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I pcBUsnsD Br charles sciunssn <e co. 


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pecnlior phrase. Many of these will^ no donht, pass away again, 
while others will become parts of oar speech ; but in cither cose 
it seemed to be desirable to record them before they are set aside 
once more, or, if preserved, before their origin is forgotten. 
, The author has been most kindly and courteously aided by 
^ friends aod strangers. He owesespecial thanks to the Hon. James 
I Hammond .Trumbull, of Hartford, Connecticut, for a master's 
. guidance in Indian matters; to Professor S. S. Haldeman, of 
Chickis, Pennsylvania, for like aid in scientific terms, and to Mr. 
Hngh Blair Grigsby, of Edge Hill, Charlotte County, Virginia, 
for Taluable hints as to old English terms preserved in the South. 
The names mentioned in the chapter on Natural History are 
taken &om the Tarions publications of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, courteously supplied by its distinguished officers. 

On the other hand, it must be stated that the task of collecting 
BO-called Americanisms is necessarily one of overwhelming diffi- 
colty. The license of the press, the independent freedom of daily 
apeech, the very small number of strictly American works, and 
the utter indifference of the people to the minutite of speech, are 
so many obstacles. A collection like the present must, therefore, 
be ttnavoidably imperfect and incomplete, and the author will 
fed himself amply rewarded, if his good intentions shall awaken 
a deeper interest in so important a feature of our national life, 
and lead to more satisfactory results hereafter. 


AuguO, 1871. 


Pkkfjici 8 


TnalroiAX U 


ImaoBAirTS tbou Ahboad. 


The Feeschkak 96 

ThjSpahiawd 114 

TnouufAH 189 

ThiNmeo 148 

JoHH CnraAifAN 166 


Thi Gbeat Wkbt. „ „ 181 

TeeChobch 889 

PoLRica. S49 

Tbu>s or ALL Knn» 896 


Afloat 888 


OxtbbRux. 866 

Natobal HnrroBT •87 



Old Frixnds wiTB Nbw Facbs <R 


Oaut AJTD Blako Wl 

V/Miw WobmamdNiczhaiibb Ml 




The Indian. 


"Lo. ihe poor Indlaa!" 

_ Pbovidence seems to Ijave oitlaincd that hj- an act of poetical 
iuttoe mnn,v ra»!& that have bicn concpu'red and even extormU 
ii*t*d !»}■ foreign invadt-rp. sliould neverthclesB Burvive in tlio 
HiWiadf tho gri'ai Uudmurks of tlicir iiativc laud. Thus Uio 
ucient Brilon sull speaks to us iu the luounhiius aud rivers of 
Kng)ati<3, aiid the Indian iu thu geugi-.Lphy and natural liistory 
the United Btatrs- Tho piuiric and the hiickwoods, once tho 
fconie «f the Ik'd duui, arc- full of his memory, and objects ubound 
Uxre, known to oa by names which aiv indigenous and peculiar 
^ntong Bu much thiu is of forciga origin or common to maoj 
.Wtiiitii«. The North American sivages pluy no unimportant pai't 
* «iir litCTttture; tbey have tlieir wai-wlioops aud jelU, their 
{ttiiitand their feathers, in prose aA well a.i in poetry, in Uiawatha 
anil in Cooper's norels. These names and these things — thongh, 
[ jk 'fiiapa, not U-gitimately included in a very strict definition of the 
BMim Americanisms — are almost the only really old things which 
^^ have, tlie only rulicji U-fl to remind us Uiul human beings 
roaui'sl over onr bills aud floatedonourwatci-sbefoi'othe Pilgrims 
landed ut Plymouth aud brave Cnptaiu Smith sailed in his frail 
boat up the Potomac. 

It ifl much to be regretted, tjiat the proportion of these really 
ancient names is not larger, es|wcinlly in onr geography ; for wo 
oould weil have submitted to il, that tlie imfurtunuUi race* after 
becoming the viotiras of Anglo-Saxon ontcrpriae, sbonld bare 
taken their oonqnerors captive and impoiied upou them tbeir own 
fiiTorite words. Their names ar^ so musical and ftill of meaning, 
and ours so barsb uud^ commonplace, that wc should hav^ boen.tbD 



gaiacrs bj the oxdqih^r**' There is mneic even io the rongbtfl 
of Indiiui pni^cs; "atld some like SiitqueAajtua, lotca, ITochdag^ 
J^im}(iit^^ Shhhnf^fi, mid Taloolah, are amooth and tnelodions 
^B •* '.ai^H^ to perfection. Thor were ai one time much mom mi met* 
*•; .'oba in the land, although, as J. K. Paulding already wrote : •* the 
llret settlers of an Indian (x>uotrjr not <ki1j tuok awav from the 
copper-colored villains their lands and rivers, hot gave them neT 
names, like the gypsitja, who first steal children, and then, to dit- 
giaise the thefl, christen thrm anew." (Lettera from tho Soatb, 
II. p. 17.) After the succeesful straggle for independence, nn evil 
tnstc for modernizing fvi in, and, im n British writer says com- 
phiccnily. '' aesthetic loyalists iu the mother country must have felt 
avenged fur their defeat in the mbijtttntion of namis; like Adamt> 
town and Oftinesville for snch melodinns srllahlee as hew'f 
gracrd the village."' Even Patccaiuck (the riTer which di 
Coonecticnt and Rhode Island), and fTuZ-a-^^-Ot pniperly IfVm- | 
iaquoe, are less grating npon tbe civilized ear than Ovid and 
Palmyra, to say nothing of Sodom and Babylon, which tiic old 
Pnritans indicted, th»y alon« kn«w why, upon wme places is 
their new dominion. There is a slight compensation for this ' 
injnry to he fonnd in the fiict that this donWe nomencUtnrc at 
itimcfi proves the historr of certain loeiilitiea. Thus we find iluii 
in Pennsylvania the older counties hear English tiamL% since thfi 
English colonists used their own names by preference in those 
parts of the State with which they cnuie in contact. If orthsn^H 
ton, Ijincaeter, York, fiomer8et,and Chester (for Cheshire), coiwB^ 
tic3 in the enatom and aonthera part of that State, show elearlT 
that they were the first tn be colonized iind named. Tj-^-lii-jh and 
Delaware, iStisquehannuh and xVUeghitny, Juninta and Erii-^on the 
contrary, prove by their Indian names the change in public opin- 
ion produced by the War of Indcpendouce. Later still name the 
Germans, and not by conquest but by suiwrior industry and great 
thrift, became the ovmers of lat^e tracts of land on which they 
bnilt their towns of Womelsdorf. Mannheim, and Hannover. Even 
the religions body of Moravians, lai^ge numbers of whom settled 
in this State and built here their miesiouB and their convents, left 
thsir mark behind them in Bethlehem and Litix (perhaps Stoa^m 
lattitiaf), iu Shiioh and C'annan, Salem and EphTttta, ^H 

In another instance, chat of Virginia, the history of the Sts(^ 



niBT be Tciul in briglit letters iu its local names. The first, set tlere, 
heiulcd b}- dial ponigoa of romantic adveaturerB, Johu Smitb. 

" Of name 
Mnst liomel}', yet nnmstcbcd in fume 
Bjr tliow of Arlliur'i Tuble Round ;" 

when thtij foiiud themselves amid tbe fairest scenes of Dalare in 
btT primo, with coast, river, and woodland oxpaciditig around ia 
nil lier magnificence of novelty and estont, i-emembored that they 
were e till jwiiriors, and their loyalty jirevnilwl ovev their iKWtical 
taste. Hence they replaced the stately and sonorous name of 
PuKhnian (Father of Waters) by ih»t of tlio reigning monarch, 
aud (heir first permanent Ketttcmtrnt nas "Old Jamototcn, ou 
le rirer Jatues?'' This inaiiupicious opening was followed «p 
iroiigU all tbe snccceding years, while Spenser dedicated his 
idrona allegory to "The most high,, mighty, and magniticciit 
presac, renovrnwl for pietie, TirtHe,iind all gracious govcrunieut, 
l£lij»li«tli, by the grace of God Queeu of England, Frunce, and Viv- 
i" — while the colony fnitlifntly udheri?d to the Stnarls and 
honored with the title of the Old Dominion—and whilts she 
iiaiood au iJl-treated colonial dependence. Tbei'e are no less 
in sixteen princes and princesses inscribed on her brond lands 
many couniien, calli-d after these royal personages, begin- 
ning with Uenrieo, the first of the eight original shii-ea. By 
leir nde stand names of historic note, still sounding grand 
their ancient renown: York and Lancaster, Warwick and 
irthnnibcrland. all redolent of Shakespeare and Rapin. Then 
ie the governors, each one commemorated by a eonuty, and 
?k Htnry honored by twa "Happily most, of the rivers 
'been allowed to retain their iirigjnul appellation, and the 
itic PoiQiaaCy the Opfrqiton, the Ktippnhitmiock, the fourfold 
t-Ta-P'O'Ni, its bunks famous as our bloodieat battle-ground 
this Continent, the Patiiunl-a/ and llio A//pomnft"r, immortal 
the closing scene of a woful struggle, and the Rouiiol-c, all 
rejoice in tlie beauty and dignity of their aborigiiml names, 
hereafter to afford full sr^pc to the nciimcn of the historian and 
the philologist" (tiagh Blair Grigsby.) 
For it 18 not only tbe euphony but also the historical interest 
ral weight of these Indian names, which should hare 



made them sacred to oar forefathei'B- It is the duty of the brn< 
ma« to honor the eiu*my whom he has oonquer«<i, and rarely 
flnch A conquest called forth fri-cntrr virtues iind more heroic coni 
ago than the long and fearful atrugglc hctwecn the Red mim and 
the 8a:cou. Whiit sod memorioii are not associated iu Ihe mine 
of oil Americans with t!ie dark and bloody ground, ns the pif^'itt 
Stiite (ff Kentucky, and part of upper Ohio, were ciilK'd for 
many a generation! First, the ill-fiiled locaiity was ebunneil b* 
the Indians with superstition a dread, becanse their ancient 
tradilions spoke of n frighl-fiil carnage which had taken [ilace c^n - 
turies bofwro the arrival uC the Kiirojiedns, on tlie beanlifti] Iwntka^ 
of the river. Then immigrautf settled here and there in the blr 
etaineJ rpgion. had suddonly K-en assailed and overwhelmed 
the tivacherous Indians, and ouce more the locality became tin 
scene of a long, relentless strnggle between two hostile 
But not only here— ovei-yn-h ere in the gi-cat West — the sonoiw 
names of rivers and monntuins are full of hrijjht memories 
matchtew heroiam and resiBtless persevorance, and these hcniitinil 
words ought to bo treafurcd up and Iicld as preeione aa an inher- 
itaace of jjold. The giant llimaluyn would lose half its dread 
majesty, ii" it were rechristoned Wellingfon. and Ohimborsuowontd 
he reduced from its grandeur under the name of Pizarro. How 
mnch more, however, was lost when JToricon was dubbed by flat- 
tering loyaliali! I^lte George, wtien the silven.' Winoosl-i receive 
the odorous and inconj^ruoiisrameof Onion /fti'^r, and the liilt^i 
which the poet sings : 

"Thrn tUd iJicci-luiftonaU'CMns (Uai flowed. 
Seem like Uic water* of llip t>rr>nk 
Tlini brighlly shine, thfil Iniirfly dash 
Far tlnwn tliv ctilTii tjf Ayioeha/Jc^' 

Lortteeir* Fif^L 

bpfinn to bear the common name of WhUr Mountains ! 

It is true, that occasionally efforts have been made to secure th4 
Indian notnenclfltnrc of welMtnown points, and even to imitAt 
the process in forming new names. Mr. Schoolcraft, himself a 
maflter of the Ojibway dialect of the Algonquin, acted both eya- 
tematicoll; and judiciously in this matter, when his position as 
CfemmiEsioner of Indian Affairs enabled him to assume anthority. 
Be -telle Us in onn of his admirable and most iuterestiug rejwr^ 



It wlicticTPr a pliuw in the yorthw<>st was tn lie named, Us m- 
sitnntion* auU the parliculur Irilw of aborigines tbah itiliab- 
tiie nL'tghborhtHiil, wvri.' Qrai can*.fully osccrUiiQed. Then Uia 
>gt SLciking rcaturcs of tliu landscape and local pecuUaritic!) were 
I coTuidi-reU* ami cuuii- expre^tion drscriblDg ttiem was cho^u and 
tnuittatfd intoth>> dialect of the DrigiiitJ occupants. Thus tbft 
iL* lako which forms the source of the Migstsaippi, was 
y fonufd. Mr. ScbnnlcriifL iiiid Cjitublished the fact that 
I tho Goni^iful dorivatious of tbu namo of tha river were ibr more 
fUctkl IhaD tru<!,aad thai Misi-sepc,a& it wusorigiiially nrittou* 
tut dimply ViHV itivt-r, jii<<t tho title which suoU a mag^nificeiit 
tr onght to hav*'. The 3fm, he taught in, wm the same iu 
fMttri,\n -l/if/iili M.iekinftc — which Valhcr Hennepin actiinllj 
>te J/i"i.tili Maukinuo — and in J/'rVAigun. How innch mow 
luisin* and suggestive this Indian name than (ho liivihre (JvU 
of Ut'iiii(-piii'» Ltiuitiiann, the JiivHre tSainl Louis of La Sulle, 
ilie WiiflfU River of the HpsDish discovercre! To tbii noble 
ft wnrlliv compnuinn was t<i Iw found in naming ils i!r«t 
ittUii. Mr. Sctioolcnift hud dUcoTcred thft latter himself when 
endiitx the rirer with hii> party, but too modest to give it, after 
oxnmpl'^ "f I'fher discoverer.'", hie own name, he took the. Al- 
itftiin wi/n! tuhifh^ n wonmu's breast, and adding to it the n«u- 
local (•*rmination of Indian words, he fused the parts Into tho 
itiftti and ap[)r.)priatc word Ilajvxr. typifying tho support and 
tonanc** which the lake affoixln to tho great river at its very 
How difforont was this lyBtematic and snggcstiTcraethod of 
enrhnpiastic philologist and philanthropic ctplorei*. from tho 
jtilar way of bestowing names! Territories are created bv Con- 
?, andencnmhered with the name of the martyr prpflidetit; new 
ititiue aro formt-d vtttbin the older States, and have to bear tha 
le of the lucky niember of the local logiNlatiire who pmpuscd 
tnrc, and tomis biiilt np by the enei-gy and enlerprise of 
It'nl men become known »8 Titnsville, or Itniigtown. TIib 
irdityofiuch nomenclature waa oncetniconsclonslyoxbibitcd, 
gTfot poet, nnf' v not yet knovm to th? world :iE 

Corrnr.i^'rl in , : pinnJ fulth, the following local 

}Y na\ Focm : 



Blue Bivrr, Stmwljcrrj' and IIoorNoggle sleep, 
A.iid Tres|in»i, ami Slake Bag, Ctny H<<1<; (]e«p. 
Bee Tnwn, Hni-d Tlnir«, and Old RnttlMiinke, 
Bliick L(% Sliiu^lc Rid7(\ Bubrl and Siakv, 
Satan's Li^tit Hmisc, Pin Ilnnk and Dry Bone, 
Anii Swiiidlcr'R Kidgr, wlili hazels aTci'Krown, 
Biir^ird's Rnost Tnjunctinu. and TlioTwo Brothcn!, 
Softko Il4>ll(>n' l}'\pg\ng», Blnck Jack, Itorac nii'd oibcra, 
And Lower Conn, Slump Gttrve, and Hi?d Dog bitrak, 
Wcnomciiee, Kiillail Ridg^, tmiy miwuire out thin aonriet, 
Wilh Bull Bniiirli, Upper C<,K)n, — jtour no ciAnws on ill" 

HUvJc tbmk ly ISUr( H. Smith, p. 191 

Eren encU atrocities are, however, (>cc4i8ionally surpassed bj wl 
ful flbsttrditie-s, m whrn a beaiitifii! sheet of water in the State 
Vermont was wantoiil}- deprived of its fair and legitimate ludJJ 
name, to be called Llama water {written now Luma water) 
honor of General Woo] I 

Tlie Iiidiua iiame«, on the other band, which were anew gii 
by discoverers and persons in authority, were generally take 
from the dialects of the Algonquin languogee, which Mr. Scht 
craft lirHt pmposcd to call by the generic name of Alyir, an 
which were spoken by all llio tribes of New England, the MJdi 
States, Virginia, and part of North Carolina; a few oiily ih>m tbs^ 
O/iJiPwy (Chippewa) family, aud other Western tribes. Thus, 
Niagara and Saratoga are Iroqunis, like their kindred, full and 
Boaorous even in their sadly corrupted form of the present daj 
Alabama and Tuscaloosa, Tullartega and Peiisncvla, not li 
mtuical, have been ti-aced to a kindred form spokeu by the .tffi 
eoffeas (Creeks) and Seimw/fei; while Weitoita and JfioneJiahi 
immortalized by Longfellow's poem, belong to the great family of 
Daitcota/i Indians. If such names have not more frerjuenlly 
retained their hold on the plnecs they once designated and tlie 
memory of early settlers, there is some excuse for the latter found 
in the extreme length of most Indian words. This difficulty wm 
already comphiined of by the great Eliot during bis pious labors 
in writing bis noble work, the Indian Bible; and he adduoos 
words like—" Nummatcbekodtantamoonganunnonash" (thirQr- 
two letters) meaning "our lusts;" "Koowomantammoonkauu- 
nonnaso/' meaning **onr loves;" antl "Knmmogkodonattootum* 
mooetitcaongauttimoDafih" (forty-three leuers), mcftaipg '^ov 



Ml.*' (Magnolia, Bk. III., p. 193.) In the Book of Common 
Flayer, translated into the language of the Six Nations, there aro 
ilio many long wonl£, such as — " TsinihoiaDcrenseFatokeuiitser- 
Oten." (Daniel, ix. 9.) N'o ^ronder, therefore, Ibst so many of tUese 
iwd«,esi>ecially (hose belonging to the Dabcotflh branch, which 
ispoBgh and full of nasal sounds, have either been entirely lost or 
*tl«art transformed till they lan iid longer be recognized. 

In some instances it is a epocial matter of regret that the Indian 
Win« of places and States no longur suggest their original mean- 
ing. This was occasionally simplts enough, as in Coiiueclicut — 
<'riginally written Qttonnughiicot — which meant in the Mohcgan 
dialect "long river;'' and in Massachnsetls— in the Natic dialect 
if«i(MM«<— signifying "the place of great hills," with rcferenee 
to (lie Blue Uille, eleven niiU-s lo the southwest of Boston, the 
Jddtest point of land in the eastern part of that State. Of citi«6 
Mm dcsignnted, Milwauirif, recalls its original name, meaning 
■'^Rch landv"* and St'n/f Sing,t}v; Algonqnin word Ast'nfjsing, "a 
place of stones," with all the greater force as it is now, " the 
rendence of gentlemen," in Artemus Ward's tangnage, " who 
ipend their daj-s in poundin' stun." Other names, howeror, have 
more or less pieturi-wineuess in their meaning, and are not so 
easily improTe<l by recent changes. Thus Chicago represents in 
its French pronunciation very fairly the actual sonnds heard by 
the first French explorers, when t-lie Potawalomies, who dwelfc 
there, callwl it. Shfctiurro, "playful watcrs.''(?) Dahioueffa is iho 
softened form of the Talauneca of the Clierokees, which racuiit 
"jeUow metal." for the Indians were well aware of the gold fimnd 
in the niMgliliorhowl, which niiuk- the city in later years the seat 
of a goTcmment mint, because of its happy (wsition in the very 
centre of the gold-mine district of Northern Georgia. Lake Erie 
U almost the »n\y ivmainder now of the onoo jiowerfiil tril>Q 
of Eries, who lived where the ^i&A/a of Ohio now is; the latter 
Dame, as given to the river, owos its origin f* the Ivofiuois, who 
called it the Oheo, ''beflutiful water," by the same instinotirc 
admiration which promjttcd the French to name it. La Belle 
Birifcrc. It hod a lucky escape from Father Marquette's baptism, 
who christened it Ouaboukigon— a name which subeeqneutly 
ahrunk into Onabacfie, and has finally as Wabank been given to 
the but trihutarr of the Ohio. It is curious that a kind of stigma 



Ecenis to udhcro to tlie tiaine, for eren no«- the good people of 2a> 
diauB and the West scDeraUy, are fond of saying of a nuin vho hu 
been chent«d, thnt '' hu haa been Waia^ad." At one time, when the 
"dark uiid blood; grouud" of Kcutocky and Ohio became famom 
among the vhitcs, the Indians also folt laclioed to call thi>ir beai^ 
tifiil i-iror rather the Blood Rircr, bo feoi-ful hod bcca the sc«nu 
of caroa^o and cruelty e&aeted ou iU Ciir hauka One of tht 
youngest sUte.s Idaho, well dcseneii its poetical name, I-ttn-Ji0$, 
the ''guUL of the uiuucuiiuii," uud the uauit.' of the river ManoHga- 
hela flown as smootltly from the Up« irith its liquid uot«s a& the 
ftLf-famed rye whisky distilled on its bauks, which is known all 
over ilio Union by the same term, in contradistinction from Scotch 
and Irish rivali!. On the other hand, the much-diecu$5cd n^uue 
of thu greatest wat^rfull on our contiueut Iws been t^tripiKnl of all 
the poetical meaning? given it by writers whose imagiuution ei- 
oeediwl their knowledge. AV-ajraro, the original word, taken from 
the Sencca^Ii'oqnois dialect, has no connection with catanicls. bnt 
means prosaically, " across the neck,'* alluding to the course of Uie 
rJVLT across thu neck or strip^f lund that lies hetwtvn ).nk(.'s Erie 
and Ontario. A i^iniilur idi.'a undL-rlics the word Mitchik-nn in 
the Ottawa dialect, which was originally given to Mackinac, 
and meant "fences," OS il' the island wei-e lying feucc-tike U-fure 
the Upper I^e. At least so says the Rev. Mr. Picn!, a mis- 
sionary among the Ottawas; but AUouex, hts Frencli predeces- 
sor, calls it, a tew years before, Mnchihiganing ; the prcscnc wonl 
Michigaii is evidently an improvement upon both the foraicx 

Tho word Esquimaux, though not denoting any tribe inhnhit- 
iug the Uniteil Stateni. is still so frequently regarded as belon^'ing 
to onr speech that it may not be amiss to correct the common 
error, by which it is considered a French term, probably only bc- 
cuita< of its French-looking ti-rmiuation. A learned linguist of 
Fmnce went so far iu hie patriotic zeul to reclaim it as his own. 
tliai ho insisted upon its being a contnictiou of cmx qui miauleut ! 
The wort*, obtained its Frencli appearance from the Canadian 
Toyageurs, .who introduced it, after having in vain tried to iniiLute 
in any better way the sounds by which the Lmuilft as they cull 
themselves, were designated by the Keniisleuo Indians iu their 
language. This vuAshlintai or "eaters of raw meat," wlii 



practice appvaivd to iliem stfango eaongh to give its luuae to the 
irholc mce, and hence the preKut name of Hxqittmaux. 
■teSince tlio ac>jni«itioii of Alftskn, for which a new term, Wnlru»- 
PBkr, wrj5 proivif^tl, but dcscrvwlly failed to olitaiu currency, a feir 
vordi hare become fUmiliiir to the American ear, which belong to 
the IndiaiiA of that di«tricL This i:! the Chinook Jarffon^ a, ooaveii- 
tionnl Iniignagt? hkc the Lingtm Fmiicaof UieHoditemnean. and 
' Pigeou-Kiiglish of India, wiiicU diilcs bock to th« fiir-di'oguen; 
the hwt century. Those mftriners, whose enterprise hefore 
wqiloTcd the northwert coast of America, piekM np at their 
n-ml rondezvyiift, 'NiKttka Sonnd, Tarions murvi- wonis iiwJ'uI in 
ter, and Ihoucc tmnsplanted th«ra, willi udditions from Ihc 
lgIL«h, to the pitores of Ore^^n. When the givat Aetor's eipe- 
m an-ivcd at the month of the Columbia, tlie Jargon received 
I principal im]mlse; many more wonhi of Knglialiwvrc brought 
I and for tlie first time the French, or rather the Canadian and 
RfWHri patois of the Fnmch, was introduced. The principal 
amt of the compHur tieing ut Astoria, not only a hii'ge miditiou 
'Ctiinook voi-ds was made, bnt a eonBidemhlc nnrnlK'r wna taken 
the Cftihalis, who immedialely bordiired that tribe on the 
The langnago contimietl to receive wdditiinis, and aKfiumed 
lore distinct and «^ttled meaning nnder the Northwest and 
id^n's Bay Compani«»8. who Bucceedcd Aptor's party, as well aa 
lAwericjm peMlors in Oregon. Its advantage was soon perceived 
[thft Indian?, and the Jarj^on became Tx> some cxt'-nt a menna 
immnnicaLiou between nativus of different speech and between 
and (he whites. It wua oven used between AmeritiuiB and 
Kirst in vogiio njwn the Columbia and Willamette, 
■■ > Pngcl SifMinl. uml with tiie exteiwion of tradofouud 
way ftir np thi» coiwt and the rivew, bo that there a« now 
"i>n the ISd and STtli ptimllt-'la of laTilude, in which 
iind int'-rpn'tcrd through iu? moiliuni. Nolwith- 
iding its a|>pnrent porerty of words and the ahseneo of gntm- 
tical fortnfi, it ^miswwich much iloxihility and power of expres- 
,jind really serves almost ovcvy ptiriwse of ordinary intpv- 

Fr. fieorgo Oibhs, who has Himishetl the Smithsonian Institu- 

with an admirablo Dictionary of the "Chinook Jargon," 

iate« the total number of words at about (ire hundred, of 



which abont one huudi-ed aud sixty are French and 
ejg'hteen of unknown dt;rivation, and all the others belonging tt 
tht> Chinook nnd kitidi'ed dialects. Boih eWnients have beok 
slightly modiHed iu tlio Jarj^on : the Indian gntturaU ure £oAeiud 
or dropped, and the / and r of the English and French, no- 
pron(itini!oahl» tuthu Indians, nrt.^ iiiudiUed into /i aud I. Oramina^ 
ical fcirms are reduced to their simplest cxprtssiun, and variatioM 
in niocd and tunse only conveywl by adverbs or by the cont<:'xt. 

The conversational language of the Jndiaue ha&, of courtH;, lefi 
no tracos in onr English, mainly because of the f^reat divemtv «f 
(liiiloct-3. which has deprivfd even siieh masterly works aa Eliof'i 
Indian Bihic, of all Iiut historic interest Among the rare en*[h 
tions is tho word nttop, used by the New England Indiana in the 
sense of '* my friend," which Mr. Pickering teUfi us was in his itj 
still used. cQlloc}uiaUy. in Eoiue lonuH iu the interior of "MssM' 
chusettfl, to eigtiify a friend or (to use a cant word) a crcay." 
It is douhtfnl, however, whether it is now-a-daya nsed iu auy 
intercourse, even with Indians, ns the Narragansett woitl would 
hardly be intelligible to other tribes. The term f^okehken, or 
pojKhijnu, Brgnifying, " marsh," has apparently more vitality IB 
it, for it is fitill very largely ut^ed by lumbermen in Maine, and by 
their brethren in the ^ilurlhwvsl. mostly their kiufimcu and al* 
wfly» their pupils, wlicti tJiey 8i>eak of marshy ground extendiag 
inland from a lake or a stream. *' I had unawares pnalicd the 
canoe into a poiel&lvn and was agmiinil, n-memlH'ring I^Ki lftt» 
the half-breed's wlraonilions, who bus specially wurned rne again^ 
these mysterious ^oi(re?ojl-en«." (Hon. 0. A. Murray'fi Letters, No..! 
Iu North C'unjlina and further Soutli. similar );wamps are ckUi 
2}ocasar}M. They are lauds filled with water durinif winter 
the spring months, and overgrown with cypress and jtuiiiwr.trees^ 
with a hf-aTy undergrowth of neds. " After passing this swai 
or pocasftit. on rbe east side of the Ckowan, you come to mm 
Ifinde cov.'pcd wilb largo piucs,a country fianous for tar-makioi 
{Southern Magaz., Au^. 1871, p. IWo.) The lumbermen tuipl 
also the Indian term Katttrnii, "u boat," very generally for a 
liar kind of boat, in wfiich ibcy carry their Tools aud provisionft 
"Among the dangers (of Inmbering in Maine), wlici'v life aii< 
propwty are hazarded, is that of running th« wangan, a phrase w 
understood on the river." {Tita Aviericans at Home, ill. p. 257 



Another Indian t^rni snnriving nt Iciut oit a jirorinciulism, is 
fhe inrboggin of tlje extreme Xortli mid of Conadiu the tarbogin 
«f the far West, known as fravte to tho rrench voyagcurs. 
Tbis IB a kind of light wugou, oft<.-n dittwu hy doge, ou which 
ludian equnws ave in the Iiahit of bringing home their lomls of 
Cotton-wood, etc., consisting simply of a couple of t<nt-pole« with 
two cro3a-bar« to support tho freight. The Canadians iiavc im- 
provtfii them.mninly for the purpose of using themiis fiJeds in slid- 
ing on the 5U0W flrom grt-at htiijUts, in which wise they iti-e often 
made to carry a duoble load, th& owner finding it nu easy iiiak to 
itcer tlie ffail vehicle rightly, and to keep his fair charge from 
slipping from his hold. A term which has only lately fou:id its 
Tr»y into our English, through the increasing numl)pr of hunters 
who make up parties in si^arch of elk, moosi', tic. ia ichi^gigghi, 
KS it 19 written froni thti sound meivly. The Indiim woi"d ia the 
KfunA'uawikhigan, meaning "a letter, book, or uuythiugwritteu." 
iod is in Maine and Onniidu, n& w-ell as in the Northwest, now gcn- 
lly nied to designate the written permit which has to be 
lined from the local nnfhonticjj — often an Indian chief— Iwfoi-e 
-residents ore allowed to hnut there. It ia in these same dia- 
tilcu, also, that a trap set hy hunters, Is flometimes called by its 
^Blan name Kill flag, "The first Aitb were brought into town 
^Pmenlay, and already a number of KUlhags have been put up 
mrywhere." {Ifrnif/ord Times, 1864.) If we add, Hiiully. the 
fcrm nt^rueh. ivhieh de.tigiiatos in tho Abenaki dialect a large, 
pmiliarly-ahnpcd cake of sugar, we sholl have mentioned all the 
' n^ familiar terms of this class. "Covered by a blanket, and 
"'" ■ d by a VH>cuck of sugar, ejich Indian was asleep upon his 
I a;-iL" (C I^iitnan. Summf:r in the Wi/dernfss.) 
^Ht ii well known that the very word /n^iuii, as given to tlie 
^^ro found here by the tir«t eettlers, rests upon ii mistake, as if the 
■Wtfs also must needs bo Involred in the evil fortune, which gjive 
to tlie whole continent, at the expense of the discoTcrer, the name 
U{ 4 man who had no title 1o such an honor. For whatever 
■pJt retwrt investigations may have e^cuivd tu tlio bold and 
^^iVrmng navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, his claims arc as noth- 
^m Hf the side of those of Columbiu, and yet already in 1507, 
^Bttu Conmogmphia t'ignopsit, the numc of Amsrica is entered 
•^■curtent among men. 


-ill^ '-.— :z. i^-:-:iz- ;; !ir :^:'.:z. ZM e-^^r =:- ?? c-een known ii 
ii ▼::li, :~ :1t zi=:f ::" iir^z.: I-^S. ■"■>.;.". 0-:".:uabas thought 
:; iii r;-;j..-I. "^'-iz, z-. l.ic-:'~T^.'l. H:;:a-;:li. Xor Laa ha 

">::;.- ri^zif: :l-r t,-: - .r.ij::;" s.\z. - !- ll-s." ir.-i thus prora 
; ^j :Iii: i-?:i iz. 'zii i^'- -.'i- r-xr IzLiz. "_ii :o submit h 
:>:jz^ ;-il".:-I ."'-'-(. t':..! :* zT i:; .■■:::i— ?~ -iza- vi:h com- 
l." T'l'JT-i.Tr.'ii; z^ in ;d -:::I It::*:^':.^ r:*j~'."Iir.oe in EOBnd 
•i:v~- .1. Izi.iz. :_-: .i^..:;. i=i iit .z...;i ::' N"rv Englini 
Ll.ii^ :J.r .-.z:..r 1 ::- It fii jir-ir-j i? ir:-:;r-ilj called I 
.-.r-i-:;'. i_ i-_.-' z: ";:t:i :' -■■=.::=:::. ::" ■i!i::z TT, Ining 
=jj.::i >• -: ->; L- : J .i^:: 'lI.<- r .^ Xr^ Y;ri. -Th« 
r^r^ U: zi:i. 1; SI i. " "v^ : - ;ct:^:;-1 — •— r —si &!osg tia 
irii .:' }'*■" I :- -•. :- .': £ ru.>. .'x----: ■ zz^r'nivUi' 

.:■: 7;i-- ■-?'.. L '..-. !:■ ;.-.- -..1, \ZLr.—^i^--.: iz. :!« UuEed 
■TiJ::: --_: .'L ' . .j >;_ 1 : . .i": .-.>.; A, T . -1 Tj: : i:."::! :. a olias of 

--Z >. :_ -1 :. ■ -. -.1^1 .-- -i - :■ :;-it> :ii: in hil 

:4T" " " :■ _ ; . ■:_ . " ; : '; ~l: : ^t :■ : .^-i : i-il z: :z^ ~in^moBl 

j: L z .-■ "•: >:"■;• i^- ■* .". -'.; ? j-i-. » 'i I'-i^r i!i: riiae of 

.- ■'; 7-^ 1 .1. •..;:. :*■ ,- ::..-.■ - .jji :zr Zzii»n bB 

.: 1 ; : ■>■ ; i . • . ? > -^ :■-- -:szi~ :;" i'rilwf 

II- : ■>: i: : -^ . ^ ■ : - ■: ■• t-z^- -ttz. "1-: deriil- 

L 1 .' -. ; .:- > r; :■. : . f" - rzirii- ■; "Ir Xorilietl 

.:...;::;-.:': :i-. i - '--> ~- ' T--: ?-: -. Jtr. Zltcifr 

r 7 .- _• ■ : „: 1 ; n t ta-. : i^: :■ -. . r: ■-. -.^i r.'^i^.:^- i: honB 

^■- " . ~ : :.: r'. 1" -■*. i :'.».■. ■ r -; i ?.-•_:: — ..fli ixa 
- '.. • ^' -r .,■- . :■ .-> ■ i. 1 A.-:-j ■•- . j r 1 --.iz :^-;v -Fir; wn* 

£" -. ^ . : ' , V. \ ;i I:i li; 

"::_:- -~^ -- .-^ -■ .:.- : : ^ -\^.!^iLLj> jcti=i- - Wi*l 

Z: ivc^ur ait -laa-^-T" ?ia-iM •iwiCii; ^tccu " 

THB nrnuK. 

Tor ia it less cimoiis to notice how early the terra began to b«1 
in a duparagiDg sense by political or persooal antogonicts 
Ihe bold pioneers and bigotra purittins. Tbc Duccb on Uie 
ikt of th« Huilson probubly tirsl of nil Apptttnl it coulemptu-. 
Jy to ttu-ir fonuitlabie rivals on the ConnwiJcut, and mhs^ 
itly the regubir croope took it np, if vc may credit the Rev. 
Gordon, oj qnoled by T. Weslcott of Pbihiilftpbia, when he 
*'Tht-y (tbf iJrilish troo[w) werr' rooglily liaudled by tha 
V, a term of reproach irhen applied by the regnlars." {.Virfw 
m«, 16^2. p> 67.) Stibsiinjuaiily thi? doily-rDcreuaiug aiii> 
'between the North und the 8onth raaile the term I'ttnkvt 
>otberu mitids an itic«rnallon of itll that wu uncoug«Diiil 
tteftU, attd henc<^ dnriitg the war the y'aitts became th« 
dMignation of Fedenil soldierain the Oonredcrory, ertn 
ley werp called liela — not Rebfls — by Xortliern men. Wilh^ 
if^ ciiurufion of idtias the poor ConlVMlerate soldier, nrho 
ibed morally to the privatioaii and eufferingg of ftorthcra 
and penitentiaries, and in his dire need loik the oathand 
in lb« United Sta-tes Army, was contemptuously called » 
isid I'anlBfe — probably IVoni an indiatinct anociatJon with 
wonhli-sa giUnuuBcd imituttons of gold and BilTCT^ nowsopop- 
witb the maasefl. 

le fatality which mode tho words America, Yanke«| 
- genuine misnomer!, &i-i.'uih to bavt followed even tha 
igii of the AiiUTiOiiu |Ku]<l<'. >'fnwt(W Doodle, at leasts 
; tb6 mt\\ known tane which bean this name:, are anything but 
mean. When- their birthplace really was, is, however, qnita 
lyvn-Ty vvt. New discoveriefl are coustantly made: Kossnth 
rrfiortt-d to have recognized it as one of tha national aira of 
fowD .Hag>'nr race, and a Ivarned diplomat of the United States 
diacovcrtd it aiiftii; the Ba»i|ne, in one of their ancient Sword- 
Duima. Thi« mnch only ih certain, that the n-iclced wits of tli0 
\A Charles IL whittled the tnne in lb« ears of the Nell 
of that biDc. and it is fonnd jingling iu a aong on a 
Udy of easy vinno in tboee days: 

" L'ln* I-odtet lost her packet, 

Kiiiy Flilter Ihusd it ; 
KoUiinf fa h, aoitalns on It. 
Bat iha btttdlac toond U." 



Those inderaiigalile students, the Dajckmclts, track it stiOd 
tlier bock to th? old songs of the Inoduf tUeiraucostors, HoL 
and claim Ibat Dnlch UboKre used to sioje;: 

"i'ufiivr (lidel, doodei down, 
DiOrt, dutWI, l«»(er; 
Yankfr vivi-r, rwvcr vowd. 
Boleriullk nnd Tnmlier,'"— 

whjcli c^rtniuty has a suspicious look of originality about H,i 
inif!;ht welt nhake our farth in tho a^st-rtion that one Dr. Sli 
biir^ of the Bridsh Army composed the famous song. Its 
tiori lis a natioinil nir dtiu-a from the ilnv on w)iich u cnnntrv Hftf 
happM^fd to play it as n (]iiick-march at the head of a «noH 
detitclimcut of gatlnut vountrymen going to the 6ght at Bankir 

The iroe Vanl-i^* of uur day is the ma of New Bngluni, thi 
deawndaiit and woHhy rvprc«entiitiv« of tiie Tilgrim fathers '"■ 
heir to all their ]]o)>l« qimlitiee, homely rirtneFi. and violent ; 
differ. The type docs tiftf find its ftillost expression in tUeftcWJm- 
pliahed Bostonian, ihoii^jh lie live at ihe"Hnb of the World," aod 
he firmly p^-rsimded thiit modern cultnre r«Ii»ie« from his nattia 
town to all parts of tlie t'ni-tli ; hnl. nitticr in ihc thrifty fj > 
Mnd hunly m^-ehaniCj who can do anythingfrom running a pi 
to ruling a State, front selliug woudeu nutmegs to winning a ecti 
in the Sonnte, and now nnd then in a master-mind like Kmenoa*! 
or Lowell's. Very diffi-wmt ia he, indeed, from the gay, generoK 
Southron, as the Southcrnera lire n-pt to he called, whom, at aa 
early period of our history the Indians distinguished by the name of 
LQurj-knir'fss. The origin of thr term 13 Miid to have heen this: •' Id 
the year 17(i4. a Colonel (fibsoii of I-'yrt l*it( came atxiidenialW 
Upon a party of Mingoes, encamped nn Cross Creek, a tribntarj- of 
the Ohio. Littl« Eagle, a distingnialied chief, commanded the 
parly, and npon discovering the whites, gave a fearful i^ 
nnd at the same time discharged hisgnnotthe Colonel. Th- •-'- . 
pa«cd through Gibson's coat without injuring him. Witii li.o 
quickness of a tiger he sprang upon his foe, nnd with cue sweep 
of his sword, seTered the head of Little Eagle from his body. Two 
other ludians were killed by ^e whites, hal the others escaped 
and report«d that the white caplaio bad oat off the head of tb&ir 



;f with his loDg kiiif«. This waa ilio origin or ihe celebra(«l 

feftrfnlly sigoificunt Icrm Long-knivee. It was u]>|>Iic<l 

igh<jut the var to Vir^iuiaiiv, aiiU v\e\x to thii; iluy has not 

II Ci^rjEoUen fey some of the Weal^m tribes." (W. De liass, His- 

jry v/ JnriittH Warn, p. 2l(>.) Even the motual aversion of the 

[■wliitf- against the red man hns by no means become quite extinct, 

Innd it. must not be for^B^ttru that this feoling was, on the part of 

1 (iier, all the stronger anil deeper aa the poor Indians were — 

to early [nvachuiis — for a long time looked upon ns wor- 

j>|ifre and agents of ^ntan. Hence the lenn Indian hating, is 

^1 of frequent nse in tho Far "Wrat, au<l represents a passion, 

sh ia even now a min^'led ferocity anil faoaticisni. iucon- 

ible to qniet Chrisliausftod perhaps to OJiy other men but 

ler adventurers. 

)f the many wordR de^giialed an Indian, we omit here all 
of plants and auimuU. which will be mentioned cJscwliere, 
allude only to ihoiv wiiich are charac(«riatio of the language 
l^tlie habits of tiie American. Thns he ha« learned from the 
itiouH Bavnpe to traverse woods and march to distant iwinta of 
lok iu a single line, s» tiiat ever\' man steps in the footsteps of 
man brforc him, and lmiUe« any guess at the number that may 
jioased. This is eulltri] walking /m/i»/( Jf/^ and applied to 
occasion where people ivaJk uno Wliiiid llio other. Imlmn 
tt4 are incloiinreA, found in large nnmbers in Kew York and 
iDSTlmniii. and les^ frequently in Keir England, Canada, and 
^nia. occupying hi^h bliilT (ininLs or heudlands, scarped on 
or moiv sides and natumlly easy of defence. Wbun fonud 
lower ground, tiicy are gcnunilly iikisod on Eums dry knoll or 
ijttle liill in t)ie midst of a swamp, or Mhere a beud in tlic river 
vtrcurity to tlic position, Luit tbc-y atand inv.iriably near an 
kiUng lupply of water. The embankments arc seldom over 
Ir fiMft hi^h. pierced by one or more gutewoys, and eun-ounded 
a diteh of s<>me dcptli. It has heen qiieutioiii'd, Iiohcvct, 
vet lbe«u fortiQcations belong to the preeeat race of Ixidiaua 
the Azlcoa that preceded thorn in che coantry. 
To ilic Stkle of \ew York and iu Canada tliere arc, bcaidea, 
many plaj.v^ lound, where tbe Indians buried their dead, and tbeso 
■n known as bon/tpilg. The hones are ustmtly deposited in long 
treachefl or pite> ibrming very extensive works and accumulations. 



The ceremony of thus iut«mng the bones of the departed 
cftileil by the Indians the "second bTirving," and took p 
amou^ Ri)ino tribes, like those vi«ited by Ch»rIevoix, eTery ci, 
years, but among tlie Iror{uois and the Harooa ercry tea 
Early siitilera oeeii*ionally quote these burials aa tho festivai of tS 
dead. (H. R iSvhwk-rafi.) 

Those Indian Forts are, moreover, carefully to be distinguished 
from tilt-' Indian Moundg wliich are foand in nearly every State 
of tlio Union, bnt in all probability have but rarely any conneiv 
titni with the Abnriginca. Tlic habit of the people of oscribiaE 
nuy unusual form of the Burface gronnd to the agency of tba 
former owuei-s of the Uiid, has, no duubt, led to the desigDatiOB 
of these mounds as Indiau. In many cases they ure, of Douit^ 
burial-phices of the Ited ninn, and when opened, are fonud to con- 
tain bones, tomahawks, anil other rude tools and wcnpons. Such 
abonnd especiuUy in the Middle and Sonihern Slates, and, within 
the mouwry of men now living, the Indians of tlie For West han 
coma to visit onca more the graves of their forefathers iii the Atlas* 
ticStates, Btartling the quiet dwellera there l)y their eudden audun* 
coiitli appearance, and vanieliiug aguiu like a dream, after having 
deposited some simple memorial on one of these mounds. lu other 
parts of the country every rounded knoll is ra calU-d, and thoff 
in Californui, e^iwcially in times of flood, "cattle and eheep ft» 
gathered ou Indian JHuundx, watting the fate of their compau- 
ianfi, nliose carca^sea drift by or awing in eddies with the wrecltB 
of barns and outhouses." (F. B. Ilarte, 7'A* Luek of lioarinf 
Camp, !». 331.) But here also they are strangely mixed up willi 
the Indians, and thus the same nttthor iqjeaks of the end of one ot 
his most graphically dosoribcd heroes: '^Uc was buried in tha 
Indian Mound, tlic ainglo ejiot of sti-auge, perennial greenness 
which Ui<>poornljorigincs had raiged above the dusty plain." (|\^34| 

The State of Florida has a pecnliar kind of mounds, which 
familiarly known a» Chunh Yarda or Chnnkw Yanlfl, consisti 
of oblong yurJa adjoining high mounds and ••rotunda*,'' built 
the Seminoles. In the centre stands a myuteriuus oU'lisk, aiid 
each of the more remote rornrra a post or etrong slake, to whi 
their captives were bound previous to being tortured and bun 
The able historian of Florida, Mr.Bartram, says: "The pyramid 
hills or artificial uiuunti>, and highways or avenues, leading fi 

TBE tND]i.y. 


em to artificial ponds or lakes, Yut tetragon ten-acea, ehunk- 
irds, B.nA obeliaki or pillars of wood, nre the only nioaumeat* of 
|>orj iDg?nuit)'. uud mogiiitjocncc thjit I hare Mcen, worthy of 
ioou" Later reaearcties have led to the discovery that Chunktit 
ihc Indian aamo of ii ga>u» pluytHl wiUi ii IIhI, round Rtonc 
pd a pole aboiil tigbl feet Imig; the former was roIIi.'d forward 
the pole thrown at the samo timt;, by two players, aud hn 
loac polo came ntarcsl: to tiie stoue won the game. 
As Uie ladiaiib have heeu led by tbeir wliito friciidB to considrr 
[iresent in the light of au cxcliange only, boivig always expccud 
I give much land for Uttle value, tliis has glf<;ii riiic to tlio term 
imn Gicer, and the iogratitude of whites to the t^rm Indinn 
Memory. Amoag the urticU'ti which unfortunately atill coaati- 
late ihu alaplu of ull mivh iimnmin, spiriL^ of wuk kiad» or^ro* 
waier. OS the Koglii«h-&(H.-:ikiug Xudians often call ii, holds, of 
morse, a prouiueui rank. It is a ead index to Uie nature of tho 
Taat majority of such truufiactions between «'hile and red men, 
that the term hidian Liquor ia uuiversally known to mean adul- 
terate whif'key. Nor id water tlitj nnly elemeiil of aduUertitiou : 
tohocco, red ^wpper, and otiier condiments are a]>L to be added iti 
large quantiliud by dishonest dealers and agents. 

Wild orciiwds uf uiigrafled apple and peach trees are fVcqncntly 
Ic^ indian orcJtanU, under an crroneons impression that they 
planted by the red men ; but, except in the more progperooa 
idian Jiexervaiwus or Hfsfnrs, tracts of land secured to ihcm 
by the government, aud in i-egions where tbvy have long been [lei-- 
ancutly settled, as in the Territory of the Choctaws, ihc i»oor 
is not npt to plant trees; besides, he is fully aware tb»t 
rted peach-trees are apt to be hardier and more pnidnctivc 
San the finer varieties. 

or all the &uiije<il« connected with the original raon in Amcri- 

Ufe none holds probably a more prominent place in \h*-< 

kind of tho mii??es than the Jv/ian Summer, »i chort but sur- 

lingly beuntiful season in the latter part of autumn. A 

fipell of One weather, aa it ia called by another Anierican- 

is noticed in other countries also, and fre([nently compared 

the luilcyon ^Kriod of the Greeks, so that bhukespearo could 

[tiutedly say : 


" Btpcct flaliil Maniu's suumcr, lialcyon d^yi,"— <?<Fnrir Vt^ Arf I. £f 
in olUiioii to what )io elsewhere «lUb: 
" Pnrewrll Hum lalli-r upring', 
J-'uruwcIl nil hallowt) summer."— {Zfrafy ZV.^ 

In Ktigland the Hcoifon ileriveil its name of Saint )(a 
llartiti Miuu Summer, I'rvin the fact tliat it conimuiil,' 
tbi.'1'o dlwut NovMTibcr ll.St. irnrtin's diiv; on theCoaCinentit 
cnllod HnmnKT Close imtl*M'£ti5 de St. Slttrtin." with an ii . "" 
double iiifAning, which utiowa the term tu be applied to J . 
ndviuioinj; yvavt. It muv be that there is an oseochitiun of (In 
Mmv itkti, Iliou^dikssik-Iiojitoly expressed, iu the Ot^rinan " 
Wcibw" 8nmin<,'r," while in Chiti it is cnlletl St Jolui's Su 
III the tlniliHl St<iU'?, this season, when "twinkle in the 
light the w(itir« of \\w rill,'* generally begins in November, tbi 
the periotl vnrlcs within a month. It is dmreot«r!ced by fur M 
not hnlllnnt weather; theiiir is smoky and hazy, perfect Ir still mJ 
moifil ; and tlie itin shiiiea dimly, but softly and eneetly, tlirott^ 
flit Btmosphoro thai Bomo call oopper-colored and other* golden^ 
In n«(Nii'danec wf(h their power of poetieal iieiveption. Tb» 
name of Indian Stimmtr is diflV-rently explained. The Bw. 
.latneH Kn-emnn derives it from the fuot that the Indians are par- 
(icnlarly fond of it, repirc]in,i» it as a special gift of their farDriti 
gud( the psA of till- tSoulhwest, who send? the Eoft soiilhircit 
wiinU, and to whoii tliey go aller death. £>aiiiel Webster ntJ 
that the early nettU'r^j pwv. that name to the season hecaase lh«f 
ftieriln^d lis pfenliiir fi-ntnres. the heat and the haxe. to the hnming 
of the prniri'-a by tiio Indians al. that. linn-. Mr. Kerchevalt 
hou'ever, gives a more plansible explmintion : "it Bomctinitf 
happened, that niter the appiirent nnaet of wintur, the wenlhtf 
hociinie wurm ; Uie smoky time commenced, and lasted f()r a coo- 
Hiih-rablo nnniber nl" days. This wiis the /n(fian itummer, b*- 
ctuiK it affbrdwl the Indians— who dnring the setere vinitt 
never made any ineursions into the settlements — another oppot^ 
tnnily of vigiLing them with their deftmcUvn warfare. Th 
melting of the suott' saddened every conntenunce, and the gpuial 
warmth of the snn chilled every hotirt «'itb horrt'r. The apprt- 
heusiou ol" unutlier viwt frrjm the Indians and of being dm'eii 
biiek to the deteati^d fort, was painful in the highest degree. 
(fUM. of iha Valley 0/ Virginia, p. ISO.) 


laoy ladiau tonns h&te become so incorporated iut« American 

' liav.>, at tttoe!!, stnxck their root« so deep into piiblio 

, as lo havo hccomo almost trne Americnniaing. Snch 

jwi^wffwt and mtmpttm. Tho form<^r U tlie AiigHciwd form 

hi the Nitlic dialect of tho AI];onqniii fiimily; hore 

niuant "in fais or her hoDSf," aod tliL' ciirtuilvd word 

w««»i. WU8 tJic irnc ancestor of the modnn mgwam in thtt 

of mn lodiaii^a hut or cabin. The origrinnl hot, geiiorallf 

le of skins and affording hui Ktant.y ahcltcr in pmtnictcd hnd 

thrr, xtiitx}-! in Btj'aiig>:> coutrast with the imposing building in 

I'ork, iti which ihe wigKam, i. e., the liead(juartei-s of a IX-m- 

kic orvanixotion of great power and inflacneo 31*0 now c&tab- 

' Ijotlyderivesilsnametif TJimmcdV, Kini that of 

1 an iincientchief of the A'rtfTd^rtH.-*!*// Indianii, 

MiimUniomii, who had bis Kat on Tammany, a hill uortli 

'. wlii-re ha and Canonicns sold, in 1038. Ar^uidneck or 

. reace, in the State of Rhode lElind, for Lwcnty- 

broaticlotli oouU and tbirtofU how. " as also tn-o torkepta" 

iMlTiu^ric8 will have it that this mode of "selli tig" has not 

>ttc out of pmcHoc ai the pluce thut now heni-a the nam<'. 

linnrilT sm-li sileg wvre miido, and if not made, contlrnied in 

iM/it, tiin (!nrr«-iit <Min of thn Indians. This consisted of 

of Ehcll^. which were h^qncntl}' united into u broad beltj 

I an ornament or a girdle. Wavipmn, an Algonquin word, 

jinally notbhig more than "wbile" and served to de«- 

oiily inferior shells, which were white, and, according to 

acwmntfl of cohmial chroniclers, were held eqnal to silver, 

! ihmpeae, or *' Miif k" — wbencft tmmj'itmpengc — were compared, 

S»man was in Algonquin the name of shell'money gau- 

! ' " '• in Virginia, forwliieh now tcampum is used. 

.1 mnd^ from the sliella of Pynda cant'cuiaia, 

pear-«tiap<'d uniralve, wmetimcs called " pcriwinklt" 

part used vaa thp eoiumfHa or pillai', tho whorls being 

tiff; thcr were not eatable, like Iho English periwinkle, 

d cousidiTHble sizt'. Tlie more costly beadB came from 

flbellfl of tbo Quahaug or Cohog, a wulk, known fu the 

id Southeru iatates aa the Rotuid Clam, and belonging to 

\Ve»u» mtrtmttrin, wl:ic!i is ko called on accoimt of tb«ir 

1 cnxrcncy. Tho inner anrfaoe of tli6se shells ii b«au- 



tifuUy polished, the centre of the valves pure white, and parfc 
the outside mantle of a rich violet. This border the Nur 
Indiuna made inlo the liluo shell-money, which ilicy call Sui 
liOf-.Jc, lij' bivakiug it into small piccLS and nibbing them 
stones till tliey veiu cylindrical and could badriliL-d lt:ngtbwi 
It seems almost incredible that the Indians shonld have 
this, and done it m ven* neatly, withotit metallic tools, uid 
Roger 'W'illiamg says, expraisly : " hofore t-ror llioy hiut nvlc-bladtf 
from Europe tlicy mado ehiftto bore this, their shcU-monoy, viih 
stones." {Key to the Indian Languages, p. 150.) Of the tisc d 
jterMTf) n writer oii the " N<w Netherlands in 1079," says, quutin| 
from a journal of that year : " \Vc sat down before the fire. Tbtre 
hod been thrown npou it, to be roasted, a pnilfnl of Qovsnu 
oysters, whieh are the beat in the conniry. They are larj^ and 
full, some of them uot less tlmn a foot long. We had for bappa 
a haunch of venison, which he had Imnght of the Indians for 
three guiUlei's and a half of £<retf(Tn^, that is. fifteen stuivers of 
Dutch money, and which weighed thirty pounds," (I'utnntiCi 
feffatinfi, April, 1858.) 

Like the precious metal, these shells served at the same time for 
ornaments and for mone)*, and being strung were worn in brace- 
lets and nt-eklacfs. The Indians have always been exceedingly 
fond of personal ornaments, and the great chief who now-a-days 
deligbtd the crowds in Washington by stalking down the aveatM 
in all his bravery and finery, had his prototype in the warrior de- 
Bcril)ed thna a hundred years ago : " One of them was a Delawara 
chirr; he wore the badges of his office, the temnpum belt, tbrM 
half-moons, and a silver plate on his breast: bandn of silver on 
both arms, and his cai-s cut round and ornamented with silver; 
the hair on the top of his head was done up with stiver wire." 
{T/ie Johnson Boy^ Account of their Escape in 1788.) Whenmadft 
np into belts or bands, four inches wide and threo to five fi*t long, 
they were exchanged in ratification of treaties, and given and 
recx^ived as title-deeds. Tho t«'o colors wore at times wrought 
together in patterns, and by a methodical arrangement made to 
ud the memory. As the female revolutionists of Paris registered, 

:cording to Dickens's accouut^ tht; doomed aristocrats in th 
knitting, so the Indians wove the story of the past and the promi 
of tb« future into wampum belts. Father lUrquetto u-lls 



loreoTcr^ that words nddrcsscd to the Indinns, when not nccom- 

ied by u watnpnni Iwlt, were conmdered not important, and 

t the iui.'>stouai'y, wiio Gr^t aunouucotl i\u: g0fi|iel in b village, 

ways spoko by ihe "belt of the prayer." which he licUl in liie 

ixdi, and which remained to wltni-iis hit! uui-ds when the snund 

died away. A similar use la nude on U\'i Pacitic Coast of 

:Oth«r ruiety of shelb, called Haiquti (Dentalitini), which the 

,tivo8 DSC matuly for omaniciita, but. in certnin ]oc:t1ities also 

ilojafW the mnuiicr of ximnpum. "The men did not think 

]x Kahi-«quipmeut« complete, unless they had a jewel othaiqua, 

wampnm,dauj[lingat the nofte." (W. Irving's Astoria, il, p. 87.) 

Another Indian torni still prominout in the organisation of 

t political bodies in America is the name of the presiding 

^cer of the before- mentioned fraction of tlie Dcmocrntio party, 

their SaeJKin, This term seems to have bocn ppculiar to North- 

ludiaoB, since Captain John Smith calls the head of the Yir- 

nia Indians King, aud then continnes: " Uis (Powhatan's) 

inferior Vingi, whom they call Wcrowiinoes, are tycd to rule by 

iXAxa ; the commander they call CaueorouJie, wliioh ts captain" 

\JTiM ej Va^ I. p. 143), while Beverley soys, '* a. cockaroiue is one 

thu haa ibo honor to be of the king or queen's cooncil, with rela- 

lo ihe alTaiiB of gnvcriiment" (llifl. of the Villi";/ of V(\„ 

L 117.) The nonl, which has a suspicious English Bouud about 

became, perhaps on that acoonnt, a favorite in the South, and 

'ai long nscd to designate a pcrarm of consequence among t!ie 

mtn, alihongh alrciidy the Swedish-Indian Dictionary of 

1696 oiilla tlie chief Sacehrnnan. This term Sachem and the 

i^qnally fjtmiliur Sntfamore, often cnnsidcred distinct term^ aro in 

reality one and the same ; so far from meaning two different 

ihingF, they ar* simply viiriations of the original Sak-tuno, the 

iBUie for a chief in all the New England dialects. Captain John 

ith explained the meaning thtis : " For tlwir govemmBnt: every 

■ham ifl not a king, hnt their great Sarhems have (iivers Snrhema 

under their protection, paying th-m tribute, and dare make no 

vanea without bis knowledge, but every Sachem cares for the 

H^Attre^ orptuns, the aged, and maimed." (//is/, of Va., II. p. 23S.) 

^^^Rnodem poet, for his part, depcribos his aiipearance in Iheee 

words : 




" He looks Uk« a Satfi^m, In rwl Uftaket wrapi, 

MTlio 'inid buiuu council of ihc sad-garbed wliii«i, 
Erect nnd Hlcrn, in liu uwn uicaiorv ivrii[M, 
Willi dislntit cjo broiKls oTcr oilier 8igliis." 

(J. R. Lowell, Jn Jnttutn Stimnter f^tfrie.) 

The rule uf the Soolicin has long »iiCe passed awaj ; u .^af^at-] 
rfflwi, HHch M the oWer writtre spoke of, when desciibiug the ter 
toiHiil extent of a Sachem's powor. cannot be said to fxiat in onr' 
dnj, yet the woni Htill ntirvives sn<l is in constant \x». Thii il 
eren more etrikhigly the case witli the Indian's wife, bis sftids) 
a irord urigiiiatliig in Die Algutiquiu language, and iippeariQg in 
the Kcv England diaU-cts as itquah or esqvah, whilu in Ojibvrij 
itia more simply fjvah or eqnnfi, u form which has led to a com* 
L BWTBOii with the old Knglish even (qnren), a woman. Hor chiU 
'Ast Blr&Dgely disguised tmder the name of papponitf, which eT-m » 
groat a Bchular us Mr. Schoolcraft fancied to be of Indian origiui 
becaiiBO papain rcsonilicd a root meiuiing '■ to limgh.** Now, u 
Indian chiWivn alone ever langh, such an exhibition of glee and 
mirth being regarded as nntli^nifieil by older people, the design*- 
lion appeared to be very appniprifttc. As such il. wa* naed bv W. 
Irving: ■' Marching fearlessly forward, our valiant hero*g carried 
the village of Commniiijmw by atorm, notwithstanding that it ursi 
rigorously defended by Hime half a score of sqnawa and pa^ 
pooees" {Ntsl. 0/ Mfie york,p. 331); and J. G.C. Brainard nap 
of one -. 

" Here his TomiR sqanw tier cradling tiv^ would eJinoac, 
Siiu^iug her cliaat to liUHb lici' ivean p^ipjKOM." 

More careful researches have, however, led to the disco^'ory 
there is no ouch word in any Algoncjitiu dialect, and that pappoc 
is uothing more- than an imperfect effort to pronounce the Englii 
word, babicAt as Yankee arose from Eugli^ih. It has. thorofore^ I 
take it£ place by the side of many guch wordd, which owe the 
Indian origin to the imagination of the whites and not to 
language of the natives. Such is also tho word Pate-face, a 
favorite witii Cooper and many po«ti, which probably never 
seriously naed by nn Indian in his own tongue, but makes qnitea' 
pretty appearance in such Unw as those : 



" TlM bnrc Tcountteb'i words iu« cwhI : 
One league for U:iTor. au-iTc and blocHi, 
Mas( all niir Uibe» iiiiiie; 
Tlirn sliiOt the paU-fate &ink to-ni'^ht.'' 

{TecumMK, by Colton, XVUI.) 

The word Manitou, which is gcucrally held to mean God, has 
oen (lie ornse of much aagry dbcnssiiiu. Thi^ amne from the 
let that tlio early mis^ooarie^ from the zealoue Fuviian of the 
iTorlh lo the pious iiUtUt^ruii in l^^'luwaru and Virgiiik, used 
be w«»nl an representing the one grcut God of Chri«liaiiitv. The 
rnth is, however, that Maniha is a word employed to signify 
bo same thing by A.n Tndiansfrom tlieOnlf of Mexico to the Arctic 
Egioua^ and this i^ simply Epirit. Now, the Indians have good 
md bad Bpirils. Hence, il was itl il greiit risk thuL ihc New 
£ii£liuid apostle, us well aa the uokuown author of the " Vocobn* 
iaritiin Barharo-Virgineorani,'" print'jd in Slockbolm in 1695, 
wnld dure «iy : .Uaueth: '•God." For, the Indians have a J/<jfW- 
Um SoTcvcrj cave, vati:rfa1i, orotbcrcomnmnding object in natnrc, 
tad generally make ufTenngs to Ihcm at sucli places. Their bad 
Manrtou differs in no way from our Devil. Honco, Judge Durfee 
■isperfeelly right, when ho wrote: 

^^ " Pmj'iti]; Kir goiMl, wc u> Cswluntowit ttov, 

^K^ Aud ^liuniitn;; evil, wc to Cti(;pian cty ; 

^^^K To oihrr M-vxiiioos yxc olTcrin^rs owe, 

^^^B Dwell Uicv tn motmlain, flood, nr open nicy." 

^^B ( What Gheer. Cont. II. A) 

fmnen Father Marr|tH.'ite came to the Indians who directed his 

^Kps toward the MiBsissippi, "they answered," he writes, *' that 

^vj were Uinoiii, aud in token of peace they presented their 

I ]^ to smoke. These pipes for fmoking are nill'Hl in the 

' ••Wry the CalwmU.-' It is not improbable that we owe to 

t^ue words of tbe pious aud energetic mtssionnry the addition 

t4cmr laogoagtt of this wonl. And yet it is by no means nn 

Udian word, as is frequently boIicTcd and quite aa frequently 

^tved. Thoir own word is simply a term meaning pipe. 

^^vmttt on the other band, is nothing more than the u!d form 

lithe French word " Ch»lumea.ti," IJom the Latin ''Calamns," 

Ud was the name given to a pipe by early French settli>rs, the 

wl'raistsof Xew France. It is, ihortfon^ a much more genuine 



Anericanisu, tliart most of the Indiau words which wb 
Dimply obtainetl from the Indians in common witb at] oth«] 
UJitioD*. The term canoe^ on the other hand, has probiiWy ■' 
more Ic-gilimnte Indian pedigree. Althongh it has nacbed oj 
oiilv tlii-ough the wime French agency in the diniinutivo form At 
canot, ihern c»u bo little doubt that it is the Carib word atiwhu 
at least the natlv^fs uf San Salvadoraresaid to bavecalird &mi 
honta thus, when Columhus first landed there. The Indiaa'i" 
cnflod in tlie Nnithwcst, it is well known, is made of the Paper oi 
Cano« Birch (Bctnia papyracta), found in Maine and the whole 
Nortli, bnt not in the South. Its thick, glossy, and pliant bait 
18 nied by the Indians for the mannfactrireof baskets, boxo*, and 
trinkeUof all kinds, wliicli they ornament with b'Cada and col- 
ored straws. It is this bark also which served their auccsture, as it 
serves them now, in some districts, for the much more important 
strnoturc of canoes, for, takf?n whole from tlir tree, it caa be fpread 
open, fashioned into a gracofnl shape and lined with wooden 
ribs. They are still need wherever the Indians have an abiding 
place, find hunters are apt to speak of them briefly as direim. 
The short oar with a broad blade by which the exceedingly frail 
Aod nicely- balanced canoe is propelled, retjnires no mean skill and 
clow attention; hence t)ie slang phrase of paddling one's oien 
eanet means to be skillful and energetic enongh to sncce«d 
unaided, as the song uiys : 

*' Voyager upon Ilfo'a sea, 
To younelf bs true ; 
And wUere'cr your loi muy lie, 
Piddle yffar «ffn eaitot." 

{Ilatpa'* Mag., May. 1854.) 

Among the articles of personal apparel which distingnish tb» 
Indian there are two, which hare been and still arc so t^te^Tely 
used by the whites also, that their names have become household 
words and parts of Qur langnage. These are the Momtssin and 
the Tomahaich. The former, in the Massachnaetts dialect writ 
ten " Mocasson," in Die Kenistonu dialec4 and some oihei 
olfshootB of the Algonqnin " Mocktsiu,'* is a shoe mude of sof 
leather vithont a slifT sole, frequently ornamented mope or 
riobly. These shots hara been largely adopted by Western himtet 



ind ull men who liavc buril work to do in winter. Thus wc oro 

told tliat " the loggers ore obligad to take good care of their feet; 

ime of them on«a wears tltive or four jmir of Bocks, with a pnir 

of m(icn»iitvt over tbeni^tlio TnocaMins, bectmse tbey give the 

foot more frw'dom imd tiins wnder them less linhlc to freeze, are 

fenerally jiref.-rped ti> cnarse leather Ixiots.'* (MinnoBotn Pineries, 

?utnnm'f Mumsine, Joly, 1857.) They nit-, hoircvor, no pro- 

■1 against cold or wi't ; hence S. Kcrcheval l«lis us that "in 

: tliey Were sttirted with deyr'a hair or dry leaves to keep lh« 

ftet warm, hnt in urct weather it was nsually said, that they were 

■^Hfc decent way of going barefooted, owing to the natnral 

|Hm^ natnrc of the leather of which they wore made." [Iliiit. 

if ih» Vaileff of VirffiniOf p. HI.) A resemhianoe, more fanoied 

tUaa re&l. lias given to a poisouons ennkc (ToxicophiB pisci- 

Tonis), which is brown with hhick bars faintly niRrkeU, like the 

black marks of wear and tear on the hnff li;nther, the name of 

J/ocanjiin Snnte, white in the Sontb a innii made dnink by bad 

liqaor is add Ui Iiave been "bitten by the snake,'' or simply to be 

^^he (omahatvk had in like manner become the familiar weapon 
of the frontiersman, who handled it with greater skill even than 
tlK Indian. In most Algonquin latij^inges the word appears M 
iakm^tgan, consisting of otemflAa, " to beav"'aiid*i7(Ti(,atermu8ed 
Ib Uir constrncCion of all verbal noniig, so that it literally means 
"a beating- thing." The name was ^-iven by the natives to every 
form of heavy war-clul> in ns« among them, though the most 
common form was that of a comparatively light axe withahollow 
hatidle, fto that itcouIdser^'ea»apipe also. Totlie upper part the 
BCalp of the defeated enemy was frequently attached. A favorite 
game of the early settlers is thus described by Kcrcheval: "The 
tonuAawX^, with iLB haudic of a certain length, will make a given 
nomber of tnmi at a given distance ; at five steps it will strike 
■edge, handli? downwards: at wveii and ahalf itwillstrika 

lie edge, handle npwnrdu, etc n little exjierience teaches the 

BTc and the hand, and the sport of throwing f&» hatchei is great* 
MM. of th« VaUpy of Va., p. '24.1.) As the Indians performed 
Hltthi oeremonies with the tomahawk, burying it whi>n iheymada 
peac«^ and digging it np again npon the breaking ont of a wor, tha 
^etutoms ftooQ b9cam« familiar to the aarlr uttlera, and the 



phriiMBtbtirifiuff lh« Iiafcliet, mid digging up Iht hatrAel, wn 
uwii ill convt'i-8Hti«in pein'iiiJIy for tliu reopening op unii 
amiriKitig of difticulties of every kind. Tims W. Imng 
"Tlie}* smokt.-cl the pipe of pence toj^ctber. and thecolonel 
till- tTiMlit. of liiivitiK* I'v hid iliplomacy, p^reuiulitl ilie 
burif tk« /uUcJiif/." ( W'lt-tiiCHfffnn, 1. p. 3fil.)aiul tlifljack 
giTOi liiif udvioe in the homely woitis: " now, shcl itp 
botlier ittlkiiig uboiit. 'lipping np iAe hafthH.** {Life on (k* P 
p, 314.) The Mtniiige proerds of flfafpiitf/ sci-ma to hsn 

liiir to the Indiiinn of this Continc-ut; at letist it hus 
liMii found among otliLU' tribes ; tlio Itfd msii pR-pured Uin: 
bil fate liy ]>titltng on liis wav-paint, and Bllo\rin<; liia liairt* 
Jn u, long: tuft' on top of his lie»(l. uiiich ho f^Ui'd his *ct- 
Tlio victor would so'ito itivith lii^ left hand and with a sliarfi 
the nealpiiui'hii/f, hy a Btngl(< turn of the hand sever theskin m 
cirrlp on tlie rrowii of the hciul ; then with n powcrfnl jerk I'l^ 
oil' hair uml t^kiu, utiid transfer It to his bt^-lt or tomahawk. lt>< 
easlom u etill provuknt umong several Western tribes, iinil ibt 
term of ^mSpivf) so ftiniiliiir to Americiiiis, that it ie not i' ' 
ly used fur " tijtiil dvEWit' or '•iittoranniltihdivn inde'.' ^ 
fttvorite lorm for the acttuil oiiei-ation among Weatem haul" r .ii^ 
frontiersmen wm, however, iho (p-aphic phrase Uftiiuf hair, anii miu 
'ftiweril Army Uc'poit cfinld still rootnin tiiewiirds: *•! faw»t"ti<* 
tiat tlio Arnipalioes wore not after fitoaling cattle bntafter '.\' 
hairj and told (he corporal bo. hut he would not believe i^' 
(Cvnrfretsional lieport, Angiibt 17, 18i>8.) Before totting on' o* 
what they eall the K'ar-pa/Jt—h word that lias led to th^ nsc d 
the plimse, A* «s out on tUe icar-jMtfh, for a man who is about M 
make a dcHheratA attnck on an adversary or a measure — aeoatuO' 
Jire is lit in ihe centre of the village, around which gatlitr 'li^ 
brams of the tribe, iis their fighting men are iiow-a-dnvfi oflJcii^l? 
^fleicribed in the military j-eport« from the WeBtem Plains. Tb 
term ilit*lf i«, however, of t'reneh origin, and wiw first nsrdhytbl 
«jlniirahle migsloiiarie? of Kriiiic*, as when Father Hennepin sajrs: 
"One of thb braves accompanied me down to the river holdiiu; 
the precious vessel elate tohisheart." At this eonncil-firo they ai% 
often for honra, smoking in silence their Kinni-Kinnick or A7//i- 
JCinTiici:, a» it sounds in some dialects, a term originating vith the 
Pahcotahi or Sioux, and designating a mixture of dried 4um&cl«4' 

IHI-. iNl;lA\. ;i7 

tiii'Ji'i'o ^''^'^- '^'"^l I"'''-' ^^"i'liiW Ijiirk, ivliirli ;iiv t)iit'l_v ciiMpp'-'i.l and 
giiitfilj aiitl iIk-ii inixtd with u CvM'iaiii pnipuriiou ul" gvimine to- 
X>sicco. The true siiiokfi" fmm Ihu Ea^t would lu-obably iippivciute 
'ftlie mixture as little as ilic Englishman reliiiiibs thi: tea of the 
Continent, im]H'OYei.l (1) by spicL'd or a, few siiooiil'uls of mm, but 
"Western ti-iij.'pi.Ts unil hnnters soon k'aru to prefer it to genuine to- 
"bacca When the lait^T is mixed with thu burk of thy cornt-l-tree 
it is known as Esqitipouiffolc. Then a I'ow-fow is hflJ, ii corrup- 
t-ion oi poicaii, which in tlie Now EngUmd dialocls mciint a 
prophet, ronjiu-or, or nu-diciiic-inau, callud in Ojiiiway uutheuo or 
jon^akecd. The term was adopted by tlic early settlers for any 
e^eat asst-mbly called together by Indians to colibrate feasts, per- 
form dances, or hold conncils. Sj. Korthevaleays: "Towai-dstho 
**tter part of February we commonly had a fine spell of open, 
"^ttrm Weather, during which the snow melted away. This was 
Uenoniiuated the pow-woiciiif/ days, from the supposition that the 
■Vidians were then holding thoir war-councils for planning tlioir 
•pring-campaigns into tlie settlements. 8ad exiieritnce taught us 
•■nat in thie Enpiwsition we were not often mistaken." {Iliitf. of 
*»« VaUetf of Vn., p. 100.) The term set'ms to liave been sugges- 
tive enough to be fully adopted, and is still very gt-neraliy used to 
dtjignate any public meeting, perhaps with a sly suggestion, that 
there waa more zeal than seuse exhibited there. " Tammany lield 
Miother pow-wow on tiio snbject, bnt the meeting broke up in a 
IDW," euid the Xew York llerald on Vebruary H, ISO r. The u.-ual 
freedom is taken with the noun and it is changed into a verb, so 
thit Dr Kane, a cnrefnl writer, could correctly :*ay of the proph- 
et of the Esquimaux: "He pretcribcs nv poic-ii:ows in sickness or 
OTer wonnds, directs the policy of the little elate, and is really the 
power behind the throne." {Arciit: iCjephratwng, 11. p. UK.) 

The family of the Indiau is s<jmewhat oddly called a h}d;i<j, from 
the Freneli word loge, for hnt, whenever not the braves only, but 
vomen and children are all included. "It was not pleasant to 
Irarn," says Governor X. S. Langlbrd, '• that tweuty-five lothjcs of 
ladians had gone up the valley a few days U-fore our arrival, and 
to be told by a trapper that he hud been robbed by them, and, in 
oommou parlance, jfp/ on /(Wj by having his horse and provisions 
itolen." {Hm Woneiers of Ihe Yelloiv^tone, ISil.) 
What raoBt diatinguiehes the Indian in his external appearance. 



is tile Tottm he wears oil liis breast— a device v€ some bdIhuI,! 
wolf, a heron, or a tiiitlo, which is drawn in paint, or engnnnl 
the skin of his body. It serves to diatingniisb from geoentaoal 
generation the particniar class or subdividon of his trib<^ to abid 
he belongs, aud ortcii fiiiTiislira the name of the whole. 
word IB of Algouquia orig'ia, and Bometimes derived from 
a term tignirritig townmarh, but uufoituualeljr, tbor« la uu •. 
word aa dodaim to take it from. Liongrellow gpeaka of it i»\ 
quciittvj tliii^: 

" And Uicy piiinted on the gravc-po*ta, 
Of the Rraves yei uoforftouen, 
Ench his oviu Hucemml loCriA, 
Ew c li lb« vj-uiIk)! uf bis liumwhold, 
FiguroB of the bear and rciadccr, 
Of the tortle, cmnc, and beaver." (iTEaiMlAo.) 

This commoQ cnitom of all the ludiaa tribes of the ooDti 
hitherto known, seems not to have reached nortiiward 
n certain line, for W. n. Dall tells us that the " Totemie s 
is not found among the Innuit.'' (Alaska and its Ream, 
p. 3i3.) 

Besides these words, derived more or leas directly fi'om Indiu 
t«rnts and Indian cuslonig. Amvrieiiu Kuglish has borrowed from 
thorn a iinmherof iinmeR in Natural Itistory and in the kilclt«k 
It is quite characteristic of this that the first mention ever made 
of Americanisms slinnld bt- contained in the words: "Sed cts'' 
Amcricania nonnnlla nuitimniiir nt tnawet eanoa" (Alex. GiUt 
cited by J. R. Lowell.) Maize is, however, rather of West Itidtan 
origiD, belonging^ to the Cnrib langnage, and in Uayti called 
makie or ntaiiif, of which the Bpauiards at tlie time of the tint 
discovery made nwij, and through thu French mni*, we hart 
obtained our term. The first origin of the ^rain is wrapt in ■• 
mnch mystery as that of most cereals^ like all prodacta of forei; 
ttaknown countrie?, it appeared under the general nameof /flrfii 
Com in Spain, and Turkrtj Corn in Italy, juet as tlift bird of thi 
continent appears aa enq d'lHd* in French, and as a turkey 
English. In America it is uniTersally known ah corn, since 
country calls the staple coroal by this generic name, so that vhi 
(or all small grains) in Kagland, rje in Germany, and oaU 
Sweden appear as com in the idioms of these countries. 


ilify aod great niUritive powvr attracted early much 
, Hud from the first settlements to oiir day, it has bc«n 
ile food of mttU and biMiat. Beverley already alladea to 
the many Tarielieii foiind in this (wiintry. *' Flint Corn," 
*^ looks smoocli aud as I'till as Ibc early ripe oom, tlie 
fi a larger grnin and looia sbrirelled, vritb a dont on tho 
the grain, M if it bud never come to perfvclion ; this they 
iorti. This is c«te«mc<l by the planters as the best tor 
" (Hisi. of Virginia, p. 127.) 

la not ea(«a raw, though tliorc seems to bo literally no 
nrbicb the mt is Dot fit for food wheu miitably prepared. 
^j as tlm ffrceu ear is called as long ad it is son. aud 
quit* a delicacy to somo palates, but generally its con- 
is considered too great a waste, and time id given it to 
m to fall silo, and harden. The imjierfeotly-formcd 
ic Contrary, is celled a nvbbin, a t«rm said iu l>e of Ia- 
in, tlioiij,'h the proEumptiuu is not improbable that it is 
more than tbe English word nothing, which tbo negrroea 
tortnly pronounce wtjfin, and iiuhbin. The modes of 
the green and the ripe car for tlie table are almost 
varied, from the simple aahcaJce of the Indian, to the 
pudding of tlie great cily. Fnrnishinj, at all time^, 
ime dish, it is perhaps moat appreciated in the simple 
TWMijuf«irr, as tho latter are mlled, when, istill grc«n» 
nite soft and pulpy, wilh ja»t enough consistency 10 be 
ndim fashion, before a fire or in tbe hot ashes. ** Indeed, 
I very good aud pleasing food," says Bercrlcy, nnJvoly 
thsVallfiy of Va., p^ 117), and P. Cartright, more plaint- 
The Met hodiet preacher of those days (Ix'fure 1 800), ofu^a 
iirty cabiiii, on earthen floors, before the fire, ate roasting- 
bread, drank buttermiUt lor coffee, or sage tea for ira|>e- 
itooki with a hearty zest, deer meat, or bear meat, or vrild 
for breakfast, dinner, and enpper — if ho could get it." 
vfraphy, p. 343.) When ripe, tho grains bocomo too hard 
ig, and have to be ground into com mtaU which the 
Df the Sooth invariably, and very jndicimisly, prefer to 
Dnr. This meal ia made up in various wnyj. tlie sim- 
fwhich was learn tHl from the Indiana. "Tempcrin* this 
inya valiant John Smith, " with water, they make it either 



in cakea, covering tbem with asb«s till they are baked, udl 
baching tliem in fair water, when- tlt«v dne pReeatl; wUhl 
own bcbt ; or else bo;ls theiii in water, eating Ui« broth vitti 
bTMid, which they c^i PonapP { VirgimOy U p- WJ.) Thtl 
ter word was the Urm apobn in ttitf Powhatan dialect, and 
comt'8 the niodt'rn /wfl«, a. name iririiriably girt-n in thf Somkl 
a Diaizc-cake. Uence even F. Olmeted coald gtill vrite, "1 
all cliiotArcd aronnd the fire, the landlady alone pasainc 
our w-ini-circle, as phc ])n'|)an.-d the poa* and finr and 
OOP mi-al." (Texat^ p. 319.) The ncfpY) of fonnef dal 
paring hii simple but savoi-y meal in hia cabin, wonid 
rough ty-kncadud cake down upon \u& hoe. and thas 
libre Uie fire; the resntt \\o.» u hve-cake, uiiBigbtly to tlie 
palafable enougb. Qnaint old Barlow refers tu it when 
**Some talk of hoe-ciihi\ fair Virginia's pride." [IJ^y, 
dingt 3^-) li ^'^^ N'tiw Ktiglniid Slates anotiier, nut lea 
iiTo method was pursued; here the dough aos spread nput 

m of a barrel-top and tbtu baked before the lire; at 
the irreiiistible pnntpkin wag mixed with it, and then iti 
as '• Rich Johunij-cakf, hi.-* month lias often tryed." (J. 
From thence the precious digli spread westward with the 
Yankee, and already, in 1840, the Hon. Mr. Duncan 
the floor of CVugreM, spenk of life in Ohio as merry < 
when "The frolic consisted in dancii^g, playing, and singing 1 
and mnrder songs; fsAwxg Johnnif-atke and pumpkin piej^ 
drinking new whiskey and brown sugar out of a gourd.'* 

In olden tiines the JoftHRy-eake eeenia to have appeared 
sioually in an odd diBguift>, if we recugnisc him in the follovia 
lines: . >' 

" Tlien times vscn good ; nterchanls cared not a nub 
Fur oiher fore than Jonah'n and mash." 

{Sftu Bitgitand Oritiw. Bcnjnmln ThMnsoa. IffiS.) 

But while Aor>c»jt^ is dear to the South, ttm\ jofitinif-iaJee at bone 
alike in the Iwiai and Weat^ the Intsti/ ptuiiliH^ — Indian meal su^ 
red in boiling water into a iliick batter, and caion with milk and 
sugar, or ntolasees — ii n faTohle dieh all over the Uiii^m. JmI 
Barlow's popular poem on the subject describes the primitin 
mod» of |»repnring it thus: 


" SliB learnt wliU Btmies to crack Uio irell dried m\ae, 
Tliro ' llie rough sieve to slinkc the goldeu eliowrr. 
In iMilliui; waller slir tLc- ycltiiw Qour; 
The yollmr flour, Ijeilrpw'il nml siirr'd vtith lia»lc, 
6w«ll6 in tlic flontl. iin<] lUipkcus (o a paste. 
Then paO^ snd wallops, rises lo the brim, 
Drioks Ui« dry kiiutu, ihu uo Ih« surrAue swlui; 
Tbo knobs nt but the busy Iodic bn:at;^ 
And tJi« wholit mata Its trac coaslalenco lakes." 

I^ub was a fiiTorit« of the Tudtiuiit, niid in fact their comraoti 
diiring tlie greater part of llie your. Thoy culled it, to the 

'of the early wlUfrs, tvpnirn, but ibis wm probably merely a 
>JTiiptioo of the Tjcnajw or Delaware name asapahn and ie, no 
^■bt, tlic same as the samp mentioned by Boger "Williams, as "» 
ind of mr-alc jiottogp iin]mrcbcd; from Ibii thf English call 
ivirgajnp, whirh is Indian corn, beaten mid hailed iiiul oaten 
b| or cold, with luilkc orbutU^r, which iire mercies beyond tbo 
Uhn plainc wnttr. and which is a diah vxcoedingly "wholesome 
>r the tiigUsh iKxlies." {A>y to (fie fnd. Lnug., \\ 13.) Both 
fords are evidently derive<l I'rom the Algonquin unphnc, moaning 
soft grael, or anything thinned," bnt oariy sc-ttlcnt fancied it a 
)utch word, and hence honest J. Barlow conid write indig* 


^ " On Hudson's lianV, whila men of Rdglc iipAwn, 

^P Insnil and eat th«e hj llie nnm« ntntppaun." 

^ {llindif I'Mddinff,) 

Kor Was he le$« patient with hU Soatboni n«ighbors, of whom 
fc«q)eal(6 with equal scorn: 

^m " Ken iu tU>' nuUre regions, how I I>lusb 

" Tu h«ir the Pcnnsylrimians call ibcc tnutfi ;" 

Bd fct, if he had lived long enough, he would have heard the 
tn» of laitth given to the pleasant and extremely nutritious dish 
lllorer the S^nth. It was almost nniversally known to thfi In- 
IImu, as »eem« to be nolnrol from iU grfnt pimplieity ; it is proba- 
dy the ** gaifotaift/, that is to say, liidiim meal boiled in water, and 
■soned with grease," of Fatbcr Marquette. Iu some parts of 
be Wc^t, another mnsh ia freqaently used, but as it is made of 
ft after the manner of a Ua^ty Pudding, it is called Jitfi Afuth. 
Bwidw the more aristooratlc baiUr-caJln, foand to perfection in 

Lh« ftouUi, tiivn it anoUicr preparatiwi of oora ctlWIw: 

'inny, an Indiun dish, so cftllecl from an litdtui »nrd ■ :: 

l(<ij<<T Willittinnin hia Kr-y rt/iHmi«M,ma«iing**podi'^ 

_ii(l 111 l.)ii> Pitwliolau dialect uataiahominif, white B. Be^<- 

tl rnrk/ikomiutf. ( //w/. 0/ PVfc, p. l.V>.) To prepare thit di? 

U likAwiM) «ntfin alt ovor the UaioD. bat eepeclalW sppn-n.' - 

Hfinih f'lirolina, tli« com ia either coaraely grDond or hoUal,! 

IkuM with w»ter. H. Kerchwal ulrea*!? calls " ioy o«i i 

Ihr ttftutlord (liah of all t-arly wttlciV (p. 46), and to thU daj^l 

«tid crrn, in tbiit shape, are relished aliku by high aoii 

*' Tlmt or Jakt.-/' «>iyii J>>ii the Cracker, in an occoaul of 

"'11 novor iiiako a tnuii, L'ap'u; ho don't take kindly tvAffl 

homttitf, riu how, but kvtche:i Ihem uo 'couut birds and 

Yoi, wr, In- d'HJ ;" whil« T. 0. Richai-d«, ia his " Rice 1 

ih* Notttli," l«Uii ua Uial " to be bidden to a planters boffj 

htiini»y, U lo be pn!»eutcd with tlic full, free hoepiraJitf 

buii«--" I''rnni HTno funoied reaemblance to a kernel tbasi 

ft »nA|i|'iii((-)K«tlu, or Klaiur, of i'uniisylvaiiia, is called tb« ' 

inplitatir:" (H. S. llaldemuu.) A more dii«ct and mon < 

•onnociion nxlita bolwocn Die name of the cereal and that of i 

rit«T Mliic'li hun Iweoiiu- 10 famous diiring the late Civil Wiir,i 

(/hirtf'tfiwiinf/, which wna bo called from flowing ihrongh 

Airtllf biwlaiidi thul bore King Powhatan's ample harrea 

(him bi-i-aiii'! I hi! great granary of his dominions. The nl 

lUalf, i'/iuaiAiiJfiinrnfi, in the original, infunt "land of ni 

gnitit." A apeoitti vamty of corn, with dark, email f;rains,Hi 

lo fnniiih a Yankee dainty, very popular in the Kew Kngl 

HiskU-t, und hardly known flRCwhere. The grnina are placed ool 

heoUtd iihnvRltirhvId in a wire gaiiBCovcr a brisk fire, till they 

up<in, iwi'lliug to gn-at nizc, and in the act of bursting, exf 

tilt inowy white inaide, thus presenting a pleasing appe&rance in 

barniony with their attractive odor. This id called Pop Coru, 

and ealen with aalt or sngnr. The same tendency to pop is jw* 

iMMd by ft variety of cake mode of Indian corn, bake<1 verr hardi 

and oaUed, from itc dispoeition to jamp about in the act of baking 

and, ua it were, to dodge, Cvrndodffer. "Corndodgvr and fried 

bacon," layi F. L. Olmsted in hi« pleasant book on Texas, " smb 

to be the utiiverBol food of the people," and a Western tourist 

BOBurej Di Uiat "C^rrwiod^j b*ked in t^e ubea, salt pork 

nrs tXDiAs^. 


end of a slick, and a little muddy too, must, on Uic prairie, 
for the hungry stomacU." Coni'juice ia the poeticsl name 
cb M't^atcTD men tire foiul of giTing to irhiskey, because it is 
aenily mado nf corn, and tbas jastiite^ the quaint quotation 
. B. BarUett:— 

. " Old MontiuKAlieiK whiskey, 

^L Wbiskey nuidoof Imliui ct>m Juice." 

^ {Pturanhta.) 

!^<ir muflt wti fvrgvl to do honor to another combination of 
nivitl) kindred dainties, which we owe to the Judtans, their 
Vatetooia/ilt in the Xarraganaott dialect. In its Anglicised ibrm 
K^pears as suecotank or auckala»k, and coneists of gT«eu corn 
111 beans boiled logether, to which experts add. after the example 
|tbe ludianii, a sinuil allowance of ri'nisun. The palatable dUfa 
licM spfrcialJy dear in !New Bngland, and hence appeared iu duo 
n at an Indi:in l>au(|iiet held iu 18^G, in Providence, in 
iner of the two hundrtdth RnniT.-rsory of the scttK^mt'nt of 
MkIo Island. ''^Vn Indiuu mat being gprend out, a large wooden 
tttcr well filled with boiled bafis graced the centre supported 
onQ side by a wooden dish of parched corn, and on the other by 
imilar one ol succttiash" (Stone's Life of Jlotcland, p. 263, B.) 
ic word nootitc with its ludicrous re^emblanoe to English, hot 
Btcd in Wood's J\>w England Proitpeet, 1G34, as a true Indian 
nl, repre&cnUnl a jiowder made of Indian mm pai-ched in the 
lef, and «tuBcd into a long leathern bag :o hone od prorender 

long juiiniey^. Although the preparation is of courao no 
Iger uted, the word may still be occasionally heard in the Kev 
gland Stales. 3Ii.xed with sugar the si^me powd«r appears 
jfer the name of Rokag« or Yaktaga, . t 

Text to Bucootoah 4hc most im]K)rtant article of food vith the 
LioD was probably Pemmican^ which has eror since remained 

main reliance of all explorers, huaters, and Toyngers. The 
W consists of the two Kcnisteno words pemis, which means 

and fgan, the gcneriU substantive infiection, so that the whole 
iply signifies " Cit-Bubstauce." It conaiets mainly of buQalo 
it — though other meat is sometimes used in the same mann«r 
,rJDd in flakes and then pounded between two stones. The 
rder is next put iuto bags made of tli« hide of the slain ani- 
ith tito luur outftid0« into i!hiQh ipclced (at is pourod till it 



isqnifc ritll. Then, the wliole lieing'pmscd dovn, t}ie top of I 
Img is closely Bewrd uji, an<1 Uius tlic Talnable irrorFntkri 
easilv carnwl uad loug preserved. Finr poiiiids of meat mdl 
ponnds of fat malte a bag vf pemmican, and vill last a 
trareller BtTcra] monthi. lu this state it mar bo «atea n 
theTojagenrsgeacrallv mix it vith n little floar and «at«r,l 
then boU it, in which form it ia Iciiown thronghoat tbo Hl| 
-western lemtory under the elegant name of robbibne. Tiai 
bavo always found pcmniicau good and vboksome food, Ui( 
vonld perliapa li^ more palatable witliont its nnprei 
peorancc and a goodly nambcr of bnffalo bain, which apei 
nixed np with it thronsrh the carelewmess of the hnnten. 
pejmairmi of Arcrio i-xploitrs and hnntcra in other conl 
mudc of any meat ttiar iB available, after the Bamo. patfem, i 
often, for good reasons, witbont the admixture of fat 

A plant of such iinivci'val iiwfiilue-«s and so familiar to a 
nation could, of conr«e, not fail to fnrnish in its rariotu 
also a nnmlK^r of temti; and phraxes to the idiom. The 
epike or stipe, on which the seetl of the plant grovs, maV 
derived it^ name from the old English meaning of ''Ik 
tachcd to coh (tlieOcrrann Kopf) ; bnt Amencane carefully i 
guish lietwetn cars of com, as they are called while the 
yet attiiche<l (o th<* stipe, and cobs of com, when the lailer; 
moved. They t<eilt furnish a eertain amount of nntriment, irt 
mixed with more valuable food ; bat tbeir best esc »eem9 to 
for pipc-head^T for which they are cxtenstvdy uaed by the 
people of (he South. There, it most not be orerlo(Aed, Ihe 
or pithy placenta, which remains when the gruns hare 
shelled off, is as targe as the full e«r of the Northern corn. Of 
snioken' sny that a Virpinia>b pipe snrpasses all others w 
BWoelnce^, lightiioss and endumnee. The name of this |>arl af^ 
the plant onoe gave rise to an unexpected witticism on the 
of a negro, who, after the surrender of Lord Corowallis at Yori 
town in 1782, remarlted to a friend : '■ He no CVrwwnllis now ; 
Coiwallis; Oineral WaBhinjjton shell nil the corn off him 
alick." CamftalktOW the other band, was the name of a fitmc 
Indian chief, well known in the history of early Northwesii 
settlements. The iea%M of the beautiful pluat, which eloscly 
aembles the Eugar-cane, and is ofteo ohoseo in lawns and ganlei 



as a gmcoftil centre to tnfts of gmnller plants, Are callecl 

in, and when drte^l nncl stnclccd up lui* u$<^, fljutimrr the name 

' foffdfr, furnishing with lUc top of tlie stiilk nioat ru1uiib!e 

I for all cattle. It is tlic8C blades, inters]K'rs«(l witli tht; gmcc* 

iltuvelf. as the floners arc called, and ripemiig cars, which 

us«tl for vruiiluvuU iu the Umi utfortti ever ii)»tlc af a stvle uf 

erican arcliitectiirc. A vnriety of mnise is kauwn as &rovm- 

rii, sioce its top and dried secdstalks ftiniii<h the imnu-nse 

jorit.y of brooms oseil in llic Uuiun. A com fracl-^r is looked 

VB a£ 90 low a iKTson Ihat he is simply oillwl a, rrnrktr: bo 

ibits tbQ low^ un|ii'odticLire regions near the sc-ii'sliore, imd 

jdes bis gettenc iiaine dcrtvud fivm thv chief arliclu of his 

appears as Cuiif.h m Low Potener in Xorth Carolina, Jind 

ihitltrjiV Poor H'Ai/r JVn^A in South Cortiliim and ti'-oritia. 

rcQ in Florida he is found occnsionally, loading a irretchod tif(^ 

le voud'4, and resembling in bis habiL-< the wor^t of the old 

The C*riiri-er.i of North Carolina, are, piThups, liii* poorest 

Uwm all. •* Their occnpation is collecting turiK-ntlne, and thej 

'Mtd !o posgess an unnatnnil ci-aving for it clay-diet. They are 

pnlorly known m Craci-m^hxtt their gaunt aspect and haggard, 

it ponntenancea induce one to suppose that they might with 

iicr trnth Iw callrd cracl-tvi." (Btarkicoo^, Jan. 1860.) 

Cvt-H Rightsy on the other hand, were in thn earliest times of 

tern tettlemeuls, rights to land acquired by cultivutiun, for: 

[la 177ti settlements were mad« on New River (in Virginia); 

: Isiida taken up in this region king held by what were known 

iforw liiffhlit — whoever plantwl an acre uf corn acquired a title 

mlinndred lu^res of bind." (Withers, p. -IS.) 

[Tlw otitvr husk, by which the gratu is proleuted against Uiu 

th*r. ii generally called nhuvk^ and although ii common saying 

lit that a man or a thing is iwt worth a s/iurk i,>r not jcnrfh 

iuebt, this shows only the relative merit of the lal ter in compui" 

with the more valuable Piir. Shtirkn nre very nmcb prized al 

' Soalh as fodder for cattle, and tho hnsking or shucking (from 

!u-:i-, the husk of a walnut or shell of a l)ean. — Gi-os«.) of corn is 

DirersuHy «n occasion of merry-making, and one of the gayest of 

fwdies known ia the country. At the North the thrifty 

ler, DO longer able to enjoy the Caniiuoa, as his fathers callei^- 

: frolics from an Indian word, inTibca bis Qoighbon, fiu-oud 




near, to help him, r» ho is expected and r^adrrolielp them mo 
dar, nufl then they set to work, Ijids and laaaca, with 
merry cnstom inherited from their foirfRthore, 

" For caHi red ear a gon'ral kiss lie gai&a, 
Willi «wh *««( ear. sl»» smnts Ihc liick)cM swRint" 

and tfauB 

"la the bam the youths and maldeaa 
Strip ihe com of hu»k and tnuwl, 
Warm tlii? iltilluisa of Octoltcr 
With ilic life of &[)rins And ISay; 

MTlilIc lltmtigh rtvcry chink tlie Inntenu 
Antl sonoroua giisis of Inuglilcr 
llakc fL&saull on niglit nnd ulcnce 
Willi ib« counterfeit of day." 

(flMen Im.) 

In the SouLh the negroes used to have high times at corn-tJmri>- 
iruf, and gnve <;»|>eci:illy full phiy to their quaint, bat mel.xll-nt 
songs, ^'ith which th(?y lightened the labor and transfomnu li^ 
task into a frolic. The following portione of two snch soii|!e naj 
Benre as specimens of a clasm or i^onge which will soon have ceaW 
to exist and be speedily forgotten : 

" Oh boys 1 Couie nion; and timek Uu corn ; 
Oh bnys I Cumf along lo tbe ralilcof Uio homl 
Wc'tl 9k*iek nnd sing to ihc coniins of the moon, 

And rieii we'll ford lliP rirnr. 

Ob Hobllidlc-y O! 0! 01 

How coiiid von fool Ihc 'poMum M V 

The other used to he Biiug by one voice, <he response b«*j 
given in a chorns, and at each iTfmin the linsked ear n'outd tx 
thrown on the mpidly-rising pile in the centre: 

" Solo. Oljadinh. Solo. 

ChonuL Jtimp«d into ibo ttro. Chorus. 

Solo. Fin* loo liot. Solo. 

Olionu. Jumped in the pot Cltoroa. 

Bolo. Pot Ino biftck. Holo. 

Chorus. Jumped in the cnick. Oiorus. 

&olo. Crack too tiigb. Solo. 

Chorus. Jgmped In tboaky. Cborus. 

Srfo. Sky too blue. . Solo. 

Cbonia. Jumped la the ooooa Clionis- 

P(ind Ino deep. 
Jumped in Uic cre«k. 
Creek t<Hi «linllow. 
Jumped in thv lallow. 
Tnllow too son. 
Jumped In the loft. 
LoA loo rotten. 
Jumped la itw coltoaa. 
Cot Ion BO white. 
Siayod there all ni^l 

&riato a TSry brisk trade lias gprnng up in hack1«d shnekity 
3»Virpii!a paper snid, "we sswaletter from Oharleit'jn, -S. 0. 
lo whrtli<>r two Iiimdiiod tons per month could be sappHed," 
wJmckabiirg HerahU IVc 10, 1R70.) Daring tlio Civil W«r, 
Itie otiiw hand, the origiual Tilne Backs of the Conftdenicy 
Hallnl ia oppasittoD to the Green Backs of the Union) soon 
BHue knovra as Shttcin, .1 name siifBcieotlj signtficnnt of their 
il repots M n cii'culating me^linm. Those werv'^thc thiys. when 
vu cnrrftntly reported that ladies in the capital of the Confcd- 
mj could be teen, in the streets, foDovod br a servant who 
fritd the piles of money for the marketing, which they hronjfht 
(nwlvea home in ilivir hands. It oii^'ht not to Iw forgotlen, 
(TBTer. that this was bv no means the first tiaie in Americau 
lup when paper-money had been reduced to snch a low state. 
Kame tiling, precisely, had linppencd in The days of the 
rolotiun, when General Wiishington had already said, (Decem- 
> 177ft,) "a wagon load of money niil now scaniely pnrchasea 
^ load of pranaioQs." 

\. Cornstalk FOWv is a toy familiar to every boy in the hind: 
onteido Qbi-e of a cornstalk is loosened, and, by plueing a bridge 
Her each end, it becomes a chord capable of ppodneiiig a few dnll 
mds by each vlhration. Among the many slang terras derived 
tQ the beautiful and vahiablo plant, none is probably more 
IMntly heard than that of acknowlftdijing tha corn, with its 
're prosy variation of ackuowieflrjing (he so/l ii/ipeirrhment, 
i« fermer means a confession of having been mistaken or ont- 
lled, as the occ&aion may warrant,and is said to have originated, 
e many snch phrases, at least twice in very different wnyg. Tlie 
m. Andrew Stewart, Member of Congress from Pminjiylvanin, 
■imnl in n recent t^peech to have canscd its tirat appearance iu 
lltlic. In laZH. he uns in Cougn.'ss diseuaiting the principle of 
i^lection," and said in the course of his remarks, tliat Ohio, 
iliMa,and Kentucky sent rheir haystacks, cunilield*, ami fodder 
Sew York and Philadelphia for sale. ''The Hon. Charles A. 
Hliffe, from Kentncky, jumped up and said, "Why, that is 
Rini; Mr. Si>eoker, ! call thegentlemnu toorfler. He is st;iting 
4l«nidity. We never send haystacks or cornfi'-'lds to New Yoi"k 
PliiUidclpbm." "Well,'* said I, "what do yon send?" "Why, 
, tnnlM. cattlc„ bogs." " Well, what makes yonr horsoe, mules. 


5tT*' ; *r= " : — - '-^i i ir;.:: 

-i^jb J,' ^ 

: .i. - 

^-. - : r-i-i L •.-r-r'v-.^.z itz. cvi.ars w 
r il: :■! :■ -n . *~ t: -uj:* a: ihirj-; 

•-■ - "STtT. -_:„r7 -.t:ijii-~ -Theoni 
tt: 'It: "i !""=■ " '-L-A i :■ -rz. —'.: i;-* siikw cc & b-:^. »ndiiBh 
1: TTt.ii r -. -■-' I.ii----Ti nj^-t-i" M'- "SfizilSr jaaip«l up 
sail ". " Zv'. ■*:— ; i -r ,.'■•*■ ?•■ •■' •" "'■' " ~',.~ 

Tl-r '..i-r -■■".i: :.:■_■• T-- : -.i-- rrlrir. :f :i;epbra£e 
i: tj :-.T nr r:" : f : :. f._-'->c ■=.!:: ■»";:■ lai come don 
»w <'--!vi.-r - •'■ -T - r;.: ■ ;L-f. ".:.;rr. :iT ."ct with con, 
oihrr ti^.-.L y^-.-i. Ht v^i :^r;. -iri :: rzt^ra sambliiig 
lii'.ini' :.:.:.:. 1 !:?: '::;"■;■:" ^:_ ^ : :* Tr.'irc*-. On retnining 
nii-h: : ■ :h*_ -lirf. ^f :' r:.l i* ■:::.: -r.:> o:-m bad snokia 
r;T-?r, ;.rl tt;.v:: tz- -'.--■ r ..j-.t -^i: m^raiDg to demind 
Euikr. ':.■ r-.-vrii v.". :':.; j:.r -:. -Sir-ir-i-r. I act?wtr>dpe Ike 
takeVm: b::: :z;- tv:..: ■ f } .- r: ,"r ha tc. by thunder." {Pli 
burg O.-ij. .■!';■:=■:,•/-. I:.< 

Even the '.■■■.-.:_-■.■■)■■ T.r.vj i.:.— .ral'j flvrii-»m:nem part inSonthS* 
life, ami as sciioyih.T.^. « -.vrre ap: :-;■ I-.- ort-:i-d in or near thon.i*' 
calleil s^'if-ni:uio mvii ar-.- i.-» :hi5 dav :"ond of boasting that ftef 
iievor rO'^L'ivi-il any oih-.r iihiciiilon but in an old cornjUH 

Closvly coiiiu'crtil ^x\l■.\ ::!o o.-ni-shuckiuij Is the hnnt oftb* 
oposxH.ii, (l)i(k-]]tliys viri;iiii:i]ia.» thai strango animal, which «fl 
pi-esiTvos its niH-iont hulijiii aiiix-IIai ion. tiiongh more frequentlji 
follows tlie loyal Irishman's oxaniiile. dn.j]t3 the 0, and appeantf 
'J^unKUM i^\m\Ay. raiuain John Smith, who may be said to hiW 
disoovcn-il it. iloi^i'i-iU'.s it ilius: -An Opa.i.vfm hath a head libl 
swiiit;, 11 (ail iiki' a ral. and is of the hign*^ss of a cat. Under btf 
bellyc sli., liadi a liag;.v. whciviii kw loJgeth, carrieth, ^ 
suckloth li.-r yoiiii;;." ( Vir;iim,u I., p. 134.) FoUowiughiB en*^ 
j»!c, old authors in England ami coUmial writers spell the ntfl 
apiumn, till th.! more nwdcru form superseded the Indian. Ifci 
ncgrocB are passionately fond of the verv fat meat of the aniort 
whicli oomci out only at night, and when hunted olwaya tdtf 
wUgfi on a bus, hiding ia some hollow. Thus ifc qui be ou^ 



Iv Uy felling tbv tree, n-lieruupuu the cunning creAtiire fulls <lowu 
laroutly dead ftud often escapes by bis powiT of siraulatioii, 
lien is 5u perfijct oi to miiiU'iul even the iuntinct oCdogs. Ueaco 
aifgro's ioag, 

"A pMiam oa a 'simtiion tne, 
ViMi onr crc- winked ri^Ut tluwn al ms, 
Fiist by Ills tuil tlio crinur swiin;;: 
And IIilsol.I cliorns swftftlly sun J : 
G« airing hum, mj ycMtt gi»t«, 
For lliv inooa ou tltci;r&ss Aui jshiniDs:." 

Uie poor nnimnl U act supposed to be over-comfortable ta 
loftv position, witli nitmc-rnuii oncmiea looking ont. for liim 
JW, his Bituttliou has givt-ri rise to the plimsL*, to be up a tree, 
itv&^ive of li«itig lu u liiQicult situatiuu. ?um« t<'it years dgo» 
Eni^liili [Mperd circulated a ttovy taken profifMedty from aa 
p:i|hT, '■ iu wbttili tbia familiar phnisr wns said to liave 
■ ui^ofi-utlier ingeniously by a prcacbcrof tbe Spurgcoo 
ip, to aUiiict tbc moru worUlly of hid cangrcgntiou. He an- 
iced 08 the £ubJ4.*ct of bis next sermon : Uutv to rise in tho 
1— -Zmccbeus up a tm.'" T!ii> HiniiibLtiiig power, which the 
itu &bun^ witii the raccoon, hsxi in like- manner origimit(.'d 
Toi-y common i-s press ion, to ptny possum, used wlii'U u porsua 
itcndd to W asleep; its meaning is, howevi-r, extemled to cases 
|yi.>ung ladieg showing a little nffecidtion of dcnuircno^s, or of 
CDC vbo affects to be tinuble to do what ho ought, to do or 
ithoiapresumctlto be fully able to do. As tlieclcvei* animal has, 
reoTcr. a irick ofd'Klging the dogs in the trcacliemns uioon- 
;ht and elyly jumping from one tree to the other, the phrase of 
harl'iag up ike i?ronff tree bui eome to bo used when a person 
r a niiittaken impression, very much as tlie Fliiglishtakc 
.if '■ being on the wrongecent" from tliclr fuvontf, t ite fox. 
;otight perhapa to be added, that good autboritJca, such as Fro- 
Esor S. a. Haldtimsn, Ciuieider Pos^tum — aud not Opotifiim— tho 
roper form of the name. To support thi«, they refer to two early 
HationK. The Penny Cyclopdia, U,45S, quolM: '• Possomex, 
beoft hath a bogge under lier belly, into which «hc take* boi* 
ijf oaoj, if ftt nu y lime affrighted, and carries them away." ( Fer- 
fici Dejtcripli'nti of I'trijiuia, 1649.) The otlier. in which thoani- 
is culled Possum and described as above, is from Luw^oo's 


Caivtina, 1700, 1709, etc. It was ccrtainlv aocepbeil m miti 
Ocww ID liis interesting letters from AlaUuna, vho wriirt: *1 
initiated can tell a reul dead I^Msttm from out; that 14 
in ih<! liypocricical stute in which T saw it, ibe cuil of tbe 
VM maiutained, whereas in sbsolnte doatli this would be : 
permoneiiUy." (p. 234.) 

The favorite tree of the oposaam ie the Pergimmvn ireei 
pjros TJrgiuiuua), which Qwett iia name likeirise lu Uii; IsdiMl 
who called it jnnAnmin. Captain John Smith has aiuglitiK' 
toiiiid fjiirly onoagh, for ht Iclls us "The other (trees) " ' ' 
call PiitehaminSf grow as high as a {>!ilmeUk; the friir 
mt-dler; it is Brst green, then yctlonr, and nsl when it il 
If it he ncit ripL' it 'II draw a man's mouth awry with mitcfcl 
mt-nt ; but when it iii ripe, it is as lUlicate as an apricote.^ (1 
fc ffiniuy I., fji l'2'i.) The ^ct is, that tbu plum requires to bii 
' p'ried to spvcro frost Ijffon? it is Gt to eat; but then il 

Tory Nuri'ct Httd Inacions, with n decided Tinitns tusie. which 
oposnim fnjly appn*ciales. How little even this common 
jflt known abroad, iippears from the manner in which 
wriU'r on "Innwiilnou KnglieU," in ^/aeilwood ( Dea 1870^ ' 
•praks of its fruii 118 nuts. &[r. Jeffi-rsou, the Prcaident> 
any, that with (nllti^-u(iou Ihe fruit might bo made ralai 
t«l>le-rriiit unil for preservdi, while ptrgimmoH beer, as a 
of hfvr'rnco niod^ from it is called, might t-fU'ri tempt 
fuatidiimi palalt-s Diaii those of the iiegl-oes. who lote it ilrftHj 
H. h. Uovorlcy had evideutiv a good opinion of it, for be writ 
"Of lli(;«r (iMTfiimmoNs) some vfTtuosi make an o^tvuhle kit 
of IxTi', 10 which pnrjiosi' tin*}' dry IlK-m in <;;ik(-g and lay lb' 
up for nv.." Tht! fiimiliur fruit hai. like other ludiau nsuest 
tins class, j^ivt-n rise to many familiar expri'ssiuus and 
pbriuios. To rait up the pernimmanji i.s a fivr]nent (er 
"pockfting till' suikes;" the lontfeM pole geia the »fo»t 'tias 
takuM the plii(» of the English " the longest pole knocks dowm 
nuts," and tbe odd-soundiug pbruse, httcktebarrif etbovt the 
timmotiM, is used nmiiily in the South to cxpr^Jts that Si>methil 
apparontly simple ftnd easy is fur above the ability of the 
who mode tho attempt. 

The roMoon (Procyon loUir), an sniniul which has muJT 
common with the opossum b-um its curtailed nouic of ^coon to . 

i|adnes3 for persimtuuii:^ sburea with it also ttie Indian origiu of 

P nnme. Tiii- Aigoiiquiu (Virgiuiiui) aromjhcun or nrottmn 

i :ciaT). Uie name ut the aiunmi as quoted by StnicUi'V Qnd 

i..^ :« eviileutly th'j uiicvdtur of the uiudum form, utid if tlierc 

il «iy connecUon witli IIm- French raion, as is claimed by some 

it is wrtiiiiity not thiit of direct descent. lu otiier Al- 

^ , I iioJccU liiiiiilar nmuus Dcinir, and (11117 ^Tnong the Ojib- 

tiifs thti auinud was known as aiKl/uTh **a eliell it wus," in 

" - ' (o the txudiiiuu ptvvuiliug amung Iheni, tliut tlic curious 

r the luiiiiutlV fiira were the tmceg of ils foniici" '*xiaitace 

■It ilieJI before it vns tratisfonni-d. Captaia John Smith oUo 

'■" ■ ir thus: " Thciv is it bcust thuy fall aronghcun, mnch like 

; , but DBCK to live ou tr«.'s iis iH|uirritLi doe." ( Virtjinia, L, 

if> lu.) Tho raoeouu is mentiujied aa snch by Bovcrlpy, when he 

Itigii4 aj^tinat animuls that ore fond of pilfering tbc euttlcrs* 

ptw, and epeaks of theia m ^ hearg, raccvoru, and other 

riih Tarrain'-',*' (i>. I'i'i.) The sbortcflwl form, coon, ia of 

jijiantivcrlr modern origin, having heiMi first Introdiietd into 

languogD in ISiOrWhcu Harrison was elected President, and 

[ikiji of thu aniniiil was UR-d as a kind of bailge. in rixijimo- 

l^th cider and log cabins dru»'ii about Ibu cuuutrj' on wheels. 

I eccentric Dary Crockett is said to bavo used the word (wfoK^ 

nly then lJr*l bruuglil fn>m the wuods into good 

' ily Sfciirt^d a footing. The whim's had no sooner 

the emblem than they became known throngbont the 

as (lw>»,s their policy was denonni!«l ns *■ Coimnrit, which 

Gill with all ita cfirnipliniis and :il>ominatii>ue. neviT more 

► Ji«e." ( Bostoa Post, B.) The epithet was all (he more forciblo, 

'• ' -.-■:-., eo siijrgestivc of the known cliaractcrof the 

veit ill a Bonir-what ohiiqne and sidelong manner, 

,• toaitaortsofshifuin self-deffnce. ITcneealMt the Indies' 

irnpiionof *A^ca(yNrry. for c!iic;merj', not iincnmmon in the 

h, and expri->uive of a kind uf mild mid f(>minini' whi;;rgery. 

Ill n^jiresents a man in a serious or hopi>W3 iHtHeulty. 

;ru pl)ra» if, of conrse. drawn from thu idea of a coon 

ihu beca liveil.snd — like (lie one threatenetl by that famoas 

Scriti — is rejidy (m s-iv. "Ifdn't trouble yoursolf Uy 

m, I'll eoine down !"* having no hope of escape. The 

Slang Dictionary, published by J. C. Hotten, Ltmdon, 


J670, has, liowevcr, n novel and cntertfliniBgexplannHofi. ■Dari 
the Anipricaii Wnr, it states, a spy dressed in raccoon skins 
enscoiic-fd lilmsfir in a tree. An Engliali riflpuian, taking 
for veritable coon, lerelled his piece nt him, whercniioa 
fright«ut'd Americau cxcluimod: "Don't shoot. I'll come •J-'^ 
ofniysolF, 1 kuow I am « i/oiie coon." Tliat U the way bisu ) > 
r*,ft*l on tliP two sidpfl of the Allantic. Nevcrthelffis tlie plin-; i* 
quite corrcnt in England, and the flavor of patriotism nwy bun 
servwl to render it more popular. Why a coon shonld he jw- 
Eiinicd to be so long-livod as to make a eoo»'» age a ct>iE]M :: 
exjjnwpiou in the .South for any long period of time, is not '[■ ^'^'^ 
so evident, but the "Cmcker" who piloted Audiibou tbroogb ibt 
marshes of Nu>.vti>wii, alnraJy exclaimed ni>on meeting- his frifoi: 
" Wall, Pete, wliar have yon been ? I hav'nt see you this (W* 
<vff." (/:»/*', I., p. 178.) 

A merry eompanion of the little bear is the chipmunk otritv 
Indians, the c/iifwitui; or chit-stiuirrel of Canada (Tamias slri- 
atus), vriio loves to show its striped coat on the branchee cfa 
tre« or li.e rails of a fence, and comes uniuviu^l into gardens snd 
orchards to pick np the pits in cherry-time. It makes a chang- 
ing noise, and hence : 

'* W»a il snjup ehipmunf^i pliMl*r — nr ir»icl 
Under ibc moiicwkII sloftllliy and sliy F" 

CO*. P. Umacli, a»tmmer Pi^m) \ 

It is nflt impossible, howerer, that the word is of later origiOi 
ns the term, to rMp, frDm chirp, "to Ijc merry," a provinriali'Bi 
ni Engliiiid, is qnite common in Amrricn, and eren tho iK*' 
eliipprr. in the sense of "a lively, cheerful person," \n freqiicnllf 
heard in ?»ew England. In some of the ICasterii States the fiiiail* 
jai- name of the playAiI littlo creature, uuknown in Kiigl:it"l*i* 
Hiifhee. ( 

A genuine Ameriwrnism, in every seuse, is Moom, (Alc* 
americanus.) a deer of great sue, peculiar to America, and so 
named by the Indians fmm his manner of feeding by etripping tltc 
young bark aud the twigs from the lower branches. J/ooJiwri 
is iin Abenaki word, meaning the stripper or frnftothfr, and ii 
adopted alraost without change in its Algonquin form moos. The 
animal excited the marvel uf t))c early settlers, so that Lechford' 


)nrDi« of it in 1W9, "There an? beiue^. woIv?b a»d foiep, aiid 
tDftDT other wild liea^tcs. as the tH4M4, a kind of denre, as big m 
jKiine axeas aud Irons, a9 I have heard," {Plttirif Dmliii/f,) and 
ll(SseI^'u indulgfH in the i]uaint comparison, "The flesh of their 
jfiwus ie aa iiicom|KU-al>I<: dish, beyond the ilo<th of an ans's fwUi 
Inhigbly e.«teoui<-d lir the iiumaus. or that of young epantcl piip- 
iss, jo much ei'Ied up in our days, iu Frtiuoe and Eugland.*' (.Vrw 
Entffn}uPg Jlnrities, p. I'J.) They are now comparntively rare, 
bfiii» conatoml Y hunted for their meat, aud the eport they afford, 
wid retire mure and more to the northenimo?! re^oiis. They 
lim in familiw of lifteeu to twenty, each one of which confin«3 
iUflf to tt certain (wtrt of the woods ; th'is is colled a moose t/ard, 
within which tiiey otlen fall au easy prey to \Toodmen and huiit- 
m, blocked in as they arc by the enow. The leatherwood (Dirca 
pi^uuria). a small fihnib vrilh a tough, leathern bark, is a favor- 
be fniid vith these gigantic animals, and hence frfyjnently called 

■ ! 1 11 there is the Caribou (Rangifer caribou)., a smidl reindeer 

' -I M in the nortlicrnmosi parts of this as irell as the older 

t^utinents. and bo called by the early French settlors. One vari- 

I Wt is Icnown as the Barreii-(iiouiid. tlie other as (he Wood- 

! and C*ribon, bnt ■woU-iuforraed travellers tell us that they only 

I ^ITPStnt the same animal at different sensona. Ii is cnrions that 

tliii name, so closely ivsembling u French word, should be of In- 

I •Jm origin, while another term used careleesly.for Mnose or Rein- 

' "tt nlike, should have been discovered to be of Basque origin I 

"On'ifHal is not Indian," writes the Hon. J. H. Trumbull. " bat a 

j ■i'lfctly corrupted form of the Basque word for deer or gtug. X 

Won'red the origin of the name, somft Twire ago, in Lescarbot's 

Bitiorif of .Vfte Ftance — but Littrw has been iM-fore me in pnnt- 

'^ it. in his ' Dictionnairc,* with a n-feiv-rire to the very passage 

Ja Lfscarbot." (Feb, 1871.) The poor animnls have been ill- 

(Taated from of old: I^n HonUn, in his North America, calla 

t^cm'-a kind of wild assea," and other early French explorers, 

fflention them as '* vaches sauvuges." 

The Wapili (Cervns canadensis), often confounded with tho 
moose, if, on the other hand, n stag or perhaps an elk in the wider 
lenie of the word. J. R Bartlett is iucHni^d to believe that tho 
Dame eoniKS fVom the Iroquois, bat these ludi&D tribes hare no 





bbialt in tbeir liigniy^ and tfae sme difficaltr occurs hon m it 
t^dcrindanof "aknim^fivoian Indiaii "aloof." The Iroqtwii 
bsTC, OD the ooatntiT. ■ prowH} wbJcfa mtc tbat Utc- jUgunqninsttoi 
•M7 in orUer to pronotinoe iii£ UI^aIs- The name is man- lik>> 
to b(^aiii£ to Um dialecU of the Slwdiaae or Uub. which buvc « 
word Hw^, aenntDg vrilow, and as the yellawtah or roUduh cvVir 
of Uif elk is qnite pecaliar. tboagfa dim, it nisy veil ban b<«B 
called bv them ~ tbervUvv deer.'' Etta tbc htint4.>r£ uf the KoKtk 
are apt to call it " Uk red d««r" or ** the gny moose," to dtilifr 
gnijh it from the common miMsc, which is black. This prraomp- 
tion is 8trcn||^eD«d by the tact that the toapHi is rery comnioB 
in the Shoshone couutry and of great importance to thre iubabh- 
anta. It is easily domesticated and has been freqaently tniiud 
to harness. 

Ei]ualty original, but tery tax from being as desimblc, ii 
another American animal, known by its Indiua name. Tliis is tb» 
Al*MrtX- (Mephitis mcpbiiica), who Ta» knovn mstffanJiu ori*> 
eancu to thcAbonnkisof Mftino, andaSMvranrX; to ihcC'ree IndiaoJi 
trhilo the Mexican term conepatl has been cluuige<1 into a mon 
fuDiiltar-sounding nitme contptUtt in eome of the Southern Stotea 

The small fetid animal is, of couiiee, a iicar cousin to the Eng- 
lish polecat, but surpassing it, if not in oU'ensiTeness of mlor, at 
leaet in its far<reachii)g and penetrating power. Woe is the hontc 
to which it has, by chance or by the persecution of dogs^ found iti 
way ! It has to he instantly abandoned by its inmate^s, and weeki 
of thorough pitrilication often do not suffice to remove all trsou 
With biting irony the imimal is cidled by the Yankees an MttMi 
pedlar, and as such was introduced to Uie reading pnhlto by so 
lessan authority timn (he great ]X)ei Lowell On the other hasd. 
it bos eerred to give its name to t-rerythiti;; uasty and oRcdsIt^J 
from the akunk-cabb»gt (Symplocarpus footidus), the first child o(^| 
6pring in the New England Slrtti>R, bnt strong- seen ted and repul- 
si^e looking, to the $icunk in politics or college-life, who eiirus ba 
name by disgraceful deceit or dislioneel acts, nil of vihidi am 
called ahunking. Two poor birds, utterly innocent ofnny titJf fo 
such n paiufnl denunciation, niv si ill apt to receive it at the hnuLl 
of tlie vulgar : the ukunk hlackhird. whom the Rev. H. W. Beecher 
calls " tUo polyglot, who describes tha way -they talked ut tlM 

ra£ iKDiUi. 


riudiug up at Lbo tuwirr of fiubel"— (Vum its coIoi-b, bliick mixed 

ritb TrhiU;; and tbti skunkhtad^ the pied duck of science, thus 

lied all along tbc 8oa-coa«l, The slang plintso. Lei evvrp man 

kin hit "toll ikunk, wliioh is due Ui Mujor Juck Dowuiiig, ii a 

ther forcible version of the French proverb which reoomtncnds 

' to wik»b our doiied linen in i\\a rainily ; *' and however graph' 

slly it may paiut the folly of nioddling wich other pvoplc's 

^uarix-Ld, Uie comparison is odorous abnofit beyond endurance. 

This "genuinoTarmini"' — for no other auiaial deserves th« titiine 

itt — bus Ifccii improved, afY«r the mAnner of the AmericAU 

BOBC n( tbut: wiinl, into an original maxim : '* Vice is a skunk that 

lis awfully rimk, uiicn eiurred up by the pole of misfortune." 

iiackivuodi Aprils 1861.) The phrase coutiiius the r&cj essence 

ntoileru social philosopUy. and ju&LiOes the doEcriptioti of a 

>vcrij as the wisdom of a nation. 

A kiusmnn in smelU, if not in race, is the American JHuskrat 

|Oi)ddtm zihctbicuB), wbojfc English numctdcrived from the strong 

issky smell of the beaver's first cousin, strangely re&emblcs 

more familiar Indian nuuie: Mtm/uuith. Captain John 

iJUi says of it: ''The Sfnssascit sis abeaotoftbc form and nature 

be vtu waliT lilts, but many of them smell excoeiliugly slrojigly of 

ktukc*' ( I'tiyiitui, [., p. iZi), while the poet Lowell reform to its 

Itilat ia the iiue: 

^ fbrkmier Ih&n n mtiajunA It you'd tuok &a ilrecocd hb iwanip." 

(fl^tfte Paper», U. IR) 

arc bunted for their furs, which are valuable, and become in 

luettered places so bold that " these miniuture beavers sit oud 

it olams on the steps of the bout-honso.'' {IlarjKrs' Monffiiy, 

August, 1947.) They give their name to the mttsqumh root 

(Cicuta macuhita), a poisxinous plant groving in fivvnmps. 

Among imponeij aninuds at lenst two breeds of liorses peculiar 

I Amcriua still Unr Ibo ludiati names by which they were known 

jm the liret. One is the Cmivsioga horse, the probable rennlt 

If A niixtaivof the Flemish cart-horse with an English breed, 

rhicU takes it« name from the Cout»toga River, in the iutirrior 

'Pennsylvania, where fertile lowlaodaand rich giiiseeii are pecu- 

ly favorable to the raising of Block, and wlivre this breed was 

'Q»t pntduc^U. It is of targe size and gi-eat pover, and still much 



to &Tor ta nsBote djitricts, whcrrrer ibrn mtrodactiuii of nulviTi 
bas DoC dcstroreJ thp tmflic carried ooi ss of oU. I7 {lO-- 
OTTvrtd with whit« canvas and druwu bj six of theai: ma^ .. 
anhnaU. Th« other breed is ktui^n as S*rraga3tM4f pa 

ten Hid to be fuand only on the Blaads ia X>mgaB»tt Hit, 
"aul my raaefa Talord on account of ibur powrs of eBdmaua 
and adminbk pociiig gaiL Tbe breed is, howerer, ivpwtrd to 
\m no krager what it was, which may wvU be tbr ca«e, if Um . 
IH. MacSparran waa not actuated )jj a Uttle enthniiaaa wbn I 
wrote, in 1 753 : " Tbe produce of thix colony ta fnt cattle, vod^ 
KoA tlon borsec, which are exported to all paru of Kngltsh Aaio^ 
icfc They are remarkable fur their tkcCDcaa and swift pada^ 
aoil I have aeen soiae of them pace a mik in little mon Unui tvo 
mluatei, a good deal Icm than tbire." {Amrritv DttteeM, B.) 
Tbe increaiiDg fondneiS of Americitn« for bn trottiiig bv 
natnnny M to a oompantiTe n^lecc of pacing borsea, and hrtet 
BiDoh ]t^* in said Dow-a-dayi of the once fiuBOiu Nam&gansrn 

It ii rather remarkable that amoo^ the birdi so fev \ai 
aamea ifaoald hare become familiar to the whites, uud ei 
Sara, or, aa B. R Bereriey writci it ia true American iQll 
V the name of a well-ltnown lascions rail (BaUtu ciindini 
nnanimoiuly ailmittcKl to be of Indian origiiu Tho hirdi^ 
Mid to owi; iu pUim]i apptairauce and mucb-pratsed Savor to : 
wild fioe on which it feeds in thv great estuaries of the 
and Sonthom .SiaU-s. 

Indian num<.-« of plant« are more nnnioronsL The Ca$Aam,i 
KfTthott:, <}( thf W<<st, a pumpkin, may fxxssihly be & corruj 
fif an Indian name, thonj^b the rv]auon to squash lies 
Hw Onjfon grape han not ynl liorl lime to innke Us virtues i 
The Catttteba f^pe, one of the tiiiest of ttiu Continent, 
named from the Indians who dwelt in ita native haunts, was, 
a tfmo, moft r^-lied on by the grape-gr<»wer8 of the Tnion. thfit 
at prvxtnt hybridii obtained by crustsing it with Karopc-Jin Tari^ 
ti« are genorally preferred. It found early a formidable riTal i 
the Seuppernonff pmpe, which grows freely from Virginia 
Florida, and corers oHen half an acre with the sprvadisg branch! 
of a single tine. It thrires mainly on the Soapperaoug Hirer. 
Vord) CaroUnu, from which it obtained its cattie, and is a 



it** with soinp, thotijfh th? anthor of " Ain<*ricnn Wines" s;i_m : 
pTIi" i^cupjyertwng ffi-apc prodnctB a wiiic nali;rally hard and dry, 
With littlf to rrotiimi'ud it but its peciiliur Qavor nud Hruiiut." 
1^015.) The Vhkkftmte Plnm derivf?s its name from an Indian 
^HR* residing id tbu imrLiun of ArkuUBiisivhcre the buah (I'nmiis 
Imun) ifi fonnd in yrr^at abundance nloiig the hanks of Rvd 
nhvr It bears fl large mid Vantirnl fr nit. red in color, and of 
CBnet pitttsaot tostp. ''The (>^wh displnya its wliite bnlls tmd red 
•terns," eays A. H. Street, and thus jiictnresqncl}' iutrodncee one 
''of tb« many jdanu tlmt pus» uiidtr lii« imiiio of Sunl-crouh, from 
iKme fuiicied virtue as remedies for miake-bites. The Cohosh is 
ttie Actaea racomosa of tbo botstuBts. and the IMue, or White, or 
Bhclv Cohosh of iho common people, who prefer the old IndtAti 

dumbo 13 n word, which, Iiiditin or not, is apt to recall most 

plMtant recollections in the minds of those who have learnt to 

knew tlie excellent ate Sonthurn hoiwvwivi-s iiiakf? of the pod of 

iHtOJni (HibiPCii9PSPnlontna),in preparinj; adish that niaobenra 

^ name at (r umbo. Frt-drika Brf^mor wrot^* in her qniot cnthu- 

lilltic TTilT : " Gnmb« is the crown of nil the savory imd remiirk- 

'iNtfonps iu the world, ii rej^iilnr i-ltxir of life of the snlistJi-iLiiil 

HikI. Uc who has oucc eatuti Oumtto may look down di»tainftill]r 

*"" " ''!■- most generons tnrlle-a>»np." Tim puciiliiir niucilagiiions 

. nf the plant lend newgavor lothe chif!ken,rioc, tomatoes, 

*Unc!i spflsonin^oot of which cooks, cspi^ciallv in Kcw Orleans, 

■DiEufiict-nr?' the popular di$h. Far le)^ Talual)It:i to thceptnurean, 

tal Ut^ly consumed hy the ma?si'fi, nre the peanuh or tnrlhnuts 

nishjIHigaea), l<nown in Xortli Carolina and tin* adjoining Oaohtr peai. so that during the lote Civil Wiir a con* 

Kript from the eo-calkd " piney woods" of that State wtia apt to 

'I'-nnini-d a Oofthfr. 

■ 1 ng trees hearing Indian nume-s "o moot with the Cttialpa 

'^ignnnia cntaljta, Linn.), n most noblo and beautifnl tree, bo 

*>l'«d by the Indions of Sonlh Cirtilina, wh<'re it was diseorered 

'" I?2C by Catvaby. Its hroatl. lartre leaves and brilliant dusters 

*f*liite and red flowers have mitdc it a favorite in Europe alao; 

ftJ »ood, however, is brittle, add the trees are short-lived. 

Bnebmainck is the old Indian name of the Tamarnek of our 

fLarix ninericnna), a larch jwculiar Co this CoutinenU and 



one of the moat useful trcoa, which Bcrvtn alike to bnUd tl» 
lioiiees of new eettlera anil thu ships of uav navjr« ita timber p» 
Bseiiig vciT valonlilc properties. Tliv iiu)£t fiimiliar amnng thi 
which are culled by tht-ir Indian names, is, haw«rcr, Ab 
Pawcohiccora of Captaiu Juhu Smith, our Hickory (Carya of 
j«evei"al siwcips). Ten '^oun before Ntittall wrote bis great wodc; 
|it was kuown as the Ilicoria of RafiuesquCj and we read alrwif 
in 1602 of "The strong Iliekortf, Lociist^aud loftjPine" (Bichtfd 
Fmuie), while W. C. liryuiiL sings of 

" The hichjry't wliltf tiuU," 

which iu New York are called walnuts. The tree furnish^ 
valuahle wood, largely exjjorted for carriage building and 
purposes, besides inliblo nuts. The former, possessing 
toiiglineEj, combined with unusual ilexibility, ie mueh in de 
for the mauufacture of ai'ticlee requiring those two quaJilJI 
while the iiimic of the plant is constantly transfeiivd to pc 
or objects iioiublo for either. A Hichtry Catholic, for insiancn 
is free from bigotry and asceticism, while a A t>A-(?ry nrHic/jflir, if 
not actually mnde of the wood, is n chair of more than usiiaUj 
yielding maU-riul. Oecasionally the wood is split iuto thin layci^ 
after IniTing been thuronghly soakeil, and then the epiils are in- 
terwoven so as to m-Akc. » plemauL ekstic sent for a chair. 
Hickory and oak both yield the necessnry wood, and chain of 
this kind are known, pflppeiiilly in the Houlli, as splii-btittam 
chair.i, rough in appeJininei-, but astonisliingly coniforlaldr for 
use. It is fivm the remarkable toughnosj and tenacity of hickerf 
wood that G«iieral Jacksou became, after the bsiidi? uf Xe* 
Orlwinfl, faniilinrly known throughout the couiilry a-i Old U id- 
oi'y,a term as expressive at Icnst of personal atfeclioii, u of • 
high appivciutiuu of his character. In like manner a kindflf 
shirts made of heavy twilled cotton, genemUy with a narrow hint 
stripif. which are much worn by hurd-working men, are called 
hickory itJiirh,itom their stivngth. General Brewerton descrihei 
Ills appenrauco duriug a^iUde with Kit Carsou" thus: '-I waa 
attired in u check or hickory shirt, us they are cailnl, u pairof 
buckskin pants, a fringed hnniiug-sbirt of the same material, 
gayly lined with red Qaunel, and ornnnieuted with brofis buttonsL" 
Biekory trousers owe their name to the same £0od quality, whilt 



ho romoiis uoTKry soiig, ffietoty-Ti'icVory-Dockt is too old to 

■llosiou to the hickory switch not im frequently used 

iBCtciul oE* ttte cliittsic ruiJ. Mr. Strai-hcy, in bis " llistorle of 

^TmTailo ialo VirjjMnia," wriUwi in uaily cylynial tiiuoa, and 

ivc«ntly piiblUbed by the Haklnyt Society from a MS. in the 

leyan Library nt Oxford, states that Iiicl-ory iros also the 

e given by tlii' Indians of Vii^iiia to tlie wbiii; liquor made 

ij them fW>m the kcrncla of hickory uuts, so Lhat wlicn they 

eaw the £ngUsh at Jatneslowu use milk, they called that also, 

The Shagbark (Carya alba) is a raricty of hickory, so ca]le4 

th« rough and shaggy appc-nraiicc which it« hark assumes in, 

age; aa the latter prcls off easily, the tree is a\m known as 

Barkf and known all t!ic better, since ita timber ia perliapa tho 

valuable, m its uut is cci-laiuly thu mo&t popular of all ths 

Tiritiies of hickory. The trees are. on that account, favorite 

with all irood-auimals, and of one of thetu Lowell aijigs : 

" The sqalmtl, oti Iho slilnpl/ ttioQbark'i bow, 
Wow «w», now iiftte wilh downward tyc and car. 
Then drops lib nut" 

{Jntiiaa Summer Stwrie.) 

, peculiar Indian name for the nut of the hickory is JCi»kii- 
I, which is still ocoasionally heard in the West, where Indiana 
% near, or in a poem like that which began with the words: 

" Hickory, aUcfibiuk, Kh/.itMnat nut !" 

[UUrary VToHd, Nov. 8. 1880, SI 

The jPu/tornuf (Juglaus cincrea) also belongs to this family, 
a beautiful tree with wide, spreading branches, tniming in fall 
ipletely yellow, and thus proving itif relation to thr hiekorica. 
juice of the nut of the tree eervvs aa a dye, and hence the 
le of Butternut was ap}ilicd to Confederate troops, dressed ia] 
Ifonns of homi'sfinn cloth, that owed its color to the nut, 
(ernut is sometimes called the Lciiy Wahtui, from its shape, 
and the Wln'te Walnut, from the color of the wood. 

There is a storj' told of Mr. Jefferson by his detractors, that in 
his desire to import valuable tr>?ea and plants into his native 
Status he ordered IVom nbi-oad, among other shrubs, a number of 



(hvHt^ ulicstuutti, quoU'd as Castanea pnmiUi in botanical cab 
lo^rnes. They camu, tlicy grew, and tnrntxl out to be the O&i 
iiftpin of Virginia, n nativp (ive. tliiin whicli fpw are more 
mon ill the Somli. Captain John SmitU alrcadj reporlf 
'*ThcT liave u »ma\l Tniit growing on little trpes, hnsketl libj 
clifflltnit, l»iit Itii^ frtiit most like n very email arum. This 
cbH Chefhinqitatiims, which Ihejr efU-em it pri'at ilaintie/' { Rij 
^tftm, 1., p. 1%%.) 'Y\k same Iiulian iiante ia givc-u to the i 
ire 8trachcy'fl Vocnhulary, the- last syllahlc of which is the, 
termination of words meaning all kinds of fruit, from wl 
also moni/niiim, in the Ojihway, "spirit^grain," which occun^ 
often in Hiuwatlia. 

