle (Wash.) Indian Center; 

Federal Building, Portland, Oreg. 

Address: 512 West Sixth St., Wapato, Wash. 
Oon Na Susah {see Gritts, Franklin) 
Ootskuyva (see Qotskuyva, R.) 
Opa Mu Nu (see Martinez, Richard) 
Oquwa (see Roybal, Jose D.) 
Oqwa Owin (see Sanchez, Ramos) 
Oqwa Pi San Ildefonso 

Oqwa Pi, Red Cloud 

(Also known as Sanchez, Abel.) 

Born: ca. 1899-1902. 
"I, Oqwa Pi, have been painting since the early 1920's. As I found that painting 
was the best among my talents, I decided to do my best to win me fame as an 
Indian artist .... as an artist, I have raised a big healthy family for my painting 
brought in good income. . ." (letter from artist to Philbrook Art Center), 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Career : Painter and farmer. 

Honors : Served as lieutenant governor, and later as governor, of his pueblo. 

Commissions : Murals : Santa Fe Indian School. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). American 

Magazine of Art (August 1933), Encyclopedia Britannica (1954). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, CGA, EITA, GCG, ITIC, MMA, MNM, NGA, 

NJSM, PAC, SU; Muskegon (Wis.) Gallery of Fine Arts, Yale University; 



136 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Milwaukee (Wis.) Art Institute; Philadelphia (Pa.) Art Alliance Exhibition 

of Contemporary Pueblo Indian Art. 

Awards: ITIC, MNM. 

Collections: Public: AF, AMNH, BM/B, CAM, CGFA, CIS, DAM, JAM, 

MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, RM, W/JSC. Private: Dietrich, 

Dockstader, Elkus, A. Forbes. 

Address: Route i. Box 315, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Oriole [see Herrera, Velino Shije) 

Orr, Caroline Louise Cohille-W enatchee 

Born: August 21, 1943, Republic, Wash. Daughter of Samuel A. Orr (We- 
natchee) and Caroline Nelson (Colville). Descendant of Moses, famous 
Wenatchee chief. M/GGGF: Long Alec, Colville chief, U.S. Marshall and 
pony express rider. 
Miss Orr has been actively engaged in painting her people, in non-traditional 
Indian style, since 1956. She has completed two collections of Indian portraits 
and has taken courses in anthropology to further her knowledge of Indian 
cultures. 
Education: Public schools in Omak, Wash,; B.A., Washington, 1965. 
Career: Staff member. University of Washington, Art Gallery, 1963-64; 
assistant reader for design class. University of Washington; staff artist, 
Fort Okanogan Museum; raises Hereford cattle and Quarter Horses. 
Honors : Four-year scholarship from Colville tribe to attend college ; delegate 
to Career Planning for Minority Groups, U.S. Labor Department, Washing- 
ton, D.C., 1962. 

Commissions: Murals: University of Washington. 
Books Illustrated: Brown (1961). 

Work Published: "Goldmark Trial," Omak Chronicle, illustrator, 1964; 
Spokesman Review (Western Edition), 1961, portrait of Long Alec; "Sacred 
Root Feast," Wenatchee World (1952), illustrator; An Okanogan Drying 
Venison (1961), illustrator, Okanogan Vocational publication booklet. 
Exhibitions: AAID, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNM, PAC. One-man shoivs: 1957- 
64: 16, including the Library, County Fair, and Caribou Inn, Okanogan, 
Wash. ; the North Central Washington Museum, and Rocky Reach Dam, 
Wenatchee, Wash.; The Carey Museum, Cashmere, Wash.; Gonzaga 
University and Peltier Gallery, Spokane, Wash. ; Fort Okanogan Museum, 
Brewster, Wash.; the Art Club, Republic, Wash.; the Indian Center, 
Seattle, Wash. ; St. Mary's Mission, and Okanogan Valley League of Arts 
and Crafts, Omak, Wash. ; Grand Coulee Dam, Spokane, Wash. 
Awards: University of Washington, ''Arts Award"; Human Education 
Poster Contest, Stanford, Calif. 

Collections: Public: BIA, BIA/P, CBC, CM/C, FOM, GCD, OL, OPS, 
WHCO. Private: Benson, Barb. Brown, Bare. Brown, C. Brown, E. Brown, 
M. Casey, T. Casey, Keith, J. Kennedy, Mcndhall, Nash, R. Rogers, Rosal- 
lini, Tisserant, Turner, VanDivort. 
Address: Box 500, Omak, Wash. 



ARTISTS 137 

Orr, Howell Sonny Chickasaw-Cherokee 

Ihtmfer, Lover of Home 

Born: May 20, 1929, Washington, Okla. Son of a Cherokee father and 

Chickasaw mother. M/GGF: Hatak Shauee, last chief of the Chickasaw 

Nation. 
The artist is particularly interested in the work of Mexican muralists and in 
the technique of batik painting, in which he was trained at Instituto San Miguel 
de Allende. 

Education: Pubhc schools in Madill, Okla.; Chilocco; Bacone College; 

B.A., Northeastern; graduate study, Tulsa; M.A. (thesis: American Indian 

Art in the United States), Instituto San Miguel de Allende. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Ski Patrol, three years; Korea and Europe. 

Career: Art instructor, Derby (Kans.) Junior High, three years; Kukun- 

sion Junior High School, Las Vegas, Nev., ca. 1962-65; Valley High School, 

Las Vegas, Nev., 1965-. 

Honors : Indian tribal dance coordinator, National American Folk Festival, 

Oklahoma City, Okla., 1957. 

Commissions: Program cover, Pickens Inter-Tribal Pow Wow, Madill, 

Okla., July, 1956. 

Exhibitions: AIE, FANAIAE, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN, USDS; 

Instituto Nacional de las Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Mexico; Instituto San 

Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico; Cuarto Exposicion Anual de San 

Miguel de Allende. One-man shows: Las Vegas (Nev.) Art League, 1965. 

Awards: AIE, ITIC, MNM. 

Collections: Public: BIA. Private: Farmer, Story. 

Address: c/o Annie B. Orr, Madill, Okla. 
Ortiz, Joseph San Juan 

So Whay, Misty 

Born: March 21, 1939, Santa Fe, N.M. Son of Esther Martinez. 
Mr. Ortiz believes that Dick West {q.v.) at Bacone College, Mr. and Mrs. James 
E. Watson (formerly of Santa Fe Indian School), and Mrs. J. A. Armstrong 
encouraged him most in his art career. He wishes to continue in the field of 
education and teach art education and biology. 

Education: Attended San Juan, 1946-51; Santa Fe, 1952-58; Bacone 

College, i960; B.S. (Ed.), Arizona S.C./F., 1963; M.S., Arizona S.C./F., 

1964; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project." 

Honors : Scholarship to Bacone, from Mrs. J. A. Armstrong, Berkeley, Calif. 

Exhibitions: 1956-64: ASC, BC, ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC. 

Awards: 1956-64: Six, from ASC, ITIC, MNM, NMSF. 

Address: c/o Box 715, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Ortiz, Louis Cochiti 

Born: Date unknown. Died ca. 1943. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Osapana {see Whiteman, James Ridgley) 
Osborne, Gerald Pawnee 

Born: Date unknown. Died ca. 1964. 

Exhibitions: PAC. 



138 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Awards: PAC, 1950-52. 

Collections: Public \ PAC. 
Osceola, Mary Gay Seminole 

Born: March 16, 1939. 

Education: Santa Fe, 1960-61; Institute, 1961-65. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: MNM, 1963. 

Collections: Public'. BIA. Private: Woffard. 

Address : 6320 Northwest 36th, Hollywood, Fla. 
Otelaleya Cochiti 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Outah, Lawrence Hopi 

The artist is reportedly from Oraibi, Arizona. While in the tenth grade at Santa 
Fe Indian School in 1948, he was cited for "outstanding ability in art." 

Education : Santa Fe ; Haskell. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNM. 
Outie, George Hopi 

Leleka, Snake 

Born: November 16, 1926, Winslow, Ariz. 

Education: Bacone College, 1949. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Corps; European Theater. 

Exhibitions: PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: MAI, PAC. 

Address: Hopi Agency, Keams Canyon, Ariz., and Box 113, Tuba City, 

Ariz. 
Owen, Narcissa Chisholm Cherokee 

Collections: Public: OHSM (oil portraits). 
Owl Eagle (see Eagle Feather, Elijah) 
Owu Tewa [see Chavez, Manuel "Bob") 
Oye Gi (see Herrera, Senofre) 
Oysla (see Garcia, Ernest P.) 
Ozistalis (see Speck, Henry) 
Paaokela (see Martinez, Jose R.) 
Pablito, Thomas Zuni 

(Also known as Pablito, Tomas.) 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Pablito, Tomas (see Pablito, Thomas) 
Packer Arapaho or Cheyenne 

Sto Kg Wo 
The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: HI. 
Paddock, Hugh Navaho 

Colli<(;tk)ns: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS 139 

Padilla, Michael Santa Clara 

Education: Albuquerque, 1961-62. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1961-62. 

Awards: MNM, two. 

Collections: Private: Elkus. 
Pahsetopah, Loren Louis Osage-Cherokee 

Shapa Nazhi, Stands Brown (Buffalo) 

Born: September 10, 1934, Pawhuska, Okla., on the Osage Reservation. 

Son of Chris Pahsetopah (Osage) and Lorraine (Cherokee). P/GF: Great 

Hunter Pahsetopah. Brother of Paul Pahsetopah {q.v.). 

Married: Virgie Reed (Chickasaw), 1952. Seven children: Lorna Ann, 1954; 

Paul Anthony, 1955; Teresa, 1956; Christopher, 1957; Mary Katherine, 

1958; Monette, i960; Elaine, 1962. 
The artist's interest in drawing and painting began when he was about seven 
years old. Participation in pow-wows has aided him in depicting tribal costuming. 

Education: Pawhuska Public Schools; Chilocco. 

Career : Painting contractor and interior decorator. 

Work Published: Oklahoma Today (Winter 1965). 

Exhibitions: 1952-65: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN, USDS. Three-man shows: 

PAC. 

Awards : First award, Oklahoma School Students Competition, 1949 ; PAC, 

1962-65. 

Collections: Public: lACB; St. Louis (Mo.) Children's Hospital. Private: 

Brawner, Cheshewalla, Clearman, Council, Lake, MacKay, K. McCormick, 

Pahsetopah, H. Potter, Reed, R. Smith, H. West. 

Address: 2146 East Newton Street, Tulsa, Okla. 
Pahsetopah, Paul Osage-Cherokee 

Pahsetopah, Four Hills 

Born: September 10, 1932, Pawhuska, Okla., on the Osage Reservation. 

Son of Chris Pahsetopah (Osage) and Lorraine (Cherokee). P/GF: Great 

Hunter Pahsetopah, active in aiding his people to make peace with the 

Whites and in preserving customs of the tribe. Brother of Loren Louis Pah- 
setopah (q.v.). 

Married: Jean Bevenue (Yuchi-Creek), 1955. Three sons: Mike, 1958; 

Russell, 1961; Jon, 1962. 
At the age of 14, the artist showed an interest in painting and drawing. Pie had 
already made his first dance costume. It was not until Acee Blue Eagle (q.v.) 
encouraged him to paint in the 1950's, that he worked seriously in art. 

Education : Pawhuska (Okla.) High School, Chilocco ; parochial schools in Okla. 

Service : WWII and Korean War. 

Career : Painting contractor and interior decorator. 

Exhibitions: 1952-65: MNM, PAC, SN. Three-man shows: PAC. 

Awards : Px\C, 1963 ; several in high school shows. 

Collections: Private: Biggers, Boshell, I. Brown, Jean Brown, Chamberlin, 

Collins, Koch, A. Kramer, K. McCormick, Orr, I. Peterson, Ryan, Schaefer, 

Shaeber, Wolaver. 

Address: 1400 East 34th St., Tulsa, Okla. 



140 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Painted Arrow (see Atencio, Tony) 

Painted Robe (see Mopope, Stephen) 

Pajoma, Peni Tesuque 

Paintings by the artist are said to be dated as early as 1920. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Paladin, Dave Navaho ( ? ) 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 
Palmenteer, Theodore Colville-Nez Perce 

Education: Institute, 1962-63. 
Work Published : YAIA catalog, including cover. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1963; YAIA. 
Address: Nespelem, Wash. 
Palmer, Dixon Kiowa 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1959. 
Address: Box 356, Anadarko, Okla. 
Palmer, Ignatius Mescalero Apache 

Exhibitions: 1957-62: MNM, PAC, SN. 
Awards: SN, 1962. 

Collections: Public: LMA/BC, MAI, MNM, UPA. Private: Denman. 
Palmer, Woodrow Wilson Miami-Peoria 

Katahke, Loon 

Born: December i, 1916, Miami, Okla. Son of Harvey T. Palmer (Spotted 
Loon), Miami chief, 1910-63, and Ada Moore, second chief of the Peoria 
tribe, 1930-51. P/GGF: Peshewa (or Richard ville), a nephew of Little 
Turtle, who defeated Gen. Washington, and Gen. St. Clair. P/GF: Chief 
T. F. Richardville, who named the town of Miami, Okla., and secured land 
from the Government for the purpose of founding Bacone College. M/GF: 
Senator James K. Moore, charter member of Oklahoma's Legislature, 1907. 
Married: Theresa Goggles, 1940; divorced, 1947. Married Virginia Shoe- 
maker, 1949. Two children: Harley Thomas, 1942; Eva Levina, 1944. 
Mr. Wilson is the inventor of "dualism," a modern painting style using Indian 
motifs. Its fundamental stages are a careful underpainting with wax and an 
overlay of the initial composition with a major theme. "The final step is the 
engraving or scoring of the overlay, causing a release of the 'inner light' and an 
orchestration of color over the entire work. For the most part the palette con- 
sists of the primary colors and black." 
Education: Seneca, 1931; Haskell, 1932-33. Graduated Sherman, 1934. 
Studied mural painting under Harold Ashodian, landscape painting under 
Elton Furlong, and anatomy under Karnig Nalbandian, in Providence, R.I. 
Service: WWH, Korean War, U.S. Navy. 
Career : Newspaper columnist and proofreader. 

Commissions: Murals: Club El Rio, Baby Grande Lounge, Celebrity Club, 
Jimmy's Place, home of Louis Monterio, all in Providence, R.I. 
Exhibitions: 1948-64: BNIAS, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN; Contemporary 
Artists of Rhode Island; Providence (R.I.) Art Club; Boston (Mass.) Arts 
Festival. 



ARTISTS 141 

Collections: Public. GM. Private: T. Baker, Brennan, Buck, Colby, Dal- 

gren, Hyam, Mellor, F. Miller, Rouse, Shoemaker, Yarborough. 

Address: 1231 Janes Lane, Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Panana, Gerald Jemez 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958-59. 

Awards: MNM, two. 
Panana, Sophie Jemez 

Born: 1945. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: PAC (student exhibit). 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Panana, Veronica Jemez 

Born: 1945. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC. 
Pan Yo Pin (see Vigil, Thomas) 

Pa Kelo Pueblo 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Paradis, Rena Navaho 

Born: 1945. 
The artist has received no formal art education other than a one-year high school 
art class. She particularly enjoys painting children in non-traditional Indian 
style because "they don't hide their feelings." (See The Navajo Times, January 
2, 1964, p. g.). 

Education: Graduated Roosevelt High School, Seattle, Wash., 1961. 

Career: Co-owner of Las Canastas Shop; painter and ceramist. 

Address: c/o Las Canastas Shop, Tucson, Ariz. 

Parks Delaware (?) 

Collections: Public: PU/M (pencil and crayon drawings of the Bear Feast, 

1930). 

Parsons, Neil Blackfoot 

Little Dog 

Born: March 2, 1938, Browning, Mont. Son of Henry T. Parsons and Flor- 
ence DeGuire (Blackfoot). M/GGGF: Charles "Rondine" Mercier, a keel- 
boat builder from France who came up the Missouri River to Old Fort 
Benton and married a Blackfoot woman. 

Married: Patricia Dell McCamish, February 16, 1963. Two children: 
Anthony Neil, 1963 ; Andrea Dell, 1964. 

Education: Browning Elementary and High School, Browning, Mont.; 
graduated high school, 1956; B.S. (Art), Montana State College, Bozeman, 
1961; M.A.A., Montana State University, Missoula, 1964. 
Service: U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard. 

Career: Graphic artist, Boeing Aircraft Co., Seattle, Wash.; painting in- 
structor, Institute of American Indian Arts, 1964-. 
Honors : Joseph Howard Kinsey Memorial Scholarship, 1963. 



142 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Commissions: Murals: MPI (thesis project). 

Work Published: MNM; USDI exhibition catalogs; Seattle Art Museum, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Exhibitions: ASPS, DAM/I, IPSE, MNM, SAIEAIP, SAM, SIAC, SN, 

UW/G; represented in three sales galleries. 

Awards: Inter-Mountain Printmakers Exhibition, Salt Lake City, Utah, 

Purchase Award, 1963. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, SLAC. Private: New. 

Address: 513 Salazar, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Patkotak, Paul Eskimo 

Patkotak, A Fan 

Born : November 24, 1892, Snowhouse, Utukok River, Alaska. 

Married : Wife deceased. Five children. 
Mr. Patkotak is a self-taught artist. In 1958, he said, "I do not draw any more. 
My eyes are getting dull." At one time in his career his work sold well at Point 
Barrow, Alaska. 

Career : Once served as marshal of his village. 

Honors : Served on village council. 

Exhibitions: PAC; Alaska Native Service Office, Juneau, Alaska: Wain- 

wright Day School, Wainwright, Alaska. 

Address: Wainwright, Alaska. 
Patterson, George W. Patrick {see Patterson, Pat) 
Patterson, Pat Apache-Seneca 

Kemoha, Lonesome Polecat 

(Also known as Patterson, George W. Patrick.) 

Born : December 29, 1914, Centralia, 111. 

Married: Patricia Cain, 1949. Three children: Bill, 1950; Patrick, 1951; 

SaUy, 1953. 
Patterson's father was a ' 'frustrated artist" who rebelled at long hours of practice 
and ran away to join a circus as a balloon] umper and wirewalker. Pat was born 
on the old Sells-Floto Circus circuit enroute to an Illinois engagement. Pat's 
father decided his son would be the artist he had not been and proceeded to 
expose him to every teacher available. 

Education: B.F.A., Oklahoma, 1940. 

Career: Director, Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Okla., 1938-. 

Commissions: Murals: St. John's Church, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Portraits : More than 500. 

Work Published: Ke Motta (1952). 

Address: 912 Osage, Bartlesville, Okla. 
Paukei, George Kiowa 

Pa^lkei, Gifts (or Donations) 

Born: 1918, Anadarko, Okla. 

Education : Mountain View Public School, Mountain View, Okla. 

Career: Electrician. 

Exhibitions: AIE, PAC. 

Awards: AIE. 

Collections: Public: ACM. 



ARTISTS 143 

Paytiamo, James P. A coma 

Flaming Arrow 
"The author-illustrator has recorded many of the Pueblo folk tales for Columbia 
University, later published in the American Folk Lore Journal. He is a well- 
known entertainer who has traveled with his own Pueblo company under the 
Swarthmore Chautauqua." Indians of Today (1947). 

Education: Haskell. 

Career : Instructor, School of Indian Wisdom (founded by Ernest Thompson 

Seton) ; author and illustrator. 

Honors : Represented in Indians of Today. 

Work Published: Paytiamo (1932). 

Paz, Carol Me scaler Apache 

Born: 1948, Mescalero, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC; SAIEAIP, 1965. 

Address: Bent, N.M. 
Pecos, Jose D. Cochiti 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 
Peina, Dan Zuni 

Exhibitions: FWG. 
Pena, Christino San Ildefonso 

Soqiieen 

Born: November 24, ca. 1942, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. Son of Jose 

Encarnacion Pena {q.v.). 

Education: Pojoaque (N.M.) School, ca. 1957; Arizona, "Southwest Indian 

Art Project," summers, 1960-61 (textile major). 

Collections: Private: R. Moore. 

Address: Route i. Box 318 A, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Pena, Jose Encarnacion San Ildefonso 

Soukwawe, Frost On The Mountain 

(Also known as Soqueen; Soqween.) 

Born: March 25, 1902, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Mr. Pena is known to have signed his paintings in the following manner : Soqueen 
and Soqween. He was painting in the early 1920's and still paints occasionally. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932). 

Exhibitions: AIM, DAM, JGS, MNM, PAC. 

Awards: AIM, 1964; MNM, "Best example of original use of traditional 

material," 1957. 

Collections: Public. CGFA, DAM (41 works), MAI, MNM. 

Address: Route i. Box 318 A, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Pena, Tonita San Ildefonso 

Quah Ah, White Coral Beads 

Born: June 13, 1895, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. Died September, 1949. 
Daughter of Ascencion Vigil and Natividad Pefia. Reared by her aunt, 
Martina Vigil. Niece of Florention Montoya. 



144 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Married: Juan Rosario Chavez, 1909; died ca. 1911. Married Phelipe 
Herrera, and later, Epitacio Aquerro, farmer, who served as governor of 
Cochiti. Six children: Cecilia, Margaret, Sam, Victoria, Richard, and Joe 
Hilario Herrera (q.v.). 
Tonita began painting when she was seven years old. Surrounded by artistic 
relatives, such as Martina Vigil the potter, it is not surprising that by the age of 
21, she was selling and exhibiting widely. She was the only woman painter in her 
generation and was one of the original group who participated in the contem- 
porary watercolor movement. Oscar B. Jacobson referred to her as the "grand 
old lady of Pueblo art." Tonita often said that she preferred to paint children 
and animals. In 1934, Oren Arnold stated in the Los Angeles Times, "The can- 
vases of Miss Pena and her associates [Awa Tsireh, Fred Kabotie, and Oqwa Pi 
qq.v.] depict figures which are not unlike the figures of Greek vase painters." 
Education: San Ildefonso; St. Catherine's. 

Career : Painter and housewife ; art instructor, Santa Fe Indian School and 
Albuquerque Indian School. 

Honors: One of the artists who made copies of the Pajarito murals pre- 
paratory to the restoration work. 

Commissions: Murals: James W. Young's Rancho La Caiiada, ca. 1933; 
Society of Independent Artists, 1933; Chicago World's Fair; Santa Fe 
Indian School. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), La Farge (i960). Introduc- 
tion to American Indian Art (1931), The American Magazine of Art (August 
1932), Theatre Arts Monthly (August 1933), School Arts Magazine (Septem- 
ber 1933), St. Louis Post-Dispatch (October i, 1933), Los Angeles Times, 
Sunday Magazine (February 11, 1934), Cincinnati Art Museum Bulletin 
(January 1938). 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIM, AIW, EITA, HM, ITIC, MNM, NGA, NMSF, 
OU/ET, PAC. 

Collections: Public. AMNH, CAM, CAMSL, CGA, CGFA, CIS, CU/LMA, 
DAM, DCC, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MRFM, OU/MA, PAC, 
PU/M, SM; La Fonda Hotel, Santa Fe, N.M. Private: Adlerblum, Dietrich, 
Dockstader, Elkus, A. Forbes, Hogue, H. Hoover, Lockett, D. Maxwell, 
Rockefeller, Thoeny, Woffard, Wyman. 

Penrod, Michael Apache 

Education: Attended Arizona S. C./T. ; scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest 
Indian Art Project," summer, 1962; scholarship to Rochester, 1962-64. 
Address : Fort Apache, Ariz. 

Pentewa, Dick R. Hopi 

Sitsgoma, Pumpkin Flower 
(Also known as Pentewa, Richard S.) 

Born: April 12, 1927, New Oraibi, Ariz. Son of a Kachina carver. 
Education: Hopi. 

Exhibitions: ASF, ITIC, MNA, PAC. 
Awards: ASF, MNA. 

Collections: Public: GM. Private: Dockstader, D. Maxwell. 
Address: (Richard S.), Box 145, Oraibi, Ariz. 



ARTISTS 145 

Pentewa, Richard S. (see Pentewa, Dick R.) 

Pen Yo Pin {see Vigil, Thomas) 

People From The Green Valley {see Sakyesva, Harry) 

Pepion, Dan Blackfoot 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: YAIA. 

Pepion, Victor " . Blackfoot 

Double Shields 

Born: March 10, 1907, Birch Creek, Mont., on the Blackfoot Reservation. 
Died March 4, 1956, at Cut Bank, Mont. Son of John Pepion, pioneer resi- 
dent of Birch Creek. Nephew of Lone Wolf, descendant of the last hereditary 
chief of the Blackfoot. 
Married : Lucy Goes In Center. 

Pepion painted a style which bordered on the primitive. His untimely death by 

accident cut short a colorful career. 
Education: Elementary schools at Birch Creek and Browning, Mont.; 
Army Art School, Shrivenham, England, 1945; Oklahoma, 1945; New 
Mexico U., 1946-47; art school in Los Angeles, Calif., one semester; private 
instruction under Winold Reiss, two years. B.A. and M.A. degrees; M.A. 
thesis : mural at Highland University, Las Vegas, Nev. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Air Corps, four years; European Theater (participated 
in the invasion of France). 

Career: Art instructor, Chilocco Indian School, 1951; art instructor, 
Phoenix Indian School. 

Commissions: Murals: MPI; Oglala Boarding School; Pine Ridge Indian 
Agency, Pine Ridge, S. Dak.; Fort Sill Indian School. Diorama: MPI. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 
Exhibitions: MPI, PAC, PAC/T. 
Awards: PAC. 
Collections: Public: MPI, OU/MA, PAC. 

Perry, Angela Lee Choctaw-Osage 

Exhibitions: PAC, SN. 
Awards: SN (student division), 1962. 
Collections: Private: Waterhouse. 
Address: 613 Canyon Road, Apt. 4, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Peshlakai, Fred Navaho 

Collections: Private: Dockstader. 
Pesva, Coma {see Lomayesva, Louis) 

Pete, Andy Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. 

Pete Shoshoni 

The chief's personal exploits are recorded in BAE, 4th AR. He is known to have 
visited Washington, D.C., in 1880. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 



146 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Pete Three Legs Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI (colored pencil drawing, "Sioux Grass Dance, 

1889, Fort Bennett, S. Dak/'). 
Peters, Johnston Pima 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Pezi (see Grass, John) 
Phillips, Dwight E. Choctaw 

Career: Commercial art instructor, Oklahoma State University, School of 

Technology, 1951. 

Exhibitions: 1949-51: DAM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: PAC. 
Phillips, Oliver Sioux 

Collections: Public: PAC. 
Pilli, Donna Navaho 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA. 
Pin, Pagna Tesuque 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM. 
Pinayo Pin (see Vigil, Thomas) 
Pincion, Peter Ztmi 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Pine Tree Bird (see Montoya, Alfredo) 
Pino, Barbara San Ildefonso 

Born: 1947, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: MNM; PAC; SAIEAIP, 1965. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Pino, Juan Isidro Tesuque 

(Also known as Pino, Juan Ysidro.) 
The artist died ca. 1953. In 1950, he was employed at Los Alamos, N.M., by 
which time he was no longer working in art. He was an accomplished, self- 
taught artist in the medium of woodblock prints. 

Exhibitions: DAM. 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA, DAM, MNM. 
Pino, Kathy ? 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965. 

Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Piiio, Lorenzo Tesuque 

Education: Albuquerque, 1960-61. 

Exhibitions: MNM. 

Awards: MNM, i960. 
Pinto, Dennis Paul Navaho 

Education: Santa Fe, 1959; Albuquerque, 1950-63. 

Exhibitions: 1959-63: ITIC (student division); MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1959. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS 147 

Pinto, Emily Zuni 

Collections: PMic: MAI. 
Platero, Lorenzo Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Platero, Raymond Navaho 

Education: Santa Fe, i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 

Awards: MNM, i960. 
Platero, Tom Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1958-59. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958-59. 
Plenty Chief, Walter, Sr. Ankara 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Collections: Private: M. Peterson. 

Address: New Town, N. Dak. 

Plenty Coups (Chief) Nez Perce 

The artist was captured by the Crow Indians when a baby. He grew to manhood 
with the Crows and became wealthy. For him, painting was a practical tool — 
he owned a grocery store but, because he could not compute effectively, he kept 
books by drawing the names of buyers and purchases made. See Jacobson and 
D'Ucel (1950). 

Plenty Scalps {see Iron Tail) 
Pocano {see Martinez, Julian) 

PolanYi Katon Kiowa- Apache 

Polan Yi Katon, Rabbit Shoulder 

The artist is known to have executed and maintained a calendar which was said 

to have been buried with him. 

Polelonema, Otis Hopi 

Lomadamocvia, Springtime; Polelonema, Making Ball. 
Born: February 2, 1902, Shungopovi, Ariz. Son of Tawamenewa (Hopi) 
and Quiuysio (Hopi). 

Married: Jessie Salaftoche, 1925. Six children: Walter, 1932; Lawrence, 
1934; Benjamin, 1937; Julia, 1939; Erma, 1941; Tyler {q.v.), 1944. 
The artist believes his experience at Santa Fe Indian School and his contact 
with Mrs. Willis DeHuff have encouraged him most in the art field. He has 
painted since 191 7 and was active for a time in the WPA Art Project. 
Education: Santa Fe, 1914-20; Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). The American Magazine of 
Art (August 1932), Magazine Tulsa (May 1948). 

Exhibitions: ACC, ASF, DAM, DMFA, EITA, ITIC, JGS, MNM, OU/ET, 
PAC, PAC/T, SAIEAIP, SFWF, SI, SN. 
Awards: AIM, DAM, ITIC, MNA, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Puhlic: AF, CGFA, DAM, GM, lACB, MAI, MKMcNAI, 
MNA/KHC, MNM, OU/MA, PAC, SM, SMNAI. Private: H. Adams, Den- 
man, Dockstader, Elkus, C. Fenton, O. Jacobson, Lockett, Thoeny, Waters. 
Address : Box 758, Second Mesa, Ariz. 



148 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Polelonema, Tyler Hopi 

Duvayestewa, Praying For All 

Born: January 24, 1940, Second Mesa, Ariz. Son of Otis Polelonema (q.v.) 

(Hopi) and Jessie Salaftoche (Hopi). 

Married: April 19, 1965. One child: Jeffery, 1965. 

Education: Second Mesa; Oraibi High School; graduated from Stewart. 

Career: Kitchen helper, Fred Harvey Co., May, 1965. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, 1965; Reno, Nev., 1962. 

Awards: Three, Reno, Nev.; received Awards Day pin, Stewart Indian 

School. 

Collections: Public: Hopi Arts and Crafts Guild Shop, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Address: Box 758, Second Mesa, Ariz. 
Poleyestewa, E. D. Hopi 

Collections: Public: AF. 

Pollock, William Pawnee 

Tayloowayahwho 
Born : 1870. Died March 1899, Pawnee, Okla. 

Pollock was given his non-Indian name at the Agency school. At Haskell Insti- 
tute, he was an outstanding student, played in the band, and painted pictures 
on the wagons used by the Indians. At the age of 22, he received a Government 
land allotment, and, about six years later, just before his death by pneumonia, 
he signed a contract to join Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. 

Education: Pawnee (Okla.) Agency School, Haskell. 

Service: Spanish- American War, First Volunteer Cavalry. See Roosevelt 

(1899). 

Career: For a short time he was employed at the Pawnee Agency Office, 

Pawnee, Okla. 

Honors : Pawnee Post, Veterans of Foreign Wars, was named for him. 

Exhibitions: SI. 

Poodry, C. Earl Smtk-Fox and Seneca 

Qitenipea, Fish In Water 
Born: 1915, Akron, N.Y. GF: Last chief of the Senecas. 

Mr. Poodry lived in eastern Oklahoma during his childhood. He is known for 

his paintings and his woodcarvings and cartoons. 
Education: Elementary schools in Cushing and Muskogee, Okla.; Haskell; 
Bacone College. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 
Collections: Public: OU, PAC. 

Poolheco, Sidney Hopi 

Education: Hopi. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1959. 

Pop Chalee Taos 

Pop Chalee, Blue Flower 

(Also known as Lujan, Merina, and Hopkins, Merina Lujan.) 
Born: 1908, Castle Gate, Utah. Daughter of Joseph Lujan (Taos) and an 
East Indian woman. 



ARTISTS 149 

Married: Otis Hopkins. Edward Lee {see Natay, Ed). Two children: Jack, 

Betty Jean. 
The artist long ago developed a unique style of painting which combines 
Oriental and Amerindian motifs. She has traveled extensively, exhibiting and 
selling her work. In November, 1936, School Arts Magazine published one of her 
many articles. 

Education : Graduated Santa Fe ; two years training to be an art instructor. 

Career: Active in radio work in the 1950's. 

Commissions: Murals: Nine in Albuquerque Airport Terminal Building, 

Albuquerque, N.M. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Tanner (1957). Arizona 

Highways (February 1950). 

Exhibitions: 1937-58: AIEC, AIW, FWG, HM, ITIC, MNM, NGA, 

SAIEAIP, SM; Elliott O'Hara School, Biddeford, Me.; Russell Sage 

Foundation, Gallery of Living Artists, New York, N.Y. 

Awards: ITIC Grand Award, 1938. 

Collections: Public: GM, MNA/KHC, MNM, SU. Private: Bennett, Den- 
man, Dietrich, Lockett, MuUan, Thoeny, Woffard, Wyman. 

Address : 424 Fifth Street, Manhattan Beach, CaUf . 
Pop Wea Taos 

(Also known as Tanner, Lo Ree.) 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1963. 

Collections: Private: Thoeny. 

Address : Box 36, Newberry, Calif. 
Po Qui (see Tafoya, Teofilo) 
Poquin Tahn {see Trujillo, Ascension) 

Porter, Bob Pima 

Born: 1938. 

Education: Scholarship to Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," i960. 

Address: Phoenix, Ariz. 

Poseyesva, Raymond Hopi 

The artist is well-known for his paintings of Kachinas. Originally from Shungo- 
povi, Ariz., he lived in Winslow, Ariz, at one time. 
Collections: Public: AF, MAI, MNM, SM. Private: Denman, Dockstader. 

Po Tsunu {see Montoya, Geronima Cruz) 

PoYeGi ? 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Prairie Flower {see Darling, Marcell J.) 

Preston, Bert Hopi 

Tenakhongva, Standing Rainbow 

Born : December 6, 1930, Hotevilla, Ariz. Son of Lloyd Tenakhongva (Hopi), 
from Old Oraibi, Ariz. 
Married : A Navaho woman. 
Education : Bacone College. 
Career: Schoolteacher. 



150 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: PAC, PAC/T, SN; Muskogee, Okla. 
Awards: 1948-53: Six from PAC; Muskogee State Fair. 
Collections: Public: KM, PAC. Private: C. Wilson. 
Preston, Daniel Papago 

Collections: P^iblic: SM. 

Pretty Hawk (Chief) Yanktonai Sioux 

Pretty Hawk's work at the Peabody Museum, executed about 1864, had been 
used at one time as an inner hanging in a lodge. 

Work Published: Alexander (1938). 

Collections: Public: HU/PM. 
Pringle, Wilma Jane Reed Choctaw-Chickasaw 

Born: 1928, Wilberton, Okla. Daughter of George W. Reed (Choctaw- 
Chickasaw) and Ida Blalack (Choctaw). 

Married : John David Pringle, 1964. 

Education: Eufaula (Okla.) Boarding School, 1945; Haskell; St. Joseph's 

Academy, Dallas, Tex., 1948; Los Angeles (Calif.) City College; Sculpture 

under Jon Raymond, Topanga, Calif., 1966. 

Career: Kelly Girl Service, and Aames Temporary Agency, Los Angeles, 

Cahf. 

Exhibitions: 1962-65: FAIEAIP, FANAIAE, ITIC, MCA, MNM, PAC, 

SAIEAIP, WAA. One-man shows: Dallas Osteopathic Hospital, ca. 1962. 

Awards: 1963-65: PAC; SN (poetry). 

Address: 20316 Pacific Coast Highway, Malibu, Calif. 
Pucunubbi (see Collins, Martha Adele) 
Puerto, Leonard Apache 

Exhibitions: MNM (student division), 1961. 

Address: Dulce, N.M. 
Pulling Roots [see Houser, Allan) 
Pumpkin Flower {see Pentewa, Dick R.) 
Push, Charlie (see Pushetonequa, Charles) 

Pushetonequa, Charles Sauk-Fox 

Pushetonequa] Wawabano Sata, Dawn Walker; Mesquakie, Red Earth 

People. 

(Also known as Push, Charlie.) 

Born: 1915, Tama, Iowa. 

Married: Name unknown. Four children. 
The artist lives on the Tama Indian Settlement. His paintings depict the life 
and environment of the Sauk-Fox tribe and have been reproduced and widely- 
distributed by the Tama Indian Crafts organization. 

Education: Pipestone, Minn.; Haskell; Santa Fe. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force, three and one-half years; Pacific Theater. 

Exhibitions: 1946-59: PAC; Hawaiian Islands (during WWH); special 

PAC show at the Association on American Indian Affairs, Inc., New York, 

N.Y., 1963. 

Collections: Public: DAM, HSMC, PAC. Private: Rowland. 



ARTISTS 151 

Pu Yo Pin {see Vigil, Thomas) 

Qotskuyva, R. Hopi 

Collections: Public: AF; CU/LMA (signed Quatskuyva); MAI (signed 

Robert) ; SEMNAI (signed Ootskuy va) . Private : Denman (signed Ralph) ; 

Dockstader (signed Qotskuyva). 
Quah Ah {see Pena, Tonita) 
Quamahongnewa, Redford Hopi 

Collections: Pttblic: MAI. 
Quameomah {see Harvier, Michael) 
Quandelacy, Wilmer Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Zuni, N.M. 
Quannie, Emerson T. Hopi 

Collections: Public: MKMcNAI. Private: Denman. 
Quannie, Lorenzo H. Hopi 

Born : Date unknown ; possibly from Oraibi, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNA/KHC (signed Quannie), MNM (signed 

Quannie, 1934, Oraibi), SM (signed Quannig). 
Quannig {see Quannie, Lorenzo H.) 
Quatskuyva, R. {see Qotskuyva, R.) 
Quenipea {see Poodry, C. Earl) 
Qued {see Archuleta, Betty Keener) 
Qued Koi {see Mopope, Stephen) 
Quetone {see Quoetone, Jimmy) 
Quetoque, Jefferson Zuni 

Exhibitions: A "Quetoque" exhibited at NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Quetoque, Leo Ztmi 

Exhibitions: A "Quetoque" exhibited at NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Queyesva {see Honewytewa, Louis Calvin, Jr.) 
Quick Thunder Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Quin Cha Ke Cha Ute 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Quintana, Ben Cochiti 

Ha A Tee 

Born: Ca. 1923, Cochiti Pueblo, N.M. Died November 9, 1944, in combat, 

WWII. 

Education: Santa Fe; Cochiti. Received art instruction under Tonita Pena 

and Geronima Montoya {qq.v.). 

Service: WWII; Pacific Theater. 

Honors : Won National Youth Forum art contest while a student at Santa 

Fe Indian School; awarded Silver Star posthumously for heroism under fire. 



152 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Arizona Highways (August 

1952). American Scene, GM (Vol. VI, No. 3). 

Commissions: Murals: Cochiti Day School; Santa Fe Indian School. 

Exhibitions: AIW, FWG, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards: At 15, won first prize over 80 contestants with a poster for the 

Coronado Quadricentennial Celebration; at 17, in competition with 50,000 

entries, won $1000 prize in a poster contest sponsored by American Magazine. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNA/KHC, OU/MA, PAC, UPA. Private: 

Denman, Dietrich, Elkus, Hogue, O. Jacobson, D. Kramer. 
Quintana, Joe A. Cochiti 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC. Private: Wyman. 
Quintana, Johnnie Cochiti 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Quintana, Marcelino Cochiti 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Quintana, Trinidad Cochiti 

Born: ca. 1916. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Qui Tone {see Quoetone, Jimmy) 
Quiver, Dan Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Quiver, Robert A. Sioux 

Wagacho, Cottonwood Tree 

Born: February 18, 1936, Hisle, S. Dak. 

Education: Oglala Community High School, Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, 18 months. 

Exhibitions: In S. Dakota. 

Address: Wanblee, S. Dak., and Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 
Quiyavema (see Sunrise, Riley) 
Quoetone, Jimmy Kiowa 

(Also known as Qui Tone ; Quetone.) 

Born: Date unknown. Died ca. 1955, Okla. GF: Anzahte (Kicking Bird), 

Kiowa participant in the Cut Throat Massacre. Brother of Tah Bone Mah 

(Iseeo), a member of the U.S. Cavalry and Kiowa scout at Fort Sill, Okla.; 

also interpreter for James Mooney in the 1890's. Grandfather of Jimmy 

Quoetone (Kiowa) of Anadarko, Okla. 
Quoetone took the Haw vahte calendar from the hitter's grave before it was 
covered and kept it up-to-date with the aid of Charles Emery Rowell {q.v.), a 
relative. 

Quoyavema (see Sunrise, Riley) 

Qussay Yah Comanche 

Collections: Public: FSM (colored crayon on paper, ca. 1930). 
Rabbit Shoulder (see Polan Yi Katon) 



ARTISTS 153 

Racine, Albert Batiste Blackfoot 

Apowmuckcon, Running Weasel 

Born: April 19, 1907, Browning, Mont. 

Married: Inez Neet, ca. 1957. Three children: Albert T., 1931; Adrian W., 

1933; Frank W., 1947. 
The artist began painting in 1926, but in 1936 he turned to sculpture. During 
WWII he did no art work. In 1956 he began sculpting again and has not devoted 
much time since to painting. He has carved gavels for Presidents John F. Ken- 
nedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, and for Senator Robert Kennedy and Governor 
Edmund G. Brown, 

Education: Graduated Browning (Mont.) Public High School, 1928; 

Haskell, 1921-22. Studied under Winold Reiss, Edward Everett Hale, Jr., 

Adrian Voision, Carl Hutig, Sr., and John L. Clark. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 1942-45. 

Career : Commercial sign painter and woodcarver. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS; PAM (Northwest Invitational Exhibition); Fair- 
mont Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. ; Glacier National Park Hotel, Mont. ; 

Great Falls and Helena, Mont. 

Collections: Public: MPI; Methodist Mission, Browning, Mont. Private: 

Art Anderson, Chambers, Duncan, Guthrie, Lang, McCord, Thurton. 

Address: Box 502, Browning, Mont. 

Rafael, Donald Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1962-63. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1963. 

Rain God [see Roybal, Jose D.) 

Rain God Town [see Sanchez, Ramos) 

Rain In The Face Hunkpapa Sioux 

Iromagaja 

Born: Ca. 1825, ''near the forks of the Cheyenne River." Died September 14, 
1904, at Standing Rock Agency, N. Dak. 

Rain In The Face was in the Custer Battle of 1876. Work by the artist in the 

MAI is dated Standing Rock, Dakota Territory, 1885. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI. 
Rainbow Around The Sun [see Lomakema, Marshall) 

Randall, Bunnie Creek 

Wiyo 

Born: 1923. Deceased. 

Education: Oklahoma S. U./S. T. (commercial art major). 

Career : Instructor, Graphic Office, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City. 

Commissions: Murals: Tinker Air Force Base, with Albin Roy Jake (q.v.) and 

LeRoy McAlHster. 

Exhibitions: 1958-61: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: PAC, 1958. 

Rani, Bist Ztmi 

Collections: Public: PU/M. 



154 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Rave, Austin Sioux 

Born: 1946, Lantry, S. Dak. 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 

Work Published: Smoke Signals, lACB (Autumn 1965). 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP, YAIA. 
Raw Hide Rattle {see Washakie) 
Red Bird (see Hill, Joan) 

Red Bird (Chief) Cheyenne 

Collections: Public. SPIM (a skin painting reputed to depict the war ex- 
ploits of Chief Red Bird, which apparently was primarily painted by him, 
although several other hands may have been involved in the work; it is 
dated somewhere between 1865 and 1880). 

Red Bird, Robert Southern Plains 

Born : Date unknown ; reportedly "in his twenties" in 1965 ; reared in Gotebo, 
Okla. 

Married : Name not known. Two children. 
Career: Mechanic. 

Collections: Public: Carnegie High School, Okla. Private: R. Moore. 
Address : Dallas, Tex. 

Red Buffalo (see Romero, Frankie) 

Red Bull, Elmer Sioux 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Address: Box 577, Eagle Butte, S. Dak. 
Red Cloud (see Oqwa Pi) 
Red Cloud (see Silva, Marcus) 

Red Cloud (Chief) Cheyenne 

Born: Winter of 1821-22, between the Dakota Black Hills and the Missouri 
River. 
Paintings on an MAI buffalo robe, dated 1871, represent a fight with the Shoshoni. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Red Corn Osage 

Hadaoutse 

(Also known as Bill Nix and Mathews, William P.) 

Born: Date unknown. In childhood. Red Corn was adopted by William P. 

Mathews. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 
Red Corn, Raymond Wesley Osage 

Mahse Nompah, Straight Reed 

Born: August 22, 1911, Pawhuska, Okla. Son of Raymond Red Corn 

(Osage) and Bertha Hudson (Cherokee). Nephew: Jim Lacy Redcorn (q.v.). 

P/GF: Wahinglainkah (Red Corn). 

Married: Waltema C. Myers, 1932. Two children: Wakon, 1934; R. W., 

1955- 
Tlic artist specializes in portraits and has done many through tlie years as gifts. 



ARTISTS 155 

Education: Pawhuska (Okla.) High School, eleventh grade; Chillicothe 

(Mo.) Business College, 1934. 

Career : General contractor ; Baptist Minister, 1950-. 

Honors : First Osage to be ordained to the Ministry. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1948; county fairs; Osage Museum, Pawhuska, Okla. 

Collections : Public : Osage Indian Agency, Pawhuska. 

Address: Box 206, Pawhuska, Okla. 
Red Crane Blackfoot 

Work Published: Grinnell (1896). 

Collections: Public: MAI (illustrations of the artist's coups; on the 

lining of a hide lodge, collected by George B. Grinnell, 1889). 
Red Dog Sioux 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (record of the artist's exploits drawn in 

a sketch book). 
Red Earth People [see Pushetonequa, Charles) 
Red Elk, Herman Yanktonai Sioux 

Hehaka Wambdi, Eagle Elk 

Born: March 27, 1918, Fort Peck Reservation, Poplar, Mont. Son of Herman 

Red Elk, Sr. (Yanktonai), and Maggie Iron Cloud (Yanktonai). P/GF: 

Joseph Red Elk (Hehaka Duta), participant in the Battle of the Little Big 

Horn. 

