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"*' lifer ll
The Report of a Survey
n n n
The Chicago Community Trust
Suite 1340, 10 South La Salle Street
CHICAGO n ILLINOIS
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The Report of a Survey made by
authority and under direction of
The Chicago Community Trust
Frank D. Loomis, Acting Secretary
The Chicago Community Trust
Suite 1340, 10 South La Salle Street
A Synopsis of the Report on
Americanization in Chicago
Americanism begins at home. The basis of a sound society is
found in a healthy and congenial community life.
In the Americanization Survey of Chicago, studies have been made:
(a) Of the population of Chicago its cosmopolitan character;
() Of forces which make for development of class-conscious-
ness, inter-class suspicion and hatred;
(r) Of forces which make for mutual understanding, good-will
Population of Chicago
RSSBEThe population of Chicago classified according to nativity is made up of 44%
of people of English speaking parentage (of whom at present estimates of 4% are
negroes) and 56% of foreign language groups. The details are shown on pages 5-7.
These various groups are found mingled to some extent in every ward of the
city. The Polish, the Bohemians, the Russian Jews, the Italians, the Lithuanians,
and the Negroes, have large "segregated districts." These districts and their char-
acter are described on pages 8-13.
There are three schools of ultra-radicals Anarchists, Communists, and Syndicalists.
What they stand for and the methods they use in spreading their propaganda are set
forth on pages 13-15.
The number of people actually belonging to these organizations is small, but
their poisonous influence mav often be far reaching. The character of this influence
and its utter falseness are explained on pages 15-18. Some other radicals, not so ex-
treme in their teachings, but more numerous, are mentioned on pages 18-19.
Constructive Soda/ Forces
The constructive work of Americanization agencies reaches only a small per-
centage of our population less than 8% of our unnaturalized population being reach-
ed at all by such agencies. The Americanization activities of the Public Schools, the
Industries, the Newspapers, Public Agencies, Semi-Public Agencies, Foreign Lan-
guage Associations, the Churches, and the new Patriotic Societies are briefly explained
on pages 19-31.
A list of 83 such organizations, which is not assumed to be complete is
printed on pages 31-34.
A suggestion for the co-ordination of constructive agencies is made on
It is recommended that there be a conference of representatives of all the
agencies and that this conference appoint a commission whose duty it shall be to keep
the agencies and the public informed of the work being done and needing to be done.
It is believed that such a commission could do much to avoid duplication and promote
Americanization in Chicago
^- -^HEN we speak of the United States, we allude to
a union of states and not necessarily to a united
people. When we proclaim that there is no
longer in this country any north, any south, any
east or any west, we indicate that this country has
become united so far as geographical sectionalism is con-
cerned, but this still does not imply necessarily that we are a
united people. In a republic, the community is the unit of
government and if in our communities there be no unity, then
the foundations of our government are weak, indeed.
Are we a united people? To answer that question we
need to know what is going on in the communities of this
country. What are the processes at work there? Is there a
community life? Is it functioning? Do the people know
each other? Do they understand each other? Do they like
each other? Is there a community-consciousness which is all-
embracing? These are questions which lie at the roots of
THE NEED FOR AMERICANIZATION
The war and the events following the war have awakened
a new interest in Americanization. We have seen certain
elements of discord and disintegration at work have seen
them actually predominant in some parts of the world have
felt their blighting influence in our own midst. We have
become aware of the fact that there are many people living
among 'is with whom we are not acquainted ; that instead of
friendliness and good-will there exists often mutual suspicion
and even hatred; that instead of wholesome community con-
sciousness there is being developed a sinister class conscious-
ness. We have suddenly realized that the old-fashioned
neighborhood is gone and as yet we have nothing to take its
What shall be done? Where shall we begin? There has
been in some cases almost a frenzy of effort to start something
to prevent something. Organizations have been formed
many of them. Money has been raised and spent, often,
[ 4 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
without accomplishing anything worth mentioning. The
newspapers have been full of accounts of radical and anti-/
radical activities. "Down with the Reds" has become a popA
ular political slogan. Raids are made; literature is seized;
men and women are arrested in large numbers, many are
deported, severe laws are advocated to enable authorities to
deal with the others.
Now, although the situation is one of gravity, we can
hardly remedy it by hysteria and excitement. The great mass
of the people of America, both native and foreign born, are
sound both at head and at heart. Over-organization, or ill-
conceived organization for any purpose, leads to disorganiza-
tion. "Too many cooks spoil the broth, they say." The din
of agitation is confusing rather than quieting. Neither have
heresies ever been stopped by the cutting off of a few foolish
heads. The task of Americanization is a serious one and we
must go about it intelligently.
SUBJECTS CONSIDERED IN SURVEY
Such were the considerations in the minds of the Chicago
Community Trust Committee when they ordered a survey of
Americanization activities and needs in Chicago. In under-
taking the survey, which, necessarily, could only be general
in character, we divided the subjects to be considered under
three heads :
1. A study of the population of Chicago according to
national, social or racial groups and the attitude of these
groups toward each other and toward our government-of-the-
people as a whole.
2. A study of the forces operating in Chicago which we
consider to be destructive commonly spoken of as the
3. A study of the forces which we consider to be con-
structive the Americanization agencies in Chicago.
Our report follows this general outline, concluding with
a suggestion for a constructive co-ordinated Americanization
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 5 ]
/. METROPOLITAN CHICAGO.
The Foreign Language Division of the Liberty Loan
Committee in Chicago included representatives of thirty-
three (33) distinct foreign language groups. Besides these,
we have six (6) distinct English speaking groups making
a total of thirty-nine (39) important national or racial groups.
1. The largest groups and the percentage of each in the
total population are as follows:
a. TLnglish Speaking Groups.
American Whites 3 1 %
American Negroes 2%
English 2 %
Scotch . 1 %
b. Foreign Language Groups.
Germans 1 6 %
Danish 1 %
Hungarians 1 %
Lithuanians 1 %
Hollanders 1 %
Roumanians 1 %
All others 1%
Table No. 1 shows the distribution of these larger groups
by percentages in wards.
THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
TABLE NO. 1
Showing Distribution of Population by Percentages in Wards
Distribution of Population according to Nativity (See Note 1)
% of Total
ii i 1
11 1 j
<Z < ffl
13 5 .
8 1 ....
.... 3 2
.... 1 1
3 1 _..
1 1 ....
.... 5 1
.... 3 36
.... 3 46
3 3 ....
.... 4 1
.... 3 ....
1 1 ....
.... 10 4
1 1 ....
. . 23
'.'. I "..'.
.... 3 12
10 2 1
5 1 ....
1 .... 1
.... 2 24
224212 16 1641 10 7155 (See
(1) Distribution of population according to nativity based on statistics in the 1914
school census report.
(2) No entries are included where the percentage of total population is less than
M of 1 %.
In addition to the above there is approximately 12% and 9% of total popula-
tion in wards 33 and 35 respectively, of Norwegian nativity. In the entire
city the Norwegian population averages approximately 2% of total. Also
approximately 10%, 2% and 4% of the total population in wards 9, 10 and 31
respectively, is of Holland nativity, which in the entire city averages approxi-
mately 1 % of total. Also approximately 1 % of the total population in both
wards 11 and 20 and 2% in ward 21 is of Roumanian nativity.