Undor a l)onMWL'd naniu api)«trr« all along onr Sotithcru 
courecs the prxpntc, so called fivmi its fiuicied re«emblano« tol 
genuine p;i|>nw-1ree of ihe Tropics. While the latter is a 
with a lu«lles9 trunk, and hearing fniit of the size of a 
ivith a milky, ncrid jniw, the pfrpaie of onr stn-ams (j 
triloba), is only a fair-sized tflirub, and its fruit, in the si 
long llcshy podji, is &wcol and edible, so that it become 
imiwrtant as food to the Indiana. The tftigi* also prove m 
a case of emergency, isiuce, being of a peeuliaily supple and t«aj 
natnre^ they eiuily take the place of the willow-withes of dil^ 

The }facoek, according to R. B. Beverley's Acconnt of Virginia, 
"arc a Itind of melopoponcs or lesser sort of pompion or easkaie- 
Of lUesc they (the colonisls) have a great variety, but the Indian 
mime iflttill ivtuiued by tbem.'' (p. ViA.) The Maracocks, on Iho 
ccmrary, were, accovdmg to the same uulbority, Ilie frnit of tli« 
passion-flower, which grows wild in Virginia, and beara an Mco* 
lunt Bocd-vesscl, " abont the eizc of a pnllet's egg." The formcf 
name Biirvives In its Anglicized form of Mat/coct; the Intt' r i^ 
now believed fo b« id'TiUcal with ilio word rnni-iicntfa, the >;':.ii- 
ish name for the same fhiit, from which the French made wiufB* 

The Oswtgo tea of the Shalcei-s (Monardn didyroa), owes ill 
name, of conrw, to the Indian tribe from whom the firet Bcitlcia 
learned ita virtue, while the Indian names of Pipsisxetea (Chima- 
philu umbellata) and Pitaiiaya (Cereiis pitujayuj of ^*ew M^extco, 
ire gradually disappearing to make way for tlie more lamiliar 

;ligh terms of Prince'* Priile or ^\'mter-grc«nf and Indian F[g, 
i4Ut which the Tomier is known iw a jiopnlar (lomi-stic rvinedT, 
rhc latter iw the Inacioiia frnit of a gij^intic cnetn?. The pttc- 
fm, al»i>, ni(!ntinncit by Kercheral (p. 2/>i^), nnel loTig- knoflTi 
iiler thiit name tu uirly settli>r£, 18 now mure gcnerutlv called 
'ioodruot, nna coutinnes to ben fuvoritjO ri'tnedy with all M'ho 
■1 ill Ein]plc& 

(A lonly plaut, hut oiiu much u]iprcciated in all the States of 
Union, is the g^umhy prost-nling ainUlierivmarkiiWe instance 
' thoK caww of appaivnt ulentitr, in difff-Tciit InnfftmgM, which 
'«o fr«in(.'ntly misted amiabV philologista. Slalvolio says of 
t! **Not yet ohi cnouj;h for a man, nor yoting enmigh for n 
, OS a f^HOjrA is before it is u p^iiscod" (Ttreifih A%A/), and 
lagood oldKtiglieli wuiil, iiithc>tjeiifi<.'(if '*uiirJpi>oi'iininHtiiaV 
has ita almost exact ootinterleit in the Nntic dialect of 
rsuachiisells, whore aftjuaxh m^xm likewise "grei'n or imripo." 
heliidiitns usotl to apply this word to n!l Te£;i'tahles which wew 
while nnripe or withaiit cooking. The plants (Cncnrhita) 
cwd early attention, and liieir rcliition to kindred vegetnblea 
IDU to have oven then hi-cn a pnitzlf! to explorers. BtV-'rioy 
aVs of tbcra in oue place as "These nuthtftv* uvea kind nf 
>|iion, of a blueiah-green colur, stn-alccd with while, wlipu 
w nrp fit for nge. They nre larger than the pompions, and have 
IhnjfUArrrtW neck. Perliap^, this may he the above-mcnMoned 
Hthatr of T. Harriott^ (ffhfort/ of VirffiHia. p. 124), and in 
licr place* " .Sf/MrtjfA or Squantrr Sfjua.fft la their name among 
■^' ■■'■■rri Indians, and K> they are called in New York and 
iaud." It is now a favorite vcgetahlc with rich and 
alike, and considered to possess certain propertiea pecnliarly 
imblv for pfi-Mms in delicate health. A variety is called 
iWiM", which Jiamo H. B. Bererloy thns etplains, "The Cly- 
arc somf-timc:3 called Ct/nuieh, tvoni the lenton-oake of 
name, which many of tlii-m very mnch resemble." (p. 113.) 
\$ derivation was corrcet ; for tymnel was really the ancient 
'^nie for an oval cake. iis*;d primarily in th*; offices of the Catholic 
larch. and vm eo called fi-om its vngiie ivsemhiance to a wave 
fihe Beft (;f t»/^fr, a wave). Pegfte's SnppUmtmi also fnrnishes: 
^imnrf, n rieli cake, the onter crnst ooloix-d with aaffron. Shrojw.'* 
reafi and wa-stlc-cakc graced Prince John's board at 


Ashb}' when Ivaulioe went to iU festivities. The ii 
foiiiid iuw&y there, at) into '-chiiublii}'"uud ull words wb«nft( 
crix-p in bctn'f'cn m aud /. Tlint the cymblins of our da; *t)t^ 
pmucli esteemed, of olil, we may jutli^e from ». poem by 
Thomson, written in 1675, iu which he says : 

" Wbcn Cimneh were accnunlcd noble bloocl 
Amon^ Hie tilbes of common berbagc food.' 

Leufen simnela ato to this dny quito common in many pri/ 

.Englaud, mid Sim&tin is even now the local pronuiiciiiiioti I'l u* 

lame in Lnncasliire, which cornea nearest to itarelay's Sbsol. 

Sfjuriw Root (C'oii:ipltolis amcricauu). aud Squaw Wtx-d (liafr 
oU aumis) buid Ihieir plac« among the medioiniil plauUufll* 
coimtry, but owe their uames to modoru, not to Indian. oiiS^ 
The Tiimnah, on the contrary, is a gemiinc native, and ni» 
Btntfi the wild prainc-mrnip of Lht* Northwest, whioh oftenow 
sLitute8 nil imiKirt^int purt of the Indiau's provisioiiSL 

Tobacco owes its uame to » mistake : the early &[)ai)tfih diMA*' 
erors mistook the tenn by which the Caribs designated Lheirpifl 
or vessel out of which thuy smoked, for the artiole ilsL-if. Tbsi 
is an opiLion held by many that Tabago was also the name 
provinc* of Yucatau, where the herb was tirat found growiag; 
still another, that the namu is derived fmm Tobtigo, one of 
Caribbean Islands. None of these theoncs, however, are a> 
anthenticnted as the [Irst derivntioH, which is already quoi 
Gilli's Sioria Americana. The wved, as Americans are a|H lo 
it, with a leuuiog: to slang, is a native of tht-ir Coutiiiciit ^S 
tiuiiu tal^acum), aud if not used more largely here than in 
other part of ihc world, certainly constitutes at once a 
source of nntional weiillh, and an almost nuiveraal cause of 
ment to the people. There is probably no State of the Uni 
which the plant is not raised, aud yet so little did the rul' 
the land foivsee its future importauw, that iu thu iustniotioni 
Governor Wyatt of Virgiuia, dated July 24, 1631, we find 
following onler: "To put pi-entices to trades, and not let 
fui-sakc their trades for planting tobacco or any such useless 
moditics!" Now Virginia alone pays annually over four mill 
of dollars in taxes on this article into the L'ederal Tr 



►t>»c«> ■• ■■ );fa a3 elsiftwh<'re; it is cli^wed perhaps 

vrt gcii < . -i, a tiubit uf irhic'b tliii pott Lovell 

'OnrviJo habit uf cherviug fviacoo lind tlie eomeivliak nu- 

1>- uf XUui Oute^ ami I kaoxr by crodilimi, from aii 

:»{ the «lf%unt Ueiicr.ll liuqio^-im ]HU-tuok of the 

ricft." For Ibis purpose it Is aw»}uncil with licoriw and 

led Willi cvorv fair and fonl iugrodJent that can give it color 

1(1 ftotor. uDd lends to tlic most oilViisive habit that strikes 

in ihc'ir visits to lliis cumitry — constjuil and co|iioiia 

, w.....:ion. Uiit even more diuguating is tin-, purolv Americati 

lit oidipinntf, whicli u »ud to have ori^pnatod iu the uk; of 

jbr Uio pur|M)iie of ctoiuiiiig tho teeth. It seems tlmt the 

and narcotic effect of tobacco affects the sy8tt.-m thron^h 

as well as through the nostrils, and this has led tho 

of the South cs|iecinlly, who constantly set* all men and 

•wupicii smuk« around tlit;ui, to Ufio Uiia toethud of ullaving 

omriiig for stimnlarita. A wi-it«r who had travelled through 

li ' liljtd ihe pi-ocv'ss thus: "This neat, oi-derly, iiu- 

. woman rubhtnl snuff. Sii<^ kept a tiunff-box iu her 

St pocket, fillrd vith thts strongest and most pungent Scotch 

ittud isli« vft-nt al^mt all day, bruDdisbing a dangeroii9-Iook- 

okory Etu^k ivitU a mop at tho c-iid of it, which 6\v: was 

itantly tiippint/ into this huge, black, hum suulF-box. Then 

toold. 111! her delicate monlh with h>ad after load. At limes 

)nW in»ilc her ft-w fri^'tnU tu come ovor and take a tiip." 

im'it Mag^ Ffbrnnry, 1853.) The tlippinff-$tkh is also 

Mnuff-»teab, as if nothing ahould be wanting to make tho 

■Ifiirff hnbit still more nuplca^iuit Fortunately it i& rapidly 

oai oi' fufihion. imd only lingers still in r^*niote districts 

jifiir from railways and luturouurdd with the gn-'at irorld. 

lea tippamaihx, from Apomaioz, the Indian for "Tobaoco- 

loantxr" and fainoui iu history siace the lute Ciril War, 

baa given ii3 uamc indirectly to a fish that enjoys more 

mt ddiigmiUous than prabubly any othi>r dwclhT iu Amcr- 

iv:' - "'i -!iulinh, ivho ii often called rwiorCT-Zfo.!; — uud to 

of bt*', attracted much attcnliun. This is the 

liuot \ \aienaun(i^ci}ni]ig),ca.\\t^KtMiyaU brthn Indians 

to, who iiake the root for two day^ in tho ground, to 

it of ita poisonous qualities, aud then mako it iuLu a kiud 




of tend* whiA ihty csU Smpmb, ud like modi better 
tfarir ITiqpa^ a dtA fmrij BntaaDcd in W. Inring's A 
*^iie r^aM tbvm, tbere^biv. to tbe beet of hla kbtU^. 
^bvnteioe of nlnwe and ny^v/m' (|k IM.) Th« word. 
^NBliBf the ra«t of the Sagtttnia Mgitttfolia, brloags 

tOiiBOok Bor tlM Chibali dj«]ect,lmt u. u G«orgv Qibtoj 

Chinook Jargoo * asserts. eTrmrhere in coanKui Q«e. 

Tlu tMm Aim* a^ TUmmn which U sail oocaaioiiaUjr 
ift aOeial n>ns, baa iU origin in the fiick that fur nuiDf 
>B old Vifiiinia timra, all taxtt nieed for tbo «i 
goT«rnm«at oQicen, mluinen, etc, v«re ae«ess«d in bo 
ponuds <'f tobacco. A cottpacatiTrly recent won! conoect«l 
the nM of th« w«ed. is Amhia, a eDpheini?m, m:iin1y v 
gjnla and the two Carolina^, for the rspecLonuioa wbu .. .„. 
nakps neoessarr. The preenmplioti is that tbc von\ a ft 
iptiea of Amttr^ to ^ieh it bean a filight reaemblaiice in 
aiftflting outaialj a dclicacT of exprenou which bordt-n upN' 
th« poetical. 

Th* Tvinail of tho Mexicans, our Tomato (SoUnaoi eacnieft- 
tum). by Bortlett aliogcthor ignored, and by Webster wportwl 
'•of AnnTican oriErm," is ceruiitly not an MclnsiTely -Vmi'iictt 
froit. for although lon^ knonrn in Africa, and held there in lu|^ 
tm by nations discQveivd but rect.-ntly. it haa becontt'/utiiiJif 
to Amertc-nus only about two genentione siucf. A compriot 
critic ""ho wrote most plmMQt and instructiTc things " Cod(*(1k 
iog Saladii und French Wines." says of it: "The tmaato is a noUi 
frnit, as sweet in smell a^ tho odors of Araby, and mikes ui €t 
ctllent — and were I in Fniiicc. I would say — an illnstrioua ulii 
Its medicinal rirtuc ia as great as its gnstrunuinical ^oodaesot ll 
is tlie fmiul or Die wdi to ke«p them well, and tbo fn«-nd u( lb»^ 
sick, to bring them Iwick into the lost sbeepfbUU of Uygeia 1^ 
Kngtiiih man's tmvcllinfif companion, tlie blue-pill, would ueircbi 
needi'd. if lie wonld pay proper court to the tomato.'' {JihcJkitm^ 
October, ises.) U h ii fruit niiiversally used and esteemed lu tk 
Union, eaten raw with £idt, as a salad, stewed and sLuffeil is 
Vnriona wayw, and cannrd in immense quantities Its niuuo i< 
igrtdnally becoming Anplioised under the shortened form of 
TbjWrt/, which is prfforable — however objectionable to the i\sc* of 
parisLs — to tjie £ilsp nuw form uf to-matf-io, "invented to 

THB I3?DUir. 


rn atuicied analogy with potato, irhich indeed bi'lnnga to the 
kcnatiiml fiimily—bnteo does uightehadeaiid lieubiuic." (S. 
Or more r«c«nt date, as far as its genenil introdticLiun is cuu- 
intrd. is thf; Vant {D'ioscotoa nlba) of th? Vfc^t htdU^i, si> called 
lilt Indian woi'd Ihaim. Tlit: very large and puluublt- root 
**'lnli.'r is now qiii(*» common in a!l the Somherii Stulfs. eo that 
Ti^'GBt traveller conld say: "Toi-ntflr tlie piin'V wooda uF 3{is- 
li]i{>i is like returning to Kortli CiiroHtia. and to \ta&s tbrongh 
without eutiug vomX yatits and biilLenuilk, is like paaaing 
n^b N'orth Carolina without: fating hominy and cliinc of 
Bn." (Putnam's Mng^ June, I8S7.) Nor must wc foi-gct the 
JjjsierioiiB Tnckahm of Viixinia, i» 'I"' ojiiiiion f>f many the 
American variely of Irufiles of wliieb i\e cau boast. The 
liar plant (i^cleroiiuni gigutiU^tiin) oxcitud the curiosity of 
writers on this connlry. by its growth nndergi'ound, and 
bwnce i>f all leaf or stom to connect it with the sources of 
and heat nn the surface. " Othcrii,^ aay.'i already Cnptaiu 
tSmith. witltDut explaining the matter, ''would gather as 
iu2h Tockmogh rootji in a day. as would make them liiDiul a 
eke.** {Virtjinin^ I., p. 22B.) But It. B. Beverley adda more 
ffiilly, that it is "a tuboi-ous root; which, while ciude, is of 
hot and Firuleiit quality, but. tliey (the Indians) Ciin nnmage 
\t », M in cn>e of neeeasity to make bread of it." ( ///-■*/. «/' Vir- 
Hnin, ^ 1A3.) Hence it dr<nvi-ii ita name of Imiinti fiieriti, or 
Inilinn I,onf. Like the truAles of Europe, the tuciafioe altio ar« 
Miglit for by dogs and hogii traiuL'd fur the pur]H»M.>, thougU 
Utln attention is paid to them in rocenl timt-.t. Tlie tc-im i-t now 
gora fre^inently used as a kind of nickname given tu the inliab- 
inU nf till! poortT lands of Ijow^t Vir/rinia, whose poverty, it is 
Implied, drives tliem to eat tuckahf>e. *MJe \s nuihing but a 
n 'iWhiJioe." was often heai-d during the lato Civil War, wheu 
pecnliarJy.sid-loDkii)g cunfiuri[>tt-ame in from the Xjowui* Jumea, 
kjiptuvntly ltnlf-f(Hl only, and shaking with " chilU and fevov." 
Another nndcrgroiuid proiaict, known to us by its Indian 
intc, is the CootUie of Florida, wiucli deeiguates the farina ob- 
tained from tbs so-called An-ow-Root (Tiunia iutegrifoliu), uud 
vliioli is said to be fully equal to tbe famous article fi-om Bermuda. 
[^iia xgot is, m iU crudo aUte, poisouoos, ajid Uie Fedeial tioops 



lodt itt the lat« Civil Vfar a number of mwi by the mint 
cuntion in firtt oxtracting it« deadlr pmpPrtiM: 

IVrhajis tho Indian name of s town in Xucntariy Siaal,} 
may be said to hare bc«ome part of nor oommprdsl langnage^l 
least inasmuch as it is nivd for the preparvd Gbrc of an 
(not the Agave americaua). wry cvniniou ou the Fluhda '| 
Atid w«n knowa in trade as SisaJ Hemp. 

Among fi$h the Indians hare beqantthcd to usbnt afcvi 
mid tlieir precise meaning varies so much in different Ic 
thuL it 19 not always easy to identify the species. Of th( 
lire well dpfined we mention the Barracouda (Spliyraenol 
da) of T»ni}>ii liuy und ntlii-r Florida waters, a ralnabte fishofl 
pikv-kind, taken with n spear by lishenneD, who float with 
tide 8o as to meet tlie wnry animal with the ann shining dif 
in Ills eyes. More generally known is tho Chogtifi (Ctenoli 
cenileusK fivqnentlv culled Btir^all or Bine Fish, and foniHl «i 
the whole Eastern coast under a variety of designatiooe, and tfc 
Vixco or Vist-ovft, from the Indian SiekiwH (Salmo umethvy'>i«» 
which C. Lanmaii declare* to be "unqnesHonably of the iirni 
gcnns, Imt imich more delicate, and seldom found to weigh ni"i» 
than a dozen ponndii. They are n very beoutifnl fiah and :li:r 
liabits similar to those of tront." (A Summfr i"« thf Wilifrr/ify-, ;>■ 
219.) Unfortnimtely they are so fat, that they become cataWfuijl,'' 
urter being salted. 

The Musl-ehingf or Xuskatoun^ (Esoi estor), go called in Al- 
gonquin, is tlie largest pike known and peculiar to America. B 
nbonnds in the Northern lakes anrl river", reactiing a lengOi <tf 
flvc feet and a weiglil of eighty pounds in the npper lakes. "The 
ifughilounj/e,'^ niya C. fiannian,"!!! tlie upjwr Mississippi, id s^oH 
wlml of n eluggiud, and owing to his size and hyena-like chan^ 
t«r, the very fish of all othera for epearing by torchlight, one of ih* 
Ewcida, of wliich Agaasin says America is the fatherland." (A Svnr 
nier in the \Yitdeni*'s>x, p. 139.) Perhap? more famons ret is tl 
Indian name of Meiihnden (Alosa raenliaden) of tlie New Kngla 
w.ater5 and as far Eoutli as Clieeapeakc Uay. Belonging to tlie] 
ring kind and apjiearing at timt-s in perfectly incredible oaml 
iiear the shore, they are caught and carted by hundreds of wi 
loads to the flclda to servo as mnnnre. Their popularity is so 
in Massacbueetts that a petition was recently (1870) prra(mt«dl 

Tire nrnuir. 


irt. as the Legislature of Clint; St^itf is cnlled, in behalf 
ndlj ivlaliorifl tn Ihe i/en/iatienl It set forth that ibo 
r Uie petitif) tiers, when they boded in (his country, 
ibod* ii(">ti the bunkK of tbo Nqwnset Kiver, becanse 
ianw of li^h theivin ; that the 8ii|>pl<r had never failed 
Kerar-prcicnt h«lp "in the var of ISIS, the TnrifT 
™iW3 of IS:i7 nnd 1857." btit thnt " when Ihe trMii- 
II tnuned by tliii lH>nibiin]mrnt of Fort Sumter, the fish 
r of tlie Nepoasot quietly departed, and froDi that lime 
en deprived of our hBrfdiiory liuuries." The loyul 
ing popalatioii, therefore, pelitioii iheOeneral C^Mirtto 
ning Menbaden to return to be eaten as of old! In 
r New York tlie name fish appear nnder the name of 
: or Moashuttkera. a term ranch affected by W. Irriiig, 
'* Her*' ail cili! Dntch burgher related that be enw the 
le ahape of a hug« Moitainmkrr st-izo the itturdy ontbor 
nd draw hira Iwoejith the waves. Hence, as to Moss- 
y are held in «"<;l] abborreuce, that no true Dutchman 
hi-in m his table, who loves good fish and hates — the 
n'clrrbo-tfr HUtonjof New rorX-,p.231.) TheJ/wm- 
little known iteyond the wnters aronnd Long Island; 
jrjvlike lifh is more, ^'cnerallv callt'-d the Barred A7%, 


'■■ '^ - I'ps) from the imperfert pronuuciatioo 

leiiiiy called Ponfju and I^yy, a flsh 
iokI kind and mncb esteemed for its flavor, htis a en- 
yconnecttsi with ite Indiim name. In the Narragan- 
! the latter appears a£ .Viafteacttppauff, the plural of 
t, which meiiat •• lur^'-Ecaled." Of this wor^l ihe fifftt 
«e»ro« to have been entirely lost, tho next «yllable xtrup 
laiued in Rhode Island, while the last, a mere termi- 
the p of the word itself, p^'i^ ha-^ b«'n lengthened into 
\tiTcd into pvtyif, and ihu« rnmisbed tlic name by which 
inown in Xew Vorit. It ta stated, however, np<m J. R. 
ntbority, that " ihe entire Indian name is still common 
mii of N'ew Ent'liuid." A Ilsb much esteemed in 
••l*r^ Mid especially commended by Mr. Daniel Web- 
, exttllent 6«b, in Its wav inferior lo none, nnlesa it bo 
J, for which l »m told it wa« mi&tflkcn by 



Kogor Williams," (Lftt«r to Mr. S«atoii. Fvh. 14, 1850), ii 

Tetutoff, (Lahnis nmcHrniinsL) The IntHuH word is tbe pU 
taut and was ivallv tmnsJated in the " Key to tmlian Longn 
slieepheadsr the nameofa 11 car cotisiunlBO caught in thesamni 
llioiigli corieidcit^d superior wlion caught ia the SonUi. Ii 
York it ia called Biaci- Fish fiuiii tUci^lor. TJic Tomcodtini 
lie odd-suuuding iiauie— aa if it w«re not a Tom ('at bnt il 
Cod— to a corruption of the originAl Indian name, Thl 

[old Mohcguu word, meaning "plenty-lisli." This presaml 
etrpngtlionnl by the Tiict thuk Ccvivr atill culls it TaeaMd.*' 

^which niUunUly led by its Eonnd to tbo conversion into a 
Dnghly Eiigliijh 6>oundiiig name. Tiie little lisli (Morrhoa 
noEn) appciiiti in vast numbers iviLli the first frost mid is! 
quite as ^'ell known as Frost Fish ; thus we hear it said: 
we met with large »cl»oola of J-^o$t /V*/i, the Tmncoil of ourl 
with hosts of hungry hhiefish in fierce pursuit.'' {A 
Cruisi", p. 110.) ?ior mnat we omit mentioning the poor 
Weak Fish, contemptuously eo*calIed by the fiehennen of 
IslunO Sound l>ecanso of the fcuble resistance it oiaV'^s •! 
cuuglit by a book. lU Indian name Sqiidtayue is not imly ild 
among the people of the neigUburliood, but has fouud its vayf 
the Nurnigansott dialect, in wbiclt it originated, to acientifici 
where tbe fish appears as Labrns Squeteaguf. 

PcrhiipH Uie mi>at Indicrons corrn;ii:inri of an Indian nunie inUl 

rgood Kngliah word is (hut of the Narragnnsett tenn «/«i/i 

W*fPi/ff. The former is tjuotcd by Wiuthrop in bis vssar " Ob I 
Culture of Maiae" (rhilvn. Tnlfis. No. 142, p. HKi5), and 
Baddiim yAffTtmrf, II., p, 131), iw stated in Webster's luetic 
Butns tbo Iiidiiin dialects of New Fngland contain neitliorii 
the original word wnsniorL- probably rti'HOT;7. Wliatovcr mayl 
been the true origin, there was enough resemblance in the 
to tempt the Kuglish — for with them wu arc inclined lo think ' 
change arose — to courort it into their familiar akmfc-,KnA 
tbe little fish (Clnpea sernita), resembiiog a herring, and 
Riaiuly for manure^ appears at home and abroad in the ridicu) 
form of (tlemvts. 

White the common slicUOsh found in the sand of tidal Ti\ 
ftml known as eUiin, dcrires its Kngljsh name very ei^iitii 
(mm ita ivaembluuou to a clamp, oad was to called fur ouujr ' 


doon to Captain John Smiih, who irrites: "Tim shaU 

rce find any bay or shallow shore or cove of saudd when* voa 

IJ uot take many ctampsfn or lobsters, or both at your pkueura" 

\iryitixa, 1^ p. 134), it \a fre^ucnily etili called by it« Indian name 

\<xk. TbLs word, howuvi-r, iim eharal the futc uf other 

l^iiarraguaBett terms, and been made to do duty in parU: 

being now the uauiu of th« itouud Clam in Xantut;ket> 

rfvoAouj/ represents the same sbelltiah in iriw Vork, Auw 

ey, and Pcnns^'honio. (S. 8. Haldcman.) The laws of Rhode 

oae the U'rm f/uft7im in impoaing a heavy fine on persouiJ 

' I«ke llieni bL-iweeu May and Scpti-mtKT Tnxn t-ertain beds in. 

j^vidence Rireff where, in common with sevemi other places of 

[ character, the luscious shellfish are regularly jilmiied after tho 

incr of oysters. Tlie clam of Boston is the Mya areuaria of 

!ri<ain-^n<t«, and when suited fur the fisheries it takeji the mime 

\dam-bait. Hen Clam is the name given in New England to 

MoctriL gi^ntea. It baa already been mentioned that the 

tahauff (Venus mercenaria) aorved in olden times to fnruic 

Svffiiiiiuick, m Roger Williame ualU it, of which tlic Indians' 

their currency : '• After they have eatea the meat there (in 

which are good) they breake out of tho shell about halfe an 

of a blacke part of it, of w^hich they make their Suckauhoch, 

f black money, which is to them prcttons." [B.) The Soft Clam 

r also Btill known by its Indian iiiimfl -l/rtHflniMay, suggestive of 

iIongilfsihlefiuuHt from which \i spirts water, so that on thei 

.: "even the toothsome ,Vano«ojay* squirted water up throng] 

sand what time the tides were out." (Pxfnam'f Xfonthli 

»y, 18i0.) Even the favorite method of preparing the olai 

I been taught us by the Indians, and ia to ibis day known as 

i£ak«i from the fact that they ure baked in an impromptti 

stones and weeds. A hole in the ground of the proper 

for tho cinantity to be ])ivpared ie lined with round Btooes and 

»rangbly heated by a continuous fire, then the hard clunis are 

iwu in and covered with eea-weeds to prevent the escape of steitm 

flavor. The result is an unexpectedly savory dieh,wliieh is 

ipting enough to attract often large parties, and ,1. R. Unrtlett 

ttions a political C'(am Jiake in Rhode hland in 1840,atwbicb 

if ten thousand persons wei-e pn-gent. 

\t raquiicB probably « greater fainiliarity with the Ufa of tb& 



dam to' apprccinto the force of the New EngUnd prorert): 
Jmpjt*/ as a rlam at high tvairr" though at thnt time it 
KOfDisto I'lijoy the geDcrous Quid that co^'cre and feeds it ntUwi 
tint. The vulgarusoof Uiu word clamshell U uiifortanatc>lT 
fntelliffiblc, and h«nce the expreeaion, quite common vht 
■loof U heard, "tihut ifottr clamthetl, tor: K«c-p Tour ovni 
■uli" is familiar even to English earSr uid the poel Loir?1l 
it with great force in the lines: 

" You don't ffecl much like bpmUb' 
When, ef jmi let jour elamtkHU ^pR, n qiiitrt of tar will leak la.' 

{Biglffto Ptipf*, IL 19.) 

In addition to these Indian terms derived from the former ( 
era of OUT Continent, and more or leu intimfttely connected ' 

our HHcliil ur domestic life, we have in our English » limitcdl 
her of U-rmo Unit owv Llii>ir origiu to Indians of Central and) 
Amrrlcii, or of the West India ialanda- Some of these are] 
<'i''t)Hy familiar and inipyrtunt to deserve a place among 
cull pi-ciilianti('» of our idiom, although Ihe great majoritji 
prohiibly bh common in England as with ouraeives. 

Thus tho Harbecuff the roiu^ling whole of an animal bjri 
It to the bncltbone and placing it on a rude gridiron of stakei^l 
terra — and h prutjess— obtained from the Indians of Gniana. wiio 
u»d the Word Brrbehtt for the wooden grilla on which ihej 
broiled or smoTccd dried meatB and fish. R. H. Beverley short 
that the word wiifl in nse in Virginia befo!\? 1700, for he s»r»; 
" Hy laying the meal upon four slicks, niised upon forks al bobm 
Oi»tjincn above the live coals," . . . which " they and we alto froa 
thi^m rail bnrbecueinff" The wortl was adopted by thcEuglisliia 
Uiiiana m early at least as 1665, and thus Pope was led to ct cliiai , 
tJirough Oldflold: 

" Lcinl inc, gods, a whole hoR barhfcued." 

There is no necessity, therefore, of resorting to the nolent^i 
tempting, derivation from hnrhe'A-queuCf words which in 
M'lves bear no association witii Itennlksa hogs and oxcu, and ' 
tuinly would tiot bo apt to Vto familiar to Vitiginia Indians, 
eonveoience of thus preparing umptv food for a number of pei 
in tlic eimplfst way, and the happy result of the process of re 
ing, have led to tbie pnserration of the ancient cuAtom, and do| 



time of the late Civil War barbfrvct were iVequent in tho 
aad geiienilly rory happy occasions for ucigUhors and po- 
dcfll fHrtids to osacmhle in council. The merry scene in the 
Wlter of a wood, the fraj^rant irtenm, the saTory meat, and the 
wly interchange of wit and jest, nil served to make the simple 
ntertainment a bond of friendfihip and neighborly kindness 
ntm^ the iisserabled people, and spoke well for the eimple habits 
nd cordial fe^'Iingfl of what C I.flnman in his description of snch 
I meeting calle "the veomanrv of Virginia."' {AdvetUvre-'f, 11., p. 

' Tbt West India term Cacique , borrowed by tlie Spaniards from 
ite Catic of Hayti, has become so familiar to American ears, that 
1 is often most absurdly applied, now to chiefs of Indian tribes 
nd now CO mayors of Xew Mexicnu towns, and any somewhat 
wnpous and self-sufficient man is apt to he uicknamcU the Ca~ 
iqut of his town. Calico is of course as familiar to our eara as to 
tBjIish, bot the East India word, derived from the city of C«li- 
nl, does not denote the eamc material in America; while in 
id white cotton goods are still called caiieoM, the name is 

iconflned to prints, i. e. ooktrcd cotton cloth, coarser than mus- 
The latti^r material, so o:ilh>d from Mosul in Syria, is, on the 
Mbtr hand, in New England never applied, as in England, to 
Bivk cotton clolhe, which are there called thirting or $heeting. 
Tb« difference in various States is so great in thisTCspect, that a 
Kory is Mid of a gentleman in Philadelphia, who ordered muslin 
Airaiu Boston, and although reminded of the nnsuiUibleness of 
But material for the climate in which he lived, insisted upon his 
Dfiter, as he had always worn mnstin, meaoing cotton -shirting, 
ffben his shirts arrived, they were made of Swiss mull! The 
Sam miifilin is, at the North, only used for thin, clear fabrics, and 
■per-mnslin is known an snrccnet cambric. 
The Ctusarmp of the West Indies, the name of the juice of the 
Msswa'Toot (Jathroplia manihot), boiled down to destroy its poi- 
onons properties, and much employed as a condiment, is as such 
vD known, and has made the name more familiar to American 
tra than the Chiclui, a fermented liquor made in the West Indies 
r Indian com, and not unknown in the new States that were 
ace under Spanish authority. 

)£ Mexican word Coifotiy the Azt«o name of the prairie-woh 



bfthmm to tbmr 
■d otfcer frvrinoet of V»i 
i«b» fttifsl OM B«w, n«t I 
il( bat wamn fin^acBtlji 
liM bamm 
prMiiiMi tbtn^i 
Sml Mft int 
fikwri, giviDiE at tbe fol 

mtpooti of tW uiiMal : " I dcpt wdl, bat tbe immaIIt 
■vafaned ik «t Imk hr tkeir ^c^u^ l^frins up 
eutt« witliia t«» or t^w nda of grifing «ae by the tail 
thvr piDofM^l AvaT aenss iIk cvoL gnr i^nrel. id the dim 
of thr dkibfrak, it iDokcd prac i— It as if tiwjr wcte ik&tug 
m ke" \& Ftovm. 4/M •<■ eWm* ilMMrf.) Of the 
RwaMd: *" Alt mhmg tim griciw M j w i ii ly » going oti tta 
nto'. md. •» teO iIk tiMk. Atn m BOfc alvMrs ntacfa cboia 
twMi thr foM«4eBBgi and tbe t«v4eg^ eoyob.** (Oi<f->W 
Jfit^ Jnar. l97Ck^ Tbe void is going fiastwacd, for a rM* 
Cllimp» paprr sm: *-OiieDr tbe dciights of UitUMSDta tUgt 
tn; partiaa u t)«tDgroba»ed bf trnfttm." (Frbrnary. 1871.) «> 

AmHber Mrxican uamt has B UH i Tcd tad made its varisl 
Anmraa ittumMlatare: tbia b Uir OoeMJ of Hesion, the 0^ 
U of Nonbeni Tesas (Felix pudalis), n large cat-like beut <f 
pKT, knovD aim as lifir-rai, and extending Nortbwanl ai fu* 
Texas. It becaiuf knovn to ua tbiouf^h earlj French seld* 
who had j;iivn th« uamo lu pnaent afaape. 

Ouaito, a word repreaentit^ a ftir, thoogh not altogt^ther ttt* 
OBsafbl, effbrt to pronounce the ppntTian Huano, which nmrf 
** datip.*' is. of ctmrpe, now well kuowu nil over the Uuion, a> 
lai^Ir prcpart'd artificial It, that the imminent exbaii»ti 
imported artid<* trill probobl; bo Tiewed with indifferen 

The Hvmmocks of Florida, islands in tbe everglades 
ander water, which are ^apposed by some to liairu onow 
coral iaiands in the inid»t of the ocraD. before nud and 
filled up the regions aronnd them so as to couTert them 
swamps, arc pr^enmod to have their name from a West lndi« 
word fiuniliar Co the Spaniards. The deriratioti has, howevft 
nertr boen aatisfitctoriij eatabltebed^and it appaarsqDice as lifcet] 



tfae tenn originated with tbe Scmiiiolea themsclveg, who, as 
im earn possess '- t-bis ewampj luid homtuocie^ coaQtrr." 
tvfla in yorth America.) 

fmrricaiunj also, mora frequent in America than in Europe. 

le their way int<^ the laujEUfl^, and the word, l«miliar to 

ih ears, appeari already lU hcntttuu in Oaptalu John Smith's 

oant uf Virginia, while no Kn^lish diotlonarj mentions it be- 

17^, wbeu it was quoted by i^billipa. It le derived from 

ih uracatto, fairly represented by the l<>ench ouragaitf 

tltf ]>alriattc Englieli ualumlixtfd, as usual, iitider the more 

lilitr form of hurry-raue ! Tlic diit^uiiifi secmd to haro been 

ire eooQgh to lead learned men into temptation : some de- 

:t)io word from a Quiclu- Ixtiil whirh liai never bceo diflCOT- 

;: others, like tho le;i.rned Dr. Webster iiimself in earHer 

actw in it the root of the Latin /uri'o. It is atmpty the 

■on term of the dialect of Uispauiola for any high wind, 

opecially for the terhblu toriiudo of the Caribboan Sea, 

Budt sublime and awfnl display of power which nature 

lit is a muoh mooted qnestion whether the familiar term Jerked 
ffaf arose frgm the familiar Euglish word to jerk, or from tbe 
eJiarqui, which represents the same prepuratiou iu all tjpaa- 
i-American oonntriea except Mexico, where it is calWd tasayo. 
He ftislnm irself. of drriiif;; beef ami otiier frt-sh meflls withont 
Jt ill liio ojten air, m qtiib; iis common now m of old, but the 
Rid WOE aever met with in this scneo before its employment 
the '■ j)Iaiitationi'' K<rclieval Bays : " Tlieir large wallets, well 
ortLh bread, ;>rjl;, boiled ham, and cht^st-, furnished prnvi- 
ifl for the drivers.'' (p. 324.) Wills De Uoss also repedte: 
u daylight appears the capfaiu Btort«d to wliere thpy 
jtrk hanging on tho evening befort-'' {lUst. of Hnriy 
%ts, p. 3dd), and Lhia uso of jerk would seem Ut be iu 
-of it« derivation lirom the Indian of Central America. A 
It work by Mrs. Trwl, bowtver, shown the more recent use 
[th» word ; "Ineteadof outting the meat into Btrips and dry- 
it (or jerkiug it^ as the lumberecs term it)." {The Cnnadian 

tSren ibc Saudwich hlimders have given as tome asttielancu in 
word Kanaka^ which with them means limply a man, but 


74 Axxucjjrisics. 

vhioa h&s. £::ce xin iniercoane eiCibliaiiAl becvccn khdr diilat 
home in the F&oiiic uid C&Iif«»xifak btoami qmce *"*»■» iii«* to o> 
ears, so I'^iz ve ^ knov reir v^Il vbAs ii bkuic vhen we ml 
of ~ The OAj ihx: Fivaca Peu azhd £aji«iiB Joe thot each ote 
u dcAUi orer ch« mt in zh* iroas room.' t'7^ Lmek of Baetiaf 
Ctfmo. br F. Bl Htfce. n. 1.1 la :b« same poidona <tf the TTma 
the ocoe Mexioaa Tt>ni an:a:l. hi iu Spankh f(»m Dicia/i^ Im 
betfome v^-il cnovii :o AnKr^^Ac^ Ic >i«igaatei the hoUov4 
obloa^ »:.:ktie. Tijthi zLir.rsLlly ia sh-jae coantriei for giisdiai 
vhea: or Inciu com for t^nil^iis. or Axva for chocolate J.S 
Butlct: hioijcl:'. perbac^. Inin^ini:^ :he vord drsi to the geiienl 
public is ais eiiielUci work en Xew Mexico, vhen he aija: "fti 
mikf Acvsau the Cii&ks Orisc^ ui^ clain is screved with brafai 
porzerr SEC mescz^i, vr oom-irliCTrs.' ani rlnce then eveiT tn^ 
«;Ier his icam: and ta:iih: oiIcR ro aptdj" the word con«c^|( 
Its divs &s a '-.Ti::^ woni ire. h.weTer. Dnmbefed, as betU 
mech>i$ o:" ^t.^lzItl^ i:;i,vrsece ^o impe— 'ocr. old custotn, lai 
ft'tou m-ii^Uf T-.;; i>f kcowTt v-alv in &:i:^njxiAa writia^ k 
lonctr '.esAr ■;-:' lire :i:ay 'z< rr?dio;cd 5.^r Jjail, another Mexien 
word. oHiiaiHv ■wri;:en --.i.ti^.V, azii meininf a f:raw-haL Itil 
now :r.c uinio c: a rc^jra kicd of dwellics:, ooosisnn;' simpljcf 
£»k^». the iarrTsticies ">r:w«a which h-ivie wen filled ap wi4 
cIST. »uch aa 17? Tiery ooma.i:a la Tex:^^ and \ra new States tW 
w«v o=iv Mexican. "T.> :hi \i->. w-is rh^ znaid-hooa^ ptft 
/iTrti,', pan ten:-cIo:h." if>r-n,i« j" .V-wiJ«. Marv^^J:. ISTl.) 

The Inteivvur^wiih Briti^a siiLir& a::d the rrisk trade canM 
on in the Zift I:idif> br nzriTrvcs re=iden: American fiimSrliM 
brvngh; the tisnie oi the disreputable sursr"^ of Bombar. Dw- 
;;jrw. :-:o c».nimcn cso in ihe United States. It was probafa^ 
first the iX>arje b".-e c'.cth n:ir.n!acrared iher?. and named aflB 
the p'-ii-V. whiiih tcid; the name faj^iiiiar to American eais, * 
thi: F. R Har.e C!.-:;'.i siv oi" the n-.o:'.e_T crowd at the miiKl 
whi?h he »> jrraphi.'xil'.j desor.Ses : " Someiimes these appellaihi 
wers derived ;tv»ir. some distitictiTeneis o: drtss. as in the caae 
/"'fcv.'jrw Jack." I jls^"i- ._-" A.-.T.-i'v- C:."iy. p. oo,i Thai tt 
Anrl-i-Chit-TBe war, ir. whioh American ^uik'rs :ook part, brongli 
another term home to their miud. and henct we find a koh 
wziter <» Americanisms speak of ~ Bittish sailors on the ChnM 
who long a^ learned to lasch at the clamsr Dumgat 

uid directly irom tlie focitic lUclL Tbe Tatnai, 01 
' onr soathcramost States, hns, oa the other haud^' 
r with the Spaniards into our borders; they learul to 
uno from th^ IndJans of South America, when they 
disk which it rcproscnts: a mixtiiro of polenta and 
;, wrappvd in coniBliiicks and baked in the hot ashes. 
i lays: "Tbe mouutebauks draw a crowd, and this 
iw sellers of whiskey, tortillas, and iitntaules, making 
tnresque groHpi" 

of Mexico is 60 widely spread of%r all the aouthvest- 
hat [he name, originally Indian, has become of oni- 
n designating tlio short Cattail (Sciri)ua lacustris), 
nally in Caliromla, covers i)latns whi>re the eye Dnds 
'he grass, insiguilicaut in iUelf, aud of no value b'ave 
over iho hut* of shepherds aud outUws, affords refuge 
g localities for immense numbere of aquatic birds. 
>M "around I^ake Tuhirf,it attains a larger siste, 
he height of eight to sixteen inches, and measuring 
and a half near the root." {OcerUiml Monthly, Jan- 


Immigrants from Abroad. 

"When a score of naliom, each with its ova dialect, unite to make ap 
or popnlation, some effect moat t>e prodaced on oar langu^e ; BOine peca- 
ar threads wiU be found after a while iaterwoven with the national web." 


ma of H«II Gitte, wlilCh it ennlinats to bear ta the prnwnt Ahf." 

iV. Iiting. 

September dtb, 1600, a bold Suglish mariner iu the eerricc 

tDotch East Indiu Comjian; sailed \m little shallop Half- 

E of eighty toQS, into the U-autiful bay of New Ygrk, aod 

|da}'8 later entered the great river that here Ho vs into the 

THl* latter took it^ nmne from the discoverer, Henry 

I, and the hmd, claimed by Holland, was called Nen* \eth- 

A few years litter rho island of Maohattau iras piirchueed 

Jurtinns for the value of twenty-four dollars, and the little 

if New Atitit^rdaDi beguu to lluiu-iKh, and became the chief 

a prosperous colony. Dot the English claimed the whole 

of Virginia^ which bolouged to them by right of a prior 

ry by Cabot, and in 1664, iilready, there was an end of 

inpremacy in New Xctherlatids, which fell into the hands 

ir formidable neighbors. New AmfitunUun became New 

irith a facility wliich justifies the Fenian prophecy that it 

K>n be New Ireknd, and the good Dutch burghers in 

hm and along the banks of the river up to Albany had to 

the hinguage of their new masters. 

I tiacea which their own idiom has left on the fuoe of the 
ry are here, as with the Indians, by far more important and 
ttent than the elements wliich it has contributtrd to our 
lay langtiago. TTills nnd monntainfi, rivers and lakes still 
leir old Dutch names, ihoiigU often eadly disfigured. 
in are Siaten Island, Harlem Hivor, the towus of I'ovgh- 
', Flunking, Shtyvtsant, iind Slami'U: in the city of New 
itreeta called Cortiandt, Jtooset fit, or Ka^^au ; outside of 
', Caeniiet SUp and Fori Oattievoort ; and farther eastwanl 

S^K^Itm Dmft^ C^» Mmy (Mey) anil RV^V t fti'>i) 1^ 

■iimK illHf 111 ■Iliiwl iiiil fereiL-i 

dw old I>ntch doinBiBn. Bat tfaat l:j. - .. 

Tork, tbp BmBftjt vUdi for nm reproduml «U 
leooe and nd^leai crime of aocKDt Alariia, has Itttii: m 
viof tbc flit— lut ilMrfvrji^ tbe gantoi-bowcrrof old Datr^i 
aoim, wbo bcir enjoyed their ftrngrxni Bowera and liu< 
is qniet rani retnats ; nv wvoU. the ascipot TiUagv of ^' 
2m. srrenteen mik* hm Aulierdaiii, which in Mbt, 1 
iti name to a nnall cettleBunt witfaia ngfai of Um Bov«n, 
sam Hi podcbild in the gigmntic dtr vf firvotrltfn, 111' 
near bj, in which tht.- Xarr Yonl luu long toco fii 
ODC« Wa/ite Bcgh, a name hudlr to he looVrd Tur under Uu 
ooghly AoKticizvd ITD/Zaioiti. Tfao fFcntTit b-nn AVZf, a 
stream or cmlc, baa on lfa« oiber hand rrauinrd rnithfnl to 
a email and largo water of the Xortb. frum the 1 
mouDtoiaf, so-callvd from a pictorecque brook am:i.. .^ 
■on), to the hroad SehMtflkill (BidileD Ciwk) iu tjie 
fitftte. TliP Fifhk-itt do«i Rtill honor to itR name, and the 
A'u/^ denotes the channel between Suiu-n Inland aud 
ihoagh it is, for brevitVa sake, more eommoQl}' called tlti 
ply. A small flih of the gouoi Fuudtilus. found aim in 
ra and used aa a bait, i^ apprupriatcly caiiul KiQg I'lik 

This term Kill is one of a claw of worda which senre la 
the few tnice« of (fenmnc proTincinliam eiistiug in the 
Stjitca ; for Ihf Kill of New York is a brook in Xew En 
run in Virginia, and oloal a tn'ekf or creek, almost everi 

The term ffat a\m, meaning a hole, a pot, or n pitssnffe at cea. 
•urvired in the names nf miiiiy mnritime localities. B^i 
as the English would have called it, thus continuos tn i ... 
ffotf but Jielh-Oat, concise and rather too snggestiTc, bos 
BofU'iieil iind made proper by being chflnged Itilo '' 
Irving dciiniuicrs iUt nlteration thna: "Ci-rluin m 
men ijf squeiunisb couficiences. who are loath to give Ibe l)c 
dof, have softened the above chanictcristio Into ffu. ' ' 
Hoothl The mime of this strait, ae given by our auUi 
puried by tlie map in Vniidcr Donck'g history, pnbluhed inl9JM 
by Ogtlvio's History of America, 1G7I— as also by a journal ill 

iTTE nrmnrxK. 


knit written hi the XVIth century and to be found in Haettrd'B 
« Prtpcrs; and an old MS. written in French, ppwiking of vari-J 
nlitTaiiona in names about this city, observes: 'De Nells-gal,] 
(I'Knrer, iU oot fait f/eii-ffaie, Porte d'Enl'cr.* " (FooUnot^ 
Uory of jVffW York, ch. it.) 

tt naiS in the same way thai the Dutch hotk, a corner, Ibongb. 
^kienlly modified into English -loo king hcoh, is still found as 
or the name of certain comers or angular pointa in the 
i^tan and the East Rivero, siich as Sandy Hook, the firet land 
rHl«l by the trBTclIer from abroad, and Kinderhook, high up 
rirer, made Cimous by the name of its owner. Martin Van 

'o thcsf- names may be added the Dutch term overtlanti, to skip,1 
ftfmiit, which still snrrives in a few local names, where sand-j 
isnddenlyintcmiptthofrpo navigation ofriTers. as ill the 0»w*| 
in the Ilndson below Albany, the dread of all skippertA 
^« same verb, it ie well knoM-n, has given to English the familiar^ 
''TB of overslaughing, for the act of rewarding an outsider at the 
ease of the person entitled to the preferment by seniority in 
lofc It is not unlikely that the term oame into England 
ler Ti\'illiflm and Mary: in America it is almost entirely 
killed lo pt^tlilicat language, and its technical meaning, inherited 
Great Britain, in the army and navy. A prominent candi< 
fur the pre.sidency is thns said to have been fwemlnughed by 
.party if a man before unknown is nominated in his place.and 
IT officers complained bitterly during the !ate Giril War when 
Hw themi>clTe9 repeatedly ovfirilanghfd hv civilians serving 
og the v-.!imtwr(;. *''rhere is no danger that General Grant 
be otferalaughfdy* predicts the Now York Tribune (Jan. 19, 
I), speaking of the noTtt presidenHa! election. 
The Dntch word Ynnki^r in the senseor the French (Jntlet and 
iGerman Junker.snrvires in the uame of the town of Yonkvrt. 
b Hight Rcreivnd Bishop Kip states, in his channiog sketches 
\ former times, that he remcml»crs visiting, in his early days, ihe 
manor-honee of the Phillipse family, still standing in West- 
on the Hudson. "When, bcfon! the Revolntioo, Mr. 
^alKpse lived there-— lord of all he surveyed — he was always 
tn of by hia tenantry as the Yonktr, the gentleman byoioel- 
\<St. 7a fact, he W&9 the only person of social rank in that -pert' 


> .^- .<H» sst" 5- t=t-E-L -TL- j:.: 

6 j-a:ca £^ r-Kifi r 

^E ©rrCHMAX. 


be u«ed so geneiully — the latt«r also in Eugland — ^to 
t ludicrous aoauds ftnd undesirable relatioDs. Englieli slang 
\J)uteh for any gibberish or unintelligible sounds, and the 
Uneia is frequently introduced into conrersation, whea the 
>D one votitd wish to see ia to be indin>ctly deftigoatcd. 
iironld almost imagine that the Dutch of old must have 
greater people than even the Knickerbocker Annals give 
UD credit for — hov^ else could the phrase: That UaU ih4 Ifutch, 
iVc obtained such general currency? Mr. Bartlett nxet with it 
ivBerolutionary song of 1775 already, and to this day it is used 
htBerera peculiarly astonishing fact is announced. 
lit \i much to the credit of the early Dutch vrowe and their 
jUd works, that tho majority of Dutch terms, vhicli have been 
iofponled in our language, are attached to names of certain 
fti things prepared in the kitchcu, and a few articles of dress, 
ftheir day, no doubt, rcligiousty made at home. Unfortunately 
jlgood people of Kew York bare kept most of the good dishes 
•tliemselvefi, so thai they and ilieir uames are rarely known in 
hta States. Their cookey, n little cuke so called from Koekjv, 
A still a great favorite at Christmas and New Year, is appor- 
tly an exclusively Dutch tit-hit, and yet F. B. Harle makes one 
hisreckleas Cohfornia characters say : " Don't Icnowwhar he ia! 
B lost crery hoof and hide, I'll bet a eooke^ ! " {Luck of Roar- 
f Camp, p, 227.) If this dainty seems to Iw specially appropri- 
ftd to great occasions, a crutier may, on tho other band, be found 
many a cakt^-staud and in oouutless homes all the year round. 
ling made of a strip of sweetened dough, which is boiled in lard 
^tlurn loope up at the two ends, it has received its name from 
term KruUer, meaning a "Curler." V^etables were 
itly not much to the taste of the old burghers, for it sooma 
^called Coru-saiad (V'alerianetta) with biting irony Veltikoetj 
ling like rich fore, and their descendanta, still retaining 
bsh, have as contemptuously allowed it to appear half classi- 
11/ la Ftiticu/i or in hidicrous English disguise as Fatticofoa. 
todUjeest ui humble imitation of maccaroni and used like them 
r dumplings and iu soup, retain in Xew York at least their old 
Itch name, bat are hardly known elsewhere. Olycoeks, on the 
W hand, have become more universally popular. Deriving 
ttom the Dutch oiy-cotk, oil-^ake, because they ore 



nils of ffreetetio<l dongh fried iu hog's fat," me W. Trrmg 
m, thoy have become guiiPiuUy known as dougknvU. T 
ter were, of omn*8e, not niikiiown in Knglaud, for HalliwcU 
quotes them as being callwl donnvta xn'^cttm^ '^apamaks, 
of dough inetciul gf Imiter," but their popnlaritr M<>nu to 
twen iDiTea8«<l hy that of iheir Dutoh couaina, and tbtT fas 
SDoe mftinuined a atrong hold on the \ew England 
" DonghnuU and pumphi7t pies SBem to btn the delicsciM i 
held hi «Bt^>eni hen:-," vrote Mrs. Trollope mBuy reara ua 
the same is tnie now. The West, however, does not aeem W 
apprcciutcd the dehcacv yet, if we may trost the aoooant 
fc obeerrant traveller who ukcd the waiter uf a Westt>m ho 

■ be had my tlvuffhtivtsf '' Ooruool^," eaxd Put. complctelr 
wit** end, "I'm « thinking them noota don't grow in this, 

tthry." (Puitrian'/i Mmj.. Docember, 1854.) They aw ft^n 
eaten at Xow York teu-gnthcrings, and this lends naturallr tothi 
recolluctiou that the pronunciation of pomp ti8;»>m;i is iumuDTOMI 
due to the iwnnd of the Dutch won]. The good people in thoie drt 
were very fastidioue in the clioioe of the best water for their tia— 
M in fact conacien tioiia tea-drinkers onght alwaya to be— ond certiii 
pnmpB in the old city were rcnomied for their excellent qnahtitt 
Tliese wore; cftlh^ tea-pomps, and it is siiid that old iuhabitaab 
Btill remember aome of the most famons, one of which stood n 
Franklin-street, where a lioy was kept in thu aftemoon, pumpiiic 
Uii-watiT for the neighbors. RuUichics, once called rollttjtts, litth 

■ rails, are small fiansagc* stufted with minced meat, ont into sliMl 

■ and then fried, ii diah more palatoble thaa wholesome- Smeartaa, 
fron» Iho Dutch smeer-kaas, a proparaticti of ourdB spread oni 
flat surface to make into cheese, is the same m the more faraflJit 
cottngo^heode and as familiar to Gennany under the name rf 
Schmier-Kaese as to HollanrL It oecnra as early as 1843 in lb 
Philadelphia '• Pnee-Ciirrent." The same may be satd of the 1^ 
mons Spek en ApfHjf-eg, now commonly called Speck ami Applijm, 
(ai pork ami apples cut tip together and cooked ; for the Germaw 

»and all iheir near kindred like t»t and sweet things combined— 
a tadle not unfamiliur to the New £nglauder, who loves bi£ porfc 
and molasseg. Fat pork with haricot-b«<ans, and thickly oovenl 
OTer with molaswB, is a royal dish for eeafflviiig men, snd rarely 
longabseut tnm the caUn of a whaling captain. The sweet eon 

it i« erid^ntlj tulded to tnodifV th« riehne^ of the fiit, on th« 
principle which makes us nso currant-ielly with mutton or 
Hanled T^nison. 

It 19 eomcwhnt ivmarkiihio, that of nil thnsc more or lem tempt- 
LgdUlies to which the descendants of the Dutch settlers adhere 
ilii putriotic fervor oiid good task*, uoue ehonld bare become 
Diiular berond the limits of New York and parts of New Bng- 
wd, while the onlj pTt-pnrntion of thefrs which can be said to 
■re become national i» une which ran he hnt faintly pniiseil. 
%ia is their koolslaa, literally cahhage-»ilad, coaeiBting of cab- 
Ige-leavcfl cut fine and di'essed with vinegar and oil, pep{>er and 
kit, ksrdty e((uul to tlie much-berntcd Sanerkruul of the Ocrmuos. 
■traons who desire to be very correct, nnd are tit the same time 
■ppilv innocent of nny knowledge of foreign lauguftges, have, 

is well known, an intense desire to improve unfamiliar words by 
rirting their shape till they assnme a mure pleading, heoanae 
loTP familiar, form. To tliie fate kool-slmt has nearly eiiccumbed ; 
> ij DOW almost invariably written aa in the following extniot 
"Oin I trave!ler*B account of hotvl-fare in Delaware : "A banqnet 
r half-fHed bacon afloat in grwise, wary potatoes, ooldilaw appa- 
totly cnt with a harrow, and coffi* as weak as the hntter wua 
roog." {Uppirtc^tra .Vay., Feb. 1871.) 

Tbu fi'w names of articlea uf wearing apparel which the Dutch 
Kfe bequeathed to ug, are, like their dishes, almost entirely cwn- 
Bed lo the State, and oneii to the city, of New York, and may, 
I inch, if fairly rhi^st'd among ihe genuine provinciftiisms of 
kiDerica. There ia something of old Holland naivete in their 
irmWn^ napless blankets made iit home continne to this day 
) !>? called ; the word meant originally haare klederert, hare (?lothefl 
6«rman Kleider), and graphically described the absence of the 
fnal long staple. It recalls to our mind at once the picture of an 
Id Dutch dame, so charmingly portrayed in W. Irriug'B loving 
(■cription of Knickerbocker days, bending over her work in her 
^chnuUh (klap-muts),aqnatntttiough not nnbcooming cap often 
bcu In Gerard t)o«''8 paintings, and still worn here and there by 
'd-fiuihion«Tl ladies of Dutch dewent. No wonder that BUCh a 
irm, uiJpejiringNuddenly among fashionable Biddies and brilliant 
hoehet of ebony-color, should be hailed a9 a Frowchey, a well- 
, desperate attempt to render the staid old Vrouwije (Oerman 



FTuHclien), with which the wivei* of th« good burghen lued I 
greeted. Wo have crcn hcnrd the term applied to a poor] 
woroan, looking, in her bright chintz gown and odd cap, 
lonlders und deep-wrinkled face, like a picture of aa oM 
bv boys who viere as ignorant of its meaaing u of the woidj 
by which Uwy called tliL-ir trundling houps, and which the 
inspected they owed to the ftoepit of Dutch aocestore. N«S 
their mothers think probably that they were using another 
term wht-n washing their chiidreas dirty little hands, andi 
them "too musuff in ull conscience ;" the word lookn M Hki^ 
Old Kuglish muss, und recalls so little the Dutch viorsig, 
which it is derivwd. 

Very much in the same manner Americaus arc still uc 
heaj-d to epeak of a hgt/ preuclier or u hi/i/ tulker in Bociety," 
they wish gently to insinnate that ench persons are not pecolh 
interesting, but approaching the cliaracter of '* bores." The I 
is derived from the Dutch lug, which means prosy, sloWf ori 
and being by its very Bound suggostivo of its meaning, haa: 
twined iU hold on onr language. This attuchmeut to old 
and old customa causes aho the word Paas (Puasch) sUU to' 
nud for Easter in many familie-9 of New York, and cliil 
[ especially are fond of calling their bright- colored Eaater egpl 
»Hicir vencnible name of Paaa-e^gs, when merrily cracking Uj«*j 
against each otljcr in Kuseiati fasliion, trying to break their i 
bor^s and not their owti. Aa, thanks to tlie resemblanoc of 1 
Gevraau Blumen, tbe echo of u Biniiiar Dutch word in tfaa 
of Blttiiimie and its diminutive Blummachte still survive . 
many jKuple in the great city and along the banks of the HnJ 
Rirer, Paa^-fittimmnchfn are well known in the flover-nuuri 
and designate the common yellow Daffodill. The eiu'ly azalea) 
our woods (Azalea nudidom), is in like manner called Pia 
JfiummacfieCf for the Dutch were luithful to ancient custoBd'l 
oelub rating after Kaat«r their Pinxier (German PGng8ton)i ' 
Pentecost of our churches, the Whitsuntide of cirillifo. Norl 
thoir descendants forget thehabitof thcirfnthersof extending^ 
festival over the next doy, anA Pimter Monday is a great day 
tlieir families aiul fiervaiils. '* Piuhnier JieUh" wMc J. V. CoO)i 
and " spinkttsr frolxea are no novelty to us, for, as they oocor^ 
every aeason, and I am just old enough not to hare mlssMt 

»4 X iOIb- ■MI* 

i?-'=-;:;^ Jt" 


l; S;'.!. 



-J.-. .= • T l.^- 1 HT"!^. ^l-i 

■-••'■ .- :_■'- ":un_'_;i.- -■ r*-*" ::t.-i 
.--■■. ■--:;■ -_>- :a.— • 7 >: i.^— t '?« 
V : v-r "L*=-~ iT-- ~--- - ~r^.: i-:- If w 
:;•.-• -.. I' 1:t".-. . :-> j^:: ■ ;r*;-si 
. -: *■•■■ ■.•'.'^z.-.zzyr-l l:i-eih:^. « 

.'. .I'.rifi >m:th alrradv reports, regai 
■: rwvr of Vircinia. '■Here are indiii 



no pliicc lunonff Americauismfl, the ttoop of our hoaai» t9,Qii 
coiiimrv, n genuine atiditJon which wc ow« to Xew Nelher- 
'Chr p>oi( Imi-ghers loT&d to eit on tlicir atotp^ {scaL*) »m.ik- 
eir pipes in ptacv and " lordly silence," nnd liaviiig wire uid 
mi (HI the (focy; bancJce by their side. The ctiriutiii wu^ pluas- 
«u<l «oll ndaptwl to our climuti-. and lienn- soon HpnMici a)! 
tlte country; with it the stvop becaiue tliu cutnmuu uaine 
ly coTcred or open porch with seiito, in front of a houee- 
waaGovernor Peter Stuyveeant •• foniid, according tocnfit'»m, 
jng bia afternoon pipe, on the stoop or bench at the porch of 
lie " (Knickerbocker's j\fiw York), and tJiua in our day tiic 
r sit's: '* Pilea of saiv-niill slabs fortifying the wood-pili-, 
piived witli chips, t)ie nianglctl rcinaiiia of Kiii^' Ia^, sph'Uil 
the*(oop.'" {Vvnn. Georgic^ rutiuirn's MotUhly, April, MhiA 
a the word is often written stoup and in the West occu- 
lly nfairp, but probably morf from inattention llian anv ptir* 
lo naturalize it by a change of form, 
word Av^h baa in like niiinner retained in America the 
I meaning oftiic Dutch ImscA more fuithftilly tlian in £ng- 
wlier>- it guncrulW desigualeti a singli* siiruij, wtiilc liere, as 
ott Hi-itiah cujonios, it meane rather a region abuuuding in 
and Bhrubfl. The term is at home in Aitstroliu uod common 
Canada. " Tbc farm-vrood is out off one mite from the river (St. 
). The n-st ia btish, and beyond. tJie ^uaihV tmgh; old 
eonntry is, eaoh landholder bounds on the primitive forest, 
111 fi!<*l bi-iirs no price." (Puttiain's MmiUthi. Jlurcii. IU53.) 
!r the war men '* took to the l/u-fk " in tho Ijoul ii a-4 readily 
hat the North, and to this day Western papers a-port that lhe"lu- 
^ii» tli»ippcared in the biwh, when they klw the lroo{>s appPHicb- 
Nl"' {Chrffninr Chron., Ang. 17, 1870). It is a curious incident 
in !iio history of wonls, showing how two meanings of the same 
krii may gradually bef»me merged in oue^ iliat btiBkwkmkvuf 
^thns of tati* roci-in^t a new signification. Originally it was u 
bmlesa word, denoting rimply tho prooeaa of pro]«lling a b<»at 
^ palling tbc bnsbed on Uio odgea of the fltr>'ani, or of beiiting 
Kwn down with a aoythe or a nmlgi^l in order to open away 
Amagh a thicket. In this sense, which rfi-rred lo the iudi- 
'idoal bnih, W. Irring nsed it, when he described the Van Bun- 
Bboleu of Kyaok m -'■gallant btishwha<tiw* aad hutitere of 



roecoonB by moonlight" (Kniekorbocker'B JViip Fot-it, p. IK 
Afterwards^ however, lawlrsa persons nod fngiliree Trom 
taking to tht' bush, wore ile^igiiMixl hv the citnviftiiviii oi 
bufhu'hacktirs, oiid diiritig the late Ciril War the desorlingwli 
and the uDauthorized raider gave to the term a new nad for 
ble m^auing. They woiilil iijffst pablic roads, plnuder 
IcM honscii, and even invade pf-aceful towns, to rctorn 
their booty to safe retreats in the bush. *'The general 
frankly," wrlt,('s donghty Colonel von Borcke, " that we had 
to fear from bushwhackers t)mn from the enemy, bat I Cmi 
in my good, old sword and bade my friends dismiss all fe 
{Blackwood, Sept., 1805.) 

The buslitvhackfr lias unfortunately uot disappeared in 
days, although the form is probably often applied where anoll! 
word would be mow apprnpriatp. Thus we read of a nid 
illicit distilleries in Tcnn'-ssee, that "in Smith County thr 
ernment onicinls, with a srjuad of Federal aildiere, wore firedi 
by hisluvhwkert, but no ono was injured. One man was sboCl 
the (high by the acfidenUl discharge of his own pistol, audi 
reuiiiindiT of the party is still in search of cim/rn^wrf disUlle 
(Nashville limmtr. MiU-ch 7, 1871). 

Among the words that may have come to onr speech from nd 
than one eource ia the word «;jrtn, whirh ive may owe to «' 
man word Gespann, or a Dutch term fpan, familiar as intrpan i 
all readers of works on South African explomitons, or books M 
Goi-diiit Cunjming's Travels. In (he United Statvs the wordi 
however, generally nsod of horses only, and iniplie.t invariablvj 
ma'ch in color, if not in all respects. *' (!ommodore Vander 
dri\'08 a »pan of bays, which arc said to have cost him ten the 
sand dollan;, and Dr. Hclmbold four in hand, which spanai 
rably, of Btiil greater value." (I'hiladolphia /MjHirfr, July 
1870.) Another sucli doubtful word ia spook, which may be i 
Dutch spook, a spirit or a ghoet. or the Qennan Sjmck, n phaat 
or a vision. The manner of writing it (ip.>alf« for the former l»r 
eumption, and so does the fact that the word is not only nwd 
the Brit.ieh colonies, but even by clasaic writers like Lord, Lyt 
But ou the other hand, *;woi-ff prevail most in regions wW 
GenunDs abound, as in the great Valley of Virginia and in 
Northwest. A New York correspondent wrote recently of on - 



a Smnto Domingo that " onc« he saw Toussaint L-OnrertDro 
iff aHont witli an air of moiiruful majestr," (Xew York Tri-, 1871,) and (hr " Aconi and Gem." a half-German half- 
!i journal, published in Pcnnrrlvania, says: "People near 
rmly Ix-lJcve in th«? »pook, and aro afraid of going through 
nc after aundown." (NovembcT SD, 1H70.) In liic \'anfy 
iDiA there remains to this day a re^on called PoweWs 
wberv u fierce mountaiu'Creek bn-aks the silence of the 
rith its roar, and where Old Powell long ago coined moner 
mcc of the law. Growing rich in accordance with his 
It with the devil, he barrelled np hts treasure and buried 
now goes about all night watching it carefully and frijfht- 
elatetl wanderers. 
Df alt Dutch words fumiliar to onr ear, none has acqviin-d 

oircnIatioD and a stronger hold on our social system than 
n ^j*, dorirecl from the Dutch ktas. It had, originally, 

M in its native land, the primitive meaning of " master," 
', or snperior of any kind, and retains it to this day in a 
leoBurv. Eren non- a boss shoemaker, or a hou bricklayer 
he head of a gang of workmcji, who deals their work out 
\f and pays their woge^ as an English master does to hia 
m and apprentices. In thit) sense it is, eren in England, 

cant term, if nothing more, with all mechanics, and cau 
gh antiquity for such a meaning, since as early as 1C7D, 
liptie M-rote: "Here they had their first interview with 
ale boss or anpcrcargo of the vessel," {Early Voyage fo 
etlterlands), strangely foreshadowing the "Advanced fc'e- 
t tlie Kcw World. For the proad Yankee, from the hejrin- 
iflliked calling any mao his master, a word which, us bug 
fry existed, he thonght none but a slave should employ; 
the relation between employer and employed required a 
le use of bofs instead of master, wu either coined or dis- 
. Thus the word became <.-arly a {mrt of the language in 
m and Western States, and Lord Carlisle could enjoy tlw 
neetion propounded to him by hia stage-<LriTer: "I sup- 
i Qnecn is yonr bots, now ?" In the same sense the slang- 
few York Herald said, in speaking of the Pope : '* Rotli 
fused to lot him haro any (money). The fact is, Rothschild 
sal pope and boss of all Europe." It is curious that the 


frr JC 

■ CClBfl& J 



ftr s A> Sot^sfti 

t tbvwocd an; finrH W and la fa* 
trsMB- ft bat cffta htok Moad □ 



/ioJbtkaC i^t* 


£no*T bi rah 

of A« 

k. So 

tbswaid beeMK.yMC«e am Bold of a dttU net in ; 
f«k tM* » saner Cw frBrflwig, vfaa viikad, a» cfaaige i 
iriKh Wnig the ■mii Mil, — d Mid: '^ I did not i«H ii«j 
MtoK" <&aH*Miin) Thas Ae Dvcchmaa ic ^Htc 

Tlw vord i« ocrarioBilly ffianm^ ■uandmciMd 
B wlll Them Ae B«gn hw ninwiTrtly aac been abl« tin 
iJIftwnu of »»d m tibsDiddiM* aad the 

wb^m be indolges m Itis ftroctte aougL Ik is i|nite 
«MM aktUfnt ■iofM' to i»d. and pnonaca to 
flWBgft'* Tbia meiAi, oriiiull;, Docbing more than 
VOBld BBf ib« fof ■ to the odirrs lead ; bat now it nfen to tl 
«hmM or icftniA. Tbk Hviw eepeciallj to the tk«mti^g\ 
vWa tke n q tiw e i fana a lii^ in wlueh one balf of the < 
onfnpany pFrforaashoBItngdaoce, ■ithasortof dorknqgi 
of Uw bodj. irhila th« other ba)f uand by and Eing, ooe 
Itfff and atrinii^g rerse to rent, maor of whldi are made] 
tiM ifp^ and nftr to the oompany present Theoe bi 
■ra aaid to tou the fon^. 

Tti« mdcn of W. Irnng'is deligfatfnl work on the Ristafji 
A'rui y'f/rk, m which fact and tictton :nv su aiuoaiagij intii 
w l/t hate deoeircd more than one acate cridc, «i« familiar 
bla ffaaint and ftraphic desonption of the origin of Moring 
B«Merib«athecur)ooB custom which makes the first of May i 
tlLihat citT.on whifh eT«r} odo who.ii^juit 



owner or a house, vacates Ills lodgings and aeeks new onei 
the coming year, to tha first great move made by the Dutch 
lUuliitautt) of Communipuw to tiav AmsU-rduni "The anai- 
^^ary," he mys, "iros piously obeerrcd among their eona, by 
horning their houses topsy-turvy, mid carrying all their funiittiit; 
tilt? streets; and this is the real origin of the uniTcrsal agita- 
and moeinff, by which this most restless of cities is litenLlty 
led ont of doors on every May-day." (Knickerbocker's ffig- 
'of New York.) The cnetom has certainly survived till now, 
|u Robert S. CoJhn, the "Boston IJanl," says, 

" Hurry, icuny— grar« ailil gay. 
All must U-ud^c UiL- tn\ of May," 

{Thx Fint of May:) 

Mt U older than even the ancient settlement called Commuui- 
The Dutch settlera evidc-utly brought the custom with 
from their tmnaatlantic home, and to this day, in Bruges 
\\B neighborhood, in Vervicrs and many other parts of Bul- 
and Holland, the iirstof May continues to be the general 
'ofmoviug. It has not only hcctjraL- a characteristic institii- 
of the City of New York, but the (endenoy to move, con- 
Itly to sliift and drift from one place to another, is, by the 
^keeping Scotch and Irittli f-jipec'ially, not quite unjustly 
npon 08 a sign of instability in the national character. 
mar\-e1ious facility of locomotion which this country aflbnla 
net-work of milways, ri^ere, and canaltr, favors the disposi- 
to which must be added, tbe tcmplatiou held out by couiit- 
I Openings for all in the newer States. The ruving proiwnsity 
|*Bhside«. however, in nations as in individuala, and already a 
[wrong t^'ndfney is perceptible in the United States to crowd the 
kt cities at the expense of the opcu country. 

CQttom, also, to keep one iykhb in the house as Ihe be»t 
|r, and to call it so, which still prevails in most of thp Northern 
has be*n bequeathed to this generation by the lirat Dut(-h 
of New York. Tlic same name and usage may still be 
bd in all the old towns of Holland, where these roomn ure kept 
lark a« here, to preserve the furniture, and only opened un 
occasions, when company is expected. A person entering 
k bed-rooni, aUu, in some ont of the way JJew Kngland town, 



would not fail to notice the chintz cortains uid the poffjiei 
Ix'il with its bolster, not as in Englandt tucked in nnder the i 
hut with its own fair case of white linen; nor coald hehdp' 
Htruck in the kitchen with the cheap but neat tiles on the bi 
mid the dclft-ware on the dresser, all features that proT 
foriiuT presence of stout Dutchmen in theee districts. 

Nor must we, finally, forget, among the many pleasant 1 
li>n UB by our Dutch ancestors, the one Dntcfaman who 
Atni>rk<Hn children hold dear and in great Teneration. 1 
Simta Khiun, aa the name is commonly though errom 
writli'ii, in ronlity Klaas, the abbreviation of Nickolas, a 1 
Siiiut' (tf undisputed nationality, whose name is beard eveij 
whon liis own day, Christmas, is drawing near. 


the leopard cbaogo bin spotet 

CuL the FrcndiiiuB Iom hui 

English ooDtauu, of counc, a large nnmher of French 

which wu nvfe-f in common with onr Sogligh coiiBins, to 

renuic^ wliich Frunot- hiu till rticently exercised iu war 

fashions. It might have been expected tbnt large addi- 

ould hftve been made by the frwiuent aud uumerong 

k of imroigr-iiion, whinh hiLvo come to us from Franco 

pid from former Frynch dependencies. The French owned. 

aud sent their niiKsioEiaries throughout the whole West; 
□ed Loaisianii, nnd thut> met at the month of the MiBsig- 

eir zealous countrjmeu from tlie far Noi-th. Noble 

Ota, anin)at«d hy a fervor and a constancy in no wtya 

to that of the Puritans, came over in largo numhers and 
in tbo Soutlicrn Slutes, where climate itml natiouitt char* 

med to be congenial, and the '* cbaritablc exhibition" of 
William alw eeuL iu 1700 nearly a thousaad more, who 

their native land uu account of their religion. At a later 
new arrivals came from home and from the colonics; the 

Revolution Btmt mnny hundrcd-i, the expulsion of the 
L from San Domingo added large numbers, and dissatit-lii-'d 
ftlista came lo find bouicd here afUT thu banitfltnicut of 
dol to St Ilelena. French colonics were attempted in 
ao juid in Florida ; QalfipoUs bore the name of its fonndcrs ; 
I tho Great Desert a Frtnchlown had a bric-f exiBtence, and 
ill of the Kunahwa were once owned by a Fn-iich com- 

nrent^ names still remain on liio map of the United 
H they were first hest^iwed: Beaufort and Port Royal in 
Caroliiia, epeok of the Huguenot and the scholar, aa La 



Moilh River, Calaia, and Mount D$aert, ia New England, remind 
OB of the enterprise and zeal of the Jesuita in the reiy Itom* of 

There is no lack, in fact, of French elements in our pupa 
and the gratcfal feeling long cherished throughont the V 
States for tlie eflBctent help rendered by Tranoe dnring the Wi 
of ludo^tendence, might, it seems, have given moral weight ia 
influence legitimately wielded hy the representatives of a polisbi 
laugnoge, a matchless literature, and highest culture. Bat 
and faint are the marka left by the French oit onr public life 
onr language. Their own character is too light and too fickle 
impress itself forcibly on the sturdy, thoughtfnl Auglc^Saxon, 
their frequent Ihilures to adapt themselves to lU'pnblican i 
iiuDH stand in striking contrast with the succi«s of the 
among oursulves. There are, of course, s number of VkuA 
words in use among Americans, whuse fondues for Gallic 
and tilings has laid them open to the charge that good Ameri 
hope to go lo Paris hereafter, but these terms arc no more Amrt* 
icaui^rns than those lK>rrowod by the Knglisli esin be called AngS- 
ci^ms. Wo shall content ourselves, tluTufbre, with mentionini 
here only such as designate objects or iustitutions peoaliar to 
this country, adding u few whicli have here a somewhat difiereol 
meaning from that given them abroad. 

Even the geogi'aphy of the land retains but few traces of tb 
brave French explorers, though Marquette and his brotbren sn 
recorded in many a town and river. All the more pleasing is it 
lo ttud oeeasioiiully JQEtice done, as in the case of thai beautifal 
sheet of water now known as jMie Cheimjtiain. It was long 
called Lake Corlaer, after the great man of a Dutch settleniMit 
ontheMnhawk River, who "for long years swayed Ihe civic sworl 
so potently and with such terror to evil-doers among the Indiom 
that they adopted his name in their language to signify a wbita 
governor. This doughty Dutehman, therefore. left his name » 
his sQccessoi's, and the <hrlaer» went through their decline aod 
Ml with as much dignity, in a email way. as history asonbec t9 
the Pharaohs and Cnsars. Like the founders of other dynastiHl 
howevx-r, the orifpnal Corlaer came to iin untimely end, being 
drowned, and as the catastrophe ocenrred in the lake, the Dntci 
stubbomly regarded their own hero as having the best right U> 



Bnt suddenly, and with her proverbial gckloiicss aesigniug 
reason for the act. Oamc Fort.tin*> declared for Samnol de 

^Afunpi/tiH, the brarc servant of Honrj' IV., the father, ob he was 

I^Btlj called, of La iV'Atnw/Zp Prance, and henceforth the htke bore 

^■namo exclusively. 

I^DUier geograpbicat uames and Icrraa in Natnral History oUo 
■ra often met with, but the whole clus of these wordii are gea- 
eralty of each exclusively tecknical meaning, that they can hnrdty 
1m b3h! to form jwirt of our speech, except when they really bc- 
eun« the oonunon name of a whole class of similar objects. SncU 
ifl, for ioFtaoce, the oaw with bayou, meaning a streftm — like the 
Bayofi Ja FourcAe in Louisiana or the Atchafalaya, connecting 
this day with KM Kirer — which takes a wide oonree, often 
OB the largest scale, such as is. of conrse* possible only in low, 
■Uavial regions. The English correlatirc is <jat, u the Gut of 
Canso— the Gut is a local offshoot of the Susquehanna. The 
Word originally meant literally a gut, or leathern pipe, but in the 
SoQthem States is uaed to degignat« the outlet of a lake or rivor. 
Thai eccentrio river, the Mississippi, with its bed higher thiui the 
■nroanding country, instead of being sunk in it like other rivers, 
■bo boMttf, below the month of I£ed River, ot bayous running oat 
of it, instead of rivers falling into it. It is of these broad chan- 

hmIs that .1. n. Lowell's hero says: 

Imr the month of the giant river, its powerfttl current, at timet 
of high water, frequently causes the caving fn of a bank for long 
distances, and then on the opposite sido a deposit of sediment ao 
comulates rapidly to the extent perhaps of several acres of land. 
This is called batlure. 

The French word brt/h bus in like manner become uatumliEed 
ciBce it VHn lirst inti-odticed by Geuerul Fremont, the Fathiinder, 
M he wa« then called. He stated in bis report of the great cxpe- 
dition to tli« Rocky Mountains and Oregon, tbat the word applied 
"to detached bills and ridges which visa abruptly and reach too 
bigh to be called hills or ridgM, and not high enough to be called 
Bountaina. Knobs is theirmost desoriptive t«rm in English, but 

* I bad to cross ba^m an' cricks (wal, it did bmt &U natur') 
Upoo a kto' of ccirdnroy, (udI log, tben tHifiaU>T." 

(B^&nc Piipvrs, n., p. 13.) 



no cranalation or parapbrase would pivserTe the identity of ' 
picturecqne Umdmarka." (p. 146, li. ) The word luis Jrinee 1 
mon> and more fHtniliar in Caliromia nl^ and fnmiBhesi 
rrat term, to buitf. meuning to chop otf vith a dull aie^i 
In tlio Nurthwt^iit in laying out or rucogniningan establiehi 
Xingcatn]!. '''J'woof oiircompoDT, vho had lingered behii 
up Willi I lit- iiifurniiilioii that they had svoii soverallridJaDai 
utiNcnalionH IVoni behind a small butle, from which they : 
j[ri'«t hiwlo upon lK>inK discovered." (N. P. L«ngford, Tk 
then iif thti YdUm'slone, 1871.) TIip word rou/w, nsed in 
iuT n mi'ky Tulkty ^vith sloping sides (not precipitous u 
cviilon), hut not yet rondf ita way beyond the new State. 

It id TOry dKfi-n'nt with rrcvoffe, from criver.'^ia bur- 
lirMU'hinah'Vtfeoreuibankmentof ariver.a word which r^.•pr■?^^ 
laoh It terrible diwuter and airakens aucH int«D9«ty painfhl4 
lecdoits. thrtt it i« familiar to all Amorirans. WhencTtr till 
that holds thi* Misaitviippi in its nnccrtain bed is broken tht 
by iti« tiirbulont llocid, the cry of Crevasw! goas forUi tin 
the whole neighborhood^ and unless plantations homcstc 
cabins for many square miles are to bo swept away into 
destruction, giKanlic efforts have to be made by the united 
of one or more parishes to till up the break and thus to stem 
current. The hvee has become so fnllr natnmtized irhen 
ing the high embankments on the lower Miasisi^ippi, that it I 
now generally known as fcry. From the first seftlement ofi 
iantt by the (reuch tlie importance of protecting agmnet ini 
ddtion the rich allu\iai lauds on both aides of tlie river, wl 
are actuiiUy at a lower level than the bed of the latler, 
o«en felt and »hown in vast earth-mound^ called t«v««» hy tbfri 
Onolo word. The name has snbaeqnently been extendi tfli 
tanks nsed as wharves, like the famous Itvw of New Or!- an». fi* 
miles long, and presenting an nnparulleled picture of comon! 
, Activity and enormous weiilth. The late Civil War pUyed. i 
' Umps for a pnrpow^ sometimes hy foro«l neglect, such Iiavoc ' 
the liver-leveea. tliat their restoration exceeds the financial 
Unaon of the riparian Stnte^, and the Federal Goremmest 
to make them a national work. 

It would hardly be necessary to mention that the term U% 
also nB«d for the periodical wceptions held by the Preaideot 



officin] residence, the White Honse, if it were not for the 

Ihftt the ridiculoiia word, derived from the letter or rising 

^thr Gi-ond )Ioiiaroh, h in this CEU<? accontui on the truit ftyllo- 

whilst the tmbankmcnt is prononncej like levp. The Pre»i- 

il's wife hu8, uci:ui-iliiiK U> esUblishttd iieage, her dnya also on 

:h 6h« receives iIk- sovcrciga people, but she la said to hold a 


|Tbe French word arpeni also, % French acre, ie still ii»e<l in 
iinisiaua as in the days before it wjm a 8tate of the Union. 
kU that purr of my real and personal PiStat^?, near VTiLahingtoQ, 
iStatti of I<ouUiana .... coneistinK of upwai'du of tiro hiin- 
id eighty arpens or aci-ca of land."' (Will of Stephen Girard, 

jrBat. perhaps, no French word in um among us is more geoer- 
By known abroad than the Prairie of the West, a terel or rolling 
of hiid. cov«n.Hl ixith coarse gmss, and generally character- 
by a rich soil of grpat depth. 

"TTicsc m» Ihe pnrrtpn-i of tbc dnert, Uieitc 
Til* un^hnni bnnndWs And hcfliilifiil. 
For which ili« njiwch of Englnnd luw no nfiin&— 
Tbfl prairit*. 

(TT. a Bryant.) 

fTlie Level Prairie is, perhap^i, the exception, hcing found hut 

Jy, and then mostly near, if not in, the valley of the Missia- 

pi, while furtlior west the RoUiny Prairie prevails, with its 

lUj undulating surface, resembling the great watera of the 

when the latter "is just undulating with alonggponnd- 

el!," as Cooper describes it in his Oah-Opetiinga (p. 237). Nt^w 

Toxas, and Arizona boast of vast prairies, often fifty mik-a 

|aafe and more, which are covered with a whitish cffiorescenee 

naixuu or Hoda, utid tlicse are known n'^pwtivtOy ua Salt 

wrift and Soda Prairies. Their aspect is one of utter, almost 

iAv dejsolation, and the tliirsty tmvtjller. who has to cross 

not unfref(nently endnres most painful suflVnngs. Even 

ore terrible, and certainly more dangcroiiH to life, is the Trem- 

Mng Prairie of the Southwest, which is thus spoken of: "The 

id that first attracts the attention of Uie voyager— if indeed 

few mud-lamps, a few almost floating isles, and a tir.m- 

itifi prairie, into which one would sink as iDtoqnicksiind,c«,n 



Im' callwl Iniid — ia FcarOTly raised above the surfoc« of the water." 
{/'uttumis Mag., May, 1SG9.) 

It JH to bo regretted that the fair name of one of tho moAl heu- 
(iftil (Kaolins uf American huidscape should huTe sailared. lu moat 
funtigu wonis sixmu to bo fatt)d to suffer, in the procen of ruittinli- 
satiun. I'oopio living on the proihes tbemtwlvea, or vitiiin eigbi. 
hiinlly ovor ti]K'uk uf thL>iu utliurwise ih^a -as puraran or prrr 
Hlid (jrvwl 18 the vnriely of apelliny by which authors h»\c end 
Oivd to rpptt>ii«nt tho willful wanderings of the rebcUioui \nt\et r i^ 
tht' Word. " Mrs. Morphcr," wiys F. B. Hartp, "awonmnlri 
kind-hiurlrd it]>orimen of south western ulBore«otnoo, known inlitr 
niftiilonhood as the Prr-rairie Rose" {Lnek of Roaring Cemp, 
]h l'>il), iind ihi' elcvor author of Log GHntjos, Lieutenant Wj» 
pivfers it thus: "Ixioka lively 'nuff here Snndoys: Uint apc^ 
niry 'n fuirly popjiertnl with folk*.'" {PntiMm't Mag^ May. \i 
Tlio prmrilhn, or Httlo prairie, is fast dimppi'ftriug from 

Tlkc pniirit's hiive uatiimlly given their Ti&mt> to many 
lu iJteir uppoamnce aud tu uutitums conntHitod with the life of vl 
tlivy are tho grejit glage. Some of these terms are luirdly kno 
heyoiiU their own liinil«, m& tliL* Indinn'a free gift, whit-h is prof*' 
■ionnlly eallod On the Frm'rie, n phrase almost identit^l with the 
l(wi diplomatic "uowhcro;'* and the Prairtt Bitt*rf, a horribls 
mixture of water iind bnfTnlo-jEfidl, to which great medicinal ponen 
iiiv Hftfrilied Iiv liiinterM and Ijonlpr-gettlers, The animnt liff '• 
Ww Prairie in, on the eoulrury. well-known to the world of wrienH^ 
and to IrBM-llers nn«l t'ntiiueiiustic Bporl«men. The Prairie4M 
espt'ciatly i« looki;d ii|>on uit excellent game by the latter, n^ 
)M H lM:(iiry now found tn every market of the large citiee on th! 
gAnd a ftwjunnt visitor even to Covent Garden. It is A* 

)U8e (Tolrao cupido) of the Wentem Stales, akin to 

HO Scotch gruuso uf KngUndand the Kastera cousin, of vbioh 
W. 0. Bryant ainga : 

"I lixtonnl, nnd from midst tlie depth of wood 
nenitl the low tigaal nf ilie grvnat, that weata 
A mUb TnaCT aronnd hia motil'd nerh ; 
fiarlridffeihey call him In mir NArlhrm States, 
And pfkuuaiu bj tiie Delaware." 

Tiut :FK£irca»Ajr. 


iLjtiit-r dwellt-r OD tlic prairio that lvV.rB-ft fiilfw namo, is the 

'■if-l>Qy (t'vuoiiuis luiloviciaiiUB), « gf-nnioe murniol., mid 

; A dog only in ncknowledgmciil of his ehort. Mitrn luu'k. b; 

I hu vums his cumpaQioDS A^nst au spproucltii}g^'eri(toiy, 

th«T live in largo conuntmttieii with their burruws iu doise 

timity, wost^-jm hunters spealt of Doff V\l}agt», and trurellcrs 

'that "seen through the misty morning air the littlo conical 

iiuid gruU'fi(|it'! ditrk figures by their side looked, from a dia- 

Dce, not unhkf ii villi^t c^mwih'-d wifh pcupiR sitting idle »t 

Joorfi." {The Prairie Rose, C. A. Murray. H., p, 10.) Tlioy 

llwr insny thoutmuHs iu e&ch village, hut wh uru told by uq 

It traTcllpr Ihat "one arm of K«?d Hiver ia famoua for the 

adons Village of the D(.g!i of Iho Pmirie. The village is no 

tlian twenty-flTc miles in length, and as many in breadth. 

iats of fiubUTraiiean giillrriija, Mmetinie-s nini- feet dtvp and 

)ur to five iucht'fi widi-, and of a Buperstructure formetl of 

thrown up by \hv6Q dog-voloed, but Eqiuri-el-ret^embliug 

StB." (L'Abb€ Kui. Oouienech.) In the Wnst tbey aro also 

M Oophfff, from the French gaufrc, perhaps however 

ongh the Eugliiih to goffer, to flute or crimp, becouse their 

hoW literally hont-yoomb the soil in which they dig 

ts. W. t'. Bryant foretells a time when 

" Wntgaj^ur minot tb« grouiiiL 
WJiera ttoo«l lb«r KWitnntQj! cities," 

>T-a-duyB the Western man, as well aa the California miuer, 

lt«nt to gopher the ground wherever rich crops, or a harvest 

Tgold and lilver, may be found. With the usual caroleasntwa of 

11% •' iiwing in part to the ignuranee of settlers of foreign 

iu ffnphrr haa been applied to variouii aniniiilK. often 

jrdTihfiKimilar in form and mode of life. That the little fleld- 

M Mt, a pouched, brownish-red rut with mole-like foet 

;riuB),aud agray burrowiug squirrel (Spermojihiliis 

bniil. known nlsoa* the prairie nquirrel, should haTC received 

le mime in Miaaouri and Missii>gipp), might not appear si> far 

|ai«?; Kenuioitt thiuka it lias the heat right to the uamenf Oajilutr, 

,AgTic. Jtt^ort, Mhl, p. 75.) But diero is no such exeueo for 

ring the t«rm upon a striped iquin-el of Wiacoueiu (Spormo- 

ijiluf irodBcimliueami), which does uot burrow, and atill less a 



luud-tortoi«o (Tet^tn^fi'^lyjibeinus) of Florida. Ercn a1ii<p;i 
(OoIuliLT euiiporj) i&Bi^clilk'd in Georgia. A ludioruiis coofiuuil 
idcua liit.H;1));U(iWi;(l \hv nuiiiu rmm u UiQereut sourco upouHbl 
^^peLy 3j*(r(Ji>Bnl object Probably with a dim recoltectioD 
', '-vifiid'ffopfier Qvc\m in Uoly Writ, as Lbenaiueul* Lhe wooduCl 
*', noaiiV Ark wae built by divine commimil, a woo<ien oonltd 
ftble for light. »indj soil ii in Florida sometimes called gojthtr.i 
^ihns an indignant "Crai.-ker'' Niya of a rival tiLill lovrrioi 

;ial scale: " I've sein him pulling thb (fopher hims«-lf, 

to it like a d — d jaokase, eir." ( Harper's Monthly, Feb. 1851 

'Vh*i Prairie Wolf (Cauia latraus) is an exclusively Al 

fl^cios, about tlit) eize of a setter-dog, and lives like tbei 

burrows, so that W. C. Bryant could say of him correctly: 

" l(ic prairio-vw^ 
Hunts In their mcsdaws, ud his ft%xh-<tu^ den 
Yawns \fy my pnlh." 

They bunt in packs, and are much less afraid of man thim 
peati wolvts. Further South they are better known ondei i 
Spanish name- of Voyate^, n term Iwrrowt-'d from tl)6 Mexioiii 
While tho majority of prairies are trfelei;s, every now audi 
an exception is met with, and of oouree eageiiy sooght fdl 
8ettl«rs. " The sons of thv forest,"' wo are told by one of 
emigrautB to the Pnv West, "would seek the shelter of bor 
grnvos for their dwellings, or else in the shade of those sing 
but beautifnl islmids — grovpa in the midst of prairiea- 'daBal 
(lurk wiihin, lint U-nding their graceful bonghs over the 
sward of grass all around, bright with greuu and gay with floi 
(Oi^rland MoiUhly, Feb. 1870, p. 14&) Thoie itiitmdx, U 
urc poHically named, in the vast ocean of waviug grass, weroi 
MoUeg hy the early Fi-ench explowre, and in many parte of tin 
West still retain their old names. Thus Mr. Olmsted mentioni 
them as etriking features in the Southern laudscape; •• Before M 
lay hi'HUlifiil prairie«, with the ttiioutli-grassed Htirfnce varied hen 
and there by herds of cattle and little l>elte, moi/tn and gnta^ 
of live oak," {Tejcas, p. 137, li.) wliile W. G. Simms quotee tb« 
ill th«ir corrupt form in th« words : '' lu Western Texaa a ouO 
clump of timber is called a mot." (The K#m<i«8««, IL p. IKi) 
Wo can easily spare the word with it« vagoo unsaggestlvc 



lialljr as the EoglUh tcmia of th« prairie, alniosL »U 

from the KS, are pu^ticul and yet true to tbeir meaning. 

IBH, IkwhIvs ixlaitds, tim prairie lias itleo it4 rovM, trheiv buibU 

ripii 'if Km?^-lanil ntii into a wood as if neelting for 8lieli«r 

ilnat till- Lldzii]t( sun imd the dreuching raine, and its bayit or 

opcminge InUi a ioTvui on ixs liorders. Most graphioalty 

the Kev. Mr. (/nrtwright describe how in the eurly duys 

hi« itinerancy as a Methodist preacher he had often to travel 

\} 4ud »uty miles a d»y in cettsekBS mine, »ud how "there 

If Du guide to be Itad, no roAd to follow, but the travolkr's 

ly rraourco wu to sight a line from one eape to tlte oth«r, 

idihu^ to rro3.4 the irf^A no other landmarks beinjE; visihle rs 

' &i Lh« eye could n^ach." 

Sor is traveUiag by water witliont ite incidents and features, 
llii«h etui buir f-he uameg given Lhc ui by early Frciioh «xptorer& 
ifl Uie tauU, a low waU'rfall or rapidn, Waring it« first 
ae, eloqnent of old age by the presence of the f, which hii since 
.it in Kn'Dch, and the resi'mhhinco to Ben. Jonaon'o suUt em- 
^lujed by him iti the mnm of a leap, a jumping. The name, 
iu'^d in pronnnciBtiongenendly IoiVm/j, ftUhcrcs linnly to riTerd 
irliich. likfi the Ht. Lawrence and the St. Mary of Mnckinaw, 
itf been nayigaled by French miwionaries and French boat- 
ni and the familiar itytfui/etir of onr day, whetlier he paddlcg his 
on (.'annflian stn^ams or risM to the dignity of a fur-triKlcr 
the Upper Misflifegippi and in the great Northwest If the 
rash hastily over obatrncting rocks or just on ilic verge 
great vaterfall. they form Rapids, firat so called by French 
tpbrvn on the St. Lavnnoe. The t«rm was afterward applied 
-fMCurvE in great water cours^g, especially th«< Niagara 
]y above the FalLi. The use of the plural in thiit scum 
purely American, and the distinction thus made between a 
buiduvblc descent in the river and a real rasciule a very nice 
Lady Lyelt. at Xiugara, thought '' the liapiiis at; timcfi^ 
Jy h) moonlight — a tiner sight than the FuIU themselveg." 
■ •V - ■■-f7)*((M for their own purp(>.«*8, or in the sc-rvice of 
i»r: III- their voyages in canoes, ilicy are apt to avoid these 

ids and IklLs by cari7iitg their light biTcke* uTvr the iiitcrven- 
\g rpnoe. and where thi» can be done, tho latter is called a par- 
taff*. The term^ now generally accepted as an Knglish word. 



rhea they are called the "French Yeomanry." The term 
lowercr. tut dieappearing from Louisiana, and wen in ('anada 
R rarely heaix] oataide of the purely French dutricte on the 
iLawrenoe. One of their familiar terms sunrives yet, however, 
sogfaoat the West; any special succeu they met with they 
e apt to call a coup, and in this sense the word is still nscd. 
e followed cloaely on the trail of the saTajrea, bided his timo, 
Ick his coup, and n^wTLTed a pair of packborsep, which was 
he w^uired.^ {Lift in the Far West.) 

)n hii travels and hunting expeditions the vot/ofjeur generally 
lies his most valuable property in cnrionaly oonatraoted 
Usbags (^filled a parfii:rhf. " The trttfaok ov jtarpfehfl," says 
Beral T. F. Meagher, "is generally made of dried buffalo hide, 
ihair of which has been beaioii off with a Klono, which eoflens 
Hiuiderably; it ia then put in the sbupe of an envelope. The 
tilled flowed in tt are kept secore and compact by thongs passed 
nagh holes in the fl^is, and with one on each side, looped to the 
rill of the packsaildle, and lashed tlrmly together to keep them 
m tJappiug and pounding hia ribs, the mule or the horso trots 
ng pleiuantly." {Hides through the Rocky Mmtntaim, p. 

"n* French word caratfmir, once very familiar to all the aet- 
n of Western Vii^nia, Kentucky, etc., is still not nnfVe- 
lently h««rd in the Bonthweet, and from the lips of emigrants 
M WM8 the Rocky Mouuinins. In former days coravans 
nUshed the only means of commnnication between the new 
dements and the Rastera oitie«. " Id the fall of the year, aft«r 
idiog-time, every family formed an association with some of 
nt neighbors for starting & little caravan. A maetcr-driver 
■ selected, who was assiated by two or more y^jing men. The 
Ews were fitted out with packsaddles: a bell and h* collar 
wmented the neck. Every family collected what peltry and 
'they conid obtain during the ;^ear, to send them Kast for bar- 
: They had no other stores of any kind, and needed salt and 
n. The oommon price of a bushel of salt was a good cow and 
V* (Villa De Haes, Hitlori/ of Weatern Yinjinia.) 
The earavaH is quite at home in New Mexico and Ijonora, 
lODgh £r«qae>ntly coUed there by ita Spanish name, eimducta, 
}« trade which it enables trappers and hunters, as well as 


A.KZU cjjrm^B. 

^^^99^ mUUn, %o vur; go. s oftM «r (MwAenUe 

'i'Ut. isim ii*»)f M 'MMT wbtcb InSrHtf Muyirtlwi^ 
^t»i^ tU* o\tm\i*4i\y" f*rth: hep&aiBeiB PenuM 
iitrtniUi, a kmUtimI Armbi» ac fnnnMttfUi tb»aaiM of 
llM"M|iti himi) (Hrtiiitrifli.*' beeaiBe FrawAit i* ««fi»«»fc 
Mi/tt '/(I 111" •lioivi. uf ilie Pacific, ready to be w»ft»d 1*4 
lu Aittti It' iiiiUvnUnd. 

1 1, K't'iUrii wiil«Ti mfl* were the fii« nwuB of pod 
WfiiM '" •"' C"!!"***"'! ''V *'"* Aw//i««^ of French tradcni; U»^ 
iml yi't >ii('lr«ly dlM|i|M>an>d, ami J. K. Psuldinf, in bii 
|i < i' -^Hiilli, •ttym "Tlin lioaiitifiil Sheoandofth pMWt 
|, . I AtLNii*! i«navittaMi! furAa//«iiiJr''(U.p. Tl>,«rf 

tmiH HHI III Ittii l.tMlii'lal.un* of Vii^iain, a company U 

\,j ' i^ttvtifulhiu on (h(* Itivatiiia Kiver (Jan. II. i 

I ^I'lvitfli rt'i^w), o» tlie contrary, noT fwqi 

itl«ii)Huitt hih* «•»*, H wwding niore ami more to tbr 
wduiM U «l III %*\«t\W^ iU Itrrt Mcaniug of a bole dog in tli<> , 
H mtk*\ h f-. Ill uoMwak u^tiw. and to protect tUcnt againe( I 
ur itl) kimlk. ir proiMy na^ t^m hol«« vUl pR«efT«| 
HHtH M A y«nr and laft g w . and givat "kill in mtnif 
Indiaui and WMnem tnT«IWr« in aflAkciug evoiy trace of' 
that cMild b«iniy iIm memt, Mr. Bartlott tells u» liow.i 
apnlittCHi to MUl» Um bonndw; H»o « illi Mexico, Ibt 
of a vagvn wtn iwiirf tw Um banU of tbt- Gila, and oamf 
bnilt OT^ tW ofMoran*. tfaat Ifac ludiaas might not dt&coT 
Tbc trrm ia nwd bi a vidar aeb«». vWa a timid sport 
riacna: *- I>o'«e ^car now. bora, tlur'a «(cb about. Thi^ Ik 
Uka flwAiiif.** t^i/« t« /i«>«> H'Mf.) Tb» old luigUak 
aaAtaf. a ahnf word of the W«at and iMutb tor keepiog i 
ifgitinataly aad ilkcitiaatoiy. ia aa liUk iwcd and «o far 
fma Ha angteal in Skcaoh (wdfciilii) tkat it doM not 
piaoB aMaaf Amww—iani; cuiMmii, m tha ooatr&ry. 
lUghtly chaagad tea of iIm modem oAafaMaav, ori^inat 
tha autj cotoaiila «f Xev Fnace. and hae beld its own 
among tbe Indi— i^ aad in iba iateroouiae be(w«Mi th«m audi 
white*. ! 

U i« t« lite Freodi of Loui&Mua tbat ttM f«w v«rdi belAaft 
to tb»ir Ungnage msA be traced back wkkh aerM w defipN 
^adcs of color in the descendanu of colored paopla. 



rt^fi. from the French griffon^ siill fre(|U«uUj htuu-d v\wu 
to a miiltUto, especially a womaii, aiid tlie qiiadroony Tivm 
an, tbM bai^-i:ipuuu^h nuine of the offapriag of a mnlaUo 
III and a white inau, ninoiig whom lh« V4>ry hifrhest grade 
i-atuy id uut tiiifrcquenllr found. The word is alsu occaeioa- 
l^rttt^tt cuttrttiroon, wiLh » luanijig to tbu S^ianieh originkl, 
like the French, alluded lo the une qiiartei' uegro-bluod iu 
cin« of the own IT of the name. The olTdpriu);, iti the next 
fttion, of a ifuadrooii and a white person, is oitUed a mWi/. 
Bame State, as in all districta where supir is raised, the term 
w is one of great familiarity an<1 imponnaoe. It cornea from 
k low Latin baganea. und deisignatc-a the dry renmins of the sngar- 
tM after the jnice haa all been prewed out. It ii tued as fuel 
ider the sujKar-kettlea, and invaluable iu thoee regions vbere 
bir ftie! is either not to be had at all or likely to be very cicpen- 
Hf ooctuionally nlao it serves aa manure. Among the bsrcly 
Kring wiirds Iwqueatbed to iie hy former geiierutious are the 
■hqnftte, the name of the sidewalk in some of the Southern 
mti, aad the btirraque or barrnck, us applie^l lo & roof on four 
B for the bheltering of hay aud uthvr pixtduce. Iu Canada, in 
■Hne uiannor, a amall bMlstead is Rlill very froc|Uent)y called a 
miff, and an old-fik^hioned kind of gig a calash, from the Freneh 

E(, a name olYou a]iplii>d alao to that, hcooniing covering for 
•ad, familiitr to English ears as ''an ugly," aud by no meaoa 
Te<l nuder il4 new up]>ell»iioii. Another kind of carriage, 
■>!¥ preteudion and greater capacity, is Lhe ('orr^aU, a corrup* 
the originiU carrioi«, k aucoeBafully carried out, that few 
li9(MHed to admit the French paternity, and stonily maintain 
tits pnrpoRc is to exprctta the capacity of the Email one-horso 
le to ^ carry all." The term originHted, perhaps, in Canada, 
IQS came first to the Northern States, bnt while iu the 
lioD it DOW meima a sleigh, its oommoa use has extended 
Ifhoat the country. " I once crosse*! Teunesseo and Ren- 
in A huggy," writes Profciwor S. S. IlaKlcman, " whieh the 
IMakera were puzslod how to classify, as it had no place iu the 
tble of Kat4>s. At last it w»s detcrtninltd to he a Carryall" It 
rious question bow the terraii cnvetan, quoted already as mtts- 
Batle/s DioUonary, and meaning a muzxle for a horse, and 
, a corruption Qfcouttawx, should have main taiued tbeiuselves 


M long- in the Sew England Statps, ▼!!«« thrr are ctiH ami. i 
thrj [tiiTe nfitberbenntTof formor 8(nind,iK>r pmgnancrofi 
ing, toBHmretJwinsolonga liflvlea^p. We-mnstBBsanwthitl 
liBTe. like men, a proTidcDce which makes them 
lived for tvmods iitc«>mpreh?Qsib(c to voridlv visdom. 
better understand how the t^rm nicher connected itielf ' 
almfiflt innumenible herds of half-wild rattle Tvammg orw I 
em prairies, and how thn extrnordinafy daas of laeii, who 
stock, hrand the calves, catch the horses and break them, i 
have 00 long retained their original name. In the We4t 
Catifomia the term is fastgiring way to a new word, jlcrrffr,i 
is thofi qnoteil : " It's well we've a good htrdrr ; tber ai« : 
ion. The Hrettimel crossed the plains,! was nhtr^fr. 11 
learned the tradp at all, and a rongh time we had of it** (< 
Plttinf, Putnam's Mng., Feb., 1869.) We cannot wish the 
long lift to the hideons namu of Vauflonr, a French t»Tm,i 
Dating n certain form of wofHhip and the ob)ect of this WG 
alike, introdnced IVom the Island of Santu Domingo. 
spring of gr'Mft(>i>t ignorance and mo$it barharotis: impnl 
cuWfl of demanding human aarrilicea and eertainlv 
by Mremonien of the mo«t repulsive natnre, the VoufteH* 
has, neverthelean, continued among the Tiegroes of T.oni<itan]i. ! 
an aasembly was fonnd engaged in it as late as the vt^ar 18'j9i 
the State of North Carolina. 

By wmio freak of pablic laste the word twirfN/. roll 
nonnced inmfiw, in th^ sense of pnhlic sale, has continni 
used here, while it is bnt rarelj heard in England. ** His &m1 
Bo«)n to he sold at tvnduf, and T think of hnying It," writes 
author of the Ijctters from the South. (H., p. 187.) Vfndnt' 
is in constant use in PenuRylvanta. Unjufititinblti are the 
imitations of English igooranoe in nsing French terms 
meanings which hare no existence in France; and still journfllii 
will inform ns (hut a great match is on Ihf M/>i«, or that at sB 
ball Mrs. Gmndy ehttf/enmed two charming young ladies, alt 
the dtaptron rotttfe is the only cha^wron known in Francel 

French wonis Imve, of twuree, not escaped corruption 
V* anymore than in England, only we proceed perhaps with 
reckleHnnesB while our foreign cousins aot mors tKm ignoi 
Wfl call the tine pear Viryalieu by the mow courenient name i 

Tire TttX7icnvA.Tr. 


, bnt make a Rrmt effort to give the Indinn Turnip 

eaculbuta) iu Fiiench name pomm« tranche, while the 

. a Btako firmly set in the gruiinJ, to wliiuli wild cattle and 

\w fastened, becomes a Talgar ^u//o on the lips of South- 

Avitlors, and the ponU ittau, a smuU black dnck nt home 

jiGulf of Mexico, reappears as a puUdco ; uud ^lill «veu chia 

.grievoDB than the Imv*! with which the guide or chief* 

romwfi hia compunions from their short slmnbors, instead 

kjmg Hve / *' How J hated i\\e slow, steady Lave ! Laoe .' of 

old irupper, when his moccaained foot touched my Bido, and 

[io roust* myself for another day'ii tramp through the endless 

i!" (.%r»M ttt th« Far }V*sly p. 87.) Nor can much be 

m apology of the shamefaced pruder)- which diuvs not say 

f, :uid Irit's to conceal it undor the disguise of » thimmet/: 

^naore pardonable are the thtrryvallie* of former dayi), the 

tf^M or horsemau'g overalls, by which be protected his 

against mud and thorny bushes on long juumevs on 


. of places hare not cEcaped this process of cormption. 

iy in Missouri bears no n*svmblance to '\i% Frouch original 

\S*niiy nor does Smack Cover in Arkansas exactly represent 

Coavfrf, M it iiraa first called by French settlers. One of 

}l striking cases of tliis class is probnbty a rirer in Nev 

known as Picketvnre, a name which was long a grr-at 

to all who had io use it. At lost ic was traced t>ack, 

«t'?p, to the days of Spanish rule, when it had been regn- 

uriBtrf^ned a^ Rio de la* AnimnJi, the river of Souts (of the 

]). The French, who npiieared next on the scene, transhited 

|jiiio Rivxire du Pvrgaioire^ and this the American oon((nerorB, 

le manner of Norman conquerora in Englajid, changed into 

lifer I'irktlteire ! 

corruption has played havoc with a fair Indian name, 
isformcd it into a moat absurd term of apparently French 
by which not foreigners only, hnt even natives, have often 
en misled. On the Kennebec River, not far from the town of 
forhdgewook, the traveller sees a series of small but attractive 
alis, which he is told are callod the Bombazitus Jiipg. He is 
to mairel at the odditv of the name, if he has not seen much 



of the conntry rot, but he ia mn to be bdII more utonishcAl 
lie flnde in Vrnnunt, npsr Cn^tleton, a eecoad Bomiam^'i 
apptiiHl tn a lake. It hae oqIt been quite reoently di 
tliunks to WhittierV Mog 3[pg[one — that the Indian tribe ufl 
Jtjorridgvwucks, whicli resided iu this neighborhiiod. once' 
fiunous ciiipf called Bomomen, niter whom th<'v nanied Mt^ 
falls and tho lake. A Yankee trader, with more knoi 
drr-gc)0(1s than iTuIian lore, no doubt, heani in Bomc 
ing lint HomhiiKine, nnd thus the poor chieftain VBS 
out of his posthumous fame. 

Bodewoih would remind few hearers of \ix French det 
from Boia de Vache. us early vojageurs called the Buffah I 
of the Western hnnter and ti-adcr. On the trei;Iess plainai 
ilfexico and Texas, the copr-dnng gathered near spriD| 
cattle are apt to congrcgatCt ia often the only fncl, yet in ena] 
ftirred to green bmahwood. since it makes h&rdly any smok«l 
giTi'8 out a surpn«ii)g amount of heat Nor is the nseofi 
strange fuel contine^l to the Southwestern >St«tes: in matiT] 
of the Orient the samecHstom prevnila, aud eren England in* 
familiar with it. for Oaptuin GroKe hhs in his diclionary : *' i 
inps or rnfliinns: dried cow-dung used for fneL Korthni 

A still stranger difiguise is vom by the beantiftjl shrub 
M the Oaage Orange. Its wodd being specially well 
for the bows used by the Indians, it was called 6ois fFart I 
Prench s«ttlera; the unfamiliar name became in th*' banilii 
English hunters HoipditTk, in which form it was long finii 
along the whole Wastern iVonticr. and tlnally it settled down 
the still shorter fiodok, which is now the common deai; 
many iwrla of the Unioo. " The chief stopped under a b«H 
Jifiihk'trtf, And colling Ounchita. to him with an imperioai 
tnre, ho hade her kneel at his SMt." (W. Gt. Simms, TWto,! 

A fow French words hare entered our idiom cither with 
forc« or a more ttpeeiut jiurposo than appears in English, 
may. to that extent, at least, be looked upon as Americani 
Thus the verb to detnoralixty is, of course, not unknown to . 
llsh authors, but Sir Charles Lyell tells na of his visit to 

THt FR-BWC»irA3f. 

iter, thai "^wlieii the Doctor iras asked how many words he 

coined for his Dictionary, he replied, oulj one. to lieiHornlize, 

Uidt not. for his dictionary, but in a |>ani)>hl(?t publiebed in 

last cpntary." (B.) Since then the word ha* bccorat? « groat 

roritc iu I he United States, and is used on every oceasion that 

LI furnish a pretext foritaemplo^Tnent. Hence the well-known 

ite of the Southern soldier in the late Civil War, wbii waa 

at Iht) bottom of a Uitcb during the battle of tiettrsbufg'^ 

vheii picked ap for dead, pitoously informed Uenerul Lee 

It be was not hurt, nor scared, but ** terribly drmoralizeii." The 

idtparimeni h»a here the official meaning of one of ihe prin- 

of goreratncnt, the Tpeasury, War, Navy, etc, 

. Secretary at Ih*; head of each, corresponding to the min- 

lof ujutiucntal utouarchien. Hero dnpartnun-tal buHinosa is 

by a number of clerks, who for the sake of greater 

cr and method are dislrilmted among so many bureaux, i& 

of which itfniin n itnlidi virion of departmental husint'-M it 

rfarmed. In another connection we find the name of the ro}*al 

appUcdt now )H>Iitically to any utd-ftiijliioiied party 

I acta unmindful of post experience, and now as a trade-term 

iperior kind of whiskey distilled in the county of BmirboHt 

State of Kentucky, or to sucoessftil imitations. I'elage is 

in the West, as it was in the days when Bacon nscd it, 

fignati! certain fut:^ ; thiiH scA^otters are dcsorilM'd as having 

' much lighler inside tlian upon the surface, and extending 

'all are aoatteriug^ long, glistening hairs, which add iiincb to 

■ ricbuess and beauty of the pelage." ( Overland ^fot^th^tf, .faiu 

S'O. p. 2o.) The French rohfi, on the other band, is limited to 

' skin of a buffalo, while those of otlier animals are umply 

$kia*. They ore brought in paehx of roltex^ ten being tied 

r, to the greait fnr markets, and thus a '''coachman sat on 

box iu splendid livery, with a costly huffalo robe 

carelessly over his knees." (New York UtraUi, Jan. 9, 

Otber French words, like promtmading, instead nf simply walk- 
[; presiigti for a peculiar influcuce more Celt than enforced ; and 
inaie, for a compact money-ptuse, are probably not more 
imon in America thaii in England ; and when a writer says of 
month of the Misdssippi: "Here and there, shaded by a 



griuvfttl ^roup of bananiu, ia a latanier hot with adobe mlKi 
a roof Uiatchfd with ihe fan-eliaped leaf of thopalin«tto*(f 
n€nn*8 Mag., May, 1868), he vould bare been b«tter ni 
ia both coiintriea by aimpiy saying, " Boorbon palm," insUiii 

■ The abn«e of bonquei, irh\c\i ia commonly prooonoced udi 
•Ten printed boquei, ia "a cormption as dittonant Co lh« < 
vcre to th« eye the plucking a rose fVorn a Tariffgated ti 
BJid IcATiiif; only its thorny stem." (George H. Calv«it, i 
Srrors.) Kven Boqttti Hirer, in £««ex Oouoty, New Ton, 
\mn thus contaminated. Th« hope that tt might derive its ! 
ttom Colonel Bonquet, whociicampedon it« banks with a Br 
f<»rc« in t lie colonial time, hiu fniM ; since it has been aioettaif 
tvom a lott^r written yeara bofon.-, that the correct name, Bw^^^ 
Kiv^T, wns Rivon it from the flowers on its hanks, which toi 
day make it one of the most lovely and romantic of 
, rivers. 

Nor bare proper names of persons been able to protect 
mItas ftgaintt ihe overwhrlming power with which the Esg 
language absorbs all foreign words, aa the English 
.Absorbs other nation nli tics. Frenchmpn and French Oar 
! who oanio to New Knglnnd, had to pay for saoh hoopitahtri 
they there received, by Uie socrilioe of their names. The 
Bon i^ntT, Captain Marryatt tells us in his Diary, beoaoH 
Bunker, uud gave bis name to Bnnker's Hill of famous mt 
VibaudUrt was changed into Peabod^. Bon Pas iut^ Httmf 
and the •• roost nnkindest cut of nil," the haughty tU TH6tk, I 
(vimr a gnniiino Yankee under the guise o{ ItootitHe. 

A curioua form under which FiyucU still oontinaea in 
iaua and some uf the riparian conaties on the Mississippi, is 
CrtolB-Frmuth, a dialect or pntois, oonsistiDg in the main 
slrangoly disgnised and disfigured Frcneh words, with an ud 
tnre of some English and u few genuine African terms, 
grammar has been written, and the learned librarian uf 
(.iolli'gc, Mr. Van Name, has examined it philologically with 
suocesB. As it is rapidly passing away, a stansa of a po| 
Vwnjai (congi). or Minuet, well known to Louiaiaoa plaal 
may not be out of place here : 


*lfo dfjA mulB tout la cdie, 
PsDcor (pas encore) otuu- (voir) pareil bella lAjotta, 
Mo roul£ tout la cOte, 
Ho mule tout la coloaifi, 
Mo pancor ouar griffoaiie la. 
Qua mo gOut comme la belle Itafottet" 

Uc bu DO Savey." 

Mark TVoi'a. 

Thb Spaniards hare been to long masters in Mexico au 
ida, that tlie iLcqiiisiiioii of the laitcr State, and the formal 
Cttliforaia and the territot7 obtained aft«r the Mexican «i 
several lU'W Htal^s. li»vc made our people Tamiliar litb 
terma belonging to their language. Tlivy renmmber witl 
iot«rt>i)l that the oldest town iu thu United States is SL Anf 
in Florida, founded in 1565 by the Spaniards, while «! 
Jamestown, in Virginia, dates hock only to 1607, and Plyi 
in Mamaohasctta, to Governor Winthrap in 1620. Sotk 
and Fernandina, in Floriilii, n-tain with their ancMBt 
many a relic and ruin of .Spunioh days, and Calirnmia ic 
altogetlier Spanish, as far an local names and the most b 
expressions are ooncerued. Spanish words, I'spocially tlw 
luting to horses and mulca and to their eqaipnicute, barei 
cojne into general nse in Oregon, owing to iDt«rcoan 

A number of these Spanish terms bequeathed to ■ 
former owners of the soil, are, of course, parts of the grat 
lish language, aud as well kuovn abroad as with us, but 
gmt majority of oases such wvrdit hare assomeU btiro • 
new form or a special meaning, which makes them mure 
lively purt of our own speech. Known in England only 
few, they bare become with us the oommon property of ll 
pK% and are understood not only by the dwt'lleni in fSa 
&]ianiHh districts, but quite as well by the general n-dder. 

TlioK We owe to Spanish distinctions, made at an early 
of their dominion on this continent, several of the nai 
which shades of color are designated in the dc-sci'ndauU ol 



> black pereonB who had intermnrricd. Their term mulato, 
eiulo, simply ilenoting a mixed breed, became our Mulatto, 
ofapbreuu whose ]un-iiu wure black and wbiu\ The 
iu the IT tilled States given move loosely to auy one who 
rhite blood iu Jiirii, though, dtricUy s[)faking, Iht; oirapring 
lUlatio artd a whit« ntAU is » quadroon, or cvarUroou, at) he 
aoractimea called by the Spanish term, and an Mlarooa (vith 
r in it which h inorgnnic, luid has slipiuHl in merely from a 
icifnl titiiiiogy to quadroon, while the [iropor form would he 
llotoon "), U the oSHpring of a quadroon uml n white. The 
ter is also fiotuetimt'S caUed a Mustet. a itivui ubtuiiivd i'roui 
but properly the Simniiih mestizo, thu child of a Spaniard 
in Indian, which again produces Afuata/inu, the offtpring of 
|8tee and u white, hiiving therefore only ime sixteenth of 
blood in his veins. Tlie^e nioe dietiuotiona have, sinue iho 
icipution. lost all the imporLaucc they hud iu the day^ of 
luid the only interest that now attaches iuelf to the 
Uoff I'spfcially, is the qnegliou how far they will aUvvt u 
iorlty over thft negroes, such us hiw been noticed in some of 
Tent India Islands. So far two facta only have been estab- 
whieh bear upon this qneation. One is, Uiat the muiaitt* 
riahlr a decideil improvement an one of hia jiroducerti, hiuI 
It all incapable of reaching tho lull stature of mental and 
ornl manhood. The other is, that while an infusion of white 
Hf d iliua hoyond all doubt intellectnnlizeti the black, it brutal- 
Bthe Hcd-nnm — a fact proven by the siiporiority of llruKil iiver 
Rr Spanish-Americnn countries. In the Empire the mixture 
iiciuifln and acgnt blutxl has apparently not ini})eded prog- 
, of every kind— in the latter the fusion of Kuropeau aud 
kn hluiid hn« produe^-d iittvr and universal ruin. 

etfro himself boai-s his tirst Spanish name, wliioli eimplj 
ibiuck mnn. chough the term is not often heard now in 
^tad Htatos, where a cickly iiliilanlhn>py prvfers spi-ukiug 
tn and coim'ed men, while contempt stigmatises them as 
rf. and ludicrously as people of the " Fifteenth Amendment 
lion.*' alluding to tlu: amendment to the Constitution, 
RUeh secured to them their rights of citizenship. The word 
l^jfir is, however, not to be charged to this country. In Wix's 
^/ouHdland MUsionary Journal we tiud : " Here wv saw the 





■ ..V yiyfftr (V^- Nig*r P>. » fin* tm»1 
:i).antl beyond all iloobtof a po6fibl« 
**^^ y/ihe I-ondou TiUiirttpit, writu-ii by W. G. 
^niM9 iciHU to ho lis miuir negrota in Africa . . . W' 
^^^■f!Hr»." (Nov. a, 1865.) Th« late Cirfl War jir 
j^ „ >ljk'h he was 

,-jua^} r uCtlit; l>ay ;> 'it* 

fjl Bulift, B'htm firfit itationcd at Kortrou MonnMi, ia' 
'Mu!« aontencss, so often shown at the bar. andl 
l^„ .^ the negro as pmixrrty held by u rL*lH.-l. iuid[ 

jnja\ u propertv nsfHil to the cni'my. He mw that the i 
j^^^p irli>?n the sintas of iuch a person Uxd to 1« l9^l 
^ decltirrd ill Ins official ordenf, that he ohotild h« 
uitijidiTed aa " Ch'tim^nd of War." Fn>m that day ll 
date was kaomi as a amtrahatuL a reality soon to 
onctf mitro into the ghastly jihantom oT a diiaen. 
W*s chiiin to the honor of baring' invented or of 
bs{>py dviijriintiuii. has aubfliM|ucuUy sulTei^ u^i- 
tnne which has so maliciously followed othvr eUime of 
Ii wftB discovered that rho ttrm mntrahamd, ■<< ' Tl 
«hive«v was not unknown in Kogtish Utcratore: 
in Capuin Cnnot's anitisiug acoonnt of hiB life : " Hoandal 
that while hrukers are eelling the blarks at thi 
unn«nal fur their owner or his a§vnt (o be knt\ 
of the ('afitain-tnrtterars secretary. It is eren taiU 
tal&-(tene>ral himMlf u ^wjetimos preamt in the 
afbrr a farailiar chat abani thv happy landing of iJic 
th* rei)ui$ilr n^nleaiLt are insinuated into the official 
ih* int^nfip sraokv uf a fragrant dgir.' <T«ni/« 
Afrimn SUmr, 1854. p. 108.) 
^'' '^ or m^ger has lent his aasae to ranous 

ABHriewi Kfa The \«fT*-mimttrH ia 
'na bi« faice, adoptj the blao^c nmn'i manner 
<Md ncitai hia fieU and ffaatatkm Miiga. ini 
pMvdi«« of fUw i f niuic. iTifftrkMti*, ^ 
^ South and Southweat the tttMoek* or mfU of 
«alt^' «u.,.i,,.™ ,^t „( a nramiv and bnurng a taint 
lo ad of an AtnmM; «ha« the sum 

Bunuar w*th Uk phme of mtfymnf 9ut land, which 

it and dcetnictiro method or workioj^ t)ie same field, 
year, withont maotin-. Among the cant vords pro- 
liy the Iftle Civil War, nitjgtr Inibifs also became very poj'u- 
'■\ the te-rm orijfinated with the vetemnn JKryiiijf tinili^r the 
ifcderate Geneml Hiirdee, who gave thut nanic to the enor- 
Di projeciilrn chmwii tuto the city of ChurlestoQ by thf- Swamp 
!t)rtieiieml(rillinorc<,aa hie moDSter-gnn In the swamps wm 
illy called. 

Plw rml nigtjfr habp is known under the uame of pickaninnti, 
)rd frequoritly derived, ftfier the example of Boncher, in hi» 
ry, from thp Spanish worda p^queHo nifto, little child, bnt 
kU likely of Africnn origlu ; used iu the West Indies to de- 
any yoang child, it is applied in the Soiitheru States only 
iofl£pring uf colored jtarents. &:> J. K. Lowfll days: 

"Tslo't qnilo Ucrtiiy to pan off one o'your six-fool Goinew, 
A u' git your Iialve* lUi' qiiBrters back In gnls and pietrniinntM" 

{Bif^ l^pen, U. , p. 25.) 

le wonl has since made iU way acroes the AlUntic, where it 

I now cMnpletely natunilized among the sailors and waterside 

of England." {Slang Dictionary, p. 300.) 

Ouima ao pleasantly introduced by the poet, the small 

for which is represented by the littJe ones, is the Guinea 

^tffro of not many years ago, when the designation was cjuite 

DkLiuoii, tliDiigh geut^rally ajiplted to a full-blooded uegro. M if 

>had bnt recently arrived from his African homo. The Qer. 

iCartwrijjht says thus, with an energy which is, we hope, not 

pe()aircil in tlie pulpit, whilii apeiLkiiig of an incident whieli 

while ho was preaching in tht^ iSCate of Tenncsgeo : " Juet 

my fiustidious piYneher pulled, my ooatnnd wliiet]>(;re<l: '<>cn- 

Jackson ha» oome in. General Jackson has come in !* I felt 

or indti^iiation run all over me like an electric shock, and 

DBg abonc to my congregnrion, and purposely speaking ont 

IJbly. I said: *Who is Qcneral Jackson? If he don't get his 

il converted God will damn him as quick as ho would a Guinea 

ftgro.' " {Autobiographp, p. Wl.) 

The word crtole, from the Spanish word criollOt meant origi- 

lly uothinj more than a child bom of Earopeau part-uts in the 

rett Indies, or on American soil; but it has long since been 



nliDoiit univerfiiilly applied to aDjone Imm in th» Tr 
out regAi-d to race or color. In the United StAv: . ' 
of the tcmi ia very vague, but a general leeling |'. 
Creole but Himo sUgbl admixture of Afiican t»lood in iui 
an tm])re^iun probably imported trom Cb« Wett lodMk 
negro«s born uu tbu islauds-tire cullvd rrrtrf* Mj^ir#, ia 
distiuguiitb them from the Africau negroeo, importud 
the Spanish colonica the cre-ole va& also often a maD of 
disiiugnished from the gapuckia — an Astcc «(hx1 — (be 
n^didi'ni. In the South, on the other hand, the term it no* 
generally usctl fur Amcncaos of ^nnch descent, and tliia 
Bton ii etri^uglheued by the exutenceof a diaJfCt or patois, 
■I Vrf old' French, of which a sample haa be^n givcu. 

The ^jMuiah word Zambo, originally moaning " haody-li 
wa« by lite Kpnninrds Urst applied to the offspring of a n«giD 
a mulatto, and aftonranlg, in the South Americun coloniei^ to 
child of a nt-gro and mi hidJau womou. In the West India* 
the United States, the term has gradually come (q be applied 
all colored iw-riwns alike, and Sambo, as it is geuerully wrii 
denotes simply a negro. It is of him Mrs. H. B. Stowe mi 
enthiiHiiulically: "No race has ever ehown such capabilitiss 
adajiutioii to varying anil and circumstances as the negr«v 
to them the auows of Canada, the hard rocky soil of Kew 
or the gurgcuua ]irufudion of the SouLhem States; 
OuSey uxjuiid under them all" 

The word pe^H, from the Spanish term denoting Brat a 
travrlVr iind then a day-laborer, is of more recent dat^ ia 
spot.-oh than in Kngtirih, where ii had bcconM known thr^n 
Bso in India. We found ihcpeonia the Spanish poesassions, wi 
How constitute California and tho adjoining States, together 
the ayatiim oS peonar/e, us the peculiar relations va« called, wbiA 
oxist4-d in Mexico between tho hind-owuer and his humbler 
ants, or, worse still, between the creditor and his debtor, vbft 
itnabte ta discharge his obligations, volnntarily entered into a knl 
of acrfdom to pay Iiis di^Ut by labor. The peon, in this aenaatl 
the word, is of course unkuoM-n to the territory annoxod to tbi 
United States, but the term remains in use and is now af^lif' 
mainly to humble laborers or small fjsrmen of Spanish bk«d 
Thus F. B. Hartn says : "Leaving onr hOfMS ia th« oharj(eofi 



pi$ lb the coQrt-jnrd, who were banking lazilj In the sun, 
^rrd & low doorway." {Lvek of Roaring Camp, p. 213.) 
k ^natsh t«rm of the kind, tbe juet del campOt ifi now mure 
m vwd in the English form of Jndgtg of the Plain. As 
)ej appear ulreadj iu the last code of California Laws, wliero i 
^ appoiutcd to attend the rodfos or great gatherings of all 
)t]« on a plain, for the purpose of separating, conntitig, and 
the stock belonging to each farmer; they have largo 
dcicidiBg all disputes concerning the ownership of every 

iiihtster, whether his uame be derived from the Datoh 
if, a sort of fast'sailing clipper, or from the German Fnt- 
ihe familiar freebooter of the Low Country wars daring 
pi of Queen Elimbeth, obtained bis unenviable reputation. 
fns and with it the naturolizaiion of the word among our 
flnring tbe uDforloitaie uttaok <jf fxipex on Cuba in 1851. 
fm> therefore, is an addition we owe directly to the Siianish 
ftbuftero, OS denoting first a small but swift Tessel, and then 
IB adventurer, a pirate, landing in such vessels on a defence- 
§t. Hence tlie Fenians also, in their unwarrantable inroad 

f.nada, were called iaHd'filibnater$. It came prominently 
in the newspapers of the United Stales during the year 
lainly in connoction widi the iH-Rtarpi-*! expi^ition against 
lit it must have BOOD resumed its sway in England, as we tind 
[in IH^tj a work of high atithority use it thus: '* By^^oniieoU 
[muhtimc wai-s of th*? Etruscans with the piratical expodi- 

Lthe Lydians, and lastly by confounding tbe Torrbchian 
rith the Jilibusiering Pcloagiane, who roamed over every 
jtidering wherever they came, there has arieeu one of the 
^plorahle confusions of historical tradition." (Mommsonfj 
If Inltabiianh of Italy, p. 59.) Since then the woi-d has 
|lld general nse among ns to designate any process which 
^ to achieve a rightful end by unfair mranii, and even in 
slang it plays u prominent part. "The Democrats tried 
xnMDB to prevent tbe vote being tftken; they AUliutf er«d 
! hours, but the majority eat watching them with indiffer- 
mm-£ of success as soon as their hoar should come." (Dfbatt 
ittforceiaent BiU, Feb- U, 1871.) 

th« mulet4er so well known to all travellsrs In 



$fm\th hm flT iMf Wrwntfi. in bbb^ lad In dvtt atta, I 

A«IH4*IUItt irtM» 

■P an tk* moit «TpfTt iai 

^W^Rt^^^'" ' 

>W> m* wn/nmmXif ^afioyrA in &U th« < 
Nmr ktc'li m ndii^«D bis gavHi 




fcro riw- ^^TMBiA mfc i giw to •. liiidiKyvb«f 


behind thtl 

<i m» f*Wrtt« bi«*li » ^r*mf iu *»it therr. If redHkini 

|||«« DlfMW^ IW. ' 

HtljMllMitod in a M*. 

, <>wi j ili< n i «»rln^ " iltaxmmft Ai 



«hr iMh n land. B KiMv ncent 
' liiinM Mid »«}«& I 

** Vrt- Hurirtv." < .1 ff .' 

a Kkr SsBth and Udt m 
■riA MMBS, vfairli an i 
«r«Br n^e«cfa. The 
^ta» *ad all tbe 

Bsi^ 4v c<KM ^— Iwi the vquin ti 

■ iB^tyw w i fiLiad tb^biffffiftl 
«r A« »i»iui WiHiita . «hic4) «n iB 
■K we^t.*' |I. ;v t\%} Tb«T an M 

■ hah aad ate^ tlk* )«Bla of 
•Ml kkM imvisi; vfld, and canMh- flMi«4 in UM>f>aUk1 
«r fioMfctf* m4 W«As« www. v^ hRin> 4sm Ui» 

The ealaink of tte UaiMd Sums * iio4 tbv tiv* 
kaowB br tint MHM* bvt. vfcM it iB «pHM to ft fdaci t, th* 
(Oaeaitfte hfcwwi'ii), «ad men g uwja Hr tiw driiikmg t« 
mdt frgn iti bottle-duped fnitt, whkh prorared fbr ~ 
Artliie tMOM, HrotB wMeti tiw 8pAudi^ 



I moat frequeDC use inude of Che word is, as a cant tvrm, for 
tkfinil empty heiut, aiiU thun rmpluyed in himiorous lungtiagfv 
Hia ibe vords: "Miud boiv tou chuck, ur you'll break his cala^ 
■kuh." {3. C. Heal, Oharcwl iiLeiehM, p. 22'X) far luoie geaeroUj 
in uie u tlie biuuiisU wont chtiparrai, from cfutparra, au over* 
^a dwarf oak, which in its turn is derived from the Basque. 
As nMttoing of the word was, hovever, in the coloaies extended 
tour (bickL'b or guccession of thickeU, ooiiBistinj; not ot' oaks 
iv, but of oLber pUrnte pemiliur t-o the district. In California, 
V, «ud the foi-nierly Mexican statcB, eiiaparra with iU 
tive tenninatiun -al, dcnotci a tract of land covered with 
iHttnhi and bushes, mostly itrroed with «pin«8, but belonging to 
*iif<rrmt claMea of plants. Tiie ckaparrai of Pa.)o Alto, for 
Jb(a5L'e. 19 dcBcKbed ae being '^ defended by ^gantic caatni here, 
ifaup.|Miinced yiiccaa there, and cut-claw briara overyivliere" 
tBav Vork Spirit of th« Timtii. H.) : and we are told that a new 
D, "Middlotown, on |Wpt»', Hourisheit like a green buy tn»; 
fimia it id the dry ehaparmi and the forlorn billaide," 
td MonthUf, October, i^lii, p. ZHi.) In othi-r rpj^ions the 
tiu, and some ocher shrubs of the family of the mimosce, at* 
eumroon, aud still others, like the Ci'i-osoto plant, and ibe 
"f ttie Amfricans. known locnlly undor \ii SpHntali 
"j/, predominate iu tiio ^'urthvm part-s of thu tJUUeu 
T. Et. tlarte de<eribea a man, iu an inundation, rowing on tiie vast 
tipinse of water and aoying: " With uir bauds dipped Ustleaslj 
■W the tbwartd 1 deteoled the topa of ehimUal, wliicli showed 
i^tideUi bavu Bomewhat fallen." {Luck of Jioaring Camp, p. 
*tt.J 'i'he origin of (frraitercwd is duubtfnl. ^me derive it 
*«» the Greastr, the popular name of the tipanisb Cnlifornian; 
•tbcft from the well-known fact that tiie (jrizzly Bear gathers 
Iho leares of the herb when he is wounded, and, hia own surgeon, 
itaffs them into the wound tightly. 