Married: Alberta F. Kennedy (Sioux) ; divorced. Four children: Loretta, E. 

1948; Valerie F., 1950; Eugene L., 1953; Herman A., 1954. Married Loretta 

Mae Cox (Assiniboin- Sioux) ; divorced. Two children: Marlon J., 1957; 

Kim L., 1958. 

Education: Attended Poplar (Mont.) Public School, Chemawa (Oreg.) 

Indian School. 

Career: General construction worker. Fort Peck Dam, Glasgow Air Base, 

Mont., Garrison Dam. 

Work Published: Smoke Signals, lACB (Summer 1965). 

Exhibitions: PAC, SAIEAIP, SN; Black Hills Exposition, Rapid City, 

S. Dak., 1965. 

Awards : 1965 : Eight from Black Hills Exposition. 

Collections: Public: lACB. 

Address: Box 571, Rapid City, S. Dak. 
Red Feather (see Colbert, Frank Overton) 
Red Fish (Chief) Oglala Sioux 

Hogan Luta, Red Fish 

Born: Date unknown; Fort Laramie. Prominent ca. 1840, but lost prestige 

following a defeat at the hands of the Crows in 1841. Lived at Cannon Ball, 

North Dakota, and was an old man in 1880, at Standing Rock Agency. 

Met with Father De Smet at Fort Pierre in 1841. 

Collections: Public: MAI (winter count), SHSND. 
Red Hail Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 



156 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Red Hawk Sioux 

Cetan Luta 

Work Published: Sioux Indian Drawings, Milwaukee Public Museum 

(1961). 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 

Red Horn Bull Buffalo Oglala Sioux 

Tantaha Heluta 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. {see Black Heart). 
Wounded in the Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876. 
Collections: P^tblic: MAI (bull buffalo with red horn). 

Red Horn Elk Oglala Sioux 

Kerakahi-to 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. (see Black Heart). 
Collections: Public: MAI (green elk with red antlers). 

Red Horse (Chief) Miniconjou Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; he was on the Yellowstone, below the mouth of the 
Little Big Horn River, Wyo., 1865, on the Tongue River, Mont., 1876, and 
went to Cheyenne River Agency, S. Dak. He surrendered his camp in 1877. 
See Hyde (1961). 

Honors: Member, Miniconjou Tribal Council; chosen to act as a buffalo 
scout from Cheyenne River Agency, ca. 1882. 
Work Published: BAE, loth AR. 

Collections: Public: GM; OAA/SI (series of sign language accounts and 
drawings of the Battle of Little Big Horn). 

Red Living Bear Sioux 

Mato Myaluta 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 

Red Moon [see Sandy, Percy Tsisete) 

Red Robin (?) 

Born: ca. 1918. Deceased. 
The artist is known to have resided in Taos and Santa Fe, N.M., Denver, Colo., 
and New York City, his last known residence and where he was engaged as a 
textile designer. Although claiming relationship with many tribes, his actual 
tribal origin is unknown. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1951. 

Awards: PAC, 1951. 

Collections: Public: CHS/FG, DAM, GM, MNM, Private: Thoeny. 

Red Star, Kevin Crow 

Born: 1943, Montana. 
Education: Institute, ca. 1965. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, MNM, YAIA. 
Awards: MNM, special award, 1965. 
Collections: Public: lACB. Prwate: Eders, McGrath. 



ARTISTS 157 

Redcorn, Jim Lacy Osage 

Walanke, No Sense 
(Also known as Redcorn, James.) 

Born: May 9, 1938, Pawhuska, Okla. Nephew of Raymond Red Corn (q.v.). 
Married: Joby Henry, 1961. One child: Frank, 1962. 
Education: Pawhuska Public Schools; Oklahoma, 1958-61; Arizona, 
"Southwest Indian Art Project," summers, 1961-62; Northeastern, 1963; 
graduated Oklahoma, 1965. 

Career: Arizona schoolteacher, 1965-1968; University of Oklahoma, 1968-. 
Honors : Scholarships to attend the University of Oklahoma, the University 
of Arizona, and Northeastern State College ; International Award for Design, 
from the Association of Interior Decorators and Designers, 1962. 
Commissions: Dust Jacket: Willoya and Brown (1962). 
Exhibitions: 1961-65: ITIC, PAC, SN; State University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, Iowa; University of Oklahoma; University of Arizona; Pacific Art 
Conference, 1961, Seattle, Wash.; Association of Interior Decorators and 
Designers, 1962, Chicago, 111. One-man shows: The Fort, Denver, Colo. 
Three-man shows : PAC. 
Awards: ITIC, PAC. 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM, HM, OU/L. Private: Kallon. 
Address: 215 S. Webster, Norman, Okla., 73069. 

Riddles, Leonard Comanche 

Black Moon 

Born : June 28, 1910, Walters, Okla. Son of a White man and a Comanche 
woman. M/GGF: Pahkuuh (Dried Robe), Comanche medicine man. His 
foster mother was Mrs. W. A. Williams. 

Married: Eva Mae Poitillo (Comanche) 1947. Three children: Carrie Joy, 
1948; Sharon Lynn, 1949; Darney Gayle, 1955. 
Mr. Riddles states his major desire is to depict the Comanche people authentical- 
ly and extensively. "My own set requirement is that my paintings meet the 
approval of my elder relatives and friends." 
Education: Elementary schools in Indiahoma and Cache, Okla.; South 
Rose Valley High School, Okla. ; graduated Fort Sill, 1941 ; mural instruc- 
tion under Olaf Nordmark, Fort Sill. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 34 months; Alaskan and European Theaters. 
Career: Rancher, carpenter, and artist; active in farm programs and 
Indian affairs. 

Honors: High School Valedictorian; Comanche Council historian; Co- 
manche representative to Kiowa-Comanche- Apache Business Committee. 
Commissions: Murals: Fort Sill Indian School; Anadarko Indian School. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Museum News (June 1962), 
The Sunday Oklahoman, Orbit Magazine (March 31, 1963). 
Exhibitions: AAIE, AIE, AIW, FAIEAIP, FANAIAE, ITIC, PAC, SN, 
SPIM, USDS; Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Conn.; Lawton Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Okla. 
Awards: AIE (Grand Award, 1964); BNIAS; ITIC; PAC; vSN. 



158 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, OU, PAC, SPIM. Private: Cone, Ekberg, 

Fitchoway, Frovis, Harmon, F. Harris, Libhart, R. Moore, Morrow, Rey- 
nolds, B. Terry, Walch, H. Walkingstick, ^Washburn, Wermy, Wilkins. 

Address: Rural Route i, Walters, Okla. " 
Riding Inn, M, Pawnee 

(Also known as Inn, M. Riding, and Supernaw, Marlene Mary.) 

Born: March 5, 1933, Council Valley, Okla. 

Married: Charles A. Supernaw, 1952. 
The artist began painting ca. 1949 and credits Dick West {q.v.) as having most 
encouraged her. 

Education: Bacone College; graduated Chilocco, 1949. 

Career: Editor, Talking Leaves (Indian magazine published in Skiatook, 

Okla.) ; housewife and artist. 

Exhibitions: AIE, BNIAS, ITIC, MNM, MNM/T, PAC, PAC/T, SI. 

Awards: AIE (Grand Award, 1963); MNM; PAC. 

Collections: Public: PAC. Private: C. Harris, Jefferson. 

Address: 117 West Fourth Street, Skiatook, Okla. 
Ridourt, Lucile San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Riley, Victor Laguna 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 

Awards: MNM. 
Ringo, Good ? 

Collections: Public: MRFM. 
Ripley, David J. Arikara-Blackfoot 

Born: September 12, 1947, Emmet, N. Dak. 

Education: Emmet (N. Dak.) High School, ca. 1963. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS; North Dakota State Fair, Minot, N. Dak. 

Collections: Private: BuUard, Hodges, Nykolayow. 

Address: c/o Jackson Ripley, Emmet, N. Dak. 
Road Runner (see Naranjo, Adolph) 
Roan Navaho 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1957. 

Address : c/o Pine Springs Trading Post, Houck, Ariz. 
Roanhorse, Ralph (?) Navaho 

The Priests at St. Michaels Indian Mission taught the artist to read, write, and 
speak English. It was at Albuquerque Indian School that he had his first op- 
portunity to draw and paint. See Roanhorse, (193 1). 

Education: Albuquerque; Otis ca. 1928-31. 

Service: WWI. 

Career: In his youth, he was a mail-carrier (on horseback) on the reserva- 
tion; after WWI, he returned to the reservation and wrangled horses, 

punched cattle, built hogans, painted, and sold pictures to tourists. While 

attending Otis Art Institute, he was a carpenter's helper and painted signs 

and trucks. 

Exhibitions: FWG. 



ARTISTS 159 

Roaring Thunder (see Warrior, Antowine) 

Roberts, F. (see Roberts, Frank) 

Roberts, Frank Mohawk 

Young Deer 

Born: Date unknown. Originally from Caughnawaga, Quebec, Canada, 
he lived at one time in Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Stiles. 

Robinson, John Haida 

Bear 

Born : Possibly in British Columbia, Canada. 

Collections: Public: MAI (pencil drawings of Haida designs, "Skidegate, 
1892"). 

Robinson, Rose Hopi 

Exhibitions: USDS, 1963. 

Robson Haida 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Rocky Mountain (see Vigil, Tim) 

Rogers, Will Paul Cherokee 

Born: December 28, 1927, Fort Gibson, Okla. Son of Charlotte Rogers 
(Cherokee) . 
Acee Blue Eagle {q.v.) once said, "Rogers is a young genius who has the right to 
call himself an artist." He paints infrequently. 

Education : Bacone College. 

Exhibitions: 1946-50: PAC; Northeastern State College; Oklahoma State 

University at Stillwater; Oklahoma State Fair, Muskogee, Okla. 

Awards: PAC, 1947. 

Collections: Public: FCTM, GM, PAC. Private: M. Moore, B. Smith. 

Address: Fort Gibson, Okla. 

Roman Nose (Chief) Miniconjou Sioux 

Woohkinih 

(Also known as Crow Nose.) 

Born: Date unknown. Half brother of Chief Red Cloud (Sioux). 
Career: Warrior-artist (among hostiles on the Powder River and around 
Whitestone Agency, S. Dak., ca. 1869-73). 
Honors : Chief of his own band. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI (sketch book of drawings taken from the 
artist at the time of his capture in 1866). 

Roman Nose, Henry Caruthers Southern Cheyenne 

Who Whinny 

Born: June 30, 1865. Died, Okla., June 13, 1917. Son of Shot In Nose 
(Cheyenne), also known as Naked Turkey, and Day Woman (Cheyenne). 
His stepmother was Eating Bull (Cheyenne) and his half-brother was Little 
Bird. GF: Limber Nose (Cheyenne). GM: Big Crow Woman (Cheyenne). 



l60 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Married: Red Paint Woman (Cheyenne), 1881. Their two children died in 
infancy. His second wife was Standing (Cheyenne). Two children: Amanda 
(White Bead), 1887; John (Head Bear), 1891. Standing's two children by 
previous marriage were Little Woman and Bob-tail. 
After being released from prison and attending schools in the East, the artist 
returned to Darlington Agency in 1881. He had adopted the "white man's 
ways," had a good knowledge of English, and was a trained tinsmith. He had 
taken his name, Henry Caruthers, from a good friend and patron, as did many 
Indians away at school. Adverse circumstances prevented his working steadily 
as a tinsmith, and eventually he reverted almost completely to "Indian ways." 
He was made a chief, ca. 1898. He executed his paintings and sketches while a 
prisoner at Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875, and apparently did not 
paint after leaving prison. 
Education: At Fort Marion, equivalent of third grade; Hampton, after 
his release; Carlisle, ca. 1879; returned Carlisle, 1883 (for "refresher" course 
in tinsmithing), four and one-half months. 

Career: Employed at Darlington Agency sawmill, 1881; served twice as a 
scout for the command stationed at Fort Reno, Okla., 1882, 1886; police- 
man at Darlington Agency, 1884, 1887-88, and 1894; in 1890, for a short 
period, the artist was making tinware for the tribe, at $20 per month. 
Honors: Roman Nose State Park and Roman Nose Canyon, Okla., are 
named for him; he, William Cohoe {q.v.), and ten other Cheyennes went 
to Washington in 1899 as a delegation to see the President, to express their 
dissatisfaction with government treatment. {See Petersen, 1968). 
Collections: Puhlic. MAI, YU/BRBML. 
Romero, Cipriana Cochiti 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Collections: Private: A. Forbes; El Rey Motor Court, Santa Fe, N.M.; 
Stone's Trading Post, Angostura, N.M. 
Address: Cochiti Pueblo, BernaHllo, N.M. 
Romero, Frankie Taos 

Red Buffalo 
The artist received postgraduate instruction at the Institute of American Indian 
Arts, where he majored in painting. He also studied exhibition arts and assisted 
with the installation of displays in the school art gallery. 
Education : Institute, postgraduate, 1963. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1963; YAIA. 
Collections: Public: BIA. Private: McGrath. 

Romero, Riehard Pueblo (Tewa) 

Born: 1949, Espanola, N.M. 
Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 
Exhibitions: MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP. 
Address: Alcalde, N.M. 

Romero, Santiago Cochiti 

Exhibitions: AIEC, 1937. 

Rope, Vine Cheyenne 

Collections: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS l6l 

Rowell, Charles Emery Kiowa 

Adol Beak Ka, Lays Near Hair 

Born: April 3, 1909, north of Old Meers, Okla. Son of James Frederick 

Rowell and Mabonia (or Maude) Narbonee (Kiowa). His mother was a 

member of the Sun Boy family. His father was a prominent physician, 

rancher, farmer, and political leader, who came to Okla. in 1897 and built 

the "little red store" on Medicine Creek. P/U: George Preso Rowell, who 

at 21 was the youngest attorney ever admitted to the Connecticut bar and 

U.S. Supreme Court. M/GU: At o tain (White Cowbird) participated in the 

Wagon Train Massacre, 1871. M/GU: Pai Tolyi (Sun Boy), Kiowa chief. 

M/GU: Jimmy Quoetone (q.v.). The Rowell genealogy has been traced to 

John Rowell, 1683. 
Since about 1944, the artist has been painting prolifically, executing in 1964 
alone 59 watercolors and 27 oils. He assisted Jimmy Quoetone {q.v.) in recording 
Haw Vahte's calendar. He has continued the entries alone since Quoetone's death, 
and has recently completed a copy of the Anko Calendar. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 18 months. 

Career: Stonemason, carpenter, laborer; currently full-time artist. 

Exhibitions: PAC; regional fairs and sidewalk shows. 

Collections: Public: ACM, GM. 

Address: Star Route L-7, Lawton, Okla. 
Roybal, Alfonso (see Awa Tsireh) 
Roybal, Jose D. San Ildefonso 

Oquwa, Rain God 

(Also known as Roybal, J. D.; Roybal, Dissy; Roybal, Disiderio.) 

Born: November 7, 1922, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. Son of Juan Cruz 

Roybal (q.v.) and Tonita. P/U: Alfonso Roybal (q.v.). 

Married: Julia Dasheno, 1951. Two children: Gary Steven, 1952; Leon 

Thaddeus, i960 
The artist's day school teacher, Helen Culley, was first to encourage him to 
paint in 1930. He began to paint more seriously ca. 1955. 

Education: San Ildefonso, 1927-34; graduated St. Catherine's, 1942; Santa 

Fe Business College, 1959-60. 

Service: U.S. Army, four years; 100% disability discharge. 

Honors : Council member, San Ildefonso Pueblo. 

Exhibitions: AIM, MNM, SN, PAC. 

Awards: AIM, 1942. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MNM. Private: Lantre, T. Martinez, Rena, 

Thoeny. 

Address: Route i. Box 306, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Roybal, Juan Cruz San Ildefonso 

Married: Tonita. One son: Jose D. Roybal (q.v.). 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Roybal, Louis ? 

Work Published: Alexander (1932). 
Roybal, Seferino San Ildefonso 

Collections: Public: MNM. 



l62 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Runner, 0. B. Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Running Antelope Hunkpapa Sioux 

The chief was at Grand River, Dakota Territory, in 1873. His exploits as a 
warrior are recorded as early as 1853. 

Work Published: Hamilton (1950). BAE, 4th and loth AR. 
Running Deer Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Running Weasel (see Racine, Albert Batiste) 
Running Wolf (see Davis, Jessie Edwin, II) 
Runs Over Oglala (?) Sioux 

Kahirpeya 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. (see Black Heart). 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Sah Quo Die Quoie (see Turkey, Moses) 
Sah Wa (see Vigil, Rufina) 
St. Pierre, Rodger Chippewa ( ?) 

Collections: Public: SHSND (pictographic style painting on canvas of a 

buffalo hunt). Museum files indicate that St. Pierre was possibly a member 

of the Turtle Mountain Band of the Chippewa of N. Dak. 
Sakyesva, Harry Hopi 

Sakyesva, People From The Green Valley 

Born : 1921, Hotevilla, Ariz. 
The artist is known not only as a painter, but also as a maker of Kachina dolls 
and as a silversmith. He has had no formal art training. 

Education: Hopi. 

Exhibitions: MNM, PAC; Guadalupe Gallery, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC, PAC. Private: Elkus. 

Address : 1550 East Indian School Road, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Sakyewa, Henry Hopi 

It is possible that Henry Sakyewa and Harry Sakyesva {q.v.) are the same man, 
for both last names are apparently variations of the phonetic spelling of Saky- 
estewa (meaning, literally, the People From The Green Valley). 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Salas, Diego Zia 

Born: 1948. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: FWG, MNA, MNM. 

Collections: Public: MNA/KHC, MNM, Private: Denman. 

Address: Zia Pueblo, N.M. 
Salo Whu (see Humetewa, James Russell, Jr.) 
Salt, Freddie Navaho 

Born: December 14, 1940. 

Education: Santa Fe, 1960-61. 

Exhibitions: 1961-62: MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Private: Humphrey, Weinicke. 

Address: Tscgi Trading Post, Tonalca, Ariz. 



ARTISTS 163 

Sampson, William, Jr. Creek 

Born: September 27, 1933, Okmulgee, Okla. Son of William Sampson 

(Creek) and Mabel Lewis (Creek). P/GGF: George McKinley Hill, Creek 

chief. 

Married: Yannah Marshall; divorced, 1958. Married Dolores Dailey; 

divorced, 1962. Three children: Timothy James, 1956; Shirley Ann, 1961; 

William, III, 1962. 

Education: Preston (Okla) High School; Haskell; Oklahoma S. T., 1949-50; 

Los Angeles Art Center School, Calif. 1950-51. 

Service: U.S. Navy, two years. 

Career : Painter, sculptor, and rodeo performer. 

Commissions: Murals: CCHM; Wagon Wheel Restaurant, Kansas City, 

Mo. ; International Oil Exposition, Tulsa, Okla. 

Exhibitions: DMFA, PAC, USDI. Okla.: Fort Gibson Traders Show; 

Okmulgee Art Guild; Muskogee State Fair; McAlester Union Stock Yards. 

Downtown Art Gallery, Fort Worth, Tex. One-man shows: Downtown Art 

Gallery, Muskogee Country Club, Okla. Two-man shows : PAC. 

Awards: Okmulgee Art Guild Annual, 1963, "most popular painting"; 

Tulsa State Fair. 

Collections: Public: CCHM, PAC; Ramsey Winch, Tulsa, Okla. Private: 

Askew, Bailey, Beaver, H. Carter, M. Chandler, Coleman, Grain, Crisler, 

Dailey, Downing, Factor, Fincher, Hillman, Holmes, Howe, Lasley, Lei- 

bensperger, R. Miller, Mishler, Peller, Shipley, Talley, H. Thorne, I. White, 

Wilf, I. WiUiams. 

Address: Route i, Box 293, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Samuel Sioux 

Collections: Public: MAI (ledger sheet). 
Samuel, Tony Tesuque 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Sanchez, Abel {see Oqwa Pi) 
Sanchez, Arsenio Pueblo 

Collections: Public: RM. 
Sanchez, Guadalupito San Ildefonso 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 
Sanchez, Laura Pueblo (Tew a) 

Born: 1951, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1965; SAIEAIP. 

Address : San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 
Sanchez, Ramos San Ildefonso 

Oqwa Owin, Kachina Town (or Rain God Town) ; Kuofde, Branded Corn. 

Born: March 17, 1926, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. Son of Oqwa Pi {q.v.). 

Married: Marie Gertrude Montoya, 1949. Three children: Ann Ehzabeth, 

1941; Ronnie Patrick, 1957; Randy Paul, 1959. 



164 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

The artist acliieved his desire to see the world outside the pueblo culture when 
an opportunity to complete school in Pasadena was provided by Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry James. 

Education: Santa Fe; graduated Pasadena Junior College, Pasadena, 

Calif., 1944. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, two and one-half years; Pacific Theater. 

Career: Carpenter's apprentice and painter, Los Alamos, N.M., 1946-47; 

buUdozer operator for past nine years, Zia Co., Los Alamos, N.M. 

Honors: Assisted in establishing the present pueblo government, 1957; 

served on Pueblo Council; appointed lieutenant governor of the pueblo, 

1962; served as sheriff at the pueblo; Vice-chairman, Pojoaque (N.M.) 

Valley School Board, 1964. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, OU/ET; Philadelphia (Pa.) Art Alliance Exhibition of 

Contemporary Pueblo Indian Art, 1961. 

Collections: Piihlic. MAI (41, postcard size), OU/MA, PU/M, SM. Private: 

C. Grant, H. James, Loo, McKing, Packer, Walton. 

Address: Route i, Box 315, Santa Fe. N.M. 

Sand Burr (see Brave, Frankhn P.) 

Sand Generation [see Talahytewa, Gibson) 

Sanderville, Richard Blackfoot 

(Also known as Chief Bull.) 

Born: ca. 1864. Died February, 1951. Reared in Browning, Mont., by a 
Quaker family. Son of Isodore Sandoval, Jr. (Blackfoot). P/GF: Isodore 
Sandoval, Sr., who traveled from Spain to join the American Fur Co. at 
Old Fort Union. He married a Blackfoot woman and became an interpreter 
for Prince Maximilian, 1833. 

Married: Kootena (Nancy Sheppard); deceased. Anna Alberton (Black- 
foot), 1917. Four children: Noble, Robert, Agnes, and another daughter. 
Education: CarHsle, 1890-93. 

Career: Employed as a farmer "at the old agency;" official government 
interpreter, 1895-1932 ; assistant director of summer woodcraft school, Culver 
(Ind.) Military Academy, 1943. 

Honors: Wrote "entire genealogy of the famihes of the Blackfoot tribe;" 
assisted Gen. Hugh L. Scott for one year in recording Indian sign language. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Sandoval, Benny San Felipe 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. i960. 
Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 
Awards: MNM, i960. 

Sandoval, Ronald Navaho 

Born: June 4, 1947, Crownpoint, N.M. 
Education: Gallup (N.M.) Pubhc Schools. 
Exhibitions: NACG. 
Awards: NACG, honorable mention. 
Address: Jones Ranch School, Gallup, N.M. 



ARTISTS 165 

Sandoval, Tony Navaho 

Education: Institute, ca. 1965. 
Exhibitions: YAIA. 
Sandy, Percy Tsisete Zuni 

Kai Sa, Red Moon 

(Also known as Tsisete, Percy Sandy.) 
Born: 1918, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 

Married: Peggy Mirabal (Taos), 1940. One daughter and three sons. 
It was at Zuni Day School that the artist was told to paint, and he found he 
enjoyed it. However, he was 18 when his formal art instruction began at Albu- 
querque. "As an Indian artist, I hope to be instrumental in artistically and 
authentically depicting the customs of my people. This, I hope, will be my small 
contribution to a great race," said the artist in 1940. In 1959 he was severely 
injured in an accident and has periodically been unable to paint since then. When 
he can, he paints and exhibits extensively in the Southwest. 
Education: Zuni Pueblo Day School; Black Rock, N.M.; graduated Albu- 
querque, 1940; Santa Fe; Sherman Institute. 

Commissions: Murals: La Fonda Hotel, Taos, N.M.; Black Rock School 
and Black Rock Hospital, N.M. 
Books Illustrated: Clark (1945). 

Exhibitions: ITIC, JGS, MNM, NMSF, PAC, PAC/T, SN, USDS; Blue 
Door Gallery, Taos, N.M. ; Paul Elder Gallery, San Francisco, Calif. One- 
man shows: Ebell Galleries, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Collections: Public: AF, BIA, GM, lACB, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, 
MRFM, OU/MA, PAC, SMNAI, UPA; Taos Inn. Private: Dockstader, 
Haddock, Lockett, D. Maxwell, Rena, SeweU, Thoeny. 
Address: Taos, N.M. 

Sa Pa {see Abeyta, Emiliano) 

Sapiel Selmo (Chief) Passamaquoddy 

Born: Date unknown; in 1887, lived at Pleasant Point, Maine. Son of Selmo 
Soctomah (corruption of St. Thomas), who commanded 600 Passamaquoddy 
Indians in the Revolutionary War. When a young man, Sapiel and his 
father had a temporary camp at Machias Lake, Maine. 
Work Published: BAE, loth AR. 

Saryerwinnie, Houston Comanche 

Born: September 17, 1929, Apache, Okla. 

Married: Betty Louise Molz, ca. 1953. Four children: Dennis Ray, 1954; 

James Lynn, 1956; Kathy Sue, 1958; Judy Ann, i960. 
The artist began painting about 1953, encouraged by Mrs. Susie Peters and Ten- 
nyson Eckiwaudah (q.v.). Since leaving the reservation, about 1958, he has been 
active in Indian lore as a dance instructor and councilman for the Boy Scouts 
in Russell, Kansas, 

Education: Cyril (Okla.) Elementary School; Fort Sill; graduated Riverside 

Indian School; Kansas State University, extension course in art, i960. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Navy, three years; China, Japan, Korea, Guam, 

Hawaii, Okinawa. 

Career : House painter and interior decorator, 1957-. 



l66 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: AIE, MNM, PAC; Downs, Kan. 

Awards: AIE; Downs, Kan. 

Collections : Public : Museum of Cottonwood Falls, Kan. Private : Denman. 

Address: 1454 North Lincoln, Russell, Kan. 
Satanta Kiowa 

Satanfa, White Bear 

(Also known as Set T'ainte.) 

Born: Date unknown. Committed suicide in prison at Huntsville, Tex., 

October 11, 1878. Father of Tsalaute. 
In 1868, Satanta and Lone Wolf {q^v.) painted a robe which told of their battles 
with the Utes and Navahos. 

Career: Chief, warrior, artist; raided the Utes on the upper Canadian 

River, 1858-59; led Wagon Train Massacre in Texas, 1871, and arrested 

for his raids there; took part in Battle of Adobe Walls, Texas, 1874. 

Honors: War chief; signed Little Arkansas Treaty, 1865; became known 

as ''Orator of the Plains" after his speech at the signing of the Medicine 

Lodge Treaty, 1867. 
Satsewa, Paul Laguna 

While a student at the Albuquerque Indian School, the artist was chosen to 
execute a sketch based on Coronado's first night in the Zuni village. This sketch 
was used for publicity purposes by the Coronado Quadricentennial Commission 
of New Mexico. 

Education: Albuquerque, 1938. 
Saufkie, Morgan Hopi 

Nevamokewesa, Snow Carry 

Born: August 20, 1936, Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Education: Hopi, ca. 1951-52. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1956. 

Awards: PAC, 1956. 

Collections: Public: LMA/BC. 

Address : c/o Paul Saufkie, Shungopovi, Ariz. 
Saul, C. Terry Choctaw-Chickasaw 

Tabaksi, Ember of Fire (or Coal) 

(Also known as Saul, Chief T. ; Saul, Chief Terry.) 

Born: April 2, 1921, Sardis (Bunchtown), Okla. Reared at Tuskahoma, 

Okla. Son of John B. Saul and Nona Anderson (Choctaw-Chickasaw). The 

artist's given name, not title, is Chief. 

Married: Anna Laura Petersen, 1940. Two children: William Terrj^ 1943; 

John Bendixen, 1949. 

About 1 96 1, he began to perfect an oil-on-gesso technique using dentist tools 
to etch away the oil over-painting to form the picture. In 1964, he received his 
highest fee for an Indian Madonna and Child in this technique. In May 1963, 
Mr. Saul said, "Each painting should be a departure from the one before. You've 
got to keep improving and growing. An artist cannot afford to become stagnant." 

Education: Jones Male Academy, Hartshorne, Olda. ; graduated Bacone 

High School and College, 1940, with instruction under Acec Blue Eagle and 

Woodrow Wilson Crumbo (qq.v.)\ B.F.A., Oklahoma, 1948; M.F.A., Okla- 
homa, 1949; Art, 1951-52, with instruction under Piening and Baer. 



ARTISTS 167 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, five years; European and African Theaters. 
Career: Owner and operator, Village Arts Studio, Bartlesville, Okla., 1950; 
technical illustrator and staff artist, Curtis-Wright Co., Garfield, N.J., 
1952-55; commercial artist, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, 1955-. 
Honors : Life member. Art Students League. 

Commissions: Murals: Union National Bank, Bartlesville, Okla. Dust 
Jacket'. Maloney (1955). 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Art Digest (August 1947), 
Tulsa Magazine (May 1948), The American Indian (Spring 1952), Associa- 
tion on American Indian Affairs, Inc.; Orbit Magazine, The S^mday Okla- 
homan (March 10, 1963) ; 13th Annual Tulsa Pow Wow (August 1964), cover; 
Philnews (September 1964) ; Indians of Oklahoma, BIA (1966) ; America 
Illustrated, USDS (No. 33). 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, DAM, FANAIAE, FNAIC, MNM, OU, PAC, PAC/T, 
SI, SN, USDI; Addison Museum, Andover, Mass.; Art Association, Village 
Arts Studio, and Fine Arts Studio and Gallery, Bartlesville, Okla.; Art 
Students League; Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts; 'The Eight Artists," 
YWCA, Bartlesville; Agra Gallery, Washington, D.C. ; The Kermac Mural 
Design Competition Exhibition, PAC, 1965. One-man shows: HM, PAC; No 
Man's Land Museum, Goodwell, Okla. 
Awards: AAID, DAM, FNAIC, GM, ITIC, PAC, SN. 
Collections: Public: BIA, DAM, GM, lACB, OU, OU/SM, PAC. Private: 
Ambrister, Deighton, Holch, MuUan, Murphey, Syrier, Tucker. 
Address : 1536 Maple Avenue, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Saupity, Larry Comanche 

Born: 1924, Okla. 

The artist had been drawing and painting since childhood. Injuries received at 
St. L6, France, forced him to withdraw from the School of Art at the University 
of Oklahoma, where he had enrolled after WWII. 

Saves Life, George ? 

Collections: Public: SIECC (hide painting, covering 1880-1920). 

Saw Whu {see Humetewa, James Russell, Jr.) 

Schildt, Gary Joseph Blackfoot 

Netostimi, Lone Bull 

Born: June 5, 1938, Helena, Mont. 

Married: Arlene Joanne Lightfield, 1963. One child by a previous marriage: 

Robin Lynn, 1959. 
Mr. Schildt, painting since 1961, is a full-time, freelance artist who prefers por- 
trait work. 

Education: Browning (Mont.) High School; Missoula (Mont.) High School; 

Haskell, 1958; A. A., Healds Business College, San Francisco, CaHl, 1962; 

San Francisco Academy of Fine Arts, 1962. 

Service : Montana National Guard. 

Career: Artist. 

Honors : Scholarship, Academy of Fine Arts, San Francisco, Calif. 



l68 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, PAM; East Glacier (Mont.) Hotel; C. M. Russell 

Gallery, Great Falls, Mont.; East Glacier 1963 Western Art Show; Ace 

Powell Gallery, Hungry Horse, Mont.; Trailside Gallery, Jackson, Wyo.; 

Blackfoot Tribal Office, Browning, Mont. ; First Savings and Loan, Kalispell, 

Mont. 

Collections: Private: Kalispell, D. Vance. 

Address: Hot Springs, Mont., and c/o Box 43, Browning, Mont. 

Scholder, Fritz Mission 

Born : October 6, 1937, Breckenridge, Minn. Son of Fritz Scholder (Mission) 
and Ella Mae Haney. 
Married: Peggy. One son: Fritz, 1959. 
In 1959 the artist said, ". . .it is my intention not only to set up graphically a 
new visual experience for the viewer, but also to make a statement in regard to 
the society and land in which we, the descendants of the American Indian, live. 
I am well aware that my paintings are not literal, for to me some ideas require 
unique statements. I try to capture not only the physical, but the inner and 
even the spiritual." The artist, encouraged by Oscar Howe {q.v.) and Wayne 
Thiebaud, has been painting since 1950. 
Education: Elementary school in Wahpeton, N. Dak.; high school in 
Pierre, S. Dak., and Shawano, Wise; graduated Ashland High School, 
1956; Sacramento (Calif.) State College, A. A., 1958; B.A., i960; M.F.A., 
Arizona, 1964; Wisconsin State University, 1956-57; Arizona, "Southwest 
Indian Art Project," summers, 1961-62. 

Career : Assistant instructor. University of Arizona, 1962-64 ; instructor of 
design and advanced painting. Institute of American Indian Arts, 1964-. 
Honors: John Hay Whitney Opportunity Fellowship, 1962-63; represented 
in Who's Who in American Art, Who's Who in The West, International 
Directory of Art, and Prize Winning Paintings. 

Exhibitions: AU/ASM, BI, CPLH, DAM, DG, DMFA, FAIEAIP, FWAC, 
HMFA, KU, MNM, NDU, PAC, RAC, SAIEAIP, SDU, USDI, WRNGA, 
WU/S ; Palacio de la Virreina, Barcelona, Spain. One-man shows : AU (Art 
Gallery) ; Barrios Gallery, Sacramento, Calif. ; Hali's 261 Gallery, Tucson, 
Ariz. ; E. B. Croker Art Gallery, Sacramento, Calif. 

Awards: HMFA, MNM; loth Southwest Painter's Annual, $500 Festival 
Award; Tucson Art Center, first award in oils; California Festival Exhibi- 
tion, Sacramento, 1961; Ford Foundation Purchase Award, 1962; DMFA, 
13th Annual Southwestern Drawing and Print Show, Purchase Award, 
1963; West Virginia Centennial, ist National Painting Award, 1963; 15th 
Mid- America Annual Exhibition, Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Mo., 
Hallmark Purchase Award, 1965. 

Collections: Puhlic. BIA, DMFA, HMFA, WU/S; Hallmark Card CoUec- 
tion, Kansas City, Mo. Private: G. Clark, Hundley, Pitts, Suzuki. 
Address: 841 El Caminito, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Schultz, Hart Merriam Blackfoot 

Nitoh Mahkwii, Lone Wolf 

Born: February 18, 1882, on the Blackfoot Reservation, Mont. Son of the 
author James Willard Schultz, who married a Blackfoot woman. Diedc^. 1965. 



ARTISTS 169 

Married : Naomi Tracy, 1917. 

Until he left the reservation in 1904, the artist, a range rider, often amused his 
fellow cowboys with his sketches. Although he had painted since 1893, Mr. 
Schultz recalled especially the encouragement of the noted art criticand editor 
of the Los Angeles Times, Harry Carr, and that of Thomas Moran. He often 
sketched "for his father's books" and continued to sign his paintings and sculp- 
ture with a line drawing of a wolf's face. His work has been compared with that 
of Remington and Russell. 

Education: Reservation schools; Fort Shaw Indian School, Fort Shaw, 

Mont. ; Portland Public Schools, Portland, Oreg. ; Los Angeles Art Students 

League, Los Angeles, Calif., 1910; Chicago, 1914-15. 

Career: Commercial artist; full-time artist working in oil, watercolor, and 

bronze; maintained a studio in Tucson, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: AF, GM, NU, SFRR. Private: Coolidge, Heckscher, 

Herb. Hoover, Monroe, O'Brien, O. Wister. 

Scott, Duard ? 

Exhibitions: PAC, i960. 

Scott, Johnson Lee Creek-Seminole 

Itchez Ha Biye, Beaver 

Born: October 21, 1938, Sasakwa, Okla. Son of Peter Scott and Lena Wolf, 
a leader of the Ribbon Dance. 

Married: Billey Louis Tiger, 1959. Seven children: Gwendy, 1961; Saundra, 
1963; Gordon Lee, 1964; (the following four are stepchildren), Sharon, 
1957; Terry, 1958; Larry, 1959; Sevina, i960. 

Education : Oklahoma schools at Spaulding, Oklahoma City, Shawnee, and 
Holdenville, 1944-59; Oklahoma S. U./S. T. 

Career: Painter and writer of short stories, poems, and song lyrics. 
Exhibitions: Roosevelt Junior High School, Seminole, Okla.; Wetumka 
(Okla.) Indian Museum. 

Collections: Public: OSU/TL; Wetumka (Okla.) Trading Post. 
Address: 521 East Hickory St., Holdenville, Okla. 

Seabourn, Bert D. Cherokee 

Born: July 9, 1931, Iraan, Tex. Son of James A. Seabourn (Cherokee) and 
F. Leeper Thompson. 

Married: Bonnie Jo Tompkins, July 30, 1950. Two children: Connie Jo, 
1951 ; Angela Renae, 1954. 

Education: McCamey (Tex.) Public School, 1937-42; Van Buren (Ark.) 
Public School, 1944: graduated Purcell (Okla.) High School, 1950; Oklahoma 
C. U., certificate of art, i960; Famous Artists Correspondence Art School, 
currently enrolled. 

Service: Korean War, U.S. Navy, four years. 

Career: Draftsman, and later established art department, publicity and 
advertising section, and continued as artist and director, Oklahoma Gas 
and Electric, Co., 1955-. 

Exhibitions : 1960-65 : ITIC, PAC. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Art Exhibi- 
tion; Exhibition of Oklahoma Artists; All Oklahoma Exhibition; 6th 



170 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

National Exhibition of Contemporary American Art; 7th Annual Eight 

State Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. Kansas National Printmakers 

Exhibition, Wichita, Kans. ist Annual Muskogee (Okla.) Art Show. One- 
man shows: First Presbyterian Gallery, Mangun, Okla.; Henson Gallery, 

Yukon, Okla.; McClain County National Bank, Purcell, Okla.; Exchange 

National Bank, Moore, Okla.; St. Paul's Episcopal Gallery, All Souls 

Gallery, and Mummers Theater, Oklahoma City, Okla.; Chandler (Okla.) 

Galleries. The Allis-Chalmers Company Show (tour), "The Art of Extra 

High Voltage." 

Awards: 1960-65: Three from ITIC; Penn Square Art Show and Festival 

of the Arts, Oklahoma City, Okla., i960. 

Collections: Public: OAC. 

Address: 3123 Southwest 63rd, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Searching (see Weckeah) 
Secatero, McCoy Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Seekyesva Hopi 

Born: Date unknown; the artist was living and painting in 1930. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
See Ru (see Herrera, Joe Hilario) 
Sekaho (see Shelton, Peter H., Jr.) 
Servilican, Richard Washo 

Born: October 9, 1932, Carson City, Nev. 

Married: Florence Sarracino, ca. 1955. Three children: David R., ca. 1958; 

Bernice H., ca. i960; Esther M., ca. 1962. 

Education: Graduated Ganado (Ariz.) Mission High School, 1950; B.A., 

St. Joseph's, i960. 

Service: U.S. Navy, 1950-55. 

Career: Teacher in guidance work. 

Exhibitions: CSF, MNM, NMSF; St. Joseph's CoUege. 

Awards: MNM, 1965; ribbons at state fairs. 

Address: Box 65, Paguate, N.M., and 351 Carol Drive, Reno, Nev. 
Seton, Thomas Eskimo 

Kahsahyuli 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Hooper Bay, Alaska. 
Set T'ainte (see Satanta) 
Sett'an Kiowa 

SeWan, Little Bear 

Born: Summer 1833. 

Married: In 185 1. One daughter: Virginia, 1863. 

Sett'an's calendar was inspired by, but not copied from, the Tohausen {q.v.) 
Calendar. 



ARTISTS 171 

Work Published: Mayhall (1962). BAE, lyth AR {d^ calendar which records 
the tribal history for the years 1833-93). 
Shapanazhi {see Pahsetopah, Loren Louis) 
Sharp Shooting [see Mofsie, Louis Billingsly) 

Shave Head Cheyenne or Arapaho 

Chenenaete, Shave Head 
An Arapaho named Shave Head signed the Fort Wise Treaty in 1861. The 
artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, Okla., 
to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Shehola, Dixon Zuni 

Education: Santa Fe, a senior high student in 1955; Albuquerque, 1956. 

Commissions: Murals: Barelos Community Center, with Charles Vicenti 

and James Michael Byrnes (qq.v.). 

Exhibitions: ITIC, NMSF. 

Awards: ITIC, 1964. 

Collections: Public: MNM, PAC, SMNAI. Private: Elkus, Thoeny. 

Address: Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 
Shebola, Philbert Zuni 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU. 
Shebola, Sullivan Zuni 

Exhibitions: PAC, SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Shell (see Montoya, Ger6nima Cruz) 
Shelling Corn {see Humetewa, James Russell, Jr.) 
Shelton, H. Hopi 

(Also known as Shelton, Henry.) 

Collections: Public: MAI. Private: Doyle (a Kachina doll by Henry). 

Address: (Henry), Box 1389, Flagstaff, Ariz. 
Shelton, Peter H., Jr. Hopi 

Sekaho, Yellow Arrow 

Born : Oraibi, Ariz. Son of Peter Shelton (Hopi) and Lillie Seumptewa (Hopi). 

Brother of H. Shelton {q.v.), weU-known Kachina doll carver. 

Education: Oraibi Day School, Oraibi, Ariz.; Santa Fe, four years; in- 
struction under Fred Kabotie {q.v.). 

Career: Freelance artist; designer, Hopi Enterprises, Oraibi, Ariz. 

Work Published: Modern American Indian Painting, MPI (June-Sep- 
tember 1963), cover; Petroleum Today (Winter 1965); Region VI American 

Camping Association Convention Program (February 17-20, 1965), Norman, 

Okla. 

Exhibitions: GM, ITIC, MNA, MNM, NMSF, PAC, PAC/T. 

Awards: ITIC, NMSF. 

Collections: Public: GM, LMA/BC, MAI, MNM, PAC. Private: Denman, 

D. Maxwell. 

Address : New Oraibi, Third Mesa, Ariz. 



172 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Shendo, Joe Ray Jemez 

Born: 1948. 

Education: Jemez, ca. 1962. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962; PAC, student show, 1957. 

Awards: MNM, two, 1962. 
Sheyka, P. Zuni (?) 

Exhibitions: SN. 

Awards: SN, 1964. 
Shije, Marcus Zia 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: Dietrich. 
Shinagi {see Yellow Blanket) 
Shipshee, Louis Potawatomi 

Shipshee, Mountain Cougar 

Born: Ca. 1900, on the Potawatomi reservation in Oklahoma. Son of Ship- 
shee (Kickapoo-Potawatomi?), who was given this name when young, 

served in the Spanish- American War, and later became a U.S. Deputy 

Marshal. M/GP: Lucian (Sioux-French), scout for U.S. Army, and his 

Potawatomi wife. M/GGF: French explorer. Great Lakes area. 

Married: Bonnie. Two sons: Vernon; Louis, Jr. 
Mr. Shipshee is now a freelance artist who travels extensively throughout the 
Southwest painting in various media, often on velvet or buckskin. He does land- 
scape paintings and woodcarvings but prefers portrait work. 

Education: Neadreau, Okla. (no longer exists), where he learned to speak 

English; Haskell; Chilocco. 

Service: WWL 

Career: Industrial crafts instructor (conducted painting classes in free 

time), Haskell Institute; house painter, interior decorator, freelance artist. 

Exhibitions: AAID, AIE, ITIC; Lawton, Okla., i960; William J. Alexander 

Gallery, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Awards: AAID, AIE, ITIC. 

Collections: Public: SMNAI; Biltmore Hotel, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Private: Dittemore. 

Address: 1270 Lincoln, Topeka, Kan. 
Shirley, Charles Keetsie Navaho 

(Also Shirley, Charles Kitsie.) 

Born: March 1909, in Ariz., on the Navaho Reservation in the vicinity of 

Aspen Water Springs. 

Married: A Navaho woman. Several children. 

Education: Reservation school until seventh grade; attended Haskell, 

early 1920's; graduated Albuquerque, 1929; studied art at University of 

Denver, Denver, Colo. ; trained as a draftsman at Fort Defiance, Ariz. 

Career: Head draftsman during WWII, WiUiams Field, Ariz.; continuing 

in drafting profession. 

Commissions : Murals : Arizona Title and Trust Company, Tucson, Ariz. 

Work Published: The Desert Magazine (January 1948); Arizona Highways 

(February 1950). 



ARTISTS 173 

Collections: Public: DAM. Private: Lockett. 

Address: Shiprock, N.M. 
Shirley, Walter Navaho 

Education: Bacone College, ca. 1951; Northeastern. 

Exhibitions: 1951-53: PAC. 

Awards: PAC, 1952. 
Shobah Woonhon [see Toledo, Jose Rey) 
Short Bull (Chief) Oglala Sioux 

Born: Date unknown, lived for a period on the Pine Ridge Reservation, 

S. Dak. Died July 6, 1923. Grandfather of Norman ShortbuU (q.v.). 

Collections: Public: AMNH. 
Shortbull, Norman Oglala Sioux 

Born: March 11, 1918, Wanblee, S. Dak. GF: Short BuU (q.v.). 

Married: Elizabeth G. Prue, 1945. Ten children: Thomas, 1946; Norma J., 

1948; Linda A., 1950; Marilyn L., 1951; David W., 1953; Norman, Jr., 

1955; Marietta, 1957; Timothy A., 1959; Vonny Jo Ann, 1961; Lisa, 1962. 
The artist has been painting since 1951 and prefers portrait work. He has been 
strongly encouraged in his career by Angelo Di Bennedetto and Phil Steele. 

Education : Art school, Denver, Colo. 

Service: U.S. Army, three years. 

Career : House painter ; conducts art classes during the winter. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. Igloo, Rapid City, Spearfish, and Kadoka, S. Dak.; 

Vogue Theater, Denver, Colo. 

Awards: Shows in: Rapid City and Igloo, S. Dak.; Denver, Colo. 

Collections: Public: St. Francis Museum, and Mother Butler Center, S. 

Dak. Private: Riggert, Sundet, Tiffany. 