These percentages and distributions are based on statistics in the 1914
school census report. The table appeared in the report of the Chicago Com-
mission on the Liquor Problem, published December, 1916. For most of the
national groups the figures are probably still substantially correct. But in
the case of negroes, there has been a very large influx from southern states
since 1914, so that the present negro population is estimated to be more than
double what it was then, or represents now about 4 per cent of the total
population of the city.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 7 ]
Table No. 2 gives the number of individuals in each
important group (School Census 1914) including the popula-
tion of some groups too small to be indicated in the percentage
TABLE NO. 2.
Population of Chicago divided according to nationality from school census 1914
American White 752,111
Bohemian _... 1 02,749
Bulgarian 1 , 103
Chinese 1 ,753
Croation 7,3 1 3
French 5 ,649
Greek 8,62 1
Hungarian 3 1 ,863
I rish 1 46,560
I tal i an 1 08* 1 60
M exi can 242
No rwegi an 47,496
Polish 23 1 ,346
Russian 1 66, 1 34
Spanish 47 1
Swedish 1 18,533
[ 8 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
THE NATURAL COMMUNITIES
A study of these tables discovers that in each ward of
the city we have representatives of several of these groups.
Assuming, if we may, for the moment, that the class con-
sciousness of some of these groups in each case is stronger
than the community consciousness, or antagonistic to it, we
see that we have an Americanization problem in every ward
of the city. Our assumption often is not true. But there are
likely to be other distinguishing elements, less easily defined
but not less powerful, which make for the development of
class consciousness rather than community consciousness.
Extreme sectarianism, either religious or political, may be
such an element. Another element may be the limitations of
"society," using the word in its narrower sense, based on the
economic or cultural conditions of people, tending to become
established with hard and fast lines which are crossed with
difficulty and only by the broader spirits. Another element
may be found in the historic origin of the community itself.
Communities come into existence usually in one of three
1. Early development of a village, possibly near a large
city. It grows and the city grows until eventually the village
becomes a part of the city.
2. The development of an industrial community, made
up almost entirely of the employees of some large industry,
and their families.
3. The growth of an immigrant settlement, on the out-
skirts or even in the heart of a city, whence it expels the earlier
settlers and changes the character of the earlier community.
Around each of these communities or between them peo-
ple "settle" who do not belong historically to any community.
No distinctive community life develops there nor does such
a settlement become an integral part of the adjacent com-
munities, although it may later be incorporated with one of
them in a city ward.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 9 ]
COMMUNITY SPIRIT MUST BE DEVELOPED
It is unfortunate, in the political organization of our
cities, that the wards are not more nearly indentical with the
natural communities. It is further unfortunate that little
effort has been made to retain and develop the community
feeling. Often indeed it has been the effort of ward politi-
cians to destroy or prevent it, playing various groups against
each other in such a way as to enable them to manipulate
elections and set up political control. The inhabitants of a
ward so organized are likely to feel that they have no part in
the government. Often the foreign-born refuse to take out
citizenship papers because the ordinary process of getting
them is through the local political boss and they say they do
not want to be placed under obligation to him.
The political units, it has been declared by various
leaders in Americanization, should be smaller; identical as
nearly as possible with the natural communities, or not larger
than may be embraced within an homogeneous community.
The Community-consciousness in each of these political units
should be continuously promoted. Each community should
have its community house, where all the people of the com-
munity can come in gatherings, for entertainments, for lec-
tures, for discussion of questions relating to their welfare and
THE NEGRO RACIAL PROBLEM
A study of the various groups and their mutual relations
brings to light many interesting facts. Our only racial prob-
lem of any consequence relates to the negro one of the
Englisii speaking groups. The presence of this problem and
its general difficulties are known to all. There has been a
large influx of negroes from the south since the war. At the
time of the Armistice, they were coming into Chicago at; the
rate of forty car loads a day. In the last year this has been
reduced, but the present rate is said to average twenty-five car
loads a day. Not all of these immigrants stop in Chicago; a
large number pass on to other northern cities; but our own
colored population has doubled in the last three years. (The
present colored population is conservatively estimated at
[ 10 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
The negroes have been attracted to Chicago by the oppor-
tunities for employment in Industry, and by the high wages
they can obtain as compared with wages in the south. They
are not complaining of wages or conditions of labor and this
often has caused bitter antagonism on the part of other work-
ers. Their attempts to find homes is another source of con-
stant friction. They are frequently and shamefully exploited
by real-estate sharks and rental agents. Americanization will
not be complete until the social relations with this large group
of our population have been satisfactorily adjusted.
The German population is the oldest and the largest,
from the standpoint of immigration, of our foreign language
groups. They have become so far assimulated in the life of
the city that they do not as a rule live in segregated districts,
but they are found mingled with the general population in
nearly every ward in the city.
It was to be expected that there would be suspicion and
animosity between the German born and other national
groups, including our own, because of the war. Their long
standing antipathy toward the English is well known. It
must further be admitted that many of them are not in sym-
pathy with many of the important traditions and customs of
our own country. The traditions and customs which they
condemn are largely those which we have inherited from the
English. Nevertheless there are few who would not admit
that the people of German extraction as a rule make excellent
American Citizens. Many of them are of liberal tendencies.
The Bohemians represent also one of the older immigra-
tions, the first settlement having been formed in Chicago in
1850. It was just west of the present boundaries of thf
"Loop." They still live on the west side, in-so-far as they still
cling together in a segregated district, living south of twelfth
street, and west of Halsted street, to the city limits, and in
Cicero. The older settlers have formed relationships in the
city life by means of which the new comers also have been
rapidly assimilated. The Bohemians like America. They
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 11 ]
form organizations and conduct classes among themselves to
teach the newcomers American ways.
The Scandinavians have always been a welcome class of
immigrants. Those who settle in the city are likely to be
skilled mechanics, commanding high wages, but eagerly
sought after by the structural industries. They have no segre-
gated district in Chicago, but are found in many of the wards,
particularly north-west. They are of a physically active type,
practical, sturdy, not inclined to intellectual abstractions.
THE POLES AND LITHUANIANS
The Poles represent in Chicago a newer immigration.
They live in clearly defined segregated districts, chiefly north-
west, but also south-south-west, and in South Chicago. To
the average citizen, the "Poles" includes the Polish and
Lithuanians, although there is considerable difference be-
tween them, and a deep-rooted social antipathy. Both the
Polish and the Lithuanians are by heredity a rural people.
In the old country they lived on small farms, cultivated both
by the men and the women with the help of the children.
Their homes were small huts; their food was coarse and plain.
Except in severe weather they slept out doors. They are not
accustomed to city life. Chicago is the largest Polish city in
the history of the world. The Polish immigrants have flocked
here because the city offered them an immediate opportunity
of making a livelihood. They are a timid people, suspicious,
non-communicative, and they are impelled to go where they
will be sure of finding friends. City life does not agree with
them at first. The women are not housekeepers. The men,
naturally strong, lose weight when they work in factories.