The kfasquiti or Mu.ti-ett (Algarobia glandulooa), a baataxd'^ 
^KOtt, ia bvqueutly derived from an Indiau word, simply becaim 
til*Sp«»iih term, Mtiqu\f$, from wlrivli we derive tbe name, ii 
fcif I ; word ot that lauguagf. It r^presenU iu the South- 

K^:. .1''^ not only th>j tree, which is tlionglit by bulanista 

» faa identicul with that which rurnishra the Arabia gum of com- 
Mfcv, bat alao a fine, short grass, growing iu great abuudauce, 



thongh only interspereed with other gnaate, on the % 
prairin. Of the former we read that: " By the mdade 
• Taxao omigrmat wagon, which had toriied luide inia tbi 
impt- Detrublc mezquUt brakes," and of the gras: "Koir m 
oooaeiuuiillv uader the awe«t inEaence of femala tiaffit, 
hoor-niurked valley boj no stafile prodoetioo* save jerked 
mt»quite." (Ovtrland Monihly, Aug., 1870, p. 164.) Tl 
narrow podu of the Liwv^ a nicr^ shrub iu leea faTorable 
are nnt only a favorite fwd of all kind of cattle^ but an 
by some of the more pruvidvat Indian tribes, aud miiei 
wliwt-flour, tpving their bn-ad a pecaliar and mo«t 
•w«vtiieM. The grass, also, has sp«cial viriuea, amoDg irbkl "^ 
fact Ihnt it preserves its sweetness long after it is dried, islAM 
means the least importaut. Our kiducy-bcans form od SoMt' 
wcaterii plains and in miuiy of the old Mexicao dtetricts so «o> 
itant uii article- of fuod, llmt they have become Lbure uutrcmlll 
kuuwii l>y thuir i^pauish uame uf frijvles, while iho paim^ 
(Chamroroiw pHlnii*lto), called /MfoiiVa or little palm ia Spatiii^ 
reaches np us far lu the KUt« of tjouth Carolina, to which .'t ha 
fpTeii its name und ita flag, and is extensively nsod for thatebiq, 
cabins, for making piles of wharves, and a number of einahB, 
pnrpoiea. A pine-ti^ee. tbo Spanish piAoii, has become qtuH 
natiiralJKcd also aayinuin, since iis edible nuls, loug since appf^ 
oiated by the animaU of the forest, have bec^mie a favorite with 
the nov SAtclcrs iu Arkansas aud the adjoining SuteSi. It i 
{trobably to the eamc language that we owe ilie term raiMn, vmk 
todtnjpiate the cuttings uf dugar-cune of the eocond and tbiri 
yaars* growth, which serve for planting new fielils. Derived 
the Kpanish rttoAo, n sproat or shoot IVoni a phwi cut down 
viously, it bus eoinK into general use, and is even employed 
verb, so that jilunlers will eay: "tbe cane rahoni' well 
-teaaon, and orurything bean a most promising look on 
pbotelionH." (New Orlejuis Deila, Feb. dl. I860.) The pi 
pMT cactus, known also as Indian fig (Cactus opunlia) 
purplish pcnr-sbapitl fnut, wbicli iu ijoutlit-rn cooutries 
not only vdiiile. but lusciouit, aud is there geueniUy known 
ita HpaiiiHli iitinu! (nmm— a term winch also serves Co desig: 
pleasant beverage innde from the fruit, 
'i'ho fraturea uf the hindscupe in our formerly Mexican Si 



mrely left in poaaeeeion of their Spanish namea; they 

IreciUl fJiiuiJiar objects at home, and then rcceivo the same 

lion, or they are new and surest at once a special name. 

the older Ivruu ha%'e, howerer, stoutly tuaiataiiied their 

taod have thns Ix^come incorporatt^d in uiir Hju'wh. From* 

long these is the canon, often ■written cantfon, to represent 

li&h pronnnciation of the word, which originally meant 

more thart a holiow tube. It represents now a feature 

iyexcla&irely peuuJiar to the SouthweBtem Statee, gorges 

]« worn by violent watercourses, of such vast dimensions 

the beholder with feelinj^ akin to awe. At times they 

Ig, and So otrerhnng by precipitous rocks as to resemble 

I : at other times tlie sides rise to the height of several thou- 

, and the traveller ridiug along on a high table-loud dnds 

fuddenly arrested by a rent in the rocks which allows 

\y to diacem the tiny watercourse at the botLom of the 

: fissure. Where such narrow channels separate spurs or 

of the mountains, the Redwood generally follows the 

Bhanuelof the cadiari, while in California there pour through 

ikhe-s the monntain torrent^ the tctf. du/gings of the gold 

The word, bat recently naturMlized, hae not escaped the 

fate of being forthwith ueed as a verb, and hence already 

Mayne Beid says: "1 soon came to a bend, where the 

after running parallel to the ridge, sw^t round and 

through it." The word gttlel, which is ao often found in 

tion with California mattt-r8, that it itt largely bclievitd to 

inith origin likewise, is of course nothing more than the 

Id English ffuMi. a " ravine," which after long neglect has 

new honor in the new States. They abound in the South- 

Stati^s, and ai^e quoted as "Steep ffvlcJier, where vrery- 

[Wa« absolntely and hideously naked" {Afoot in Colorntlo 

)t while new ones arc formed continually, especially afVr 

tee. "In places one side of the crerioe was two feet 

than the opposiio wall, and the long, straight gvkh, from 

fcet deep, and nearly as wide, could be seen for several 

{Ov*rlaMd Uonlhitf, Aug., 1870, p. !G1.) The wtird and 

ling are. however well Icuown to other eonntries also, for 

!s Kewfmtndlnatl Missionary Journal we lind : '* I have met 

in Fortune Bay, two or three miles unly from each 


r, tt» Tint whioiif in aiiiteE. ic flri|^ he 
-oltUteBU mJin, to get nmaA ihr dv; 
rfMUOT Md tanhaaa," (p. 10.) Aa if ta 
iuMtefy origin, the word frwinsntlr appwn 
^•^ Anwya. nineb ia, at leaM u ootMi 
vhila Elu A ti rww KH , aoodwr 
■■ nvinr, U genfnOy aftp&ed only ta 
ify bj hf«vy imtiH or swoUsn mubatmnmu^ mod 

■brapt banln. like perpradmikr waBk. 
TbfT » 'Mt, rowiiniy bo nolated i^maA or 

ii u btML ... ....... importMMft, w tbe idaad* oa tb« « 

[ibrouk srn lo enlkii, aod hence tfa« tcnD ia oAm 

tiik«n ta be A proper niune. Tb« £tigmm* at dK SoiAl 
rflMir origJD qoitc m oftui to the Fnaebi 
g»v« tfaanuM to the amay b^smd iwlrtiirf Iumfwini. Mtfj 
in the man aootbctiT StatM. Tb» ANMboatei 
r, ia Um name of phim aod piaiiiea in the distrioli 1 
•a XaxleDr atu:hitD|(ed aa it waa bestoved upon then hy Ati 
p •Daqnemra ; thA \ul\a and kmir ridg« with flat tofi^ lAisfci 
'ifmntly border tii«ra, are, in like manner, sttU ealM 
when iKtj low, irith the diminatiTe ending; kmUu. A 
plun or tnbl^ybwd, on the caotmrT. ia called a matm or tabki 
[%aii«*,ia * B*port on the E^Mnfic Bailioad. it ia thna 
\ dtwxd : ** The «M«o or tabMuid charMrtiY is txfaibtU!d eaiyt 
[ Iba tiaa of tba rirar-raUcrn, aa high bla& the resnlt of 

mbaeqiient to the origin albaain-depoaitWM;'' fYoL^ 
|M.A) WliaRtbe7oaoiiranftnnUarBcale,tfaediminatif«! 
maM'Us ia aanL Qolte a poeiionl term earnTea ;vt in the ' 
plaint, where ocoaaionallr a toft of raoic gnua riaea auddenlf^ 
amidat the arid vaate. and ebeor* th« parched awl wmry i 
vtth its promise of a ipring. Tbeae spctnga, inaxpnaaUj 
Done in tbe vaec deaerta of those regions, ver? lo henrtilr 
[1^ tbe first ezpiorers, that ther called tbero ojoa, or eyvh aoA* 
'Same tb«T stiU bear. A-yicaeho. or pointed summit, is the 
by which, in New Mexico and Arisooa rspeciallr. the peakai 
known, whi4^ ri« abruptly from a level plain and serve 
marks Ikr and aaur. _ 

The Hpanish wnnl pliwtr h&e loa|; since lost the primitirel 
plieity of lu tirst meoaiag, whether it be deriTed, as 


/fjuOtSaddcuoU'd aotbing more ihaii auy particular aiK>t>or 
ly come from the word placer, a "plejiaur*," in alliuion to the 
nght caused h? thf; tinding' of gold in the sbayio of dust in cor- 
^*i lomlitiM. At all cventa, it Wiw borrowed from tiie Mexicans 
ihe latter sense, atid for many jvurs u&cd to dougnate tlie de- 
lta of drirt-Bind in which gold was found. The lerni became^ 
er. Boon eo fumilisr to American ears through the astound* 
Jits of frold-tindin^ in California, that it wa« applied to 
discovery of nny good thing which promised a Ui^e reward, 
art-fnl wrii^'r in the Aflanfic Monthly could, therefore, safely 
*>■: " Tlie Homer of Chapman ifl so precious a gift, that wc an 
to forgive Mr. Smitfa'a shortcomings. It is a vast placer, 
Llof DQggctii for the philologist and lover of poetir" (April, 
i). Bad " Elegant Tom Diilor" in Putnam'* Monthly aays: 
Jocausft it is nil T need. I think I have found a plactr ; I shall 
money by it, and after this t ahnll b.* rich again." The 
has oven given a Qourishing town the barbarous name of 
x'ille! The plata itself, the public squwe. has become a 
liUar term with the a<x|Tiisitiou of eo many towns iu whicli it 
aed a prominent feature, while ptntfa, literally the "strand or 
IT?,*' linds in the Southwest an entirely new purpose to futlltL 
•re applied to thoee viifit inland plains, known fartlier Xorth 
iiatt and wa/m* prairies, the enrfaco of which is covered with a 
ck inoruslutioD or nitrous efUoreicence, known as Uaquiie. so oa 
I give them iha appearance of a large motionless lake. Mr. Bait- 
> himself describes them tiins: "Emerging from the paae into 
I plain, onr eyes were greeted with the .siglit of a white streak, 
Ihich we woald have taken for a lake, hod it not been called the 
This yiaya seemed to havt- an extent of tweuty-live or 
rty mtle«. The gurfitce was an indurated clay,8o hui-d that the 
■beds of our wagon scarce made nn irapression. AfWr rain this 
raeeivefi n large amonnt of water, which seems to evaporate 
ten vegetation gets a foot-Uold.'' (Porsanat A'arraiiv0, L, p. 249.) 
tjtrMidio, also, the uamo of a military post in the former prov> 
nOf Mexic'>, has been inherited from the SiMiniaixIa; and as 
' of these |K«t8 are now within tlie new States of the Union, 
&Q name » retained for the village, which generally ocoupies 
l')ilac«af the former fortili cations. The same face has been 
t4f Uwfcawi, a word originally meaaing fiimpLy u " house," but. 



being hy th« Sjiaiiiai'ds applied to oonniiy boiuoi «t)M 
Amrricmis bare adopted it in that scuse, aud tlias Mt; 
«a«a ■» bwilt too high np the fout-hills. O, tlmr aia't 
tfaar, ;oa facL^ (F. B. Hartc, Ltn-k of Roaritig Camft,\ 
The tenu pveUo.a\^,m Spanish tisud to deaijtr 
inhabited b)' Indians, auder the care of a Spani." 
hun directed in worldly as well as iu spiritual mattere, ntillt 
to the place. It has a pecnliar iutfrest in th'' 
Indians, add to be the legitimate descendants ' . 
thi' furmrr niliira of ifae country, who hare giren np thoi: 
life and ditTote themselves to agricultnre and domutic 
Itut while they are thus semi-civilized and at least nc 
good L'hnstiaus, ther ueTerlhel«» look pioailT and 
(he ivdirii of Montoxtima, biimiug us of old his «t«rnal 
celebrating his fcativalA in 6trictc«fc flocroor. Ptubh it 
unfritiiii^ntly hmrdfurntown prviilop) that was i<^: 
tti)d iiiuny of ihew euiiLinuc to btiir ihuruld C'astii 
/Vafiriicu alono soema to be in daDgcr,at least collo()tniillT. of] 
lljt identity, tut miners and othem now very generally shor 
lut^t Frinco. " Tbc'T advised nio to simkI Uim to fVi«€9 to 
pllal, for hi" was no good to any one. and wonld b« a 
life." (F. B. Harto, huekof Hmring Camp, p. SI.) Norj 
lio forgottfln thai, tbu nune tortn, pueblo, is applied olao'] 
ruins in New Moxioti and Arizona. ]H«uhar orpction«, yt 
roui in the region b«tweeti the Bio Grandi% Colorado^ i 
ri^cia. wliich owo their origia to n purtly-vivilized rave, 
, (Vuni all irUivn. " Tho Putblo Ptntwio ia one of th« mo«t 
iblo. U ik built of small flat alabi of grayiih sandsbone; 
tha aloniia arc layers of small colored pebbiss, the <^ifictf at a i 
ttouw roKfiabliiig bnlliant mosaic work. It is thirty fMt 
fMd ombraooi Ibrro Hturicti. thv upper portion of each stuxy 
inn a lorrAOA. The building is one hnndrad and thirty 
, litiiM, '^itd DoiHatns (Ifly-tbrrt rooms on th^ ' ' 

^ J'Hfi'h I'ltii I'liiti i" alwut three hundred aii < < ; . - loi: 
whiln (ItAt call«d t\w Chttli'o Kettle^ ia four hnndriMl umI tbt 
t' .:'':' •- has one hundred and Iwenty- 

(■ . .I'lients of Ancitnt Ainerirm.) 

nh word titio, a square ht^ 
..j>i»i M> i«^a tii^Uab acrr«8, is perfactty Cunm^t iv 



mcati$ who either live or own huad in the former Spttniah 

>DB, as all ancient frrunm and charters mention this mei 
:, the t«rm ocenrs (.-oiiiilautly hIm in Ihe cuiirls of Uw, 

is hrougbt to the higher courU iu other States, also. 

Joe of tho few local terras iakea from the BpaoiarUs, which is 

ia tlie older States of the TJnioa, in the word ifavannah, 

Icuovn u the name of the great seaboard city of the f^taXe of 

)rgj& Tbe cuphoDiouB imme has its vciy modest, origin in the 

lish term sahana, a "Itacn sheet," which wa^i applied by the 

>«ers of De Suto already to the prairies of the .Soath. It 

■e of geuej^l use in Florida, and when the State vm iucor- 

into the UntoD, it was adopted into our speech. It wt 

[oooTie* Well kuowD to Knglish writers, and used bj them 

|m ThomsouV lines: 

"PlKin» inimenae, 
Anil viuti larannat, where Ihc wnad'riB^ eye, 
Vnlixt, w ill a vt'txl^iit ocvaa lust." {Sttmmtr^ 

its form and ita meaning was not always qnite clear, how- 
to English minds, we may presnmy from the SnUvanriertf,^ 
Inch the old Kn^Ush innkM-pev in Barnaby Riulge heliercd 
llbi! name of a ferocious tribe of Indians, whose sole occupation 
digging up lumaliawks, and uttering unearthly war-whoopa. 
the BuTanna is a dry desert of considerable extent, it has tho 
live name of Jornada, or tlie Day's Journey, and sume of 
Etorriblc plains, which look as if they were forsaken by man and 
and labored ander a curse, are thns familtarly known. 
iiJoriiiida del Muerto. the Plain of the Pcad Man, as it might 
Inuuluttid, \A ninety miles long, aiid rti4uire8 several days to 
the trail is strewn with bleached bones, and early trav- 
flqiecially, used to look upon this part of the Overland 
at the most dangerons pnrt of the whole undertaking, 
are, however, made to deprive those deserts of their terror 
■bkiiig Artesian wells, which would won "change niuny 
jornadas Siom waterless deserts into cultirated plaino." 
Titlixenus, y^w Mexico,) 

The Sierra, the mggostire name of a moantain-ridge renum- 

%. with itK numerous pointed peaks, the "saw" with its slmrp 

eUi. Btems pictiliarly appropriatu t^i tlie serraied nioinitain- 

diaiuiof the i^ific oouat. But Archhishop Trench, who tirst made 



thit rvniiu-k. wiw tmmcdiatelT taken lo ta»k br AMcnuu 
who (I'Mtroyud llio poutry of the resemblaaoe «t a blow, bji 
Uij{ ilifit NiVrm cam*'' l'rr>m lUr two Arabic words jmA rai, 
iiifn|ily meJUiB ■ dcnolaLo mountain-tnuis. 8pwiirii 
liAVi!, lo Tar. pruferred the /«rtv doctrine. Two Banes of 
ppeoinl and (jucnlior looHlitieB will fJODclade tliM list, fii 
'irlf(iiuiU)' inAliiiiK niore ibun un eartlicnvran water^, iii 
tti>i 1*11(10 ^pitniiiii diHtricU very generally applied to small 
III (lilt mi'ka on inoiinUln-iilopca, vhicb, dnriog the rainy i 
nn' flllinl witii wtiu-r. uiiil giMieinlly pree^rve asmall qoani 
liiK tltn ji'ui'. Tht!,Y luruieh, in many rt'gioas, the only 
irttvolleiv and hiinU'rti, uiid are hence most highly {niaed. 
■ 1 I' iji UiD uame of the tHaXe ot Texas, literally 

I' , 1 li, 1)11 Ihf Mistusifipiji aud WesUim waters geoi 
applkd lo Llio it[ii}i>i' deck of steamboats. This is now a 
iliMlmUfl ])UiH'. A lif;ht struotarc with glazed sides, in the 
tiviitru iif llu' jit:r>niiii'i-, und immediately aiviiud tliv little 
hutiAi', fmiii wliiuh tliu bitnl is steered^ so as to nHord amplt : 
Ulid n lliiu riuw. T1h> cabius below this aud above Uie 
Mil'ioti, wlioro Uiti oJliccrs uf the boat an.- &ccon:)niodiU«d, 
Ih'Iuiih l<i Tcxtu. Fonnerly, hovrevdr, the space was open, 
(lilt Kiiurdi ul. I he atiluor awning uhove>hMd, and fbefiucnted by I 
)it'r«ifnul fridiiUj of tlui jiiluL iukI their associates, men of 
iliiniift, nil iliiiilit, iiiid expert iu tliv iiae of buwip-knifc- and pis 
liiiL IU liitlc dt-sii-ablo voinimny as the first setiivrs in the nfmb 
f'f TfJiu, vUioli attracted all the lawWss aud desperate chat 
of llio I^iidti. It wna then the name was given to Ihispart^ 
tliK IidiiIj, and tho uppliciktion was prohubly not altogether iDl 

The two BpanJHh ti-mis, hacienda and rancJio, hare beoonlj 
ritiiiiliiir Ut AiiKTioaiis m the former Mexican provinces, aod'i 
lUuiig lliv I'liuilio slopes that they have become incorporated 
our spcceh. Jfarieiula is generally the name of a large and oal 
Hive plantation, with the mansion of the owner, while thers 
as it ia alnit»i, univoriiaUy called now-a-days. is the small faraii 
piiMUiiL villagL', aud the owner is called rancftmrni. The ll 
fumA(f, a^uiu, pusses itomutimc-s atill under its old Spanish 
of utancia, mauaged by a mai/or-domo or npper btitler. ' 
/McitHiiu of Eocarnaciou, thirty mites south of Agua Xuevi^ 



»liiHcia or ntixk-roKch, snpplied with a bitterish but di-Jiikar 
6l« wiil.*r rn>ni two deep wells worked by mules.'' ( 0(d and Xttc, 

8i', 1H7I.) 
Ik* t^nn meant originaltr uothing more in Northern Mtsxioo 
,utnii a hut mdclr made up of a few posts and covered with 
ifamiiches, in which the vaipuro* or benlsmeii would Btt.«p at 
Ebt and seek alieltvr in bad wualber. For willi the Spaniards 
lo-Vct was a cftttle-statiou or ii himting-lodge iu a desert or a 
It, iAT Trom tht> haunts of mon ; and it is from thin meaning 
! the common tendency of corrupting words, and the national 
laity flhown in ptrvertinp their lp;^timate usp, hiivu derived 
rspplicatJon of raneho. iu Wivshington, to a pince of c-vii report. 
OirJionary, p. it3l.) In California a rancho fiometim«a 
Dt also the buildings on such a furui. while the lauds put iu 
tivation for the purpose of raising coru <,'r any otiier crop, are 
A lalior, prononnced like tho Spanish word from which 
derived. All three numca haxe been adopted, unchanged, 
^tre fn common use on the ParifJi; coast and in Arixonu. The 
name for thf bnildingsoii a rancho used to hv ntncheria, 
Amcriunu carulessncss dispenses with the word^ and uses the 
tt term for all it can mean. The owner or occupant of such 
is Ih* murhoro, a wonl long incorrectly prononnced rart' 
we may jmlge from J. R. Lowell's poems, who makes his 
HoMa Bigiow, sur: ^Tlieee follera are very prnpiHy called 
and the more they kill the ranker utid the more 
Ibey hekim." {Biffloro Fajws, I., p. li'i.) A Miik-raiU^ 
tof lalc become the familiar Oalifornian term for a dairy. 

vast herds of cattle owned in those States are generally 

tvavA qU the year round; hut where o dairy is attf^mpted, the 

H and iheir calves are every day driven inttj a Corral^ as the 

eneloBurr of cedar logs {Jie/lwood) is called wherever it is 

The Spanish word, derived from corro, a circlf, is qnile as 

■mtly applied to the ring formed by the w^ons of iiu cmi. 

It or hunter's train, inro trhich nil thf> horsies and cattle are 

at night to gruse, and to be protected against ])rowliug 

Slsns. On tho outside the lents are pitched, with their flaps 

ning outward, and here the canip-flres are lighted. A U^vel- 

ll tberdore, writes: "The wogotw were all corralied. i. *, ran 

tfaer in the form of a horseshoe, so that the live stock, after 



. fteding. could be driven into if* ( Oh the Plains, Putnam'a M^ 
Pet)., 1869.) "On llio 10th iust., sheriffis Morse of Coutr» 
and Harris of Monterey, corralM a party of Spaniards in 
Pflcboco inountaiQS. One of th«m was of the party that mui 
three Frcnnhmpii in Sii-ical Valley. A deaperate fight 
but the Sjtutiiard woa shot dead and his companions neni 
feared." {San PraneiscQ paper, Jannary. 1871.) If tha 
is Dear a house, it serves a$ stock-yard, and, us nivntionetl 
the CQvra are daily driven into it, to nurse the calvea. 
people of the ranch then crowd in with iheir milkiDg-| 
the nalrea arc canfrht by little boyg witli iaaaoa, and their i 
tied to the hind leg of the mother, who then, under a 
ing delusion, allows hprself to bo milked. The "cattle*^ 
anch occasions, often ioclndes the mustangs, as the wild 
of the prairitrs are called, from the Spanish word m 
referring to studs and cattle-raising generally. "^At eundc 
G. W. Kendall says, in hi^ lively description of the anil 
**a drove of muitant^s, or wild horses of the prairies, paid 
visit. When seen on a di<;tant hill, standing with their 
heads toward a person, and forming a line as in their eastom, 
almost impossible to take them fur anytUuig but mountad 
llnving sftti-^tied their ciino-sitr. they wheeled with almost 
regularity of cavalry, and galloped off. their long thick 
waving in the air and their (ails nrarly awtu'ping the grou 
They are hoantifnl animals, always in excellent condition,! 
althongh smaller tbsu our American horses, are slill vciy coaii 
and Hitl ix*ar nincli fiitigne." {Santa Fi iSxpedUCnit, L, p, 
They are conght with the lasso, the SpaniAli laao, a long, sic 
tope, often maile of rawhide, and having a loop at the end, mi 
the IndiauF and the whitea of the iMains know how to bs 
with amasing skill. Texana itcine or ropt- a hone, instead 
"catching" him. as it Is called elsewhere, and tbeD staJce him i 
with a gtdke-rope. This may be either a eabrwio, when it is 
of linir, or — as is the ca«e in California — i 
rawhide twisted. The word is derived from the Spanish la 
and the rope \h used tu tie horsed) and mules together into a 
or to fasten them to a peg or stake driven into Uie grot 
U«nc« J. It. ]jovk\\ makes his hero say, as he passes, ou lus i«ia 
IVom the Mexican War, through pwts of Te.Tnii: 



** Yua see ft teller peekia' out, an', Aiat you know, a lariat 
^Ui roiwil your Uiniat, aa' j-ou a copac, 'ton j-ou can say: wat air jre at?" 
H^ (S^^Aipfn,!.. p. as.) 

PboeononaH; Uie ori/itial word naserts iie riglit, and then the 
TOrd is more correctly used as riafa, without the urticle. '' I'm 
aooiliQg up my riata" (Ovfrland Mayazine, March, 1871) meuns, 
my pntphicallv, I am preparing for my death. **Xh«re was a 
ttake driron n«ir its Bummir, with the initials L. E. S. Tied half- 
down was a curiously worked ritita. It was Oeorge'a." (F. B. 
■, Luck of Roaring Gamp, p. 230.) 

itb this lariat or a shurtvr rope also, a hone Is hobbltd oat to 
which cousists in. conOaiug his two forelegs to each other, 
that he cannot at^p more than six or ten inches at a time. 
ling mules, howeTer, with their nana) perreracness, soon Iftam 
_ both forefeet at a time and gallop off; hence they are h'netf, 
'Hal is, the forefoot is tied lo the hindfuot on tlie same side, so 
tfait the step is very much shortened and their gait reduced to a 
Idod of pnoe. As this rope is of the utmost importance, it is the 
'■miable accompanimeut of every honeman, and generally hangs 
fem the horn of the saddle, as the pommel is here called tjrom its 
hara<tike shape. If the saddle should he a pack-sadiUe, it is known 
by its Spanish name of aparefo, and all saddles, for riding as well 
u for carrying hurduns, are apt to have an apixluxmore, a iiaddle- 
bla&ket, mode of l>uffalo<calf skins, under them, so as to protect 
ihe animal's back ixom bein^ chafed. 

thi! main purpose of forming a corral is to prevent a stampedtf 
u B general scamper of the horses and mules of a eabaUada (con- 
tnoted in Texas into eabaUad and pronuunc<-d eavapard), and of 
% cattle from their pasture- grcnnd, is called in the Southwest 
hm the Spanish word talamjnda. The word was lirat used of 
ths herds of cattle and mustangs, which were so common in tha 
S(^ of Uexico, then applied to every drove, and to the horses, 
Btile^ and bronckog, as the packhorses ure culled (pronoutteing 
fte cA as in chocolate) ; but it is now employed to denote any 
adden fright^ which starts a drove of auimals on a wild flight; 
«i start given them by thievish Indians and whito outlaws, who 
viih to possess themselves of the more valuable part uf the drove. 
The Ksae ia full of terror, and yet not without grundeur : uxeo. 
hoTMS, and mules, all racing in various directions and at full 



Bpced acroea thp plain, Trith eyes distcndud ond glowti^ tB^ 
Tear, with tails on high, and strange sounds tiltiDg the nir. If 
happens at night, even the experienced huntt-r is rarelji 
resist the panic, and thus Kit Camm Uimteir.probftblTitaec 
and uiost eippi-t of Wf-stcm hnnttTB, wm onoo carried ai 
ftuJden aurprisi*. "Some inexperieiipcd travidler bad 
nlarin of Indians dnring bis turn of gniird>dQt;, or. u 
ntpn u\preg8 it, stampeded the camp. Kit (JBrsQU ipruS 1 
feui, au(i, while vot hulf ««leep, seeing some dark object idf 
-upon him through the lon^ frni.'«, seized mm of hi» ai 
pistAls and shot, not an Indian, hni his own pAiticular 
mule, right throujrh the head." (A Ride with Kit tVirwwtl 
The t«rm hns, like nninv similnr nords, lieuonie so cunta 
find r?ady upplioatiun to every kind of sudden start ori 
"Tlie Virgiuiu Legi^hiture, becoming frightened at thei 
of iLe cholera, hsiTO stampetttd to the White Sulphnr S| 
there to legislate- in the ballroom of the principal hoicl," ttjUl 
New York Tribunt of Jime 13, ld4d: and in Blaoki 
find it related of the Charleston Hoivl, that *• a shell had i 
house close by, and u Bort of ]>nnii: had been the re«ult> 
had stampeded without wailing to dress, uod imd be«a 
ooatii (l>'ing in one hand anil piLntaloons in the otiier, i 
frantically in the direction of the ruih-oad-depoi/* (Jan., 1S8J.)1 

Another woiil iivhieh hnit, in like manner, obtained 
simnng \n, and a moaning fur beyond the ori^nal si^Ifleab 
/ititdanifo, in Spanish tlio name of a popnlar (iunce and tb«i 
pritLie tune. Ceriatn uiithoritics, hovruver. claim for it am 
date, aud recognize in il an African word, believing that 
danec- and its nnme were both brought from Oniuea to the 
Indies by "Uveit, smd that, it hud made it« way fron» tht-r* 
Spain, whicii in its turn sent it to the Amerieun eolonip*. All 
dTcnts, a fimdaMjn, often nsetl for swing, meant in Mexico, ' 
Aniericjinslli-»t weminitiatfHl into iU mTt'teries.nny kind of nt 
rial giaiiering, wliere the main eniertainmetit consisted indu 
In this form it \i known in California and all the a<ljoining SB 
Miners and hunters delight in getting up uu occudiunul fetnt 
when they happen to be in town, and the Spanish Kstdenlt^ 
quite willing to attend, tbt> men in their expensire aerttpm 
can blankets with an opening in the oe&tre, worat b j hso^l 

TUli t$fA.NlA.Kl?. 


iu gandy colore, and the wouieu with their rebosos drawn 

tlj over the face. ioiTiog for bonuet*. whicU they never wear. 

taai, ou the voud'ury, nwrn ralucUint to pitrt with their 

iros, us tlie brood* brimmed hats are appropriately called in 

ni^h, frutn kambra, "shade," bo that we read: "Thi'old man 

iDgoislKil his black-!>ilk cap bencaLli the stiff, imcomelv som- 

rwhidi all native Coliforuians aft'ecL" {¥. R Harte, Luck of 

mni/ t'tuup, p. 214.) Such is llm /andanfftt In its native land, 

lllio Urm id used iu the Kagteru Staled uleo. Uere, howiiTer, 

^ideaof raorc than usual uoiw aeems to be intimately connected 

the term, and any very boisteroTis lusembly. ctcu a row, ia 

lioriy called A/aadant/o. " You must havt; bad a real /an- 

ilaet uigbV' ^ys the eieeplese iic-ighbor iu a recent novel, 

irdyour friends makiiijf mi'i-ry liil late in the morning, and 

ft wiok could I fclecp." (New York Home Journal, Dee. 14, 

b) On ifuch occutiiuiia, &» well u8 at Ihv somewhat more for- 

eotertaiitueDta called tertteiias, the refrcahments are of the 

Bt» coDfiiiting mainly of loriiUaa, little flat round cakes made 

(•meal and coukcd upon a t^heet of iron, and a 1argi> supply 

tortiifiitU or " lire-wati^r," a kind of braudy dieliUed tVom tho 

l.Bine of the ootmtry. The former confltitote the ordinary 

.of Mexiuo aud itn pia>viuc«8. The grains aru firtit £onkud iu 

ftill they are soft, and the oiitur covering (K-els ofi\ then tiiey 

1 timougbly washed in water and made ii>ady for the mill, a 

>Btone, the upper ftnrfaoe of wbioli io nliji^iitly concave, and a 

il Gi-ushor of the same mnterial. A woman, by these 

mcaan. crmiheb u handful of uival, which becomes soft and 

jT.and i« then turned into a trough, kneaded, and made ready 

Mhe baking. Iu cuuip, men imjuu learu the mysteries of the art- 

pruoeM, and easily prepare Iha wholesome, palatabh food, 

'preferable to the atoie, a grnel of com-nieal familiar to all 

iJC^una which are or once wei-o Spani&li. The latter resemblea 

laiinplicily, at luast, the ecjuiilly familiar /)i>io/p. parched com 

ad and mixed with Mtgar and ^jiicei«, which in much used by 

eiSi l>ecaQM of its oompart form and extremely untritiuua 

^ _ /the momiug's work every .Spftuianl and every dweller in 

ifut former Spauiah posBe^ions, yielding \o the force of establi8h«d 
uage, indulges iu iiie *im/(i, a f;piuufeb word derived from the 




name of the "mxth" hour Hfter the beginning ofdjiT, owt^™ 
As the rest then taken i« not neceswrily oonfined'to ihaiM 
the t**rm gieHa, quite familmr to Earopeans also, hu faenooei 
known among Americang from two soureea at onop, mi' 
obiaiiK-d BO complctf- natiiralization, that few pereone 
xrorii remeiuber it^i foreigu origin. 

They here also KatdI a word whieh aeemed to come qt 
nrally to them, the Spanish tinaja, which thej prvrnpllr u, 
to be nothing better thuo a Slexiciui effort to ttutiimlize tbej 
iar tin (tin-bucket) of the Amprieang. They had an oppc 
of iieing the word in a complimentary aeuse. whil*. sdmii 
Indian women, who carry these iinajat (earthenware rea™. 
water gracefully on their head, when coming back from wdT 
liTcr, and thus iicquire the same graceful, upright carm|^,»l 
in BO atrikmg in the women of Egypt and of the East Indiia. 

If the refreshments are Bimple, there js no lack of eoteitL 
ment, for while part of the guests amuw themselves with daodi 
others enjoy the fUvorite game of the Mexicans and Ani»r 
settlers, known m Monte, and taking its name, verr gradil 
from the -mountain '' of gold which the banker piles up1i.„ 
him to attract cnstomcrs. The very fact that it is a ganui 
pure chatict*. and hence continually varying, makes it paoi 
attractive to gambling Mexicans and wlTentnrons men 
nations, who stray and drift to California and the new St 
the Southwest 

A few stray terms have, besides, foond their way from 
Spanlah into our speech, and acquired there more or less 
naturalisation. Among these the most undesirable are pi, 
the two vile companions, which we apparently shrink ft«m: 
ing in ^ood English, the chinch and the mogquito. The ft 
mainly found in southern latitudes, bears iis Spanish n.ii. 
ehincJu, not only when it designates the common bed-bng (f iuirt 
U«tnlariu8), but also when applied to an insect of similar trf6* 
sive odor, which infests the wheat, and often doe* serions lujurf 
to a whole crop. The moaquHo (Cnlex mosquito) i^>em8 to bii« 
been dreaded from of old. for even Biiiley has alivadv gomethmf 
to say of the moHcJtetta, as he calls it after Italian manner. Our 
moA/utfo is, of course, a little fly only, but of most blood'tlMni; 
nature, and even more intolerable in high northern latitudes tbou 



aoath. Mtaquito-HflM or bttrHf oartatas of it light, tnuis- 
It mALertol. wliich ara closely drawu OTor the bed, aro 
)n} kuowD and used almost iu every part of the Uuited 
,at)d iudispcneable for thofie whu would enjuy their rest at 
Kur doe» the word gurrote, which we owe, of conrse, qatte 
ncli to England oa to our Spanish neighbors, airake pkasant 
■KtioTus irithio ds iu itarariouti applicittioua tu tight collara, 
Bbbetws by means of partial strangulation, and to thf^ Spanish 
lof Mtcoution practised in Alexieo; it is, however, niuoh more 
Jjr used in America than in England. The word adobej 
iiu«b term for a brick not burnt, but bakod^in the sun, 
thd other hand become quite natumlizt-d. The material 
ktb^aromadeisalmndantin California, and the bricksare 
, largely used in all the tSonth western States. ^Some years 
aya a traveller in tho6«j n>gioni?r ''1 paiusod along a by-road 
County, through one of these adoU fields, which had 
rn in oftta. The crop was iu blo^aom, and, riding ou horae- 
te top of tlic grain had an average height si^mewhat exceed- 
level of my eye sight." This adoie soil is found in parts 
Btateoulsido of the great Central Valley. '' In the county 
Ita Cmz it ia Iwgely diffused, and there is a roncbo, adjoining 
if hotli of which bear the siuiiu Uiiuie, whicli wa« given by 
tires witli refert.'nce to the pliyeical character of the allivviuoi, 
ttttos, which mc-ana, Get ont of it, if you can.'' {Overland 
\ii/. August, 1870, p. 160.) The wonl baa made itself bo 
h at home with ns, that J. K. Lowell says of tho Bed Eobiu: 

" Chootlnj; out il liandy crutch na* ffpoUM 
Be gptm to plaal^fid); his adtAe housr." 

{Biglau Paper*, II., p. 167.) 

t common jail ia, in Southern states, very frequently known 

Calaboose, a term which is probably a corruption of the 

ealaltozo, partly due to an intermediate Frenrh woiil, 

use. It is quoted aa aea-alaug in the Stanff-Hictiotuiinf 

, but in America serves rcguhLrly, as, for indtauce, iu the 

tli« common jail at isew Orleun», which bears that name. 

than thirty men wer« laat night confined in tiie CahbooM^ 

th the present imjierfect arrangoiufiita then?, their sufferings 

tbftvti b«en well-nigh intolerable." (New Orlaans Picaifune, 

>, 1869.) Another word, similarly corrupted, but trvi^ed 



mncL worse, is die geographical nameof £«y, as applied in 
of rock rigiog near the anriiice of Che water, and low, flat ill 
iu Lhu West Iiulies. The word is derived from ttio Spuouh 
a name givcD, among others, to the small islands oa tb« 
Is^lorida, whidi was retaiued oiler Lhe sequi&ilioa o! Uuit Sbit^ 
pruuuuuced as it uow is wrilteu. Uu« of Ui<; best known 
them, A>y Weft, has sulfercd still farther ill treatitwnt; ii W 
originally Cat/o Hiteso, Bone island. 

Where formerly tipaiiieh coins wero current the word >H*flS>* 
piece, may still be uccaEioaalL; heard in the tnutsaotions bei*nii 

Americans even, when u smalt silrer coin, the Sponiah ti < 

pbta), is meant. In other parts of the Union it i« reprefr.:- 
H temt which has come from the Wust Indies. There— e-ijMuli^ 
in Jamaica — a £1/ meant the smallest silver coin current, wvft 
about aevcnpeuoe ha'penny ; from thcnoe the Sonthem StaM 
obtained tlieir kii, fully known us ^'-jucfifty-^i^ amounting tost 
and a quarter cents; a dclaeed Iwenty-ceut piece being ciiiUl 
long bit. With the disuppeai'aaee of tlie bpanisli ooius from 1^ 
United States, the word has gone nearly out of U£«. In £iig)u4 
however, fourpenr^ continitiHS to be called a lni,»t leust ia tUf 
sUng. The pitaifune, on the contrary, originally a Carib worf, ff 
pOESildy akin to Fif^nch pccuiu, hiis nut only held its own hot be* 
Oom&.a popular word in fmuiliar langnuge. It was luitg wedtl 
designate', in Louisiuuu, Horida, etc., the bpauiuli lulf-resl 
was next transferred to the American sixpence- lUie coia M 
longer exists in cnrrency, but the term rt-mnins to designate U^ 
thing pt'culiurty tjiniill imd pitifiiL " The whoW thing this joi 
wa8 a miserable piaufunt uttair," eaya the Jicw Orleans DfUd at 
llie IkBiif (iraa of 1 8fi6, nn expression exactly corrfsponiiii _ 
Northern phrase: "a oue-horsc affair." "A dozen /'■ 
Amntrsty Bills," states the Hvvr York Triintut, " will do jn 
inflame and diffuse Sonthem discontent, nothing to allay itTj 
(Dee. 12, 18;0.) The only serioiia use made of the Lc-rm is fouad 
in the name of a very clever daily newspaper, [tiiblisht'd undertbt 
uamo of the J^uaiiuiie, in the city of Hqv Orleans, and sold f«r 
that coin, a fact which titi-uugely nfcalls the nnmcof the very lint 
of all uewspapei-s, publiitht^l iu Venice, and called Gazda. (mi 
the coin of tliat name, for: " If you vrill have a stool, it will oott 
youajf/^fx*/, whiuhisidmostnpenny."' {Ooryat. Cniditifv, IJ.,p.l&) 



Of ill-treated Spaniflh irords, perhnpn none han fiiiffRK><] mom 
Vierously than piragua, a word probably of iDdiaii origin in tbe 
nt plncc, hut introduced into the world of letters iii this form, 
nd KtKtn adnpt«d by th<> French also as piroffu-e, nhirl) i« most 
Uofliar to American etira. Meaning, originnllr, « canoe formed 
r a sin;;l(! lurgu irtiO, or t>omctimf>H two .inch IriiiikR liL'^hof) tA- 
etbf r, ii is in the United States nswl {imniiscuoiiiily for anv smiUI 
Out or ciHio*.'. nod creu for a larger vo».-^'I farrytuf two jnasta and 

lef)j"urd, SQCh tua were formerly used .as ferryboats in the neigh- 
oriiood of New York. Bnt the word wan soon Americanixed ia 
of ways, and, excrpt in print, ita trac form ia hardly 
- _ -iPired. ]tapp«-arAin thrWost rk prrittufffr, a form under 
9dch it 19 iifed by W. Irving ( Washingian. II,, p. 873). as peri' 
yga in Virginia, and t Sua quoted fi<0Tn liteWefttjam papers (p. 13). 
bd ercn as pritinuger in the Far West. A mere grammatical 
Drrersion. involving, however, no fesa violence, in th« n» of the 
iuifh imperative, Vamm. an an Kng)i<ih ve.rK which has of late 
^pne so nniversal that it is Bctnally often writt^'n : to vamoie. 
%e lnterjrt:tion. corresponding verr nearly to our: Weill became 
imilinr ro the American troops dnring the Mexican War in 1847, 
ad bnlig uncommonly popular among them, it soon spread as a 
ttnt t«-m all over the Union. Now it is a verb: "Before the 
peaker's voice eould be heard eveiT democratic member had 
tomcMn/, and Aince that day no qnonim 1ms ever been present," 
tm mid of the Indiana U-jrislanirA {I-Vhrniiry 18. IS'O.) Mr. 
Bartlctl quotes from a book. '* Sonthem Sket^;he^" the phrase 
taiosrd Me riTMrA. and calls this procewof appropriating worda: 
•leaking Priscian'a head with a vengeance." {Oid., p, 490.) 
ifcice J. R. Tiowell. Iiowever, liaa ii«ed to ^iamo$^, the woii^ must 
((nbablT be considered natnralir^d. 

> a reoeitt poem by John Hay occur the following lines: 

" The niggrr ha? got to mat/}/ 
Trom ihe limit* a' Bpnuky VhiV 

\8nntn TVfrt.) 

lis mysterions word mos^^ is, probably correctly, said to be 

ing more than a niei-o variety of the Americmiijied verb 

ft«, with the final vowel goimded, and th(^ first syUable loet 

inir hoa the same meaning, of leaving suddenly, and gen- 

involuntarily. " My friend, let me tell you, if yod do not 


A I1KB1CA>- 1531ft. 

$y this instant, and dear out Tor good, joull btro to 
pretty dear." (Louisville Journai, October 9, 1857.) In 
wnse it bM crossed the occaD, and reappears in English si 
t'speciallv a^ a snmmone : " Now, Mo$tyP* Its d^ri^'&tioo frwl 
mytliicnl Moitea, wflrmly as it is aiiyiport^d by Bnglish rrib 
hnu no foundation iu fiict. and is ''only a new instance of' 
tendency to mytliolugize, nhich is as strong as gtct anioof 
uneducated." {Atlanlie MoiUhip, August, I860.) The Colli 

'proves lis usual readiness to supply an ancestor to th« qi 
word, and proves its clftims by the hobit of Cflmiah minen 
say, Maag, for Go! The verb i^ of conrae, an cnrin-Iy diflW 
word from that which enters into the compoBiiion of Mfk 
BUgnr, molosses'caniiy with thcmeator wuU mixed np with ft. 
latter comes from Monaic,yr)x\Q\i the kind of iuloid work prodi 
by the two coJore. white and brown, resembles in some mami*, 

Fpw would recognise thf pi«nd old Spanish word carar. whi( 
denoted the haughty, impatient pawing of a spirited horse, in 
half-Uidicraua term : to cavort. It is true, its derivation ia i 
times sought in tho verb: to curvet, from the French nmrJ 
but thv fa».*t that the term is very frequently not only proi 
but also wrilten cav(ii*lt, seems to speak iu favor of its S{ 
origin. It is now uwd, esiK-r-iallv in the Sonth. for any verrl 
travagant niauner of speaking or acting, with an inl«ntioDi 
ridiculing the HOtion. Thus Judge l^mggtreet makes one of I 
hero't.'S of "Georgia Scenes*' say : "In Ihey came, boys and 
old and young, making a prodigious nuise, and prancing 
cafor/iitfi at a tr.*nieiuloufl nit*"." A rwent traveller in Sol 
Carolina describes a court-scene thus : " In the court, a judg* i^ 
jlock siik gown, and a jury of nine whites and three hiaoks, 
trying a black, evil-looking, one-eyed negro, for disturbing a 
giouB meeting. The witnesscB were all negroes, and Ihe giiiA 
tbeir testimony was that Tony, the accused, came to the mt 
lonse, and— jes kep cavortin' round." (N«w York TWJmn*, 

% I87I.) 

fiiwuish temiB may appropriately come to an end with 
word Zombi, a phantom or a ghost, not unfreqnently heard in 
Southern States in nuvstiries and among ihe Ecrvanta. The 

^Ua Creole corruption of the Spanish sombra, which at timeil 
the Roms meaning. 


" I acbpeaksch Eogliah."— SIliu Bn&mann. 

that more remarkable than creditable projiensitr of tho 
kmuQ, to asacrt hie costnopolitiiii character liy abandoniDg- liis 
Btionaliiy, and by repudiating, after u few yearfl" residenoc abroad, 
HuUkcbmcut to his owq luugiiage, his aatioual views, and private 
arictions, has not preFcnted stutistioiauB from finding mor« 
luo fiTo millions of Germans in the United StAt-es. They are, 
BoRover, not limited, Uke the Dntch and the Fri^nch, to certain 
UCDmecribed localities; they are not scattered and lo^t in the 
[KtC Aoglo-Saxoii family, like the Irish and the Wohh. Far 
bmit: they constitute a large proportion of the population of 
^t cities, and own Tost traot« of loud in all the agricultural 
Hit«; they bnve their temples to vorship Gamhrinns in Boston 
■d in New Orleans, in Norfolk and in San Francisco. Their 
■MS u powerful and high-toned, their potent voice is heard 
B State Ltgielaturcs and in the national Sfuatc. Their iuHu- 
IKe is full in every iStatis and their vote ia decisive in great 

And yet they have not enriched our language by a dozen im- 
Want wordsl The ver}* fact of their excessive readiness to 
idipt thenieelvcH to all tho exigencies of their new home, their 
Uivtliiogness to ase their own idiom as soon aK they have 
a^iiired sufficient Bnglish to converse in it freely, and their 
iraapt admisuvn of the superiority of American terms as well aa 
Utitutionj), have well-nigh neutralized the intlitenct! they might 
m exercined by their numbers, their intcUipence, and ihdr 
iperior education. They have, no doubt, powerfully affected the 
tfiOBAl sund in all that pertains to the reaUn of thought— 



American churches, American lottere, and even Ammen 
nors bear mare or less the impreu of German teachings; W1 
marlts arc not Ttsible, b(?caus« the action lias been too stttrtlti 
slow, too secret and silent, to Kare its traces on the surlsoc. 

Thia is all the more trac of our speech, as their oirn 
and highly improvnl idiom, so new akin to onr tongue, hai( 
suffered by tbp contact with BugUsh. Bchohue camii^ 
from Germany remark with deep regret how rapidly their 1 
lauguage is yielding to the might o( Amcricua iiatic 
They point with ineflkblc pain to tlie jargon spoken, writtowi 
even printed in Pennsylvania— a hopeless departore from till 
standard, and shocking in its barlmi-ous admiitnre of 
terms, which it mutilates as sava^ly as its own. The linea: 

" My HUury cot one Icetlc ebveps, 
Hccs flees so vile mlt erlinow, 
TTnil cfry bliice sTs Mary pin, 
Dnt tam leetle Awju will go.*' 

show the havoc the uneducated German, whoso car canoffti 
tingiusb between b and p, or d and i, plBys with £!ng!iab ; sndj 
foUovving wili, in like maaner, illustrate the injur)' done taj 
mother-tongue : 

" Madder, mny I a schwltotning went? 
Nix, my ;tra«M clotlcr t 
I liol twice txiore alu foody cent, 
Dnt yt'ii gtl Oronraed in de votter." 
(Awrit aad Ocrm, JlillirooO, PcJia«ylTUii4, SepL 14,1 

Haun lirailnranna Ballnih (by Charles G. Leland), gi» 
example of the process which, arlificial in the poems, 
nattirallv in the ifgions whero nnrdiicatcd fiermanji and theJ 
oendnnts of finch come in contact with thcBUperior Engtiahi 
is spoken ihroughout the Uniwd States. On the odMV 
in cities and a few epecially favored districts, whore • 
class of Germans are brought in contact with each oth«r,^ 
atill speak their own lan^nge, publish their own nt 
alminacfl, and light litoratnrc, and bare their own aehoob' 
chnrcbes, where instruction is given and serrioee are he 

Th* rwuU is, that with the ozMptiosof on* or two Q< 

Tint 6ERU4.S. 


of greater imiwrtAnoe, our speech has been tnricbed only 
t«rnia, relating cither to slang or to— entinj;. The word 
DffiN^u liter»l vi-reiua of the German Siandpunhl, is gea- 
cunaideml m having originated in America; its use, hov- 
mct with iiucli prompt und gcneml suuce^id in the pagca 
glUii whter«, that Aaterici* would jiiubiibly fiud il ditlicult 
JVC the paternity. A Tursier, however, haa become litemily 
1 Americans call an *• iuatitution." The word reprosonia our 
^pnnast," but heliig applied to members of oltihs and socii'lies 
Miake gymnastics a subject ot pleasure us well as of healcii, ib 
pw' uuivei'sitlly adtuitled into our speech. Ttinierfwtey u 
liraonnul festivals ate designated, excite the utoiogC interest, 
1 their perfonn:iuce« the greatest admiration iu tlic Large cities 
tie their clubs, or Turn Vtreine, us they begin to be called 
n by nuiny who are ignorant of German, exercise a most ealu- 
y inQuencf- on the people by iiiduciiiK thi-ni Ui beetow that 
mtioQ u|wu physical exercise, the want uf which has so se- 
ulj affected the health of Americans. 

i il somewhat strange that the word designating the veiy 
KMitA to the Turner's character, the I-Aafer, should, in like 
nner, oome from tlie German. He is the ragabond or Idle 
Iiger, who so oddly contrndieU the world's impression of Amer- 
K energy and irrepressible activity ; who meets fou at every 
D«r uid in ereiy grogshop of a city ; disligures every village as 
Bit« on empty boxea and windowsills, lazily whittling a stick, 
I spitting his villanotis tobacco: who suppoHtj bar-roouis and 
biA pr»E{K!Ol£, disgraces his family, and destroys his own 
^He is Ikr wurse than the lozzarane of Miipies in hia forced 
rity under a wretched government, and in a climate where 
possible without labor; n'orse than the Mexican It'pero, 
with a u incumble malady, and helpless iu all bis i-Qorl* 
has he been painted in quaint humor by many a clever 
,in rain haa Walt Whitmnn declared thivt the forte of hia 
is "confessedly hafmy and writing poems." Although li. 
mcon tells us gravely that the poefa " Leaves of Grass'* are 
lost extraordinary piece ui" wit and wisdom thiit America 
kt contiibuted," we Miove better things of bis nation. 
ie terra, common as it is, has, like many othei- lomnion wordfi, 
.tbttleariwd much trouble. Th^ Philadelphia VadomaomA 

rwE azvtxv. 

iDB it fau to be pnt on dranght {xhtnk^n) oa soon m it 19 
for fear of tttraiDg eoiir if not imrQcdiately consumed, 
er nay be the objeotions to the immoderate use of beer, 
am bo no doubt that it &rora temperance by weaning 
especially from the habitual use nf Schnaps, as almost 
liqaor is called by the GenuaQB, OTcti in America [ 
iBil who know the sad effects produced in habitaal tippWra of 
loonntri)', or the ebU greater hocrors produced bj ab«ynth«, 
nadity concede iome adTantagea at least to comparatively 
Host beers. 

Id Oermnn is accngod of l>ciaj; unahio to enjoy life witboat a 
which is 05 frequently— and as correctly— called bis national 
ta firogE were conaidered that of the Frenchman : his aouy 
. The Saturkraut, cabbage cut fine, preseed into cuk«, and 
(ently allowed to ferment, is certainly a favorite with many 
laas here us well aft in tlieir native land, bat by no mean* 
fluently to be met with than the colmlaw of the Mew 
dcr and his deisoendants. Apple-butter, not aulikc tha 
apple-taticc of Yankeedom, and made by Bte^iog apples 
bty boars or longer in cider, is a dish peculiar to i'euuayl- 
and the yalley of Vii^inia, whera it is produced in enormous 
ic«. Here it has been inh/rited (Vom the first settlers 
|h several generations ; among recent immlgranis it is com- 
ely unknown. Tho ticnnan word Meiselauj>p« (from meitelnt 
to butcher) has, in PeniisylTiLuia nnd the Weftteru States, 
Oermans abound, ac<iuir".-d the iiaturali»ed form Mdtel~ 
When the " killing season " arrived, it wa^— and probably 
—a common pi-actice among farmers to send their friends 
neighbors as much of the puddings and sausages thoy 
as was necessary for one meal for the. family, at least, und 
I was sure to b« reciprocated, the practice was usually wo- 
t&ied by no special sacrifice. Still, there were cases i& 
no retnrn was expected, as when the savory nioi-a-U were 
* tailors, shoemakers, and other homble persons employed 
f^ily. Tbis gift was called tho J/f^u^JTou/),alth■}Qgh the 
originated in a kind of soup made out of the broth, in which 
dingB were "boiled o£" The pudding itself is, in tbo 
stricts, and cepeoially m ^' Petuisylrania. Dutch." called a 
t (X<aA«iirttr<^ K A tiT«r-Banaage), and thus distin- 




i;m£lied from BlootwortM^ {BtmtmmrH, i. & bbnd'Vi 
Kml pudding was called pmmkott hf tbe Begtoca, with 
WM « gnat ravoritd. Th« 0«nBaii SrHsetn have beeo 
vith onW fiUght modificatioiUL, wbefeir» Uw peculiar tviitd] 
of brvad is known, but the ScJtitifni, slioes of drif^ 
almost QDireisally called <ni/<. A sbbM^muter id m 
school in the iaterior of Penn^lvaaia was diiUing his 
arithmetic. Ueiaid: *^If i cut an apple in two»whati 
parttbe?" " HalvMr wad the auv«r. "If I cat the 
two, what would too call the paru ?" « QoarUn T •• If li 
qnartcra in two, what will the partf be?" The nni 
nnaniraone, " SniUr' 

Noodles, also, Aerire their name from tha Gcrraan .V« 
differ from the vermioeUi of Italj only in the additioa 
With the dish the term of repioicfaf woo rf ftftwwf, baa 
from G«inanT, irbere \n4Mn and GrOtte (grit^) are api^ 
considered as the farorit« food of foola. Heacc J. O. Ni 
"Be msaj, be annhing. Mr. NooditMntfl' {rianoaJ Skelt 
137), alluding lo the German Kudelmtppe. Thos alaa 
head is not iiiifr^ini-ntlT heani in Pennsjlrania and soi 
Western States, where the Gennan element is preraleDt — ana 
tation of Dvmmkopf, oar "blockhead." The first port, 
compound, the adjective dtimsn, is oltcn nsed as dununy^ 
to represent the abwnt partner at cards, bat also any fta| 
silent person. In this senflc it is an biheriianoe fynm the 
as well, claiming nrar kiodred to our dumb, aa nsed m 
Ramsay's well known Iidmi: 

" Auld Gnbbi Spec wba wu ue cunalng. 
To b« a iumume ten /ean nmolns." 

In the sense of etnpid, it it enplojvd by the great Seer. 
Jacksou Davis, who says of a medinm that **be was th« laogbi 
stock of his hntihei'v and sislers, who nicknamed bim a 
whilst his father averred that he woold nerer earn hi« salt,; 
had nut gumption oooogb to make a whistlok" {Tie OntU 
m^Hiot p. 839.) 

S»ffnieht* is almost the only political term ever employed] 
the GrrniADi id Amohca tnd adopted u a party-cry. Tbcr lij 

eb zuuBod to an nnwontad U^ree of iodigiation hj tbe 



<loctrinea of Know-KothiDgs, who claimed ull nghU tnd 

ilcgtj in a coantry peopled entirely by immigrsnta, for 

only, to the exclnsion of all foreign-boni, naturalijccd cid> 

With u Abu instinct of {»>litical ii-uiiy Uie<t?rmaiiH chuiiged 

lerm ioto HagHivhtf, or .Say-XoiluDga. It is not certaialy 

whetlier a aimilHr political alltt«iou Uea at the bottom of a 

feAtnre in the popnlar game of Euchre, bnt if the Jntter 

llj^ u many maintain, a German game, the txplanatian 

be tiasy. In tliis game the knave of the triimp-sutt a 

the Righi fhiPttrf and the knave of the suit of the same 

the Left Bower, and tbeau two cards trnmp king and queen 

I Well as ov«;ry other caisL Kow SvKtr is evidently the Uerman 

r, aud here, therefore, as certainly in a very similar Geruaa 

Iht^ Hauer or yeoman is given the place and power of the 

Thi.- lerm hu^ bcconio so fiiniilinr tlmt ItvjM Butoer is now 

imon tiiudgh pcrhups still u cunt term of high pEaiee: hence 

lurrcoo!, iu a recuitt debute in Oongre&e, wb« thiu reported: 

throHieiied to tilibnater to preveut the bit! from beiug con- 

aiid jw ihtir ItigUi Hotwr, (Jeneml llutler, waa abieutf 

•trabig<->m wonid have succeeded, had not help come from au 

laejcppcred cimu-ter.^ (Giobe, Norembcr 17, 1870.) 

^niong the f;omi|rfion8 of lifrmaii lerms introduced into our 

may be noticed two ridiculous terms: iCatoo$e, used in the 

lew England States for any sadden uuplcasanc uoisf.and eaid to 

ITS be«n derived from the tievrana G«/dife (?). aud AVi>« KriuyUf 

lly matilated form of the beantifnl word Christ A'intllnn. 

itter is in Germany already quite tVequcatly contracted into 

^^w/ A'iinUi, lilt) "Child Ohrifit," on whom German children 

^for their ^jjifis on the Chnatmas-troe, and this form hiu the 

readily degenerated, an it wats, after the manner of words, 

le to follow the uualogy of Crits-Crosf, a gaun.' played on a 

"■'r«'n, and derived fW>ra old-fjishioued Primpcs. These 

' inly began the alpha)>et witii the sign of the Cross, 

rbicii waa called Christ Cros». from the first leaaoii learned by 

iHdren : for one of the oldefit authoritii-fl on tJie subject, " The 

'it Curliwye,'* direct-s chiidi'ou l« giv« tipicml att^u I ion to the 

11 '.V ItrSfioti-S of the (christian child. 1. The Crot* Ckyiit. 

i_r.v/» Prayer. 3. The Ave and Creed, et*. 

Among the mauv i^ridenced of the abanrditica to which the 





frwdom of plionography, 90 warmlv adrooited by m&ay 
men, but happily abandoned even in Webfrter's lust editio*^. 
bis gTcai Dictiouory. iiiuBt iJievitably leaicl, few are morp Mn-^'™' 
tlioii th« woi-d JiUipeen, bmvely quot^l iu Kartlett'e Amcri< 
Iedis. Aa the pleasant onsfcm which the tei-m dcai^iates, i| 
liftwn ever to have been couuected with th« giving of fiHif 
muiiuer of writinjf seems to be ineiciifiable ; it ctrtuinly 
Dtfitlier of the tM*o faTorito derivations of tho puzxling word. 
tiinntely it concerns Americans very little, whether the term 
dcrivijii IVani tho Greek q>lXoi and itoirtf, or ft-om the Ger 
VielUebchen, sinco they use it only aa tbey have received ii ' 
thoir Kuglish forefathers; bnt it ought etirely to be prot 
ftgainst Buch ntterly lawleaa spelling. The rmttey-sav, a 
which is not hnug in the gate, is nlmoet as biul; few would 
first Kcognixe in the Enj^lisii-Iooking vord, with it« squint •!< 
trndf, the ficrmflii word MahUn sflge, from which it is in retlil 
dei-ivc-d. But what shall wc say of German phrases which 
gradually to force their war into Englieh, like the hold on t 
tbua : '• When the poUce-officer gaw him quietly wulk ont of' 
door, as if to leave the court-honse, he called ont to him. AoU 1 
my good friend, you are wanted!" (Cmeininiti /»^«ijw. Joly H 
1866), or the tc/i^i for (was filr) of the New Knglnndcr, who ' 
lived bo long in Missouri that he conld rise in the House imd 
" Mr. Speaker, 1 demand to know who dared present each a pft 
tiou. Wlnit/or a boldoesit 1^ that, to come hero and ask ns, «1 
have fonght against treason tV»r four yeftrB. to honor ihe 
trailors whom wo have cnishc*! ?" (Ht. Lonis Dtrmoerat, Ang, ' 
mUG.) Thuy »rv tiimplo bai'barisnie which thogenins of oor! 
gUBge may endure for a time, hut which ought not to be eac 
aged and endorsed by carefhl writers, even in the pages of a di 

Thorf? is much less harm in th* Jntrodnctton of German phi 
dniwii from natiin' or local pecnliarities. Thnu, while the Ft 
anil Kngliali draw thtir tenns of contempt or pity for vonthf 
inexperionco fi-om unlledgtxl birds with green or yellow hill&< 
the Ocrmun fancifully notice* that uewly-bom animulB are apt' 
be licked dry promptly everrwhere except behind the ean, 
hence their colloquial phrase: "The youngster is not dn Ti 
bebind hia eurs." The expression haring booome fomilisr t' 

THE GBBMAir. 14? 

Avencui ears in PennsylTania first, has from thence spread to 

Okbs States also. "Bustio maidens rejecting the attentions of 

TonllUi vhom thej consider too young to be of special value as 

^; kmn, «re fond of saying : You are not dry yet behind the ear$, 

i^ joa hid better waitl" (Professor S. S. Haldenum.) 


" DtA Myingt, darkly ■ueml .' 

Ths negro former); occupied too sabordinace • 
wcial settle to iuBueoce the speech of hu mastta, Hii 
Ikii cueleggoess, his ioability, with pccatmr orguu of 

ttnined for maoj gcnerstioiu, to repeat certain wands at i 
his difflcalt; in perceiTing others hy the or, aeeoaBt 
the bttToc be plavcd vith the kiug's English. Tbe» 

• httTe autde theiDKlre* ctearlT felt, once lealooi and 
tiadien of both scjces have deroted thcnuelTM in namhen 
tniaingof fr«r<iinen'* children. The; haw enoountovd 
iUBupaabte diffieahicSr erm vhere mental capaeitaea vnei 
H cbUt AiU; eqital to those of the white race, and the smI I 
vat alinoat impwatfhla Tha noet wiaeiMiftil matvmg 
fdttcated Mcroa^ vIm bara nsn to hgnonble poa tt i a a i 
bar, or earafd diftiactioa ia other profa ri o i M, man of 

aAM^aitd alwajv fbrctUe ipeakeiB, RCaiB ItiiTin 

pacnKaritka of tooad, of attemcev aad accent! 
vavU Hi^ thMM, etvQ if the;- bwe MO taaee of their ongin I 
flffOBMeB, as Ieh* ■■ wamA m toUfcatiu aic Barked «l 
■aiOBvi a fni%a iiiaa pwftrilj. Did not ena 
Diaaa » baa wfttA ■» ■ baa -vrittiea betray hia dooen: 

■ TWh«biiaifkbes^miaUsrRaneiatiattor£ogIuh 
m^t, Ww- i Uf M« be ja^pC as ia loa fta^watlf done, hf i 
^IbA »^a Mwatl^ Ai fVrach aad GeranMi ebanctcM ' 
B ea^ad; ^m |aaMd mfea a caKwalMal aisinawMiatioo. u 
H a^niiMi nv ifafe Hbt tha Taiibra «a the boards of nntfrj 
^^Ac^s m fsarlia at ham Aase m ca ll ai mw t rri i dou« gi^] 

ice to the negro, whom they claim Uj repressnL Foreij^nera, 
Bially, believe in the conventional negro, as Englishmen 
iTfl ID the long-legged, tobacco-chewing, bowi«-knifc-carn'ing 
liee in Punch. The Snik of American pUy-goers, we fe*r» 
M firqucDtly mialwl, 

h« error arlBea often from nttcr ignorance of the vast 
trance chat exists betwmn certain classes and rarieties of 
roe& The Vii'ginia ulave, for generations accustomed to the 
w fuuctious of a honse-wrvant, in daily contact with gentle- 
ateu, and ucctistAmud to hear at table and during long journcyB 
bormback or in private carriageg, th« conTcrsatiou of intel- 
ent men, waa fiir above the average of the Britinh laborer, to 
'nothing of the French peasant. Be gpoke fair English, in- 
ilely better, at all events, than the Vorksbiro yokel, or even 
t thorongh-bred Cockney. The slave on a sugar or cotton 
Btiition in the Soutliwett, on the other hand, wag bntastep 
aoTed from the African sarage ; his Bpewh, largely intermixed 
h African terms, was well-nigh uuintelligiblc. But even in 
leo-called Border States there vrtia an immense gulf between 
I hoofic-servanc and the ruder FUlthhand. Some of tho 
per possewied not only knowledge, but even refiuement; body- 
its, as they were called, taken abroad by their roaster*, 
lihed Enropean gentlemen hy thf^ir politeness of manner 
leir inbred courtesy, and the Ei-Presidenl of Liberia, long 
Bve in Virginia, nerer once tacked the dignity and self-posses- 

I required by bis high office, when preeentcd at foreign courts, 
& the far more trying occasions, when he retuined to biB 
e State and met his former masters. But t\\e fieM-hatid -vw, 
: Mr. Olmsted says of him : " on an average a very poor and 
tuhd creature, much worse than I had supposed before I had 
him, and grown familiar with his stupendous ignorance, 
pBcity, and sciigimlity. He soema to be but an imperfect mao, 
^pable of taking care of himself in a civilized manner, and hil 
ittBCe in large nnmlwi-s must be considered a dangerous cir- 
■itUM to a civilized country." {Journty in the Back Couh- 

X'svertUelesBjit cannot be denied that oven the most iutelllgent 
^•iHoe teem to have some difficulty both in their bearing and 
Umr organs of gp««cb, which prevent* tbuir pevceivVu^ v\a 




mora ilelioate modifications of soDcdf which oboand and tn 
Buoh panunount importance in Eaglisb* snd of reprodaein^ 
accnrutcly. As the ticrmaii, whoM iiativa dialect hM from 
hood up accustomed liU ear to an utter dlsregonl of f1)« 
ence bctwucn d aud t, aud b and p, never cvfues to coafoand 
in Knglisli d1»o, so the negro findx it often, atterly impoeaUt 
hear ceruiu Eotiuda, aud can cous«(jncnt1y not imiutc xbeta. 

Ono of the tna&i btrikiitg evidences uf this inabilitr is foaada 
the unique aod very interesting maQuecript, in Arabic chat» 
ten, made by a Mandiago slave, who belonged to a Mr. MaxiitK 
Sit Savannah. Uie Amencau name was l^ondou, aud hsri^ 
become a zealous Cbriatiau, he transcribed t)ie Gotfpel witb iM 
precision, nsing even the rowel-pointa — haraknt~-oX the Aralw 
I jTammar, proving thus his carc-fa] trniniug at home in 
«Oopio8 from the Koran. But in i^pite of all this irainiDg. 
witli alL his intelligence, ho could only write the Eogliftb « 
as their soimda aOVcted hiii ear, and thus his vocalization vai 
this wise; (First Cliapter of John) ^'Fiu clmpi-a ob Jon, It 
iiginuen wasde wad ; nnde wad wa/iwid Gad^ ands wad wot 
The manQBcript catised a ludiorous mistake, such as bad 
peued even to Mr. de Snny, the great Orieutalist, who stattt 
eelf that having received an Arabic manuscript from Midrld, 
exauiiiL'd it uartafully, aud failing to discover a aiugle Amhicvi 
iu it, suggested that the book wa« probably written in tbe 
of the HoTM of Madagascar. Subsequently be fonitd thiit 
MS. waa in Spanish, and had been written, according to the (A 
by a converted Moor. In like mamier the MS. of the tnteU>j(<*t 
Mandiugo slave wan presented to Mr. W. B. Hodgson, of Sittft' 
rail, who also looked for Arabic words oorreapcmdiug to tbr 
Arabic letters, and abandoned the task of decipheriog it in *•• 
pair. A chauce remark suggested the tnrning of the latter ill* 
Buman latters, and be discovered at once by the soand what tlv 
eye had failed to perceive. 

Still, the very imperfect manner in which the writer had ff^ 
dentlj only been able to catch the English sounds, acoount* ^ 
once for the majority of peculiitr forms and sounds, which il* 
■0 often exhihitad a^ AmedcaiiiBma, dne to the Inflnenoe of ^^ 
negroes in our midst, while they an in, effect notbiug mors 
^unsuccessful «QWta to sp«ttk correct EngUab. .It it ngravt 



take to iraagine that the language adopted by negro miostrels is 
that of the negro; the Knglifihrnan might as fiurl; be judged by 
th« " Mylord Goddam " of the Fi-ench stage; and the use of Aai 
Ik baTe, iu& for love, mniea for master, ie by no means univertal, 
JDOr haa it tret been common to all slares. 

Of genuino AH-icaa vorda which have become sufficiently well- 
kDoim to be considered Americanignis, there are probably bot 
three in our speech. One is the term Buckra, which, on the 
Afiricsn coast, ia nuiversally applied to vbite men, meaning 
ociginally " a spirit, a powerful being," and is used in that applica- 

ttaa throughout the Southern States. Hence, Mr. BartletC qnotes 

Uie negro song: 

** Great way off at nea, 
When nl tinnie I lilnny, 
Buekra miia Uike me 
From (Ic coast ob Guines." 

Its meaning is ocmsionally tmnsforred to white objeots, and 
i^nea tbtta speak of buckra yam, with the understanding, how- 
ncr, that it is not only white, bnt peculiarly good also. The 
*onl is occasionally enforced by the addition of ewanga, an 
ifriesa term, meaning elvgaut or bright-colored, so a^ to strike 
■d iiluee the eye. A Sieau/fa Buckra serves, therefoi*e, among 
kgroes, to designate a specially well-dressed white man. 

ttom thia AJVican term is, curiously enough, a word derived 
Vkiab hu made its way to New England, and is now quite at 
W« on the banks of Newfoundland. This is Sioanketf, the 
liuu given — probably as something very elegant in taste and 
eOrct — to a beverage consisting of molasses, vinegar, and water, 
tiivfuvorite drink of fishermen. "Boll along here, shouted the 
*<ok. Tumble up an* pt your ataaniay, boya It's as good as 
>nr you cocked a lip aL And at the word each man, his £ace 
llsTiag with excitement and exercise, took hin turn at the 
ttnht/ paiL" {^ewfoundlajul Fisherie^^ p. 110.) 

It ia presumed, though not prnven, that the Moottnr.h, a myth- 
**lumnal known to negroea onlv, ia also of African origjii. The 
Wlivw, aocording to their belief, in caves or hollow trees, and 
'wpDor negro who meets it in his solitary ramblcsE ia doomed, 
^n^un is impaired, till he beoomva a mndman, or is carrieU 
■^tiy tome iiogering malady. Be dare not speak of it, bat qU, 



tixperi«no«d negroes m,y when ther look At him : ~ He gwat h] 
die ; lie 6«cd the mooaaek^ * 

t\{f'if, which \s ofU'n claimed as a argru t«nn. is in aD; 
bililv iiuthing mure thau u vori-U|itiuu vf thv Ecglisb 
n (Tf^iv, and i]iute as frequently heard abroad u in tbt (Tk 
SUica. " The fine diuh of Virginia upper euffyism. U ii 
gotiu forever. Sumbo has settled down into a eimple boaif;aiii>^ 
{Putnam's Muffasine, December, 1394.) 

Nor n thu number of wurils large which expnns the 
tiuns of niKdter nnd slave, and to which ignorant negroei, dull < 
hcitring, have g^iven a n«w meaning. Evan the fAmiliartippell 
of Vncif Mnd .1 uut, by which for many generations every 
mat) and woman was called, were not peculiar to Amerid, i 
>(iggo> Suppiemeut to (irose distinctly states that the tiro no 

'w ** in Cornwall applied to all elderly (wrsons." The hontti 
stable servant, in like manner, went by the generic t«rmof J 
irrespective of age. 

A word ns hideous in Hound as of import, connected with I 
negro, is the fumons Bfaek Code, a collection of laws first : 
by Hienvilto in l^iuiiiianii, which was ever after the nio<le)ftrl 
legislation on thf^ rt-lutions of master and slave. When thv < 

■ Was tiikeii pos:ses«iou of by tliu Cronii of Spain in the vrarlTC 
the jirovisiyns of the Bhck Code were retained with such nw 
tions as the " Sietc Partidos " mode on the sohject of sIst 
Tliis system of laws h»« ever m\o('. hemi the Blacksu>np of 
iitul her cohinica, and is still the authority in Ihe parts of Ai 
settled by Spaniards. Its power continued long in I«oijisiaDi,i 
oonLrolled largely the rights of negroes, even after the colony) 
oame a State of (he Union. 

It is comforting to turn from such a snbjcct to the tsna< 

itendorness. by which the bluck nurse wa^ foreo many gener 

■own to the childivu of the South. This used to bo 3ita 
tlie tame niuno fornu-riy given in England to grandmother!, i 
by Kitne dorive<l fmm the Gypsy word Mtnui, which means i 
mother. Even now many a Mammif is spending her 
yeare in the family of tlioso whom she has nnrsed and, 
and thus the unmo still lingers on in the Soathsm 
Souili CAToUna and some of tJie Qulf States, the word is 
and vritteo Ufavmer, and thus it is quoted by n r«c«i)t 



old Mttuimr (tlw general term of SoiUhern cfaildran for 

aanee), whose gray hairs are still covered br the bright 

1, which always gave euch diguity to the ap|>eara(ice of the 

fry ruler. Where are those inaitmer*, whom the children 

lonlf Iau than those vlio hore thorn, and with whom the 

lip only Oiiuoil with liff^!* Thoy, too, belong now to the 

jludirectly, at le^ut, the uegru ha« given ue the verb, tu marootit 

luaroon, the name applied in the West Indie* to ninaway 

who lived as ontlaws in remote and inaccessible parta of 

icoantry. The term is used in the Sonih<>rn States, though 

legs frequently than formerly, to designate a pic-nic or 

DQrsion party cxtendiug over Mveral days. A few families agrea 

I to go marooning ; they take tents and eookiiig luensila, and 

their time away from the hauuU of men, and more or leas 

['Sobiiuon Crusoo style. 

ricft Dwea the n^ro no small gmtitude for the only national 
'which it poaseaao^as distinct from allimitaiiouof old Ktig- 
: TRves, and all competition with Bngli^h writers of our day. 
•■ bare no Uiillad nnU no eoug that can be culled American. The 
IE approach over muijt; to the ciPsifiiJit of ii new type was the 
Qatic aong Jim Crow, brought out about the year 1835 by an 
bthtitia^tic Yankee on the bounU of a tiiejitre in New York; it 
ciuinl a EensatioD, for it was new in form and conception, and 
iid&ubt rendered still more ottraclivL' by ihe fetruuge guise in 
*iiifi) it was pre.oented. It waa quickly followed by several other 
•<*£» of the same kind, snch b^ Zi]i Ccon, LongtaVcd Blue, OU 
^'iT^inHt/ nehhtr tire, SfiUin' ou a Jiaii,etc. Then came, in 1841, 
* Tgriation in the form of u doecripti?e ballad, famons Ola Dan- 
^i«r, and after that Uie vein waa exhausted. For a time this 
ttican inroad drove nearly every other song from the pnbUsher'B 
•tore and the drawing-room. It is etrauge that they are almost 
tonching, and resigned. Philanthropists have, of courae, 
ibed this to the sod fhte of tlie race. This is a mistake, for 
negro is by nature, and was even in ihu days of filaver}-, em- 
lUy a merry creature, full of fun and enduived with au 
:nip«rhuuiau power of laughing- He has become sad only 
I tbe retponsibilitiee of earning his livelihood and exercising 
iiiit&B8«f a citizen hare bees ao suddenly imposed u^ioti \x\m. 


" TUfl hwihen CMnee U peculiar. "—F. B. Sarit. 

IB Heathen C!hia$t, as be will, no donbt, be called for many a 
' to come, be&hog the baptismal iiarae bestowed upon bira in 
liikrU'a cbaracteristic poem of Tnitlifal James (ii cbarootet 
ited bv John Phtenix), has only so Intelj appMired on our 
s, that Chinese terms can hardly be said to have found their 
[jret into our speech. Johnny, or John Vhiuaman^ for under 
inaiuei is he known in California, has for jcurs given riHe to 
debotea in legisUtire halht, and to vehement diBciissioDs in 
journals; he has been victimized uuravicifuUyiu the mines 
gulches in the up-country, and bmtally ill*treated in trade 
I ia courts in the cities. He has recently even found his way 
ttheru plantations and to Northern fiirtoriea, e%*erywhere 
ig useful, fat thrtd, and intelligent. The announcemeut of 
arrirals of Chinese laborers and servants threuteocd at a 
Co become a question of national policy, and Labor- Lea jj^nea 
Veil OS Congress became! deeply agitated on the subject 8t> 
Irhowever, their number has been too small, and their mode of 
, their manaers, and their faith, are too far apart f^om those of 
Iiitad States to admit of their exercising any inJlnence. The 
t«niu used in coarci'sation and by good authors, hare 
to OS through the English, and it is only due to our 
frequent and more direct intercourse with China, if theiio 
late in more general use hcr« than abroad. Thns we say 
more frequently than our English conslns that a thing is 
■f-obop. uuQg the CanioQ-jargon of the Anglo-Chinese, which 
f^Hdojaj&^s^ftfay Instead of our American Jirst-rate. Joss-hoMts 
^pi nople tnpplies of jot^ttick* are now quite conunoq in San 
PkdKo And fitbKE-parU of . Oalifomia, whera Buddhism and 



Obioese paganism are bett«r repr«eeiit«d than even tht Ondl 
Oliiircb. They consist, linwever, as yel mostly of saiall, 
iiiflcant buildings, no rt-»I tompic having yet been erected. 
nc-cd not b(? utlded that thi- wuni Jn»a is ]iot a Chine««! tenn, 
only a C()rni]iliim of the Spanish word Diot, which is nutdi 
Btand g(;nencii.lly for aiiy kiud of god. 

The word Kootoo, or Kotutc, Chinese bowing, is in like 
very familiar to Amorican ears, and largely used by a cvrtiun 
of writers like N. P. Willis, in thdr fondness for pecnliar, 
Bounding woi'ds. It is, inoi'covei', generally misapplied, 
need to convey the idea of flattery rather than of grave oon 
which it originally denotes. TI1U& the Now York TWftiiM 
of the Amehcun citizen : " Consequently he has kootooed ui 
anlaamed Ixfore every travelling scribbler or story-monger, feu* 
fnl that he would bo dismiss*^ by Ihcm to the dunce's sioolto^ 
i some solecism in mniiner or pronnncintion.*' (February 2. 18 

Perha|)S the most familiar of Chinese a'ords to all Amcricui 
the famous Otnteng, a plant so called from tlio two Ohii 
words fftn-gettg, " first of planu," on account of the high app; 
tion in which it is held by the citizens of the Flowery Kmiiirt 
its medicinal virtnes. The herb (Panax qninquefolium) is foc 
all over tlie North, and for many \ourn its root formed 
vitluable article of exportation, besides being largely oonnunri 
at home. Its namn, being thus continually used, has snftfi^ 
the common fate of such popularity, and has 1)eeu curtailed 1^ 
the sake of brevity'. Satiff become the fomiliar t<^rm for the til- 
nable herb, and in Virginia and North Carolina, where thetni* 
was especially flourishing, men and women would go a gauginf, 
as they calhKl tlit process of gatliering the plant. Hence tfc» 
name of Sang Run, in the State of Mar}iand. and of the m»fiM 
ground near the villages where ginseng used to be found it 

The Chinese hare given a new meaning to the t«rm (^m;tisf> 
which promises, tto far^ to become an Americauiera. A San Fis<^ 
Cisco paper explains the meaning, when it informs its readenttt^t 
"Xliere are no Chinese beggars, for nearly all who come v^ 
belong to one of the live gruat Compani^i. Each of these h^* 
btiildlng and acts in all respects as a baneroluit iustitutioa. f ^ 
word of thair mercliauu is perfectly celiabla." {BvlUtin,Z%&. 1^ 



In like numner the word punk, origiimlly meaning"rol- 

rooi],'* Bud applied mainly to the pitliy fiubsUiice found in 

[jtiiie-treefi, nnd Eouglit for by boys because it gireg out a 

>borc<ccDt light wht^ii rubbed, hiu obtaiued a neir u«« in 

Ijandfi. It n^prewnta now the material of which flo<called 

fdiKM'SticiM ore made, as well u the sticks thcmselrcs. " A Chinese 

3y of rank in San Francisco walks atlended by three maids of 

lor, beiiring lighted sticks of punk highly perfumed. Her 

' is paiuu-d with a n;ckl(>ss disregard of ex]>ense and her hair 

irated with oil. Runoiug tbrotigh the knot at the back, of 

' is an iron damb-betl ; on her head, gmceMly vaviiig in tlio 

iii & flower, which, from the feriilizing effect oil is said to 

misjudged indigcuoua. Her short highly-colored stlkdrcea 

itifatly embroidered, and her leet are encased in the custom- 

iQoe-shaped eaiuIaU.'' [Sucrattienlo paper, 1670.) 

"From 1S62-1S70, nine thousand Chiucse emigrantft aiTived 

Son Francisco, and there are probably seventy-Sre thouaand in 

nam be rs in the United States at presenL In the South 

have pruvi-d us satisfactory as in the Xorth, and it is prob- 

' that another year ivill tev their employmL'Ul in manufactories 

pbutations widely extendcHl-^ (Frauk U. Norton, Ouj- Labor 

t/fto, 1671.) 

ihe eoatcmptuous and injudicious manner in which the 
Chinaman is treated in the Wcistcrn States, the following 
nsolutions actttully ofTun^d — but not passed — in the Legislature 
II, in 1870. may give aneianiple: "Be it enacted by the 
!^p A,ss(-mMy of the State of Oregon: — Section 1. JJo 
lan shall Ije allowed to die in this State, nntil he has paid $10 
jr a new p.iir of Iwiols, with which to kick the bucket. — Section 
Any Cliinaiuuu dying under this act shall be huricfi six feet 
ground. — Scctioa 3. Any Chiuaman who attempts to dig 
Buotber CbinamaD's boueti, ehall Gr&t procure a license from 
Secretary of State, for which he shall pay •*.— Section 
Any dead Chinaman, who atterapta to dig np his own bones, 
ilboni giving due notice to the Secreturv of State, sluUl bo fined 

The Geeat West. 


'Umu plcature in the sight of k glebe which lusnercr b«Ba brokeo." 

WdlUr SoMfft I^irutet; 

Thb N«w England States bare a dialect of their owd, br Tar 

most fally developed and the most characteristic of nil tho 

ties of English spoken in America. It rcprcseuta alike the 

. which climate has upon the orgnnp of sppet^li in thoir fnvor- 

inds — the iiosal twang and the violent curtailment of words, — 

. tbe direction given to the choice of lerrna and tlie amiDge- 

It orsenteacci, by their fovorito occupntions and their leadiug 

incs of Uiouglit. But the Great West has impressed the stAmpof 

iomi life even more forcibljr npoD the speech of its sons. Erery- 

ig is on such a gigantic scale there that the vaat proportions 

nth which the mind becomes familiar, beget tinconsciouBly a 

tof hvperbole, which in its turn invitei irrcsieUbly to humor. 

Jifr ia an unceasing fur)' of actiritf there, and hence ^>e«ch 

alio is nicy with life and vigor; all is new there to those who 

come from older countripn or crowdfd citie*, and hence new 

irds ore continualty coined, and old ones receive new meanings; 

itarc is fresh and young there, and hence the poetic feeling is 

"idled, and speech assumes unconicionsly tho rhythm and the 

jleration of poetry. 

fTbe language of Western men has been Called high-down, 
)tigbt, grandiloquent — it may he so, but it U ftoonlrnuft 
rcprosi'ntaiion of the Western world, which God created on a 
large scale, and which in its turn grows foster, works harder, 
Bhieres more than any other land on earth has ever done. Nor 
tuht it be forgotten that tbe West has no eeveru critic to correct 
Qo courE and no polite society to taboo e<inivocal words, 
I d&Bsio vriters co impart good taste and train the ear to a Ioto 



of genile words and flotring Terse. Speech, there, is free u ^ 
sir of heaven, and raovps with the impnlsire energy of indepnd- 
ent youth, coDEcious of mutchiess etrength, and acknowled 
no muster in word or deed. It is an intcnsilleil, stnuigel; )IB| 
eive langnage, jnst as the life's blood of the trhole West 
with iojiiai: pulse, and courses rrHii ftiUer vigor Uirough all 
veine. There ia tin greati*!- difference bchween the stately slylt( 
Milton and the dashing, reckless lines of Swinbnrne, than beli 
the formal, almost jwdantic echo of Johnsonian rhythm in 
thoiTie'a work, and the fre« aod easy verses of Bret 
Hence, Kew Kuglaud has wit, and what can be more cat 
than Lowell's deserredly famous political sqoiba? Bat tlu 
has humor, golden humor, full of poetry, dramaiixing dry 
iuto flesh, and blood, bat abounding in charity and good>wil 
all men. ,^ ij j^-f ■mju 

So it is with their soondB. that oonie full and hearty fh>iii 
cheats, breathing freely the pure air that sweeps down from 
Uouutains uutiampered, across broad pralrietf, over a whole 
tincut. Words aiv aa nburtdnnt as food, and expres«ion« gr 
force and extent alike, till they sound extrsTagant to the 
economical son of the East, Speech is bold, rejecting law* 
ruled, making one and the eame word answer many purposes,! 
utterly scouting the euphemistic shifts of a sickly delicacy, 
beoouies vulgar — nud il will become so, as Ihu sweetest milk i 
aoiir wlien, the tliuiider rolls on high — the vulgarism is still 
J. B. Lowell M> happily calls ''poetry in the egg." Iti 
also, is as luxurious aa tlio weeds among the rich graasea, bi 
least it is horoe-madc, and smells of the breath of the pt 
the blood of the Indian, and is not imported from abroad or i 
in the bav-room and Iwttiug-riDg. 

Hence the student of KiiglJsh finds in the West a rioli . 
of new words, of old words made to answer new ptirpoMa, 
in the most surprising way, and of phrases full of poetical 
auoh as could only arise amid scenes of great beanty, 
energy, and subUme dLUiger. 

There is a strange perfume about tlie very term bnc 
which brings up before «ur mind's eye at a glance the foi 
priipeval trees, those formidable giants which thcpiQitcer hi 
«NfliUJMr.j^ ftftPtxUlLhtf-WWtj^^pon, the axe. Foriti 

flTO- tnrejcp"wrap. 

ivean — real HadbKOOtb no longer exist — the partially clenntd 
on Ihc Wrstem frontiers of the Union, which were con- 
tho bacjc of (he new country, as the ooBflt of the Atlantic 
jtituted the front. The jSat( hariug been first settlwl, and 
ig famished, to a large extent, the sinevra and brains for the 
■ StiibH, WM nntamllT looked upon us the r«>prcjcntative of 
lih. intrlHgence, and progress; and the ItacJe country became, 
that time onward, svnoujmooa not only with regions lying 
i,Le^io the West of the seaboard States, but also with a stnto 
FdviliattioD eomewhat behindhand. The nearest dislhcUi becitme 
known — and are still Tcry generally designated — as the Up 
iin/ry, a term, when nsed aa an adjeotiTC, pecnliar to this conti- 
it It iff employed all along the seaboard from Maine to tho 
utf of Mexico, with varying meaning, but olwaya suggestiug a 
In inferiority to theseabcMnl popuhttlon, becaaw up the rivers, 
the headwaters, population becomes scarce, civiliiution 
eX, and schools lew in number. Of this peculiar belt, 
ft I. Tjowell says: "I imagined to myself such an tip countrtf 
I as I had often seen at anti-Shtvery meetings, capable of dis- 
ricliool Engji^, but always iustinctiYely falling back into the 
lal atronshnld of his homely dialect, when heated to the 
; of aelf-forgetfulness" {Preface to Bighio Papers), a,n^ Lho 
lit of this imaginatiou was one of the most brilliant creations 
'American genins. In Sonthern States the inhabitant of the 
iBMiboard city speaks with ineffable contempt of the u/> coun- 
ftopU, and formerly used to rank them with Crackers and 
whites, till they mode their poHtloal intluence felt at clcc- 

' Tli« back cirunlry seems to have receded back from the fasteni 
IBS cirilizatioa adraoccd Westward, but it still retains the 
er of a region, where lands and living are cbi>ap, and peo- 
»ninpl« and nn sophisticated. An opulent family, reduced in 
istanccs, and compelled to rcmoTc to a place where social 
■itia wore nnknovrn :ind wants few and easily supplied, is thoa 
Med to in the Letters from the South : " The family were in 
dietrest, though we helped them on a little to get to the tmck 
"""rtrj, where I hear they are doing pretty well again" (pu 187) ; 
tttlweti in more recent days a traveller in tlie West says: "Th^ 
Wri wu a Foomy log-hoow, commanding a y'x^t <£ the ioofe 



eountrff, a prairie Btretchiiio^ off into the wasfcem horinm.** {i 
vam*s Magazine, November, 1868.) 

Id common langnagc the odc is the Eaat, the other Ihu 
The former, non- more ^neralt^ known as the Eafltm orj 
Nfw Enfflanfl .^/atff, stilt maintnina it« sln^nif holt] oa the n| 
of men bymonyafaniiliar pliraso. Down the Aqw 
mind, is instinctiTelj placed near the low coast of the Atlinti 
it were down towAixl the e«n, and at the same tiriM townd*! 
East, i'. c, in Yiuikwdum. The emigrant, who haa 
tJie West, still reraembert with delight bow the; spoke audi 
they did Down Boat, and looks forward, after vcara of hnrdl 
and painful longing, to his risit to the Eojt, while the Xxtpi 
to the fweoiul and third gonprarion oren, speaks onlv nf 
home, and 9lill more fre<]ttcntlj of coming in, when he pr 
riitit his relatiros in the Old Dominion. The Ooien Aut 
known by his language, his costnme. iiud his peculi 
smiled at fur mAiiv an odd trick ho has, hal l\>«peiit 
mnnj solid rirtues. With htm nil that is donu id fats ualiT(<' 
is right, nnd hmoe what he admires, he simply calls 
••There wtw not ii Yankee," says J. U. Lowell, when! 
Uann ivgivited we bad cot liie French word *s*orient«r^ 
speech, "whose problem ha* not alwoys been to God tmt] 
a^ui Kaft.'' The enlhuMiastic (ihongh quaiDtly cxagger 
borne the Kost by iu sonx is. perhaps, roost strikiogly illi 
in Major .Tack Downing^s oft-repeated phraae: "I'd go 
snnrise any day to see sich a plaoc" {Letters^ p. 31.) 
The Wfsi, on the other hand, is as roat and undvilned aiij 

East is limited in cxt^ut. and sharply marked in r' 

it meant ull the gigantio states, which werv the 
Old Vir^nio, lying hetWMn the Mothtr 

calleiK and the great ri»er. Thns Edwarl 

great speech: '' The enterprising, iageuioiuand indomiUt 
the suliatanlUU and luagnijicent Central States, the gn>At ' 
wheel of the system ; Ibc youthful, rapidly expanding, 
bouodlesf Wert, the ardent, genial, and habitable Soath — 1 
tnTcntd tbea all" (Sfttek^ Jaly h, \^^) At (h < 
1 00 Ae otb«r side of the Mississippi were ih« .' 
[ Aocriea, and beyond it rose iHe iniManble barrier of th« 
lloanlMtta. Sinoa tba nunr^apped xsogft hft» toan tnrflnodP 



nd n?w, powerful States have ariMn on iU Weeteni aide, 

ocean, there is no longer a West to thp Union, the 

[6c ttecir bonndEng it toward the aetiing snn. Still, the 

St of the Misi^iii&iiipi continue to be called tbo Weat, and 

done Out Weet h an fretiucutly mvutioDL-d as what hai>vt-'iiB 

Ba^l or JhwH Sovfh. 

It U to this We^t that annually thousands and thonfiandg of 

jttve jfontig men, daring ramilici^aiul numerous whole com]HLniD8 

Hrry tho banucr of cirilizaUon and the power of the gi'eat repnb- 

ik. Fur tho American worebipa the Almighty Dollar, but, wiifa 

■ (•5, only in order to gratify his first and greatest of all 

. ive in indepemlcnee on his own land, and to enjoy in 

frwdoni the fhiit of his labor under his on-n vine and his own Hg- 

The millionairu and l.ho porter, tho proud de-9(Mmdant of 

rtni Puritau or the rollicking Cavalier and the Lmmignint 

frnm the KmenUd Isle or Imperial Gcrniauy, all sliare this 

A Stewart buys half a county in the neighborhood of 

[Tork and lays ont a city, a Greeley purchases vast tracts in 

pariflcd South, and almost every capitalist invcats u pni*tof hia 

le in real estate, hoping, from the steadily rising value of all 

^lis in the republic, a large and certain return for his capital, 
e poor mail drifts almost instinctively t« the West to seek a 
where land enn he had for the asking. Tlie skillful 
lie and the frugal servant, the bankrupt merchant and the 
llurous yonth, all press in one uuceofiing cnrrent Westward, 
^ild uj) their own fortunes and with them the jiower and pro^ 
of new Stati}s. 

gOTernmfnt of the United Stat-c-s has ever been blampalily 

fn the di^iKisal of the mat^hles^tt domain which Providence 

blaced in ixs haudn. First (ilfenng the rich lands of the Couti- 

|if)thout respect for the rightful owner, to all who would take 

ir caltivatiou or Bpcoulaiiou nlikt- — they now squander them 

Irady in so-called j/ranU to niilroad companies and ri'm/jr of 

kind. This is a oouiinuation of the original process, by 

the British Crown grantt-d lauds to all who wero willing to 

' World. Hence tho latter wer« called 

■ '^- well as in the South; in Kew KngUnd 

IrK settlers were known as pianists, and disringuiahed select 

as Old PlanUri, while the oldest and most dignified 




member of each family waa honored with the titb of Imh 
The simc occnrrcd in th*- South. "The aitvrntHrrrf,*' nx 
UiD John Smith, " which raised the atock to begin and sm 
PtaniadoH^ were about seventy gentlemen, some merrhant 
haiidicniftenien, some adventuring great ^umnies. some n 
their c-etate and affection eervtrU. The ptanlrrs are not ser 
the advmturtrt here, but have onetj- couucelea of dir«ctk 
them, but no injunctions or commands, and all maaten of] 
lies are partners in land and whatsoever, fietting their 
against the fltocke, till certain years bo expired fordiTiaion." (( 
ffiniaj I. p. 251.) 

Very early in the history of this country a distiucti«n 
between these enterprising but more or le» Ei>eonluting^ 
and the actual farmns of the land. "The Tcomanry of] 
cfansetts,'' we are told, " hold their heads high to this dar. ast 
fathers spoke proudly of themselves aa farmfya. They wewi 
men who penetrated the forest in all directions, sat down 
the slreame, and ploaghed up such level tracts as they fonadi 
to the sunshine; so that in a few years the Salum Fartnt 
to much pi-08perity. The Farm«r$ formed an order by 
selves — not by having peculiar institutions, but throogb 
dignity ascribed to agriculture," {Salem Wiichcra/t, Charlai' 
ITpbam.) On these plantations they hail certain oflScers. wh 
power seems to have been very nearly parumount, and 
niune still survives in the teiecimen of our day. They 
still an.', the chosen magistrates, in whose hand is placed 
management of nil communal affair^ and joriea are still 
and not iudiscriminately chosen ns elsewhere, according totl 
discretion. N. Hawthorne speaks of them as thpy were in It 
thiis; "Woe to the youth or niiriden who did but dream of I 
dance! The telectman nodded to the constable, and there sst< 
light reprobate in the stocks, or if he danced, it was round i 
whipping-post, which might be termed the Paritan AlaypoW] 
(i/by Pole of Mrrry Mount) 

It was one of these plantiitions, the Planiatitm of Vork, 
in 1641 becwne, under the name of Georgiaua, the first o^i 
the United States, in the legal sense of that word, a charter I 
solemnly granted for that pni-pose by Sir Fernando Georgea 

At a Uter period, a broad distinction arose between a Soot 



Miouy on which tobacco, sugar, and rice were plaiit«'l, and a 
ern farm, whore the cpwald were raiiwi, n contrast which 
till further hfightcned by the alar*? labor engaged in planting, 
rn.>c labor wa8 usod in rarming. That in Nowruiintlland a 
L engaged in fishing shoald also be designated as a planter, 
bablr tobe ascribed to the habit of speaking of a B«u"har\reijt,'' 
lompariug the two bmnohM of indujitrj- with oach other A 
^r in Western rivera means, on the other hand, nothing 
than a lrt>c or a ])iece of timber firmljr planted in the bed nf 
ver by the force of its current — one of the most formidablu 
Qcttons to navigation. " 

mn these early settlements on land purchased or taken by 
firom the rightful owners, bold explorers and reetlesfl adTen- 
I set out. atill farther westward in search of richer lands, 
' domains, or simply ampler sp&wf for hunting. At times 
movements were favored by the great Proprietarm, as the 
ws of large districts were oflen called, snch «s the famous 
iKMiJi of Xcw York, and the noble Fairfaxes of Virginia. The 
retaining down to the present day their Dntch title, 
ed their rights from the Dntch government, which wisely 
iberally granted large privileges and the title of Patroons of 
Nfffifr/aml, to all who should, in a given term, plant colonies 
ky eouls on the honka of some narigablo river. Hence W. 
^ in his inimlt^ihlc portnut of the days of Kew Amsterdam, 

of a man who "indulged in magnifiocnt dreams of foreign 
Ufta and great patroomh ips in the wilderness." Those large 
ions and exclusive privileges proved, however, soon obnoi- 

tbe republican tendencies of the Union, and led to much 
ik, as in the eaac of the famonn Manor of Ilentuielaierwyck, 
ed by Kiliaon Van Renseolaer — who never came out himself 
ik aft«r his magnificent domain. In the course of a few gen- 
Ins the number of tenants on thie grant had risen to more than 
idred thonsand muIs, who chafed nmler the burden of paying 
»d-rcnt, where everybody else h«ld his land in fee-simple. 
« resulted refusals to pay dues, comhinationH among the 
eved.and theso-callcd .4«j']-/?«Hy TVomWm, eomerimes settled 
ntiiiromises and judicial decisions, and at other times lea<ling 
hial strife, as in the Heiderbtrg War, which could he qnoUed 
hy the presGnce of a large armed foroo. 


ui vn^swNBBMir fimtt wen o 
m m ih0 (fanaoa Patemt inHd ta 
la dkuB daya the odoi^ ««■ im 
'bwdbotwcia lavg* riven, and i 
Capon the httcb m ord«r to poa 
rWd« for tarmiag |jimiuiM and •!■• m ba 
for BHuicAL Of tbsie naokx ihcn wtst i 

of tiM miiuiil^Biiiiil 
B»r, «u i^nmted to tbe Lord Fatdkt of tfaoM dq 

of i79lS^«D iigiinrFiii OTW ftg tifCTtgtoi 
liqtfe to iBMDte; mtte i« 
U)Mi hinwOt BitohhhfH bk te 
>ih« bottrt vf Ida laagnJIIrffat immm, fimo^ 

I to he cafled, fait ImkU. er^ m the ffaa ii ■■ Taflgy of Vii 
hewv ulaoT tbe rig^ of ficsared 
enmpactble withtboiwrriKiigtoiid Miri Mo€| 
taod the dMondaM of the pm 
IfilK baft aat ■■ aen ot &ur ft 

Wtdi the ezoe|itioB of swAt epecal gnats aad 
|.w h a mL i ia t]y tMto obtoiiMd &<mb tha Spatoah 

an la^ is tlM ITniaa WM IiA bf tfe 
^fcr the pMf^ and leld or araded in fee^vaipik Tbc pnoHi^ 

I Ja ff i na al aa iha peealiar einra nwaa eM fa ^wrrf . Smtiji 
^fraald go eat ra tiie wiUenMn aad «np^ take 
tract of bad by dioppsiig a pieet oat of a tne Wi* and 
tha« narking bU within UMaeltBca as tbcir own. TUavtoi 
to Una a tme, vb^tber it Mn«4 to aeean ovnerAip or 
■vfc a |aUi tbioagb a SonflL Tba tana ia detmd tram 
Vn»ck ManH,«faich alieady ia ShaktopHRTs tinei 

a»d vuin Uk* naDDcr ^plied to tbe Mar, or vbtta tpoW u I 
fvfoebead of a bon^aaaU thttr mArk« bore toBM Ukcnmtal 
IfaiM or anaorial bearing of the Kormaai. *■ Uaoj aettlen 
BOC ooaUnt tbanaelTes,'' u we mra told br 8. SereboTal ia ^ 



lh« Vaihy 0/ Virtfinia, "with marking the trvea at 

height wiUi thi* iuitiiiJfl of tbeir iiiinK-. but climliod up 

tliirs« Iwccb-Lreei anil cut the Itfttcnin the bark, <ft1«n forty UmI 

ihc prounil. To euable them to ideutifr these ti-ecs ut ft 

period, thcr tnada murks on other trees sronnd them u 

Thiu the iiew-oomer, liuving Eeleoted Inu futun 

nouJd. iu the luuguo^ of the duy, " at once biate out on the 

ink* his ]iiv-emption claim," and henceforth htr wus ecourcd 

lU ]>ropi-riy. An iwtm *» he hsd built a cabin nnd raised a crop, 

iwe-vrir small, ihe occupant was, by the laws of Virginia — then 

Itching bum the Atlantic to Ihn Miftstssippi — cntitlcil to four 

^iindrcU acres and a pre-vmptton right to u thonKsnd mortf od- 

ining, lo U' secured by a ^inijilu hntl-oj/ia witrntnl. 'i'liuro 

hoireTt-r, At ou early period an inrerior kind of Innd-titlc, 

Umtakawk~r\ghi, which was tnade by deadening a Tev treea 

' head of a epringaud oiarkiug the hark of gome one orTuora 

lUc initials of the imj/rorer. The deadirning consiftltid in 

ig vitJt A Uunuhawk, then as faniihar to the white nian at to 

idian, a narrow ring round the trunk of a tree ; this iicarcrly 

injnri*, nrvcrthclesg, goes t<i the life of the tree, and the 

-'iliM, not suddenly, but slowly, by the litigeiing prooew of 

raXiun. Sacb tomahntok-rights did uot exist iu law, bnt wvrc, 

irten boagbt and sold. (S.KercbeTal,Z/i»/orvo^l'rr» 

' ■) 
- tbas acquirod accnre at least what is culled a claim, 
i^uatter also insists npon a like righL la Ihs 
tage or the Wcat, u man who uuceretiionioacly tovfc 
■ion of new laud vas said to fqttai down on it; aad "I 
Ivtd," f^^i W. Irving, '* the* appellation of ifuirUav,! 
laU freai. laud'huldi're, and which is given to thnat' 
who ai'ize u|Hjn land lifi^.r and lake thdir chM 
;^r Litit! to it atlerward.' Iu Ihu wild fraotier 
be Weit the "ftulii^Ulvned dtixun" Uim natDTBity a 
3 of iHMim and iuum, and when ooes fia^ 
cry eWBeatly to lieing n'moved. Haaa* faa 
'fjpiituait uTiut very litikk Xui' ia tlui eril ; 
r [iwpidatjuu ; for iu Xht _ 
-4 tJuu iKveo or «i^ 
nr ■ thottiand lababitaAl^ 



naerTBtion in m oentnl State or the V ' 'i 

wu nudafkir alATgcmitituyfaro* la KcL . i>t.n<b1 

rightful ovneiK It wu^ oC ooarae^ Ibund ioexpnlient lu 
^troop« for uuAt ■ {wrpoa^ sad the W|U»tt^t 
tr v«i« not m nbeeeMfal^ howeTer, in ih« <i 

totwreiffiUjf, a word ooitwd by General Cus, and lep 
tbe ri^t of tLe iafa^iiaaiB of Dowly.foraml t/niiu 
ijr «<|iiatcea^ to deiemioe for tbeouuJieft uluu laii«_ 
titatioM tbcf wooU prefer. Tbe qowtkoi waa of grmt 
w]ie& SkToy ctill coontcd amoi^ the lact€>r, bat 
[. Bf aton of Miaoui alivadj rtigmiitiaed tbe claim aa "aa 
id<*»a§ anreaaj— bfa m for a child to beindi 

Tbe almost boandksa Ubevtr vitfa vhidi Amerioaiu lua 
I of their laa^uuge, vaa R««iitljr «ho«n witL paiit^ 
imkcai. In a fearfo] oatattraphe which bappeued in : 
1671. on the Hudson Rirer nulwaj, all th« horrora of the di 
all Uk grief for tbe niuMroiu rictiaM could not etasm 
impnanoa made bj tbe natkai bat noble hcrottm of < 
iginc-driver, who rvfaacd to escape, stood by bia < 
longed with it into the abysa It appeared an<«rwiii<i mm. 
liwMiwg with nilraadmen the expcdienoj-of jumpJH; foimi 
le in time of danger, Doa Biinnwnft had once said, ** I 
He meant he wi^ald t^at down behind the huikr 
it to ^ing through with whaterer mi^bt obatrwrt the 
tr having palled the bnkoe, reversed tbe engine atid 

Tbe word etaim haf of late obtained q»ecsal importanoe in I 
gold iligifim^ of Caltfomia and tbe adjuiniog Siatcfc The fo 
jxow mcaua not utU* the email piece of gmund claimed hj 
ludividual discovoft-r, bat i|ttite as otlaa a whole mining locaUJ 
and men speak therefore of ** rtdinj; oat to the eiaiim^ and 
if port of it waa for sale." while tbe roagh miner will say: '^ 
aee, ilnuifri-r. i^uld iaiare to come out 'erthai iheer «!««■,) 
old pmprii'tur waim't of mucli occuunt. He wasgreen^aadj 
U'VK aboiil htfre Jutup him." (K. B. Hartc 7%e Lmdc tf , 
(■amp, \h \M.) 'V thelalUciuoS 

Dial liNik u orw .i .i.^^^^^^^i^ .-V ..i &i Jiivmr Tay) 
He my» I " Licl u^MM^B^^^^Hp^gns, cnftv plots, and < 


fm 80 deep" {Heiy Difing,l.,'i, 3), evidently usiu^ mefaphor- 
I7 a t«mi Guitiliar in pntctice tu all Uia rcuUurs. lU free use, 
r<«rer, is oDiui^tAkciibly Americui : for now it denotes, in c»ut 
>Siug» at least, any special locality or region, and ofl«n evtn a 
'*Uing or home. " Were yoa ever Iwfore in thnse diggingsY' is 
E>|hiiw very often heard in the Wcat upon first introductiou, and 
). Keal's C^arvoaZ Sixiches we read : " Look here. Nod, I 
it^s about time wc shonld go to oar diggiitga ; I am dead 
, and roa dou't look ao if you could keep out of bed muoli 
(IL, llif.) The miner of Caliromia and Nevada lias 
Lknown, in times of a ruak, to speak of a place where he could 
\ leaning against a stont po«t^ as his diggings for the nighu 
llj, hovever, he means in good eiiniest the pieoe of land on 
bopce to reach bed-rocky wlici-u gold is found in quanti- 
rWtd to striken very rich, as soon aa he comes bo the pap- 
I*, that is, the lode or vein vhich is to repay him for all his 
pn. To ascertmn his probable success;, ho prMpeef.», dii^ging 
<afew inches and there aeveml feet into the ground, throw- 
: bimeclf down and examining cloiiely every parciclo of sand or 
lil, or ictBallynnkJDg a shaft. But the immigrant in search of 
is also said to be prospeciing, and the term lias, aince tlie 
Civil War, been applied witli new force to the nunu-rous 
lorthemers who have gone to the South in search of cheap farms 
pmmising pluntatiuna. A report of the new Greeley Colony 
. Oulenulo says : "Much cedar was found in the gulches, with 
Bnu and grapes at iut«rTals; an exploring )Hirty is soon to 
4pf(i the country from Greeley down to Julesburg,'' (New 
Tribune^ January 19, 1871.) " We noticed quite a number 
•r svntlrmen yesterday on the Central train ; they were snhstan- 
l-aJ farmers from Peniutylvaoia, come to yrosperl in our State 
ffe l<id tlu-m welcome." (Richmond Dispatch, May :5J1, 1806.) 

''h-.m. and digging alike are subject to tliu danger of being 
j^Kijitd. For there is a kind of poetic justice in the fact, that 
*ii4W one bold man was dc6aul enough to take loud without 
to law or ownership. anutUer equally bold mtin was apt to 
'onr at bimd, and ready audUt;n]y to seize, or, in the energetic 
of tb« West, to jump npon the land on ^'bich the other 
i uiuaH«d. If tiK-y did not respect the right of the lirst occu- 
lt, Uiey were naturally as little di»iHised to di-ead the law, and 



to til'stitiu iVoiii ou^cuij; a tawhil oimer: h=nce ihev beoaa 
l»iu<wu ;is i ':.■..■■;••':. -livrg. Mauv & poor seiilcr. ■::zal>le to meet 
tl'.^' 'A';;;;h ^■.■u;;ii:i_v of such mea. has had to »:-i=.I:-:i hititiB!- 
sMul ;i:'.ii Vino •.'. '.11 trt' haiuls of the robber; 'zzz-=AzjiJsmfV 
l;.i* a'.si.' Iwv. :rU\l '.\v s j^'f-oonstituteti jruy rf^z,:*JXiBi 
j;-u\v. .* :',\v ov. ;':■.,' U:;.! h-,' woiild fain ha": =iil= lis ■:*ttif 

.iv: ■„• \ .,t".v-. '•': ,'.■>:' i" 'Vi'iST.'rr. rar-li::-.-:. Tii* a Ul 
.V ^^ 'v ,;^'."..* .".' t""a; '.'■. v':'— ^^..'"t ^ j~ ■ ■.•^■^; ^ — r?riB 
,' ■.%■■■, \i,^^", ■.-,■.■■: -MTil -.'< ;:' ''Ti't: iz-l. \i~zzd~. f'liA, 

«'■.■■■ -■■■■-■■■.c ■,-■ :>.■ .■^..•-i^ '■-.'I '••■ i—'j- ■: iz-r '^i :>r 311' 

. «. '.■■•■> yr.\,>:**, T™':;: -:';■■; -.„vr ■ti'??': -fa aai 
•*■'-■ ■■-^':. > ::>:"-l ":--:. ":ar:ir :^ --rs -f --. 1-=* 
!.■■■ *, '.-*-■■' V. ".is ;' ".^-'? si~ "> ■^'•." : - ~- ~ >i^ ' 

^ ** ■ .i - ;. ! ■• s .- ." : ■:- ■:. ^ ~.' -:z^-^a. 

- :-:. ■:- ' - -. ^: -r ?:^ 

- - ^ ---- f 



ivford. We liare frequently heard the old aarvcTors along the 

uosuy that. tb«7 i>ft«n met wiih \m cornem/' 

The oalv laade exempti^U froai legitimate occupaacT by new eet- 

lare th« so-called rtaereatiottXf made foi* the Indiana and cer- 

porpoitea of public importance, sncli as schools, etc. Mo$t 

thett are now near or beyond the Mississippi ; a few, however, 

stiH in the very heart of eome of the olduAt Sliit^s : this will 

plain the foJlowiug article, contained in the !\cw York Tribinis 

>1hn, '^td, 1671 : " The resolutions of the New York LeKislaturu, 

itivc to the Allc^hanj-Z^f^erivi^ioit of the Seneca Indiana, in 

Connty of that State, were preacuted in the House 

ly. It appears that white aettlera ocoupy lands in the (own 

KSalamauca (I), within the rM0n<a^to», without any titk*. It is 

[iir asked that a title be given thc£e squatters, and that a new 

ty be made with the Senecas, by which they may be compen- 

for the lands of which they have been deprived." In Uie 

Dominion the correS{)onding term, is lieMrBet^ as, A ff^ llii« 


All other lands can be oblained by entering Lhom, and beiicf> 

' Ber. Peter Cartwright. the famous backwoods preacher, says 

his quaint and graphic autobiography: "Money was very 

-I saw little of it, at least — and what little there was, was 

eaenilly kept to enter land*, when Congress should order a sale." 

>S54.) This is done sometimes by th« so-culleci PrSeniption 

* of 1841, which, however, only regulates a process known now 

' more than a hundred years. It was enacted " to appropriate 

! proceeds of the public lands and to grant preemption rights" 

ImiI gmiited 160 acrea of laud to every head of a family, to a 

l^idow, and to any man over tweuty-one, who will flic his inten- 

Itlott iQ a land-office, to enter upon and improre the land, and to 

limit thereon long enough to make it his residence. He pays for 

BOW dollar and a quarter per acre in gold or a land-wnrrant, and 

[*•• fees. The *' man over twe-nty-onc" — who must, however, swear 

[ttilhB does not own 320 acres of land elsewhere — includes, by law 

I OlCongreBS, spinsters, provided tlioy will build a house on their 

f prtttnption, and there reside, although, poor lonely tbingo, we fear 

^K ftre not many that will accept the offw. In the y«*r 1870, 

liovenr, a datnael of twenty-two thus entered a quarter- section, 

Vwt«l a log-oabiOf tenoed in two fields, and by Uar own UUur 



tuneA eoon^ ia mppoxi bendf MutaTon-iz ^ ' 

Tbe process is ao fiMiiiUar to the Anerii^i 

pr9ampt hsi becncreatod for tbcparpove^and the W»trni hoitt 

nn to fau Ttaitor. vbca be uiviUr« him to lift d«>»-t -■ 

" Wvll, I gutM, if joa cflQ find a corof r thst ia not 

Bunrcpreftdyonr ah«Tiogs there ^ (W.U.rfimm^ n 

Ffuhngh Ludlov writes poctioUly : *' An; ouui, « i.^ — 

k lorel; blonde, and E«rs himself rafiected in tvo blue ej«t,liM_ 

thereby mode hinaelf mn of h«aTcn, ha^-ing prifntptrA H 

quMter-sectioDS of it, and settled on tbe s&tiu^" 

The Uv has its ■dTeraariea, and Honus Gmekfjr Seioet; 
'* In uor jadgment the whole Prientfitton syattitn li a uiusaucvi 
a BursefT ot" fraud, which Cougrese oagbt iipomptly l-^ ti'n^>U 
Ibe Home^tcnd Law auiwcriog erery good piiqiost!, v 
entptinu wu intended to anbaerve." (Xew York TVibun-- ,■<• 
arr 1. IKri.) This ffoautUad Act of ld«3 girc^ to L>very citii 
baiivp or uiUuralized, a home^ann of IGO scrra, whiob is 
liable for dcbu coutracted prior to iho issamg i>f tiio patent. Tt 
coudition is fivo years' residenotf, before the Geturai Land 
in Woahington will itane the patent, and ihi» ia too IrkaoatB 
Lmorioui iinpaticno& Heooc we find it etstcd that ** eo xapid ii I 
pprcciation in value of land, when once eottlcil on, that it 
^tottud by cxperiwicc that from forty to fifty \kv r 

who mtfT tbcir lands tmder tb« proviaions uf tbu Ji > 

expecting to receive a gratnitotu deed, prefvr to pay far tb* 
rnLhcr than lo wait the five yean oeoewary for th<^ consnmmi 
of liieir tiileo." (Our PnbUo lAnda^ ffarpor'e Monthly, Jam 

To soldiutv who ore by Oongreia reworded with a gnut of 
for thoir aervices daring tbe war, and tu companiw eetitk-d,! 
Act of CoogrHi, to alt«matA stsctions on tbe line of a propo 
railway, lamd varrvUi arc isued, whieh entitle them to toeoitX 
tako up a tract of now or uncultivated land. Thia word — % 
known to Knglivh diCilionarieB before Todd — ia oo BU[;i^" 
HK'ful tbat. tbuagh long niiatod in Kugland, it baa for^ < 
into Iho beat nuthora. U boB, buw«ver, atwt attained ahr 
the aoma tuLitudi< uf i^ t><bic>b it eujoya b«re. The 

mauingt no duubt, was ■• dotln« a partioolar aput, bat i( 

a gvuuiuo Aiutfricttuuiui lu the aottao uf fislwUniir aorrvyiug. 



the boundfl of a tmct of land, in which it ia nov oniTcr- 
lueiL Tilt) givut rn-edoin with wliii-h tvcliiiical u>rms art> 
to lerve cooatle^ other purposes besides the dm, has led to 
ver}' quaiut uses of the ugly woi-d. la Qilliam'K Trumia «n 
ICO, we find that "the mate, haviDg located himeelf opposite 
at uhle, bognn to cxpostalnte with Die," whore it ia snbsti- 
for the good English word "seated;'' whitat even Vf. Irving 
iroDicoUy eayi ; " At the tail of these Tchicleg would stalk a 
< vi loug'Mmhed, lauk-sided vurlctg, with axcti ou theii- ahuiil- 
ikod packs on their bnckx, reitoluteW bent on loc^fiMif thein- 
u thcjr t«rm it, und improving the country." The Annual 
It of the S«crctiu-; of the Navy in 1871, contains perhaps 
moat daring use made oi tlie word, when it says: "A vessel 
hat tK«a sent out to locate a harbor on the PuciQc." Peri^Uy 
tutnial, on the other baud, is the teohuioal aae made of the word 
liftbe Methudists, whose ministry is eweutially itinerant, while 
I Hull number of miui«tcrs are locaUd, i.e^ appointed to ronmin 
It a place permanontly, whenever old age, infirmity, or special 
to be fulfilled make such an arrangement desirable. '' 1 
Bskcd to he located," said the vcnorable Peter Cartwright, "till 
sened the Lord for half a century in the miuiatrr.''' The 
odiat Chutvh speaks, tlierefore, alau of the location orcert^tiu 
at surveyors and land-jobbers ref^r to a place as u good 
healion. The danger of ailmitting snch worUa is, however, 
wi by tbo fact that quite a numlM'r of words have been offered 
public aj^robation, made afttr the jtaliem QHoctUe, since this 
focoed its way into public use. Making a speech has been 
to orate J bestowing a grant to rfowote ; approving of any- 
g to approbatfi ; and good authors hare tried tlieir best to 
them a footing in American Engltiih. An excellent 
ine, the Overland Atonlhli/ of San Fraucisco, spenkj of a 
log but inactive half Mexican, who h-miled at Caleb's infVv- 
t jokes and listened a good deal when Caleb oralfd aud the 
of tbc schooner slept.** (Oct., 1870, p. .135.) A Law enacted 
tba General Cunrt of Massiwhusetts pruhiliil^i a cerliuu cluss 
jf JHfS **htiug approbated lo keep an iuu or pnblio house,'' (Nov. 
'I I8il). aud the religioHfl newapapera of the Union vie with 
oilier in long lists of men who have doiuitai lai-gu sunid to 
ehorcltes and collcgra of each deiiominatiuu. Even to misaiini' 



aU hM beca aUenpted. mad led to aoa&er fairtiarifia, Klud 
inmd thus iottadaocd ia PrntammCt ilagmxitH for Not. 1^0;" 
MuAoamiT work bdd I^Mm br a double claim ; it wsa a birthi 
»nd a TocatioD — tliat ii. ai br u ollttf people can rMaf« | 

When the hnmigmii looks aroond for thr kind of Itt 
vonld diooee, be ia geiic«nj guided bj a prefereow fan dii| 
whefe nei^bonof hu ova noe or fkitliarv f>^iitid; but If h4 
iiot indolge in this laxarr and matt ga to wliat is called' 
Lamdi^ he has to he care^l in his selection. FraudnleDt 
paniea viD eell him waitr-ioU, lejnpiing enough oo the rsai 
ftMiad, npon reaching the place, to be svamp or morasB, am 
the Tear andcr vaier, while raecallr rntMcrt will sdl him tj 
to the State of Virginia, which he mar reach in twcnty-firarl 
iiKtead of the town tsf Vtr^nia, in Xerada. which he a 
rrach und^r seTwal days. He will,- of coorset pn-fer prairiei 
if it ifl to be hid. and look oat for an uikmd, a gnii c hi the j 
uf the pmirie, or at least for ■ bottom, as the richest land ii^ 

catk-d. Their vicinitT is gi-nfrallr marked by ihoee high I 

ith preciitttons fW>&ts, which, from their rc«i-inhlance to! 
promontories jutting ont into the sea, are in America called e 
The tenn was already thna iwed by Lt'wis and Clark in' 
larnoiu TntvcU to the Paci6c Ocean (I8(M), and tlie bold,' 
fruiit is thus referred to Uy Vt. Irving :"Tlie mouutaiu* 
broken and pivcipitoas, with hoge biuffs, projecting 
thefoMt^" {Ashritt. XL, p. 270.) 

The boifoms nre sometimes knomiaa Ititervctles, when 
eist of alluvial land clinched by ovfrfiowiug rivers. (BeM 
ffiftortf of Xev Hampshire, 1792.) They are generally niM^ 
smooth and level, covered with rich grass and iuterspeiarf 
clomps of treee, having a creek or a river rtinnirg through I 
Often tlu-y ri8« in beantiftil terraces along the valleys of Wi 
rivers, and *' are locally ami perhaps iiccamtely known as I 
Mlom» ; lliey were Ihe favorite site of the Indian moniid-UuiU 
{H. H. Schoolcraft,) The word Is, of course, as old as 8ll 
j>pare, who speiiks of " a ahecpcote down in the neighborii^ 
torn," but the application is pecnliar to the West. In h!j I 
after these he will hare to croM many a dividtt as hunters ao 
tiers are fond of calling the long, low ridge, which 


il, scuding Uie waiera rrom the slopes in oppodte dirvotiom. 
.1 \stil we came to the diiHdf" say* Mr. ituxton in his EipIarH' 
M, ■ vmA here we stood by the side of the waters that flowed on 
they mingled with those of lh^ Pacific" (II., p. II), and P. B. 
H« says: ^*Then up and dusl^d out of Sooth Homit-os across 
long Divide." Here, near the uppt-r part of rivers, the new 
ler may meet with Jtats, which Itailcy explains as " low. flat 
DDds, exposed to iunndatioD," Ijnt which iii Auivrica raihvr 
LU theallaTial landa close to a ri»er, orvcry largo shoals iu tlie 
1^ Itself. Here, as well as on lai'ger prairies in the Sonth and 
tbwest. he wilt alao meet with thoB« curious little hills and raHeys 
cb appear on wet prairie^ where the heavy annual mins wiiah 
gronad, crocked iu all directions by severe drought, iuto regu- 
hexagonal hillocks and ratleys a foot or two deep. These are 
ed hogwatlows, from the resemblance they hear to soft places 
ire hogs have hccn rootinjf and walloiving. '* These hogvfollotes 
rormations of pitfalls and elevations, hollows and hillocks of 
ry variety, which succeed eacli other like cups and saucers 
ied topsy-tiirvy," says a traveller in Texas. " They relieve 
monotony of an unbroken level." {Putnam's Magazine, Feb- 
7,18M.) The AH-ali Flats arc now crossed by the Pacifio 
Iroad, but had already becnme Familinr to the raiding poblio 
he "old hugbear of the (rri-at Ami^rioan Drsert." They aro 
foaod to be unpleasant to the traveller by their annoj'ing 
t, but appear quite fertile and abounding in agricultnnil capa- 
a " The iilhali consists of gypsum and the chlorite of potas- 
n and soda — a combination in the highest degree fertilizing, 
B not in too great excess in the soil. "Wherever irrigation is 
sticsbic, the vegetable productions of this region attaiu a size 
perfection utterly uiiknuwa in the Eastern Ktatos. Tha 
uiic elements, moreover, arc not capable of being exhausted, as 
'ascend by evaporation from the underlying deposits. It is 
fe than probabh' that Artesian wells may yet convert a large 
of the wid waatcsof Wyoming, Nebriiska, and Montana into 
il« fields, and open new resources tu the hand of enterprise." 
Istem paper, 1870.) 

1 other bvttotne, again, whore limestone formations prevail, 
h«lu are a characteristic feature ; this is the name here given 
>w depressions in the surftice, from which powerful springn 


stiddenlT^nsh fort 1), often forming large potidsou tJiespot,oT 
ing off in the shape of brood rivers, capable of turniug milh 
driving mucbiDerj'. The. humaiacks of the fSoutli, tm Uk 

ptrary, are gentle hills of peculiar shape, moet common ia 
and the udjoining States. " The grguud which & Soatbeni 
beat liki-8 id that which is designated bj the uamtr of 
undulating hills, covered with oak, hickory, and 
0rcaded by a good number of roads and cattle-patha.* (F. 

t'fiuaae, LeiUr» from Alabama, p. 267.) 

In former ycnrs it was a matter of first importance for ibei 
migiimt tu cljuogu bis new home iu d, jree-soU ttjrrilorjr, ai 
lundv were called which were owned by the United 8tatei,aad 
yet £i%e from slavery; siuco the cmancipAtion the term bl^' 
course, lost all ita meaning, and is important only for \Xa hi 

Lusociations, which date back to 1848. In the States vben 
iattle between BVe^soiliitm and Slavery was most fiercely 

I u on the bloody ground of Kansas, the name still sarriTei 

rthe passionate recollections of days of terrible and 

If the settler find no home on an ixland or in a eott of ■ pi 
ho prefers, esjtecially if lie bo a German, a Knob, as from 
Bemblaiicc to a kuob (Germ. Knopf), any rising is called 
Woct. OriginuLly tbe term was limited to oertuin jiceuliar, 

Ltkills iu Kentucky, the re-sult of the material, soft ^oditone 
■hale, liiiring been worn by wind and rain into b rounded for 
The word, however, soon extended over the whole West, and 
hilly region \a very apt to be called a knobby oouutry in VTeif 
poi-lance. .Should ho build hia cabin in a foi-est, be will aooa I 
bis neighborhood designated as a ntck of the W90d$, that being < 
name applied to uny settlement made in the well-wooded paita 
the Bouthwesi e-spccially. Should he dread the busJt, be n 
cbouae one of those beAutiful forest glodea called ont opetm 
and found in the Northwest. They are unduUting ptiiini, o 
ered with close, rich tnrf, and dotted all over with groups of fi 
wvll-grown oaks, looking for all the world Uko a well-kept Ki 
li«b park, though apparently endless. It is they which have gii 
Mr. Cooper a title for one of bis t&teat, though not most inter 
lug novels. They arc very difiWeut from Uie Burrrnn, ' 
which they ar« oocasioually confounded. The latter nrv elet 

aoil, liicher baviag no groirth on them at all, or 
Mrting stunted tr&ea unlit for Umber. Sticli wiute 
uletl furtnerly in some of the £a!tl«m und Central 
t were soon brought ander subjection to man by 
igenuity. Thus, irhen Ohio began to be settled, 
jrean ugo, most of its territory outside of the rich 
tiro Miamia, tlie Scioto and Miiumvef was in iarrena. 
nold be discovered for hundreds of miles, save on tbo 
bw streams; fires Iiaviug consumed, year after year, 
<tree« which Nataro had tried to briog forth th«r«. 

tin that State, everywherej has advanced a hundred- 
line of the most profitable uses to which it has been 
how be put, ia the growth of timber I It is from a 
fBuch barren lands in the ^'oriheast«ra comer of 
Down as the Barren Qroundt, that a variety of reia- 
doa arcticua), derives its melaucholy name of Barren 
indetTf which it beard also if found in Greenland and 

rees at all succeed in growing <m Euch neglected 
titer are kno^^D as Oak-barrnu, straggling foreeta of 
ed oak-trees, which show by their low growth and 
BchcK the poverty of the soil oh which tliey have to 
lu Southern States hove, in like manoer, Pim Bar- 
arc still more desobte tract*!, covered with light, loose 
Muriog a wretched growth of pino-trces ; the people 
n are called mnd-hUUra, and belong, generally, to the 
of whites. In the Southeastern Rtj»te» a similar kind 
t of somewhat better qtmlity, is known as the Piny 
nsort of poor people who cannot obtain lands else- 
1e in the North and Northwest the superb tracts of 
and, which fumifih the fuictst timber in the country, 
Hntrieg. Here loggera and lumberers in great nam- 
gate during the season, aud a recent traveller says 
" No stimulants stronger than tobacco and tea ore 
he pineries ; the woods hod not yet received vuuugb 
wee of civiliiation to admit a bar within their hol- 
i** {Miniusaia Pinerieg.) Thus hiil utid dtkle, valley 
, are open to the new-comer, and soon lllUd ; the 
lout MMuato be shunned, as the nuns wash all the 




rich goil from top and slope into the T&llejK below, and tkn 
come abont that the worils. Over the Mountain, an* beqt 
nsed with a very (>a<I ineauirig. " He had a gtvaL deal to i 
tho palmy days of VirgioiV' is SAid of an old gentleuuii ii 
Kennedy's delightful book, StcuUow Ham, " aod the gm 
vrhieh in his time hod bc«n broken up, or, what in hiiuol 
voa eqiiiviilent, hud gone over the monntaitir Slougksd 
dreoded, whether thej are pronounced like "plottglis"d 
since the sudden chimges in the Americuu climate, with it 
fierce di-oiights and terrific rains, make tliem dangerous ne 
to cultivated lands. CnUfovnift boasts of them in proportioac 
would elsewhere entitle thr>m to a very different namc^ (be 
told: '' Paesin^ from this summit, on u gently descending 
wr reacht d the slongfi wliieli joinn the upper lakes with ' 
This shttffh is about forty miles long and two htmdrwl fee 
The etr^m has a Elnggish ctirr^nt to the Northwest, and 1 
its banks, for nearly tlic whole distance, are covered with 
(Overland MoiUhty, Aug., 1870, p. 153.) Wild Latuh an 
means uudesiruble, as tbey are merely so called hecaiue 
oullirated ; they embrace all the laud yet unappropriated, 
generally meaning the forest, by preference. It ii diOera 
the l{ad Lands, which border the Missouri for abont 
milee, aud were OLilcd, by the firat French settlers, Ua 
TtrrtSt because, oa a recent explorer. Geueral CurierGron 
"tlMjpKKnt a picture of Nature's wild deformities, a 
piece in its way, characterized by a total absence of ai 
which could, bv any possibility, give pleasure to the eye, 
tication to tlie mind, by any associations of utility. . . Colt 
aud detached pillars of partially cemented sand, capped | 
globes of light-brownish sandstone, tower up from the ste 
of the bluffs to the height of a huudred feet or more.'' 

Even where the land looks fair and a stream promiws > 
in times of drought, care Ims to be taken to afvertain if lii 
is QOt, perhaps, iu summer a Z>ry Creek. This apparent 8 
is very common in the Southera and Western parts of the 
and rrvers, which have no othur name but that of Ifrjt 
are found in nearly every Slate from Virgiuiato Califomii 
from these fhiqueut periods of suffering that the twti 
*i-r(ntght aud tiry are no muoh used iu tbft coutttiy* Xia 



UQ« tery frequently the soutk!, and quite as often the uiuuner of 
iting, which wereonw-crtnaidered orthodox in Kiigland; thoui/i, 
[ereo t)i« verb to tlry, rcvortfi at times to its ancient form to drotr. 
MVi ; '' As torrents in the thowth of summer fail" (fi.). 
TiltoD UMS dronOt !Xi he wriiM Uighth. " The git-nt but only 
ivtnck to thf-se fertile rpgionu (in Virginia) is the almuat cer- 
ity nf a drtiiiOi during the summer months." {Kichmond 
ifV^T, August 7, Ifltifi.) \b the drjing up of a rirer miikcs 
or less efficieutly an end to all agricuUural operatlong, the 
to firy nj> hiM£ heoonie gj'nonymous with to makf? ati end. 
ty upP* is n familiar slung term for Ihc more oonsidfrate 
Iwd) I " Dnj up /—no, I won't (in/ up. I'll have my rights, if 
iSie for *cm, and Til Btand hero until I get's 'era, too ; so you 
: better (fry vp yourfielC" {The Sludmt's Speaker, P. Betvei, 
.TH.) In ttuother eenw it is naed thus: *' As tht long dry snm- 
vritht-rei! to \tA root*, the school term of Red Onlch — to nse 
[local euphnism— rfn'w? up alw." (F. B. Hartc, Luck of Roaring 
wp, p. 82.) 

Z\(-\\ tlie lurgEr rivers, the Ohio, HississippigAnd Missonri, it is 
i known, ore entirely dependent on these variations in the sup- 
they r«ocive from their tribntnries, which are often very 
ilhUy colled simple drains. W, Trring thus spoke of them : 
LAbout noon, the travellers reached the drains and brooks that 
rd the hejid-walera of ihe river." ( Astoria, II., p. 354.1 The 
ii«qacnoe is that navigation ie often impeded for months, aa 
■f Boine dniught are concerned. This leads to a 
metiori, culled the Jnim Riff of the Missouri, when 
Uyull the head -waters conic roaring and rushitig down from 
'■ ' i-'-. from which the great river springs, and swell 
The riee lH?gin8 generally in Jnne, though it 
raomttimes deluyed till July, and of course ufleets the )Iiseissippi 
It lit called *' A n:inie of ffrandenr, of joy. of actirity, of 
3ft, of hanreits to all the dwellers on the stream, from the 
Tof ir. \ieo to the far-oir British line in the Northwest." 
mn*t Ma^ttxitie, July, 1865.) 
The ininiifirant may bo able to reoch his new home in the Far 
■\* to The va*t numlx-r of roads ihot inter- 
_ .. : I . he States ; hut he may also have to tmvcl 
Bfs ire«iy day acrou desert ptjuna and hostile regions. In 



ibitl CAse lie learns to camp out, timt Ia, to lipcnd tl 
open air on the plain or nuder ei;>uii: ^iit-liirriiig ttv 
pluoe ia always calleil hia inim^iOveanbuu Im u ^utU■' slIoim ; < 
Bcvcral faniiliCiS joia, tbej ure apt to bare a half-/and camp, ' 
is on one iitla open Id eiuil ftw bgtvss lo caillc and hvna. 
the wrrai of the Southwest. " Ilere we suddenly cikme a\ 
Mai/-/aced aimp, filled with women aod chUdrifD ; all tbaj 
havJDf gone out huiiLinj:, us tlio whole party had been 
nii-ut for eeveral days, and their store of Hour hod ^ven oi 
ago." [ScuHM in the /br West.) 

OccasioniUJy caramm are formed. Much m liave been in meal 
the- Western Statf« from the earliest tiniM, placed iv ' 
auc'o of sonjL- cxijoritinced rronUer's-man, who regu i 

movements, waking them up in the moniiug by his fierce 
Lave! (from the Freuob levez-rouy), or nmn his su.'aLuriaa.< 
up ! Catch up ! to rouse all and iuak« them ready for ua earl 
The same sturtliug cry ii heard when a prairie'lln: tluvaCvn* tl 
camp, and all hands are called apoo to /ght the firt, whidi 
generally done by burning a wide circle aronud tbe camp la 
tbe approach of the Qomcs, unless the actual boating ont of i 
fins by tbe men can bo ultempted with success. 

Wherever he may select bin futuni bume, wbot hu now wa&tij 
his hi — a word, ttbicb iu its upjtHcutJou to laud is uoknima 
England, and uuiveraal in the United States. It baa itc r\m in i 
old Pnrttan onstom. Tbe first settlers in tbe sea-board planlatis 

N'ew England owned tluj extensive Mill-marsbes, whii ■ 
iich excellent salt liay, iu common, and every mau cut xw. 
saved aud salted a<j much of the latter m ho wauled. 
howover, the population increased and tbo first simp! 
harmonT were no longer maintained, it wo^ agreed to >i 
these commons in etjual piu-(« to all the (amilieti. This was dt 
afler the biblical precedent in tbe eli^ctiou of a twcUlh aj 
hi, uud the cboic«> of every man, aii his name was dntwu _ 
become entitled to select his piece of laud, waa known as hix 
Tbe firm belief of the Puritans in a epeuial provid«nce wi 
over them and tbeir interests made them conttnaaliy nwiri; 
this munner of distributing lauds or other articles uf vali 
.bantofure In cummuu, and tlma tbe turm fo/£souu came to di 
any gnmt quantity. Cotton Mather in hia Maffnaiia speaks* I 



of the ^'gretU lot ot evil fipiriu" Ltutt pofiscsscil a poor 

in BevcrJcj, and "stories of lota upon tots kiUed by old 

I in tbe Wliite Mouutains are Iieurd tu tliis day at Xhv tire- 

I If. 3. Dodge. 
fVH not among the Puritans onlf that the caatom pre- 
Tbe prond caivaliiTi; of Virginia w«re as familiar with it iis 
ral& 111 an old deed preserved at Floircr dc HundiiKl, once 
lificeot plnijtuUoD un Ibu buuks uf Jamett lUver, w« rvad: 
pttper htU were made aud framed, in muu of whicii was 
ffen these words, vis,, — the uppermost part, in the other wiia 
X — 'the lowermof^t part, and being so made and framed were 
the crotinc of a hatt, aud be it fbrthcr remcniheivd that 
^d Ro. Lucy and his wifi; 8aru1i, and mid Phil. Limbiiey 
ibeth his wife, did thi:ii and (here for tiiuuitielYL'u and their 
iQtually agree aud consent each to the other, thut eaid IqU» 
til) to Xhts crouneof a hattshi^utd i>iie after another be drawne 
a yonogc child tlicn present, and glren by the said child 
to «id Lnoyand his wife, luidono^/fto said Llmbuey and 
," In 1768 Colonel Byrd laid off the towns of Sliockoe and 
Ridge, the former now the city of Richmond, the capital 
lio, the latter the town of JMuncheatcr. In the paper of 
i.y, the OazeUt, it ia stated that they were eold by lottery, 
nambcrcd, and mills, ferries:, and water-powers placed 
the prises, 
luoh means the term hi obtained general oniTency in the 
Gantry, and every generation added new applications of its 
Not only every kind of lauds, from a (own-Jot in the 
' New York to a tvater-lvi on a prairie in the Far Weat, waa 
signated, but the banker in WalUstreec hae his nice iot of 
'■ for ^e, and the drover in Missouri his ht ofhogx. and one 
n has lotsQ//rietnit,vh\iQ- another is troubled with lots of debt ji. 
t the extrome freedom with which such terms are nsed here is. 
.best shown in the fact tliatevencemeleriea are laid out in 
id (|nit« reoently a cftse came np in a New York eonrt of a 
ibo had mortgaged such a pit«c of property, in which tlie 
>hdld "that though the conveyance of a ceinetery-loi was 
le, it was not within the range of tlnaaeial or commercial 
Th to soppoee that a man designed to transfer the remains of 
of hie tamily, even conditionally, whicli intigt be the 



eflbet of the mortgage of his cemetery-lot^ (New Taik h 
Feb. 3, 1871.) 

The same word lias given rise to the odd i>braso ocm 
vhich denotes a short cut in sparsely-bnilUap towns, vhti 
cat] gave distances by crossing over vacant \o\m, Bri^lina \ 
tlie apostle and chic-f of the ^Mormons, 19 r«p<>rtt:tl to hareai 

he " would send his enemies to h aerou lots," and J. ( 

maki'H ojie of his herooe sneeringly say to a grnniblcr : ** Vol 
cut across i he lot like a Btreiik of lightning, if tou had ad 
{Charcoal Si-ehhfs, I., 35.) J. R. Lowell improvrfi apol 
making it an epithet in tlic line — 

" To oil tlie mo9' aeroti In wajrs of prcachla' an' ooBi 

Having Kccui-ed hiB tot by one of the varioua prooMn 
tioiied before, of iM]U»ttiiig, pre-empting or entering, th 
comer begins by Alakiug oat the ground for his cabin and Ii 
garden. The stake plays, hence, a prominent part in the 1 
man's speech, and serves to chanicterize his movemettts. 
he settles, tliere he g/aivs or sticks his stakes. " Indicatia 
favorable," says uii immigrant in Nerada, "ao we «teM 
^of ground along the main creek, built cabins, oi^nixad 

ly, and went to work to open our claini." (Soutbtm M 
January, 1871, p. 00.) " It is a rngged, arduons task," W* 
by one who has tried it " to make a Chrigtian home cot 
dense forest or bleak pmfi-ie to this day. He who sttcksX 
fhr enough from settlementd to lind houieetend-land, n 
expect to 8t>e a brickyurd, blacksmith's shop. sawmiU> g 
wheelwriglit, etc., in his neigliborhood very aoon*** (IM 
Tribune, March I, ISTI.) "Does he desire to changft, Im«| 
slakes. Thus the sun of a lawless squatter Baya coolli 
father: " In fact, ho built the shanty for the purpose, le 
should fall through and we'd have to get np and m»m 
farther down." (F. B. Uarte, Lurk of Hoartng C'amp^ 
The more energetic form — and by far the older — is to 
slakes, the earliest use of which occurs in a MS. letter (01 
the Hun. J. Hammond Trumbull, of CAiinecliciit), wH 
Thomas Leehford, a I^ondon attorney, who lived three 
years in IJost-Jn, and went home to pnblisli " New* fmtr 

Is. In 1640 he vritcs to an Engliflh corrraponileut : "I am 
Id bear of a star (in ^"ew Eugland). but am ptticking »/i 
^■ith HM moch Fpwd as I may." 8iuc# that earlj tl;iv the 
kion has held its ovn in American speech, a vivid ri.*iui»iE' 
bf Wntem life, aad always forcible by its touch of the pic- 

I buginB his warfare against the trees, which he unfortu- 

pniut needs regard OS his eoemies, since they stand upou the 

1 be wants for his home and live upon the soil which b« 

|il ihall support himself and his family. Unconscious of the 

}t so very far off, when he will begin diligently to pluut 

k the very spoi from which he now uproots them so pain- 

kA sets to work with bis truety axe to lieU or ffirdh them. 

ler case he cuts a circular incision through the bark and 

m of the tree, and loaves it crnclly to die of stanration ; 

iwing year, or as soon as it is dead and dry, he sets it on 

tkas 8*Tea himself tlie trouble of <^ntiing it down. The 

is also often callvd barking in. the Northwest, while heUiiig 

utherti favorite. The forest itself is known to the West 

A titnler ; people used to " go to thu timber for shelter" 

% invading I ndians, and even now, " men take to the timber 

I OS tJic Conmnchca are seon at a distanco.** {Official Army 

\, Jan. 11, 1871.) Uenoe is the term Cross Tijubers derived, 

Ine of two remarkable tracts, about twenty miles wide and 

hundred miles long, which extend in a southern direction 

Bed River and Trinity River, anil are covered with lofty 

so Biugularly regular Hues and cross line>i, that they sug- 

sisLibly tlie idea of having been planted at £ome remote 

the band of man. It is not withcnit a poetical instinct 

:eleton of a whale is known as his titnhers ; hence n 

antncket says: "In several places wc passed the tini' 

whale, the r«mainB of two that hud Wen lmr]>uoiicd off 

le during the previous winter." {Putnam^f Mag., Sept. 