Address: Box 742, Igloo, S. Dak., and c/o Mrs. Alice Coffee, Harrington, 

S. Dak. 
Shows The Feather Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 
Shunka Ishnala (see Lone Dog) 
Shunka Sapa (see Black Horse) 
Shupela, Douglas Hopi 

(Also known as Shupla, Douglas.) 

Born: August 22, 1932, First Mesa, Ariz., where he often painted the deco- 
rative motifs on his mother's pottery. 

Education: Hopi. 

Career: Employed by Arizona Sun, 1961. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1948. 

Collections: Public: PAC. 

Address : Polacca, Ariz. 
Sikchida (see Yellow Feather) 
Silva, Anthony Laguna 

Born: 1947, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, ca. 1965. 



174 american indian painters 

Exhibitions: MNM; PAC; SAIEAIP, 1965. 
Collections: Private: R. Moore. 
Address: Old Laguna, N.M. 

Silva, Marcus Santa Clara 

Red Cloud 
Born: 1921. 
Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: 1948-63; FAIEAIP, MNM, SN. 
Address: Box 14, Espanola, M.N. 

SUver Horns {see Silverhorn) 

Silverhorn Kiowa 

Haungooah (and Haungoonpau ; Hogoon ; Hawgone) 

(Also known as Silver Horns.) 

Born: 1861. Died, ca. 1941. Descendant of Tohausen {q.v.). 
Silverhorn was one of a delegation of Kiowas taken to the Congress of the United 
States. While in Washington, he sketched what he saw. His work usually 
portrays religious ceremonies and tribal myths. 

Career: Participated in last Kiowa outbreak, 1874; medicine man and 

guard to a ''grandmother medicine pouch;" soldier under Gen. Hugh L. 

Scott, 1889-94. 

Work Published: Alexander (1938), Mayhall (1962). 

Collections: Public: AMNH, CC, MKMcNAI, NL, OAA/SI. 

Silverhorn, Arthur Kiowa 

Collections: Public: GM. 

Silverhorn, George Kiowa 

(Also known as Silverhorn, Dutch.) 
Exhibitions: PAC. 

Collections: Public: GM, MRFM. Private: Schonwald. 
Address: Anadarko, Okla. 

Silvermoon (see Martin, Mike) 

Simbola, Irene Picuris 

Born: August 25, 1942. 
Education: Institute, 1962-63. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1962. 
Address: Box 26, Penasco, N.M. 

Simclosh (see Morgan, Judith Phillis) 

Sine, David Apache 

Born: Date unknown; originally from San Carlos, Ariz. 
Exhibitions: FWG, HM. 

Singer, James Navaho-Santa Clara 

Born: 1937. 

Education: Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, i960. 
Address: Box 465, Espafiola, N.M. 



ARTISTS 175 

Sinte Sioux 

The Cronau album consists of 112 individual original drawings, by American 
Indians, commissioned and collected by an illustrator for a German periodical, 
Rudolf Cronau, at Standing Rock Agency, Pine Ridge Agency, Fort Randall, 
etc., 1880-83. In 1886, a number of these artists, including Sinte, were taken on 
a tour of Europe by Cronau, who was especially impressed by Sinte's uncanny 
ability to draw from memory. Among this artist's 19 drawings was an original 
map, of which Cronau said : ' 'This map [was] made by Sinte in my presence from 
memory without the Indian having seen a cartographic representation in our 
concept. This sheet shows a tremendous testimony for the orthographic develop- 
ment of the man's mind." Other artists represented in the album are The Crow, 
Fast Deer, Yellow Blanket, and Black Horse {qq.v.). 
Collections: Public: AMNH (Cronau album). 

Sinte Maze (see Iron Tail) 

Sisneros, Marie Santa Clara 

Education: Haskell. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1951. 
Sitsgoma (see Pentewa, Dick R.) 
Sitting Bear (see Whiteman, A.) 
Sitting Buffalo Bull (see Sitting Bull) 

Sitting Bull (Chief) Hunkpapa Sioux 

Tatanka lyotanka, Sitting Buffalo Bull 

Born : Ca. 1834, near old Fort George or on Grand River, S. Dak. Died, 
December 15, i8go. Son of subchief Jumping Bull (and/or Sitting Bull). His 
uncles were Chiefs Four Horns and Hunting His Lodge. 
Married: Three wives, including She That Was Seen By The Nation and 
She That Had Four Robes. Nine children, including two sons — Black Bird 
and Crow Foot (who was killed during the same skirmish which took his 
father's Hfe) — and a daughter. Standing Holy. 
In 1870, a series of autobiographical drawings by Sitting Bull, admittedly- 
stolen, were sold by a group of Yankton Sioux to an army officer at Fort Buford, 
Mont., for $ 1.50. The pictures were outlined in ink and shaded with colored chalk 
and colored pencils. In the corner of each was a buffalo bull on his haunches, the 
artist's "totem" or signature. This book of drawings, later sent to the Army 
Medical Museum Library, Washington, D.C., is now known as the Kimball 
Pictographic Record. 
Education: Received art instruction from Rudolf Cronau (see Sinte). 
Career: Chief, medicine man, Indian politician; sold autographs for |i.oo 
while on a four-month tour with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. 
Honors: Became chief, ca. 1868. 

Work Published: Dunn, Jr. (1886), Kelly (1926), Vestal (1932), Smith 
(1943), Schmitt and Brown (1948), La Farge (1956; i960). Ewers (1965). 
Harpers Weekly (1876); Stirhng (1938); American Heritage (June 1964). 
Collections: Public: MAI, OAA/SI. 
Sitting Crow Teton Sioux 

Collections : MAI (pencil and color sketch, ca. 1880) ; MPM (pictographic 
style on paper). 
Sitting Eagle (see Honewytewa, Louis Calvin, Jr.) 



176 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Sitting Eagle Miniconjou Sioux 

(Also known as Harry Hand.) 

Born: Date unknown; at one time was at Pine Ridge, S. Dak. [see Black 
Heart) and on Rosebud River {sic) in 1867. His brother-in-law, Steamboat, 
began a Miniconjou calendar and taught Sitting Eagle to interpret it. When 
Steamboat died, Sitting Eagle took possession of this record. 
Collections: Public: MAI (autograph sketch). 

Sitting Hawk Sioux 

Cetaniyatake (?) 
Collections : Public : MPM (pictographic style on paper) . 

Slim Curley Hair [see Mitchell, Stanley C.) 

Slim Navaho [see Denetsosie, Hoke) 

Slow Cloud (see Maulson, Gerald) 

Smallcanyon, Evelyn Navaho ? 

Education: Richfield High School, Utah, ca. 1964. 
Exhibitions: NACG. 
Awards: NACG, 1964. 

Smart, Clara Mary Eskimo 

Buniyuk, Little Daughter 

Born: January 16, 1841, Hooper Bay, Alaska. Daughter of Knute Smart, 
Sr., and Irene Bunyan. 
Miss Smart has been painting since 1962 and has been encouraged by her in- 
structors to continue. She also writes poetry, another potential career. 
Education: Hooper Bay (Alaska) School, 1958; St. Mary's High School, 
1959; Mt. Edgecumbe High School, ca. 1961-62; Institute, 1962-. 
Exhibitions : MNM ; Institute of American Indian Arts. 
Collections: Public: lAIA. 
Address: 1286 South Bryant, Denver, Colo. 

Smith, Ernest Seneca 

Gaon Yah, From The Middle Of The Sky 

Born: 1907, on the Tonawanda Reservation, N.Y. Son of Pete Smith 
(Seneca). Brother of Kidd Smith, a gifted carver, and Rose Spring, an out- 
standing beadwork artist. 
The Rochester Democrat and Chronicle (August 21, 1950) reviewed the artist's 
show at RMAS as follows: ". . .he has been painting since he was 10. . . . titles 
of his paintings indicate the wide range of daily life covered by legends and fairy 
tales of the Senecas. . . .much of his work was produced under the Federal Indian 
Art Project. . .." 
Education: Buffalo Public Schools, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Career: Painter, sculptor; informant and illustrator for published works 
by William N. Fenton. Employed for a short period by RMAS, in the 
Temporary Emergency Relief Administration Project, 1930's; U.S. Gypsum 
Mines, Oakfield, N.Y., 1950; Akron Parks Dept., Akron, N.Y., 1961, 
Work Published: LaFarge (i960), Underbill (1965). BAE Bull. 1^6. 
Exhibitions: One-man shows: RMAS (100 watercolors) . 
Collections: Public: RMAS (200 paintings, 24 sculptures); SI. Private: 
W. Fenton. 



ARTISTS 177 

Smith, Gibson R. Apache-Navaho-Yuma 

Education: Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project/' summers, 1961-62. 

Address: General Delivery, McNary, Ariz. 
Smith, Johnny Eskimo 

Donvirak 

Exhibitions: MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1965. 

Address : Bureau of Indian Affairs School, Hooper Bay, Alaska. 
Smith, Patronella Quechan 

Education: Santa Fe, 1960-61; Institute, 1962-63; Arizona, "Southwest 

Indian Art Project." 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1961. 

Address: Box 401, Winterhaven, Calif. 
Smoky, Lois Kiowa 

Bougetah (and Bougeta, Bondetah), Of The Dawn 

(Also known as Bougetah Smoky.) 

Born: 1907, near Anadarko, Okla. Daughter of Enoch Smoky. GU: Chief 

Appiatan (Kiowa). 
Lois was one of the Five Kiowas [q.v.) who received special art training at the 
University of Oklahoma. It has long been customary among the Plains Indians 
that women not draw or paint in a representational style. Because of this feeling 
Lois fought some resentment on the part of the Kiowa group at the University. 
Although her family, renowned as warriors, became well-known as craftsmen, 
Lois's art career was brief. She married and devoted her full time to her husband 
and family. 

Education : Oklahoma Indian schools ; special non-credit instruction, Okla- 
homa, 1927. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), Blue 

Eagle (1959)- 

Honors: IACB Certificate of Appreciation, 1966. 

Exhibitions: AIE/T; throughout the U.S. with the Five Kiowa exhibits. 

Collections: Public. GM, MAI, MKMcNAI. Private: O. Jacobson, Schon- 

wald. 

Address: c/o Enoch Smoky, Virden, Okla. (?) 

Snake [see Outie, George) 

Snow {see Suina, Theodore) 

Snow Carry (see Nuvayouma, Arlo) 

Snow Carry [see Saufkie, Morgan) 

Soaring Eagle Cheyenne 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public. YU/BRBML. 
So Hah Ney [see Wilkinson, Douglas) 
So Kuva [see Kewanyouma, Leroy) 
Son Of Milk (see Begay, Apie) 
Son Of The Star (see White Bear, Alton) 



178 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Son of The Towering House People {see Gorman, Carl Nelson) 

Soo Woea {see Humetewa, James RusseU, Jr.) 

So queen (see Pena, Christino) 

Soqween {see Peiia, Jos6 Encarnacion) 

Soukwawe {see Pena, Jose Encarnacion) 

So Whay {see Ortiz, Joseph) 

Speck, Henry (Chief) Kwakiutl 

(Also known as The Greatest; Ozistalis.) 

Born : August 12, 1908, Turnour Island, Canada. 

Married: Name unknown, 1927. Eleven children. 

"My art talent was handed down to me from my mother's father. I just grew up 
with it. When I was a little boy I used to copy everything from mail order 
catalogue," said Speck in 1963. Chief Speck has turned from native tools to 
paint and paper. His art forms are seldom used in traditional ceremonies but he 
has recorded them honestly and prolifically. 

Education : Fourth grade, Alert Bay, Canada. 

Honors: Chief of the Tlawitsis (Powerful People), a Kwakiutl group on 

Turnour Island, Brit. Col., Canada. 

Work Published: Kwakiutl Art by Chief Henry Speck, New Design GaUery, 

Vancouver, B.C. (1964). 

Exhibitions : One-man shows : 1964 : New Design Gallery. 
Spencer, Jeri Yakima 

Education: Bacone CoUege. 

Exhibitions: DAM; PAC, 1952. 
Spencer, Marlene R. ? 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Cooper Hall 788, Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colo. 
Splashing Water {see Kishketon, George) 
Spotted Elk, Leo Sioux 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1951. 

Collections: Public: SMNAI. 

Address: St. Francis, So. Dakota. 
Spotted Horse Oglala (?) Sioux 

Sunkklesha 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. {see Black Heart). 

Collections: Public: MAI (horse with spots). 
Spotted Tail Crow 

Collections: Public: MAI (personal exploits of several warriors, painted 

on elkskin). See Wildschut, William (1926). 
Springtime {see Polelonema, Otis) 
Spybuck, Ernest Shawnee 

Mahthcla 

Born: 1883, one mile west of Tecumseh, on the Potawatomi and Shawnee 

Reservation, Okla. Son of Jolin Spybuck and Peahchepeahso. Died, 1949, 

on his Indian allotment land, 16 miles west of Shawnee, Okla. 



ARTISTS 179 

Spybuck never studied art, but painted from the age of six. Harriet Patrick 
Gilstrap, his teacher at Shawnee, mentioned him in her memoirs and said that 
when he was eight, he did nothing but draw and paint pictures recounting events 
in his life. In 1937, i^ was noted that he had never been out of the county of his 
birth. He is buried in the family burial ground near his home. 

Education: Shawnee Boarding School, Shawnee, Okla. ; Sacred Heart 

Mission in south-central Okla. 

Commissions: Murals: CCHM, OHSM. Ethnographic series: MAI. 

Work Published : Harrington (1921), LaFarge (1956; i960), Underhill (1965). 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 

Collections: Public: CCHM, GM, MAI, OHSM, OSAF/GC. Private: 

Marriott. 

Squint Eyes Cheyenne 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Standing, William Assiniboin 

Fire Bear ; Looks In The Clouds 

Born: July 27, 1904, near Oswego, Mont. Died, June 27, 1951, Fort Belknap 
(Mont.) Indian Reservation. Son of Stephen Standing (Standing Rattle) 
(Assiniboin). M/U: Lance, Sioux medicine lodge painter. Accounts con- 
cerning his mother and his wife are conflicting: one states that his mother 
was Fire Bear (Canadian Sioux), and another says that this was his wife's 
name. Through his paternal lineage, the artist's direct ancestor is Iron 
Arrow Point, Chief of the Stone Band during the Revolutionary War, and 
whose son, In-the-Light (Azan Zan Na) was the first Assiniboin ambassador 
from Fort Union to visit the capital, 1831-32. 
". . .in the White man's custom I am William Standing after the first name of 
my father. My father called me Looks In The Clouds. My own choice of names is 
Fire Bear: this was my grandmother's name. . .it makes no difference to me. 
If people want me to sign a name on pictures in White man's way and buy more 
pictures that is alright. But I'd rather be Fire Bear. . .1 like to do what is called 
an independent artist and draw and paint what I see." After completing high 
school, the artist traveled extensively throughout the U.S. exhibiting his oils, 
watercolors, and sketches. He returned to the reservation where he married and 
remained until his death. 
Education : Fort Peck Reservation schools, Mont. ; Wolf Point Presbyterian 
Mission, Mont. ; Haskell, 1920-24. 

Commissions: Illustrations in the 1930's for the Federal Art Program in 
Montana. 

Books Illustrated: Kennedy (1961). 

Exhibitions: Washington (D.C.) Art Club, ca. 1932; Colonial Exposition, 
Paris, France, 1930's; WPA Art Center, Great Falls, Mont.; Trailside 
Galleries, Idaho Falls, Idaho (sold more than 1600 examples of his work in 
various media); Colorado; Oklahoma. One-man shows: MHS/H; Trailside 
Galleries, Idaho Falls, Idaho. 

Collections: Public: MHS/H; Hotel Sherman, Wolf Point, Mont.; Trading 
Post, Oswego, Mont. Private: J. W. Anderson, Flood, M. Kennedy. 
Standing Alone [see Dick, Cecil) 



l80 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Standing Bear [see Byrnes, James Michael) 

Standing Bear {see Standingbear, George Eugene) 

Standing Bear Miniconjou Sioux 

Born: December, 1868. 
A leader among the Sioux and ancestor of Arthur Douglas Amiotte {q.v.), Standing 
Bear was well known as an illustrator and storyteller. 

Work Published: Neihardt (1932), Hamilton (1950). 

Collections: Public: AMNH (?); DAM (tipi, signed Standing Bear); 

MPM; St. Joseph Museum, St. Joseph, Mo. 
Standing Bear, Andrew Sioux 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1942a). 
Standing Buffalo Ponca 

Totay Gonai, Standing Buffalo 

Work Published: BAE, Bull, ig^ (copy of a drawing, by a young warrior, 

showing a battle between the Ponca and the Sioux). 
Standing Chief, Robert Cree 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Collections: Private: R. Henderson. 

Address: Belcourt, N. Dak. 
Standing Leaf ? 

Collections: Public: W/JSC. 
Standing Rainbow [see Preston, Bert) 

Standing- Soldier, Andrew Sioux 

The artist is married and has three children. He is well known among the Rose- 
bud Sioux for reproducing and interpreting Sioux Winter Counts. 
Career: Commercial sign painter. 

Commissions: Murals: Valentine (Nebr.) Post Office and a local cafe. 
Books Illustrated: Clark (1942a; 1947). 

Work Published: Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia, Vol. 7 (1957). 
Collections: Public: BIA/R, SIECC. 
Address: c/o Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rosebud, S. Dak. 

Standingbear, George Eugene Osage-Sioux 

Zshingka Heka, Little Chief (Osage name) ; Mahtohn Ahzshe, Standing Bear 
(Sioux name). 

Born: October 31, 1929, Pawhuska, Okla. Son of Eugene George Standing- 
bear (Sioux) and Mary Nora Lookout (Osage). The artist was given his 
Osage name by Chief Bacon Rind (Osage) when he became an official member 
of the Bear Clan. M/GM: JuUa Ann Mongre. M/GF: Fred Lookout (Wahtsake 
Tumpah, He May Be Going On The Warpath And Others Are Looking 
Him Over), last hereditary chief of the Osage. M/GGGF: Nathaniel Pr3^or, 
a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and for whom the city of 
Pryor, Okla., was named. P/GGM: Sister of American Horse. P/GGF: 
Standing Bear [Mahtohn Ahzshe) (Sioux). 

Married: Barbara Wright, August, 1952. Four children: Geoffrey, 1953; 
Eugene Sean, 1955; Patrick Spencer, 1958; Margaret Mary, 1961. 



ARTISTS l8l 

Education: Elementary school, Immaculate Conception, Pawhuska, Okla., 
and Ponca Military Academy, Ponca City, Okla. ; Oklahoma Military Aca- 
demy, high school, Claremore, Okla.; graduated Pawhuska High School, 
1947; B.A., Tulsa, 1952; graduate work, Tulsa, 1954-. 
Career: Technical editor, Engineering Publications Department, Douglas 
Aircraft Co., Tulsa, 1952-64; fencing and art instructor, Benedictine Heights 
College, Tulsa, 1955-57; technical illustrator and instructor, University of 
Tulsa, 1963- ; Engineering Publications Technical Analyst, North American 
Rockwell Corp., Tulsa, 1964-. 

Honors : Art director, Tulsa Philharmonic Cinderella Ball. 
Commissions : Murals : Catholic Information Center, Tulsa. 
Work Published: Tulsa Charity Horse Show, pubhcity director, designed 
brochure, posters, etc., 1964. 

Exhibitions: PAC; University of Tulsa. One-man shows: Benedictine 
Heights College, Tulsa. 

Awards : 1964 Grand Award, Tulsa Fine Arts Festival. 
Collections: Public: Thayer (Mo.) High School, E. A. Meyer Associates, 
Caracas, Venezuela. Private: Lindstrom, Proctor, Rubin, Rucinski, B. C. 
Von Aspe, B. W. Von Aspe. 
Address: 2403 East 25th Place, Tulsa, Okla. 
Stands Brown (see Pahsetopah, Loren Louis) 

Steatuma, Tony Sanio Domingo 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Sterne, Mabel Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Stevens, Jim Apache 

Born: 1937, outside Globe, Ariz., near San Carlos Reservation. 

Married: Christine (Pima). Seven children. 
While in the fifth grade, the artist executed a painting, the face of a crowned 
and bleeding Christ, which is preserved at St. Peter's Mission in Bapchule 
Brophy Preparatory College, Phoenix, Ariz. To finance his education, the artist 
must maintain various jobs and has little time to paint. He hopes to devote full 
time to his art work when he is no longer able to farm his land. 

Education: St. John's Indian Mission School, Komatke, Ariz., until junior 

year. 

Career: Farmer. 

Commissions: Murals: 20 murals in six Arizona missions. 

Address: Ariz. 
Stevens, Leroy Navaho 

Exhibitions: USDS, 1963. 

Collections: Public: BIA, lACB, SMNAI. 

Address: Crystal, via Fort Defiance, Ariz. 
Stewart, Albert Navaho 

Education: Fort Sill. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1955. 

Collections: Private: W. S. Price. 



l82 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Stewart, Richard Paiute 

Born: 1944, Bishop, Calif. 

Education: Institute, 1964-66. 

Exhibitions: SAIEAIP; MNM, 1965. 
Stimone (see Herrera, Justino) 
Sto Ko Wo (see Packer) 
Stone Man ? 

Born : ca. 1864. From Fort Yates area. 

Collections: Public: SHSND (pictographic painting executed in 1917). 
Straight Reed (see Red Corn, Raymond Wesley) 
Stratus Cloud (see Moquino, Ignacio) 
Sturr, Jonathan ? 

Exhibitions: ITIC (juvenile class). 

Awards: ITIC, 1964. 
Sua Peen (see Aguilar, Jose Vicente) 
Suctwa Quinkum (see Ingram, Veronica Marie) 
Suetopka, Elliot Hopi 

Education: Eighth grade student in 1951. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Suhonva (see Honahniein, Ramson R.) 
Suina, Herman Cochiti 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Suina, Theodore Cochiti 

Kuperu, Snow 

Born: February 26, 1918, Cochiti Pueblo, N.M. 

Married: Lucy Romero, 1953. Two adopted children: Evangeline Frances, 

i960; James Simon, 1962. 
While recovering from a broken neck, a result of an accident, the artist began 
to paint seriously. His teachers, Mary Mitchell at the Day School and Ger6nima 
Montoya (g.v.) at the Santa Fe Indian School, encouraged him to continue. He 
has had less time to paint since becoming Governor of Cochiti Pueblo. 

Education: Cochiti; St. Catherine's; Hill; graduated Santa Fe, 1942; B.S., 

St. Joseph's, 1953. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, three years; Pacific Theater. 

Career: Draftsman, Los Alamos (N.M.) Atomic Laboratory. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: DAM, FAIEAIP, ITIC, JGS, MNM, NMSF, OU/ET, PAC, 

PAC/T, SFWF, SN, UNM, USDS; Civic Center, San Francisco, Calif.; 

Villita Gallery, San Antonio, Tex. ; Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. 

Awards: DAM, ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC, SN; Terry National Art Exhibi- 
tion, Miami, Fla., 1952. 

Collections: Public: DAM, GM, lACB, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, 

MNM, MRFM, OU/MA, PAC, UPA. Private: Denman, Elkus, A. Forbes, 

Dockstader, Marriott, D. Maxwell, Thoeny, Yulke. 

Address: 1875 B 24th St., Los Alamos, N.M. 



ARTISTS 183 

Summer Mountain (see Vigil, Thomas) 

Sundust (see Dewey, Wilson) 

Sunka Luzahan (see Swift Dog) 

Sunka Wonka Wanjila (see Lone Horse) 

Sunkklesha (see Spotted Horse) 

Sun Flower (see Montoya, Sidney, Jr.) 

Sun Rise (see Sunrise, Riley) 

Sunrise (see Byrnes, James Michael) 

Sunrise, Riley Hopi 

Quoyavema (and Quiyavema) 

(Also known as Sun Rise.) 
While in the third grade at Anadarko, the artist submitted a series of Hopi 
symbols in a statewide newspaper contest and received second award. Adopted 
by a Kiowa family, his work seems to reflect the influence of Kiowa painting. 

Education: St. Patrick's. 

Career: Executed paintings for the permanent collection, MAI, 1930*3; 

SM, for a short period; worked as an extra in Hollywood movies. 

Books Illustrated: Nelson (1937). 

Collections: Public: CIS, DAM, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, SM. Private: 

Dockstader. 
Supernaw, Marlene Mary (see Riding Inn, M.) 
Susunkewa, Manfred Hopi 

Susunkewa, Beautiful 

Born : October 10, 1940, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Education: Graduated Stewart (Ariz.) High School, 1959; Haskell, 1959- 

61; Santa Fe; graduated Institute, 1964; scholarship to Arizona, "South- 
west Indian Art Project,'' summers, 1960-62; currently on scholarship at 

Arizona, art major. 

Service : ROTC Cadet, University of Arizona. 

Career : Was employed and encouraged in an art career by Charles Loloma 

(q.v.) and Lloyd New at their respective shops in Scottsdale, Ariz. 

Address : University of Arizona, Department of Art, Tucson, Ariz. 
Su Ta (see Atencio, Tony) 
The Swan Miniconjou Sioux 

(Also known as The Little Swan; The Swanor.) 

Born: Date unknown. At Cheyenne Agency, Dakota Territory, in 1872, 

when he recorded his calendar for Mallery. 
The Swan, a chief, kept a calendar record on a dressed skin of an antelope or 
deer, claiming it had been maintained in his family for 70 years. The calendar 
was called "History of the Miniconjou Dakotas," and represented the events of 
1800-71. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 
The Swanor (see The Swan) 



184 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Swazo, Juan G. Tesuque 

Born: Date unknown. Deceased. 
Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1938. 
Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW. 

Sweet Fruit (see Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts) 

Sweet Potato [see Anderson, Jimmy) 

Sweezy, Carl Arapaho 

Wattan, Black 

Born: Ca. 1879, on old Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation near Darlin^on, 
Okla. Died, May 28, 1953, Lawton, Okla. During most of his adult life, he 
spent the summer months at Washington Crossing, Okla. Son of Hinan Ba 
Seth (Big Man), whose wife died when Carl was very young. 
Married: Hattie Powless (Oneida), who was employed as a matron at 
Rainy Mountain School, Okla., when they met. 
The artist's older brother, while at the Mennonite school in Halstead, Kan., 
took the name of Fieldie Sweezy (Sweezy being the name of the railway agent 
there). The other children of the family were given the same surname, and Wattan 
became Carl Sweezy. At 14, the artist returned from school to the reservation 
with a baseball, a hat, catcher's mitt, and a box of newly-acquired watercolor 
paints, which a White woman at the agency had taught him to use. His most 
prolific period came during and after he worked for James Mooney. To the end 
of his life he continued to paint in what he called "the Mooney way." His oils 
and watercolors, often unsigned, are excellent ethnographic examples. 
Education: Mennonite Mission Schools in Darlington, Okla., and Halstead, 
Kan.; Carlisle; Chilocco. 

Career: Member of the Indian police who lived in their own tipis near 
the agency's main street; at 14, returned to the reservation to test his 
knowledge of farming; farmer and dairyman. Rainy Mountain School, St. 
Patrick's Mission, and Concho, Okla. ; informant, Oklahoma Historical 
Society; recorder and informant at 20 for James Mooney, Smithsonian 
Institution anthropologist; professional baseball player, two seasons, Enid, 
Okla.; member, all- Indian baseball team on tour of U.S.; BIA, Rainy 
Mountain School and other schools, more than 20 years; retired to paint 
full-time in 1920. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Oklahoma State Health 
Department, Annual Report (July 1951), frontispiece. 

Exhibitions: AIE, AIW, ITIC, MPI, PAC, PAC/T; "Louis and Clark Ex- 
position," Portland, Oreg. (work lent by SI); OU, Dept. Anthropology. 
Collections: Puhlic. CMNH (not confirmed), GM, MAI, OHSM, OU/L, 
OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SI (unsigned), SM. Private: O. Jacobson, R. Moore, 
Neumann, Schonwald. 

Swift Dog Hiinkpapa Sioux 

Stinka Luzahan 

Born: 1845. Son of Running Fearlessly (Kagi Sniin Yanka), a Hunkpapa 
chief , who received a medal from the U.S. Government while in Washington, 
D.C. Swift Dog was a member of the Bad Bow Band (Sitting Bull's people). 



ARTISTS 185 

Married: Woman's Neck (Wita'hu). 

Work Published: BAE, Bull. 61 and lys (a pictographic Winter Count 

representing the years 1797-98 to 1911-12), Praus (1962). 
Tabaksi {see Saul, C. Terry) 
Tafaga, Joseph Santa Clara 

(Perhaps also known as Tafoya, Joseph.) 

Collections: Private: MuUan. 

Address: Santa Clara Pueblo, N.M. 
Tafoya, Camilio Santa Clara 

Collections: Public: WRNGA. 
Tafoya, Francis Pueblo 

Born: 1947, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 

Exhibitions: PAC; SAIEAIP, 1965. 

Address: Espanola, N.M. 
Tafoya, Joseph (see Tafaga, Joseph) 
Tafoya, Mary Agnes Santa Clara 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Tafoya, Rosita Santa Clara 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Collections: Public: MNM, OU/MA. 
Tafoya, Teof ilo Santa Clara 

Po Qui 

(Also known as Tafoya, Teo.) 

Born: May 15, 1915, Santa Clara Pueblo, N.M. Son of Cleto and Severa 

Tafoya. 

Married: Grace Paisano. His son is Charles Dale. 

Education: Santa Fe, 1933-36; degree in art education. New Mexico U., 

1941. 

Career: Teacher: Phoenix Indian School; Oglala Community High School, 

Pine Ridge, S. Dak.; Jemez Day School; Albuquerque Indian School. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School; Santa Clara Day School; 

Julius Rosenwald Building, Chicago, 111. ; Maxwell Public School. 

Exhibitions: AIM, ITIC, MMA, MNM, NMSF, UNM. 

Awards: AIM, ITIC, NMSF. 

Collections: Public: MAI, MKMcNAI. 

Address: c/o Albuquerque Indian School, 362 Tyler Road, Albuquerque, 

N.M. 
Tahalytewa, Stacy Hopi 

Exhibitions: FWG. 
Tahcawin Sioux 

Tahcawin, Fawn 

(Also known as de Cinq-Mars, Tahcawin Rosebud Josephine Marie Louise.) 

Born: January 10, 1929, New York, N.Y. Daughter of Arthur Edmond de 

Cinq-Mars, actor and theatrical director in New York, and Rosebud Yellow 



1 86 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Robe (Sioux), lecturer on Sioux history and customs. M/GF: Chauncey 

Yellow Robe, hereditary Sioux chief. M/GGGU: Sitting Bull, q.v. (Sioux). 

Married: Kenneth B. Moy, 1951 ; died 1956. One child, Karen Winona, 1951. 

Education: Graduated Bayside High School, N.Y., 1947; attended Naum 

Los School of Art, N.Y., 1947-48; Brooklyn Museum Art School, N.Y., 

1948-49; Art, 1949-51. Studied photography under Maurice Lehv and 

ethnic dance under La Meri. 

Career: Painter, dancer, and photographer; assistant recreation director, 

Long Island (N.Y.) Park Commission, 1945-50; dancer, NBC/TV, 1950; 

style colorist, Cohn-Hall-Marx, N.Y., 1951; receptionist, Lightoliers, Ernest 

and Ernest, N.Y., 1956. 

Honors: Chosen to represent the "First Americans" in the dedication cere- 
mony of the American Common, New York World's Fair, 1939. 

Exhibitions: WRNGA, PAC; Carlebach GaUery, N.Y. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: MAI, PAC. Private: Holway. 

Address: 50 Prospect Park, SW, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Taho, Mark Hopi 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1951. 
Taho, Wilbert Hopi 

Born : Date unknown ; from Oraibi, Ariz. 

Exhibitions: 1949-51: FWG, PAC. 
Tahoma, Quincy Navaho 

Tahoma, Water Edge 

Born: 1921, near Tuba City, Ariz. Died, November, 1956, Santa Fe, N.M. 
While at Santa Fe Indian School, the artist developed his unique painting style. 
He was active in sports and set a district track record in 1940. After WWII, he 
established himself as a full-time artist and shared his studios in the Southwest 
with artists who are now well-established. Clara Lee Tanner rightly said he was 
"..one of the most dynamic, imaginative, and gifted of Southwest artists." 
During most of his life, he experienced misfortune, and died at the age of 35, 

Education: Albuquerque, 1936-40; postgraduate work at Santa Fe. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Armed Forces; overseas. 

Career : For a short period he worked in Hollywood movie studios ; painter. 

Commissions: Murals: Santa Fe Indian School. Posters: MNM, "Man 

Becomes an Artist," Laboratory of Anthropology Exhibition. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950); La Farge (1957), Tanner 

(1957), Dockstader (1961). Encyclopedia Britannica Junior, 1946; Arizona 

Highways (February 1950; July 1956), Indian Ceremonial Magazine, ITIC, 

Gallup, N.M. (1957). 

Exhibitions: AIW, FWG, JGS, MNM, PAC, PAC/T, SFWF, UNM; 

Foundation of Western Art, Los Angeles, CaHf., 1941 ; J. W. Young Galleries, 

Chicago, 111. 

Awards: ITIC, NMSF, PAC; two Grand Awards. 

Collections: Public: AF, CU/LMA, GM, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, 

MRFM, OU, PAC, SM, UPA. Private: Dietrich, A. Forbes, MuUan, Thoeny, 

Vinson, Waters, Wyman. 



ARTISTS 187 

Tail Feathers (see Feathers, Gerald T.) 

Takilnok, Richard Davis Eskimo 

Born: February 25, 1927, Nunivak Island, Mekoryuk, Alaska. 

Service: Alaska National Guard, two years; Mekoryuk, Alaska. 

Exhibitions: MHDYMM, PAC, 

Awards: MHDYMM. 

Collections: Public: MHDYMM. 
Takotokasi (see Warrior, Antowine) 
Takzi Apache 

Born: Ca. 1862. Lived in the area of Anadarko, Okla., 1884. 

Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 
Talahytewa, Gibson Hopi 

Dewayesva, Sand Generation 

Born : March 10, 1934, Moenkopi Village, Ariz. 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1954. 

Exhibitions: AAID, MNM, NGA. 

Awards: MNM, 1951. 

Collections: Public: MNM. Private: Dietrich. 

Address : Box 234, Tuba City, Ariz. 
Talaswaima, Terry Hopi 

(Also known as Talaswazma, Terry.) 

Born : Ca. 1940, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Education: Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, i960. 

Collections: Public: LMA/BC (signed Terence). 
Talaswazma, Terry (see Talaswaima, Terry) 
Taliwood, Richard Navaho 

Born: 1942. 

Education: Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, i960. 

Exhibitions: 1960-64: AIAE/WSU, ITIC, SN. 

Awards: 1960-65: ITIC, SN. 

Address: Box 672, Gallup, N.M. 
Tall Elk (see Larvie, Calvin) 
Tallas, Terrance Hopi 

Born: Shungopovi, Ariz. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Taller, Herman Hopi 

Born: Ca. 1939. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Tanner, Lo Ree (see Pop Wea) 
Tantaha Heluta (see Red Horn Bull Buffalo) 
Tanuga Shinga (see White, Clarence A.) 
Tartsah, Jim Kiowa (1) 

Collections : Private : R. Moore. 
Tasumke Witka Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 



l88 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Tatanka Cante Sice (see Bad Heart Buffalo, Amos) 

Tatanka lyotanka {see Sitting Bull) 

Tatankehanni (see Old Buffalo) 

Taulbee, Dan Comanche 

Loba Heit, Wolf Alone 

(Also known as Taulbee, Daniel J.) 

Born : April 7, 1924, St. Ignatius, Mont. 

Married: LaVerne Eva Hanson, 1946. Three children: Mallory, 1948; 

Mitchell, 1950; Janelle, 1953. 
The artist works in oil, watercolor, and ink. In 1963 he said, "I am a breed. I 
paint what I see and what I hear from the old people of many tribes. I'm usually- 
known as a 'Montana Historical Indian Artist' — strictly a realist." 

Education: Elementary school at Poison and Charlo, Mont., 1930-38; 

graduated Poison High School, 1942. 

Service: U.S. Army, two and one-half years. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, FAIEAIP, PAC; Great Falls (Mont.) National Bank; 

Williston National Bank, N. Dak.; Deer Lodge Bank and Trust (Mont.). 

One-man shows: 1959-65: nine, including HM; Burr Gallery, New York, 

N.Y.; Butte (Mont.) Junior League; Farnsworth Museum, Rockland, Me.; 

Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. ; Russell Gallery, Great Falls, Mont. ; 

Statesville (N.C.) Museum. Two-man shows: PAC. 

Awards: Burr Gallery, N.Y., 1959. 

Collections: Public: lACB, MAI. Private: Bott, Cochoran, Huntington, 

Stallman. 

Address : 22 East Center, Butte, Mont. 
Tayloowayahwho (see Pollock, William) 
Taylor, Virginia Cherokee 

Born: September 15, 1922, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Education : High school ; Los Angeles Art Center School. 

Career: Commercial artist, Walt Disney Studios, and Buzza-Cardoza 

Greeting Card Co., in California; medical and scientific illustrator ; office of 

pubhcations staff artist, Oregon State University, ten years; department 

of art faculty, Oregon State University, two years. 

Work Published: The West (February 1966). 

Exhibitions: Ca. 1964-66, in Oregon. 

Address: Oregon State University, Department of Art, Corvallis, Oreg., 

and Route 4, Box 411, Albany, Oreg. 
Te E (see Martinez, Crescendo) 
Teeyacheena (see Medina, Rafael) 
Tega, Charles Eskimo 

Born : April 10, 1942, Tanacross, Alaska. 

Education: Wrangell (Alaska) Institute, Mt. Edgecumbe (Alaska) High 

School, Institute, postgraduate student (major in painting and textile 

painting). 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, MNM; Mt. Edgecumbe, Alaska; New York, N.Y. 

Address: Fairbanks, Alaska. 



ARTISTS 189 

Telese, Gilbert Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Tenakhongva {see Preston, Bert) 

Terasaz, Marian Comanche 

Aukemah 

Born: 1916. In 1950, the artist had a family and was no longer painting. 

Education: Bacone College, ca. 1938. 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Terrazas, Helen Hardin (see Hardin, Helen) 

Tewaquaptewa Hopi 

Honors: Village chief, Oraibi, Ariz.; played a major role in the 1906 village 
split between the Hostile and Conservative factions. 
Work Published: Dockstader (1954). 
Collections: Private: Dockstader. 

Thayhaiya (see Darby, Raymond Lee) 

They Have Gone Back (see Gritts, Franklin) 

They Have Returned (see Gritts, Franklin) 

Thomas, Clifford Tlingit 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 

Address : Box 23, Haines, Alaska . 
Thomas, Edson Onondaga 

Born : New York. Son of George Thomas, Chief of the Onondaga Iroquois. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Thomas, Evans S. Eskimo 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1956. 
Thomas, Kenneth Paiute 

Education: Santa Fe, 1960-61. 

Exhibitions: MNM; PAC, 1961. 

Awards: MNM ("artist showing outstanding promise"), 1961. 

Collections: Private: Maddy. 
Thompson, Alex ? 

Education: Ganado (Ariz.) Public School, ca. 1964. 

Exhibitions: NACG. 

Awards: NACG, 1964. 
Thompson, Robert Laguna 

Exhibitions: AIW. 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Thompson, Thomas Laguna 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW. 
Thorn (see Brave, Franklin P.) 



IQO AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Thornton, Clinton Evan Cherokee 

Born: April 7, 1941, Rose, Okla. Son of C. R. Thornton. 
Married: Meredith Ann Swimmer (Cherokee), ca. i960. 
Education: SaHna High School, Okla. ; Northeastern A. & M., 1958-59; gra- 
duated Northeastern, 1962. 

Exhibitions: PAC; Springfield (Mo.) Art Center; Muskogee Annual Art 
Show, Northeastern State College. 
Awards : Muskogee Annual Art Show. 
Collections: Public: BIA, lACB. 
Address : c/o C. R. Thornton, Box 213, Jay, Okla. 

Thun Povi (see Montoya, Sidney, Jr.) 

Tia Na {see Toledo, Jose Rey) 

Tichkematse Cheyenne (?) 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: HI, OAA/SI. 

Tiger, Jerome Richard Creek-Seminole 

Born: July 8, 1941, Tahlequah, Okla. Died, August 13, 1967. Son of John 
Tiger (Seminole) and Lucinda Lewis (Creek). 

Married: Peggy Lois Richmond, i960. Two children: Dana Irene, 1961; 
Lisa Lou, 1965. 
The artist first began to paint "Indian style" in 1962, and submitted his initial 
works to the Philbrook Indian Annual that year. Much credit for Tiger's recogni- 
tion must be given Miss Nettie Wheeler of Muskogee, Okla., who has worked 
tirelessly in his behalf throughout the country. 
Education : Public school in Eufaula, Okla. ; Alice Robertson Junior High 
School and Central Senior High School, Muskogee, Okla., 1956-58; Eufaula 
High School, 1961 ; Cleveland (Ohio) Engineering Institute, 1963-64. 
Service: U.S. Naval Reserve, 1958-60. 
Career: Full-time artist. 

Honors: Scholarship to Cleveland Engineering Institute. 
Commissions : Murals : Calhoun's Department Store, Muskogee, Okla. 
Books Illustrated: Gibbons (n.d.). 
Work Published: Anon. (1965). Smyth, Ed (1965). 

Exhibitions: AAID, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN; Agra GaUery, 
Washington, D.C. ; Presbyterian Convention, Ridgecrest, N.J.; Marymount 
College, Tarrytown, N.Y. One-man shows: PAC; the Public Library and 
Calhoun's Department Store, Muskogee, Okla. ; Central National Bank, and 
Don Paul Cafeteria, Enid, Okla. ; Fort Smith (Ark.) Art Center. 
Awards: AAID (Grand Award, 1965); ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 
Collections: Public: BIA, MAI, PAC. Private: E. Adkins, Bartleson, Bass, 
Bellman, Bixby, Buddrus, Ju. Campbell, Carlson, Cocke, Curry, Dockstader, 
Edmondson, Elkins, Foreman, Gephardt, J. Griffin, J. Hall, Jacobs, A. 
Johnson, P. Johnson, Kirshncr, Lacy, Leake, Luton, Magee, D. Mason, 
B. Oldham, Rice, Silberman, Slack, Smyth, J. Snodgrass, Swinchatt, Tarpley, 
W. Weber, N. Wheeler, M. White, Wyman! 



ARTISTS 191 

Timeche, Bruce Hopi 

Born : November 9, 1923, Shungopovi, Ariz. 
Through Mrs. C. V. Whitney, the artist received a scholarship making formal 
art training possible for 30 months. He is a portrait artist, a carver of excellent 
Kachina dolls, and is equally adept in the execution of ethnographic Hopi 
paintings. He has been painting since about 1955. 
Education: Graduated Kachina School of Art, Phoenix, Ariz., 1958. 
Career: Employed at Bright Angel Curio Shop, Grand Canyon, Ariz. 
Honors : Scholarship, Kachina School of Art. 

Commissions : Murals : Assisted his instructor with a mural at First National 
Bank, Phoenix, Ariz., and Desert Hills Motel, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Exhibitions: ASF, FAIEAIP, ITIC, MNA, MNM, PAC, SN; Maricopa 
County Fair, Mesa, Ariz. ; Visitors Center, Grand Canyon, Ariz. ; Artist-in- 
Particular, Town and Country, Phoenix, Ariz. ; Waldorf-Astoria Scholarship 
Fund Exhibition, New York, N.Y. 
Awards: 1955-65: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Piihlic: lACB, LMA/BC, MAI, MNA, SMNAI. Private: Den- 
man, Frazier, Johnet, L. Stewart, Thoeny, Whitney. 
Address: 2407 West Papago, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Timeche, Harold Hopi 

Born: June 23, 1924. Died, March 7, 1948. 
For many years the artist's father was employed at Hopi House in Grand 
Canyon. A frail boy most of his life, Harold was in several tuberculosis sanitari- 
ums before he returned to his home in Shungopovi, Ariz. It was during this time 
that he did most of his paintings. Shortly after completing a painting for Phil- 
brook's Indian Annual in 1948, the artist contracted flu and died. 

Education: Hopi, 1941-43; Phoenix, 1938-41. 

Collections: Public : GM. 

Tinzoni Shoshoni 

(Also known as No Heart.) 
The artist was painting in the area of the Shoshoni Reservation, Wyo., in 1885. 

Work Published : BAE, Bull. 61. 
Collections: Public: DAM. 

Ti Ookeah Bahze (see Fireshaker, Frankhn) 

Toahty, Zachary Kiowa-Oto 

Education: Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: YAIA. 

Todacheenie, Barry Navaho 

The artist prefers to execute landscapes and portraits in oils. He believes he has 
inherited his art ability from his mother, a fine weaver living near Leupp, Ariz. 

Education: Graduated Oklahoma S. U./S. T., 1965. 

Career: Before school in Okla.,the artist worked for an outdoor advertising 

company in Ariz, engaged in the layout and painting of large billboards. 

Honors: Navaho Tribal Scholarship to attend Oklahoma State University. 

Toddy, Jimmy (see Beatien Yazz) 



192 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Todea, Rocky Navaho 

Commissions: Murals: The Navaho Tribal Museum, Window Rock, Ariz. 
Work Published: BAE, lyth AR. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Tohasan [see Tohausen) 

Tohausen Kiowa 

Tohausen, Top of the Mountain, Little Mountain, or Little Bluff (Also 
known as Tohasan ] Dohasan; Doha; Dohate; Aanote.) 

Born: Ca. 1835; was a member of the Kata or Arikara band. Died ca. 
1866-68, in Okla. Father : Chief Old Tohausen (the spelling preferred by his 
descendants) . 
The chief was known to have made a Kiowa calendar on heavy manila wrapping 
paper using colored pencils. After his death, his nephew and namesake kept the 
calendar. Drawings by Haungooah {q.v.), represent Tohausen in the collection 
of the Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute. 
Honors: The fourth (and last) Kiowa head chief in tribal history, from 
1833 until his death; prominent at the Medicine Lodge Treaty signing. 
Toh Yah [see Nailor, Gerald) 

Toledo, Jerome Kiowa 

Education : Santa Fe. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Toledo, Jose Rey Jemez 

Shobah Woonhon, Morning Star; Tia Na, Northeast Place (used by his 
father's people); Aluh Hochi, Lightning; Mns Truwi, literally, "a little 
mountain creature with great power." 

