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Full text of "Americanization in Chicago; the report of a survey made by authority and under direction of the Chicago Community Trust"

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Americanization 
in Chicago 



The Report of a Survey 



n n n 



The Chicago Community Trust 
Suite 1340, 10 South La Salle Street 
CHICAGO n ILLINOIS 



Return this book on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. A 
charge is made on all overdue 
books. 

U. of I. Library 



JUL -9-37 

M 21IS53 



MM - 



-s o 

211972 






Americanization 
in Chicago 



The Report of a Survey made by 
authority and under direction of 
The Chicago Community Trust 



Prepared by 
Frank D. Loomis, Acting Secretary 



Published by 

The Chicago Community Trust 

Suite 1340, 10 South La Salle Street 

Chicago, Illinois 



A Synopsis of the Report on 
Americanization in Chicago 

Americanism begins at home. The basis of a sound society is 
found in a healthy and congenial community life. 

In the Americanization Survey of Chicago, studies have been made: 
(a) Of the population of Chicago its cosmopolitan character; 

() Of forces which make for development of class-conscious- 
ness, inter-class suspicion and hatred; 

(r) Of forces which make for mutual understanding, good-will 
and harmony. 

Population of Chicago 

RSSBEThe population of Chicago classified according to nativity is made up of 44% 
of people of English speaking parentage (of whom at present estimates of 4% are 
negroes) and 56% of foreign language groups. The details are shown on pages 5-7. 

These various groups are found mingled to some extent in every ward of the 
city. The Polish, the Bohemians, the Russian Jews, the Italians, the Lithuanians, 
and the Negroes, have large "segregated districts." These districts and their char- 
acter are described on pages 8-13. 

Anti-Soda/ Forces 

There are three schools of ultra-radicals Anarchists, Communists, and Syndicalists. 
What they stand for and the methods they use in spreading their propaganda are set 
forth on pages 13-15. 

The number of people actually belonging to these organizations is small, but 
their poisonous influence mav often be far reaching. The character of this influence 
and its utter falseness are explained on pages 15-18. Some other radicals, not so ex- 
treme in their teachings, but more numerous, are mentioned on pages 18-19. 

Constructive Soda/ Forces 

The constructive work of Americanization agencies reaches only a small per- 
centage of our population less than 8% of our unnaturalized population being reach- 
ed at all by such agencies. The Americanization activities of the Public Schools, the 
Industries, the Newspapers, Public Agencies, Semi-Public Agencies, Foreign Lan- 
guage Associations, the Churches, and the new Patriotic Societies are briefly explained 
on pages 19-31. 

A list of 83 such organizations, which is not assumed to be complete is 
printed on pages 31-34. 

Co- Ordination 

A suggestion for the co-ordination of constructive agencies is made on 
pages 35-36. 

It is recommended that there be a conference of representatives of all the 
agencies and that this conference appoint a commission whose duty it shall be to keep 
the agencies and the public informed of the work being done and needing to be done. 
It is believed that such a commission could do much to avoid duplication and promote 
efficiency. 





Americanization in Chicago 

^- -^HEN we speak of the United States, we allude to 

a union of states and not necessarily to a united 
people. When we proclaim that there is no 
longer in this country any north, any south, any 
east or any west, we indicate that this country has 
become united so far as geographical sectionalism is con- 
cerned, but this still does not imply necessarily that we are a 
united people. In a republic, the community is the unit of 
government and if in our communities there be no unity, then 
the foundations of our government are weak, indeed. 

Are we a united people? To answer that question we 
need to know what is going on in the communities of this 
country. What are the processes at work there? Is there a 
community life? Is it functioning? Do the people know 
each other? Do they understand each other? Do they like 
each other? Is there a community-consciousness which is all- 
embracing? These are questions which lie at the roots of 
Americanization. 

THE NEED FOR AMERICANIZATION 

The war and the events following the war have awakened 
a new interest in Americanization. We have seen certain 
elements of discord and disintegration at work have seen 
them actually predominant in some parts of the world have 
felt their blighting influence in our own midst. We have 
become aware of the fact that there are many people living 
among 'is with whom we are not acquainted ; that instead of 
friendliness and good-will there exists often mutual suspicion 
and even hatred; that instead of wholesome community con- 
sciousness there is being developed a sinister class conscious- 
ness. We have suddenly realized that the old-fashioned 
neighborhood is gone and as yet we have nothing to take its 
place. 