These same trees, which the now settlor looks npon with 

of feeling, have oft^n to 8ervf> him ns refuge in 

need, and early settlers, as well &3 hunters of our day> 

lado us fiuniliar with the term to tree otte's attf, in the suuse 

Dg refuge behind a tree. Already, in S. Kerclievars History 

pjtia, we read of one of the most ^kmous heroes in early 




Indinn warfarp, that " WpUcKaa before, loaded hiagnni 
seroraliimpB during this ohiiae; when he did so, thelndimJi 
treed tbemsclvce." (p. 301.) At other times, to free meant scd 
kill, and the same remarkable fix>atH}r*8-maQ said, wfaea id 
his return, " What luck ?" " Not much," he replied, - 1 M 
Indian, but the other got away." (p. 202.) When nnimalBfo) 
tree, the hnnter ia said to hare treed them, and eonsidenld 
already sure of Tictory and capture. This has again girm] 
the cant phrase of barking up the tcrvn'j free^ which ori^oit 
course, in the dog's losing the scent, or the hnnicr's mtitakl 
tree in which he thinks his game has taken refnge, and thd 
ing to vain effort to dislodge the latter by barking or slM 
Bnt it ho3 made its way. like many such pictnresquo eipnj 
into the langiiagc of daily life, and the man who vainly t^ 
accomplish a thing for which he is not qualiScd, or wU 
himself to the n-ruiig person for assistance, is said to iari \ 
iorottg tree. "Yon didn't really go to old Bullion," nidj 
tician to an offlco-aecker, " Why, he has no indncnce thoel 
tell you. Yoii barked Hp the tcrang (rf*i there, my frien 
yon deserve to fail." (Richmond Enquirer, September B, I 
When the tree is at laat cut down, there Tcmains theti 
obstiniitc ntntnp, yielding neither to aie nor tn 6pe, bot i 
powerfol machines, especifll!y adapted to the parposeof^ 
ing stumps. A hindntrirK> in the setiler and a blemiah' 
landscape, the stump has but one usefulnetis, und that ! 
moderate elevation which it affords to a public speaker, vl 
here tiike his stand and overlook the crowd which he wi 
address. Thus the West has endowed our spevcb with a 
nnmbcr of terms denreit fVom this backwoods cnstom «A 
tiie broad, level top of b stump as a rostram. The mj 
wishes to canrass a district for Congress or any othel 
obtained by popular election, is said to tak* the ttump, ii 
ho virtnally ascends it in the woods and addresses settW 
squatters, or speaks in Fanueil Halt to Bclcct audience-S of , 
men. He siumpg it from the time of his nomination till | 
of election, and if he proves able to engage Ihn att^ntiwi 
hearers, or, still better, to persuade, coax, or cheat them in 
porting his claims against all rivals, he is said to be an u 
ntump-speahtr. Such a man was Thomas Corwin, of 01 

r "prince of campaign oratora," as his Mends called him. nnd 
KiTe bis testimony in favor of the curious face that th« same 
iolkis ivpeated over nnd over ofjain on such occiiaiona. " A 
k" he says, " who ehuuld attempt a fresh speech on every 
iw^ would never huve nny speech worth listeuing to." " The 
■VKirator," asserts a, foreign export, " i<i by no meanii nn- 
>ini in the Briiieh islands, and the phrase might perhaps be 
peed, in default of o better, to describe the kind of speech 
cb tickles the fancy or pleases the judgment of a miscdlit- 
□1 crowd. The late Daniel O'Connell, Daniel Whittle Harrcy, 
Thonias Wakley, the coroner, were excellent specimens of the 
np-orator, while in our day Mr. John Bright may lay claim to 
milar distinction, though it most he admitted that Mr. Bright 
Itnie omtor, aud speaks to the refined as rffpctively as to tlie 
pM.^ {Blackwood, October, 1867.) The addresseH made on 
b occasions arc, of course, atwmp-sptechef, and of these it is 
ply Biud in Dow's Sfrmon/i: " When you see a politician 
s fall of patriotism and stuffed with Hump'spteehea, yoa may 
» it fur granted be want« office, either for himself or for some 
acnlar friend." 

'wo expressions an oonneoted with the term stump, which 
B no reference to politics. The verb to stump is often used in 
sense of " to puBtle," or to " nonplus ;" n dispntant iftys, e. r/^ 
n I will ttump you yet, doctor " {Scribner')i Monthly, February, 
1), meaning: J will confound and silvncu yuuyel; but this 
d has aothing to do with trees ; it is the intensified form of: 
Ub, as people ssy, not less frequently, they stumped than they 
their toe. The American, however, at once makes the 
efiil in every possible capacity, and spenks of a conclueivo 
It, or a difficult problem : "That la a stumper." Nor is 
gg phrase: "To whip the devil arotind the stump," to be 
Jed very clearly to the backwoods. It denotes the indirect 
iner in which something is done, as when men will not pay a 
Itta fine, for conscience' sake, and leave its value to 1>o taken 
ll>e officer, a ractliod formerly often n?sortcd to by Quakers in 
[laud, in regard to tases they considered unjust. 

" / vhipped fAtf dwfl rvun4 ifi*ttu mp. 
And. gsvs a cat at every Jump," 


IB n Pcoosylvania dJttj tyiioUi by Professor S. S. HnMeatuv] 
also states that so tiinuy Quakers whipped ilie devil round titt 
during the late Civil Wai', hy supporting the goTernment i 
but «l<juU> ffruaiug to share its perils, that odo of tti 
assured him " the war bod kilkd Quakerism in PennqrUa 

A abort stamp of a tree, or any other large aod irr^alii] 
of wood, iR called here, na in Home of the Southern ilitv] 
England, a chnnk, probably a corruption of the OM 
chump, la the Wtrat people apply it to auything short aall 
and speak, hence, of " a tolerable chunk of a pony." In lh'^l 
the irord is even used as a Ycrb, and where there are no (too 
on the nlhuinl soil which hoTxlera on the Mississippi, the; i 
"nicAwHA-him," meaning that they will throw a clod ofi 
a Btick of wood at some animal. It is not impossibt? that I 
odd expletive ktrdiunk may be in Bome vague way aMociatffi' 
the noist.' caused by the sudden falling of a chunk, ''1 1" 
up/' saya TV- S. Mayo, "and there I saw a young raiampi 
aciambling np the tittle, old oak ; he stretched him&<^U'out on' 
branch and looked duwn u|)on me ko kind of impudent, I Uio 
I'd take a ci'uck at him; T raised my rifle and down be coia^l 
dtunh, right on the edge of tiie precipice." {Kaloolah, p. S'.' 
term, however, is a very Proteus, and uppe-ora under a giwiti 
of forma, as in J. R Lowell's line — 

Would nil comn dowo, kertteoA ! n. Iho* Ibo dam broke in * I 

(Biffiit>t I^prf, It., p. ! 

Ab soon as the trees are cut down or burnt, the settlef 
obtaina the name of ctearinff, in-espective as yet of cabio 
being visible or not. Hence J. R. Tx>well quotva ; " A man" 
ing to me onec of a Tery rocky during, fiaid : Stones got ( 
heavy mortgage on that." Then the land has to be 
not Einiply broken, as in England, |H>rbap£ becansie tst thiT 
greater difhculty in breaking new land— and pat into 
Speaking of the Scandinavians who Sock in targe numben' 
Wisconsin, a writer says: "The eKentialdifferonoc between K# 
niul Xomad waa quickly seen. The nide huts or eicatatirt* ' 
the sides of the bluffy which often gave temporary ahelter*»| 
first Norwegian setUerB, were soon exchanged for cooili 
log houBee, and wide 6pace« of br*aking KhovM the t«iwUr , 

If wheat." {Putnavi's MagazinUt Slay, 186t.) Bpsidps his 
corn or wheat, the new Bettler is sure to have, as soon 
JbU', his truck-patch, which often in made to hold liis 
aW The word cume, of course, from England, but at 
ily with the Hieflning of " small produce, cloth or the like," 
ill senjic it is ettU \xn^ mniiilj in England. Thus XL R. 
f sajs: "In 1654 they sent out two vesaelfl, which miide 
rofit of Indian truck, which they boiight for things of 
oferior value, aud theu returned." {History of Virginia. 
Oaptaio John Smitti also relateii that his men "went to 
ilh iho Indians of Chicfcahominie, where making sliowc of 
cioantitie of trurke thoy had, whicii the SnIviiijeB pprceiv- 
rtly for nrvenge of some friends, partly for their (rwcA-f. one 
I with an English peecc ehot Killingbeck."' ( Viryiniti, IJ., 
In later dayu, the email prodvicr- of gardens was culled 
n contradiatinrtion to fhe larger ci-ops raisod in open Helde, 
lea the word tnickpaich came into use. H. Kcrehovnl 
Brery family, besides a little ganlon for a few vegehiblea 
Uicy cultivated, had nnother small enclognre containing 
llf an acre to one acre, which they called a tnwkpnlch, 
which they raised com for roasting ears, pumpkins, and 
heans, and potatoes/' {ITisfonj nf Virgmin. p. 21H.) 
m continuL-a to bo constantly mmA, and in now frequently 
in the Atlantic SUites to market gardens: *•' Northern 
iliar with the beat manner of raising early vegeUiblcs 
ix tlie want* of Xorlhern niarkots, have come and ostab- 
Tuckpatches in onr neighborhood, which have given them, 
1 in.?tanccB, a handsome fortune in a f(*w years." (Norfolk 
la) Arfftte, August 11, 1870.) In the South the phrase 
»ck is applied to any inferior person or thing, as expressive 
. contempt. 

settler's next purpose is to bnild himself a log cabin, a 
honae of unhewn logs, notehed together at the corners, 
he interstices arc filletl up with clay eu as to make them 
kir-tight If more is attempted, a regular frame is pre- 
and the setting up of the timbers iti called a raiging, 
if these operations are, of course, within th« power of the 
nur nnaidcd, and hence the custom of hee.% which pre- 
hronghont the whole coaotry. "Yon see, air." said a 



squatter, in oxplatmtlou of the t^rm, "when joa vbdU Io; 
BuyihiTig (lone right awny iu a hurry, all at oncet like, 
it'» llux lu-atin* or apple puriii*, or curu l]uekin',«u(i the n«i{ 
uU urouiid come and help work, that's a Irea — aodA&itUtiin' heii 
a raifin' bee iij, whuu Ihuy waul to sc>t up ttie Tramc ur the hp^ 
u house 01- bai-n." (Li/e in the Far \\'r«l, p. 257.) The dutyi 
neighbors to help on such occasions ia bo uniTcrsally acl 
edgcil that in olden times ''a nmii, who refused autstancv,' 
calk'd Lawrence, and whuu it came to his turn to call upim i 
nui{,'libor8, the idler felt hie puiitshmout iu tlit-tr refasal 
iittt?iid his calls." (S. Kerchcval, Hintory of T'm7in»o,p.' 
Auothcr method, chnracteristic of those early days, and slilli 
ring in many parts of the West, is the hating out. '• The] 
ment," mys the eame author, " for idleness, lying, disboncstr, 
ill-fume geucrally, viae that of hating the oSouder out, u 
cxprcssed it. It commonly resulted in the reformatiou orl 
ishment of lh« person iigiiinst whom it waa dircile*!. If a 
did not do hi« «harc of the pahlio senrice, he was hat«d> 
cowai-d.'' A ekopping-bM ia thus described: "Ouce a i 
waa attcmpti'd on a large kchIc. It waa fur the site of a 
institution. The inhabitauU within a radius of tea milei' 
invited to a chvpping-bet. Each one brought- hisuxe audi 
pi-ovisioiis. No spirituons liqnore were allowed. The wc 
ordered by an elected margliftl of the day. The front r 
trees, ten rods iu width, were choppwl partially through on I'i 
side: then the succeeding ones iu like manner, for a space of 
haps twenty rods. Then the lust nuik were felled eimnlt 
by the united force, when wiUi a crash iuereasing to a thi 
ing volume, it bore dowu on the next, till all lay prostrate. 
thus for three days did this vohiDteer war against the 
progress." { Wenlern Magazine, Jannarj', 1868.) *' Hatntf 
says W. Irving, "were also frequent, when houses eprang 
the wagging of the fiddlestick, us the walls of Thebes 
up of yore to the sound of the lyre of Amphion." (1 
bocker, Uttl. cf AVw Vork.) A stone-bee, on the other liso^i 
arranged tx> clear a Held of stones, and a husking-he« to su-ip 
husks from the ample supply of eorn to be stored away fori 
winter— scenes of much merriment, and adorned by 
quaint old custom, as when the &ader of a red ear is 



priWIege of a kisn all nronnd, or, if of the fiiirer sex, is 
CO mftke her electioa of some one to Ik houorecl. Hoooa. 
lloV* nlhuion to it as au Indian usage, tbut 

" Whene'er Komn lucky maictui 
FAand n nA «ir in thr liitskin^, 
Pauntl a irwiu «sr, red a* blood is, 
HaahkA t cried tlwy nil tORctber, 
Mmlikiil joM (Ljill bav« aswccUiearl, 
Too alinll liuvc s Imndionic Uuaband t' 

i.-k*t^ ^f ffiateaOa, Canto XIII.} 

I in tfae Westt and in the £a» whore old traditions have cot yet 
be Bi)eeri>d at, these ttees are the oiaia festtre occasioua 
tng people, where, amid social latigh and gossip, fingers nnd 
work together. Ercry exoose is, therefore, readily aeizod 
\aad eren quilJing-bees are popular, where the roung women 
tnnd a large frame to make a pncchvork qnilt, and vber« 
young bcickwooddmcs find their vay in, on nmc pretence, 
odIt on the Irishman's principle, that 

" If ■!! Ihc yoang women ivM tlncks ia tlie wntor, 
IiV Uiin (he yoting men would jump in and swim ater." 

' good people arc willing to oomo ttom twenty and thirty miles 
ind tn enjoy the frolic, and when the husking or quiUing ia 
r, when the hontio ifl hnilt or the harreal reajied, the woodpile 
i^nufcd or the applea ore pared, and the nuts gathered in, then 
" ■ 'l'*** 18 heard, anA, in spite of hard work and late 
;mrt and continiips till morning. Occasioually, 
the ppcnliar manner of the pilgrim fathers, religious exercises 
quaintly mixed up with the work and the fan. A com>hnsk- 
Ja nnnoonced. or a niislng-bee is arranged, and the neighbors 
and near assemble, each bringing his provisions in a 
From the latter feature these pic-nic8 derive their names 
liutti'AffftingR. The most determined polemical divine, how- 
>nhi hardly venture upon a long hnranguo there, eincu the 
are bent npon hard work and guy frolic, the means of es- 
I open on all sides, and the tempting baskets at any moment 
lUnre fhe audience away from eroiT other thought 
:harm would be some such mistake as that which befell 
jm^g man from Down Eaet» who related the matter Ihos: 


"There was a wrn-htiskirt^, tmd I wi-nt nlong with S«l Jitel 
There wm all tbe gala and boya sittin' around, and I got sot^ 

near S»l Uahic thiit I'll br darned if I didu't }a» b«r 
Ituowed what I wiw about T ( :7VaiVa o/ Amniatn Ilvmor. p. IJ 
The idoa of the^e aMtmblies is uot new, only the poetical 
of Bee, They are known in tli« Old Cuuutry under 
n!um,-8, as, e. g., the "Clay Danbin " of I umtwlaiid, where 
neighbors and friends of a newly-married oonple assemble, ud^ 
□ot separate till they have erected them a rough notlage. 

The iog-house thus trcctod is, of course, of the utmost eimi 
The Rev. Mr. Ciirtwright deseribca the interior of one, which! 
neither hotter norworec than the majority of those he found i 
fifty years ago in the now flourishing State of Illinois : " W» 1 
a hewed puncheon for a table, with four holes in it, ad4 
straight sticks put in for legs; forks were driven down 
the puncheons for bedjiteads; cross-poles and side-poles p«tl 
these forks, and clapboards laid crosawigo for cotda." {A% 
bintjraphtf, p. Wi.) The Hon. Mr. Duncan, of Ohio, descrit 
better kind of loff-eabin, in a speech on the floor of Congress i 
"A house made of round logs, one story high, of 
suited U> the size or number of the family who were to ti 
it, and sometimes with reference to an increase, a punoheun i 
a lire back loft, and a clapboard root The iudostry of 
matron and her daughters was displayed hy the thick folds 
linsi'y frookfv pantf, and hnnting-ahirts that behnng its walhj 
its top was uoderhimg with strings of dried pumpfciog.'' 
puneAeoH mentioned in these descriptions is a split leg, Uic aj 
side or which has heen more or hss carefully smoothed will 
broadnxc or a hatchet; raised upon rough logs orslecpere,' 
fomish tho floor of most backwoods dwellings. The clapt 
known in England as thin boards prepared to scrru for cist 
are here tliin. narrow boards, three to four feet long, and ihinn< 
on one edge than on the other, which Bt;iTo to corer the eidcii 
roofs of honses, being placed so aa to oTerlup each other. Ill 
heen suggested by a diatinguished etymologist. Dr. Clvyn 
Philadelphia, that tUo term may be origimdly derived fraoi 
thin, smooth boards called a clapboard, on which in the Xa4l 
of England a kind of bread is clttpped, which, hence, is kaonj 
as ciapbread. The fireplace couaiste ordinarily of a few ewiat*\ 



ily amngtd for th« purpoov, and the chiiuney of stoat Eticka 

3ocI. abont two feet long, which are pil<^d iip crosswiae, aod 

ittti with day or mad. Tboy are, hence, called s/rt^i-cAiw- 

and, Btmngply enough, answer their purpose so well, that 

are oonainon all ovlt [he> West and the South. 

the next {tlaca the ucw gvtUu- iuuk*;8 a Tence aroand bis lot, 

ch w to serve as a goi-den ; commonly a few gigantic roots of 

dragged near ench other, or slim young- piiie-ti-fcs with 

bmahwood between, have to etiffiw. When leianro admits 

uls arc split, and laid in endless sigzog, which makes the 

loua Viiyiriia-fenve, or snaJce-ftnce, imm«Q8ely coetly in all 

'icti where wood is not ub^olutelya cumbrance to the gi'ouud, 

tifiag much land, always out of re]Httr, and harboring in its 

len bonndlcsfl supplies of weeds and much vermin. The 

iiiTMtod in these ennke-feuces h said to be larger than the 

of all stocks and ugricnIturaL implements. Hence Iha/gna 

a prominent part in the lil'e of the Western man. who 

it jealously, as a single break and a niglit's inroad of his 

I may cost him a year's lalwr, and who loves to sit on it, snr- 

pag all that is his own. As a man tbus situated can wiib 

klease jnmp down on oither side, the phrase to be or to sit 

■. ha£ become a common cant phrase for persons— in 

L.iily — who prefer what J. E. Lowell pointedly calls 

* A kind 0' hangin' raunt) im* tOtiiC oa ftut/en^t. 
Till E*r()Tideacc piulcd huw to Jump nn' mvc Uie moti cxpontc." 

(iU^iavi I'apert, U., p. 07.) 

are emphatically men who, as he elsewhere statps, " belicTP, 

DndaluB, the primal gitttr-oti-thn-fencf, that medium tenere 

Mtimum." {liigJoiv Paptrs, II., p. 85.) Politicians of chig class 

iiaid to be fn'iict-mtu, being cautious men, who wait to see on 

ijcli side victory will declare iteelf. to jnmp down and join in 

iti of the winning (larly : and while the stari> of uncertainty 

ey are said lo he faiee-ruUng. '' We shull give the mi- 

ht)' 00 such right to Impi^de legislation," said the leader of tlio 

! y on tlie floor of Congi'es*. during nn angry debaio 

iiiq; " this tjneBtiun in one -jf ck'ar riyhl. and wi-ong, 

["{hwB can be no pnce-riding. when the rights of four milliona 

men un- at etakv." {CongretsionaJ Qhbe, July 17, 1868.) 




Although tbese Tencps are, in moei cases, mado of rails^ to n'Aj 
the fence \% a very different thing from riding on a rait. 
latter U a eavage punishment inflicted bj an (fjccited crowd i| 
a peraou who has exasperttted a community by some r^ orl 
outrage ; he is placed upon the sharp edge of a rail, and thui] 
oil the shoalders of his enc■mi[•^j thrgngh tho village? tx> a 
even worse fntc. For it is frequently only the beginning 
punislimunt oSlun reported lui sigiiiHc^itive oT American inveatij 
'barbarity — the Tarring and />(i/A#rfV/ of offenders. So far 1 
being bom hert-, it is an old English cnBtom, brought toaj' 
the early eettlera from their own home For in the \am% i 
Ordinances appointed by King Riehard I., for the uaoof hisi 
t-ccciu-s this sentence as quoted in Hakluyt (p. 7): " Item, a I 
'or a felon that hath stolen, being lawfully conricted, aball 
hJB head ehorne, and boyliug pitch powred over hi^ bta^i 
feathera or downe stpawfd upon the same, whereby he nayl 
knowen ; and so at the flrdt landing-plaoc they shall oome 
there to be cast up." The lesson has been well learnt, the pt 
tioe religiously bequeathed JVora generation to geucration, 
employed in Boston, as (rposc telU us, on persons suspectsd' 
convicted of loyalty, as it is, in our day, carried out on the 
of the Mississippi on criminals whom tJie law cannot or will i 

His cabin built and his lot fcuccd in, the new eotiltir prond 
for bis simple costume, which must be adapted to his driving 
plough or huuliug a '"painter." He liae, of course, his hkr-hk^ 
though in his case that, term hoa a very different moaningl 
that vliioli it bears when applied to an Indian; in the latter i 
the htanlctt represfnts the Redskins' general costume, which i 
be more thun ablanket or not, and hence the familiar espri'SSioDi 
the West, used with regard to a half-breed, that "hiu fatbrj 
his mother n-ore the blanket" As the island of Mackinaw 
formerly the chief post at which the Indians receired iheiV tiaai 
payments and prcBenls, jMirt of which, it was stipulated, 
Consisted of a superior kind of blanket, these became knows] 
Mackinaw blankets or ifackinatvs simply. Being very thick 
Well made, they servird not only for beds but also Ibr over 
which were ealled Wankel-Ccats.iixiii really answered their i«^* 
pose adniinvbly. A hunting-shirt, made of deerskin, and at"^ 


coTered witli IVmgcs and Btitchings, is his only costume Tor 
reasons and vsutborE, auil eo cmiueiiUy st-niccablo u to be , 
led by htmtprs,cxplurcr«,aiid travclU-rsgfuernlIy. The great' 
ider. General Fremont, was hence addrpesed by the poet 
ittier, wbcu lie was tbe candidate of the Anti-Slarery Parij 
^PiVfiideut, in these words: 

" Rise up, FnMnoDt t and go before I 
I'be hour must have its man ; 
Put on Ihc hutiNns^irt oaoe more, 
And lend In Freedom's rui !" 

el is his constant wear, th^ backwoodsmtui calls tbe 

linen which chance may supply lo him, and which he 

is a fumance beyond all othcns, tbe tiled shirt, bccanso — 

i r~it is occasionally boiled to be washed. The more usnal 

ii a checkered fabric of cotton, and goes by the &imp]e 

: of check*, to which Joha Hay alludeji, when he sings — 

" Hovr Jimmy Blitdsoa pnu'd iii Iiim cA^oU 
Tbe iiiKbt of die Pmlrie Belle." 

{Jim IMudMK of Va Prairie BtiU. ) 

I nether garments are his leggins — but rarely called leggings — 
P«Tfln W. In-ing wrote the word after the Scotch manner: 
icrs bad leggitis and moccasins of deerskin, and bnflhio robes, 
they tlifcw gracefully over their shoulders." {Astoria, l^ 
Ji>.) Every other article of dress, worn by men in and neor 
rns, comes under the gencnil designation of slore-clotkes, and is 
, of the r<*ach of the backwoodsman. 

pwo articloa only he must have of prime quality, for on thcae 

Dds his life: his axo and Ills rifle. Without the former he 

lot cut down trees and plant his corn ; without the latter ho 

uld starve, or soon succumb to his hereditary foe, the judiuu. 

' hardly knows a greater di3.npiK)intmcnt tlian if axe and handle 

. company, and thna he bus eriven to onr speech the favorit« 

»ti • til go or iojhj off the lidtuHf. If a fair lady loses her temper, 

nnC of nil. If she breaks the tender promise, she is said io/ty 

^tu handte, and tticdi£a]i|>ointmeat is as serious (o the unlucky 

as a lost ftie to many a settler. Tbe meaning is occaaion- 

ided Ix-yond that misfortune even, as when the New 

)ou Jmtnml speaks of a poor man having succeeded to a 


l:ir^^- fortune from a duUnt retativo, vrho " teeni off lh» i 
Jiaghmd rather aneipectedly." (July 31, 1BG7.) 

Hie rifle u, of course, more iruportant still, aud heace bel 
it vnth almoi^t tender affection, cleans and cAresE«.*8 it, audi 
of it AS a shooiinff-tron with that loving affcctioR which 
many a hnsbaud speak of the partner of his Joya and hit i 
as the " oM woman." Tbe more recent revolver, now qnitol 
mon in the West, is, ou ilie ulber Uand, hiu jftv or sir 
according to the number of barrels. Tlie rifle, also, has , 
our E{>ecch quite a number of terms and phrases fall uf iilrtuc 
meaning. Tlie muirod is familiarly called the gungthk, uml ' 
whole represented as lock, stock, and barrtt., which has com^ lol 
mean the whole of any important matter. " Take it all in ill'i 
said Colonel Ucnton, ''it is rott«n; /ocit, f^pc^, a/ii/ ^>urrW. ibtd) 
is not an inch of it sound, and the sooner we throw itawavtw 
better it will be for the nation." {Speech on the XatioHtd 7i uh) 
Good eight, and hence also fair judgment in osing the«u;iV''ai 
the rifle, arc, of course, indispensable in hunting as in u: 
hence the hind-sighl or notch in the hind-sight of a rifle jj-.- 
prominent part in hunters* language, Tcferring now to the 
of an animal, and then to the main argument of an oAvt 
Watchful observation is, in like manner, represented by the/ri 
j/er-eye, and a servant engaged to take care of a well-bred i 
" promised to keep his trty^er-eye ou the dog." (J. O. NeaU ( 
coai i^kefches, U., p. 17.) The old-fashioned j*rimin^, bo» 
longcr.known as in the days when breech-loaders, and tren; 
cussion locks, were still myths to the Iwwkwoodsmen, newri 
considert^d of much importance when compared with powderi 
ball, and llms thrt term camo. colluquially, to Ktand fur anyibSl 
of small import or vuJue. David Crockett thus said of ft 
foreign animals, that they " would be no jairt of a pritHiaf\ 
grizzly bearof the Hocky Mountains." (Adventureji, B.) In' 
lug slowly and cautiously aim, as is the custtHn of the Wo 
hunter, he gradually raises Uic front-sigbt, which resembli 
bead, lo a level with the hind-sight, and the moment the Iwol 
in a line he fires ; hence, to draio a bead, is with him eqnii 
to firing, and from him the expression has made its wayi^ 
DoUDC]uial speech. The man who attacks another in his 
is said to have drawn a head upon him. Two misfortunes i 



lliv hunUjr at this critiail ni<iiii-iit : t iw*'', oi»'t that 
iluru, tU« powder iu the pun mu> &Jifiiih Augtiat ,% 
tp go off. or he may huve f«rfOttMi lo ]mt UXt ""y crideiice. 
In the first ciiae the flaih in the pen prodna»tj_wI>etlicr 
tu a fiizlff encli as wet pouiier ul^o is apt ic cmiv^ TTT/lA-, 
ibuut«r*£ riiilure^ iliv won! liu borouiK li gf-nenU Urm far nny 
ikuluui railnru afivr a great eQbrl. " Ttw' spc«ch was m oom- 
u Jizile," said the A'atmial InUUigtmtr, " u biM «v«r dis- 
-s, and vc hope fiinr^-rely tho lionorablA Ri(!ml«r 
.L:..„j.__.Lidelu will lako the le^sou to heart/' (De?: 8, IWl.) 
wo^Qtly a lottery was att*>niptud in Virginia Tor a moet 
]e pnrpiMC and the uDfitness of eomu niuuagers, uud the 
iomtttT of oUiers, brought about a cwinpleU- failure, "Ihe en- 
^fiizledout iu the moat contomptiblo manner.*' (Richmond 
Sept. 17, 1866.) Hciicc failures in Collfgn recitatione 
Xe^^iilea. {Yi.a.\\'i Colitye Worda.) The oth^phras^', to 
iitjf AtiV/'-c.-iK'jl'. Uas familiar toEngiish eporUrnvn as tuourhuut' 
The \fiTmplutnbiXHir0t on the contrary, is a peculiar WcjiU-m 
expressive of » crack shot at a shooting match, though 
only the word is written plum only. " Plum in the ficntre eanii 
Ithoota." { Life in the Far West, '^.W^.) The fact that ou such 
ja« the improrised target is not unfrequcntly a rag hung 
push, has suggMcd to Professor S. S. Haldcmaa the thought 
!ie Cimiliiir phraae : "That takes //« rag eg the buthf" mi\y 
I likewise originat{>d from the use of tho rifle iu the hands of 
iWett^m hiint'er. The latterly uotapt to miss; the man who 
lurk a squirrel, that is, as Mr. Audubon told us firat, strike 
• rifl'-ball the bark on the upper side of a branch on which 
le auiiiial «t3, with such accuracy that the conciiMionkilU 
loot inflicting the slightest injury, that man never wastea 
ipoudtT nor atlempts the impuK.sih[c. 
And vet to the inexpcnt^nced eye of the European traveller, 
iw»cns to attempt an apparent impossibility, when he oSvn to 
-rrta* ■!■ othur animal. An iixpcrt Western hnntcr ahoota a 

'; a horse that is to he captured — eo caiitioit.ily, that 
ball cntd tha akin at a precine spot of the upper port of tiie 
' ; .ntly drops down and remains quiet and 
- . d : " Wt) were so much afraid of sh&oting 
p«i of our kioO. lioctcis t^t we urujoined Fraa^ois to creatt 

liirgo'fortnne fi^ Jeer; for we stooA sadly in n**i flf 

Kng!:md nither nj; left not a single trace of a human 
Uis rifle is^^^ all wound ns." { Travd* in Canada, 

it Willi aJky deer had been the lady's pet, the hniiter would] 
iRtmitlud, in his graphic language, that he \xaA fired into the i 
ftocic — a plirase which hta aUo crept into every-4Ujr laugu^i 
df-notos a mistake made in the effort to OTWComc an adi 
" When Mr. Saulsburj- rose and called the Speaktr's attent 
the alleged blunder in the Sccretary'e report, his own 

jumiied up iu great excitement and pnllcd hira dowu; he 
iouud out Lbafc he bad fired into tht wrong fiock" (Nevr 
Utrald, November 9. 1858.) 

Among the favorite amnscmonts of "Western men arv* iiatt 
trials of skill with thtir rifles. Atone time they will l»et on 
ing Ike tiaiJ. A stmit nail ts driven into a poet abont h^f-wsri 
to thohead; the riQemcu tlien stand at a great distance and I 
the nsil, the object being to hit the nail go traly on the head ' 
the ball as to drive it home. At nnoth^^r time it i« fhreadiligi 
ncadle ; an anger-hole is pierced through the centre of an nf 
board, just large enough to allow the ball to pass, and thel 
miirksman is he who drivcB his ball through withont ei 
the opening! 

The new settler who ventures into new lands, soon (ind* thitl 
has disagreeable neighbors. The Indians, whether on theiroi 
limnting-gronntls or on their reservations, have not all yrt_ 
gotten their old enmity against the intrudcre, and ov«i hi 
many a scalp was yet li/ied from whites. Hence, his Iftuj 
full of allusions to Indians and Indian warfare, and as thol 
is nearly as old as the cclonization of the land^ many of ' 
terms have become incorporated in our speech. Oflution w*1 
from the time of the first sctLlements, so necesBnry a qsi 
among frontiersmen, and ia still so requisite, however litf ti*] 
frontier may be removed westward, that it has given us. in OO^j 
ncction with the national character of Northern men, an intei 
American phrase. To Be a caution, means, to be a wurniag. 
niarrol, a Ertupendoiis thing. "The way in which he pitclied 
them t«(« (I cauiion, I tell yon," says the reporter of Mr. Wad 
Phillips* speech, at a r*oeut meeting in Wurcester. "SlrangW" 
said Tom Nye, in California SkticheSj " look a-here, and 



vliar did joa ever see sucb guM ? Comt^r now, am'/ tJiat 

tufion, 1 flie you ?" (San Francisco Bulletin, August 5, 

.J Tht; W^ of tlie Western mau in, ordinarily, auy cviJvuoc, 

apoD tlie prairie«or in the woods, of the appearance, whether 

It or noi, of (uiimals or m«n. If the mai-ks appear recent, 

make what is wilifd ih/resh sign, if thoy uro old, an ofd sign. 

lis ira£ the plaoo where some fn-i-h bearer signs bad attracted 

notice." (Life in the Far West, \i, 127.) But of ull these 

Ihc often almost imperceptible Indian nign \% most anx- 

sd for, and moat carefnlly studied. To |x-ri;cMTc Ihfiii 

XKUmaii says, iti \\\a higli-llonu language,. you muse kvep 

irfjTM nkinntd; "i-eep your eyes jtftled or your cges sJetntied for 

(American Humor. Vol. 11^ B.) The rvgulai- footpath of 

ttidiaii, who alwayj) goe'S single so as to leave but one mnn'fl 

ep9 as a tigitj is his trail; th« word is as old as tlakluyt, 

ko ipcaks of " many wnyes traJed by wilde hcantes/' btit the 

Lial apph'caliou id purrly AmtTican. Hunt*;™ nest aihipted 

term for their uwu paths through tliv t'urests, and Ibr the 

nf animalK, till llnally it hvcame iu the Wo&t the geoi-ral 

M for uny and evvry kind of rojul. "in consequence of the 

knipt sides of chu crtfion, wUioh niadr: out toward the lake, it 

>mes m-oi'ssary to seek, at limes, a iraiJ within the hills." ( Oror- 

ul Monthly, Aug., 1870.) Of a lonely miner's hut wc arc told 

F. H. Harir, that *' the only onilet was a steep trait over (he 

kouuii of a hill that faced the cabin," {Luck of Roarimj Camp, 

^^,) fnr, iu California the word is now in common nac for nwd 

! path- Woe is iho single ladiau that is suddenly met, in time 

warfare, by the enraged backwoodsman i He is instantly shot, 

in this ca«e doea not, aa iu ordinary life, eiinply mean shot 

killed. For it is, perhaps, the effect of the American's 

iiy with shooting-weaiKins that he loiea to eay ha shot a, 

when he, perhaps, only wonudcd him slightly. F. R. Hiirtc, 

i, speaks very carefully of '* the day that French Pet*; and 

Joe it/wt each other to death over the bar iu the front 

{Luek of Roarin-j Camp, p. i.) The Wtstt-m man 

It lues ihe word, but ho is quite rich in 6»l>*litutca. Kume- 

h< preft-ra an Knglish alau^ word, Kud to be derived Irom 

lion of " ■ ihe names of frieuda on the «lote or 

liit (.^ Ttj, p. ilU), witii a novel aud some- 



what nwrul upplicKiian : " Rubbed out at hit, tliey beard liiiD a; 
ihv ivurile gurgling in bis lilood-fiUi-d tbroat. aud ou^ami; 
eyes ouoe murv. mid liK)king upward to tako :' 
bright suu, be liirutid geiitlv ou bis side aud < 
{Life in the Far Weai.) Tben o^n lie will borrow a pbnu* : 
tavci-n-Iirf, where aoores of dfhtoni are c)ialk(»l on door 
ahiitU-re, and wiped out whou wtlU-d by puTQienc dioit run-lj 
by grim Death. Its primary loMvuiag has uut yet disaf 
and H recent p<»em, " Doblis liis Ferry,'' said quaintly, in cot 
ing of the cluuige of old Indian nuwes ioto nioden^ numt 

" DowD Ihvrc, oa uld MftuItatUui. 

Where laud«k%rlu tbrivc snd &U«n, 

TlicyVe vip*d oui Tub'jy Hook. 

TbU ftmoiH pcuaiuntuo', 
• • • • • 

Slaads, newly ebrbteDnl, lowiiot]." 

iPutnam't HagatiM, Juiimut-, ISM.) 

Bat from the hanter'H lips it mcana notbiiig I«£6 than death. ** If I 
Arnipabo«« will not keep the iTeatj," saye ii recent report 
to the Indian liurfan in Wasbinglon, "the nud 
unaniinoiiHly aaguro ud the whole tnbo trltl Xt^ wipett out \a 
utbvr st-usitu. We louk furward with some aiixiety to tlic 
appearance of grass atid tbe renewal of liusti lilies." (Jaunaty 1} 
ISTl.) In CaUforuia, iUe buuUT is, perbapv. more likely to 
snujfed out, and tbns explnine Lbe un^m of the pbruse, 
thought that I was tired into by somo atraogwr. who w« 
a-takin' no liaiu), and rame near liaTtng my litfki 
some one unbcknuwn to me, is not h good though. : _ 
{Ov«ria»ff Afonfiih/, Maruli, 1871, p. »85.) A very odd wpr 
cftuflni^d, httwover, mainly to the mountaineorn in tbe 
imrtM of Ihe SonlhwePt, iu rjuiW expre^aire ; they nay tbcy 
mau up (irven Stiver, when tbey have killed him. The phra* 
had it« origin in a once fumou* fact^iry on Green ItiTer. wbew] 
en|(eriur kind of large knife wju made, very popular anjcng himti 
and imppera. On the blade I lie words ''Green iliiiT Wurk«' 
euginived. ami honeo the mountaineers, using tbe knife lo d 
bj)u.tcb an adversary, literally sent bis blood up Oretn Hiver. 
It is a Btriking illuslrauon of the detitragtive pgirtu* uf «liia] 




:e poetioil und ptuua plirase /o jn> vp has rec«ntlj' beeu 
ly mixed up with tlip altfiird exprcMioii to go xtp the 
lose ite force and churat-rer. Of old, to go up meant to 
Q> a meaning ladtcrouaty illustmtcd by a tutnbstooe in 
loia, on whicb, above the iinme of the dea-usod, a hand 
kveuwanl, and tliti wordi: Hone up! wore added. 
iful and exprcRsivc epitaph, once no doubt deeply 
all who read it, would now only provolce langbter or 
pon as bbisphcniou& 

e interesting to notice how another popular Western 
ieatb — to go under — evideoitly repivsents in tbt- In- 
t from whom it is borrowed, ihe eamB pi-ocesa of 
s in the Oernian's mind, n-ho n^ea ihe same word 
or pi-rish, nrhether the figure be Uikcn from the ve«9c], 
y goes under, or from ihe body thnt is put " under the 
ley are apt to coll it in Ihe West, or, finally, from the 
simple notion of being under the Itnee of his coti- 
) fundamental idea reniains the same. "Poor Hawk- 
y« one of his biographers, "that his time had come, 
ig that he must t/o utuler sooner or later, be deter^ 
'11 liis life dearly." {///iiulctye, ifie Iowa Chi^, p. 210.) 
latem man hunts by water, he is not ntwnya .ible to pro- 
t witli u canoe ; often be must hu content with a simple 
sb aa i» even now frequently seen on small creeks of 
IS well as the West It is nothing more than a Urge 
dordngoni; hut the skill with which the Western 
inadiau voyagetirs (who call them duff mnoes) will maa- 
-ude bosU, in aftonishing. ThL- K<*v. Mr. Cartwright 
Far West, very often to travel by water, and says : " If 
we got a Hug-out or canoe to cross in otirselves and 
orses by, it wasquitea treat." {Autobiography, p. -188.) 
ted by a paddle, and when well built apt to be as swiA 

u-fare against the Indians, tbc frontieraman has inhcr- 
lis predecessors for many gencraliona a term which at 
ridiculously unlike itn true meaning. The Red men ho 
loasts of having saved. "1 uklculatc, Mr. llossifer 
»y8 an old Western trapper, •' that war the moat deci- 
most sanguinariest fight you ever seen in nil your 



born day*. We boys, v.e np and pitclied in thar, and we giT 
yaUer belliet the most parttcnlar Hail Cohimbv. W* cli»i 
all np; vo laid nm out colder nor a w(^df;e; ire tavtd 
mother's son of nm~we did that tbar little thing, 
(Ool. Muwy'? Anny-Lifc on ihe Border.) Tlie orighit 
term must be eonght in the importance which early hant 
selllei'S aLtached to even a single load or powder aod 
times when the fMrtnt^t^s snbsisteRco and th^ laitfHii life dt 
on his ri0t>. Krery wounded animal that eseaped was |] 
wasted, mid lh'> Indiatt, whom he had iiiissi-d, was still 
nbout to take his revenge. Only what was killed was nattf I 
How the phniee hns made its way into our speerh niayWI 
from the boast of a reuowaed duellist, a Texan jadge, wboi 
"I have shot throe men, and two of Ihem I aatnl.'^ 

In the Par West the settler is, to this day, asked wheihff I 
going out to hunt for meat, for skins, or for scalps. Any kl 
animal food is to him meat — commonly pronounced malt—i 
he earns by his rifle alone. Bear-meat and Hrer-tufat all 
with wild tni-key — the term veniwn is hui-dly known in iht] 
Bcar-mmi is qiiite popukr with liim, and, if he can 
choice, he is sure to prefer gritzly-meof, as he briefly 
all others. The Grixtly Bear, iiecnliar to America, bn 
nately a very wide range all abont the base of iho Kocky! 
tains, where liia favorite food, tlic buQolo, is to be fonnd. 
ers do not iiesilute to attack him single-handed, formidablt 
is, to get ftis meat, which is so highly esteemed that it 
found even at the eating-houses of Ban FmneiBeo. Tht 
grhzltf, commonly misnndcratood as denoting a pecnliar 
nothing more than the old English gridy, meaning aglr,' 
grise, which once was a name of swine. Mr. Groto ex\ 
meaning also u mixture of black and white or gray, uid III 
Tery natnral error. When young they ai-e easily tamed, 
P. B. ITarte introdncps a young Califoimian ladv whn 
the door and disclosed u lialf-groii*n gn'irly, who iustautlj : 
himself on his hnuncheft, with his forepaws hanging dowoi 
popalar attitude of mendicaula." (Luck of Roaring Camp,f>\ 

Stiee/j-meai, as mutton is tmlled. is ^rj' rare in the Far We 
deer-mtat has a di-awback not generaily known : " It is a i 
meat when eaten with other viands, but it is a remarkuMe ' 



«*Iu«ive diet of deer-meat it will llnallT rease to affoiVI nny 
ir^.und a person thus living, will present the phenomenon 
starratioQ. ProntierstQen have been found in Tckos in 
stages of exhaustion, wan. shrivi-lled, and ut the point of 
,irho had hpon reduced to this condition while there wa« 
]trovision of ronUon in the camp." (R B. Thorpe.) 
chevaj toucliingly aays of Ilia own childhood: "The lean 
and the bn-ust of wild tnrkeya wo were tanght to call 
and Ihi* flceh of the Iwar was called vicai. This arliflci* 
socoeed vftry well, for after living in this way some time 
J8 sickly, tbc stomach seeming to bo always empty and 
itrd with a wnse of hunfjcr. How delicious wna the taste 
firit young potatoes' what a jubilee when we were per- 
to pull tile yonDg com for roatting-tara } Still rooro so, 
it had aequired sufficient hardness to he made \nXo juhuny- 
■ by the aid of a tin gnitcr. We then became healthy, vigor- 
id cuntenied with oar situation, jHior as it was." {Hint, of 
p/ VirairiM, p. 214.) The wild turkey has given rise 
lyfal phra«e, originating from a sly white man, who thus 
to divide S[»oiIs with his fellow Indian hnntcr: "Now, 
I have the turkey and yon have the crow, or you hare 
cmw and I the turkey, just which you like." " TTgh," said 
'yon no talk turkey to me at all." (Boston Paily 
<; Uecemtier 6, 1871.) To Ibis day an unfair division 
want of boflpitality, especially in the South, is chamcterized 
bl.imtrd persona '^ never Mying turkey onec." If he hunts 
ins, he is Vnown as a Trapper, from the traps he sets to 
animals with mlnable furs. The ideal trapper, familiar to 
the shape of Cooper'a Leatherxtocking, never existed in 
he is rare even now, having been driven from the so- 
rt to snaring and capturing his game in the Rocky 
.n region. "The majority of trappers of the present day 
wr Canadian-French or half-breeds (French and IniUan) 
th. Tbry now (hid thrirfiuarry in Dakota, Montana, Idaho, 
igton,and Oregon, in the Ked River rvgion, British Colum- 
and Vancoover Island. They are active, i«iiient nndcr toil, 
md hnrdsliip, versed in all the mysteries of woodcraft 
irts of the trapper, ingeniona and twW of expedients, 
cbtrons and reckless in their expend ituh'S, liclpful aud kiiid* 
{AppMon'K Journaij April I, 1871.) 


In trapping, he uaes the usaiil varie^ of timpc, 
he calls the deatlfatl. bocanse il kills tlic game. It is an 
made of a heary pinuk with one edge beld up bj what ta 
caUlv c«Ued FUjun Four trap-sticks — tlirec sticks amuigw 
brgi: figurfl ♦. ■* I kiiow'd it woald be easy to catch one b 
ing a deadfaii." (Mra. Trail, The ('auadian VruMt, 
**Thp raost beautirul notions are all lost Tor want of at 
intPllcotual Figgerif Four." (J. 0. Keal's Vharttml SktUk 
Se.) If tho hunter in oat after scalp, )te calU ii 
haif' A more innoci^nt gport, which plays a proi,: 
Western life, is thu hunting of bees. The hie-hunttr^m 
calk-d, catches a In-e in a little box with aome honey in 
bee, firat atnrmcd, and stru^ling bard to go out. soon Cdi« 
Bniell of iioney, forgets itv wiptivity, iind. like u tnie Yank 
tliey all onme fVom NVw Fngland — detL-nnined to mako U 
of every mifihap, falls to, taking ita OIL The box is then 
upon aatampor ruck, the lid gently withdrawn, and the 
steps aside to 8c« tho bee take ]t« ilight, which it dut-s inab 
minute, that is, ns soon as it is filled with honey. Hisiiif 
feet in the air, it circles nround two or three tiiues, taj 
bearinga, and slrikes n fiee-Z/Hc for home. Thepnrettitol 
to Jt« hive in a distant tree is called tiuinff bees, and coui 
valuahle oocomplishment Ibroughout the We^i:. Hrnee 
Kendall de«orihe8 a man thus: "The Indiuu he could i 
vent and ontmanccuvre at bis own games, and at killiq 
kind of animal known in the woods or on the \ymi 
lisliiug and at /i>it>^ bees, the oldest and best hnnten u 
edg^d Tom's supremacy." {Santa Pe EjpedUiott, L, p. 33). 
thi! familiar term of bec-Une for any direct line from place t 
such as the bee ehooses to return home. " Now yon mak> ' 
says B hnuler in Sctnex from the Fur \Ve*i, "and strike a 
for home, or if ever I ciilch you in these digging ogm. yoi; 
git homo any more, that's all." (p. 'iU.) "The boy, tn 
his fiioc nnd hands with a little tar, diluted with sweet oi 
a i/ee-liue for the iii)perend of thu meadow."' {Puina'n'* Mi 
July, 1870.) A rich gtoi-u of hou«y is often found in bollv 
among which the bee seems to prefer the guiu-irees (Liiini 
atyrffliflna), which grow to a lai^ size both in swamps 
•1^7 woods. It has its name &om the fact that tha b 

rax ou£Ai wasT. 


iea in aamoicr. distiU a fluid gum or rcein iu very smfttl 
itj» wliic'* li*o nu »grwttl>W fragrauM, JiiiJ is oflen chewed 
I SoQtb. If the tree should bo hoUov, it i^ called h bee-lrfs. 
fptutcKuce of the booa has led to a curious proccBS of rcLalia- 
The large but short-Iired trees, whwu thc,v once begiu to 
,100a become hollow, decaying at the heart aad leaving a 
ftOcn« fvw iuch(<8 in thickncu. Then they aiv cue in con- 
It lengths to make casks, and among other hoUoir-ware also 
es; henoe the latti^r are (re*]uent\y aiili^d If e-t^ums or ffuma 
fumlBhiug the cuptivc bt^-s the game humo they I'hose in 
tm woods. Thti fruit of the bce-hnnier'e skill is highly u^ 
in his lonely cabin ^rhere 8we«t8 are not abondaut, and 
Ce honty is a favorite word in the backwoods for real or verbal 
tuieis. A ludicn^us application of iho terra was found in an 
ment in a Tnscalooea newspaper : " Notice. Persons in- 
to the Tueoaiooisa buoksturo an* n-^M^ctfully solicit^ to 
r but year's occoant forliiwith. It is of no use to honey ; 
C< muBt be made nt Iea6t once a year or I shall run down 
the heels. I hare not spare change enough to buy uiyBclf a 
or a ]iair of breeoliea. My wife is now actually engaged in 
Xkg an old pair wrongeide-out, and trying to make a now 
out of two old ones. Com?, como, pay up, my fi-iends! 
■acoin thi" family, and enaltle mo to wear my breeches risbt- 
!" (S-'ptemberSlat, 18J0.) But the wural use of the sweet 
M probably made iu tlie furmaliouof Ao»«y-/H«jr/<i,in the 
of flwiiidling or cheatiug^. 3[r. Bartlett suggests that the 
uaword may bare \X» origin in the Lancashire cone<j'fogliH0, 
oed by HalHwell, as meaning to lay plou. It was long 
d to Louidiona and Kentucky, then went to the Great 
it( and with tlio gcni'nil udrani.-n of rolluument has fotmd a 
;-pUci) in tbo lips of Colonel Susan B. Anthony — us West- 
uall her in udmiratiou of h^r uouragu — who uses 
ijr/t'n^ for " kissing,*' iu her lectures on Women's Rights, 
is Honey- FufiUng {sic) J'' asks a WTiter in Harper's 
/, and ri't'i-'ivcs thf aDSwer: '• It is cutting it too fuL ovt-i- 
;"« cuggestiye if nut Tury clear exphtnation. (July, \^m.) 
idnirsa of iYitii-x ihin^j has led to tlio curious expression 
iiu an uii])]<:-iisitnc task or occnpatioii. As the English 
U said Lo be "aweet" on his hidy-love, eo the Texas youth 



Kours on the b«atity that vill not lUten to his addwau, nij 
mau who abandons hie plantations to take np Bome other ! 
iiCKS, is tiiiU i« have "soured on iihintiiig." 

The backwoods maa finds st home, besides honey, thclMff^ 
short rmeeteninq, peculiar to the Wcsl ; th« former repr 
mohusee* as in the early days of the colonies moloisei imf 
into New England from the West Indies was known by 
Dfune ; the latter meaning stort-imi/ar, or isiignr made Trom ibti 
For the settler has also tre«-»uffar made from the ungar-n 
a» it is called (Acer sacehariniim), and is ajit, when bis hniil 
old one, to own quite a stt^ar'Orchtird, t- e., a collection «f 
treos, preserved and watched over in the fore»l, from wfcU 
derives the necessary snpply. A mere clnmp of such mt* 
his house he is disposed to call only a augar-camp. Sngn 
during which the eap oullccted in large vcsBela is boiled 
the still wintry woods, amid mucb mernment and innooent i 
are common fmm Vermont down to Western Virginia, wk 
the noble tree vriW grow that gives its sweet blood to m«; 
the gatherings of young people in the beantifnl groves todtl 
warm sugiir are pi-sctically but very prosaically called sttgar-i 
Even the verb to sugar off is derived from the cnstoni of ' 
np the sugaring at u certain period, that is. of stoppiDel 
making of fiiigsr from the trees for the brief season during •! 
alone tliey furnish (liat delectable sweet called /reti-vnila*f»*. 
latter enables his thrifty housewife, who is, however, alwaysa"! 
to make him a plentiful snpply of sarves, as he invariably 
the prescnros, of which all Western men are said to be 
liorly fond — no donbt from the natural instinct which m 
them choose saccharine substances as an oifwt to the 
qooutities of fat and meat they consnme. This sweet 
has evidently been carried to the West IVom the first 
of the East, for even there still lingers a tendency to prcf^ 
and preserves to bread and meat, and sugar is u term ns«d,j 
honey in other conntrios, for n11 that is sweet in taste. aff<-> 
— woulth. To sugar off is one of those eipressions the thoni 
bred Yankee rolls as a sweet morsel under his tongue when 
ing uf a large fortune or a rich inheritance. Thns we find Ul 
recent notice of the Iiumorons author: "Josh Billings, whoi 
of a wealthy family^Shaws of Lancsborough in Massachn 

tSa QUBAT W£S1-. 


Is estimated Chat bis estate would guffor off, us tbey fay in 

It, oljoal ♦200,000. Joslniii is now about fifty years old, 

)uiKl-sbouldere<l,fln(i an wldily, always carrying nbout on hU 

an expression iodescribnbly ludicrons." {Harptt(» BataTt 

13, isri.) 

back'wood am tin's tal)!i; in otliei'wiae very moitcft, and knows 
i?cn)iur dishes stive the very simplest Cold fiour, its he ca1]s 
Itt delicucy. though it ooiisiet^ but of purch«d sirL pulverized 
Hti com mixe<t with aujcar; a few gpooiifuls are gtinvd in a 
cup with wat*r, and malto a jjood mcfll when other food is no* 
se had. On thp Texan trail traveUePS are very apt to provide 
BiKlTra with this compodiid, making it moiv palatable by tlio 
ition of spicea; in this form it ajuvara iw pijioie in alt tliu 
ions where Spnuish ueod to be spoken. His daily fare in 
Heated 08 common doirty«,a term which is trttnsforrwt from 
t'lin to the great marls of tho West, and then denntea any 
,: . imnBOctioB in contrast with those that m-e very hirge or 

B profitable. " What shull we do ? " says a poor firoatiers- 
', whou she hears of a Fedenil officer who is to take np 
re at litr cabin for a day; ** I can't give him eoinmon 
^ T And thar Jim's gone sway and I can't send liim over to 
n vrifo, or I migflit get up some chichen-juexngfi for him-" 
Bbe) Manty, A nit tj- Life on ihr fior//pr, ji. 117.) If the latter 
I, highly oateemed all over the West aud South as a delicacy 
grciat occaf iou8, or a turkey, come to tbo table, they »>*e sure to 
iccompanied with piles of stnffeninij, as the ustial stuffing of 

fand iwme relish is caUed in the fnllnewt of WBat^ni speech. 
• cnrious term is connccttid with th« fondness of Western 
ir coffee and tea: " I take my (en imrfont, paid a Imckwoods- 
rhen asked if ho would take cream and sugar." umng as 
Low^ell observef, in this very novel signilk-atiun mi old 
Lgliih t«rm, ■written in preciwly the same manner in the Coven- 
rPlaya. Lean meat he calls, in the same brief manner, simply 
Wr-rfoff, without regni-d to the animal from which it was obtained. 
Good-natured, aud even kimi-ht-arted. as tlic backwoodsman 
ISwtally IB, his language is full of citrvme woi-d« and eecL-ntrio 
liiucs, which do not always juBtire to hi« ival ehnraoter. Hla 
lilMy life, howevor, begets not only sturdy independvuce, hue 
lutier disregard of mere conventionalities, and the ixmgh life 



be must needs lead in coDStant strifi^ with natar> 'hi 

oloinunLs of Ihesuil, swiu makKH its irapn^sa npoo ^..- 

Maaf a pecatiur term ii, of coDree, taken bore^ u iu et 

^IcstuDU juid special pui-gull uf lifu, from the objects 

iVilh which he is raont fumilur. Uc teorks liite iwcWtj 
flaring BO only follows the uange catahlished long ago, furj 
ia 1747 thvro appeared iu the Boston RrhearMl iho fol 
advertisement : " Tu besuld by the printer of thiH ]ixp<:r, Uioi 
hvit uvjiro iu this lowu i h us he4uri)' as a hurse, its brisk lual 
and will ic0rk like a beaver" The phfaxc- htm iKfCorae 
property, and hence we find that '* The Kiuliotls tcorli 
heaven, bui they were so fiir outnombei'ed, tliut I she 
wonder if the Pcmocrucy got at Inui half the voien at thitj 
(Savauuah UepubUcan, Nor. 14. 1870.) On the other hi 

rXngUfh uacuf fioaifr for a hat has entirely < 
'gosgamer," or, in modem along, "gosa/'wi. 
used iu iho South and among old-fitshioncd people The 
tret (Maguuli;! ^'lauca), ia so culk'd iu tiie West, while 1 
is more gouerally known as Casi&r-ire«f iu cither case 
Jact that the ieavtrs (Castor americanus) use the hark ac 
the wood for their heatter-tlamt. The great importance 
crop of gross has foi' all stook-raiscrs and the Indians, whc 
life depends ou the buflUloeii Huding fo<jd and their horses { 
has lod to the use of the peculiar phrase iu which the yoi 
is DO longer a boy and not yet a man, is pioturesquely 

\1ttiwten (froju atid hay. The fire made in the woods 
irgo log# piled one upon another, and hence iu the West ^ 
huiU, and very rarely inarte aa elaowhere. The raccooo 
rh^ suggv«tivu idea of a oon's agi^ for a long time, and 
coon iiisteiid of tlie English phnise, " tt gOuo goose.'' Tl 
M.r. Giddiugs said, on tlic floor of Congress, in 1845, " Ilesidsi| 
acquisition uf (?Hnud», which is put dotm on all sides aa^ 
coon, other brilliant results are to ensue from the 
Canada." The luuuntuinecr is apt to modify the phi 
his fa^'orite animal, and speaks of a ruined person as u j/sti 
The buck suggests to the huut«r tliu idm of being Atf« 

■ buc!c, and makes him speak of buck ai/ne, or b\uL >v| 

wiahtw to describe the uervoris ngitntion of tli' 
sportsman ; so that U. W. Kendall wrote: "Tbcre ii a veryi 

preralent amoDg joungand inexperienced hnnters in 
which is knovrn as the tuck ague." (Santa Fi Expedifiun, 
lytSl.) 'I'ho buckfiy i% the insect which plsfiueg the d^**r at 
B*eaaon«, m as not unfrequcntly to drive them from their 
B frt.iiiis-Efronnil; b'.it whether the buck n^gro obtains his 
Ks a niftle-iu'gro or from the general meaning; of hich aa s 
5 term for strong or lusty, i» not m evident. " Orie« of: there 
ipl vcTv heard, as the skirmishei-a advanced, and a big buck 
pwaa found in a hollftw laying (jmV;) on Ma ffioe, playing 
un, and he actually allowed himself to be turned over on the 
and kicked several times before he would acknowledge that 

alive." (Nashville Banner, January 8, 1871.) 
^raccoon's fiivorite resort, thcgnm-trce, fiirnishca him with 
flgnre of speech. This tree, the Sweet Gum, aa it is com- 
llod. grows up Torv tall, and hegina to spread its braiichos 
.a great height from the ground, a feature which makes it 
of refuge for opossums na well m raceoous. when they 
\y pnrsned. Dp there in his leafy retreat the animal is 
from dog and hunter alike, and frequently defies all their 
This is what the Wesl'^ni man calls enming the gum- 
id he applies the phmse with great shrewdness and force 
fcase iu daily life in which he thinks he sees a desire to 
;h him by concealment '"You can't comn that f/uyii-gattut 
any mon-," fays a Kanea-i man to a squatter, whose farm 
Lo purchase, when the latter claims to have same ticti- 
9, " I've been to the Jaud-oQitse, and know all about the 
(Kansas City Advertiser, May 7, 18C9.) Thi- word is not 
to the Kasteru States, for J. R Lowell us<\s i). in the 
•* You can't /?um me, I tell ye now. and so you needn't 
iiglow Papers, U p. 135.) The old Englisli phrase, as 
a coot, quoted by Halliwell already as an '* old prover- 
ig," is quite at home on Wcatoru low grounds, and linds a 
Hon in the local exprc&sion, " he is a poor coot'' Of the 
enatorc is the expression, *'«/raijrA/ as a looa'slw;," in iillusion 
hepecnliar leg of the Northern Diver (Eolymbus glacial is), 
the cock's spur, not unfroqueutly.aa in England, supplied 
tateel spur, he derives tlie nse of heeltd, in the sense of armed 
padly weapons, and iu California, esppcially, a man giving 
, of a fight, is apt txt be asked: " Were both men lietkdf" 




Tb« tmrktf u to tbe Wfeten mn a foM/n-, a nflm* 
to ban bMB derind from chs verv peculiar noise 
proad bird wheo. BhatUng Iii« ejrct and beAtiag bifi «i 
daDcea Iik« a madman dd his bnutob* aad oalli for hifi 
oome and admire his out-spread tail and crimaoQ 
There ts a negro mdodj, familiar in Georgia, which in Uh : 
attempti to imitate thU yoddU — iho ooIt ftiaeiblo method, i^ 
been aid, of U^ikimg turkey jrei diaoorered : 

' Ok mm WUUara be gone to li^iialattir'. 
All ! cbocalngn, diocskiga, cIii>c«log I 
Youn; mm Jobo, he don« comn home trom college, 
Ab I cbocab^k, chuealoga, cbocalog T 

A honticr in tb« For W«st «rit«a: " [ had gone some fiflj 
ap the fork, when 1 saw one of the fjobbl^s p«rcbtd, wit! 
bearded breast to me, npou a uotizontal limb of an vnU^ 
eaij shot.** <Ruxtao, Advmtmrtu in the iVesl, p. 317.) 
brought b»ck with ila stock of old aod caut terms alM ibs ' 
ga^iny v/'. instead of " taking from tbo cuemyr a niettaiai 
riTcd from the voracity which is generally oonieyed by gobt 
A oorre«p<^ndcntof the Chieaf^o Er4:ning Pout is credited witt 
first experiment; he wrote: "Kearly four bnndred prisoner*] 
gobhkd up after Uic light, and any quantity of ammnnition| 
provisionB." (Jnly, 1861.) 

Sven domestio auinuds appear in a new light in ibe Great ' 
and this gives rise to new meanings of fHmiliar terma. Cilifo 
for iufitaiicc, forms ita rast flooka of shc-cp into band*^ of 
a thoiuaud «ach, and employe henkra to tand ita talnahle 
The Tornier ia hence caUcd sherp- herder, and not 
canee tbe kcepiugof ttheepia eoniidercd unfit for tnti\i 
will own to it [ Formerly the work wa« dottc by Indians ; 
such immigrants aa were utterly nnabic by any exertion of 
own to earn a living; and finally the taak baa eome ilowri 
deqnsed ffnassrg ur " vagraDl miners, who gamble off ibdr 
as soon as they receive tbem, or runaway sailors from b'risK>,j 
ficU thuir blankeLs for a pillow-case of biscuits, and then 
days without eating unytbtng, or vagabond soldiers, wuoj 
asleep at their post and lei the coyotes pull awayasbrtp." (i _ 
kutd MMihiif, Frbnmry,ia?l, p. 142.) The Siooi-PigeontalsOfti 

r to English «sxs as to onra, exists here — and «ven in the 
I StatPA— fitill in both ita primni'y (tij^nincation and its 
Tc extension. In the former it means (iie pigeon> with its 
tehed np, fastcDed on a stool} which can bn moved np and 
ij tlio hidden fowler, an action vrhi(;b (^-iiiiies the hJrd to 

Qxioutilv. Tliis attracts ttie paeaiug llocksof wild pigeons, 

alight and are canght hy » net, which mtiy he sprung oter 

The fiworative stool-pigeon is, of cottree, only the decoj- 

another furm. 

3*y p«cntiar term, fall of iuetniction in showing the origin 
y similai- words, is the name of Mavfrick, used in Texas 
pmt« au unmarked j'eailing. It is derived from the lion. 

Maverick, of San Antonio, -who removed to Wcstera 

thirty yt^n ago, driving with him some thr»^ thou^nd 

f( mttl^T then the largest herd in all the cotrntry. He 

ilted A rn»p/ic, and placed ail old ne^-o there in cljurgROf 

tie, to mark, brand, and eee af'tvr them. Unfortnuat«ly 

was more given to the bottle than his bniiness, and, as a 

consequence; many a calf and colt went unmarked. The 
having ninch smaller herds, were very cai-efnl to mark 
ind every one of their calves during tlic early spring and 
r. The spring after the arrival of Mr. Marorick's large 
leae raneheroM noticed a number of iinraarked yearhngs, 
rell acquaintf-d with the habits of his stewaril, nalunilly 
ded thot they wore the new-comer's property, and Wl^iko 
them mtuferieks, so that the very ahsence of a mark luid 
ma token as evidence of hia ownership. As the number 
]e rapidly iucrcaeed, theru wei'e, of course, many unmarked 
1^ rnnuing about that belonged to other owners and wcro 
Bowii as sncli ; ncvcrtlivlesi the name chiug to every calf 

og or unmntilated cars, and to this day every yearling 
Dt a mark is a nmvcrict. Any owner of a large herd con- 
himeclf authorized to brand a viaverick which he finds on 
ir bis rnnche, and this operatioa is called iojtick a maverick. 
this process of marking or branding young cattle, so as to 
to whom it belongs, another term is closely connected, the 
<wn(erbran^ing : when marked cattle are sold the mark is 

iaaseoond time on the opposite side, thus destroying the 
it the original brand, and this process is called counter' 



Tb« crooked stiel- tbat vitl not fit into Ihe pile. b«oom«i 
lAniHar nickname of a cnMa<grAincd pemon who doea not 
aocietT, and hM, u soch, made its vay back n^n to tbe 
where it reappears in J. B. Lowell's Biglovf Papers tfans: 

" So as I •iai a entktd ttitk. Juat like, like old— XI siroir. 
1 dan'i know la I know Us oamo)— 111 go back \a tnjr plooclk" 

Snaktt, whom the backwoodemon hates for a good maea 
with intense bitteniess, furnish him with serenil grapbio 
sioD«. H« has his snab«-hnc^ and conntleM snakerooti, i 
to cure snakc-bitos, tmd mostly inherited from the lndiuti.1 
the filiwM «naJ(vr0o/(PolygaliiSeriGoa)Bt the North, to tbel 
ginm analvroot (Aristolochia sorpentaria) in the South, ou1 
which al- luast was known to the Kr«uch settlers as gerpenl" 
l^tutief, and is to thie dar looked npou as an infuUiblo 
The horror with which he discovers a snake — or nndcr n 
perhaps a whole so-called nest of snakcA, containing bat 
oloselv interlaced and hissing furionsly at the intrnder— hMi 
gested to him tbt; picturesque phrase of waking Bnake* 
double meauiug. In grim allosion to the wriggling, 
crowd of hideous creatures, he speaks of a peculiarly Doi^il 
terous frolic a« a tcaking of truxk**, such as J. R. T-Awell ref^n I 
Uie lines — 

" Tbis goto* wbrrr glory nwails re, hain't one agreeable ftvtni', 
Aitd if h wam't for iMixV iJuiJbM, I'd be hoiM agio sboct mem.* 

The other moaning is dcrired from the sennc of sndden 
excited by the discovery, and niakojJ iraking fnakes cqDiTiklt 
" running away qnickly," '* a highly probable result in a 
where a truvollpr obnut to whirl in the morning, is p 
Informed by the landloi-d, that there's a smart epnnkling of, 
annkes on Red Run, and a poworfnl nice day to satt 
Bclvea." (Carlton's The Ktw Pttrrkase. L, p. 83.) Not 
ago, negroes liring near the foot of the HIae Ridge would 
learo " to be gwin* wakin* gnakea-' for the professors of the Ui 
Tereity of Vii^inia, who wanted some eiwcially fine epeotmew 
rattlesnakes for friends abroad, or for the students, who had 
pittM agninst eorh other on the great lawn of the iustitntroBt 
lieai-tily enjoyed the terrific oonibota which tb* sankes w' 

mt flREAT WKST. 


ctimes for houra. Western men have a epecial dis- 

y indirect, underhand prore«!ilin^. and t-^rni fhem xunh- 

t even in politics u man is said to snakr, if he tries to 

adviLntAge by such iiifiuiMioe. On ihe orlier hand, 

means qaite as fWquentlr tu catch or to timw BWtfUy 

plact;. W. S. Mayo dusurlbi-s a struggle with an Iniiiua 

e mode a fi)riag at a rail-feoce, and I W tieve would havR 

it at the first jump, bur, just as ho ch-an-d th<- j^mmid I 

I the faooparonnd him and suaked him back, head oror 

g&thered himself like a frightened deer and cleared the 

( nexc jump, easy." {Katofdah. p. 17.) Major Downing, in 

jfr», usi's it ai a jHflitical (■(HTt, when hw i-a_vs tjf his great 

Deral Jackaon : '- We maktd him oat of tlic scrape as 

a whistle." (p. H.) Thio phrase, however, comes not 

from the snake itwif, but from Ihe nac which is made of 

0e to ttnake it ont, when appHc^d bv Bcttlora tc the drav- 

i>f stamps by means of a long chain. 

BTra railways cannot escapi^ the sntike. and hod in former 

ijke-/itadit, which constitnttd one of the most formidable 

in railway trarelling, has already been moutioued else- 

Bndcncy of all Americana to a»e high-e>jnndiiig words of 

meaning for comparatively small matters, is nowhere 

iy develofwd than In the West Here even smnU objects 

brought, but crowded, and fhua the Rev. Mr. Cartwiight 

i qiiiiintly: '• God Almighty croioded mt; inlu Ihe w«rld 

&d, and I think no more harm to enter Maesachiiectta 

ed, than for the Lord to bring me into the world without 

[Aiifo/thgrapiti/, p. ATA.) What elsewhere is great appears 

lotliiug less than ermK althongh here also hi- only follows 

Bpk set him by his early ancfstottf, siiiee Hakluyt already 

ed Uie wonl. Mr. Bnrtlett tollH the plwwsiiit efury of a 

O, having been (juite seriously iil, was usked by the phyei- 

o had culmcd the paroxysm, how he felt, and replied: 

Mor, I am powerful weak, but erufl easy." (Bi'dt'oHarif, 

On the otiior hiiiul, the Western man takes the much 

word c«w, and employs it where he wishes to express 

bat a curse, often eren affection. Thei-e is a tondiiag 

oMsCioncd in F. B. Hai't«*B Luch of Roariwj Camp^ 

where a rough, wicked miner, Kentnclc Joe, goes to ttt 
horn Imbr. and finding his finger cliitehed by the littlf 

brrake forth ccstaticiilly in the woitls : " Thp d d littke* 

rivttUd with nir finger I" holding that finger a littlo aputft 
fellows and exumining it curiously. Tho qucdtion is, wbMl 
term comes really from a vulgar pronnnciation of ritr«,l 
anthorities state, or is an nhbiVTiatlon of customer, vl 
primnry idea of what is frequently called u hndoran ugiya$k 
The latter theori- might be supported by the fact thai a au 
has already been stated, by no meaDS alvrays a mrw, and 
low, miserly person is Yery apt to be called a mean am, 
may be nothing more than n mean customer. This woaU 
eren to a case like the following, taken from th« NewC 
Picayune : " I hatl oft heard tell of Yankees, bnt newr 
what mmn cuMes they were, until I met a few of them at 
ington." Tiio tiouii cusstedness, also, is by no means aim] 
ill ntter condemDatioD- " He don« it out of pure nuta 
meana, of course, out of sheer wickedneM and malignity, i 
this Bcnne the Cor^nfry Plays already employ curai/dntstf, 
quite as frcqaently cusseilness is intended to convey the i 
resolntencsa and ohetinnte conmge, as in John Hay's 
of Jim Bludsoe of the Prairie Bell : 

" Tiirougb Ihe liot-bbieli broith of tlic bumin' boat 
Jim Bludsoe's voice wm heard. 
And tb«y all hnd Iriiat in hi* euuedtteu. 
Am! kuowed hv would keep liu wonl." 

Tlie term has even Iwen traced back to a French 
the fact that the mmo term is nsed in France. St. Simon < 
and confes««s it» usefnlaem. Speaking of the Abb6 Dub 
says: "Qui /;tait en pleiA ce q«*cii mnuTaig Franynis on i 
un sacre, mais qni nc Be pout g^^^re CTprimcr aiitrement." 

A fertilt* CLiuntry, like the western part of Illiuois. eonjo 
pietares of fut kine and at once receives th<- name of Effi/jA 
the productirenees of the soil, as the natiree say, bat, in Um 
ion of outsiders, from Ibe Eg^.'ptiau darkncsa prevailing 
This (mental) darkness is explained by the extreme ignorti 
hard-working, but also hard-drinking, low Germans, whi 
settled there, and found as predeoeseors oqIj a '^gTonnd-a 

tut OKBAT WXfiX. 


hhifWesSy Mid ignonmt ontcusta from Kcntuckyiuid TfnneB- 
RftilrOAda Mid itnmigTtitiaii liav« tiace entirely cfauiged tbe 
of iliin^, ati(i -Egypt c&ii 'boast of iDtetligeuce uow w well 
fertility. Besides sach apecial terms, the "flt'ost lovM iii? 
geDeraliy, and culls a wt'^-k an eternal time, » good oBicer 
lyA/y geueral. oad u spell of rain a^ evcrlaxiitig'lich^M, 
a teudeuc; to form gmduuUy a Comic Bible, which: is most 
to be de|>r»H-at-d. Whcr^ other men sipiplyetir, he livens 
wearetoldthai-Luficn'sfhtnorhasttucd to liven up the lire, 
itin?n aat don'o jf^r die lioy, vho, gnn in band, was bravely 
ig the enemy."' (Hivjhrr's JfottiJUtf, December, 1S70.) If 
to a friend he hoUows, und where a Northern man bui-ns 
a thing, the Southwestern huuttir "frtezet for buffalo- 
mo on taiti-doin's." (Uuxton's /ar Wat, B.) 
dency ia naturally incro^u^t^'d when drink comefl to its 
voodsman, working hard and having few amnsc- 
isinnlined tu liquor, as his forefathers long ago taught 
do, for J. H. I/)welI IhIU aa that he read in the Puritan 
.y: "Call 'em in and /tyiifor 'em a little." To Uquor-np \a 
n iraprurement. But of all the rare compounds known to 
btur-rooms, few AV^r reach his secluded home. Nor would 
'■' the bowitohiog softness of *' I-<ong Linksd Sweet- 
' ecfttocy prodaced by a'^Kiss me Quick" — he likes to 
a jtroDg and bot- He has not jet forgotten the ohi custom 
foro&ttherB, and takea a horn, iis thny called the stout Itorti- 
their tide ; and if it ia lUled to the brim with Old HtU-Eyey 
it all the better, for whiiikey is Wu favorite drink, and the 
etit marlu for its own by no means rare on the frontier 
Itod provisions and rtd-e*/e to botiL" ifi the refhiin of nmny a 
»ung, and if the latter is fiery and raw it is none the less 
'• Formerly rvm was the favorite, and largely produced 
KewEnghuid Statt-s. Tht> word itself, little known in the 
nf I he Union beyond Yonkt-edom, was bronght into 
e StaLes by Kaatorn trmpenin<;o lecturers, who often uao 
M poetic and objurgatory term, instead of the proper word, 
(rrofeesor ^. S. Hiilii(-inun.) The peculiar and by no 
pnpoesnsisg redness of facevhicU it is apt to produce, 
Iha note and gnidnally extending over the cheeks, is profcs- 
knniro aa rum^bud; white the victim, tlie habitual toper. 



liM conferred upon him the niuno of rum-tuelxr. 
Xevr York alone, wo believe, oies the tcnn runt-JbslMl 
entailer grog-ehops. 'WV-ett.^m men, once upon a tune, dm 
qnaint nnd bj no means inetKcient tray to ftveBgc themad 
a wcll-knowu zealons tempeniQCc lectonx, a Mr. Havkiaa 
took his name and ajiplied it, in hitter deriinon. lo ut 
kinii ul' mm, calliog it Hawkind' WfiefttfanA. The bant 
irapiKf is said to baru uo other rep); u> the question : fl 
yoH? thnu the expreMire monosyllable: Dr^f The iftsien 
of oourso, in thi^ highest degree nnjasc to him, and the ' 
not even n» Ameripaniam ; it occnrs aa long ago as the dM 
the Middleton Plays camo out, and may bo fcmnd io muy 
English poi^t, where it is used, just as now, for thiraty. 

When the Wcalcrii niuti in not (fry, he is aucnsed of bej 
to be on a buet, m they call, in California, a gn-at drinku^ 
accompanietl with dandiig and gamhling, or as the Well 
ally says in il« fi-pn and easy way, on ii buster. The figtin 
course, inken from the idea of enjoying a ihing U) burMii 
08 the hitter word is rery generally contracted into bttMi 
hutttr need not be sought for in the word buatard, an oU i 
buzzard, li uieana simply anything ko large or unneut 
^look like Unrgtiug." In this sense it is used in Eugtai 
and ch^ Ijondou boys tised to call the small now-made loan 
penny buMcr», while the papers gravely stated. aflt*r Dr. H 
revelations of all the I'earfnl adnlteratiooB of bit-ad, thafi 
tiva persiJii would sumetimes6iir«A if he knew what he wast 
A New England ))aper, on the other hand, said of a fiuh 
evening dre^s, that it "hmt open at the top and all v 
anna.'' The next step, calling any astonishing thing, 
orevenl, a bitnter/i* perfectly natural. Tho familiar uje 



»— » brace of Enrojrs Plenipotentmry— with fury iti iheir 

to the I«ITifil^d amazement of iJic youngeters, vho liod hod 

tlwy would bu understood, n fair inference fLvm the gen- 

int of liii^uisttc kuu*A'leUg« poss«6&4fd by tticii- imtiunal 

culatid'os. To the credit of their Exccllf-ncies. they sooi 

ird ia the langh, only cautioning their photographers to look^' 

I the future, before they leaped. {Lippineoita Magazine, Fcb- 

rr, 1 S7 1 .) The verb ia, of coni-«e, quite us popular as the noun, 

, A poor frilow, brouglit up bvfore the Ilecorder at Nt-w Orleaus, 

l« this pleik iu his dofenoe: "Because I wa« a good-natui'ed 

r, I had logo vrir.h Ibctn, frolickiug, tcapartiug. otccuriioning, 

hifiinff generally." (New Orleaim Firnt/une, PVIinmry 1^ 

I) To iitjff— altiu a Weatcm t*rm— ia, however,* very dif- 

1, and ijuile u« much Kuglish as American, in the sense 

inch. '■I'll buaf your head," is a populur threat in the 

When he is dni he is very iipl to yield to the quite pardona- 

fing of a lonely man in the bflckwoods, to heitr what ia 

in the world, to sk human faces once more, and to ^t 

'tiqnor. Ho Bnds a variety in name, if not in reulity, for tho 

u a^ rich in epiHK-t£ for pure liquor as tho Eaatern Staiea 

'fcnd of derifiing daily some new names for cunning niixturee. 

Ill' \ to take a l^tonr Fence, and now a linilroud. but 

whiskey, so railed, iu the latt<*r cage, "because of 

I rapidity with which it hurries men to the end of their joor- 

(.T. V. N'ral, Charfml Skftehes, \., Wi.) The worst o^Ucken 

the signboards often have it in uncon&eions irony, is called 

nn-iightainij, tton\ itii terrible strength and stunning effect. 

•n llif> word rotgut, used as far back as in Tleywood'g J 

Juik Tfiiretler and Addiion'a Driintrner, for a poor kind of dt-ini 

^dhi Enjfland alill ofU'u heard in speaking of small-bc^r, has 

en revived and made to eerve 08 a name for particularly 

B«ry whiskey. All these ho finds at the dit^gtry, the 

^ive name of a mean grogshop in the West and Sonth. 

Mr. Cartwright alluded to them when he described a 

«Wp-nn'<ning, ftiyfng, "There woe a crowd from the floating 

|»pulati'jii ttf til." river and loose-footed, rfoyy^rv-haiintinp', dis- 

■fotvd lericjjjidcs of the tuwna and villages all iironiid."' {Auto- 

^apk^, p. 37C».) 

is r%o«mlly on such oocajione, and in such company only, 



that a "tr&i fight" occurs, aflsr the pattern of Irish troh 
the old, now obsolete, practice of gov^ng iru mdn)ged i 
Kercht'val already refers to tbe " dcteFt«i>Ie i>ractH«e of y* 
by which eyeA are MmctimAS put out, and which rvodkn 
mode of fighting frightrnl indeed. It was not, however, sodt 
tire as the fltilcttu ufun Italian, the knife of a SpuQianl,the 
Bword of a FrenchmaD, or the pistol of tbe American or I 
duellist." {Hieioryofthe Vallf^ 0/ Virginia, p. 251.) Mr. 
lett r^Diarkfl with patriotic indignation that Oroe«, in hi 
Honanf, dcfloes gouging as ''a crnel custom, practisf^ I 
Bostoniana in America !" Tho term is taken from the carpi 
shops, where it is in coDBtant nee, just as Ben Jonson cmfijc 
in tlie lines : 

" "hysoogina of 'em oat 
JuBt to the Bii« of my bouleg, iiad noi iticiDg." 

{Dna it a% Am} 

i The practice, oonsiating of a turning out of the eye frei 

I socket by the tbuiub-uail, wliich waasuiTered to gruw long: 

I purpose, is now nearly, if not wholly, extinct, but iho word 

I occtiaioiiully hvuid, as ilayiug alive audskiuuing arc used toe: 

^^ very hard treatment, which Js threatened but never carried 
^B The same happy termination unfortunately can not be pra 

^^ of thi- abuses and villatiics traiiSHciti-d unUnr the shelter < 
called Lynch Law, siiioe receut cates, by no meane oonfiui'd 
'West, but (in 1871) extending even to Now UaQipflhire^ pm 
strong buld which the idea of popular justice has on the 
icau miud. Perhaps no term in the whole list of Ameri 
has been more thoroughly examined than this, and yet no 
sive proof has yet been adduced in favor of aoy one dcri 
The oldest dale assigned to it is the year 149B, when an Iri 
" Janma Lynch, Mayor of Galway, hanged his own son oat 
window for defrauding and killing straugera, without 
cflmmon law, to ahow a good example to posterity.'* 
ft-om Council Bookx of Galway.) Lydford Law, explained 
doggerel lines — 

" Fint li&ng and draw, 
Tbeii lir-U- the Caom by L^ord lav,' 

and said to have boen practised nnder Richard IX.^ cU 

tan OBSAT WtST, 


(late, but lucks the oniinuua uaine. Another ancestor ia 
in one Lf/ncK whu, ia 1CS7-8, ^as ecu! io Arm-rit-a tu Bup- 
iracy. As Uk* luws wt-re not adraiDistered wirh much rigor 
iltty in the Colotiips, owiug to "the diflicuUy of aiilieriug 
nsaiil forms of luw in the uewlv-fajhioiieit territories,"' it i£ 
led tliHt this Jtulgu Ltfnch was empowered to proceed sum- 
against die jiiratc's. and lUua gave riae to ttie term. (George 
Bj in Xoles and Quvriea.) Tlie opinion wlnoli traces the 
one Lffni/i, foander of the town of Lynchburg, in Virginia, 
Irely unsnpiwrted by any authority, and re«la solely upon the 
|ty of the name. It. W. Kmerson describes it thus : " Wild 
develops iron conscience. Want of liberty, by gtrength- 
hiw nnd decuruoii fitupetiea ounscient^e. Lynch Law pre> 
lonly where there is greater hariiihuoU unci uelf-cousistenoy 
leaders." {folUica, p. 117.) The absurdly euphemistic 
whidi uewspaper writers of tlic day occasionally indulge 
raking of rery grurc matters, waii recently shoU'-n in an ao- 
of Lynck Law justice, thua described: "Mr. Lyon, of 
who ovued several horses belonging to other parties, re- 
dislocated his cerebral vertebra; while pertbriiiirig trying 
a ropu'ii end, h«Id by t^id partien, for the amusement of a 
krowd." ('■ Personai" iu a Western paper, December, 1870.) 
)ca] application of the same principle i& to be found in tha 
Committees of (California, wliose Uiime, originally in all 
sUitr derived from the familiar Spani^k term vigtlaiiie, 
ice made it« way to other States also. The French vigilance 
loanree, the same word, but the connection with the custom 
BO evident. Tliese Viyilance Citmmittets originated, like 
Law, in the inefficiency of the appointed authorities to 
ith« law — when judges were intimidated, juries partial and 
'of the same crimes as tliose they were called upon to con- 
1, and public opinion all on rhc side of the criminal. Hon 
Uog and character, who had much at stake, then formed 
Itm into a Commitfte to wat<:h over the safety of their 
ttnd to pnnish criminals. The lirst self-conslituted body of 
kind was formed in San l-Vancisco ; others in New Orleans 
U« Wcocue quite ramnus, and «ven in the Northwest their inter- 
. has been repeatedly tolemted. In the Eaateru States thi-y 
Lter obtained the support of Law-abiding citizens, nnd on 

seventl occasions have bccD vcrjr prumptly cupp 
more reinow purts of the Uoioa the; oootinnc, how 
aud probably to do some good, iu deftiult of u rfgubrsndti 
administration of tho Uv/a of the countrr. A receot luU 
thus described; •'The Vu/ilante Co/nmUtee in Lm i 
(California) lius proved ttfiutf a reality by it« large nnndH 
vigorous action. At iO o'clock on the morning of Uii 
thrL-e liuudrvd lueu »#ti«i]ibk>d iu Stvaru'ii UuU, dect«d 1 
DOLiiet Pre:iideiit, and at once proceeded to try Migtwl b 
for the mnrdcr of Jacob Bell, a&d other mnrdcra wWel 
kiKjwn io have commit-tcd. After a brief eessiuu it wu 
moaely deuidud to hang Lachenai. At 11 o'clock the F^ 
wvvc divided iuto thi-cc companies and marched throt 
atreots to th« jail; guarcln were stationed at diS«r«ni pi 
prevent interference with their work, and a party oomroni 
teiing down the door, which consnmed quite half a 
Entering Lat'henai's cell, a rope waB pot around his uedi 
,xa» led uut into tho atreet. The Viffilarttts Burrounded 1 
Lcouducted him to a corral some two sqnares away firoin 
and hung him at 11.40 A. u. Iu tho words he was givet 
speak, he confessed his crime, but expressed no np\ 
dieriff and bis men made all the reatatanco posaibl^,! 
wcrt) unable to raifie a man to aaeist Uinin, all believinj 
jnstncffi of the VigilanM action." (Sau Fmnctsco i 
December 8. 1870.) 

When the man of the We«tem frontier is not rfry, be 
apt to b* slewed. This term has been traced to two or t 
fcrent sourcoB, amtinjf whioh the wonl shugh, in the "% 
nounccd k/«ip. is not tlie weakest claimant. But as the 
quite us common in Kngland, where sloughs ore scarcely 1 
may tbi>a- really be a sea-term, derived from the apparent 
on board ship »t the moment when she tacks; the Bails 
she heels over, in which condition she is said to $lm. 
however, also have been suggested by the resemhlanoa « 
slewed or half-tipsy man bears tu a sli-i^'h at the roomvnt 
goes round a corner, and ita peouliiir sliding motion is 
by the Kow Kuglaud Lorm: It viewed round. 

Qreat as the backwoodjiman is iu terms and phrasfs co 
every object around him, he is greatost by fiu* in <pMki]i| 



his oomrade. The onisiiler of iJI classes mid colors is 
ly the ttranger to him, and Iio sings out to the traveller he 
1 on the tr;»il, " Halloa, tiraiifjrr, whar' may you be bound to ?" 
i>aks of himself in mock raudesty as this child, or more self- 
ing, iw (his /«>r«,«iul his friend i« ttlfw^tionately greeted as 
|1, Ole Hoss, how are ye?" A common challenge, often giTca 
fwbole compftiiy, arontid the camp-fire or at hhe har-room, in 
-lying settlement, is, " Who dare eet tkix hosa f {Life in 
West, p. 171.) For tbe horsp plays iu many ways a prom- 
pttrt ia the dramatic manner of speaking in the West, and 
ence found its way back to the Enstern States. Tlie old 
ig of rode force connected with the hnrse, prevailing so 
ily in English aa to produce nmnerons words, like horsc-Iaugh, 
•meoftsine, and others, has here been strengthened by the 
|of metaphor. A horse ia the name of a man of energy, and 
tern man says readily, "lie wasn't loony on a bargain, sir, 
and he had plenty of bard Jiorse-KTHf, and took good 
I'Of hi» property.*' {Putnam's Magazine, January, 1868.) 
n<x, also, the two extremes of lowest and higheet esteem are 
Dth conreyed by hor&i-termR. Anything strikingly umaU and 
Utgnidcaat, from a ohurcfa to a bank, and from a governor to a 
Mutable, is a poor one-horse atfair, u tigura obviously drawn from 
U plongb and the wagon. The indignant settler who has been 
Utreaied, aa he fiincics, in conrt, denoonces his attomey aa b 
miKrahle, o»e-hor.ta lawyer;" and the Yankee newly arrircd in 
id does not hesitate to declare that " Liverpool is a poor 
kind of a place," a term applied by Mark Twain to no 
I eity than Borne itself. Dr. 0. W. Holmes delights hii readett 
lia "ont'hwse sbay;" and a witty cIerg)Tnan of Boston in- 
!ied once bitterly against " timid, sneaking, one-horse oaths," 
Initaly worse than a good, round, thnndcring outbnrst. The 
horse is the Western man's beat friend, and the wheeUhoru of 
party its main prop and Kupixirt On iho other band, 
tM of Speech swells up to a whoi^ team,ihe highest term of 
atioQ Western men are apt to apply to a special fiaTorite, 
'"good ffcllow," of England, as well as the man of great 
or marked energy. " I like the jndge," said a man &om 
Umia to Mr. Prescott, once, speaking of Dr. Story: "H« is 
*>M of Yonr tmo^iortt lawjen ; be is a whol« temn :" and the Kew 



York Herald, not long ago, doclared : " Oraat is s wktk : 
horse extrs, and a dog under the wagon." He» the m.\ 
ultra of i-ccomnieDdstioii is grophicalljr conveyed by a 
Oompleleness of tho original figure of speech. Tiie slang tnaj 
need and nbnsed with boundless license, and a re«p«ctable' 
once said in aober earnest; ♦* Fanny Kem continues to 
of Bonner's featu" {Lipptncoltn Moffaxine, Jnly, 1869), 
to inrorm its tvudcrs tbnt tlie weU-known literary Udj 
ooDtribuled to Ur. Bonner's popular paper, the Xidj^m 
new meaning has quite r«;ently been add«d to tbe word 
since tho introduction of Chinese labor at Xortlj Adams tai 
r«chuMtt« : a group of three or four Chinese shoemaken 
at the same bench is called a feam. 

There can be HtiJe doubt that this fondneas for l)or«e-t 
strengthened by the American's mntcblcss skill in driving be 
■tage-coachcs over roods that would appear impassable to 
men, has led also to tlie use of tbe verb to Irot out, in tbci 
of to bring out. The term has become quite familiar to 
cians also ; and in discussing tho elections to take place t«0] 
hence, a writer said : '* It is a whole year too early to tr^ 
candidate of onr party for the presidency." (New York TYih 
January ^3, 1871.) It is probably a pure Americanism, os 
other hand, to apply the verb to balk to the action of horses «li 
in going up-hill, they suddenly stop, and refnee to moTe fur 
sihowing, on the contrary, a disposition to go back. In thei 
lish sense to halh means simply to frustrate or disappoint i 
the sentence given in Bailey: •' Halkfd arc the courts, aad 
test is no morcj" nud as used by Spenser in his Faery 
(V., V. 10.) ; its application to horses is, bonce, by no meant ia 
propriate, and quite expressive. Even the slang pbnue ts| 
dirt, vulgar but very saggesiive a» to the effect of tbe rapid 
of a horse on a muddy road, must be traced back to this food 
for the popular animal, and fast driving. "Now. I sar, old 
if you don't hurry np and cut dirt like streak-lightnin*, this i 
goes ortcr you, and you look one for a windin* shest, you 
{Border Adventureg, p. S231.) 

A fine twn-out, meaning origmally, as in £uglaiid, on^ 
bsndfiome carriage with showy homes, has in like nuuuier oomtl 
bs Bf^ed to any display ; and evsn a man who builds a 1 


or delivers an eloquent speech is. in tbe Wesit aoid to bare 
r &Jino turit-oitt. Ic is not uuiatere&tiog to Bce hov tlii^ phnwu 
beea chaogcd in the far South, especially in Texas, wlit-re the 
B meaning is conveyed bj the term }ay-out. It is probable 
. the wrm is a gamblcr'a phraM, refcrring to the «um o!" money 
h the banker at moitte " lays ont" allure customers. Kow. 
mr, a maa who appears -well-dressed in the Eti-cet. siicccodii 
imea or iu a reuture, is said U> hiive mode "a splendid lay- 
To roU oxUf on the other hand, means there to begin a 
Bey or commence an enteTpriae, The phraae originated in 
filet ibat for many years the f»x-wagoji wm the only means of 
rportation in Texas, although a few short railways penetrated 
Iiatfl fur a short disbince. Hence the teamster says ; "I rolUd 
K aaurise this morning," and the merchant asks his partner, 
oiling him as to the expediency of bcginitiog business, " when 
iro rM oatf" To this ciaaa belougs also oat-Jit, 
or is ic fic entirely ont of the qnestion, as has been maintained by 
E modem writers, that the familiar term ///.«/ has been derived 
itho Eamc tendency. It i« acktiowledged to he an Americun- 
ia its Grat origin, hut it has long since made its vay into 
land, ascending from ttu: streets intu the drawing-room, and 
I the slang of tbe gin-shop to the leading article of th« high- 
d rrivicw. Its moaning, however, has changed vith its pat- 
it no longer reprnaches th(^ man, to whom the epithet is 
with actual vice and debauchery, but, at the worst, degig- 
ks him as a gay, unsteady, and tboughtlees seeker of pleasure. 
8 prevailing idea seems no longer to be the rapid rate to a cer- 
i bad pUcc, as Fielding suggests, bat merely the rapid wealing 
of health and strength by late lionr?, high living, and cou- 
lons excitement. In this sense Kr. Dickens speaks of a fast 
ng man in tbe Christmas Story of 1859. Unfortunately, the 
1 has Ijeen extended to the other sex also, apparently without 
:h reluctanoc or opposition. Ihc/ast young girl of the period 
■t* tnaaculine habits, talks slang, drives fast horses, and ndvo- 
s Womon'a Rights. Iu England the judgment is harslit'i* ; the 
urday Review culls the fast if ir I "a. young woman who has 
her re&pect for mea,aQd for whom men have lost their resi>ect 
" (July 28th, 1860.) 
is commouly ossmned, though with doubtful justice, that the 






odd extension of curt Hir, into emphatic Sirree, is aa eflicclan 
WMtera man's tendency to augment both form and nM!uiD|! 
the oommoneal terms. The c-xtraordinary vord, in the nti 
extended to a Icnj^h hj no mcona represented in its ramijiij 
ever quite u familtar to the Sooth as the West. A 
Baptist preacher in Georgia is reported to haro criticifvd its 
in Ihis manner: ^' BrelAerrn, it won't do, tliis talk that aiti't| 
initivf; we raiist gire np them worldly remarks — muist ifc 
lirvtheron. raiiBi we not, siateren ? Yea Sir-ree, and no Sir-i%\ 
filling terms and forhiilden. I don't like Vm nor no brother] 
likc< 'em. I'm determined to Eot m; fnco agiost them — ail 
bretheren ?— Yes .Vi'r-rw. hosg I replied liis tripping brotliur I 
him in the pulpit" {Putnam's Magaxine, Februan', 
That tbe term has fonnd its vuy to the great cities, also, nm^l 
«een from Ihefollowinjo; police report: Inaousc tried at Bolt 
Bjiu-or wiw supposed to be intoxicated. -'The judge, 
the man, said: *i^ir, are you drunk?' The jnror, stnugfatei 
himielf up, in a bold, defiant tone replied: *'Sq Sir-ivg. 
* Well,' said tUt- judge, ' I Cue yon 6ve dollars for the rw and i 
for tho AoA.'" (Ballimofe Suit, March 80ih. Ifi-ir.) 

An octire young man or a bonncing las is apt to be admiiii 
designated as a roairr, vrUh nn evident allusion to some poi 
and fonnidablo animal th.-it roars in the forest or on tbo 
Here also au effort is made to intensify the expression by a > 
ous epithet, Imviog refereoco to the catamount: a tqiecialljl 
fellow of great size and strength is called a rin^-iaiUd 
Screaming seems to iropresB the Western man with the 
sense of strength and valor, for a gcrfatatr is another favenu 
term of luJininuiou. ''Why, boys," said a Cfeurgia Cracker m t 
colored eoldici- of the Fcdcnil Army, daring Shermun's ftmoQi 
march, "if them's the kind your regimen is made off, I kno^ 
nnder: them's grivamrrs," (Urcoilfirtions of ihr TITir, p. SI?. 
By a Lady.) If auimnl spirits arc a little too promiuent, aud 
assert themsclvos with vohemi'nce, they procure for the owner ' 
name of snorter, though here oUo the implied reproof is :i^- 
unmixed with a certain degree of admiration for the dash aud lie 
daring. " I'm a roarinci earthquake in a fight, snug out one of 1 
hair-horse, half-alligator sort of fellows, a real snorter of 
uuirerae. I can Btriko as hard aa fourth-proof Ugbtntng 



up, rough and tnmble, as long as a wi)d>o-at.'* (Thorpe's 
oodit, p. 183, B.) 

iVountairifer, as thi; man was called who earned his pre* 
. liveliliood by ** hunting far ekinB" in the mountains of tha 
Fesc, is fast disappearing before nomadic cities and railways 
■g a contiiicut. Hei'e ia his description: " Jliouittaineert, 
[divested of their fannting-coau of bucksltin, appeared in 
shirts of gandy calico ami closc-fltiing biickgkin pants, 
ig fringes down on the otitsidt; m-am, fmiri the liip to cha 
|with moccasiiis ornamented with bright beude and porcnpine 
Eaob, round bis waist, wore his mouiilain-belt and scalp- 
tfe and some pistols sticking in their belt.'' (Li/e in the Far 
K) A iow-head, origiii.tily nolhiog more than a light-haired 
K or, in the Western river?, a slight ripple cflnsed by some 
l»ly porcpptible obstruction, is not nnfreqacntly applied to a 
■wtnau with store-ciotlies and carefully arranged hair, contrast- 
Bwiib the long matted locks which the bockwoodeiuan geu(.'r- 
^aSiects. The ror(s«r is not only a man who talks very loud 
I oocasioually yell?, but nUo any stmlling event or exciting 
bun. "That ar dare (deer), I tell you, ivas a romtr and no 
■dcv" lays tlic old hnnt«r in S/oriM from the Bachtemds, 
W an acfomplishcd gcntlonian i3 thiifi spoken of in a novel: 
le is a rottser at making punch, I nssure you, though he only 
■ it like a lady himself." {rtihiariis Jlat/tizine, Januiu-y, 1868.) 
i» English roughs, common only in London ;ind in sninll 
pooghs at election time, where they arc often known as" lambs," 
inind unfortunately in the United Suites. They btlong to a 
!lMilent class, recruited largely ft-om the laboring and oommer- 
1 population ; they drink, they 8wear, but they commit no 
ine, savu au occasional deed of violenco in times when excite* 
tut runs untistially high, and are for the most part affiliated 
kb on« or the other of the two contending parties. Thpy are, 
*reTtr, not often designated as rougha, sincci they prefer gener- 
f some local name uf moreorlesa grote»<jne form and brutal 
port, oa Dead Rahbiit in New York, Mo^amensing JJonndt in 
iladelphia, or Blood Ttih in Bultimon-. The Western rough is 

EUy a rotisfaioui — a term evideutly derived from the old 
roustt quoted by Jamieson as meaning to diatnrb. He 
irite character iu the Wost, noisy, but not neoesearlly a 


The Church. 


fB bos beeu eaid, half-ndmiringly, hnlf-fiDecringly, of the 
^ homespun muDiicr of Amcriciiii religion. There are here 
It cathetiiiila irtUi costly carviugs and glowing colors in 
K and vault; no gUtely deans with tlu'ii: c^utmns; even the 
1^ have but qaite reccDtly iKloptcd the eilk apron and the 
|Diier, which they hud found so ultiiictivti at the Lambeth 
ftDoe. The Cathohc Church alone maintains a sober 
lor, hut the stern Prt-ahyterian, with his Pnntaii abhorn.-ni;o 

DHtwurd furui and L-ereniuiiy. the IiaM Uuptlst, eschewing 
^viiucincnt and culture, and thti Eealuus Muthudisl, who 
^tlier time nor indJiiatiou to think of aiiytlunp; but hit? 
Irrund, wit-m utrutijjeiy devoid of all that mukt-s rvlJgitm 
live to Eui-opeiuis. Perlmps piety is ouly the more earnest 
I hfiinespuD garb, and the quaintncss and simplicity of 
(US language is hut a reflt-x, perhapti an heirloom, of the 
irh«n the older English divines iilao spoke plainly, uveu 
iy, and men generally faced the facts of »pii'ilual cxjwrieiice 
^oldly that! is doue now, bt-cause tht-y were more closely 
ien in their urery-day life. .\li the rationalism uud ekepti- 
If the New World Ivm uot bwu able to work out tlie Purilan 
^ of the men in the MajHower. and if religion is leas foi-mal, 
pa oven less orthodox here, it is ucithcr leaa sincere nor less 
iUiau in tlu;OUI World. 

^niost striking feature in our religious life ia, no doubt, the 
I freedom allotted to every one> old and young, high and low, 
lose hia own mode of worship. Ho law prescribes church- 
rW'i//, as it is commonly called ; no inquiry is mode by high 

ities nftvr the ivUgious standing of candidates for olllce; 
exercisrd over their atu-ndonce on cburoh ordiuances. 


as is duiiv on the Continent of Etuupe. As the Ooni 

the United States purpoacly abetaina from the mete mnm 

of God and of divine things, the citizen aim is held wcoa 

to his fonscicRce aloue for his religions cunvicttuoa. Sot 

perhaps less tolemut, and while petitions have in ymu W 

to Congress year alter year for an open uvon-ol of the CI 

faith iu public act^ social Btaoding i« only exceptiouUj | 

to men proressing oi>enly to be without religion. Bedda 

shade and variety of faiUi and church oi^paaization find 

pi-ot<?ctcd here, uud Mr. JeOersou prided himself as niu! 

beiug the author of the Statute of Ueligioos laberty i 

having written tlie DMlaration of Independence. Henct 

of new sects and nev meanings of familiar terms fo]k 

other in such rapid succession here, that even the ioitiated 

at a loss to account for their origin and precise significstac 

langnagc even has suffered from this reckless spirit of iniu 

although fur mure yet from the pociiliar indepvadcso 

American churches. While in England the ministers 

JBstublished Church and the better-trained preachers am 

Dissenters are Lhc jealous guardians and principal dissemiui 

pnre English thruughout the country, in America no soo 

cncc is exercised by the clei-gy. The very zeal of the n 

unhampered by Kngliah phlegm and Oxford traditions, ki 

freer use of the language, and the frequency of extempore 

ing pi-events, as a matter of course, very careful comp 

ilethodist and Baptist prejichers were, until lately, kept, 

from necessity and partly from choice, from obtaining 

gi-ade of education, and being generally called upon to i 

utterly uiiodiicatcd hearers, their language was uatnrullv i 

to their own imperfect training and the ignorance of their ( 

gations. Even the best-educated clei^ymcn were apt to n 

forms for their new views, or ready to employ popular « 

times of public excitement, as when the disastrous bsl 

- political sermons was still in vogue. Thus they soon wi 

beyond their brethren in England, who have often been i 

of allowing much slung and disagreeable vulgarism to on 

the pulpits, which should give forth pore speech as tcU 


Thus the very word religion itself came early to be abui 



tcetl to meau jnoty. Certain eccts began by epeakiDg of 
I) wtshnl to gtt religion, m tlint the Rev. Mr. Cartwrigbt 
rite of kis own preacliing: " It waa rt-tnarkcd by many 
tcrned the easij.>st thing here, of any place or time th»y 
t fcr tinners to /;«/ rtlitjiou" {AuhhiQgrapJiy,^'it); and 
»d of bid: " Uer liusbaiid was a Methodist, and scTcml 
children htkd jro/ rtiigion among the youug converts. This 
powerfully convicted and concluded that she had never 
f rtHgion." (p. 87.) A tliorooghbred Ynnkee boy, of 
ta Nenr Hampshire, drnvr a niiv disiin^io;i when he stud: 
the pionsest miin in the valley, bat I enjoys the most 
' {Fuinatn'f Magazine. Dqq., 1869.) A person projwsiug 
i ehuroti is expected first openly to com« out. that is to 
trtfesx his retigioc, and tlien he is admitted to member- 
be form peculiar to each church, and ever after known 
\futoT of reli^on. Thi.; churck is not only the bnild- 
, oontrarr to English usage, the congrc-firalioD, after the 
\ mauner, ta employed in the words: " When they had 
I them eUlere m tvery church.'' {Acts, x\v. %:\.) To join 
kation is made to the pustor or the deacon ; hence the 
given of "Mr. Fips, who wanted to become a member of 
chttrch. It would have made him respectable. But 
E*laj;g replied to his application prarely, ' Very sorry, Mr. 
t the ebnrch is full. There isu't a single vaciucy. H 
[■Id be one ni let you know.*" {Putnom'g Magasine, 
1^ In the Methodist church this open nvoval is fire- 
made by persons who have met viik a change, or have 
*vch under convielion — who ivflul^e a hf>]*e, cTperienee a 
t>T actually experience religion. Thus the same excel- 
rino, whom we have repeatedly quoted, says: "Wbeu 
re done pre^iching, thoy oponcd the iray for persons to 
charch by giving in their experience. If accepted, their 
tet were dcclart-d good, and the right-hand of fellon-ship 
If given, and there wa.i great joy in the camp; but it was 
1 the pot to me." (p. C7.) Any person who dwells much 
Ugions matters, or his own stiite of mind, is said to be 
a term which perhaps originally was used with a sneer, 
riB applied in all earnestness and approbation. In some 
i, efpeciaUy in the New Englond States, the church is 



alM called a aociHjf, in otbeni a parish, without rrfeiriog 
caw to the oripual meaning : the former ia " » pariah, bat 
territoriitl iimiti) ; the latter, a society of persons united ta 
purpoies, but consisting of persons only*" 

The bnilding itself is Ciilled a church odIj by acmeaeclj 
followed the opinions of the Pnrituns, who ** held diat a 
was a body of ChriKiians. and the ptaoe where they met wa 
■>j7-Aott«a." {EXhuiX's HittDry of yciP England, Upt 131, 1 
was but one uf the |K>in(8 on which the men of i'Lymoui 
mined to dlfTtr tVom their oppruaors at home. " For," 
able writer, N. S. Dodge, *' antagonistn wns their normal o 
of life. To meet and pass an approaching vehicle on i 
band was then, and still is, the cnstom in England ; ^efi 
it to the right It bad been cu&iomary. Trum time inn 
to kneel in prayer to Qod ; they changed tt to the stand 
tote, whether in the fiiraily, the eociat meeting, or in pufc 
ahip^ banns of marriage were in their native coaatry pro 
in chnrch ; they ndvcrtlBcd them in the vestibnle. The 
service of the Kubric wns read tliere ai the UnrioJ : theybfl 
dead to the grave in silence. 'I'hry abulishcd the sign oft 
in inliant baptism, the prostration, before the altar in n 
the holy communion, and tht* wedditig-ring in nmrriaei 
eTangeUats and apostles might not \k designated at Saiu 
Saint John, and the like, becaase it savored of Popict 
Bible might not be read without comment in pnbUo i 
6inc<- it was imjiropcr conformity to hierarchical service: 
holy days none was recognized bnt Sunday, which the] 
Biibbalh. Good Friday gare place to the annaal Fai 
alwavjt appointed on Thnrsday. and Christmas to Thank 
Day in the autumn. The most devout were nerer to gn» 
dnring prayer, nor to say amen ; marriages were to be cd 
by civil magistrates, who not only gave the covenant to 1 
ties interested, but made the prayera; and Uie melody of ri 
organs in public worebip was numbered with 'Ifet 
iieuar's idolatrous concert of the cornet, flutes dulcimer, si 
paaltery, and all kinds of music* The church wan citUed n 
house, the service the meeting, and the priest thi; ministft. I 
began at siinRct on the previons evening; thanki were D 
after L*very meal as well as grace said before, and flafa Bi 



lU^y^s dinDer instead of Friday's. Tlicuires were not per- 
iod, and aoton were flogged. Officere of the goTcnnnPiit were 
Trom umoug churcJt membtnt only, and the Uitti-r vera 
to hnve been converted by being able to name the day nod 
irwhcn they iind **xp«rteuoed the new birth." Tliin I'urUau 
Ktill ad active ax ever, aud t^hows its stfength nowlieiv §n 
;ly as in matters and terms of religion. Witli the Vankeo. 
iiwj-houjfe^ with it« ji/cf//fo— the word " spire "ia liiirdty 
in America — has found its wny to every part of the 
\; only Lhe stately bnildiug of Nitw England is iu Ouorgia 
of hewn logH, nnopiled and nnpluateivd, with filidiu^win- 
mttem of planks, buvin^; low benches placed as in a scliooU 
for BoaU ; it is altiiated in a grove not fur from Mio Tillage, 
pleasant spring of water." [Southern Li/s, \h 137.) 
inside of the tiieeting-bonse is, however, not always so sim- 
it was in the days of the Puritans, Even tlion the high 
^were much in demand, and the yearly UMiing, as the assist- 
rOf seats according to rank and oflia- was called in New 
g«Te ris)5 to much eiU-nt envy and open yontroverey. 
still snrvives in the annual renting of seats in certain 
, on which occasion thu lively oompcLitiou for cboioe pews 
ambitious membera lo pay often enormous premiums, and 
Is the treasury of the church without ti-ouble and com- 
The system of jm-ws maife its way but slowly into some 
churches, and ilie word seat was long used niul ahnsed in 
tconncction. Tliu» wu are told that thti Methudist-:) iu the 
i " to vrect a shed, sufficiently lurgR to protect 5000 peo- 
rain and wind, and wver it with boards, afU'r wUioh 
lid Atnt tlie shed, nnd collect there people from forty and 
lilo* around." Hut *'Sinee the Methodist Clmrch," says 
sv. Mr. Cdrt-ttright, mournfully, " lias risen in niimcricol 
and become wealthy, Uic system of peimd churches is 
fming the order of the day," thus using one of the new 
mi the language. As if iu derision of the custom, they speak 
Eucacket of a peio-cari, "a kind of onc-hor«e, two-wheeled, 
gleig carriage, a sort of pew upon wheels, or a box without, 
kitnplj to stand up in, and with high sides, around whjoli 
to hold by." (N. P. Willis, J/t/nw Journal, OeU. 1 837.) 
flwe^injT gains a new sigoificanco in tha compound 



ill and oae of the BTinptonM of tbU state is known aa the jerks. 

V. Mr. CartMTight cftUi them a new exercise, oTembelming 

tSect* on thft minds and bodies of the people. No mutter 

•r tbejr Tvere smiiera or saints, hj« hearers "would be taken 

a warm song orsermoii and seized with a conviilHiTe jerk- 

ovcr, which they could not resist, for the more they resiated, 

they jerJced. More than five hundred }>cople would be 

[at once. Proud young laiiipB and gentlvmeu, dressed in 

■welry, and pmnellu, from top to toe, would take the jn'ks. 

first jerk you would see their bonneta, caps, and oombe fly, 

their long, loose hair would cmek liku a wapont-r's wliip." 

n^ rcTival, where nombers of Ariana attended, there was 

Bsale ncorciiim ; in that meeting the crowd /«// by hundreds; 

wji were grovelling on the ground in every direction ; the 

tbepenitent9»ndth(.>shout!iof those who had gotten religion 

gp without intermission day and night, ond amid them all 

1, and whirled, and flew about in seemingly nacontrollnble 

beaa, connilc psjerkerg. 

1 1804. a revival occurred in I'cnnesaec, Kentucky, Ohio, and 
r Western States, remarkable fur another symptomt opproaoh- 
in its character a regular roaludy. At the Itu-ge, open-air 
tings, almost aa soon as the sermon commenced, numbers 
ienly fell to the ground, deprived of bodily strength, and some 
i violently convulsed. These affections reonivcd tho name of 
ftHi7 JCTfrcina. Whirling Exarciae* were aiill more grotesque 
ioD». in which, during a sermon, [wrsous spun round likv ii 
r upward of an hour, without experiencing any fatigue, 
It after the manner of the dancing dervises of the Kut 
gh t}ie*e symptoms for many ycurii accompanied almost 
ions exercises held in the open air, and attended by largo 
rs, ttnoed hanlly be added, that tUey are quite rara non-n- 
i, and little encouraged by the majority of preachers. 

feurch wishing to obtain a minister, depute some of tln-ir 
■ to invite bim, and hence a reverand gentlcmuu tells us: 
> was at the head of a movement to give me what miniatera 
I a mil, for I then received a letter fi-om the old pensioiicni, 
t»g m* to come and be their chaplain." ( LippincoU's Magazine, 
, iStid.) If the eail is accepted, the ministfir is said to $etlU, 
the biography of Bishop Asbury si«;itions "bis having 



been ttttlfd at th* Mirly a^ of Berenteen" (p. 137) — k 
which in his case wiw Hmplc enough, but in moay phnr<i«*j 
made tbf ovcasioa of much ceremony, called an iostalifttiak 
infarv-, becftuse rcwmbUng an old'fiiabiotied woddtn;^ frstinl I 
becomes what in some churches is called a staled ]ire(icher,) 
asannies now th« dt*k, for the distinction made in Englimdl 
twM-n th« pnlpit and the rcsdtng'desk is not obserred by lO 
churches of America, ami in \ew Kn^land especially, the 
" What we want for our security is that the voice from tfa« pa 
may concnr with the voice fVom the desk" would not be 
intelligible to many pious readers. 

As these mUs, afler the first, are very apt to be acoomj 
the temptation of an increase of salary, sneerers have i 
pretended to beltere that ministers feci bonud to see 
oallod a ProvidfHtial Call In such nn invitation. The noc 
of conrse, iittcHy unroundoil. although the offers thus 
would probably prore irresistible to less nnsel&sb vnvn. 
where the slattd salaries, as they are called, seem moderate. ! 
somo perqitifites arc apt. to come in with the ritett of the clii 
Kew Year's r&mtiTihranets arc quite fashionable in large 
.while in smaller towns and rnnil diRtriots preachers have to 
iarise themsolTOS with a cnatom peculiar to American ofat 
and rounded upon true Christitiu humility: tliey learn to 
presents iu money, in provinons. and even in clothes, which 
would probably hesitate to accept in any other walk of \ik.\ 
19 by no means nnnsnal for w libcml church-member to proml 
pastor with a supply of linen, a suit of clothes, a new hat, on 
more modest gifts, though mom fretpiently all the mcmhen 
bine and have a baxkti-mfetintj, as it is called in the West,' 
the Eastern States, hold a donation-party. On anch aa 
friends and parishioners appear snddenly — for it is gent 
surprisf.-p<trly htt}\t Boxae time — at the panumnf^, reqneit' 
owner to retire to his study, set bis table in the dining 
loading it with goixl tilings, fill his pantry, lay out prrsent^t 
then invite their willing host and his family to join thematl 
merry feast. As the salary of ministers is email everywhere i 
li&i of the large cities, where it sometimes rises to tweotj tl 
sand dollars, as in tba case of Mr. H. W. Becchor, and as the i 
of the Methodist Obnroh striotlj limit the mitmter's iu 



pittance, this method of aiipplying an addition is as wrl- 

Biiitablf. Cases are, hoirev«r, knnwn in which the oom- 

tnn larpT than the supply they brought, compelling the 

tr to contribute more than his parishioners hatl done; in 

bta feelings most bo akin bo thos& of a jxior housowiftt 

[VuddiMiIy called upon to euti-rtitin a vurpriw-party. 

It- latf' war, especiJtlly, faniilivs were often unable lo keep 

I style of eafcrtainmcnt of former years, and it became a kind 

for their friends to drop in unexpectedly, with the lacit 

iding that the use of the boase was all the owner bad 

ibli. This was, however, but rarely taken litemlly, anil 

' it Hm brtfu tsuid of them^ that " as to tntrprise-pariie*, there 

tdcligbtful freedom and absence of form in the notion, but 

latnal friend's wife must be an angel if she can appre- 

le joke." 

ly churches the miniftfr — e. term which standi; uni- 
ftfr I hf t'lorpyman of the Established Church also, and not, 
England, only for the minister of u dissenting house of 
•it both supported and somewhat controlled by his 
The power enjoyed by the latter, especially in the New 
id States. ha« deecended upon them from the days of tho 
ina, among whom dea^wu verv men wielding great anchor- 
ad formidable powers, in worldly matters as well as in the 
IB of the church. Among their duties was that of reading 
.the hymns givcu out by the minister, one line at a time, 
egatioii, Itaving no hymn-books in those early days, 
;h Ittie a« soon as mid. Hence was derived the phrase 
tiitff off Bt a met'tin;?. which is expliuucd by. J. H. Lowell 
ling to give the cue and lead ihe debate. {OtoMari/ io Hig- 
'*aptri.) Am Yankees have a popular proverb that "All 
ate goodf hat there is odds in dMfon*,'* the difference 
[lutre giTHi rise to the pbnise, to limna ben-ieis wliich, we 
. b; tbB tune high anthoritj, means, to place the largest 
: 00 top — we tnut witbont any sly desire to impose, 

"Tu Cmk r%la oat n' plU'cal strife aint tbou^ht v. Iv the ttalag. 
WiOKnU yaa ^mom ^ Uia time yoa w»ni y"ur S>lka » •Ing." 

{Bifflav JtipfrtL^ 

thj tka mxM word, when applirf to a poor, now-bom 

m fenwrH;— twt oi ttom vba attead tW aatiu a nOm 
flM yum wt momnimgmd^mmfi^ert. iMttfMr.lM 
fl4tm4, iNi4 tbar* if BotiU^ CMvmil in Uh acal; it h i 

r ' t //VrT*4 to tboK who hare oooM tram a <Uil 



«rt from tho religioiu ceremony, and while Urn dnttM 
daring the latter bttrc heon barbaronBly ciUlod to/uufr- 
urmer lias escaped the corruptiot). A eomcwhac cnri- 
bas been made by the nid oT this yrori fiinfrai, which 
lly pua*ly American. " This ig jtoiie of your funernl" 
ite frequently aa ao iodirect rebuk« for iutermeddling, 
idicrotu undercanvst of thoaght, that the troubleume 
(8 no right to be crying at a strange TnanV fanersL 
^ pitU/arm, in it« fn>qiient uppbcation to ecclesiastical 
B^ it by DO meanit aa Americatiiain. Lord Bacon 
'* Uie exemplar or plalfortn. of God" {Advancentent of 
p.22d), and liooker mentions riews "coaforoiable to 
» of Genera." *'A Pia/form of Church Diicipline," ifl 
a book printed aa early as ldA.t, in London. (It.) The 
sord in politics is more likely to be peculiar to AmiMica, 
ik of a jttank of a platform^ is a genoine and exclusive 
»m, "not yet naturalizod in fiugland." {BUu^^ttovd'a 
QcU 1867.) 

rmoni, lectures, and disconrses. the Amcricin minister 
' £nglish than any other class of professional men ; 
fcry few words which may he said to be either peculiar 
lit or objectionable to the purist. He ritrcly uses slung, 
tception of tiic oi-casiunal uud anwurrantabtu iiiLroduo 
itics; and on the whole escapes wonderrnlly well from 
il fondness for big wordB and picturesque phmses. lie 
p>L speak uf amcniibility with \)w |uilitJcal orator, and 
'abiUty, instead of the English accountableneu, and 
irt Hall aa his authority. lu the West he may arifufy 
nd find sapport in IlalloweH's IJictionarj-, where the 
ferred to various dialects. lu Virginia he notices with 
one who liate.ns well, a respectable, a«ttnUitiou» stran- 
. Kennedy. Snalhip Sam, p. 224), and enoouragcd by 
•neat giTi^i to his position, may forget his euriUtide 
i, Haldoman), and expatiate too lon<^ on the ways by 
may be happifed. Thus he ia in danger of beoomiag 
word admirably suggestive, though n» yet not admit- 
) eacred pages of an English dictionnry. A Scotch 
. liowever, fortnbly : "This daring interloper has mode 
ly to the langiiaga fixpressire of a new uumitng, tlia 

nra CHDROB. 

^nlly* lie m»y vdl be oommeaded for having v^euped the few 
rtionabl« words with which Anmricaii pi-eachera, as a class, 
be charged. 

*be absolately unlimited freedom cnjoTed by erery citizeo, not 

to counwi hinuwiir wilti any church be may prefer, but, if 

I oao, to ioDad lumaelf a new church, bus Daturally led to the 

■ of aects iiiauiiiuiibl^ genuratly known iie (ieno»iina4ions. It 

not absolutely certain tbut Aowricana are realty the 

iKligioiu people on earth, beciiuse, as a youD({ American 

roBoe a«sarcd the Holy Father, to set him at bit eiise, u]>on 

presented to him, ''tlioy have so many denomitiations." 

letineg theae neewttbin the bosom of a well-known ohurcb^ 

Ibtscose uf tbo Baptist Church, whiuh counts quite a nnm- 

t«f eubdiviatouti. kuouu occaHiouutly uiitk-r somewhat peculiar 

tSncb are ti)« i^/t i>keU UaptixU, so calltrd on account of 

. «tt?r» manners and lesi rigid priuciplca, which allow 

-to ha indulgent to Rcrtatn worldly usagi's and to educate 

ministers carefully for the pulpit, while the Sard Shell 

pfia/s, who dill thcmgclvea /'n'miVirs Baptiata, set tbetr fiieea 

• ftint — to u&e tb«ir own t«rm — against an educated miuifitry, 

l«q»ecjally agaiiutatl forcigu evaugvlical uii&dioujL Houce, a 

of CiiiigreiA in rcc-omiuendir]j( a friend for the position 

idbaplain to the House, could aay of him: "Hr. Morris is a 

nlar raeniln-T of thu ffartl SJu-ll Jiaptisi Church, a very pious 

1, not of Ter}' eminent ability, but just the man to pray for 

I ft crowd aa this." (B.) Xh« JPresbyteriau Church thus gave 

iteuce to a licw sect, when in 1801 tlicir Synod in the State of 

itvcky oenearcd aod silenced prcachere. who bad taken part 

inrtvalii, which tboy thought a dia)rder. Thce^j ministers im- 

liately renounwMl the jurisdiction of the Presbyterian Church 

or^'aiiized one of tbvir own. " Hurc," aay8 iht.' Buv. Mr. 

twrighti triumphantly, " was the origin of what was called 

jTiw LufhU. They renounced the Wcstminstei- Confession of 

lith and all churcb-diacipUnc, and professed to take the New 

inient fur their church-discipline. They efilabUshi:d no stuud- 

of doL'triue. Every ouc was to take the New Testament and 

it. and abide by his owu constractiou. They adopted the 

of immersion, the water-god. of all erroriatB.** (AutoHog- 



1 4f the viefca^ aaA ft flEOMd fsouion of ih 

if Itii Till ■■iliiiniiiii lull paUia 
tbai the aril MiknTiiiia «n 
■d iaiBvaisw Ar ike liaiiiMimi of 
daoeiic]r. Tbej p ro &t d to U tbe mcBwiiii of tbr Airi 
>B «arti*r dAT, vbo dmTed tfaetr wnK not fron the oobL 
at Pijmomthy bat from th« fiuunr that they vere peHtetij . 
heart and eandoct, mod eowpb tely emanaipated from hsai 
■ioM^ ft bealiflo condiUou wfatch chu^ afctaapttd tu pram 
audlog all clotUiog at their pablio aaMmbliea. £Ten iha 
QuaiMn have tb*ir Uichnitt, wbo adopted the name of Ui 
r, Mr. Ilioka, and om Sociuana. 
/tunkerif vr Tunktrs. so called 



to dtp, Are one of the oldest aa well as one of the qnaitit>> 
iAnurieui aects. Already in 1744, vhon Vii^iniii acnt her 
Dnmimoners to Laacoalcr, in Pennsylvnuia, in order to 
a tmty with the Six Nations, they went **ih.e next da/, 
fialnrday, to the PunJkere' ^unaery, and tlic lodiaoe danced, 
and Bhrieked." {History of Early SettUmefiis, Wills Do 
), 97.) Branching off in 1734 from the so-called Seventh- 
I4>ti«ts, they adopted Kveml now features, such aa a uev 
of immersion, by plunging the candidute three times into 
ter backward, love-ieasts, and foitt-woshin^, and a costume 
l)de of address of their own, and soon gren' in nnmhers and 
TliKir rartne, extending along the base of the Alleghany 
fauns, from P«nnsylTania through the fertile Valley of Vir* 
■toward the t^uth, aru murked by careful location, great 
and ftbnndant harveiita. 

nr the mt>at remnrkable of American sects are the Mormons, 
I which the deluded Sain/s, as they t^ll themeelves, are said 
in poetjcal justice to an imposition practised some two hnn- 
fean aga A very cleyer French writer, the Abb^ de la 
'daVayer, engaged, iu 10$O,iu a spirited coatvowrsy with a 

scholar and wit, HI. de Montmor. In a series of brilliant 

liwirieal attacks the Abh^ plajra conntlcsa variations on the 

r his adversary, and repeatedly pretends to derive Montmor 

ormoD, whieh he declares to bo the flreck word ^lop^tar, 
eorow] Nor does the curious coincidence stop here; for 
Ritioue Mormon of 1(J43 — a book pretending to hare been 
n by M- do Montmor, but in rt-ality a scurrilous parody — 

in favor of polygamy ! Hence, argues the well-known 

I Bovs, in MottM awl QufriM (Jan., 1858), this early French, 
mo5l. probably furnished the anthor of the new hook of 
n. whoeToi- ho may have been, with the leading idea and 
'prominent features. The history as welt us the shocking 

—if theircrecd can 1>o honored with such a name^of this 
igantic of all impo3tnreg since Mabomef s days, have been 

and BO admirably described by recent travellers, that noth- 
bo added here. The T^lkr-day Saints may well be left 
just retribution by which they must sooner or later he over- 

The Oentiles, as they conteniptnoutily style all ontsidera, 
ly encroaching upon their t^rritury, where, according io u 

bead •! the Ctenk 

Thej itiB ri^ iWr 

u at 0>e»(^ 

of tbe TezTi«HT of Da 

IS ipintaal, o^itRsia fail 

of iariutioa •! tluir bmI 



crawib •till oimm Ikoai dotiat lBadi»vfaec« wntcfaed pom 
fiithv cnme role wuftma^ ia muna vitk ^;iiomia» ud co 
tioii, and doaea* of vomeo are still mtM or fmied~~v Qm 
tiei of ipiritaal marnage are caOed br tkem — to >>n« hoebi 
order to eoter beaTen thnm^ hii agencj— bat their di 
Domberad. Honaoa rale ia Utak Im ende&U; oodne toj 
** A free pren ha« dnpoted Brtgfaaa's poverfnl ioBaeaeail 
mittda of hia ignon&t Ibllowezv Hoaaat federal jnd^ll 
fused dtizraship to tfae Ptopbef s Utatt ncmitA. bettuw <i 
polygamy, and a large influx of mmen of OtnU'le monli 
morab nt all, has greatly \mht»*J titt OT^^rwh^ltning, p 
mmjotiij, by which the Sainta hare long controlled the ter 
(Xev York Tribune^ March 7, ISn.) 

The Shnkura detserre meutioQ h&re only in aa mncb m i 
now couCned U> America, and tht^ txamv may benoe he cut 
an Americaniim. Their doctrine also has caaastMiUy p 
lince they receded about 1770 in Englaud from the Qnahcn 
BOW derive tfat!ir name and their worship from their sok>nin 
ahaking dance, and the importance they attach to ahal 
mt:ntiou^ in the Bible, quoting words like: ** The Lord pi 
that he would sfiakt the earth with terror,** — "In that di 
abottld be a great shaking in the land of lua^" — " 111 
thak* the hearenH and the earth,'' — " 1 will tkak* all oati 
ihc desire of all nations tdiall catae^* — and according to thei 
" Yet once more I will ehakf not the rarth only, hut also 
signifying the removal of things that are aJkiiva, a* of 
tliat are made, that Uiufio things, which cannot be jAofa 
remain." At lii« same time they d>.-clan: that the word U 
the verM, " And the (le«ire of iJl iwtious shall 

TffB CflUHVH. 

^T}^ is feminine, cliat cotistiqaently salvation \fa& antiouiincd to 

to nurakiDd througli wotnnu, the noptioi "Bride of the 

lb," and this fi>malc .Saviyiir wajs Ann Lee, the founder of their 

1 She is to them the "Pesire" of the prophet, and their 

itual mother, and aa thus redemption It) completed in both 

tea, (he moc must dii- out, ami the SAai-erg are called upon to 

)mpliKb tbia extinction by preaching and prucliaing celibacy. 

It can hardly be prvsuini-d that tlic ^^'irtVua/iaYs, not itaknova 

England, btit abounding in America, claim any religious 

;tf r; at least Mr. PeiTV, as quoted by Mr. W. 11. Dixon, mtb ; 

\Am a spiritKoIigi, I have yet 1o learn that ve hold anything as 

I am opposed to any resolution that has the word 

in it" Their terminology h ns trite as their doctrine. 

is a dark, motley crowd ul' w;zards. ^'itches, mid spiritual 

rt. So called, that have sooner or later invested all lands, and 

lie common property of the deril," said that zenlous divine, 

CT. P. Cartwright, long before the famous Fox Girls, of 

iter, in New York, revived the absurd theory of spirits in 

or elsewhere comtiiuiiiug with nii-u on earth by knocking ou 

I and n-alle. IlyEteric women and silly men serve as mediumtt 

Bgh whom the spirits have sjwken innch t>alderda8h, but so 

fiuled to muko known a single fact of real nsefultiess; and 

'papers, such as the Spiritual Aga of Boston, Massachusetts, 

■edulously, that '"a Ctrrk is hi^ltl for Mnlium I>eveloi>- 

aod Spiritual Matiifestationa at Bloom iield-street every 

ty, morning uud evening, admission five cents; and every 

kraft-^moon, admission free." The ndTye/^ of these organs 

lislod enthusiasts may he judged of from the following 

lot« told in the same paper (October 3, 1868) : '■ A few eveningB 

aa a private CireU of Spiritnalist^ were receiving commn- 

}n8 from the other world fn>m a little cliild^ it ceased 

iy to communicate, but after repeated solicitations it came 

and in infantile language said: "There's a good deal of 

iff^Qce now, than when I was on earth. Then my dear mamma 

to t*ll me little children should be seen and not heard; now 

children must be heard and not seen." And upon the 

Strength of such revelations, the Insane Asylums of the Union 

flilad with hundreds of victims of Spiritualitl vi>ilat\on$. 

:w»nld b« difficult to understand how the practical sober mind 



of the American can be bo eoailj led utny, 
insatiable carioBity of some, who are ea^ 
the other world, and the aatii&etion nh' 
spirits have always foaod in ventniiaf 
the sake of the risk, and in the ctf 
conquer where weaker minds inoor 
how energetically such erron / 
phantly the fraternal lore amor 
by the Union MeetiBgi held ir 
every sect is represented, a&d 
OS well ai indlTidoal sabrat*' 



poUtical langiui^ of every nation bears natunUlir the 
of the peculiar ch&raoter of the lawi and the conatitntion 
tr which they live, and thug English confiervatisra is reflected 
^ihe eteatiy maiiittiuuiico of fumilitLr imme» und Lernie, gener- 
aftsr generation, whilst the epeech of tho mobile vulgut in 
it Itepubliu chaogetf aliooit from year to y«ar. The actiTe 
upatiou of the maases, and the cxt^jision of the right of suf- 
. to the Tery lowest and most ignorant cliuaos hare, moreover, 
the admission of so many vulgar and cant terms that in 
tics, above all, thii line becwoan slung and aolemti speech is not 
ra perceptible. Where appeals are made at every election to 
aasembUtfS, uoc uufrequently coausiiug lately of tso-callcd 
|[(an Whites, and of Blacks but recently emancipnted from 
iirery and all its blighting consoquenccii. strong colors mnst be 
pd to paint the adversary, and still stronger langoage to impress 
IbsdiUl minde. The newspapers join, as a matter of necessity, 
ik the general hue and cry, and foster the taste for violent epithets 
lod picturesque expressioiu. The very heroes of the day are 
ncommeuded on the score of their humble origin and modest 
oocnpatiou — the atlf-made man is preferred to the aocomptished 
|U of distinguished paronta, and to be a gentlemtkn has well- 
Ik become an insupemble barrier to ancccss In political life, 
^pi an early period in the history of the republic the people 
B» felt the indirect flattery of the boost that ite great men had 
|Eee bveu among the lowest; it implied the prospect and the 
^t of the lowest to rise, as self-made men, to the higbyst place 
f honor. They recollected with pleasure that Bo£«r Shermau 


had been a ehoemaker, Benjamin Prankliu ■ 
printer, and Eufus Hatch a peddler. Henry Okj, 
Commoner, as hU friends loved to call him, wiu Kpokcni 
electiou-tiuLc as the MiUer boy of the Slashes, and 
Ooln M the RaU-splitter and Flathoutman, Ui 
dency of Andrew Jobssoii, odc& a tuloij ■ Cot 
Senator Wilfion, a journcyinftii shoemaker, and of fieprSi 
Banks, a blacksmith. Vouderbilt, the owner of a cm 
railway from New York to Niagara, loves to tell how he :'s boat when a youtli, and Dr. H«lmbold, the mill 
how he began lite as a cabin-boy. 

Hence also, the tendency to familiarize ^rcat men by tb« 
names, and thuii brinfr them down, as it were, to the Im 
maeeeB. Guueml McClellan was lAitle Mac or >'«iiii|; JV 
Hooker became t^glUing Joe, and Sliehdan is ctill LUi 
Sherman was known as Mad Tom, and Sumner aa the Bv 
Wotfdt — ev*;n the Orleans Princes, who mad« a eampaip 
General McClellan, had to submit to the nniv«rBal ( 
Count of Parifii becoming Captain Pvrrjf, and the 1 
Chartrce Captain Chatten. ^or were the commander 
Conft*il<.-i-at^ t^|iarcd on their aido: General I>eB waa i 
Johustou Old Jw, and Longstreet the War-HorM ; Jad 
camo immortal as StoftetvaU, and an nalocky namemW 
wall J the duhiug Cavalry leailer Staart was knowni 
Early aa Cra^ctrt, and poor old General Prioe, in th« 
Old Ikui. 4 

Even tlie name of the confederacy of Ststoa, the fAm 
UniUd iStaies vrub, from the beginning, too formal for I 
people, and the fam iliar letters if. &, seen on all goTomiiM 
^y throughout the land, were soon univeisatly r«ad l/t\ 
^iiB story of its origin, in the war 1812, i« geuerallr to 
A Mr. Samuel Wilson, invariably called Uncle Sam by 
and fricudtif was an inspector appointed by the gOTern 
rocoivQ largo supplied for the army, contracted for in Nf 
aod to hv d(.'livei%d at Troy, on the Hudson. It so bappi 
casks and chtaia were all marked with the iuitiaU of 
tr^^, SIbert Anderson (£. A.), above and beneath th« 
eouijtry. United States (U. S.) A l^c«>ti«na workmsu 
wtiu^i^ nyjiing of the Mteri in -JMt replledr "^l 



», iinlMS they raeaut Elbert Anderson aud Uncle Sam." The 

tiok, wu rep^atwl by the other workmen, and by them car- 

iutu the ormyr and recalled wlierever articloa marked with 

fimiUar i/. & rrappeured in their presence. Thus the nmiM 

from the Coiuniiuary's barrel of beauE Ihroughoiit the 

,tQd hiu never since lost ita hold upon the pubUo mind. 

r«T. J. iL X^well sings: 

" For I liBVP loTwl my conntry tisoe 
My cYeieelli filled Uieir tooketi; 
And Ur*el« Sam 1 rOYervnce, 
Furlic'lorly tiu pockets." 