Born: June 28, 1915, Jemez Pueblo, N.M. Son of Ortiz Toledo (Pecos- 
Jemez) and Rufugia Moquino (Zuni-Hopi). His father was chief of the 
Jemez Arrow Society, a warrior lodge, and the first Jemez Indian to own 
a modern general store in Jemez Pueblo. M/GF: Jose Moquino (Hopi) 
married at Zia Pueblo. M/GGF: A Zia scout for Kit Carson during the 
Bosque Redondo period when the Navahos were taken to Fort Sumner. 
Married: Amelita Toya (Pecos- Jemez), 1938. Eight children: Adelina, 1938; 
Allen, 1940; Stephen (deceased); Wilma, 1944; Mary, 1946; Michael, 1948; 
Junie, 1950; James Ernest (Oglala), 1961 (foster child, descendant of Chief 
Red Elk (Oglala). 
In his youth, the artist's observations of his cousin, Velino Shije Herrera {q.v.), 
painting stimulated his interest in art. His career has become well established. 
In 1965, after several years of little painting activity, the artist said, "I have 
not lost hojoe to again paint seriously." 
Education: Santa Fe; graduated Albuquerque, 1935; B.A., New Mexico U., 
1951; M.A., Art Ed., New Mexico U., 1955; New Mexico, summer, 1955. 
Career: Painted under WPA, 1940-41; arts and crafts instructor, Santa Fe 
Indian School, 1949-56; art instructor, Albuquerque Indian School, 1956- 
57; U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Indian Health, 1947; in 
1959, transferred from New Mexico to Aberdeen, S. Dak. area as Health 
Education Specialist; Education SpeciaUst (Community Health), Lagiiiia 
Service Unit, Laguna, N.M., 1964-. 



ARTISTS 193 

Commissions: Murals: The Bernalillo (N.M.) Mercantile Co., Albuquerque 
Indian School; Seligman Indian Store, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Honors : One-year grant to University of New Mexico. 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). Arizona Highways (Febru- 
ary 1950) ; "Pine Tree Ceremonial Dance," postal card of the last authentic 
Pine Tree Ceremonial Dance performed by the Jemez Indians, painted 
by the artist at the dance and printed by OU/MA. 

Exhibitions: AIE, AIEC, DAM, HM, ITIC, MNM, NGA, NMSF, OU/ET, 
PAC, PAC/T, UNM. 

Awards: 1947-56: ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC. 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNM, OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SM. Private: 
K. Adams, Denman, Dietrich, A. Forbes, Schroeder, Woodward. 
Address: Box 186, Laguna, N.M. 

Toledo, Mike Jemez 

Exhibitions: FWG, 1943. 

Tom, Herbert. Jr. Navaho 

Born: July 15, 1928, Klagetoh, Ariz. 

Education: Fort Wingate (N.M.) Vocational High School, ca. 1948; gra- 
duated Santa Fe. 
Exhibitions: FWG, 1951. 
Collections: Public: MNM. 
Address : Klagetoh Trading Post, Ganado, Ariz. 

Tomahawk, A. E. {see Edaakie, Anthony P.) 

Tomo ? 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Tomossee, T. Hopi 

Collections: Public: MAI (46 paintings of Kachinas). 
Tonepahhote, Billy Kiowa 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1958. 

Address : c/o Ruth Cox, Box 89, Anadarko, Okla. 
To'oan Kiowa 

Born: Date unknown. He Hved in the area of Fort SiU, Okla., ca, 1886. 

Career: Warrior and artist. 

Collections: Public: MAI (ledger). 
Top Of The Momitain {see Tohausen) 
T'o Pove {see Atencio, Lorencita) 
Toppah, Herman Comanche-Kiowa- Apache 

Al Qua Kou, Yellow Hair 

Born: August 17, 1923, Carnegie, Okla. 

Married: Pauline Kaubin (Kiowa) 1952. Three children: Byron, 1953; 

Jerry, 1957; Janice, i960. 

Education: Carnegie (Okla.) Elementary School, St. Patrick's; Riverside; 

Chilocco. Mural instruction under Olaf Nordmark; studied under James 

Auchiah, Spencer Asah, Leonard Riddles, Archie Blackowl, and Cecil Mur- 

dock {qq.v.). 



13 



194 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Exhibitions: AIE, BNIAS, FANAIAE, ITIC, PAC; Regional and National 

Motorola Art Shows. 

Awards : ITIC, PAC ; Regional Motorola Art Show. 

Collections: Public: PAC, SPIM; Carnegie (Okla.) High School. Private: 

Bush, R. Moore, Powell. 

Address: General Delivery, Carnegie, Okla, 
Torivio, Lolita A coma 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, NGA. 

Collections: Private: D. Kramer. 
Tosa, Lawrence Jemez 

Born: 1947. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: AAIE, MNM. 

Awards: MNM, 1959. 
Tosa, Mary Jemez 

Education: Jemez, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: 1959-60: MNM. 
Tosa, Paul Zia 

Exhibitions: AAIEAE. 
Tosa, Tony Jemez 

Born: 1947. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: AAIE, MNM. 
Toshewana, Robert Leo Zuni 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. i960. 

Exhibitions: 1961-62: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: MNM, 1962. 

Collections: Private: Adlerblum, Humphey, Marriott, D. Maxwell. 
Tosque [see Williams, David Emmett) 
Tough Soldier Sioux 

Zuyaterila 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictograph on paper). 
Toun Keuh Kiowa ( ?) 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Townsend, Roger San Felipe 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Townsend, Roy C. San Felipe 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Toya, Johnny JSmez 

Collections: Public: MAI (a 1956 painting). 



ARTISTS 



Jemez 



Toya, Jose Maria 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Toya, Mary Isabel Jemez 

Collections: Public'. MNM (acquired when the artist was 11). 
Toya, Patricio Jemez 

Exhibitions: ACC, EITA. 

Collections: Public: CGA, MNM. 
Toya, Pete Jemez 

Born: 1945, Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1960-61: MNM; PAC (Jemez School Exhibit), 1957. 

Awards: MNM, i960. 

Collections: Private: Jameson. 
Toya, Rosie Jemez 

Born: 1947, Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: 1958-60: AAIE, MNM. 
Tracy, E. Pueblo 

Collections: Public: RM. 
Tracy, Edmund Navaho 

Owipo 

Collections: Public: DAM (30 paintings); RM. 
Tracy, Jo Ellis Cherokee 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1961. 

Address : 830 South El Molino, Pasadena, Cahf . 
Trader Boy (see Howe, Oscar) 
Treas, Byron L. 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Treas, Rudolph 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: 1947-63: AIAE/WSU, MNM, PAC, SI, SN. 

Awards: 1957-63: MNM, PAC, SN. 

Collections: Public: AF, MAI. Private: Thoeny. 
Trujillo, Andy Cochiti 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Collections: Piiblic: MAI. 

Address: Cochiti Star Route, Peha Blanca, N.M. 
Trujillo, Ascension San Juan 

Poquin Tahn 

Born: May 23, 1933, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. Died ca. 1959. 

Education : Graduated Santa Fe, 1953 ; attended New Mexico U. 

Exhibitions: 1956-59: FWG, MNM, PAC. 

Awards: 1957: MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Private: Wyman. 



Apache (?) 
Mescalero Apache 



13* 



196 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Trujillo, Jennie Taos 

Education: Institute, 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 
Trujillo, Gregory Pueblo 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1958, 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 
Trujillo, Manuel San Juan 

Peen Tseh, White Mountain 

Born: December 21, 1927, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 

Education: Graduated Santa Fe, 1947. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, Airborne Paratroopers, five and one-half 

years ; South Pacific Theater. 

Exhibitions: FWG, ITIC, JGS, MNM, PAC. 

Awards: PAC, 1954. 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Address: San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 
Tsabetsaye, Roger Zuni 

Tsabetsaye, Eagle's Tail 

Born: October 29, 1941, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. GF: Henry Gasper, Governor 

of Zuni Pueblo in the 1930's. 

Married: Rosie Epaloose, 1962. Two children: Darrel Davis, 1962; Roderick 

Mark, 1963. 
The artist started painting in 1957 ^^^ has made exceptional progress in his 
chosen field of arts and crafts. His contemporary designs in silver are outstanding. 
He hopes to continue his education and become permanently connected with 
art education. 

Education: Zuni Day School; Albuquerque, 1957-60; Arizona, "Southwest 

Indian Art Project," summer, 1961; Institute, 1962; Rochester S. T., 1963-. 

Honors: Scholarship to special classes, University of Arizona, 1961; $1500 

scholarship to Rochester School of Technology ; Albuquerque Indian School ; 

awards night certificate and student service certificate. Arts and Crafts 

Department Certificate of Merit; Institute of American Indian Arts, Out- 
standing Student, 1963. 

Commissions: Necklace: President Lyndon B. Johnson commissioned a 

silver necklace for presentation to Sefiora Orlich, wife of the President of 

Costa Rica. 

Exhibitions: 1957-65: 25, including ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC, SN, USDI, 

YAIA. 

Awards: 1957-65: 20 from ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC, SN (Award to 

the Student with the Greatest Promise). 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM, BIA, lACB, MNM, PAC. Private: Adler- 

blum, Thoeny. 

Address: Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 
Tsadeltah Kiowa 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, I'la., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: HI. 



ARTISTS 197 

Tsait Kope Ta Kiowa 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: MHS/B. 
Tsa Sah Wee Eh {see Hardin, Helen) 
Tsate Kongia (see Bosin, Blackbear) 
Tsa To Kee (see Tsatoke, Lee Monette) 
Tsa To Kee (see Tsatoke, Monroe) 

Tsatoke, Lee Monette Kiowa 

Tsa To Kee, Hunting Horse 

Born: March 21, 1929, Gotebo, Okla. Son of Martha Koomsa (or Koomsa- 
taddle), and Monroe Tsatoke, q.v. (both Kiowa). M/GGF: Satanta, Kiowa 
chief. GGGF: Satank, Kiowa war chief. P/GF: Tsa To Kee (Hunting Horse), 
Kiowa scout for Custer. M/GF: Bob Koomsataddle (or Koomsa), outstand- 
ing drummer of many Kiowa chants and songs. 

Married: Donna Jean Mopope (Kiowa), 1948. Five children: Martha, 1953; 
Anna Mae, 1956; Ladonna, 1958; Lois, i960; Rita, 1963. 
The artist inherited his interest and talent in art from his famous father; how- 
ever, he did not become actively engaged in art as a career until 1943. He credits 
his teachers at Riverside — 'Acee Blue Eagle [q.v.), Ruth Cox, and Mrs. Susie 
Peters (the government worker who did much to encourage his father) — as 
having encouraged him most through the years. 
Education: Graduated Riverside, 1948. 

Career: Guide, Indian City, U.S.A., Anadarko, Okla.; freelance artist. 
Work Published: American Indian Tradition (Issue 52, 1963), cover. 
Exhibitions: AAIE, AIE, BNIAS, ITIC, MNM, PAC, PAC/T. Kirkwood 
(Mo.) Sidewalk Show, Stix-Bher and Fuller; Public Library, St. Louis, Mo. 
One-man shows: PAC; Conners College, Warner, Okla. 
Awards: ITIC, PAC; Kirkwood (Mo.) Sidewalk Show. 
Collections: Pttblic: BIA, lACB, MAI, OHSM, PAC, SPIM; Carnegie 
(Okla.) High School. Private: Bush, Cox, Denman, Deupree, Dockstader, 
Douney, Elkus, Hughes, R. Moore, Schonwald, Thoeny, Walch, M. Wilson. 
Address: 114 West Texas, Anadarko, Okla. 
Tsatoke, Monroe Kiowa 

Tsa To Kee, Hunting Horse 

Born: September 29, 1904, Saddle Mountain, Okla. Died, February 3, 1937. 
Son of Tsa To Kee, a Kiowa scout for Custer. GM was a White captive. 
Married: Martha Koomsa (or Koomsataddle) (Kiowa), ca. 1924. Four 
children: Jewel, 1926; Lee Monette (q.v.), 1929; Ross Maker (Buddy), 1934; 
John Thomas. 
Monroe was one of the Five Kiowas (q.v.). It was recorded in 1936 that "he could 
always draw pictures, but never took any art lessons until Mrs. Susie Peters 
organized a Fine Arts Club of Indian boys and girls who showed talent in drawing 
and painting, beadwork, and other native work. Mrs. Willie Baze Lane also gave 
them lessons and encouragement." He worked hard at his art, responding with 
all his spirit to the sympathy and encouragement of his teachers at Anadarko 
and later at the University of Oklahoma. He took great delight in his work, 
painting the things he knew first-hand. While seriously ill with tuberculosis, the 



ig8 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

artist joined the Peyote faith, becoming a member of the Native American 
Church, and began the series of paintings which expressed his rehgious experi- 
ences (published after his death). Music was also important to him; he loved 
to sing and, for many years, was chief singer at Kiowa dances. 

Education : Rainy Mountain Indian School, near Anadarko, Okla. ; Bacone 

College ; special non-credit classes at Oklahoma. 

Career: Farmer until given the opportunity to attend the University of 

Oklahoma. Began painting ca. 1915. 

Honors : University of Oklahoma Press adopted his painting as a colophon ; 

represented in Indians of Today. 

Commissions: Murals: OHSM, OU/A; St. Patrick's Mission School; Ana- 
darko Federal Building. 

Work Published: Jacobson (1929; 1964), Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), 

Tsatoke (1957), LaFarge (i960). Smoke Signals, lACB (No. 42, 1964). 

Exhibitions: AIE/T, NGA, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T, SFWF; United Nations 

Conference, San Francisco, Calif., 1945. 

Collections: Public: ACM, GM, MAI, MKMcNAI, MNA/KHC, MNM, 

MRFM, OHSM, OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SPL. Private: Callaway, Denman, 

Deupree, Dockstader, Elkus, Hogue, O. Jacobson, D. Maxwell. 
Tse Ko Yate (see Big Bow, Woody) 
Tse Tsan [see Velarde, Pablita) 
Tsen T'ainte (see White Horse) 
Tse Ye Mu (see Vigil, Romando) 
Tsina ^ Navaho 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Tsihnahjinnie (see Tsinajinnie, Andrew Van) 

Tsinajinnie, Andrew Van Navaho 

Yazzie Bahe, Little Grey 

(Andrew [or Andy] has spelled his last name at least five different ways: 

Tsihnahjinnie, Tsinajinie, Tsinajininie, Tsinajinnie, and Tsinnaijinnie.) 

Born: November 19, 1918, Rough Rock, Ariz. 

Married: Minnie McGirt, ca. 1945. Five children: HuUeah June, 1954; 

Welake Jane, 1956; Tsosie Van, 1957; Miquagekee, 1961; Bahe Jim, 1963. 
At about the age of five, "Andy" learned there were such things as pencils and 
asked his mother to buy one when she went to the trading post for supplies. He 
then drew on wrapping paper and the backs of labels from cans. Until that time, 
the youngster had used "stone-on-stone" to produce charming drawings. He 
has been a serious painter since about 1940, and is well known for his "color 
periods" — blue, pink, etc. As an outlet for his other creative interests, he is a 
member of the Navaho Salt River Band, Scottsdale, Ariz., and The Navaho 
Tribal Band, Window Rock, Ariz. 

Education: Fort Apache (Ariz.) Indian School, graduated Santa Fe, 1936; 

attended Oakland. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army Air Force, five years; South Pacific and Asian 

Theaters. 

Career: Illustrator, Navaho Agency, Window Rock, Ariz.; has maintained 

his studio in Scottsdale, Ariz., since WWII; full-time artist. 



ARTISTS 199 

Honors : Palmes d'Academiques, 1954. 

Commissions: Murals: Phoenix Indian School; Navaho Sanitorium, Wins- 
low, Ariz.; Fort Sill Indian School; Navaho Museum, Window Rock, Ariz.; 

one mural in Japan. Silk Screens: Tewa Enterprises, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Books Illustrated: Clark (1940a; i960); Schevill (1956); Wyman (1966). 

Work Pxiblished: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), La Farge (1956; i960), 

Pierson and Davidson (i960), Bahti (1965). Arizona Highways (February 

1950; December 1958); The Tie-In (ist Quarter i960), cover. 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, AIEC, FAIEAIP, HM, ITIC, MNA, MNM, OU/ 

ET, PAC, PAC/T, SN, USDS. 

Awards: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN; in the 1930's, award in a national competi- 
tion conducted by American Magazine; has received several grand awards 

in Indian art competitions. 

Collections: Public: AF, AMNH, BIA, CGA, GM, lACB, LMA/BC, MAI, 

MKMcNAI, MNCA, MNM, OU/MA, OU/SM, PAC, SMNAI. Private: H. 

Adams, Berg, Denman, Dietrich, Elkus, A. Forbes, Freeman, Goff, Jameson, 

D. Kramer, Lockett, Maxwell, F. McCormick, MuUan, Neely, Schonwald, 

Sewell, Thoeny, Wyman. 

Address: Box 542, Scottsdale, Ariz. 
Tsisete, Percy Sandy {see Sandy, Percy Tsisete) 
Tso, John Navaho 

Born : Date unknown. Son of Mrs. Ason Gladys Tso, Oraibi, Ariz. 

Education: Graduated Holbrook (Ariz.) High School, 1964; Eastern 

Arizona Junior College, Thatcher, Ariz., 1964-. 

Honors: Art award from Eastern Arizona Junior College, May, 1965. 

Exhibitions : Student Center, Eastern Arizona Junior College. 

Address: c/o Mrs. Ason Gladys Tso, Oraibi, Ariz. 
Tsoodle, James Kiowa 

Exhibitions: AIEC. 
Tsosie, George Navaho 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 

Awards: ITIC, 1964. 
Tsosie, Paul Navaho 

Collections: Public: SM. 
Tso Yazzie [see Kahn, Chester) 
Tucson, Loren Zuni 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1965. 

Address: Zuni, N.M. 
Tullma [see C.D.T.) 

Tune [see Two Hatchet, Spencer Lee, Jr.) 
Turkey, Moses Kiowa 

Sah Quo Die Quoie 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1956. 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: ACM. 



200 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Turning Bear (see Murdock, Cecil) 

Turning Bear (Chief) Brule Sioux 

Born : Date unknown. He was on the Yellowstone with Sitting Bull's camp, 

1870 (see Grass, John). The artist was a prisoner at Fort Omaha, Nebr., 

awaiting trial for murder in October, 1880; he later stood trial and was 

released. See Hyde (1961; 1956). 

Collections: Public: AMNH. Private: Hay (colored drawing executed for 

Capt. Leonard Hay, Ninth Infantry). 
Tuyahoema, Kyrate Hopi 

(Also known as Tuvahoema, Kyrat.) 

Born: 1914, Old Oraibi, Ariz. Died January i, 1942. 
The artist's paintings were few; he contracted tuberculosis shortly after leaving 
school and spent much of his remaining life in sanatoriums in Arizona. 

Education: Oraibi Day School, Oraibi, Ariz.; Albuquerque, 1927; Santa Fe, 

1933-35. 

Work Published: Search Magazine (September 1965). 
Collections: Public: MAI, GM. 
Twakuku Zuni (?) 

Collections: Public: AF. 
Two-Arrows, Tom Onondaga 

Ga Hes Ka, Two Arrows 
(Also known as Dorsey, Tom.) 

Born: February 2, 1920, on the Onondaga Reservation, N.Y.; member of 
the Onondaga Wolf Clan and False Face Society. His son is Tom Dorsey, 
Jr. (q.v.), Tatoganta (Little Turtle). His daughter is Okanta (Little Owl). 
In 1946, the artist expressed interest in the need for a revival of traditional 
Woodland art forms, using such designs in their original state or modifying them 
for decorative use in interior decoration, clothing, and the like. "The use of 
authentic design motifs is essential, of course; but it is equally important to use 
them intelligently, with full awareness of their symbolic significance. I feel, too, 
that the Indian artist is not being fully creative if he merely copies or compiles 
these motifs in decorative form. Designs can be analyzed, separated into their 
symbolically significant parts, and reassembled according to the originality, taste 
and purpose of the artist. If we are to have a developing art instead of a static, 
backward-looking one, we must feel free to use the same artistic ingenuity that 
helped to form that art. ..." The artist works in tempera because of its "earthy 
quality" and with an established palette in which "red and black, the religious 
color combinations of the Eastern Indians, is most used." Two-Arrows' talents 
range from painting to creating Indian garments, hand-carving, silvei-A\^ork, 
musical instruments, jewelry, and beadwork. 
Education: Albany (N.Y.) Institute of History and Art, studied painting 
techniques eight years, under Herbert Steinke. 

Service: WWH, U.S. Army Air Force, two years; China-Burma-India 
Theater. Taught art at the Armed Forces Institute, Calcutta, India. 
Career: Illustrator, decorator, designer; display specialist, AMNH; lecturer 
on Indian folklore for schools, libraries, museums, and civic groups; artist 
(established display center for Pakistan arts and crafts), Pakistan Consulate, 
New York, N.Y.; guest teacher of dance at summer schools in Mass.; has 
performed in films on Indian dancing. 



ARTISTS 201 

Honors : He and his wife were sent on a good-will mission to Asiatic nations, 

under the sponsorship of the USDS; introduced a silk-screen method for 

making a useful machine-gun target. 

Commissions: Textiles: Designs, Textron, Inc. Dinnerware: Designs, Arz- 

berg Porcelain. Murals: Post Library, Seymore Johnson Air Field. 

Work Published: Masks and Men, AMNH (1946), catalog; illustrated many 

U.S. Army booklets. 

Exhibitions: AFA, DAM, JGS, MAI, NGA, PAC, PAC/T; University of 

Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.; Smith Gallery, Springfield, Mass.; "Indian 

Art in Industry of India," Calcutta. One-man shows: AFA, CPLH, MAM. 

Awards : DAM, PAC ; Carnegie Scholastic Award. 

Collections: Public: AIHA, AMNH, GM, MAI, MAM, PAC. 

Address: 25 Second Street, Albany, N.Y. 12210 
Two Eagle, Violet Sioux 

Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Address: Parmelee, S. Dak. 
Two-Hatchet, Spencer Lee, Jr. Kiowa 

Tune (Kiowa nickname) 

Born: August, 6 1943, Lawton, Okla. Son of Spencer Two-Hatchet (Kiowa) 

and Peggy Lois Payahsote (Kiowa.) GGM: Niece of Hunting Horse (Kiowa) 

and descendant of Mokeen (Mexican captive who played a prominent role 

in Kiowa history). P/GGF: Edward Two-Hatchet (Pahdongkie) (Kiowa). 
Mrs. Susie Peters purchased the artist's first painting, encouraging him, as did 
Mr. and Mrs. Hardy of the Hardy Gallery, to continue to paint. 

Education: Graduated Institute, 1965. 

Exhibitions: AIE, FAIEAIP, ITIC, PAC, SN. 

Awards: SN. 

Collections: Private: R. Moore, Peters. 

Address : Box 878, Carnegie, Okla. 
Twoitsie, Hansen Hopi 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 

Collections: Private: Dietrich, D. Kramer. 
Two Strikes Oglala Sioux 

The artist's "Partisan" drawing is reproduced in the BAE, 4th AR. This is a 
drawing illustrating the man's authority, or leadership of a war party, by an 
elevated pipe or war club. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 
Tyndall, Calvin T. Sioux or Omaha 

Umpah, Elk 

Exhibitions : One-man shows : JAM, 1930's. 

Collections: Puhlic: HMFA. Private: Denman. 

Address: Macy, Nebr. 
Umpah [see Tyndall, Calvin T.) 
Umpan Hanska (see Larvie, Calvin) 
Upright Post [see Chauncey, Florence Nupok) 



202 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Used As A Shield {see Grass, John) 

Vacit, Gary Zuni 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Valencia, Anna Lou ? 

Education: St. Catherine's, 1965. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1965. 
Address: Box 1883, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Vallo, Pedro Acoma 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Velarde, Neito Santo Domingo 

Collections: Public: UPA. 

Velarde, Pablita Santa Clara 

Tse Tsan, Golden Dawn 

Born: September 19, 1918, Santa Clara Pueblo, N.M. Daughter of Herman 
Velarde (Santa Clara) and Marianita Chavarria (Santa Clara). 
Married: Herbert O. Hardin, 1942; divorced. Two children: Helen Hardin 
(q.v.), 1943; Herbert, Jr. 
Tonita Pefia {q.v.), the "mother" of Pueblo painting, introduced Pablita to the 
world of art. There was a period in childhood when an eye disease caused a loss 
of sight. Upon regaining her eyesight she explained, "temporary darkness made 
me want to see everything .... I have trained myself to remember, to the small- 
est detail, everything I see. . .." In 1938, Pablita benefited greatly from a four- 
month tour of the U.S., accompanied by Ernest Thompson Seton, the famous 
naturalist and lecturer, and his wife. During the tour, she exhibited her paintings, 
selling several. Upon returning to New Mexico, she built her first studio at the 
pueblo and began her painting career. Dorothy Dunn, in speaking of the artist's 
work, said that her "style evokes the poise and gentle strength of a Pueblo 
woman." 

In 1956, Pablita began her unique earth paintings, made from various colored 
rocks that she grinds to powder on a metate, mixes with water and glue for a 
plastic effect, and applies to Masonite. In 1964, the artist expressed herself in 
the following way: "I have not gone to the new trend nor do I wish to do so in 
the near future. I cannot contribute thoughts of value without appreciating and 
understanding the past." She feels there is still very much beauty and dignity 
to draw upon from the past, and that even if she were to "catch-up" with the 
present, she would never have enough time to paint the beauty she sees in 
yesterday. 
Education: Espanola; St. Patrick's; graduated Santa Fe, 1936. 
Career: Assistant art teacher, Santa Clara Day School, 1938; lectured 
about her paintings and the exhibits at BandeHer National Monument 
Museum, N.M.; full-time freelance artist. 

Honors: Palmes d'Academiques, 1954; represented in Indians of Today, 
special recognition from 20th Century Art Club, St. Louis, Mo., 1955; Old 
Father, the Story Teller, voted one of the Best Western Books of 1961. 
Commissions: Murals: Bandeher National Monument, N.M.; Western Skies 
Hotel, Albuquerque, N.M.; Santa Clara Day School; First National Bank, 
Los Alamos, N.M. Building Fagade: Maisel Building, Albuquerque, N.M. 
(with other artists). 
Books Illustrated: Velarde (i960). 



ARTISTS 203 

Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950), La Farge (1956; i960). 

Women Speaking (April 1959), New Mexico (December i960); Arizona 

Repiihlic (March 2, 1963), Indian Life, ITIC (August 1961), American Artist 

(April 1965). 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, AIM, CCP, DAM, GM, ITIC, JGS, MHDYMM, 

MNM, NMSF, OU, OU/ET, PAC, PAC/T, SN, USDS; University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley; Bandelier National Monument Museum, N.M. One-man shows: 

MNM, PAC; Enchanted Mesa, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Awards: 1946-65: DAM, ITIC, MNM, NMSF, PAC. One Grand Award. 

Collections: Public: AF, BIA, DAM, GM, lACB, KM, LMA/BC, MAI, 

MHDYMM, MNM, OU/MA, PAC, SMNAI, UPA; State of New Mexico. 

Private: H. Adams, Adlerblum, Cosgrove, Elkus, A. Forbes, Goff, Lockett, 

W. S. Price, Schonwald, Thoeny, Verryden, M. Williams. 

Address: 805 Adams, NE, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Velino Shije {see Herrera, Velino Shije) 
Venego, Florenzo Apache 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Vicenti, Carl A. Jicarilla Apache 

Born: January 8, 1930, Dulce, N.M. 

Married: Norine Isidora Verhagen, 1953. Five children: Carey, 1954; 

Carson, 1955; Noraleen, 1957; Carlisle, 1959; Carlson, 1962. 

Education: Dulce (N.M.) Public School, Albuquerque; Haskell; Brigham 

Young University, Provo, Utah; Utah S.; B.A., Utah. 

Career: Art Instructor, Inter-Mountain Indian School, ca. 1963-. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, MNM, PAC, SN. 

Awards: PAC, SN. 

Collections: Piihlic: BIA; Jicarilla Apache Tribe. Private: Blake, Jorgen- 

sen, Rousch, Schreiber, L. Smith. 

Address : c/o Inter-Mountain Indian School, Brigham City, Utah. 
Vicenti, Charles Zuni 

Education: Albuquerque, ca. 1956. 

Commissions: Murals: Barelas Community Center (with other artists). 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Vicenti, Steven Jicarilla Apache 

Nehakije 

(Also known as Vicenti, Stephen.) 

Born: 1917, Dulce, N.M. Died, 1948, at Santa Fe, N.M. 
Clara Lee Tanner (1957) refers to the artist as the "first modern painter of the 
Apache tribe." 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: First exhibited in 1934 at Santa Fe, N.M. Later exhibited 

widely among such institutions as AGAA, AIW, MNM, NGA, SUAG. 

Collections: Public: CGFA. Private: Dietrich. 
Vigil, Albert San Ildefonso 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Romando Vigil {q.v.). 

Education: Santa Fe. 



204 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Collections: Public: GM, MAI, MNA/KHC. 

Address : 1708I South Vermont Avenue, Los Angeles, Calif. 
VigU, Alfred Jemez 

Education: Jemez 

Exhibitions: MNM., 1961. 
Vigil, Andrea Jemez 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1962. 

Awards: MNM. 

Vigil, Calvin Jicarilla Apache 

Born: June 19, 1924, Dulce, N.M. 

Education: Dulce (N.M.) Indian School, 1939-43; Santa Fe, 1946-47. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Navy; South Pacific Theater. 

Career : Farmer and rancher. 

Exhibitions: DAM, ITIC, MNM, PAC. 

Collections: Public: DAM, PAC. Private: Deem, Feemster, D. Maxwell, 

W. S. Price. 

Address: Box 32, Dulce, N.M. 
Vigil, Frank Paul Jicarilla Apache 

Born: 1921. 

Exhibitions: 1950-63: AAIE, ITIC, PAC, SN, USDS. 

Awards: PAC, 1950. 

Collections: Public: BIA, SMNAI. Private: Dixon. 

Address: Box 29, Dulce, N.M. 
Vigil, Jo Tesuque 

(Also known as Vigil, Jo Gabriel.) 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: AIW, OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM, CU/LMA, OU/MA. 

Address: Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. 
Vigil, Juanita Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Vigil, Lucy Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
Vigil, Marco Zuni 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Vigil, Pete Tesuque 

Born: July 16, 1919. 

Married: Lila. Three children: Kanchee, David, Thomas. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Career: Technician, University of California; painter, silversmith, and 

woodcarver. 

Exhibitions: AIEC, AIW, PAC. 



ARTISTS 205 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA, GM, OU/SM. Private: A. Forbes, Denman, 

Thoeny. 

Address: Route i, Box 57A, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Vigil, Priscilla Jemez 

Born: 1958, N.M. 

Education: Jemez. 

Exhibitions: AAIE, i960. 
Vigil, Ralph Jemez 

Collections: Public: MNM. 
Vigil, Ramon Tesuque 

Education: Tesuque, ca. 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 
VigU, Romando San Ildefonso 

Tse Ye Mu, Falling In Winter 

Born: 1902. Father of Albert Vigil (q.v.). Brother of Tonita Peiia (q.v.). 
The artist was painting as early as 1920 at the pueblo. In 1950, he was apparently 
in California. His style is that of the San Ildefonso school of painting. Some of 
his work could be found for sale in New Mexico galleries in 1952. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Career: Artist, for a short time at Walt Disney Studios, Hollywood, Calif. 

Commissions: Murals: The Corcoran Gallery of Art, EITA; with Velino 

Shije Herrera and Oqwa Pi {qq.v.), 1933; Santa Fe Indian School; La Fonda 

Hotel, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Work Published: Alexander (1932). American Magazine of Art (August 

1933)- 

Exhibitions: ACC, AIEC, EITA, MNM, OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: AF, AMNH, DAM, GM, JAM, MAI, MNA/KHC, 
MNM, MRFM, OU/MA, PAC, PU/M, RM. Private: Denman, Elkus, Hinch- 
man, Thoeny. 
Vigil, Ruf ina Tesuque 

Sah Wa 

Rufina painted and exhibited in Santa Fe and in Chicago. She received training 

under Dorothy Dunn. In 1950, however, it was reported that she had stopped 

painting "long ago." 
Education : Santa Fe. 

Career: Draftsman, Los Alamos, N.M., "at one time." 
Exhibitions: NGA, OU/ET. 

Collections: Public: MNM, OU/MA. Private: Denman, D. Kramer. 
Vigil, Thomas Tesuque 

Pan Yo Pin, Summer Mountain (and Pen Yo Pin; Pu Yo Pin; Pinayo Pin). 
(Also known as Vigil, Tomas.) 

Born: Ca. 1889, Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. Died, i960. Father of Tim Vigil {q.v.) 
and Paul Vigil. 

The artist was painting at the pueblo as early as 1920. In 1950, he occasionally 

painted on special orders only. 
Education: St. Catherine's, 1904-07 (did not complete school). 
Work Published: Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 



206 american indian painters 

Exhibitions: ACC, EITA, SI/T. 

Collections: Public: AMNH, CAM, CGFA, DAM, GM, MAI, MNM, MRFM, 

OU, PU/M, RM. Private: Elkus, A. Forbes, W. Henderson. 
Vigil, Tim Tesuque 

Ku Se Peen, Rocky Mountain 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Thomas Vigil (q.v.). 

Career: Employed at Los Alamos, N.M., "at one time." 

Exhibitions: PAC, SN. 

Collections: Private: Neely. 

Address: Route i. Box 59, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Vigil, Tom Jemez 

Born: 1945. 

Education: Jemez, ca. 1957. 

Exhibitions: AIE, PAC. 

Awards: AIE, 1957. 

Collections: Private: Jameson, J. Snodgrass. 

Address: Route i, Box 59, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Vigil, Tomas [see Vigil, Thomas) 
Vigil, Ultimio [see Vigil, Utimio) 
Vigil, Utimio Tesuqvie 

(Also known as Vigil, Ultimio.) 

Exhibitions : AIEC (hsted as Ultimio) . 

Collections: Public: CU/LMA (signed Utimio, executed at 18). Private: 

Walch. 
Waano-Gano, Joe T. N. Cherokee 

Waano-Gano, Bow- Arrow 

Born: March 3, 1906, Salt Lake City, Utah. Son of James Noonan (and 

Noonah), and Rena May Lash-Heart (both Cherokee). His godmother was 

Ah Wahn U (Seneca). 

Married: Christine Ruben (Karok), March 15, 1935. 
As far back as he can remember, from the time he could hold a pencil or brush, 
Waano-Gano has drawn or painted. Many of his early creative works were in the 
medium of clay. His studies were given assistance and guidance by anthropol- 
ogists Arthur Woodward, Frederick W. Hodge, and M. R. Harrington. As the 
result of a car accident in 1961, the artist must now force his fingers and wrists 
to "work." 

Education: Public schools in Salt Lake City, Utah, and graduated 

Los Angeles (Calif.) Metropolitan High School, 1922,; Von Schneidau 

School of Art, 1924-28; extension courses, University of Southern California 

at Los Angeles. Studied under Hanson Puthoff and Theodore N. Lukits. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Air Force, three years. 

Career: Decor designer, Western Air Lines, 1944-46; member of an all- 
Indian radio cast which presented dramatic adaptations from Indian 

legends, ca. 1939-41; outdoor display artist; commercial and advertising 

artist, 1924-41; designer of textiles with Indian motifs for manufacturer; 

lecturer ; stage director and actor. Song of Hiawatha, Hollywood Bowl, Los 

Angeles ; designer of more than 30 combat and transport plane insignia. 



ARTISTS 207 

Honors: Represented in Who's Who in American Art, Indians of Today, 
received "Best Picture to Live With" Award, Biltmore Annual, 1952, Her- 
mosa Beach, CaUf. ; past president, San Fernando Valley Artist's Guild; 
past president. Painters and Sculptors, Los Angeles; Chairman, California 
International Flower Show Art Exhibition, 1958; on Honor Roll of the 
"Greatest Living American Indians,*' 1933; portrait in CCP Hall of Fame, 
Indian section. 

Commissions: Medal: Designer of Indian Council Fire Achievement Annual 
Award, 1933. Masthead: The Amerindian, designer. Cover: California 
Authentics, Santa Fe Trail Series (September 14, 1946), fabric and fashion 
design brochure, fabric designs also by the artist. Outdoor Mural: Commu- 
nity Chest, Los Angeles, Calif. Indoor Murals: Sherman Institute, River- 
side, Calif.; Los Angeles General Hospital; Los Angeles Public Library, 
assisted Dean Corn well in completion of his murals. Paintings: "Green 
Virgin of Mexico," unveiled 1948 and used to raise funds for Mexican 
education, now in Mexico City after touring Mexico and South America. 
Work Published: California Stylist (September 1946); "Art of the Ameri- 
can Indian," Western Art Review (October 1951), author and illustrator. 
Exhibitions: 1926-65: AAA/T, CAC, CCP, CSF, DMFA, FAIEAIP, FMC, 
GTA, ITIC, LAIC, LBAG, LH, MAF, MAG, MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP. One- 
man shows: 1940-63: 45, including BA, BHH, CBMM, CFS, CG, CI, CIFS, 
DSG, GPL, HB, LACC, LACM, LBAG, MAG/H, MG, MSAC, MVAG, 
RRG, SFNB, SGAG, SM, TAC, UC, UWC, WCH, WFS. 
Awards: FMC, GTA, HBBA, ITIC, KCF, LACF, LAIC, LBAG, MAF, PAC. 
First Award For Outstanding Textile Design, "Kachina Masks," world- 
wide competition. 

Collections: Public: Gardena (Cahf.) Public Schools. Private: Andrews, 
Burridge, Ja. Campbell, Eraser, Gosfeldt, Welch. 
Address : 8926 Holly Place, Hollywood, Cahf. 

Wabliska (see White Eagle) 

Wa Chin Cadi (see Martinez, Jose Miguel) 

Wade, Bobby Choctaw 

Born: March 22, 1940, Broken Bow, Okla. 
Mr. Wade began painting in 1961 and credits Dick West [q.v.) as having encour- 
aged and inspired him most. Information on the Choctaws, from his mother, 
provides authentic subject matter for his paintings. 
Education: Graduated Broken Bow (Okla.) Pubhc High School; attended 
Bacone College. 

Exhibitions : PAC ; McCurtain County Fair, Idabel, Okla. 
Awards : McCurtain County Fair, Idabel, Okla. 
Collections: Public: BIA/M. Private: O. Evans, G. Maxwell. 
Address: hi West Morgan, Apt. 11, Broken Bow, Okla. 

Wagacho (see Quiver, Robert A.) 

Wagoshe, Russell William Osage 

Kikekah Wahtiankah, Chief Of Humor 

Born: September 6, 1911, on Salt Creek, Osage County, Okla. Son of John 
Wagoshe (Osage) and Agnes Bigheart (Osage). P/GF: Whip Hitter (Wagoshe), 



208 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Osage chief in 1869, who received his name after killing 13 soldiers with a 
rawhide whip ornamented with sharpened weights. 
Married: Naomi Evelyn Guinn (Cherokee), 1952. 
The artist began painting when he was a small boy. "One teacher got tired of 
punishing me so she had me draw pictures on the black board." He painted only 
what he knew about the Osages and signed his paintings with a sketch of a 
horizontal feather. Because of failing eyesight, the artist is retired. 
Education : Graduated Osage Boarding School, Pawhuska, Okla. 
Exhibitions: OHSM. 
Collections: Public: OHSM. 

Address: Whiting Apartments, #18, Pawhuska, Okla. 
Waha Canka Yapi (see Grass, John) 
Wah Peen (see Atencio, Gilbert Benjamin) 
Waiting Up (see Arkeketa, Benjamin) 

Wa Ka Zia 

Exhibitions : FWG (listed as Wa Kai) . 
Collections: Public: JAM. 
Waki Yeni Dewa (see Moquino, Ignacio) 
Walanke (see Redcorn, Jim Lacy) 

Walker, Thomas, Jr. Winnebago 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1951. 
Address: Box hi, Winnebago, Nebr. 
Walking By The River (see Nailor, Gerald) 
Walking Leader (see Nat ay, Ed) 

Walluk, Wilbur Wright Eskimo 

Born: January 24, 1928, Shishmaref, Alaska. The artist's father was a 
reindeer herder whose native village was Walluk. Nephew of Kivetoruk 
Moses, and cousin of Jack Okie (qq.v.). 
The artist began painting "secretly" at the age of six. In 1946, he wrote: "I find 
myself a thin man artist and funny face artist — once I win first prize on funny 
face drawing. Then when I am 14 year old I learned how to paint with oil paints 
at school. When I am 10 to 13 year old Mrs. Russell Government school teacher 
of Native help me little on arts. When I am 14 I finally give up art and start my 
own Ivory Business more than arts. Ivory Business was more fun to me. I was 
on Ivory Business 3 year. At the year 1944 I broke my back bone and I quit 
Ivory carving." The artist was in the hospital one and one-half years and drew 
pictures which he gave away and sold. In 195 1, when he was not in school, he 
helped "mama to make fur parkas" and clean and repair them as well. He also 
painted neckties and made ivory and wood carvings, which he etched and paint- 
ed with brush and ink. 
Education: Shismaref, Alaska; Mt. Edgecumbe Vocational School, Alaska. 
Career: Reindeer herder, ivory carver, painter, maker and cleaner of parkas. 
Exhibitions: DAM, PAC; Northwest Alaska Fair, Nome. 
Awards: PAC; Northwest Alaska Fair, Nome. 
Collections: Public: GM. 
Walter, Roy M. ? 

Collections: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS 209 

Walters, Harry Navaho 

Born: March 10, 1943. 

Education: Institute, 1962-63. 

Exhibitions: 1963: MNM, PAC, SN. 

Awards : MNM, SN (for student showing the greatest achievement) . 

Address: Post Office Box 447, Kirtland, N.M. 
Walz, Peter Frank Chippewa 

Born: June 14, 1912, on the White Earth Reservation, Minn. 

Married: Erma Opal Hicks (Cherokee), ca. 1951. 

Career: Various administrative positions, BIA, 1934-. 

Exhibitions: MNM, USDS. 

Awards: MNM, 1963. 

Address: 1605 Sigma Chi Road, NE, Albuquerque, N.M. 
Wambalee Ches Challah [see Little Eagle) 
Wanble Orko [see Fast Eagle) 
Wapah Nahyah [see West, Dick) 
Wapostangi (see Good, Baptiste) 
War Horse [see Jake, Albin Roy) 
War Lance [see Momaday, Al) 
Ward, Victor Tlingit 

Born : September 22, 1943. 

Education : Santa Fe. 

Exhibitions: 1961-62: MNM, PAC. 

Awards: 1961-62: two from MNM. 

Collections: Private: Mayer-Oakes. 

Address: East 2 Cedar Park, Juneau, Alaska. 
Ware, Woodrow ? 

Collections: Public: OHSM. 
Warm Mountain [see Aguilar, Jose Vicente) 
Warner, Fred ? 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Warpa Tanka Kuciyela [see Amiotte, Arthur Douglas) 
Warrior, Antowine Sauk-Fox 

Takotokasi, Roaring Thunder 

Born: January 4, 1941. 

Education: Bacone College; Haskell; Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art 

Project," summers, 1960-62. 

Exhibitions: 1958-63: AAIE, AIE, ITIC, MNM, PAC; University of 

Arizona, Museum of Art; Central State College, Edmond, Okla. One-man 

shows: PAC, 1958. 

Awards: 1958-63: Ten from AIE, ITIC, PAC. 

Collections: Public: AU/ASM, BIA, PAC. Private: W. S. Price, V. Smith, 

L. Stewart, R. Walker, Yulke. 

Address: Rural Route i, Box 123, Stroud, Okla. 



210 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Warrior Who Came Out (see Lee, Charlie) 

Warrior Who Walked Up To His Enemy (see Begay, Harrison) 

Wasaba Shinga (see Woodring, Carl) 

Wasconadie (see Darling, Marcell J.) 

Washakie (Chief) Flathead-Umatilla 

Washakie, Rawhide Rattle 

(Also known as White Haired Chief With Scarred Face.) 
Born: "Born into the Flathead tribe in 1798" in Montana and lived with 
them until he was about eight. Died, February 20, 1900. Son of Paseego 
(Flathead) and a woman thought to have been an Umatilla or Shoshoni. 
Married: A Shoshoni woman; later married Ahawhy Persie (a Crow cap- 
tive), ca. 1872. Twelve children, among whom were Naun Nang Gai (Snow 
Bird); Coocoosh (Dick), ca. 1859; Wobaah (Charles), 1873; Conna Yah 
(Bishop) ; and Enga Peahrora, the only daughter whose full name is known. 
The chief produced numerous "artistically decorated" elkskins depicting his 
hunts, buffalo chases, battles, and personal history. It cannot be determined 
whether some paintings, signed "Washakie" are by the chief or by his sons {see 
Charles Washakie and George Washakie), for the styles are very nearly identical. 
The name Washakie (and Wussikhe, The Rattler) came to the artist when he 
killed his first buffalo, making from it a rattle which he always used when riding 
to war. His second name. White Haired Chief With Scarred Face, was given 
him when his hair suddenly turned white following the death of his favorite son. 
(His scarred face was the result of a Blackfoot arrow.) There are 30 official and 
unofficial ways of spelling Washakie. Many references refer to the Chief as Sho- 
shoni, but he did not join this tribe until ca. 1826-30. 
Career: Elected a sub-chief of the Shoshoni, 1840; chief of the Shoshoni 
at Wind River Valley, Wyo. (with land rights granted him by the Govern- 
ment in 1863 "to 44,672,000 acres in parts of Colo., Wyo., Idaho, and Utah), 
1844-1900; set up military system of training men of the tribe; assisted the 
U.S. in efforts to quell Indian uprisings; signed six major treaties, 1851-96; 
received signed commendation from 9000 Whites who testified to his kindly 
aid; orator; Indian scout with Fourth Infantry, 1874; enlisted in army for 
several ''hitches" during his life, the last of which was in 1889, when he was 
91; Crazy Horse regarded Washakie as "the greatest general of them all;" 
wrangler for Hudson Bay Co. ; employed by American Fur Co. 
Honors: Elected chief of the Shoshoni; united several groups of Eastern 
Shoshoni; old Camp Brown was officially designated Fort Washakie, and 
Washakie National Forest was also named for him ; received gifts and com- 
mendations from two presidents; monument erected in his honor, 1905. 
Work Published: Alexander (1938). Del Monte (no date). 
Collections: Public: MAI, SDMM, SI/MNH, SM; Newark (N.J.) Museum. 