They contract tuberculosis readily. The children become
delinquent often because the parents, away from home during
the day, have no sense of the necessity of providing for their
supervision. A "delinquent child" is unheard of in their own
country. There are many problems of adjustment in the
Americanization of the Poles. Yet the Pole makes a good
American citizen. Notwithstanding all his hardships, he is
better off than he was at home, and, more important still, he
[ 12 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
sees prospects of a more prosperous future. For the first time
in his life he has an opportunity to acquire some property of
his own, and many Poles are buying homes north-west, and
south-west of the city. Their political hopes, moreover, are
not unlike ours. They are, indeed rather more conservative
in their beliefs particularly the Polish, as distinguished from
the Lithuanians. Few of them will become members of the
radical societies nor be easily influenced by their specious
arguments. On the other hand their temperaments would in-
cline them to be sullen and ugly when they feel they are
abused. We need to make friends with these people who
form so large an element of our population.
The Italian is not an organizer. He is an individualist.
In the midst of organization, your typical Italian in America
buys a push cart and goes into business for himself. He saves
his money carefully, buys a tenement house and lives in the
poorest one himself. If constrained to work for wages he
prefers out-door labor, which he follows in the summer time,
laying off in the winter. The Italian is not found in large
numbers in industry. He is not likely to become a man of
great wealth. He is of poetic temperament, artistic, musical.
There is much of value which he can contribute to our waste-
ful, luxury-loving, materialistic American life.
The oldest settlement of Italians in Chicago is in the
vicinity of Grand Avenue west of the river. The Italians in
that section represent perhaps the best element of our Italian
immigration. There is a large settlement in the 22nd ward-
east of the river. The northern half of this settlement, north
of Division street, is populated largely by Sicilians. Most of
the Italians of Chicago live in a settlement beginning at the
southern edge of the Loop, in the first ward and extending
westward across the river, and north of twelfth street in the
The Russians, who comprise 7 per cent of our total popu-
lation in Chicago, a very large element, have been regarded,
since the defalcation of Russia in the war, almost universally
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 13 ]
with suspicion. Most of the Russians in Chicago are Jews.
The long oppression they have suffered has left the inevitable
stamp upon their characters. They are suspicious of every-
body. They think the world is all wrong. They are likely to
be against everything that has yet been tried, whether in poli-
tics, religion, or society. They are a difficult element to
assimilate. Yet they are intellectually keen, unselfish, exhibit
religious devotion to any cause which they espouse; and are
capable of becoming by no means undesirable citizens. They
live chiefly in a district immediately west of the river and
south of 12th street, in the 20th, 10th, and llth wards, but are
also mingled with the Italians north of 12th street in the 19th
ward; with the Irish, Germans, and Italians in the 18th ward;
and there is a considerable settlement of them in the 15th
ward, northwest of the Polish settlement.
Other distinct social groups have comparatively few re-
presentatives in Chicago. The Hungarians, like the Germans
and Austrians, are widely scattered over the city. The Hol-
landers and the Belgians are close of kin with our earliest
colonial pioneers. The Greeks, the Creations, the Rouman-
ians, and the French are friendly peoples and generally sym-
pathetic with our ideals. We have exceedingly few people
from southern countries (except our negroes). We have a
small colony of Chinese in the first ward, south of the Loop,
introducing another racial problem. It has been predicted
that the immigration of the next few years to the United States
will come largely from China. If this should prove true,
doubtless many of the newcomers will find their way to
Chicago, and we should be getting ready for them.
With this picture in mind of Cosmopolitan Chicago, let
us consider now the activities of the "Reds."
II. THE "REDS."
Classified according to doctrine, there are three principal
"schools" of ultra-radicals:
a. Anarchists Advocate killing of all public officials,
their wives and children, also leading capitalists, in order to
[ 14 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
accomplish the overthrow permanently of all government.
The Anarchists are represented in the United States princi-
pally by an organization known as the "Union of Russian
Working Men." They have no headquarters in Chicago at
b. Communists Advocate seizure and overthrow of all
"Parliamentary Government" in order to set up "Industrial
Democracy" the government by the "workers" or the prole-
tariat. There are two principal groups in the United States
the "Communist Party," with headquarters at 1221 Blue
Island Avenue, and the "Communist Labor Party," with
national headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio local headquarters
at 204 North Clark St., Chicago.
c. Syndicalists Advocate the organization of "One Big
Union" a "class conscious group" which will include all
workers which will overthrow the present industrial system,
destroy capitalism, and thereafter manage production in the
interests of the "producers." Principal group "I. W. W."
with national headquarters at 1001 West Madison Street,
These radical schools carry on their propaganda through
a. Meetings, conducted, regularly or frequently, in
public meeting places under their own supervision.
There are a score or more Halls in Chicago which
are known as radical meeting places.
b. The radical organizations have a studied practice of
injecting their teachings at other public meetings,
especially at labor union meetings. They have
freely announced their intention to capture the labor
union organizations and in some cases they seem to
have succeeded in doing so.
c. Members of radical organizations are pledged to
help organize "factory" or "shop committees." It
is the duty of these committees to stir up discontent
among employees, enlist members for the radical
organizations, engage in labor disputes, encourage
"loafing" on the job and defective workmanship, in-
timidate faithful workmen, bring about strikes.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 15 ]
d. Distribution of literature, hand bills, placards, etc.
The attempts to influence people by printed argu-
ments and appeals is by no means confined to the
distribution of free literature. Hundreds of mag-
azines, pamphlets, and books are printed, widely
distributed through the mails, purchased and read
by many thousands of people, the majority of whom
are probably not actually identified with any of the
radical societies. This literature, printed in various
languages, is distributed by members of radical
societies, it may be obtained at radical meetings, may
be subscribed for, or purchased at radical book
stores, of which there are six or more well-known in
A critical study of this propaganda would require more
space than could be allowed in such an outline as this and it
would be of little value anyhow. Much of the argument is
specious doctrinaire in character with high sounding
phrases, big words, finely drawn distinctions, which could
possibly be understood only by the initiated. Like the philo-
sophies of India, it has no beginning and no end. Some of it,
on the other hand, is evidently the product of untutored
minds, but indicates a sincerity and conviction little short of
religious fervor. It may be worth while to consider for a
moment the influence of such teachings.
THE ARGUMENT OF THE "REDS"
The validity of any argument depends first of all upon
the premise. The argument itself may be never so logical,
but if the premise is false the whole argument falls. What
is the premise upon which the radical arguments are built?
There is a premise which seems to be common to all their
arguments, which premise itself is generally accepted as need-
ing no argument. It appears constantly in radical speeches
and literature, but is well stated in an article in the Prole-
tarian, November, 1919, page 7. The writer, defining Capital
and Labor and attempting to show the uncompromisable dif-
ference between "Capitalists" and "Laborers" says: "The
term 'Capital' is commonly used to refer to the wealth used
[ 16 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
in production for profit and to refer to the class of men who
own that wealth and who, therefore, do not have to do any
useful work, but receive their income in the form of interest^,
profit and rent. The term 'Labor' is used to refer to the act
of applying labor-power to the raw materials in the produc-
tion of goods and also to refer to the class of men who furnish
the labor-power." "Do the men who own the capital furnish
the labor-power themselves? Most certainly not. This
labor-power is furnished almost entirely by men who do not
own capital, that is, by workingmen." The writer then pro-
ceeds, quoting from various economists, to prove that this
capital itself has been produced by workingmen.