Mrmyi it s«ems, even thia dcaignalioQ wait deemed too fall 
ibrnwl, untl, a$ eftrly as the year lH'.i7, it became a familiar 
among Soldiers, to Atand Sam, whenever drinks or refresh- 
its of any kind hod to be iwid for. Aa they were nccostomed 
t7ncle Sam pay for all their wants, Lo »faml Sam, became to 
mind equivalent to the ordinary slang phrase: to aiartd 

kilfit this is the famtliar name of the national goTemment at 
it is Abroad, perhaps, letter known as Brother Jonathan, 
laame is taki^u from Jonathan Trnmbnll. who was governor 
tnectieut at a time when (Jeneral Washingt^jn had come to 
lusetta CO assume command over the army, in tbo War of 
Bevolution. He discovered here such a want of supplies^ 
laaitiuo, and even good-will» that the caiise seemeil almost 
In thifl diflicnlty he found great support in the ener- 
I and wise governor, and thus contracted the habit of sayingi 
ksniy emei;gency, " Wo must coDsnlL Brother Jonathan." The 
became soon familiar to hia aids and subordinates, and 
!!h them to his anuy ; they took it up, and the hy-wurd 
qntckly over the country. Brother Jonathan beonme. 
Itoeforth, the famiUur designation of this country, as John Bull 
^Ibat of England, and " etuce that dny," snys a recent writer, 
igrrat many people have found Brother Jonathan n very help- 
relative in time of need." {Overiand Afonthlif^ March, 1H71.) 
AUiiustall of the technical terms oonnectcd with the goveru- 
SMUt of the United Stated were necessarily those long ramiliat- to 
jlisb eai-s, but many received here a very different meaning and 


i. '■'""'*' ro^^^^Tf*^-* til, 

d^ toe i«u^' ■* *^ C^u^l^Z *** J*** 
* «« ^utae„ SUte, m!!: *** Th» 


iouse and Culpeper Court-House have 
Civil War, while the real names of the 

claim having girea op certain 

'iTemment, reserring, hovever, 

independence. These latter 

.ff late as StaU-Higbta, aiaoe ih» 

.dtDre and extent was ostensibly the 
'. The tendency is here, as in Earope^ 
rer, andthe Federal Government is daily 
pense of the States. The anutitution- 
id nsnrpation of power is neeessarily 
received a severe shock in the recent 
ies of government The one wat Hr. 
Higher Law, first broached by hin^ in 
.e Senate, on freedom from slairery in the 
he ConstitntJon regnlatea onr steward- 
Qtes our domain to union, to jnitioe^ to 
ty. But there is a higher law tium the 
tes our aothority orer the domain." 
lority is, that may be thns claimed, it 
alleged law ; but another antiiority has 
jsftilly established in the goTemment, 
*, a new word made to meet new exi- 
.s believed to have first nied it in some 

purpose of designating tb& scope of 
«rtain cases, neoeasarily supersedes the 
[ts first aotnal application is ^neraUy 
nont, when he arailed hinu^ of hit 
under-in-Ghief in Idie West, to declare^ 
the mere presence of tlift fednal az^ 
08 not sanctioned by gOTemmm^ bat 
ud snbseqnently nude to justify son* 
ken by the Federal authorities, 
r, the Union oontaint withiai its oo» 
ryo States, as it wer^ not yet possess 
a to mtitle them to representation in 
e common government The !Bir«oii> 
{orernor, eta, uid they aremprasssted 

- m 

use from their oriijiDuls. The use of Goerrnmntt 
an article, and atiU moru su of an wljt'utiTp ffovmt 
coiidemued hy English autUorities as & bartitinsni. if 
this coDDtry. while tho term yubrrnaiorinl liiittH its loca' 
the pOTreni of iii>tuU> govonior, iucuDlnuli«t.iiictu)U tu 
gov«ritm«ut. Nor is th« specul meaain^ of Ike iix»ruti 
of executive officer, for the president of the ITnitMl 
ahrood to the term; the Judidarjf also, aa ileiioLing (hM 
of govPTuniciit ill which judicial powtr is vested, is 
The third branch of the goTemmentof the Union, the 
body, in ia like mauuer kuovrn as t'ontfresf, cundis 
Senate aod the House of ReprfMntalivte. Fomierly i 
CDsloDiJtry to Kpcak of 7'A« Ottufrest, bitt the name bc' 
IJuniliar that the article wae promptly otnitt^, and we 
that "^sincf the last thirty yoara in Kngland altto. u half' 
man may speak of The CongreeB as vcU as of The 
but such is not oren the oouTeraatioaal prucUcc of w« 
EngliehDien." Its labors, its powers, nnd practices, are' 
conffresiional, and thus Mr. K. Kvereti dixtiiigui^bn 
" congretsiotial and official labor.'* The ffetrate, consis 
members for v^ch >Stah>, tlie goneral intcreiits of trhich i 
■ent, ia presided over by the Vic^ President, aud it and tW 
tff IitiprMentativt»j wlio arc chown by act-rtain niunberof ie 
auts. and repre.eent the people more directly, constitute join! 
legislatire brunch of goTerumunu A CWyrss^/Han is 
member of the Kouse, though some writvrs apply t 
Hgnatora also. Tht! i>tat«t, which form th« Union, ha 
three hranobcs, thongh tinder different naniM: tho 
hero styled Qov«rnor, the legislative branch a Oetttrai 
Massachasettfi). a Oeneral Assembly, or briefly th« 
(id Virginia). Hembera are chosun to gU on the 
many States : " h\ this yesr Governor Bandotph nriis to 
to sit on tbfl Legiilature, bat Mr. Jefl^rson wa« loo 
opposed (o such a plan." (Tncker's Ltft of J*fw9\ 
This body generally inocts or situ at the Stat*- Houstl 
either specially mode to nerve the porpose, or poMibly derivi 
the Dutch Stadhvya, butin eiUwr oase peouliar to Amcrtoa, 
the judiciary ait at the Court'S(nii$, The Utter name la in 
of tlie bouthem tjtutes vtrr geneimUy giren to th^ oo 

tfauf Fairfax Conrt-flouite and CttJpeper Couri-Hovae have 
famous in thp lute Civil Wnr, white the real nameaof the 
w uLtcrly uukuuwti to liistory. 

Stat««, it ia well IcDowD, claim having giTen up nertniti 
of their own to the Federal Goverumeut, nrserriiig. howover, 
la other rights necMsary to their indc^vindeiice. Tht^so latt«r 
become mogt futallf known of Iat« u State-Rigltis, aince the 
M tu Lhoir precise nature nnd extent Trtui ostvnsiblj the 
of tbo lat« Ciril War. The tendency is lierc. as iii Kiiropc, 
d centralization of power, at)d>the Federal Uuverumeiit ifi daily 
Dg tjttonger at the expense of the SbUejL The iMn»iitHlioH~ 
of every such eo-calk'd usurpation of power u Qe«e««urJly 
diacti8«ed, but hu received a oevore shock in tho recent 
ion of two new theories of government. The one was Mr. 
, Seward's device of u Higher Law, first hrouchcd by him^ in 
in a spetcb made in the Senate, on freedom from stuvexy in tiie 
ioinca. H« said: "The Conslttution regtiittt-cs our eitew»i-d- 
the Constitution devotes our domain to union, to jostioe, to 
ee, to wclfure, to liberty. But there is a higher law than the 
tntion, which regiilateti our anthonty over the domain." 
id vaf^ue as the oathority is, that may be thus claiinod, it 
fonnded upon an alleged law ; but unotlier authority hu 
qtpealed to and gQCceesfUlly establitshed iu the government, 
lis is the War Potcer, a new woi'd madi! to meet new exi- 
I. Mr. J. Q. Adams is believed to have first, used it in some 
Stale }xipors, for tlie purpose of designating the scope of 
lurtial law. which, in certain coses, necessurily &u]jerei-de)) the 
of the legislatitru. Its tirut actual application is generally 
nted to General Fremont, when he availed hlmwlf of hit 
■y authority, as Com niander-in -Chief in the West, to declare, 
ill slaves were free by the mem presence of the Federal ar- 
The measorc itself was not sanctioned by government, but 
trine was adopted, and snhsequently made to justify some 
tory boldest steps taken by the Federal authorities. 
the side of the iStatts, the UnioQ coutHius within '\l% oou- 
n TtTriiorif-s, embryo .States, ah it were, not yet posseus- 
DMMs&ry population to entitle them to repre^entution in 
and a shan in the common governnieuL The Kxeou* 
ipDiDU Uieir officere, governor, etc., and they are reprewnted 


bv DtitffaUg^ baring a Toioe, bnt no vote, on tiw Id 
greas. Baoh State is sf^n sulidiviili^ into nnaUv 
vhioh in tlw Eastero States aro kuowii m iomax or fMVuUi 
Louisiana, from the former Fr«Qoh r6gime, as f an.ii«f ; u 
Otfolma. a« dutricts ; and in all tbe other Stalei, as cmbU 
eoaneetion vith the latter tonu, Mr. Pickering alreadj noti 
nniTcraal fdaoiiasm osed by Americans in apeakiogof tbs 
tf iinfkMr», forgetful of the fioct that shirt (a abare) mi 
aane thing as eennty. 

U has already beon etat«tl that in popular Janguage tb 
ris, OD a larger Kale, divided into tbe Aor/A and the St 
land th« HVk^ with adispocition to speak of each oftk( 
as of a Mdioii, and of ita special int«rost or charoctorislit 
ii«Ht»t — a distincEion which the strong temlency toward < 
■alion ie lik«ly to eSkot mora and mora A Deoenarr- 
divtsiOB, hun-evrr, is that into districts, of wlw^ each coi 
Marly aa possible the number of inhabitants whiohij 
send on« n^praaentative to the Houm. 

For tha parposea of an election, these districts, i 

also, ars still further subdivided into pncinetti 
which polls aro estcibliahud. ''Ttie result of the eleetioa 
yi>l been asoertained, oa the reports from tbe onthring ] 
will not be in for several d&ys." (Kichmond Ji'nyitirer,K 
8. 18TU) M 

As the proper arrangoment of districts is of the i9§ 
inRiieoce on the resalt of tlio elecdoua, the manner of 49 
iitff, 08 it is called, their due aharo of representntian to all 
a political measure of vast importance, and, ii ia feared, ac 
oarried out with nndoubtcd impartiality. Wheoever. fovj 
a new CvtitH* h htAd, tui the ennmetation of all the iuhab: 
ihe UnitM States every ten years is called, and shows tba 
distriota have increased in their popnUtioUt a new a/q)0n 
has to be made, and in doing Uiis more regard is generaU 
the interests of the party than tbe rights of the pcop 
word haa become so familiar to American ears, thai J 
nnfreqttently used for othor potpoaes also, as when J. 
epoaka of '• Those lodiea who get too lictlo in dame 
apporiiowiunt bill" {OhareiHd SkeichMy Jl., 87.) 

The process of laying out tho distriut« themaelve^j 



Lfformnch political ingeDnity,and the dutr tettHff new StttteSt 

Mctint/ old Slat<!s.A$ it in tcnhiiically cnllcd, in an occuion 

iL'XcitflmGnt. UhucTMi obtained a gpecifti name— i;*rri)r- 

f—inm a Mr. KIbridge Gerry, a prominoit politician of 

loaetts, who in ISl 1 lirat ))r4)poaed to rediatrict thut rStiite in 

ka^auDDCr that thoae sections vhiobpun « IatRc nuniher or 

rattfs, might be brought into one dirtriot " Gtrrimander 

tbe name printed under a pictiiro of a pretvnded uionatec, 

r^iape was Tnoditied from the dietortcd swj^phr which Mr. 

rfA fnenda inflicted on part of the 8t»te for the sake of econ- 

ig uaioritiM." (Bo8taii2>iui^.^twr<t^tfr, December 6, 1871.) 

prevailing foodiieM for fancy names tias, of course, not 

the Uuiun and ita great diviaiuns alho^and thoi, among 

that art! merely local, three anch terms, at least, are in nni- 

UA£. T'hA Western Suu&t, with tlieir yonthfnl vij^r and 

icmutDg politiral powrrr are geucrally designated as the 

Wmi ; tile Nuw Kn>?luiid .SLate.% that iiuvu m lung rulrd 

■wvLoivyt an; fiuniliorly known aa Yn'tkndom, and the Soatli- 

i^tatsifr— during the war, the wbole Cocfifderaoy— -Hfti'tine; a 

\fi\\.i: ulxjvx most prubably <lerived from the geographical line 

by Mesare. Mitaon and IHxon, which formerly ar-parated the 

im the slaTe-holdrng States. U civmc first into iiic when 

lAuew 8tato that bad just Joined iXw Un ion, was beliered 

kb an SIdomdo, wberti colossal fortunes cuuld bo made in a 

.time; and tboosonds went there, alone or with their ^lavos 

vn a new care«r aud accumulate treasures. Ndgro melodies 

tlie shortened tiirm, and from tUcm Dixie passed into com- 

tue, as the name of the happy, abundant South. It ought, 

to be mentioned bttre, iiiat another Tenion exists of 

on^D. A Mr. Dixy is said to have lived during the lost 

itary, when iflaverj' sLill existed in the Estate of New York, on 

^iaefea now known as Kanbattan Island. He had lat^ 

irs of slavee, many of whom, iu the course of his long life. 

It to the South, to cultivate broad tracts of land which he 

thera. These poor people, torn from their home and their old 

looked back with inconse longing to the land of their 

, negroes having iu those days a tmrpming attachment to 

Htiei, and in their mamoi-y Dixtfi^ farms, and all concvraing 

gradually assumed most chnrming colors. Thus they would 



talk uuil sing af Dixif, till negro-miastrelar spnukj; t^l 
imt'of these sungs inlo a ballad, and Dixir was bora. Ibei 
if not slrikUigly probable, baaat all events tlio merit oti 
the MortlierDvr to a t«rm regarded with macb diridte ud i 
icul hatred. 

or reully liistoric uanics whidi detignat* certain partii 
United States, tUe Old Oolong and the Old Ifouiimou ut 
thi> only two that survive. l'h« former deai;i;BiMcs tbe 
held hy the original Pl\inouth Colouy. wfaich preceded 
yvurs tiiu evtabliehiueut of a coloujr on UassacbuBi?tts Ikr;^ 
XG^i tli« twu colonies were uuitud. in one, tiie State of Ifi 
Ktts, but the old natne stiU survives, and. h obahabcd \if.\ 
dvsccndaiili of the first settkrs. The othi^r uum« wa*' 
Vii^iuia by bcr loyalty to tbc Btuart* during the ti: 
Conimonvealth. Tbe ootonista on the James Oarer 
recogiiizt' Cmmwvll and ihu Frul«utomie, imd atrenoousl^ i 
tnincd tbvir allegiaooo to (Jharles 11.. wbo was then in exile oi^ 
Ooutinent. Ther «ten wrote to him, throagb their 
Sir William Berkoloy. aMurin^ him of tlieir loyalty, Mtdt 
ing tbe moat enrn<:^at wishes fur bin hoalth, bapptne«s,Kndi 
tion to the throne. They aim inTtted the king, who vat 
Breda, in Holland, |ioor in |im-iiu and ap^nkrently poorer is 
peetSf to emigrate to Virginia. CromwflL sent n fleet Is 
them into submission, and, ta Uaucrofl stute4 it> *^tbev 
surrender to force, but yielded by a mutual deod and 
compact'' As soon, however, ai ntvta was received of Oroni 
death, Charles IL was solemnly proclaimf^d l^ing of Great 
Ireland, aitd Virfftnia, and all writs and processes were il 
his name, so that he was virtnully King of Virginia, in. 
fore be had begun to reign ut homo, ife jure. For uuee the I 
Idnf wn not uugratoful; be restored tbe goreruor, lie]: 
OromireU's order, to bin plaoe, oonamanded tbe arms of Vi 
to be quartered with those of Oreat Britain on thu ruyol 
COD, as they appear on coins struok as late as I iTIt by oidtfj 
-Ueorgc IIU and anthoriacd—ot least by taoii consent— tbe i 
tibewofds Oid [hminion. It hits been asserted tlmL, with ai 
titm^jAta and cherish similar loyalty elsewhere, the £nglisb< 
ernment has recently bestowed upon the remaining BritJ^I 
inees of North America die title of ^ Tbe /hmimivH uf 



'■Tisian. frw]nrTitIv fonn(! iilltnl«*d » in hiwVn Rj well 
i> iircas. ami when larifT qucslions are ilisonssfrl in 
VBgTVSB. of CMtutoob ocoTHTeDM ill political speeobM, is kfant of 
Pat-i^, and Oni/SUttvB, acrording to thoir Ixml^riiig 
two preal orttina or tljf Gulf of Mexico. Tlic Intter, 
Jy,Iuive alwa^a had iiittreiita and strong cluims of tlipir 
thpv alone prnduce coUon, and long beli«'v»t timt <'f>f/tiH 

motUi of the new repablic. S Phirihun I'num, however 

ftiau tu liie oonredcravy of many ijtates which oonsUtute 

m (TT^at Union, has ettU the die»dvau<tigcr of being ncithvr 

' in th«nght nor original in form. The fact is, it vhh tiiken 

a modest, metricul composition in Latin, written by Ur. 

in Carey in Philadelphia, and entitled: ''The Pyramid of 

States," in which oecnra the following vonea : 

Anltia t)T'''ii*^'^><' <»11U ml astm cxpui." 

The ifarw faroona vonls were, of conree, here uIm but n qnota- 

)o, and the same motto occurs already In 1731 on the titlu-iiage 

Gentl^mati'v Magazine, published in Ixiadon. {Ovtrland 

Ujf. M«fcli, IRri.) 

le (Is^ of thp TTnit<^d States, eontainJng nrijrinally only thhv 

stripe?, nltcrnntrly nnl and white, wan mloptrd hy rrsolntion 

Congress. Jnne 14, 1777. with a Union of thirtwn etars on 

jomi •' represenliiij^ a now confitelliition." The concluding 

Bnggestod twri facts. The number indiciUnl the nntnl)er 

StafM In the new Union, and has, hence, be«n slt-sdily iu- 

with - —^iion of ft new State. The Union it«lf 

iwertr, , r.-cana* the stripes were in all prnhahility 

a niodiflcaHon of the first rppnbliran Hag of Boston, wliioh 

' ■' ' - of the old St Oeor^' ensi^. thoiig^i the crosi 

tl by Governor Kndicott tw a sign of antichrist 

f^rt^iiently biatvd that the ooat-of-antifl of Omerat Waihing- 

-nsjfhree stars in the upper portion, and thre^ ban 

"« the eaetitcheoD, may bare snggestcd the new Oag; 

^■ver, no authentic evidpnc* of snch a tact, and it 

lighert degrw improbable that a young republic, in 

tte I : uf enthusiasm and liber^» would adopt as ltd enugn 






tbe b«ratdio blazos of a modest lOn^tish boii4e. The 
iHripta of the Uiiited !Stat<pS have 8iiir«iulTaDced tAthi* 
of &»ga anaoug the xuiuous uf the earth, in spiie o 
TromlmUa bitt«r Unm, eomplainiag that they 

" TVffe the txvin rohe of night 
And Bel the stan of glory there:, 
Inarribed vrilb inoonsiftlcnt types 
Ur liberty nod UurtccD itripe*." 

Sailors langh at it ffood'natnirdlr. and seeing it hcnKci, 
** There gueA the t^idiron f* while tho Confederate* in Hxii 
uKd to speak of thetr ovn tlajr (m tbe ^f:<7rji and Hnrt. A 
■nrf SMar* is aa unusual desigimtion, popular pvrha{i9 only 
poeti for the sake of Uie rliyin», as in the well-known line«- 

" Hnmli Tor ihc Scripts aod Stan, 
Harrih for uincxation ; 
Harmh for oax Tiinkw tars. 
And oat UniTcn*! Nation." 

A national anthem the great ivpuhtic ha« Aot yvl 
The SUtr-Spangled Bantiert written (luring tho lyar of 1^ 
Mr. Francid S. Kev, wlieu uu iMHinl » !^hip lying oppo«itf 
UcHenry, near Baltimore, over which ihc American Otg 
%Uig, is probably must gvnvtully at%opted at) duoh. Its cow 
ingliinee — 

" Ob say, doea that ttar-*ptngtnt bmtur yet wave 
O'er Uui laad uf the Itx-e aiid lh« home of the braref ** 

never fail to iuspire tlio patriotic heart. It is, perhap«r 
keeping with the foreign extraiitiuu of the vuat majunl 
American citiswnA, tiiat the naoet popular aoiig and the vn^l 
that can be called nalioual, from it-H umrereal popularity^ it | 
foreign- bom melody of I'anlte Doodle, which wasfirat priat 
177d, during the siege of Boston. 

Congn^M holds its jvmuirj after the precedent of tha 
Parliament; but the same term is applied in some uf (he 
to HpecJal courts of justice, engaged iu regidating merely 
affairs, like the granting of tioenses ur thti buiidiog of 
The members, who, after Eugli&li precedent, are ttyUd Mo, 
but, with American foudncsia for titles, retain the prcflx fivl 
hen baf^jor ti>,gel,ih4^j^Mr, ^ prd^ t^, deU*^'^ theiri 



said to be not oiifreqnentlj delivered for Sutwombt, m 
lion wbich bu made jl« wk^ witli a lurge niimtwr of Amcr- 
rtitical terms to KRftland, and is almost luitiiraiiKcd there. 
■ported term dcnotts there falK Koiimeots in speskiDg, m 
iided enthusiasm or tIctitioiiB syn)|iat!iy. Tho term nrigi- 
_tliiia: *'A puvc member of the Lower Houac of Congi-eaa, 
le Tenersble State of North Carolia*, representing u dis- 
rhiofa included tbe Coantj of liuncombf, iu wliich he 
wbow etylt; of speaking prodaced the ver>* commou cScct 
Iff the members from tbu Hall, iraa one day mldreaaing 
iSB, when, as usnal, fWDgbiog and bneC'ring cnmmencitl, 
membera begun leaving. He lutised » while, itnd iiesured 
that there need be no uneasineis on their part, atid that 
tlf it mattered, not how inony left, for he was not speuk- 
tbe House, but to Buncombe." (Richmond Ooinpiitr, 
17, J841.) Henceforth Bunctitnbe became tbe generic 
IT luy oonstitaencj, and paliticuuia, who spenk not on 
its thmr audience, but wluit maj* iuflacnoe ibiuo who 
tn them as their repreiieiitatiTets are utid to be talking 
An Kuglisii writer thinks " This parabk-, explaining 
pn of Buncombe, would form a very usefti) text to set up^ 
ely illustrated, over tho Speaker's chair in Parliament. " 
{, April, 1861.) With us tbe wortl baa suffen-d much 
it oae, and alreodv in 1856 wc find : '' That a great deal 
this (celebration of Washington's birthday) wus bunctim 
id bogus patriotiBm, is an opinion verj- po««bly t^tertained 
itttf of the judicious and gnive of our readers." {Harpar'a 
mint. Editor's Easy-Cbair, April, 1^6.) 
ie mark done by JUcmbora of Congress is very hu-gely infln- 
d by agents Itom without, and by certain established usages 
ttir own. Tbe former is collectively called the Lobby, a. term 
Ih, ori^nating in the German Laube, a bower or small ram* 
•koBRe, meant for many rc-ntnries nothing more than a small 
or entering-room, preceding a larger room. Iu America, tbe 
u and paaBagei tnrronndiQg the liati, in which legislative 
iea hold their meetings, soon monopolized tbe tvnn, aud in a 
ft time the men who assembled there to exercise whatever 
»ld« preeaur* they could bring to bear upon the legislatori^ 
» thunielTea oalled the Lobby- All who bad petition! to be 


AmtUl i Jl HUB. 


gnntedtCoatntU to be prea, or ttron of uit kind to bt < 
eith«r went »k— ?■** or seat TeUH]amli6«i agntti to Vi 
toD( to i<rt y kfaeir owue, aa it vu called. Capitalists 
power which wealth gmm ena where no bribei7 was i 
hi^ Mcial itaadiDg wai made ee^i[^e^blf. and eren 
tfaadiaBHOfaBilvexy Toice wvrt uvi wuuting tu secure thil 
c^ laiceptible membeza. "A cotninittee^'' taid tbe Nov 
Herald rtoentlT, ** ha« been sent to hihy a new appraprii 
oar Poet-office throiigh the House." (Jan. 13, 1871.) 
fouDg lady of great pereoDal attractioas, bat uot equal 
endowmeata^ was tbaa held to accouot: "Oh, 3iiu Vinnisj 
Utifbying is tdl Terr well, aod eveu buiton-hohng has do 
it; but to go and Bmilv bewitcbiugl}- till gre^n banks bring 
golden batter-cupa — isn't that a lettU too mnoh'-'*' (( 
Evening PMt, FeK 7. 1871.) 

Tbe oiembeiB thcraselres arr apt to have 8<^me favorite ; 
which allows them to appear geueroua while tbuj act fixua > 
i»h motive; in that can thev »re eaid to bare on on (#< 
Tbo incorporatioD of a tnding companj, the chartering of i 
r^lway, tlie reoeval of a valuable patent — all aticli 
ASM to grind. Tbe term is aUribnted to J. K. Panldii 
occurs before his time in a newspaper skeich in che style of I 
jatoin Franktiu'fi *' Too macb for your whistle." It i&tni 
a boy, who xras induceil by a cWrer fiction to turn tlie grind 
for another man to gritid hi* oxa. (Professor S. 3. BtUtt 
" Special legislation in behalf of private intereeta is one o 
cursosof this country, otherwise 80 t^lessod by the emilesof] 
Providence. The number of axes which are takeu to the 
State Capitols, to be ground at the public expense, is 
enormous." (New York Trihunt. March 23, 1871.) 

As many niemliers arc apt to be in the same postHMi, i 
liamentary usage hait established a system of bg-rclUnf, I 
is called, by vhich they engage to help each other am 
Tlie teruL is taken from the habit of ioggtirg, in the great m 
regiouE of tbe Northern States, to help each other in the hd 
work Lhey have to perform — tbo rolling of their immeitM 
&om the place where the tree has been felled, to the vM 
which they are to be floated down. Each logging^amf 1 
assist the others in accomptisliing a work whioh wouU beUf 



r of any single rm^. In like mAimer, one member of t\w 
ive body, nnoble to cominatu! sufficient votes for his own 
I, saya to anotlipr memlier in (he fHnio position : Voin for 
and I will rot(^ for yfMir bill: an<l thU U niWpil loff-roUiap. 
es3 is e&peoiallr resorted to by a n<!V class of tnim, tlint 
(wnn? into proniinence, applicants far largt* grants of 
8 to con»i«vMii.'3 ehavtored to Imild railways, lay fteej>-Nfn 
ih lint-s, or to ciipiei^ in other grrat works of nationihl imjwr- 
Thc froqncnt impndence of tbeir dpninnils anti the perH- 
ith which they piirsne their end, have brought them the 
hie niime of inmi'^rftiiers. They are tlnis rvfurr'-'d to in a 
haractcrizing a reoeut goreniorof California : '■ Haighi bus 
^ on t-be whole, a good governor. He has fought rigorouaW 
'rrn^j of land nnd money ^(thhcru, and his conrsc on this 
iMfiM lias made bim fenred mid disliked iir them ; but irith the 
■ gv'ncrsllv if has mtul« hiin ]iopnlftr.*' (lioston AdrfHiner, 
ftr 7, IHTl.) 

IbtDre recent times lop-rolUng has losl much of its former 
Dgie. *8 now-iwlaya sill soh^mM of importanop ar*^ taken np 

rah**cl ihrongh by ringsi, eombiimtiona nmdt'^ ontsido the 
bv whose activity and am]ile means everything is 
\ beforehand, and all interests are eeenred, before the 
is reached by the House. Men who arc not in the ring, 
hr from eonscientions ecniples or becmtse they command 
nfluence on the floor, are eaHed OHtaider.i. and are left nut in 
Wire-ptdlinf} in not an Ameriejin cnslom exehwively, as 
of speech is na cAiX as the Marionettes of Italy and 
'. on whose miniature stage the actors were set in mulion 
', which the exhibitor palled (Vom above; but wiVe-«pori'i'»j, 
aUo called, has probably reachetl a higher degree of perfec- 
than ftbroiid. "Yon can have no idea of the extent to 
texTt-puUing U pnteflswl in the Congress of the tlnitcd 
,** wrote already poor. quenUons MJya Martineau ; "every 
f the floor seems but to move in obedience to some power 
outside." Great skill in this art is facetiously called 
'jjrery iu the West. I'ipe-lmjing, ou the eontrnry. is aci 
M t*.*rm here, derived from a fictitious and treacherons 
;poadence, which pretended to give an aceoiint of the method 
ich voters from Philadelphia were hrought to the polh in 





: «( water-pipea !nim.} 
first d«aouiicoil 
diaoovcnsl to liave 

odiatn upon a jwlilla 

imtfnmiion upon tb« pull 

AS HMW utoorporatea in tkc di 

to <lesignaie Uie Bn| 

>atr wt «atitled to ToUt, 

••^««* eJa«N of bUitj 

««rihK«hM tbemwli 
»y bppe «rtlkMr ip««d5 
trn^ -pTOb»b»T in the L( 
' ft Ml wlueb prDtniaea to avunr 
taniaterasted id iu deSe 

ud iiiiitiBiintri 4«boH7 rinlli^ thM of London 
odl » haadkcnAtrf a avw, hm rMiied raa«^r into tlw 
Wf Wifn Ig g wh i tMiw vfc«» it tBdieUea m bill, or prapc 
lAkk •mSk bescic A* lipriuoci— and no one else— & 
moml fowl acxBidkM for h» i m » w « >i> ob, so his figaraU^ 
■ike it B my f u aa i to ecntck th« ihnghiU of oiodcni k| 
Tbs torn iTH is 1S70 eU— dgd 6vm iiu> biQ oc bi 
(npoaer of it." {lMi4r, FcbnvT C 1871.) A new woi4 
fband w our dictioaaiie^ is the bum of pccsoaa rlnl^ 
the two HoBMB lor the paipaw of Abtius an i^ipeeorant 
point in dUpate bctiroen tbtmi as tbej form a Chi 
Committee, tber are indindaalfy kaowa ac C4iN/«rMc 
iM M oa-OoMBUttee on the App w t r iat io o Bdl <hik<L Tlw^ 
OB tbc part of tha Hoan voold not agivr to the 
the Senate to niae the Balanet of all the Cnitcd St 
(Xew York rnftwa*, Febnufj S;, J8;i.» To this _ 
•Iso the Flaaier, a candidate i'»jm*M>q>iTtg semersl Mut 
therefore not considered direoUj mponaihle to any <u^ 
The term originated in Texas and has never beooaw Tcfl 
** J. W. LawTence, E^^ reqaesta m to Titfadiaw his ■■ 
candidute fur Floater in the di&thct oompoaed of the < 
^•7ttte, Bastiopt ud Tram." (Texas SiaU 6t 

mi: "1 


Ku^lish lerm to rat, as applied to membeiTi who suddenly 
Wf f^m a position the; hare loug mnintiuned. ie in Amei-ics 
bv the et^nallT siiggestiire term to crawfish or craifjinh, 
from the peculiar mode of locomotion of tlie uuimal. 
of the word originnted in t!ic West, but hai become quit* 
, '•fiunernl Wiso," said the Richmond ^ftjiowr/'i^nw- 
wfally ; be haa actually appeared in a United States Court, 
fast is iiiurx-, lia« complimented Judge L^ndcruood on liia 
ly and other good qoHlitiee." (May 13, 1870.) When a 
pe. odious to one party, t« to be forotd through by Uie 
of the other puTty, tho former arc apt ix> attempt deluviug 
Tot* by every ttTailable device, and this, as has been atmed 
m^ i4 eaX[^ jUibuateriiuf. One of the means employed far 
tirpoae is to deliver loug speechea, merely to consume tim«, 
pr \h\a the expi-e^sion to gas, bos. of late, coine into iipe. Qa» 
long been acknowledged to b« an essential element of 
wpnlar character?, aud R. W. Emergen Bays with rarecaudor 
Mt aererity: "Tis odd that our people ihould have not 
tn the brain, but a little (/djt there. Can it be that the Ameri- 
reat has refreahwl some ireeds of old Pictiah barbarism, 
mAj to die out — the lore of the acarlet feather, of beads, 
tinsel? The Engli-sh have a plain tast«. Pretension ia 
lie especially of American youth." 

e lobby and the riugn are said to be beat opon lilting tbetr 

At Vnele Sam's crib, as the National Treasury is often 

the members are sometimes accnsed of providing for 

nrn interests not less eagerly. Wbilo in Congress tbey 

Kides their regular salary, milmffe, a somewhat estrava- 
■jisation for llieir travelling expimses from home to 
igton and back again. Constructive mileaffe is paid when 
tmbera are only supposed to have gone home, and to have 
ed to the spftt nf govemnipnt, wjtliout having actually 
ibsent This is the case, for instance, when one ConyrcM, 
a called, expires (m the 3d of Mai*ch, and the next Cnn- 
M^ns its sossiuns on tho 4tti of thai mniitli : all tho nutm- 
rho ftff/f/ over., t. e., are re-elected for a new Congress, ure 
heir full mileage as if they had ix'tuirnL'd to their home and 
eam« back to Washjagton. The matter is trifling as far as 
4Jorit7 is conccmed, but in the cases of memhcrs from dis- 



lanf States, 08 from the Paciflo coasl; or N*w M«ien,ti* 
MSiimca gigantic proportiona. It was thiw that " Dr. MtMi 
new Ponatyr fl-oin Georpsi. who hart been kept nut oT b 
ftinco 186S, and only ait four dnys in the lost Conirni 
uIIowihI fourteen tliousand dolltLrs hack pbt." [WaM 
Patriul, Mnrch 7, 1871.) It is a painful fact tba), bwiiil 
fompMisntioii, membcra are frfqitently arriiwsd of enjori 
otliLT offleiala of the govornment, certain n4'rqui«i 
poeition, wliich iirc known by iho offbnsirc ahmg term 
and tilffUings. The babit must be in the Kugheb Um 
iloes not. alrcitdy, Ilumlct eay : "And rfo sfiU,i>y tbta t 
and */«//.'/■»," alihoiigh he only means the bauds of Ikic 
Wt,} The sweepings are more excluelvoly the nde-earsi 
Incrativt' ofliwe. of whicli a hnmorous wi-ittr iaivd: "f?m 
th«T ti"II mv, is quite a CTrciimatanw in Aew York; die 
i«'*of the Post-Office is about three thonsaatl a year. H^ 
Esy the sttefpin^^ of the Ciisturo-Honsr ki^ep eightr-sa 
liorses ngoing night niid day." (Josh Billings' Saifii^ 
curious term baa. of late, Bprnng np in the South, to dm 
the necosmrj expcuees for pnrcbasing legislntivt? votes and 
paper inflneuce, in ordw to RCt oven rontinp-bnsiiKM 
done. These are called f^irkfu-pie. J. G. Traev. 8t«to] 
ter of tht^ Shite of Texas, having failed in obtaining apuj 
sboi'e in a Gnkeslon paper, was accDwd bj the owner ^ 
latter, that he had offered liim, besides the pnrcliiur-l 
retiiiired, "slices of cjticken-pie" thus fustening npon hi 
nneiiTiable notoriety. When tbe twin for wbich a MeiaM 
elected, expires, he retnrns into private life, bnt IVngonl 
rewarded for hin services by an office, in proportion tofaifci 
or bis politiail influence. Hi>mc of these offices in 
tJie adtninistratioii are pccnliar to the United Stat 
that of iSvrretfOT, an official who surveyg all the inip4 
ireighers. gaiigerg, and other employes in a United State! 
toni-EoHse, and enjoys a very large income and patronogv* 
other such office is that of A'aml Offteer^ whoae duty it 
receive copies of all manifesU and entries in the Cu--?t>im-( 
to estimate duties, examine occouuts, and. perform other ri 
«ible duties, for which h« receiver a liberal nlary and onjojl 
perquisites. „; i; ;^: 



well koowD that the political doctrine of roUtlou iu oflioe 
in the ITnited SLutea. Few offices are held "ilnrinf! gckod 
Tf" outside (if Lbi) Jiuhciury ; all ytliurs ulumge witll the 
of the priiifiiilcatin) electioua every four yoars, Secfetary 
is generally cn-diU.'d wUb liaviiig Uxst usud. the pbrnse 
ij^lied. Ibe principit that Tv Uus vidort belvti^ lite spoils, 
bj the latter word all the offic«fl in the gift of the gov- 
t By this riilo the I'rwident becomes tlic head of an 
of aiveral hundred thoiuyiiid oliicc- holders, who depend 
jr ou his <riU, uud nhom ho uun at pleasure dcprivt; of chcir 
, from the huoiblc liglit-huiisu koeper in Maine to tiie 
inist*r at the Court of St. JumcA J. VL Lowidl explains, 
flre, poiiitodly, iti hie OIumoit, the ttii-tn apoiU as meoniug 
^ject of [Hiliticnl iLmhittons!" while his hero, Ilosea Biglov, 
^ of course, netcr otherwise than npiles. When the poor 
older. vthosK tunure \s nt iie»t limited tu four yeiu-s, is 
(ded by a successor, he is, iu policical laugiiiige, deJntided 
\pitai«d, " 'I'be axe," wrote a ccurespoudeut from Waflh- 
"is »LiU doin^ its bloody work, and beads Are flying oft 
Uin^tions. The clerks iu iKv Treasitrj' Department be- 
feel anxious, as the work of decapitalion will soon make 
of tbem also." (N'l'W York HnaUl, Angiiat 5, 1869.f Not 
ifi niinteter^, here called fecreiaries, are exempted from this 
they an: not, Ukv their Kuglish namesakes, rL'sponsiblc to 
V», hut simply advi«^rs of the Pi-esident, whose Cabinet 
tv by ooartcay aaid to form. In this capacity thr-y are 
opon. for inslaniv, to furnieJi pi-rtndlnil rrporb of what 
done in their respective deparliueuis, and upon the biisia 
peJTs the Fre^idtMit founds his oilicial commuiiit'niions 
known as Messages. 
• process uf eieoting thuse oClicers which are chosen by 
e — & cUsa iocltiding uufortunutelyoven tijc Judiciary — 
reprc-wntiitivea in the legislative l)odic« of the Union and 
ividiuil Stult'^ many words occur, either entirely neir, or 
I a modified seniie, as conijimvd witli their meaning in £ng- 
Popiiiar tovereigiilij is muurally the fundumvniut duclrine 
republic, vinditaliug for th<; people die riffht of scifigov- 
itj and cousetjuently of choosing its own rnlere and officers 
Tj kind. A few of the Intler are, however, still elected, not 




by the nuutcs directlj, but by proxy, u it were; thnc At 
dent i«» at leiut Dominally, not chosen br tbr p«oplEv< 
JS!ectcr», who are voted for at the pruidtntiul ploclii 
Thenever an electiou is to take plAcv, fVom ibe Vhir/ J/J; 
aa tbo ExeoiitiTo is freqnpntly aUled, to tlie toim-oot 
ivi^iilur cavipaifjn ia innugtirated. Tliiti is (hu grundiloijiM 
for tlie liniplc English tcmi "onwien." Ihe time Ix-iffriV^ 
primaru tneeting and tbo election itiioir; sharplr but nc>t nuji 
crittciBOil by Kicbunl GmntWtiitr as "bloated, armr*bniiii 
Imrnbast." {Words and their Ugea.) As - 'le tini*( 

piuaclK'S for 3u «]cctiuu, the fricndi of the > : camll 

for oOice meet Brst in prirato to diecuu their chattcee, i. A, i 
popnlurity. and their nsefnUiosfi for the party. A ' .rl 
fic'iitioni* I'or the otRctf, they ai*o conftitlowd a in. 
tbo (iprman proverb; *• to whom God girefl an office, ht\ 
scnee for it," Onda here its rulltet application : beside^, tht 
cau never doubts his uhility to Un I'verytiting, from k< 
hotel to ruling a nation, and, what is more, he gvnrmlly 
better than one would exiK-ct, The whole of the candidule'i 
ia runpiicfctxi to find events, succeKea, or voice, oDt of which 
be laaiiv pal it teal tyipi/ai, a term purely American in iU| 
though long ijince lniniplaul«d to England, and unturalii 
in the political slang diiitionary. " Palitiml capitaW 
an indiguimt writer of Tory principlefi; "one ri 
•peak of ft mnu'g mora) cwjiital!" {/Jlucjtitxwd, * _ 
If he ban been in political lir« before, hia rtntti is 
scarche<l to find out if he ig sound, that is, if ht lioji alwqi 
itrictly with bi« party, and can, therefoii-, not be rejiroacl 
inconfiiEt«Doy by hie op]>onenla, sincn that ia the Dnpai^<M 
eiu of the poliliciuu. Oftt-u it is not muogli to aserrt 
taundnfu of the candidate; it Diu«t also I)© proven that' 
on all oecunons come ont fiatfofUfd in Iwhalf of bie party 
all parly measnrea. The tci-m is of Western oripin. and 
from tbo manner in which m^n place their fe«t Hmilvand * 
on the ^ruiim), wlien pngtag«l in a tnsidc or {Minmnid niukfl 
" Now the committee of tiie vestry . . . pnt K\\e^f/oot^ttH^ 
on anriculur confvifBion aud piiestly alMsulution." rfhe-| 
St. Clement's Church. PhihidHphia Hnlifiiv. % 

Should be be fonnd wanting in thi^ aept^ lAl 



firm nitd resolot^in )ii3priucip1e<;or heis deuoiinceU 
liB the ineait that ie. unsettled in his political oonviotions 
of ptu-[ia6c. '■ Uenemi Butler is setting a good example 
loei^knted brathreu, which will do them good." (New 
iTm», Sept 7, 1870.) The sAaJkff nnd the wmk-kaeetl jioli- 
is quite sure of beiug dropptd hy liU iuuxorsble iwriy, as 
u he ceases to be luaftil. Should the candidate prov^ to 
^■Iwavs stood np bravely for every measure adopti-d by his 
and to have rogisted with energy every effort to over- 
or thvnrt it, he ig said to haro backiione. " Men do not 
bow to resist the sniull temptatioas of life, from the sutne 
loy in ihvizdormt arramjemeHls (!). Jiackhone is Ihu nmte- 
rliich maked au upright mun, and be uiu&t be linn ou all 
if he would pass scuthlt-aa through the struggle of life." 
Rtjiitblic, March 17, ISd9.) The abolitionists of fomer days 
the t«rm esf^ecially ; thus Afr. Wendell Pbitlips Bald, 
]^ Gvueral McClellau euuiiot (!:iiU tlio war. Ho hoti no back- 
aad. Miss Aona Dickenson cveu spoke disparagingly of the 
>nt. Baying, that ** if Mr. Liucolu Imd backbone enough, 
jch he ha« not, he would not tiuiipLT or ti-eat with slavery, but 
Itch it it on<^ atroke, at onco and forever." At times tbi« 
mdtUB* refers U> a particulur tenet, as in the days when the 
* connlry was in greatcxcitemeut about the question, wlict.her 
>w State of Knusaci should enter the Union as a free State. 
it slaver}' witliin its borders. Thus a mun iu favor of the 
alternative was, balf-hnmorouAly, hiilf-contemptuously, said 
\90u11d oti the goou^ a^ J. R. Lowell sings — 

Torlheni rdi^iun worka wnl Noiili, but its cz sufl ez sprace, 
FOoAipar'd to our*!) for krepin' tvund, «cz gbe, Hpon- the gaam." 

{Bishia PapfTt, II., p, 88.) 

^'it. becauae slavery was looked upon at the South lu the goose 
laid the golden eggs, niiiob was aocordingly killed iu due 
of time? Now, sunnd on the goofts means simply to be 
on the party rineslion, whatever that may be for the 
i^Utician of the right tttamjt, unmerciful to his adversaries, 
inexonible iu exacting every inch of his followers, is called 
in the teool ; and even poor General Taylor, whoao aoccess 


ill Mexico k-d la hU death st tha WkHe ffoum, at tbe 

moUei^t DiaQstou is culled, was at oTie time claimed I; ( 
"ae a dciiiucrat dyed in the vooi, as a demoortt of tli 
HOuian order of 1798." (New York CommereitU Adrtrti 
HI. 1847, B.) The gmit Daoiel Webat«r onc£ illoitntcd t 
uf the phrs^, by irlaliiig uii iidveutiitt; of his own. Siodc 
liiimofcoUcge-lifc weraia the liabiiof riding no hoKaBbag| 
mouth College, irherti ho wu bred, and rented a piHtH 
their korse till the end of th« term. So he went afil 
hoiiieipuii clothca, and with his books iu a pair of sw 
He •• had the blues for many days after his arriral,'' 
add, with his hearty laugh, ** because a drunching raia hi 
the indigo from his new suit dyed in ihe tvoat at home, 
skill, culuring it deeply, darkly, heautifiUly blue.'' (Cbi 
rant, Januiu-y ^1, 1371.) 

When these gi-iterat questions are satisfactorily settled, 
is called, to decide on the mtn and the principles vhich 
presented to the people in public meetings und throtigb 
This Word, it is ^voll known, has been traced to rarions 
itiid it can hardly be said that the my^teTj ia yet fully « 
CiaNsic scliolai's, with cltiit eiititnsiastic love of antiqub 
admits of uuthiug good that is not ancient, claim the hi 
file term for the Ijatjn-Greck " scyphus," the name of 
which Joseph used for divioation (Genesis, xliv. 5, 
which waacarrifyl ofTby his brethren in their bag. Mo 
lin;;uitit» have raised the qacgtion, if cavcus might not 
tiecU-'d with the Latin jccu/arfl, or the German gttuJbabi 
caees referring to the fact that tJie cuucM predestiiia 
rent, if not actual, chance what is to be douc hereancTt 
hislurical bimls is the autlienticatc-d fact that, iu the 
caucus was held, since such a meetiug ia mentiontid by tl 
( Caucus- C1uh) in Adams' Diarif. Dr. Gordon, in his U 
iiis AmeriatH Kevoiniton (ii88), traces the t«rm still fart 
into antiquity, lie mys: "Tite word is not of novel ii 
Uoiii than fil'ty years ago (1735), Mr. Samuel Adams' SM 
twenty otlierv, one or two from the north end of toiM 
Moseacliusette), where all 8l>i)>bu«o«« is c;irri.-d on, 
nwet, make a atucu*, and lay their plans for iutroduoinj 
persons into places of trust and ixiwer." (I., p. 240.) Hen 


My 6npi)oscd, and uot witlioiit good reason, chAt tlio 
%i originalty Uf rived frum meetings held by ehip-caalkerg 
ke, or with u gricvuace, aud iluit it gradiiuUy aasnnird its 
kt meaning. Thu wor<I hiifi crept slonly into Euglii<i) par- 
,bad is now used iu (iivni iiritaiu in tiio nvnsti vi u privute 
)bUng of iiolilicians in-lore an. eloctioii, where caudidates are 
Mid meodures of action agreed upon. In America it« 
is not ivn csieotinl feattti'c, tind cv^n the Senate of the 
Slates holds its caucus itipctiii^a in pulilic, at least so fitr 
1 press is concerned. K. W. Emerson, ia his £W«v on Pnli- 
** If itmuu fuuud himeell'su ricli-tiuturvd tliut lit; could 
ito otriul relations nith the bcjit persons, and maku life 
}und bi^n by the dignity and sweetness of his behitvior, 
afford tqcircnmvent the favor ofthe«j»a*8 and the preis, 
>vet vehitioiis so hollow nnd pompous as those of a politician ? 
p, in these preliminary asst-mblies, the great principles of 
ty are laid down in a cmipiict fomi, to which tiie raiidi- 
expect^ to swear iillegiuucc. and to devote all the iufla* 
their oflicial position. Tliey are embodied iu -a platform^ 
new ouly iu iU a)>plicaUuu to ))iu'ely political priuciplda, 
h&B long been used in matters of church discipline or 
[a piank of n platform, mooning one of the princiidca of 
»i! Iiiiwr ifl piinstnifiUidj ifl, however, u piive Ainoricaniam, 
ly yet naturalized iu England. The tendency to cony- 
such &guTv8 of speech to its lost extremes, is well shown 
1 phrase: "e%eiy js^amX- ajid gpUutfrot the piafform," URed 
|vncrgetic writor in the Providence (Rhode Island) Journal 
fxhe platfonn, which iu our day is gonetrally expressed in 
iciently vague terms to allow great latitude, the caucus will 
IWnllr Qgi-ee lipon a Ticket, a word taken from the actual 
ii»t or ballot which is div])ped inUv the ballot-box at the time 
:tioii, and oiiwhich the names of the candidates are written 
kted. It m«-aii8, iu this case, the whole list of caitdidn(«8 
upon, which are to be presented to the }K,'ople for ratiiica- 
It undergoes, however, often before ita actual use, many 
BB, and ouly when a man adopts the whole li&tus made up 
party, is it called a clean ov slraitjkt ticket ; hut if he takes 
or more name* to substitute othem which be prefect th« 
U Kratch$fi. At tiuaes the party itself ifi divided into frat> 

tknu, eftdi one of Tkieta re}fcts some eandfdates of tlv ( 
■nd the RMlt of soefa a spUt in Uu4r own ranlu, is n ^M \ 
vhiSe a man TciiBg- Itar «m eaa^idAfces of hU ovn {«rtT i 
Dse or nare ot bu ofpontnts. voald defwdt what is km 
nuwf ticket. AfiViw. or paaltr, fa ibe name of a oudSdite p 
OD a dip of paper vtth the bade gmuned. to be pasted of 
name of anotber candidate bj those who with ti> toU i 
ticket: tbr tenn ariginatcd in I860 in Pmnaylvaata m a 
ticket The candidaus tbn<»po« b^n tbe campaign : Vk 
for an oflke, vitb Araerican haete and cn^ngj. Hrner tb 
Ur. Canwrightsays: ''The Bm time I rvn for office in Ssa 
ConntT, I voa on the Nortb aide of the nrer, m ther sart 
land, electioneering." (.4MfD^'07rti;iAy. p. 3&3.) 0«nerallTbc 
cmnras*ing the conntr or tbe State, and to atump i% u Xb« 
pnwable election eerrng toar is now rery genenllr calltd 
tbe candidate for tiie pivttftf»ey hein^ considered exeBO|l 
tbe dnty of presenting himsMf in pet^on before the people k 
Aeir Eoi^iigHL Sometimes, howeTer, a m«tt mfftin^ is pfP 
beld, each as were known as mon'rter-meettng^ in Irvtami i 
Mr. O'Coniieirs agitjttion. Tlu> terra waa first ased in A. 
during the famooB llurd-Cider Campaign for and afalntt d 
Harrison and Mr. Tvler ; now it is unircrsal. eren tbe Freo 
the Oerman laugnag^d having 8do[>ted and fullr natatdb 
word in their acantr, political dictionary. When tbe gni 
ical, Ur. Bealej, sammoned the people to assemble in Hrd* 
August 5, 1867^ London vas placarded all uveririih the ant 
ment of the proposed Mom Meeting, and German paper* abr 
wiih aiinilar advertisements, when thu vtctorion!i trnofi 
expected to return from France. In the meeting, or or thf j 
Ibe candidate is expected to riejine hit posHwH, a phmso pr 
invented by Virgininns, who became accastomed to it in tl 
enroll days of democratic nupremacjr, when eloquent membd 
In the habit of making unanswerable speeches of a day or 
tbe Legislature, or filled with their definitions the colnmat 
then famous paper, Ur. Ritchie's Richmond Enquitrr. 

On the floor of Congrestt, daring his visits home, when d 
iug his oon8tita»nt«, and above all on Fourth of July or 
the Mtrtabcr of Congress visa with the politician genctaO 
kind of exaggerated patriotism, wliich U desipiaiad u ^ 



It oonsisU, mainlj, in boundless pnii»e of the great* 
r, aud glorr of bis native land, and is, therefore, rather 
iy deiiouriwd by ibo North Araerlcun lifvieie as "a 
innd of eioggeratioD, effrontcrr, bombast, and ^xtravi^nce, 
metapbur^ platitudes, dcliant thrents tbrown at tho world, 
srerent. ap|»eals flnn^' al the Great liciog." (Octohur, 185S.) 
l\e of tbe United Statu, on gucb occasions, is niade to 
itA wings and to soar high — hence the terra- The aame 
st«, whoa found in oratory not confined to political subjects, 
imonly called high-faluting, a term Tariousir trawd back 
srruptiou oi high-JUghiiity, hiyh-Jloatimj, or even to a Dntch 
verioolen— to flity by whipping. While Spratd- Ungleism 
ail enthusiastic palriotM, Uit- cuUivnted dwellers in cities, 
AS tbe ptain-spokcn mnltitndes who delight in the oratory of 
imp,, high-faluien, as it is frequcntty written, is almost always 
tu educated orhalf-ediiriitedaudicticcs, who are supposed 
ito bombiut, big words, and high-sou udiiig pliroses, with 
itboat meaning. Au after-dinner high-falutittg speech, 
Mited lo tlie great Dani(?I Webster, reads llins: " Sfen of Iloch- 
l am glad to tec you, and I am glad to sc-o your noble city. 
imen, I saw your falls, wbicli. I am told, &vc a Imndrtid and 
?t high. Gentlemen, Home had Ikt Cicsftr, her Scipio. her 
itDS* bnt Rome in her proudest duy had never a wntertiill a 
and fifty feet high I Gentlemen, Greece bad her Demos- 
her P«ricle«, her Socrafoa, bui Greene in her palmiest 
lad nerer a waterfoti a hundred and fifty feet high! Men 
:hcster, go on I No pet-plu ever lust their liberties 
kh*d a waterfall a hundred aad fifty feet high." That the 
[luu not run out, we may res't assured after reading tbe 
ing extract from tbe Report of Ijpgislative Proceedings in 
" Th» American people — and we are proud to call 
Iret ths^ — ore rocked in tbe bosom of two mighty oceans, 
fninite'bOQiid shores are whitened by the ttoating canvas 
commercial world; reaching from the ice -fettered lakps of 
jrLh to the febrile waves of Austmlian seas, cfimpTislng the 
ilerimof five billions of acres, whose alluvial plains, romautio 
jtauU) and mystic rivers rival tbe wildest Utopian dreams 
©TCf gathered aroond tho inspired bai*d, as he wnlkt-d the 
inthine promenades of Hesperian gfvvdcna, is proud Co- 





lurnbiu. thv land of the free nod the home cr ihe 
Heywood'e Speech on Qravel Haadi, Jonajiiy 21, ld;U 
on tlic'^Oood Looks of Auit^ricam" doMd hi« article 
raodt'Kt. assertion: "It uevcu easier to c»»nc into tbil 
Ammuii, »iy Uiv mldwives. thno into «dv other voi 
{Piiinaui'g Magatine, Miirch, iS53.) Aad yet the 
(x-rlmps t!i(: substance, if sult-^Uince it can lie eallrd, viii 
sliiulow — has found lis way to the Old L'oiintry. imd ibe i 
Diclionarp (t>> 1<''4} nesurcs tis that Ai/M-/Ww/ih9 Ia oo« 
oommoi) in Liverpool luid lA)ntluD, Elaet, vhil*-' th« I»odMi j 
QgCH it fioberiy, iii Ibu sc>iise of "fustuui, hif h-aonndit^ nu 
lag eloquence." 

Wiivii tlio oli'ction ftt, iaat upproaoheg. tlie excitt^ment, (I 
1)^ »ll these pvelimiuary m«Baui'«8, i-uns, of course, vktj big) 
violence is not ruro : bnt oal; one feature in tho prooen nf \ 
IS known by an American fcftrm. This ib the balioi-box tt»j 
oritno whiiOi consists in filling the boxes lut<-nded tn aAUJ 
votes deposited during the diiy, pivvious to the tdvctiotifl 
nnuibur oi* tmllotd. tto that when the whole is examined by fl 
jutifffS o/vltction, tho majority is seourely CBtabUgfaed. Tiu 
i« not yet uaed in Kngland, Vcanse the ballot baa not yet 
introduced; but ns this is impending, the ntufftr, as the chJ 
is culled, will nn doubt i;i>ou lie known there also. 

Among the ^reat qMe«tions thiit biivii divided the nation 
hence have occu])ied the publiu mind more pre-eminently, j 
dating from the time before the lot* Civil War, haro beoomclj 
by special names. Already in the eorlit-st days of ibeBafl 
the Blu« Lttvjx of Nciv En<,dimd excited nucomtnon 
home and nbroud, and recent publit-nlious of great 
once mora directed public attention to this remarkable 
American history. Connecticut is still often niealiot 
JBlne SMf, nnqufstionnbly from its beinjf the oriRioa] tUat^ 
of the Presbyterians, who wore onoe known by the cot 
name of Blneski'ns, as Butler says ; 

" 'twas Fixsbyleri&u true bhu, 
For ho 'WAS of ilie Htubhorti crew 
Of eaiau, whein all men gtaat 
To be xha true Church UiUtuit." 

{Iludiirat, I., p. 1 




fenerations uftf rward. trbeu tht? Iiilmbitnitts of tho IttMii 0/ 

^habt'tA Wf-re uceiieed of hiiving' marff itiijiiaU alonjf the coasb 

H>enelit of tlie Britii*h, diiriug tho war of iSl'^, these lights 

lie coast of Connccticot vers ntlled Blue Lujhh, adding r 

fvord to the vtHtiibnliuT uf treasuri. The oharga, it is said, 

[utterly uitfuuudud. btit tho utiu has diirvivccL to tiiiti day* und 

luently tiaeil in political controvereiea. Th« rumoiis laws of 

Haven, also, jwrhnpa the most striking illustrition of the 

te t**ndfncy of the human huiri roward intolemucc, »ro 

rn OS the fJlue Laws, Uius joining' rJiuiii to i\\v. lilvc Lntm at 

le colonies of Nevr England, among whiL'h they ^fci-c the Lost 

:ure a eud prC'emiuoiicc-. TliL'Ir iiiitliunticity hiu> often been 

and Dr. Peteni' wt-ll-kuoivn book on the subject has been 

Ed A lihel; u«, for instance, by n well-iufoiined correspoiid- 

Kotta and Queries {Vol. XT. p. o21), writing from the 

Lihrary at Hartford. C'onnecticnt, They niv. however, 

tly quoted by giXMl untharitiiv, ui) by Jndgu Hiiliburton 

iUh in America, L. p. 314), and arc confirmed beyuud nny 

k by the reprint of tlu- " Alwtrai-t of Lawn of New England." 

Governor HntcliiusoD's Coikctiun 0/ Pa/ters, London. 1055, 

the identical provisionit may be found. Tliey fully illus- 

tbe characterietic woitla of the melanchoty Imvgiver of 

it, that " be hud left Eii^hiiid bcoautiC hi^ did not like 

[Lord BishopE, but that he could not live nndor the Lorxl 


i I* » question mote curious thnu important whence the term 
■originally came. A patriotic " Antiqniuian of Hiirlford** 
i, in 1838. that it was applied to the New Haven code, 
th« aimplo fflcty that the first printed laws of that colony 
iMni out on lilne-colored paper. As he faile to addnco any 
'for his Kiaioinent. the cottcliifiion can h.irdly be iidmittcd ; 
len is abundant evidence that the term Mtif was known in 
land long before, and u*Gd in a very similar maiiner. It is 
'Ot improhiible that, rfuitc accldeii tally perhaps, an allusion was 
Hade Lo the extreme Puritan zeal of the PregbyteriniiH for a literal 
Mlowing of Scripture, Ijy referring to tho *■ ribaudH of blue," 
^joiued upon the laraolitee. (XmnberB, xv. 38.) Or it may bo, the BDnotawr of Gray's Poemg explains the matter, when he 
tliat the poef 8 Wiip ffpnm* had refereoce to the |>re»»ci»a'8 



in Itluc aproni>. of tlioM times, whea pets!uu« ven 
preach niio wore blue upnins in th«ir tnde. Thii U t1 
die oHsaniiig or a cot^mporary political equity in whiob*] 
ft olinrch ii CAlled a going 

*■ (o » Iwiure, 

Wh«ra I n tub (palpll) did Tl«ir, 

Hang nilli lui apron Um, 
'Twu Uw pTcaclior's, I ooojcctun. 

Kl« lite and doctrine, loo, 

Was til' no butkT liuc, 
Tbo' b« spoke in a loo« most mlrklr.'* 

The same tenn of hliu apron hod, lu the m«an time, bwn if 
no the ParJiamcntary party also, qa a reproiu^h. bemum Hi 
Instcd 80 loi'gcly ofmcu in humble situations of life. TtiuiftJ 

esjtec'uMy need after the BesUtnUAoa, u a t«nn of ridlcolil 

contempt^ as m Bntlcr'a lines : 

" Can fetch In p*rli» (as in war 
Alt olhiT licAth of cuttle nn), 
Fruiii Uioeui>my or all ivIJginDs, 
Ai n-i'U u lil);ti and lour couditlou, 
And sbare tlirru, frum Mut? Htiuads down 
To all WiK aprom in Um tnwu." 

This specie« of ridicule was, almost us a Doatter of < 
ricd over to Neiv Kngluod, uud nse<l in ihe oo1oni<' -. 
at home, by thoec wlio wished to bring tbc ixiAi 
early Puritfln colonists iotw disrcpntc and Ciintempt. i'bo 
blue wu£ perhaps even more cxieneively need (.hvrt) tJiaii. 
mother country, aud was more espeuully employed to cbi 
the laws ns brutally alrict aud bloody, aud yel uot witlioi 
whimsical oddity. It is certainly not witliont a quaint and^ 
ludicrans air that an article lilce the following could appear, 
lore than a bnndred yeara ago^ in an English newspaper. [>rto 
In the colonies: 

'* MiLFOBO, 0OKSECttCCi;| 

"Aft«r perusiug u falsu and ecurrilous kttar, (. .. -ii ^'< 

[•>rlc, iigttvd £tU'«i-d Cule, it was thought proper that thii 



ibliolf^ whipl, as tending to beget ill will, and broah- 
ininu in the scrcral goveninioiits in Americiu the coD- 
f wtiich. at this time, and present situation of our alluirs, is 
mtDted; accordingly it wta here, at i of the clock thig 
on, after proper notice of drum, puWicly whipt, according 
M* /vfliff. forty stripe*, gave one, by the common whippet, 
n burnt." (OoanucUout (faxetts, Nov. 29.. 17&5.) 
tut, howcvrr, not be concluded from tliest- Huggef^tions 
ua Laws, in tlii^ sense of the winx]. ivore strictly conflued 
Nev Eaglajid ISt»t«d. The early eeltleuiuuls in Vir^ginia, 
1 their sbhon-cuce of PuritaniAm, enacted very ainiilar 
ions. Here ikUo swearing was scTCrely punished; hereulso 
rch rtjquirod attendance on all its serrices, under heavy 
«, and here also domestic discipline was enforc4--d by public 
ily tbo ohurch vas the Kstublished Church of EuglaDd* 
Hnes were uU paid in tohucea 

PCrrosc gives atill unother version, which may aocouat 
Bugth derived by the epithet blxt* from u& uddibionAl 
He states that Coventry wm foraiorly famous for dye- 
k« that wonld not change ita color, iind conld not be dia- 
l by wnshing. Tberefbre the epithets of Coventry Blue 
tie Bltia were Bgnratively applied to i>erson6 who would 
Age their party or priucipleti on any cDiisldernlioa. As 
Kbyterians were equally famous for their stern and aturdy 
oe to their own convictions, the term vus perhaps as 
y u deserredly applied to rhem in thia sense also. Whnt- 
^ be thought of Vacsa stern Ftiritana as lawgivers, their 
' 13 dear and sacred to all New Englanders; ihey cele- 
lie day on which they landed at Plymouth, the 2^d of 
•r, as Forefather^ Day, and ihey love to speak of tiiem 
drtuid atfet-tionately as 

Hp " Tlio Pilgrim WitAf«— wberc arc lUey F — 
^^ Tlie wavi3 that Ijroiighl ilicm o'er 

BllII roll lu Itic L)iiy. oud lUrmv their iprity 

A« ibcy break along ilic bliorc \ 
Bttll roll in ilie bay, ns thty roH'cl the dny. 

When Ihc Mftyflowci moor'd below, 
Wlien Uie ii«ft ai-ouud w-tu Uack with AKuriitt, 
Kad wliUe ttis shore with kcuiv." 


Dariiif; xh<^ wur of the Rt-volntion the u-rm roHtinaitat 
a new meaning io AiiieriuA. liciug applieO lduI!''-' ' 
ooloiiK>i8 ti$ a Tbnte, r^voo bpfon* tbi'V nvtr inir .• * 

nwy. HiMice llifir tnioiw tuiil tlieir [■Hpcr-inouei . 
tinmtal. " Dc'lapl*;*," wvi a lucent writer, "had u^-.'. 
in>9p<ct Tor llio Oontiututat Ck>ngrtii M AWea luid for Ji 
1111(1 llipy i-esiyw'tively roHed d)wii isi. ' - aui 

morf ihan rillier. In fuel, the four ■ i^. ■. mm 

bafc a ttbadow, fnr it had do exifttcoce uQ six houn ttA< 
uriittu ii lissembled in ( < % HaU in PluliMl«l|ihuw *ai 
anthorify was htnlly "^ l^'o*l m proaptct, ^^veu lij 

armed piariots in (he tlelil." The slang tfrm, 61nrt<rN«it/it/ 
almost imivcffirilly applied to tlie aclcriy val.i ' 'Vinii 
pap<:-r-nionC'y of ttio^ day^ is, neverlhiilesi*, iru< L<t a 

(liffi^rent origin hy &ii aniiui uiid jiofliuvc schulmv Jaioea 
Wliitc "Theplirase geems lo mu a ooaui«r|i«rt, if out • 
ni'jditicatiou, ofotlK'ni of tht- suinu sort — a tinker's dumn, tt 
M'e, olc-, mid t\s tlie ti»op9 of tlie colonic-* wtre call;! 
•M or ConitMHtahi during the war, and for ninny y«.i. , 
it ieems to mo probabU\ that the phra£e in qncaiJon vn. 
Coniinrntors daum, from wliir'h the sign of the }iosai;6<f)iw 
gnuiiialiy dropiwd.'' ( Wordit mci Ihcir Vsea, p. 3i>Cl) A i-^ili 
(loctriuf of much uotoriety. and likely to fraio in imp' 
cftlled the Motirof Doctriiit. Mr. J. Q. '■ 
onu pnrL of ttitt raintms doctrine : that wbu 
can Contin«nt, oven where not yet aDtaalty oocupt«<l by 
as no longer open i-o wilonizatioii by European juiwiti. 
second pHrt diiU'e only IVom the yeva lft2<3, and orij^'inoird 
Mr. Hfouroe, irho Was Ui«d Prc«idont ul' the llniUid }^i 
Ihtj fonrntr .Sta«te-|)opM »ii8 dircclfd nprainst certain niput 
fervncos of Russia in tlie Korthn-f^^ici-n | •art. of th» contiii' 
this mHnifk'ttto war intended to mcct«imilar pn--.^araMl intcn 
on tbi- part of the Holy Alliance. It deolarrd. m atttotjr 
any exlension of tho eyBtem of ^orcrntneot> oa it pi> 
Europe, tu mty part of tbis hennsphciv, would ' 

"UftUjft-ryus to our peace and siifety." The ■.: 

itrictly molntauit^ ever lince, and found it4 last |)ructical tUar 
tratton in the siicci'ssfol dtort to relicre. Maxioo firom a fon^ 
ruJer and Proucb armiti& 




tbo )Mt<r iiuuL-icrtt uf political ca:citeiiieQt which have 

EitaltMl tbe pultlio mind. And seriously tlirenteiiod even ft 

ion oi the Union, ware the thive »]oict,rine« of /Wff /owe, 

41, and Free ItUbor. Th<> first-iuciitioncd iv not peculiar 

■eriai in iiume nr in iiriiici)ilii, luid havitig* failrd in spito of 

lioevi-r ju any way impedeil. bu iliat pvftii tho "injrlit of anf- 

twill M husbuud every fvtir jL-ars," do uot promiso content^ 

It tu be euLitvly merged in ibti more cuiupivbuuiiivu quet- 

Wumtns Jiiijhii. The priuciple of Free ifoii. on the cou- 

LBicrican in form and in practice, as opp<ised to Slavery, 

(it iioed uoL bn explained Jiow) to a ti'rrihle war, and th« 

[Unction of Uie Peculiar JjutUvtion, as Slavery wjis long 

The question of ilitt day, full of iin]jort here as in the 

Torld, is that of Free Labor, as fur as ic invulvea tbe itnpend- 

mflict between UapiUil and Labor, tbe term iLeclf ba\'iug 

inslerred,from il8 fii-at use in oppoailiou to Shm Labor, to 

speudcnce of the workman aa regards his tmployer. 

politics abound in catch-worda, the great majoHty 

pus nway with the aL-cidifnt that gave them btrtii, white 

ipleaw the fancy uf t!ic populace, or ac-i)uire, by an tiiiex- 

, aoooan^ such a bold on the public mind as to ncunre to them 

lease of hfe. Cue of the^i; is !is lutlicrons in its origin as 

A in its persistency in the slang of the day. The «tory 

it Genornl Jaekson, bettor known in American bistoryua 

eltrrff, van not much ul homo in the art of gpolling, and 

ind and admirer. Major Jack Downing, found therofore no 

in convincing the K'lulera of bis " Letters." tiuit the Pnesi- 

iplorcd the letters O. K. as an endorsement of upplicatiout 

and olJier papers. They were intended to stand for 

Uom-cl," which the old gcntlcnian prel'errcJ writing Oli 

ty and hence they arc uaed, to tbia day, very much in the 

'the Kngli&h " All Right." To the question how a courar 

\i i?, the answer coni(?s back : " Oh, he in quite O. K. again 1" 

term bos found il^t way to England, and ia quoted in the 

'Dietionarif (\x 191). thangb without explanation. > 

itiu itK-re seritsii!* phrase is the Mani/e^i Destintf of Mr. Web- 

i»hich fairly repreaenta tbe miaehiuvouK power of such slang 

Ueaigned originally for the expreiiaion of a perfectly jua- 

(kUe doctrine, that America was intended by Providence to bo 



a fvpoliltc and ■ refuge for sU vhd wished to b« trw, H 
SbaudioboaounwDifDt cloak tor every meaenreof aggruMlu 
or ^iok-Dce. It was Jlani/esi Oentinjf that conquered p 
Uexico aud purciissed Alaska : it is Manifest Dartini/ ibil 
Aould be a&oexed and Canada ceded tu the United Stitc«. 
iMreU tenu it jnady a phriuo clioractei-jstie of "tbat oi 
ndclessoeaa as to right and vrong." of wUi<-h Mr. Biidoi 
Savin, in the Biylov Papen. is the verj inouniacioo. 
the aboIitiMi of slavery- the Underground Railwav had Eieci 
an inipttrtaut. £Mtur« in Northern efforts to lud caca{iiiif 
and to pruTidc for their fhtnre, and a grievotu cauae o(«oi 
OQ the pan of SoDthenors against the AbolitioaiiU. 11 
■Canoe having paaaed away, the name, no doubt, will woo 

/fmliipeatam, another term full of veightj meaning '■ 
tbeoth^rr hand, probably retain iia place iu the national §f 
bng as Lh^- Unioii lasts, Uiongh its meaning changes vith 
ffrivut phases through vhich the ooantrj passes. The IB 
tnwspbtated into Amcricaa politics as early as 17^8. when, 
passage of tla- Aiien ami Sedition ArJg, the Lcgisluturw i 
ginia aud Kentaoky adopted certain rcsolntions. drava up 
br JvUltsuu aud iladisuu, one of whiuh declared ihat, tI 
Fcdrml Ggvemmentawunied powers not delegated to it 
Blatcs, a nuJt(Hcatioit of tlic Acts was the only rightAil 
But th(.> wonl and the idea had a very different and 
serions sign iticanoo OS used by Mr.Calhoim. As intcri^ivted 
nuttifioaiion whs an exclusiTely Southern principle, ami 
to open and absolute dc&auoo of Uie laws of Uie land 
constituted authorities. Its legitimate fniit. seettsioH, 
nonnced m treason long before it led to civil war, evea 
back aa the dark daya, when Non-Interconrse and Kmhs 
Beriuufily threatened the proEpcrity of the connlrj. Biao 
tli« oniiuoiis word has every now and then beim heard i 
murmnrings, now in cue. now in iiiv other ecotion. but thel 
of the late war will do more than all policy and legislatjas 
to lay the grim spectre. 

Mr. CaUioHu has often been credited with another such | 
very ]>upul»r :it one timi-, and often revived as the occasion oi 
Masterly Inaciivity. It was by him employed in speakiog 



Btiou of CuboL, which be deprecateU, alleging thnt when the 

tine cafix* tlu isUnd would gravitAte to clielTnited StataSf 

tha meun tioi^ tlis policyof thitguvornmeut wasArjiajifdr^ 

(tfi/y. Thi: term, however, was oot new, having been used in 

IritUh Purluiineiit ru^xuitcilly, and uttractL-d moob public 

itiuu (iuriujj Uit! first Freuch Kevolniiott. It has buen sug- 

thiit Uiti id«« origiuiiUid iu the prophet's woi'U«, "their 

id to Kit litill.** (iaaiab, xxx. 7.) 

IcuJtii-s wliich were grave enough to call for the use of arma 

ijrei but nuvly dial nrbnd ihoptisceof tho Union. \}y/ii»- 

>' iiM']vuoiii, arising from troubles tninnected ivilb 

r. Kurvived long in tii*; mumorr of men, anU >vb8 

Kttf Ibllowtid by the eo-uUlcd Buckuhot War in the sume Stntc 

Weli-knuwn sluteamaD, Tltaddeus Stvwns, was accused of & 

to retain Josi'ph Ritner it» Oovprnor of the Stale of Ponn- 

ua for a second term, iifti-r he had been defeatetl at the eleo- 

Tbin led to liuriunii diaurderi;; the troojui were culled out, 

Ofdcrs wcru issued that they should Imre their cartridge 

with '-bnek^hoi and ball." from which circunutaDce the 

and unbloody war received its nnmt». 

lato Ciril War baa produced a smaller crop of political 
,tt' ' ■' wordfl, limn might huvo been expected. The 

N/i" •■': :is .Sliivery liitd long been called, bt-canae It 

J peculiar to the Southern Stau-a, ytas^ of conree, one of tlit 
causes of the iralamily. Thu word arose iu conuoctiou 
: abace to which tlie it^rtn Insiifufwn has been subjected 
iu nsoa. Whatever ii looki-d upon as a permanent and 
ICUl paxt of any eyaleni, is apt to be so desigtiated by careless 
" Garrotiug. as lui insiitiition, may ba anid to be almuflt 
let iu New York." {Tricks ami Traps of Xem Vori, p. 47.) 
the usually careful writers of the iicw York Tribuue uncn 
\} ''Woman cunnot be counted out and classified as a mrre 
;e. She ifl un ttifiituliou, uud hereafter must receive the 
leral caltnre and recognition." (August 11, Iti.'iS.) Tho 
rds of Charleston are grave ly described as an " inntiluiinn of 
luitj;*' jii. ' . Mr. .Scwurd viaitvd C'biiiii, a ciinx'spuiidcuc 

'Oi> : . mug the vi»ilor8 were, lor the lirdt time, made 

jBdiiUd vilh an Kaetern iHsiUutioHy vUkh, though douhtlMs 
jlinaininf! as a topic for future nurratire. is seldom amusing as 



au actual cxperiouoe. At an emly hour a typhoon of grettj 
swept over the bay. destroying a vast amoaat of proptrw.i 
causing l-lte Jcatli of buiidrpcifi of imtires." (K^-w Vork TiM 

The evils of the Peculiar luetitution brought abont III 
Secession of one SonthcTD State aftt^r another. Thcr 
is, they broke die compiict into whicii thev had entrtvd 
Union waa formed, and vri-nt out Heuoe, tbo Vmion-mmi 
other eid^?, or Federals, as tliey lou^ prcfc-rred being c&U«d.l 
for Uie Uuioii against rebcOlion. The soldiers soon It 
itow xiifknames npon each other; the Southfruere werti 
or Ittits, or, more good-ualur«ily, Jo/,Mfly fie^g^ •'Thin 
notion about that the lending Itebf, thut is. the Itti* 
property, would have to forfeit, and that the leading 
would iiiid that lovalty was not only beantiiul. but also pniil 
{Once a Week, May, 1871; p. 506.) 

Kvbu the more expeditious Johnny, familiar alr^adr in 
word, us in Johnny-adrs, had to uuawer iht! pnrpos*, and ft 
writer was very well understood when be wrote: **Joil 
of excitement and pc^il was therein huutin^ thesQ cattle i 
almost m the butfaloes on the prairies, aud in hrin<^iae 
iafely in, in spite of the ren^efa) pnrouicof the enraged J» 
{Putnam'^ Mngasine, October, ISGS.) The Northem«« 
yanis, or Bluebeliies (from their blue uniform), or jHoyg m 
a term which has aiucu become the ofheial name of ceruini 
military associations, frequently coii«»tiug of uegro«& Nofl 
names wnnlin'; for the different fractioug of politic*! 
though ot iho ISonth not much divRrdity of opiuion wasi 
The North had. besides Uic famihar party-names, its 
KortliL-ru abottors of Slavery, podiHps deriving their naniMl 
an appreciation of Uie ktieiulabhi elmractcr of dough. ^1 
Lowell explains the term in his t'atalogiie RaisonniM mt 
*'A contented lickspittle, a common variety of Northern 
oisns," and alludes to it ug;un in the lines — 

" Each hon'roMe ilvus^fnc* git» \<%\ wul he nxrs. 
All' till' people — tiiur annual soffwddn- nnd taxe^," 

It is said that John Randolph, of Roanolc^ in denonncioj^ 
famous Missouri Campromi^ as "a dirty bnr[^jn,"also 
the i'ighteon Northern Congressmen, who helped to 



id INxoa's UdCt ^ donphfacfs, nnd tliat th(> cjiitti«t at 

Swl into Hie flang dictinntrv "f politics. Then, thore 
ft^Theads, M> eilied from the contompl onterlained for Ihw 
u bean Uiat nnmc, or from the poor Redman, who iistd 
(S atijE'tnatijicd ; they Wfro DemocratSf nnd rctorrod iipou 
'nii'ii men hy callinj^ them Niggerhfads. /ittttjTuuiy wurw 
lathixcrs with the Soath in the North and the Mirldte 
lie term wiw derived froiii the color of the uniromis worn 
riy part ol' the n'ar by Confederate eohliers in the Wept, 
fcdBg homespno. ircre dyed brown with iht juice of th* 
t (Jnplatis ciuBrea). Tlnj most- adiranc«*d among the re 
I. who were willing to ftucrificr every conatitntional right 
kn give up the Union, were oallwl Radieah, or from the 
•iradTersarioscoutemptnoiisly Radit. "Burrcll is a good 
ifauasiniicb right to embezzle a little a« Rf-ed h:id." (.V«hi 
il, 1871.) Tho third jwirty in the strifp, the slave, who 
•e Item a chattol. and called a itif/ffer, became gradually, 
iportance was more clearly perceived, and tlnally made 
•tent^xisly ft'lt. at tiio pidJs, a n^ri), u contraiimri, and a 
k. Ill familiar intercoiiree. he appeared Eiiggpstively as 
I Csrm not unknown iu England (i>'/oiiy Dictionary, p. 
humoronely as an HiibUachfd American. The Coiortd 
c« popular at the North as well as at the Sonth. has 
ssppcnred, sinci? l^he diiBnulty of d(>ridttig iti the nw nf 
lemism between thi? quadroon and the " negro so hlaok 
icoal makes a chalk-mark on him," has hectime mauifi-at. 
' that tlie rn>edmeu, in the first glow of their new rights, 
to coll th« White* Phin /'eoplc, in return for the term 
^topie, hy which they werf designated theinwlves. 
[ the terms brought out hy the war 13 the old Spot/^h word 
rell known to all readers of Scott's poems, from the lines — 

" Widow and ^nxon in«]d 
I Long ahall lament our foia." 

^ <Zafy of tkt I^aice.) 

^ meaning a warlike invasion on horseback into the 
jonntrr, and derived from the verb to ride, asstimed new 
new force by the brilliant raid* made on both sides, 
I iwodncing nneicpected rwaltn. Officials, who were not 
ito axposs chemsftlvcA to the dre of the enemy, like ()iiar- 
commiesarios, etA, were niV-knamed Aom&proo/s, «\^^« 


tbe-kBg-forgottea tummer rc u pp eif git oo tbf Sonfci wd i*! 
nir of the two Knnie& Tb« i«a«MP m»j be « nm 
tanMMwcv u far u bis emiic mori— to and jnUsn; 
tin are coDcemcd ; but he ia, £ir iqors likely, drmtMkd 
Gormaii Bummttr, m nuu who gotm aboiit wnbo«t aim Mid\ 
fo&tr and lirefl on the ftnits of otlwr peaiik^a }ahor, la 
the una ia nsed j-ood-namredlT, «ad luui nothing oflbaaii] 
mesiiing; beiv, faowever, ttw practice of stealing u 
^ra the word. Heoce. Major NichdU make* Um 
thb acoount of himaelf : " Look hyu, Ca|Maiii, wt ain't ■! 
an«r alL We keep akead of the akinnish-tine allers ; vu ] 
koow when aa enemj'B a comia'. and then we ain't alles^ 
from the r^uient. We tarns over all we don't want 
aud we Oka lick fire times ■» many Bebe as we arv uj 
{Shervmrt'a Gnat March,) J. 6. Leland's Hans Breitanus*' 
ba'nng himself been a butnmer, ns h6 ha? siuce 
"TThlan" refiorts that the old original bnmmer was 'i 
named Jost, belonging to a regiment of Pennn-lrania 
viiOM praBcipiK'v in bummimj, olhcrwisQ hotxnn* in 
flghting, and drinking lager-beer, rui^ him to a pitch of { 
Ae Federal side, which excited at onoe the on^r and the 
tioD of (he boldest buehwhackersand thegantjlMt guerriD»i 
Confederate hosL'' Occasionaily, the bummer was called a < 
a term peculiar at first to Xorth Carolina, and tfaevm 
orer the South. 

The JaylusTvktrs verv a more oSensire clou of men. comk 
murder with maraudiug, and were fsmons Wfore the war : 
dnriog the bloody strife carried on in Kaoens. The terra 
American, but an importation from Anstralia, where it t*i 
haTe been coined hv convicts, itnd came to ns by way of 
fornix They fought in Kansas often side by side with^ 
equally ill-famed Border- Ku^ant, a term iiiventi>d by tb« 
York I/erald to designate the bond* of lawless men whu 
the borders of some of the Western States, bat especially 
waging r<>tentles9 war against all parties alike. The tertihki 
of things there led the New York 7WAun«, aome time 
to speak of Bleedinff Kansa*, ond the expreaainn conrej 
exactly the feeling of thousands of sympathizers with the. 
toil roovcmcDt, that it was at onoc adopted, sod beoame a : 
cry, vbich wiU not soon be forgotten. 



I MMMjfiatJby on the contrary, waa the man of the South, 

bimaelf in h remote foreaty vr »n iiiucce^sible sn'amp, 

to tecaifn oouacnption. His name was dertred Iroin tho 

icy that be was determined to keep in hiding till '' the 

lould grow on bia back — '' a^ German atud>;utj uaed to call 

tit Teterann nt On- university, fiemoo»tf- Jiunpttr (mois*- 


limmon^ b<iuniit-d {Miid at the North to volunteers led to a 

ok and a new term: men would receive in one State a 

of mouy huDdred doUaiis, enlist, join their reRinieut, 

1 away after a few days; Uiey went into anollier State, 

ouw nionj, rwjaiving a second bounty, and aometini"j« 

th« ex)>er)ment lievera) times in euccwseiou. They <ib> 

the title of bou>Ui/-JumperA ; while at the South, a muii 

irttl nut i-etum after the war was orcr, and left his country 

th« consequeiiccd* was (»licd cuiitemptiiously a rat. 

fiuUai-Jiox of the Confederates waa aUo known as Jej^' 

JBox.' it was the humorous name given by the men to ths 

nng, iiUbnilt ni-my-wagons, which were apt to creak hor- 

>r want of greasing; but thoir Wooden I/orse, which was 

[time thought at the North tx> be an infernal -machine, to be 

riievr York or Boston Hnrhor, wa« a serrct society, 

for political purpuaes, and dissolved us tb(? latter ceased 

Tb« old Baslxiiet and ita painful memories, were revived 

?rican apecch when thrt t<'rni was applied to the wccet 

imprisonment of fiiispccted synipathizers with the South, 

ire silently deprecated but passively oonsented to by tha 

UnioHis/s of the Boi-dcr States, a largo and influential 

of men. who, like Dante's fallen angelfi, impaled upon Eoma 

. iciest spears of his terrible irony — 

[ "Don furon r'ibcllJ, 

^ S4 fur fcdell a Dlo, iim per tb foro." 

^m (Edward Speacu*. Eclntie lifni>atin«, December, 1670, p. 60S.) 

ucurious that the same term has recently been revived in £ng- 
id also, where it is used as a slang term to denute a prison or 
ik-up, iU abbreviated 6;jrm sled being, liowever, the favorib* 
pmiioa with the lower orders. (Slang Dictionary, ■p, 71.) Tha 
<u prisoners were rarely said to have been " captured ;" but like 

ptmuKl properly that mis taken swifMT, selztA and ili 
« iMg. soldiers also were ba<igtii. "We srolp upon ihf Swi 
•warK, 01) the other side of liie creek, and by poiinring npa 
•I] of « sudden, i»e haggtA the whole lot." (Lonisville .A 
tember 7. 1864.) A more eniel word, in thi* tj-Hesct - ■! 

Tas diinug the war bnt too frcfjiK'utly applied to :,. ,..-, 
peculiarl>' obnorioua prisoners. They would be iatmiM 
guard to bo conveyed to the nearest homlr^uarters; Intlrti 
latter reached the place to whic-h the}' wurt- sent, tlw 
usnallv, *' Priaoners were lost." and no farther iuqairr vu 
neoessarj. "The two horsc-thievta were c«corted t-* thee 
town by some forty or fifty gentlemen, most of whom ha 
aggrie^vd by the robbers. Hut »« they npprcMbched the WH 
Vandalia, all felt back, except five or six, who soon disappH 
the furest When they rejoi«e«l their friends on the turnf^ 
simply declared that tbey had lost their captivee. and tb« 
all returned to their homca:'' (St. Jjouis Democraf^ JuIt II, 
Even die battle did not escape the tendency to friv* to aU 
HioknaniGs. The " boye," with a witty turn of the militair 
ficanceof the wonl.werc in the habit of termiiiir a batilea 
; Two much discnssed terms nre fhtbang and skedaddk. 

Tmvr, u«ed even yet by students of Yale College nod dM 
to designate their rooms, or a theatrical or other performaM 
public hall, hua its origin probably in a eorrujteion of the F 
cabant, a but, fiuniiiar to the troops that cnnie from I^a 
aud coQstiuitly used in the Confederate camp for the ntnpli 
which they buiJt with such alacrity and skill for their « 
quai-lors. The constant interconrse bctwe«n the outpoMl 
made the term fumiliar to the Fedtnilarmy also. ** MiraTi 
fellow," says au uld Kyldier, "who enlisted to do hard flg 
lost the numberofhismcss, and was carried oat from his*i 
to his long home." {Overland Monitil^, March, 1671.) 

Tho word skedaddle even crossed the Atlantic, and ml 
gravely discussed in Parliament Ft appeared in printtprt 
for the first time, immediately after the battle of Bull Bitl 
was at onoe caught at and repeated all oTertheconntry- Inii 
to inquiries aboat its origin, some Irishmen at once daiimd 
tbeir own, deriving it-fi«m their xgtdad^l, which maua^ 



I," »nd naively Bnggcited that one of their Tuliant conntry- 
ighl hate uttered the words while running awnj- from Bull 
It cannot 1» denied that in an old Irish vei-siou of the 
'frstAtncnt the word is nsed thus: "I will smitt^ the sbep- 
tfae ehecp of the flock shall be s/fedad-ol," The aoldiors, 
ia, were tickled by the sound of the word, which 
give a humorous appearance to a somewhat iguominious 
thnii it spread, appearing iij the report«of corresjiondBiiLs 
on journals. The Timtg noticed it particularly, and 
the phraae, "A Kortheroer, who retrMte, retiret upon 
', but a Southerner is said to gkfdaddleT' Therenpon 
■wrote a letter to pruve that the term was oxoeUfut 
\f well kuown in the North of Bnglond also. It ia true 
Ayrshire and Dumfriesfaire people use it quite frequently 
ibe the spilling of milk or wntor from a pail. Milkmaids 
to gay, **Mind, you are Bkedaddlinrf all your milk," »nd 
North Iho dropping of coal (Voni the bucket is also cnlled 
!/». The probability of thi* derivntion is much strength- 
tbe fact that the word exists in the kindred Scandinavian 
u Swedish haa a term fhuddadahf and Danish its tkyt- 
[irith exactly the some meaning: what therefore the Scotch 
fc hare done — iraporfing the word into the army — may 
be credited to tlie numerous Scnndinarians Oom Wis(ron- 
facetious writer in the Louisville Journal was prohahly 
to trace the woni to a still more ancient foi-m. He do- 
1 It *• from the Greek rerh aufdayrvfti, to sctttter or disperse 
nltaonaly," and its infrequent norist erxiSatra, used by Hi-- 
tos and Homer, tho hitter of whom iMuptoys also the noiiu 
Saffti in the seuse of an emphatic scatteratioa. {Iliad, XIX. 
— XXUI. 163; Odt/tfey, I. 113, a» quoted iu CrusiuB" Lexi- 
) The English Slatg Diclivtiaty endorses this riew, doclar- 
that Lord Hill and the Times were both iu the wrong, and 
ibutin}^ the odd word to some professor ut Harrard, who iiiny 
t set it afloat, utterly uncons<»oii« that the bautliug would 
tvith such vnespected snccess. For whatever it may nicAU 
wherever it may orijjinaliy come from, there m som(;thing 
inacriptiTe in the term, that it is likely to maintain itself in 
'■pMch in spite of all grammarians, and will probably he proof 
^ til att«mpt0 to remove iu Its very success ia tho two 



luviics sppfiks in it« favor; for at the tinui when 
Ua yron making hia vain elfortd to reach Kichmond 
oven tliu Kreiicli princca ou his staff had ptck«<l up the ti 
and it waa gmrely quoted in some Freuch publtcatioiu oM 
Sliort pbm&(.'S also became, at timea, vtry ]>apuUr, aud b^ 
l(Mt tW prestiKO f«t, which they acii)uired diiring the war.; 
WHS poor Mr. Lincoln's naive exprtasJoo, wheo he wa« adt^ 
he ilid not. make an end to the war. and repUodr that llr^ 
what a higjobit wtut. but, wich bisiuarvelioud cboerfuLuc«a4 
pliciL trust in the nation, added; " U vt just keep ptggin^ 
it '11 all turn onr right" The tcna may possibly bo tokeaftj 
shocmaker'B patient woric, but to peg nuana at th« mmt\ 
fitriiv, and Mr. Halliwoll alreiwly quotes: "I gave him I 
/ffffginff," meaning btii^h a bvatiuf. The phrase .■iUguigt\ 
J'oloHuu:, iincQ repeated in many a soog, luid ramiliarvj 
mon expression fur an undisturbed state or things geacnj 
came atereotjrped ou tll^ nation's mind by its constant nf, 
in the War Bulletins of ili. Cameron, then Secrrtaiy^ 
The lact that almost ovory Federal Commander- iit-Chii( 
disappointed in his efforts to break through General LmI 
»tid to enter Richmond, professed in his official n;|>ort8 li 
— uot lalloii back — but ehanffed his ba*£.> made the pbraK i 
by-word at the North as wall oa in the South. To tlu 
therefore, it is used aa a humorous way of admitting a dd 
at least the necetuity of trying once more in some otbi 
Thus an enthusiastic write>r, recommcndiug to the public b 
ittTeuttoo of a Gentlomaii's I*i>cket Spittoon, writes thn*: 
years my att«ntion has been called to the necessity of s dbd 
boM iu the matter of iobacco-spitting, from the pablto 
under tbu public eye, to some mure private receptacle, mid 
individual care of the devotee." (New York IViinne, ¥cbti 
1871.) it is well kuovu. thataslaras the war was oonl 
the flnul conqueror at once superseded the phmse by adi 
the new resolve: "To fight it out on this line." Of more b 
mettuing, but iufmitely diversified ia tlie term^ io JUatk,^ 
from thu strategy of the generals, desocndad in the moatb C 
vales to wry lowly uud out always bonoiuble meanings. Vh 
men wished to escape the attentiua of pickets and gnardi bj 
ping past tbeoi, they said ibeyfianJoad theia; 4ri 





irktotno dot}' vrwjCanJlw^ vh*;t) it oould be aroidecl bv some 

ling trick. Boon, hovev«r, honesty itaeM h-oa xhnt tn?At«i3, 

the floor firnn^r vujlanhed out of his pig aii<l his poultrr, 

not unrraiuontly oven tlio oomnulc ont of his pip« and 

if not bis rtttioii& The height of strategy wiu employed 

TMioue/otfX' manttitvrw, when tb« Commie«uy could be 

I to somader some of his wbixkey^ and thas it camo about, 

SoQtIi at leMtf tliat to Jtani fhs whoU bottle was a phnue 

ire of saperlative cunning and brilliant auccess. 

ig tba minor dotaiU of the war that produoed new terma, 

be DKotionrd tho wurd wrffhum yuUirtg or iugginf, as found 

line; " We h^ar ia this couoty of several marriagea, oue 

bop^ aonie tortfhum-tuyifings, and *.ny number of gum- 

for thr holidnys.** (Bichmmul DifijinUJi-, December 20, 

curiouB term hoa it^ origin in the name of the Chinese 

)0 (Sorghum saccbaratQm), which was very largely culU- 

ia \he South during tb« Cinl War ; syrap wasmade from it 

;« quantities, aud becntne soon tJie general eubsUtute for 

which could not be obtained. Hence sorghum became uot 

'itaelf a fkrorite with Boldien and all classes of society, bnt 

aoquired a general meaning, denoting anything Epecially 

It or desirable. As the people of the South had always 

. ktxd. o( tnoloMes stewt, iu which (he boiling molasKS was 

or tugged out into long strings, the some was now dono 

. the sorj^iim-molasses, uud bcuce the name. 

pcACe has been restored, the great work of Recenstruclion 
ino ou -uninterruptedly for six yejint in the South, apparently 
fully, although the formal resiomtion of the Union woa 
ifdiabed. This process, also, has guen rise to some peculiar 
kttms. To secure the loyaky of conquered Southerners a rauUi- 
rmle ofoatiis were exacted of them, and among these two assumed 
names: the Amnmty OaUt, which secured pardon according 
terms of «a amnesty granted by the Prusident, and which 
itly called " Damnattty-Oath" by those who snnilowed 
ill mure liaiefiil Iron-dad Oalk, General B. F. But- 
i«onndered the author of all those peculiarly harsU 
measures, nicknamed Iron-Clad, spoke of these onths 
tliua: -'Oaths have liecome odious in this country by 
of tiieir frequency and their iron-dad ohantoter. They 




buve become a* chtapu custont'ttouM ontkt or dieer^ oath: 
body wpmB to care Tnncli for them." In 1871, he «ud.lMi 
"Erory giving way ihat Congress had so Tar aUoired, tiaj 
tlie death-knell of srime black or whit« fri<?Dd of Ibe Uolod 
hoped Umti the iron-clad onth would never be repealed. It 
patent of uobility for royal^, referring to the Ku-Klnx oat 
(Nmr York Tribune, February 2, 1871.) ,; 

Tlio necestiily of prortding loyal oflici-rs for the Stetc^ 
citizens were aWnoi^t, alt disabled ih>in taking thfse oatiia^ ij 
whioh tfaey oould not hold office, required the employma 
number of men from the North, who flocked to the So 
search of employment nnd emoluments. Some perlbnnfli 
duty faithfully and wisely, snd rose rapidly in the oonfidid 
esteem of Konthernors, being by them chosen to fill highl 
as governors, senators, etc Bui u large number, nlso, sougj 
th«ir private interest, and having entered the Sonth poor,^ 
became rich ; these the tfuffenQg people soon began (o del 
00 Carpet-baggers, from tbf only pieci- of luggage irbich tlj 
brought with them on their arrival from the North. ( 
Joseph Hodgson, editor of the Mail, a paper pablishcdat, 
gomery, in Alabama, is »aid to have invented, or at least to hi 
need in prim, tlio opprobrious term, which qniekly became p 
08 a iiumo for all adventurars in search of fortune in the 
" The general drift of public sentiment is, that the carprl*^ 
Bcalaivaj^s, ex-slavcii, ex-slaveholders, rebel* reconstracUd, 
unrcconBtrncted, and Sonthern loyalists should be tefV, fori 
period at leaat, to fight oat their own batlleft, in their ovj 
and that if the nation is ever again to become n party 
qaarrols, it eliall be oii no stiglit pretext and for 
pose." {New York Post, April. 187L) 

Tlie i-vidently diishonest among the Southerners, 
to the dominant, party, and ntiblnahingly lived on their coi 
friends tiiid neighbors, were cjillcd Sfallaie/tgn or 
an old variety of wags described by Mr. Bnrttctt as a 
of loaferj blackguard, ntid scamp." [Dirtionary, p. 888.) I 
scallatoag of a fellow ought to be kicked out of all decent M 
( Western Sieidtes, B.) It waa one of this class, rather ttjl 
doqueut advocate of Woman's Rights, ol^n charged in 
orime, who first pabliol; used the illshi^a word miti 


, And openlj dared to advocatQ the expediency of favoruig, by 

mgrncj of State nad Chnrch, the iriingling of the black and 

raceg. Ic seemed hard to make a nrord that could be worse, 

Estill preu this has been accomplished by AmcricnD genius, 

lensd that "'A itm-fgtnationiKt, nami}d Williama, was tarred 

, ftachcKd, and duoipud into the rirer at Grenada, Misais^ippi, 

tether dAy.*" (Richmoad Dispatch, March 15. 1S71. 

>rd h^nl itself, one of the noblest words m the language, , 
of foreign birth, had to answer new purpose*. Loi/al 
as veil a£ Union Leaffueg, were formed all over the 
tu aid in n3-cslablishii)g and firmly consoliilattng Iho 
that had been Eo nt-ar to disruption, and Loyalty became 
'\tA of all who sought preferment, or wanted aid (Vom Uio 
)rwl power*. But us the sacred thought expressed by tha 
was abused by flatterers and hypocriteg alike, the tenn itself 
srcd curtailment in its sonorous sound, and the hit man, 
'Was often called, inspired the upright at once irith a 
Hon of lijHSetTice or selfiidi seal. No such doubt hung, on 
other side, at any time over the meaning of the word jTk-i 
(written Ku-Klux, Kii Klux, and Ku-klux), a meaninglessi 
of im abomination, the sad result of lawlc^ness on one' 
id tyranny on the other eido. such as results almost 
b!y from an imperfect pacification. The Ku-Klux-Ktan 
or pretended to be a spcrct political organization, " the 
purpoM of which, was, by their ghaf cly apparel, in which 
lYnrsedtheootmtry, loappcal, to negro euperetttion.uud pre- 
tdeTulations at night Hut Uadicaltsm raised auch an infernal 
rl. and thieves nt length ossaming tlw Ku-Klux garb, the 
luuuiLioii wad finally ahundonud." Tliia is the explanation 
en at tiie South, througli one of its organs. (Memphia AppmU 
BBaiy 17, 1871. J At the ^'orth the Ku-Klux ore looked upon aa 
who, under some specious pretext, but always under tha^ 
Her of night and diggnisc, perpetrate i>olitical outrages, 
^lome, murder otheri, prerent the freodmen from enjoying 
IwlT-acqaiml rights and from pursuing their labors ioti 
V, and serionaly endanger the republic itself. It ia 
itttii : iiatever may bo said in defence of such secret, 

Bonblv organizations, they can, in their best aspect^ aim no 
than to substitute Lynch-Iaw for equity and justice, lio 


wB «rA (» d SlMK, BO uwaa t mU tww gattrwamt cmn. tokn 
£»« ■nwiwit; fl aliMlii lj Ilwir rd^ in th« Sooth is S 
vcsj fe« ad vet; nBaD diitriBU, «Bd m peu« and 

kf a viae rfwniiwlwtiMi of tfaa Istb, tfaej will i 
ctascageBdend br the wv. We hsre ealM 
mivamated. it ought, perha 
tkat aoMfe iBfttioH MggMtions have been 
eifM* the *Imi'J Tomme, vmtmg which th« follovjiig u 
{■{TOfaahke: **Oo the hocden of Tcxm, near the Ri« 
tbem Im«! a Muku hr th« ume of Val. K. XnlVuh. 
tjbe Bovie^ vho ivMBted the B^rie knife, was a desper 
■■likE tjM«, he fca^tagaiiiit aad dcpredatecl upon the J 
Ktllaa. He is ttii\ remeznbend ia Texas by many who] 
•ad beant oC him, ai veil aa Anadei hina. His moUi 
•eck ttBonsmgly to mv^age a real or fcaeied wrtmg lo hie 
Mlovcr^ «r bU coaatrf. His name qielled backward 
. it gare to the fottoder of the new order, its same of i 
'iam.' (GoRvspoMdeaee of Chk^o RrpuUiran^ Mud 
tbet^ derives ti»e odd name from " Krultd -fill 
for *' cruoked clatofaee," aaoribed to the £Til < 
thtts mentioned in an old poMo, written on the death, 
pMiey, a Welsh non-conformist : 

" The Weblunui is kugcd. 
Who Bt uar ktrke flaoBvd, 
And M tbo sui; bmnsed. 

And brcn^ are hli bukl ; 

And tho' he \at hanged, 

Yd he U not Mnngrd, 

The dc'll has liim r*&^ 

tu Ui* krulud ktuU." 

CFmm Wn'rrr'i F^mrrai Jfonvmtnh, ad 

The many absnrd sttcmpU at explaining tho odd tl 

Ml indignant Koglish writer to exclaim: "^1^^ Sir. i 

Ku-Khix is aninTcntion, juet leitepsshot togetberproroi* 

Presently a loumed party will traco Ku-Klux to tli« In 

to the Fccjtfp mermaid, and get a me<!iU for hia discorerr 

a W'rrfi, Miiy. 1S7I.) " But the gcntnil caitec of dispnte* 

JCv-Kluxera hoa been some action on the part of the au 

gen through tho niggers." {Ibid.) 

As the government of the TJnited Stat«s rc«erv«s to i 



prerogsUve of coining moacj, it ma; not be amiss to men- 

Tew peculiar i^rins ttiat are connected with the currency. 

ilj national coin is the EagUj so called from the emblem of 

epublic, which it Itoars ; it is of gold, and of the value of t«n 

in: doabk eAglcSf as well OS half and qnartcr eagles, are in ox< 

• V:.:l-. though rarely »eeo. The only other coin peculiar to the 

J(ed States i& the rfirnn, a silver coin of the value of tea cents, 

the lialf-dime. both also very generally known aa ten cent 

I and Jive ceni pieces. Copper-money is reprewnted by cenls. 

CU at least titc words dimf, bit, two bits, etc., are still exclu- 

' heard iu shops and storea. The Spanish elItct coins, which 

^Jong cun-BDt in oome parts of the Union, have nearly all dis- 

aod with tbem their local names, ae the Jip and the htvy, 

irepraseutiag2ixaudaquart4T,und twelvuand it half cents, the 

a contraction of live pence through the Englifib fippeac«. 

Iter the scant remnant of eleven pence. " A Jip's worth uf 

and a levy's worth of sleep," were the worda of a loafer of 

ielpbi:^ where the names remained longest in use. (J. 

fcal, Charcoal Sketdua, I,, p. QS.) Tlio sixteenth part of a 

U, in like manner, still frequently called u picayMne, in 

Orleana Since the war a few new coins, of the value of a few 

, have been iisacd, mainly of nkke}, and hence often so called, 

idtnting what \& known to the laws a Fractional Currency, or 

sr and nickel tokeiin. As the United States have, siHcti the war, 

exclusively paper-money, the cant name given to it from the 

color of the baclt, QreeHbacks^ has become universal. "The 

Grtenhackshas become entirely domesticated as a respecta- 

^snd generic tcnn fur an all-pervading st>ecies of ovil, than ilie 

ice of which nothing can be woree, except its absence." (I. 

fi^ieiLBer, EcltcUc Monthly.) The eonredemte uol«e bore, for 

line reason, the name of Bluebacks, which was, however, soon 

Bged for the slang term oi nhucks. Nor have the solid gold 

CBCapod entirely the contamination of slang. When tho 

BO. T. H. Benton, of Missouri, put his whole strength forward 

the floor of Congress and Uiniugii t!ie jiress to introduce a gold 

iirency, he accidentally called the latter mint-drops, with a 

"^^X, attempt at a pun. The word, however, became popular, and 

ir many years gold coins were very largely known as Benton's 

litU-dropSr while the author of the phniso was called GUI Bui- 


■ r'#**;|: 


Tkade of all Kinds. 


" Ttir -vftight, tur measure, fkir speecb." 

B, PYatMin, 

cuniiot be denied Lhat if the Euglisli are a nation of ehop- 

pper«, and hare never proved the truth of Napoleon's charge 

oro fully than dnriiig the last years, tlio Americans arn not un- 

idfnl of the same sonroc of wealth, and ahap-siang, as their 

cousins call tho terminology of the counting>houBe, forms 

insignitlcanl |iart of our peculiar Bpeech. Much, however, is 

also looked upon as American, thnt has long been in use as 

>r bad — Koglish, and among thcue terms, wrongfully im- 

. to as, sttindn naturally foremost the Almighty DoUar. How 

English anthora cast the unlucln- word, first coined in 

em form by W. Irving in 183T» in his Creole Viliage, into 

teeth, and tried to make the world believe that none but 

knew the " almighty" power of money I We hope they 

I recall the lirst lines of Ben Jonson's Epistle to the Countesa 

' Holland, which read thn^ : 

" Wfaibt that tor which kU virtue now it sold, 
And slmost every vice, olmfyMie ffold ;" 

■nbstitntuig the doUar for the guinea, they may safely claim 

^uthorabip of tlie phrase. It may even be doubted whether 

) iloUar is as powerful in America as gold is in England, al- 

£b a sarcastic writer speaks severely Qi the " unrelenting and 

ita 0Dwardne«8 of th« great Yau kee dollar-chasa." ( Puinttm** 

itfatiiUt April, lS6i.) It is certainly remarkable that, with all 

I MuntiDB for the Pollar, the sign by which it is represented 


■ in vritiBf (#) dxmld etUl be an anoxplaincd mjsteir. 
H plMsifale eiplMutku among the many thut have bwo 
" that it rrpresents Ae Irtters U. S. (United State*) drai 

for bre^itr's sake, so as to dietingoieli Ihe American 
tb« Spanish coins, which vere largely used befort' the ju 
pahlie conid »tahlish its ovn coinage. It is eqnaUv doJo 
chai;gi! Americans vith the inrentioa of the phnwe, to mnhm 
mnch a£ thej may be addicted to the pracLi[>e. Dr. JohaH 
PMKly ^ebukl^l B«well sharply for using it, and said: " Darf 
6« the imiHoiwiety of it? To natf money is to coia it; 
sltc^nld say, to gtt money." Morforcr, if Americans an fad 
maling monfjf, they are also able to make a. good na 
H eamin^as England has M«n in the benefactions of MrJ 
They may well be pardoned, therefore, the almost en( 
of terms they employ in de»gtiAting lai^ sum^ spealriql 
mint, an ocmu. a wiii/, a »iffhi, and ApoKfir of money. 
_ Mowff itself has in the Unit^il Stiit««f us in Engfawd, 
H more designations than any otherobject — liquor alone ' 

■ many of which an? purely whimsical, while others mav U 
m back to the nmterial of which coios are made. Among ^ 

generally known terms are John Dttris or the Ready Je)k%, i 
times simply JoAh or fte/tdtf. gpondulics, dooitroomus, ofVrtil 
ened into dc6t ; totr. tend (both of them eridently tailors' A 

■ bardsttvff or hard, dirt, thinptastrra^ ot eimply pla*tfr» ; m 
with, shadtcaies, or tct^t, " for short ;" dyevtuffa, rheirmit, tad 
the more modem deaigaation of stamps ; all of which an nil 
in the list giren in the EugliBh Slang Dictionary, and m^ti 

■ fore bo considered as Americanisms. 
Unfortunately, the skill in making money is sometimes il)(| 
employed aflvr the manner of Dr. Johnson's anggestioB. 1 
ooiue, the makers of which arc carionsly called tfosMil 
abounded as long as specie was in nsc, and since ffrttnioM 
the only cnmency, counterfeit: paper -money is quite at 
_ The great meceas of one of the earlii^r connterfeiton hai I 

■ name a byword, as that of the great rosnrrectiouist Id 
has become familiar to all readers. Borke abroad has hiij 
part in Ifvffu$ at home. The latter in. however, a rile ' 
Of a most noble andTomanttc name, the Italian Morfhtm-^ 
year 1637 thera pused throagfa the- Western and 




A man calling blm»1f thus, who drev large nombers of 

ious clieijkSf coles, and bills of uohnnge nptm Ihe principal 

iers uiid l>8ukers,aDd sacoeeded in swindling the public out of 

i;<i euniB. Jiie> ImuKictiolis uvtl' lioexU-tisive^aud the distrust in 

iDierctal circlM so Tf ry great when hit) fi>rgcri<>s were disoorai 

ibat hia oome, proaoanoMl, with American freedom, fin 

unJ thttu BoguB, sptviul over the wholo Union. It soon 

le eynoiiYiaous wilU any doubtful money transactiaQ. and as 

the faucy of tht; peupit, ti£ meaning rapidly extended to 

rtbing sujpected cS being nnnca!, ipnrious, or fruiidulcnt 

i ft member of a Tx'gisUtun.' siip|M5C4l to b<.' unfairly el«r(«d, 

lied a io^jt rcprceenutive: a woman with false hair and 

!4aefh^ painted, or otherwtbti gotten up to look youog, when eho 

Id, WH£ a bogus btauty ; and famous — or iafamous — Mrs, 

logham, who. like Jounna Southcote, pret«ndt.>d to hare had 

iitd, without snch being the case, wait declared to have 1}cen de- 

of I hogu* chiid, Tho fondness of AmerioutiH for such 

full of SDggestiire force, and yet avoiding tho nnplcaeant 

jtoe«5 of a charge, ia strikingly seen in the almost endli'ss 

iety tif meanings to which the term has since been bent: ladies 

'4n aocnaetl of wearing bogu* diamonds; 0Terdr«Med, assum- 

I is( npatiirt* arc called hogu3 gentlemen; maimed eoidiere wear 

\ Aegu»-\cgit blind men boffit* vget^ and even in courts of justice 

los-^u ckargM are of oonatant ocourreuce. J. R Lowell propoM«, 

ia gpile of ihe almost historical descent of the word from this 

toorcc, Buother derivation of bogtu from the French hagaxse, the 

wortiilfM refuse of sugar-cane, whioh he thinks gave the uame to 

^liicr vorthlei>5 things, and travelled gradnally np the Mississippi 

H^ its hirtli place. New OrloouB. 

Another term of suzulor oharoctor was the Wild-Cki( M<mey of 
lb* U«t generation, which took its name from the notes of a 
baafc in Michigan, bearing a Wild Oat or a panther on ita foot as 
a vignette. The bank proved uti/>rly insolvent after having st-nt 
ant .% Urirn number of notes, and for many years afterward all 
la baiika, which Uien abounded, vera dengnated m 
Banks, and their notea often ver)- curtly and Mvertlj as 
I/. "I)uf!a tbe honorable member in good earnest mean 
die disactrou*. times, when thousands and tons of thuu- 
wanfjruinedby Wiid-Cai ^nJttf" w»» afkfdoii,tlw floor 




of Ck>ngrc86 in March, 1805. Other efibrts at chcatiiij;uti 

n&txdm chuelling — ootMiomeliave believed ixom tkie] 
chUeUing, tbai is, opcuing bjr meaua of cold ohiael* Um 
bftalcs and merchants, Eince the tenn is niuch older 
introduction of safes. '^ When the hooka were ovurhAokdl 
ComniiUcc, it was fouud Uiat their late Cashier had appcDf 
to himself nearly two hundred tboiuand dollars, and 
stockholders would l>e chitdled out of a pretty cutuiUenbWl 
(Savaunah Republican, May 17, IS^S.) A Mtmewhat «t 
term for the Batn» operation ie ;fottgitig, the figure of speech] 
evidently drawn from the cai^wnier's fibop, where it me 
Bcoop or chisel out with a holbw, cylindricsl too]. An An 
can lady wrote recently from Germany to the Sew York Tr 
" I should like to be informed in what aiC-uM tho OermanA 
called a fiuffcring people; I look upon them as eminently 
pcruus. Between plundering aai gouging France, ae they nilti^ 
the indemnity, they will puy the expenses of the war a 
times over." (March 32, 1871.) 

Very general in ude, and, like bogut, applied to an infinite 
ety of uses, is the term shoddy, which we have obtann-d 
England in more recent times. Meaning originally cloth 
of a new warp filled with shreds (hence the name jihnii 
shoddy) of old and wornont cloth, it soon becamo synoDyii 
with the poor material largely furnished to Ooremm-- 
the late Civil War by tho class of contractors whose 
riches was greater than even their patriotism— or tlieir he 
"The FeunsylTania regiments, who plead the Statale of Lb 
tioD against the debt of doing duty at the battle of Bull Si 
wei-e said to have been equipped for the field by curtain 
friends of the cause, with contract coats, that would not bear I 
strain of butiuning, and contract boots, the glued soles of «) 
deserted ihe uppers iti the timt rain. As shoddy was rery 
those who substituted it for real cloth became suddenly rich, i 
this, very uaturally. led to the use of the term generally, as.. 
plied to all who actjuired wealth by contracts. Shoddy 
the name, more especially, of those who i^>ed tho arist 
other lands, and of all kinds of hollow schemes and 

idcrtakiugs." (Mr. Speuuer.) We hare uowfAocUjr-mi 
sAotfdjr'moiiuJacluniraj anpioStable pntacherSf uovlivi 



d unsafe merchants are all shoddy, nnd the skdio author, 
above, snggesta that the weaving in of bo much caat-off 
from the shores of Knro]M! and Asia, int:o the fabric of 
totAoiyy may ere long enil in producing a great shoddy 
i It 16 certain that art has become shoddy to a hi^h degree, 
!W York cBpecially can boast of a marTeUona shoddy archi' 
, browu-stone fronts with nothing behind them, and grand 
a*» »o flimsily built that they fall before they arc 6niflhed. 
is CTen mental shoddif, such as J. R. Lowell sings of when 

" I call it tfiaddii, 
A thing, iex be, won't corer aoul iior body, 
I Ukfl the pl-un all wool of common senile. 
That tramu yoa now and will u twclremonth hence." 

{Ihfftate J^ipan, 1I-, p. fl7.) 

, «TeD — to sh&ddifits — has been made to supply an apparent 

f\tnk, who also plays a prominent part in a certain claaa 
rcinl transaiUinnB, in., in all probability, a myth like Wil- 
li, although tradition Bpeaks of a person of that name 
once been famous, by his skill iu exciting buyers at unauo- 
>rai«e their bids tiilthey often exceeded the value of the ar- 
cy wished to purchase. The name is perhaps a simple manu- 
t, from the vague and unsatisfactory meaning of the woi'd/'tiHi. 
' designatea the person who aids in getting up so-called tnock 
M^ BtlcA held forthe sole bcneBcof inexperienced countr)'men, 
ith more or le«s wortiiless articlea, imilatioa jewelry, watch- 
It oopper and the like, are offered ; where unwary purchasers 
ced to take a large qnantity while they only bid for a very 
portion. The whole cstabliBhrncnt is a cheat, and Pettr 
one of the confederates, plays the hy-bidder or pufer, as it 
I be calletl in Englantl. (Grose's Dicixonary, auh voce.) " The 
' haa once more ordered a police sergeant to bo stationed at 
tr of ev*ry Feter t\inh auction-room in Broadway and the 
f, but in flpite of their wamicg Toice, greenhorns will walk 
I be fleeced." (New York Herald, November 14, 1859.) A 
IU" featu»e at gennioe auctions is the so-called iiyset price, a 
tueutioned by the auctionoor b«£ore begiunlug tlie sole, as tha 



lowest Bum at which Uie article cd&a^ viU be difpon 
** lie says: BuBiness before soup. Between fish and (wddii^ 
sell A pntiric. The uptet price is knucked down with a fad 
die, and thu burijoin i« clinched by th« b«lp uf thv Diit< 
aiid the uugar-toiig*-" {Putnam's Magatim, December, IS 

A 1(»4 mythical personage has imported his name fronB 
to Iheae fihore«, and eetablished himaelf tu oommenial wad 
surprising success. This is the Arab mescenger, or Ckim 
was seut in 1C07 by the great Signior, as the Saltaaof 
was then c-»tUnl, to England, and availed hiuuelf olhispM 
LoudoD to commit gigantic frauds ui)oii the Tariiish 
merchants of the gif*t dty. The tranmction 
'Change in all Its detuilE. ami the extent us well as the i 
the &oU led to the f<jrni»tiou of a verb, to ehouttf as synd 
with cheating or defrauding. The word ChioMa t8> of ooa 
known tVomof old: in Sandys* Travels (p. 4S) it is defioedi 
ing " one who g^ies on cmbiwiiies, executive commandmoi 
and in our days thousands hare flocked to admire tli^ 
painter Boulonger's admirable picture of ** Algerine CQ 
Koarly all the great poets of England nse the word^ thinl 
variwl spelling, from the ckotete of Halliwell and Ben 
chiausc to tbe simpler chOHSe of Landur, Browning, am 
The word is quite ^miliar on this gide of tbe Atlautir < 
by uo means limited to money matters,aa in the lines: "'. 
should have consulted his beloved Oerrnonia, before bfl 
her out of ber hoped-for Kaiser, and sabetitnted an tctiA 
fat and soant o' breath in his place." (New York TVOm 
ary 19, IB?].) 

The man who is not liable to be ehontdd on a 
nevei-tbele^s apt to fall into another danger, that thi 
geni in tho large citieiu A man walking before bii 
to find a well-fllled pocketbook, and either oSere it to bti! 
a ocrtain sum for immediate need, fur ndvertiBing, wiUi 
pcctation of a liberal reward, or, with more cynicism, d( 
suggests a diviniou of spuilii. In either case his 
punished by finding himself the owner of a roll 
bills, and out of pocket for tbe snm of good money be I 
the finder, who goes rejoteing to try again and again 
fnl tkvp-jiome, M the oheftt ia called. 


I orm 



nan wbu mcaua tu uinploy liia capital and his labor in 
eial enterprises is not, as in Sngluod, said to go into 
nt he eitbtr c'ouii<»:ts himself with a Monei/ed IntHiufion, 
ercd com)iai)ies ui>! generally' called, like bitnke, iDBurauco 
Im, and the like, or he devotes himself to nurdtandisinif, 
(Dnsetijihiiism; tbo oifepi-iiig of American grandilo<]uencc. 
W« is ooly a aiugle tninsactiou, aud often emptoyod to 
le iia exchuQg«i kt-ncc, mmW country shops express in 
emeuts their readiness "to trade for anything, meat, egg^ 
d all kinds of country produce." Wben un agreement a« 
and time of deliror)- has been reached, the question is npt 
ked : *' Well, is it a trade f" and if replied to in the at&rroa- 
I contract is binding, us far as vfrbul agreements hare any 
pbe tradesman is consequently more or less than the retaii- 
ii of EogUod, and to Irade \a by no mmna confined to 
commercial business. It includes, on the contrary, every 
nrnosaotion in daily life, and hence a traveller could report 
Ehfl Southernc-ra are not nearly as commercial a nice as 
ikevs, but still they arc much giving to trading amongst 
Bar, tuid tUe other day. at a hospital in Qcttysburg, uu 
tnau, whose leg was to lie taken off, no sooner knew that 
non was decided upoti by the doctors, than he tiimod to 
[Wounded man iu the next lied, and before tiio ujieration 
formed, had traded the boot which was heuceforth to ho 
U to bim." {Iftaciewiiod, December, 1864.) Perhaps they 
ter too Drell the prophet's praising words about Tyra: 
I Taba], and ifeaheob, they were thy merchants : they 
the persons of men and vessels of brass at thy market.'' 
H^xxrii. V. 13.) 

fat branobes of coiumL*rco havo peculiar names in Anier- 
|ch are only very slowly becoming known in England. 
ra Drtfffoods, cloths, stuffs, laeea, etc, rt-ferrod to in the 
Ig description of the greatest cshiblisbmcnt for their sale : 
in army of yonng men uiioountcr the flood of women with 
eedy, anxious eyes ; they keep them at bay by piling up 
|es of dryyooda of every shade and pattern evL'r pryduc«d. 
, Stewart's, a spot better kuowu to the female mind of 
% ibau the graves of the futhcra or the shrines of the 
I Among Dryijoods one branch plays a specially promi- 


lowcBt mm at which tbo urtidle fariff lud Pml 


" Hcssva: Bu^i 
fiell apnuHc. i . 
die, and the bargain if< 
fttid the su .' : -■" I 

A leM ui 
to theae Abores, and 
surprising sncciF-^ 
wa^ Si-ni in I< 
n-M then call- „ 

Louduu la ., -. ^,.<, 

lip. -nstiJ 

jotry, v 

• itielf has lU Amtrici 

■ liijnv. ,'rygoisU arp 

. ill ii' - jse of tbv 

jjijilied to the dr^s of a 

^vpiis Tot a «ingli> pivwi of ml 

)iill tvcommend *' that j(rkk£v as; 

itjj frolor/' Drjfffoottji arc kd 

a word used here iii tho pli 

mtichnnt '.''^"lyr* whily English osagf limits U to 

'Changt ^*'*%tfrtr'8 shop or the grocer'a ware 
tlio ()«' 'jirC^^stimiUant* readily fitid n place, the g 
with V*^!^ ap-Jedily become a name for a gn>j " 
^jf'^^irtQift aoathwiird groeeri$» are sipl t"~ 
-.'- ^'- fl«w, ardcDt splrita '* Fomiliee oug' 

>. of groceria nt the beginulng of tlio ; 
:■■ ' <>scand arc sur« not to run out M Ji 




'•ht«p6t's Afanunl, p. 88.) The n«t 

\ji(.;cs mode of metal, ia now probabljr ns oomn 

!^gt^^* ua. hut it includes the " irou-mongvr,^ 

^jrts'o"* *'* ^'* branch of tnide known io Koalutl 

1 tguon^ here. Of the*; various kimls of j^ouU* t 

- exl*^'*^ always to have a lai^ge Ktock on Imnii—o. p 

I. America i« Btrftngcly abused, being applied to pet 

^ to merchandise. " Be on Aaarf eajriy and ^ 

{Kdietl" is tlic conieet liaiBiiionB of radical a'.' , , 

pf otection. "A broker fiom Wall-«treet wiw urt bun 

1'iit he broke down half-way id the Lord'« 

_. iiied to be no one able to aaaiit him." ( New X 

^iifnst 11. 1S56.) 

Id n« point does oommercial langnagOi huuevL-r, d 

(tTis Kuglisb and American nsagnacteoneersed, tbau 

and ittor€. The EugUsh shopJcMper ii nnkDow 

day of Kmall things had long smoe ])aMcd for the Gr 

To go "hopping is ^leTlmpa the only phraae in which 

■■. ffiirvives; everywhere else it is diidaioralt 

..i-ollcst cobbler's stall is a ehoc or hno! utm-r, »r 



r*ii wortsliop a Aoof (»!</ Shoe Manvfact<yry, and even' vil- 
if ft few housos has ita Variety-Store, where coontry people 
use aDvthiDg ihay nuvy want. Tlio sftop is so haughtily 
Hi ihftc the xealons Teniperanco looCnror gatbertt hiR whole 
ttuD into the contemptuous term of progakop. irhere alone 
to be ia place, ^or does tb? American fMrc/iun/— fur no 
title is thought laitable for the owner of the smallest eetab< 
t — condescend to '^open a shop:" he seig up a store, a 
rj] or a boanar, at ouce. Quite as firoqnently, perhajn, he 
to run it, a word applied with ivoklcfis IVeedom to overf 
le enterprise, fh>m ruimitu/ the machine of the govorntnent 

wi'/iy a little grocery " ruunJ thu c^jruer.'' The following 
i»emeDt appeared in the l<>Ading New York papers: "The 
,rge«t retail bookstores in New York will be run by Shel- 

Compuny during the coming holidnyft, first, their present 
49S Broadway, second, the elogaut new »lore under the Grand 

I Hotel." (December HO, 1870.) Even to run otte'»/uc» is 

ent phrase, meaning to obtain money upon credit, in re- 
br-tlie borrower's name being placed on the/ace of a prom- 
note, which is then rtijt. The kindred term to circutatt, 

orighially applied to f/ntit-bills — as the Bnglinh hAnk-iio/«« 

odt 'erj* genprally railed in Amorirti — \s now rtpplied to u 

y of movements, and gentlemen cireulaie in good soeiety, as 

If were promises to pay themselves. By a similar process 

M that bank-notes may be nbove par or nn/lfr par has led 

application of ihesc terms to articles of other kinds, and 
;o man's conduct. Certain silks or laoes im( offered for sale 
the recommendation that they nre above par, or far snpe- 
Dtlie common rnn of snch goods, while a mean man's oon- 
\t st^matizcd as under par. " Ue was popular, bat did not 
loney enough to support him, so he located and went into 
gpecnlations and got nnderpar as a good man." (Rev. Mr. 
rtighl, Autobiography, p. 114.) A man who hiis thus pana 
r, as eomn^ereial slang has it, and finds himself nnable, for 
trf capital, to begin a new " biieiness," has nothing left but 

kit, that i?, to engage himself as clerk (never pronounced 

as in Engliiiid) to some moro fortnnul-o man, who owns a 
A kind of limited partnership is, in the West, not unfre- 
Hy called to go on laya. The term is evidently derived from 



iay. vUf^ aeuti some, a piece, etc, aoA U 
MiamthaXcfArf .fficim (fflMyi>tefwiiafy. 13,16?.) ( 
anSr Ae mbv is nBCBOed ao openuons ia vbich ininj|i 
pate aai v-flik jmt};, « ia vUiiitg-Tojaeefl and goU4yg 
«to« al kbor alikr and cadi fK-<cive9 a sbara of tiic p 
* TW ii fwat to ^ fold oa tbe bundreilth or two 
%f * (Oi^^aif JIaaCUsL HaitK 1870, p. 3»G.) 
aka wavA aa taMriiand to wwaiag tiie right proportie 
n^ Oag (BMnBr, ai aa Oe phxaee, *' Vm goin* 
P>ap« I ssT Beet CaBTu iti bca*t>n, ef 1 keep in; woi^ 
1^ pfvacber an is tbe a^kt Imjf.' {Ovtrlamtt Montkltf, Jti 
1670, PL SS.) 

If tbe- ^aaiif aenldat i^ oa the other baud, succeadls 
vorid taja that ha tmatm kufQe, a term Uken, do doabt, j 
fiitt pboe* A-OH llw aotaal pile of coinc, bat soon used to 
ai^jr a aaa^s anikUe — i, bU rortuue. la the fiitt a 
■tin iKma tbe gaaiUer. vbo Mallj ^i^s op bia ctalcw u 
vinainfi^ at in tb« litt«s. " Three (Uts a^ I came dowo tlw 
la aell mj goodi and fan. IiiudeaprrUjgoodtnwle,batthi 
u^t I ket mj vholo pQt at pi>k«'r. I vaa dead-brok«, and I 
a coafimaded oeat ML" {A 7)rafpef't: AdmUures, p. 237.) I 
sense of a large •awont of mone; it is uscrd bv J. B. Lovri^ 
be m;8, '-The gVMPaaami owed me qaite *piU fur raj am 
pension.^ (Bigttte Pap*r*^ IL, p. 33,) and m^a^iug ihe ail 
naouroesofa merchant in a creditor's norda: "We aer^g 
a party'a |n2< dot higgle, nor do anythiug small in thaat n 
Give us what ron're got, and we'll take tbe balance whi 
are fluab." {Putnam's .Va^iint, November, 1868.) If h 
not succeed, be may at first be mereir hard puiJied or hart 
and means may be found to extricate himBcIf; but if that 
of qoestiuo, hie business is Kound up. It depends, of t 
apoi) th« state of his assets, whether he con settle with hifi 
ore, or is found to bo dead-broh^ Tbe use of the forAer ti 
Such a cose is unknown in England, when: stttUng meontl 
arranging a matter, and al»o an account, by poyniontorothi 
In America, however, to »tt{le is generally intended to mea 
ing a debt, although evidently accoinits may bo settled ai 
not paid. A man culled upon to settle a bill is expected 
nothing lesd than to pay it ; luid cvun Mr. HoweUs, in hliea 

ilian Jottrtteys, uses the Americanism, " When we cnme 
for the irinc.'* It is in this sense, alao, that pasa-ngerg 
ird fltcumboftts we commonly summoned by a fearful ring- 
ef bells and shouting of colored portf rs, " to plcawp walk up to 
iptain's office and fettle." If he cannot arrange matters 
blj he ia dead or Jtat broken in the far more energetic than 
jit language of th« trade, raeaiiiag that he is utterly ruined, 
without any resources whatever. "When hi* left tho 
fng-houee, he was observed to tiirn toward n friend with th« 
Dead-hroke! and tlieti to disappear ronnd the comer. A 
It nfter a sliot fell, and upon hastening to the spot, he vras 
d lying dead on the pavemuiit, a revolver by his aide.'* (Cin- 
^ti Enquirer, July \1, 1800.) It may be that, before the oriais 
led, he has tried to help liimself by getting Wn paptr ahavtd, 
»r, in the American sense of the word, is a person wlm buys 
iier man's note at a hc«vy discount or more than legal 
practice formerly not unknown to banks even, which 
jcn called shaving banks. The term is said to have origin- 
sea, where a sAdppr has long been the sailors* name for a 
fellow, derived very naturally from the delicate bnt cruel 
bn of shaving on board ship. "May I be hanged myself," 
Hawthorni', " if I believe Mr. Higginbocham ia unhanged 
htm with my own eyes, and hear it from hia own mouth ; 
bti is a real afiaver, I'll have the minister or some other 
Mble man for an indorser." (Jfr. Higifinbotluvii's Catas- 
L) In his efforts to obtain money he bus probably had 
ch fhinuing to do, as slang calls tho running about tiO friends 
lu&intances, regardless of all obstacles in the way that en- 
the safety of the borrower's shins. In England the sume 
Ing is attached to the term in city sluug, bat In America it 
FD largely extended, and is applied to any e-agcr search after 
«'5Am it, good man!' ejaculated a good-natun-d urchin, 
tiV aa well as you kuow howl' The qualification wiis a gqod 
&rry not being well calculated for a sliinnev of the first 
(J. 0. Neal, Charcoal Skeit;hKs,Jl^ p. 13.) A political song 
praise of tho Whig Party, of the year 1840, speaks of the de- 
>I« associates — 

*• Coscombt and duidiM, loafers and nibbleis, 
BHaaan and Ainnen. peddlers and BcribUon, 



TB, and collecting oatetanding debts. " Look at that man, 
mrner for A. T. Stewart, and cairriea blank checks in his 
k. which he u aatbomed. to fill up to tbe amount of fiT- 
d dollars." {A Voiiniry Merc fianl out mM/,p.317.) He 
vitb bim, probnbtjr, not sncli fabulous checks, but can^ful 
eta from the tictler, as the great book is facetiously called, 
Ueh all debts and not^s falling due arc recorded, because it id 
bo tinkle the memory of the debtor^, lu well as of the creditor. 
■UBitiesa of tbe drummer is probably not eateemed the most 
ij^iabed, even in the trade, but the peculioi- qualitiea necea- 
f success in this line, great tact^ a pleasant addnes, a p«r- 
ton^e, and a keen eye to hnsinea*, give to tlie class of 
' tlrttmmera a character of its own. 
ig tbe varieties of trade, tn-o appear nnder special names. 
^^j or bartering m small ai'ticics, is probablj a word of 
raigin, and explains the line in Whittier's poem. 

" For peddJiag (ftal»r, aot for Uoncsl saks," 

h Cooper speaks very much in the same manner of " J iViw 
igS' The minuteness of the ware in which this kind of 
is generally confined, is shown in the fact that "Sum 
ill«d at the store of a Mr. Brown, with au egg iu his hand, 
ted to dicl-erit for a darning-needle." (Snni Joncs,p.l21.) 
waj of trading is, also, not unknown to England, though 
y English writers, represented as pccuUiu' to America. This 
tpping, or, as it is more frex]uently written and almost 
prononoced, the swopping. J. R. Lowell says rcry point- 
The fallacy that *wop, as a New England word, is descnb- 
Bronlely the Xew England propensity to barter or trade 
ig^ from jack-knives to horses, is shown by the line of Dry- 

Yoatb for old age ;' 

* I wooM tuLTe UMpp'd 

fcy in his North ComUry Words has : "7b Cottp : To ei- 
. or ttcap" Ben Jonson, Dean Swift, and a host of classio 
M, were in the habit of using it, and even the att>opper waa 
CQOim In Soglaud, fhr— 

' The beadloag tool irho wuits lo be « necppgr 
Of goM Mid atlnv coin for Eogtisli copper, 
Itvf in 'Ckaogx' h\\vj prove bliBMir an hs 
Asd pre ricli melal for adnlwmted braH." (Ctd PeeL) 

The vDtd is said, bowerer, to fasve follcu amoog low 
The SoQth Se* ttockjobbera damaged its reputation, and 
anoe )o<t all character by becotniog a household word with li 
jocken. In ibis country- the tenn is tiotTerBallr nsed. em 
laDOoln oflea emploving it as an itlastralion of his policy, 
be assuivd wiGc counsellors that "when a man was Bviat 
•crou a river was not the time for ttooppin^ horses ; 
Tery Indians on our Western plains have become familiar 
the word as well as with the transaction. *' As soon as he «* 
he cri^ out : Wrli, Mark, what do you say ? Will roa tWf 
mare for my mule, if I give you a twenty-dollar note to li 
(J. P. Kennedy, SwalUno Barn.) 

Periiaps the only commercial term that ever became a mii 
favorite in the army it the ^tn^ vp the spout, which vaa 
the Confedcrute army almost exclusively, for any disastrooi 
elusion of an enterprise, as well as for the loss of on aitidi 
man's male, that had strayed away from camp, was said to 
gone up Me spout, and the Confederacy itself, after the stun 
of Richmond, had simply gone up. The figure of speech ii t 
from the spout, or tin-tube, op which pawnbrolcers send 
eted articles to be kept till redeemed, and whicK genei 
fh)m the gronnd-floor to the wareroom in the npper part of 
house. {Slanff Dictionary, p. 204.) That the term was 
known to the Federal army, also, may be scon from the 
Bcwnint: " Dr. B., Assistant Surgeon in the army, was vaj 
of milk, and on a inarch in Virginia i-ode up to a mean*' 
house by the roadside, and, cap in hand, addressed a 
looking girl, standing arms akimbo in the doorway, 
men of the column wore listening and ^utcliing the ni- 
' TilBdam, CHtt I purchase a canteen of milk and a loaf of b 
yon?* Slowly and loudly the tuswercame: 'We hainl p* 
bread. We haint got no milk. We baint got notliiug. Vl 
clean done gotu up ih« tpout. So ye can tote yourself avsj 
byar.* " It is not quite clear why the Southern States, whid 
naturally much more given to agriculture than to 



fi su specially aSeci the pUi-atie of no account, evidtititJy bor- 
froiu the ledger. Bat the wealthy plautcr uud liia humblBst 
tbond botli koow hardly a atroager «xpreeaiuu of uiu-r con- 
it than to say that a man is of no ntrouui, or, &a the nt?gr(i is 
[to eay, of no 'eouni. A wanung fiicud say^ therefore, to a 
I : '* It U not fit for such as you to concern yourself with 
Bnthcrford ; tho man is half in liquor, and of na aceouni if 
Jt." (J. P. l£i?um;dy, iSwallow Jfarrt,) Pretended ghosw 
are thus spoken of in a Northern paper: "They are 
iifal felJovTB, these ghosts; they possess, in common with 
mom celebrated ghotits, a t>'iiduncy to bo extnunely frank — 
ig uu buitca ut ail of iuforming the tiaid hosts that they are 
tHHi iwople." (New York rri>i(«e, January 17,1871.) "Lur 
tyl" crie«Tom Bn'oks, the clever boase-caipeater; "Pete! 
^eount nohow, he poor Gel'baad niggerl" (f/wiA Timtx of 
ta, p. 117.) 

|atera uld Puritan hus left his name to his far-off desoendant^ 

held )Q esteem here a£ Cocker is in England, and in those 

of the TJuian where New England rule is not eupnirae. Jt 

LliAt u worthy inventor, culled GtitUcTt brought out iti lO&a, 

the time of the greac Pnritan exodus to this country, his 

■ • of Proporliou. This became then familiarly known 

Proportion or Gunter's Line, and the term had ever 

remaiued a (MpuUr Ktaudard of apxwul in cases of doubt- atid< 

lie. {.Sla}iff DiciiOHary, p. 104.) Since that time the phrufio 

\iajl iti (JxintcT has hold its own in Canada almost u-telu- 

^y, and iu tho New England States at least tery largely, insu-ad 

uld-faahioued '^ According to Cocker," being frequently 

. wiibout the slightejit idea as to whom the debt of gratitude 

it to be paid. In the "West the name ie rarely heard except 

]ar application ; in the days of specie currency, fur instai>e4.-, 

was quite* a cunuoon term for the cents thou in uircuhir 

~ r:,:uUy ocourrt-d in counting up a email sum, 

■t to for ;wsistanc«:. In the same happy day*, 

\i {liecea iu silver, were apt to represent all the money- 

of a person, and a young lady was said lo hact the dii/wa, 

was rcpuied rich. The English sixpence, on the other 

»ire« iu a piir.ia« that has come down lo us fmm Indwuj 

OMkXaa flTcificT, a famous trader auion^ BwlmLu dnriiij 



the last oeotary, relate! Ihst an Xndiui arriT«d <n & Gi 
his farg, aud found the trader nnvilHcg, either to givebiBl 
than two-and-stxpcncc a poond, or to close the bogbeaanl 
day at alL The Indian had, of courae, to SBbmit, and wii i 
to go to cbarcb with the trader, -vherv. he va« told, th« 
people went once a week to ham good thintft. Ue got aloo^ i 
well till tba «ennon began, wbeti he fancied tlie clergpiu ' 
looking at him angrily, and speaking of him to the codj 
841 ht- nt(m^d, and Rinakcd his pipe upon the sie\*& till the 
broke up. He then went roand to the other traden in the i 
but ae they all offered bim only the same price, be swore 
at the tanu old fwo-and-tixpeiut, and concluded that the wh 
tended chnrch, not to learu good things, bat to cheat pt 
dians in the price of skins, (ilt'otoa and Qv^riewt Mureh 6, i 
From that time the phrase, the same old ttiio-and-sixpmi*,^ 
ntaiuedapartof ourapeechiaudmaybe still beard in eTeir {x 

»tlie Union. Paper-money, in like manner, early earned iui 
lume, and baa ever rince been fomiliarly known as xAin/Xvfir^ 
Indicroiis term being professedly derived from the timea 
tinenuil paiHT-mom'y, which wofof little value, bo that old i 
ronsded in the leg, dressed their wounds with the vo 
lotes, which thus became literally thinpiatters. "Ifyoai 
and no tin, give na a nhinpltuttr then — ^them's my I 
(J. C. Neal, Charcoai Stitches, 11^ p. 23.) 