Washakie, Charles Flathead-Umatilla-Crow 

Wobaah 

(Also known as Washakie, Charlie ; Katsiekodie, Charlie.) 
Born: 1873, near Crow Heart Butte, Wyo. Son of Washakie (q.v.) and 
Ahawhy Persic (a Crow captive). P/GF: Paseego (Flathead). 



ARTISTS 211 

Because he lived with the tribe, Charles was generally assumed to have been 
Shoshoni. It is quite possible that many paintings attributed to his father were 
actually his work, for their styles are similar. 

Work Published: Alexander (1938). 

Collections: Public. MAI. Private: C. Carter, A. White (skin painting 
signed Charlie Katsiekodie) . 
Washakie, George Shoshoni 

It is probable that George is one of the 12 children of Washakie {q.v.), for the 
names of all 12 have not been determined. 
Collections: Public \ MAI. 
Exhibitions: CCP (exhibited and sold paintings). 
Wa Shun Keh {see Brave, Franklin P.) 

Watchetaker, George Smith Comanche 

Watchetaker, Hide Away 

Born: March i, 1916, Elgin, Okla. Son of Walter Hoke Smith Watchetaker 
and Dana Tahtahdarsy (Small and Pitiful, or Cute). 
Married: Eva Tooahnipah, August 24, 1953. 

Education: Mt. Scott (Okla.) Rural School, 1923-27; Fort Sill, 1927-32; 
Haskell, 1932-35 (graduated 1935). 
Career : Painter, decorator, sign painter. 

Honors: 1966-67 holder of "World's Championship Indian Dancer." 
Exhibitions: AIE, PAC; in Lawton and Clinton, Okla., Wichita Falls, Tex., 
Albuquerque, N.M. 

Awards: AIE, 1963; Southwest Sidewalk Show, Lawton, Okla., 1964-65. 
Collections: Public: FSM (charcoal portrait). 
Address: Rural Route i. Box 76, Elgin, Okla. 
Water Edge (see Tahoma, Quincy) 
Water Elk (see Cohoe, William) 
Wattan (see Sweezy, Carl) 
Wawabano Sata (see Pushetonequa, Charles) 

Wa Wa Chaw (Princess) Rincon 

Wa Wa Chaw, Keep From The Water 

Born: December 25, 1885, Valley Center, Calif. Adopted by Dr. C. Duggan, 
who delivered her, and his sister, Mary. 
The artist worked many years with Dr. Carlos Montezuma. Her foster parents 
encouraged her interest in the study of "anatomy and free brush strokes." 
Albert P. Ryder taught her to "tone down" her colors. She has painted all her 
life, and, for at least 70 years, she has been involved in the art of America and 
Europe. "The expression of a hobby has to find its way to our youthful minds 
so that our Indian youth is not misled to thinking they can make a life of art — 
it is not bread — -it is the art of keeping the mind alive" (1963). 
Education: Sherman; "eastern schools;" instruction under Albert P. Ryder. 
Exhibitions: PAC; Greenwich Village Out-Door Exhibitions, New York, 
N.Y. ; Europe. 
Collections: Public: PAC. 

Address: 2060 Third Avenue, Apt. #12, New York, N.Y. 
Weahkie, Teddy (see Weakee, Teddy) 

14* 



212 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Weakee, Teddy Zuni 

Weakie and Wiacke 

Born: 1900, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. Died 1965. 
The artist was known to have painted in oils in the European perspective, but 
was painting infrequently by 1950. He was best known as a carver of fetishes. 

Education : Studied art at home for nearly 25 years. 

Work Published: American Magazine of Art (August 1933). 

Exhibitions: ITIC. 

Awards: ITIC. 

Collections: Public. MAI, SMNAI (deerskin paintings). 
Weakie {see Weakee, Teddy) 
Webster, David ? 

Education: Phoenix, 1964. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 
Weekeah Comanche 

Weckeah, Searching 

(Also known as Bradley, Roberta C.) 

Born : 1920, Lawton, Okla. Daughter of Edward H. Clark (Comanche) and 

Mary Pache Parker (Comanche). M/GF: Quanah Parker, Comanche chief. 

M/GM: Weckeah, wife of Parker. M/GGF: Petak Nocona, Comanche chief. 

M/GGM: Cynthia Ann Parker, captured at age of nine by Comanches. P/GF: 

E. L. Clark, principal interpreter at the Jerome Agreement, 1892. P/GM: 

Waumaconnie (Comanche) . 

Married: Wilham B. Bradley, Jr. Three children: Robert Stanwood, 1946; 

Cynthia Ann, 1949; Roberta Helen, i960. 
Mrs. Bradley is best known in art circles as Weckeah. She seldom paints in the 
flat Indian style but prefers instead to use oils, pastels, watercolors, and char- 
coal to depict her history-based art work. She is also a sculptor. 

Education : Graduated Cameron High School, Lawton, Okla. 

Exhibitions: 1955-65: AIE, MNM, PAC; Duncan Art Show, Ponca Indian 

Fair, Ponca City, Okla. One-man shows: 1959-65: Fort Sill (Okla.) Post 

Service Club; Lawton (Okla.) Chamber of Commerce; Carnegie Library, 

Lawton, Okla. 

Awards: Five; at Duncan, Ponca City, and Anadarko, Okla. 

Collections: Public: FSM, MNM; Southwestern State College, Weather- 
ford, Okla. 

Address : 414 Ferris, Lawton, Okla. 
Weepama Quedaecouka [see Mofsie, Louis Billingsly) 
Wen Tsireh {see Montoya, Alfred) 
West, Dick Cheyenne 

Wapah Nahyah, Lightfooted Runner 

(Also known as West, W. Richard; West, Walter Richard.) 

Born: September 8, 1912, on the banks of the North Canadian River, near 

Darlington, western Okla. Son of Lightfoot West (Cheyenne), track star 

and marathon runner, and Rena Flying Coyote, also known as Emily Black 

Wolf (Cheyenne). M/GF: Thunder Bull. M/GA: Ghost Woman, who with 



ARTISTS 213 

Sioux Left Hand and Walter and John Tassel (his maternal uncles) reared 
the artist. M/GM: Big Belly Woman. 

Married: Maribelle McCrea, May 29, 1940. Two children: Richard, Jr., 
1943 ; James Lee, 1946. 
Dick West is an accomplished artist who is never content to stand still by work- 
ing only in one medium and one style. He is known for his traditional Indian 
paintings, as well as for his portraits, abstractions, and other European-derived 
style paintings and sculpture. Upon receiving the Grand Award at Philbrook 
Art Center in 1955, Mr. West wrote: "I do not profess to have established any- 
thing definite in my experimental dabblings, but I do feel that the Indian artist 
must be allowed freedom to absorb influences outside of his own art forms and 
to develop them in his own manner. I do realize the dangers involved, but I also 
see the promise of a new lane of expression that should keep the Indian's art 
alive and closer to a more contemporary existence. I, too, would want to preserve 
the art form termed 'native Indian painting,' and I give my students every 
opportunity to execute it .... I believe that Indian artists with formal art back- 
ground will be going more and more in the direction of the European interpreta- 
tional influences." 
Education: Graduated Haskell, 1935; one year vocational training, 1936; 
graduated Bacone College, 1938; B.A., Oklahoma, 1941; M.F.A., Oklahoma, 
1950; graduate work, University of Redlands, Calif., summers, 1946, 1952; 
Northeastern, summer, 1953 (teaching credentials) ; extension course, 
graduate education, Oklahoma, 1951-52; Tulsa, summers, 1951, 1957. 
Mural instruction under Olaf Nordmark, Phoenix, Ariz., 1941-42. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, four years; European Theater. 
Career: Painter, sculptor, lecturer, teacher; director of camp activities. 
Boys Camp, East Hebron, N.H., summers, 1938, 1941; art instructor, 
Phoenix Indian School, 1941-42, 1946-47; Chairman of Art Department, 
Bacone College, 1947-. 

Honors: Student body president, Haskell Institute. Represented in Who's 
Who in American Art, Who's Who in the West and Southwest, Who's Who in 
Oklahoma, Indians of Today. Featured in TV program produced by National 
Council of Churches, 1956. Recipient of Certificate of Appreciation, lACB, 
i960 ; honorary degree. Doctor of Humane Letters, Eastern Baptist College, 
St. Davids, Pa., 1963; Waite Phillips Outstanding Indian Artists Award 
Trophy, PAC, 1964. Past president, Muskogee Art Guild. 
Commissions: Murals: BC, OU (North Campus); U.S. Post Ofhce, Okemah, 
Okla. ; Boys Camp, New Hebron, N.H. ; Phoenix, Indian School; H. Dub 
Stewart home, Muskogee, Okla. Seals : Designer of official seal, AIE. 
Books Illustrated: Bass (1950), Penney (1953), Lyback (1963). 
Work Published: Llewellyn and Hoebel (1941), dust jacket; Jacobson and 
D'Ucel (1950), Carter (1955), La Farge (1956; i960), Pierson and Davidson 
(i960), Berthrong (1963), Bleeker (1963), Jacobson (1964). Denver Post, 
Empire Magazine (September 1953) ; National Geographic Magazine (March 
1955), Oklahoma Today (Summer 1958), Life International (March 16, 1959), 
Baptist Leader (November 1961), Today (March 1963), The Sunday Okla- 
homan, Orbit Magazine (April 14, 1963), Saturday Review (June 15, 1963). 
Exhibitions: 1946-65: AIE, AIEC, AIW, DAM, ITIC, JAM, JGS, MHDY- 
MM, MNM, NGA, OAC, PAC, PAC/T, SAIEAIP, USDI, USDS, WRNGA; 



214 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Agra Gallery, Washington, D.C. ; Mulvane Art Center, Topeka, Kan.; The 
Kermac Mural Design Competition Exhibit, Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Okla. 
One-man shows: BC, DAM, PAC; Esquire Theater Art Gallery, Celebrity 
Art Gallery, Oakbrook Theatre, Chicago, 111. ; Oshkosh Museum, Oshkosh, 
Wise. ; Muskogee Art Guild, Muskogee, Okla. ; Choppels Art Gallery, Pasa- 
dena, Calif.; University of Redlands, Art Club of Palos Verdes Estates, 
Calif. ; Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, Savannah, Ga. 
Awards: 1946-63: 19, (and two Grand Awards) from DAM, PAC; Oklahoma 
state fairs. 

Collections: Public: BC, BIA, DAM, lACB, JAM, KM, MAI, MNA/KHC, 
OU/L, OU/MA, PAC, SPIM, SPL; St. Augustine's Center, Chicago, 111.; 
Muskogee Art Guild; Commercial National Bank of Muskogee; Eastern 
Baptist College, St. Davids, Pa. Private: E. Adkins, Albert, Ansara, Capps, 
Cross, Edmondson, Elwell, Gaston, Green, J. Hall, Harbour, Hart, Hen- 
schen. Hurley, O. Jacobson, Johnet, Leathers, Lindsey, D. Maxwell, 
McAlister, Melville, K. Miller, Moreland, B. Oldham, Oliphant, Palmer, 
Powell, H. Price, D. Ramsey, Ruby, Schonwald, Schreiber, Shaw, Shillin, 
Spraker, J. Stone, Thompson, R. West, Woodburn, R. Young. 
Address: Bacone College, Bacone, Okla. 

Whirlwind (Chief) Southern Cheyenne 

Hevovitastamiutsts, Moving Whirlwind 

Born : Date unknown. Died, 1891. Old Whirlwind was a chief of the Southern 
Cheyenne living at Darlington, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), in 1872. 
The artist's work in Montgomery is a set of pencil and crayon sketches collected 
by Lt. Samuel Goode Jones at Fort Reno, I.T., 1890. See Grinnell (191 5; 1923). 
Career: Chief, warrior, and artist, who recorded scenes of battle, Indian 
life, and travel. 

Honors: Whirlwind Indian Day School and Mission, Blaine County, Okla., 
was named for him. 
Collections: Public: MMFA. 

Whirlwind Hawk Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictograph on paper). 

White, Clarence A. Omaha 

Tanuga Shinga, Little Bull 
Education : Bacone College. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1954. 

White, Riley Cherokee 

Born: 1912, DeQueen, Ark. 

Education: Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, Cahf., ca. 1945; B.F.A., 
Oklahoma S. U., 1950; M.F.A., Oklahoma S. U., 1954; summer courses 
toward M.A., New Mexico U. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, and U.S. Air Force, five years. 
Career: Art instructor, Sequoyah Indian School, 1951-. 
Exhibitions: PAC; Western Hills Lodge, Sequoyah State Park, Okla. One- 
man shows: Conners College, Warner, Okla.; Tahlequah, Stillwater, Okla. 
Address: c/o Sequoyah Indian School, Tahlequah, Okla. 



ARTISTS 215 

White, Ruth M. Sauk-Fox 

Born: Date unknown. Daughter of Walter Emmitt McKitrick and Alta 
Virginia Holmes (Sauk-Fox). 

The artist has demonstrated her original spoon-painting technique throughout 
the Southwest and South. She has completed a series of Oklahoma Indian por- 
traits in oil and lent them to various educational institutions in the area. She 
believes artists are made, not born, and "heartily endorses the study of art as a 
hobby and for therapeutic value." 

Education: Elementary public schools, Tulsa, Okla. ; graduated Gorman 
(Tex.) High School, 1927; Hardin- Simmons College, Abilene, Tex.; Chicago; 
Morris Harvey College, Charleston, W. Va. ; School of Arts and Sciences, 
Trenton, N.J.; Philadelphia (Pa.) Fine Arts Academy, Del Mar College, 
Corpus Christi, Tex.; Connors State College; Oklahoma; Utah S. ; North- 
eastern; Bacone College. Private instruction under Henry Clayton Staples, 
Elliot O'Hara, and Frederick Taubes. 

Career: Painter, sculptor, teacher, lecturer, writer; art instructor, Connors 
State College, Warner, Okla., 1950-65. Conducted 17 art workshops at 
Ruidoso, N.M.; Northwest State College, Alva, Okla.; Galveston, Tex.; 
Telluride, Dolores, Colo., 1952-64. Conducted art classes at Muskogee, 
Warner, Stigler, and Wagoner, in Okla., 1946-63. 

Honors: Oklahoma Education Association: consultant for art program; 
vice-chairman of art section ; member of the council ; program chairman for 
art section; art chairman for eastern district; associate editor for Art Lines, 
the association's art magazine. Invited to participate in National Teachers 
Art Program, Miami Beach, Fla., 1961. Art chairman, Conference of Junior 
Colleges, Norman, Okla,, 1962. Represented in Who's Who in American 
Education, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, Who's Who in American 
Women] listed in International Directory of Arts, Directory of International 
Biography. Chosen by M. Grumbacher, Inc., for Palette from Renaissance to 
Modern Times] elected to National Association of Women Artists. 
Exhibitions: 1947-65 : AEOP/T, GM, MNM, NAWA/T, PAC, RM, SMNAI, 
SPIM, WM/T. National Academy of Design, New York, N.Y. ; Continental 
Museum, Corpus Christi, Tex.; Connors State College; Galveston (Tex.) 
Watercolor Exhibits, M. Grumbacher, Inc., Original Palette Permanent 
Collection Exhibit, Grand Central Art Galleries, N.Y. Texas Watercolor 
Society Exhibit, San Antonio, Tex. ; 70th Exhibition of National Associa- 
tion of Women Artists, National Academy of Art, N.Y. ; represented in 
Ruskin Rental Gallery, PAC ; Muskogee Annual Art Show. One-man shows : 
1947-60: 16, including Amarillo Senior High School, Amarillo, Tex.; 
Galveston Art League, Rosenburg Library ; Connors State College ; Muskogee 
Semi-Centennial Fair; Professional Artists' League, and National Arts 
Club, in N.Y. ; Western Hills Lodge, Sequoyah State Park, Okla.; Adoue 
Park, Galveston, Tex.; Downtown Galleries, New Orleans, La.; Argent 
Gallery, N.Y. 

Awards: OAC, SN; AUied Artists of West Virginia Exhibition; Witte 
Memorial Museum, San Antonio, Tex.; Muskogee and Tulsa State Fairs, 



2l6 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Sweepstakes awards, 1958-59; Muskogee Annual Art Show, Grand Award; 

state fairs in Oklahoma, totaling 200 awards. 

Collections: Public: Connors State College, Fort Gibson (Okla.) Museum, 

Private'. C. Snodgrass. 

Address: 417 Locust St., Alva, Okla. 

White Bear Arapaho 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: HI. 
White Bear Crow (7) 

Collections: Public: GM (crayon drawings on paper, ca. 1921). 
White Bear Hopi 

Kutca Honauu, White Bear 

Born: 1869. 

White Bear was among the first Indian artists of the Southwest. Between 1899 
and 1900, the artist, and several other Hopis, were persuaded by Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes to make drawings representing the Hopi gods and to explain the sym- 
bolism of the dance rituals. The project resulted in the publication, in 1903, of 
about 180 Kachina drawings on some 50 color plates. The artist was assisted by 
his uncle, Homovi. 

Work Published: BAE, 21st AR. 

Collections: Public: MAI, SMNAI (by a Hopi named White Bear). 

White Bear Hopi 

Kucha Honawah, White Bear 
(Also known as Fredericks, Oswald.) 

Born: February 5, 1906, Old Oraibi, Ariz. Son of Charles Fredericks Tu- 
wahoyiwma (Hopi) and Anna Tuvengyamsi, (Hopi). 
Married: Naomi. 

Education: Oraibi, and Phoenix (Ariz.), Indian Schools; Phoenix High 
School; Bacone College; Haskell, 1933-37. 

Career: Arts and crafts instructor, Boys Club of Phoenix, Ariz., ca. 1959; 
art teacher, YMCA in New Jersey, 15 years; Kachina carver; lecturer, 
writer; teacher of dancing and interpretive music, Fred Waring Workshop. 
Commissions : Murals : YMCA in New Jersey. 

Work Published: Waters (1963). Arizona Highways (July 1959), The 
Arizona Republic, Sunday Magazine (June 7, 1964). 

Collections: Public: MAI [original 72 paintings and drawings published in 
Waters (1963)]; SMNAI (by a Hopi named White Bear). 
Address: Box 162, Oraibi, Ariz. 

White Bear, Ahon Arikara 

Son of the Star 

Born: March 27, 1933. Son of Joseph White Bear. GF: Raymond Red Bear, 
scout for Custer, who participated in the Battle of the Little Big Horn. 
GGF: Son of Star. 

Married: Garcia Lee Hale, i960. One child: Connie Agnes, 1962. 
The artist has been interested in art most of his life. He lirst began to paint ca. 
1958. During the winter months he feeds cattle and draws pictures. 



ARTISTS 217 

Education : Elwoods, N. Dak. 
Career: Truck driver and mechanic, 1953-. 
Exhibitions: BNIAS. 

Collections: Private: Arrow, Chase, Gierke, O. Keene, Swift Eagle. 
Address: Box 242, Mandaree, N. Dak. 
White Bird Northern Cheyenne-Nez Perce 

Born: Ca. mid-i8oo's. 

Capt. Richard L. Livermore's quarters at Fort Keogh in 1890 was a log cabin. 
To make his cabin more presentable, he covered the inside walls with unbleached 
muslin. During his stay at the Fort, his Indian friends came to visit and painted 
pictures on it, many of which were by White Bird. Livermore took the paintings 
with him when he left the Fort "... some are in the possession of his wife in 
Denver." See Grinnell (1915). 

Career: Warrior, possibly in the Battle of the Little Big Horn when he 

was 15 years old. 

Honors : Second chief of the Nez Perce. 

Collections: Public: DAM, OAA/SI; U.S. Military Academy Museum, 

West Point, N.Y. (not confirmed). 
White Buffalo (see Hill, Bobby) 
White Buffalo, Herbert Cheyenne 

Born: 1917. Lived at Concho, Okla. GF: Kish Hawkins. 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, AIEC. 

Awards: AIAE/WSU. 

Collections: Private: Aaron. 
White Bull Teton Sioux 

Work Published : BAE, Btdl. lyj. 
White Coral Beads [see Pena, Tonita) 

White-Cow Killer Teton Sioux 

The artist kept a winter count which represented about the same years as the 
counts kept by American Horse and Baptiste Good {qq.v.). He was known to 
have been at Pine Ridge Agency ca. 1880. 

Work Published: BAE, 4th AR. 
White Crow [see Horn, Miles S.) 
White Eagle Oglala (?) Sioux 

Wahliska 

Born: Date unknown; from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. (see Black Heart). 

Chief White Bull reported that a White Eagle was killed in the Battle of the 

Little Big Horn, June 25, 1876. 

Collections : Public : MAI (a white eagle) . 
White Eagle, Charles W. Winnebago 

Exhibitions: 1963-64: AAIEAE, USDS. 

Address: 8240 14th Avenue, Apt. 202, Hyattsville, Md. 
White Haired Chief With Scarred Face (see Washakie) 
White Horse Kiowa 

Tsen T'ainte, White Horse 

Born: Date unknown (probably early i8oo's). Brother of Chief Big Bow 

(q.v.). 



2l8 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Career: Warrior, artist; the Anko calendar records that White Horse 

killed a Navaho, ca. 1867-68. He refused to settle on a reservation, 1873, 

participated in the Battle of Adobe Walls, 1874, and, with other Plains 

Indians, was sent to prison at Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875 (see 

Cohoe, William). 

Collections: Public: JAM; YU/BRBML (previously credited to "White 

Goose," now thought to be by White Horse). 
Whitehead, Ernest Mescalero Apache 

Education: Institute, ca. 1964. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 
Whitehorse, Roland N. Kiowa 

Hanemi Da, Charging Man. 

Born: April 6, 1921, Carnegie, Okla. Son of Charlie Whitehorse (Kiowa) 

and Laura (Kiowa). P/GGF: Chief Tohausen [q.v.). P/GGF: Mamanti (Sky 

Walker), the famed Kiowa medicine man and war leader. M/GF: Rainy 

Mountain Charlie, son of Sky Walker (Kiowa), keeper of Grandmother 

Medicine Bundle. GF: Hanemi Da (Kiowa). P/GU: Chief Whitehorse [q.v.). 

Married: June L. Carson (Oto-Potawatomi) . Four children: Charles, 1953; 

Susan, 1955; Janet, 1957; Manila, 1963. 

Education: Graduated Washita High School, west of Anadarko, Okla., 

1942; attended Bacone College, 1947; Dallas (Tex.) Art Institute, 1957. 

Service: WWII, U.S. Army, 40 months; North African and European 

Theaters. 

Career: Illustrator, Fort Sill (Okla.) School Training Aids, 1956-59; 

graphic supervisor. Fort Sill Fourth Army Training Aids, 1959-. 

Honors: Arts and crafts director, AIE, 1960-64; chairman, American 

Indian Artists Association, 1965. 

Books Illustrated: Marriott (1952), Madrano (1955). 

Work Published: Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia (1951). 

Exhibitions: AIE, PAC, PAC/T, SPIM; Underwood's, Wichita Falls, Tex.; 

Harris Shopping Center, Dallas, Tex.; Carpenter's Gallery, Dallas, Tex.; 

Skirvin Tower, Oklahoma City, Okla., joint show with Mopope and Blue 

Eagle [qq.v.). 

Awards: PAC. 

Collections: Public: FSM, GM, PAC. Private: Arkeketa, Bayne, Davis, 

Knickerbocker, Pappio, E. Roberts. 

Address: Box 265, Elgin, Okla. 
White Man (see Ahsit) 
Whiteman (see Ahsit) 
Whiteman, A. Cheyenne- Arapaho 

Sitting Bear 

(Also known as Whiteman, Alfred, Jr.) 

Born: August 28, 1928, Colony, Okla. Son of Alfred Whiteman, Sr. 

(Arapaho) and Nellie R. Rouse (Cheyenne). P/GGF: Chief Little Raven 

(Arapaho), who signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty in 1867, and was awarded 

the Medal of Honor by the U.S. Government. 



ARTISTS 219 

Married: Henrietta Verle Mann, 1959. Four children: Mark Alan (stepson), 
1956; Alden Alfred, i960; Montoya Ann, 1962; Jackie Ladean, 1963. 
Two small White boys, lost on the prairie, were adopted by different Arapaho 
families. One died shortly thereafter, and the surviving boy, who was given the 
name White Man (Neotha), grew to manhood and married the chief's daughter, 
Anna Little Raven. White Man was the artist's paternal grandfather. 
Education: Central and Irving Schools, El Reno, Okla., 1936-44; graduated 
El Reno High School, 1948; Naval Preparatory Schools in Corpus Christi, 
Tex., and Memphis, Tenn. ; Naval Air Technical Training Center, Memphis, 
Tenn.; graduated Oklahoma S. U./S. T., 1962. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, four years; South Pacific Theater. 
Career : Jet engine mechanic, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Okla. ; 
artist and designer, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Public Informa- 
tion Division, 1962-. 

Work Published: The Sunday Oklahoman, Orbit Magazine (August 2, 1964), 
Oklahoma State Alumnus Magazine (November 1964). 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, FAIEAIP, MNM, PAC; Sporting Gallery, Middle- 
burg, Va. ; Yukon (Okla.) Gallery, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 
Okla. ; YWCA, Oklahoma City, Okla. ; St. Andrews Episcopal Chirch, Still- 
water, Okla.; University of Arkansas. One-man shows: 1962-65: Oklahoma 
State University, Sherwin-Williams, First National Bank, and National 
Conference of American Farm Economics Association (Oklahoma State 
University), in Stillwater, Okla.; Citizens National Bank, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Awards: FNAIC, MNM. 

Collections: Public: Oklahoma State University, Student Union, Still- 
water, Okla. Private: Belford, Berkeley, Bond, H. Campbell, Cowling, R. 
Dennis, Frusti, Gatliff, Gay, I. Jones, King, Kroll, Leno, Marks, Meyers, 
Milberger, Morrissette, S. Ramsey, H. Sanders, Simank, Solow, Spurlock, 
Stryker, Todd, Twins, Webster. 
Address: 805 S. Orchard Lane, Stillwater, Okla. 
Whiteman, Alfred, Jr. [see Whiteman, A.) 

Whiteman, James Ridgley Powhatan (?) 

Osapana 

Born: January 15, 1910, Portales, N.M. Son of Levi Whiteman and Kathe- 
rine Great House. 

Education: New Mexico U., 1930; studied sculpture under Brice Sewell, 
portrait painting under Neils Hogner, Indian art under Kenneth Chapman, 
and archaeology under Edgar L. Hewett; Federal Art Project, under Vernon 
Hunter, 1937-41; private study, Oklahoma City, Okla., one winter; studied 
under Ann W. Keener, Gallup, N.M., 1940; ceramics training, Anaheim, 
Calif., 1963-65. 

Career: Seasonal work as commercial artist since the 1930's, the Western 
Decorating Co., Los Angeles, Calif.; lecturer, painter, sculptor, and commer- 
cial artist; employed at Knott's Berry Farm, Los Angeles, ca. i960-. 
Honors: Honorary member, Creek Nation of Oklahoma; council member, 
Western Kee Too Wah] did handprinting and color plates for Spanish 
Colonial Art of New Mexico, Federal Art Project, ca. 1939. 



220 AMERICAN INDIAN" PAINTERS 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, ITIC, LAIC, MNM, PAC, USD! One-man shows: 

MNM. 

Awards: ITIC, LAIC. 

Address : 6757 Val Verde, Buena Park, Calif. 

Who Whinny (see Roman Nose, Henry Caruthers) 

Wiacke {see Weakee, Teddy) 

Wickahtewah (see Moqui) 

Wife Eagle Deer Oglala Sioux 

Mepaa Kte, Wife Eagle Deer 
Born: ca. 1869. ^^^^ ca. 1929. 

The artist painted skins depicting Sioux dance scenes and battles between the 
Crow and Sioux. See Jacobson and D'Ucel (1950). 

Wild Hog (Chief) Cheyenne 

Collections: Piihlic. KSHS (manuscript division: notebook of sketches, 
dated 1879) ; OAA/SI (copy of a drawing by Wild Hog). 

Wild Horse Kiowa 

Koha 
The artist was one of many Plains Indians arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, 
Indian Territory, February 18, 1875, and imprisoned at Fort Marion, St. Augu- 
stine, Fla. {see Cohoe, William). Wild Horse, primarily a warrior rather than an 
artist, participated in raids into the Brazos country in 1872, and attacked the 
Wichita Agency, August 22, 1874. 
Education: At Carlisle, he was a student in the tinshop, with Henry Ca- 
ruthers Roman Nose (q.v.). 
Work Published: BAE, lyth AR. 
Collections: Public: HI, MHS/B, OAA/SI, YU/BRBML. Private: Walsh. 

Wilder, Leonard Karok-Assinihoin 

Collections: Public: lACB. 

Wilkie, Laurence Chippewa 

Born: September 29, 1922, Belcourt, N. Dak. P/GGF: Alexander "Scotch" 

Wilkie, leader of many buffalo hunts in N. Dak. 

Married: Ema Davis, 1951. Six children: Julianne, 1952; Leslie, 1953; 

Larry, 1955; Tracy, 1957; Russell, 1958; Lee, i960. 
Mr. Wilkie has always been interested in art, but did not start painting until 
about 1946. He usually does not exhibit his work, prefering to paint for 
pleasure and for his friends and family. 

Education: Attended Walker's Art Institute, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Service: U.S. Navy, four years. 

Career : Tabulator operator. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS (also designed catalog cover). 

Address: Box 301, Belcourt, N. Dak. 

Wilkinson, Douglas Sioux ( ?) 

So Hah Ney 
Collections: Public: MAI. 



ARTISTS 221 

Williams, David Enunett Kiowa-Tonkawa- Apache 

Tosque, Apache Man 

Born: August 20, 1933, Lawton, Okla. Son of Emmett Williams (Tonkawa- 

Apache), singer and leather designer. His mother is Kiowa. The artist is 

descended from the Kiowa war chief Satanka (Sitting Bear). 

Married: Norma Jean Eubanks, 1961. 

Education: Bacone College. 

Career: Painter. 

Exhibitions: BNIAS, FANAIAE, PAC, SPIM, SM, USDI; Sporting 

Gallery, Williamsburg, Va. ; Stouffer's Manor Gate House, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

One-man shows: HM. Two-man shows: Pasadena, Calif., 1964. 

Collections: Public: MAI, SM; St. Augustine's Center, Chicago, 111.; 

Carnegie (Okla.) High School. Private: Bialac, Christensen, J. McAlpin. 

Address: Muskogee, Okla. 
Williams, Sharon Pilcher Potawatomi 

Collections: Public: St. Augustine's Center, Chicago, 111. 
Wilson, Cynthia Judy Quechan 

Born: September 22, 1942. 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1962. 

Exhibitions: PAC, 1962. 

Address: Box 152, Winterhaven, Cahf. 
Wilson, J. ? 

Education : Albuquerque. 

Exhibitions: ITIC, 1959. 

Awards: ITIC. 
Wilson, John Navaho 

Education : Santa Fe, i960. 

Exhibitions: MNM, i960. 
Wilson, Lucy Navaho 

Education: Albuquerque, 1959. 

Exhibitions: MNM, 1959. 

Awards: MNM. 

Wiyo (see Randall, Bunnie) 

Wobaah (see Washakie, Charles) 

Wolf Alone (see Taulbee, Dan) 

Wolf Face Apache 

While a prisoner of war at St. Augustine, Fla., in 1879, he executed paintings 
on writing paper with watercolor and colored pencil {see Cohoe, William). 

Collections: Public: OHSM. 
Wolfe, Edmond Richard Creek-Seminole 

Este Songah, Gone Man 
Born: September 29, 1928. 
Education : Bacone College ; Haskell. 
Service: WWII, U.S. Navy, three years; Pacific Theater. 
Exhibitions: PAC, 1957. 
Address: Wetumka, Okla. 



222 AMERICAN INDIAN* PAINTERS 

Wood, Harvy Navaho 

Born: 1944. 
Education: Inter-Mt. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP. 

Wooden Leg Northern Cheyenne 

Kummok Quivviokta, Wooden Leg 

Born: 1858, near the Cheyenne River, Black Hills, N. Dak. Deceased. Son 
of White Buffalo Shaking Off The Dust (also called Many BuUet Wounds) 
(Northern Cheyenne) and Eagle Feather On The Forehead (Northern Chey- 
enne) . 

Work Published: Marquis (1931). Montana (Spring 1963). 
Collections: Public: Custer Battlefield National Monument. 

Woodring, Carl Osage 

Wasaha Shinga, Little Bear 
(Also known as Woodring, Carlton Delmas.) 

Born: December 6, 1920, Arkansas City, Kan. Son of Orville Woodring and 
Gladys Fagen. Cousin of Harry Woodring, Secretary of War under President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt and former Governor of Kansas. 
Married: Margaret; divorced, 1964. Four children: Rose, David, Nikkie, 
Shawn. 

Reared in Pawhuska, Okla., the artist began painting in 1956, under the tutelage 

of Acee Blue Eagle {q.v.). Within a year, he was exhibiting throughout the U.S. 

and Europe and had become a prolific painter. During 1964 and most of 1965, 

he virtually ceased to paint, but late in 1965 he began again. 
Education: Pawhuska, Okla.; colleges in Okla., Tex., Ala., and Oreg. 
Service: WWII and Korean War, U.S. Air Corps, 11 years. 
Career: Architectural engineer, McCune and McCune, Architects, Tulsa, 
Okla., ca. 1959-64; painter, sculptor. 

Honors : Received more awards in a single year than any artist ever to enter 
the PAC Indian Artists' Annual Exhibition; Past-President, Tulsa Pow 
Wow Club; arts and crafts director, AIE. 
Work Published: Oklahoma Today (Summer 1959). 

Exhibitions: AAID, AAIE, AIE, ITIC, LAIC, MNM, PAC, PAC/T, PSC, 
SN, SPIM, USDS; Ponca Indian Fair, Ponca City, Okla.; Tulsa Pow Wow 
Arts and Crafts Show, and Oil Capitol Art Show. His paintings have hung 
at: Brussels' World Fair, Belgium; American Embassy, Paris, France; 
Office of the Lord Mayor, Mannheim, Germany; Parkland Hotel, London, 
England. One-man shows: PAC, SPIM; No Man's Land Museum, Weather- 
ford, Okla. Two-man shows: GM. 

Awards: AIE, ITIC, MNM, PAC; (two Grand Awards). 
Collections: Public: BIA, GM, lACB, MAI, MNM, PAC. Private: Dock- 
stader, Obermire. 
Address: c/o Mrs. Orville Woodring, Gore, Okla. 

Woohkinih (see Roman Nose) 

Wo Pecu (see Gonzales, Louis) 



ARTISTS 223 

Wounded Face (Chief) Mandan 

Collections : Public : PU/M (autobiographical drawings on muslin, present- 
ed as a gift, 1891). 

Wuxpais {see Little Chief, Daniel) 

Wynne, Bruce Spokane ( ?) 

Born: ca. 1944, near Wellpinit, Wash., on the Spokane Reservation. 
Education: Schools in a "small town near Spokane"; graduated from 
Mead (Wash.) High School, 1962 ; graduated Institute, major in sculpture and 
painting, 1964. 

Career: Free-lance artist, 1964-. 

Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, FANAIAE, ITIC, PAC, SN; "Origin of American 
Indian Sculpture," Santa Fe, N.M. 
Address : Box 122, Mead, Wash. 

Yaka [see Moquino, Delfino) 

Yates, George Namhe 

Collections: Public : MNM (executed in ninth grade, 1955). 

Yazzie, Carl Navaho 

Collections: Public: MNM. 

Yazzie, Daniel Wilbur Navaho 

Born: Date unknown. Son of Hosteen Yazzie Bedonie. 
Education: Riverside, 1964. 

Honors : Philomathic Club of Anadarko Scholarship to art school of his 
choice, 1964. 
Address: Little Water, via Shiprock, N.M. 

Yazzie, Deswood H. Navaho 

Education: Ganado (Ariz.) Mission School, (tenth grade, 1961). 
Collections: Private: Wyman. 

Yazzie, James Wayne Navaho 

Born: 1943. 

Exhibitions: AIAE/WSU, FAIEAIP. 
Collections: Public: AF, MAI. Private: Mullan. 
Address: Sheep Springs, N.M. 

Yazzie, Merlin Navaho 

Education: Greasewood (Ariz.) Boarding School, fifth grade, 1965. 
Exhibitions: Greasewood Boarding School Art Show, 1965. 
Awards: Greasewood Boarding School Art Show, first award, 1965. 

Yazzie, Richard Kee Navaho 

Born: 1944, Crownpoint, N.M. 

Education: Santa Fe; Albuquerque, 1960's; Institute, 1965-66. 
Exhibitions: 1960-66: Five, including MNM, PAC, SAIEAIP, SN. 
Awards: SN student award, 1962. 
Collections: Private: Elkus. 
Address: San Ildefonso Pueblo, via Santa Fe, N.M. 



224 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Yazzie, Sybil L. Navaho 

The artist received international recognition while a student in Santa Fe. Her 
painting of 179 Navahos, in full costume, and 59 horses, was exhibited in London 
and Paris in 1937 ^^'^ brought the comment thaf'it was not naive and childish, 
but a finished work of art, expert in draftmanship, intricate in detail, and uner- 
ring in color." 

Education : Santa Fe, 1937. 

Exhibitions: AIW, NGA; London, Paris. 

Collections: Public: SM. Private: Dietrich, D. Kramer. 

Address: Garcia Store, Chinle, Ariz. 
Yazzie, Tom K. Navaho 

Born: 1942. 

Education: Arizona, "Southwest Indian Art Project," summer, i960. 

Exhibitions: 1962-63: PAC, USDS. 

Collections: Pithlic: BIA, lACB; SMNAI (woodcarving) . 
Yazzie Bahe {see Tsinajinnie, Andrew Van) 
Yellow Arrow {see Shelton, Peter H., Jr.) 
Yellow Blanket Sioux 

Shinagi, Yellow Blanket (also Schinagi) 
One of five artists whose works, commissioned and collected by Rudolf Cronau, 
1880-83, are now referred to as the Cronau Album {see Sinte). 

Collections: Public: AMNH. 
Yellow Feather Mandan 

Sikchida (or Sik Chida) 

Born: Date unknown, near Fort Clark, N. Dak., ca. 1833-34. Son of a 

prominent Mandan chief. 
"During their winter's sojourn at Fort Clark, near the Mandan villages, in 1883- 
1834, Prince Maximilian and Karl Bodmer were visited by a number of Indians 
who were fascinated by Bodmer 's artistic talents. The white artist gave pencils, 
watercolors, and paper to some of these Indians and encouraged them to make 
pictures for the Prince's collection. These watercolors are the earliest known 
examples of paintings executed by Plains Indians in the white man's art medium. 
In their striving to portray the details of human and horse anatomy, of costume 
and accessories, these Indian artists produced paintings which are quite unlike 
the traditional picture-writing of their people. There are nine examples of this 
new style of painting in Prince Maximilian's collection. Four of them were 
executed by Yellow Feather, of whom the Prince wrote: 'He came almost every 
evening, when his favorite employment was drawing, for which he had some 
talent, though his figures were no better than those drawn by our children.'" 
Cailin, Bodmer, Miller (exhibition catalog). 

Work Published: Catlin, Bodmer, Miller, Joslyn Art Museum, 1963. 

Collections: Public: BM (unconfirmed), NNGCC. 
Yellow Hair {see Hood, Ranee) 
Yellow Hair {see Toppah, Herman) 
Yellow Horse Arapaho {?) 

Born: Date unknown; Hved at one time in the area of Bozeman, Mont. 

Killed possibly in 1869. 
In 1933, D. S. Warren of Iowa owned drawings by Yellow Horse that were photo- 
graphed by the Smithsonian Institution. Then, the drawings were at the Iowa 
Historical Society in Des Moines; their present whereabouts are unknown. 



ARTISTS 225 

Service: U.S. Army. 
Collections: Public: OAA/SI. 

Yellow Lodge Santee-Yanktonai Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; lived at Cannonball, N. Dak. 
The Yellow Lodge Winter Count, owned by Eugene Burdick of Williston, N. 
Dak., and placed on indefinite loan with the North Dakota State Historical 
Museum in 1932, includes the years 1785-86 to 1930-31. A copy of this count, 
complete through 1951-52, was kept by Mrs. Teresa Yellow-lodge of Fort Yates, 
N. Dak. {See BAE, Bull. 173, PP- 335-416.) 

Work Published : BAE, Bull. lys. 
Yellow Nose Ute 

(Also known as Little Robe; Crow Indian.) 

Born: 1850's; when he was about four, he and his mother were captured 

on the Rio Grande by Cheyennes and Arapahos led by Dive Backwards. 

His mother escaped, and he was adopted by Spotted Wolf. He was living 

near Geary, Okla., in 1909. 

Career: Warrior, took part in many historical battles. 

Collections: Public: JAM, MAI (350 ledger style paintings collected ca. 

1880 by John Gregory Bourke). 

Work Published : Catlin, Bodmer, Miller, Joslyn Art Museum (1963) ; Cohoe 

(1965)- 

Yellow Tail Plains 

Collections: Public: SMNAI (buffalo hide painting). 

Yellow Wolf (Chief) Comanche 

In the collection of EM AS is an oil portrait of Chief Yellow Wolf by Col. Arthur 
T. Lee, with the Eighth Infantry in Texas, who befriended Yellow Wolf. 

Collections: Public: RMAS (drawing, ca. 1859, ^^ t)^^^ foolscap painted 

for, and given to. Col. Lee). 

Yepa, Emilina Jemez 

Born : Date unknown. Deceased. 
Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1932-37. 
Exhibitions: NGA, 1953. 
Collections: Private: M. Kramer. 

Yepa, Rita Jemez 

Born: ca. 1944. 
Education: Jemez, ca. i960. 
Exhibitions: AAIE, AIE, PAC. 
Awards : 1957 : two, including AIE. 

Yeppa, Franklin Pueblo [Jemez ?] 

Collections: Private: Bush. 

Yeppa, Jinimie Jemez 

Education : Santa Fe, ca. 1958. 
Exhibitions: MNM, 1958. 

Yo Sumce Witke Sioux 

Collections: Public: MPM (pictographic style on paper). 

15 



226 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Young, Mary Cecilia Choctaw 

Born: April 14, 1928, Muskogee, Okla. Daughter of Herman Bresser and 

LiUie WiUis (Choctaw). 

Married: Revere A. Young, May 16, 1950. Two children: Lillian Diane, 

195 1 ; Robert Mark, 1954. 

Education: Sacred Heart School, Muskogee, Okla., 1934-42; graduated 

Muskogee Central High School, 1946; St. Mary's of Notre Dame, South 

Bend, Ind., 1947 ; Bacone College, art classes, 1960-61 ; studied under Ruth M. 

White [q.v.), Roger Lee White, John Arthur, John Kennedy, George Calvert, 

Joan Hill {q.v.), Helen Rowland, and Dick West {q.v.). 

Career: Housewife, painter; active in Service League of Muskogee, a civic 

organization. 

Honors: Chairman, Muskogee Annual Art Show, i960; Chairman Ways 

and Means Committee, Decorating Chairman, Service League of Muskogee. 

Exhibitions: PAC, MNM, SAIEAIP,|SN; Muskogee Annual Art Show; 

Muskogee Art Students Guild; Oklahoma State Fair, Muskogee, Okla.; 

Indian City, Anadarko, Okla. 

Collections: Private: G. Carter, W. Fenton, Gulager, Johnet, L. Keene, 

Nichols. 

Address: 1415 Seventh Street, Apt. D., Riverside, Calif. 
Young Deer {see Roberts, Frank) 
Young Man Afraid of His Horses Sioux 

Born: Date unknown; lived in the area of Pine Ridge, S. Dak., in 1880. 

The artist, a minor chief, opposed Red Cloud on the sale of Sioux land. 

[See Hyde (1956).] 

Honors: Appointed head of the Bear People by Agent McGillicuddy, 1879. 

Collections: Public: MAI. 
Yutsuwuna {see Eckiwaudah, Tennyson) 
Zepko Ettee {see Big Bow, Chief) 
Zeyouma, Phillip Hopi 

Education: Santa Fe, ca. 1932-33. 

Exhibitions: NGA. 

Collections: Public: DAM. Private: M. Kramer. 

Zone Keuh Kiowa { ?) 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 
Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 

Collections: Public: YU/BRBML. 
Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts Kiowa- Arapaho-Isleta 

Acenemah, Always Prepared; Sweet Fruit. 

Born : September 29, 1925, Detroit, Mich. Daughter of Carew H. Tallamonts 
(Isleta) and Carrie Hunt (Kiowa- Arapaho) . 
Married: 1947; divorced i960. Married Ben Shoemake, 1967. 
The artist has been painting since about 1961. She has been most encouraged 
by Mrs. Homer Abbott and Tom Manhart. 
Education: Graduated Haskell, 1942; graduated Haskell, Business College, 
1943; Kansas, 1944; St. Anthony's Hospital School, 1947; Tulsa, i960-. 



ARTISTS 227 

Career : X-ray Technician, 1944-. 
Exhibitions: FAIEAIP, PAC, SN. 
Awards: PAC. 

Address: 3531 South Oswego, Tulsa, Okla. 
Zotom Kiowa 

(Also known as Zo Tom; Biter.) 
Married: Mary Buffalo (Kiowa). 

The artist was among the 72 Plains Indians taken as prisoners from Fort Sill, 

Okla., to Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., in 1875. 
Collections: Puhlic. HI, MAI, YU/BRBML. Private: Curtin. 

Zshingka Heka [see Standingbear, George Eugene) 

Zuazua, Michael Mescalero Apache 

Exhibitions: MNM, student division, 1963. 

Address: Mescalero, N.M. 
Zuyaterila {see Tough Soldier) 



15* 



TRIBAL INDEX 



ACOMA 

Byrnes, James Michael 
Hunt, Clyde "Sunnyskies' 
Hunt, Wolf Robe 
Paytiamo, James P. 
Torivio, Lolita 
Vallo, Pedro 

Aleut 

Backford, Alexandra 

Apache 

Archilta, Clara 
Botella, Emmett 
Buffalo Meat 
Caje, Richard 
Chester, Richard 
Cosen, Gilbert 
Cosen, Lydia M. 
Cut Ear 
Dewey, Wilson 
Enjady, Errol 
Gregg, Wilkie 
Hosetosavit, Arden 
Houser, Allan C. 
Hunting Wolf 
Little, Bernadette 
Loco, Moses 
Mana 

Martin, Ringlin 
Morgan, Robert 
Naiche 
Nash, Daniel 
Nash, Wesley 
Nosie, Montie 
Palmer, Ignatius 
Patterson, Pat 
Paz, Carol 
Penrod, Michael 
Polan Yi Katon 
Puerto, Leonard 
Sine, David 
Smith, Gibson R. 
Stevens, Jim 
Takzi 

Toppah, Herman 
Treas, Byron L, 
Treas, Rudolph 
Venego, Florenzo 
Vicenti, Carl A. 
Vicenti. Steven 



Vigil, Calvin 
Vigil, Frank Paul 
Whitehead, Ernest 
Williams, David Emmett 
Wolf Face 
Zuazua, Michael 

Arapaho 

Beard, Lorenzo 

Bushyhead, Allan 

Packer 

Shave Head 

Sweezy, Carl 

White Bear 

Whiteman, A. 