What shall be done? Where shall we begin? There has 
been in some cases almost a frenzy of effort to start something 
to prevent something. Organizations have been formed 
many of them. Money has been raised and spent, often, 



[ 4 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

without accomplishing anything worth mentioning. The 
newspapers have been full of accounts of radical and anti-/ 
radical activities. "Down with the Reds" has become a popA 
ular political slogan. Raids are made; literature is seized; 
men and women are arrested in large numbers, many are 
deported, severe laws are advocated to enable authorities to 
deal with the others. 

Now, although the situation is one of gravity, we can 
hardly remedy it by hysteria and excitement. The great mass 
of the people of America, both native and foreign born, are 
sound both at head and at heart. Over-organization, or ill- 
conceived organization for any purpose, leads to disorganiza- 
tion. "Too many cooks spoil the broth, they say." The din 
of agitation is confusing rather than quieting. Neither have 
heresies ever been stopped by the cutting off of a few foolish 
heads. The task of Americanization is a serious one and we 
must go about it intelligently. 

SUBJECTS CONSIDERED IN SURVEY 

Such were the considerations in the minds of the Chicago 
Community Trust Committee when they ordered a survey of 
Americanization activities and needs in Chicago. In under- 
taking the survey, which, necessarily, could only be general 
in character, we divided the subjects to be considered under 
three heads : 

1. A study of the population of Chicago according to 
national, social or racial groups and the attitude of these 
groups toward each other and toward our government-of-the- 
people as a whole. 

2. A study of the forces operating in Chicago which we 
consider to be destructive commonly spoken of as the 
Radicals. 

3. A study of the forces which we consider to be con- 
structive the Americanization agencies in Chicago. 

Our report follows this general outline, concluding with 
a suggestion for a constructive co-ordinated Americanization 
program. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 5 ] 

/. METROPOLITAN CHICAGO. 

The Foreign Language Division of the Liberty Loan 
Committee in Chicago included representatives of thirty- 
three (33) distinct foreign language groups. Besides these, 
we have six (6) distinct English speaking groups making 
a total of thirty-nine (39) important national or racial groups. 

1. The largest groups and the percentage of each in the 
total population are as follows: 

a. TLnglish Speaking Groups. 

American Whites 3 1 % 

American Negroes 2% 

Canadians 2% 

English 2 % 

Irish 6% 

Scotch . 1 % 



TOTAL 44% 

b. Foreign Language Groups. 

Germans 1 6 % 

Polish 10% 

Russians 7% 

Swedish 5% 

Bohemians 4% 

Italians 4% 

Austrians 2% 

Norwegians 2% 

Danish 1 % 

Hungarians 1 % 

Lithuanians 1 % 

Hollanders 1 % 

Roumanians 1 % 

All others 1% 



TOTAL 56% 

Table No. 1 shows the distribution of these larger groups 
by percentages in wards. 



THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 



TABLE NO. 1 

Showing Distribution of Population by Percentages in Wards 

Distribution of Population according to Nativity (See Note 1) 
% of Total 



Ward 

American 
White 


a i 

o "S 

ii i 1 
11 1 j 

<Z < ffl 


Canadian 
Danish 


English 
German 


Hungarian 


M 


Italian 


Lithuanian 


Polish 
Russian 


Scotch 
Swedish 


Others, See 
Note 4 




1 43 
2 44 
3 63 
4 14 
5 28 
6 59 
7 63 
8 27 
9 27 
10 9 
11 14 
12 16 
13 57 
14 45 
15 10 
16 10 
17 8 
18 54 
19 11 
20 7 
21 56 
22 25 
23 42 
24 26 
25 48 
26 36 
27 18 
28 14 
29 14 
30 26 
31 27 
32 49 
33 36 
34 23 
35 29 


13 5 . 
39 
8 1 .... 
.... 3 2 
.... 1 1 
3 1 _.. 
1 1 .... 
6 .... 
.... 5 1 
.... 3 36 
6 13 
.... 3 46 
1 . 


1 
1 1 
3 1 
1 
3 .... 
3 .... 
6 1 
1 1 
2 1 

"i 

2 
5 


1 5 
1 3 
2 7 
1 25 
1 13 
3 11 
4 5 
2 9 
3 8 
1 4 
1 12 
1 7 
4 7 


1 

"i" 
i 

"i" 

6 
2 

1 
1 


3 
3 

6 
13 
15 
8 
10 
7 
3 
1 
3 
2 
10 
5 
1 
1 
1 
9 
5 
1 
7 
3 
4 
5 
3 
2 
2 
2 
10 
25 
18 
10 
5 
6 
9 


21 
1 

"4 
1 

"i" 

2 

7 


"7 
12 

"3 


2 2 
2 
2 
24 3 
16 5 
1 2 
1 
30 2 
5 6 
4 34 


1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 1 
1 3 
2 5 
1 8 
1 9 


2 
3 

4 

"i" 