The procesfl of paying what is dne enjoys its own listoTI 

Bince the verb iopay is uisod in America in the verj* Iai;gti(i 

In familiar language the cvi hono of olden time* is rendin't 

^- the practical : JJoes itpffyf and hence men complain, thtt 1 

^■inre does not patf, if it does not secare a liberal reward, uA\ 

^ it does not pa^ to try and he (Hends with a miin whol 

obstinate enemy. WhaCs to payf means simplr, What' 

liiatt«r? Of attntctive mountain sceneir in Maine, it il 

^^"The rocks are very beautiful at those fbUs of Ami 

^■A drive anywhere in the-^ hitlo pays, to borrow the alangi 

^■bank-note world. It ie pure enjoyment." (The White HilU,i , 

|^flon('« Mayazine, October, 1853.) To foot a hW, by payiaf I 

anionnt at the bottom of the account, iti a pbrase eqniBfV 

known abroml and with us; bat why we should borrow ftMRl 

IhiuTOB' language the old coat t^rm for picking [tocketit to^ 

'/brl; outt to represcut an bonest paymeat of a bit), ia not 
fr^ndent The Btiff fiugere, Biyly inserted into a pocket, and 
5 its contents m with a fork, explained the phraw; well 
h, »o long ac theft wm oontcmplflted, bnt in America fork- 
U means nothing mora than paying monoy. Then; may be 
c>na1l3' a threat conoealed in the words, as when an indignant 
or savB, " Now, sir, you will ph-uHt'/tri- over that money to 
ad pay yonr bill, or I'll hare the law' out of you, as «nre as 
ire born." (Albany Argus, September 5, 1867.) Such a 
M, by which a man if! made to pay nniJer threat^ is here, as 
iglond, expresfiively called bleeding, a term qnoted already 
uley'B Oietiotiary. {SUimj IHciioTuinj. p. 7fi.) If all cannot 
Id, Ihore remains what in American phraseology Ib called a 
re. the tt-rm being transferreil from money-traneactionB, 
a^its nse is of coursr, perfectly legitimate, to almogt every 
Bf remainder that may be eaggeeted. "We liBtened to 
■1 Phillips for alwut half an hour, and having an engage* 
Bsewhere, we were forca^d to leave, and so lost the halttnee of 
Itation." (Boston Tramcript. December 27, 1861.) "Most 
le respectahlo inhabitants held comraisaiona in the army or 
mmont offices; the balance of the people liept little shops, or 
TBt.y! the ground." ( Words and Ifmr CWf, K. (3. White.) 
vord is thus used very much like the Soottish lave (what 
II), as already quoted by Gro«e, and used by Burns in tlio 

" I'll get a blessm;; with Uic lave, 
And aevcr miEs IL" 

>e paft< of Virginia the word shanJc ii t\aamt\y used for 
purpose, and one friend will say to another, "Suppose 
>mo in and spend the »liatik of the evening with me?" 
inee has, inoreo\-er, made it^ way into England also, and 
a Wtfk we tiud the advice: " Whoso wiehea to rob the 
\Ut the beat, advaut^me, kt him sleep two or three hours, then 
Tup for two houra and work, and then sleep out the ManM of 
ipghL" ( Words atid their t/jtejL R G. White, p. 94.) 
^mB~»treel, in New York, reprfsentfl '<!hange in London, and, 
' the latter, abounds in technical terms, which are, however, of 
•oictly professional character and ever-changing nature, 


meet bi^^^^^K 4^H 

Amov^omwqKSriexBa derived firom Oom^m^S 
directly from book-keeping, lev are more fhnjaentlj ba 
pof^iag Had potttd up. Tbe fi>nDi:r bw gone throogl 
tnuuforDtations ; its first mcaoing i>f going byjxu^th* 
girat speed and safety, bos tbcn \nxn applied to tbe ta 
items from one colomn or one ledger to unotbeTt ■& 
serves in tlio pbni£e of posiiru/ looks, to ei.'pras tbo eal 
cloving of accounU gcaerallj. '■■ M; books ore ponied, ai 
give up all uflicial duUvs, to «iijoy a little leisure, wbicb 
be able to employ with adTautagc." CW. H. Sev^rd, IjCt 
1870.) To be poiUd up means, by a nataml tnunHb 
well infonncd, prloiurilj, uf course, le to commercial In 
of tlitf euuutiug-roum atiil tbe Exebangu. and is probalil 
directly from the prerailiug custom of pontiug vpt lit 
post a]id pillar, slips of paper cotitaining the latest int 
A man is, bowerer, said to \ie well fffintrd up on any snbj 
is found to be in possession of tbe newest facts and lab 
Huoh ad itiTolre all re«cut cbangrs. " Hias Fudgu has kej 
eye on equipages, cape, cloakii, and summer recreatigiit 
■well posted up oil Ibeae matters." (Ike Marvel, /Vdjw 
Tbe pbrafie la known in England, and quite retvatly even 
don S'inifs was pleased to say that ** American papcm wta* 

■hlv nroll nnet^ itn rtn RnmnnAn aifiiiiv dnrinv th<i.^nM 



tf terms, of which n few at leaat have become nciaaU; parts of 

appcch. Such 18 the fate of boot and i'lioc inakcra, wbopoR^fWith 

'tht cobblers of England and the brethren of Uans Sachs, for 

of tcwntric hiibita and quaint genin^ Sons of wax is neither 

tmcommon nor an uncnmpHmcntury name for them, although 

addrpsa, "How are jon, my son-o/-tcaTM 9" quoted by Pro- 

S. S. Haldoman, can hardly bo excnafid. Sincp thRy hare 

led themselves, hoTcrer, into a most formidable association, 

the Sons of Crispin, they are universally known and qnoled 

Che name of their tutelary Paint, who stole leather to 

shoes for the poor. A late "atriko," in which they in- 

1, led to tbo importation of a nnmber of Chinese into Mas- 

iii&, vho took the place of the rebellioiia men, and soon 

them in neatness, though not in quickiieM of work. To 

fact a paper refeiTed, eaying: "The same Hpirit protests 

the despotism of the Origins, which the gentleman, who 

to be master of his own huflincsa, hafl, by his Monj^lian 

tery, effectnally demolished in his own town (North Adams). 

[ms diamond cut diamond. For a largn and influential element 

the CrifipiH organization was brought into the country by 

iXaXt in the same way in which it now complains that capital is 

jiag the Celeatial shoemakers.'' {Appkton's Journal, Sep- 

nbfr 41, 1870.) Like so many other American terms, this also 

(Ireadj become well known in Kngland, where we find it 

thaa: "Away went the customer after his hnt> and Crispin, 

ling at bis door, clapped his hands, and shouted, 'Uo it, 

b11 catch him."' (Slang Dictionary, p. 105, foot-note.) Even 

beal Crittpin, menniug the one cobbler of a little village, 

recently in the Home Journal of New York. 

I almost ludicrous slang terra, possibly of negro manufactnre, ia 

expression Forly-'leittn. The lirat part is in all probability the 

liltar number used, like other round numbers in Ilebrew, as an 

lite expression, as boys say, " You have scared me \Wc forty," 

teamsters boast of a powerful horse, that will pull Hk* forty. 

le addition of elevm is the element of ineongmity added to the 

imorous exaggeration already expressed, and thua '"a forty- 

th coutin, for inEtanoc, oiprcsscs an infinitesimal degree 

llionship, one too Bmall to be stated accurately, and hence 

iu liciiiioas nQmbers." (Professor S. S. Ealdeman.) J. B. 



Lowell does not 
also, and says : 

" Nor dna't wuit forty-'teten WMks o' Jawin' ui expomdU^ 
To prorc H Digger h«& a right to skvc him. eT bc'« dnmi 

(.B^rtiw J\if«ni, IL, 

Another ludicrous eotoggoration r>f Uiis kind U taken 
TiolpDce Bud noise with which onUnarilv hriclu an du 
of carU; a tliiug done \eheiueutlv aud with much diqi 
to be like a thouMtnd of brtel'i. " When Mr. Nre hai 
Mr. Stewart rose, and with hia irresisHble logic and 
InngtiagG came down upon him \ikea thou sand 0/ brii 
was utUrlj crushed and demolidhed." {Weetem Wi 
5, 1864.) 

Of all trader, howerer, the trade in liquors aboun 
moi'e or less grotesque t4>nn», and phrases of tbe greate 
some fnw of which only nrc gt^nnine Americaninni^ I 
mere applications of familiar worda to new purpoaes. A 
of courw, no man aoknuwlfnlgis frankly that he^drink 
that would apparently ghock the seusittTeneas of a mai 
ander delirium tremens, so nunierooa are th« sub&tUa 
plain truth. lie may be disposed to liquor, when he i 
fKOi and easy among friends and associates, and, as 1 
hiinilmd years ago (April, 160t)), an KngUshmau wonld 
" When we had iiijtiored oor throats'' (London Spy, p. 1 
roars out: "Come, boys, let'it liquor — wbat'U you bai 
Neal, C/iarcoul ^Sleiches, I. p. SG), hnt generally he eondi 
to gmiU. This oddest of all cnpbnisma ever inrented 
hidcous thing, is now almost univeniaUy in use in all 
Uiiiim, though it waa at first coutined to the West> 
many fast boys about, fiomc devoted to the fair sex, eoi 
aome to amiUiu/," (Baltimore Sun,) An Euglia 
that "an American lady, Mrs. Christie, haring sent 
rye-whiskey to him, he, uneonscions of the pnn, aai d. t<? 
ling companion, an American: Thie cannot be 
Cbrieti, luppose wo call it the Smiles of Christie I 
American, I see you are learning our language." ( 
October, 1867.) Nor is the noun lees frequently n 
Bartlett quotes an account of a wedding, at which the 
who performed the ceremony invited the company to 



d"one general smiie eutirdy absorbed Ifae fee." (New 

TrCiufui, January 31, 1S56.) This invitatioatB uiUTeraal 

a in AmericA, has naturally at«o its own uamc, to trtat, au 

fiition of the original to stand trmt, wKicli is not qnite 

tr yet A man Ireais, when be invites his friunds to go to 

irbere ardent Bpirita are sold, and lo order wbattivor thoy 

iluDteeriog at tho same time to fiuy for ull that is consumed. 

torn is pecntiar to this co^mtry, and coueJdered impenttlTa 

classes as an act of common courtesy. Tbe ca^ua] 

\g nt two men, who may never have exchanged a word with 

ither, is a signal for both instantly to exclaim, *' Come, let'o 

mething," and down they dire into the nearest eubtorro- 

The one who epoke first insists upon paying the fhol, 

tbout the reaaonabk amurance tliat at tlie next meeting his 

d will return the compliment, aa a matter of conrso. 

friends meet, the phraao is: '*Ijet*8 drink to old times." 

as I iJo is nearly obsulete. " Come, gentlemen, do as I do f 

cc the polite rcqueet of one who wished his friends to join 

the Itar. If a man has a large number of friends, and wauls 

tbe thing princely," or if he runs for an office, and knows 

to meet the independent voters, he has only tii tak« them to 

0, and order Bome complicated bererage a^^ around, to sccum 

d-will for the day. The disastrous eSecLs of this almost 

custom, which produces an endless chain of visits to 

can easily be imagined. Besides its fatal coueequences, 

i its IndicTons side also, and a writer in tho Chicago Evtmng 

very pertinently aski: "If a man, upon meeting au old 

were to pull out a handful of postage-stamps and say, 

hftre some stamps, 1 pay I or if several persons haiipening 

t in a store wen* invited by a generous patron to ' como 

p themsijlves to a few susjienders and socks ; ' what would 

ight of it? And yet, why can liquor be offered Ihns, and 


same fancifnl phraseology surrounds tbe places where these 

take place, (hfigyeries or Doffgerien arc only found utmr 

ties of Irish taborers or in remote Western and Southi.Tn 

t«, where things are still occasionally called by their true 

in the cities Shades are perhaps moat numen)U8, suggest^ 

retreats, secnre from tbe bright light of daf. Sahoiu 



abountl munlj in the Wfst, at l*>»9t in thu senao. for en 
in this ooimtrj the term is applied tA ftny room fi' ■ 
cooksiiop, "The eminent pioneer of Aniericnu :■ 
liimt talker, ftnd aocompliFhcil ^ntleman, the latnuiu^ Bi 
(Ini-noiigh, Tvo tire told, was iiidignanMy eloquent u 
American ubusu of tbiis gnicvful iuitxTtation from iii 
itpplied »3 it is in the United States to tiilliartl-roonut o;^( 
lars, (ffogshopa, and railroad caw!" (G. U. Calvert) A 
ret;('iit rnphuiBin yet is the Snniplv Itootrif whtre, under thei 
of uUonring cDstooiers to judge by samples, rust iiriaihcr^i 
glasses uf liquor aru i>old behind a transpiireiit flcrenn* vhii 
tects Ihe gampiers from the eye of the public. 

It is in th^ic; places, known hceidoabv a nnmber 
cifnibut less general names, that an important per.- .-. 
keeptr, rules supreme. It ie be who distribulca the 
manufactures the comiwlind drinks t-allwl for by the ima 
lUid thirsty American, the odd names of which have ea 
much wonder and amusement in the minds of all trai 
iKAi prohably after having pracHcall; tested the ui ' 
Willis wrote of onft of these heroes at the Rt. l.'-'Ui 
Orleans: "The gracious and genllematily mutor-AciMv 
bniiding rainbows ocrosB their Armament of decanters, 
flung the ioo and tbn roay liquors back and fornanl luto 
contact with the mint*' The usual eniall t^tasa of simple i|l 
technically Itnown as a tmaUer, though tho term is aIm 
doHeion, as in the order, "Bring us one of the largest kinilj 
frmitUtrf:, a tnmliler full of brandy and water, witJniut. no«| 
it." (J. C, Keal, Charcoal Skftdics, IIU 23.) Of artiticti 
pounds, most of which hare ephemeral renown only, aiid vhn 
niimes n.^ well no elemeutji, only a few are genutn* Americ 
and have almost atiJiined to the dignity of what is in nuitj 
aa " iDstltuUon.*^ Such is the egg-no^, iho indispcnr<able 
taken at Christmas all orer the South, derived from JV^, 
(Grose), and consiBting of eggs, cream, and brandy, braieu up t^ 
Bther; the mint'julep, made of hnindy and water, icvd, aoil ' 
)red with aromatic mint The Jnlqt is, of course, Oii? uldnv^ 
liliar to ns from Milton's Comna, the same jukp which lo ^t 
hie alrcjidy mi-ant a sweet potion, and thus was adopted iu Eii 
Ihih: tlie mint, however, is an American iaventiou, and cir 


ided ic6 bu lieea uddeU to the oompoiuul, it has bceu asserted 

"Jvlepi (lie drUilti or InUDorliU bccuno. 
Whim JoTc hlmaeir mlded » tmadni] of h»iL" 

(C F. Hoffman.) 

]fuUpt hovercr, i» not limited to this mcftiiiug ; in Virginia, 

st,Ui6 vord lias from the Qrst settlement of the colony cuii- 

in the same senso In which tho vord tlram is used at tho 

The English early Wrrowwl it from the French. Two 

and a half ago it va« customary to make juleps by the 

ready for immcdiat; use without tho trouble of present 

ion. P«pya, in bis Diary, June 22, 1660, sayK; "Tlu-nce 

jrd'e and had tho great walk to Biigham's, who gave mo 

of good juiepJ* 

and Sherry Cohblcrs aro known to have been old favor- 
, our forefathers, though nearly forgotten when thoy vroro 
in this country, but the practice of sucking in leisurely 
idfUdoua beverage by means of *<row»— not iiiiflrcqucuHy np- 
iicd by slender gUiu tubes— is earnestly claimed aa a genuine 
The exoesaive fondness of Americans for thcsa i 
'thousand other strange but always Terjr palatable coni- 
indit, may be judged by the simple fact that, in spite of the 
daties on wines and ardent spirits, and the large salaries 
iRitded by ekinful, experienced iarhrp^rs, the bara of moetof 
I lai^e hotels suffice, by thoir own profitfi, to pay the annual rent 

'<;, as unfortunately not only the P. R., familiar to Eug- 
ears, bnt every combination of jralitioiaDe^ speculator^ etc., 
her?, has naturally contributed its share of cant terms to 
?h. The American is, on the irbule, far less fond of 5port 
'than the Engliiihman; he hardly koowfi sport as a national 
He, howerer excellent a sportsman he may be individually, 
1, with tht^ exception of racing, public sport is little known 
Sf from the largo cities. But he is, on the other band, podsJim* 
I) fond of excitement, loves to risk much in order to gain 
Ich. watches the ventures of others vnlh keen iulerest, aud lores^ 
In-forn the use of all sporting terms for the sake of Uu- flavor 
jr. He is perfectly fiiiuiliar with all tho phraseology 




bplongiug to English sport, and food of ttpplTine it td tin- 
nary oocurrenoeB of life. The tfifUk of t}^' ■ 
maHctt tbe limita that bind the tvo contosi - . 
a phrase of his daily life. The PresMent, in vbom he i» 
pointed for one reason or another, doee not com'? 
when ho dismiBses an official, he is mado to vmik (■'■ 
if an antagonitft or a competitor declines U> nanet hi« rival 
discussion, he is denounced na not haring cotrtf up to th» 
aa the ehalk-UDc \s called, whit^h diTides tiie ring fiurlr. 
the tavern-keepei'a — not as iu England the inn-kteptr'p 
mnst lend itself to such ligunitiTe Lingaage. '* You cau't 
by a loTig chalk" is a common expreaiiion for a man'ii inabii: 
accomplish his pnrposo, deriycd from the ohalk-marVa of 
on the owner's door or shatter. It is Lhna oflon literally 
to the fbct that a specnlator, for instance, cannot saooeed by a 
ehtUk, in other wordt>, hy all Uie credit he may be abl 
mand. The phrase is one of the oldest in the Englidii 
from the familianty of tbe people irith inna and their c 
and appears under a great rariety of forma, from jV. Smith's 

"And if you want freali llqtKir, you mail pay, 
yor eAd/Jbi too often vftUc UienuelTca away—" 

tbe mora modem expression of. To Ix^ut by lonff ehalti, vl 
ie aiao not nnfreqacatly heard here. {Slanff bictinnary, p. I»T4 

The word strika U quite a IVaitfai Boorcc of cotloqaial 
ftx>m the combiuution of workmen for ^.-eegution of labor 
higher wages are paid — a word of comparatirely recent ofigiil 
America, bnt already qnito natumlizcd in England, Lo t! i 
a lead in a gold-mine. TeitpinStSkB the old-fashion uil ...^^^-« 
lire uniformly called since a pin was added in order to 
I'rom tbe pouiUties of a law which prohibited NinejiiiiF, \vtyf U 
uishod the eipressivo phrase, for au uaespectedfeucct-i-g, to makt* 
trn-*trik4. ** I toll yon what, ray bod, if yon have really 
llmt plmiUtion, you have mado a ten-gtrikr of it; itiswwA; 
hundred thouaiud any time you bring it into raorirct." {Fit 
Timet in AJabama^ p. 317.) The miner litfinlly with his 
axe strikes a rein, while ha is bard it work proBpectiug, ofl 
&om his luck the phrase is Iranxfeired to nuy auddau duKote 



fiTTtaae. "It vas thoaght in Lho mines and gulohee that 
Ma finitt % good Itjid." (F. B. Harte, Lvtb of Rearinff 
jL lf><l.) Bot thp fTTHitt^t ftaec«88 of nil wm made by tbe 
v ownon of storile lands in PennBylrKnia. who gtrutk il« 
It is callfHl in (?<>nimun cant; the petroleum- vol !« tbns 
vera a Eonroe of immense wealth ki them, and nolossnl 
have Im-^ii amassed in an incredibly abort time in the 
Oil Kegimts. This phrase a1«o has mndu its way into 
of the day. "We ore toH Mr. llartf hag strttch ilt 
At a dinner giren in his honor, eat-b gaest brought 
laaand dollars as his contribntion to Brett Harte's new 
ine." (Philadeiphin Lfdg^, February 15. 1871.) In the 
ttriktr U not only a 8houlder-bit(»*r, as might be suspetiied, 
'.K mnner for gambling establish menta, who must ba as ready 
down fl complaining victim as to ensnare an ummspect* 
igvr. *' He wo^ one of the most accoraplisiit-d strikers, or 
B, as they are called, in the employ of the hells." ( The 
ialry .Vrtrhani, y. S17.) Cappere they are called, when th« 
ia the Cimous Thret'Card MonU. 
ing 18, howeirer, by no means a faTorite word for such acts 
lee ; it has too many flgurativc meanings. Kieking s««ms 
popular, if we may judge from ita freqnent application 
lier pnrposefi. The disturber of the public peace is said to 
u/j o riJip.flnd wis the man who brings discord into a public 
or party. "The Ill-treatment of Mr. Snmner will not bo 
ti*-ntly by his fh'ends and tho New Kngland States; it is 
hieh up n TO>r in the Repnhlicjin 7>art_v, the effects of which 
[V felt at the next Presidential election." (Louisville Cowrwr- 
if, March 19,1871.) More nngracefuliy still, an iinfbrtnnate 
rho is simply "jilted" at the North, is more- violently kitktd 
\i! South— a phrase marking most characteristically the con- 
it between the free and easy manners of our day with those of 
fWit days, when the strongest term used for the painful occasion 
w t".' givy iind to get the milteH. The latter word ought, liow- 
r, always to he mtttva*, as the phiuse is derived from the same 
made of the French mitaiiiea, which had to be accepted by the 
UMCcessfnl lover inst^nd of the ha:id, after which he aspired. If 
jctrmhat really takes place, it may be a simple wrestling, which i« 
prononncdd rattling, not without good reaton, aince mruti^ 


is fM4 «U ^ffaib and to tued br Chancer, vKuie U 
■■Mfliay bevemnif tbepibn.^ It u mther a cnnou 
ah M Mt Hfrif^ia ^adunble vork oq tliv I'uiuil X 
■i^ «aMea«a76ailaH-pluBieTaod to st*l« tbut " Hm 
m /mriJktT fmUT In figfatiiig, « Iwn 
■aed, called m aav^e Ironj km 
It oo«tiiT««l to cover the kuucklea 
«D f Wi« thm ft«« laiBr;- vha Btzikii^ a blow, adduig tn 
idut mmm Hm^ Hid vich kaoha «r pointa projc-ctiog, m u tp 
%M»iadaMiailB AapctanKnick. UiacUted.B[NW 
■riisitw asly. kkaA ' Uub knital isTaitioa is American, W 
tea JUi&r SaKiiiar u £^ilaad in potioc cues bi^weeo the nfl 
reaieift.' {^Skm^ IhtHonary, pk ll!& 
vbcKTer S^gliafa it ipokeii, boUi in 
and of aa ar]gimieiit which oon^ 
'That vaaaolincber; I don't know 
ra ar;;Bawat which leA the ojipoiM 
UtOm lifc ad hratfa. Oovecaor Walker skimied bin i 
(tiihaiaj Wki^, Jwiy 7, ISm) A'Mnttny off meant to 
«ocl^ and km baes a comiaon pbncp with vorkiuf u of < 
kittd iv aon ihaa. two kndnd ymn, thoagfa bet of Ute id 
led iiUa good aMH|aB> ■* 1 have a gnai mind^" sajs ut of 
ira M^ilmd b]r tba day. " to ivaeir ^ and call it lialf n 
(J. C Keai. flwiaaf g*iiritw.) A similar tenn, drnvol ihsa 
ahmg of opnatiTai^ is to km»ck m/ /jU im^^ k tuoh it m 
aiywM a paiaftal embarxassmeBC in which a man is left If 
ftwdfj after haTin; beea led inio it bj their agenoj. IV 
ja takaa from the danger thiaataning a wi>od4^o|>per, vhfr 
driven wedges iato a log, aod in iielpiiig to remote 
his hand caught bjr the cankaucsi of hii oompaaiont. 
J. B. Lowell ie£era in tte liart 

" I don't i|i|inTe o* giiia* pledcci ; 
Tou'd oogh' to Icars » fellow free. 
An* not ga kiutcHn' out Uu letO^t, 
To ketch lib fingen in the tne" 

To knock up ig likewise a familiar t«rm, bnt mav be a} 
applied in tbe United Statea to a vei; carioiu purpose, di 



tilt* fulsc prudery of the people An Tlnglish trarellci 

.viUi comic dUcrea^, how he inquirecl ofttr a lad/s health/ 

told b; her axsier thst she was knocked up. Ho insiBted 

sowing what had brought oa the excessive fstigae — for so 

rraluod the term — and wiu only more embHrra&sed than the 

Jy, whom he fairly pat to flight, by IcariuDg afterwards that tliu 

> vu tued iu epeaking of Udie« wheu in an int«ruitiDg oon- 

I pnrpow of Buch a tuaale need, however, not necessarilv bo 

6gfat; it may be the rcsalt of a simple de«iro to iullicb 

pot. The go«^ old KugU&h word to lam, quoted aln^y 

vf§ Dictionary, as meaiiiag " to beat or bang," still doed 

nee iu our country. Its deriTatiou fb^m the same root oi 

verb to lame, nm long considered good, and strengthened by 

ipelluig of the word Inmme; but leea credit was given to 

! vho (taw in it Lhi; reuiuuni of the Latin lambere, as J. R. 

itll, perhapn with a facetious smile, miggestg, and to the foU 

iof Sir W. Scott, who gare the parentage to one Dr. Lamh, 

MomptioD is, that the word is the direct descendant of tho 

!KorEC lam, a bund, which hsppcntt also to be Gaelic. {Slau<j 

iry, p. 169.) A curious addition has extended the mudt-st 

>into lambasting, evidt.'Dtly combining the two efiectiic 

icles of lammintf and ixt^liitg into one formidable operation. 

can't bide," says a brug^odoccio, " when anybody owes me a 

(irtj." (J. C. Ncal, Charcoal SketrJus, IL, p. 79.) Oiher 

' ehameiers prefer to larrup unruly and troubleeome youths, 

loying a word well known as an English proviuoialiam 

tiy), and said to be a corruption of the sailor's leerope, from 

he suffers on board ship, [f the sufTerer be a child, it is 

I, that ii, punished by slapping with the open hand- Moor 

Tea the word as in nsc in Suffolk ^England), and as denoting a 

■'d punishment Bnilcy also has it, and derives it from an 

ton term ; and to this day it is in constant uae iu the Houth, 

many old English words still survive and flourish, that 

lOTi^' since become obsolet* everywhere else. As wc cull re- 

kriukblc exoellenoe atrikhig, it is perhaps not nniiatarat that 

lyihowy things should be called spanking, uud hence, hera as 

Kaghmd. it is no uncommon oxpiessiou to sjieak of " it \mi of 

'iking bays." {Slang Didhnary, p. %AX).) 

the mr. ia vfaaeh W b«w to ««^Cb A 
•U mihf Wt finafclT: -AMfA* and forf iw 
(nffnllr is our bonkn; tiui CmamamwtatA m bM 
polieed, mmA «« vsnt & |«trol, Abt hiA at^t, of 
{Bamam Cnrier, Muvsfa 1*, ISH.)* Tbt 
ui Oifovd iam te but ooiij daifcariaftsi, but 
thfoagfaaat faM KKietT. and hw lirtci)r iii^ril frnii tbe 
mU of »Ijuig JDto the kin gJom of good ftigliflh. The 
rouxiy, hoverer. tiu bofc qnita noentlj ewed liw Allntti 
vUl proUbtT nit for the nm,*hAn it iIid taka H» |li 
Saglbh psiiaoce. A mmptu — periods from, the 
tlw Qcnuui 



ifd with deeds of violence, aft-er the manner of the En- 

\ghindif, but wb«n the rovdy ia in earnest and his blood is 

hu a terrible teno by which to designate the nature of bis 

; ht raises Catu. ** He had been knockinn: aronnd all day 

grog-shop and bar-room in town, aiid when erening 

TTAg seen swagg<pring down Main-otrects his head bare, 

bloodshot, ar;d his revolver in band, shooting: Who*ll 

this child ? I am i^nng to raise Cain ! Who's got uny- 

ay agin it ?" (Sctnes in the Far Wtst, p. 117.) A tprm 

innocent amnsemcnt in comparison, hnrting generally 

bat the merry MIow who jwvb for bin frolic with a bad 

he; and yet there are those who will derive the woi-d, like 

dred tipry^ from the French r*pr\i, which they say pro- 

the two bantliDgfl in Louisiana! The EngliEh, in lik« 

T, hold their Canadian brethren rosponsiblo for the two 

of vhirh Kjirtj, mach nsed among us, hod not yet been ad- 

into careful writing. Orose has already sprey, which ho 

ingenious, apnieo, and in this sense the word ia mtich 

conrersation ; with no it means, besides, quick motion 

>mpt action, BO that people say, "Come, be spry!" when 

isb to urge others to haste. ** He wan the tprjfMt chap I 

is high praJHp from a Yankee's lips*, luid J. R. TjOWoU 

it serve a good purpose when he saVB, " Hosy sez ho sed 

a nuther about Simplex Mundiehes or sum tteuh feller, but I 

osea kind o' didn't hear him, for I iierer hearn o' nobody 

name in the villadge, and I've lived hrre, man and boy, 

'-«ix year cum next tatnr digging, and thar aint nowherea 

ig sprf/er n* I be" {BigUne Paperit, Preface) 

his outward appearance the rotcdif of America differs lit- 

bis brother in the Old Country, except, perhaps, in the 

int of wearing ftt^qnently a soaplof-k, a lock of hair so 

in derision of its smooth appearance. It is the descendant 

('avitlier's fiitteiork, of which Sir W. Seott sayn: "The 

t is speedily drawn off, that he may adjust his gidf- 

bnt it has sadly degenerated in the wearer, and now ita 

dnignates the latter himself ss his absurd ornament " The 

took up in the Bowery, last night, a number of men and 

who were engaged in a grand m6l£e near Thomas' bar- 

; the majority of the former were well-known rowdies and 

me," Mfi ft Dcv aetUer, " to I 



leMora or modest criticism^ and to pitch into a person is 

re of it« application to some rival oradversarr. "Grace 

1, finpposctl to Iw buried somewhere in the West, recently 

Igns of remaining %*itAlity by pitching into a younger 

lymp, tlic sparkling and aaacy Gail Hamilton." {Lippin- 

tagaxine, Jnly, 1869.) 

iai kind of rvwdy, known only to America, i« " the b'hoy 
Ins wid de maehine,'' as he is called in hia own slang Un- 
The partiitiilar machine in this case is the fire-pngine, 
boet^ ladder, and other paraphernalia, that be delights in 
running througb the streets amid deafening shouts and 
\1S.K loves the diu and turmoil, he loves the excitement of 
itself, and — to his credit bo it said — he lovea fearlessly 
jkleasly to rislc bin life a thonsand timeA in order to Rare 
others, or even property only. In our day, however, the 
108 become a favorite expreasiou for tbo management of 
kt enterprise, and it was in this sense that Mr. Lincoln 
>ld a friend, in rctnm for a liberal amount of advice and 
ion ahont his administration, "Now look hero! If I 
run this machine I Ehall run it my own way, and be 
ible to Ood, my conscience, and the people, but not to 
In the same manner people run a bank, a store, and any- 
% they nndertak(! — even their own face, when they obtain 
ficolely on account of their respectable appearance. It oiipht 
^bome in mind, however, that this cant use of the word 
is by no means an Americanism. England has its batli- 
chines now, stage-coaches used to be generally cilled 
tf and as late as 1858, mmiicipal reports in London spoke 
horses employed in stage-coaches and omnibuses ns 
We flad in Notes and Querieg this early evidence of 

" E'en tho' Fd the Hononr of sitting between 
Hy Lady Stuff Dnninsk nnd Peggy Ibtorem, 
Who both flew to Balh in ths Loudon macAine." 

(Anstey'* Jfete Baih UuuU, 17C0, p. 03.) 

irowdg may be at the same time a bully, if he is given to 
; others by threats and acts of vialeuco. This term, how- 
of late acquired a new meaning— it is not quite sure 
er first in England or in America— of a more harmleu 



" I had ft drcmn tb« other oiglit, 
Wben evnjtkitig was pUII ; 
t dnuned that each adverliier 
Came np and paid his bill ; 
Bach won a look of bo&caty, 

Afid uniica vrcrc round each eye, 
Aa Uwy baad«d orer Uie kUiuim. 
Titer yelled: Une'a tftatM Ikighr 

(Pen nay Ivan in paper, Febnmry, 1871.) 

this fovohte gam«, kuuwu uuilvr a vuriety of names, aa 

ITp, etc, MoHte is moat geuerally kuowu iu the iioutb aud 

est ; a sad inheritance of the former owners of the Mil, 

ionatcly indulged in hy the mixed popnlation of those 

The fact that players at Three-Card Monte, ob it ib moat 

ily cftUcd. are said to Itucic at muiite, causes tho familiar 

tf buckiny at aavtluDg, in the sease of putting forth one's 

>ergy- " You'll hare to buck at it like a whole t<-ttm, gen- 

or jou von'c bear tlie whistle near your diggings for many 

(8au Antonio paper^ 1870.) Far more generally, how» 

these gamc^ the/a.*^ uud the rough Amcricuti liki- Lwi> 

others, which have become almost intieparabl}' connected 

ir IJavorite reaort, the bar-rooui of the city or of the West- 

boaL One is known as A'uc:Ar«,fiaid by Professor Mahn 

German origin, and proving it-s ancestry to some extent 

ating ii* two highest cards as Hujhi aud Left SowtTf 

the Gorman Bauer or peasant. The univi-rsal popularity 

A, which id not unknown to the ladies of the South 

jt has led to the use of many a phrase drawn fntm ila 

ties. The verb to euchre is thus pressed into the aervioe 

A defeat, not at cards only, but in any rivalry. " I'll 

im if I can. and I think I can. I've got a little money to 

oQ it, anyhow, and I'll put it up, too." [I'tifnam'if Maga* 

lovember, l^BSS.) Th<: game of Loo furnishes in like 

a verb, to loOf meaning to defeat. " Douglas was Imed/* 

each game is known as /'v^r, evidently a distauirclotiTe 

and the nvnch poche, reprcseuting what in other games 

» pooh Like its ucarooasin, suggestively called Sittfft 

ft mere haxard game, with which, however, ia combined 

^11 in bragging to a purpose. One man offers a bet on bis 

other doubles the bet, and "goes one better;" then tb« 


fcrt trie* to Vmf htm off br a stfll higher bet, and thiw t)m 
riRtnpdlf t»aAmesanttMumm&. When finally ihe 
*» be Aa«ik it rfln feuw oat to hare amounted to notkin^ 
the whole has been sfMM^Ui^ or of 6roy. In nuking 
^P >^y» ■!■: m «» ii <ila* is, your hand), and go 
man) better. Henoe again rarioos phrases nsetl eoUwt 
orer the Unioa. tsmit.ia dov » coounon in Englktid 
nir and generaDT ascribed to the old ttae of the word, m ii 
alreadT in Cihher's fWry/wt Hutband^ **1 don*i $miif 
c*a be fitde doabi thai tho great natnber of tuea to v 
Tert to «w is ih>v.«-<Ibt3 put in il»ug phrases, hare mftr* 
been obtained from the popolar game. " In street psrlaurt, 
U to know or to belieT*, and / flon'l m« ft means, I pot ta 
in what Ton offtr. T don't beliere yon." {Slnng jyictionary. p. 
** The matter was pieaented to Hr. Unooln by Mr. S^wari 
•emml other gentlemen : but he simply said, T can't «h i 
■w St. gentlemen, and there was nothing more to be dooe." 
ington paper, Jnly S9, 1861.) Poiw, when pfaiyed by 
before looking at one's band, is called Blind Polrr, and 
given rise totbeverreommon phnue, to t^d if MindjVkstiv] 
an enterprise is undertaken without previous inqniiy. 
Lowell in epcaking of Jefferson Davis, praiaea ironically hh 
Bkill and power 

h" ut Impress ob t)xn popoiw niod 
Ttw oocotbrt muI wtsdom of p»in' t^ btim^'* 
When a I«dy in California is threatened by her htuband. fn 
at having been betrayed by her, and aiming a rifle at her 
she suddenly presents two Bmall revolvers and crie« out, 
plav a band at that game, and po am bdierr {Ovtriand 
March, 1871.) The latest invention seems to be a chaooe , 
called kfiM, very popular in New York, and plnyed in 
liplaoea of amusement by one or two hundred persons at a 
*rhc ordinary Faro is generally veiled under the enphnistici 
of Yt Tiger, a curious name, quite mlcquate to egress the > 
live and voracious nature of the game, but recently attribahi] 
a Chinese deity 1 " A favorite figure of one of the Chiw* 
of gambling is a liger standing on his hind-feet, and _ 
large otuh in bis mouth or his paws. Sometimes the 



|of wood or clav.. or drawn on s piece of paper or boaiil. The 

the b«iut, ' Uis Kxcellencj, the Gtwping Cash Tiger,' u 

itlr written on a piece of paper, and placed in the gambliDg- 

I between two bTinchcs of mock -money snspcndod under the 

i>r OD the wall Miind it. This fignrc is the sign for a gam- 

luse: 'The Fighuag Tiffet:' It is carious that wc should 

look to China for the origiu of this phrase." {Appieton's 

Jauaary 7, 1871.) A technical term is th« sweal-cloth, 

marked with flgiires, and used by gamblers with dice; 

te geueric name of k^, derived from Knglaud, la quite an 

it here as in its native lund. 

leb occQputiouij, driukiiig, liglitiiig, and gambling, ar^ of 

■e, sore to I«ad to crime, and the rowdy is apt to find himscU' 

' ■- 'ncky day on his way to prison, wliich in New York bears 

.^icholy name of the Tomb.i, though built in the heaviest: 

ityle of arohitecture. Hia fate there presents nothing 

to the locality, with the exception of au undeijintblc au- 

loe he is likely to make there ; this is the shytter. Luw- 

hanging continnally about the Tombs, in which certain 

are held, and some of the^c ill-reputed men olTer their 

to the new-comer, compel him to pay a fee in adranoe, 

ben — do nothiug. On the eoutrarj.', ihcy fight jsrAy of him, 

mce they hare obtained thvir name. "A shyster indicted 

3k«<i up," is tlie beading of an article, which states that 

Anderson, the lawyer who is charged with having taken 

>ni two Beatncn to dcfencl their ciiacand not going near 

forward, was, in default of tO,000 bail, summarily oom- 

to the Tombs to await trial/' (New York Worid, March i), 

■'%^/jsr'F' ' • 




" Thiok of our KliooDtm, our dipjitrs, nntl our monitors." 

lion. Tltaddevt Stetens. 

i VA.TIOX so omtn«>DtIj' successful in all matters pertaining to 

Hon, havinjf built the fastcBt clipper, the flrat monitor, and 

flugest river-boat, and owning a continent liordcring upon 

ooeans^ wliilif gi;ptnlic; Btrcams and couritksa wali^rcoiii'sos 

it ia all directions, and the largest lakes oa earth utford 

n« s«a-room within it* own bounds, — sttch a nation cannot 

ktt havp nnmerona tcrma and phniscB referring to the life on the 

Mbrr and in tbe waters. Her aiilora are found iu every i^rt of 

M^" T'nhe, her fishcrmtm on evory liank and in every sea whpre 

. L-nergy and unconquerable perseverance find a reward, and 

jghoui the vholc land llieru is scarcely a district where boaU 

luot handled, and lUhing-Iines thrown, by the hoy already. 

rerfrthc-lega tbe number of new Tvorda coined, or of old words 

in a new meaning and form, for tliinga connected with tlio 

and its tributaries, and the life in the waters, is hut small. 

lish terms, used for such purposes, arc so abundant and so 

suited to all the details of the profession, of sport, and even 

accidental variations, that there arises but rarely a necessity 

a new nara<^. American sailors — not often of American birth 

hour day — and American fishermen, nse almost exclusively the 

bngaagc of llioir British cousins, aiiid Isauk Walton is perhaps 

Dore generally rea<t and known and ijuott^d iu America than in 

lis native land. It is only wliere names have been supplied by 

pVcnch or Spanish aebtlcca bcfijff tho time of American rule, that 

rorda like Canoe or ^itogut have made good their plare in our 

peerli ; these and Uwir kiudrcd have been mentioned under their 

{iprupriatd liea4> Of English forina a few refer to the peculiar 




uanio Trum the lonliU. J. Q. Adams, in his rcpo 
■peaks iu higb terms of their viilac in a pecnnian i^ 
their a£efQlne» in Intiiiiiig iuiniinible seamen ; wiiiie l 
work on " KewfonndlaQd Fisheries," tells tis th&t-tbfl 
h(t»l'fr U generally com|xwed of twelve men, inclading tUt 
or cuptain, who exrrt'isc^ no dirvcL control orer thv otliA 
reoogniEod by them ae the principal personage on boaid.' 
name must not, however, be confuundcd with the hnnkerttt 
Cjiroltua, people living near that part of the Atlantic am 
there al60 ie called the " banks," nnd who u£«d to be 
dotibtfal repnte. The j now combine the vocations 
Ashing, and wrecking, bnt it \s said that their kindnt 
pitality to wrecked eeamen is nnfaiting and nnli 
ChebaccQ boat. Ixau-ing the old Indian uauic of a town] 
ohasettfi, now called Essex, where they were forme 
another class of veasels engaged in the N'ewfonndlanJ 
and characterized by a very narrow stern, from whii-h 
also derive the name of Pink^tern^ after the Hatch pit 
with such a stern. 

These and similar boats arc often propelled by a Sftt 
a pole much heavier than the cauoe-jiole, and benoaB 
diflei'ently. It is a stout pole-, shod with a hcavy-pmnfl 
cV and has on the other end a knob, to place i^inst ibtt i 
"The poles ore set upon the bottom by the boatmen Mai 
each side of the how, and as the boat advances the n 
along the mnning boards with the stationary pols^ 
ehoalder, sometimes walking bent almost on all-fours, ii 
have arrived at the stern, when they draw the poles nj 
thetii again, the hpfldway keeping the boat from reow 
mon: rii[>fd water, the men rexei alteruatcly." (S. S. Hal 

A battery is thu odd name given in Chesapeake Bay h 
boat, not unlike a coffin in shape, and hence also knon 
boat, used in duck-shooting. It^ peculiar build em 
hunter to float gently down upon his nnsuspectiug got 
below the surfiioe of the wBt«r, while the heavy calibre of 
and the faot that he Qrc-s it (Voru a kind of miniature en 
have, no doubt, led to tlie nee of the word bailtri/. The 



rord beyond all qnestion belonging to America, as well 
riniilnltli' vessel to vliioli. under various forms, il has 
Bi the D&me. is well known aa the famous invention of 
jEricMOU — the first ship l>uilt with a revolving tnrret Tlio 
i of her construction werfl altogether :icw in the history 
If architecture^, and, after the signal victory of the first 
h Hampton Roods, tho name became a houi^ehoUl word 
prth. The great inventor has not mode it known what 
lim to choose the name : hence etymologists have evolved 
their inner consciouanese that he mnst have borrowed it 
^8 Monitor Dracana, a largo lizard covered with im- 
b armor. Irreverent Conf«lorBt.c3 called the hideons- 
jHsels chttM-hoxtf, and apparently one di^signation ig, 
tenllj, thongh not Rsthctically, as good as the other. 

OBSnooessful imitations they stitl more disrcBpcctfuIly 

cing of the proceeds of d<je[vsoa fisheries, at least one 
fha« become snflBciently familiar to the general public to 
|fe of the cJass of merely technical terms, and entitle it to 
r of an Americanism. This is the dutifisA, cod pre* 
Ib to give it a dun-color, from which the name in derived. 
inirpoK the fish arc salted, and then laid in piles in a 
t, covered with ealt-hay or some similar substuncu. After 
fee months the piles are opened and tlie fish examined, 
hh they are piled up once more in a compact moss and 
(pen for another two or fhreo months. In July or 
key are ready for use, and command a high price, being 
pr to ordinary codfish. J. Q. Wbittier describes an old 


I* They had loaded Lis Bha11op wilU dur^flth ud ball, 
[ WiUi EiorcB for lib laider aud etei:! for Uiti wall." 

^enn connected with the cod is the name of the scaffold- 
ihich they are dried, the JtnA-es. as the long poles are 
dch are laid upon crotchod posts and covered with brash, 
|e codfish can be spread upon the platform and dried. 
Irord is not American; it is fonnd in the eingnlar, at 
right's Colkction as in use in the north of England, 
ng a hurdle or a paling. In Whitboaine's Diecourft 



atut £>i$covcne of Netvfoundland, Loudon. IG^ "-J, 

over, "Some t<*re Aowu Jiakes, nrliereon men \ lir 

fisb, to the great hnrt and hiudcranoe of many others tW 
after fhero." (p. 66.) These fiakie are referred to on the 
ingpage as "stakes that are fastt-nctl in the gromiJ, with 
on them." thiiB fully cstahlisbiog tJie antiquity of the term. 

The dipper^ also* a outtur or schooner built for fiist iniUn^. 
a loug sharp bow and raking ma8t«, cau hardly be claimed 
Americanism, but the elipptr-buiU xhip, a reasel of large ton: 
but of the anme model, originated here, in eonBWjnence ati 
eager competition for the new trade vbich sprang np betveq 
Atlantic seaports and the Pacific coasts after Califomia had 
iucorporaied in the Union. 

The primitive form of a rufi, wen on the large inland 
of gigantic size, and requiring not nnfrequeutly teroTsJ moo 
accompliah the enormous journey from the headvatera of 
er, in troztn regions, to its month near the Tropics, bav 
ita name to an object peculiar to American navigation, 
are the stationary Tafts, consisting of large nambera of treea 
timber, ivhich have been arrested, as they floated down then 
sometKind-baror shallow flat, and there lodge for yean, to the 
annoyance of tlatboat and steamboat CHpfairu, and catuinc 
injurica to trade and commerce. The GrMt. Raft in the ;: 
er of Arkansas had become so serious as obstacle to ubvil 
to excite even the attontirm of Oongrcss, and as ita dinien 
extended over twenty milea— nude its removal impoBBibbi to po* 
vate eutvrprise, it was undertaken at national expettse. tm 
first improvement u{)ou the raft were probably the Hatboatti kn^ 
nsed for transporting produce on the great weflt- 
arcdL-soribiHl as "simply an oblong ark, with arif ^ i 
from the eentro, to shed rain. They are generally above fiflioi 
feet wide, and from fifty to a hundred feet long. Tho timbent' 
the bottom are ma»eive beams, and they are intended to be of pt^ 
strength, and to carry a biirdeu of from two to four hnndred barr<l*> 
Great uumhera of cattle, horeea. and ho;: - ' f '-•' 

in them." On the tributaries of the M 

great river itself, they used to bo known tL-^ Hrondkofn», bec*B 
they were square at both ends; built during the rammer and fol 
tu soon as harvost was ovor, they received their vast iVeiglitaBd 
swept down the stream. 



^ W« 'hiivo seen familjr boati of this description, fitted up for the 

tnt of Dimilies to the lower country, vith a atovp, comfortable 

l*nta. beds, ami iirrangi'menta for commodions habitaucy." 

fisaUsippi Vnltey, Flint) ArrtTed at tlieir de^tiiiiiiiou, they 

their cargoue, and aiv Ibco sold as lamber, ofton leaving 

iL' profit to tlie tuoky owner. These arka, as they 

Illy calk-^L are uoir-a^ays but nuvly 60«n on the Miwis* 

atcomboat having almost entirely snperscdcd thorn ; on 

r motp vatvrt!our8C8, however, wb«ro time is of less vital 

. they are still quite common, and the race of jlafhoat- 

«, a peculiar cht&s of Wealeiru men, powerful, good-nalurcd, uud 

fi, will long survive. Thty arc not a little prond of their 

lam com]>auiou, who once doated with them d'lwu the greitt 

■from autiripfttingthc high honor and the historic renown 

earn a^ Prceidcnt and oa a martyr. 

['Tbeirs/ioa/^ formerly as onenfle«uou the M iesiGsipju and itairib- 

i oj the old-fiifili ioned JIatboai. diflVred i u every respect from t lie 

It wv looguud slender, of gi-sceful build, too small to curry 

' than iibont thirty tone at the utmost, but admirably adapted 

- draft to pau over shallow placeiiandotherobslructions, 

I [J delay liLTger viiasela. It U Etill freriueutly found in 

luliini wnlcrtt, prup(>lled by all the various mcuus employed for 

3D«c. from " bushwhacking" to etcani. Wfuir/boaitt, nlso, are 

^' found more generally in America than in any other cuuntry, 

tbtncu the term ie aimoat an Americanism. It designates a large, 

Ilid ftoat, often corcivd in, on which merchandise, lumber, etc, 

liB itorcd, for loading or for Inland trdnt^porlatiun, utid which 

jenonilly moored to the shon-dide to take the place of a regular 

wharf. The latter would be usele^ in rivei'd tvhich, like 

BMiitt of the Western waters, are subject to frequent and serious 

eluagcs of level, now suddenly rising so as to overflow ihe banks, 

mjaA then again falling low enough to leave vcasela aground. 

^■iSdbuon«rs arc generally believed to be on American invcntjon, 

^^H^ by an Amcricun word, the first vessel of the kind bavinj 

^^^Boitt by u ('aptaiii Andrew Kobiu&on at Gloucester in Mi 

■Antfttta. izi the yeux 1713. When she wa« launched, it ts said, a 

iT'lander exclaiaiud, " Qow she scoom.'" This woi-d scoou watj 

&eu mncli uib^d in the S'ow Kngland States, as it is still nsed ii 

^^nnlaad, to denote the skipping of etonea thrown eo as to skim 




ki Wr tier and tnm tiut 

n tkit 

have been Imenl 

< RftSp M Dr. K. Wetea mi^I 
y^n^aod tt cfidoncd tj 
W. Ik. WhitMT. 

m m kbv New EngUnd 
liaiMid But aofieitined 
ph wMli inqwKn Iiatc bemj 
i tu peculiar buidm a( M 

«ae wbD karan u tbe nuble tt 

^ pBcfals, vbich Bail si regabr 

BnfKah f m tM , and am Ihiu disc 

neka d« aaa WTi^ «b1; m 

in tht kaadi of . 

in formef da; 

,i»afitm at the dailj ti 

Af^mltkm Mws mmd «■ baari dnp awr be rrgarded 
la a git t to ««r ^aecb csefanvdj. Socb is the ^n 
liBlidayeM «f Xea- SagliBi liAiiiiii n. vho licl: their chef* 
the TCfy MBBtiM «€ tUa aMlr-aaBcd ddtcacr. It consuta 
aaaiber of im^wimmtst tht noot iaportaiu oT vhtob m* 
fanad, pork-Cit, mnhfHftB, wnaamon, alispioe. and cluvee : hy 
aid of tlieae iiHt<A*k a kind ot mush u made, vhich. U baked i 
thf ores and Ina^ to tbe t»hk bot and brown. If two whik 
■hoaU hipym l» hoh upon the vlialing f^maada when kA 
dnatr bhi it serred, ther wonid be apt to have a rerr Ion; m 
merry iram,aa the coammtioa is called niidersach c-itvunutua 
"The ^mn," says H. MelTflle, '■ was loag, but sober and 
the two seardoga knew B«thiiig of each other, and benco w«« 
tjoui not to let ont any of their secrets ; they comparad reckoBiB 
hoped for whales, and discussed ihc wcaUifr in no compliniw 
mftnixT ■" It if on inch occasions that the flag of the npprotcbi 
rewC'l is most auxtuoslv euauned to sot* what news osbt be « 
taincd.ftnd great i« tliv (iulistiurtiun ufthe UritisfaereTeu, wkflol 
ten the Oriiliron and Doughboys, as lie hidf coutemptuouslr, 
good'imtnnidly, calls tbe Stars and Stripes of this counlry. (Skt 

ouanf, p. 149.) The captain in American nmrcliunt-shipa is 

tt nniTersally known as the old man, and orcu the gmvity 

ligb court could not resist the extreniel>' iudicroua contrast, 

a ftiw years ago, a casu was digcuaii^sl U-fore that tribunal, 

resael, wliich had be«i brought home, after the master's 

, fay bia braTC vidow, and the lattc-r, a comely young woman, 

niTfly alluded to by one of the sailom, in bis evidence, as 

oW inan down below." The same ecit-slaiig culls the quad- 

\ }iiff-yo/i;e, from a more fancied than real rusemblaueu to 

litnple conti-ivnnce. It speaks certainly very eloquently in 

at fiorl' and hcans, that ihis national dish of tbe Now Eng- 

', nuknotrn in the land of his pilgrim fatbcra, sliould have 

lOed sucb a litrorite for two hundred years. It is, of coui-so, 

■aoundaul of the well-knuwii Euglitih didb of "buik>d pork 

peiM-pudding," a great favorite abroitd in provincial towmj 

be dried pease are here replaced by boaiis, oa the latter arc 

prolific nnd of better quiUity in the United States. No 

ng captain, it is eaid, ever allon-8 tiie tootbj^ome dish to be 

2 absent from his table, and the vesEtls un the givat lakeB 

qv lay in a goodly store of pork and molasses, wbeu they 

lertake a longer voyage. The latter term, aleo, huu on boai'd 

vessels not nnfrequeutly a new mid special meaning: 

on board of whaling boat* call their share of the proceeds 

ir cruise a voyngf-, as this share is paid them instead of 


the pursuit of fishing, both at sea and in inland waters, a 
1)6 arc peculiar to this country, though many are only in 
The dipsy, for instance, the sinker of a fishing*1ljie, is 
in Pciinsylvania; the name, nfcoursu, arises fnmi the 
« little weight takes as soon ua it touches the water; the 
V on the other hand, the lloat of tbe line, ir peculiar to 
York. An eei-spmr, a kind of trident used in catching 
is the American substitute for the English "eel-abe»r," and 
', in the sense of catching fish with a^iy, is in Virginia 
to denote uigbt-tiehitig with a tbree-prouged fpear, as it 
one in tbe days of Captain John Smith. The v,unl t/urry, 
,by sailors and tishernieti fur the sliniu and blmod of fi^b ad- 
lug to their bands, i«, iu all probability, an inheritance from the 
gliab^ though a connection with /jory might, perhaps, be es- 




tAbliahecl. Kii^lings are the enuill bugments of fiih nse^i 
ou (lie bnuki! of Ncwrouttillauil, and kid, a largo box : 
lUh lire thrown ae fust as cuught — u u-rm. bowcrer, li^i.- ;;., 
Kcw Eugland Stat«s. The iMdvr b a email Use of bair.j 
grass, by which the angler's book Is attaobed to the Mm 
also cnlkMi a 8mU\ and s Ug, in MoinC} the hook, to vhich a] 
piece of lead is cast to servo as a sinker. From the 
American daring ban at once made a vi<rh. and it ii a vm | 
jnoQ phrase tu gay, ''1 shall go Unittg tliis «vcuixtg." or "Ij 
this fish.^ *• The sqacteagnc." says Dr. Stoith, " it taken 
lining and seining, and becanso. it makca mch fccbk ou 
resistance in being druvu in by n book, it has reccirtHl thci 
lutioD of wealhfigh." (i'V«/i«s of ^assadtuselU, B.) 

A myaterioua term, probably originating in umprunonc 
u the Word scrod, meaning a «mall eod broiled ; its Icgitimalt I 
18 fscrod, bnt in its ehortened form, which in largvly Died 
flsbormcn, it applies to any kind of smnll finh, tit for bciBi 
An analogy with shreds (uf tisb) has boon suggested, which vo 
Ire quite probable hut fur the existence of escrod. 

Sfiari'ing is the convoaicut way ot oolliug an exjioililiiin ntukt* 
taken to take sharks iu u Imrbor. while tbo eril habits of iiui^\ 
liavc given occasion to name a lean hog, with its i i 
city, a shark iu the West, and to form a verb, «/. 
denotes the haliii of preying upon others;. W. Irving tliiu<t)fi] 
'^He was one of those vagabond cosmopolites, who tharl' 
the world, as if they had no right or busiuesa in it, and who I 
the skirts of society like poocbera and infi-rtopers." (] 
bockor, Hittortf of New York, p. 231,) StUl-taiting, on ihei 
hand, is used in distinction frum '' trolliDg," for Hsliing witb 
lino at one and the enmc spot 

Oysters are raised frum their natural or artiQetal Iwd by 
iottgs, a ferocious hybrid between an irou-toothed rakeand a pain 
seidsors, having two loug handles. or< 
(ifti^cn or twenty ft-ot depth the iron (<■ ■ 
and, like fingers of clasped bands, gripe firmly whateror it tn 
clutches. "It is a sight to watch the men pull up iht 
oysttr-tonga. and shake out btuhcls of luscious bivalwc." {(^\ 
neclicut (ieorgics.) 

Two very beaadful words, nsed and ]K'rhap8 invonttd by 



■people, are maoufflad^ and praysUck, The foiTner denotes 
, silvery trackwhicli moonlight ti-acca on the wiitM,", and has 
down til Bta-fwing folk from tlie (layB ol" ihe jiHgrim fathera^ 
ig whom both sunghide aod nioottghida were nsed. The wa- 
Old C»;loiiy pwjjile, rulaiuiag j«aloasIy much of the speech 
leir forefathers, still emi'ioy these terms to embodv in l»n- 
the faHing of light mlant hillside or glen by night and by 
and sotnctimcii the inivM of light leading apparently from 
rvPF to sun or inouii, ia alao called thus, Tho other word, 
.giag moru prupi^rly lo the lisherniun of Maine, mcuns a state 
w» wbeu the wind ha« died away, and the wutvr, anbrukcn 
assumes the familiar "glassy" appearance. Tho men 
henci*, say: "\Vc may jiigt as well take to the oar, for we 
gotten into a grayslich.^* While the first part of the word 
I to the dim but faeuuiiful color, sUek (sleek) fully expre^ea 
aiet, oleogiuoua condition of the sea in giicli places, 
erican Bailors use the word handswivly in rather a peculiar 
ing; instead of ordering a sail to be fnrled CArehitly, tbd 
is very apt to shout out, " Handsomely, my men, don't; 
[J, handsomely for'ard there I " Nantucket fishermen, he3idi.-g, 
I a way of using the words art, the anaM, even when on shore, in 
oltea very ludicrouE) meaning of "near at hand," and a gallant 
will assure bia lady-love that if she will only fix the day, 
fll be sure to he on the ^attt with tho parson.*' Stach water 
gation, also, is probably an Americanism: it meims a kind of 
pensive canal in tho river itself, in which, by means of dams 
locks, a suflicieiit sui)ply of water is niaiiitaiued at all eeasuiis. 
Dflt all tho larger rivers, in the- Eastern States, arc thus made 
pible high above their original limits. 

there are few nanticiil and fishing t^^rms that win be called 

nc Amerieanisma, the number of slang words and slang 

originating with sailors and fishermen, is, on thi; other 

inconsiderable. The majority of such expressions may, 

', be found in England also, as the sailor is L-mphaticnlly 

opolitan, and his sppcch the same in every harbor of the 

Some of them, however, can be distinctly traced to this 

if not in their tirst creation, at least in the special 

ing which they have acquired. 

■ familiar designation of ships at Lloyd's in Engliuitl, 



bT letten. and a aries of aomben wtttmeiMd ts ti y^i. b^ ki\ 
▲oMfiea ta the uae of tlw ybrwmc A JVa. I, |br nea mA 
gnanrilj. "^he'a s priaw pri, »h«'^ ji .>V U" mA ilnrfyl 
^ckr and since Jndgu HalibartDn's din-, the tan. h* 
more conunon etilL J. & Lowall awgi : 


■ Srtsndl 


Sbdi emtU qiBlcktf piiefa ■. tan, 
Zfor dror (dxaw) • fiurcr ^oinfca.** 

^ JVb. I and tto miiUait u tbe iateaaifiad fecm tlw 
Hnmea here, vbUe in Engknd ic is anplxfied into *' Tmt 
kttcr A, No. I.'' (SItmg DUHamtry, p. IT.) 

Tbe two wordis oAaruf and wkward, ue ta tilte hmbi 
red from aea-tife ui sborc-IifuT wad sial la Amuiai witb 
qoencj which can only be exeoaed on the pica of tki 
■uefalaettL Railroad condneton and <taga diinn, 
aad cabmen, all nrj^ joa tn -g«c aiaord; and b« qaiek, vt 
viU be kft,'' and ahtad is used Cor eTor poaaible IbrwaidaM 
caa be imagined. SchoolboTa are Mktad of othcfa. the 
prm ii ahead of tbe English, aad ana chnirh u aJttad of 
in the liberaliiy of iu ctved. To go mk tn d ie comaKmlr 
at a genuine Ammcaaidm. and vnn if tbe ptuaae shooU 
original— which ther« is good reaaiu to dv>abt--U)e tend 
lestJen and energetic progress is certainlj a cbaracteristie 
of the natioo. The imintieDce of the term is well defined 
Mr. Howelh in ht^atttactiTe VemHan Lift, wImk b« wpnki 
**Hhaj-p, bustling Yankee, who rushed into the Anoeiiisii 
vent on the island near ^'enice, one morning, rnhbing bis hsoA 
and demsuded tbst they ehoald show him all thejr csoold in flu 
miuatee:.'^ The goah«adifire American, as he alone of all 
would fcTftr dare to «ay, is the type of the man of the peritMl: 
when the Franco-PrnBsian war broke oat, a New York joutail 
once more ventured npou the iavanable prophecy, that "inllu* 
complication nf European difUcuitioa. a farorable opporlsait) 
was aflbrded to Amehcun ffOafieadUivenetj" {Timetj Aii|^ IT| 
1871.) Uenoe the Euglisli t«rm: All Rightl has dissfpiml 
here, and its place, at Rca and on land, ii usurped by tbe Banosal 

itliaritT with boating, which tlio uiisur|>ai>6cd number 
Rvonraes till orer the country naturally produces every- 
re, has led to tlie use, not only of pmhlHiut one^ own canoe, 
■LB flircttdy been mentioned, but also of baUitttj onis oten boat, 
be sense of " minding one'a own bnsiness," independently and 
iiDut waiting for help from others. To irear a hand U a gimi- 
tcrm borrowed from ths uvji-phnue, and xaeana, even in the 
^ \ieit, to be active and not to delay. 

3uHltoai» and Floatiug liatteirifn are well known cvoryi^'hcrft in 
tttdays of naval wai-fani imd armor-nhips, hut it was reserved 
soldiers of the iate Civil War to bestow the nanii> of ffftn- 
iQpon tho contract ihwrn fiiriiiahed thc-m, which were apt to 
clumsy and awkward us gunboats appear to sailors. There 
the fancied resemblance a ludicrous correspondence with 
iner in which the ladies of Lima, famous for the ex- 
lamollncBS of their feet, look upon the leaa favored women 
tier countries. It is relabed that gumc very bc-uutiPul Enj^lish 
onco created quite a seneatiou among the men of Uma ; 
then the ladies were asked how they liked the foreign bean- 
ie answer wan, that they were well enoujjh, bnt looked as if 
^were wulkinjr in canots. The tcnn Floating Jiaiieries was, in 
lanner, applied in bitter irony to the anny-brcJid furnished 
Confederate Government. The woi-d lo^us, as applied to 
"American beverage L-unsisting uf ntm and mohisses, is prob- 
ly only an impatient abbreviation of tlie C<tl\bagHa of Captain 
■oWf who«c humor omits none of these pleasant compounde, 
iwho takes care to inform us, in his Classical DieUoiiary of 
\VtUgar Tongue (ed. 1823), iluit in tu» day it was a nobler, 
nigh hardly a healthier mixture of rum and ale! The ship's 
h>M«, better known as Die "galley "or shelter on deck, where 
e cooking is done, has lent ita mutilated name (cam ^oo^'*, from 
ttch komhiiia) to a small railroud-car, used for various Bpecial 
noses, and not known on ]!)nglieh railways. Even the manner 
beaking to veeeels at &ca, by hailing aloud or through a speak* 
g-trum|)el, has been translerre<l to land usage, and a man is 
niliarly said to hail from his native State, or a stranger is ac- 
it«d with tlie words, " Well, sir, and where did yon Itailfrom 
It?" The hounds, also of a ship, the projecting ports of the 
which serve as shoulders for ih« top or tivailt^ trees bave 



bpcn IranBrenvd to land, ilciiignatiDg the porta prajectiB| 
tliQ frunt uxlutrcu to fai'in a support fur ibo tongoe or 
The word ie, in this latter use, not unfretiaeatly writtea 

OtomUr also stems not to have been nnkuown to onrtac 
for Grose spcAka of it us u " sea-dish/' bnt the Twy iodif 
witb which he, a man of iiilltiiU! ta&te, nientiuns it, proval 
puimot have bt-eii the tamuuti dish proilaccd \yj tbe ini 
gt^uiuB of th<; vouerablc aud picrns pilgrims of PI^-Diuiitb. 
halo lias since heen ebcd aroiiud the tiinc-honon*d tt-rm 
mastorly miLtiipalnlions and iiiajoittie namu of the " might 
of iluvshflfld," for it is well knnwii that Mr. Webster 
liiii chamU-r, which he did nut ditiihiin to make himself^ as] 
caught the fish fur it with his own bauds. It is de«oril 
uiiiuy-sidvd dish, of pork and tish, j)uUUu«8 aud bread, < 
ti)rin|)s, nil mixod up with fresh cheqnits and seabMI, 
and lon^ clam^, pumpkiusoed and an oooidcntal eeU well pfp[ 
mid Kalt*;d, piled up iu luyiTeaiul stowed together." Ci4cri 
chumpaguti aiv not uii&ciiueutly added, and tbu " matc■)Dt^'' 
the »tiuc-h wouid coll it, i^ u most tempting daiittT — to 
hungry people. It seeing almost an insult, after tbut, to 
duneu ft c}towdn'he(td, but J. It. Lowell usc-a it, and be cannotl 
to be high imthority in all mntterd concerning New Bnglud. 
has already t)con stated that sea-coast [KHtplc haTo 
triiuiirerrod thv clamnheH to the lips of thvir friends on sbonv' 
the ^Kpwer of slung is most strikingly iUui^ti'ated by the Owtl 
even the Government of thi? TTnitcd States C(^nde6ceuds to 
it-s patent locks on m«il-t>ag8 to be officially designated ui 

A tiock-fpfdloper denotes a trifling, idle fellow, who 
about the docki^ and is au object oC great oontempt to Jack. 
ably ugt pnkiiowti to BriUsh ports, though, it may bo hoped, i 
numerous thore tliiiii in America. The term is nppliwl si*' 
the fri^iient prowd& of unemployed cmigrunts in every Itrgti 
port. 'Mm fjQ a v.rtiue iii^cins lo Iw such a natural exprMSiml 
the man of Xautueket and moat of his neighbors ou the ooatti 
New Eugkiiul, that even wlu>n hu tflX-S inland, he is sore tof*i 
cTuide^ whether hu ride on horseback to bftve su Hiring, or < 
u suat in a stage-coach to Tiait a distant neighbor. i 



rliat the great bliss eujoved by clanu — salt-water vegetublofl^ 
I New Yorker derisivylj calls thvm — really comnsts, has never 
srtuineil, buL a very general impression of their great 
is evidently prevailiDg, for cooat people — and after ihcm 
ipecptti likewise — are very f(uid of enrying othera who, they 
aa hnppff as a dam. The expression appears strangely 
iriate, in a notiuu uf a newly-married couple vbo "luft 
burch aud itumediut^ly set out on a two years* wedding tour 
jpe, httfipy a$ two damn .''* (B:iltimorc Amtriata, January 
ri.) Occaaioiially greater happiness yet is conveyed by adil- 
it the words at high-tcairr. 
Pbc ke^ of the reasel, of the utmost importance to the sailor, 
|k benoe given rise to mauy a bumcly but not unpictureeqoo 
IfBttsion ia onr language. The keel itself serTei!. in regions 
Ittg the aea-coast, to name any broad, flat vessel, nsed for many 
idomMtic purpose; bnt the htfhr or kefhr-tub, derived from 
bn, tA cool, in the vessel in which the dishca are washed, and to 
tkich J. B. Lowell refers, when he quotes: 

" Aod greasy Joan does tMltbe pot" 

CQkce aUo the common pbraae of keeHng over, in nautical Ian* 

deootiug the complete capsizing of the vessel, by which the 

Icomea uppermost, aud in social life used to express an eotiri 

irow of a mail's! Iiojws or circnmstances. "We may safely 

writes the New York Tribune, "that the whole (Fenian) 

inse has t^eeled over and shown bottom ; there is not a grain 

left to the leaders.'^ (SepL 14, ISte:.) Kven the nautical 

Jceel up haa been forced to do ordiiiai-y work ia the lau- 

I and to accept the duty of a verb : " As I was not in the 

. of using spirits at aU," wri^s the Rev. J[r. Cartwright, " I 

that a little would i:eel me up; so I forbore, hut wilh all 

'lorbewaDcc presently I began to feel light-headed. I instantly 

•derod our horae*i, fearing we were snapped for once." (Autobio- 

"aphy, p. :f05.) 

It is a curious evidence of the facility which cant terms have. 
Ice wreda, to grow up from a stray seed, aud to take the place of 
feU«r words, that a long-extitiguished custom, dating back to the 
M''hcn slaves were employed in river navigation, should have 
U one of the most Umiliar, colloquial phrases. In those 

times tlavcs, who bod bceu dL>tiiiquent tn thuir woric or dl 

fill ill Uieir manner*, were freqnpntly punisbetl " 

board the be«rier ki'cIbuaU thai ueut up Uit ■ 

here rhcy had to work very hard against Uiu [Kiwerrul 

and bcnce to row up became boou idcnticul with acvcM aoQii 

Msloal puniahmeut. '• Wt* hope," says ih« NVw York /fti 

President gave his ^cretarf a good rotcing up ; ht wr 

served it for his ioibcciUty." (Alajr 7, 1856.) T'- 

toning up seems, iu early dars, to hare been t- 

Biid painful in a smiill tributnrv of the Ohio, hiiuii witUij 

turtuoua anil unstife channt-l through a [lariuf Ei'iicuckjr. A 

nllufiiou to the hardohipfi connected with the navigation mU 

river, made by a member tVoiii Kentucky on the floor 

gi-es9. took the fancy of hia audience, and, niter its pubbc 

the people gencndly. Siuce Llieii it has become a naircnal 

phi-ase to say, ihai an nnlncky wight, wlio has fai! 

to Bomo public office, was rowed up Salt Ilivfr. 1 -U 

or his iKirty, shouhl have been very grievonsly d' - 

were apt to be rowed up to the very hcadwntfira of Sai. 

will be s«en that by a strange coofusloa of idnu, not nnfrMfi 

in the US6 of melaplior^ it was not thr poor oanmeii 

to th« hard work, but the passengers in the boat, to ■.....-.^ 

nnlucky aepirants to honors wen.' compared. 


That &Ag-Nicbts and slnin^im would iread fl'cr Uis head. 
And wc up 1 he AtU Hir^r billiiwn, " 

Iffuriat of Unek , 

The inij>ortancc which Uic g/iad has gained in Anifrit-An i 
and in ooniuierc«, has Irnl to the nse of iis name fur 
pnrpoics. Thagood people of N*6W England ore prouici 
tu call tlio I>cautiru1 service-berry, with ita hetiutii' - faD] 

delicate wbitA blo&aoms, the thadhtuh, heoame, U>v 
about the time when the Q^h ascend the rivers in rarlj iproj 
UenoQ W. C. Itrj-onl writes: 

" Uie •JUtfitMA, white wltti dowin, 
UriglitDoeil ihe gleo." 

Tb« pifcaliar abapa of the i^tuukars' drabniwatK, wl 



itbe nsual break, from the front gradually tovai'd tlie toils, 

Btcd, to ftjes familiar with the shod, a resembkiice to tliQ 

of that fifih, and in coaat-slang, therefore, the Friends arc 

appear aa gh4id'belltes. It is not qnite so evident ythj 

■n should toke their m-vcngo hy subjecting .Tack, wlinn he 

Inlged too fru^'ly in drink on shore, to the disgraceful process 

cAu'fjjrAai. The loug-legged bird, with hiti ridicuicus etrut 

3ck splendor, had long bcsiowed his Cbincstr name iipuu 

)diy, and became, from it^ striking nppi'opriuttuesa, us 

' a nickuainc aa the English ''swell." But when the verb to 

li is applied to sailors, it refers not to the bii'd, but, 

ing Ui a seaman's statemenr, to the town uf Shnmjkai, whei-e 

%o called is said to have been once very common. The 

^consists iu dragging llie unlncky siiilur, when he enjors him- 

' a long cruise, on shore, and cai-rying him^ vhile in a StMb 

iBibility, to a vessel about to depurt, ^vhere ho Guik himself 

lis recovery, entered in all forms on the: book. "No doubt 

were to have been quiet till the following morning, and 

that time they would have been drugged, jiAaH^AniVf/, and 

away from all means of making complaint." (New York 

e, March I, 1871.) 

American who he^iitates nut to speak uf himsflf oh affom 
kor a live hoi<s, or an alliijator, occasionally varying the phrase 
lakiug himself out to be hatf-fiorse half-alligator, iu Ken- 
f, does not neglect the life on the waters any more than that 
prairie and in the swamp. "I am a she-nteamboat, and 
doubled up a crocodile in my day," said a damsel ivho came 
rescue of famous Colonel Crockett^ as hu lay cuughl in the 
of a tree, with a number of eagles pulling out his long hair 
ling in their nest^t. " Wait till you have itenmboaUd it 
Ivhile, as I hare done, and if thc-i-e \s more thou fiix ounce or 
yon left, ni pay the damage," was the warning an old 
ar gave a youngater who had begun life very fast, and waa 
the effectfi- {Southern Literary Messcnt;er, June, 1854, 
117.) While the modern steamboat, with its noisy paddle- 
Mcls, represents thus the fast or energetic man of our day, 
« old-&«hioncd vessel, with its small wheel at the ati^rn, still 
in Western waters, and as a ferry-boat in all parts uf the 
b, saggestB to the picture-loving mind of the American the 


% to die l i^hh— 1 1» weC uton^vl 
mm, S^HT fN Hiring wnte: »T1» 
HV ^nns sonr ^Md^, wl if w« ifao^ lop^ 4^ 4,,^ , 
wiH. p ail to awfe." (X^3»r% pu 9K. ) Aao«faer ailn^ 
■"■gfc ^^"*; ^^» y to Kfce Jkr Wwt. and, 

aiie can jwm^ <fanr; aad so an the ckHjib ^ntaneled 

lAoK m ««i^iAwi»«am and m the aeBwof^oM 
Aw IP C. " m; -aw to lyfi.' >* ha l i ■ i wwoM my, 
k«^ Xn Offt«xqsl« ttes sfeanctociM* 9M or hia bfRkn; 
«M« «giuBy | iMi fa i h— oe^yet mt tiaM&MMl 

Ika beekvood^ vim be j«My <faar, Ibm w«fv frv tint i 
enl Mto to A> F«i|it* (J-Mtofrqp*^ p. 3*4.) Si 
RttoB tfa o^lfaMft fef fcorwieg tfe aame of the low 
rf ■ fcO, the iiepfc irhJch Ub ok Oe gnia ta thioU^ 
Chieg ft to • Aerfc kaova le jwfffc faj ; amee iia kef 
itoibli toa k witUtd MBevfaet in the suke toaat^r. iiul 
tonfytocftttiTc in ftraAw ig hh aae toie i . A sinularBixta 
wniarMMaii aini liiiiiliiMiii*iiiiirtiiii[iTwiiliil in iln tml liii 
vfeieh atat gB um aad hw riaBB an apt u be known ea Aon. 
finer eaaag ^ the Hndaoa Ktct to Eur as Allwar^ tall 
higfa]; crtenae J tha<t,wtpeamOj when loaafad in the fima of ril 
are pop^aHj Icnovn as Jlh wy Bet/, vfaUe the commoa bar 
oao^t in gnat abaadaBoe near Taanton. in the State of V 
dmaetts, ia eaDed then a nmnton TSirkty, half in d#rua«a 
hal( no doubt, for the sake of the alliteration : 

' Our llilMrit* o'er Uie world kra Cuocd, 

TIm meekerri, vbail, uid cod ; 
AsdTVMta* TWnbira an to thick, 
W« mO ttom by tha rod." 



;*8 vp jib, and ut uo more," ts a phrase oflen heard 
Ea«lern CoasU, but nut very iut«Uigible to those who are 
Ptraii^rs tn ships and thtir main part^. Others will, of 
nc, know that tho hoisting of the jib is n signal of departure, 
I hence the sailor's phrase has become Hyimiiymutis with ''let 
be gonp." That the huge size of a whale shonld have led eoil- 
i«nd after their example othersalso, toKpi^akufauy man or event 
lOtuual uud imposing propot'tione as a la/iakr, seems natural 
B^: but it is not qnite m certain whether the rerb to whale, 
^in the north of England and with na, instead of "to heat," 
lot rather a corruption of the more faniiliur t**rni tn wah, i, e., 
itrike eo OS to raise wales. The cotil'iiiiiun may liure all the 
re readily oriscu, as the animal is called wale nob ouly very 
ptly in the United .States, but also '' at home," for instance in 
rwich and other ports familiar with whaling. A Mississippi 
|lr, relating a somewhat marvellous atory of an alligutor float- 
np, after receiving many shots, " with u sort of grape-vino 
iited round his head, to hide it," odds that '' tho captain found, 
^opening the 'gater'n body, two pigeons in»lde, whole and undi> 
IctL Uh, he was a re^ilar tru/tr, eaya the captain. On thi» im- 

E occasion of shooting such a icnlfr, the captain had recourse 
old Inrc of all 'gater hnntcrs, to a dog trained to yelp and so 
tho *g&i*in, who like dog above alt other meats." (Missie- 
|u Clarion, January K, 18C5.} It is the eome word used with 
eflTect by J. R. Lowell in the lines — 

** Their nm-itna cnn ciias '«in, and kirk 'cm, And tauie 'em. 
An' they doUcm it leas 'an xUe ass did to BnKnni." 


enormous Bteamhoats of the Ohio and tJie MiasiBsippi re- 
such vast hup])liea of funl lor tlmir long jourucys, some of 
bicb eitond to weeks, that in early spring, upon the opening of 
k lULvigation, detachments of men are set on shore at convenient 
k4es, whose duty it is to cut woofl, pile it up on shore, and carry 
On board the boat (hat ha.i engaged their serneea. These men, 
>nigh and roysterous but not vicious race, lend here wretched 
«(, const] nied by low fovcra and devoured by nius^uitoeii, hub 
>ciTO enormous wages. The boats necessarily stop often to wood' 
'» u tho term, is, and He up to such a Koodiug-place. The pas- 

MUgcrj avail tbemselvcs of the opportnni^ to take 
shore, to ciaminp the snakes and vipera wlucb ore apt tote 
lato bcQcuth the huge woodpile, and to laku a drink; beai 
fortuuatcl)', io wood, tias lu tliu Wv£t become a }>opalareB| 
tic terni for " to take a dram." A distinguished firittsb not 
recently conuectcd with loyaltrj waa hence not a little ] 
when a Western menibei' of CougresH, in a moment of hiln 
ntcd him to lenrc the Minister's house, where ther met at 
jKirty, for Uiu purpose of tcooding-vp. 

On the Eastern coast another 8hip-t«miha« made itev^ 
niid even naurpcd a meaning for which it was probably m 
tcniicd. It fctTon that when horses were fii-st bruugbt Cromi 
to thn colonies, no vehicles came with them, and won Id, fall 
havL' bc«n available, as there were no other roads, thtn.biit 
|wths throDgh the forest. Boats, ou the oouirary, were DO) 
and fnmishcd the principal means of transportation, bat 
b^ laid up during the winter, when their tackling wa* 
stored uwny. As soon as the icu was thick enough for the [I 
£]e<]gi.>s wt-ro miulc, and as tho colonists hud no hanic«a li 
horses, they very ingeniously used tho bont-tackling iiutetd 
it rnuic about tiial tackling was coutiiiually used in spcal 
fiut«ning a horse to a vehicle, luid when the rude conl^ 
gave way to real harnesa, the t«rm remained iiocbaDged I 
hundred years. Tackling a horse, is, hence, to this day til 
man term for harnessing, nil "the way up from tho Old Co] 
Uiimpton lieach, and along the banks of the Merrimiaj 
through a country as thickly populated and as highly 
us any of eqnal extent in the United States." (C. Dodge.) 
had belter tackU the horse at onoe," said Prudence, **or 
be late." (,-U^)i»/tc ifoH/Wir, October, 1807-) "My friend 
to send my inciting to town to be mended, so that we 
down to the beach and enjoy a nice drive in the 
(Letter from Newport in Kcw York Herald, August 17, 1 
Another Americanism connected with steamboats is the; 
stack, as tho chimney is universally called. Hence, 
plosion, we are told that 

" Burc as you're bom, iltey All got off, 
Afore lite imokt^iad:* fell" 

(/im Biudtoe of th* Prairi* BOIt. 



inaTignLion iu Western waters lias its peculiar dangers, and 

tbesc uouc am more dtt-udud tfiaii tlio sawyers and snags 

,J£isnMippi. aud some oi' ita ti-ibuturies. XUc former arc 

ibed away by the ciirreut, uitlier during u tii^U flocxi or 

roots have bctn completely undermined, aud then so 

in the river-bottom as to impede iinvigatiou, Ab tlitv 

itly cliongo their pluces, suriiijiboutii urtvci cuiiiii imawuivs 

em. aud ai'u suuk ur at least iserioualy iojai'ed. Snays 

their nume from tlie uld Euglish snay, dc-liiivd by UalU- 

'a tooth filauding alone-," whilst iu meaning on our West- 

bters is more like that in Gill's proverb: '"A bird in the 

rortk two on the mag" quoted by J. R. Loivcll. The aawi/er 

advantage of moving to aud t'ro with u iutwiug motioD, 08 

aut tries to dislodge it ; the sitai/ is too tirmly imbedded 

re. "Snags and tanyers" Kuys U. Laumau, "abound 

tout the whole extent of the Mississippi ; they arc taken 

le nhore by a riiBhing tide uiid ptant^'d in the cliaimcl quite 

E'dly OS the snay-vesaeU can extricate thum from their dan- 
(Mjsilion." {Summer in Ihe Wiidamesa, p. 124.) 
ituewhat technical term, perhapu, is the kugfjing-fratm, the 
;>«! tnjec;-bnices whicli epan the leiigtli of tlie majority of 
tericun steamboats. ('/Vi£ Engineer.) To tJiia class belongs, 
e, the »preaderslich of the ptrsou who drives horwea on the 
1, which pull a ciuial-buut. "The cuptaiti bad Btarled on 
rnward trip, and had tii.'d up his boat near Oldtown, when 
attacked with .i spraulersCick (a piece of wood used as a 
-tree on tlio tow-track), and was brutally murdered by 
(Ctimberland Jourmil, Fcbniiiry 10, 1871.) The name 
SDtly derived from thii use to which the atick is put, iu 
aud holding apart the traccia or ropes by which the 
pull the boat A like tenu is the Fish-Basket of Peuusyt- 
lin, which designates a structure fur taking ii«h, and is tigured 
Sti Bowen's Sketdibooh of Penmylvania (II., p. 83). " Viirions 
lies,'* fiiiys Professor S. S. Haldeman, in a Mumoir of 1844, 
• abnndantly eauglit . . . lU Jifh-hn^kFts, made of lathwork, 
i diverging walls of stone." The fact that the plural of the 
d wharf diflurd in £uglaud uud lioiv, is cbu facte ristic of the 
llM?r in which words geiu'rally nre treated by ns and by our 
'liab ooiuiu. Here we say u-harvest ulthough Bancroft writes, 


■* CommKce mBnea its jotarn inoa ^m s^~ wfaile n 
vhar^i ii 'mLudfisd. :uaiw jdnmHokiw aitittaiiSL caac 
dnii — 

■• ^ Jut iip fMi LJiA ' 

The ^ngHf** JR. hoivBTcx; ftiUowm^ onr example tot ] 
md are lon^ no lionbc bodi """"tt wtll oae jjioi uw tSkt 

1.- f= 

On the Rail 






''Oommerce pnehes its wharfs into the aea,** while in } 
lohttTft is considered alone admiasibl^ althon^ then 

" Oat apon the «eAarM* ther cmme, 
Enlght and bnisbWf lord and dune.** 

The English an, howerer, followins onr example rei; 
and ere long, no donbt, both nations wiU use wAorma al^ 





OisT THE Rail, 


lOADS, as they are now uniformly called in America liv 

}lic, although some companicB owniug large leading lines 

,thc Knglish name of ftniliuayn, htLVC contrihiitad, on tU? 

fewer wonla and expreeaions to American-EngllBli thnn 

be expected, from the etiortiious extent of thi'ir wiiU-t^jircad 

rork, the Damber of persons to whom they give employment, 

the ingenuity whicb they stimulate. The fitct is partly 

iQitint*^ for by the perfect identity of the systems prevailing in 

■Ifttid and on this continent, and their almost simultaneous 

ioduction in both countries. Besides, bo many of our rail* 

»are built by British capital, and therefore, in part at laiat, 
foreign- control, that the tei-minology has not yet become 
independent of that of the Old World. And yet th« rery 
lia of pomenclattire, so to say, are different : railways abrond 
uiroadx here, stations there arcs d«pot« here, and English 
ce and coaches have become Amcritmn curs. The prefpr- 
>r Road lay probably in the greatt-T familiarity with the 
l^nerally; highways were rarely known to the people here^ 
an.^ in Knglund, and everyihtng was called, a road, from 
ratiounl Boad oro»:iDg the Alleghanies on its way West to 
iaitie inns, along tbo corduroy-roads of the Soath. Why 
. erer have exchanged the sensible station of the English 
ahfiord depot of the French, is perfectly nnmsconntablo; 
be talk aboat the old friendship for France, dating from I be 
I of Lafayette and Hochambcau, will, wu fear, not explain tbo 
lity. And if we but gave it either its French sound, which 
hard to acquire, or augUci^zed it at oace, like men I But no, 
St needs call it dee-po, ajid thus add to the absurdity. Justly, 
does R G. White, in his cleTcr book on Words and Th»r 



Uses, call it "the heiglii of prcteutioas ntiEunlity to gii 
name of d^pi^t to a little lonely sbontr, which looks like aj 
eide a ganleii of cuc-uinUiiii. a sUgiiig of a ft>nr- pt 
wlucli Iwo or three people stand like criniinaU oo iho 
(p. 149.) Bat then, the AnmcAn lovu big auncs^ ind en] 
he is quit« eare, the depot becouts what Uie Datn» ii 
ea rapid is the growth of the oonntry^ and m mum 
power of i-ailroudis in developing its reoources. He makeai 
moreover, by calliug the coaches of Buglaod siuiply atrt. : 
the; increasing demand for comfort haa quickly U-i* ■ 
compensation in naming the tmly anperh carriaK'- ' 
virtually thoagh not in name, repreeent the 6r8t-chi88 
foreign milwaye, Palace-Cart, and even Silver Puhu»-( 
16 the Hime unfortunate tcndoney which makefl him 
maguificont eteamers with that oatrage on decency^ Bf 
bers, ami tempts writers for the prew Ut dab every 
town-house a yatatial refiidencc. It is to be hoped 
introdnction of Slock Palaet-Can on some of the XorthMnl 
will gpocdily lead to the adoption of more appropriate ni 
gurL-ly all the sensible and moec praisewortliy imprvw 
cattle-trains would uot juetify ihe name of palaces for t\ 
A special car is, on alt the more important rv-'r- 
Office Department calls the linen, provided for ; 
performs bis dntioa there, and reccivea letters (iti.p(R-%l in 
side box on the way. This is called the Jfail-Cnr, of 
which the following terrible atory was seocntly rf>pnrl«d: *| 
sons of Governor )Iiller of MinneAita were arrostMl in Ji 
for robbing n maU-arr on the CeuirmI PaciUc ItaUway. 
them turned State's evidtince against bis brother. Rod tirti 
committed snioide. So they both obtAined aoquittat" (Nev^ 
Tribune, Mawb 33, 1871.) 

The aleepinff-earg, introduced a few ypan ago on AmcHonj 
ways, and an inestimable comfort on long jonmeyst wt 
extend through a wliulu week on a continuous line, harej 
to a new form — tlie tilrrpera, as they are bpi«fly doiignatcd. 
account of a fearfol accident in the State of N^^- ^'— -' - 
"In front was the Rnffalo .i?f(«pcrof the Chicago 1 
it had twenty-seren passengers, and not u sonl WMaiMVi 
York TrUune, Febraary 6, 1871.) lids teadencjr 



9m, most pardonable perhaps in the hasto engendered by rapid 
Iny traTeUing, hoa ulso led to the use of rail as a noun and 
hth. No one answers the rjuestion, How are yoa f^oing b) 
til? by a fuller reply than by saying, "I'll go by iviiY." or 
I more briefly, though in language as yet bordering upon slang, 
rail it all the way." 
train, as it appears in iiight, introdnces us at once to an 
lum, the coio-eatcher. the well-known, triangular fender 
, placed in front of the locomotive, to clear the lincof cuttlo, 
[pigs, and Bach like tresptisserg — an instrument unknown 
well-gnarded ruilwavbof Eun>i»e. Here they are eminently 
ll, uflcn eaviug Btniy animals from deatrucLiou and ]n-ev»nting 
accidents. Not long ago a mnaway horse with a aleigh 
owner was met by a locomotaTe oq a branch-roiid near 
flphia; the fireman, in the moment of contact., paased for- 
id seized the horse by (lie bridle. "The train ctontiniied 
(listauci.* with a man and a horse ou the cow-caicJier, and 
was stopped, both were found to be uninjured; the eileigh 
Itirely demolished." ^Philadelphia Ledffer, Dec. 19, 1870.) 
tb€ locomotive comes anotlier feature; peculiar to Amen- 
unft-^thc express-ear; Bince the bnsiness of great Exprcu 
lies has become so immentw: aft to rt^quiiv a special car of 
st dimenetona on almost all the great railroads of the 
Since Americana have given up the word luggage — ex- 
trbapa in Bontnn and HoHton-dependenoieA — the car which 
«xcluiivoly used for ita conveyance ia, of conrae, called the 
• Car. It generally follows the tender, and is quite a ])laco 
to foreigners, with ita simple but most etfectivu eystem 
;it« — which arc by mnuis of a leather-strap C'»£tcucd Cu 
ink, while the stamped, marks are entered into the baggage- 
books — and ita countless variety of portable and not port- 
tfOc& This Ry.item of e!iM:ks, an cxclnaive peculiarity of 
ican railway, ia apt to strike travellers from nbi-oad ns the 
improvement doviBod for tlie puL'posc, and thus elicits 
tfae like the following: ** Luggage is the pest of tbu traveller, 
» Uie Americans have a way uf leg*euiug the evil. When yoil 
Jlk« to a railway-station, an official receives yonr luggage, and 
I^BS yonr destination. He then brings a bunch of brass-tickets, 
ifii fitted with a looped strap, and each furnished with a tally. 



iding you the tnHr. be wt the ane iiutaot 
to the artKli» hj its moM promhwnt ba*dl». 
108 takeilfd for tb«ir deflthtatkm, aad jtoa Ime bMi i 
with a rpcord of the depoat Ac do intetnedittte it^t, lii 
euTUge, ferrj, or but ocher ^a ppu g e , meed vnn be aoAiri 
snxiety. Tlie articles are snre to ■ppear as the |nfa 
Horeorer, u jon approach the end of Che jboraajra fl 
^onuubiis-coa doctor cornea fbnraid, who, for a flouJl ft^ 
ikn to col Ifct Toor bagg:age, and bring raarmU aad it, «r 
bv ieii^lf, to BHT hott'l. or other hoosp jm bmt una 
Athenantm, SeptMnber, 1870.) 
In this sanctDm of Che bag^a^e^geni yoo lee Aonrf 
oontaining in an incredibly smiUI place the snpplr e€ d 
rienc*^ and eelf-deoTing traTellcr tor nianTiBoatfaa.Tbf 
cheflfwr to pnrchaK rotlnrt and eockg, and other imB 
vh^^ver he wantJi them, than to have them washed. 
ride TOO tee colosnl Saraioffa-tmHht, aa \htj are called ' 
fashionable of American watering-placce* in vUd 
Bnd ample room for eipantmn. Same are inm- 
■ideSr others are protected br gntta-pericfaa kaah 
comen, still others stare at yon with broken locks mlA 
, lentJi, for the baggagt-tmajthfr. as the porter is commool 
"handles his hardens with appalling recUesmeAs, aitd I 
bilicy there is none. The long, roomy cars of the ^ 
are, of coarse, not set directly upon their wbeeh 
sb coaches are — the latter woald not stand our roiq 
itmctares. They air, on tiie contrarr, boilt ao that 1 
ttpon two wpaiate and independent centre-braring ft 
fenr, six or eight vheels each, which secnre to them M 
and great elastieitr. The English Safl^r, a cnshion TMti 
strong springs, to meet and deaden the shock with anol 
^ipears, in thia conntry, as a bumper, and the stoker as mi 
bnt for ttii^ tintiiiiial simplicity ample compensation if I 
giving the rtriver, as he is called in Kngland, here tbepTM 
of engineer. The most important official on tbc tnl 
(wnrBC, the conduehr, wfao^ fnnctiobS on the whole T\*»aa\ 
of the gnard abroad, bat on whose ahoaldersresta the en tin 
sibility for the promptnees and safety of the train and it 
oontentA. While ibis is his official titJa, he is aaifMi 



08 Captaitif for AmericaiiK insist upon carryitig tlie 

ogy with the at«ainboatT with which they were univoreally 

lilior ]0Bg before railroftds existed, throiigli alt the details. 

I passPDgers are summoned hy load calls of, " AH aboard for 

icAgol" or whatever the place uf destinatiou may by. The 

ia started, not by the English phi'u^c. All right 1 but by 

Dsnal Go ahead f and persons walk from car to car to see 

^at fHenda they may tiiul on. board. They are called upon to 

tie ikexT fare, precisely as they are sumraonod to do on board a 

sra steamboat, and iu the uew Talace Cars they pay more, 

I'they engage a itaie-room, while sleeping-cars hare their upper 

lower herthg. The nsual Express Train is not half fast 

ftiigh for the impatient traveller; he most hare his Lightning 

press Train, and in the Far West improves still farther by 

iog it OreoMd Liifhtatjiff, after a favorite Yankee term. 

[The road-bed, and eg})ccially the space bctvceu the rails, is 

the Iraci; but a train is said to be off the track when the 

have, by some accident or other, lost their hold ou the 

tis. As American railroads are not generally ballasted, and 

hu Uable, in sandy regions, to be enveloped in unboamblo 

ads of dnst. track ^rinkhrs arB frequently employed to ivater 

This process most, however, be carefully distinguished 

, another kind of watering, to which railroads, or nither roil- 

compaiihS, have of late become liable. "To water stock,** 

^jssn indignant writer, "is necessary on a stock farm, but I 

ion if it be wise in ranning a niilroad in teater anything 

the engine, and perhaps the track." {Evert/ Saturday, Dec, 

10.) " This proctso foiihiBltt iu creating lictitious Biock, without 

I being a representative of industry expended or work done, and 

bas waembles very much the debasing of coins practised by 

it eovereignSL Upon snch increase dividends are secuvcd by 

bv imposition of rates far in cxe<^*s of the cost of transportation. 

h« diOei'cncc between oharge and oo^t is the measure of tlia 

11. These spoliations have been carried on to such an extent 

' to embaiTasa. most seriously, the industries and commerce of 

bt country. A competent writer affirnia that in two years the 

pltals of twenty-eight Korthern railroads have been watered to 

' extent of nearW two hundred millions." (Now York Trihune, 

Jber 17, 1870.') 


AtiEHtc AS j&iaa. 

The word trnck his lent iteelf very oaturaJt; to the Jot 
of scveml cani phmsea, of which, howercr, p«rliap« 
belong k'^itimRtely tn Ihe roil road 'track, all tho othen 
older date than the mrliest nee of the Inttrr. 'fltts in thfefhra 
adniouitiun to dear the track, when persons an mmmoncd to | 
out of the w«y, either literally or tigiirativt>ljr. " Wheu the tt 
Wfljf thvs cleared of all obstmctioni, Mr. Bii)f(b«ni in' 
bill, iind atinouiicetl at once that at one o'clock he nc— 
the previous question upon it." (Ctmjfreamonai Pnxtedh^K* 
uaiy 17, 1870.) To make tracks, on the oontrory, ia a 
drawn rrom AVest'eru life, and refvrd tu the icaportaaoe stlaeMl 
tniiU, tracks, and signs of cxcrj kind, in oil regioaa wbvrv It 
and wild \n%sta have still to b« encountered. It ia laid 
cump of United Statva troops on .Statrn Ifiland, near Nt 
iu the year t8G2, an officer waa heard to coll upon a printel 
theac words: *' Pat Doolan, 7n<ij('« Irarka right ofl*. uihI 
your position!" {Once a HVtAr, February 15, 18(12,) Toi 
man i'» UU tracks is n phrase of the aame uaturv, and iiig 
to J. B. Lowell tlio Latin $ vtttigia, and tbo Norman Fc 

\anw Im pott both of which have tbe same meaning a» th« Ai 
cautsm, immediately. Kven to be on tho right track mtu* 
referred, to the hunter's language, but tlie new phia^. itf 
coming into use. Yon ate off the trackj promises; if adofi i 

[add another contribution to railn-uy ^lang. JCveu hen-, l)">'^^'- 
ic track of tho racc-conrse comes into serious cumpcijiivn *<t^ 
iho railroad, and in tho i»ae of the cant phnuc, He hai tii*i 
^rac^, which means that he has lack nn bis side, i> ■ - -mIi 
tages oror his competitors, there can be uo doni 
naW with jockeys, and has sole rcrcruuoe to the raoe-coarw. 
The railway officials have borrowed trona nautical lai,' - ■ 
word run, u> denote the distanc<^ which tiicir engine <': 

Ltrain has run iu a given time. First they spi^uk of r 

^r more trains, and then they flt«(« that the run will k. 

Bo iiiauy hours. " Kuginecra and liremen oRen arrive at ll«u <^ 

jcf their run somewhere among the small hcHtrs of nl^Jl^ 
k-om that or other oauaes have ui spend considenblo 
tho roQud-house." {Hail- Road Otuettt, 1870.) 

Even tha jtafft with which the watchmen aignaliz« io 
time, has bwn varbalized, and a train is nov eaid to hanl 



befon; a collision. An awftil Cfttwtroph« occurred earl; 

IR7loa IheHudBoa River Rnilway, and on infliierttial paper 

(. "The iraiiia wen? to he Ragged from the tank instead of 

bridge, auil at night the n'hite light, iiidicuting All Kightt 

left penDAoeaUy at the post, seventy rods from the nearest 

choian .*" (New Yoi'k Evtuiiig Pott.) An ominous word, 

iiied with like freedom, i« lelegeope. The frequency with 

h truiufi collide on American railways, has led to the use of 

vord for the pur]>oso of divignating the manner in which, on 

oocuJiJouB, one U«iu is apt to run right into the other, as the 

Icr parts of the tcleseupu glide Into the larger, iience the 

iwiiig article: "Two tlirough-tmins oa the Brie Railway 

■e in cuUiatoB ye^tenlay, near Paterson. Oqc of the traius hati 

ppedt and the locomotiTe of the other train, which was follow- 

I tikteopad into the rear ears of the first. The eniokestack of 

locomotiTe and sevend cars were smashed. We append the 

of the wounded. The hrakemaD. Sol. CoUius, woe instantly 

(Kcw York Herald, Septt-mber 17, 1859.) The important 

of the railway-guard has in like manner, been con.- 

rtnto a rerb, and persons who wish to hail a passing street- 

[or to Btop ony conveyance, are very apt to ear that they mean 

tibial a car. "The lady was standing on the sidi'vidk, and 

her poraaol sigualleil the next car juet coming in eight.'* 

iikdelphia l,edger,Jmav 7. 1861.> 

(he Western States, with their lerel snrface and vast un-i 

[•11 prairies, railroAdu could often be built in straight lines,' 

ling all cnrres and bays, as they are apt to he called there, 

\gnuieM {lirt KDgIishyrcu/t>n^<t).aQd expensive windings. In 

ease, a railroad was frequently calK'd an Au-'lAne Roadf or, 

iDioo jiaiianee, a Straight Shoot. Since the number of such 

has increased in the more thickly settled (larts of the Union, 

adrantages of direct Hnea between two great centres oii-er 

Brt which meander from town to town, have become very 

lifest. and for a few years a tendency to build such at'r-tines 

[.a^taleil ijCgte lain res. l'n>m whom het]i was asked, uiid fltuin- 

ia at home and abruoil. An air-lioe road Oiim Xew York 

lington is warmly advocated, and others have been actually 

It. not unfreqnentlj mnnfng for long distances by the side o£ 





Ou the track, American railtoada shov as of thing! pecil 
Ihom— /roja.oriron phit«s placed where two liues inl*reect,i 
J. R. Banlett suggests, so called rrora the rcjemblnnm tbef 1 
to tho frog in a horse's hoof; switcftM, vherc the BnglUh 
their trains, and above all snatiheads, pieces of rails throwai 
front of a train and passing through the bottom of the can^ 
fearfully tlestruoLiTe power. Fortunately, the flat laili, «) 
alone made snch formidable accidents |>os5ible, hare noir 
entiri-ly out of nse, and this danger at least it no longer to bel 
prt^bended. Alas! that it ebonld only have given way to 
graYer and more IVequent accidents, which haTC mads 
under the bead of HaUroad Disaster ulmotit a tslunding pai 
every journal of the Union ! The mortality on American nuir 
is frightful; careful statisticians compute that to every one' 
perishes on French i-oilwaya, twenty-nine ivrish in America. 
a graver evil is yet behind — the utter abeenco of all rcsponmb 
whicli increaiies ihcrecklcssncssof comiMnirt;, and the indit 
to the loss of human life in the pnblia 

It must not be forgotten, linally, that the Americans hwl 
IJaderffrouHd Railicay long before London bethought herself' 
this' remedy for her overcrowded streets; only it was wo far uo&r-j 
ground that it was never hi>hcld by human eyes. Mrs. H. B. Sti 
said in her famous work that "nothing has awakened moreUt 
terly the n^lmogity of the sluveholding community tJion thei 
isteuce, in the Northern States, of au )udetinit« yet very encT 
institution, the Undtrgmund Jttn'lrtad" (Dred, II., pi 304.) If 
that Ih> 60, we may be grateful that the abolition of slaverr ia 
tlie Union has mode an end to this secret conveyance., by whic 
fugitive staves were enabled to escape from their bondage to 
Five States and Canada, and that thus one moro of the 
causes of irritation has been nrmoved, which have so long 
Tcuted cordial friendship and true nn ion between the North i 
the South. 

Among the pastvngcrs &» board the train, but one olaas eoj 
a special name, and tliey ore known by Lite painful title of 
heads. Whether the term originated in tlieotres, where it is 
known to box-keeivrrA, or on luilways, the meaning is ulwayi 
same: th« deadhead enjoys whatever may be had for muncv with- 
out paying. Hence tho class oi deadheads is almost endless, ei 

ON TirE UJkU. 

rt'turued, every Adversu criticism averknl. aiicl everjr 
owledged by o/rw ticket. The dmdhtud recfivcs his 
without Bubscribiiig, Iravela free of cbarge yn Bteam- 
d, and stage, walks into theatres aud shows of every 
>5ted, and CTen drinks at tlic bar and Urcs at the hotel 
:gc. While Bimiiar Civora are not unknown in Europe, 
talists and critics, officials and the maiiugcrs' friends, 
pririlegcs, the cusUtm of ullutvizig ministers of the 
irel free of charge, which prevails very largely iu the 
'xs, must be looked upon as a gc^nuinc and praise* 
mcanism. The word has even been made iuto a Tcrb, 
thus: "Elder Knapp, the noted revivalist, is exciting 
1 fever in the towns of Massachusotte. Iu Pitt^field, 
is reported to liave advertised that he would furuish a 
glor}',' but very few of the ODright«oiis population 
Dus to be deadheaded on. this traiu." (New York Tri- 



Natukal History. 


Amerin, Nalure'a childrvo aro gnnd and f^oicsqne, In form and In 

lit la Ooadiamia*. 

Uie nomenclature of tho variouti departmeuU of Natural 
iry little that U trnly and originally American can be ox- 
ctfd. gincB the most prominent objects classed under that head, 
Ik sell known in Europe, und have long since bi^en named there, 
(iKhile the few that irerc first discovered here, received their names 
^tenllj by the first uttlere, Frenchmen and Spaniards included. 
IWhere this was not the ca«e, Ihey are of such ruix- occurreno© 
kod limited ust-ftilnesa, that their proper designation is known 
IobJf to men of science. We liavc endeavored to give elsewhere 
thoK terms which are clearly traceable to foreign idioms, and 
M»ll hare conieat ourselves with mentioning such names only aa 
coufiidemtioa for some special reason, 
jng Ammah |ieculiar to this continent, the American Buf- 
iitands naturally foremost, both on account of the vast nnra- 
[Thich still are found in the Weat, und for iw \\\a\ imporuinoe 
10 pTcscTvation of the Indian race. The name is a very 
it one. given by PHny, as pov/3aXoi, to the wild ox (Urus). 
attributed to various wild animals of large size, aud finally 
to our Bijton (Bi.<ion americanns), a near kinsman of 
jcrmiui Auerochs. The immwliate ancestor of that name ia, 
onbt, the Spanish hu/ah (lios buhalus), as the French bn^» 
not well haro lent itself to such an enlargcmcnu The ani- 
»tou well known to require a description here, lends iU name 
l&unber of other object«. Bufalo-Cidtr is the ludicrons name 
to the liciiild in the stomach of a bufltalo, which the thira^ 
ttnaier drinks, when be haa killed bts game at a grmt distance 




from water. The name ia, likewise, given to 
Tvliich the buffalo wfts formrrlj- bclicrcd to be 
Biich AS the Ruffato-Orms (ivsteria dactyloidee), whiofa btf 
remarkable property of giving, every qmng, new Ulr U 
winter-killci) hkilt^, u'lthoui cnsting iU stubble or 8radJi| 
new ehwtld. The Buffalo- Clover, ou the prairiw most fre^Q 
by the aDimiU, aud the Buffalo- B«rr}f (Sbepberdia xtp 
foim<l oqI; ou the upper MiAsouri, arc name<1 in the tatot n 
A Cni)i even I>car8 the same name ns the gigantic bisootODU 
of its remarkable shape, which has in scicnco also procor 
him the title of TnurieJktht/s (S. F. Bainl). The bide of tfa 
falo alone Ik called a robe, bni where it is most used as a oo 
is never known otberwiee thoji as a bttffalo only. "I pi 
hlaaket over my head, drew my buffalo close around me,ai 
the snow full npon me till I w»« fairly buried, my breath 
making an op<i-iiiiig throngh which I could breathe." {Adtt 
in the Rocky Mountains.) 

Thu Elk, constantly confounded with the Caribou, the \ 
and the Moose, has been mentioned eUen-here. The CatA 
(Fulis eoucolor), is au aniniul peculiar to this continent, a 
curs in diHerent parts of America: as the Conjrar, from th«« 
of the French, which they themselrcj again took from ' 
roeu, the name of the animal among the Guaranies 
America — as the puma from Mexico to Capt^ Horn, so 
the Quichnans of Peru — and as tho painier or jianter, 
iar cx)iTuption of panther, found in the everglades of £ 
where it hides in tlie high grass or crouehei; on th« brano 
the live oak to spring npon ita prey. " ' /^I'n/er-meat cani 
with thia,' said a hunter, to express his delight at tbe 6 
flavor of an extra vui of tenderloin." {Life in the f^ 
p. Sll.) In the Chippewa dialect, it re-appears as mtu^ 
the Great Cat, and this is the animal found in Canada aadi 
the only one in the latter State that man need fear. As ( 
name Catamouut, it may have been derived from ibe S 
words ^a^u, a eat, and monie, a mountain, as many maintui 
if this ha eo, the derivation is, of oonrse, older tlian the Am 
usage; for lieauniout and Fletcher have already the S 
cooibinatiou, which seemi to be, far more justly, the tn» m 
of tho modem word — 




" Wonld any otui at dhemiaa renturc ancU a i^rbtle, 
To tbc rude cUwi ol such a eat-a-mou nUiin." 

and Arbuthnot cull it by the same name, aud uothing is 
probable tbau Lhat catamount is simply a ehorteued form 
faUer and older name. 

"Tbr bliDdfil eaUtmovnl that li« 

H)i;li In lUe bougbti to watch Ills prey, 
£vfiii in tlie act ot Kpriuging dl«ti." 

C W. 0. Bryant.) 

Chickaree is the red squirrel (>Scinru8 liudsonins) of the 
1, from the AtlBotic tothe Missouri, immed so, no doubt, from 
liar noise he is fuml of making ; as a tiny bird bns, in like 
ixt, reooiTed the name of chickadee dam ite pbculiar note. 
up to lind myself the subject of disctiseiion of a troop of 
ar*M." (The AdiroDdacks, I*utnam's Magazitie, Angnat, 
L) The some squirrel is, in North (Carolina, known by his 
immc of Booma. The Ground-Squirrel, on the contrary, 
name erruneouaiy Kivtn to the Striiwd Prairie-Stiuirrel 
ipbilus tridcccmliuealue), mentioned elEcwherc us Gopher. 
Fox (Vtilpes fulous, rar uecussatus) so called from the 
QP068 OD the bock, is dear to tliv trapper for its fur ; a cross 
ifeon silver-gray and the common r<'ddigh is highly prized by 
NJtry dealera. A very cnriotu animal, pi^culiar to this country, 
lBth« (fround-hofft as it is commonly called in the Sontb, or the 
tfud'cAvcl (Arctomysmonax), familiar to Northern farmers. It 
pa species of the marmot tribe, very destructive to grass and 
iBoiviug crops geuerally. Like other marmots, it lies hid in its 
Mrron', and dormant during the winter, emerging in early anm- 
iMtr. "As I came homo through the woods, with my string of 
pUi, trailing my pole, it being now qniti> dark, T canght a glimpse 
M a tcood-ehuck aceating across my path., and felt a strange thrill 
^t lavuge delight, and was struugly tempted Ut seize and devour 
ban raw— not that I was hungry then, but for that wildnees 
■rhicb he represeuUid. ( WaUten, H. D. Tlioreau.) One of the 
Rrw BDperstitions found oatiTe in this country is connected with 
Uiis animal. Candlemas is known m Gnmnd-hog Dny. for on 
It day the ground-hog comes annually oni of his hole, after a 
bg winter nap, to look for his sliadow. If be perceives it, he 
1 again to his burrow, which he does not leave for six iroeks 



— veclcg neoeiHirily ol' Atormv w«atbcr. Bnt if he dMi iwt| 
Lis Bliodow, foi' loch of anoshincv he stave out of his hole nllj 
can, liiiit the weather is mn* to Ikcoiiio niilU ntxl. piojuout 
feared," saya a dlstrosscd Low-Cbarcbnuto, " Uut th« a 
tion of ritualifiiu and cuudlei uu that day ma; hare 
year uiide^jimble light aud sltadow OD th« emergiug yr 
and brought confusion apon tho voather." (Kev York TVil 
February 7, 187!.) The negroes of the South are kt'^n hi 
of Uie ]Kior crt-aturo, who, in winter a mtre ball of iUr,i 
the tjuuirnvr growH iittu a perfect ball of fui, and u cooiid 
great luxury at the ^'quArti^rs." The second jiart of 
is use<l as fiog is in ffrouutl-hoff, for pigs are almo«i uulve 
snmmoned to the feeding- trough hy tho word thnchl 
repeated several times, c^-idcntly the dcscciodant of Uic old 
glish aug ! »uy! which Grose suys is a word used in Norfidkj 
call pigs ia cut Ihoir wash." 

A curious but by uo means inappropriate name is thit 
tiiiy rabbit, which is called Jackaen-Rabbii, in honor dT its \ 
large ears, aud long, elvnder lege (L«.>pud oulloii^). It j| 
only in Ti-xas uiid tb<.> oteigUburhood of the liooky ll'»uri| 
Icnown to hunters noder a great variety of other names alMhi 
as Teias-hare and Miile-rabbit. Tlie Lucyver of Malue,j 
cat or lynx, has, on the contrary, no right whati^vur to «■ 
nearly akiu to Lucifer; the word is a corruption of ^i 
the name given it by the early French settlers. The JtfinJff 
times CHlIed a miniatnre otter, and then agiiin an aqrinti*- 
faaunta all tbc streams and lakes of the United Stat* 
under roots and hollow banks, {torn which it dart^i ii^i.u >v 
upon fish, ci-aw-tish, aud all the tvuantd of Ibe wat«r. it 

, makes occasional predatory cxoiirsious into the poultry-yatdii 
is a great loTer of fresh eggs. Itfi far, very popular amoag . 
18 one of the most beautiful of American peltries, and 

, good price in the market. Hence it is muoh persecntffl.4 
needs not the poet's suggestion to 

" JJliud Uic mMi 
PaddliDg tfac WAtcr by tbc qui«l lirinlc" 

(/. Q. C. Xfraiwrd.) 

The Mxitk-Ox (Oribos mo&cliatas), and the M 
tibetiutttu). owe their naint&, vf o<jurs<!, to ih-i urx 



ale under peculiar circamsianoes. The former is ouly 

itfa ID the country around Hudson's Hay, the Barren 

of Arctic America; but the latter, closely alliod to it in 

liabita, abounds near all our lakes and streams. In the 

n Sutee it is Ri-nerally called Mu^tfttasft, from its guneml 

designation, which has in science also given it the name 

ra, fVoni the Huron dialect of the Iroquois tongue. 

r animal, peculiar to America, and found on Ihe plains 

if the Missouri lUver, is tho Bit/Ztorn (Ovis niontaua) the 

UouDtain eheep. " The Bighorn is so named from its 

which arc of great stxc, and twisted like tho«e of a mm.'' 

Bg, Astoria, I., p. 353.) Tho Fronghom (Antilocapre 

.) is not a true antelope, because it sheds its horns, and 

name from the fact that each hom has a prong jutting out 

It is called Cabrie by the Canadian vuyageurs, and the 

by the fur-traders. The hunters of tlie West value its 

Tery highly, and trarellers on the Pacific Raiiway are elo- 

in thsir praise of the animal's swift and graceful motions. 

'ult-De^r (Coryua macrotis), the lurgfBt deer fonnd on this 

t, deriTes, in the same way, its less poetical name from 

usually long ears, white the variety found on tho Pacific 

(Cervus columbianiis), ia more commonly designated as the 

'iail Detr, from the block tip to its tail. {S. F. Baird.) 

suffer in America more, perhaps, than in any other 

; from the general want of instruction in NaturAl History, 

leads to profonnd ignorance of all that concerns them, ex- 

perhaps, local habits. The same bird appears often under 

a dozen different names, in different parts of the Union ; and 

in, dtatinct Tohotios ara considered as one, because they are 

<Blled by the same name. Such is, for instance, the case of 

iB^rouM and the bobolink. The partridge proper (Perdix oine- 

i] does cot exist at all in America; the name is nsnrped by a 

isi'i in Pennsylvania and the South a pheasant (Ortyi virginio- 

3i) imd zj/rouse (Uunasa umbeltus); hence, W. CBryuut sings: 

"I listened, and from midst the <]eplh of ivood, 
Heard ihu low slgnid of tin; ffrou-u, ilijit weora 
A mblo ruffnrouncl lilt mottled neck ; 
fimtrl^ tbcy ckII btia, by our Xortltern atreuiu, 
AndpAMUtif by The Del&war*." 



From iU cry it hus obtnincd htrt. u well u ikntA, 
tional naniA of BobwhUe. The Ao&o/uiX- (DoUcbonjx 
•o called irom the peculiar notes of its soug, aUo Bob U 
Si the same bin! ns tbe Reed-bird on ihe baak« of UmD 
und the Hice-bird still furLhcr South. His quiunt pi«d 
busy, active maimer, aud his inimitable Bong as h« flatta 
a meadow, have made him a pet with the fitrmer and i 
of American poeta. 

•' Heiawltilc that dern-may-cuv, the teMfW^ 
Remcmbfrlng daly, in tnid-qusTM- atop*. 

Jiui ere he ivrecpa o'er rapture's iRannloiu toia^ 
And 'iwixt Uic winrovra most demarely drops, 

A decorous bird or husinf^s, wUo prnvlda 

For tiU brcKAH male anil actTfillni^ «ix brsldes. 
And looks IVotn riehi lo left, a farmer 'mid hla a 

(J. R. LowvlL An Indium 8ammfr 

Ttieir cheorj, laughing manner is vrdl reprodoced in til 
" One day in Uiv bituwt of snmi&er Trcoiber, 
Sketching under a wbJspmoj; oak, 
I hevd fire boMiiilu laagliins toother 
Orer some omilhological Joke." 


In another place J. R Lowctl desciihes bis song, thas: 

" June's britlnmnn, pucl u' tbi yew, 
Qladness on viogs, Ibv biAoUfik, U bt-re. 
Bairitid la tlp-lop apple-blnom, lie ivrfngv, 
Or climtM afaliist iho br«ese wiib ((ulYrrlBg vrhqtii 
Or, ^r'mg way to ii iu mock despair, 
Rnos doiro, a brook of laugbier, tkro' th» air." 

UHghu Paptn, XI., p, 

The merry bird is aUo knotra by the epurioaB name tf 
can Ortolan, but is a Tory different bird from the Enropi 
Ian ; tbe ttuunfer of tlio namo being a litcrury perrvnion lik 
of ;x¥iw« int« f>€vwii, the name of a EuroiK-aii iraUT-b 
taddedt name i» tiie common one of Skunk lHackbird, d 
qnently heard iu the South, and duQ to th« coloring, 
motelr reumblea that of the ill-smelling dnimnl. It Im 
doble rival in the Cat-bird (Uimus oaroUneniis), irbo 
nama fVom his cat-lika cry whoa aknned, as well m 
.itumitably sly wayi, in tUpping ftvalthily throng ibt 

your feet and awar again, before yon are quite eure h« vas 
This thrash possesses great imitative powers, and in spite 
plain, gray coatiime, and often very disconlant cries, the 
of fear or angpr, is a groat favorite in almost cvc-i-y part of 
untrr. It is of bim ¥. Cozzena wrote with a certain cnthti- 
; '^Hii^b! The musicul mouologue begiuaaueiv ; up, np, into 
!e-top8 it mounts, fairly lifting the leaves with its paesionaU 
ice; it thrills through the upper branches; and thon, 
ng through thu liH.tpning foliago, in a codcDza of matchless 
f, subsides into silence again." {Sparrow-grasf Fapers.) The 
r, uDirersaUy uckuowledgod a:) matchless in his powers, is, 
rer, the Mocking-Bird (Mimus polyglottus). Plain in color 
nnttractive in form, m common aa to be found through the 
length of this continent, from the frontier of Caimda to th« 
re of Brazil, there is still no bird more highly prized, none 
eagerly listened to, than the little brown mimic, often called 
ong-Tuiled Mocl-er, who has in his marvellous throat every 
md every sound that can be heard by the e<ar of man. In the 
and in the garden lie mocks every bird, from the musical 
of the thrush to the ludicrous gobble of the male tnrkey, 
long op in his cage in town, he imilatea with equal success 
ies of itinerant nuTchantii, Mii^ rinnhling of heavy dmys on 
nrement, and the shrill whistle of idle hoys. And ever and 
lh«re come in between a few notes of inoBUble sweoinvss aud 
patbo«, as if he w^re, after all, not unmindful of his home 
I coiiutr)', and hcthonght himself of liis motp and his brood. 
ill the more unjust to confound him with the butcher-bird 
i North (LaiiiuB septentrionalis), whose popular name is 
tnUer, a name derived from the prcvailini; notion that tho 
tr of bisrictimE, which hoactnally impales and hangs np as 
Ihw does his meat, never exceeds the number nine at a time. 
RftdA and some of the Northern States they bestow upon this 
\o, almost wnglcss bird, the name of MorMnp'Bird. 
lilar confusion pruviiile here about the name of B-utzard, 
L is commonly misapplied, being given to a vulture instead 
uwk, since true buzzards bear at least some resemblance to 
pro American Ifenlutiri^M (Bntes borealis aud Bntes liucfttns)^ 
itter known as the red-ahonldercd hawk. 

\ '^^^^^rSi'T''-"'" 


Natural History. 



ftre n-eqaentlf called in the South. Another fiu mnt : 
relative is the Bniim Thmsh (Uarporhj&diiu lonj 
AiuerioHn tlirnsh endowed with fair mntical talents, 
popularly knoun also aa the Ground or Monutain M( 
from its habit of slipping steuItliJW through the boBtiM, 
tho ground. It has curioDBly cuougfa, in addition, thi 
Tfini^ffT (probably a Tariatiou of Thrttab), and it s{ 
in many authors : " I love the city ua dearly as a ^otiH 
]ovc3 the green ace thataholtcred iU jouDg." ( C Mathftef^\ 
Less loved, but hardly lees pleasing, is the song of the thmiih^j 
18 popularly known as the Veeiy (Tnrdna wi' 
HaasachtiKlts and in autumn in Virginia, mvui. 
singular, quaiut, and musical song of this (juemic 
(Nuttall. OrnithQhgij, L, p. 397.) The Bull-bat it a 
(Caprirautgus umerioaims), marked by its wide and 
mouth, and called hull-hat by tho common people 
nocturnal habitjs, in which it resemblej batSroad it£ 
fierce movements. 

Our Robin (Tardus migratorius), a useful bird, de«tn>j 
credible numbers of grubs, is not to be (.'onfonnded wit 
lish namesake, which it rescniblvs slightly. **The 
Thrush, which in New Kngland we used to call the 
(the English blackbird being also a thrush) and in O 
RoUn," (P. H. Gosse, Letters from Alabama, p. 395.) 

Another bird, the English name of which is an imiation i 
peculiar cry, and which we frequently find misapplied in Uufi 
try, is the European Frwit or lapwing, which is not at all ! 
iu America, and yet often quoted. Even W, Iri 
been solitllp mindful of the liinls of bis beji- 
write : " Tho PewiV or Pe-ieee or /'jtMwie -bird, for he U i 
eacL of these iiamts." {Kntchrbocker M' 
434.) lie evidently fancied that the fam>; 
calls itself and wliich vc call petwet (Coutopui vxnta) 
a water-Wrd, heoauee the Ktiglish lapwing or H 

M»\t peteil. Nor is it much mor& ea^ly undor^i' 
of a bird with eo marked a cry—whom even the Freui 
that account familiarly Dijc-huit—cimliU haw been 
ing by the Pov(-Ijaureat« of England, as if hU 



it, jerkiDg motions Iiatc pmcarcd for it quite s nnmbcr 

Dickuames. such as TU(-Up, from the tilting of the 

Ttttr, pronounced here terter and uot as in Knglund 

le see-sow amnsftnent of chiMreu on a Wlancfd pknk. 

iwcror, the word is used more extonsiTelj for a mental 

of the kind, apprortohinj; tci fretting, ao that when Mi'. 

was to be buried at bis native place, a mi^mbcr of the 

jXf^ulature aaid : " Mr. Speaker, I am ilisgustod with the 

of this House. This funeml al i'orLland is going to be 

affiiir, bnt when I se« this honse teioring and fiva-sawiiig 

; didn't know its own mind, I declare I wish Mr. Peabody 


fummiiig' Bird is peculiar to this continpnt, hnt strangely 

over every p«rt of it, so that Professor John Gould could 

from Hudson's Out to Patagonia and collect numbers 

lere. capturing in ail two thousand specimens of two 

ftnd thirty species. The tiuv Mango Humming-bird 

Iqb colnbris), with it^ brilliant plumage, sudden, almost 

fl^ht, and inexhaustible energy, 19 one of the most 

ristic as well us motit pleasing fcatureA of American land- 

, and known familiarly, from the sonnd caused by the mar- 

qnick beat of its wiugs, us i/u»j-£tViJ or .£fi»nm0r simply. 

Chtwink is only the ground-robin under a more proper 

riTed from its note, which in some parts of the Union is 

ed in itji erjunlly familiar name of Towhef, while the 

of Looisiano, in apprecintion of its plumpness, cull it 

It is the Pipilo erytliropbthalmus, atui thus described by 

<: "The T^fcAc-Bunting is a prettily marked bird, black 

^vith white Ixinds on the wings; the sides aiv cht^stniit-red 

iinderparts white. His note resembles the woi-d iowh<^." 

i/mm Alabama, p. 297.) 

Chickadee (Parns atricapillns), elsewhere known by the 
title of JJoary Tt/inoKfte, bears its name also from ita 
1: it is the tiny, blaok-cap titmuuse, of which J. K, 

" Far distant eonntli itio hidden ehUkadte. 
Close at my side ; far didt&nt iiaunil the leAri.-i. . . , 

(Aa Indicta Sumiiur Btwarit,') 

same fate h&a be&llen an aqoatic bird, peculiar to this 



(OaoBc hBi ncifenit). whos« rerj sharp ud 
a cbe UBw of KiiUUe, or still man i 
vhUft ih« haneaiDg sound of a u 
I procfircd ffir it the popular name of 5l 
it beui to the ahftrp rasping or fi 

ppM* an mmD birds (Q<nlrob>U mexicuia; Bftud), 
■i^ wim» beciWi tbey dip ander water id scarcb 
; tta at ■*■>; «f th«ir ckss, tbey also re-appear m 
I af tW oMBUj aBder diSb^nt names, noir poel 
r ViAaAMt tnm Ae qwdaiett with which tbej dire 
ol a jao. aad now more energetically than gru 
ABM«g <od) rnlgar uamGA is found sIbo J 
for the Viiguiia rail (Railas GrepitaiiB)^ 
Ika OMMoa bltudk4»Iaek wMing-bird, tb« CQm-cTakt\ 
AidPHwitk it iho aiaif,a>d deaerrcs it better. Even ab 
onaa has Immi di a g ad do«n into the mudj as W. Irriog 
*Sfaattiag haaadf down oo tb« edge of a pond* ootaliiai 
teaia tofvtber, aad bearing no little reaemblanoe to thi 

of lb« cnn«-&nulT. Tckped Mud-Pokt," (Ki 
Sia»*nf */ .Vrie y»rt, p. 317-) 

In tb« Far W«A vi> inc«t with one- of the most 
paculiar to the Kev World, the Burroteituf Oicl (Pha 
ountcalatia)p a speeies oi daj-ovl, well known for its t 
habits. It lins oa tJw pndries in tbe''Tillago6"of thel^ 
(Arotomra ludovicianus,) residing in the furaakeu botrw 
daboii atys of it. " The bormir seU-cted by the Iinrrotci^ 
usnally at the foot of a vomiwi>od bueh, (Artemisia,) I 
sammit of vhich the owl ofteu perches, and stands foral 
able while. Ou being approadi«d« they uiter a low, ct 
soaud, start, and skim along the plain. When winged^ th 
for the nearest borrpw, and when onoe within it, it is 01 
to dislodge them.'' 

The Prairie-I/en (Cupidonin cnpido) has so many dm 
Ami'riciLiis themselves irill speak of them, not unfreijofal 
there were as many different species to be fonnd tn ihc H 
is (juite common to hear them called prouaCj a bmilyU 
they undoubtedly belong, and hence ore, cren by men of 
ioocaiionaU; (^notod as Pinnated Grouse- In Sh 



heath of Scotland has simpi j been suhsHttitcd for prairie ; 
Saffe-/tm (Ceutroccrcus urophaeiantis) of the Northwwt, 
Of the some species, has a much louger tail than the 
ien, corries it differoully from the 1811"?^ and grows so largo 
pagers are apt, at lirst. eight, to mistake it for a tiirkvv. 
fort I^aramic wo saw the first Sagt-hens; they ■were hard 
% but Kit Carson soon had two or three hanging at bis 
1 they made ns a feast." (.i Ride iPith Kit Cartfon.) Sap- 
KPicus TariuE and others) are ubsai'dly so called in the 
dtat«E, from u beU«f that they suck the sap of trevs, and 
|fte them to die— one of the few utterly groundless snpersti- 
^llar t« this country, and in all probability brooglit here 
fcnt foTPigncrs. The .^oru (Porzana Carolina,) so qnaintlr 
^arer by R. Beverley, {History af Virffinia, p. 135,) has 
ad name of King-bird is very fairly given to the brav- 
B, the Scissor-tail (Tyninmis carolinenaii), who comw 
I anmmer from the fttr Ronth, and excites the admiration 
ho, in enmest or iu eport, attempt to tronble his yoniig. 

at thft intnider with marvtUlous i-nergy and intrepidity, 
not shrink from nttackingevenhawkBond eagles in defence 
lUDg. The Narmgausett Indians and otiier triK-s culled 

appreciation of his bravery, the jj>'fTrAcwf, while in eoni« 
the South he is known as Fieldmartiti. 'Vh^aYeilow-Ham- 
Fheker (Picns amatns), tlie most heantifiil «f American 
Kora, with bright, golden wings, is universally known lu 
Rmi a mune bestowed upon him by the lirst settiera. In 
IKcw York he is called, characteristically Iligh-Uole, and 
kianu as I'itjue bois javn«. Tho Yellow-Throat (Sylvia) 
In like manner, ita n^ni^ frnm its golden throat, which 
tost pleasing mnsic dnring puiring-time, while the>WA!)w- 
lirysomietris triistiri). iilsociilltjd Thistlf- liirdy is quite yel- 
B black wings. " The i'eliow-bird begins to oocnr in nst- 
tcs, flitting from weed to weed with alternat'O openingaand 
[of the wings, twittering all the way, very much like onr 
ch." (P. H. Gosse, LetUra from Alabama, p. 'i^b.) 
to piich popular names bestowed upon the moro 
'or more striking birds, similar terms are also fre<]uetitly 
k oonaectioD with domestic fowl. The Pea^Hin or GuinM* 



Jf^oicl, for instance, appenn often as Qnineo-lwif or htK 
.from iH pwuliar and aoplouant nol«; a tnilloEB fowl istni 
ijrlTaoia called u bunly, and » emBil ftprcklod kind t 
(B. S. Haldeman.) Bat the manner in which tb« 
dung-fowl IS treated, deeerres special mcDliou and— ni 
Theru in liKlc harm, jwrliape. id oalliiig a lieu a biddy, • 
already mentioned by Holliwcll, and frequently xutfd abroid 
villi us in calling chickens to fpe<1; but to make from iiai 
bidd^ for the cock, and eAieka&idtit/ for the little odcs, iaai 
ivhat violent proceeding. Koch better, however, Uy do Uik.! 
in abeurd prudtsliuess to ehriuk from the good old Kn'/'<-^ **4 
Cocir, and translate it into the tinmeiming Roonttr, as u 
■Icnovn that almost all birds are roosters, and h«ns 
quite as much as cocks. Pr. Hyde Clark, perhaps Uwi 
calls the term rooster " on American ladyt^m for cook,^ 
;rec«nt. tvritur profesws even to have heard a Jlooakn 
Ox Story in the United States ! 

It is probably only Ibe «^ffccl of careleftances in wntiag. udl 
fondness of a certain slipshod, style, which itktrodticed tJiei 
Barntfcrdu for the fowl roost frequently found tlierc; still 
poet, like Kits G. Hulleck, conld write to a frieodf " I 
his (Dr. Bauks) discovery of an ale-hoasc at Brooklyn, when 
English mistrew was superior in her choice o( l^r/i yards, \ 
their cooking." (Mount's Mrmoirof F. Q. Ilalieck,) 

Ocean-birds and coast-birds are, of course, not as {amillir^ 
the eye of the people at large, and hence compomtiTcly soCg . 
ntoknanicH; but, on the other liand, the went of knowli-dge 
ct^ming Ihem has, espeuially in the United States, led to a . 
coafiuiou of names in the case of many varieties. The Bt 
Sill {VwWx m aril a), for instaiico, which in ''■ 
large numbers nn the Ku5t^m conat. is called ii . . / 1 

Cheeapcake Bay, and a Rafi-Duek In Virginia, while thfi 
highly prixetl of all dnoks, the pride of the American ' ' ' 
known from its color us tbc CoHvaa-JJack (Aythyu tn. 
wherever it appears on the const of the Middle St&ttik 
Latoi/er is the little, black-necked stilt (liimaatopns ntgt 
whom the people of New Jerwy are reported to have witMl 
named thus '* on account of ita long bill " (£)» although Stilt i 
Long-Siuinka are &r more obvious aamea. 



Loon (Colymbns torquatns). gcnornll; called tho Biach 
tr. deserrefl mention herv onlv because of the many terms 
Mes derived from its peciiliariticB which hare Iwcn trans- 
tour spcoch, niOK' oven Mian in cotlniipiiRl English. Thai 
ise, "Straight as a loon's leg," has already been snggested, 
all a man a loon h ti CJimmon form of contempt, though 
not be orcrlooked that the word has n-peawdly been 
td ns a coTTKption of a fow one, probably npon nu better 
tliau the fact that Orose, in his Vocabulary, wriUw it also 
the Old Wivtg, of oiir coast, arc probably of two different 
>r Sonnini gives that term as the naTu(! of aoa-guUs in 
Carolina, while orlicr aiitlmritips stiire rhur tbf llrown 
larcldu glacialis) is popnlarly known by that name. It 
'tlio still moroci|nivocd title of Old Sqimw in some of the 
iglandStates. The WTiistl^r or Wfiisfle-Winff {Bvicephaim 
Da) is, on the other hnud, a duck well known on tha 

anna and in Canada, though genonilly quoted as the 
B^«, "Tho silence of the forest was unbroken save by 
rring sound of the largo white anil gray dnck called by 
pcntcrs of these lonely wfltora the ]\liiKtlt:-,Wing." (Mrs. 
%fl Canadian Cnaoev, p. 230. ) 

b names of birds are not always easily traced, owing to 
rersity in different part.s of tl;c XToioii, thn difficulty in still 
In the ca^e of fish, which are bound to certain localities, 
ihorrr, the great lakes, or a few rivers or brooks, and heiico 

to appear uoder a variety of names. Only such will, 
t, here bo meotioned as are more generally known, and 
Bmn«a may be eaid, to some extent, to have established 
Am us being considered a part of onr speech- 
ftf the most ill-trcotcd of the kind is perhaps the ttunfis 
Ib vulgnris), whose name is boitie alike by a shark and 
istcr, lf>i>king mora like the dissevered lioad of a fish than 
re animal. The little perch, however, deserves its name, 
a bcootilVU, glittering creatnre, although J. R. Ijowell 
him nnder two other name* whioh he likewise beare: 

" hazy u Ui£ Aivoittt 
"Wboeo only buunctia U to hcAd up Ihc •tnam, 
(Wo call tiim pwim-Mai.)'',' 

(Bifflaw Piiperi, 11., p. 88.) 

I Kfae c«no«a spots oq iu 
■^■■■hat like pnmpk 
K. anft JR Kiv SagUnd, it luu M 1 

L is.&.niii > 

• kaovn hy u 
thus by J. K.] 
IK Am put of t^ World ftbeTi 
bmr is ftui 

mt ite lm»k to MMKher more qairitj 
Ai 4MAiMre fiar his Imdy w lie is 
.II,^4.) Thk is' probsfalf J 
. '■k* teOds his Be«t in the 

lb «raaUnit>d states isi 
(Ffatisfci^«f se««>«IspccitsV*Uch bvaoe enjoTssni 
AH*; il» i^ntgiw i Wui( aaplr Ort, or oitfy; 

l) Im tUek fe^ vhfa is kog reekic. has 
'telh»w— rf H >i » iilMjAr»sJftMrt,whUe» 

■ ito pnftfoMe fer the tooii > 

*ad tanAs, and in«T»rentlT. fram ifcB Uncdc color pcriuf^ 

The CAtfi«b OT 1^ KiMMlippi SMMtJityK giuWS tOAlcBgtkl 

Uuw cr twr fee^ sad strikes vith grest force uij otijeet I 
oonKS in its vbt. esidugenog rrra tb« safety of a casM 
ChuA and tbc ^2ae%faft an bnt local namco for the Tbid^l 
wfaom meoiion has heea awde sndrr the he«d of Indian 

The Oar, to called tnm the reaenblance its lonu, slmdc. .. 
and flhAr|>-point«d h«ad bear to a spear or dart, catlM ^ 
Anglo-Saxon and old English, is represented in AmericM 
by sereral species, the Handed ffarjith (Belono trunnrta) of ' 

coast, also known as BiU-Fifih, and a ptkr-liko fish (U*]»i( 

fonnd in fresh waters. The latter is a formulable oitimal,- 
1i*li,hair reptilp, having rhombic scales, and found onlrri 
Iiikr-it aud rivers of Western America. It, has, besides, anair-t. 
dcr that serves almost the purposes of a Inng, and it can thus 



er out of water thaa any other fish. He is, as they described 

to Wr C. Lv*-)), "a hapj'v fellow, and beats all creation; he 

hnn everything and nothing can hurt him." (h-owing som»> 

Id a length of ten feet, he ia eaid not to shrink from eti- 

iteriiig au alligator t:ren, allhough his name of AUigator Gar 

I Ion 10 theie boctilc meetings than to his resciublanoe to the 

The JWtM Perch, also known as NibHer, from the wicked 

he teems to take in nibbling off the fisherman's bait, and 

on tiie ooasC of Nenr England, in the Dnrgall mentioned 

, as the limuj Finh ia the famous Menhaden^ called 

in the State of 5Iaine. 

Bttbhhr deeervM his name well, for when drawn from the 

of th^ Ohio, which he freqiient«, he makes aa oxtraor- 

SUT babbling noise, as if protesting against such ill-tre^itment, 

. as the Croaker doen, in his way. when canght in the buys and 

i of the Gulf of Me:Eioo. Among llslioa, as lummg birds, we 

with a iMvrtffr (Lota), so calletl in Caniida, we nre told by 

fiiUr-rmen there, " because he ain't of much use, and the slip- 

st liBh that swims." (J. Ilftmmood, Wild Sorthem Hemes, 

The Lake-Jjawyer (Amiii) is Lh« Mod-Fish of Westeru 

4er8, so called from its "ferocious looks and Toracions habits" 

r. Kirtland, B.), while in the lakes the same qualities hare pro- 

for him the name of Dog-Fisli. The lied-fforsfl (Catos- 

. dniioesnii), u sucker, found in the Ohio und its tributaries, 

res ics odd name from its red color and large eize. 