Yellow Horse 

Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts 

Arikara 

Eagle, Thomas, Jr. 
Fox, Elaine 
Horn, Miles S. 
Plenty Chief, Walter, Sr. 
Ripley, David J. 
White Bear, Alton 

ASSINIBOIN 

Boyd, George, Jr. 
Emerson, Roberta Joan Boyd 
Standing, William 
Wilder, Leonard 

Athabascan 
Blackmore, Bill 

Bannock 

Farmer, Ernie 

Blackfoot 
Big Brave 

Big Springs, William, Sr. 
Burdeau, George Henry 
Clarke, John Louis 
Double Runner 
Elk Horn 

Feathers, Gerald T. 
Grass, John 
Kuka, King 
Parsons, Neil 
Pepion, Dan 
Pepion, Victor 
Racine, Albert Batiste 
Red Crane 
Ripley, David J. 



228 



TRIBAL INDEX 



229 



Sanderville, Richard 
Schildt, Gary Joseph 
Schultz, Hart Merriam 

Brule {see Sioux) 

Caddo 

Armstrong, Tirador 
Cannon, Tommy 
Martin, Mike 

Cherokee 

Alberty, Dewey 
Archuleta, Betty Keener 
Ballard, Louis Wayne 
Beeler, Joe 
Bolin, Floyd 
Boswell, Helen 
Brave, Franklin P. 
Brim, Mary 
Burton, Jimalee 
Cassady, Ann Virginia 
Chisholm, Calvin 
Cochran, George McKee 
Cochran, J. Woody 
Cornine, Barbara 
Costilow, Eunice 
Damrow, Charles 
Davenport, Julia Chisholm 
Denton, Coye Elizabeth 
Dick, Cecil 
Flores, William Vann 
Freeman, Brenda 
Garcia, Ruth Bussey 
Green, Homer 
Gritts, Franklin 
Hanson, Joan Stone 
Hill, Joan 

Holton, Anne Tennyson 
Johnson, Alfred 
Mathews, Fadie Mae 
Orr, Howell Sonny 
Owen, Narcissa Chisholm 
Pahsetopah, Loren Louis 
Pahsetopah, Paul 
Rogers, Will Paul 
Seabourn, Bert D. 
Taylor, Virginia 
Thornton, Clinton Evan 
Tracy, Jo Ellis 
Waano-Gano, Joe T. N. 
White, Riley 

Cheyenne 
Ahsit 

Antelope, W. 
Armstrong, Tirador 
Beard, Lorenzo 
Bear's Heart, James 



Big Back 

Blackowl, Archie 

Buffalo Meat 

Bushyhead, Allan 

Buzzard 

Chief Killer 

Cohoe, William 

Dawes, Ermaleen 

Goodbear, Paul J. 

Hollowbreast, Donald 

Howling Wolf 

Left Hand 

Little Chief, Daniel 

Little Chief, William 

Little Finger Nail 

Making Medicine 

Nick 

Packer 

Red Bird 

Red Cloud 

Roman Nose, Henry Caruthers 

Shave Head 

Soaring Eagle 

Squint Eyes 

Tichkematse 

West, Dick 

Whirlwind 

White Bird 

White Buffalo, Herbert 

Whiteman, A. 

Wild Hog 

Wooden Leg 

Chickasaw 

Boyiddle, Parker, Jr. 
Colbert, Frank Overton 
Collins, Martha Adele 
Davenport, Julia Chisholm 
Murray, Alice Hearrell 
Northcutt, Harrell 
Orr, Howell Sonny 
Pringle, Wilma Jane Reed 
Saul, C. Terry 

Chippewa 

Boswell, Helen 

Brando, Stephen 

Des Jarlait, Patrick Robert 

Freimark, Robert M. 

Kahgegagahbowh 

Maulson, Gerald 

Moore, Georgianna 

Morrison, George 

St. Pierre, Rodger 

Walz, Peter Frank 

Wilkie, Laurence 

Chiricahua {see Apache) 



230 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Choctaw 

Collins, Martha Adele 

Dage, Lynn 

Hessing, Valjean McCarty 

Ingram, Jerry Cleman 

Mauldin, Carol Jane McCarty 

Murray, Alice Hearrell 

Perry, Angela Lee 

Phillips, D wight E. 

Pringle, Wilma Jane Reed 

Saul, C. Terry 

Wade, Bobby 

Young, Mary Cecilia 
CocHixf 

Arqurero, Avelino 

Chavez, Manuel "Bob" 

Herrera, Delphino 

Herrera, Joe Hilario 

Herrera, Justino 

Herrera, Victor 

Melchior, Ray 

Ortiz, Louis 

Otelaleya 

Pecos, Jose D. 

Quintana, Ben 

Quintana, Joe A. 

Quintana, Trinidad 

Romero, Cipriana 

Romero, Santiago 

Suina, Herman 

Suina, Theodore 

Trujillo, Andy 

COLVILLE 

Carraher, Ronald G. 
Desautel, Ernie 
Ingram, Veronica Marie 
Leholm, Mary Frances Pichette 
Noyes, Phyllis 
Orr, Caroline Louise 
Palmenteer, Theodore 
Comanche 

Ayawat, William 
Bosin, Blackbear 
Davis, Jesse Edwin, II 
Eckiwaudah, Tennyson 
Garcia, Maria 
Geionety, George 
Hobah 
Hood, Ranee 
Jones, Laura Asah 
Qussay Yah 
Riddles, Leonard 
Saryerwinnie, Houston 
Saupity, Larry 
Taulbce, Daniel J. 
Terasaz, Marian 



Toppah, Herman 
Watchetaker, George Smith 
Weckeah 
Yellow Wolf 

Cree 

Standing Chief, Robert 

Creek 

Anderson, Jimmy 
Ball, Lois Harjo 
Beaver, Fred 
Blue Eagle, Acee 
Burton, Jimalee 
Crumbo, Woodrow Wilson 
Deere, Eli 
Deere, Noah 
Ducee Blue Buzzard 
Fife, Phyllis 
Hill, Joan 
McCombs, Solomon 
Randall, Bunnie 
Sampson, William, Jr. 
Scott, Johnson Lee 
Tiger, Jerome Richard 
Wolfe, Edmond Richard 

Crow 

Bellrock, Buster 
Big Man, Max 
Biss, Earl 
Charges Strong 
Cree 

Horse Tail 
Medicine Crow 
Red Star, Kevin 
Spotted Tail 
Washakie, Charles 
White Bear 

Delaware 

Boyiddle, Parker, Jr. 
Jones, Ruthe Blalock 
Parks 

Eskimo 

Ahgupuk, George Aden 
Chauncey, Florence Nupok 
Gough, Agnes 
Immana, Annie Weokluk 
Kakarook, Guy 
Katexac, Bernard T. 
Mayokok, Robert 
Minoch, Milo 
Monignok, Gabriel 
Moses, James Kivetoruk 
Naumoff 
Norton, Jerry R. 
Nutchuck 
Octuck, J. 



TRIBAL INDEX 



231 



Okie, John 
Patkotak, Paul 
Seton, Thomas 
Smart, Clara Mary 
Smith, Johnny 
Takilnok, Richard Davis 
Tega, Charles 
Thomas, Evans S. 
Walluk, Wilbur Wright 

Flathead 

Antelope, Louis 
Washakie 
Washakie, Charles 

Gros Ventres 
Hawk 

Haida 

Robinson, John 
Robson 

HiDATSA 

Fox, Guy 
Lean Wolf 
Levings, Martin 

Hopi 

Akima, Calvin 

Coochwatewa, Victor H. 

Cooke, Connie 

Cooyama, Homer 

David, Neal 

Duahkapoo, Anthony 

Duwenie, Dick 

Gaseoma, Lee Roy 

Gashwytewa, Ivan S. 

Haydah, William D. 

Henry, Fred 

Holmes, Gordon 

Holmes, Roderick 

Honahni, Al 

Honahniein, Ramson R. 

Honewytewa, Louis Calvin, Jr. 

Hugh, Victor C. 

Humetewa, Eric 

Humetewa, James Russell, Jr. 

Hyeoma, Lucille 

Jay, Tom 

Jenkins, Nathan 

Joshongeva 

Kabotie, Fred 

Kabotie, Michael 

Kapelva, Don 

Kayarvena, Walter 

Kaye, Wilmer 

Keejana, Oreston 

Kelhoyoma, C. T. 

Kewanwytewa, Riguel 

Kewanyouma, Leroy 



Kocha Honawu 

Kopeley 

Leyestewa, Cyrus 

Lomahaftewa, Linda 

Loloma, Charles 

Lomadesva 

Lomakema, Marshall 

Lomayaktewa, Narron 

Lomayaktewa, V. 

Lomayesva, Helena 

Lomayesva, Louis 

Lomayesva, William 

Mofsie, Louis Billingsly 

Mootzka, Waldo 

Moqui 

Naha, Raymond 

Nahsohnhoya, Thomas Dolwiftema 

Namingha, Grifford 

Nash, Joel 

Nequatewa, Eddie 

Nichols, Milton 

Nova, A. M. 

Numkena, Lewis, Jr. 

Nuvayouma, Arlo 

Outah, Lawrence 

Outie, George 

Pentewa, Dick R. 

Polelonema, Otis 

Polelonema, Tyler 

Poleyestewa, E. D. 

Poolheco, Sidney 

Poseyesva, Raymond 

Preston, Bert 

Qotskuyva, R. 

Quamahongnewa, Redford 

Quannie, Emerson T. 

Quannie, Lorenzo H. 

Robinson, Rose 

Sakyewa, Henry 

Sakyesva, Harry 

Saufkie, Morgan 

Seekyesva 

Shelton, H. 

Shelton, Peter H., Jr. 

Shupela, Douglas 

Suetopka, Elliot 

Sunrise, Riley 

Susunkewa, Manfred 

Tahalytewa, Stacy 

Taho, Mark 

Taho, Wilbert 

Talahytewa, Gibson 

Talaswaima, Terry 

Tallas, Terrance 

Taller, Herman 

Tewaquaptewa 



232 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Timeche, Bruce 

Timeche, Harold 

Tomossee, T. 

Tuvahoema, Kyrate 

Twoitsie, Hansen 

White Bear 

Zeyouma, Phillip 
HuNKPAPA {see Sioux) 
Huron 

Le Coeur, Leon 
Iowa 

Murray, Daniel M. 
Iroquois 

Cornplanter, Carrie 

Cornplanter, Jessie 

DeMott, Helen 

Dorsey, Tom 

Leholm, Mary Frances Pichette 

Lyons, Oren R. 

Natatches, James J. 

Patterson, Pat 

Poodry, C. Earl 

Roberts, Frank 

Smith, Ernest 

Thomas, Edson 

Two Arrows, Tom 
Islet A 

Abeita, Tom Diego 

Garcia, Ernest P. 

Jaramillo, Edward Gilbert 

Jojola, E. 

Lente, Jose Bartolo 

Montoya, Jose L. 

Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts 
Jemez 

Casiquito, Lucy 

Casiquito, Vidal, Jr. 

Chamon, John A. 

Chinana, Christina 

Chinana, Felipe 

Chinana, Lawrence 

Chinana, Paul 

Chinana, Ricky 

Coloque, Mary Nancy 

Doyce, Clarence 

Fragua, Augustine 

Gachupin, Juan 

Gachupin, Maxine 

Gachupin, Paul 

Gachupin, Rose M. 

Loretto, Jos6 Richard 

Loretto, Leonard 

Lucero, Alondo 

Lucero, Guadalupe 

Lucero, Lupita 

Lucero, Mary Rose 



Lucero, Nora Alice 

Lucero, Victor 

Luci 

Panana, Gerald 

Panana, Sophie 

Panana, Veronica 

Shendo, Joe Ray 

Toledo, Jose Rey 

Toledo, Mike 

Tosa, Lawrence 

Tosa, Mary 

Tosa, Tony 

Toya, Johnny 

Toya, Jose Maria 

Toya, Mary Isabel 

Toya, Patricio 

Toya, Pete 

Toya, Rosie 

Vigil, Alfred 

Vigil, Andrea 

Vigil, Priscilla 

Vigil, Ralph 

Vigil, Tom 

Yepa, Emilina 

Yepa, Rita 

Yeppa, Franklin 

Yeppa, Jimmie 
JiCARiLLA {see Apache) 
Karok 

Wilder, Leonard 

KiCKAPOO 

Kishketon, George 
Murdock, Cecil 
Kiowa 
Anko 

Anquoe, Evans 
Asah, Spencer 
Auchiah, James 
Bear's Heart, James 
Belindo, Dennis 
Big Bow 
Big Bow, Abel 
Big Bow, "Old Man" 
Big Bow, Woody 
Bosin, Blackbear 
Boyiddle, Parker, Jr. 
Darby, Ra^^mond Lee 
Etahdleuh 
Hanna, R. W. 
Hill, Bobby 
Ho Haw 
Hokeah, Jack 
Horse, Perry 
Hummingbird, Jerome 
Jones, Laura Asah 
Keahbone, George Campbell 



TRIBAL INDEX 



233 



Keahbone, Gordon 

Kodaseet, Alfred Calisay 

Little Chief, Buddy 

Lone Wolf 

Mammedaty 

Momaday, Al 

Mopope, Stephen 

Newton, Ranzy Alison 

Odle Pah 

Ohet Toint 

Palmer, Dixon 

Paukei, George 

Polan Yi Katon 

Quoetone, Jimmy 

Rowell, Charles Emery 

Satanta 

Sett'an 

Silverhom 

Silverhom, Arthur 

Silverhorn, George 

Smoky, Lois Bougetah 

Tartsah, Jim 

Toahty, Zachary 

Tohausen 

Tonepahhote, Billy 

To'oan 

Toppah, Herman 

Toun Keuh 

Tsadeltah 

Tsait Kope Ta 

Tsatoke, Lee Monet te 

Tsatoke, Monroe 

Tsoodle, James 

Turkey, Moses 

Two Hatchet, Spencer Lee, Jr. 

White Horse 

Whitehorse, Roland N. 

Wild Horse 

Williams, David Emmett 

Zone Keuh 

Zotigh, Barbara Tallamonts 

Zotom 

KWAKIUTL 

Speck, Henry 

Laguna 
Bird, Larry 
Byrnes, James Michael 
Cawastuma 
Chavez, Calvin Fenley 
Draper, Robert D. 
Gaco, Philip 
Gorospe, Josephine 
Kasero, Joseph J. 
Kie, Robert A. 
Marmon, Miriam A. 
Riley, Victor 



Satsewa, Paul 
Silva, Anthony 
Thompson, Robert 
Thompson, Thomas 

Mandan 

Bear's Arm, Martin 
Butterfly 
Four Bears 
Wounded Face 
Yellow Feather 

Mescalero {see Apache) 

Miami 

Froman, Robert 
Palmer, Woodrow Wilson 

MiNicoNjou [see Sioux) 

Mission 

Lomayesva, William 
Scholder, Fritz 

Missouri 

Arkeketa, Benjamin 

MlWOK 

Nichols, Katie 

Mohawk {see Iroquois) 

Nambe 

Yates, George 

Navaho 

Abeyta, Narciso Platero 
Adakai, Pat 
Allen, Mary 
Austin, Frank 
Badonie, Thomas 
Bahe, Stanley K. 
Battese, Stanley 
Beatien Yazz 
Beck, Clifford, Jr. 
Bedah, Timothy 
Begay, Apie 
Begay, Arthur C. 
Begay, Fred 
Begay, Harrison 
Begay, Harry B. 
Begay, Jerome 
Begay, Jimmy 
Begay, Keats 
Begay, Paul Lee 
Begay, Raymond 
Begay, Richard 
Begay, Timothy 
Belindo, Dennis 
Benally, Chee B. 
Bluehorse, George 
Bobb. Henrietta 



234 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Casias, Johnny Gabriel 
Chee, Robert 
Chester, Eddie 
Chetlahe 
Choh 

Clah, Alfred 
Coho, Vernon 
Colville, Clyde 
Crispin, Sutero 
Dahadid, Posey 
Davis, Ralph U. 
Davis, Truman 
De Groat, Jay 
Denetdale, Myron 
Denetsosie, Hoke 
Dodge, Aydee 
Draper, Robert D. 
Draper, Teddy, Sr. 
Ellen, Mary 
Franklin, Ernest 
Gamble, Thomas J. 
Ghost Wind 
Gorman, Alfred Kee 
Gorman, Carl Nelson 
Gorman, R. C. 
Gould, Jay 
Gruber, Raymond 
Hadley, Wade 
Hapaha, L. 
Harvey, Pete, Jr. 
Hastings, Cain 
Hicks, Bobby 
Holgate, Eugene, Jr. 
Hoskie, Larry 
Hunter, Elwood 
Huskett, John 
Jim, Frank 
Jim, Wilson 
Joe, Ray 

John, Angelo Marvin 
Johns, David 
Kahn, Chester 
Kirk, Ernest 
Lee, Charlie 
Lee, J. S. 
Lee, Jerry 
Lee, Nancy Isabel 
Lee, Nelson 
Lee, Paul 
Leslie, Ernest 
Lewis, Albert Artie 
Lewis, Jimmy 
Lewis, Roger 
Lizer, Vera 
Long, Charles Vee 
Manuelito, Monte 



Martin, Raymond 
Martine, Bob 
Mitchell, George Charlie 
Mitchell, Peter 
Mitchell, Stanley C. 
Montoya, Sidney, Jr. 
Morez, Mary 
Morris, Ruth Ella 
Nailor, Gerald 
Natatches, James J. 
Natay, Ed 
Nez, Ford 

Nilchee, Betty Jean 
Nofchissey, Alberta 
Notah, Ned 
Paddock, Hugh 
Paladin, Dave 
Paradis, Rena 
Peshlakai, Fred 
Pilli, Donna 
Pinto, Dennis Paul 
Platero, Lorenzo 
Platero, Raymond 
Platero, Tom 
Rafael, Donald 
Roan 

Roanhorse, Ralph 
Salt, Freddie 
Sandoval, Ronald 
Sandoval, Tony 
Secatero, McCoy 
Shirley, Charles Keetsie 
Shirley, Walter 
Singer, James 
Smith, Gibson R. 
Stevens, Leroy 
Stewart, Albert 
Tahoma, Quincy 
Taliwood, Richard 
Todacheenie, Barry 
Todea, Rocky 
Tom, Herbert, Jr. 
Tracy, Edmund 
Tsina 

Tsinajinnie, Andrew Van 
Tso, John 
Tsosie, George 
Tsosie, Paul 
Walters, Harry 
Wilson, John 
Wilson, Lucy 
Wood, Harvy 
Yazzie, Carl 
Yazzie, Daniel Wilbur 
Yazzie, Deswood H. 
Yazzie, James Wayne 



TRIBAL INDEX 



235 



Yazzie, Merlin 
Yazzie, Richard Kee 
Yazzie, Sybil L. 
Yazzie, Tom K. 

Nez Perce 

Hyde, Douglas 
Palmenteer, Theodore 
Plenty Coups 
White Bird 

NOOTKA 

Clutesi, George Charles 
Oglala {see Sioux) 
OjiBWAY {see Chippewa) 

Omaha 

Meet Me In The Night 

Miller, George 

Tyndall, Calvin T. 

White, Clarence A. 
Onondaga {see Iroquois) 

Osage 

Brave, Franklin P. 

Kimball, Yeffe 

Martin, James, Jr. 

Pahsetopah, Loren Louis 

Pahsetopah, Paul 

Perry, Angela Lee 

Red Corn 

Red Corn, Raymond Wesley 

Redcorn, Jim Lacy 

Standingbear, George Eugene 

Wagoshe, Russell William 

Woodring, Carl 
Oto 

Arkeketa, Benjamin 

Murray, Daniel M. 

Toahty, Zachary 
Ottawa 

Brando, Stephen 

Edwards, Bronson Wilbur 

Kagige, Francis 
Paiute 

Frazier, Carol Lee 

Harris, Ed 

Keno, Frankie 

Stewart, Richard 

Thomas, Kenneth 
Papago 

Fiores, William Vann 

Franco, D. 

Montana, David 

Preston, Daniel 
Passamaquodd y 

Sapiel Selmo 



Pawnee 

Blue Eagle, Acee 

Echohawk, Brummett 

Evarts, Mark 

Jake, Albin Roy 

Osborne, Gerald 

Pollock, William 

Riding Inn, M. 
Peoria 

Froman, Robert 

Green, Homer 

Palmer, Woodrow Wilson 

PiCURfS 

Duran, George 

Duran, Roland 

Martinez, Juan Jose 

Nailor, Jerry 

Simbola, Irene 
Pima 

Peters, Johnston 

Porter, Bob 
Plains 

Blackbear, Levi 

Red Bird, Robert 

Yellow Tail 

PONCA 

Feathers, Kirby 
Fireshaker, Franklin 
Fire shaker, Quannah Eagle 
Knight, L. 
Standing Buffalo 

POTAWATOMI 

Crumbo, Woodrow Wilson 

Darling, Marcell J. 

Gritts, Franklin 

Shipshee, Louis 

Williams, Sharon Pilcher 
Powhatan 

Whiteman, James Ridgley 
Pueblo 

Cariz, Santiago 

Chavarria, Elmer 

Louis, Julian J. 

Pa O Kelo 

Romero, Richard 

QUAPAW 

Ballard, Louis Wayne 
QuECHAN {see Yuma) 

QUINAULT 

McBride, Del 

Rinc6n 

Wa Wa Chaw 

San Carlos {see Apache) 



236 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



San Felipe 

Aragon, Ralph 

Candelario, James 

Chavez, Calvin Fenley 

Chevarillo, Dario 

Sandoval, Benny 

Townsend, Roger 

Townsend, Roy C. 
San Ildefonso 

Aguilar, Alfred 

Aguilar, Jose Angela 

Aguilar, Jose Vicente 

Apomonu 

Atencio, Gilbert Benjamin 

Atencio, Pat 

Atencio, Tony 

Awa Tsireh 

Da, Anthony 

Da, Popovi 

Gonzales, Louis 

Martinez, Crescendo 

Martinez, Daisy 

Martinez, John D. 

Martinez, Jose Miguel 

Martinez, Julian 

Martinez, Miguel 

Martinez, Philip 

Martinez, Raymond 

Martinez, Richard 

Martinez, Santana R. 

Montoya, Alfredo 

Montoya, Charles 

Montoya, Isabelita 

Oqwa Pi 

Pefia, Christino 

Pena, Jose Encarnacion 

Pefia, Tonita 

Piiio, Barbara 

Ridourt, Lucile 

Roybal, Jose D. 

Roybal, Juan Cruz 

Roybal, Seferino 

Sanchez, Guadalupito 

Sanchez, Ramos 

Vigil. Albert 

Vigil, Romando 

San Juan 

Abeyta, Emiliano 
Aquino, Frank 
Aquino, Juan B. 
Aquino, Robert 
Atencio, John 
Atencio, Lorencita 
Calvert, John 
Casias, Johnny Gabriel 
Cruz. Ramoncita 



Garcia, Alexander 
Garcia, Carlos 
Garcia, Marcelino 
Garcia, Peter 
Ka Tside 

Montoya, Geronima Cruz 
Montoya, Guadalupe 
Montoya, Juan B. 
Montoya, Ned 
Montoya, Nellie 
Montoya, Sidney, Jr. 
Montoya, Thomas 
Ortiz, Joseph 
Trujillo, Ascension 
Trujillo, Manuel 

Sans Arc {see Sioux) 

Santa Clara 
Baca, Henry 
Cordova, Louis {or Luis) 
Gutierrez, Clarence 
Gutierrez, Jose la Cruz 
Gutierrez, Jose Leandro 
Gutierrez, Juan B. 
Hardin, Helen 
Leandro, Jose 
Naranjo, Adolph 
Naranjo, Ben 
Naranjo, Jose Dolores 
Naranjo, Louis 
Naranjo, Victor 
Padilla, Michael 
Silva, Marcus 
Singer, James 
Sisneros, Marie 
Tafaga, Joseph 
Tafoya, Camilio 
Tafoya, Mary Agnes 
Tafoya, Rosita 
Tafoya, Teofilo 
Velarde, Pablita 

Santee {see Sioux) 

Santo Domingo 
Bird, Larry 
Coriz, Fidel 
Garcia, Jose J. 
Garcia, Lorenzo 
Herrera, Martin 
Lee, Nancy Isabel 
Lovato, Ambrosio 
Naranjo, Balardo 
Nieto, Balardo 
Steatuma, Tony 
Velarde, Neito 

S auk-Fox 

Duncan. Dallas 



TRIBAL INDEX 



237 



Duncan, Marcellus 
Franklin, Herman 
Jefferson, Bennie 
Poodry, C. Earl 
Pushetonequa, Charles 
Warrior, Antowine 
White, Ruth M. 

Seminole 

Doonkeen, Eulamae Narcomey 

Haney, Kelly Enoch 

Johns, Joe L. 

Osceola, Mary Gay 

Scott, Johnson Lee 

Tiger, Jerome Richard 

Wolfe, Edmond Richard 

Seneca {see Iroquois) 

Shawnee 
Chisholm, Calvin 
John, Johnny 
Jones, Ruth Blalock 
Spybuck, Ernest 

Shoshoni 

Decker, Vernon Edward 

Farmer, Ernie 

Keno, Frankie 

Pete 

Tinzoni 

Washakie, George 

Sioux 
American Horse 
Amiotte, Arthur Douglas 
Bad Heart Buffalo, Amos 
Bear's Face 
Big Missouri 
Big Road 
Black Bear 
Black Crow 
Black Heart 
Black Horse 
Black Thunder 
Bloody Knife 
Boyd, George, Jr. 
Brave Bull 
Bush 

Bushotter, George 
Byrnes, James Michael 
Claymore, Thomas William 
Cloud Shield 
The Crow 

Don't Braid His Hair 
Dupree, William 
Eagle Crow 
Eagle Feather, Elijah 
Eagle Shield 



Eder, Earl 

Emerson, Roberta Joan Boyd 

Fast Deer 

Fast Eagle 

Feather, Buddy 

Feathers, Kirby 

The Flame 

Fox, Elaine 

Fox, Guy 

Freeman, Robert Lee 

Ghost Bear, Theodore 

Good, Baptiste 

Good, John 

Grass, John 

Grass, John, Jr. 

Hard Heart 

Hawk Man 

Herman, Jake 

High Dog 

High Hawk 

His Crazy Horse 

His Fight 

Holy Standing Buffalo 

Howe, Oscar 

Iron Tail 

Itkaminyauke 

Jaw 

Keith, C. Hobart 

Keith, Sidney John 

Kicking Bear 

Kills Two 

Lame Dog 

Larvie, Calvin 

Little Big Man 

Little Cook 

Little Eagle 

Little Sky, Dawn 

Locke, James 

Lone Bear 

Lone Dog 

Lone Horse 

Long Cat 

Man Who Carries The Sword 

Mato Hunka 

Meet Me In The Night 

No Braid 

No Heart 

No Two Horns 

Old Buffalo 

Old Bull, Moses 

Pete Three Legs 

Phillips, Oliver 

Pretty Hawk 

Quick Thunder 

Quiver, Dan 



238 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Quiver, Robert A. 

Rain In The Face 

Rave, Austin 

Red Bull, Elmer 

Red Dog 

Red Elk, Herman 

Red Fish 

Red Hail 

Red Hawk 

Red Horn Bull Buffalo 

Red Horn Elk 

Red Horse 

Red Living Bear 

Roman Nose 

Runner, O. B. 

Running Antelope 

Running Deer 

Runs Over 

Samuel 

Short Bull 

Shortbull, Norman 

Shows The Feather 

Sinte 

Sitting Bull 

Sitting Crow 

Sitting Eagle 

Sitting Hawk 

Spotted Elk, Leo 

Spotted Horse 

Standing Bear ^ 

Standing Bear, Andrew 

Standingbear, George Eugene 

Standing Soldier, Andrew 

The Swan 

Swift Dog 

Tahcawin 

Tasumke Witka 

Tough Soldier 

Turning Bear 

Two Eagle, Violet 

Two Strikes 

Tyndall, Calvin T. 

Whirlwind Hawk 

White Bull 

White Cow Killer 

White Eagle 

Wife Eagle Deer 

Wilkinson, Douglas 

Yellow Blanket 

Yellow Lodge 

Yo Sumce Witke 

Young Man Afraid Of His Horses 

Snohomish 
Gobin, Henry 
Henry, Woodworth V. 



Spokane 

Wynne, Bruce 
Taos 

Archuleta, Antonio 

Archuleta, Trinidad 

Bernal, Eloisa 

Bernal, Pauline 

Concha, John 

Good Rain 

Harvier, Michael 

Keahbone, Gordon 

Lomayn Do 

Lujan, Albert 

Lujan, Alfred 

Lujan, Gilbert 

Lujan, James 

Lujan, Jerry 

Lujan, Lorenzo A. 

Lujan, Manuel 

Lujan, Margaret 

Lujan, Mike 

Lujan, Tonita 

Lujan, Vicente 

Lujan, Wahleah 

Martinez, Albert 

Martinez, Jerry 

Martinez, Jose R. 

Martinez, Manuel 

Martinez, Ralph 

Mirabel, Eva 

Mirabel, Vicente 

Pop Chalee 

Pop Wea 

Romero, Frankie 

Trujillo, Jennie 

Tesuque 

Abeyta, Augustine 
Coriz, Nat 
Dur4n, Joe Evan 
Herrera, Diego 
Herrera, Elroy 
Herrera, Ernest 
Herrera, Jos6 
Herrera, Senofre 
Hinds, Patrick Swazo 
Leno, Marce 
Pajoma, Peni 
Pin, Pagna 
Piiio, Juan Isidro 
Pifio, Lorenzo 
Samuel, Tony 
Swazo, Juan G. 
Vigil, Jo 
Vigil, Juanita 
Vigil, Lucy 
Vigil, Pete 



TRIBAL INDEX 



239 



Vigil, Ramon 

Vigil, Rufina 

Vigil, Thomas 

Vigil, Tim 

Vigil, Utimio 
Teton {see Sioux) 
Tlingit 

Jackson, Nathan 

Thomas, Clifford 

Ward, Victor 

TONKAWA 

Williams, David Emmett 

TSIMSHIAN 

Morgan, Judith Phillis 

TUSCARORA 

Cusick, David 
Umatilla 

Washakie 

Washakie, Charles 
Ute 

Duncan, Clifford 

Hatch, Glenn 

Manning, Ferdinand 

O'John, Calvin 

Quin Cha Ke Cha 

Yellow Nose 
Washo 

Servilican, Richard 
Wenatchee 

Orr, Caroline Louise 
White Mountain {see Apache) 
Wichita 

Boyiddle, Parker, Jr. 

Lamar, Elgin W. 
Winnebago 

De Cora, Angel 

Mike, Judy 

Mofsie, Louis Billingsly 

Walker, Thomas, Jr. 

White Eagle, Charles W. 
Yakima 

Olney, Nathan Hale, III 

Spencer, Jeri 
Yankton {see Sioux) 
Yanktonai {see Sioux) 
Yuma 

Smith, Gibson R. 

Smith, Patronella 

Wilson, Cynthia Judy 

ZlA 

Gachupin, Manelino 
Gachupin, Wald 
Galvan, Andreas 



Herrera, Marcelina 
Herrera, Velino Shije 
Joe, Ray 

Kewanwytewa, Riguel 
MacMillan, James H. 
Maggino, Waka Ignacio 
Medina, James D. 
Medina, Jose de la Cruz 
Medina, Juan B. 
Medina, Rafael 
Moquino, Delfino 
Moquino, Ignacio 
Moquino, Juanito 
Moquino, Toribio 
Salas, Diego 
Shije, Marcus 
Tosa, Paul 
WaKa 

ZUNI 

Acque, Philbert 
C.D.T. 

Chapita, Dempsey 
Chapito, Tony 
Charlie Boy 
Cheyatie, Patone 
Chuyate, Charles 
Delena, Sam 
Dewa, R. B. 
Dickson, Larry 
Dishta, Duane 
Dishta, Virgil, Jr. 
Edaakie, Anthony P. 
Eileohi, Antonio 
Eustace, Lebeck 
Gasper, Pete 
Ghahatt, Barton 
Guatogue, Leo 
Histito, Alonzo 
Homer, Bernard 
Kallestewa, Wiston 
Kaskalla, David 
Kylesdawa, Dennis 
Ladd, Edmund J. 
Lalio, Ernie 
Lawasewa, V. C. 
Leekela, Howard 
Loweka, Bill 
Nashboo, William 
Natachu, Fred 
Newini 
Nieto, Harry 
Pablito, Thomas 
Peina, Dan 
Pincion, Peter 
Pinto, Emily 
Quandelacy, Wilmer 



240 

Quetoque, Jefferson 
Quetoque, Leo 
Rani, Bist 

Sandy, Percy Tsisete 
Shebola, Dixon 
Shebola, Philbert 
Shebola, Sullivan 
Sheyka, P. 
Sterne, Mabel 
Telese, Gilbert 
Toshewana, Robert Leo 
Tsabetsaye, Roger 
Tucson, Loren 
Twakuku 
Vacit, Gary 
Vicenti, Charles 
Vigil, Marco 
Weakee, Teddy 

Specific Tribes Unknown 
Andrews, William A. 
Blackbear, Levi 
Brunette, J. M. 
Cariz, Santiago 
Chavarria, Elmer 
Chuokaichi, Linland 
Cleveland, Frederick 
Coffee 

Connery, Stanley 
Crispin, Santiago 
Henry, Gary 
Hicks, Al 
Hiuwa Tuni 
Hoffman, Delores 
Holgate, J. 

Jaramillo, Joseph Louis 
Keevama, David 
Lee, Frank 
Little Sheep 
Louis, James M. 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Louis, Julian J. 
Martinez, Anecito 
Martinez, Dave 
Melford, Earl 
Miller, Frances 
Mirabel, Leon 
Mitchell, James 
Old Dog 
Pa O Kelo 
Pino, Kathy 
Po Ye Gi 
Quintana, Johnnie 
Quintana, Marcelino 
Red Bird, Robert 
Red Robin 
Ringo, Good 
Romero, Richard 
Roybal, Louis 
Sanchez, Aresenio 
Sanchez, Laura 
Saves Life, George 
Scott, Duard 
Smallcanyon, Evelyn 
Spencer, Marlene R. 
Standing Leaf 
Stone Man 
Sturr, Jonathan 
Tafoya, Francis 
Thompson, Alex 
Toledo, Jerome 
Tomo 
Tracy, E. 
Trujillo, Gregory 
Valencia, Anna Lou 
Walter, Roy M. 
Ware, Woodrow 
Warner, Fred 
Webster, David 
Wilson, J. 
Yellow Tail 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 

BAE Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
BAE, AR Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D.C, 
BAE, B Bureau of American Ethnology , Bulletin, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D.C. 

GA grandaunt 

GF grandfather 

GGF great-grandfather 

GGGF great-great-grandfather 

GGM great-grandmother 

GM grandmother 

GU granduncle 

IT Indian Territory (now Okla.) 

M/GA maternal grandaunt 
M/GF maternal grandfather 
M/GGF maternal great-grandfather 
M/GGGF maternal great-great-grandfather 
M/GGGU maternal great-great-granduncle 
M/GGU maternal great-granduncle 
M/GGM maternal great-grandmother 
M/GM maternal grandmother 
M/GP maternal grandparents 
M/GU maternal granduncle 
M/U maternal uncle 

OU/A Auditorium, Lniversity of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

P/GA paternal grandaunt 
P/GF paternal grandfather 
P/GGF paternal great-grandfather 
P/GGGF paternal great-great-grandfather 
P/GGM paternal great-grandmother 
P/GGP paternal great-grandparents 
P/GM paternal grandmother 
P/GU paternal granduncle 
P/U paternal uncle 

USDS U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

WPA Works Progress Administration 
^^^WI World War I 
WWII World War II 

SCHOOLS 

Albuquerque U.S. Albuquerque Indian School, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Alfred Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y. 

American American Indian Institute, Wichita, Kan. 

Arizona University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Arizona S.C./F. Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Arizona S.C./T. Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz. 

i6 241 



242 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

Arkansas F. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Arkansas L.R. University of Arkansas, Little Rock, Ark. 

Art Art Students League, New York, N.Y. 

Bacone Bacone College and/or High School, Bacone, Okla. 

Benedictine Benedictine Heights College, Tulsa, Okla. 

Black Mt. Black Mountain College, near Black Mountain, N.C. 

California University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

California C. California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, Calif. 

Carlisle U.S. Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pa. 

Carnegie Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carson U.S. Carson Indian School, Carson, Nev. 

Central Central State College, Edmond, Okla. 

Chicago Chicago Art Institute, Chicago, 111. 

Chilocco U.S. Chilocco Indian School, Chilocco, Okla. 

Chinle U.S. Chinle Boarding and/or Indian School, Chinle, Ariz. 

Claremont Claremont College, Claremont, Calif. 

CocHiTi U.S. Cochiti Pueblo Indian School, Cochiti Pueblo, N.M. 

Concho U.S. Concho Indian School, Concho, Okla. 

Connors Connors State College, Warner, Okla. 

Cornell Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

East East Central State College, Ada, Okla. 

Espanola Espanola High School, Espafiola, N.M. 

Flagstaff Flagstaff High School, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Florida University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Fort Sill U.S. Fort Sill Indian School, Lawton, Okla. 

Fort Wingate Fort Wingate Indian School, Fort Wingate, N.M. 

Gallup Gallup High School, Gallup, N.M . 

Georgia University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Hampton Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. 

Haskell U.S. Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kan. 

Hiler Hiler College, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Hill Hill and Canyon School of Art, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Hopi Hopi High School, Oraibi, Ariz. 

Hotevilla U.S. Hotevilla Day School, Hotevilla, Ariz. 

Institute Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Inter-Mt. U.S. Inter-Mountain Indian School, Brigham City, Utah 

Iowa State College of Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

JEMEZ U.S. Jemez Pueblo Day School, Jemez Pueblo, N.M. 

Jicarilla U.S. Jicarilla Indian School, Dulce, N.M. 

Kansas University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Kansas City Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, Mo. 

Kansas S. Kansas State College of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Kan. 

Los Angeles Los Angeles Art Center School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Loyola Loyola University, New Orleans, La, 

Mexico University of Mexico, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico 

Mexico C. C. Mexico City College, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico 

Mills Mills College, Oakland, Cahf. 

Muskogee Muskogee Junior College, Muskogee, Okla. 

New Mexico New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, N.M. 

New Mexico U. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M. 

N. Dakota University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, N.Dak. 

Northeastern Northeastern State College, Tahlequah, Okla. 

Northeastern A.M. Northeastern Oklahoma A. & M. College, Miami, Okla, 

NoRTHiiRN Northern Slate Teachers College, Aberdeen, S.Dak. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 243 

Oakland Oakland College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, Calif. 

Oklahoma University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Oklahoma C.U. Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Oklahoma S.U. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Okla. 

Oklahoma S.U./S.T. Oklahoma State University, School of Technology, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
Oregon University of Oregon, Eugene, Oreg. 
Otis Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Philander Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Ark. 
Phoenix U.S. Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Phoenix J.C. Phoenix Junior College Phoenix, Ariz. 

Redlands University of Redlands, Redlands, Calif. 
Rhode Island Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, R.I. 
Riverside U.S. Riverside Indian School, Anadarko, Okla. 
Rochester Rochester School of American Craftsmen, Rochester, N.Y. 
Rochester S.T. Rochester School of Technology, Rochester, N.Y. 

San Carlos U.S. San Carlos Day School and/or Indian School, San Carlos, Ariz. 

San Francisco San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

San Ildefonso U.S. San Ildefonso Pueblo Day School, San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. 

San Jose San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. 

San Juan U.S. San Juan Pueblo Day School, San Juan Pueblo, N.M. 

Santa Clara U.S. Santa Clara Pueblo Day School, Santa Clara Pueblo, N.M. 

Santa Cruz Santa Cruz High School, Santa Cruz, N.M. 

Santa Fe U.S. Santa Fe Indian School, Santa Fe, N.M. 

School School of American Research, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Second Mesa U.S. Second Mesa Day School, Second Mesa, Ariz. 

Seneca U.S. Seneca Indian School, Wyandotte, Okla. 

Sequoyah U.S. Sequoyah Indian School, Tahlequah, Okla. 

Sherman U.S. Sherman Institute, Riverside, Calif. 

Shiprock U.S. Shiprock Indian Schools, Shiprock, N.M. 

Shungopovi U.S. Shungopovi Day School, Shungopovi, Ariz. 

South Dakota University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S.Dak. 

Stanford Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Stewart U.S. Stewart Indian School, Stewart, Nev. 

St. Catherine's St. Catherine's Indian School, Santa Fe, N.M. 

St. Joseph's St. Joseph's College, Albuquerque, N.M. 

St. Michaels St. Michaels Indian School, St. Michaels, Ariz. 

St. Patrick's St. Patrick's Mission School, Anadarko, Okla. 

Taos Taos Valley Art School, Taos, N.M. 

Tesuque U.S. Tesuque Pueblo Day School, Tesuque Pueblo, N.M. 

Tulsa University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Utah University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Utah S. Utah State University, Logan, Utah 

Washington University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Washington S.C. Washington State College, Ellensburg, Wash. 
White Cone U.S. White Cone Day School, White Cone, Ariz. 
Wichita University of Wichita, Wichita, Kan. 

Yale Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

ZiA U.S. Zia Pueblo Day School, Zia Pueblo, N.M. 
ZuNi Zuni High School, Zuni Pueblo, N.M. 

1 6* 



244 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

COLLECTIONS 

Public 

ACM Anadarko City Museum, Anadarko, Okla. 

AF The Amerind Foundation, Dragoon, Ariz. 

AH Atlantic House, Inc., Provincetown, Mass. 

AHM Atlanta High Museum, Atlanta Art Association, Atlanta, Ga. 

AIHA Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, N.Y. 

AK Abbott Kimball, Inc., New York, N.Y. 

AMNH The American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y. 

ASU Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 

AU/ASM University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Tucson, Ariz. 

BAM Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Md. 

BC Bacone College, Bacone, Okla. 

BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. 

BIA/A Bureau of Indian Affairs, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 

BIA/B Bureau of Indian Affairs, Billings, Mont. 

BIA/D Bureau of Indian Affairs, Anadarko, Okla. 

BIA/M Bureau of Indian Affairs, Muskogee, Okla. 

BIA/P Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland, Oreg. 

BIA/R Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rosebud, S. Dak. 

BM Berne Museum, Berne, Switzerland 

BM/B Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

BMFA Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. 

BMJ Bezalel Museum of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 

CAM Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio 

CAM/M Chrysler Art Museum of Provincetown, Provincetown, Mass. 

CAMSL City Art Museum of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo. 

CBC Colville Tribal Business Council, Nespelem, Wash. 

CC Claremont College, Claremont, Calif. 

CCH Cook County Hospital, Grand Marais, Minn. 

CCHM Creek Indian Council House and Museum, Okmulgee, Okla. 

CCHS Cook County High School, Grand Marais, Minn. 

CGA The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

CGFA Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, Ohio 

CHS/FG The State Historical Society of Colorado, Fort Garland Museum, Fort Gar- 
land, Colo. 

CIS Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. 

CM A Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

CM/C Willis Carey Historical Museum, Cashmere, Wash. 

CMNH Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, 111. 

CU/LMA University of California, The Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, 
Berkeley, Calif. 

CWC Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Dayton, Ohio 

DAI Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio 

DAM Denver Art Museum, Chappell House, Denver, Colo. 

DCC Dartmouth College Collection, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. 

DFNB Dewitt First National Bank, Dewitt, Iowa 

DMFA Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, Tex. 

KB Encyclopedia Britannica Collection (This collection was broken up and sold.) 

EOC East Oregon College, Walter Pierce Museum, La Grande, Oreg. 

FCTM I'^ive Civilized Tribes Museum, Muskogee, Okla. 

FOM Fort Okanogan Historical Museum, Brewster, Wash. 

FSM U.S. Army Artillery and Missile Center Museum, Fort Sill, Okla. 

GCl) (irand Coulee Dam, S]")okane, Wash. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 245 

GCG Grand Central Art Galleries, New York, N.Y. 

GM Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, Okla. 

GO Gilbert Originals, Chicago, 111. 

GWS Gates Western Store, Stillwater, Okla. 

HI Hampton Institute, College Museum and Huntington Library, Hampton, Va. 

HM The Heard Museum of Anthropology and Primitive Art, Phoenix, Ariz. 

HMFA Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Houston, Tex. 

HSMC Historical Society of Marshall County, Marshalltown, Iowa. 

HSP/L The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Library, Philadelphia, Pa. 

HU/PM Harvard University, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

lACB Indian Arts and Crafts Board, U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. 

lAIA Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, N.M. 

IBM International Business Machines Corp., Gallery of Arts and Sciences, New York, 
N.Y. 

JAM Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebr. 

KM The Kiva Museum of the Koshare Indian, Boy Scouts of America, La Junta, Colo. 

KSHS Kansas State Historical Society Museum, Topeka, Kan. 

LJMA La Jolla Museum of Art, La Jolla, Calif. 

LMA/BC Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit, Wise. 

LNBTC Liberty National Bank and Trust Co., Oklahoma City, Okla. 

LS Litho Studios, Inc., New York, N.Y. 

MAI Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, N.Y. 

MAM The Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, N.J. 

MHDYMM M.H. De Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, Calif. 

MHS Missouri Historical Society, Pictorial History Dept., St. Louis, Mo. 

MHS/B Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass. 

MHS/H Montana Historical Society, Helena, Mont. 

MIA Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minn. 

MKMcNAI Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute, San Antonio, Tex. 

MM Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury, Conn. 

MMA Museum of Modern Art, New York, N.Y. 

MMFA Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, Montgomery, Ala. 

MNA Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

MNA/KHC Museum of Northern Arizona, Katherine Harvey Collection, Flagstaff, Ariz, 

MNCA Museum of Navajo Ceremonial Art, Santa Fe, N.M. 