THE THREE HUMAN ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION
Now this is an interesting premise. It has indeed been
accepted by many professional economists for many years and
it is not strange that it should have become the foundation
premise for economic radicalism the world over. But it is
not a true premise. The labor of workingmen is not the only
human element in production. The first element is self-
denial, saving, the accumulation of a surplus. That surplus,
of course, is Capital. But the point is that Capital is not the
result of labor it is the result of Saving. That is a process
which is open to any healthy man, and there are many "work-
ingmen," so-called, and "capitalists" so-called, who are saving
to-day, while others are spending all they make.
There is another human element of production; quite
often overlooked by the professional economist, and always
ignored by the "Radical," which is quite as important as either
of the other two. It is the element of brain power, or, since
every man thinks he has brains, call it genius the genius for
discovery, the genius for invention, the genius for organiza-
tion more broadly speaking still the genius for poetry, the
genius for art, the genius for music, the genius for statesman-
ship, the genius for religion. All of these, and many more,
are factors of brain power in production. Without such pro-
duction mankind would still be in the depths of savagery,
living in caves or rudest huts, roaming the forests in search of
food, naked or clad in the skins of wild animals. Starvation
and disease would carry off whole tribes of people, thus keep-
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 17 ]
ing the earth from becoming over-populated and maintaining
the balance of food supply. ,
Brain-power also is available to any man who has the
energy and the will-power to use it. It serves those best whose
motives are benevolent. Hatred has never yet developed a
"FANNING THE FLAMES OF DISCONTENT"
The acknowledged object of radical agitation is to stir
up class hatred "to fan the flames of discontent." Here are
a few quotations from the "I. W. W. Song Book" :
(Tune: "Hold the Fort")
"Down with Greed and Exploitation;
Tyranny must fail!
Hail to Toil's Emancipation;
Labor shall be all."
"Scorn to take the crumbs they drop us;
All is ours by right!
Onward, men! All Hell can't stop us!
Crush the Parasite."
(Another song to special music) Page 27.
"We have fed you all for a thousand years,
And you hail us still unfed.
Though there is never a dollar of all your wealth
But marks the workers dead.
We have yielded our best to give you rest
And you lie on crimson wool.
Then if blood be the price of all your wealth,
Good God! We have paid it in full."
(Tune: "Don't Bite the Hand That's Feeding You.)
"All hail to the Bolshevik!
We will fight for our Class and be free,
A Kaiser, King, or Czar, no matter which you are,
You're nothing of interest to me.
If you don't like the red flag of Russia,
If you don't like the spirit so true,
Then just be like the cur in the story
And lick the hand that's robbing you."
[ 18 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
(Tune: "What Do You Want To Make Those Eyes at Me
For?") Page 19.
"So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for,
When it don't mean life to you?
Do you think it right to struggle day and night,
And plow like Hell for the Parasite?
So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for,
When there's more in life for you?
Slow up Bill! that's the way to beat the System;
Join the Wobbly Gang, they've got the bosses guessing.
So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for.
When it don't mean life to you?"
We have thus far spoken of the teachings and influence
of only the ultra-radicals. There are other radicals, not so
extreme in their teachings, but far more numerous, and not
less effective in stirring up discontent. Among these may be
included not merely the various varieties of party socialists,
but also many individuals and societies, more or less extremg
in their views, not definitely alligned with any radical organi-
zation, who urge radical and revolutionary governmental
reforms. These may belong to that class whom Carlyle
characterized as "rash apostles of change," or they may be
purely "forward looking" people, whose tendency is to look
only forward and never circumspectly. They may urge re-
forms which are equivalent to communism. Or their goal
may be pure democracy direct democracy in which the
"people rule." They infer that the people do not now rule
and that all our ills, which they are inclined to magnify, are
due to that fact.
It is not our purpose here to dispute these political views.
It is our purpose merely to call attention to them and to the
fact that they are radical, involving fundamental changes in
our form of government. The American government is a
republican form of government in which the people rule
through their chosen representatives. This government is not
a democracy. The adoption of democracy would involve a
departure from traditional Americanism. The goverment
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 19 ]
established by our fore-fathers is the expression of a more
moderate idea it is the mean between autocracy, on the one
hand, and democracy on the other. There are those who
maintain that our social ills are in a considerable measure due
to our departure from a strictly republican form of govern-
ment that the real evils of society (and there will always be
evils to be corrected in any society, so long as people are
human and some are selfish) that these evils can be corrected
much more surely under a republican government than under
Attention should be called to the fact that legislation
alone or the particular form of government cannot make
society right. The basis of happiness is character. Govern-
ment itself is but an expression of the character of a people.
The basis of peace is good-will among men.
///. THE PROMOTION OF GOOD-WILL.
Good-will, to be effective, must be intelligent. It must
be concrete, specific. Good-will toward the Hottentots is
simply an imaginary virtue; it has not been proven; it may
vanish at the first test. Intelligent good- will cannot exist
without acquaintanceship. Charles Lamb said he hated the
man he did not know. Mutual understanding is the basis for
There are many Americanization agencies in Chicago.
Some of them have Americanization as a definite program.
There are more than sixty-five such agencies operating in the
city. Other agencies have Americanization only as a by-pro-
duct. Some agencies have as their principal object the educa-
tion of the immigrant. Some look to the promotion of pa-
triotism and good citizenship. A classification of such agen-
cies and the character of activities in which each may engage
is indicated in the accompanying chart. Page 20
Undoubtedly the most important agencies in the educa-
tion of the foreigner are the Public Schools and the Industries.
The immigrant gets most of his knowledge of American cus-
toms from the places in which he works. The public schools
reach the children and also conduct special classes for adults.
The women are the hardest of all to reach because so many of
them do not come in touch with either of these agencies.
[ 22 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
The Public Schools are maintained by the public and to
them we must look as the chief agency to carry out the wishes
of the public for education. The Public Schools of Chicago
are not to be criticised, as compared with the public schools
of most cities, for the Americanization work already begun.
They are reaching more people in definite Americanization
activities than all other specific Americanization activities
combined. But all the Americanization agencies combined
are reaching not more than 25,000 people, and these only for
very brief periods in a week or month, whereas there are esti-
mated to be more than 300,000 unnaturalized immigrants in
Chicago who are not at all in touch with definite American-
The Americanization activities of the Public Schools are
directed in four channels : Mothers' Classes, Factory Classes,
Night Schools, and Community Centers. Mothers' Classes
are held in the day time (usually afternoon) in public school
buildings. There are at present twenty such classes, with an
average enrollment of about twenty women each and an aver-
age attendance of about twelve women each. Most of the
classes meet once a week. English is the principal subject
The Factory Classes for the teaching of English are con-
ducted in factories, under the auspices of and with teachers
furnished by the public school system. The consent and co-
operation of the factory management is of course necessary.