: --fish, the Shfep$hmd {.S|>ani8 ovis), is probably 
■'■rm:nd for the table; the name ia not improp- 
iy derived from the rcaumblanoe of his head and teeth to that 
, shenp. Kork'Fifhf also not unfre()nently called Tock sim]>ly 
irox lincBtua), is highly esteemed; it is canght in American 
irs, which it ascends, and diBera from the tm-btus, which 
indg in the Atlantic, and belongs to the perches. The Jiofk 
)»<Autifulty markM with seven or eight black lines on a silver- 
ground, and hence ia gpnerally known as Striped liftsa. a 
It delicacy in the opinion of connoieaenrs. The S»a-/io&iii has 
Mtnnge name from the sticking resemhlanoe it bears to a bii-d, 
« Tith long, outstretched, pectoral fins it floats along nnder 
,nbT u if poised upon two broad wings. This peculiarity has 
^1m {Kocored for It the name of Flying Fi^ while a vary strange 

fifaes, cangfat m «fe 

wWir ah** 

of tafenor qwfiqr it c«a 

wbca ciaght.bMle«ltorttbvia( 
wttof «b*«ouL The Am^;iMik 
a Aa P>F«lv Bune of oo« of the So- j 

of MMBMhuJitta and Ke« T«L ' 

■ afaA • MHbar, vhile a nnalli 

ftffa (TeBMdc* Mttatar) of tbfr E^wer INjtoauo bnng a 

The Btiffftrjfal fAfiBona peteifctBut) abmnda oq tbei 
eni part of oar Ailaakie caaat^ <uid ts tlnii rvferrad to: *1 
fplouiid cmtnie, tlK carrphene or delptun of marinera 
■potted radtfnHCa* ami the purffo^Maded pilot wem 
boKaUi the stern.'* (P. H. Gvsse. Lrttrm /rtm Alnhamth 
doB. IBS9. p. 11.) Anotber tisb vitfa remark^k spouial 
9n>p«r (ijemoiu mtfamf[aaler). vhich is foood uear 
"Tbe »o<t naBMrooJ kind vaa a ihiek-«et t)«di of onnade 
aae^ called a groptr, covered aitfa oliTe-eolored mv^ular spou^l 
iaride of the taoatb and throat was of a briLltant 
<P. H. Gosse. Ltttrrt, Ac^ p. IS.) It does not rl« nrlv a^^MvI 
the K<f|np-7Vi7oht«iQird its nanie.Bincv this ivoiarluiLlei 
which is anlT occasinoallr »^n on oor coasts, has a pale, < 
tail, «hi<^h contrasts beaQtifuDr with the long bands of 
pink and rellov marked alt^matelr on its body. 

The King-PiA fUmhritta albarnns), a BM>fish four or i 
long, and thna called at New York, re-appcarsas H'Ath'n^JBl 
Carolina and Florida, while the hjmWta Ualibttt m woaKf\ 
theTJoited State* recotera its original name HoUbut ; for 
in his World of Worlds takes great pains to make us ai 
the proper name of the fish is H»l^ Bui, and Baiicy also < 
as hoUbttt in his Dictionarr. 

The ClvbtftU in nothing bnt u shtd, whose tail is swoU 
the great amonnt of fat which he is apt to aeoumtilale ati 
seasons of the year; the name is nparlr limited to tho ' 
const, where the Unh is taken in lai-g« numlKTs. Oottrrlif 
cnrlons name by which the sole is known in the watcn 
York : bnt even more mysterions ia that of Calieo, which 
heanl ^nite as frequently. One of the most remarkable of .KtD^l 
oan fishes is tho Angler (Lophius americaniis), so called ft^m Mj 
long feelers, which it protrudes from its hiding-plaoe in then'' 



le pnrpoae of attracting the smaller try oa which it feeds. 

Dn- popular name in Dvvii-Fieh or Sta-Devit, a name to whicli 

Hot cntitledjM tbiit ljeloiig8 to the gigantic ray (Ci.'])haloptera 

j^Ds), irhich lias earned it hy its hideous form and cuuiiiug 

SL This is the sfine/rat/, or, as it is often mis-DAmcd, attn- 

I which i'xcit<«i the utnioat amazement &mong the early set- 

I C^ttaiD Johii ^mith writes: " Our cnptuine taking a Ush 

his sword (out knowing her coudition). iM-ing much of the 

un oftt Thomback, but a long tavlehkc aridiog-rtxliile.wliere 

■e middest \a a mo^t poysoned. sting, of two or three inches 

febeorded like a saw on each side, which ehc strucko into the 

B of his urme acare an iucli and a half; no hloud nor wonnde 

■Bene. )nit » little blew spotte ; but the toruK-iit xvns insloutly 

fcreame. that in 4 hoiircs we nil with much eoitow concluded 

Bicrall and prcpured his gi'ave in an Idlaud by. Vet it pleased 

ly a |treeiung oylc Dr. Hiigsell at fyrsL u)iplyed to it, his tor- 

ig painc was so well iisswaged that he cuto of the IJflh to his 

', which gave no less joy and content to us than ease to biin- 

r which wi; c-ulled tliu Isluiid ></. intfrai-UU', afier lli(Muim« 

iUli." Th(^ huge crttature groWB m the watei-s of Florida to 

size that Dr. SU>vi;r, of Buston, once captured one eigh- 

t brood and seventeva feet long, with u tail of the same 

: of the ivmarkahle family of lishra, whose skin is grunnlated 

file, and which are hence known ua Filc-Fiaheg (Bulietea), 

addition the ancomplimentary numo of Fooi-Fifh, becanso 

extremely odd nmiiner iii which it sivimg, the body being 

^below the KurftKve and the open mouth on b levol wiUi the 

position which gives to the poor, wriggling cre-atnre an 

ince of extreme fitupidity. The Frogt-Pish is the Tomcod, 

elaewhere, and so ciilled from its appearance on the 

iduriug the winter months. 

Ere are few more splendidly-colored creatnrea in the world 

tBOme of our American lish, and jimong tiiem the Southern 

^Fi$h (LampHd gnttatus), or Opah, stands foremost Its steel- 

skoontnwts strangely with its bright green aides, wliilethe 

ling parts an of delicnte rutHseolor; its Heeh is lu pulatuble 

appenmnoB is gorgeous. On the coast of New Jersey the 

known by ita moru modest name of Hake. 



"Pkh or ftn ktnd fahabit hen 
Anil UiruDj; Uic dork ftbodc ; 
Uorc faiu]it(>c:lc, haki, oikI flfiunden uc. 
And ee3ft imd |K:rcti aunl cod-" 

(JoMpli Green. SvrtttqM vn M. BfU». ITW 


A pccali&r name iii that of the Lafaiielle (XjeiBtonoiHt 
wbich arose Crom the fnot thiLt this doHcious s«A-fidh oat ' 
arrirod in the vat^^ra of Kevr York precisely at the sanir time < 
Genonil rjufAyt-tte iiaiil his Uiat visit ta ihi^ countrr. (Dr. &I 
Baird.) It aboundg mainlj on the coast of New Jersey, 
peuple there a|>prt>ciate the dcUcac; fuHv, it ui alau < 
May Goody. 

Urrrirujs appear in America under anch a wrbtyornaBUil 
it )8 ofl«n very difficnlt to identify the precise species. Betitel 
common American Herring (Clui>oa elongata). which diftiil 
the £uro|)can gpecieSf this name is applied tu mrious 
which have no other claim to it bat a distant rewmblance. 
is the Mvan-Eye (Uyodon tergistu), also kuovn as lake iaA\ 
hemug, and as toothed lierring, the Shad-Ba-rin^ (Cbatfl 
flijUiilVr), sometimes cnilod thread honing, or threadfish, i 
llerring-Snimon {Core^iiiis cluptiforniis), which a{i[iesni 
Shnd Sivlmon, unr] oven White IUIl The /^mriV-Fish, a sdmUI 
of the Hacifif! coast, also loses its identity not nnfreqnenlU ia' 
same manner, whik- the genuine herring has given iu« own 
to the well-known Herring OuH (X^aru^ sroitbaonianast 
Atlantic coaet. 

Otihc/ian (Mullotns pacificus; Richardepon), i« thenatiTel 
often mtsr«preseutc-<l as Hoolikan, and even Ealachon, of a^ 
ealmonoid llsli of tho Pneilh; cnast, thus descrihed by good I 
ity: " HovUknttv, eometimes culled Kular-kons^ Tery delioioi 
of the size of email herring, come in April in slioals aa far 
as the raontli of Ihe Columbia. Flocks of sea>gulls fa«nUd 
march by hovering over the column and swooping down on it 
Up the rivers they follow the fish, screeching and swooping. 
hoolikans vjk m fut as Co baffle ordinary methods of cooking tfc 
for the table. Oil U cxpifssvd frum ihem hy the Initiaus io )V^ 
quontiUes and sold np and down the coasL" (S, Willc«« 
Christian Union, March 22, 1871-} W. irting reported (lips'* 

JTATimit HI 


la ^ about tsix inches loog, calletl by the ootiTH the UthUeafif 
Itwmbling the smelt'* {A»toria,\l., p. 7S.) 

Toadfsh (BiitracliuB tAu), allied to the flshinf^-frog and re- 

iMiiig it in repulsive ugliness, uppcm-3 aLeu us Oyster-fish on 

ouu>c of Nuw Jersej, wbc-re it is Touiid to Irequeut the ovstcr- 

aad OS Grubley on the coast of New Enghind. A. rival la 

inco at least ie the Hornvil sucker, wlso known as Chttb- 

(Catostomna atorer), sucking with thu li[i«, «Tid thus di«- 

lished fVom the remora, which sncks by meAua of a remarknble 

k npon ihc hoiul, tind thus fastens itself to uUter largu fishes or 

bottom of vofigels. 

le lower auiutults are either not «uf£eit!iLtIy kxiowu to the peo- 
large to obtain correct or awn sigiiiticnnt names, m- they 
when reft-rred to by well-iufonued piTsoiiB, tlie namca they 
in Kogland. The most characteristic of thin c\ma, as is be-st 
}U abroad, iii probably the Satllesuake (Crotalus durissus; 
t), which Mas ut au curly period of thu republic chuwMi as the 
lol emblem. For when the firit fleet of ibe Uuited States 
loa tlie 17ih February, 1776, flrom the Capes of Delaware, tlie 
bone a yellow flag cotitaiiiing a rattlesnake in the act of 
ikiiiir, with the motto^ " Dou't ti-ead on me," and under the same 
ililem the troops of South (Jai'xiiina fought for somo time. It 
'Ha more than a yoor before the uuplcosnut flog was superseded 
*»y thr stare and Sti-jpee, "rupreseutiug a new constvUutiou/" 
CA^jt of L'ougresa, Jnue 14-tli, 1777.) 

The riral of this formidable snnke is the Copperhead (Trigono* 

^epiuJus contortris), which rojotcses in nearly a dozen names, 

^^viiig apparently a different one in every piivt of the country. 

^' ':i known as Copperbeliy and CUunkJiead, aus lied Viper, Adder, 

^td Deaf Adder, even as Dumb Rattksnake, becuuse it does not 

pVe the warning before it strikes, on account of which chivalrous 

iDge the Indians call the ntttlesnako a BrarcL The ('otton- 

\, probably the some as the famous Moecasiu .Snake, is an 

tuolly dangerous aoako of Arkansas, while the true CoppcrbtUtf 

Sferodi* erythogaster) is perfectly harmieBs andof a<(natic habits. 

Turtles also and lortoisc-s abound, especially in the Middle and 

tthern States, the land -tortoises appearing under the fanciful 

ipe of U>r(U» in Pennsylvania, to distinguish them from turtle- 

lovee, which ore uever thus de^iguuted. 


< to Ward's ffjiirl 
■■ tbe ftwkir«nl num 


i* Uav MKiDA hMtoW^Hll 

the FrrBch ivrtne, Laiin t 
Is lU vritan it » ricqiKotiT 
1^ he walUmg nan th&n a compti 
Mmi-nir^inem in tb<^cIjMOii>tbi 
nima^and mmrshes, vhiktbeJ 
fVBf 7Wi)» (• CkdMcnV kbo csUmI smpiv -Swi^^ir. ii S 
:"»«*«y*'"&''"^ inflicting ■ pvaM 
ew»t«i at 'Chanp? br » 
, -vfao iatvctigiiBd a gcntfaoBBl* pocket and foondM 
Ij CMglik by a ftem wi a iyTng tnrtlf. It apptici 

ihaAnomUybccs robbed of his pocketbook.aDdal 
Utf aactbod u> catch tba tkiiC* (Phibwldphta LfoEywr, Jd 
1831.) Anotber t urt PM fc of gnater am and ciqtaU fcred^i 
S»fii*ek (Triaayx frrox)- TVmtpPU, aud to b« io aUU 
the Fkeaeb trm^itoe (?^ an nU-vator ttiiilM, bt^W vain 
apjeoias fee their deHoiow Sesh ; they are noat f^neiit t 
salt-vster manbes of the ^ddle Suiee, and Balcitnon, osyel 
vaa loag bmoat for its terrapin stews. 

Tb» innomCTabfe hoita of litarde, liriag in the iiratcr u 
land, which are fonnd in tbe TTniicd ^ates, pau in thr 
mnpner tinder such a vanety of uames in different 8ta(w f 
is often impossible to identify the ptvctse species. It ti OD 
howcTcrr that n-ater-lizards especially iboold bo so often earn 
to dogs. Quo lat^e species, a aalamander, with smooth* ; 
bod;, appears thus as Water'Dop in tbe West, whilo otfae 
indiflV-rently called IVaUr-Piipfiies and O round- Pupfrin. 
■miillor kinds arc known in the li^tern Stutea nt Sjmitp»h 

boyish noLiun iliat tliey guard the springs in which tboy 
fi»lly found. Thej eveu euter ihe fpnji'i-houMi', t-mHll 
igs erecltKl ur«r a epuog to keep milk uod fresh meat, by 
the TeswU in ihnllow troughs, throngh. which the water 
a tcnn not mcndoued even in Jjoudon'a Fncycloiionlia of 
tltitre. (S. 8. llaUU-nian.) The term Salaiuandfr is, on the 
id. without any oatcnsiblc reason, tmnsrHrrvil from the 
rner to a pouched rut (UL-omyts piaetis), common in some of 
mthvru Staler while the name, as beatvwcd ujmu safes, 
tandfr Sale*, is quitt appropriat-.', bring siiggestiFo of the 
of these huge iron boxeii to withstand, like the fabled sala- 
of old, the action of the fire. Fait' liuimtr is the well- 
name of a lizard (TuchydromuB sexlinoatua) which com- 
ith greai beauty wonderful swiftness of motion, 
ft Viipuia. and the ijouthem States generally, almost all active 
d'lizardB are called tcorpiont. " There are Uiree or four 
/' says P. II. Go&se, "the most common of which is culled, 
ngc misnomer, the scorpion- (Agnma undutata), and it is 
)ies which so rapidly scuttles along under the crisped 
k* { Letters /rotii Alabama, p. 48.) 
TiUbtnder is the energetic name of the American Salamander 
luoponia fttiegbanieusis), an aquatic i-eptilv, often eighteen 
bea kkDg, and so called on account of its extroordiuarv hid- 

Meivqcc has already l>een made to the curious variety of 
^ known here as Fiddlers^ small, gray, one-armed crabs^ who 
mle and dodge about as jerkingly and nimbly as a liddler'fi 
I, whence their familiar name. At the time of their anonal 
Icfaes they proceed, each male with his large claw raised in 
Ot like an immense club ; the iKior females have no such large 
n, and march under the protection of the male^ These little 
Mnree are, however, under Providence, made useful, for we 
fea that "the diUthetj in the hind nejir tlie Mississippi would 
t suffice to carry off the fresh water during the high water of 
ring and early summer, were tliey not aided by the myriads 
BO myriads Kti fiiUlitrt, everywhere boring into the aoil and 
heyoombing it with innumerable chambers and passages." 
utnam^s Maffotine, May, 1869.) When the poor crab is under- 
the painful procesa at changing its armor, and hides its 

period of Anerican bistorr the greatest nnii 
John JoskItd »port«! in 1672 already, that in Vfrjta 
harl»T clumgfd nadilj into oat^ but " Trogs wore fonn 
banks and e<dges of pondd, a Toot liigb." ( y»m Englam 
IH t otm^-, p. 73.) Anotber writer ret-ently spoke of 
mentwben h« first fac«rd. "miu^led with tbc- batrrich 
an occaaonal dUaonant croak, drci), hcAvy, and of rq 
Tolone as to deceiTe Tannis himself:" for the fritU/r 
ToiM at \xmua nallj neemblra the low ruur of a beUo* 
The Amerioau Loeutt is not the eame insect as that 
oall^ in Europe, but a cicsda or barveft-flf, instM^ 
hopper, of which J. K. Lowell sajrs, ^| 

*■ Tlie bnul't slinll Kbnim sUagii tlt« car." 

The genuine locust is, of oottrse, not unknown to tfaii 
and thrre arc Mveral allied species found here, one of wli 
numerous and terribly destructiTe in Utah, so that it i 
in abejaaoe, ** thanks to the beneticial gluttony of the) 
heaulifhl birds of a bountiful <!od." as Brigham Younj 
in onci of his sennoof, A rariely, very diflereut indi 
septendectm), which appears only every aerBnteea 
ought not to be confouoded with the former, stmeki 
first settlers with surprise ; au anonymovia deacrititaoB 



slmoet articaUl«, and hence euily interpreted, as 
Tng Aaiy did, the aiiawer being, in children's views, Kattf 

"The nights |;row cool. 
Anri aee-saw KatftiUU foretell tlic chUi 
Of iMfleaa ror«8t and uT icy pool." 

(C. P. Crancb. .S^tmiiwr Pleturet.) 

ig'ltsh iravcller hcaril tho ooncRrt differently; ''A lurge 
iea of grjilna," lie writee, "called provincially A'atetiid, QDb 
with its nightly music, such as it in. Funcy a score or two 
pie with shrill votcci-, divided into puirisfach pair stjuabhling 
ich other, I did!— You didn't!— I did!— You didn't! the 
ition niaintJiincd irith the most ftmiieing pertjn»citj, and 
ife a moment's iut^rmissioB, on every side.*' (P. H. Gosae^ 
Evrs/rom Aiaiatna, p. 163.) 

aotber variety Ehares with u sficcies of Brugonfly tlie uomo of 
iti I^armngSetdie, provinciuUy knuwn in Knglaud aa the 
fl's Needle (Wright), while the oommou Mantis is at the 
(fmphically designated as the lUarhorne, from its odd way 
ig on its hind-li!g& 

iw-jachet is the fauiiliar and descriptive name of a small 
(PelopsuB), and of Lim .Saiid-wit8p (Ammnphtta), one of 
oonsius is fnmiliurly known by the name of Dauber, from 
inner iu which he builds his nest, Hteriilly ditubing it all 
as to make it waterproof, and quite aslrong stnielure. "T 
i," says P. H. Gosae, " with much intorc-at the proceedings 
inher in huililing her mud-cell ; it ia a pretty species" (Pe- 
flavipes). {Lftter* from Alnbatna, 1859.) Both of these 
are endowed with formidable powers of stinging, and yet 
Utie moi'o dreaded than llu* t frrffi nipper, a vevy large mos< 
U), ciuiio common in the South and West. The term is usually 
\vtd from nail and nip, but it seems more likely that the flnt 
t of the word originated, like the gaUihagtfer of the Exmoor 
bfeCt (Groae), from the pravincial expression ffalh'er, wiiich 

6(0 fight, and ffaliimrut, a great fight An English traveller 
how A huge, brawny deck-hand, on board » Mississippi 
trocr, once offered to lie naked ou duck, and Lrudnru the stings 
ill the mosquitoes that might setti© on him, without wincing, 
traveller and his friends, who had wtigci-cd large some on 



the quc^tioD^ would Icc^p off the gallinippere. HeUyl 
miautes, covered with rureuous iu^^ecta, and araoDgtbiaj 
the latter speoiue, when th« narrator, to test liis povrnofi 
auce, applied the burning end of his cigar u> tlw poor 
back, liv jumped up with » terrific oath, exclsuning : , 
uot promise to keep off those gaHinipptrg f " 

Thft Hessian Ply (Cecidomyio dcatractor; Say), a ; 
very destinictire to yonng wheat, is said toawait« 
popular notion that it vas first imported into America 
sti-uw-beds of Uoseian soldiers, enlisted bT ihii British 04 
uicut dui-iug the Bevolutiouary War. It is certain that ibcl 
first appeared on Staten Island, and in 1796 :n Viiigiai^ 
making its way gradually over the whole country : but iU g 
mode of intToductiou cnn now no longer bcpoaitirelT aaceit 
Thfi Midget uf Canada and some of the Northern Stately I 
Sand-fiy of Europe, as M(Uh is in the United SUtci oomaM 
Btricted tu the domeelic post, while Uic night-fljing LqnA 
are erroneously called Buiterfiietf and the Col«optaa Si^ 
glish writers are apt U> amoso themselTcs at the Amehoia' 
of calling their beetles &tr^.s, but forget their own great po«l^ 

" FiCi lUD flap thU buy with gilded wings^ 
This pitnicd child or dirt, that sliaka uid sti: 

We speak thus of May-bugs and Juno-bugs, of Golden Ba| 
oven of I<ighlning-Rug«, iuelcad of fireflies and the only H 
£iigtisb usage (Cimex) posses, in the South especially, tnd 
Spanish nunc of CAiric/r, brought from the W'vsl Indica. "i 
iCM (sg buggs arc by the Negroes and br some others adMI 
uiaica)." (John Soutliall, A 'TretxtiM of Bugg*. Ijoodon, i** 

Persons of great wealth and diatinction are irntTemitlyl 
hig Bugs, and " I-sti-eet, in Washington," is thus Mid to "I 
habited by thu fureigu amhasdadord and utlier big tHig*." i 
Neal makes a nitw diBtiuctiou when he says of a rich nsDl 
out social importance ; ** J}d is one of your big bug*. witK \ 
money than sense." {Ofiart^l iSkUvhes, 111., p. 117.) 

The word "stag*' is very rarely if£u4 in America, dm I 
almost universally employed for the piupo^s; the Sta(-fl 
(LuvanusJ of £ngland also re-appcars hen as Horji^g; t^l 




Irhich liTes and feeds upon pease as Ptabxig, oud the Clenuan 
ieff«?r (i't'lz-kuft-r) of IViiiitivlvariia lias liwn Amcricauixed 
Sird Tnetnnif>r]tlK»i»i into f'tncltbttg, while llie lurva of the 
I i^ in Vii'ginia, called J/oodUhuff. 

ihoiieT-lK« iis uf cuiirse, a P^iiropean importation, and was 
noTrn to tbe Indiane as llie K/tUe man's Jti/, beoaaae it 
Ijr preceded even the iiivt ttcttlera of the new i-ooe. The 
Dlr native lioQvV'iiiakers are the burly, duziug bumHa- 
•everal species, of which 11. W. Emerson siugs: 

" Wlien (lie iioiilUcru wind lo Hay-dtkyu 
WiUi It nei uf sUmiu); liiizo 
Silvers the horizon wftll, 
Anci wiLli xnflncKi tnnebing all, 
'note the liiimnn countonitnce 
With a color of romaocc. 
And, IsAuing xuLllo beau, 
Tucas Ibu toil lu viulcu^ 
Tliou, la suuuy guliludug 
Rover nf tlii; HD<!f nvnoda. 
The grwn silcin'c tlo*t iH^placo 
Wiih Oiy mrliow, bicczy bass." 

(ogista generally see in the name the Greek Bo}ifiii\ioi, 
fcr it. moreover, to the name of the genus Somb-ua, to 
ithe iucH-'Ct bi'luiigH. lu ScLillaiid, ihc ijuitiid uf thi.- l>oe is 
|}uuiun:ig, and henoe the insect wag firsl- railed lium-bff, 
lea Humble-bee, the second b having been produced h; 
tn. The imme thus written occiira alri^ady in Barham in 
p, "Blaok Beetica and Humble Bees, Bluebottle Flies" 
^night and ths Ladif), and thu German verb bumtneln 
ftienfl iho theory. Nevertheless, a fallacious opinion is en- 
ad that tlie name ia a corruption of Mumble Bee, connected 
|e German word for it, which ia TTumtMlf fuid derivetJ from 
fetch hummel, which originally means hornless^ and makes 
^cow a cow without liortiB, but in thiti ca^e implies tho 
f a sting. Both terms ai-e in use in the United iStaUv, the 
fspccislly in the tSouth. 

tUer native insect is the iltjuash'Bug (Coreus tristiB), a 
^ species, 60 called because of its destructive power iu eat- 
I Tines of squashes and melons; tho TuntbltAm^ (Caiitliou 



lotvis) akin to the sacrod uanthicuB otthn Egrptiana.wboiDii 
thously rolls his balls of dung on dusiy nmds and IomI; {nihij 
the Sand-fim or tSand-hopjtfr (Orchcstrs). dwelling on Ibe 
fooast of Long Island iind other sandv pluoes, wbere be (lit 
oliildi'eu by bis emlden and energetic leaiie, by which he 
eeoApc* piiNiiit; and the ^eed-tick^ a minnLc and nuxiooi 
which barrowa in the skin, ami produces often rery eeriouj 
V(^nienc& The whole company is designutod by the |)oei 
*' sandilcus, junkies, and greenheads." The Swd-tkk ii,iai 
probability, the same iusect :id the bailed Jiyger or C'Atjrrv. of 1 
tncky, which has dt*rivfd ilii nutate from the genuine Vkiftti 
West IiidicH (Pulex penetrans), but docs not, like the Utt«r, i 
torment by depositing its eggs under the skin of the f«t. 
ulorly the toes, wliich often pvodnces quite formidable eoreit 
arc fio nuDiemitH and jierjietuully prenent in the South, tint I 
■ have their c-hangiug nonienclatare according to age. *"T1« 
•eason they are culled iVfrfZ-Lieke, the next year they 
I'flir/iij^.ticks, and the third, {5?f/- ticks.*' (P. H. Go8M, 
from AJahama, p. 990.) 

Piaiits have the privilege in every country on earth of i 
ing in a double characti'r: with a sciontiHc name-, n.4criil, 
known only to the botatiiiit, unci ivith a homely name, fumiliin 
all, and generulty derived from some i)cculiarity of form «ri 
cr Bonu' medicinal virtue, nseribed to them from oxperim«i 
more frequently, from enperstlHon. This is, pcrfaapdr mdir] 
erally the cnsi? in Amoi'ica than in Europe, becaitsf* the Unii 
tiers were rarely acquainted with botanical names, and, M 
other hand, veiv careful observers of everv new tree ot Af 
flower or root, they met, always expecting to makn some 
discovery, when they did not apprehend a n*w danger. Thuil 
were naturally led to nitme new plants flwn those featawl 
their apjwai-ance that atrnck them most forcibly, or froa 
manner in which they conid make them useful iu the fieUj 

T]ic herbs <ii the land suffer under the uufoi-tunatc ten 
Americana have to aoften initial vowels by an itdditioiuil f •"' 
they say year for ear. and even yere for here, chiefly in 
and BouLhward, ao thoy also say over a wider region, fsr* 
g«ner&Uy for herb, and yarb-tea is a very commoD irtiel^ ' 



my in the New England States. " Then we had an Erie Ilailroad 
!>1en<]iil brMikfast:' bcnn-cotTec, i/erl/-ivH, Inathcr-stenk. and 
W-wat^r miik." (Nftw York Tribune, January 23, X871.) 
la&ardck of tea is altogether a great mystery in the Hinted 
Wttt. While their fast clipjiMrH briiijr fresh te«s in oiiormoUB 
■otities. and tlic new ntilwuy from the Pociilc eiiablce Uip WM 
hlities to reuch the greut murkeU in still sburter time nfter thu 
*|t hu8 been gathered, /Imericans drink perhnjw a gn.-ater varictv 
^wroctions under the name of tea limn any othor nittion. It 
ft a great puzule to Iwnevolent lailiei^, who, at the beginning of 
I kt« Civil War, tried to mako themselrea uaeAil in tending 
wnnning' thu wounded suldicrii. The questiun, "Will yon have 
Vp of tea?" was Terr apt to elicit the counler-queEtion, ■' What 
Id of tea have you got ? Bafie- or nass- or alorii-tea ?" It was soon 
Covered that ^ore-t«a was all o?er the interior of the country 
i> name for genuine tea. or at. leu^t such as is Bold- under that 
b in '• stores." Tay, huwever, they pronounced it, the Irish of 

JB " And sneere m Wmcdiy m ihey 

^^ Like futDOlcs o'er their inorniug fau," 

enerer they were Sonthenicrs, following here also the good 
1 English custom, derived from Uie Chinese — 

("Here, tliou grcBt Aiura, whom \hrtt rcalmt obcjr, 
I>o«t •ometlmea ciiutuel lake, nnd siitneliiiica tea." 

^e-tea and 3fint-i&& were, of course, familiar to all narseg, 
i Stus-tea made itself kuowa as iSafsa/raS'tea, a decoction 
He of the tender shoots and the roots of a laurel (Sneeofras offi> 
tftle), the bark of which h»s an oxocodingly pleasant tAate and 
igrsnre, and valuable medicinal properties. Spic6-bea is, in like 
knner, mode from another laurel common at the Soutli. the 
■■U (Lauvns benzoin; Lino.), the bark of which is very 
PPHs much valued in fever, whence it ig aho known && Fevtr- 
W, Under the former name it appcurs in W. C. Bryant'a lines — 

" Tliii Un{:1e(I thicket on the l)*Mfc almve 
Tliy ba»lD, how the watfra k«ep It green 1 
There tlie (pAv-AtuA lifts 
H«r Icaty bmcei." (?** f^tnlann.) 

Jtraqr-lea (Ceauuthusamericanat is kuown lo K«w Jim^i 
aud Bohta-iea means a dark t«a made of «verr otJm phut 
herb in Auieriou — i-uily u«( of the Chinwe «l»rnl» known U 
uuiTiti. Sovih'^ea'UA or V/ipoa (Ilex vomitoria) uccnn J( 
and .South, and. in spite of its fonnitlablt, scientific tutmr, 
u )>li-a«ant and riiif;)i(ly iiituxicuting tra — at least m skT the 
»f North Carulitia, in whose 8tat^ it is indi^noua. 'IIust 
IfATee by a slow Uvat aud then make au iufusitin of it. v 
b« (juittf palatalfle, a« the )>lant« belong lo the eamo faoiil 
which, iu Peril, the famuus MatV^-tcA is prepared. £iaai 
Labrador is called upon to aid in furQishing a raiittr 
favorite bevo rage : at least in the Northwest tlier have a turn 
J/iMA-Tea,and another culled Ijafn-mfor-XfUL madef^oni tv» 
(Ledum paltigire and L<i>diiin' luufoliuiu), (he learn of 
poaaeas niodorate luucotio quaiitie*. and are said to fm 
plea«ot infaaton. At the utber end of the Udiod. in Taa 
Mextcd, and the adjoining tcrritorios, S^mta FMx^ it | 
niudo of the leaves of n plant which has the modest merit 
ing like the tea-shrnb (AUtonia thcarorniis), although the 
does noc extend to taste or flavor. In tlie Far West, at Uu 
the Uvuky Mountains, grows a shrub known as litd Rwi, 
produces a t«a not nnlike the genuine article, aud is eaidt 
latter, to '* cheer and not inebriate." The Mrsa}utrilta of the 
Sutes is not the Moxiean plant (amilax) with its tea sad 
lur-fami'd pi'epurations, hnca variety of the ginseng plant, &a< 
niid other herbe. used as ^ultstitntes. Teas are made, b<uadM 
biilm aud elder blossoms, catnip aud penuyiuyal, honboud 
suakcroot (ludicrously written snevrut by Signor BooooM 
1698). Dittany (Onnila mariana) also furnisfa«« a tca,ao^< 
apt to grow plcutil'uUy in its localities, Uiere is a popalsri 
that, when one \\»& be«i) found, its leaves will point out tbi 
tioii of others. i 

Another preparation of vegetables appears in almost u | 
variety of forms, aud certainly ^-ontains as many diif^'reil 
diir;ts; this is the famous savce, pronounced generally mu 
in Pennsylvania aaas. The term itsoIT isold.and already ia 
aud other glossaries iinuted us meaning, vegetables cabd 
flesh-meut. Uut America has given it a far more tx^xaM 
folntiis than it «V(tr liud in Kugland, and whilst at bow 




^ereryvhet't', except ia Norfolk and a few ontlying (iJBtrict^, 
I way to the mtxiorn tcrnis of " garden-staif " mid " gwrden- 
' it hta held its on n ulL<jg'eth<.-r in the Npw Knglaud States. 
iSuutli«m States it is, oa the otliei' haud, nlmoet unkiiuwn, 
[ilaci-' supplied by tjr^tM. It. Beverley, iieverthules*, used 
taking of Virginia: ** lioul^, herbs, vine-fruits and Balad- 
, thoy dish up in various ways, and lliiii Lbem very delicious 
to Lbcir aietUs, both roueted nnd boiled, frei^li iiud ailL" 
»ry of Virtfiniu, p. '-.'17.) iJtaumuut luid Fletebcr use Grwn 
I for TcEtrtablcs. and henc« the Southern U9»ye, which per- 
pvcn in the be^it society, the appearance of Baconand Orttns. 
•hall have hitrflC to rido and "n'oapon to wear," wrute Johii 
^Iph of Boaiiuke bo J. K. Pdulding, tho uovtilist, " ia&in and 
Virginia fan.',und help una make hay in tiie finest meadows 
, world." The is'ass of 2v"ew Kngluud is Ecieaiitically spoken 
S<titc«, wheu bcete, carrots, ]>ar$rup)i, and tbv like are 
to, and as Short Sauce, if onion» &r« meant, aiid other 
tw; bat ilic variety o( aatiee-a gcnenilly far oclipaea even Udc'a 
kirioboatit, thfit: heciuild iiivuntanew Miiioe for every day of the 
p. W. Irving, tlierefore, already speaks admiringly of a veiicr- 
H dame, "deeply skilled in the mystery vi making apple-sweet- 
fcte, iont/ suiict, and pumpkin pies." (Knickerbocker, History 
^iB y<irk. p. 234.) Tho word is itscd as a verb also, so that 
iwthornc could write, "He wod a bright>eyed man, but 
\y pined away, which was not mnre than natural if, aa some 
afHrmed, bid ordinary diet Wiig fog, morniug mist, iiud a 
the densest cloud within his reach, muctd with moonshine, 
ever be could get it" {T/io (.ireiii OirtuHcte,) Then arose 
lUD taaeemuH, the green-grocer of other lands, of whom the 
author speaks thut^: " Hi-hind comes a S{^[|«v»»j7)'. driving a 
iSun full of new potatoes, greeu ears of coru, beets, carrots, 
niips, and summer Mguushes.'' {^2'he Tvti- Gatherer's Day.) By 
ind tranutioi) the tharp, spicy character of ordinary sance, 
prigin in the Latin term for $aU, waa transferred to an 
it, tbarp reply, and the person gifted with the power of 
g them was called saucy. Thus tauce, or in Yankee 
ss, has the same meaning of abii&e or impudence of 
bh. which Ualliwell already gives to the term in older times. 
Lowell writes it his owu way in liie lines — 


" Offtli th« MfW Utt I txa call to mind, 
Enitluid does make the mokt onplcawiit Und— *^ 

vhile J. C. Keal uees the more commou form : ** Tve a pw 

to strike and bo aanatf," nnd "Oou't (five me none of to 
for I don't mind fans." {tftarcoal Shctchfs.) The tern 
ooursc, not of Americnn origin ; aauee is to this dar und ii 
(England) not ouly in [inwieelT the Bnnie nicAning orf^mrde 
but also corrupted there into »arce and am.*, ivith the mca 

Tho Ami-ricaii continent ahounds in a niinibor of untlsi 
plants, which are frc-qucntly made ftTftilable for some uM 
pose, as tliM t^arly seUlera learned it from the Indiani. 
the oommon Putfy-Root (Aplectrum hjeinale), more | 
Itnown by itd familiar name of Adam ami Evt, irhicb it 
the pftir of tnberons roots always found together, thoagh bt 
to the growth of different years. The plant is an opx*^ ^ 
and was in Arabic calle^l khnf>jut-al-8alib (Testiculis t-iil[n) 
■winch tbw Englisli Salep \t derived. Thf- latt<?r. a Ijereinp 
ftom the powdeivd root of thu Orchis, catted in England tl 
h.inded Orchis, witli sugar and milk, was formerly much 
stalls at Londnn at an e.trly morning hunr. It h now 
forgotten, having been entirely snperaeded by the cup o5 
mnd<Tn noffi^e-statlfi, bnt even C'harlcs Lamb etill meatie 
bowl of salep. {Slang Dictionary, p. 31 a) The Ah 
(Heiictiera nmertcaua), so ciilied on account of Its Uti 
qualities, niwd to be formerly mnch used by berh-doctofiL 
not jpt entirely been Abandoned, as tJie Plturtjfy-rooi (Al 
tuberosn) is used as a mild tonic and stimnluit Tlie Sin 
(Sftuguiiiaria canadeneie) hns its name from the blood-tvd j 
its I'oot, bat is perhaps more gcnenilty kaowo by ila Indiw 
of Pueveon, of which R. Beverley already reports: "'At 
the pwiwooM, with which the Indians used to paint f- 
and the Bumftch and sassnfyas, which muko n doep v 
tortj of Virginia, i>. 238.) 'I'he Bowman a root ((jilleatt • 
atii) is in like manner better known as Indian Phtfaie. "» 
of Americim ipvcao, and frequently used aa a vomit" (i*- K" 
val. nistoi-y of thf Valley of Virginia, p. »38) ; "thou|h 
adda, ''moro frequently n decoction of wnlnut-bork. wtiiA 



a purge, was peeled dowiiwHnls. when used for u vomit it 
;Ied apward«."{!) Bread-root (Psoraleit fseulL-nUi) is Die 
twrved name of a beet-like plant growiiig abundanllv in th« 
Icy WoHiiUiuB, and exceediog not nnfrequendy twenty iucliea 
icunifcrfncc The white pulpv substance within is full of favi- 

rixiull«r, aiid fnrniHhea a most pnhituble and nntritiona 
It has also the iiitrae of Jmiitin Turnip, hnving been long 
\ b_v the Sioux and other tribes of thu neighborhood, iiniJ a 
of it (Camassia esculenta) timt of Kwmts-Iioot, the 
of the Digger Indiana, while the early French hnnters 
it Pomme Hlaiuhf, or Pomme dea Prairten ; \mt it. must \\a 
sfully distinct fivm another Indian Turnip (Arum tri- 
im). the root of vhich is acrid, aiul; when ftvah, highly [xiitron- 
I One of the thoiisand pretended rt-medies forthat dreiid afflie- 

► thecHnctT, iadniwiifromaye-llowish plant (Orobnucho) found 
ilmoat all parts of the tTnion, and hc^ncc called CnKc^r-ixiot. 

-pinl'-Toot (Hpigelia nmrihindiea) is by no means limited to 
ylnnd. w. the name would Eeem to indicate, bnt grows fur to 
Bvuth. and is quite generally known as Uttrolina Pink also — 
int bearing rcry beantiful Qowers, and having gr^l nicdiciiml 
•rs aa a purgative and aTermifiige. The vnrinuH plantj« whicK 
llali. in BO-ealled A'nakc-Tonts, an antidote against annkc-bites, 
b already bwm mentioned in eonnceiion with snakes. The 
ts-Hoot (Collinsoniu amadengis), the Howers of which have an 

► like leraoiia, is aUo known as Rich Wrvd from this fragrance; 
I much U8?d in family pnicliee a« a dinretie, and is said to 
^ largely into tbe manufaeiiire of fashionable stomachics 
P Whistri/-rw>t anggcats its pnrpose by its name. It is a eaotns, 
VHng on the sandy hilts along t!n> Kin (inuide., and similar dis- 
*« farther South, and known to the Indiana aa J*ieoi-r. The 
»r dig up the root, slice it, chew the pieces, and swallow the 

B, which lias a powerful intoxicating effect. "Onrmen hud 

iomc n'ftifkfit/ Plants, and Jack, having long been with 

18, taught them at once how to use tlie delightful trcafiure : 

hours they were not only merry, but wild as devils, and 

to guard the corral uurselvts all night, for they were 

uncondcious of what they verv doing." {Across the 

!Memdrake of Europe has a namciutku on Ibis continent, 


vhicb, however, is a very diilereut plant (FodopltTllnm prig 
H. T. Tuokennsn tells as that Itiure Jircd iu Medfanl \] 
-Kits), more thou a hundred years ago, Jatie Tun«U, mho < 

" Ttie UuBliin]; poiLcb mid gloHy |>lam lliere llei, 
Aod vritli tliu iiwufrvJu tcmjit your bniid* anil efr^ ' 

'The same plant u, ouUiidr uf New Knglaud, gencialljj 
'm Maj appUs and thus described in iht- lines of an 

** Hyslertmia pltat, that mrae a lasdom Ihiif, 
Tlie fttar, (natf<>Tmeil by sumtncr't foltry air, 
Aud in the fibm of the Ivng, lUin fvot, 

A. |X)t«nt inedlcioe bev; 
While ill each shield, wbidi tlie pure bloiioui bite 
So caniAilly, a poUunoua dcaUi mMca." 

The same term of May-Apph ia not uii&uiiueutJv ap|ilj«<, 
largf, globular excrescence prwiiiOed h\ Ui« ating 
miniature Qowcra of the 6wump Honeysuckle (A^ .- 
and, ou accoaut of its frequent oocuiiVQee, ocowionallv ul 
fihrub itficlf. 

It is not impossible tliat the word Uoober or ti^ii^r n^jl 
neoted with the gwgruphJcal diviaon of the ooimtiy,i>] 
ii the name of a di«trict iu the lijii' . 'i 
the nut alxtuuda, and the llati&tia lim 
trade. In some paiia of the United atates a kind of 
made of the nut ; in others it scrvus, when pur'-'- -^ 
with sugar, at) a degsert-GWocnntiat ; while in K i 
only eal«a, but uited to Airuieli a v;tluublu and pi> 

The potato, from the 8{>ani4li inUata, api^uo 
Stated almost uniformly as tho/rwA Potato, to di:^; ^ 
tlie native Sated or Carolina \toiaxa (Baiatid I'd'. 
convolruluB, und m uallod by Linn^. It has, ho . 
to the familiar phraeo of iStuaU PotidocJi, applied in 
Boything mean or petty. It is tL- 
Jft)%(ti3i \t) Some Fttmpkitt*. "Uivt*i!i> 
Presidency — whether Whig or Democrat— and I win 
mnaU-]MttaU) politicians and pcttifoggine lawycn t'* •f-^ 



ig to robmit the destinies of this great ofition to such 
(New York ffrrald.) " All our Am^ricftn poet.9 ave btit 
iafofg compared with Bryant/' says Qti entliusiiistic ud- 
f the poet, in the New York Trihunf. In N'ew Knglnnd, 
fctntocs are not as easily raised as in mure favoivd re.qions, 
ve is QccasioDally stivugthruud by an intcneifytng addi- 
K. Yankee wjs: "Small polaloes—hyr in a hill— tliv hills 
urt — »nd a gT*-At« vsy to go and dig Vm." (Hon. J. U. 

ng poculiar ptanta of this kind must he noticed also the 
htut (Aracliifi hypugoea), which has the stniiigc habit of 
f its pods underground after (lowering, in order to rijwn its 
Sence it is also known us Earthmtt, while its most common 
t the fkinth, wher? it i« ext^^nsively cuItiTatcd, is Pmnitft 
ifc pea-like pod and seed. Among the negroes in Floridn it 
soTtT, known jis/'j'Hi^cr^, while in Virginia and Nortli Caro- 
re-a[>iK-ars as Oooher, or Grooberpense, and is as such evea 
ill market reports. 

ftcpM is a genuine pea, and cnltiTnted largely for the 
irpose* as clorer. In Oregon the Chinook Indians live 
AD edible hiilh railed Wapatoo (Sngittaria sngittifolia), 
called Tuk-hat in their native diaterl, whik- another root 
ime distant region is the Thi/flte-Tvot, mentioned by 

side of these undf^rgronnd plant* peenliar to the Tnion, 
numerous berries krniwn here under new or ncwly-np- 
Imrs, nf which aonie assume quite un tmporlniiee as com- 
'artieleB. Such are, for inslanpe, CrnHhirrric:* {OxyooccuB 
earpns), n different variety from that common in Eumpo, 
rgely cnltivated for the market. They were noticed already 
pt&in John Smith, though not. approrwl of; for R. B. Bevor- 
Qt OS that wviniifmM *' are of a lirely red when gathered 
apt in water, and make Tery go«id tiirCs. I believe these are 
ies which Captain Smith compared to the English goose- 
id called Hntv cornenx, haying perhaps seen them only 
lashe-s, where they are always very sower." {llittory of 
p. 114.) The Tree-Cranberry {Vibtirnnm opnliis), also 
u Cramp-Bark, is not equal to the former, but much 
by lumberers in Northern regions, who cook them with 



tnolasftes; Ibey pUyod qnite » promincnr part to 1D«1 
Amold'fl expedition. A third oranlwrry (Vihumqm 
oalf a amull, elirivelled fnitt, which is known as CVaki 
bntiiglit to the iiurkcc in Ma«!sacliuficlta and Cnnot'ji, nil 
many litUe stems, very much like misios, aud qiiilc inapi 
French Canadians, hovever, are fond of tbcm. And ci 
cerises. The Sereict-Bernj, called by Sir Gecr^e Sinti 
sort of croB3 between the cranberry and the bUck currwii 
fruit or a Ehrub (Amclanchicr caniulensis), which is all 
Shadbush (see S/tad), and eaten either alone or mixed wi 
mioan. General T. F. Ueaglier say« of it: *'The (at^mf 
vk»-h«rry, abounding in tJio Hocky MouDtwus, hw a da 
taste, the richness of wtiich make« most people in this rtg, 
of them. The Indians gather and dry targe <]nantitiei, u 
properly prepared and cooked, they are very palatable ud 
soinc. They grow upon a bush varying from two to tn 
high, Mit seldom exceeding two incbes ia diameter. The 
very hard and tongh, and is much nged by the lodianj,! 
play j^at skill in strai^hte^nlng it out for arrows and n 
{Rides throuffh Montana,) In the Sonthcm Stateii, wli 
Service- Harry is quito common, the shrub grows to 
respectable tree. 

The Cartridge- Berry (Mitchella ropoua and Gaal 
cumbeiiB), is the name of two very different plants, 
former (Mitcbclla) is tasteless, while the latter i« eqaallj 
in color but pleasant to ilie palate. In the New FngV"^ 
and in Canada it is o^n called twin-berry^ from ita a 
double scarlet-berry, while iu Eaton's Botany this uamaH 
honeysuckle — is given as the Iilngllah name of XyloKtcnl 
tuiu, and the Xylosteum solonis ia called the swamp 1«ii 
(S. S. Haldeman.) N. Hawthorne says of it, that "Thi 
offered her the partridge- berriety the growth of the j» 
autumn, but ripening only in spring, and now red as di 
bluod upon the withered leaves." {Scartet Letter.) It his 
aromatic flavor and odor, wliich ia made uao of ia tbem 
ture of odor, though it is curious that in such casea tbed 
the inner bark of the blank birch (Betula Icnta) can hanllf 
tinguished from that of the partridge-be rriea. It is also km 
cAtffutfr-berry, and in New England oocofionallT as Aitt 



berries (Kubus csnadensis) difler from the English rarietyia 
, bein^ black, and nttfrly nTiIik*» dewdrops, which the Eug- 
tervies represent by a while, wax-like revering ; they grow on a 
tr*iliug blackberry, wbile the black nufpherry itself (Rnbna 
Lcnt-nlitf) is more geueralty known 03 TJn'mHe-hvrrj, from its 
Dblancc to a Uiinibl<^ JSiibcrries, u cnrruptiou of blueberries* 
Ipre aa in £Dgl»iul only another name for whortleberrieg, and 
nine to which Shakoapcflro refert in the line — 

•• There jrinch the mslds aa blue as bitberry." 

1^ however, luaiutained, that here also the variety is uot the 
ii'DS the English, but belongs to the division £uvaccinivm. 
ij »re great favorites with American poets, and R. W. Ementon 
> of th«m : 

" Aoght iinssroiy or nnclcan 

Unlli my Inaccl ncTPrseon, 
Bin viokte nnd t/iltxrry bells. 
Maple snp and ilafTodih." 

C^ft* Httmite Bee.) 

this eiceplion the terra hnekieberry has entirely enperafded 
I old form of \ohorUebfrry, even when the latter spelling is atiil 
lilied. This ia qnite natural, as the old Kngligb tei^n whorl, 
■lling^ a small blackberrv (Tlalliwell), is now qnite obsolete. 
flbdi in whieh they grow ahumlantly an', in New England fre- 
pitly called postures, and to this custom J. R. Lowell alludes 
IM) hesHVB: "Thu greater part of what is now Uambridgeport, 
then, in the native dialect, a fiuciitberry paslure." Very dif- 
it is the so-called choke-berry, in reality the fimit of a low 
-tree (Pyrtis arontifolia), and deflerving its name as fnlly as 
^4-chrrrtf (Prunua borealis), with which iC shares rcmarka- 
Bgent qualities. 

are gathered from a plant called wax-myrtle (Myri- 

k), becftase itsfragrant leaves, resembling those of tlK-myr- 

l^hate an odor like that of the bay: when boiled f^ow^l tlioygire 
D«^ranC green wai, wliich is used in milking candles and for 
-w purpoaes. Hack berries or Pompion berries, on the contrary, 
* obtained from a ebrub, which at times reaches nearly tbeeiio 
,tree (CeltJa occiden talis), and are sweet and. edible, not un- 



like 8o<cn11(^ bird-cherrtes. The queen of them iH ii idi 
tiie lo%'elv. creppiiig siunebtrrrif (Chiogenes lii^pidntu). «liei 
delicate spniys Irail over the bare rock atiil mos*, bnuim; 
vhito berrr. Ini^r than the small, pointed Icares; nlthon^l 
give the prize to the fpive'berri/. (he ''little, ciwi'iii. 
with its scwlct berriea." (Mrs. Trail, Th« Ca>. 

^nfl.) id 

Among the so-cnllcil rceeds, we meet with the famffl 
' of England, referred to by Tennyson in the line — 

" The ftagilo bindiead*' bells imd bryony riDja" — 

vhich, heru lu in Enghind, designates the Taricticsof Corn 
Trhile the Blucic Bryony (Tumus) is called hiaei bia^ 
tlip Sniilux raut/h bimitcefd (Louilou). Bugle-weed (Lya 
giuica) is the name of a plant more commonly knownas' 
boai-hoimd, and, iu the Sonth especially, highly e;ile«m«l 
lions of the chc^t; it is taken as a tea or made np in caad 
Carpet-wted (Molluga) is nppruprintely bo called, as it ot 
ground, even in cultivated liclde, with it^ small, sprvadingl 
aa with a close carpet, while the Iroa-tceeti (VernoQia n 
oensis) i«, on the contrary, the talle-st weed found on ' 
blae'graM soil of Kentucky : at the North it is more| 
town as Flal-top. Perhaps the most familiar nf all ibef 
is the yame^/omH-iTflPi/ (Datum Btrnmoninm). in the Soi 
formly culled Jitnson'Wttd or JimmtH siiuply, deriving i' 
fh>m the ancient town of Jamestown, where it wan first < 
to grow artcr it« introduction (torn the Weal Indies ; lina 
baa gpreail over all parU of the oonntry. and its l>eautirol 
with their naaseous smell, are wen on every river-bank 
r every low place. iL liererley says of it : " The Jametia 
one of the greatest ooolers in the world. It boingan tai 
was gathered very young for h boiled salad by some of th« 
to paciiy the troublea of bacon, and some of them eat pk 
of it^ the effect of which was a very plcaaant comedj ; I 
turned natural fouls upon it fur wveral days." [HMorf 
ffinia, IL p., 110.) Like all the Daturas, ibia plant also 
tain poisonous properties, which medicine employs le a 
against asthma and similar diseases; it isafavoritedrugw 
old women among the negroes, JaMt*toicii-a4id buA£ jw 



tonc of the most cooling npiiliciitioiis Icnown tobotAnisU. 
sriey derives from this " coldness" a ((Uaint hope of counter- 
; iC6 puUou : " IVrbups," hf eayi^ " Oiid v/an llic eaaiti herb 
rk Anlhony'ij urmy met witli in hh retreat from the 
la n'tir. . . Wine, us lh<? etory says, wu8 fouud u aovereigu 
for it, vhicU is likely cuongli, the malignity of the herb 
(Hialory of Virginut-, p. 122.) HardJiack iathean- 
nmmo nimiliarly bestowed upon n lowly plant (Spirea to- 
0* gi'o^'iug 'u liJ^v grounds und bimriug u mudest but 
flower, which J. R. Lowell mentions, when he eays, "Our 
Xcw Gnglund lanes, shut in by bleak stone wnlls on either 
|1, and where no butter flowers are to hi; gnthered than golden- 
iand hardhack." 

kiers is lliu familiar name of all creepere with tbomfi or 
jtlts, ttmoug which mnks the wild nispberry, as well aa the 
tUig 8>iiiiinia brier (Schrankift nneinatji), which is so irritable, 
i the alighte^t touch makes the leaflets close insUiiitly. It is 
ilmown aa the Sensiiivo Brier. 

fbo Pickertl Wted (Fontideria corJata) owes its fiahy name to 
copemtitious beliur, once quite general in EnghuiiJ, that it bred 
Cerel: its arrow-headed leared and spikes of blue flowers aiv 
It attractive in standing waters throu;jhout the Middle States, 
t F'll-e-icfril »t Fake simply (Phylohu'cadocandrio) is one of 
most useful plants of the South, where all its parts arc proflt* 
f employed : the root for medicinal puriKJSes, the young shoots 
the table ulV-rthe manner of aspiiragus, and the licrric« oa a 
>ria; dye of rich purple with puor pt'fiple- Polce-juiee is oeca- 
kallj used iu beverugefi, and the Poke-berry as food for birds, 
\ other animals. From iU great {>opuiurity ihc weed it) known 
' ly of uomes, such 06 Po-can, the Indiiiu name in Vir- 
ni wliich i'uke is derived, jia Cocnni at thi? North, und as 
■ptimd Pigeon-^i-ry in Kew Kngland. A peculiar nsefnlness 
Biltof the Rosin-wced (Silpiiitim loeiniuLum), the leaves of 
ioh are supposed to point nearly North and South, and are 
*W constantly consulted, especially by French yoyageurs in their 
iffn^TS across prairies without landmarkB. The weed is on this 
punt also called Compa.ii-pfant. 

I same nlaas of jilnnt^ belong a few others not designiited 
fDcb OS the pretty little Mueis (Oldeulandia cavrulea), 



a delicate little herb, wUicIi in earlj spring' fills tli9 wood liQ 
tufU of pale-bine floweTs, each having a eniuU TrUow mis 
centre, known also as Quakers. The filuiing Slarx. un iln 
trary, ropresents both a Colchicum and a mi-dii'iaul ()biii -K 
farinosa), which, uuder the uome of DeeWs Bit, ii higblj alt 
in the West for its virtueis, kouwu to the Indium fom c 
The Boneui ia the liimiliar name here of the EugUab TboB 
wort (Eajiatorium porfo1)atiim),irith ite mcdidnal propertn 
the Fleabant (ErigiTon caiiadenee), which is similarU eai 
and largely used b; the Shakers in tlicir well-kuowii prepan 
Its namu is derived frotn the Kiiglisb fieahaue, used for ih\ 
pose indicated b; the wurd, and as such niuntiuned atn< 
Bailey. The Shakers use, iu Uk« manner, hn^ quantitim 
CooUcort (TiarcUa cordifolia) and of the Froifiror! 
densis) ; it derives its pccntiar nuoie from the Ixaint i 
ice which late in autumn shoot forth from the cracked bid 
the root, and give it the appeoranoe of fn^stwork. 7/orii 
(Solatium carotiueniie) is the familiar name of u troatil 
nettle, n low wec^, which in the Southern States U ilfflo* 
versal, and in fall and winter covers the fields with it^hri^ 
low iK'rrit's, that are often eaten Iiycliildren, and cause gran 1 
venieiice by their poisonous qnalitieft. The Eoplish name / 
roya/ has in America beeu transferred Ut a plant reA'tablii 
original mint, but different in kind (Kedeoma pulegioidttf^. 
has not only a similiir appearance but alao the same very p 
ta^te and odor. Aanllicr plant resembling the pennyroyij 
Union, ig known as Blue Curls (Trichostema dichouimtmi] 
the peculiar clustering ehapo and deep blue rolor of iU I 
They resemble in this the Ladiei TretsM (Kenltia Uirlill 
tho Soathem States. AWany Hemp (Urtica canadvosU) i 
its name from the fact that in Albany (New Yurk) iu 
bark was once <iuite largely used in the niauufaeinre of 
while a nettle with succulent, semi-tmns[HirBat eXema ii 
CUarteeed (Pilea pumiU). The Evtsrlasting (Qnaphahn 
Cudiceed, is the American represeulative of the Inuuoil 
Eurepe in name and peculiarities; " herb-doctors " alone 
the name to a pretended virtue of the herb to prolong Ula 
nitely. Lamb's Quarter is the equally qiuiint name- oft 
(Ohenopodinm album) onc« supposed to be of epedal ui 




ong Immbs' food, making tbem rapidly Qt for the tabic. 
'. on Uie other band, was ia cbe same early days believod 
for hydrophobia, and hence ko called; a more 
is SkuU-eap (ScnleUtiria latcriQora), from the 
of its flowers, (be calyx of which, when iuTerted, loolcj 
helmet witli therizoropeD. The £iUer^Swe«t {Hoiauum dul- 
), recently chosen ta tbetiUeof a volume of exc«llt;ijt]Meius 
G. nolland, deserves iU nnm^ wt^rll, as the tsiite is tirst hitter 
en sweet; it is a heautjful plant, often large enough to be- 
|4klmo&t a shrub, and famous for itB clustcrB of orange-colored 
winter, ojtoning like u rortillu around the crimson borrice. 
aljoHud uatunilly in a country of which 6u small a port 
^t under cultiratjoii, and evon springg up voluntarily in 
' iidance oil o^rtain soils- Some of theec varieties, 
. r French or Spanish uames. hitve already been men- 
; others are ciillod by somu suggestive term, not always 
ing the tame thing at in Kngland. Tbuit Bear-Orma (Yuc> 
Lmenlosa), common by \\w r<ide of little eti^ams and «hady 
I, U Dot a grass at all, hut a lilaceons plant, and haa a much 
claim to its other name of Silk-Gratis, from the silky flla- 
tbaiappearon thuedge.s of iU leaves. Hlu*i'Gra»s (Foacom* 
the Ci^ntrary, ie a wcll-knowa and most valuable grass, 
'tidily in several Tariulies on hmi'stonu soil, and spriog- 
Toluutarily all over the (Stales of Penn^ylvimia, TennesBue, 
!«ntaelcr. It remains green for the lai'g«'.r part of the year, 
:rves to raiso th<^ eiiorniouB lu-nls of gu^wrior cattle for 
thuee States are Camous. Both the region where it grows 
ly »ud the suttleri thvre are known as Hlue-Qrast gimply, 
lOu Lbt^ Siah> of Keutucky vspecially is often tbiis dosig- 
The Postmaster'Gencral has resiorfd the mails on the 
n I<DuisYilte and Islington. It docs not speak welt nditiou of the ^^ue- Orass lieijion, tltat he lias feit war- 
^^ doing this only on assurauces from the !!?ecreiary of 
Hpt troops have boea placed along the line fur the protection 
lu raaiJ-ageuts." (New York Tribune^ April U, ib7i.) A 
pctioB is aoraeiiniea. <|uitc' niijusily. made between lands pro- 
ng illDe-Grib>t(, and the coiiiiiarativoly jxjur laud, ou which 
grow wild, and which is Uottc« called Graptvint Loud. 
n^OrrtM (Sessleria daotyloides) and Buffalo- Clovfir have 




already been mentioned, in connection viUi boflUoei^ 
they derive their nntne^. Greuiiaov (?ramnM-UraB8(Cbo' 
abounds ill tiiu SVeetvi-ii borders, and is excolleui food for 
"In the middle of the day the cattle leave the high gruuil 
go to the river-bottoms tor water. About four o'clock titer go 
to th« high ground and graze on the rich^ra/ut«ia and boncfa-gt 
until night, whc-u they lay down on the wurm,«uidyftiulaiidi 
nntil next morning." {Orating on the Cohrudo, ]S70i] A 
Graes (Fe«tnca) is limited to the jilaina of Xew Mcyioo. 
C4[(K'-Grati:s is a jjlugue of the Soutli, beiug a vt'iy Tr6r gmwci 
qnickly ov^rruniking tlelds in which it hii£ oiicv tukeu root, in 
a mantiei' as lu defy all efl'oria at destruction. Ad M|ua] iiid 
as far tis cmps arc condurtivd, is the so-called Crah-GoM { 
ria) of Ivuaiaioua and Texas, but it makes at least amends 
useftilutisi: US hay, in which form it cauuoi be aarpaewd u fii 
£vea the fuvoriU) Uiovtr yit;lils to it in uutritiv** ijualitiea 
whJlL- or Wild C'lnvtr is of indigenous growth, and aUjQDdcoi 
fannkfi of nearly alt rivers. The red was luLrodnced into tbii 
ley of Virginia by John lit'wiu, the falber of that Genenl ij 
to whom Washington wished the gt'ueral command i)f UmI 
linental Armies to he entrusted. "It wu» curreully ivpurto 
their propheU, and believed by the Indiana geuenliy, Uu 
blood of the I'cd men, slain by the Ijew'is'.H and their folloveri 
dyed the trefoil to its sanguine hue." (Wills dc Hass, Hidl^ 
the Valletfof Viryima.) <'^'u/'jrrasji(Leei'siauryroidea) hasitil 
fivm the manner in which careletu hands or bare fcetaicci 
the sharp edges of it« leaves. Ed'Orass is agaiu nolaf^ii 
gras*. but a seaweed (Zostcra marina), which is thrown odi 
in large qnantttles, and derivea its name iVom it« intuUl 
Quinsa-Grms (Panicum maximum) has only lattly mode in 
into the UuiL'd St^ilei?. having bei-u im|>ort«d from the Wei 
diea, wbere it hiu loug been cultivated mainly to Airuidi k 
for horscj. Saii-flaif, a wry important product of aalWMB 
is of two principal surtB, called ialt-graM and blark^rM*. 1 
axQ the fiuL>, oiiort grasses growing upon the level surfacM a 
8^t-metuiaa>S) alluvial deposits of a sti-oiigu, uncluous iuuil*tBi 
ing along the New England ooust in recesses, and up lii' "' 
Talleys- A twenty-foot pole may oftcu be thrust down iawiV" 
ing uo bottom ; and yet these dangerous meadows are Rf*'' 


n. and rich harresti giithem! from the cTCT-trembling sur- 

The ToathacJu- Grass (Monocera aromatica), in a cnriong 

of Floriila ami a few atljoining distrinta, growing in a bore 

to coQBitlcmble height, and injurious to tho milk of cows 

t it when young and Luudur. The root, when eaU-n, alfectB 

lirarj gland ; Ihia has led to it-s being Jookod upou as a re- 

ogainst toothache, and hence it^ odd name, which it fih»n>i», 

r, with thfi Toni/uu-/if-'Vn:<; the common name of two 

the prickly ash imdanoTalia. But perhaps the nmsL highly 
1 of all r.ultivated grassoB is one which gratefully bears tho 
of Ihe «U"lie5t propagator. It is the Herd's Graeg (Pblenm* 

), known uiiivei-sally a» Timofhy, after Timotliy flanson, 
larried it, ahont 17^0, from Amen'ra to Kngland. 
rould not seem irapro[>er to mention among the graasi-B some 
wild-growing plants of this oiufB, whitih are pcoiiliar to 
ontinent. Snch is. for instance.'the variety known aa Wild 
(Arena fatuu), which grown wild upon the mon^ elpvatvd 
of California, and furnishes a<lmirabl<^ forage. "With a 
care," aays n local paper, "any amount of stoek may bp 
lined all the year round upon our wild oa(a, whieh will 
; op wherever moisture helps it, even after the BPi-tlfi have 
long lime dormant in the ground." Tho Wild Hien (Ziza- 
[uaticu) aUo. alt huugh a water-plant, resembles thi^ graasc«, 
ipecially oats, »a that tho early "French settlers used to call it, 
their home- fashion, folUs avoints. The Indians of tho 
lem region?, es|*cially ai-omid the headwaters of the Missia- 
depend largely upon the scanty produoe of this pLM-ennial 
fVom whenou it is alM) known as Indian Rice. It serves at 
tne time to fatten the wateilbw! that leave those regions for 
wth, so as to ouable them to perform safely their long, 
journey. To this class belongs, in appearance at least, the 
(Bromus scalinus), a tronhlesame weed growing up among 
Ue wheat, and not unlike out.'^. wliieli has given riso to the 
wn error that it is a degenemted wheat ; heucp its fii.'fineut 
of Cheat. It reaped and ground up with the wheat, it is 
to prodncft narcotic effects. The poorest of grasses, almost 
Mching the nature of a moss, is the Povertij Gra.9i (Hndsonia 
raiosa) of New England, which will grow in scanty bunches 
oil that refuses to produce anything else. 



Among Hiullcr pbots a few arc knovti In Amenm 
a|Mcial nainei irb^n becoming neettd for honwhold at 
imiyu aML Sucb kie the bettSG, knoirn in EngUod ai E 
hnMS or Fienefa-beftns, while bere they ar^ called Utrtw^i 
ftttM the atriagi or fibrx's which aiv pullt<l utT rr»iii Ow ] 
]ire|Mrittg ibcn wbeu gt-wi fV>r the t4tbk% or 'Soupf. aiM (nii 
•lly Smp-^tam*. The WHd-bmn (Phaseoliu divcriiiMitu) 
known ai the FTiM Po/o/o itf (rvf.rel Indian tribu; it g| 
all the rich botiotns of the West, and is vnry nsprul i 
Thie Ss a vcrr diffrrvnt plant from the trrW Potato Fia* 
Tolvulns panda rat ub), also ktioirn by it4 ludiuu iiant^' of i 
08H. which growis in sandy soil aH ovt^r the United Statci,! 
• root pos»;M«d of cvrtain medicinal virtoes. Tlw so^aUed 
Plant (a Tragopogon) is the familiar name of saUify, 
from th« T«9emblanf« which the plant baft in taelc, when 
to the oyster: hence it is Also called tlw V^giabit OftI* 
Caniahap€, nained m by i\w Fiviicli, id the looM varieC, 
u elMWhere knawn aa Mutk-meion, and »o earilj mscd 
fiSonth that etcrt Wfgto nscd to have his own mHon~ 
hriara are. however, limited to the Southwost, wh 
mako bread fnvm the &rtnaoeoiu root; another 
Atm^DCKbriiir. nnd not improperly, because tb(r very 
^■ttauu, in tbv rich alluvial bottomd which it prvft-TS. ai U 
size of the bambooL Alontentl is a Mexican naine,ftld 
to American eaia on tho Western iiroirira, whenf tbe nJ 
plant (Covanb staDBburiaaa) ia highly prixed as a a^ 
heraorrhiigca^ and for other medicinal virtuca 

Of Ti-ry diiTorvut aseftilnesa an- two other phmta, the t 
Plant (Loi-ren mexicana), which oovcre vast diftricts in Ik 
parts of Calironiiii and «>xtends eastward as fni- wi Arkini 
odor, exhak'd from the resinous matter it contains, (ills it 
ft great distance^ and makes it ntterly unfit for food of a 
is said, however, to possess certain pmpertiea baiufioiB) i 
matie complaints. Tbe Soap-^\»i\i (Pbalanginm ponwU 
belongs to the game regions aud is there known M Am 
pnlp, when stripped of the bark, and rubbed on wet clotb 
duces nn ahnndiiiit lather, and even smells somewlmt Ji 
brown soap. The Spanish inhabitanta tUAtl. beside^ M 
saddle-cloths of the plaiiU They also gave to one of tb< 

J mscd 
rery »! 



of Yucca, pccnliar to that conntrr, the mnne of Spanish 

Hei, fnnn tlitf reseniblnncy linme to that ivenpon by its stiff, 

►•poink'd leaves. In ]ike inamuT Hit- iiunic vT Maij-ucy, by 

they designato (ho jilant. known in America familiarly 

^) incorrectly as Century Plant, has hecouiu quil* common 

Southweatem States, iind with it tlie pulque, the woll- 

intoxicatiag bcvcnigti prepared from its sap. Kvon Cooniii 

Itie Adli«), the nnme of ii preparation (ihtnined from the 

iovn muru fumiliBrly as Arrow-Root (Zamia in tegi-i folia), 

qnite frequently nsed. since the plant i:j Uirgtly cuItivalL'd 

!)Tidii and produces a valuabk return. Cott4>n has given at 

lo special nnmes to our speech: the Sea-Ifiand Cotton, 

only on the islands along the coast and on the coiutt itji^lf 

lUi Carolina ami Georgia, once celebnited he having the 

it aiid finest 6bre of all Torietiee, hut now no longer culti- 

with sacccM; the other, Upland Ci)thfi, & variety often 

qwite near tbo former, bnt of shorter fibre and inferior 

ft. 16 in all probability the ptculinrly soft and pleasant 

of the cotion-wQol which has, from limi- of old. led to the cx- 

an, to ctitton to a person, as if to make one's self 08 pleasant 

ihio as cotton to him. which is etill very frwjuently 

\k the Sonth and West. Tin* phrase is m old that Halliwell 

!y temia it an Archaism, and quoteg Halliday and Lflnranco, 

" Hor bfinrt's as li vd as taxes and as bad ; 
She does not ercii Cflffo» ti» lier diwi." 

{Keniiavrth Burtetfite.) 

igrcve^ L(fv« for Lovn wo find also the phrase: U> cotton 
Lonrj Jf OSS or Spanish ^fa.*s (Tillandsia n.«mooidca) fonnB 
the most striking fhitnres in the Southern landscape, as it 
in long, gTRcefal feslonns? from the branrhee of live-oaka 
^reesea. It is, of oourafl, no moss, though at first sight it. re- 
el the Tree-moB» (Usnea) of the Nortli : but that isa lichen, 
this is A phenoganeons plant. Tt grows, like a trne epi- 
e, npon these trees, bnt wilhont deriring any uourishment 
them Having no roots that hind it to any oue 
j in rich clnsterB, as if it had been tbpJWT\ hy accident over 


ime fc wrfw^ a*^ >U> mmA to the imprenm tlioa;^ 

it€ tihr BsUi pvra of liTe-oakf. such as ml 
I tfar Mi^Avhoad of Saruiimli. Efen m 
Mi ^arturii esrcr tiie hare sums and bt 
vilb a aHftoHr laApn llMn a vrird, flctitions appeaniMwi 
H» Wwfim* C^ipar (Aapelopn qaimjucfoliaj is, on ibe 
faW. «■» of tbe »o« gne^l woodj Tioea knovn; it Ul 
«alM j f^iM — /i» Iboagfa b hu nothing to entitle U to i 
AMMUvawl te WmMim$. Tbe Bermuda \ln« (Vitia 
k tkc OiielM 0r^pf g( Sa«tl>eni Slatu^ &motu for it* 
Umav^bat boanae so frvit. Tbs /Vr-ffm^ (Vicis I 
mm aatacod by B. Bender a> growiog ** npon small riocij 

^mB baadwt. aad of a lank taste, when ripe, 

nadl «f Ae las, &MB vbeace thertfe caUmi/oz-^rrii/iBS." 
•^FrrfUM^fkllC) Aaotber erpUnatiot) of Lite nojneui 
Aaoi tte Ao^ p a h ewt aw arbicti cbanctirrizcj the eurfnce gf] 
Isra. la itM Soath a kiadnd giapa (Vitis rulpilia) la 
fay tbat aaaM. whidi bears larger berries aad u leea acid tbttj 
fcWMi. &u tbcce » stiU aaotber sooroe from nhicii Uie 
1h* baen traced : tbe oU Bi^uh word to /ere, in the 
to iatoxicale. For ia the jrear IMO Beaacb«in]i PIaclI 
vvMe of a aiae is I>ela««R (FTcdale), and pnuaed it;: inioi 
tiag fMlities in tiiese qnaiot words: **A second dranght. 
' aMBtks oU, wiU/fo* a reaaooable pMte.'' atid hence, it is 
aroM the name of na-Grvpe. The; alionud in the 
StMes : Sir John Hawkins Ecpoke of drinking a wine 
Aawrioaa grapes ia Florida, id the vcar ].iij4, mcmorublf ai' 
blnk-TaBT of Sbakefpcore, and a high authoritr on iJie 
aj^ in 1870 : '* The woods of Lonisiann, Mi^imppi, oitd 
u aboond in rarieUei of wild Tines, that vieM mumm' 
' fraitagc^ renowned as raccoon, bear. buU. chicken, and/wx- 
{Awuriean Wi»ea, p. €35.) The reddish color of the firs 
Tttiief^ re-appears to u little phosphoreM«nt moss, known 
fire. "The little t-atadid {sic) pierced the air with bis 
nuuic The/ox-^ro — as the country people call it — ^glowed 
eoaaly from the cold and matted boiom of the marsh.** (J< 
Keoued.v, SwaUoie Barn, p. 173.) It i« a kind of roMeu , 
.which at night resembles a mass of glow-worms, and o*ti -^ 
Ibrilliant^ to the decaying micelinra of a fuDgoa The Muti'1 

^» (Vitis rotundiHora) U a native of Texaa, bearing small 
'sith Iwge berries, aud capftbk of fnrnishing a very au- 
-.iuc, rosemliliug Burgiuiil}'. 

eo-cMilled Supplejack (BercUomia volubilis) is a creeper 

inch roaembUug the ii)us<.'itdiuo vine, but with u dt^epcr 

le same is derived fi-oin the very pfculiar manner in 

[ittwiste and cutIb around the 6hnibs to wbicti it cliuga, 

produce very cnriona shapes aud curves, which arc lUHde 

n the manufactun^ of nuppk-jack caiitis. All theao plants 

climb up trees arc, in America, indiscriminately called 

Tliere 13 aniojig the Vines ouo called Cross Vine, from 

kgnlar circumetauce of its stem, ou the strippiug ufr uf its 

sntaueously dividing into fom- parts, aa if it split cross- 

J quarters." (P. H. GoBse, I^ttern from Alabama, x>. W^) 

ing the shrubs iMsculiar iu name and nature to Auieriea, the 

leservcs a place only to so for as its uaQu> is rcektci^iily trana- 

> a nuraWr of other ahi'uhs, that resemble the origiual in 

I of their leaves. Tbe people thus call a buckthoru (Hliam- 

iflorius) the Dwarf Alder, the Swcor. Pcpppi-husb (Olethra 

1) the Spiked Alder, and even a Winter-Berry (IVJuoa ver- 

ft) the Black Alder. In lilcc mautier they appropriate 

le of the tropical Piutentu to a sweet-scented shrub [Culy- 

floridus), llie bark and wood of which have quite a spicy 

At times, a more careful distinction is attempted, by calU 

CaroUna Allspice, from the State, in wliioli it is quite 

The Button-Bush (Cephalanthua occJdenlalifl) bus its 

)m the resemblancu of its globular catkins of flowers to 

buttons, just as Buttonwood is the popular name of the 

Sycainore-tree (l*latanuB occideu talis), from the curious 

»pe<J seed-vessels which hang by a long slander thread, the 

from the branches, and do not drop till tbe following 

J. U. Lowell sings of it: 

" Beneath n bony bttttitnttiood 
Tlie mill'* red lUinr nwingn «ipiMi wld«; 
The wbltcn'd niilk>r, (lust-imbued, 
Fllta past tbe Bquare of dork instde." 

in known also as Sycamore and Flane-Tree. Calfkill ia 

414 A.XRKICATnBlia. 

Uw alwoid HUM gitva in the Xorth to one of tl» mottle 
flowY-riofE shrabd of \orth America (Kulmia angtiEtifalia), 
fso&h DCtioii that' ite paistmous leaves were apt to liill cslt 
ImwaeA on Oitta. The poison is there, do tlotitit, an in sIIUh 
bailf, lo wludi the bnsh belongs, and owes it£ frequent i 
LmurA, but to fo small tjuautiiies »« to be companitlTcW it 
Tbt phut is, ID th« South, more generally, though \^ai 
B««^ktt^T, knomi M Itrif. Tlit' Nurthcm States have a BoU 
(Vibnniam Uniauoides). vith long, straggling braodM 
impede pro^Tees. Thence it U alto eallctl Tangle-Lrp; ^ 
tltc SoQlh tlw T^fOT'Ooai [Anilia ^pinosa), alsu humorvuf 
Skot'Bm^ ri«M almost tc th<i tliguity of a tree, iti prick) 
quite fcnnidable to hnnting*.<!hirt8 and Indian blonketi 
Um Ttmal ot^eotion to the correct )iotii)d of tmr, Wc:dM 
hoveTcr, almost nniformlv epeak uf it as 7br-Coat. The 
MMcHt of tlie South has uotliiug in common with the du 
recUy so calkd; the name ii given fo a ourions wood 
(Aaaiai nscosa), the brilliant Sowers of which are sarroui 
a Ti«cons secrrtion. It is not quite rleur why a most (Wn 
tTeTgnm shrab. which not unfrequently allnins the d 
small tre« (Gonlunin lafiianthtis), ehoultl he afHici^) villi 
sipid name of Loblolly Bay; it grows wild in uU the a 
parts of the Soulht-m Staters and is largvly planCod iu ft 
pleasur^gTonnds on account of it< beauty; its usefaloetf 
ited to a moderate fitness for tanning which the bark p 
There i« a dash of poetry in the name of Xinii-haThf\ 
given to a low dirub (Spiraea opalifolia) growing in the S 
and Western States, ftom the (^t that ha bark is quite Ic 
easily pe«l« oflT, layer after layer, though the nnmlxM N 
probably no more to do with it llian with the live* of Ml 
exceedingly handsome, flowering shrnb is a variety of the 
Tree, familial- i,o the Kuet, and so called from the legenil 
A branch of it Judas hung himself; the American speciei 
canadensis) is more »iniply called jiedbvd, from the proh 
bright pink flowers with which It tji oorered in spring, bd 
leave* have appeared. 

Another beautiful but fleeting flower, U tliat of tbe M 
TrtC'Frimrote (Oenothera frutiooaa), a large flower iU» 
brilliant yellow. Another family is represented in sow 




by the little SineU-Lenion (Cacurbita ovifera), tliK frnit of 

I is about the size of n (tmall untiigr, brigiit gluu^y red, with 

of yellow rimning rouiiil, like the meridiau tinea on a 

The smell is Tery fragrmit, and liL-nct; tli« name, 

tv plants, not before mentionetl, are familiarly kiioivii from 

[oonnecrion with the aborigines. An Indian fhirrattt (Syin- 

lUK vulgaris), more generally called Coral Berry, aod a 

of Missouri — ladian Hemp (Apoeyninn eaiiiiftljiiniin), a 

il |>laiit— /M(/m« Tobacco (Lobelia itiflatu), occasionally 

Instead of tobacco by virtue of its acrid leaves; uud leso im- 

it Indian grusaes, cresses, and strawberries 

tiwes of America bear, with few esreiitions, names giren 

by the first (settlers, which were very generally taken from 

they were familiar with at home. Hence the numlier of 

who appear either uader new luimes or under old names, 

itly applied, is <niite small. Among the latter are a few 

s, with which some, pccnliar ttTms are connected. Ap- 

' for instance, appear here in ihe shaiie of Apple- Butter, a 

:satioe made by ]>oiling apples a long timu in cider, which ia 

[rat away, like butter, in tabs and firkins, and keeps for neiu-ly 

Thrifty housewives in Nl-w England know it as Apple' 

while the frugal mutmili; among the {Jennanp in Pennsyl- 

and the Valley of Virginia cnil it by the former name. 

faek and Apple-Brandtf fiirnisb a genuine braiulr made 

'IViiit— unlike the Hiissian brandy or brandy-wine, which is a 

tey or grain spirit. Known even in the prelenlious form of 

To/ttt in New Kngland, it has the terrible name ot Jerssy 

tnin^ farther sonth, and in Virginia rules supreme as Apple- 

iy, although here a few pearh- kern els arc generally added 

re it the flavor of peach-brandy. " We had no eooner acram- 

int of tho sleigh than a huge bowl of Appie-ToiMy made its 

the bowl was of solid silver, an old family-relic, with 

crest of the old Hnguenot family as handles, and in ihe 

•Wen lifjuid danced the roasted apples, which arc here substi- 

Ited for the nsnal lemons.*' (W. M. Tbitckeray.) Apple-Slump 

the odd name of a favurito New Euglniul dish, consisting of 

and molasses baked wiLhtu a brL-ud-pie in an iron pot. It 

known as I*andotvdy ; and the good people of those States 

, Tith their asn&l assnracce, that this apph-poipie ie the true 



if Ac pkam, iM m / t p it p ie wrdtr. This nuT rajw 
kttv «H m vcfl knovn to ifadr SDceston in Ii«||b 
^ BiBi««D ^ttottog tW term as qaiU common \x n 
TW Jj y fc iwy (CoAotimcfaclDi n«nn[ih&r; H 
in?) ai itei A ■ lilted b; J. P. K«nne<lT: •*Tlie afjM 
iM; pHfle ekD t^ Uae^ bertle-fihoped insect vkk 
■■■cr poob. aai vhicii la diaungulahnl for Uw p 
-•f Uk Ihnt Am faa» gtT«a it iu BaoMi. daiic\-il ia baiy tmtfi 
'»tiw c«rf*w of tke iciU vMer." (.$Ma»ip ifant.) Tlu^ iiuect 
midtmak im ala* fcaon as Fbint-weeTil, aiid denrnja |itiii 
cfai^ chaiwa Bod apflfc, bj pnactiinng tlwia to iu 
•&, vlucb cuues Uw fimU to fall pMBWtnrely. (UarrA ' 
¥Mwrfawrt^ p. 6«, 351. S. & Haldemau.) T! 
tW oaatni7. u lb« hrva of l1i« European ^ - _ 
(Oaipocapsa p—naictta), nov at borne ib Aiuerica alio. 

fkijiaflai ia Ae %«BiA iuub« lor choatnnu, qaiU: bij 

gifoi n TeiM aad Um Soniliwvst to cbe palatable pinew 

IK iKwpm e tbcK (PMBdaAtts). The C«/N-jrw (Gjnuu 

^caMdensb). often cajled Kmtmely Caffft-lrte, oc AVfi/w 

KAUt, dHiTM its Dame from tb» fact that in the davt of o 

th« aaeds rcit freqaemW aaed as a. rnUtitutA Tai 

a pcusioe meved dnriti; the late Civil War. Tlin I 

neotaaned ebevlMni, bean an edible nnt, vbich is bM 

^aentlT dignified bv the name of WalnHt, ec^ciaUT in i}tt 

en States, vhere the re*] walnut dooti uot thriTe, trhik i 

kind of luoki>i7*nat is knovn as BmUnmt ; the ButUrtad {• 

^atmxca) deaerves ite name bjr the largvi quantity of oil i 

contains, on vhich aoeonnt tha latter is also uft^u colW 

and the Mofkemut (Carra toment^sa) is a variety of the 1 

nut The Pf<vn Not (pronounced preawn) is the firuit of 

variety of hickory [Cnrra olivjwforum), so called from the 

j^yacaiUf and oAcn so irritt«n, which is a great farorite thn 

the Unioa. Part of its {Mpiitarity is, no doubt, doc to iJ» 

with which the soft «bell of the uut yields up the meat, wl 

in two lobc^ and can be easily Uktrn out; but the nnt ^ 

by fur the most pleasant of all to the taste. Ptcatt o 

faenoe, very carefblly managed, and a recent travelkr m 

jurtly: "Th«ro Is not u richer sight than to sm a noU 

tree, oa tuU &« the taUest hiukory, full from bottom 



rul iiiit>i growing in d^iige cliuters, a sbude darkoi* in culor tliun 
k-ttvc>i.^ Tilt.- eiiiHllfst of the fuinily and th« leant |)aIalablQ 
sm that circunucancfy. colM the Pig-Nut (Carra glabra), 
]gh the eamc Dame is oftcu applied to the root of an earth- 
\ftXl (Uunium). 

Th? Honey Locust (Gledit^chia ti-iacantlius) is jHijiularly so 

fd tM:t-auA« il bea» a largo |>od oouUiuing a pulp of boue;-liko 

rMtness. It produces prol>ably the most lormidablti of all 

16, as rcnuu-kablc in size a& in namber. and in, hauca, in the 

and West ({tiitc as veil ktiowu uiidi^r the name of Thurny 

bL The oommon Locust (Bobinia pseuducaoia) is Ibo cante 

a<- Eurupcau acacia, aud considered a very valuable tititt for iis 

iber, wbit^h makes the bc^t [»jsu> for fi-nci-.i and gat«3 that can 

piooored. The Mango is mentioned here only becnoso tfao 

. is borrowed fVoin the delighiful frait of the West Indies, to 

a pickle, cou&iatiiigora greeu musknielou fitulltHl with a 

Biy of Avi-da and spices. 

The Sattd-Cherry (C'cnm]s pnmila) is the name of a recHDing 

lb, growing on eandj soil in the North and We«t, and of its 

fruit, which it bears in profusion ; they are, however, not 

it lo the tasli!. The Wild Cherry (Cerafitu \it;giiiienBig) 

I a frait entirely' onSt to eat, bnt its wood is considered very 

ible, eepeuially for cabiaet work. The Black and the IVhite 

i, both Amcricun treea, deaerre mention here, because from 

branches is extracted the flavoring material for a beverage 

icnrn as Spruce Seer, very popular in Oiiniula, wbere it iij sold in 

quantitiet!,and of late manufactured cjuite targeljr In tha 

rnit«U St«t«9 also. 

Oaks abound in America, uot ouiy in nnmbers, bat quite as 

loeh in vflri(.-tics, of tvbich some arc known by names peculiar 

this country. 'Vhe. Black Jack (Qucrcus nigra) is the barren 

kk of botanists, and mingles with dogwood, cedar, and tall pines 

the seoahore, where it thrives most freely. The Durr-Oak 

- maccocarija), one of Ibv noblest and largest of the family, 

:i dimerous in the rich bottom-lauds of Wesu-i'U States, and 

jncjiUy oalUd Overeup White Oak, from the peculiar form of 

'-^. " The trees, with few exceptionB. were what is called the 

, B timall variety of a very tj:t*iiiive gunus; aud the 

bctwven them, always irr«gnkr and often of sii 




i'be&nty, hare obtaJDcd tbo name or opcoiugs." (J. F. Ccc^ 
Thf Oak Oprningt, p. 27.) Bui: tb? mtwt. iHjautiful of lU J ti# 
Livt-Oak (Qnercus virens), *o called becanw it is nesriy u n» 
gre«n ; a tree which loves the Bait-air of tbu ocm», kwI fluiiAl 
a highlj-prized wood, a«ltnirahly udapted for ship-baildin^. It i 
th OB described : 

" Witb bU gonrkd old onus mod bis hoa bna, 
KsJesUc iu Uic Wixxls, 
From a^ to sfie. In tbc son ud atom. 

The iirf-oak Imtli stood: 
With ihe frnj tnon warlnie: lolennty 
From hb shagg'y Uoibs nod triiak." 

U/. a. Jackmm.) 

All the- t'liiiiller. aud some more- or less dwarGsh, VAri-.tiei. 
comprehended niidvr the fanit)iar name of Scrub Oakt. (u^l 
coTer the «ndy plaina and sterile ridgt-a of the Wwttm 
whore rcgetjition can hardy maintain itwlf. 

Next Iv the Oaks the Maples are probably most pr 
among American trees, both hy their grcil. variety of forai 
their gvuerul beauty. In autamo especiully some species i 
those jforgeona colors winch have made the Americau P»ll^ 
fiunoQS among paiutor^ The most rcmarknMo among 
the Svffar-Tree or Sugar-Maple (Acer mccbariuam), a 
tree in trunk and brunch aud leaf, f>om whoee sap sugar mi 
by boiling. Itu pnuse vrua once qnaintly sung tbos: 

" W«l[ hui); by oup Otto »lA{ila; 
Ttireo cheers wt'll ruse for iDtJiao Corn, 
And aLa« for Suaar-Mapks." 

iPulnam'i Jfayim'ne, October. ISl} 

They arc generally preserved when the fbrc8ti8cleaml,a»di 
yu (»Uecticm of trees is known as a Sttffar-ti«fh or Snyaf' 
trhllo the place whore the sap is boiled in hnge kettlse danii|< 
winter months is, in like manner, knoirn as the 8upar-( 

Here farmers obtain the rast quantitiM of sugar which Ibei 
OHS tree afTords them every year, and great is tb« merriuwotdi 
the process, till the time cornea when all ends in uproar, 
to " the boys ciilivenffd by rye-whiskey, whiakey and water, •hi'*'! 
swMteued with aap-shgar, and small beer, all graduainl 6» 


or til 


company." {Orneral Oi/le. A Oharactyr.) 
p-wro «ther varieties ol mapk are thn Iti'rd'n Kijf mid the Vurltd 
$^aple. which ftirnish peculiarly lM.*nutiful wood for the purpose* 
■f thu builder and llie aaI)Jnot-niiik(fr. Anumjj ntlipr trt'fs pccn- 
ixu* to this contiueiit, wc may notice the Arroip-irooci (Vibnnmm 
l.eiitatum), which obtained its iiamtt rruni the fact that utmost all 
tbc Indian tribes roviii)? ov<-r the plains between the Mississippi 
Mnd the Kocky Momitaiiis miikf* rlieir arr«wa from its long, 
li^Taight stems, as the Oeage Orange (Marlnm) received its com- 
XXlQU name of liodok fi^om its fitnes-s for hows (hois d'urci). The 
\Baham J-'ir (Abica balsamea) and the lintsmn /"(yj/ar (Pupulus 
"biilsamifora), owe their nnmes to the balaam wliirh the fomur far- 
firun certain l)list«rs under t.hi* harlc. and the latter from 
rtsiuous matter covering its hnd?. Only tho fomu-r. however, 
be «)ll(jct«d for jiructica] purposes, mid jippciirw iw ('(iniulit 
tarn, whiie the tree is also known ns Ba\in of Giieati, iu iniitik- 
of the ICastern terebinth. Btusivood (Tilia nnk-rieana) iv- 
tho genuine linden tree of Kuropc so t;lris<.'ly in all hut thu 
lof its leuTca aud flowers m to hi' fairly entitled to its botuniciit 
i; the term bnu meaus bust (German, tJast) the inner hark 
tree, which wng formerly much used for making mats 
lage, J. R, Bitrtlett unotes from oin; of Brigham Youny's 
ions a graphic allusion to this pliant material : " I my. as the 
lives, we are hound to become a sovereign State in the Union, 
indepeiiddiiL nation by our^Ivcs; and hi them diivu us from 
kii place if they can— they cannot do it. I do not throw tliisonL 
banter. You (J-entile^ and hickory and hamtwaad ilorraona 
write il down, if you please, but write it as I speak it."* 
\Bictionary, sub voec.) 
The Black or Sour Gnm ia familiarly known in the Northern 
as Pfppsridge (XysMi niultifloru), a tiame strangely illus- 
iting (he tendency which common jwople hare to rortw u mean- 
opoQ words which to them are nnintclligiblo. Its aneedtor 
I thfc Latinized Urheris {tTova Arabic harhirls), which in the firet 
became Piperidge, and as ench was ap]>lied to the proper 
ler, the barlwriy, bnt gobsetiuently. in a second metamorphosis, 
>-sppeai>ed as Pepptridffe, for one of the most bwiutlfnl American 
eqoally well known in Xew England under its probably 
B&Q name, Tupelo. ''The woods," eays J. R. Lowell, *'w««. 


ooc wetmggfgMi^ of oak mi maple* aad the mv hmh 
downwutl lunW b t» ourmHb that while Uie naine 
ia tfana tranjferwJ. tb* twmfc u i ir r y <berfagrij) w|vuperif 
althangj* it fagft nftrRd ftvB iJw bc&f tiuu itfTTy fomted iWt 
dw urigiaii lit idi& cd wUeb ihe berncs of th« plant wtn 
TW aiaa him nofiaana pmraiU in tlie cormptuo 
inte ipanov-^paaL 
Thia> CKO kBBM. Bhck (jan. and Soar Qmn, are. boverc^ 
ftfltm* w ritttea «f Aa anae fiun^ (X jua), tbe foniier awn 
■a* ift the Korth, Oa Ulor wiy aboadant m tbc Sooik 
nnaaa fan txajiog bam tfacae tanea and the Juniper ti 
waei. for efaewing in Statk OuroHam^ Vizgiota, and tli» \lp'< 
Stata% when gmmmdtimffa an {{Dice a tettTv occasioo fa 

• TOCariaa of that i iatiwf iit The Litdictoaa fiMuUty with 
American ipeech-tenns are interchaogcd, haa Ird to aii utter 
ffaauA^ in laaojr minda, between tba tenm gum aod rulAir. 
gRnt pbikdoeut. Dr. W. I). WhhBejr* tclb ns in his 
work on I^nfm^*^ haw a Philadelphia gcntieman, enteflff 

^fiiend'a boose witboot hid wif?. explained her absence h; 
that " Ae was cleaning b«r gunu npcin the mat" — nteaning 
Indio-Rubber ihoea, And in retam, gum-traea are wA 
qnentlj called i2tfUer^tz«eSr and hence J. R. Lowell, iu u 
•BBae of the term, speaka of the fiUse notioo — 

"Thai nMcr^mt fint begu boute' 
Wbcn inUdte eooiUenett cooie laio we&rin'." 

(B^pbi* Pojief, L, p. U) 

Ab Black Wood is, in the Northern States, njsed as a 
term for tbe erergreens, hemlock, pine, spnio^ aud fir, ao 
tenn cedar is there rarely applied to the genuine cedar ; ii ii i 
frequ<:nllT applied to a cypress (Cjrpressus tbroidea), and 
called ^hite cedar, which tilU the famoas Cedar SmnnfrttH 
Boath, or, aa red cedar, to a Juniper (Junipenis Tirgininna.) 
C4dar UteampB are not, aa in England, merely wet, marshv iJn, «. 
often found in uplands even, but In tlic Svulh air 

low grounds nuder water, and fitted with cypmssca, - 

cue iu tbe numerous buyuuij, known as t'pjmuu Jiraia, ''^ 
Cypreis, buwuvvr ^TaxoUiutn dinticha), is a Soatli*-)'! 
\in\y distinct from the Enroptan tree of tbe same ]\^~ 



leecribed by P. H. Gosse: "It is a tree of noble stature, bo 
sionalir soea liO foet in height, and very valuable for the 
,y of its timber : hence it is much in request for bailding. 
it geocnilly swells in a groat cone or bL-fhive-iihapcU pro- 
ice, ftoTfti-al yiirda in pirpumfon^ncc. from the summit of 
ithe tree springs." [Letters from- Alabama, p. 361.) From 
dangerous nature of the ewampa in which they grow, 
IM derived the expreasire verb to be amtmpetl, inatpad of 
iiue<L " To gay tho truth, if they hold me to the price I have 
to pay, I'm afraid they^I swamp me. {Advenltires of a 
jWrrrArtw/, p.241.) The .flTcnmp^r, however, is arory harm- 
useful laborer; it is th^ man who, in Maine and the North- 
kks roads for lumberers throngh the groat pine-forestfl. 
ther mtfl-tiamcd tree is tho maple with afih-leaves (Negiin- 
jamericanum). which is anircrsally known as Jiox-eldei'. 
ilip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), ou tbecontniry, descr»iea 
iat name and its alias of whitf'WOod well, from its Ijeaiitiftil 
t Wood and its tnlip-shapcd, honey-fltlcd blossoms. Although 
Dmmon in the South, where it is stmplv called the Poplar, 
le of the finest of American trees, and fnlly entitled to 
int's praise: 

"Xtkttidip-tret. Iiiglnip 
Opened, in nirs of Junr, her miiLtiludc 
Orgoltkn clinljccs to li um mi ui{ -birds 
And a iihen* winged insects of Ui« sky." 

{Tite Fimntain.) 

ig the peaches. Amerieans distinguish I'Vee-stane Peaches, 
Hiich the stones lie loose, while in Ciint/stonfs they adhere 
|Iy to the flesh of tho fruit The distinction waa made (nuly 
W the firet settlement of the State, and R. B. Beverley alreudy 
tte: "Tho best sort of those (peaches) cling to the eUme, 
I will not como off clear, which they call Plnm Nectarines and 
un-peacfaes or Clinff-ttones. Some of these are twelve to thir- 
B inches in girt Theae sorts of fmits are raised so easily here 
t some good husbands plant great orchnrds of them, purpnac'ly 
their hogs, and nthora make a drink of them, which they call 
ibtf ; they eometimes distill it off for brandy. This makes tlie 
t spirit next to grapes." {Th$ History of Virginia, p. 179.) 
ploms are, when growing wild, frequently called SneiU, and 



Ji&Dcc a recent tniTeller througb the Nortbern " 
"When snells wore mentioned, thejr went oat in iin 
pluekod siimc; tlicy wurti pretty gooiL 'J'hey sud ilicj 
kinds of plums growiog wild— blue, white, aiiJ red" 

All the MaguolittS are, iu the South, FuiiiUiu-ly ilH.-r-i.'J 
Laurf.h ; tlic Big Laurel (M. grondlflora), ua welt a 
ern Cnciimher-treo (M. cordata). Anollier van 
family of MagnoIia£ is known as tlie Umbreii. "■.<^i 

tripctttlu), Croia liie Jlkeaeu vhicli the large Icarus, i^ 
the end uf iti branches, and cxpauding oTcr a surfaCf.' tl •bnti 
diameter, bear to an open nnibrrlU. The Stcrtt Bay il] 
familiar name of a much humbler relalite (Mngnolin glnum^ 
not to be compared Ko i\i\i Saamp Magnolin (Mnpiolia 
flora), while the CvcHtubtr'tree [filogaolia uctiminuU), cl 
suo«'v-wtiile blo3som« into a fniit, not nulilce grv^n tO' 
which afterwanl tnrns a bright red. 

One of the noblest of American tree^ which, from iia 
ttuit proprirliimt! and eheii^hed aMocintiona. has .' 
«6nndercd the embU-m-tree of the New Knglaiid 
is in iU very home sadly ni-treAt.^,as far a* itansm'- 
The term w so generally PorrupUwl into *Kw Ml thaf '■ 
confounded with alum, J. R Ijowell, with hie 1 ' 
keeismSf and his eubtle appreciation of their force, says^ 

" In cUum Bbrouds tliu flubin' haoKblrd cliogv. 
And for the sununtr vya^ bis luunmock Enrios* "— 

{Bifihw Fitptrt, U., |k lU] 

vhile Edward Miller ru|Kirts iJint " the ^tusbroom Rook U 
tranrilinarr freak of nature in Kuiihis, in thf Yulley of A 
more probably £lm Creek, for in Western i>ai'I«nce tbo U 
pronounced as if it hitd two sylhibleis, and it is difficult lo 
guish between the two words." {Proceedings of th* A 
Philosophical Societt/, March, 1868, p. 382.) Tli 

mon species of elm (Ulmus aluta), of peculiar 

and foliage. 

A beautiful variety of horse-chestnut (Ac^' 
known by the picturesque name of ^i/clrj^, gi. 
settlers in the West, on account of the rcecmblonoc vhi< 
dark-brown nut bears to a buck's eye. whfu the -' 
and exposes it to sight. As it used to abound ii; ' 



u 11 citucen of the State, is apt be called » Backet/a ; bnt so 
aa has been the war waged agoiuBt trcea in ilmsi' rt'^ioiis, 
ot a Bucktye ia found growing natiirailv nt-ai' CiucJimiiti, 
ty few in the State at large. Mahogany (Swietenia mabo- 
umid in Southern Florida in great abundance, doaervea a 
icTL'oiily on account of the strange truiL^pcihilJon of vowels 
has changed the original Sc^utU Americau name of Maha- 
itained in German, into the modern furiu. The common 
bond in many varieties in almost every Slate of the Union, 

at least one peeuliar name, the Pinioti, derived from the 
ipifiOHj the term ia applied to the trci.' which growsabun- 
ia the Southwestern States and the regions at the foot of 

ky Mountains, and to the nuts, which are swL-et uiiii pala- 

filToritc with birds and bears, »ud welcome tn ludiausuDd 
tn, when short of provirions. Iluntcrs and cxperionced 
in know how to Ond them, not only in their natural places 
jntt hot even in hidden storehouses — deep holes in cerUin 
cees, in which u Mexican wcHjd])euker is in the babit of 
ing them with rare foi'esight, long before he lays his eggs, 

y may serve as food daring incubation. It may not be 
mention, in this cnnncction, that the fallen leaves of all 
igrecn trees are familiarly known as pindags or pinesirawa, 
rad treading on a mat of pinefags, which soon shall criap 
h bis tread no more." [Virginia Country Xott».) " Pih*- 
u the yellow ahedtiiogs of (his tree are called." (J. P. Ken- 
Swaiiov} Barn.) 

range confusion of names has thrown two trees, entijfly 
It in family and features, into the same dates, as far as a 
^n designation can produce such a result. Dogteood is the 
Jven to the CormUlree (Oornua (lorida), and to tiic Poitnn 

(Rhus venenata). The former, n beautiful though small 
iTsrs American woods in t.'arly spring with » profusiou of 
nowy-white flowers, aud adorns them in autumn withscar- 
rries, while its wood is aeefnl for many a purpose. The 
an inmate of swamps, and well known by the beauty of its 

pical foliage, hides a violent poison in its leaves, and even 
suEcepcible persoas who approach it too nearly. 

rocks have almost uniformly been first examined by 

geologists, and bear, therefore, with very few exoeplions. 



names familiar abroul as well as with lu. Amoo^ the «icep 
may lie mentioned the three varieties of Umcstono. irhld 
knon'ii as ftlriTs Eye in Npw York, as Vavtrn m KcoU 
from the numerons cavca or ainkg^ as thoj are locally called, 
which the hard strata of this carboniferous formatioa ih 
and as Ciiff in the Wc«t, ft-ora the bold cliffs or bluffs fouul 
the banks of streams. The latter is partly Silnrian Jtnd ] 
IVvonian, and form a very striking feature in American 
scapes from the State of Ohio, wcatTfard. The local proni 
tion of the word is Vlifi — found Ihwa alrcadj' in Spenser— I 
natural confnston with the ckfl in a rock, such as is m«otwi 
the lines, "And it shall come to pass while mT glonr paM 
that I willpnt thee in a ciffi of the rock." (Exodus, xxiil 
Hence, also, the adjective cUftij, designating rivers and i 
on the banks of which these limestone-cliffs 
r^OD generally in which they are found. '■ The vnlJer i 
that character which is hen^ called chfiy — numerous boM 
overhanging beautiful hottom-Iands, now clad in rich tb 
and now picturesquclr baring their snowy aides to the goldei 
lighL" (Scenes in the Far West.) Another variety of lini 
is knon'u as Colton Rock, probably because its light gray o 
color, when first bared to the light, somewhat resembles 
gathered cotton- wool; it is a Magnesian limestone, abound 
Missouri, and valuable as a bnilding material, Wcanse of it 
nese when first quarried. The unpleasant name of Siitd 
— often changed into Switts-stone — is not altogether nndese 
borne by a carbonate of lime which pmit« a very ofi'eoiiTi 
on being struck. The term fuipkur is alU^iher emxi 
given to bituminous rocka occurring in Kentucky and TelK 
eron when no sulphur is present, from the mere fact thJ 
erally this formation obounds in sulphurous gpriuga. ITaJ 
is the homely name given to granular Itmestoni^ used loq 
bnilding waUi. 





i wbich Alter &lowly tnio £nglisb soil lod obido tbi:rc Cor a (eoer- 
fliuli like ixiincu iuto ika vlulic atuiuspbitre uf Atuericm." 

iXorth BritiA JUtiete, 1807.) 

lor^oflt part of so-callf^l AmcrieianiBTna ore nothing moro 

good old Eugluib vonU, which Tor nne reason or another 

become obaolebe or pronnoial in Englaud, while they have 

iL-d their foil power and citizenship in the United Statin. 

^usiiU the proTincialiima of the Northern and Western eonn- 

1 of Knglfind hare been naturalized in the Xcw Knglnnd States, 

tta to tht- Pilgrim FathiTf), who had lefl the bunks of the 

tt and ihc HumlKT. and BubeeqaeutW by new uolonistA, who 

Bwcd from Norfolk and Suffolk. They bronght not only their 

fill, which the Yunkee still uses, but sUoa mxmA. of Ihe roico 

fad fl mode of ntterance which have been faithfully preserved, 

p4 an; now spoken of ns the " N'ew Knj^Iand drawl." and " the 

h, metallic ring of the New England voice." (Charle« Wenl- 

orth Dilke.) The rornii.T is nothing but the well-known Nor- 

" whine," the proverbial annoyance of vieitora to those 

From New England words and sounds alike weiy c»r- 

•rsiward. and pp»e<UIy exteudfd throngh the neighboring 

lies, even w the MiBeieappi. PreciBety the same hap|K>n«l in 

jnio, which also rceciTed through her cavnlier-scttlcrs and 

connttesa iudenUire-colc-nists u strongly •marked vooabttlory^ 

btrowi!, wiiiobhhu fyiilifiilly and with Southfrn ctjnaervstisnt- 

twrved, while at home and all around luT rvorrthing chnnged, 

.which she at B later period trir -"■=■'— * *■• " ■■ vast new icr- 

rics. that looked uji to her aa 1 1 --^ 

riwii tho»e Bcttlers were cnt oti 



the moUier-couutry, thfitr languor ceuod, of oounf, to 
enced hy (lie <;oHrt, l,l»' ^xvut wriU'rs, imd tliii press of 
it roUined the faDiiliar forin!» uod suiitiils, undistiirlwd lirj 
and the effects of close JDtitnacy vith. other tifttiooB. fiat 
results yet were effected, when the colonies threw ofl" the 
restraints tbftt had heretofore attached thcni to Eiigli 
language hecainu us indi-pi-iident ns the n-piiblic, und rfTuttJl 
lunger to be goidcd und controlled in any tray hy Engli^ 
ities. At the same Lime, au unbroken atnsim of imt 
poured into this country vast numbers of pa 
humble origin and without education, who brougb- , .... ij( 
loenl words of Kuglisli couutivit, and tho luvvincjallsnia 
sislfr kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland. 

Uiiring all til is time great changes hud taken plaoe iu 
At a very early period, already, a Urge number of good t^d! 
words were baiiiabed IVom polite society, and con tin ii»d Mi 
only as far as they wero used by the peasantry or a few 
lielongiug to tho upper classes iu remote ouunlry dietricU. 
teiiham, in his Art of iSiujUMk Foesie (ed. 1082). Leachai (i 
yenJii before Shakespeare): "Our u-rit«r. thcrefoiv, iu tbcmj 
shnll not follow Piers the I'lowman, nor Oower nor Lyd| 
yet Chancer, for their language is now out of uec with as; i 
yei shall he take tho tcmu of Norihuiun^ such us the; 
daily talk, whether they be noblemen or gentlemcu or tbcir 
clerka, uor in effect any speech uacd beyond the rircr 'f r 
thottffh HO man can deny that their$ i* the puttsi Englinh 
thia day. Yet it ha not so courtly, nor so cnrrv-nc as our I 
English is, no inore is tiiu far Wnsteru man'd gpeucli. 
therefore, take the usual speech of tlio Court, aud that of \ 

aud the sliirea lying about Loudou, within siity mi' = ' no| 

above." The Engli.<ih writers obeyed his behest, 

people followed Ihcir example; hut not so the a>lui 

America the "purest £ngliab-Saxon" of Futteuham's 

carefully preserved, nuaifecled hy oouri, or town, ut iX 

hence the curious result is obtained that by i 

side in th'! Low Country of Virginia, the pi: 

in the shadow of tho mountains of Kcw Eughind, words arv 

pronounced as they were in the days of AT ' . 

ings unknown to England. Morcuror, nh 



a new word for new wanU and new discoveries, it has 
Id that immt^ni<> mine of treusnre in the early Euglish 
frtim which to borrow— as William Hamilton eloquently 

" Ancient wonla 
Thftt oDine bom Uie poetic quany 
As sluup MS swonla." 

(£«Uen to AUan Banaap.) 

this tw«iu*,'* saya a Scottish critic, " the Americans are 
g more deeply than yeo, and Hn far the influence of their 
tie iipon the in other- tongue must be reeognized as both 
ate and beneficial." {Rlarhonod, Ortob^r, I8fi7.) Hence, 
ig is more common than to hear English writers blamo 
icons for adopting a new word ; then the word ia found in 
h wnt^rs, and we are BCoMed for claiming^ the honor of 
cing itl Such was the caeo, as ^^r. Pickpring shows, for 
ice, with the word to ndraeate, which wns first censured as an 
caniam, and then, having )>ectt found rejieatcdly in the 
of Milton and Burke, was made the basis for a charge of 
>tmded clairaa to diacovL-ry." 
mnst it be forgotten that the etrange revolutions which 
ted to have taken plnce in the meaning of many common 
arc, in moet inst^ncpfi, nothing mure thim the rpsnlt of the 
rvatlon of an old sense, which, if carefully traced, may still 
bud existiug in remote districts of sijme of Lbe English 
ea. Thig is occasionally acknowledged even, by British, 
eri; thns Waterton, after his fourth journey throngh this 
ry in 18a4, said of the AmL-ricnn us he found him: '• He 
rtainly hit npon the way ^buL I t-ould not find out by what 
)of epeakinga mnch purer English language than that which 
imonly apoken on the puront coiL This astonished me much, 
really the case." ( Wandfrings in South Ameriea.) The 
lie character of the Ameriain, the ubiquity of the news- 
', and the difTiiitinn of knuvvl<.>dgc througliuut all classes of 
ly, have, subsequently, given a uniformity to this pnre Eng- 
hich is unknown in other countries; and if really better 
Bh ia not spoken here than in the moth^-r-country, the 
rtcan idiom is at least free from provincialisms, and the 
^icak it better than the people of England. 



It has. hence, been t\w putpose of the compilfr la cnlkct,i« 
foUowiug pages, iDiiinlj words which arc obwlcte id 
while fit il! [»re«t;n-jng h*fFv tlituxfonncr power; wichaAbkte 
their meflning to adapt themselres to new parpoiBf isd 
circnmBtaQoee, and a few entirdj new fonuB, anknavn to thi 


Abvrffoinr, a Western oorrnption for Abort^tnai. ij-^ 

for original. "That ia a,n aboriginal tdcii; 1 pi i 

fore." Also instead of Indian: "Boiling RobetiMn. eq 
deisoendant of Pocahontas, had the Indian eyis and ihts 
Icsastof hie cuunteniuice was aboriginal: \i\$ temper nai 
hut bis heart kind uud excellent." {IMitsrK front lk4 
p. 23.) 

Academy, used wilh grandiloquence for i^bool ; a« eTcry 
of some pretensions must needs be a " Universiiy." " S<Jieali 
longer exist iu the towns and villagosf rantl; in Oie fields; 
mies and colleges eapplant them." {Pttitmm'a Magmi 
raary, 1855.) A cuatom denounced witli 
filther, the old Laird of Ancliinleck : "U n 

he has pinned himself to now, mon ? I>oniinie, moo— 4L0 a 
dominie; he kecpit a schule and oalt'd it un .?--- '-r-ry.'** 

Accommodate, tn, is in New England c.>-i i^ ia 

sense of providing for travellers, from the meaning of oommmh 
tion HS iipplied to public houses, "The qnestion (whnv> b 
hotel?) invariably called forth Hat response: Thar ain't a 
hut fnrroer Smoot accomtnodat»g'' (PtUnam'i Mastttitw^ J« 
ory, 1870.) 

Admire is mentioned by J, R. Boitlett as betu^ "nflea i 
absurdly uatKl iu ^*ew England," iu the 6«rnw i'" Mi 

'irish. •■ I should (irf>niV« to 5tM* the PrviiidonL" H< < o)^ 

in like manner to tlie use of the word, when it means to i 
at, to be affected with surprise; and yet this use has the high 
authurit; for it. 

" The uudnnntcd Send what Ihia miftbl be mdmirtd, 
Aiimind, not leai'd." 

<Uilton. Aira<JteXoil,XL.T.«77.) 
** The mote I admit* your flIniineM." 

(Bcaiiiuont ufi Flatcfaor Jfie* 



'cpys, in hia Diarr, bosidw nujncrona other insfantvs, mjs, 
ary 22. 1663-4: *' Hi\ that is Charles H^ is so foud of the 
of Monmonth, that everybody admires it, that is, wonders 

ifl the printer'i osnal abbreTiatton for "AdvertiwinenV* 
Bd not only in nowapftpcr-offlce^, but also in the daily ei- 
Bg advcriiBinj; businoea of the country. '*Ad means exactly 
Bb as advertisement, and it two IctterB instead of thirteen." 
wn^s Magatiw, August, 1868.) 

W«-fiW Female is one of tho moHt digtswteful pet-terma uf the 

en^rally bestowed sneeringly upon women who claim all 

hit and pririlcf^ of mon, in addition to those already wiU- 

[lanted to their sex in appi-cL-iaLion of its peculiar claims. 

of the oddest instances of the RhorteighLednegsof the Ad- 

■ Frvtalt to the interejit of her own canse, was giren in the 

ni recently offorctl to our State Legislature, for thu appoint- 

rf young girU between the ages of fourtcfln and eighteen in 

ICO of boys, M psges in the two Houses at Albany. Now, 

' those petitioners, who seem to be in earnest, were blind to 

jiwopriety of thnistlng young girU hardly past childhood 

ich a position, it is strange that common sense did not sug- 

y them, tliat a man with ordinary respect for decency, or 

panghtera of his own, had no object in becoming equally 

pior would ever lio liktly to consent to such un arrange- 

f t^'ew York Tribune, February % 1871.) 

■Kofff, to, a word onoe much objected to by English critics 

ttmericanism, is not only good Kngliah — " whether thia ris 

hot with a contumely upon the Parliament itself, which 

it thiit petition worthy not only of receiving, but of Totiog 

numtment, after it had been advocated and moved for by 

onorable and learned gen tlemtin"—(Miltou,^l3ermurfvpr.ti07J«, 

bat has established itself beyond controversy in modern 

I on both sides of the Atlantic 

wed, still in nae in the Southern States, efipecially in Vir- 

ns, of course, only the once familiar word preserved, while 

jj^ere the modern form afraid has superseded jt. The old 

ran and old Eogliah to ftar, were constantly used in the 

ve sense of "'to frighten or terrify," and hence a/Vardrf came 

*• ftightened," as in Shakespeare's well-known linca: 


**Tbing1i mth bis brcntb Uip hio^ni of ihe world 
DU omck, wo should sund upright Had « VvwL" 

4/*f»«>da^owA/nirf, lioth generally eopplnnted bj''M'?.'"»l| 
*Mbf<iliind,'*ctill Eorvivo in remoter regions of the X^ w >^ 
St«U!fi.mDd w supported hj J. H. Lowdl on the plea ili 
aer aod hU Queen, neither of ibem, ecrupled to write a/W*,i 
yiMv wu common till afkr nerrick." 

A/ltr n^Jit is « local expr«8Bion» peculiar to PennEvlrosift i 
■ome of Uta Border States, where niphj is rery comntotLlj n«lj 
tbc hours of the «ft«mooa, and hence, " Cooii will open 
I i^ltr NiyA/," meuia simplT " aft«r candlelight," ae it it 
eTei7«hcr« else. 

A^rtivatf, to, in the aense of irritating or iU>treating, ii i 
Ain«!ricaaisin, nor used improp«rIj. *' This arose paril; 
belief that the quarrel was final, and that, therefore, tben^ 
be DO danger in aggravating Violet by this expreauon of i 
(Trollope, Phintas >Y»ii, ch. 73) This is precisely the 
with which it is u«d by J. C. N«il : '• One may be as 
and as splenetic as he likes, when he is fishing, without 
being agffrarfited." (Charcoal St4ieh«s, L, p. 118^) 

Apu, rrequaitly inis-call«d a^tty, ag^, and in the Soutfc 
\9gtrt while in the North ajfucj pronounced like plagium is noK 
frequent, is rarely used without its companion^ fereTfand 
form the familiar yptvrM(?/?y of the WesL The TarietlOi of I 
common and often Ctt&I disease are thus designated: "On 
I was suddenly taken ill with a n>al ukaking-ague in a lai;BB] 
Tie, ten miles across, and shook so severely that I could nolj 
my sulky." (Rev. F. Cartwright, AuMiof/raphf, p. 433.) 
himself had been troubled with a dumb-agtr since last con 
(F. B. Uarte, Luck of Jioaring Camp, p. 166.) " The old 
erb, 'Ad ague in the spring is physic for a king/ vouldu't 
highly appreciated in Ihetie tliggingB, wliar og^ is raythcroli 
to." {So«4htrH LU, Mtsunger, Mait:h, 1857, p. 37.) 
Michigan, is a very healthy locality for the agut. It conies ' 
ing up a fellow's back like a ton of wild oats, goes crawling throa 
his joints like iron spikes, and is followed by a ferer, whidi ; 
hibita the patient from chinking of anytliing but: the Indepeod 
Order of Good Templars. It isn't the ereiy-other-da; kind, i^^ 



3p vith a man at daytiglil and sleeps in. the HtiuiII of his back 
gbt. His te«th feel about six iucbes long, bie joiuU vobblo 
i too«e wagon-wheel, aud tbe sbakes are so st«ady that one 
hokl auy kiod of conrcrtation excei>t by puttiog iu dashes." 
idelphia Affe. Corresponderue, April 3, 1871.) 
aZtmjTt uiother Bo-called Americanism, in Iho a^itse of t'.all 
ne," is in use in JCngland, for instaocc iu Sheffield, where, 
«*d, "She has beeu ailing all alonff." {Sir Richard Phiir 
Salhtd'a Kvf, anciently the vigil of AU Saints' Day, is one 

few festive days stil) known in some parts of the Union, 
•nnsylvauia the usual amusemeuts of dipping for apples 
ig in ft buain, atid other sporUi familiar in the north of Kng- 
are n'ell kno^'o. The boys poe^ through the streets throw- 
lelled c^»ru at the windows, transfer vegi.'tab]<:« from the 

to the porch, and indulge in other le«s harmlosit pranks. 

tgt the name given by boys to a choice taw made of aluljas- 
id probably au abbreviation of the latter word, even when 
of inferior material (Dickens, Pickwick Papers, p. 358.) 
to, to, is constantly uKed in the Middle and Southern States 

sense of affirming a stau-nient. "I alloK that's a good 
' in SoHthern iKirlanec imuinH, 1 ussurt! yon. " Mother is 
itiy ridioalous," a young South Carolina Indy said; "she 
id she'd switch rae if I didn't go borne, and Kbe picked up a 

bmah. I up with another, and told her to come on.** 
'm Magazine, Jnne, 1B6S.) It is frequently, also, nsi^d in 

TOguc sense, corresponding with the •'guosa" of the East 

" reckon'' of the South, as in John Uay's recent lines : 

" Bat I Dome back hero aStnein' 
To Tote u 1 used to do." 

{Bants Tim,) 

; to, when applied to animals, as is constantly done in the 
, means to geld— the transition from a general change to a 
1 one of this kind being very natural. A pupil translating 
KS by oz, Uic teacher asked him : " Haven't you altcrtd that 

\iUgamQie, to, generally used only of metala and other sub- 




staiiceB and of abstract ideu, is iu Amerioi apjilitd matt] 
Inrlr to the mixture of the black and vhtt« mcei. TImi 
spending noun, amalgamation., bae of iMe ^i ven my to tbt I 
compound, nii^ce^raa/ton, a term as little tobecomnwudMiii 
idea it re|>re5«D(8. 

Ainaxing, iu the 8en«e of wonderfol, i« a nttlandiolj trAwiJ 
of the pKTailing; bad taste whtcb lores to deal ia niperktiMi. 
is, faoverer, qnoted with tliu same meaning In Bail^a '. 
already, oud hence not to be charged to this ooantrr. 

AmbUiou, oddly imd perhaps iguoraotly used instead of] 
or spito, is limited to Vii^nia and North Carolina, ui 
pares of the West to which it haa been carried from Utenn 
brought an octiuii aguiust mc for ambition." { Virgittia 
Museum, 1329, p. 418.) The use of 

Among for between, when only two persons an refemd VtjK^ 
of oonrse unwarrantable, but of Avquent occurrence, and ^t 
mo-ans unkiiou'n in Ktigland. " liniac. cnn we doomotijrni^ 
luv but two, and tber are ever so many." (&«M> ta tht 
West, p. 317.) 

Anent survives in the New Enghind States, and is 
writlen anend, as in J. R. Lowell's line: " The Yankee stilli 
familiarly the old pbrasi*, right an«nd for oootinuonsly/ 

constantly met with iu J. F. Cooper's norcls, ia now- 
•heard only in Nrw Jersey, and occasionally by old^faBhidOrd 
'tons, meaning precisely wiiat HoiliwcJl soys: "Aitenii: Hb" 
vfaat do you say 'f By lower class of persons to higher, 
they do not understand what is said to them." (Sub roor.) 

AppUcant, in the sense of diligent student, is almdy aa 
in Pickering's Vucabulary, hut can hardly be Rtid to be thasi 
any more. It means now, as in England, a petitioner. 

Appreciate, to, Itius m tJiis country, besides other mvaniagiti 
peculiar sensu of, raising iu value: "These improvemeoU 
appreciate the farm immensely."' {Hurai Htgister, 18&0, p. 21) 
has, with its noun, ttjypreriation, the more common nwanfaig' 
increaeiug in vuliii', likewist'. " His I'ennsylviinia landi< hsTSi 
apprfcieUfci as he hod hoped, and when he k'fL the cabinet b«' 
a poor man." (Bishop Kip, Life of Thomat I'iektriwg.) 

Arguf\jy to, a vulgar wnrd used to signify, to argue and Isi 
port, is perhaj« less frequently heard in this country tim *] 



Iftnd. though not anknown here. Halliwell meatious it u 

i >n vnrioiis diaWts, and the biographer of the Lord Chan- 

of Irelund. J. R. O'FIanagiui, uys: "He (Lord Clare) 

'ispBsk Ji vord, but whcu the coansellors are doae arguftf- 

Iwiu over the desk uud gives il uimI tu Jtick Dw^er, who 

him what to do." 

rmortj te, in the United States the n&uae or a pUce where 
are manufactnred, as well as the hoa»e in which they are 
\ — the latter meaning nlooc beiug" known in England. 
Arr>UTui, like nl/oui, ia coostantly used odrnrbially with the 
iag- of, in the neighborhood; the moat violent abuse of 
I liberty Ig meutiout-d by J. U. BartU'lt, iu the case of a 
iter who was reported to have said of one of the Saviour's 
•ties that "he itood around the CitMs." "I was standing 
ttd wlu'ii the flght took place," (New York Poiied Gazeiie,) 
I Hamilton it. rather atnall. has a roaud, tiesh, and happy- 
king focv, blue eyes, and brown hair, worn short and sort of 
or frizzed. She is animates] in coiivei'Kation, talke as she 
ites, is witty, fond of jokes, aud must be pleasant to have 
d. Sho doesn't look a bit pedantic or bine-stockin'-ilicd, and 
old pass nicely for twenty years old." (Washington i>apcr, 
ibtT, 1870.) 

Al is oue of the particles most abused in Amurioiii Epccch, 

oDgh here also much idlowance ought to be miule for nnoient 

A Still surviving among thedesc«^adants of early English set- 

ra. Thus the old custom of saying nt hill and al wood in desig- 

Dg a place on a hill or near a wood, from which so many 

Dtuncs like Atwood and otiiers are derived, gives it the 

oing of by in many cases. " I bonght it at auction'* is correct 

ingliiib, but, " It is to be sold at auction" is-Americuu ouly. It 

in like manner a provincialism, ut least, to say, At the £astaud 

tlie West, insteud of in the Ea^it and West ; and it is somewhat 

:rion!! to notice that this is not promigcuonsly done, but lIio bot^ 

•known New England Stati-s am generally spoken of as in the 

1, white? the remoter tSouth is designated as at the South. At 

used also iustesd of alwut or after, as in the familiar phrase: 

WhaA is he a( now :"' iii'.'jiiiiug, *' What does he propose to do 

mV At that, added as an expletive to strengthen an expression, 

be considered as an Americanism. " Ho is a Duvu-l^t 



id it most be admitted that its nse here is nnwarrantably 

It oad incorrect. "The brighteet sppAker of tho (Wo- 

tights) Convention has been Mn, Adt-Ic HazlL-Lt, the BinaJlf 

r> wiry little woman from Micliigan, who hiu an indcflnice 

of fliiap ill her e_ve8, and, in the words of a femiuiiio ad- 

aw/nlly cnnning, little, tumcd-np nose, and is dre»d- 

(New York Tribune, Jannar; 13, 1871.) But this 

wful is at lenst as mncb of a Scotticism as an Anierican- 

" an aie/»l swell " is beard as constantly ia Eugligb slang 

■expressions with us. The Cockney eveD improves upon 

lakes it or/ul. Bnt to employ awful m an adverb and to 

England, "She is an awful fine woman," {^latig Dic- 

p. 68,) can in no way be excused. Still, it is constantly 

^''Tbey conldn't get Bill into a row, for be ia afeard of 

rhen be gets atpful mad, and he allers lef his Ghootiog- 

hts room, wlieu be went out-" (iVora/ of K'lW Bili.) 

i and dusty day ! cry the poor pilgrims as they wipe their 

foreheads and woo the doubtfnl breeze which the river 

itb it. A tcffu I \iQi I I>reaiifu I ilnslyl answers the sympa- 

>U-gatherer." (Hawthorne, The ToU-Gatherer'a Doy.) 

h instead of ask, siurviros with astonishing ritulity iu 

vn speech, and is Almost uniformly used by the negro pop- 

I It lias, of course, tho wnrnmt of great antiquity and 

atrouoge, for, coming unchanged (torn the Anglo-Saxon, it 

d as the lejptimate form by the higiieat in the land down 

m Ehxabeth. '^ Axe not why," says Chaucer's Miller, and 

^rerc's Tale we read: " Axe him thyself if thou not trow- 

P After that period it was iibandoned by the Court, but 

■mon people continaed ltd use and brought it to thisconn- 

fhc Cockney and the Norfolk bind use <ixe as exclusively as 

IT white folks and the freednien of tho South. It has, be- 

pea well said that " for purposes of lyric poetry and musi- 

■poaitions axed would be infinitely preferable to the harsh 

muted, which no vocalist can pronounce without a painful 

}{£iacicwo&d, October, 1869.) 

is often used Instead of ago, as in the familiar phrase, 
I that was a long time lack / " It is the remnant of iiaei:- 

r Bmtkwgmkitm 

i^ie. When imTiy «« 
: -I ftd i^nilft te4 to 

whiofa m» 

witamm.iom sot nen II 

k«k li>e bempra b«gs mad 

, M ^ M at ntees is ^hks, is foood in Anerii 

,TlM»4Ul, OMMP-Bdl, Fkddl«.BkU, i 

■rfirt I iiBir Of tk«,An>-Ai«w looked II 

tndcet besag coMpmrirelT anknovo, 
evlvaa^gf tWCMbolie CoUicn. It* pndMMi 
•'OUCM*'o£fc>merpntf«tfeoi; so 1836 tW first Jtei 
m dM O^ of Xrr York, uid of cuane 
Oli^ Xow tbe naoKTDos CIdIm an i 
"NatiaBsl ftiwnnkiinn of Bue-BaU PbTw:" titer oon 
Bsin. of pnftnooBl pUrvn who rrouTe large sfti 
■moantzng to stmal tboanod » j«ar, and meci i 
dohsg the nimn»er, eoDtestinif for pris«g. Tfaor ■ 
nsmes, ss the KiekencpivliDr^ of Philad«lph{a, and t 
gani of Indiaiu. The EscnUpuus of Brookirn ^n. ^11 
•□d the Mnlu Clnb of Now York oontoins nothing bo 
Bamiootie, to, mcaos here^ u io Bogland, to perpi 
laid; batoltboagh k has beenassd faer« as longu iaJ 
fhmJM*'' and pc^tilar language* its Irae origin bat J 



iiff'Uj*, the oUl word tbr ft heavy OTerooat, dow inpeneded 

rbere cIk ^>' uewf^r names, .still survives in some parU of the 

"Bo was clothed in an old bang-up, black TC«t, grey 

snd trl-raw baL** (Fhttadelphia Lrdgrr^ June 11, 1853.) 

£»'(;<>. often represented us an Africua word, is aimplj liie corrupt- 

lin<i softened form of llic old bandore, a descendant of the Greek 

j^Sovpa, a musical instnimeut invented b; Pan. Thomas JeOV-r* 

ik^ of it as an instrument '' proper to the Blacks; which 

brought hither from Africa, and which is thfi oripinnl of the 

its chords being pre<!iseljr tlie four lower chorda of the 

' (Ifotet 0« Virtfinia, p. 47.) 

tuHOck, in Scotland .i round cake of oatmeal, kneaded in 

kUr only, nod baked against a stone, called bannock-etone, while 

itamc cake ie called a girdle-uike if baked uu an iron plate, 

ins in America a cake of Indian meal, fried in lord. 

Banter, to, in the We«t, mL'ans not merely to joke and je«t good- 

imoredlv, bat also to challenge to a match, and to pro%'oke a 

ur. "We had a fine hanUr, but the match was postponed till 

Barm, or bannr. h used in N'cw England instead of yeast, the 
pitial letter of which, althongh persistently dropjied (oast), seeraa 
I In a rock of offence to American organs of si}eech, eo that there 
lite a number of substitutes for (be unlucky word. It has thr 
>n of Bpflumont and Fletcher, and of Shakespeare, who uses 
ii in his Midinmmcr Night's Dream, while Chuaocr already dngs: 

" Of tarte, alom-cliu, ^mu, wert, knd uxoila" 

Batter cakat are the familiar cakes of Indiau meal, made with 
buttermilk or cream, and seldom absent from a Southern break* 
(kit •table. 

Bntf not only designates an inlet from the sea, but very fre- 
quently also any low, ewampy region in the South, perhapH so 
klled from the bay-treee vhich arc apt to abound in such locali- 
"They found themiielTes on the edge of a very dense for^t 
]cji and scrubby oaks> a portion of which wa£i swallowed up 
a deep batf, a awamp-bottom, the growth of which consisted of 
tingled cy[)reiia)a and bay iKt% with tupclo. gum, and dense 
iduts of low stunted shrubbery, cane-grusii, uud dwarf willpws, 
bhioh filled op every interval between the trees, and ^ 



most effectnally barred out evory haman intmder." Cff-Q-S 
TTie IVfywfiHt and the Cabin.) Siif/'Galh are Iar;g:e, glogmj, 
moat impenetrable fivamps in Florida, fall of deer, bnu, 

Bazar haa become popular in America through Mre. 
who established the first in Cincinnati — an ent 
unfortuuatijly did not succeed, and was thought tv L^.. .. 
Qt«d largely to her bitter anlmosit;- against this country. 

Se, instead of am or arc,a8 frequently in the Bibl 
popular in Xev Hampshire and Massauhii sects, an . 
like manner in eome of the provincial dialects of KnglautL 
)-e content noTr, dfiacon ?" asks a voman in iln. H. B. 
recent novel. 

Beat, to, retains here the meaning which is given in 
Dictionary, (o aurpas8, excel. *MVho beaif Why, of 
Highflier beat the mare all to piecea.** (Louiarillo Couritrt 
17, 1854.) A further eiiension of thi« meaning liafl Ivd to 
of beat in8tea<l of beaten, as when people soy, "We felt dead 
meaning tJiat they felt qnite overcome. The verb in rendered 1 
tensive by the addition of nil hollow (ineiead of hoUow, ad in Hu 
lifth). " In this matter ve beat the English all hoUow, and wu 
to do the same in everything else," (Kew York Herald^ Deceml 
13, 1867.) 

Beav, to, a verb nsed by the uneducated insteod of "to osmt,' 

Beautiful, like elegant, h a much misuBcd u-rio, being app' 
indiEcriminately to anything pleusing or good. The batter on 
break fast- table is quite as oRen called beauli/itl or eifffaiti »i 
finest lady on Broadway. " That was beautiful conduct,^ said 
New York Mirror, of a hemic ar.t. 

Beeaisct instead of becaase, often nude a matter of 
reproach to the South, since it is couimuu to the Wlirtcs tiKt% 
almost unknown to the BtackA. Il ia not a corrupuon, or al 
a corruption of old date, and sanctioned by naoge at the time %' 
Virginia wa6 settled, and the word wos brought ov ' i Eng- 
land ; for Pepys, in the Appendix to his Diary, qu' .^jui 
the Earl of Iveic^iter to Cumnor Sale, requiring a 6mct unati* 
gation into the sudden death of Amy Jtobsart, " /itfcoiM of m; 
thorough qoictnoMand of all others hereafter." (Vol, IV., p. 

Bttf is often applied In the South to an ox, and the ba 




the pbiit«r to we if he lias nny bteve^i to sell. "She'll 
\a fine beef," is said of & cow giving no milk, which in to be 

r, without the addititm of a descriptive noun, is very rarely 
I in America, aie being gent-'mlly used where an Englishman 

aay beer. The tinit Huall-bum- i>f Ihe oouutr;> omde iu 1630^ 

deKribed hy an auoHymous poet: 

" If barley he wftuUng Ui make inln mall, 
W« tstui be ennlcnied and rliink ll an foull. 
For we cu nwkc liqunr to sweeten our lips 
Of pampkiDs and parssipa nod waluut-tiee chips." 

for luDgs, iiLti: unknown in English slang (Slang 
r, p. Ti), is uctually iu ii&u in N>w Kngluiid uiid Peun- 
J. B. Lowdl oavB, "His beihmes is raund enough." 
Faptrsy I., p. ^3.) 
'i» is the unicBthetic nmno given in Penusylvauin to mo- 
audy, and, in New Kngluiid, by a corruption of bolly-cut- 
low bU-ds ou which boys slide down-liilt in winter, lying 
their bellies. {B.) 
it^rtffs, in the sense of gi-utletut-u's shirts mid dri\wer8, is a 
listic term, by no means found only in Wuihington news- 
where it seems to have Ik-hh (iret discovered, for we are 
•t, "We observe that tliis eubatuntive appears in the 
t^ai Socirlg JJictioiiary, uudL-i- the epuusorship of Mr. 
," {Blackwood, April, l8(i].) 

the nniform Yankee manner of pronouncing been, is thus 
id fay J. R. Lowc^lt, in liia onthuBiostic apology for Vankce- 
^d with a special view to juBtify his bi'utbur i>OL't Whiiuer, 
lenu to affect the word particularly : •• It has the authority 
krille. Gammer Gurton (thi? wurk uf a bisliop), Chapman, 
B, aad many more, though bin <)ecms tc have been the- coni- 
>rm." The- Yankee only follows the old custom of KenL 
icA, ia the Ntw England Stilted, su]ii)lit's the English term 
when applied to a long seat witlKiut a back. 

', for more, prevails iu the East us in Eerefordahire, Eng- 
flod in fiuniliJu- language ever}-where. "It ia httter than 
uhels, I warrant you." fieltennvst, a redundant superlo- 
io like manner common to both countries, thougii not 



admitted iuto good society florn-here. ifetUrmtnU, thi I 
term for improTem^nts, as expUined by Boarier, U a 9oii fa 
«Tcr used now-a-davK. the latUT trord having laken iU[dMb 

Sifff inst^ttd or great, oan hardly be oftlled an Amici 
;bov«ver common ita i\m may be, einco Jeremy TayW.iBtol 
lou On the Kcturtl of I'ra}'«r, speaks of him *' nhoseipf) 
tUMek »iid gentle, up to the greatness of thp biyg*ti UH 
(Quoted by J. B. Lowell.) Bnt the over- energetic comfaii 
of ffntU-biff, which is constantly heard in the Souib. ma; « 
irdod us A satire extruvugance. '-I sawayrMf biftU 
the road." The Jiiff Drink is au equally iatcnsifs Uflsfl 
Miississippi River, full of droll humor, after the mauDcrof IP 

Uih for Jxtil, almoat nniversaUy regtirded as a most n^ 

flihle valgnrism, has. in like rauniier, high authority for its 1 

tho£c who Imve bequeathed it to the present gcnemtiaB. * 

ftliis is generally epcU boiUhni, I think, less properly," mJ«i 

an anthority than the great Johnson himself. Thaa oi 

ijAi'fe has maintained itaelf througbont the L*ountrT, andlfci 

lirt of the latu C'ivil War line anew proved its inilestr 
Titality. •• Pigs will be ketcbed by Bteam nod will be Wd 
eat befor* they are done squealing." (J. 0. N< 
S*#fe/iM, II., p.2?.) 

Binderif, as a place where books arc bound, is anc 
according to Websfcei-'B Dtdionnry, an Americanism. 
thf Mercantile Library will have u liiut«rtf u{ its owo." 
Twr's Monthli), February, 1671.) 

Bx&cnifs, in England representing our "crackMi».*'a hi 
bread, mainly baked for ship-use, here designate a peruHi 
of hot tea-roll, iiBiiaily fermented. 

Birdif, a fivqiient name in the United States, eepwiall] 
South, derived fi-om Bird or Burd, a ScotlisJi terra of «ada 
applied to young ladies, — 



" And by my wurd. tlw bouuy irird 
lu d&iiger KlittU not bury." 


Btaekmmt, originally the money paid to the agents 
to ucurv prolnoUon IVom the latter, in Scotli 


BtMiw obtained a wider signification, and designates any 
'tatortfd under threat of exposure, public attack, or ill 
fnt in the pnblic papers. 

hstrap, a mixture of molaues with fomc spirituous Itquor, 
Bmoniy distributed to th^ hands during harvest. "I am 
bock tf> long-ago noonings in my father's haj-fields. and 
iilk of Sura and Job over their jug of Blackxtrap tinder 
Sow of the ash-tree, which still dappleia the grass whence 
[re been goue so long."' (J. It. Lowell.) 
:«r and blatherskite, probably fiinciful derivatix'efl ftcm 
\ are frejjnently heani in the West to designate blustering, 
threats. Bailey quotes it as meaning loud talking or 
ig, and says that Skclton has it, that it is still known in 

nshire, and adduc*s the phraBC, " None of your 
It eeems to Lw of Irish origin ; at least J. R. 

gives a curious etymology of thp word : " fjoril Redes- 

nking of people who learnt to skate with blnddera 
iheir amio to buoy them up, if they should fall into a hole 
fc being drowned. 'Ah, my Lord,' said Toler, 'that is 
t call bladderum skate iu Irelaud.' " {Lives of the Lord 
iter* of Ireland.) 

lie is, in Xew Jersey, a common term for a tin-hncket. 
vtrtt, a term referred back to the tJi-minii Blih, means in 
Bt a stunning blow or an overwhelming argument "A 
lan at dinner asked me for a toa«t, and supposinc; he meant 
e some fun at my expense, I concluded to go ahead and 
m and his likes a bUtsard." {CrockdVs Tout, p. 16, B.) 
t, beaides its ordinary meanings, serves in America also to 
Ite a connected mass or row of buildings, and even ii whol« 
I of a town, enclosed by streets, whether it be built upon or 
id in this sense is u genuiue AmericatiisaL "The terrible 
ration destroyed an entire bhck and a targe portion of tJie 
Dg streets." (Ijcavenworth paper. June, 18S9.) The word 
in adopted in Kugland,and is often met with in nowspaper- 

Occasionally it tB substituted for btock-hwse : "I 
it was a joyful sui-priee to B^tiiy, 'when we broke inttrthe 
(W. G. Simms, Thi Tm Campl) 

■$r designates both a costume devised by a Mrs. Bloomer 
ndent ladies, and the wearerof such a costume. A well- 


knoTD damsel, vho, during ud after tbe late Cml Wu, i 
Tery fK^juentlj iu tlie preu of Eagland, as ireU m ot ber i 
Und, was thus d«-8cribed : " Poctvr )£ar; Walker appeared 1 
the aodieooe in a chanuitig Bloomtr-ooitnmi, m^A imp 
npoD the original, in bright colors, and very sbort on \an 
DO longer at the other cjid." (Philadelphia Jxdger, Jiauijl 

£«i6€ty, a cant t«nn for a noise, is guneraUj Oiied h«ft aj 
mottt good-natoNd mosc, as difiering from the objectioiublf i 
The etymology of the vord ii much disputed. S. S. 
deriTcs it from the Hindoo bapbarl; other anthorities aimi 
"Auglo-Iudian" {Slang Dictionary, {». 79), and still otbttfl 
nect it with tli« verb to h^, from which bobbing arotind \i^ 
and Chaucer's famous town "ych-^it bijb up and down." "^Tni 
a pair of impertinent rascals ; what do you mean by ldcikin|<l 
snch & bobbery at this time of night?" (J. C. ^ieal, i 
Sketebts.) ''People who duclorc thcmscLveo responsibki 
Kature's God, are very apt to kick up a tremendoiu boiibtri ■ 
to make long acolding speeches." (New York Tribun*, Fd 
6, 1871.) 