MNM Museum of New Mexico, Fine Arts Museum, Santa Fe, N.M. 

MPI Museum of the Plains Indian, Browning, Mont. 

MPM Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wise. 

MRFM Millicent Rogers Foundation Museum, Taos, N.M. 

MSIC Mutual Service Insurance Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

MWPI Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, N.Y. 

NCHF National Cowboy Hall of Fame, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

NL Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

NMAS Norfolk Museum of Arts and Sciences, Norfolk, Va. 

NMSF New Mexico State Fair, Albuquerque, N.M. 

NNGCC Northern Natural Gas Company of Omaha Collection, Joslyn Art Museum, 
Omaha, Nebr. 

NU The University of Nebraska Art Galleries, F.M. Hall Bequest, Lincoln, Nebr. 

NYU The New York University, Art Gallery, New York, N.Y. 

OAA/SI Office of Anthropology Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

OAC Oklahoma Art Center, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

OA/USNM Office of Anthropology, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 

OHSM Oklahoma Historical Society Museum, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

OL Okanogan Library, Okanogan, Wash. 

OPS Omak Public Schools, Omak, Wash. 



246 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

OSAF/GC Oklahoma Science and Art Foundation, Inc., Gerrer Collection, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
OSU/TL Oklahoma State University, School of Technology, Library, Okmulgee, Okla. 
OU University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 
OU/L University of Oklahoma, Library, Norman, Okla. 
OU/MA University of Oklahoma, Museum of Art, Norman, Okla. 
OU/SM University of Oklahoma, Willis Stovall Museum of Science and History, 

Norman, Okla. 

PAC Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa, Okla. 

PAM Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oreg. 

PMA Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PSU Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Pa. 

PU/M University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pa. 

RM Riverside Museum, New York, N.Y. 

RMAS Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, Rochester, N.Y. 

SAHSL St. Augustine Historical Society Library, St. Augustine, Fla. 

SCI State College of Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

SC/MA Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Mass. 

SDMM San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, Calif. 

SFRR Santa Fe Railroad, Chicago, 111. 

SHSND State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck, N. Dak. 

SHSW The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wise. 

SI Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

SIECC Sioux Indian Exhibit and Craft Center, Rapid City, S. Dak. 

SI/MNH Smithsonian Institution, Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 

SLAC Salt Lake Art Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 

SM Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, Calif. 

SMNAI The Southeast Museum of the North American Indian, Marathon, Fla. 

SPIM Southern Plains Indians Museum, Anadarko, Okla. 

SPL Seminole Public Library, Seminole, Okla. 

SU Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

TM Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center and Taylor Museum, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

TWA Trans-World Airways, Inc., Collection, Executive Offices, New York, N.Y. 

TWS Teal Wing Scouts, Dallas, Tex. 

UBC University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada 

UM University of Minnesota, Tweed Gallery, Duluth, Minn. 

UM/LG University of Miami, The Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery, Coral Gables, Fla. 

UPA United Pueblo Agency, Albuquerque, N.M. 

USDI U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. 

VMA Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Va. 

W Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, N.Y. 

WA Wadsworth Antheneum, Hartford, Conn. 

WAAG Wichita Art Association, Inc., Gallery, Wichita, Kan. 

WAC Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn. 

WAM Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, Kan. 

WHCO Walt Horan Congressional Office, Washington, D.C. 

W/JSC The Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts, Delaware Art Center, John Sloan 

Collection, Wilmington, Del. 
WLU Washington and Lee University, Lee Chapel Museum, Lexington, Va. 
WM Western Magazine, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

WM/CU Cornell University, Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, Ithaca, N.Y. 
WRNGA William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Mo. 
WU/S Wisconsin State University, Superior, Wise. 
YU/BRBML Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New 

Haven, Conn. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



247 



Private 

Aaron Mae Todd Aaron (deceased) 
Abe K. Margaret Abe, Kobe, Japan 
Abbott Mrs. Homer Abbott, Tulsa, Okla. 
H. Adams Mrs. Hall Adams, Santa Fe, 

N.M. 
K. Adams Mrs. Kenneth Adams, Santa 

Fe, N.M. 
Addington Carl Addington, Yukon, Okla. 
E. Adkins Eugene Adkins, Tulsa, Okla. 
R. Adkins Richard Adkins, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Adlerblum Clara Adlerblum, New York, 

N.Y. 
Agoos Herbert Agoos, Cambridge, Mass. 
Albert Carl Albert, McAlester, Okla. 
Aldridge C. Clay Aldridge, Miami, Fla. 
G. Alexander Geronimo Alexander, 

Albuquerque, N.M. 
T. Alexander T. C. Alexander, Okmul- 
gee, Okla. 
Alfonso King Alfonso XIII of Spain 
Alford Kenneth Alford, Austin, Tex. 
L. Allen Mrs. Lee Allen, Tulsa, Okla. 
L. D. Allen L. D. Allen, Tulsa, Okla. 
P. Allen Perry Allen, Window Rock, 

Ariz. 
Ambrister Mrs. H. Ambrister, Tulsa, Okla. 
Andelman S. Y. Andelman, Tulsa, Okla. 
Ann. Anderson Annette Anderson, 

Muskogee, Okla. 
Art Anderson Art Anderson, Spring- 
field, Oreg. 
J. Anderson Jean Anderson, New York, 

N.Y. 
J. A. Anderson J. A. Anderson, Rapid 

City, S.Dak. 
J. W. Anderson John W. Anderson, 

Williston, N.Dak. 
O. Anderson Mrs. O. R. Anderson, 

Aberdeen, S.Dak. 
R. Anderson Raymond Anderson, Roll- 
ing Hills, Calif. 
Andrews Richard Andrews, Lancaster, 

Calif. 
Ansara Michael Ansara, Holl)rwood, Calif. 
Arbouchon John Arbouchon, Pasa Rob- 

les, Calif. 
Arkeketa Ben Arkeketa, Sand Springs, 

Okla. 
Arnold Margerie Arnold, Washington, 

D.C. 
Arrow Jenny Lane Arrow, Watford 

City, N.Dak. 
Asip Mark Asip, Lampe, Mo. 
Askew Patsy Askew, Muskogee, Okla. 



Attridge Clarence Attridge, Rochester, 

N.Y. 
Austin Gene Austin, Las Vegas, Calif. 

Bailey Archie Bailey, Morris, Okla. 
A. Baker Amos Baker, Park Hill, Okla. 
C. Baker Claudia Baker, Tulsa, Okla. 
T. Baker Thornton Baker, Houston, Tex. 
Balcomb Pete Balcomb, Chambers, Ariz. 
Ballenger Irby Ballenger, Albuquerque 

N.M. 
Balph Mrs. Charles F. Balph, Shawnee, 

Okla. 
Bamrook Walter Bamrook, Albuquerque 

N.M. 
Bartleson Georgia Bartleson, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 
Bartlett Mrs. C. M. Bartlett, Miami, Okla. 
Basehart Richard Basehart, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 
Basore Robert Basore, Tulsa, Okla. 
Bass Henry Bass, Enid, Okla. 
Bates C. F. R. Bates, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Bayne Robert Bayne, Lawton, Okla. 
Beach Mrs. O. A. Beach, Wichita, Kan. 
Beaver Scotty Beaver, Pawhuska, Okla. 
Bedlaender H. Bedlaender, Montvale, 

N.J. 
Beebe Lee Beebe, Anadarko, Okla. 
Belford Roy C. Belford, Tulsa, Okla. 
Bell H. P. Bell, Sapupla, Okla. 
Bellmon Henry Bellmon, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
Benacerraf B. Benacerraf, New York, 

N.Y. 
BenAmi Henri BenAmi, New York, N.Y. 
Bennett Susan Bennett, Washington, D.C. 
Benson Charles Benson, Omak, Wash. 
Berg Duane O. Berg, Gallup, N.M. 
Berkeley David S. Berkeley, Stillwater, 

Okla. 
Betts Virginia Betts, Arlington, Tex. 
BiALAC James T. Bialac, Phoenix, Ariz, 
BiGGERS Hope Biggers, Oklahoma City, 

Okla. 
BiLLiNGSLEA Frank R. Billingslea, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
BiMSON Walter Bimson, Phoenix, Ariz. 
BiNG Alexander Bing, New York, N.Y. 
BiNNici Joseph Binnici, Tacoma, Wash. 
BiRCHMORE H. A. Birchmore, Athens, Ga. 
Bishop Mrs. R. H. Bishop, Sault Sainte 

Marie, Mich. 
BiXBY Tams Bixby, Muskogee, Okla. 
Blackley Glenn E. Blackley, Cardiff, 

Calif. 
Blake Marion J. Blake, Tulsa, Okla. 



248 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Blue Eagle Acee Blue Eagle {deceased) 
Blumenschein Helen Blumenschein, Taos, 

N.M. 
Bock Royal Bock, Muskogee, Okla. 
Boles Linn Boles, Hobart, Okla. 
Bond Lt. Gregg Bond, U.S. Army. 
BosHELL Edward Boshell, New York, N.Y. 
BoTT Mrs. Pat Bott, New York, N.Y. 
BouLDiN Raymond Bouldin, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
BoYNOFF Irma Boynolf, Berkeley, Calif. 
Brawner Donald L. Brawner, Tulsa, Okla. 
Brennan John Brennan, Providence, R.I. 
Brenner Alice Brenner, Scott sdale, Ariz. 
Briggs A1 Briggs, Denver, Colo. 
Britton Mrs . T. M. Britton, Hemet , Calif. 
D. Brock Dan Brock, Norwalk, Calif. 
L. Brock L. E. Brock, Tulsa, Okla. 
Browgh Tom Browgh, Mexico City. 
Britt Brown Britt Brown, Wichita, Kans. 
Barb. Brown Barbara Brown, Nespelem, 

Wash. 
Barc. Brown Barceley Brown, Wenat- 

chee, Wash. 

C. Brown C. Brown, San Francisco, Calif. 

D. Brown David Brown, Berkeley, Calif. 

E. Brown Edward Brown, Omak, Wash. 
I. Brown Ivan Brown, Broken Arrow, 

Okla. 
Jean Brown Jean Brown, Tulsa, Okla. 
John Brown John Brown, Bixby, Okla, 
W. Brown Winey Brown, Atoka, Okla. 
Brownstone W. J. Brownstone, New 

York, N.Y. 
Bruestle Beaumont Bruestle, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
Bruner Paul Bruner, Muskogee, Okla. 
Bryant Art Bryant, Seattle, Wash. 
Buck Clifton L. Buck, Seattle, Wash. 
BuDDRUS Mrs. Kirk Buddrus, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
BuLLARD Trudy Bullard, Grand Forks, 

N.Dak. 
BuRDiCK D. L. Burdick, Newington, Conn. 
Burdock Zona Burdock, Las Vegas, Nev. 
Burgess Mrs. C. T. Burgess, Rapid City, 

S.Dak. 
Burks Alice Burks, Chattanooga, Tenn, 
BuRRiDGE Gaston Burridge, Sevierville, 

Tenn. 
BuRSHEARS Buck Burshears, La Junta, Colo. 
Bush Mitchell L. Bush, Jr., Anadarko, Okla. 
C. BussE Y Chief D. Bussey, Hulbcrt, Okla. 
J. BussEY John Bussey, Claremorc, Okla. 
W. BussicY Wauhillan Bussey, Albuquer- 
que, N.M. 



W. W. Bussey W. W. Bussey, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
Butler Lowell Butler, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Bynum William Bynum, Reno, Nev. 

Cadenhead Joy E. Cadenhead,Tulsa, Okla. 

Caldwell Mel M. Caldwell, Miami, Okla. 

Callaway Jack Callaway, Tulsa, Okla. 

H. Campbell Harry M. Campbell, Still- 
water, Okla. 

Ja. Campbell James Campbell, Jackson, 
Mich. 

Ju. Campbell Justin Campbell, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

Canavan Carol Canavan, Mill Valley, Calif. 

Capps J. L. Capps, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Carlson Mrs. Paul J. Carlson, Atlanta, 
Ga. 

Carroll Norman Carroll, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

C. Carter C. A. Carter, Los Angeles, Calif. 

E. Carter Ernest S. Carter, Mountain 
View, Calif. 

G. Carter George Carter, Tulsa, Okla. 

H. Carter Harland Carter, Okmulgee, 
Okla. 

J. Carter John Ed Carter, Columbia, S.C. 

M. Carter Martha Carter, Muskogee, Okla. 

S. Carter Shirley Carter, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

M. Casey M. Case)^, Spokane, Wash. 

T. Casey T. Casey, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Chamberlin Gene Chamberlin, Pawhus- 
ka, Okla. 

Chambers R. T. Chambers, Creswell, Oreg. 

K. Chandler Mrs. Kathryn Chandler, 
Okmulgee, Okla. 

M. Chandler Mrs. Maxine Chandler, 
Okmulgee, Okla. 

Chase Frank Chase, New Town, N.Dak. 

ChAvez Clemente Chavez, Vista, Calif. 

Cheshewalla Andrew Cheshewalla, Fort 
Worth, Tex. 

Choteau William Choteau, Tulsa, Okla. 

Christensen Jack R. Christensen, Bis- 
marck, N.Dak. 

Chrysler Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Pro- 
vincetown, Mass. 

G. Clark Gordon Clark, New York, N.Y. 

R. Clark R. L. Clark, Morgan City, La. 

Clay G. W. Clay, Ardmore, Okla. 

Clearman Hank Clearman, Denton, Tex. 

Cochoran Giff Cochoran, Oviedo, Fla. 

Cochran Abel Cochran, Wheatridge, Colo. 

Cocke Mrs. A. L. Cocke, Temple, Tex. 

Coffey Raymond Coffey, Albuquerque, 
N.M. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



249 



Coke Cecil Coke, Macon, Ga. 
Colbert Marion Colbert, Las Cruces,N.M. 
Colby Louis Colby, Johnston, R.I. 
Coleman Marvin Coleman, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
Collins Ray Collins, Cleveland, Okla. 
Colt Thomas C. Colt, Dayton, Ohio 
Combs Marv Combs, Tulsa, Okla. 
Cone Laurance Cone, Sacramento, Calif. 
CoNNELL Kathleen Connell, Pawhuska, 

Okla. 
Connelly Harry S. Connelly, Tulsa, Okla. 
CoNNERS Bill Conners, Bapchule, Ariz. 
Conroth Ann Conroth, Mandan, N.Dak. 
CoNRY W. F. Conry, Tulsa, Okla. 
Cook Nadine Cook, Tulsa, Okla. 
CooLiDGE Calvin Coolidge [deceased) 
Corkille Ralph R. Corkille, Jr., Tulsa, 

Okla. 
P. CoRWiN Mrs. Paul Corwin, Aberdeen, 

S.Dak. 
R. CoRWiN Roma Corwin, Northridge, 

Calif. 
CosGROVE Mae F. Cosgrove, Tulsa, Okla. 
Cotner Richard Cotner, Cleveland, Ohio 
CovELLE L. K. Covelle, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Cowling Peter Cowling, Decanter, Ga. 
Cox Ruth Cox, Anadarko, Okla. 
Grain Joel W. Grain, Tulsa, Okla. 
Cravens Mrs. George Cravens, Ada, Okla. 
Crawford Phillis Crawford, Santa Fe, 

N.M. 
Crickmer Charles D. Crickmer, Houston, 

Tex. 
Crisler Ruth Crisler, McAlester, Okla. 
Cross George Cross, Norman, Okla. 
Curlechief Robert Curlechief, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
Curnow Dorthea E. Cornow, Stillwater, 

Okla. 
Curry Charles Curry, Enid, Okla. 
CuRTiN L. S. M. Curtin, Santa Fe, N.M. 
H. Cushman Harriet C. Cushman, Fisk- 

dale, Mass. 
W. Cushman W. Allen Cushman, Tokyo, 

Japan 

Dailey Louis Dailey, Hominy, Okla. 
Dale E. B. Dale, Manhattan, Kan. 
Dalgren Ronald Dalgren, Providence, R.I. 
Dalton Karl Dalton, Ganado, Ariz. 
Dana Lester Dana, Boston, Mass. 
H. Davidson H. L. Davidson, Bolivar, 

Tenn. 
M. Davidson Margaret Davidson, New 

York, N.Y. 
Davis Fred Davis, Anadarko, Okla. 



Deaner Mel Deaner, Oakland, Calif. 

Deel Julia Deel, Holdenville, Okla. 

Deem Mrs. Dallas S. Deem, Tulsa, Okla. 

C. Deffer Catherine M. Deffer, Arling- 
ton, Va. 

P. Deffer Phillip A. Deffer, San Anto- 
nio, Tex. 

Deighton Frank Deighton, Durban, Re- 
public of South Africa 

DeLong Bob DeLong, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Denman William and Leslie Van Ness 
Denman [deceased) 

C. Dennis Chester Dennis, Albuquerque, 
N.M. 

R. Dennis Roy G. Dennis, Gushing, Okla. 

Dentzel Carl Dentzel, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Deupree Harry L. Deupree, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Dewey Daniel Dewey, Berkeley, Calif. 

Dickinson J . M. Dickinson, Wichita, Kan. 

Dicus G. P. Dicus, San Diego, Calif. 

Dietrich Margretta S. Dietrich (Now 
owned by Dorothy Dunn Kramer) 

DiRe Edith DiRe, San Francisco, Calif. 

Dittemore Harold E. Dittemore, Liberal, 
Kan. 

Dixon James R. Dixon, Louisville, Ky. 

DoBSON Nellie Dobson, Miami, Okla. 

Dockstader Frederick J. Dockstader, 
New York, N.Y. 

Dodds George Dodds, Beverly Hills, 
Calif. 

DoLAN Jim Dolan, Harvard City, Ind. 

Dorfman Julian Dorfman, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

DouNEY Marian W. Douney, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

DowELL Dudle}^ Dowell, New York, N.Y. 

Downing Mrs. Joseph P. Downing, New 
York, N.Y. 

Downs Booth Downs, Ada, Okla. 

Doyle William H. Doyle, Muskogee, Okla. 

Duncan Bob Duncan, Seattle, Wash. 

Dunn [see D. Kramer) 

Dustin Charles Dustin, Albuquerque, N.M. 

DuTTON Margaret Dutton, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Eastman Gates Eastman, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Eder Earl Eder, Poplar, Mont. 
Edmondson Ed Edmondson, Muskogee, 

Okla. and Washington, D.C. 
Edwards Ralph Edwards, Holl3;^wood, 

Calif. 
Egertson Darrell Egertson, Hopkins, 

Minn. 
Eggert Justin Eggert, Philadelphia, Pa. 



250 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Eisenhower Dwight D, Eisenhower, 

Gettysburg, Pa. 
Ekberg William Ekberg, Bismarck.N.Dak. 
Elkins Marvin Elkins, Muskogee, Okla. 
Elkus Ruth and Charles DeYoung Elkus, 

San Francisco, Calif, {deceased) 
Elsohn Julie Elsohn, New York, N.Y. 
Elwell Alcott Farrar {deceased) 
Enlows Sharkey Enlows, Corvallis, Oreg. 
O. Evans Orron D. Evans, St. Louis, Mo. 
R. Evans Robert Evans, Monroe, La. 
EwiNG Frances Ewing, Dallas, Tex. 

Factor Walter Factor, Okmulgee, Okla. 

Farmer J. C. Farmer, Tulsa, Okla. 

Farwell Wes Farwell, Torrance, Calif. 

Feemster Hal Feemster, Tulsa, Okla. 

Feemster III J. H. Feemster, III, Lake 
Forest, 111. 

Feinwiler Charles Feinwiler, Albuquer- 
que, N.M. 

Feiock Mrs. Al Feiock, Poplar, Mont. 

C. Fenton Carroll Lane Fenton, New 
Brunswick, N.J. 

W. Fenton William N. Fenton, Albany, 
N.Y. 

Field Clark Field, Tulsa, Okla. 

Fields David Fields, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 

FiNCHER Jack Fincher, Fort Worth, Tex. 

FiNLE Y David E. Finley, Washington, D.C. 

Fisher Fern Fisher, Ponca City, Okla. 

FiTCHOWAY Cecil Fitchoway, Walters, Okla. 

FiTE E. H. Fite, Jr., Muskogee, Okla. 

F. Fleet Frank Fleet, Ada, Okla. 

M. Fleet Martin Fleet, Ada, Okla. 

Fleischmann Julius Fleischmann, Chat- 
ham, Mass. 

Fleishman Alfred Fleishman, Farming- 
ton, Mo. 

J. Fletcher Jarvis Fletcher, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

M. Fletcher Margaret Fletcher, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

Flood Richard Flood, Idaho Falls, Idaho 

Florence Jack Florence, Toledo, Ohio 

Fontaine Tracy Claire Fontaine, Hous- 
ton, Tex. 

A. Forbes Anne Forbes, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. Forbes Jack M. Forbes, Reno, Nev. 

Foreman Mrs. Grant Foreman, Musko- 
gee, Okla. {deceased) 

Forkner Mrs. Richard Forkner, Lang- 
den, N.Dak. 

D. Foster Donald Foster, Seattle, Wash. 
W. Foster Wayne Foster, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Franklin Lorena Franklin, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 



Franks Carrol Franks, Ardmore, Okla. 

Eraser Le Rox Eraser, Funtridge, Calif. 

Frazier Bernard Frazier, Lawrence, Kan. 

Freeman Norman Freeman, Dallas, Tex. 

Frith David H. Frith, Okmulgee, Okla. 

Frost Albert Frost, Albernie, B.C., Ca- 
nada 

Frovis David Frovis, Ruidoso, N.M. 

Frusti Roy A. J. Frusti, Albuquerque, 
N.M. 

Fry D. a. Fry, Wichita, Kan. 

A. Garcia Arthur Garcia, Albuquerque, 

N.M. 
P. Garcia Pablo Garcia, Albuquerque, N.M. 
T. Garcia Tony Garcia, San Juan Pueblo, 

N.M. 
Garland R. C. Garland, LasCruces, N.M. 
Garrett Claude Garrett, Fort Gibson, 

Okla. 
Gaston Benjamin Gaston, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Gatliff Betty Pat Gatliff , Norman, Okla. 
Gay Charles Gay, Las Cruces, N.M. 
Geis Mrs. Frank Geis, San Juan Pueblo, 

N.M. 
Gephardt Gordon Gephardt, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Gerash Gerald Gerash, Oakland, Calif. 
Germeshausen Kenneth Germeshausen, 

Boston, Mass. 
Germundson Niles G. Germundson, Te- 

terboro, N.J. 
Gershenson Wilbur Gershenson, New 

York, N.Y. 
Gess Robert Gess, New York, N.Y. 
GiANNiNi Bernadette Giannini, Berkeley, 

Calif. 
Gierke Herman Gierke, Watford City, 

N.Dak. 
GiLMORE Harry Gilmore, Miami, Okla. 
GiRDLER Allan T. Girdler, Tulsa, Okla. 
Girdley a. T. Girdley, Tulsa, Okla. 
GoFF Bruce Goff, Bartlesville, Okla. 
Gomberg Harold Gomberg, New York, 

N.Y. 
Gonzales Hector Gonzales, Albuquer- 
que, N.M. 
Gorman Steve Gorman, Daggett, Calif. 
Gosfeldt Nadine Gosfeldt, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
Gramme r Maurine Grammar, Albuque- 

que, N.M. 
C. Grant Campbell Grant, Santa Barbar- 

ra, Calif. 
M. Grant Mrs. Margaret Grant, Bartles- 
ville. Okla. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



251 



Graubarth Harry Graubarth, Dayton, 
Ohio 

Grawe Mrs. O. R. Grawe, Rolla, Mo. 

Green Harold Green, Valley Forge, Pa. 

Greenberg Earl Greenberg, Las Vegas, 
Nev. 

Greenblatt Gerome Greenblatt, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

Greene Robert Greene, New York, N.Y. 

Grender G. C. Grender, Houston, Tex. 

D. Griffin D. E. Griffin, Albany, Calif. 

J. Griffin John Griffin, Muskogee, Okla. 

Grossmann Julius Grossmann, Boston, 
Mass. 

Grubb Robert Grubb, Tulsa, Okla. 

GuiLLAUME Harry Guillaume, Cedar 
Falls, Iowa 

GuLAGAR Clu Gulagar, Hollywood, Calif. 

Gunn Mrs. Raymond Gunn, Tulsa, Okla. 

Guthrie J. Guthrie, Detroit, Mich. 

A. Gutierrez Andres Gutierrez, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

J. Gutierrez John P. Gutierrez, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

Haddock Mrs. Fred Haddock, Tulsa. Okla. 
J. Hall J. Donald Hall, Muskogee, Okla. 
R. Hall Mrs. Ruby Aunko Hall, Lawton, 

Okla. 
Hamilton Phil Hamilton, Mexico City, 

Mexico 
Hammett Robert W. Hammett, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
Hammond Marian Hammond, Berkeley, 

Calif. 
Hanks W. V. Hanks, Tulsa, Okla. 
Hanson S. Hanson, Anaheim, Calif. 
Harbour Betty Harbour, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Hardy Henry G. Hardy, Oakland, Calif. 
Harmon Rhonda Harmon, Honolulu, 

Hawaii 

C. Harris Mrs. Cecelia Harris, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

Ch. Harris Charles Harris, Tulsa, Okla. 

D. Harris Mrs. Darcie J. Harris, Berke- 
ley, Calif. 

F. Harris Fred Harris, Lawton, Okla. and 
Washington, D.C. 

G. Harris George Harris, Phoenix, Ariz. 
J. Harris Mrs. Jack Harris, Konawa, 

Okla. 
Hart William B. Hart, Ansonia, Conn. 
Harvey Byron Harvey III, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Hassrick Royal B. Hassrick, Elizabeth, 

Colo. 
Hatfield Mark Hatfield, Washington, D.C. 



Hauger John Hauger, Ada, Okla. 

Haworth Fred Haworth, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hay Clarence Hay, New York, N.Y. 

Hayden Donald Hayden, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hayes James Hayes, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hearne Allen Hearne, Richmond, Calif. 

Heckscher August Heckscher, New York, 
N.Y. 

Hedges Mrs. Harold Hedges, Chevy 
Chase, Md. 

A. Henderson Alice Corbin Henderson 

R. Henderson Mrs. R. W. Henderson, 
Bismarck, N.Dak. 

W. Henderson William Penhallow Hen- 
derson [deceased) 

Henneke Ben Henneke, Tulsa, Okla. 

Henry James R. Henry, Monroe, La. 

Henschen Gustave Henschen, New York, 
N.Y. 

Hertz Amelia Hertz, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Herwick Rudolph Herwick, Berkeley, 
Calif. 

Heughland Richard Heughland, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

Hewett Edgar Lee Hewett {deceased) 

D. Hill Daniel Hill, Tacoma, Wash. 

E. Hill Eleanor Hill, Tulsa, Okla. 

L. Hill Mrs. Lee Hill, Encinitas, Calif. 

W. C. Hill W. C. Hill, Tulsa, Okla. 

W. M. Hill W. M. Hill, Muskogee, Okla. 

HiLLMAN John Hillman, Okmulgee, Okla. 

HiNCHMAN Margaretta Hinchman, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Hively Margaret M. Hively, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

Hodges Mrs. John Hodges, Minot, N.Dak 

HoGUE Alexandre Hogue, Tulsa, Okla. 

HoHN Thomas Hohn, Muskogee, Okla. 

HoLCH Vagn Holch, Horsens, Denmark 

HoLLis Pauline Hollis, Tulare, Calif. 

HoLLON Eugene Hollon, Norman, Okla. 

Holmes Allen Holmes, Okmulgee, Okla. 

Holt Phillip E. Holt, Anchorage, Alas. 

HoLTON Bob Holton, Okmulgee, Okla. 

HoLWAY Donal K. Holway, Tulsa, Okla. 

H. Hoover Mrs. Herbert C. Hoover [de- 
ceased) 

Herb. Hoover Herbert C. Hoover [de- 
ceased) 

R. Hoover Robert Jack Hoover, Ada, 
Okla. 

Howe Elliott Howe, Tulsa, Okla. 

HowELLA Jack Meade Howella, New 
York, N.Y. 

HucKSTEiN C. G. Huckstein, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 



252 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Hughes Mrs. E. A. Hughes, Bismarck, 

N.Dak. 
HuLDERMANN Paul Huldermann, Scotts- 

dale, Ariz. 
HuLs Phil Huls, Eufaula, Okla. 
Humphrey Donald G. Humphrey, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
Humphries Henry Humphries, Wichita, 

Kan. 
Hundley Hal Hundley, Tucson, Ariz. 
N. Hunt N. B. Hunt, Dallas, Tex. 
W. Hunt Wolf Robe Hunt, Tulsa, Okla. 
Hunter Robert Hunter, Riverside, Calif. 
Huntington Anna Hyatt Huntington, 

Bethel, Conn. 
Hurley Mrs. Patrick Hurley, Santa Fe, 

N.M. 
Hurr Louis Hurr, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Hyam Earle Hyam, Providence, R.I. 

Irby J. H. Irby, Walnut Creek, Calif. 

Jacobs Ben Jacobs, Muskogee, Okla. 
E. Jacobson Edward Jacobson, Phoenix, 
Ariz. 

0. Jacobson O. B. Jacobson [deceased) 
Jamell O. C. Jamell, Muskogee, Okla. 
H. James Harry James, Banning, Calif. 
J. James Joe James, Muskogee, Okla. 
Jameson Mrs. Chet H. Jameson, Tulsa, 

Okla. 

N. Jaramillo Nicholas Jaramillo, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

R. Jaramillo Robert Jaramillo, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

Jasinsky M. Jasinsky, Sequim, Wash. 

Jefferson Irene Jefferson, Fairfax, Okla. 

JoHNET Jacques E. Johnet, Novato , Calif . 

A. Johnson Mrs. Arthur Johnson, Mus- 
kogee, Okla. 

E. Johnson E. Johnson, Tulsa, Okla. 

F. Johnson Felix Johnson, New York, 
N.Y. 

1. Johnson Imo Johnson, Tulsa, Okla. 
M. Johnson Monte Johnson, New York, 

N.Y. 

P. Johnson Port Johnson, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

Johnston Donald Johnston, Albuquer- 
que, N.M. 

C. Jones Carroll Jones, Okmulgee, Okla, 

E. Jones Mrs. Edith Jones, Albuquerque, 
Okla. 

F. Jones Frances M. Jones, Scottsdale, 
Ariz. 

H. Jones Hester Jones, Santa Fe, N.M. 
I. Jones Irwin Jones, Okmulgee, Okla. 
N. Jones Neil Jones, Tahlcquah, Okla. 



O. Jones O. C. Jones, Tahlequah, Okla. 
S. Jones Sam Jones, Little Rock, Ark. 
Jordahm Inga Jordahm, Nederling, Tex. 
Jorgensen Arlene Jorgensen, Brigham 

City, Utah 
Judkins M. O. Judkins, Muskogee, Okla. 
Justin John Justin, Jr. , Fort Worth, Tex. 

Kael Pauline Kael, Berkeley, Calif. 

Kaho Noel Kaho, Tulsa, Okla. 

Kalispell Nelson Kalispell, Kalispell, 
Mont. 

Kallon Eugene Kallon, Norman, Okla. 

Kamen-Kaye Maurice Kamen-Kaye, 
Boston, Mass. 

L. Keene Lee Keene, Tulsa, Okla. 

O. Keene O. L. Keene, Watford City, 
N.Dak. 

Keith Lyle Keith, Spokane, Wash. 

Kelly Gerald Kelly, Henryetta, Okla. 

Kemm James O. Kemm, Tulsa, Okla. 

J. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy 
[deceased) 

M. Kennedy Michael Stephen Kennedy. 
Helena, Mont. 

R. Kennedy Robert S. Kennedy [de- 
ceased) 

Kershaw L. R. Kershaw, Muskogee, Okla. 

KiDD Phil Kidd, Jr., Norman, Okla. 

KiLEY Robert Kiley, Falls Church, Va. 

KiLLEBREW Walter Killebrew, Canadian, 
Tex. 

Kimball Yeffe Kimball, New York, N.Y. 

King Zella King, Stillwater, Okla. 

KiNKADE Claire Kinkade, Barnsdall, Okla. 

KiRSHNER Philip Kirshner, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

Klick J. H. Klick, Lafayette, Calif. 

Klotz C. J. Klotz, San Francisco, Calif. 

Knickerbocker Frank Knickerbocker, 
Dallas, Tex. 

Koch John Koch, Tulsa, Okla. 

KoENiG Peter Koenig, Zurich, Switzer- 
land 

A. Kramer Art Kramer, Tulsa, Okla. 

D. Kramer Dorothy Dunn (Mrs. Max 

Kramer), Los Altos, Calif. 
M. Kramer Max Kramer, Los Altos, 

Calif. 
S. Kramer Sam Kramer, New York, N.Y. 
Krogh Mrs. O. J. Krogh, Northiidge, 

Calif. 
Kroll Daniel R. Kroll, Stillwater, Okla. 

B. Kronenberg Bernard Kronenberg, 
New York, N.Y. 

BoR. Kronenberg Boris Kronenberg, 
New York, N.Y. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



253 



Krueger Mrs. Elsie C. Krueger, Chicago, 

111. 
Kruss Betty Kruss, Indianola, Nebr. 

Lacy Mrs. Sam Lacy, Tulsa, Okla, 

La Farge Oliver La Farge {deceased) 

Lake Mae Lake, Pawhuska, Okla. 

Lang Heinz H. Lang, Seattle, Wash. 

Lannon J. Patrick Lannon, Chicago, 111. 

Lantre Mrs. Norma Lantre, Los Alamos, 
N.M. 

Larson Guy Larson, Bismarck, N.Dak. 

Lasley Buster Lasley, Fairfax, Okla. 

Laughlin Mary Laughlin, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

Lauritzen Jonreed Lauritzen, Thousand 
Oaks, Calif. 

Leake James Leake, Muskogee, Okla. 

Leathers H. Leathers, Muskogee, Okla. 

Lee Howard Lee, Denver, Colo. 

Leibensperger R. Leibensperger, Timi- 
on, Md. 

Leng Loren Leng, Grand Marais, Minn. 

Leno Arthur Leno, Bismarck, N.Dak. 

Leonard Mary Leonard, Tulsa, Okla. 

A. Lewis Argie Lewis, Tulsa, Okla. 

J . Lewis Jack Leon Lewis, Oakland, Calif. 

LiBHART Myles Libhart, Washington, D.C. 

Light Walter Scott Light, San Antonio, 
Tex. 

Lincoln John W. Lincoln, Providence, R.I, 

LiNDSEY Father Lucien Lindsey, Chica- 
go, 111. 

LiNDSTROM R. C. Lindstrom, Santa Mo- 
nica, Calif. 

Link Martin Link, Gallup, N.M. 

LiPELT Janice Lipelt, Napa, Calif. 

Little George Little, Berkeley, Calif. 

Livingston Kathie Livingston, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

LocKETT Clay Lockett, Tucson, Ariz. 

LocKwooD Mrs. John Lockwood, New 
York, N.Y. 

LoHMAN Mrs. H. R. Lohman, Tulsa, Okla. 

LoHR Edison P. Lohr, Eastham, Mass. 

Long Cindy Long, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Loo Orin Loo, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Love Mrs. Pauline Love, Konawa, Okla. 

LowEiRO Ruby Loweiro, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

LowRY George W. Lowry, Clinton, Okla. 

Luton John Luton, Muskogee, Okla. 

Lynde George Lynde, Muskogee, Okla. 

MacKay Condon MacKay, Tulsa, Okla. 
Maddy K. Maddy, Tulsa, Okla. 
Magee W. E. Magee, St. Louis, Mo. 
Manchester John Manchester, Taos, N.M. 



Marken Harry Marken, Woodward, Okla. 
Marks Jerry Marks, Bristow, Okla. 
Marriott Alice Marriott, Oklahoma City, 

Okla. 
Marshall Ben Marshall , Muskogee , Okla . 
Martin Mrs. Betty Martin, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
M. MartInez Mescal Martinez, New York 

N.Y. 
T. Martinez Tony Martinez, San Ilde- 

fonso Pueblo, N.M. 
D. Mason Drew Mason, Oklahoma City, 

Okla. 
T. Mason Tom Mason, Muskogee, Okla. 
J. Mauldin Jane Mauldin, Tulsa, Okla. 
Jer. Mauldin Jerry Mauldin, Tulsa, Okla. 
D. Maxwell Dorothy Field Maxwell, 

Farmington, N.M. 
G. Maxwell Gil Maxwell, Farmington, 

N.M. 
R. Maxwell Roy Maxwell, Las Vegas, 

Nev. 
Mayer-Oakes William Mayer-Oakes, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada 
Mayhue C. C. Mayhue, Ada, Okla. 
Maytubby E. B. May tubby, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
McAlister L. S. McAlister, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
J. McAlpin Jeff McAlpin, Bismarck,N.Dak. 
R. McAlpin Mrs. R. J. McAlpin, Bis- 
marck, N.Dak. 
McCabe Maurice McCabe, Window Rock, 

Ariz. 
McCann Margaret V. McCann, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
McCord Mrs. Bemeil McCord, Saratoga, 

Wyo. 
B. McCormick Bob McCormick, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
F. McCormick Mrs. Fowler McCormick, 

Scott sdale, Ariz. 
K. McCormick Kate McCormick, Paw- 
huska, Okla. 
McCracken Harold McCracken, Cody, 

Wyo. 
McDonald O. L. McDonald, Prairie 

View, 111. 
McElro Y J. H. McElroy, Okmulgee, Okla. 
McGee Wm. E. McGee, Ariz. 
McGilhra David McGilhra, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
McGiLLiwAY Don McGilliway, Berkeley, 

Calif. 
Mc Govern George Mc Govern, Bismarck, 

N.Dak. 



254 

McGrath JamesMcGrath, Santa Fe,N.M. 

McIuNE Thomas Mclune, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

McKee Robert S. McKee, Muskogee, Okla. 

McKeever Douglas McKeever, Enid, Okla. 

McKiNG Edgar S. McKing, Radnor, Pa. 

McKiNNEY Mrs. King McKinney, Mariet- 
ta, Okla. 

McLarens Stanley McLarens, Monterey 
Park, Calif. 

McMahan Harold McMahan, Okmulgee, 
Okla. 

McMoRRis Wm. McMorris, Tulsa, Okla. 

McNaught James R. McNaught, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

J. McPherson J. Havard McPherson. 
Tucson, Ariz. 

R. McPherson Ramona McPherson, Peru, 
Ind. 

Medina Frank Medina, Austin, Tex. 

Mellor Alvin Mellor, Providence, R.I. 

Melville David B. Melville, New York, 
N.Y. 

Mendhall M. Mendhall, St. Petersburg, 
Fla. 

Mercado JosieMercado, Dodge City, Kan. 

Merits Mrs. M. Merits, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Merrick Ward Merrick, Jr., Ardmore, 
Okla. 

Mertz Frona Mertz, Deland, Fla. 

Meyers Gary D. Meyers, Okmulgee, Okla. 

MiCHELS Mrs. E. T. Michels, Vermillion, 
S.Dak. 

Michener M. Lee Michener, Arlington, 
Tex. 

MiDDLETON William S. Middleton, Madi- 
son, Wise. 

MiGLiACCio Mrs. C. A. Migliaccio, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Milberger Mrs. Doris Milberger, Okla- 
homa City, Okla. 

G. Milburn Glen Milburn, Wichita, Kan. 

J. Milburn Joe Milburn, Tulsa, Okla. 

MiLEHAM Jack C. Mileham, Chandler, 
Okla. 

F. Miller Fred Miller, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

K. Miller Kate E. Miller, Louisville, Ky. 

R. Miller Robert Miller, Morris, Okla. 

Mills George A.Mills, Jr., Oakland, Calif. 

Milner Mrs. JohnMilner, Okmulgee, Okla. 

MiNiiR Claire E. Miner, Berkeley, Calif. 

Mishler Donald L. Mishler, Morris, Okla. 

Monroe Angus Monroe, Browning, Mont. 

M. Moore Mrs. Marguerite Moore, Tulsa, 
Okla. 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



R. MooRE Robb W. Moore, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

MoRELAND James W. Moreland, San 
Bernardino, Calif. 

MoRFORD R. Morford, Edmonton, Alber- 
ta, Canada 

Morris Virginia Morris, Tulsa, Okla. 

Morrison Mrs. Peggy Morrison, Encini- 
tas, Calif. 

Morrissette Raymond Morrissette, 
Stillwater, Okla. 

Morrow Gladys Morrow, Walters, Okla. 

Mount Houston Mount, Tulsa, Okla. 

MuLLAN Reed Mullan, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Murphey Pamela Murphey, Hollywood, 
Calif. 

Myers Roy Myers, Muskogee, Okla. 

Myle Herbert Myle, Chantilly, Va. 

Nash Philleo Nash, Washington, D.C. 

Needham Belle Needham, Red Lake, 
Minn. 

Neely Mrs. Chris F. Neely, Middletown, 
Ohio 

Neilson Margaret Neilson, New York, N.Y. 

Nelson Hardin Nelson, Muskogee, Okla. 

Neumann Mrs. L. Murray Neumann, 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Nevelson Louise Nevelson, New York, 
N.Y. 

New Lloyd Kiva New, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Newcomb Franc Newcomb, Nava, N.M. 

Newell Charles Newell, Gallup, N.M. 

Nichols Dudley Nichols, Washington, D.C. 

Noble C. E. Noble, Las Vegas, Nev. 

NoRDLiNG Joan Nordling, Denver, Colo. 

Nortner John Nortner, Berkeley, Calif. 

Nykolayow Andrew Nykolayow, Ro- 
binson, N.Dak. 

Obermire Art Obermire, Tulsa, Okla. 
O'Brien Joseph T. O'Brien, Phoenix, 

Ariz. 
B. Oldham Brown Oldham, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
I. Oldham I. B. Oldham, Jr., Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Oliphant George Oliphant, Rialto, Calif. 
Olson Ray Olson, Grand Marais, Minn. 
Ordon Von Ordon, Berkeley, Calif. 
Orr Herbert Orr, Tulsa, Okla. 
Owens Chester A. Owens, Muskogee, Okla. 

Pabst John F. Pabst, San Antonio, Tex. 
Pace Clark Pace, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Packer James Packer, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Paiisetopah Louis Pahsetopah, Pawhus- 
ka. Okla. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



Palmer Gordon Palmer, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

Pappio Joe Pappio, Midwest City, Okla. 

Patania Frank Patania, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Patman Julie Patman, Tulsa, Okla. 

Patton Mrs. Mark Patton, Tulsa, Okla. 

Payne Hugh Payne, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

Pederson Margaret Pederson, Sioux City, 
Iowa 

Peller Mrs. Richard Peller, Winston- 
Salem, N.C. 

Perdue Winnie Guess Perdue, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

C. Pereyma Constantine Pereyma, Troy, 
Ohio 

E. Pereyma Eugene Pereyma, Detroit, 

Mich. 
Perlman Mrs. W. Perlman, New Rochelle, 

N.Y. 

D. Perry Doyle Perry, Muskogee, Okla. 

0. Perry Oseph Perry, Ganado, Ariz. 
R. Perry Roger Perry, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Peters Mrs. Susie Peters [deceased) 
Petersen Karen Daniels Petersen, St. 

Paul, Minn. 
B. Peterson Bill Peterson, Okmulgee, 
Okla. 

1. Peterson Irene Peterson, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

L. Peterson Lynn Peterson, Jr., Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

M. Peterson Mrs. Mollie Peterson, Bis- 
marck, N.Dak. 

Pettinger Gordon Pettinger, Vallejo, 
Calif. 

Pherigo Mrs. Bobbie J. Pherigo, Rose- 
well, N.M. 

Phillips Philip Phillips, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Phillips II Mrs. John A. Phillips, II, 
Durant, Okla. 

PiCKART Walter Pickart, Gary, Ind. 

Pickett Marie Pickett, Muskogee, Okla. 

Pierce Earl Boyd Pierce, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

PiNA Trina Pina, Berkeley, Calif. 

Pitts Donald S. Pitts, Sacramento, Calif. 

Place Bradley Place, Tulsa, Okla. 

Plummer Ed Plummer, Window Rock, 
Ariz. 

Poland Scott B. Poland, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Poser Lillian Poser, Dallas, Tex. 

H. Potter H. Vinton Potter, Tulsa, Okla. 

R. Potter R. W. Potter, Carmel, Calif. 

Powell Father Peter Powell, Chicago, 111. 



Powers Anna Powers, Alexandria, Va. 
Powhatan C. A. Powhatan, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Pratt John N. Pratt, Sacramento, Calif. 
H. Price Hollis Price, Muskogee, Okla. 
V. Price Vincent Price, Beverly Hills, 

Calif. 
W. Price William Price, Oakland, Calif. 
W. S. Price William S. Price, Tulsa, Okla. 
Prieto Mrs. Pat Prieto, Leucadia, Calif. 
Primrose W. Alek Primrose, New York, 

N.Y. 
Pritzlaff Richard Pritzlaff , Sapello, N.M. 
Pritzloff Mrs. John Pritzloff, Phoenix, 

Ariz. 
Proctor Charles Proctor, Santa Fe, N.M. 
Putnam L. H. Putnam, Bismarck, N.Dak 

Rachlin Carol Rachlin, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

D. Ramsey Dick Ramsey, Rialto, Calif. 
S. Ramsey Mrs. Sylvia Ramsey, Frank- 
fort, Ky. 

Randolph Robert Randolph, Tulsa, Okla. 

Reagan Roberta Reagan, Midland, Tex. 

Reed Paul Reed, Denton, Tex. 

Regan Amelia M. Regan, Oakland, Calif. 

Rena Tony Rena, Taos, N.M. 

Renner Autro Renner, Austrian Em- 
bassy, U.S.A. 

Rexroth Frank Rexroth, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

Reynolds J . P. Reynolds, Walters, Okla. 

Rhodd Jean Rhodd, Tulsa, Okla. 

Rice Eugene Rice, Muskogee, Okla. 

Ried Edward Ried, New York, N.Y. 

Riggert Wilbur Riggert, Wounded Knee, 
S.Dak. 

Riley Jim Riley, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Roach James Roach, Plainfield, Iowa 

E. Roberts Mrs. E. M. Roberts, Mid- 
west City, Okla. 

H. RoBRTs Holly Roberts, Woodward, 

Okla. 
J. Roberts J. B. Roberts, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
RoBiNETT Mrs. Walter Robinett, Visalia, 

Calif. 
H. Robinson Hugh Robinson, Okmulgee, 

Okla. 
R. Robinson Roy Robinson, Chicago, 111. 
Rockefeller Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 

{deceased) 
RoDEE Howard D. Rodee, Columbus, Ohio 
B. Rogers Bolles Rogers, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
R. Rogers Roy Rogers, Hollywood, Calif. 