This is being obtained in the first instance largely through the
activities of the Americanization Committee of the Associa-
tion of Commerce. The latter committee also assists in ob-
taining individual enrollment for the classes and in maintain-
ing interest. Most of the classes meet, half an hour at noon,
twice a week, on employees' time, although a number meet
in the afternoons or just before closing time, partly or wholly
on the employer's time. There are at present sixty of these
factory classes, with an average enrollment of twenty-five
each (mostly men) and an average attendance of twenty each.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 23 ]
There are at present thirty-one night schools. These are
conducted in school buildings, wholly under school authority.
A wide variety of subjects are taught, not only literary but
vocational, as well. The enrollment is not confined to foreign
born, and only a few of the classes are especially designed for
them. There are no figures to indicate how many foreign
born are actually reached or how effectively. It can only be
remarked, from the general experience of Americanization
workers, that a full-grown adult who has worked hard at
physical labor all day, will not learn much after dinner at
night, cramped up in a child's desk in a poorly lighted school
SCHOOL COMMUNITY CENTERS
There are sixty-two community centers, conducted in
school buildings by the Board of Education. These are in the
nature of public assemblies, where opportunities are provided
for lectures, moving pictures, entertainments, community
singing, debating, recreation, gymnasia. Most of the Centers
are open twice a week, in the evenings from 7:30 to 9:30
o'clock. These centers are or may be made very effective
Americanizing agencies. A very popular form of entertain-
ment consists of programs especially arranged, one evening
each, for the various national groups in the neighborhood.
There will be a program for the Lithuanians, for instance,
arranged with the co-operation of a committee of Lithuan-
ians. The music may be furnished by a Lithuanian orchestra
or a Lithuanian glee-club. A f iaylet may be presented, or
folk dancing, portraying ancient customs. Where possible,
also, moving picture slides are obtained showing scenes in the
old country. These may be varied with scenes in our own
country. Local customs may be explained, American songs
will be sung. Another profitable form of evening program
may consist of a party, with Lithuanians and Americans
present, in which the Lithuanians teach the Americans some
of their customs, dances, methods of cooking, etc., and the
Americans present teach the Lithuanian immigrants some of
Other general Americanizing activities of public schools
are indicated in the accompanying chart. From this it would
[ 24 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
appear that almost every form of educational activity for
Americanization which may be conceived may be included
in the school's program, and such is the case. The public
school system itself is an American institution, all its activities
should contribute to the building of good American citizen-
ship and every sound educational activity which is needed for
the building of citizenship may and probably should be in-
cluded in its program. The public school is our foremost
AMERICANIZATION IN INDUSTRIES
The Americanization activities of Industries cover a
wide range. Besides the opportunity which industrial plants
provide for adult immigrants to make a living in this country
immediately upon arrival and to become acquainted with
American ways of doing things, the special welfare activities
of the various plants cover almost the entire range of activities
of all other agencies combined. The English classes have
been mentioned. Many industrial institutions conduct civic
classes also, classes in history, classes in arithmetic, vocational
classes, classes in home-making, classes in personal hygiene.
Visiting nurses are provided, day nurseries are maintained,
community centers are established, relief and benefit societies
are organized, facilities for recreation and entertainment are
furnished and the employees, regardless of race, color or
creed, are encouraged to make the fullest use of them. These
industrial activities have a great advantage over the purely
benevolent institutions in this, that they really reach the
people. If properly managed, and especially if so organized
that the employees themselves have a large feeling of respon-
sibility in the management, they grade high in efficiency.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS DEPARTMENTS AND SHOP
The movement among many industries to give employees
a larger share in the management of the industrial activities
which directly affect them is another interesting tendency of
the times. The value of the feeling of personal interest and
responsibility is immeasurable. The need for individual
recognition in the midst of social organization seems to be
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 25 ]
one of the greatest needs of modern life. And the craving to
have one's individuality respected is not confined to the breasts
of Yankees. To be known by number only is quite as repug-
nant to the newly arrived immigrant as it would be to the
individual whose ancestors came over in the Mayflower. He
too has an ancestry. And the newly arrived immigrant may
submit to being "cussed around" by an inferior petty boss,
because he dare not do otherwise, but the feelings of resent-
ment which are planted deep in his consciousness may bode
ill for the future. The remarks along this line of the vice-
president of one of the largest industrial institutions in
Chicago, which institution has recently established a plan for
co-operation of the employees in the management, were sig-
nificant. He said, "We (the officers and directors of the or-
ganization) have had ideals for the fair and kindly treatment
of the men who work in our shops, but we have been stupid
in the matter of communicating these ideals to the men them-
selves. The men in the shops are under the immediate direc-
tion of shop superintendents, foremen, and petty bosses. If
these overseers treat the men harshly, their attitude will
naturally be interpreted as the attitude of the entire manage-
ment. In order that these overseers may properly interpret
the spirit of the institution, we have established classes which
every superintendent, foreman, and petty boss in our entire
organization is required to attend. Lessons are prepared
which these men are required to learn and recite in class as
schoolboys. The men are graded both on the class work and
on the ability and faithfulness with which they put the lessons
into practice. The results have been most gratifying. We
find, coo, that the participation of all the men in the manage-
ment of the institution, through representatives elected by the
employees in each department of each shop, is having a most
beneficial effect in stimulating personal interest, understand-
ing and good-will among the men and women of all depart-
AMERICANIZATION AND THE PRESS
The newspapers are agencies of tremendous power for
Americanization. They not only interpret American ideals
they help to create them. Their influence is very great. So
far as our foreign language immigrants are concerned, this is
[ 26 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
true not only of the English language newspapers, but of the
foreign language newspapers as well. The latter have a very
definite and a very important field in the work of Americani-
zation. Most of them have been highly faithful to their obli-
gation. The Foreign Language Division of the Liberty Loan
organization watched the foreign language newspapers close-
ly during the war, and the Chicago District Committee
declares that of the 276 foreign language newspapers in this
district, 260 were without any shade of doubt highly loyal to
our country and our government throughout the war. It is
doubtful if the percentage of loyalty among the English
language newspapers was any higher. The foreign language
newspapers are important because they reach so many immi-
grants who cannot be reached by English language newspa-
pers. This is a condition which naturally must continue for
many years after the average immigrant arrives. For even
after the immigrant has learned to speak the English language
quite well he will hardly read English written articles on
abstract subjects understandingly. We need the foreign lan-
guage newspapers and we should use them constantly and
aggressively in Americanization work. Editors of foreign
language newspapers, however, should have in mind the idea
that it is the function of their papers not so much among their
readers to retain interest in the old country as it is to establish
interest in the new.
The newspapers, in addition to publishing the news, fre-
quently maintain welfare activities of considerable import-
ance. This refers not only to the strictly charitable activities,
such as collection and distribution of relief funds, maintenance
of fresh air missions, and the like, but more especially to their
activities in maintaining employment bureaus, information
bureaus, vocational and home-making education bureaus, lec-
ture platforms, etc.