Bogue, pmbably from the same root as bog}', is in &ei)i 
in 2^'ew England in the sense of coming suddenly upon oho. 
don't git much done Hhout 1 bogvn right iu along 'th mj i 
(J. R. Uwcll.) 

Bogus, the uame of a beTerage consisting of mm and 
Hell known to sailors, is occasionally hoard iu the Eastern 1 
especially among fishermen. It is probably an abbrsTiatiOA 
the uionj familiar calibogus. 

Jionny Clabber, used already by Ben Joiuoa in tbe lintf- 

** Ir is sgaitiU my ftvcliold, ray Inherttanoe. 
To dtink such botdcrdaah u botrnp-eloUtr' 
and by Swift— 

** Wv Bcorn for wKnt oT inlk to Jiibber 
Of psrtite o'vr iiur bvnnf-ti^iUer" 

mcftus in Pennsylvania and the South not oidinuy finid 
turned or soured by long standing or a thonder-stonn. which! 
there called Sour Milk, but thick milk, trom which the wbcfl 
drained to get thu curds out, of which afterward mwircavl*1 



The fotlowing rerxc sccnis to be an unprint^ piut of 
Doodle — jmrJiiiiw ereu unwritten before — 

" Bavffhmtvffh Klaugitbauph all the woj^k, 

Sour miik on Suodiy, 
Prctlj- girU (in Suluixlay ni^Lt, 
And go to work uu M(tiii,luy." 

{& 8. UatiUman.) 

word is frequently shortened into clabber simply. 
wb, tOf is Tory common in the frcnse of to eiigag;e a seat in ft 
I or other puhtic couveyaaoe. 

mkstore, a pluce n liera books ure sold, is the American wrm 
be Kuglisli " buok!3i*Ui<i''8 t;iiu[i." 

rngf, or more frequently boozy, originally a vile gypsy word, 
low Tcry largely uaed, even by cart-ful writera lik* G. W. 
is. The origin is the Utitcb hityiten, to tipple, and it came 
many other driukiug- terms over from Holland In Qiii'eu 
ibetiru time. A " bouziny ki;n" was tliu old cant turui for a 
ic house, and so it iti still in modern days. ^^ Bousing awi. 
-clu-erc" are fre»i\ifnt]y conpled by EliKaWthao writL-re. It 
rely {tossible', tliat tlio word may have been intro4:luced into 
Tnitol States twice: once by the English sottk-rs, and iigain 
le Dntch colonists. 

fd, the participle of to bind, is frequently used for obli- 
Sb« f«lt herself bound, in American phitise, to prevent 
from acquiring an accession of territory." (Loudon 
•ierly, January, 1871.) It la, like so miiuy similar 'tvonls, 
n'stoi'cd to its legitimalo use ; even in some parts of England, 
specially in the i^ngUsh diutriuts of .KoutUern WhIoh, it- la 
I fh>quentty with the sanit; meaning: "He is hound to do it." 
vghtrn, an old particijile with the adjective termiuatiun, still 
vea in parts of New England and New York, and spi-ves to 
iguish articles bought at a, shop from those manufactured nC 
'. *'Ib this a hume-miide air\^:l ov v. boughten one?" Tlie 
ts evidently duo to 8coteh settlers, who also say, ''I have 
M on my coal,'^ and *' I have ca*ien a stone." 
y, U8«d, before the Civil War, to designate any (colored) 
■ervant, without n^gard to age. Giay-haired men would be 
■ased thus: " Huy, bring my liorse np. I'm going now," and at 
uier-table the servant would bo toU, " Hoy, where is the 



I pMti of tbe Vr 
V "B. TV nur -^ i 

Bfm^ » m Ancrin B«fc wt Ibr brittlr, aod 

pant «f Sa^ai lar broken tw>^ iai\ 
■e Um vidkrflitt fte neuiitrg of 
* Wfasn fnm Uw dfcetc ef ateHiw tbe l»;gn- hl«^ cf «] 
leralDUed iato minntr bigBvata, tius eolletfiiao is nlMi 
'^■Idf." (Uagh Mntwr. I'tlmr Skw. 1899L) Tfae word if J» '< 
with U>e meaning ot harA, pfofcabW from its fonoer OKWiif] 
havty in temper, itnpetamu, M <i«ot«d br Qract. ''SRbtl^]'' 
•TR pl»f ing^ thii a little too Brsift.* (Prntnam't Jfafaxim, 
19M.) to Boothere Vmr Jmey vid tn PeDDsrlTutu, ^ ' 
rifinx tarte in the month is freqaeiitlj ealM imiil, ud ui 
posed penoo is nid lo be brasiy. It bai the cub 
th« Xofth of KngUod. (Brockett.) 

Uraeely U liiU, as of otd in Gngliutd. used in Uw 
»ory well, excellently. Aa Bacon wrot«: "Swart^ with 
munn. jf-rfonned branlff,** oar newspapers report: "TVl 
of iVtin^lvania Arenup is going on brawlj/, and ill 
rttuiy for the great camiTal." (Washington Ckromdt,t^ 
%t, 1671.) 


". a nu>di usui'ul word, desigiinUug all the cereals 

; couverteU into bread: com, wheat, rye, «tc., and 

iDikliy bread it«olEl " Onv gt«at objection to the contlaot 

lid, was her proWbiiory duty on the importAtton of bread- 

(Monhol), I.ife o/' iVnxMinfft on, V., p. 319. If.) N'ow-a- 

► Ihe plurut ii more genvrally uaal : " BrtadMnffn hare df- 

.alLliough ruruers lioped fui- u riee in prices, in conse'iuvtiw 

Frunuo-tienuan war." (N'uw York tfcrald, October 21, 

I** to, is iu Vir^nia, and other tobaoo<o-nu«ing Stntes, 
, to the opening of tlic liogabcodst as they ure sent from the 
tionn, previooB tn a pablic sale. Tho hrmking \a a proc^sd 
tritli mnch iaterest bv buyvr and i-eller. 
i0iPH, u here, aa iu Eiiglaud, the t«Tm for a uoisv daooe, 
1 vioIniC enongb to " bnaik down" the floor : the ** flarc-n]i '' 
lod ; ill the South univeraally itppliod to tbe violent per- 
■ancea of tiio negru««. 
Brfwin, in England, a broth made of hreiid with broth ponred 
it, rvpr>!S(>iiu in Nen Knglaud cruets of rye and IihUhu 
^aoftencd with milk and entcn with molassee. 
lir^ia 113rd iu il>e South v«ry ortcn, ne in some parta ofBiig- 
j, for pri valcnt, and h;ifl been regarded a cormption of" rife." 
eller in Virginia hearing the drivoraav "Tht wind is brief'' 
what tliat meant, and rvetiived the answer, " Tbe wind \(i a 
, of peart" 

(o. tak<?s in Ainorica nlmoat ult-.'i.'ether thi? pljwx- of tlie 
[n fftcli, B;iilrT «fty9 thi? two verbs differ in thii), tbftt 
I f«tclt things by another, but bring them in onr own hand, and 
ifcrs to thf vorst-: "As ghe was going; to /flfrA it, he called to 
r. Bring me a morsel nf hrciid." (1 Kings xvH. 11.) 
Btwn bTMit designates brcud mudv of a mixtnrc of two \weiA 
'oom-nical with oivi part of ryv-meal, oncu almost exdnsivL-ty 
in Nvw Euglaud, but now very common throughout the 

Uroien stone, a dark variety of red sandstone, und highly 

rmed as a building material iu New York, where a brown 

BM* ffunt is apt to be looked upon atf n sign ofgcutilitT. "The 

tHfM jitonf, now so fnahiouable, is jwrhupfl the m<Mt; pt-rishftblu 

if all materials Uiod in New York boose^building. It ii 


autl uiie((ual in deniritT, purtlculirly Bbaortmt of 
and susceptible to the chcruical influences of the a 
(Sew York 7ViA»ii«, January 19, 18;i.) 

^«SfS9* in Knglaud, a light otie-hnrac chaise^ on two 
m«ftn« in America a gingle-Kattid, four-wheeled vehicle, 
witliout a top, drown b; one or two ho»e«. 

JittU i& used by Americana in good society only jm a 
term, connected with *■ Bears," or aa an Irish bull. At 
oommyuly bolievt-d ihat ox is ihe uiily reepoctable term 
a ball can be cifely dosiffuatod, and even **f>enUeRuin-c»« 
been attempted by very boahfa) pmde*. There ia a nt - 
and quoted abroad, that a f^niy-heailrd American j^-I^ 
kieen to doff bta hat reverently, and apologise to a o 
having inadvertenily used in his preeeuce the plain Saxon 
Bundle, to, a cuetom still prevalent in Walei, and nut 
>quently practised in the West, of men and women ilMpitt; 
all their clothes on, when there is not house-room to prori 
occommodaLion. " Among other hideoni cuACimu, 
Yankees) attempted t^j inlnxluce tliiu of hundUng, 
Dotch laesoB uf the Xederlandts, with their eager 
novelty and for the fasbionK, natural to their etXy aecoKd 
well inclined to follow, but tliat tbt-ir miilhurs, Win); more 
rienoed in the world and hettt-r licquuinted with m«.-n and tbiti 
discoonteuanced all such outlandish innovations.** <W. Irrh 
Knickerhovker Hi»lortj of Xew York:) 

Burif recalling the Knglieh btmntihc familiar namrof tb> 
bit (Uulliwell), i(^ iu Americu. (miuently applied to the cqoimt 
" The moanuiin uitl thu sqnjrrd 
Ilad H qaarrol, 

And Mv fiinncT caUcA the latter, LllUe Prvg] 
Bun replLiid : 
Too are doutrtlMi very big." 

(It. W. Bmnwtt UkUt) 

Sunatt is tiie name in America commonly given co a obeit 


Oaiculaief to, a word generally looked upon as an Areh* 

liBm, and inseparable from the liclltious ' 

^y be more frc(iuently heard in the Hew Ei>f.,..<uM ■•.»ii<. 

OLD PBiEvcs vrnu HEW paces. 


td barter Uu-ire. $o us to make calculations f»miliar to old 
mg, but has made ibi way orer the whole North and West. 
kl all know, though neighbor Val« hus the bcel heart in the 
3, he hitsn't a niit« of caikeriattMi, and none of tin? Vales 
P hat), aa ever I hcerd on. How he's gittin' on ! and till for 
j' under the sou, ouly for i\w want of kalkerlntr." {Ptit- 
iagazine, January. 1B70.) 

to, a Terb of recent origin, since the process of putting 
in air-tight ctijtn has been ado])ted. 
an adjective made from eatw, is oftf^n met with in the 
desigriat* piscpa wherti cane is either still growing, or 
iit in abundance: henco, nnnierous names of Caney 
and the like, in Kentucky. 
E, to. in the sense of to turn over, ia in common use with 
tile in England it is rarely heard, Bailey, however, explains 
'In carpentry, gignttios to Uini. ns when a piec*.! of tim- 
M the wrong way, they gay, Cnnl it, that, is, tnrn it about." 
ic meaning is evidently attached to Grnec'e qnotation : " He 
ited out of the chaise.*' Hence, also, mnt-hmk. a UBefnl 
lent in the shape of an iron hook, attached to the end of a 
Iatct, by means of which heavy weights can ho easily 
iTer and moved. It is Americjin in design and name, 
originally a legal term, has been mioptcd by the Amer* 
to designate simply a title, a "heading:" "Under this 
! propose to consider two questions." ( Rev. H. W. Brtcher.) 
ftivaJe, to, instead of to c-apturc, lia^ been called an Ameri* 
m, but has at least very good Kuglish authority for this 
ling: *• Ho deeerres to Iw a slave, that is, content to have the 
nal sovereignty of his soul and the liberty of his will so cap- 
cfL" (King Charles L) It is, however, rarely ever heard now 

II!^, to> m verb constantly used in Virginia and the South, 
U of to load. " ('tti'rtj the hor«o to water." The very oppo- 
Mstom prevails in ports of England, eg., in Sheffield, where 
ly lead hay, corn, coals, and almost everything which elae- 
r» they carry or cart.'' (•${»■ liu-hard Phillips' Tour, p. ."1<H.) 
WS, in, is said, in the Southern States, of tobacco, when it is 
id pliant, or in a condition to be packed away in casks 
It loss. 

(.TWtlM and Cnmidt, m. 
The Coolinej ftod tbe Virginlim alike modiT; it sUU 

Cattr-comrrtJ, a xcry common t4aTii in Tirgiiuaoj 
{| «Tidontly dfriTed from the Freac}i quairr, as in ' 
four of dice, ttc; and in "Cater-cousin." The vol 
Carr's Crairen Qlwsarji, and Gwk has a similar word^ 
" Yon mnst go caier-croes Uie field, KunU" (Sub ran 

CiUatici:, in £ngUnd i\w hot for playing certain ga 
is an Americanism as for oa it is uwd for any uns] 
wood with the bftrk on» which is small enough to be 
tb« hand. This is probably ihc Knglisli provincial 
term. (J. R Lowell.) A ait'anap is, in Now K[ 

CaUup, the more commoD way of vriting caUhi 
the dictionaries, has Swift's authority in it^ taxor- 


" «tir Iiomriired BrlUsli ch 
BotArgo, mtnifi, and carler" 

OidtUf in England, asad generioolly for all uilmali 
for food or draught, is in America generally oatd <n 
nate beasts of tho bovine gcuue— perhaps b«caa»hoi 



ntlv strengthened by the addition of for. "Wo aliull be 
out for cerlain." {Harper's iVeekly, February 2S, 1871.) 
in-lighining, the Western term for "forki'd lightning," i» 
lly rendered more redundant by being changed into ckaincd 
log. In hoth forms it is constaotly applied to inlViior 

r u in South Carolina unifDmily pionouaoed cheer, oa gtairg 
ftWMr«, and ai is gviitjxuUy tnineforintid intu ce, with u 
ppf strict reuhation, bv which, e.g., deer-mtat bf-ctimoa 

np, on the other hand, has its peculiar sound of chomp in 
;land as well as in the South, where Homp, in like manni^r, 
place of tiamp. To ehomp meauB htre to eat givodiiy, 
Jt has also :he meaning given to it in llic iypeHaior 
'The pieces of a tol>aoco-pipe left suoli a delicate rongb- 
\y tongue that X champed up the rematuing pnrt." 
is iis^'d ill the South to express it ccrtaiu amfiunt or sop- 
'He lost a gmarl; chaace of blood." 

Wf to, oih;i> the legitimate wonl, has, in Eugland and here, 
pwy entirety to the modern form, to chete. "I saw here 
pruce-wax which the Canadians chaw, done up iu littla 
papers, a penny a roll." (Pufnam'f Afagaxine, January, 
[The older form, however, rc-appeara quite frequently yet, 
:ially rvUiined for the quid of tobacco, which is called 
"He eaid he didn't give me nothing; never even gave 
of tobacco." {Sketches of Southern Life.) '• Sparrow- 
don't hnrt a tree a single morsel to chaw it, if it's a 
For my part, I'd rather have my trees chaived than 
link it makes them grow a lectle better." (F. Cokzcqb, 
jrass Papers.) Chaw ia still the favorite word in Vir- 
wd tho whole South, us it cume in the seventeenth century 
Snglaud, where it was in common use. Pepya writes, Juno 
i, in his Diary : "It put mo into an ill conception of my- 
id my smell (it was in tho time of tho plague), so that I 
Med to buy some roll-tobacco to smell and to ckaro, which 
Bf the apprehension." Thus It remained unchanged. " The 
poent Watkins Leigh was asked by a frieud what he thought 
MS Baohauan (the President), and answered, that he had 
I objection to him, and when pressed toi^, ^qjd tb^ 

iferaefcfv oftofa 
f,prhm<« letter, A] 
F of n hnprowp t a i 

King of defeatins ujjj 
beoooK TOT po; 
in lSo7 atid isk,* 
the ooftntrr. •• To d 
(JWmu/ Qvsrierlg, 

icd ibe oU Bnglub mnniiig rfj 

haait tgmm A» eMt ef dM daer ami pi«Teiit«cI nw frtitt j 
Hag hv mt* (Bvr. P. OKtwrigkfc, AttMiafrtpky. p. IK) 

CUb mti ffcwri»ftecoaww enaMuii« in mil&riotui 

OUmJ^. Ipr cfaiB&ej, u owd by Sb W. Scott : "A k>t^ 
■ dbMdry is H msttler ftir them"* (JM £«y, U cb. 110).l 
ewnBoa in aH parts of <lie United 8iatc% tboogh tbe ftil 
CBMMiiyf 19 pnnaps ctcb hiotv gCBcn) : 

"Aim *■ itiBl h naitoito tenc, 

Am* to Moop Vh raMid 
ffee «Ib QMa*a ann ihatfna*ther Tonng 
VMcted tackfhn CoDeetd btuird." 

Chirp, to, frequently pnlai^cd into chirrup, add conoterfi 
mi>pnniQiiciation of cheer np. hut qnot«J u chirp, by Ji 
i« in both forms in common nw in America. Insects ur 
said to chirp, and the nonn is anbatittited for the Engli^ m>l 

Cbisi i« the common New England pronnuciation of t»M*.| 
kiitU of kettle, and jiutiBed, as J. R- Lowell pleads, br the 
that both Bishop Ilall and Pnrchas in bii "Pilgrims" hkni 
as well At bj th« derivation of the word from tbe t^lii 
(German, Kitt«). 

Oiuwiry isa term often applied to Sonthern gentry oii' 
pecniiar social riews. *'The Ckivalrg oT QiC Sooth diffefl* 
tbe Yankoe precisely as the Cavalier differed from tbe PBni»1 
(SmUhem lAttrary MMtenger, June, 1849.) 

or-D PttiENDi; TTiTir yKw paces. 

it, tcs in the sense of to fill up, as ixaed in, Fiillcr'g 
'«fj continnos to be ust-d Iti America. " What matlo the 
eo uwful lu-nvy, I coiiKln't ifee: btit I found QlWward alio 
1 tier L-lothes and tniTie. and then ahe'd chocked \n all 'round 
laple-sngar, mid iliat'B as Iiea^-y aa tho U-ii coinmiindmenta 
rse-tliief." {Putnam's Magazine, June, 1868.) Hcnco, aleo, 
ittf, of wbicli Halliwell says: '• Vhvck/ull is 6l\ii in lurn ia 
oottuties." It is au opeu question, whether the term 
itA meaning from Mie old Etiglisli chelch^fullc., quite full, 
the verb, to c/ioHr, or from filling the scuIl-s tiU llicy come 
irith a nhack. {Slttmj Dic.liotiarrj, p. 100.) " Thu jiuuse was 
W. and when Forrest appeared, their ehouts were terrific" 
idelpbia Ledgtr, ioMMAvy H, IS."!!.) 

jw, u>, is «sid by low-bred iwople, with the peculiar mean- 
to chCKine not to taku whut i« utfert'd. A didh otTered ut 
I declined with the words, " I don't choose any." 
ly, a tjisV or small work of domestie nature, goiiorally used 
plurut, is iu all prohubility the old Eiigli&h char, from whiuh 
Bdern eJiarwoman is dei-ived. J. K. I^iwtdl states, however, 
0T« occurs already in Ben Jonson, and humorously derives 
the FVench/wtr, im a day's work. Un origin is more likely 
Bought iu the Anglo-Saxon eaer, our word care, willi the, 
softeninffof die initial, esi>ccially ns the gi-adual tmnsi- 
om caer to chni* aud chore, can be di»!iiictly traced. Shakea- 

"ihfitn^ddiat milks 
An^ 4oca tlio meanest charu" — 
{Anion}/ and Vteopatra.) 

1. B. Lowell sings : 

" I love lo start out arUir night'fl bognn, 
An' all Ihe «&»«:* aboiil the lifjuse arL- dDtie." 

{Jtt'sl^o Paper*, II.. p. HI) 

laylight began to gliramer, I crowed very loudly several 
hoping that the old darkey who did tJio cjtores would 
it was morning, and get up to light the lires.'* {Atlantic 
iy, NortmU-T, 1870.) 

:ckj'vii,:in iuiwai-rant(.*d but fi-equeot mode of spelling cAooi- 
" These prairies are nature's iNnikH, etulfed rJmckfuU of 



<OMh, which any ioaa can draw ont if be will onlr pmeu 
check. The fondj are deposit^ to the credit uf XjiUtr, Phi^ki 
Ca It is the poor mau^n savings' bank." (/^i/HatriV ifn 
DeocmU-r, 1868.) 

Chunk, ID the aenee of a short, stont pir-ce of wotMi. it iii>ti 
kuowD tx> Kuglish piUTinciab, bat chunky is probablr m gmt 
Americaniun. fint used br Dr. Kane, or Xorth V<>\*. fx\t 
" A Tolerable chunk of a pouj," means, in .South<>ra and ^li 
|urlunue, a coK 

O'rvtwuiteffM is not unfiraiaently nsed half-htimoFotuly, 
.almost always uegotivelv, to indicate a matu^r of mora »r 
'importance. *' Yes, as von eav. this lidb is tin^t-rat-e, ba( it aiilj 
cirrumjstanee to what can be done in the cwking waj." (W>1 
Mayo, Kalooiak, p. ;i7.) 

Ciaybunk, a word not found in English dioHooarioft^ 
America oft^n nsed to denote the color most commgn to si 
of clay. " r mounted a ciaybank colored nag and rode is 
hunt." {Fuitutm's ifaf/azine, Fehruary, 1855.) 

Vltan. uaod as an adverb for. entirely, is eo far from heiagi 
.AmcTicaiiism, that Shakespeare uties it contiunally. ereo ATfll 
I'f^MH yonf in the sense of, out of sight, " Tho old mare, sue 

ig all her mettle-, rose ai the fence and went clean over it. Mil 
Fsingle horse daring to follow her." {Rural HtgUltr^ May, IWill ' 

CJerk, in the North generally prononnced clurk, is in IHr 
and Kome pHrt« of the South still called cUtrky oj it iras nsti 
Kiuudc-d. but wen written, at the time when that oolooy 
settled. Pepys writes, July 30, 1063: "So we got a diA 
BtL'aks at th«> Wbibo Hart, while his clarket were feasting of it'>] 
the best room of the house" 

CUvfr, one of the most disputed words in onr speech, strtsstii] 
have been undeservedly criticised, us its meaning Tsries s1aa<t| 
infinitely, with the locality in which it is used. Bailey an«f I 
it: •• Clever is in all 8<?ngea but a low word, scarcely ever nfrf**] 
burlostlue and conversation, and applied to anything a maa lih* 
■without any settletl meaning." If Northern people amoB( *.;! 
therefore, choose to employ it in the sense of good-natan:d Wl 
obliging-, there seema to be no ground whatever for ohjrtnon. 
Kven now this tronblesome word, a favorit* with onr race wbtf- 
ercr they are, con ueitiier be traced back to an undoubted derii»- 

OLD FitiKNus wna xnyr sacks. 


iiiir ilcfiiu-il ill iU miMinitig U'vonil uuviL Uh»1 in KnglaiiU, 

]i'niilv, for guud-luokiiig, or baufly uud dexterous; it uieans in 

[orTtilk. rather, hooeat uud respectable, und sounds tbcru Uko 

i«r. Ill some districts ol' Soiiiliern Wales it indicates a state 

fgood health: in a (ovr soiitbcm (nanties perfect clearness aod 

9m|i1ctcncss, und in other parts, us with ub, oourtcsy uud afla- 

^ilit^. Thf Americun {wt-woi-d, »marl, has, liuwcvcr, hirgely 

ipcrH-ded it in our q)o«cii, and only in Vii'giniu and some porta 

itthv ^uth ckivr ia still mnuU nwd in it« i^ld English meauiug 

n skillful »l wvrk und taleutud iu tniad. 

Climb, to, It occa«iouuUy used iti tbe vxtraordiuory team of 

<hn-it, an in the account of the Rev. II. W. Hcecher : — 

^ — : .; ciim&ed down, and partly rlambered buck again, satiKlicd 

ic it wu) easier to ^t myaelf in limn to get the fiowers out." 

'/itr Papers, p. 41.) 

C'iip, tv, in tbt! t!4:iist5 of to give a hluw ; and the noun, a dip, 
ling a blow, must be looked upon as American iems, though 
bu a clop for a blow, and Ilalliwell (p. S5d, No. C) the 
" He ran up lo him, hit him a severe dip, and dashed 
irongh the window." (Ptfliix Gaieite, November 17, IBUO.) 
tTlathitrr, hi'sides being tho ordinary name of a tailor nnd dm- 
!r, is here also nset) to designate a |ierson who maki-s and fulls 
lotbSf which is not done in England. 
Coaat. to, means, in boys' porlunce, to slide down a fro»;n or 
if>w-coTcred hill on a sled. The term, 'used in New England and 
lew York only, iff rot improbably dcrired from the French e>6(e 
' their Canadian neighbors. 

Coiwidennr, atthungh quoted by J. Angus as au Americanism, 
not unknown to Knglitih authors. 

f,'o/h'de, to. deeigniites the sudden and violent meeting of two 

arsons, trains, vessels, etc. id motion. Although the £ngliah 

i»nnrally u«^ to coHtfion, aa in " Ware isiUixiomt wave " (lioyBton 

igoit io Trana. Uot/al Microscop. Soctettf, Decenib*'r, 18*0, p. 

i), thr tprm is not, aa has been sneeringly sutcd, the " happy 

of friK|u«-nl railway collisions," but a good Knglisb word. 

K oiui Qti^hrf, Jlarch 28. 1868.) 

Ointical has in the South the pcculinr meaning of strnnge. ox- 

— if-irv. "Dr. White, who discovered the Fnnche«jn Bnn 

1 to a mountaineer that thoy were agreat curiosity. ' I 


6on'l s« nothing Itewriis about Via,* re]>li«l the man ditdftiorull;, 
* rlien tlie wiit4>r t!omn over th<; top, it is botmd to ran down ta 
tii(r liot torn, luitl iIlt nin't notliin' kf^wrus or comical in tbhL Now.' 
— nddiiig mwliiBiivelv — * if ilic waUT wafl to run up. yon %e>!, ifeni 
] 'il allow it to be n kcwrcNtitj/ " (E. A. Pollnrd^ SoutherH ikmtry.) 

ComfMiiy bus recently acquired a uew meaning in Cnlironia, 
wbuR* it n'pnreenU lire Bocieiies, resiK'oti\ely callixl '• I'nut! i*"' 
" 8i Ysii,""S:im Yap." " Yun Wo.'' and " Nin-^ YuatiR," iwt 
forming tbe ronni-cHnglitikbpiwern cbe <.'binesi> imraignuiU ud 
t bt'i r iiiLti vf > land. *' )1 ain tai n ing a sort of mt4<1 lignn^v-flfficf oa ■ 
large scale, Ibcy eSvct ungagunumU fur tbe Cbinamtn, look bAa 
Uitir inu^ret>ta berv>- und al home, are their baiikeni and bnil 
and return their embalmed bodies to their foniiliM in 
For these seiTices they are paid by a perccnLogv on w»g« 
ceivod, iicling, in fact, as a sort of jrcncrul aunrance-oflicr fori 
benoflt of their client*." (Frank H. Xorton, Owr Ijohar S^ 

Concn-n means here, more fre^iueatly than ia England, «fc 
Orosi* already gives as ita signification, " a small cstata ;" nod ibo 
i^ rxtendvU tu nil IhuC belongs t^o a ocrlaJo bQsiueaa viilx'^^ 
regard to sixe : " Oeut'iiil Hhorinan having ordered a certain li' |'' 
tu be discontinued, the removal of the large amonut of stotvs ^ 
ducwl delay; aficr several ifporls, he. blnrla out thus: BtOtf 
bum till' wholu roturrn down than go on tbi« way." (Putnam'' 
Jiat/aziiif, January. 1870.) 

('oHt/iul, to, in in America freqnently nwd without thereiai" 
prononn, and the unpleasant form seems to crc«p into the |«p* 
ofKiiglish writer* also. "Castor .niid Pollux in their fiunons ■^'' 
gonamie expedition conduct*^ with great gallantry.'' (.\ldcH Bwl- 
ford. The Wonderit of the Henvms.) "Mr. Schutt said to biA 
How Btrangoly you have comiuettdr' (Binghamttm BfjnMi^*f 
January 17. 18?1.| 

Ootiufdion, in Americ*, points ont the distinction hetwi^ 
p<'r»onB unit«4l by common descent, who ar** called *■ pelftUon*' 
while rannft^tionn related only by marriage. In Ei^l*'"'* 
"reJations" is the common deriignntion of all; the bn" 
Words, " kinsmua and kinswoman," are. hut rarely beAnl ben;.- 
the latter especially, but very imperfectly rcj>reseut<^ by, f«n»''' 
relative. (R. G. White.) In ihit t»Hneet*on is a faroriic pi 



'«ome jVmericaa writers, which Fitx Greene Eslluck adriaw] Mr. 
>uM. Urn imthor of Oaod /i'h'/'<VA, to doom to wliHt Sir W. 
iil'i i.Liiii^iil«ir culWiI, uu^itit'&tionable lire. 

Can-titterabUt x\s«i\ tti aa tidvorb or imun, is an unwarrantable 
inae, bnt of common OLciirrenoe, even with careful writera. '* That 
canttideraMe ot a battle, wasn't it?" (Nueian Minor. Diary. 
Itianfic MottOiSy, July, ISTO.) 
Vvn*tablf^ in America, dt^sigDatcs no other offioer bnt the uity 
' tomi offifial, whose ilnty it is to preserve j>eace, carry out the 
Ictb of thL' sheriff, attend jnrics, ttc. ; whilt in Knghuid the 

Ws dnties and powi-rs cvtcnil over » whole district 

\CoHtemplaie, ia, is constantly need here for thi> f<im|)tr^r wnrd, 

rid. and, wtill wora-. fniinently enhirgi-d iulo, to 

(ion, Theat- nif evidences uf tJial " habitual 

>iriut-$K in laugtiage, m in dress and mimners, which denotes 

jk of di^'tplino or lack of refinement. Onr American grandilo- 

icnw-, the vndcncy U\ which is mnti' and moi* snb- 

!«!, comes partlv from vouthfiilncse, ptirtlv from license, the 

tnrd of Liberty, niid partly the- peographical and political 

itnc>;« of the conntry, which CMleridge saya is to In' ' Knjjlartd 

glorioas raagniBcjitiijn.' " (G. II. C'alvcrt.) 

'• Ctrnxf«Hieut has asannicd a new meaning in the United StatOJi, 

sbably du<* to Irish influence. It iit nsed Co denot/^ what in 

at hand, within easy rcjich : a farm will tlins be advertised 

having " wood iind water eonrtnhnt lu the houa-." 

Corduroy, the name of a ribbed fitnff, has in new clearings and 

ireely jKumlaUjd districis of the South given its name to a 

jgh kiii'l of road, 0005 is tin;? of loofw prdt-s or logs laid acnxia 

swamp, which resombles somowhnt tht^ ribbed appcnnmce of 

' t. *• Hi-re we mode our (Iriit acfiiminlanc with those 

.' inHtrnmcnts of lorture called cordnrpff-Toivh ; the 

llting wtU) terrific, hut wo wen; told it ynus the only road powiblo 

th*ie low grounds." { Lfi/fers from Ih^ Snitt/i, p. 217.) 

CtfTHunltix, the imfortunat* comin.audcr of the British troops, 

f'lVtv fiadly in tbf memory of New Knf^liuul by thft namt- of a 

ock-musuT held annually, to Uikc tiw place of the old Guy 

kvkes proceaslou. and to RoinniomoraU' the Burivudcr at Vork- 

ro. •!. it. L->woil ^ays: " It was ii niHsquernde in which the 

and frii|i]»r<saed hnuior, of which the Yaukit-a utt- roller 



(Sum other people, Imnt tbroogii tU mtrainU and dtipoTtij 
itoeir ia ftll tbe vildtct i^ii^ariH of rmi." " It allowed wm mx 
t» ilKwe nsraral insiiDeiB vliieb Pnritanism hud Kotcbetl bit 
IMC IdlM." 

* There b Am to s Cfnutttb, I afai't icom' to deny iL" 

" BeooUect wvt iUn w bed, you *a I au Enf Holtia, 
Vp 1kB% to WalibWB pbia, ilMrin' Uie CbnuMMi." 

takes ID P«an«TlT»iii«, rerr &equeiitlT, the place of tW 
liilkr form, corpse. 

Oarforontft, for the Mving bodv, belongs to the same part of 1k» 
eoantiT. and is still in common nsi. " His nrpor&sittj tonrtn 
the ^roanil with his hands in a Tnla nttenipt io reach tt" (J.(m 
Neal, Vhttraml SkeUha.) 

CoiMty, an American compound of the English on', wliid 
gtosaaries quote as meaning nn pfleminutt:, troubleMUt 
i> Mid the terai B«My, osed rcn- tnucli in the Kime erase. 
Hy hcfurd to denote a man who meddles irith v 
dntip8 in a hoii>vhnId. 

Cavtrliiif instead of [be legitinuUe Eng^lish ooverlet, is so ^*t- 
ally xtbvA tliHt it miut he considered a genuine Amcricuii 
J.K. Lowell defends it on tlie ground that ii^is uwtrcr it» I^'mi 
originnl thuii the diminutive coverU-t, into which it. bai 
i$nii>mntlT corrupted in politer speech** — its ancestor being 
lil, (he (vt-er for Llm I»i>d. 

CoK, heard as k-t/ow in the New England States, is the in! 
Uauooof cartv HetLluni fmm Essex, Norfulk. and Sussex, wbov 
mmo prouaneiatioti is still preralent among the laboriug 
It cannot be donbted, bowever, that the nasal twang of the 
PuriUuis, also, has left its indelible impress npoii Yankee » 
precisely as it is beurd to this day in conventicle pruycr-niti4tii| 
in Norwich and Boston, Colchvcter and Hnru'ich. The word ^ 
wasoiiee made a shibboleth in the following manner: "Dura>? 
the Kansas excitement, a stalwart but illibunU Missonnaa *>■ 
the owner of a ferry on Ibe maiti-tracic of immigratioti. UrtaSx^ 
the etI<Tinf an influx ofXew England innovaton, he e«lablUb(d 
u test which wa« siitisfuctor}' tu bimiielf, though one cannot t«t 

OLD rntEiros irrm smr faoes. 


douht its universal applicubility. He kept tied by the home to a 
tree uu tlic rivtr-lmnk one of the 'milky raothera of his herd,' 
and on the arrival of a cHstoiufr, was wont to inquirt-, whetber 
*he MW that thar brute,' i.ud what he * monght rail her ? * If the 
Applicant reckfiuetl it was a cotP, he could go on his way rejoicing ; 
lint should he ffuess it to be a keow, or in a moment of hnplesa 
impudentic asked the questioner if he 'didn't spose everybody 
luiew a kww' he must needs seek some other crossing-place, ns 
■well as depurt under a heavy weight of malediction." [Overland 
MoHihly. Fcbi-uflTy, 1870, p. 1S9.) 

Cowcumbfr, also, is universal Yankee, and quite common all 
•Ttt" the United States — excuacd as " coming nearest to the naiuU 
•oand of the original concombre" (J. R. Lowell.) 

Cracker, meaning u tsmall firework, lias in America entirely 
eqperseded the Knglish $quib, which ia only heard in political 
:,ihHig. It dL-signales, also, a small bard hiscnit, as is the case in 
I North of Kngland. 

raeklings, a favorite toothsome dish of the Southern State^^ 
sitting of pieces of the rind of pork roasted, which arc baked 
the bread of negroes, and make one of their greatest luxuries, 
u goodg'bread. 
^Srtature is frequently used in the South for an aoiuial, espe- 
lyo horse. Its more common form is crUter, with a nice dis- 
iclion between the two, wh<'n ajiplied to men, as explained by 
OtoMiJ Squash of Connecticut in the Gouty rhiiosopher : "The 
•"wl ereaturr" said the General, "implies a certain amount of 
pJoJnesg, beanty, respect, and love, as when we talk of God's cna- 
tvrts ; whereas critter Is always associated with Pome idea of in- 
«iiority in the person so designated, and of good or even ill- 
•^iWttrtd contempt on the part of the speaker. 'I'hus when I tell 

yw that Mrs. or Miss A is a rrca/ure. you'll learn, if you do 

fot irit^frrupt me, that I consider her lovely either in mind or 
P*rson or Iwth. But wew I to aill her critter, and no more, you'd 
■* juBtifled in Mioviiig that, in my opinion, she wiui cither n slut, 
" ^lil, a scandalmonger, a fool, or u flirt, and that I liiul no re- 
lict for her. If I said to you in the street: * Look at that lovely 
^ntiure!' it would probably be to direct your attention to a tine 
•Oman or a iK-antiful child. But if T said: * f/iiok at tliat pretty 
J^terf the words might apply to n pvt-iKJodle or a prancing 



hone. Ours ia m great conntry. sir, » Tery gmt countij, Ui il 
gvarnu vitli eriittrs^ u you'll see if jon travel nincb »am% u 
and opcQ tout eyes ae you go. Tbej are the unvbokBaivgiviU 
of our over-ripe civilization aud of our too much lUierij.'' {BiaJt- 
mod, October, 1867.) 

Omkt in New Vork aud tbe Wealeru States a smaU nram 
tuck as in Kew England is called a brook, and dsevben « rm*n 
ranch. Its familiar pronunciation ia crick, as it is vritum br 

liptain John Smith and in the dedication of FuUct's JSoIy Rant 

Ncaro their habitation is littU- small wood or old tnes oa ill 

>und, by reasou of their burning of tbem for fins. Sotbtfi 
uiau may gallop a bortc amougst th«80 woodf auywav, bat vbtit 
the crttkts or rirers ahall hinder." (Captain John 6iuiLh. Tir^ 
n'nia, I., p^ 131.) "It was a dark and Ktorrav night, vbeu li' 
good Antony arrived at the cretk (sagely douominatL-d Ilasl* 
Kiver), which w?parat<!t) the island of Manhattan fhira tbt.' ufr 
laud." (W. Irving, Knickerbocker Hi*tory ojIf»ir VorL) 

Cnuij used u in HaUuyt for great, is one of the '.'■■ 
[ireflflioni mnch afFrcU^I by tintducat^ Americans, • 

Amcricaninn. It woe brought over Oom Kngtand iu the qrI; 
part of the seventet'nth cinitnry. Thus Pcpys, in his />Mry, Jn^ 
31, 1662, writes: " Met Captain Brown of the Roaebudb, u vhiek 
be was cruel angry.'' Aud ugmu, Ffbruary 21, l(i6ff-7* be ifi^ 
"W. Batten denies alt, but is crufi mad." 

Cry, to, hod in former days iu tho New England StaM 1^ 
special meaning, to publish the liauns of marriage in dnudi 
''They shall be ct^ed three times in church, before Ui«y on N 
married." {Latpti of ConneclictU.) 

Curious, in the sense of nice, excellent, aa used by Nc« Kr>f' 
laud farraere, let not an Americanism, as it occ^im conluiu«> 
old English writers, and \im only been preserved hens while < 
terms arc substituted for it in England. 

Outftw—Oie name and the eervniony — wore both in 
Pennsylvania (Northumberland County), in 183d» and 

"The uliiveriDf wretches til the turfiw (mmil. 
Dejected, &bniak into Iht-lr sordid ticils." 

(Tbomwn. tArtf, IV., m) 

Curtilude is occasionally found for shortness. ''Gcrmiuiu)^'*] 



ill, who, in skirla of udiiveiijent eurtiivdf, carry tKeir loatls 
large. convciii(-iit liaskLits." (S. K Haldemaii., Solfs.) 

*Cule, iii4teiiJ of amle, ha« become almost a woni of ita own, 
og strouger iu Hit jxi-uliar meaning lliau the fuller form, and 
lost exchii^ively applied to Yankees. "What becarao i>f iho 
dculorW '«(/<! Yankee child, who Icflt his home and imtive 
rish at lh(^ iigp of (iftt'cn months, bccnusc he was given to un- 
itand that his parenta intended to call him Caleb ? " ( N. Haic- 
le.) The word is, however, not nnknown in England also. 

?ian£f Dictionary, p. 115.) 


Daddock, an old English tcnn, rarely heai"d at)road,cvon in pro- 

tcial dialectti, is quitt; common in the rural districts of the Kcw 
gland Statos, aiid not initjoqucnt In the TTo^t.. where Iho 
It long trunks of falU-n treefi, slowly rotting away and turning 
ito monlil, are thus called. 

Vajfa-tlmen-dilly, a comhiuatiou of '* Papharoun," or SalTroii- 
ijy with Aspliodclus, the old English alTodilly, which bocume, 

la mutual comiJi-omisc, not rare iu popular namvs, daJfLidowu- 
^>the old Fuglish enlargement of dallbdill, aud was tltns n^ed 

'^nsor, in his '• Shepherd's Callendar." It has been revived 

^maintained ita vliality in Virgiiiiiu 

"Diaph'joiti, like the daffa-dtmu-di^jf. 
While ax tlie sun, Tiilr ua ihv lily, 
Helgli ho I huw I love ihee." 


"iliUf'a DouM Ditls came up in Uio cold 
Tluo' thB bniwn monid." 

(tSuuiAfrn JAi^roa'/if. Jiluhiu^-, 1S71.) 

Daft, from Chancer's daff'e, a fool, and in Scottish and North of 
Bgliind dialects meaning a Innatie, nr one that has been befooled, 

I''* likcwiiie. quii* frequently heard in the South: "are you da/l to 


■Bonrfer, inatcad of doHrfnfJf, in the phraae, " to get one's tlan- 

,''^np,"is supposed ludicrously to substitute the daudriitT for 
^^ hair itself. {?) " Ee Waa as spunky aa ihundur, and w\ 



Quaker gets his dandtr up. ifs like 
Jack Dowuing'B Leittr^, p. 75.) 

Nortli VRster." (Milvr 

" What will get your dattdar ri« •" 

1JR- Lowell. Btghu I>ai»n.U]f.\t) 

Dansff is used, in pRnnt^vlTnnin, orppi-Bons who ore fulinf; Em] 
old iig«. It is tlic samo word irliicb Grose qnotae as d!di! 
in Norfolk und Saffblk, mi.*uuiiig gidd}' or thonghtksB. 

Darh Moon, the time between tlie old und tliu nev mooa.1 
used in the West as in some piirts of Kngland. 

Daze, an ancient form o^ daztif, and used b_v Spinier, Dnj 
and others oe a verl), is here often used aa a nnim, to nipreMili 
state of utter bowildermeui — " i>be sat like one in a daiit,tt\ 
stunned l>f the etraiigcucss of her aurroiindiuga." {Puit 
Moffaxiiie, JimuarT, 1S70.) 

J)ea/ is frequently prouoTinoed deef, as was done in oklcn tivaij^ 
and still continues to l>o done in Weetmoreland, Cnm^ 
and other parts of England. In Sootlund, eoil and vegetabW i 
both (ailed deaf, when thcjr aro sterile : and thus in America.: 
nuts are said to be deaf when tbey an? decayed or rmp^. 

Vnartoni is the name of a lij^bt four-wheeled carnage. Ukv 
Brouffham called after its inventor. " At last the stage was 
— a three-seated dearborn with one white and one brown honal 
{LippincolVs Maffminr, Mjircb, lfi71, p. :;i45.) 

Deck, the name of a pack of cards, repeatedly ehar^ w 
Amerieunisin, \i ■m thorou^'hly English that it is nsed in Uor^^ 
famous Book of Games- It is, howorer, in the Westoru Sat 
almost oxclnsiyely employed instead of pack, which is nreljhtiin! 

Declension^ tcvy rarely nsed in England for the act of dccliiiis(l 
is not uufrcqucnt here. *' Ho asked mc to driro with him tonliT, 
but I was forced to send him a dcclention" {Sontheiit Litmrj 
Muwnger, July, 1869.) 

J)ttd, to, meaning to transfer by deed, is a genuine Aim-rL 
ism in its use as a verb. " I feur he has already deedrd jn*- — 
hia pro)M.'rty, imd Imh wife will hav« nothing when he diej." Th^ 
is gQaerally done by deed of trust, as the hypoLhecatiun of h^ 
property ia uniformly called in the Middle and Souii; 



'Ifeputizey to, in tbe uvatii.' of to appoint a deputy, is occa^ionall/ 
trd, m it vom iu the days of Uailey, vho menttous it m a U-rm 
St coming into fasliion when he wrote hia great work. 

rate is, in like manner, nscd non* and then for exoeedinglj. 
Ee wu desperate glud to g«« yoa, I vow." (W. G. Simms, TAo 
tsm,) It is commonly prononnoed dteprat, or eren dtspuL 
' iMw is tJie freijuent prounnciation of do iu New Euglaud, for 
the Vatikc«,'"innocoi)ily unconscioDS," ignores all ditfcroncc bo 
twecn 00 &nd u in a number of word^ ; »nd his great advocate, J. 
R. Lowell, pleode with much force in hie behalf, that in this he 
only follows faithfully the example of the common peopk of Nor- 
folk and Cambridge in England, who are descended from tlic 
game stock with hims'^. Why he shonld diBtinguiab, however, 
between some words and others is not quite clear ^ hut while he 
noo for new, Joo for Jew, and stoo for steWf he never changes 
; be speaks of destitooi, insliloot, and Toosdatf, but leaves 
tuie as it is. 

Diclty, a gentleman's shirt-collar in New Eogkud, means iv 
shirt-front in Knglaud. It is said to have originated with 
students of Trinify College, Dublin, who at 6rBt styled it 
["ommy." from roft^, a sc^ctiou. which the scrranta changed into 
)ieky." {iShtiuj Difimuiryf fnb voce.) " My eoul awells till it 
lost teare the shirt of my bnzzum, and even froctares my 
cjfcy." (J. C. Neal, Charcoal Skticfies, IU., p. 31.) 
Ditti?tg-room servant, the name given especially in the SoatJi to 
English "butler," in the North generally repregented by the 
, Girt ia in America generally used for soil, aa rag is used for 
ly piece of liucn or cottun. A Southeni lady will order her eer- 
int U> " fill a flower-pot with dirt and bring it to her." An 
unp&ved rood in carelessly called a dirt-road, and the foreigner is 
to be surprised at bearing people apeak of cUan dirt. *' Vfo 
liked on diri-Jloora for carpet^ sat on bcnohu for chairs, ate on 
puncheon tables, bad forked sticks and butcher-knives for knives 
)(i furka." (Itev. P. Cartwright, Autobiography, p. 486.1 "The 
^ve of dirt is among the earliMt passions." (C. D. Warner, .Vy 
DfftMsr in a Garden, 1871.) 

I HUremember, to, now entirely oat of use in England, still aar* 
iTcs in the South and West 

iSl ^^^"^ AynnioANisiM- 

" Re foo't UK game, aomctliaw. I ditr enet ^brr 
Jest bow the Ming kein round." 

(F. D. Uacle) 

Dodffer has, besides the ordiuar; sJguificutioQ, tho meuisgrfl 
unleavened corn-bread in Virginia and the We«t,Uiougliit<inil] 
Ire^aent form is corntio^gtr. 

Dog* is the name etill kiycii to andirons in Tirginia, i 
rent aUo in New England. "In Walter de Bibleworth 
chiens glossed in tliu margin by audirons.** (J. R Lowetl.^ " 
.lej^B Qniplncnl n,nd nistoricnl Tllnstrator f.aye tbat sawi 
'ago they dug up, iu a Romitn camp (in England) a (uir otv 
dogs, 80 that they are n piece of ancient rurnitnrc" {fdem). 
aru alsn ca\k-A fire-do(fs, probably from a Giint nsemblanoe tfll 
and the frei)ucuL occurmuoK dP dogs* heads on tlicir IVont jn^ 
KeM' England a thriflr housekeeper speaks of "going onttftT 
a pair of dogs." 

Dominies — with a long o, not d&minieit, as in Scollud, 
Bclioolmasters— ia a title still used for their ministers by ibel 
called Diiteh Korunncd Church in portions of New York 
Hew Jersey. 

Dove, the old form of the past tense of dive, is still mneh ' 
by seamen, and in some parts of the United States by 

" Sliaiglit iiitn (lis rtnr Kiroaind 
Flungud OS ir hv wero nn otter, 
j)tn>» as If be were a beaver." 

(H. W. LoDgfitUow. Hiawathd, Cauo TUt 

Doten, to, io the sense of to humble, as m Sidney's **loi 
proud hi-ai'U," i^; utterly forgotten in Kngland, but well 
ill America. *■ I drew my horsewhip and told the negrv if bt) 
templed to close the gate, 1 would doten him." (Bet. P. 
Wright, Aitiohioffraphif, p. 206.) 

Dozy and dozed are said in Pennsylvania of timber 
to decay and unlit for use, while the decay is yet hardly 
ble, but the timber already brittla. (S. S. ilaldemao.) 

Dreadful l^longs to the large class of words with strouf ■ 
ings, like awful, terrible, horrible, excessive, etc., which 
lovo Qufortuiiately to use on all occasions for the sake of 


ition, or at Ifn^t uttmcting uttcDtioD by the furm, irhjcb 
&unut gain b,v I'tc siilisLauiiii ul' wliut tlu^y li:ivc to guy. 

M has in Amoi-ictt entirely fiupprseiied thu word gown, ue a 
a lady's costume; the tatter term beiiig but rarely heard, 

I among: very aged peTsouP. 

itff\ in WVii maiv5t;r, is the universal name for the man who 
• the horses, wliethur ttip liittiT pull a plough nr draw an 
Dt carriage. The EnglJeli conchmun ia compnnitively uii- 

,iu the singular, ie an Ammcaniani ; tht- plural form being 
known in England, though not much used. The*?r 
howeTer. not only rugs and old cloilios, bnt all movt-ablc 
ty. "The thrvn' (Ituilway) ConimiRsioncr!*, in whosi? np- 
au-nl yoH bad no voice, decidt- that you musi. get out, leave 
hou£e. bundle ont yonr duHi', and b« ofT." (Now York 7W- 
, ianaary 23, 1871.) •' Tliink of her ? I think she is dressed 
Hiitul ; can*t say how »he woiild look in thf co^iiune or ihu 
iBt century." (Pudiarn'n Mrtgntitie, February, 1870.) 
UlN/}, tn, in the sense of unloading a uart by tilting it up, is 
liar to th if* country. Il w ia ail pi-obahility an iini(«t.ivo term, 
! from the soimd. the hmvy thud or liiioek which that ojiem- 
|H<odui'es. ■■ It is no joke to go on all day dumpimf loads of 
lowii ibnt »f«ep emiiankment, and each lime you tilt your 
to fancy mnk- and cart al! going overboard." {lime to tjet 
p. 117.) OiH?.n lots, where "rubbish may be shot,"' as the 
iih fay, are here ailled fiiimprnff-ffrounJu. 
SkjW/-. liable to duty, a term which in the United States 
sprcs^mts the tax k'vicd on rual estate or larmere' stock. 
I, which cam« into use with the Jirtit tariff, has proved. 
itly M*?fHl, and is nii!verti«ny adopted. "The following 
M shall he dutinhh hwcafUT at the tlsed rates." {Aci of 
9, 1865.) 

itic, an unfortunately frequent word in Amtrican con- 
1, has Jong lost its special meaning, and ii( now uo^^d to 
I all the various forms of weakncsa of the digestive organs, 
pa<l the citiKens of the i-epublic to appreciate with special 
the force of the old saying, that "Ood gave ua meat, 
Devil sent ue cooks." 





Eat, to, IB one of a c\as» of verliav which bouDille«t lir 
led to ap[tly to ]ker50Ds, instead of. give to ciit. A Wvfttfa'j 
bust Id tliiii! said lo be uble " U> tii/ fuur bundn^l p(u«i 
to nlesp »t iL-ost two bundri.>d." **Housicr;, Sqnirr. wh&L f^l 
you give? Coulractor: TeubiUaduy. Uoosier: Wii;, 
I wiu told you'd give us two dollon a-duy and eai tm" [P^ 
from Ihs Piaiyime, p. 47.) 

Kcunirir bos in WcsLeni |)urlancc obtained a curlottJi 
vbich threutens to spread in gpice of iU abisurditr. ** I vuuk^ 
land down lo lUe eccenlHc,'" naid an illiterate man in Illii 
jectinf^ to tile reservation of niiuiug rigbta under jiis pui 

Siiiblet and Bibib^ iBai<iniilar iunovatioa, used iatUrain 
drink. "The table wn?eprca<I and loadf^l with • • n{ 

Jfr* of every pdssible kind," (Pittsburg />t>/>rt/rA, _ , 1| 

Sditoriaii used insbuud of the Knglish leader or li-uding 
l» in tbis fenso a j^nuinu Auii-ricanisui. Tbi- U-rm nsodj 
cally for Kditorial Article, arofic iVont lliu ciifiloni of iu« 
each day's paper only ono or Iwo urtides, writUui bj thu* 
himstlf, vfbil*- tbe otiiorfl were fnniisbed by cimtr 
Bponaiblo sub-editors. It has, however, firnily oi . 
our 6t)eech| and fonnd a companion or »till worse cttar 
Local, wbicb dcngnatee eitbcr the iLH.icb>R of jocjil iui* << - !<».•, i 
Ibe rvi»urt4*r whose ii|>cciai duly it ib to collect IncaJ n^wa. Inl 
ing lu tiiid an nrlicW in u ut:Wgpii]K.T, a. niiui will tberofiirr vf^, 
" It in not an EdiU>rial ; you must look utnong tbo I^oaiU." 

Educntional, often quoted as a new woi-d, occura in Uurkf.aal 
hue only been r«vivfd in iiur day. EflH/:a(or, ah" 
OUCQ by Kn^^liiih wrJtci'^, luiti only recently ubtaiio ' 
among us wtiich it had uevui- 1k>cu able to aecaro bcfttni. 
tbcrc is need for a word whicb shall contpr^bend every 
person who devotes himself to tlie educaition of the yotii 
tbti children's governossi to the renowned profei^aor, tb« tern' 
probably )>ecome moi'e and more jiopntar. 

Effg, to, in Pell n£y I van ill pronounced lo ajr^Tt and alt tvtw\ 
cuuntry confouuded with tbu verb, to eili/f, is iiMid fn 
its attcicnl meaning of inciting and pushing forwunt, ^ -, 
the more recent sense of pelting with eggs. "Thp 

intw r&OBB. 


'ai ve tiirne tioghtc- agaync tille oure anil yiire thnrglie auy 
^sgjfttgr {MS. Lincoln, A. I„ 17, fol. 19<3.) "The iiiaii, a 
Ic aboIitioniHtoftlie deepest Oye, -wtuitifgtd out of towii last 

Ioud vilt find it safer, wc veuture to day, not to &bow him- 
un." (Kansas paper, IStiO.) 
nptyinga, uommonly pronounced and written emptirCsm New 
land, means tlu-iv lln- leca ul'befi, fite., and vi'iisl; lint, cvt-n J. 
liTfll. (Im masU'r of Yankee sj>eech, prol'casea to be utterly at 
Ito diviue ita origin. 

"And it's Jcslmonry tlirnwed Kvrtiy to put "ihe tjnptin'a to." 
(J. R. LowcU, B^ioiD Pap£n,\\., p. 11.) 

n in the aanio regions very genorallv pronounced eenSn. 
ly cnongti to skim hitu niiJk at botli eendg." 
f, the common al>brcYia(iou of Fii'c-Engino, though gvner- 
iPtlOed. inpnt (so as to rhyme with imiw^), hasin pf>pu]ar 
Ibecome almoit hopelessly mixed up with /»;u(, the. Indian, 
j;«ffjr, little seed-onions. Kren persona who Fpiuk of the full- 
seed 08 onions, will cull the small ones injerUL J. K. Low- 
with liumomna pathos, in hia indelati^iahle- elTorUi to jnatify 
eisms : " In one of Dodaley's Old Plays we have oninm rhyni- 
^th minions — 1 have tears in my eyes wliile I reirui-d it."" 
to Biglow Pap^m, p. 37.) *'\Vhat do you call tins 
lis bird and tbe skin's tuk off? what's thiawithonttn/ens?" 
Jeal, ClutrcMal tSkelr.hen, II., p. 42.) 

,to,iu the aeuEe of fillingor being Ulled with enthusiasm, 

B(l by K.G. White so oiclHsively a Southeru word, that lie 

"never heard or saw '\x. usit-d. or heard of its use, by any 

,bom and bredNorlii of tlic IV-tomac." Since those worda 

ritten, the wnnl — bad jls it is — has pmvod too nsefnl to t>e 

ly confined any lon;2>?<l found its way even to England. 

that this State, so quickly cnthutiett by the genL'n>nsand 

unee of emanoipation, has grown weary of virtuous effort, 

tin stands still." (Baltimore American.) 

tire, a title in Kngland still given only to certain classes of 

id long reserved in the United Htatea also to luwyerij and 

tiTilei^ liersona, la now with repablicun uniformity giwu 

the highest and the lowest, who does not boast of a mili- 

oth«r title ; the i-esult b«;iug that it U atncUy limited to the 

Etreines of society. 

SrauH^ in the So«tk aod Weal, takes ib« pteee of At af 
tiine Wt w am dauer aod rappL-r Winj; '< - - 
mppcr m g i l , BenM« nwatiog %t two ur td. 
eadb other - Good fWAinf." aad speak of a "(iaviwAir 
to " coae to-ni^f" ahhon^h ilie ran lun; bui joa I 
bdow tbehotiaott. 


liicitny-CotiQu titgigotte^ m Arutrrica nubleached 
Buul^ at home, in ooutrast vich thi>^- inipurUNL 

Faitf to. generally oaed in tlie rorro of lo fair olT, or to_ 
np, iM a Soachem term deuoiing that the Wfather U e\r»mg i 

}'alU for Autamn. br no m««o6 an AmericaniMn, U • ' 
irhK-fa b«d only become unhmiliar to Bnglisfa tun. It ImI 
nwd Dearlr br erery writer i^ mark, am) ainioet alir»n 
ttiresqne ooDtrast vith the oorre^wndinf; name of Sprit 
the grenn veninre which tfrin^a forth in the earlT 
to the ground again in automn. 

" A boa^ loBguv and liesri nf gjaXy, 
Is Uacj't epriojr, but v^rxov'i /aU." 

" Wbal crowd of patieatt Uk towo-doctor kilL^, 
Or bow h«l/aff be nusnl tbo weekly liEIk." 

Hiddleton also plays upon the words: ''Mar'i^t ibon liareai 
aUe good spring, for thou urt like tn Imre many (lang«m<i 
faiis." (Quoted by J. K. LowilL) The bcaotifnl ironl 
enjoying poetical honors and prose-dignity in every cfowrr, 
word i>ccuUarly dear to Ameiicans. as the seaeon itatlf i^ 
liai'ly beautiful iu their country. There ii nothing t« bei 
the other hand, in excuse of the word /ay/ as iitwd tu 
fall of rain. " He thought tbero would be a /aU woon," 
weather is, in tliin seuse, ulniust universally used in cbe 
.States to designate, if not ubiiolLite raiu, any kind \tf 
misty, or drilling weather. 

Family. A man of family, in England, almo^i txch 
denuted a luun of yood family; in America it meautf tt 



wife ttiitl children. *■ Has hetmyfamiliff' tntana, 

^Has ho aiiv clirldren ?" 

V denotes in Amci-ica (>vm*thing t'aiitustieal tuid uiiusuul, 

; as 18 the owe in iMacuiilavV " fana/-\m(i(i!i'' paid lijr the 

kitiE; for hit; giant soiditTs. hot hImj tilings and ptraous 

amt-utal tban useful. " Fiuia/-u\vn imA/uiu-i/-vomen"aris 

as ooiigifgatinft at fashionable vvati^riiig-plii«-s. imdfatw^- 

ch aa exist only on paper. •• For a few weeks Crystftl- 

waanueof the most, uotivc> /(Ik/ti'm. Nn mio deniwl 

ufi wry fanciful atock." {Harper'n Mvuihljf, J^ovembor, 

" JS'«v one of tbL> busiuat jioitita uf tlie^ viiy i\ \iii\vi fanctf- 

II raodeit wooden house, nestled bedvoc-ii two pretentious 

fronts." {Putmtiii'x Mutjadiif, Ot-U^bk^r. 1868.) 

■, to. rcturaes fre^Heiirlv its ancient meaning, mentioned 

IB whon he gays : *' Favor, to ease, tfl Bpare." It is used of 

Wd oilier aiiimnlii, raroly uf tn^n, ivhiHi tln'V liniji Rlightly, 

one loot " The ofl" \\ov*v: favors his right foot." 

to» ih« ancient word, rarely used since tjwift, and ciir- 

rom /n<iffe, \s still ollen heard in New England, with the 

of to at ■' That /ai/» niwiy." 

'. to, is in like manner still found in the same locality 
ate Uio rising of cream nn the surface of a cup of tea or 

Uaiy loses, in the Soulh, il« Ursl r. and sounds Ftbuiiry, as 

aonj; itiitf nilc poii)ile in Knglaud. 

or fe^u. or even pheese. to be in a state of exeitemont, a 

union (■xpiTS'^iiHt in Virpiniii and the Souibeni IStnte«. ia 

jinal in Am<-'ri(ra. Xall's filoBsary of Yarmouth wurds 

fooDtainB n long note on the t^^-rm, and Chaucer has 

' And l]ivr«ai catuc n tus^ aud each > tWM 
TEuil L( uiiuIlI nil ibc gates fur U) rc»e." 

{Ktii^kV» Tate, MS.) 

\t\so speakg of a placid pool of water tbat "giiderid topder 

mo fiifsn." {John V., v. 4.) It comes from the Aiiglo- 

fmn, iitsed to denote the rapid and noi.ty movement of 

W ia one of the nuforliinnle ivords wbich have of hito 
verj general cuiTcnuy auiuug Americans, merely becauaa 



it mfty V nsed safely and coriTenipnUjr for w3H manbeHorucI 
sex intliscritiiinntely, fmrn tlit- first liulv in tliu land U> tbtl 
uutcusC Itivas ouce before in gcDenUuse— io tbe nifiunl 
beth and James — as part of tlie ttSect«d langiUigv of ^ i 
aud satirized uumercifally by the draraatiiU of UbiL 
Shakegpeare nam it IW^qucutly ami oft^n with all ropeot 
wc arc t«Id, calls Joan of Arc a femalt. Kir W. Scott an ^ 
tvicp as nflcn us teoman. Few persona ccrtaiDly cod cotmljl 
sever the Tvonl from ita iustinctive asaooiatiou with atiiadj 
uud DO idiom of our day and land is probably nun 
g;Dod taste. It was quite natural that the same teudei 
lead to tbe employment of the oorrospondinf^ tena 
henpo the prcBs— the New York TriAune leading— t 
Hdverlieements in which professore, aanaaia, and emtiJ 
hII pn)nii8Cuuu6ly offered as "Mal« Jietp," and goTerne 
panioos. and cooks &a " Femah Help.'' Tlie lasl ajpi-iii^ 
r«.*i)ublic. in favor of extending the right of suffragv Emm I 
negroes to women, has led to the introdnctton of tbei 
horror of nn " Advanced Female" 

Fetch, (.0, ill thi^ sense of performing, as in South'*: 
fetches hia blows quick and fiure," is still in use in tbe I 
"Since, with au arm no biggtr than the round of a ehi 
fe-tchfd thi>o!d sehoolmnsticrr the famous lick, plump in ihel 
his eye." {Putnam's Magatiru, Fehriiarj', 1853.) But in tli* i 
of bringing, the wuitl may bo said to be almost nnluiovn 
on the other hand it is, curiously enough, used for briu^iiiif j 
"How you were the child of a missionary* and from yunn 
had been /niched up for the work." (7*., Novemlwr, l^'A} 
very old participle, /ofc/r, still continues in uae among lo»; 
and is Tui-y g(;neral among the negroes of ihe South. 
slmctii all on 'em, sir. Btniigbt down fruni old Diomnl. Uil 
master Uoomes bud /otch out from England, across tbe 
more tlian twenty years ago." (J. P. Kennedy, .*■>■■' 
Nor i? tbe hybrid /o/fA«rf wanting: " I was soon . 
the vicUialliug line." (.1. V. Neal, Charcoal Sktlehtst.) 

Fife or phycs, and un nlmoat cndlees variety of 8[>olliB^ < 
nates Teiy generally in the South a small worthU'sB cur. 
(lebltil's in that 'ar ficf. .K-flV-ri^on would say a dozen 1iiiu*»< 
and shako bis gray head doubtfiiUy." {Futnam's itti^ait^' 



GS.) It is erideutly tlio \aat smalt retnnaiit of Ibe old 

foisiititi nil', qnotcfl iifi foistinff liuiinil in Wri^lil'.^ P/v>. 

IHaW.t.t. XarcB gives nejirly tbe wliole proce^ of ^nidiiiil 

pon: foisting — foisty — foist — fyst — fyoe, and fJrose already 

lyst. Halliwell descriln's the foisting dog as a kind of 

MiciUIwI fripoi it^ bad liiLljits, wlticU «lU*u liave to serve 

cuse fur the sins of the owner. A fiatuig hound, also, is 

ed as a kind of spaniel, in Harrison's England, p. S30. 

iug-slure. the English "Orindery-wurehinifi'," in which 

era' tools arc kept for sale, is constdtTL-d uti Amcricautsm. 

IB, tinttikxmj, and even jinnick^, are American ourrnjj- 

liiiinal in frequent nse. "You are lnu jtninckif to kill 

V {PuiHain's Magaiine, September, 1870.) 

to, u U-mi very generally used for to throw. " The boys 

►t'lrj stones at the honse at a groat rate, and, after a while, 

poGS began Jiring back iviih rock.s, elmnks, and broken 

(Cliariestoii f'ouritrr, Sc-ptemhei- 19. 1870.) 
nriu is the qoaint enhstttiite whieb New Knglaaders iidt 
eotly nee for matchei*, " ' \V»l,* said our host, • Ihut's easy 
Got ajiy fimMrl'j'?^ ' FiretrorX-gf I cjuerled hiick 
Oar friend answei-ed, in seeming snrprise: *Nol Ilniiit 
Wait a niinit!' So he entei'i'd t)u> honfte and upcedily 
i with a box of matches." {Fninitm\i Matjaziin'. »Sep- 

\$lein, iiiwd in 'Hc.v KngUnd to clarify coffee. (J. It. Low- 
ijwry to liiglotc Paper.1.) 
If-, to, Severely wn^nmcl as an Amcnean viil*jariHiii, is 
Captain John Smith's Afconnl of Virghtia : " Tla-re aro 
fisticating 1.<>baeeo-miingi!r8 in Kngland." (II., p^ 3H.) 
), may be safely called Ihe American word of wonlit, sinoe 
probably no action whatever, [»erfarmed by mind or Ijody, 
iiot represented at some time or other by the universal 
.It has well boeu called the strongt'st evidener of that 
indoleuce which luoidti the trouble of cnrcfnl (huught. at 
8, and of that restless hurry wliich ever makes the word 
that comes up lirst and eavev time. Wlmtcver is to be 
litUever neodfi repair, what<-ver re<j«irt'S arningoment — all 
The farmer /Tftv his gate;*. thi.i mechanic liis workbench, 
iStress her sewing-machine, the Itno lady her hair, and the 



Echuolboy liis books. The mitiistcr foists to jKr hbi 
time, the dootor to fix his mwlicinf^. and tlic liirnr U>j 
hrief. At pnblic iiiM-TiTigs it isjiT^ who aro to bv thto 
for office ; mlea are jCrerf to gnrem an inslitntion, aod 
arrangementfl ok made, the peoplt* coutcntiHlIy my: "Sinr 
thing is Jixed niuely." Aim-ricuDs niu5i h-^w Iiiu3 an earl; 
ncse for l:|to word, for already, in 1R7&, the Comrai««iMnMB 
ITnif^l Colonies ordered "their arms wc-II ftrrd uid fit 
viw." (Quoted by J. R, Lowell.) It is not to he vanit 
afriT tliifi, that Americans should be so oontinitHlly ima^ 
exprcfiftiun wliich, in England only eliiDg, is hvK media 

" A poor wotnnn and Iit nrphftii chfck*, 
Leflwitboul Bxturc^ in au awful /i^" 

(PlHuclie'x OomI HVuum m flU IM 

""Bfen the President will find himself in ajfcr ^ 
tfle goc9 on alienating his friends by making lUj.:- 
pointmontA** (Now YrirV JJtrald, April 8, IftTl.) Fimk 
iiHturalty iibouml, inortHiver, in Ameriran speech, Trcm Uw 
roml Fixings, ivquired fur the equipment tif the new 
to WarfL-nton," (Uichmond Examiner, July 16, IHetl, 
Chicken Fixingit, the universal dish of the Weat and llw 
"An extraordinary sight were the eounib-SA w.-iitcr*. heM 
the car-windowg at Gordonsville by iurbaned ncgnvirnniMi 
with coirrtu-enjis, eggs, and the ineritaltln chukfrn-iizitifr, 
it was henceforth onr fiite to meet at every milnxid-dt-pot. 
readied New Orleans.'' (.4 Trip to the South.) 

Flap-jackif, in England occasionally called shp^artt, 
tbo West, generally eaten togetiior with chicken-fisins* 
term is ii8(;d by Sh.ikespcflif^. wbosr- PrJncR is sbipwrwl;^ 
falls among some honrat lishermeii. one of whom iu"i 
heartily to his liouse, and mys: "Come, thou ebnItgolMia 
We'll have flesh for holidnya, fish for fasling-«hiys, an<l, nW 
pnddtnga nnA Jtap-jdcXn, imd fhou shall be wrtcome." [r* 
II. 7.) In New England fnp-jachi are largo pancake*, g*" 
eaten at anppcr. 

Flaahy n used in tho monntain regions of Virginhft' 
thing that ig nyt sweet and fruitfnl. " The peaehw w* >•• 
account of the divught,'* (1864.) 

OLD PRiEirDs wrm imw faces. 


disuKd in England, still continncs lo bo lieaM con- 
AmcrifaiT mejining stont, in tin* R»mp sonae in which ft 
by Ben. .TonBon, iind is quoted by Bailey. '■ Yon must 
erw! entirely; yon louk nmtcjleshif, now." 
ora Ibe ^vodiali flcpp.. a drink of hmndy ami. sugiu 
li beex, and hf^atrd by plnngin;? intu itiL rci]-h<>t imii, 
lb it ie liaudi.'d iviuut, Ibauiiug, wiw rutnifi-ly a {.frierol 
I Tillage bar-rooms aiid at the fiirni-honHc tin-side. It 
lered 03 productiTe of sore ankles and shins, so that old 
in kncc-liFiH-Hihefl and long etockiiign wimld rn-inu-iitly 
kerchit-rs tied around their legi-. A placp calle*l i'or- 
^Qjuabridg-."-, was u favorite ri'^ort »{' Ilarvunl iitud«iit!;, 
Ettprecialed hi» excellent flip. There is a u-adiiion of 
IpiijilttUt vho oiw day M'ent to tbe> Uvltii, onlcri-d flip, 
bid Mdd: **So, Mr. Portor, tlio ymiiijr gonth'mcn come 
our Jlip, do they ?" *• Yfs, sir, aomctiinog.'* *' Ah, wfiH, 
tbiuk they would, (lood'clay. Mr. Fortt>rI" nod t\vpn 
;1y home, wiR-ly making allowance for the ctisteiicu uf 
jnouQt of human nature in ingenuous youths. 
I^-mills, au American Dame for gritit-mills. 
to, a verb denoting the backing out from fear; now 
n Enghind, and suiTiring only in the well-known 
is fltill used in the West 

*' A kccrlena innn in liia Inlk wm Jim, 
And an iiwkivnTit mnn in n ro^: 
Bni he never /"f'/vrf, and lie n<.-ver lied, 
I reckon lie nevL-r kiuiwM hi>w." 

(Tohu H«y. Jim Bt'nitoe of tht Prairie Btilf.) 

■wtoppl. in thr West. mean« a very small wheel, rcquir- 
ittle water, and often not moving steadily, but, aa it 

a fiuttor. 

is SMd cotutantly. even iu otherwise careful writers. 
^ llee> aa tit lak^a the place uf »et, and Uf of lay, in 

en known in England, and thus naed qnite reoentl^ 

" Ay, Ihough we bo 
0\Afogit* ihniB. 
We're not 90 dutlM as not to dioc, 


' An' tanilo' qaitc Mot In tbe mlcUt ot his foffreriet, 
fiaeoks down-slatiii lo bolt thfi (ront duor of the ToolcrlcH." 

(J. R LowcU. qf Lmu J'fiHippt, B^/Um Papert, L, i*. 68-) 

vp^foolin' is nateml to Rome womeu, nnd there is uo great 
>De *oept to foola." (F. B. Hartx^ £uci& of Raariitg Camp, 

' is K ooTomon Danio for a goiig of laborers, whof-her they 
i«n at n'urk on a ruilwuy, or negrocB employed on a 

ion. " Tbe crop of (Jolonel Harris wa» of this duscriptiou. 

ic«cdcd the ability of hii force to pitcb it in ; but instc:id 
iyiiig additional alavpfl for thn jmrpoae, he conccivM tho idea 
taming to account the lazy Choctaws by whom ho was sur- 
oded." (W. a Simtna, Oakatibbe.) 

^thiindedt which means in Sogland uothing moi-c t]iaii 
^, limply, has in America tho udditioiial monnuig of wlOI mIT, 
(tortable in circnmsranccs. "I'll work and hoard with yon. 

K there is no need for it. Father is foreJianded ; he saya 1 
to school, but 1 aiu'L going .to try iU" [PiUnam's Mat/a- 
luuary. 1870.) 
pfrrit, in the singular, is one of two roads into which the main 
ft divides at a place which is called tbe forks. A traveller 
king ill Albany and calling for a bootjack, astonished the ser- 
[tso mach by the diz& of his foot, aa to call forth tho exela- 
pon : *' If you want them arc hoots off, you'll have to go back 
the/orjfc in the road to get them off." 

t-nent, th« old iSc-utch word, has been carried by immigrants, 
•onthern Ireland especially, to Pcnnsylrania, and is thero 
common, though generally pronounced /ijrnen^ and f«rjifn»t. 
le Urcs fern flit tlie bifi house in the village." 
SVwM, to, is used in almost all partw of tho country as an 
nvagant term for wishing eomcthing ardently. "I tell you I 
>«e for meat before tbe week was goae." {A Hide with Kit 

^tthtt, is used Tery generally in the TTnited States instead of 
WA, in the sense of an overflow. " We had another freshei in 
» HobUi Jeames yesterday, and fear the canal has been seriously 
nwi" (Richmond Whiij, Octolier 21, I8B7.) The word fresh 
8» however, often to serve the two pnrposes of denoting an 
uidation and a small tributary of a larger river. Milton already 



And not hd oM 
Ak In 1x1 oW 
To wil, ig lienuiy, and lo wine" — 

{AU au Ttar AMfnt, 1ML> 

means, in Ihc United States, ntftiuly ao □lira-' 
poliiics. It occiiM iu Scotch as fofjie, a dnll, e\ow, fi., ui ■>., 
ornnwilling to reconcile liim»rir to the idenir and miinni-: 
ne.v j;i>iu>rution ; iti K[i;:^)isti n» foffey, u giiij^nlar, nlil-fiu 
pertiOD — popularized by Tlmckeniy. The origin of the \ 
ertdently/cN/, aud/o^y nicnns a iqau befo^td with rcgaid 
demflndfi of thft prfsr-nt Umo. whose jnti-lk-ct is, beoccs./4fj 
huxy, iinaiile to soe thing^s o^ (boy rwilly ure. 

Folks, used in England only provinriallr, u, in Naw 
especially, osed very genenilly fur people Hidooy said: 
oonrsus of their own and ni\\vr folks' ini:3fiirluDffi','*ai)d 
epeaks of *' o\*lfoiks and sick, folka.^' Lord Herbert of Ch' 
CT&n h!i8,"TJie Emperor's folks," In Aineriivif iwigklmi 
ciaUy are folks .' 

" Them'fl puaninjt Byle*, proTokn our tmllw, 
A iiiftn i>r slntdj' |mrts ; 
He risU*.fM* lo crack tils joke), 
Wbkli uerer mpu'J iheir iiearU— " 

(Sam Kttlcl. Sptcimetu nf AmaiBm i 

and iu the sense of compuDy : 

" Wliea strawberriftt B«rm*d Ilka red he^Tnns, 
Terrapin iit»-w a wild iln-nm, 
Whi'ii n3j bnjn trnt al sixes and seT«is« 
If my moUier bud folim and Iconiroiuii." . . . 
(Fittliitgli Ludlow. 

White falks have of late come into cooflideratton. thh 
oonimon name gireu the whitoa by the nfgroM, thoughj 
South they are generally calling thomeelYM now poof^ 
Even an adjectiTe,/o/jl*«jr, ha^ been made, which is 
gin in and the Suntb. 

Foolery and/w/m^ are beth proralscnously - 
stronger term of coudcmimlion uuj;iit U> l>e > 
Tiio Inking of life has more tban onoe been called " men, 
in the West 

OLD raiKKDS wirn hew faces. 


' tnmhi' qtnle (hint In tbe tnidit othiifgoitriea, 
&Mdt> dovnMlBfra to boU Uuj flvDt door of Uie ToolcricB." 

(J. a LotvvlL 0/ i>uw Philippe, Bigloit Papfn. L, p. S6.} 

i/noliH' is iiuteral to wniu womoii, and there is no groat 
[done 'oept to (ovW (F. B. Burte, Luck of Roaring Camp, 

U a otHDinou name for a gwig or laborers, wbothvr tlK<y 
■Irishmen at work on n railwav, or DL-groes cmi)loyt?«l on a 
lion. " Tlifi crcpp of Coloiiul Harrja was of this deacriptjon. 
iceedtil the abilit; of hia/ortre to pitch it In ; bnt insto:td 
ping udditioual »\a,vim for the purpvsv, he conceived the idea 
iing to account the lazy Cboctaws by whom ho was sur- 

(W. at^immti. Oakaiibbe.) 
ehtittdr^, which means in Kngland notliin^ more than 

ktinmly, lias in America the uddilionul meaning of well off, 
liable in oircu in stances. ** I'll work and Iminl with yow. 
*r there is no need for it. Father is forehanded; he says I 
D go to school, but 1 ain't goln^ .to try it." [Puinains Mmja- 
He, January, 1870.) 

Fork, in the singnlar. is one of two roads into which the main 
nd dJTidca at a place which is called the forka. A traveller 
riving in Albany and calling for a bootjack, astonished the ser- 
nt m much by the Eige ef his foot, as to cull forth the excla- 

R] : '* If you want them ans boots off, you'll have to go back 
fork in the road to get them off.** 
nent, the old Scotch word, has been carried by immigrants, 
im sontheru Ireland especially, to PeiinsylTania, and is there 
union, though gcnemlly pronounced /ffr/ieni and/ffrjw/w/. 
- jtrHenf the big iioiisc in the village."' 
FrMte, to, ia used in almoai all parts of the conntry as an 
traTflgant term for wishing something ardently. " I tell you I 
ote for meat before the week was gone." {A Hide mth Kil 

Khii, 18 used Tery generally in the United States instead of 
in lb« sense of an overllow. " We bad another frenhet in 
ble Jcames yesterday, and fear the canal ba£ been serinualy 
." (Kicbmond Whig, October iil, 1867.) The word frttk 
however, often to serro the two purposes of denoting an 
fttion and a small tribatary of a larger river. Hilton already 


ueee it to denote a pool of fresh water, and po in quoiri by U 
while R. Bcwrlcy writes : " Th(»rc are the Muwborn Hiiu ia 
/rviJUf of James Rir^r, and the ritlge nf hille of SlaflwdCwi 
in the /****#« of Pflwtomeck River.'* {ffistoryof Virpniit.yA 

/Vitni^ to. quoted by Builey a^ meaning to tnxAt apTbt 
•8 in oontempt, and need so by Bciinmont and Fletrhcr, b» 
so many old words, eanired in Kew England, irhere people 
^Kok of a rrow, ilt-t*ra]t^red peraon as " nn old frumpy 

FuU, an old poniciple, is often beard in the Sooth fw 
and almost oxctnaiToly need by the Qegroes^ who aometinw 
prove it ID their way by sayiog/itJM. 

*- Ren'el Jftduoo fin' de trail, 
VTlukw, my IdBf^m, flr« awny, 
Utji^l ran fotn (fill«d IlKin fitrl) wid coUoo twle. 
W'hfiw, mj kingdom, flrv awsy." 

/Vrr, oddly need by Tankoo and negro alike, ijt a remoH 
olden times, for Sidney aleo uses it instead of tkr. 


Oabf and the gift of the ffoi, teem to be oonaidered nnini 
genuiuo Americanisms. Originally pah meant only mondi^ 
hence a clei^man at Paul's Crosse, w« are told, thougbt no 
of bidding a noisy hearer to "hold bis ^ay or "ehnt op hii 
(Siang Dictionary.) Chancer, hovercr, ns^a the verb aim 
meaning to talk idly; and Grow aotnnlly exphuns **tb« 
the ffab" as a ''facility of epeocb." It is in thii sense thi 
word ie almost exchisively used in the United States, ia 
especially a greiit command of words without &u oTcr-aliDO 
of ideas. In the (South the word is Ktrengthcned by being Ie 
encd into gabbienifnt., hot only in its lowest sense 

6alj for girl, also is an inheritance derived from enignata 
£»cx, where it is still hcanl. A ijal-boy is in New EngUad 
occasionally for the more familiar tom-boy. 

QaU is in New England and in the South not oofw^ 
used to denote a state of pleaaant f-xcitemcnt. "The eU 
were in soch a gnUiy it took us nearly an hour to get theat t* 
and then tbey could not sleep for a long while." {A Srnim 
the Oountry, p. a21.) 



tnirtf. 08 Bhowu to ladies, is n cnstom of which Americans 
lly (uoud, and lu*iico probably Hie many forms undei- which 
tl rtppoars. "Onfi day I took ft solitary ride there, while 
'■was gallfiHtixint} the hdios, a vocation for which his invin- 
(Tood-hnmor and unfailing' vivm-ity eminently qualify him." 
gftt>.<i from the Soitth, II., p. 174.) *• More than half Ihe 
Bbeans, though on the most uthuctiTe sort of poles, which 
Wed like Aoriiii'e rod, went ffaliififilinff off to the neighboring 
-treliia, with a disregard for the pi-opriotiea of life which ia 
ire upon hnman nitnre." (0. D. Wurner, Sft/ Summer in a 
».) " ftat/ivatidrtr; wns never my forte, and I wa« quite 
to bo sent away whonever ludic'<i came." " Onilavantinff, 
upon the ladies, was as polite tii expression as in action." 
Dietionarff, fub voce.) 
I, tn, hiis in parts of the TTnitcd States transferrfd its p«- 
■ mmning of excoriating, injuring a surface, to a noun, which 
Mgnutcs n certain claita of low lunil, {.-unsiRtiug of a troacheroiia 
Itted soil of vegetable 6re, producing; little that ia worth the 
Bbl« of hnrvesting it at the risk of lilV. In Florida such lauds 
I generally cnlltd /i^y-Gaih, which see. 
fMhieses, for suspenders, is not nnknown in England also. 
f?HmArc7-n)of, so called fnim its hipped form, which miikea it 
Lnniikc the hind-leg of a horse, called by farriers ^nNiira^ 
C7(»t«/«r-party Is th« modest name given occasiuually iu New 
{land to what is more fjirailiaTly called a " stag-party," consist- 
f of men only. 

00^, from its denoting any hrc^ach of continuity, is in the 
nth generally applied to a pass in the muuiilains, through 
ieh a river or a nmd runs. Rockfish Gap, Brown's Gap, aud 
ber Gapt m the Blue Ridge of Virginia become thus fumons iu 
yite Civil Wur. 

Hrrtson, in the Weat, de^i^natcs not only the military force 
rSpjring a fort, but quite as frequently the place thus held, and 
a oM forts and imsts, long since abandoned, continue to be 
own there as garrisous. " It was late at night when we k- 
■ned oj the mrrisQu, and the ominous silence, the ahacncc of a 
itinel, and the strange appearance of evt-ryihing around ua,8ent 
fandder thrtiugh uur heartH." {Some* in ihe Far Wert.) 
for mooufihine or idle hoasUug, is quite frequent 

^"'^^^ the h,in nV'^'^^^ 



to, oii« of th« conroni^nt vorde of the language, which 

ns ns«', like jfjr, as maids nf alJ work, flcemg nevertheless 

well adapted to many purposos, that even English writers 

ra begin to use it in wiiys wliich formerly were ma«Ie b 

f grave reproach to our people. To epeak of •* rjetling rcii- 

miiy not be wiacUy correct, imd to " ^el corrected," conveys 
meaning, but to "get money" has received Ibe sanction 

bew writers. " The Yankee notion that the gfttiag of 
is the chief end of irnwi." {Atlantic Monthly^ Augiisi, 
1off0t on baa became domesticated in Knglisb. The Karl 

ly, delivering recently the prizes to the successfnl pnpils of 
I College, eaid, " We anjt a litUe too apt to look npon 

CB 09 mere macliines for what is called gttUng on." and in 
place, " he bad got as much as he or aoyljody belonging 
' (December, 1870,) Kven the siiortcned fiimt got in- 

f gotten, long made a special reproii^h and considered an 
n&ble Americanism, haa now its advocates in Kiigliab^ 
orth says: 

" But llieu he Ie a horse that thinks. 
And when lio Ihinkit his hnnu< u slack ; 
Now, Uio' he knows poor Jolinny well, 
Tel, for his lire, he cft&not tell 
What he haa got upon tiis back " — 

(77i« Idiot Boy.) 

>>rd Lyttotk goes so far as to use forgot in his last briU 
tOTet To get up on one'e ear, is regnlar slang, meaning, to 
one's self to » great effbii;: 

rhsy called mcbullr boy, aliho' Tvo seen nigh thre««core yean, 
swd that I was UghtniciK, when Iffotvptnmy tar." 

( Wonis and Uieir Uaa. Qalveslon Ifevi, May 4, 1871.) 

'd, to take a, has in the Northwest the peculiar meaning of 
aneflhrt: "rdju»t like to take one jri'rt' at Globe City, and 
Idn't fetch settlers. I'd cry co-peevi (peccavt). Will you lot 
it?" {Putnam's Magatin?, November, 1858,) 
ji name, represents mainly In New England, but quite fre- 
througbout the United Statea, what in Kngland is called 
istion, or first name — a designation said to have origJuuted 
ie Puritana, who objected to the many saints' names used as 
n nujnes. 

br io^- ft om tho milB 

. In the SoQlhttxi 
nvtylmiim, tlwtraetai 
■resoealled frum 

.lto..«Md br »i^amt, w mdooe in Ku^Wid in tixl 
BiOTfe, «%» %— Bei i^ cofttmaM thai to be «mptoy<^ 
aad A« Sootk. "Tliv window wtn whed an4i 
Imm^ vilk tbe- wkiiuc cwiktB# of wittott> vHIi frhigfli^ 
btfi* f V. & flww. Til £m« ITflvw.) 

OB ArotlMr hu^ u in &e But t»nsfpm!d 
of poUcfT. tCe. t* tte nnlar state of tlie groonii 

Bhit, a ^Kg» aa afaa viedjce. has been pr M Wted in Ke* I 
It Wk lAv aO; bat a apteia l applicaStoD nf tlie jtutcinl i 
Tfiai^ ahjch amuu Uk eoaplete filling up of a {asaagr.iil 
•■ aecoBipiafatd b; th* waiy,. 

O trn d i l a , freqaeatl; w i a pto d into faadoto, is ns^l id 

(kad State* and Aknig th« Atlanuc Cf^ut to drngruUeil 
' flat>bottoiii«d IkmU. in vluch produce is carried to DftriccL 
nie of the word for a pocnIiarV shaped railroad-cnr is cnt 
Icitown in 'Enjirtand. J. R. Lowell says : " I find ^nndeh in 
Inyt and gundtUo in Booth's Reprhit of the Folio fthftkc 
of 1688.- 

Oov^, the old English t^rm for a rtiipid fellow, is not on 
queatlyhcarUretin the New England States, while* ^nit/isi 
be llie r^tiriix<>d form nwd in roUegiM. " A etui>id fpllo«r,l 
ft IvMtijark, an ij^oramus is hen- callwl a ponu,«." AU 
niGyonuse*. (7'Ai OartmoHth, Vol. IV« p. 116.) 

Ooodman and Goody, in the caily davB of Kew En^^land : 
nents titles of honor, signifjring heads of a hoaseb .' r nil 

be used in more remote part* of tli08« States, and < ' 
Why be heard, without the ftlightest intention to vpcalt in aarl 
the most respe<^tful way of Mrs. Simpltins. Oooduta^ on th*' 
trmry, aro, as in England, swoetmeate and nice things ginn 

Grt^ftfUi, is one of the many words by wbioh the Soofofi 



to expr«iGS the diSereDt modes of repoiriDg bovtc This t«Tm 

cnumlly upiiljc-il M'bcii new golei are uilil«d. hiiiI riuw leutber is 

^h1 iju nil urouuil; when tt new hottom i» mailo ao<l tlm tiooU 

loved liulf vay up. it U called t/ooaittg buota, and /oziuff, when 

' ' old '* ui>{H'ra." The niunea are, boweveiTt not 

iu hU Lilt- SiuLca. 

nui8 ftitiuws tavy in tbu UoU«d SUUqb. wives wpurstcd (rota 

UiuUuidg for atinieuuly, uud witliuut incurring the uLigbtcsL 

?fL The jTfvuit laniiliiirity with Anu-dcjiD society whiuli ibe 

^Uab are ttu fond of Assnming is sbown in the vcracioiia stat«- 

^t Uiai *^ (luring tlio gold fewr in California it vas common 

United States fur an adventurer to put liuth hiHurifo^turmtid 

ahnoiicrt; a i/rasg widow) and liiii ubildron to tchwi daring 

mvM." ifi'hint/ DirMunary, p, 146.) 

in \i UATiL in America, an corn iii iu Eugland. to designato 
luce uf all a.Te:iU, ry<i. wlK-:it, wiia, vto.. and tUe pa|)«m 
lerefore daily an account of thi.* Grain ifarket. 
{, used indiscriminati>ly for anythinff great or large, i^ like 
IT similar rtmib, grii.'rontvly abn^nl. Krcry ai-my during the 
(Jivil War i»w:unio a •■ f>raj;// Army ; " \\w. I''n;pma*ms have 
^ing but "ffruini tnrn-vat«," and when giria discusa aji even* 
u>h hoiii\i of whrtt a "tjrand lime " she has had. 
'/. . / is a word mrcly neod by Americans, who prefer the 

lore t-nphemiona Cemvtory. There is, perhaps, some excuse for 
^fTusumi, iu< tltey havt; wijtely cliiwn the most beautiful »\\o\s 
tbiiir lai'ge ritica, laid them out in shrublwry and forei>t, and 
Uium £(r attractive, that c-ver)' viijiioi- to a large itjwu is 
It Axxw for his tirst and main entertainment to be driven out 
"Cemetery." The only well-known (rrnvtt/ard iu the 
ntry is a melaticholy pbiee in the Miseisaippi ItiTor "On 
jour right itt a aorte« uf rocky biuUs, vuwivd with a stunted 
grawih of Uees before yon nu expao&e of water, ten mile.s long 
and two wide, uu .vutir left an army of luiud-bai'tj and isluud^, 
o lie imbedded the a'reeks of aome Ul'ty eteambouth, and in 
lOte diflliuce a bolt of tluokly wooded bottom land. This 
•aa (tfawi/ard," (C Ijanman. A Suituar-r in th« 

tvtff in New Rngland used for any li(|nid aticompanying eer- 
disbes, as, tbe griwy of a pie, a pudding, etc 



Great is, in the Sotitb o^pcciallj. almost cwranaotly w 
villi t>i^, and anytliing of con!)id<'rabl^ siee is qtmlifln) « 
big llitiij;.'* Th Pc-iinyslTanifl tliff iuflacncc of tmedat 
muns bas comiptwl Iho tinnt word into ffraile, aided br ' 
dency tu Bsaimiliitiou bcfoi-u the tnitiul A. aud as Bucb 
liiu been gi-avely quok-d as mesaiiig, " big br an uddiUona 
or degiee," — a solemn -wsniing to smwrlicial 

OriddUi are not only the iitciwils fur biti.;.,. ...^t-s, bot 
the n«hert thcmsclrcs. " ShoTcI-caVca are still \a he had 
hnngry g^'ncration, and ("he gruidlfS o^ ^^^3. Dnrfee in tht 
Hoaaeat the (ilcii, ehall noiwntitan hiiiturinn as tbiv Ti.>u<- 
iinint«l troopH of loTeT&" (An Aeceiint of Kevrportt I - 

Urit and (friUg are favorite terms, at the Nort" 
that quality which a grindstone shonld have in " 
iervioeable: hardness and flmin«8S cvnibine<1. "Hu h»s tilt 
Srit," 18 considered biph praise, while Meta Tiondor comi 
Tory justly that ** wonianlv i^('/ is not ponfifld-nt with womi 

" Thotij^bl I, tnj DriKtihoT Iturkingljatn 
Ukih lomewbsl in him gristj/, 
tiorac Pil»riu) wiff. Uini liftica all sbain. 
AuU lie will priul my dUtff." 

(J. R. r.owpll An latf-m'^v vM itBtt Slai 

Clear Orti is thus defined bv a hijth ncithorirv: "'' 

tliat sterling miuibood and wumanhvod that is bIwtiv- 

own natnre, and therefore hi «ome sense to that hij^hesc uat 

whom image we arc made, no matu-r what n> i 

diamond is a diaraund all the Eame, you kimw, ^^ 

on the brow of an emperor oris hid under thu mountaiu pealki" 

(Rev. Robert CoUyur.) 

(?««»». There is. probably, no word in the Dlotionary khat 
givfD more occasji>n to animatc-d diKenasioQ than tBU, 
almuitt by every writer in America as one of the most «thl 
and repolstve Americaniiinis, conniderahle pains has bMn tak< 
pn>VL' itt? Knglisb orthodoxy. Tiiere is un lack i ■\i 

the word luu been used in Kn^rland from time ut..: 
by tho best writers, in precisely tije same Must* iu whiuh it is 
eni|»loy«l W Yiinkpe*. Seldeii. in one of hii* ' 

Ok i|uottd by J. It. I/>well, writes: "The ftrsf 


19 ron dislike not the addition) wna one Brrthold Swartz.'* 
?r £41}'^, " Amylia will Iw luv'd as I uole ghesu." {Fairjf:^ 
Bk] III. c. Tiii, V. 57.) "If I were. I might find m( 
t, IgxtcM, than jour mislreM has given TOnr muster here.' 
iburgh, Th» Mistake, Act J, 9c 1.) Chancer singa: 

" Itrr 7i<llow lisir waa braided in a Ueaa, 
Hebiitd h«r back, a yard long, 1 ffiuu." 

[e whoEe design it ia to excel In English poetry would not, I 
la, think that way If it was to make his first et>say in Latin 

'' (Locke), luid Mittou i3y»: " Ahreiuly bj thy reuauuiug thia 
#M*." U'aradist Lout, VIII, p. »5.) The only difference be- 
en the English ajid ilie American uae of the word is, proba- 

tlmt the former denotes a fitir, candid gucMs, while the 
ikea who guesseis is apt to W quite sure of what he profoaaes 
loubu Ati ho iiuiy caiuulaU'S when he haa already solved bis 
iblem. £0 he a1«i giussea when he has made sure of hia fact^ 
. fftam I do," la with him an expn.'S8iou of confident certainty, 
ia, however, qnito aa prone to go to llw other KXtivmL- and to 
I the word without any other meaning than mere " thinking," 
when he aays: " I ffuess he is well," or, "I ffutiM I won't go 

fumjUion, little more than a vulgarism or a cnut word in Eng- 
ia iu America u^ very freely for understanding and dift- 
itneut. and considered much less objectionable on the acore fit\ 
9od tajte. Burns wrote: 

" Nor a' tlic qtuLcbs with ail Ibeir gamptian 
Will ever care her." 

{letter ta Join Oovdk.} 

innell also tells how an Irish priest introduced the vc 
to a rural meeting by tiaying : '' Now, ma boughuU, yon 
got gumption, and yon must, therefore^ be guided by 
who have." It ia in thta aeuse that it is cooslantly used 
" I oamre you hii wna not lacking in tfumjition ; what h» 
ita is tact" (J. M. Buchanan, private tetter.) The term ia 
lUy derived from the old verh to gawu, to undereland, 
ib is atUl current iu the North of England, and IVom whirh 



the -noMTi ffumpt ion yxashf^enohtatai'' 

worda — the p being iiiurgiuiic, bm Uv' . ^'^ ^ . , 

and the deiituL There u do excuse, m theru u nii ooed, 

corruption ri" '». commuu iu En ' ' 

shire) ovuu ''< him* cxisU for poiN ■ 

ig oomparatively rare in America. 

" They treed anl try lliy jftkes to fallioin, 
They waut ruitittnmfili-in." 

«/, in the seiifio uf ii narro»* ml'-'l ur air 
water, is used h^re a.t in Kn^fljiiid, whercvt-r li - l 

liarpcd by the French baifoit. 


Hack, in England generally used for n hired hornr. doi 
America mainly a hired carriage. To c«U a vhurt. h;ir<i 
ting ooQgh, u hacking cough, a term soinotiniea heard iu th^ 
of Euf^laud. is quite conitnon here. 

iialf-mvcd is a similar proriociali^oi, found in ccrUin li»calit 
in Wth countries, aiid deiiotiag a half-witted person. 

ItatceSf in Pennsylvania ctrrupttd iuin hi' ■ I 
tiou heard by the person wlio happens tt» wiir 

a raluablc ohjccl, in order lo claim half ol' the tnmeiire^t 
People also propose to *'go halves" when each : - - - '. '.ft 
expense, and laud ii» lot out "uii ftaivft." wli> 
ieuantshaje ecinally iu the proceeds. Tlie lullvr icrut, usm 
;^quhartaud Matthews in their Trauslatioa uf RalMlals (Bk.-^ 
t), is now ubsolete in E'ngland, but »ii.ilt t'ontiniiee in neu h«E 

Hand is rnado in Americo not oiily llu' repn.'.-w.*n{at.ive "f «i 
BOn'a ability U) work, but eveu of bis skill ; and whi]<! I he 
Hay. *' he has a gowl haml on the vioUu" { Addiwiu), \i Ul 
' He i« a good hutxd at whistling." " T have never 
Itcoir a beiior hand at cradlingt but hu knov- 
{Farmsri^ Gazfltf, IS07.) 

Handkerchief has liere, an in '" ' 
tBiideiicy lo eurrupL an uUnrd >, .. 
tng of which iu oatarally hit) to nuedamtcd \kv 
trenlnirnt ig ^ jfeni'ral. and esfWL-inlly !^ 
hamikcrcfier, 3o old and so couitaut, that - u 



to the true nrigiii of Uie word. Tbc (Ujivatiou from 
. >if o(iursi-\ not' Ih! ilt>nie<l, but it bus been nskcd. if 
<■- lierc tis in many similur ca^cs, a doubln derira- 
titiaktKijMiru cvrtuinly writes, " Good Tom Drumnie, lend 
hantn-trdifr" ( A ll'« Well that KnAs WcllJ, and kvrcher occuM 
y piY-vioiisIy. lu au ofticial report on Bacon *-i Rebellioti, 
Jaly 1-1, U05, w« (ind: '*llad Bacon in the paroxism of 
rentic-'k fury but drawn his Kword before tbti i)acif!ck handker- 
r WM (thaken initof Lbe window." Pepyd writes, September 
"'i'bc kin); at Uiiit day buviug nu hantOcerchvrs, auiL but 
_-.>.- Lands (o bia n«ck;" and three montbs later, December IZ, 
ktgmin, " U«rc only, I mw a French lady in the pit, witJi a uiuit^ue 
jiHt like Diira, only » /mrtrfl*«rcA#r about brr neck." Then* cun 
be no dtiubt: that the word wae, in the nth century, written by 
pwd aathora exactly as it was prouounced, and thaa imported 
i' ' iitd into Virginia, where it luis maintaiucd iteeli' uii- 
ibe prtsent day. lu rciineylvania, knukitcfier is 
4 by Dr. Elwyn, and hnngcatcherhy S. S. Ualdemftu. 
ndrairntl, the name of an entertftinmont in thi? West, tlins 
[bed : " We do danee, of course, but u haudroutui, out hero, 
lere we don't sit at tabic, bub band round the rittels. The 
uou't bo set, you know, on 'count of its cluLtciiu' up t-bu 
in* room." (Pid nam')! Magazine, December, 1808.) 
fppen in. to, in llio seuse of to happen to come in, is a uav 
word uot known abroad, but quite common here " I hap- 
in one fiuc day, and found thetn all fost asleep before ten 
ik." (J. P. Kennedy, Sicaihia /inrn.) 

is a favoritu word iu tlie United Stutes, applied univer- 
to things or penons, from "/lard money," in contrast with 
r-niouey, to ''Jiartl timea," for evil fortune. "Bob is what is 
nically t:al]<;d a hard customer ; he drink i Jiurd. he eate hard, 
ilbr be is orteu hard set to get anything to cat, and he Rlee|>a hard, 
fbr ht!i IhhI la frequently a hard flag in tha market" (Pickinffs 
wn tha Picayune.) 

wood compnevs lUI woods of solid texture which decay 
ily ; dm, uok, ash, bcocb, basswoo<l, and sugar-maple. JTitrd- 

«a-bread and anny-brvad alike. " Since the Rebellion broke 

out. »onie luckless wi^bt stationed thcr^ubunt, Qiiiucbiag hla purk 
and kardiacki had uiuned it iha Parker Uoiiiie, in memory of 
bttttep days." (Pufnam'* Mvfatine, August, 1&08.) 



Baul, to, w<»ds in common ra maiiy Statos tnRteiul of to ! 
weeds. To h/tnl oivr the eontf j» not tn AmDriaiDlitm ; It > 
lis early uf th« limes of Um Ki-formntinn in tho titJr of a eont 
versial book, and in the mwlprn st-nee of "to takrr tn taifc.1 
JamiMoii tmcoa it back to tlie ordval by fire. 

Ifau, tOf a term used on board ship aud in imblie ioaUti 
of learning, is quite common in tbr- TTnited StAt*^ ^ Bvi^rf J 
ing uf tho KCudding-saild vae unly to hai^ the orvw.* 
1840.) " The deeply-rooted custom of hating the new cndou 1 
been sncccs-sfnlly euppressed, and no jnet:»' ■ 
bt«a bronght to the knowledge of the s\u n 

Bepori of Weaf Point Aeathtnif, 1&70.) 

Heap, ODCC used in nuuiy portx ofEnglumi u> m j. oi 

qnunUty, bnt also a number of aniniale ur men. i. 
" Seeing such a heap of their cnemice n^udv to doroar tiitfl 
(quoted by J. S. X^vell), and in Chauoer'a well-known liac^ 

" Tbc wijidoin of n fieap nf learned men " 

ig 8tiU uniTcraal in tho West and SonUi in tho aatn« ae&ie. "t 
8SW a keap of uUI frJetids in town, but still felt md at tlte lauT 
changes that met my eye ever^iA'hure." In Uko mounur eIio oU 
use of a fiMp or an heap for a large quantity has come doini to 
US unchanged from I^«r« Plotighman, who *ayi: "A 
naroefl an beap." " I began to fool myself mightily at !. 
as Virgintaas say, felt a A«ap of regret at bidding tlie exceU 
lady and lior family good-by." {Letters from Iht SontAf I„ p. SJ 
Even tbo Indians have caught tho infocticin, and we are told il 
"an Indian ie always a htap hungry or thiridy, a kfap bnve < 
willing to do a thing." {Li/e in ilte Far Hm*, p. lift.) " He ii 
big man, heap big man." (Speech of }Jai/i-in-lhe-Sky ot }Va*Jti» 
tun. \9.m.) 

Uaarn, the old adjeotive-participle for hwrd^ is quite fraqtwot 
heard where old £uglieh most prevails, in Now England and i 
Vii|;tnia. "1 have hearn maatcr nay so mAuy % limes.* {Jt 
Sandalph's Body-Htvant at ths FuturttL) 

' Wt ihinklo' crerj-lbin' yon tvtr ku*w. 
Or erer Jbt arw to tnnko yonr feel 1 1 
(J. B. Lowell. L 

< m, U,, p. tnj J 


H^, to, which in Knffland means — true to Mm deriTation from 
heave, heaved— to lift, is used in the TTnited States in the 

lae of trying'' tht; veighi uf a thing \\y raising it, and bence the 
heft deriTce iU mcaniDg oX weightj and, fltill more idiomat- 
Ijt Ui« gRaler pari of a thing. 

" He yftA Ul). iTBs mj Jack. 
Am) u ilnmg as a lrc«, 
Thar'ft hia gun on the reck, 
jMt yoa !i^ \\ and M* — 
je come »«onrtla' hia wid der. Lord I wltere can the critttr, Bat. be 1 
(Peacl(>p4!. Ottiiund Montldy, August, 1870.) 

" CoDvtilonuiiU air bendy to hi-)p a man In, 
But orterwards don't weigU the heft of a pin." 

(J. It. Low«a ^fow Puper$, I., pt 151.1 

o, that won't pay. We will be gone the heft of the aftep- 

>D, I reckon." {Lippincolt's Magazitte, March, 1871, p. ?84.) 
fYou «e tbere'g such a htft of snow, and no path liroke." (E. 8, 
A Woman'6 Puipit.) Eren an adjective, hff'tif, has been 

riTcd from the word in ^'ew Enjjland. " Then, it must be con- 
that he IB, og a Yankee wonld say, a little he/tif for the 
leal lover." (New York Tribune, Junnar>- 31, 1871.) 

Heifer is not uacommoD in the AVcst for wife, and need with 
all kindoess and respeuL " Now, git ont, I aaya, or the ol* htifer 
'11 ebow you whar tbe carpenter left a hole for yon to mosey," (/» 
ih* liackteoods, p. 71.) 

Hnr, to, instead of to inherit, is in use in Kew Jeraey and 
PcnnEyWauia. '* Ho heirs the property, and she heirt the fiuTn." 
"A little boy is now the sole eorvivor, and heirs an eatal»; which, 
a gentleman informs us, is worth some five or six thousand dol- 
lar*.'* (Xcw York Tinm, January 87, 1855.) 

Hfilp, often considered a gcnnine Amcricaoiam, is only an ex- 
tension of the original word from an instrument to a person. Pe- 
pya already writes, March 18, 1663: "What a help he was to us !" 
and Mrs. TroIIope fell in &o readily with the use of the word, that 
ibe wrote in 1833: "A black help nsherod in a young man," a 
[»hracc probably qnit« unknown to Rochester, in New York, from 
rhjch place ehe dates her letter. The use of the word originated 

Xi:w England, where perfect social equality liua prevailed from 

e uldu&t limes, white the " redcmptioners " of New York aad the 



Uddle SUtes, and the "ilavea " of the Soutli, dirf '- ' 
wliere; uor liua ihv Umi yet ma<le ii-s way in'- 
^enoeylvauia. (S. S. TIaldi'man.) A viu-iuiy is itan Mtnti 

'term very gouoraily used Xortli and Soath. '■TUe In-'" -v 
foniid their way into the New England Tgnner'akitcUi ■ 
II laudator iemporia acti," and the ln$li liiboivr luu im>l'mu««' 
nnnmd hired man.'' {AHantic J/tnilhii/, August, Iti.nS.) 

I Hfndtf U Yankee for bandy. ** llendy as ft poclcec in a dilTt* 
Herhs is the term usod for tht- Englisli "siniplea.** 
unknown lieru, tliikt uutliing is murv cuuiuioii tluui ui 
bUity of young readers to undcrstaad tbc alluaiuu tu a prtfiit 

'gartneut, whicL U said to em^\l "like ftr 
time." (Merry Wives of Windsor.) Tlie/w 
inent p»rt, in a country where no restniint whotcTpr is plaeoi] 
upon ignorant men who luuume the fouctiona of u phyMir'--' 
simple men who eut-rugt their lives to eucU haudiL 'i 
is, however^ genurally pfonounoed iierb or yarb by the in» 
Midtt to, in the eon&o of '' t;ianing oue'8 bii!<-< " liy sever 
la as common ben* as iu certain dislricts of Cnglnnd. J. B. h 
ell thtis refers to a habit. of T^ouis Philipp-N. wht>ii a, echool 
in this country, " Iiow he oflcu biul hided yowuix nanxa 
kina.** {Bigloni Payers, L, p. B?,) 

Uily-!ilv, us the English hoUy'toitu is more fnxjn 
and written in America, is hero also usvd ae a utU. jn 

to be hHied-iitied, that is, to be made mnch ot'" (8. 8. HAklemaa.) 
Tho word ai-isoa from tho obsolete Enfjlish rerh to kaif, wt 
means to leap, t^> caper ; if out from t)ic notio Aoii/. vhioh ili 
qnotea iis meaning '^nu uwkwm-d boy." Tho Amehciui TPrb«l 
siUve impliejd the doing of llmi which wilt call forth ili« exc) 
tion. M the Greek /Ktytf mf:tDt i iiMyetv, to ta\x t, ulajil 

Hoarding mi-iinE!, in America only, acciunulating- 'H 

cloaiire, as in the £ugli*)h notice eo oOl-ii m&c im t_ .: 

VAoant epaoes: " Ho hilla may be sttiok un Uiis Uoaniing,'* 
is rahatitnted for tJie lidter. 

Boclcet/silck, the atick with a " hook," of cunrud bvnd at the 
GuihciBl nrom the hand, and used to playing ImiII, is occMiooulf; 
written //in u'ivy slick (J. R. Abbot, Cnki in Boston), And is 

[i^nth. OS in England, replaced by bandy-stick. 

Bog takes almost exdasirely the place Of the Euglith amntA 



h ill nn*lv lieanl. "M^-au eoungli to Ktt-al ucoraa from a /; dj^." 

Y»iiV • ofme!inuc5«. 

'nisi. U\ , aiicd ht/tt, — luuiiia rcn- ofu>n what an 

man mif^ht cull an "eU'vatiOu ttoirnwanls/' n sudden, Hcriotu 
J. C Neal ilms miikc's II merry tiifiir iay : "1 ciui't am Ihe 
,nd. Diid (.'vvr}- dnrk uigbt 1 iiiu tiuri* to gL-t a hysf—c'ither & 
or n backerd A.v«(, or soinR kind of AvW, bat ruoro backtrda 
fomrda." {Charcoal Sl-elchfs. I.. \\ 74.) 
^olrfrn, tho old participle. sUll diirvtvos in muuv i>tirta of this 
try. The Kev. P. (lartnright sajs iu Ink Auiofnograpky : "A 
i{»*niTCting hdUUrn this year in the edge of Tennessee" (|>. 144). 
ihe oOicial report of the Methodist Episcopal Cburcii North 
■ "The first Methodist C'oufei-ence hoUtrn in th(- Wi?»t 
.11 K'?uliicky ill lliS'.*.'* R W. KiTicrson writes: "The 
■T flemi-nt of fric-ndship is tcndurni^ss. We ore hohieti to men 
*Tcry sort of tie, by lilowi, by pride, by fear, by ImiH", by Inen-, 
lo£t, by liute. by adniiratiuo, by every eiroumsmncc and budg? 
triQp, but ire can scarcely bctievi' that so much cburactor can 
St in ftnotbtr.-w to dniw ii» by love-'' {FrifiuJfJiiji, y. 187.) 
Wtoir.tfi.a verbiilrcwlvin Kiitftandfroinof old whtten inviirioiia 
«mTB,oconra in AnK' like monueMiiidi!!' the difllTL-nr. fornix 
hie, ftniioo, and inoei eomuutniy i\s haUer. .1. XX. l^ou'ell says: 
rrifk writes ItoHoK for halloo, iiud pcrliap* pronouuoed it {hoi'- 
<i rtftremi) hoihi, an the Viinkvea do. Why not, iviieu it comv8 
hoiii?" Sli;ike8i>e.ire, it in well known, nsts it — 
" And In bin ear I'll Aciiotp Mortimer," 

(/. ib»ry ir;) 

Qyna tloes iiol liesitate to say. 

■* To AoUavi M0 Hotspur KU'i ibe sceptred elr«." 

Yankee pronunciation is introduced into the characteristic 
ocoonut of a blufT old farmer, who oaid : " If » wan profusses to 
■BTTe tb« Ix)rd, I like to ee« him do it. when he measurei) onioiia 
a« well as when he holttn plorr hallelujar." "The mom I hoU*red 
ttie more tlie cnstomera wonld pome.*' (J. 0. Nral, C/inrfimi 
^'*«/.-A«, lU p. 157.) 

Holyen, the old participle. like holden, is still often heard, eape- 
dally in Kentucky, while in Virginia and by the negroes of the 
U) tt mongrel fonn, hulptd, is made for the Preterite of / kotp, 
:b tlieru taken the place otlhetp. 




Soli is ocRflsiniiolly used hcrct as in Engl&nd, u a n(»ia,tW 

. jmrd / niiu-kitig the noun aa the eouant d marks tlie verlk {C«» 

^pe^e breulli aiul breathe.) " Then lot me linvo » k*dt of lomi i 

tlu fellows that mude it." (J. CNeal, Cfiarcoai SkettAdt, U.|l3 

Homeiift in Euglaiid used for homelike, here serves naiaLrj 
ezpreas a want of comtUobss. " She is C(>rtainty rery A»w<ly,| 
So bright and chet-rful as to appear positively Jondj at 
{Hotne Journal, July, 1849.) 

Honorable is, like Huvenmd, unfortunately more and msnj 
Tiillr iise-d without an H|>eakingof ]>ersoQ8 — arioe^ 
V. G. Halleck stigmatized as "denying ihc Hon. John Smith I 
benefit of the definite article." " Ye«t<^nlay, Hon. R T. W. 
of Virginiei, delivered hia apeecU on the Enforcement Bill," (I 
nioiid Enquirer, April 2, 1871.) 

Mood ii in Amerioa not the monk's hood nor that (aioiliir | 
Oxford and Cambridge, both of which are unknown here, bal 
covering for the head, of bright-colored worsted, much won 
the ladies on the woy to the theatre. 

JIop,iu the eciifje of au ioi'oi-niat dance, at which full- 
not vipcct<3d, is 11 recent importatiou from Eughiud, where, ii I 
slang of tUe uppt-r cltuses, this use of the wurd has loug pn-t 

-nM-M-Miliiner, somi^Mme-i^ objected t« a» an absurdity, hu I 
and anoicQt authority for its use. A newspaper reoeiitlv 
facetiously: *'Tiiey call a hunic^i^inaker u horite-iniUiHer otil; 
Chicago." The editor hud evidently never read MoLlcy's odi 
ble work on thu ilijis of the Dutch Jitpubiici or he would 
found Ihe word quoted from a MS. of Ihc sixteenth centurj". 
W- .Scott, also, in his Hfart of Mid-Lothtan (ch. \\\.), makta . 
tolino Saddletree say : " Whereas, in my wretched occupatios i 
saddler, harse-aUUiner, and harnessmaker." 

Hospital is ueed in iho Uuik-d States to ihc excluaon of I 
JElnglisb term Spitah which ia hvre unkuowa. The'* 5/(i/a'Sa^' 
mou," M the annual ^rmon preached liefore the Blu«-ooat Scboil 
in London is still called on Ihc title-page, would be almost w» 
lelligihle Ut nmiiy ivMilers in America. 

H\ii, an old pretc^riie of the verb to hit, is still occauouaDjI 
iu Virginia uud ihn South. Thu nejjrues are api to say. " Qs ' 
me a great big blow." 

i^KMn, another old form brought to the South by tbe< 

OLD ranonw wtch itbw facbs. 

-lisb st-ttJers. snnrivea there Bud in New Knglftntl alike. "Ko 

elial] Larry at his (ttto Indian kin^'a) hotifdu longer than one 

rtiU" UoHsdtoidry is a new word atit-mpted by u few iimbitioua 

t.«r8 in (he wnee of "hoiisfliold employment;" bnt 

foiuektfp, M a rorh, haA firmly established iteelf in American 

' We went and hired (I) a house, determined never again 

board, but to heuM^ep, wlmtever might he the expensr>." 

'tdihtrn Magazine. January, 1H71.) The new vrnrA, to rmmketp^ 

Log from the exigency which forcen impoverislied Sontheni 

I ilies to content themselves wiih renting a lew rooms uud keep- 

lionse in them, has not yet obtained currency. 

five, the old preterite of '• heave," still continnes in ninny parts 

loouniry. An old woman on the Isle of ShouH coinplain- 

how ill her honse was built, said: '*'Lior, 'twa^n't never Imilt, 

Fmg only hove tufjctlier." Fisherntun along the coast of Now 

id. vhen trying the sailing capacities of a vessel in » heavy 

Bit a quantity of iaitl in a frj-iiijcr-pan on the tiny BtOTe in 

and if, in the act of plunging, " the fat is hove ont of 

ra," as ihey eay, and the pan remaiiiB on the stove, she ia 

idered u tirst-rate fi&iler. 

/Ttpf do9 or. How def is the oommon salntation in the Soatli« 

d of "How do you do?" 
Mub, in the sense of the nave of a wheel, is common to 
rica and England alike; and in this country, perhaps, most 
liartu the name claimed by Bostooians for their city: "The 
' of the Universe." Bnt hub, as meaning a protabflraitoo in the 
1, or u projection on a mountain, is believed to be American only. 
/f«W is Yankee for whole, as 

ffum is for homf. " Heaint to hum," aayg the New Englandor, 
his dialect, for " Tie is not at home." 

Suman, for human being, has b^en fiercely criticised as an 
ImericaniKm, and yet Chapman usee it haljlLually in his translo- 
)f Homer, and his example is followed by a host of Knglish 
Americans, however, use it now more frequently than 
lerly, perhaps for brurity s sake. " [ did not expect to meet a 
iman in such a place." (Uammond, Wild We»iern Scenw.) 
^Faraon Browulow \a jaat as fierce upon dogs, when they uuuoy 
. as lie in upon kuvtanf, when they urc«a tiis path/' {llarpir's 
iagusinnj January, lti(iti.J 



Humbug. how«v«r succMsftally deTeloped in Uib oaDiil7T.Uut | 
n ni^w ttrni. hut at l^tu<l. as old as Ijord CKe3tcr6i*M. " 
in liis lcti*rs. Hniliwell mentions the t^rm, mni f\\ 
meiuiing » ttHae alium, a bngbcan The only lutm use ii pntvl 
blv the name of u town id Culifomia. IfmRbug FlathW^^''^ 
en^bst'iyv uf th« ** 'cut<u««ii'~' of the firat Settlers. 

Hunk; not auknown in the pfviivincu abroad, mesas )>• 
\a!tgb fueoc of bread wid butter or cheese. It occurs 
in tlw senae of a place of refuge, a homestead; and it 
bovE in pUr. wheu they have reuched thetr "bafio;" tiirfl 
*' being honk%' This teroi is derived from the I'uU-h 
place, a bome, and bits led to the jiolitical daog Uirsi ' 
-J9Wmi(w«. which means persons Hinsritig to their 
and oppnaml to innfirators. Hruue, also, chi: fitmiliir 
I>ary. a term originating among the Virginia monntoiac 
u«hI it to express *ery cnipliatieally tiiat ibcy were " well 
good Epihta.'' It is eoid tliat the poor little Japanese 
become famous in Kngland by his cry iHriU (all right), ui) 
rived his name from it, here adopted this wnrd aa tbemoiti 
acteristic of the Anieriran people, and tised to err, Jfitnhf , 

JSHntftOf in in the South eepecinilr uhmI for search: "i 
yoti fnintrd through your drawers, Kiayf J baTc kwiiti\ 
orer tho house.'' {Sotilkcm LUfrtiry Mt$*tH<)er, June. 18SL)^ 

ifnsitanii/ioiii is a nev word, recently coined. " Th** 
educated, nor for hutiandiood^ but fttr manhood." (Min 
Dickinson, Jannan', 186(1.) 

Mwinh, an exclamation used in parta of New: Enplaud. to I 
men or cittttc buck. " In such espetUlions 1 took my fiivi 
in Uu ox-oompelling art. The mysteries of *hav' and 'j 
of *hwo' and '//(yiVA*— the hut an ontlundish Vfrmonlew 
barism, signifying 'hack!* — were duly explainwL" ( 
09orffitti.) The word is known iu parta of Yorkshire. 

ffyper, to. fi New England woid for to he bnay. " I 
hffper abont wid g^it Ux" (J. IL Lowdl.) 

loariau, us everything relating to Mr. Cab«t'* aociiUistic 
18 called, iij u familiar tonn in Aioerioa, when many eflorta 
been mfldo tv carry out his views. 


is a mach abu&ed wont, being cuuBt4iQtly uubstitnted. for 
ip, cUm», or society. " Men of diat iVi are seldom good for 
lythiug." "We want to have nothing to do with Governor 
ran n, and men of that tfX:.'' (Washtiiglou Chroiiiele, J annary 

. jtilj/, frequently chiu'ged ujKin American writerji as an unimrUon- 
eiii, is U8«d hy Bomc oC the ulider Eugliiih wricvr^, thongti 
ringly. It has excittd niiicK controversy, and whiK> tlu-ro is 
Well-founded objccMon to the use of the word, it lias not been 
icii<in(4 l»y the coudent of the people. !□ Texa3 the word iU 
lilt- curions signilication of immoral, aod '*an i7/ fellow," 
a uau vf bud babiUi. 
hnuieilialely, iniiteud of ag toon, ii often met vith ; the pi'esit 
nmiwnjiiB writers utiing it iu this vnnwi. "I know it unmt- 
Wy I eaw liim enltt the room." (New York l^gtr, April 12, 


Hprave, u>. watf remarked upon as early as 178(^> by Benjamin 

in, ati an ''old [ifrvcrttinri of the word in JS'cw England, 

applied to persoQij." We ore told tUut it was thus used in 

Joloiiial Law* of New llareu, tibout the middle of the seven- 

centnry, when ir was ordered to read "tlio»!3 

other good and pi-ofitablo printed books in the English 

by improving echoolmiietera or other help/' Later it wob 

in the sense of use or occupancy of honst'S, and it (sounds 

eiy odd to our t.'ars to hear it uiid tltul "siioh a nse of the word 

roninion at the beginning of the century, but we do not 

einember to have seen or heard it in thia sense for many years." 

fA'or/A AmrrU-an Hevia%r, January, 1S47.) Now. ihe woi-d is 

ployed in the game way n-heu speaking of things, land, ur men, 

tUc noun imjtrovemeni meiuiH a» mni^h unielioration generally 

itbe eUKik. buildings, fences, and other additiouti to the value of 

. fiuTu (H- homeateaiL " I bi>u;L'iit some stock and rented out the 

7riteenie.nt, with a view to hnvu something to livo on." (Bev, 

?. Cartwright, Auiobii)yraph\f. p. 24lj.) 

fur into, iu geiifnit throughout the country, but the Utter id 
luully gaining ground. 
Sn*ard*, a new application of the word inwards, is thus ex- 
uned by It O. White: •• Kow-a-days a man who ui-'cd, in gen- 
ii society, ihe simple English word (gut) for which eome New 


« his h.«ivr6." {Words and ihfir F»w^ p. 38:.) -Tbe 
•«»*n " is not much better. 

'•''^wwteiU, applied to Ufeleoi objects, m "aa titrf<i 
fortone,"* for oD« whioli mftkee Uw ovaer independeitt. U i 

Imimr/erBt to, U tucd in tte North and Weat iDfltcad of i 
ling and naing iU. - Yon'd better not inter/ert with nri 
Ibey don't like outsiders,— «ae the warning the c^laii 
Ibeio roaglia as thej ecnunbled on deck.* ( Wild Wt^tr* < 

I Interview, ta The verb bw been called an AmeriMiiii 
its origin ascribed to the bpevitT eiaoted by tele^:r»phip 
nicauuns ; bat it ia as old as Hall's Chrxmicat, pnuusl 
I *Inttrv%mt\n^ is nothing new; H existed in CGMar'i tiw; 
did not grviit Julius ask: Wbo is in the press thatcslU?' 
pMod lM»patch, Mareh 17, 187L) "Kver>body i« ii 
I Do*'-*-dnyB; Kmperor William on his throne, the 
Rnloff in his coll. uod the man whoso wife has jast tm' 
from him — all fall into the handi of the merciless nei 
jtporter." (New York mrald, April 13, ISVl.) 

/Mt<'t/^. instead of invitntion. a oorrnption of aneducatMi 
is an. imitation of Knj^Iish elang, which has recently crqii 
our Bp«ch. 

/(, added a« an eipletiTe lo rerba, it declared by Mr. Abktl 
l,ij} Oratnmar of .ShahtpMrf to be "now only foiiud in 
phrasea." That maj be bo in Kngland ; in the United Sb 
nothing is more common than this addition, and Oeueral Or 
phrase, " I pcopote to tight it out on this line," has rendeml ft 

IteiH. though generallv used in the sense of an article on 
rati! particular in an aocoant, ha* in America the meanitif 
point of infonnation for the pmw. " I*cal " reportM^ ate ^ 
in Bcurch of an item for their paiwr, and the Kow Yerit 
quote* one of them as sariug, *' Tho moment you get the tf** 
von want, give it to me and 111 run to tho office to haw il 




to, to )i»nd1e harshlv. or even to stnkc> and slab, is 
tern ttnu. "Tho Missouri Atokcr pullsKndya£jtfai« plutonio 
T us HQ irate driver would reffuMe hia mule." (On the 
n«. Futnirni'i* .Vtu/iiriitf, Hi'ph'iulHT, 1848.) 
'aeitt is in AmtTJca almost exulnsivelv naed Tor "romidahoiif,'' 
', m old Kiiglieh wurd, long obsolete at butne, Barvivos in 
N"ew .It-rsev i-spccially, whirli was flf-ltled l>y Puritan iirimj- 
t* from New England and fjong Islnnd, with a ft-v KnglieK 
ro, nnd henCT- has preacrvcd m»nj m-onls no longer known 
Itigluiul. " He had hi-onght ajaf/ of hay to town." 
fmv, to, (iaot«d hy Todd uuil llalliirell in the sense of lo soold, 
.tieli used in the Sgw England 8tatcs. 

'• Bill. Bclghbor. et rtiny ppovo Uirlr flilm »t law, 
Tbc bai wfty is to ectlli^, »n' nol to^w." 

(J R. LowHK ffisftoie Biperi, II., p. 61.) 

18, howerer, also used as u common shaxg lonn for talking 
ply, an in the lines — 

"TIte QclgliborB rouiul tin.' ooru'-Ts drawed, 
Ami ra'iuly drinkcd andjaiefd," 

(Julin flny. Tfu .Vyttent i^ (fOoal.} 
18 the ninvcnia) pronunciation of James in Virginia, sinu« 
vhen English sc-iiIlTb bi-oiight it first with ihom from 
1iome. Henc* '* tlie nohle Jeamen" is the fucetious name of James 
Siver, and the Thom-npiile is never called anything bnt Jimmn 
^Btd. The name tendency has led to the change of Jane into 
^Km» (frum Cienoa, French O^ntf), a tnilietl cotton>cloth; the 
UPRn H commonly u-iod in th« plural in America. 

Jtte, to, «>olloqninlly knowti in England as meaning to ohtiit, 
l^pere oflen ti^^d in tho st-n»e of ha^'gling, hargai^in^^ "Don't 
Hv-think the old hnnks wanted toy^trme down to thtvo Ihou- 
Und dollars?" (Califoruia Flutb t\vm.) 

I-- ■ ' and }i»t ni-e fftvoi-iu* forms for " just. " 
^..'F -' 18 in likf manner snbatiLiitod for '"join." especially in New 
l^btand, and has the fiirt in its tiivor that Dryden and Pope hath 
Hnne ;Ain and shine more than once, and tliat thiii pronnnciation 
^^i 03 i' wo^ (ince orthudox in Knglund. 

I Joft. originally a cant word, has imuk* good it« jilaou, first in 
iiicol language, and then in our speech genemlly. Nor has 


id ben mUe to prereot its introduotioD. ' The Hoaie \ 
temptKUe, iiMlaTr in the way ot* legielatiou, and with u^ 
; driJumiBuioo lu faee no Joi/f, ailjnuruod nu-lr." (.SvwJ 
JVifauu, )Un^ S3, 1S:L) Gpose quotes the word u 
Korfotk, a pieoe o£ lsU>r, uu4erlu}(eu at u et«tc>l ill 

.'SMMiing it<tiU jMserscs. Id pulitiwil iilirASf- <%\ 

' denotes aiawat aItajs a ^ood thiug obcained br secret inJlunuK 
aufiurohauuL **Tvooei]UirU-sagu ii^'oA wasdecIarHl Ijiaeuj 
'■Kna^Bd ntbbcfT. Wbu doea it mean dow V (SUm/f Didi 
Jttt is tbe ooumou way uf wriitiig — uceurding to Uu i 
the wi^ 7>v', and when ajipUed to the cheek of a ]itg, i 
vith " taraip^rMAa,^ forme the favurit« dish of the Vii 
Jumptr, the ehaiacteriitic name of a rtid«^ kind of ti 
«f tvo dttstio {loles on which a box is fastened, an<L much i 
the North and Northwest *' Hin^ two To>u^urs were 
for us with ihw jmrnprr*, and. aiiiiivitiug u£ the frail itr 
iookcd at hrst sight, «» soon found that they rrere quilf i 
fbrtat^e, and admirably adapted to the mode of trarolliaf n( 
howling wilderness.'' {A Winitr in Canada, p. 13?.) 

Juut 15 in New Knglund ct>D6tantly suhatitated for irAaa^ 
means " a fragment of any solid ^ubstaaioe." (J. R, Ixtwc 
Miry to MigloK Paptrg.) 

KmnvTy a noun made Ihim (he adJMrtivCt is a WesLem ten I 
a sharp mao. " I teU you he is a itMi»«f-,you cau'tg«t on bill 

Kttp, to. in the aeiue of to lire, to hare a place of Iwsitif^- c ' 
oomuon licrp, while in England it is only provincial and ''■ 
e.g. in Cambridge, where "to kwp" incans to lod^f. A- 
room iti6U,'4ui uf dmning-rooni, almost uuivt^rtol io N'uv lU igi^^ 
is in like manner fonud in Norfolk and buQolk ( btig'huid^ijl 
once more boa- many of tho early settkrg must hare cur 
tb(* eastern counties of England. 

KfUick or KUlorle \& the pei^uliar name of a t^mail aacbor, 
tioned by Forby, and still heard in some tumuli euaporu of 
land, hnt quite nonimon lierc in tho Ba8t<-ni Stat^ "The: 
men occasionally dropiKid tlio kellick iu thi* rlrer-cbanneLi 
pli(.*d the oyster- tuugs." {(^OHnecticttt Ooorgicn.) 



laittr. quoted by Orose and by Brocket^ and derived Oom tlio 
Ckiab KitffT, continues to be used in PenosrlvaniA sa viv\\ ^ in 
^ew Etie;liind Stflt*a; the former profei-ring thefr>rm ^f KfUtr. 
m«uis order and good condition, and what ia not in such a 
be is said to be "out of Kdter." 


But it's lUl nut of Killer (.'tn-aa lit good lo last") 

(J, n. LowTll. fiiQlw nipert. Tl., p. IM ) 

Ea probable that this is the origin of the term h^M^T^keUer, 
ioh Grow humorously explains ns coiisieting of heU«r to hang, 
1 keii^r, order, so that it Literally mc^an*), hiinj^ order! 
K"gjr for Quay or Kay, is not an Anioricanigm, altliongh many 
■Ijtips in (he TTnited States arc so called, as thr^ f!ou{h A'ft/s in 
Insemond County, Virginia. (The Florida AVi/« arc Spanish 
Swa) Pepya writes, November 7, 1665, wbcu the jjliigin* was 
ring in London : " Lord ! to sec how he ( Carteret) wondered to 
I the river so empty of boata, nobody working at the Ouatoiu- 

\KiIUn^- Time denotes, in the South, the season of the year when, 
e first frosts having^ set in, hogH ran be slaughtered — a time of 
'••flowing' abundance and great rpjoicing in former daya 
Sinkie is the more common form here for kink, in the sense of 
otiou, idea, although kinktf remainB unchanged, and means ecoen- 
ric, fancifpt. 

" T love, I «iy, to »tarl ujvon « traniii 
To shake th« trnifcx out o' bark nn' 1^*** 

tJ. R Ixjwell. Bigh\f Papftr. H.. p. M.) 

tid — and we arc not prepared to deny it — that all flm mem- 
Ihe Raiulolpli family have been more or less kinky?'' 
fichmond Enquirer, June 17, 1847.) 

JTiVer for cowr, common in New England and southward as 
t as Pennsylvania, is mj^rely n!d English preserved, being fre- 
icntly met with in the earlier dramatists. " I am a mv.\\' sbell- 
ih^an oyster flith Oiekivers ofT." (J. C. Neal. CJiarcoaf i?'keiches,) 
Bill charges the Eastern counties of England with tttfr for 
Ter." (J. R. Lowell.) The word kivered, on the other hand, ia 
fcquently beard in the South also, precisely as the early Eugliah 
UI«T« pronounced it and aa the Cockney to this day sings: " I 
itti titfered my head with green bftize." 


Knife, to, a newlvmiKle verb, which baa olrMdy fomd ui 
back to EDglaud. It maani, Co out u vith a knife, to ttabi. 

" ihr blut 
"niKl Jbi^iu j>onr viUlii in linnying put." 

(atoighlDdlDff Troy WMg. Deoombfr. VH/kt 

Lamper-etl aeems to be a iaTorite corruptiua of 
Asierica as well as at hone. "Mr. Vaii Butvti hung 
lamper-eel to tho tail of Opucral JucWmu'ii bor^." (] 
Dowittng'a //eUer8,ji,t3.) Th<- term showa anoe more b>iir i 
the anoducated seize upon everT opportunity toBbapeoui 
'vord intoainurtt fainiliur funii. Tht.' Middk- Latjn tamfiftiti,i 
Jamie pttratn (becaiue tho fisli with iU suckiug mouth adi 
atones), courejtid, of course, no meiuiiDg to thorn; Uoouq 
in Anglo-Saxon the fish was called a mfre-Haedrt, cwMiddM;^ 
same name as that given to tho eel — iknd hi^noc th« corruption. 

Lam is in the ^outh the common name giT*''^ ^- ■>)) 
which aro enclosed on both didcs by fi-ncas. 

Lather, to, ta med here as in eotuo paru of i 

■"•Kiseof to beat. It was originally to ivalher.m teix- ., 

the leather belt worn hjr soldiers and policemen, which wan 
need as a weapon in street-rowii, when fircarnifl W4>r« furbaij 
{Slanff Dictiottarjf, p. 90.) ** I'll l«ttAfr rou heariity." (Gr 
"Tou'U get a mighty One UnUiering^ if yon don't taake haitei 
clear out" {Harprr't Monthty, January. 1851.) 

Lawyer is in America the nuirornt name of the person wt 
England is called a aolicitor.irattendingtoonr legal bii&iDf9^( 
a barrister, if ap|)caring for ns at court — the distinction not 
observed in this country. 

Z«y, to, instead of lie, although undoubtedly inoom* 
by tho uitage establiehed by the best HTJiers of our da,,. ;...._. 
be ezcnsed on the plea that the older writers seem ui have 
ployed it unhesitatingly. Chaucer says in his well-known lit 

"BeTclI UiBt lu that 6ea£on, on a ilay 
Al Southw&rit at tlM Tsbart I did lay." 

**l used to lay on the wCa in thaitetaljr hoUt daring tlia 


of the day, and read a MS. work with wonderful gueto." 

's from tht South, L, p. 81.) 
lyloct for iilttC haa the satop authority for its ase. 

" The oal-Wrd In Uie laylotk buwh !« lond." 

(J. R. Lowell, ft'fffcifl frtjnrr», 11, p. 157.) 

t-^osf, to, instead of to idle and waste time, is used in this eense 

South, who says: " IXv lay Utzimj and looking upon bis couch." 

-io, io New England generally pronounced iinUr, is nut 

rn in Eiif^land, hut much more common in the East«ra 

i of the TTnion. It de-signatea a small addition to a houae, 

TcKif of which leans to or agninet the main wall "For a 

•llrn I have nothing hut a small iean'to with a shingk-roof, 

■ti^'li which the rain kindly furnishes me all the wator I iiei.'d 

_^«oking." (Mra. Clereland, A Summer in the West, p. 148,) 

ixv. to, used a» n nenter verb, without an object, i« as common 

is incorrect. R G. Whitf^ stays indignantly : " To wind up a 

irith, then he fe/K, is as bad as to Boy, then he sloped ^worse, 

*lo])ed is reoognized slang." ( Words and their Uses, p. 134.) 

■^ifi. as a uoun, means in the South and West a place where 

^k-salt and salt-springs attract grt^t numbers of t>ufalo and deer. 

is often called a Sttlt-Lick, and has, in retnrn, given a name to 

ir localitieB. The Big Bone Lick in Kentncky is a place, which 

Bg once Wen a favoritt- resort of doer, bnfTalo, and wild cattle, 

iRts now an incredible number of bonca aud whole akelclona; 

ig the latter ai'o itomv of the wild bisons of former days, and 

mastodons. Lid^ hae, moteover, from the verb, the meaning 

a piec«or apart, as in the following sentence; "The father 

iDJtted 'poasnma, cultivated a little patch of com. and did an 

rioual liek of work for Bome well-to-do neighbor, taking his 

corn." Biff Licks mean, hence, vigorous efforts. As a verb, 

retains ia fall force its ancient meaning of to thraxh, which 

already under its quaint form of to lycke, in Thomas Har- 

I'fl Canting Dictionary, pnblished under Queen Elizabeth, and 

first BTCr written. "'Tain't no use to talk about honor with 

em. Cap.; they hain't got no sncli thing in 'cm, and tliey won't 

]w fair fight, anyway yo