256 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



W. Rogers Will Rogers, Jr., Tubac, Ariz. 
Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt {deceased) 
RosALLiNi Albert Rosallini, Olympia, 

Wash. 
RosENWALD Janet Rosenwald, Santa Fe, 

N.M. 
J. Ross Joe Ross, Dallas, Tex. 
L. Ross Larry Ross, Bolivar, Tenn. 
RouLLioN M. Roullion, French Embassy, 

Ottawa, Canada. 
RouNDTREE George D. Roundtree, Hous- 
ton, Tex. 
RouscH Robert W. Rousch, Tulsa, Okla. 
Rouse Louis Rouse, Riverton, RJ. 
Rowland Mrs. Lloyd Rowland, New 

Orleans, La. 
RowsEY Paul Rowsey, Muskogee, Okla. 
Rubin H. J. Rubin, Tulsa, Okla. 
Ruby Russell Ruby, Muskogee, Okla. 
RuciNSKi Kenneth Rucinski, Corpus 

Christ i, Tex. 
Rue Melton Rue, Sr., Bismarck, N.Dak. 
RuEDiN Edgar Ruedin, Cressirr-Neuchatel, 

Switzerland 
RuGGLES Roy Ruggles, Escondido, Calif. 
Russell John Russell, Leupp, Ariz. 
Rust Mrs. Fifer Rust, Normal, Kan. 
Ryan William Ryan, Tulsa, Okla. 

Salazar Frank A. Salazar, Albuquerque, 
N.M. 

Saltonstall Nathan Saltonstall, Boston 
Mass. 

B. Sanders Mrs. Bob Sanders, Fort 
Smith, Ark. 

H. Sanders Harold R. Sanders, Still- 
water, Okla. 

Sangster Raymond C. Sangster, Glen 
Head, L.I., N.Y. 

Satterwhite Sylvia Satterwhite, Wa- 
goner, Okla. 

Schaefer Doris Schaefer, Baltimore, Md. 

W. ScHOFiELD William Schofield, Rancho 
Santa Fe, N.M. 

Wm. Schofield William Schofield, Orange, 
Calif. 

ScHONWALD Mrs. Fred P. Schonwald, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Schreiber Allen Schreiber, St. Joseph, 
Mo. 

ScHROEDER Florence Schroeder, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

SciiWARZ C. A. Schwarz, Aberdeen, S.Dak. 

A. Scott Andrew Scott, St. Paul, Minn. 

L. Scott Lcs Scott, Chinle, Ariz. 

O. Scott O. Scott, Sioux Falls, vS.Dak. 

Selassie H. M. Hailie Selassie, Ethiopia 



Seligman Thornton Seligman, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

Sewell Brice Sewell, Taos, N.M. 

Shackelford Helen Shackelford, Phoe- 
nix, Ariz. 

Shaeber Anna Shaeber, Pawhuska, Okla. 

Shaw Edmund C. Shaw, Villanova, Pa. 

Sheets Millard Sheets, Padua Hills, Calif. 

Shelton Ted Shelton, Okmulgee, Okla. 

Shepard Herb Shepard, Scottsdale, Ariz. 

Shillin Allen Shillin, New York, N.Y. 

Shipley Jack Shipley, Morris, Okla. 

Shippy Homer Shippy, Gallup, N.M. 

Shoemaker Stanley Shoemaker, East 
Providence, R.I. 

Silberman Arthur Silberman, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

SiLVA Angelo Silva, San Francisco, Calif. 

SiMANK William L. Simank, Stillwater, 
Okla. 

SiMONTON Reverend Simonton, Santa Fe, 
N.M. 

Simpson Mrs. H. G. Simpson, Memphis, 
Tenn. 

Slack Rex Slack, Muskogee, Okla. 

Slobodkin Martin Slobodkin, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

B. Smith Mrs. Boyd Smith, Winfield, Kan. 
H. Smith Herbert Smith, Del Mar, Calif. 
L. Smith Leonard Smith, Crystal City, U. 
M. Smith Mary Smith, Vernon, Tex. 

R. Smith Roger G. Smith, Dallas, Tex. 
V. Smith Vivian Smith, Tulsa, Okla. 
W. Smith Waits Smith, Sedona, Ariz. 
Smithson John Smithson, Las Cruces, N.M. 
Smoker John Smoker, Raton, N.M. 
Smyth Ed Smyth, St. Louis, Mo. 
Sneider Barbara Sneider, New York, N.Y. 
Snell Frank Snell, Phoenix, Ariz. 

C. Snodgrass Charles Snodgrass, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

H. Snodgrass Howard Snodgrass, Las 
Vegas, Nev. 

J. Snodgrass Jeanne O. Snodgrass, 
Shaker Heights, Ohio 

SoLBERG I. E. Solberg, Bismarck, N.Dak. 

SoLow Anthony Solow, Tulsa, Okla. 

Spell Faralee Spell, Brigham City, Utali 

Spencer Dick Spencer, Colorado Springs, 
Colo. 

Spielman Henry William Spielman, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Spillkrs G. C. Spillers, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 

Spraker Bonnie Spraker, Muskogee, Okla. 

Springer Neilson Springer, Colorado 
Springs, Colo. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 



Spurlock Doyle Spurlock, Alexandria, 
Va. 

Stalcup William J. Stalcup, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Stallman William Stallman, Wise River, 
Mont. 

Stanley Prina Stanley, Sausalito, Calif. 

Steed Mrs. John Steed, Ardmore, Okla. 

Steffens Carsten Steffens, Menlo Park, 
Calif. 

Stephenson Wendell Scott Stephenson, 
West Hartford, Conn. 

G. Stevens George Stevens, Tulsa, Okla. 

J. Stevens Mrs. John Stevens, Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

L. Stewart Mrs. L. D. Stewart, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

S. Stewart Spencer Stewart, Phoenix, 
Ariz. 

Stiefel Kenneth Stiefel, Tulsa, Okla. 

Stiglets Melvin Stiglets, Muskogee, Okla. 

Stiles William Stiles, New York, N.Y. 

Stinson David Stinson, Falls Church, Va. 

Stinson, Jr. David Stinson, Jr., Spring- 
field, Va. 

Stokes Quincy Stokes, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

J. Stone John Stone, Muskogee, Okla. 

W. Stone Willard Stone, Locust Grove, 
Okla. 

Story Mrs. Lorenzo Story, San Miguel 
de Allende, Mexico 

Stout Cephas Stout, Tulsa, Okla. 

Strickland Renard Strickland, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

Str yker Phillip Stryker, Stillwater, Okla. 

Stueland Marie Stueland, Duluth, Minn. 

Sukman Robert Sukman, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

Summers R. L. Summers, Tulsa, Okla. 

SuNDET N. J. Sundet, Kadoka, S.Dak. 

Sutton Carol Daube Sutton, Ardmore, 
Okla. 

Suzuki Pat Suzuki, Hollywood, Calif. 

SwARD Paul Sward, Brigham City, Utah 

Swift Eagle Lavonne Swift Eagle, Wat- 
ford City, N.Dak. 

Swinchatt Jonathan P. Swinchatt, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

Swindler James Swindler, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

Syrier a. J. Syrier, Netherlands 

Talley Frank Talley, Preston, Okla. 
Tarnasky Ralph E. Tarnasky, Bismarck, 

N.Dak. 
Tarpley Tom Tarpley, Muskogee, Okla. 
Tarrant Samuel Tarrant, Newark, N.J. 



257 

Tatgenhorst George Tatgenhorst, Bur- 
bank, Calif. 

Taylor Louise Colbert Taylor, Okla- 
homa City, Okla. 

Teague Charles Teague, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Tennyson William David Tennyson, 
Little Rock, Ark. 

B. Terry Boyd Terry, Fort Sill, Okla. 

P. Terry Porter Terry, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Thoeny Oscar W. Thoeny, Phoenix, 
Ariz. 

R. Thomas Ray Thomas, Corpus Christi, 
Tex. 

R. M. Thomas R. M. Thomas, Muncie, Ind. 

Thompson Francis W. Thompson, San 
Francisco, Calif. 

H. Thorne Mrs. Harold Thorne, Corpus 
Christi, Tex. 

N. Thorne Niblack Thorne, Paradise 
Valley, Ariz. 

Thurton Ed Thurton, Tacoma, Wash. 

Tiffany Jerry Tiffany, SiouxFalls, S.Dak. 

TiKKER Joanne Tikker, San Rafael, Calif. 

Tishman Jack Tishman, New York, N.Y. 

TissERANT Eugene Cardinal Tisserant, 
Vatican, Rome, Italy 

Todd F. C. Todd, Stillwater, Okla. 

Toller Bill Toller, Morris, Okla. 

Truex a. F. Truex, Tulsa, Okla. 

Tso Etta Tso, San Francisco, Calif. 

TsosY Marietta Tsosy, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Tucker Paul W. Tucker, London, Eng- 
land 

Turner Kay Turner, Covina, Calif. 

Twins Clinton Twins, Okla. 

Underwood Don Underwood, Tulsa, Okla. 
Upton Howard Upton, Tulsa, Okla. 

D. Vance Dave Vance, Los Angeles, Calif. 

E. Vance Earl Vance, Gallup, N.M. 
VanCleve Frank VanCleve, Tahlequah, 

Okla. 
VanDivort W. C. VanDivort, Wenatchee, 

Wash. 
D. Vann Dorothy Vann, Saint Michaels, 

Ariz. 
M. Vann Mark Vann, West Englewood, 

N.J. 
VanVoorhuysen H.W. VanVoorhuysen, 

Houston, Tex. 
Ventura Marco Julio Ventura, Mexico, 

D.F., Mexico 
Vernon Mrs. W. C. Vernon, Norman, Okla. 
Verryden Jerome Verryden, Detroit, 

Mich. 
Vickery Ward Vickery, Wichita, Kan. 



17 



258 

Vinson B. W. Vinson, Tulsa, Okla. 
B. C. Von Aspe B. C. Von Aspe, San 
Pedro, Calif. 

B. W. VoN Aspe B. W. Von Aspe, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

Wadle Y Ellen Wadley, Washington, D.C. 
Walch Father John L. Walch, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 
J. Walker James A. Walker, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
R. Walker Richard Walker, Oklahoma 

City, Okla. 

C. Walkingstick Charles Walkingstick, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 

H. Walkingstick Howard Walkingstick, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Waller Julian A. Waller, ElCerrito, Calif. 

Wallop Malcolm Wallop, Sheridan, Wyo. 

Walsh Anthony Walsh, Montreal, Que- 
bec, Canada 

E. Walters Elizabeth Walters, Musko- 
gee, Okla. 

H. Walters Hettie O. Walters, Stewart, 
Nev. 

Walton Thomas Walton, Radnor, Pa. 

R. Ward Rose Ward, Bismarck, N.Dak. 

S. Ward Mrs. Sam Ward, Miami, Okla. 

Washburn Eddie Washburn, Fort Sill, 
Okla. 

Waterhouse Anne Waterhouse, Tulsa, 
Okla. 

Waters Frank Waters, Taos, N.M. 

Watkins Barbara K. Watkins, Alexan- 
dria, Va. 

Wayman Jim Wayman, Fallbrook, Calif. 

Wearin Otha Wearin, Hastings, Iowa 

Weaver William N. Weaver, Muskogee, 
Okla. 

J . Weber John Weber, Los Angeles, Calif. 

W. Weber Wally Weber, Muskogee, Okla. 

Webster James E. Webster, Stillwater, 
Okla. 

Weinberg Michael Weinberg, New York, 
N.Y. 

Weinicke E. a. Weinicke, Tulsa, Okla. 

Welborn Orange Welborn, Ada, Okla. 

Welch E. P. Welch, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Weller Louis Weller, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Wengard Sherman Wengard, Albuquer- 
que, N.M. 

Werm Y Cynthia Wermy, Anadarko, Okla. 

C. Wi:sT Carl West, Anadarko, Okla. 

E. West El Reno West, Hominy, Okla. 

H. West Howard West, Tulsa, Okla. 

R. West Raymond L. West, Orinda, 
Calif. 



AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 



Weyr George Weyr, New York, N.Y. 
N. Wheeler Nettie Wheeler, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
R. Wheeler Roger Wheeler, Tulsa, Okla. 
Wheelright Mary Cabot WTieelright 

{deceased) 
A. White Amelia Elizabeth White, Santa 

Fe, N.M. 
E. White Ed White, Denver, Colo. 
I. White Ira White, Weatherford, Okla. 
M. White Marie White, Muskogee, Okla. 
Whiteford Patricia Whiteford, New York, 

N.Y. 
Whiteman Jack Whiteman, Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Whitney Mrs. C. V. Whitney, New York, 

N.Y. 
Whitridge William C. Whitridge, Balti- 
more, Md. 
Wiesendanger Martin Wiesendanger, 

Tulsa, Okla. 
WiESs John Wiess, Las Vegas, Nev. 
WiLF Al Wilf, Okmulgee, Okla. 
WiLKiNs Doris Wilkins, Walters, Okla. 
A. Williams Al Williams, Leupp, Ariz. 
G. Williams Glyn Williams, Troy, N.Y. 
I. Williams Irvin A. Williams, Weleetka, 

Okla. 
L. Williams Lonnie Williams, Gallup, 

N.M. 
M. Williams Mary T. Williams, Tulsa, 

Okla. 
Williamson Susan Williamson, Aspen, 

Colo. 
C. Wilson Charles Banks Wilson, Miami, 

Okla. 
E. Wilson E. M. Wilson, Anadarko, Okla. 
M. Wilson Mrs. Charles M. Wilson, Ana- 
darko, Okla. 
WisNER J. E. Wisner, Albuquerque, N.M. 
H. WiSTER Herbert Wister, Hominy, 

Okla. 
O. WiSTER Owen Wister {deceased) 
WiTKAMP Georgia Witkamp, Scottsdale, 

Ariz. 
WixMAN M. Wixman, Berkeley, Calif. 
WoFFARD Mrs. Keith Woffard, Santa Fe, 

N.M. 
WoLAVER Bill Wolaver, Tulsa, Okla. 
Wood Nancy Wood, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. WooDARD John Woodard, Sedona, 

Ariz. 
M. WooDARD M. L. Woodard, Gallup, 

N.M. {deceased) 
Woodburn J. T. Woodburn, Muskogee, 

Okla. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 259 

WooDRiNG Carl Woodring, Charlotte, N.C. Ydens Jan Ydens, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Woodruff William Woodruff, Richland, Yellowhorse JuanYellowhorse, Scotts- 

Wash. dale, Ariz. 

Woodward Dorothy Woodward, Albu- D. Young Daniel Young, Washington, 

querque, N.M. D.C. 

WooLLEY Judy Woolley, Rialto, Calif. J.Young Mrs. J.K.Young, Glenshaw, Pa. 

Worth James Worth, Scottsdale, Ariz. R.Young RevereYoung, Riverside, Calif. 

Wray Jeanne Adams Wray, Ada, Okla. Yulke I. G. Yulke, New York, N.Y. 
Wright Richard Wright, Odessa, Tex. 

Wurlitzer Helene Wurlitzer, Taos, N.M. Zavatsk y J. B. Zavatsky, Wichita, Kan. 

Wyman Leland C. Wyman, Jamaica Ze^f Leo Zeff, Berkeley, Calif. 

Plain, Mass. Zellehofer Howard Zellehofer, Las Ve- 

Yagol Ben Yagol, Ada, Okla. gas, Nev. 

Yarborough Kenneth Yarborough, Zelonis E. J. Zelonis, Berkeley, Calif. 

Amarillo, Tex. 

EXHIBITIONS 

AAA/T Avenue of American Art Tour of U.S. Conducted by Winifred Scott, 1951-53. 

Sponsored by the Artists of the Southwest. 
AAID Ail-American Indian Days, Sheridan, Wyo. Annually in Aug. 
AAIE Annual American Indian Exposition, Chicago, 111. (since 1953). Sponsored by 

the American Indian Center. (No longer held.) 
AAIEAE Second Annual American Indian and Eskimo Art Exhibition and Stage 

Pageant, Mar. 2-14, 1964, Washington, D.C. Sponsored by the American Indian 

and Eskimo Cultural Foundation, Inc. 
AAUW American Association of University Women. 
ACC Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, 111. "An Exhibition of American Indian Paintings 

and Applied Arts," Oct. 23-Nov. 12, 1925. 
AEOP/T Aquachromatic Exhibit, 195 5-, and Original Palette Permanent Collection, 

1957-. Tour of the U.S. Sponsored by M. Grumbacher, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
AFA Two-Arrows Exhibition-Tour of the U.S. Sponsored by the American Federation 

of Arts with paintings from the collection of the AIHA. 
AGAA Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 
AHNHG Aiea Heights Naval Hospital Gallery, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
AIAE/WSU First Annual American Indian Art Exhibition, May 6-14, 1964, Wayne 

State University, Detroit, Mich. 
AIE The American Indian Exposition, Anadarko, Okla. Annually, one week in July. 
AIEC American Indian Exposition and Congress, Oct. 21-23, I937. Tulsa, Okla. 
AIE/T First American Indian Exposition, 1936, Tulsa, Okla. 
AIHA Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, N.Y. 
AIM Annual Indian Market, the Governor's Palace, Santa Fe, N.M. Annually in Aug. 

since 1922. Sponsored by the Southwest Association on Indian Affairs, Inc. 
AIW Third Annual American Indian Week, Oct. 18-22, 1938, Tulsa Fairgrounds, 

Tulsa, Okla. 
AMNH The American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y. 
ASC Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Ariz. 
ASF Arizona State Fair, Phoenix, Ariz. 
ASPS Annual Southwest Print and Drawing Exhibition, 1964, Dallas Museum of 

Fine Arts, Dallas, Tex. 
AU University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 
AU/ASM University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Tucson, Ariz. 

BA Bank of America, Studio City, Calif. 

BAA Bloomington Normal Art Association, Bloomington, 111. 

BAG Boston Art Club Exhibition, 1932, Boston, Mass. 

17* 



260 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

BC Bacone College, Bacone, Okla. 
BG Botts Gallery, Albuquerque, N.M. 

BHH Beverly Hills Hotel and Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, Calif. 
BI Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio 

BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. 
BIA/A Bureau of Indian Affairs, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 
BMA Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala. 
BM/B Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
BMFA Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. 

BNIAS Bismarck National Indian Art Show, 1963, Bismarck, N.Dak, Sponsored by 
the Chamber of Commerce and Bismarck Art Association. 

CAA Concord Art Association Gallery, Concord, Mass. 

CAC California Art Club, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CAG E, B. Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, Calif. 

CAI The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

CAM Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

CBMM Charles W. Bowers Memorial Museum, Santa Ana, Calif. 

CCHM Creek Indian Council House and Museum, Okmulgee, Okla. 

CCP Chicago Century of Progress, 1934, Chicago, 111. 

CFS Central Federal Savings, Santa Monica, Calif. 

CG Campbell Galleries, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CGA The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

CI Colonial Inn, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CIFA Carnegie Institute, Museum of Fine Art, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CIFS California International Flower Show, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CPLH California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, Calif. 

CSF California State Fair, Sacramento, Calif. 

CU University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

CWC/I Chicago Women's Club, Chicago, 111. 

DAI Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio 

DAM Denver Art Museum, Chappell House, Denver, Colo. "Annual Indian Artists' 

Exhibition," since ca. 1951 (exhibit no longer being held). 
DAM/I Denver Art Museum, "Own Your Own Invitational," 1964. 
DAR Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, D.C. 
DG The Dulin Gallery of Art, Knoxville, Tenn. 
DMFA Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, Tex. 
DMG Davenport Municipal Art Gallery, Davenport, Iowa. 
DSG Walt Disney Studio Gallery, Burbank, Calif. 

EITA Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, Inc. Sponsored by, and circulated through, 
the College Art Association. This major exhibit included 600 examples of art by 21 
tribes. First shown in New York City at the Grand Central Galleries for a period of 
three months beginning in Dec. 1931, it subsequently toured the U.S. until 1933. 
Organized by American painter John Sloan, nearly 40 museums and private collec- 
tors contributed to the exhibit. See Sloan and La Farge (1931). 

FAG/S The Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego, San Diego, Calif. 

FAIEAIP "First Annual Invitational Exhibition of American Indian Paintings," Nov. 
24, 1964-Jan. 29, 1965, USDI. 

FANAIAE First Annual, National American Indian Art Exposition of Charlotte, 
N.C., 1964. Annually one week in Oct. Sponsored by the American Indian College 
Foundation at Charlottetown Mall, Charlotte, N.C. (No longer held). 

FANEA First Annual National Exhibition of Art, New York, N.Y. 

FCTM Five Civilized Tribes Museum, Muskogee, Okla. 

FMC Friday Morning Club, Los Angeles, Calif. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 261 

FNAIC International Indian Art Show and Handicraft Trade Fair, Aug. 3-1 1, 1964, 
Bismarck, N.Dak. Sponsored by the Foundation of North American Indian Culture. 
FWAC Fort Worth Art Center, Fort Worth, Tex. 
FWG Fred Wilson Gallery and Trading Post, Phoenix, Ariz, 

GAG Carolina Art Association, Gibbs Art Gallery, Charleston, S.C. 

GCG Grand Central Art Galleries, New York, N.Y. 

GCIC Gallup Community Indian Center, Gallup, N.M. 

GG Galerie Giroux, Brussels, Belgium. 

GM Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, Okla. 

GPL Glendale Public Library, Glendale, Calif. 

GTA Greek Theatre Annual, Los Angeles, Calif. 

HAU Hellenic American Union, Athens, Greece. 

HB Havenstrite Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

HBBA Hermosa Beach Biltmore Annual, Hermosa Beach, Calif. 

HFA Holljnvood Festival of Arts, Hollywood, Calif. 

HM The Heard Museum of Anthropology and Primitive Art, Phoenix, Ariz. 

HMFA Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Houston, Tex. 

lAESS International Art Exhibition of Sport Subjects. Held in connection with the 

1922 Olympics, Los Angeles, Calif. 
IDM Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Orleans, La. 
IPSE Intermountain Painting and Sculpture Exhibition, 1964, Salt Lake Art 

Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
ITIC Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonials. Gallup, N.M. Annually five days in Aug. 

JAM Josl5ni Art Museum, Omaha, Nebr. 

JGS An Exhibition of American Indian Painters, Oct. 15-Nov. 15, 1955. James 

Graham and Sons, New York, N.Y. 
JKA John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, N.Y. 

KCF Kern County Fair, Bakersfield, Calif. 

KM The Kiva Museum of the Koshare Indians, Boy Scouts of America, La Junta, Colo. 

KU University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

LACC Los Angeles City College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

LACF Los Angeles County Fair, Pomona, Calif. 

LACM Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, Calif. 

LAIC Los Angeles Indian Center, Los Angeles, Calif. 

LBAG Laguna Beach Art Association Gallery, Laguna Beach, Calif. 

LH Lever House, New York, N.Y, 

MA La Jolla Museum of Art, La Jolla, Calif. 

MAF Madonna Art Festival, Los Angeles, Calif. 

MAG Municipal Art Gallery, Los Angeles, Calif. 

MAG/H Metcalf's Art Gallery, North Hollywood, Calif. 

MAI Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, N.Y. 

MAM The Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, N.J. 

MCA Museum of Contemporary Art, Dallas, Tex. 

MG Martinez Gallery, North Hollywood, Calif. 

MHDYMM M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, Calif. "American 

Indian Painting Competition." (Exhibit no longer held.) 
MHS/H Montana Historical Society, Helena, Mont. 
MHS/W Mattatuck Historical Society, Waterbury, Conn. 
MJG Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, N.Y. 

MMA Museum of Modern Art, New York, N.Y. "Exhibit of Indian Art," 1941. 
MNA Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Ariz. 



262 AMERICAN INDIAN PAINTERS 

MNM Museum of New Mexico, Fine Arts Museum, Santa Fe, N.M. In most instances, 
"Contemporary Indian Artists Annual Exhibition," formerly held annually during 
the summer. 

MNM/T Museum of New Mexico, Fine Arts Gallery Tour of the U.S., 1956-64. Selec- 
tions made from the museum's "Contemporary Indian Artists Annual Exhibition." 

MPI Museum of the Plains Indian, Browning, Mont. 

MSAC Mt. Santanio College, Pomona, Calif. 

MVAG Mountain View Art Gallery, Altadena, Calif. 

NACG Navaho Arts and Crafts Guild, Window Rock, Ariz. 

NAMC Northeastern Oklahoma A. & M. College, Miami, Okla. 

NAWA/T National Association of Women Artists Tour of the U.S. and Japan, 1958-59. 

NCHF National Cowboy Hall of Fame, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

NDU University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, N. Dak. 

NGA National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. "Contemporary American Indian 

Painting," Oct. 1953. 
NJSM New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, N.J. "Contemporary American Indian 

Paintings," Nov. 8, 1959-Feb. 29, i960. 
NMSF New Mexico State Fair, Albuquerque, N.M. Annually, 11 days in Sept. 
NTF Navaho Tribal Fair and Rodeo, Window Rock, Ariz. Annually, since 1946. 
l<iYWF New York World's Fair, 1964-65, New York, N.Y. 

OAC Oklahoma Art Center, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

OHSM Oklahoma Historical Society Museum, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

OTP Old Town Plaza, Albuquerque, N.M. 

OU University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

OU/ET University of Oklahoma European Tours; 60 paintings assembled by the Uni- 
versity's College of Fine Arts for the U.S. Information Service in Rome and shown 
in nearly one dozen European cities. About half the exhibit was from the university 
collection, the remaining works were lent from the H. Adams, Denman, and Diet- 
rich collections, June 1955-May 1956. Forty-seven paintings from the university 
collection toured Austria and Germany, from 1958 to 1961. 

OU/MA University of Oklahoma, Museum of Art, Norman, Okla. 

PAC Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa, Okla. In most instances, "Annual American Indian 

Artists Exhibition," held since 1946, generally in May. 
PAC/T American Indian Paintings from the permanent collection of Philbrook Art 

Center, tour of the U.S., Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico City, 1947-1965. 
PAM Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oreg. 
PAM/C The Pasadena Art Museum, Pasadena, Calif. 
PSC Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Ark. "Exhibition of American Indian 

Paintings," 1961. 

RAC Roswell Museum and Art Center, Roswell, N.M. 

RAC/M Rochester Art Center, Rochester, Minn. 

RG Rehn Gallery, New York, N.Y. 

RM Riverside Museum, New York, N.Y. 

RMAS Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, Rochester, N.Y. 

RRG Raymond and Raymond Galleries, Los Angeles, Calif. 

SAIEAIP "Second Annual Invitational Exhibition of American Indian Paintings," 1965, 

USDI. 
SAM Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Wash. 
SAM/S Springfield Art Museum, Springfield, Mo. 
SBM Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, Calif. 
SDU University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S.Dak. 
SFMA San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, Calif. 
Sl'^NB Security l^rst National Bank, Reseda, Calif. 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 263 

SFWF San Francisco World's Fair, San Francisco, Calif. 1939-40. (Includes Golden 
Gate International Exposition, Feb. i8-Oct. 29, 1939.) 

SGAG San Gabriel Artist's Guild, San Gabriel, Calif. 

SI Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

SIAE "Society of Independent Artists Exhibition," ca. 1918-ig, New York, N.Y. 

SIECC Sioux Indian Exhibit and Craft Center, Rapid City, S.Dak. 

SI/T Paintings from the collection of the Riverside Museum, New York, N.Y., circu- 
lated by the Smithsonian Institution, Oct. 1964-Mar. 1966. 

SLAC Salt Lake Art Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

SM Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, Calif. 

SMM The Norwich Free Academy, Slater Memorial Museum, Norwich, Conn. 

SN Scottsdale National Indian Art Exhibition. Annually in Feb. since 1962. Scotts- 
dale, Ariz. 

SPIM Southern Plains Indians Museum, Anadarko, Okla. 

SU Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

SUAG Stanford University Art Gallery, Stanford, Calif. 

TAC Tuesday Afternoon Club, Glendale, Calif. 

TAI Terry Art Institute, Miami, Fla. 

TKG Tirca Karlis Gallery, Provincetown, Mass. 

TM Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center and Taylor Museum, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

TMA Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

UC University Club, Los Angeles, Calif. 

UG University of Georgia, Museum of Art, Athens, Ga. 

UNM University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M. 

UO University of Ohio, Athens, Ohio. 

USDI U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. In most instances. The Art 
Gallery which opened in 1964; in a few instances, the Indian Arts and Crafts Board 
Offices and the Denman Collection Exhibit, May 12-Oct. 2, 1964. 

USDS "Contemporary American Indian Art," March 4-9, 1963, U.S. Department 
of State, Washington, D.C. Co-sponsored by U.S. I. A. Recreation Association. 

UVM University of Virginia, Museum of Fine Arts, Charlottesville, Va. 

UWC University Women's Club, Los Angeles, Calif. 

UW/G University of Washington, Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, Wash. 

W Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, N.Y. 

WA Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn. 

WAA Westwood Art Association, West Los Angeles, Calif. 

WAAG Wichita Art Association, Inc., Gallery, Wichita, Kans. 

WAM Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, Kans. 

WCH Woman's Club of Hollywood, Hollywood, California. 

WFS Wilshire Federal Savings Art Salon, Los Angeles, Calif. 

WM/T Witte Memorial Art Museum Painting Exhibition. Regularly tours Texas, 

Louisiana and Oklahoma. 
WMWA Whitney Museum of Western Art, Cody, Wyo. 
WRNGA William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
WU Wichita University, Wichita, Kans. 
WU/S Wisconsin State College, Superior, Wise. 

YAIA "Young American Indian Artists," Nov. 14, 1965- Jan. 16, 1966, at Riverside 

Museum, New York, N.Y. 
YK/T "Yeffe Kimball, a Retrospective Exhibition." A selection of her work exhibited 

and placed on tour of the U.S. by Philbrook Art Center, 1966-67. 
YMCA Young Men's Christian Association. 
YWCA Young Women's Christian Association. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Abeita, Louise [E-yeh-shure] 

1939 / Am a Pueblo Girl. New York: William Morrow & Co., 25pp. 
Alexander, Hartley Burr 

1932 Pueblo Indian Painting. Nice, France: C. Szwedzicki, 18 pp. -{- 50 plates. 

1938 Sioux Indian Painting. Nice, France: C. Szwedzicki, 2 vols., portfolio. 
Anonymous 

1965 "The Ancient, New Talent of Jerome Tiger, Indian Artist." Checkerboard Service 
Magazine (March). 

Arnold, Elliott 

1947 Blood Brother. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 558 pp. 

Bahti, Tom 

1966 Southwestern Indian Arts and Crafts. Flagstaff, Ariz. : KC Publications, 34 pp. 
Barrett, Stephen M. 

1906 Geronimo's Story of His Life. New York: Duffield & Co., 216 pp. 
Bass, Altha 

1950 The Thankful People. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 135 pp. 
Berthrong, Donald J. 

1963 The Southern Cheyennes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 446 pp. 
BiRNEY, Hoffman 

1935 Ay-Chee, Son of the Desert. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co., 112 pp. 
Bleeker, Sonia 

1963 Indians. New York: Golden Press. 
Blish, Helen H. 

1967 A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln: University of Nebraska 
Press, 530 PP- 

Blue Eagle, Acee (ed.) 

1959 Oklahoma Indian Painting — Poetry. Tulsa, Okla.: Acorn Publishing Company. 
Brindze, Ruth 

195 1 The Story of the Totem Pole. New York: The Vanguard Press, 62 pp. 
Brown, William Compton 

1961 The Indian Side of the Story. Spokane, Wash.: C. W. Hill Printing Co., 469pp. 

Carter, E. Russell 

1955 The Gift is Rich. New York: Friendship Press, 117pp. 
Catlin, George 

1832 Letters and Notes of the North American Indian. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 
2 vols. 
Clark, Ann Nolan 

1940- Little Herder Series. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 

1942 4 vols. 

1940a Who Wants to be a Prairie Dog? Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of 

Indian Affairs, 72 pp. 
1940b Little Boy With Three Names. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of 
Indian Affairs, 55 pp. 

1941 In My Mother's House. New York: Viking Press, 56pp. 

1942 There Still Are Buffalo. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, 86pp. 

1943 Young Hunter of Picuris. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, 56 pp. 

264 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 265 

1944 Bringer of the Mystery Dog. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, 84pp. 

1945 Sun Journey. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 122pp. 
1947 Singing Sioux Cowboy. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 

Affairs, 114pp. 

1954 Blue Canyon Horse. 

1957 Little Indian Basket Maker. Los Angeles: The Melmont Publishers, 31pp. 

i960 Putie the Pack Rat and Other Desert Stories. 

1962 The Desert People. New York: Viking Press, 59pp. 
Cochran, George McKee 

1939 Indian Portraits of the Pacific Northwest. 
Cohoe (Karen Petersen, ed.) 

1964 A Cheyenne Sketchbook. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 96pp. 

CORNPLANTER, JeSSE 

1938 Legends of the Longhouse. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 216pp. 
1903 Iroquois Indian Games and Dances. 15 pp. 

Curtis, Edward S., 

1907- The North American Indian. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 

1930 20 vols. 
CusicK, David 

1827 Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations. Lewiston, Maine : the Author, 28pp. 

DeCamp, L. Sprague 

i960 Man and Power. New York: Golden Press, 189pp. 
DeHuff, Elizabeth Willis 

1922 Taytay's Tales. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 213pp. 

1924 Taytay's Memories. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 255pp. 

1926 Swift Eagle of the Rio Grande. Chicago: Rand McNally Co., i86pp. 

1930 Five Little Katchinas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 86pp. 
Del Monte, H. D. 

n.d. Life of Chief Washakie and the Shoshone Indians. Lander, Wyo. : Noble Hotel. 
Dines, Glen and Raymond Price 

1961 Dog Soldiers: the Famous Warrior Society of the Cheyenne Indians. New York: 
Macmillan, n.p. 
Dockstader, Frederick J. 

1954 'L^^ Kachina and the White Man; the Influence of the White Man on the Hopi 
Indian Kachina Religion. Bloomfield Hills, Mich.: Cranbrook Institute of 
Science, 202 pp. 

1961 Indian Art in America. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 224pp. 
+ 250 plates. 
Dodge, Richard Irving 

1882 Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience Among the Red Men 
of the Great West. Hartford, Conn.: A. D. Worthington & Co., 650pp. 
Douglas, Frederic and Rene d'Harnoncourt 

1 94 1 Indian Art of the United States. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 219pp. 
Dunn, Jacob Piatt, Jr. 

1886 Massacres of the Mountains. New York: Harper & Bro., 784pp. 

Ewers, John Canfield 

1939 Plains Indian Painting. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 84pp. 

1965 Artists of the Old West. New York: Doubleday & Co., 240pp. 

Gibbons, Lulu (comp.) 

n.d. Indian Recipes from Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma. Muskogee, Okla. : 
Hoffman Printing Co. 
Glubok, Shirley 

1964 The Art of the North American Indian. New York: Harper & Row, n.p. 



266 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

GOLDFRANK, ESTHER S. 

1962 Isleta Paintings. Washington: Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 181. 

299pp. 
1967 The Artist of "Isleta Paintings." Washington: Smithsonian Contributions to 
Anthropology, V., 227 pp. 
Gregory, Jack and Rennard Strickland 

1967 Sam Houston With the Cherokees, i82g-i833. Austin: University of Texas Press, 
206 pp. 
Grinnell, George Bird 

1895 Story of the Indian. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 270pp. 

1915 The Fighting Cheyennes. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 431pp. 

1923 The Cheyenne Indians. New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 2 vols. 

Hamilton, Charles (ed.) 

1950 Cry of the Thunderbird; the American Indian's Own Story. New York: Macmillan, 
283 pp. 
Hamm, Mary Alice and William S. Inglish 

i960 A History of the Baird-Scales Family. Tahlequah, Okla. : Go-Ye Mission. 
Hannum, Alberta 

1945 Spin a Silver Dollar. New York: Viking Press, 173pp. 
1958 Paint the Wind. New York: Viking Press, 206pp. 
Harrington, Mark Raymond 

192 1 Religion and Ceremonies of the Lenape. New York: Museum of the American 
Indian, 249 pp. 
Haskell. Arnold L. 

i960 The Story of Dance. London: Rathbone Books, Ltd., 93pp. 
Hassrick, Royal B. 

1964 The Sioux; Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. Norman: University of Okla- 
homa Press, 337pp. 
Hebard, Grace Raymond 

1930 Washakie: an Account of Indian Resistance of the Covered Wagon and Union Pacific 
Railroad Invasions of Their Territory. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 337pp. 
Holton, Anne Tennyson 

1964 Song of the Cherokees. Privately published. 
Howard, James H. 

i960 "Butterfly's Mandan Winter Count: 1833-1876." Ethnohistory , VII Ji (Janu- 
ary-March), pp. 28-43. 
Hyde, George E. 

1937 -^^^ Cloud's Folk; a History of the Oglala Sioux Indians. Norman: University 

of Oklahoma Press, 331pp. 
1956 A Sioux Chronicle. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 334pp. 
1 961 Spotted Tail's Folk: A History of the BruU Sioux. Norman: University of Okla- 
homa Press, 330pp. 

Jacobson, Oscar B. 

1929 Kiowa Indian Art. Nice, France: C. Szwedzicki, 11 pp. + 30 plates. 

1952 North American Indian Costumes, 1564-1960. Nice, France: C. Szwedzicki, 
50 plates. 

1964 Indian Artists from Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma. 
Jacobson, Oscar B. and Jeanne d'Ucel 

1950 American Indian Painters. Nice, France: C. Szwedzicki, portfolio. 
James, Ahlee 

1927 Tewa Firelight Tales. New York: Longmans, Green, 248pp. 
Johnson, W. Fletcher 

1 891 The Red Record of the Sioux; Life of Sitting Bull and History of the Indian War 
of i8()0-gi. Philadelphia: Edgcwood Publishing Co., 606 pp. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 267 

JosEPHY, Alvin M., Jr. (ed.) 

1961a The American Heritage Book of Indians. New York: American Heritage Publish- 
ing Co., 424pp. 
1961b The Patriot Chiefs; a Chronicle of American Indian Leadership. New York: 
Viking Press, 364pp. 
JuDD, Mary Catherine 

1902 Wigwam Stories Told by American Indians. Boston: Ginn & Co., 276pp. 

Kabotie, Fred 

1949 Designs From the Ancient Mimbreitos, With a Hopi Interpretation. San Fran- 
cisco : Grabhorn Press, 8opp. 
Keech, Roy A. 

1940 Pagans Praying. Clarendon, Tex.: Clarendon Press, 94pp. 
Keim, Randolph 

1885 Sheridan's Troopers on the Borders. Philadelphia: David McKay, 308pp. 
Kelly, Luther S. 

1926 Yellowstone Kelly: the Memoirs of Luther S. Kelly. New Haven, Conn.: Yale 
University Press, 268pp. 
Ke Motta 

1952 Sally of Woolaroc. Bartlesville, Okla. : Frank Phillips Foundation, Inc. 
Kennard, Edward A. 

1944 Field Mouse Goes to War. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 

Affairs, 76pp. 
1948 Little Hopi Hopihoya. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, 201pp. 
Kennedy, Michael Stephen (ed.) 

1961 The Assiniboines; From the Accounts of the Old Ones Told to First Boy {James 
Larpenteur Long). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 209pp. 

Kimball, Yeffe and Jean Anderson 

1965 The Art of American IndianCooking. Garden City, N. Y. : Doubleday & Co., 215pp. 

LaFarge, Oliver 

1956 A Pictorial History of the American Indian. New York: Crown Publishers, 272pp. 
i960 The American Indian. New York: Golden Press, 213pp. 

LaFlesche, Francis 

1900 The Middle Five; Indian Boys at School. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 227pp. 
Leekley, Thomas B. 

1965 The World of Manabozho; Tales of the Chippewa Indians. New York: Vanguard 
Press. 
Llewellyn, Karl N. and E. Adamson Hoebel 

1941 The Cheyenne Way. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 360pp. 
Lyback, Johanna R. M. 

1963 Indian Legends of Eastern America; and Indian Legends of the Great West. 
Chicago: Lyons and Carnahan, Inc., 2 vols. 

Madrano, Dan M. 

1955 Heap Big Laugh. Tulsa, Okla. : no publisher. 
Manning, Phyllis A. 

Spirit Rocks and Silver Magic. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers. 
Marquis, Thomas B. 

1931 A Warrior Who Fought Custer. Minneapolis: The Midwest Co., 384pp. 
Marriott, Alice 

1952 Winter -telling Stories. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 84pp. 
Mayhall, Mildred P. 

1962 The Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 315pp. 
MoYER, John W. 

1957 Famous Indian Chiefs. Chicago: M. A. Donohue & Co., 86pp. 



268 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Neihardt, John G. 

1932 Black Elk Speaks. New York: W. Morrow & Co., 280pp. 
Nelson, John Louw 

1937 Rhythm for Rain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 271pp. 
Newell, Cicero 

1912 Indian Stories. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co., 191pp. 

NUTCHUCK 

Back to the Smoky Sea. New York: Julian Messner. 
Son of the Smoky Sea. New York: Julian Messner. 
Nye, Wilbur Sturtevant 

1962 Bad Medicine and Good; Tales of the Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma 
Press, 291pp. 

Parker, Arthur C. 

1910 Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. Albany: New York State Museum, 
Bulletin 44, 119 pp. 

1913 The Code of Handsome Lake, the Seneca Prophet. Albany: New York State 
Museum, Bulletin 163, 148pp. 

1923 Seneca Myths and Folk-Tales. Buffalo, N.Y, : Buffalo Historical Society, 
465 pp. 
Paytiamo, James P. 

1932 Flaming Arrow's People. New York: Duffield & Green, 157pp. 
Pennington, Robert 

1961 Oscar Howe, Artist of the Sioux. Sioux Falls, So. Dak. : Dakota Territorial 
Centennial Commission, 61 pp. 

Penney, Grace Jackson 

1953 Tales of the Cheyennes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 117pp. 
Petersen, Karen D. 

1968 Howling Wolf; a Pictorial History of the Cheyenne Indians. Palo Alto, Calif.: 
American West Publishing Co., 64pp. 
Peterson, Harold L. 

1965 American Indian Tomahawks. New York: Museum of the American Indian, 
142pp. + 314 plates. 
Pierson, William H., Jr., and Martha Davidson 

i960 Arts of the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 452pp. 
Praus, Alexis 

1962 The Sioux, iyg8-ig22; a Dakota Winter Count. Bloomfield Hills, Mich. : Cran- 
brook Institute of Science, 32 pp. 

Raabe, Martha 

1942 The Little Lost Sioux. Chicago: A. Whitman & Co., 30pp. 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

1899 The Rough Riders. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 298pp. 
Rushmore, Helen and Wolf Robe Hunt 

1963 The Dancing Horses of Acoma; and Other Acoma Indian Stories. Cleveland: 
World Publishing Co., 164pp. 

Sandoz, Mari 

1953 Cheyenne Autumn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 282pp. 

1 96 1 These Were the Sioux. New York: Hastings House, 11 8 pp. 
ScHEviLL, Margaret [Link] 

1956 The Pollen Path; a Collection of Navajo Myths Retold. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford 
University Press, 205pp. 
ScHMiTT, Martin P., and Dee Brown 

1948 Fighting Indians of the West. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 362pp. 
Shufeldt, Robert Wilson 

1889 A Navajo Artist and his Notions of Mechanical Drawing. Washington: Smith- 
sonian Institution, Annual Report for 1886, pp. 240-244. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 269 

Sloan, John and Oliver LaFarge 

193 1 Introduction to American Indian Art. New York: The Exposition of Indian 
Tribal Arts, Inc., 2 Vols. 

Smith, DeCost 

1943 Indian Experiences. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 387pp. 
Smyth, Ed 

1965 "Meet the Great Talent of Jerome Tiger." Checker Links (January-February). 
SoNNicHSEN, Charles Leland 

1958 The Mescalero Apaches. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 315pp. 
Standing Bear, Luther 

1928 My People, the Sioux. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 288pp. 
Steiner, Stan 

1961 The Last Horse. New York: Macmillan, 71pp. 
Stirling, Matthew W. (ed.) 

1938 Three Pictographic Autobiographies of Sitting Bull. Washington: Smithsonian 

Miscellaneous Contributions, No. 97. 57pp. + 46 plates. 
1955 Indians of the Americas. Washington: National Geographic Society, 431pp. 
Street, Eloise (comp.) 

1963 Sepass Poems: the Songs of Y-Ail-Mihth. New York: Vantage Press, iiopp. 

Tanner, Clara Lee 

1957 Southwest Indian Painting. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 157pp. 
TsATOKE, Monroe 

1957 ^^^ Peyote Ritual; Visions and Descriptions. San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 
66 pp. 

Underhill, Ruth M. 

1938 Singing for Power; the Song Magic of the Papago Indians of Southern Arizona. 

Berkeley: University of California Press, 158pp. 
1940 The Papago Indians of Arizona, and their Relatives the Pima. Washington: Office 

of Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 68pp. 

1944 Pueblo Crafts. Washington : Office of Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 147pp. 
1946 Workaday Life of the Pueblos. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of 

Indian Affairs, 174 pp. 
1 95 1 People of the Crimson Evening. Washington: Office of Education, Bureau of 

Indian Affairs, 127pp. 
1965 Red Man's Religion; Beliefs and Practices of the Indians North of Mexico. 

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 301pp. 

Velarde, Pablita 

i960 Old Father, the Story Teller. Globe, Ariz.: Dale Stuart King, 66pp. 
Vestal, Stanley 

1932 Sitting Bull, Champion of the Sioux. Boston: Houghton Miffiin, 350pp. 

1934 Warpath: the True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief 
White Bull. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 291pp. 

Waters, Frank 

1963 The Book of the Hopi. New York: Viking Press, 347pp. 
WiLLOYA, William and Vinson Brown 

1962 Warriors of the Rainbow. Healdsburg, Calif: The Naturegraph Co., 94pp. 
Wyman, Leland C. 

1965 Big Lefthanded, Pioneer Navajo Artist. Flagstaff, Ariz. : Museum of No. Arizona, 
Plateau. 

1966 Snake Skins and Hoops. Flagstaff, Ariz. : Museum of No. Arizona, Plateau. 

1967 The Sacred Mountains of the Navaho — Four Paintings by Harrison Begay. 
Flagstaff, Ariz. : Museum of No. Ariz., Plateau.