The best contribution which the government can make
for Americanization is in good government. This is particu-
larly true of the local governments which touch the lives
of the immigrants most closely. If the local municipal gov-
ernment is less efficient, for instance,! than the immigrant has
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 27 ]
known in Europe, his measure of respect for our government
will be a disappointment both to himself and to us. If, on
the other hand, our local government is better than he has ever
known before, his pride in becoming a citizen and his respect
for our institutions will be encouraging. The specific con-
tributions of our government federal, state and local for
Americanization through Public Agencies, aside from the
Public School System, have not in the past been of any great
magnitude. The process of Naturalization itself, which
should represent on the part of the government the culmina-
tion of its training of the immigrant for citizenship, has been
generally so inefficient, so tied up with political red-tape
to say nothing of petty graft as to discourage the immigrant
even from making application for citizenship papers. There
has been little effort on the part of the government to educate
the immigrant in preparation for citizenship. But through
the activities of the Americanization Division of the Bureau
of Education, Federal Department of the Interior, together
with the co-operation of many state governments, we are now
in a fair way to change this condition. The Department has
appointed Americanization Committees in each state. Under
the auspices of the Department of the Interior an important
Americanization Conference was held in Washington in May,
1919. Representatives of Americanization agencies, both
public and private, from all over the country, were present.
This conference called public attention to the Americaniza-
tion work now being done, the importance of it, and advocated
greatly increased activity. Following that conference public
sentiment has been developed to support the passage in the
Senate recently of the Kenyon Bill, which, if it becomes a
law, will set up the machinery and provide the funds, jointly
with state educational departments, for compulsory education
of illiterate citizens and aliens. Mr. Max Loeh is chairman
of the Illinois Committee on Americanization, Department
of the Interior. If the Kenyon Bill becomes a law, this com-
mittee may have at its disposal, under supervision of the na-
tional bureau, a limited fund annually, possibly $10,000, for
the printing of literature, publicity and general educational
activities, or the equivalent in material already prepared for
distribution. We have also in Illinois a State Committee on
[ 28 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
Immigration, appointed under authority of the Legislature by
Governor Lowden, and having an appropriation of $10,000
for Americanization work. Hon. Frank W. Shepardson,
Director of Education, Springfield, is the chairman of this
committee, and our own Col. Abel Davis, of the Chicago
Community Trust, is a member. This committee has only
recently been organized.
The Chicago Public Library has done little specifically
for Americanization. Some lists of books on the subject have
been published, including books for use in class-work for im-
Specific Americanization work on the part of churches
officially is of comparatively recent origin. The Catholic
Church has for some time maintained a number of social set-
tlements and day nurseries. The Presbyterians, Methodists,
Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples and
Lutherans have denominational Social Service Departments
in the city, whose object is to stimulate social service activities
among their respective churches. There are also a number
of social settlements, day nurseries and missions maintained
in the foreign settlement neighborhoods more or less officially
by the Protestant churches. The philanthropies of the He-
brews are well-known. Few of these, however, are main-
tained directly or officially by the church.
A number of church denominations have lately under-
taken aggressive programs for Americanization and good
citizenship. The Inter-Church World Movement, recently
organized in behalf of the Protestant churches generally, has
been making a survey preparatory to a wide-spread campaign
along these lines. The New World Movement of the Baptist
Church has recently announced its plan to expend $200,000
in Chicago for evangelistic and educational work and for war
type huts in "radical centers." The Catholic Church has al-
ready under way a plan for a very broad educational cam-
paign, making use especially of moving-pictures, lectures and
distribution of literature.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 29 ]
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATIONS
All the important immigrant groups in Chicago have
one or more ancestral societies. Most of these are of the
nature of fraternal societies, with insurance and other special
benefit features. The membership includes not only natural-
ized American citizens, but also very many who have been
born in this country. These societies render great service to
the newly arrived immigrants of their respective nationalities,
helping them to find homes, to find work, and otherwise to get
themselves settled in the new world. Some of the societies
extend their activities very definitely into Americanization
work. It is evident that such societies can be of value in pro-
moting speedy adjustment of the newcomers. Among the
best known societies in Chicago are the Polish National
Alliance, the Polish Women's Alliance, the Bohemian Na-
tional Alliance, the Lithuanian Women's Alliance, and the
Italian Benevolent Society.
The Ail-American League, an outgrowth of the Foreign
Language Division of the Chicago Liberty Loan organiza-
tion, is a federation with representatives of all the foreign
language groups, definitely organized for the development of
good American citizenship. This organization could be used
very effectively in city-wide Americanization efforts.
SEMI-PUBLIC AGENCIES SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS
The semi-public agencies include a large number of wel-
fare societies more or.less definitely organized for the promo-
tion of community understanding and good citizenship. The
social settlements are for this purpose directly perhaps the
most valuable of all of these. Normally a social settlement
is a neighborhood house in which people live who know about
this country, are familiar with its customs, and represent the
best standards of citizenship; located in a neighborhood in
which the people need to learn about this country and its cus-
toms and to have their standards of citizenship established;
among whom the activities of the residents of the neighbor-
hood house are devoted to that end. There are twenty or
more such social settlements in Chicago, not including
churches and church missions whose object is religious rather
than civic. All kinds of classes are conducted in the neighbor-
[ 30 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
hood houses. Lectures are provided, entertainments are
given. The people of the neighborhood participate actively
in the management of these. Various local clubs of men,
women, boys or girls are organized and have their clubrooms
in the house. Many of these institutions have their greatest
value as practical instructors in home-making.
Day nurseries are valuable not only for the care they pro-
vide for young children but for the practical lessons they give
mothers in the care of children in this country. There are
forty-five or more of these.
Y. M. C. A. AND KINDRED ORGANIZATIONS
The Young Men's Christian Association, especially
through its Americanization Department and the various
special shop departments, is reaching many people. It stimu-
lates enrollment for the factory classes and the night schools ;
urges immigrants to take out their citizenship papers, both
first, and second, and instructs them in preparation for the
examinations; co-operates with public and private agencies
in community "clean-up" campaigns, and in the development
of community gardens ; maintains speakers' bureaus and pro-
vides speakers for shop meetings; conducts series of public
meetings, in the small parks in summer, out-doors, and in the
park houses in winter, with lectures on subjects relating to
good citizenship, and community singing and moving pic-
tures. The total number of out-door meetings held last year
was one hundred (100) and the average estimated attendance
was thirty-one hundred (3,100) ; there were two hundred and
thirty-two (232) indoor meetings, with an average attendance
of two hundred and eighty (280).
Some similar work has been done by the Knights of Co-
lumbus. The Chicago Community Service, recently organ-
ized as the successor to War Camp Community Service, has
also outlined an extensive program along similar lines, but
with more emphasis on recreational features and with hopes
of covering the entire city more thoroughly.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 31 ]
Hospitals, dispensaries, visiting nurses, children's insti-
tutions, infant welfare work, and charitable and philan-
thropic agencies generally contribute largely to the promotion
of good citizenship. There are, of course, a multitude of such
organizations in Chicago. But their work bears only indi-
rectly on Americanization.
Among the constructive agencies for Americanism and
good citizenship must be mentioned finally a new class of
organizations, brought together specifically for the promotion
of patriotism and good citizenship, especially as an antidote
for the activities of "radicals" and destructionists. Many of
these have been formed all over the country some only local,
some with national programs. In Chicago, a number of these
societies have agreed to merge their activities in a national
organization known as the United Americans. This organi-
zation has its national headquarters in New York City, and
state committees have been organized in most of the states. It
is the plan of this and similar organizations to stimulate all
kinds of activities for the promotion of good citizenship, espe-
cially by means of speaking campaigns and distribution of
literature to overcome the malicious influence of anti-
LIST OF AMERICANIZATION AGENCIES
Following is a list of organizations in Chicago engaged
in Americanization work. It cannot be presumed that the list
Board of Education, Department of School Extension, Trib-
une Building. There are Community Councils or com-
mittees in connection with each of the 62 Community
Centers under direction of this department.
Patriotic Community Councils organized chiefly for the
promotion of additional community centers and commu-
nity councils 105 W. Monroe St.
Illinois Council of Parent Teacher Associations (Mrs. Harry
L. Fleming, Bloomington, President).
Association of Commerce, Americanization Committee, 10 S.
La Salle St.
Chicago Public Library, Randolph St. and Michigan Ave.
[ 32 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
Social Service Departments
Baptist Church, 125 N. Wabash Ave.
Disciple Church, 19 S. La Salle St.
Congregational Church, Association Bldg., 19 S. La Salle St.
Episcopal Church, 1500 Heyworth Building.
Lutheran Church, 159 N. State St.
Methodist Episcopal Church, 58 E. Washington St.
Presbyterian Church, Stevens Building, 17 N. State St.
Chicago Church Federation, 19 S. La Salle St.
Inter-Church World Movement, Association Building, 19 S.
La Salle St.
New World Movement, Baptist Church, 417 S. Dearborn St.
The Night Church, 22 Quincy St.
Illinois Committee on Americanization (Department of the
Interior), 140 S. Dearborn St.
Illinois State Committee on Immigration, State House,
U. S. Immigration Service (Department of Labor), 542 S.
U. S. Bureau of Naturalization (Department of Labor), Fed-
The following Governmental Bureaus have been partic-
ularly active in investigations of conspiracies against the
U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Investigation, Fed-
War Department, Central Division, Intelligence Dept., 240
E. Ohio St.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 33 ]
FOREIGN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATIONS
The All-American League, 38 S. Dearborn St., The Execu-
tive Committee of 33 members is representative of all
foreign language associations.
Polish National Alliance, 1406 W. Division St.
Polish Women's Alliance of America, 1309 N. Ashland Ave.
Polish Roman Catholic Union of America, 984 Milwaukee
Bohemian National Alliance, 3734 W. 26th St.
Creation League of Illinois, 2552 Wentworth Ave.
Chicago Norske Club, 2346 N. Kedzie Ave.
Hungarian University Club, 305 S. La Salle St.
Swedish Club, 1258 N. La Salle St.
Italian Benevolent Society, cor. Dearborn & Washington Sts.
Lithuanian Women's Alliance.
Ukranian Women's Alliance.
Abraham Lincoln Center, 700 Oakwood Blvd.
Association House of Chicago, 2150 W. North Ave.
Bohemian Settlement House, 1831 S. Racine Ave.
Catholic Social Center, 308 S. Sangamon St.
Chicago Commons, 955 W. Grand Ave.
Chicago Hebrew Institute, 1258 W. Taylor St.
Christopher House Association, Altgeld and Greenview Sts.
Eli Bates House, 621 W. Elm St.
Emerson House Association, 1901 W. Ohio St.
Erie Chapel Institute, 1347 W. Erie St.
Fellowship House, 831 W. 33rd St.
Gads Hill Center, 1919 W. 20th St.
Guardian Angels Center, 927 Polk St.
Henry Booth House, 701 W. 14th PI.
Hull House, 800 S. Halsted St.
Northwestern University Settlement, 1400 Augusta St.
[ 34 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
Olivet Institute, 444 Blackhawk St.
Paulist Settlement and Playground of Chicago, 1122 S.
St. Mary's Settlement and Day Nursery, 656 W. 44th St.
University of Chicago Settlement, 4630 Gross Ave.
Association of Practical Housekeeping Centers, 724 Gilpin
PL, 4748 Bishop St.
Augustana Central Home, 1346 N. La Salle St.
Chicago Urban League, 3032 S. Wabash Ave.
Chicago Woman's Aid, 41 1 48th St.
Chicago Woman's Club, Americanization Committee, 410
S. Michigan Ave.
Civic Music Association of Chicago, 410 S. Michigan Ave.
Immigrants' Protective League, 824 S. Halsted St.
Associated Jewish Charities of Chicago, 1800 Selden St.
Bohemian Charitable Association, 2603 S. Kedzie Ave.
German Aid Society of Chicago, 160 N. Wells St.
Community Service of Chicago, 108 S. La Salle St.
Y. M. C. A. Americanization Dept, 19 S. La Salle St.
Stock Yards Community Clearing House, Stock Yards.
Chicago Association of Day Nurseries, 17 N. State St.
Woman's City Club, 17 N. State St.
INDUSTRIAL AND TRADE AGENCIES
Attempt to publish a complete list of individual firms
engaged in definite forms of Americanization work would be
impractical. The activities of the International Harvester
Company, the Illinois Steel Company and the Garment Trades
Association are typical and outstanding examples. The Asso-
ciation of Commerce, Americanization Committee, can fur-
nish further information. Among national associations which
might be mentioned are :
National Metal Trades Association, 1021 People's Gas Build-
Fire Insurance Americanization Movement, 76 Williams St.,
New York City.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 35 ]
American Legion, 5 S. Wabash Ave.
American Law and Order League (Masons), 5410 S. Park
Patriotic American League, 38 S. Dearborn St.
United Americans, 38 S. Dearborn St.
Inter-Racial Council, 764 People's Gas Building.
Colonial Dames, 333 N. Euclid Ave., Oak Park.
American Brotherhood, Masonic Temple Building.
Daughters of the American Revolution, All America Shop,
1 7 N. State St.
National Security League, 19 W. 44th St., New York City.
White Star League, Washington, D. C.
National Security Council, 168 N. Michigan Ave.
Art Service League, Art Institute.
IV. A PROGRAM OF CO-ORDINATION.
It would seem from this brief survey of Americanization
agencies, that we have organizations enough. However, when
we consider the work to be done and how far we are from
doing it; and especially when we consider the importance of
the work, in view not merely of unusual social unrest follow-
ing the war, but of widespread agitation for the overthrow of
our institutions, which agitation finds fruitful soil in the social
unrest of the times; when we contemplate the character of
the radical changes proposed, involving the destruction of
representative government and the setting up instead of auto-
cratic reigns of terror; when we bring to mind the large immi-
gration which is almost certain to come to this country in the
next few years, an immigration of peoples unaccustomed to
the privileges of free citizenship when we reflect upon these
things we are persuaded ( 1 ) that we need better co-ordina-
tion and greatly extended activities on the part of agencies
already existing; or (2) that we need more agencies (a sug-
gestion which would hardly meet with general approval) ; or
[ 36 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
(3) that we need to discover and apply wholly new methods
to bring about among ourselves a normal and healthy state of
mind and a broad appreciation of the splendid character of
our government and the sure benefits to be derived by exer-
cise of the established rights and privileges of citizenship.
The best results will be obtained, perhaps, by the intelligent
use of each of these remedies. But we need to avoid bureau-
cracy and professionalism, providing opportunity rather for
the exercise of the talents and the patriotic impulses of the
Having in mind these considerations, the Community
Trust suggests the calling of a conference of representatives
of Americanization agencies operating in Chicago and the
selection by this conference of a Chicago Americanization
Commission which shall serve as a clearing house to keep the
agencies and the public advised of the work being done and
needing to be done, to the end that duplication may be avoided
and efficiency promoted.
"An American is one who reveres our flag, loves our coun-
try, and cherishes our ideals and institutions."
"Americanization applies equally to the native born and
foreign born. It means the development and possession by
the individual of intelligent pride, loyalty, love and devotion
to the government, institutions and ideals of the United States,
and the practical identification of his interests with those of
the nation and its people. It involves the practical realiza-
tion of the doctrine of the brotherhood of man. It may take
place in the native born by the regular and usual influences
of home, society and the school. In the case of the foreign
born, Americanization is mainly dependent, on the one hand,
upon the expression of cordial welcome and sincere friend-
liness toward him, and, on the other hand, upon his own initia-
tive and interest, and is promoted by such social, linguistic
and civil intercourse and education, as he may be able to find,
and of which he may of his own accord avail himself."
Chicago Association of Commerce.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 37 ]
CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST encourages bequests
for benevolent purposes. It does so by providing a means
whereby such gifts are protected, both as to principal and in-
come, and the revenue distributed in accordance with the wishes
of the donors and the conditions and needs of any time. Institutions may
come and go, the character and efficiency of management may be greatly
altered, present social needs may cease to exist, new needs not now
foreseen may develop whatever conditions in established society may
arise, the Community Trust, as a perpetual body with a personnel rep-
resentative of the best living citizenship, is prepared to use the funds
at its disposal to intelligently meet those conditions.
The Community Trust was organized in Chicago in 1916, to meet
the situation due to the fact that conditions do change have changed in
the United States in the last hundred years that institutions once pow-
erful and most useful have gone out of existence altogether or have
ceased to function efficiently, and that large and small bequests left for
the benefit of mankind by men and women of good intentions have been
dissipated, or stand now inoperative, contrary to the wishes of the donors
and the needs of the present.
The management of the Chicago Community Trust is vested in an
Executive Committee of five men, appointed, one by the Judge of the
Federal Court in Chicago, one by the Judge of the Probate Court, one
by the chief executive of (the City of Chicago, and two by the Harris
Trust and Savings Bank the trustee of the only funds yet available to
the Community Trust ; and an Advisory Council of not to exceed fifteen
men, chosen as representative of the financial institutions and business
interests of Chicago. Any reputable bank or trust company in the City
of Chicago may be made the trustee or the depository of funds for the
Community Trusts have been organized in most of the larger cities
of the United States and are rapidly being formed elsewhere. All of
these are organized on the same general principal and for the same
general purposes. These purposes are so broad that no intelligent
benevolent purpose is excluded. The plan has so strongly appealed to
business men, philanthropists, bankers, trust officers and social workers
[ 38 ]
THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
everywhere that it is predicted such Community Trusts will soon be
organized in every important city of this country, and even in smaller
cities and villages, and that these Community Trusts will receive and
hold a very large part of the bequests of individuals for local benevolent
The funds already at the disposal of the Chicago Community Trust
with the principal amounting to upwards of three-quarters of a million
dollars have been made available almost entirely through the generosity
of the Harris family, the largest single gift being from the Norman Wait
Harris Memorial Fund. Other gifts are desired. A prospective donor
need not wait until death to place funds in the hands of the Community
Trust, but, as a number have done, may give funds in trust now, the
income or part of the principal or both of which may be devoted to such
causes as the donor selects. The Chicago Community Trust is prepared
to receive special donations or to give advice to contributors on practical
uses to which special gifts may be applied.
For further information, forms
of bequest, etc., address The Chi-
cago Community Trust, 1340, 10
So. La Salle St., Chicago, Illinois.
AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO
[ 39 ]
CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
Classification of Purposes and a Summary of Charitable Gifts
From Beginning of Organization, January 1916, to
December 31, 1919.
For assisting charitable Institutions (In-
cluding educational institutions not oper-
ated for profit) whether supported by
private donations or public taxation, 1. e.:
A. Charitable Institutions Relief, Per-
A*. Educational Institutions General
Education; Cultural and Religious
For promoting scientific research along
lines for the alleviation of human suffering,
1. e. Social Study, Discovery, Analysis,
tion of Donor
Care of Sick, Aged and Helpless, i. e. Phys-
ical Care, as in Hospitals, Old People's
Homes, Institutions for Defectives, Home
D. Care of Children, 1. e. Physical Care of
Dependent Children, as in Orphan Asy-
lums, Foster Homes, and Special Schools.. 3,250.00
E. For aiding in reformation of (1) victims of
narcotics, drugs, and liquors, (2) released
inmates of penal and reformatory institu-
tions, and (3) wayward or delinquent
persons, i. e. Individual Reformation 2,000.00
F. For improvement of living and working
conditions, 1. e. "Housing," "Industrial
Relations," Community Betterment, Social
Uplift, Economics. 1,850.00
Q. For providing facilities for recreation, i.e.,
Leisure time activities, Playgrounds, En-
tertainments, Dramatics, Popular Lectures. 500 . 00
H. For encouragement of social and domestic
hygiene, i.e., Individual and Social Moral-
ity, Law Enforcement, Social Reform, 700 00
I. For the encouragement of sanitation and
measures for the prevention or suppression
of disease, i.e., General Health Activities,
such as Clean Streets, Pure Water, Pure
Dec. 31, 1919.
Total Receipts $102.053 05. Total Disbursements $79.003 25. Balance $23.049 80.
[ 40 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST
Clifford W. Barnes, Chairman, 1340 Otis Building
E. J. Buffington, 208 South La Salle Street
Charles S. Cutting, 5 North La Salle Street
Abel Davis, 69 West Washington Street
B. A. Eckhart, 1300 Carroll Avenue
J. Ogden Armour, President Armour and Company.
Frank H. Armstrong, President Reid, Murdoch and Co.
Judge Orrin N. Carter, Supreme Court of Illinois.
James B. Forgan, Chairman Board of Directors, First
Albert W. Harris, President Harris Trust and Savings Bank.
Morton D. Hull, Attorney, State Senator.
Edmund D. Hulbert, President Merchants Loan and Trust
Charles H. Markham, President Illinois Central Railroad
John J. Mitchell, Chairman Board of Directors, Illinois
Trust and Savings Bank.
James A. Patten, Capitalist.
Frederick H. Rawson, President Union Trust Company.
George M. Reynolds, President Continental and Commercial
John G. Shedd, President Marshall Field and Company.
FRANK D. LOOMIS, Acting Secretary.
Office Address, 10 S. La Salle St.
Room 134Q Phone Franklin 3356
Chicago, - Illinois.