4 

"3 

13 
6 
1 

"3 
6 
5 

1 
4 
3 
4 
5 
7 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
7 
11 
6 
2 
2 
4 
11 
2 
22 


(Note 2) 
(Note 2) 

(Note 2) 
(Note 2) 
(Note 2) 

(Note 2) 

(Note 2) 
(Note 2) 
(Note 2) 

(Note 2) 


3 

"2 

9 
1 
1 

20 
3 

46 

7 
4 
29 

1 
1 


1 

"i 

"3 


29 14 
14 6 
8 
8 2 
9 25 
61 8 
52 2 
.... 15 
1 24 
7 46 
1 
2 1 
1 


1 
2 
2 1 
1 1 
1 3 

"i 

1 1 

"i" "e 

7 
.... 14 


3 3 .... 
.... 4 1 
.... 3 .... 
7 


2 1 
1 4 


3 9 
1 30 
.... 13 
4 


2 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
6 
1 
2 
1 

"l 

1 
2 
2 

"i" 
1 
1 


1 1 .... 
_. 1 
.... 10 4 
1 1 .... 
1 2 


2 . 
3 .... 


2 7 
1 3 
8 
2 12 
. . 23 


1 
2 
'.'. I "..'. 
1 
2 1 
2 1 
.... 3 12 
10 2 1 
5 1 .... 
1 .... 1 
1 1 
.... 2 24 
2 1 


1 1 

1 . 
4 
2 .... 
1 4 
1 7 
1 
1 .... 
4 1 
4 1 
2 3 
2 .... 
2 2 


2 31 
1 49 
2 25 
2 37 
3 36 
1 25 
1 22 
1 15 
4 20 
3 16 
2 21 
2 15 
3 18 


.... 


4 1 
1 


1 5 
1 12 
1 15 
1 10 
1 7 
1 2 
1 2 
1 15 
2 7 
1 11 
1 
2 6 






1 


1 
1 
2 
2 


"6 


10 3 
23 3 
17 1 
8 2 
2 


1 
1 

"i" 




1 
3 1 
2 20 
1 1 






















To- 
tals 31 

NOTES: 


224212 16 1641 10 7155 (See 
Note 2) 

(1) Distribution of population according to nativity based on statistics in the 1914 
school census report. 

(2) No entries are included where the percentage of total population is less than 



M of 1 %. 

In addition to the above there is approximately 12% and 9% of total popula- 
tion in wards 33 and 35 respectively, of Norwegian nativity. In the entire 
city the Norwegian population averages approximately 2% of total. Also 
approximately 10%, 2% and 4% of the total population in wards 9, 10 and 31 
respectively, is of Holland nativity, which in the entire city averages approxi- 
mately 1 % of total. Also approximately 1 % of the total population in both 
wards 11 and 20 and 2% in ward 21 is of Roumanian nativity. 

These percentages and distributions are based on statistics in the 1914 
school census report. The table appeared in the report of the Chicago Com- 
mission on the Liquor Problem, published December, 1916. For most of the 
national groups the figures are probably still substantially correct. But in 
the case of negroes, there has been a very large influx from southern states 
since 1914, so that the present negro population is estimated to be more than 
double what it was then, or represents now about 4 per cent of the total 
population of the city. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 7 ] 

Table No. 2 gives the number of individuals in each 
important group (School Census 1914) including the popula- 
tion of some groups too small to be indicated in the percentage 
table. 

TABLE NO. 2. 

Population of Chicago divided according to nationality from school census 1914 

American White 752,111 

Negro 54,557 

Austrian 58,483 

Belgian 3,392 

Bohemian _... 1 02,749 

Bulgarian 1 , 103 

Canadian 44,744 

Chinese 1 ,753 

Croation 7,3 1 3 

Danish 22,394 

English 45,714 

Finnish 1,526 

French 5 ,649 

German 399,977 

Greek 8,62 1 

Hollander 16,914 

Hungarian 3 1 ,863 

I rish 1 46,560 

I tal i an 1 08* 1 60 

Japanese 311 

Lithuanian 24,050 

M exi can 242 

No rwegi an 47,496 

Polish 23 1 ,346 

Roumanian 5,132 

Russian 1 66, 1 34 

Scotch 17,662 

Servian 845 

Spanish 47 1 

Swedish 1 18,533 

Swiss 3,997 

Welch 1,889 

Other 5,235 

TOTAL 2,437,526 



[ 8 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

THE NATURAL COMMUNITIES 

A study of these tables discovers that in each ward of 
the city we have representatives of several of these groups. 
Assuming, if we may, for the moment, that the class con- 
sciousness of some of these groups in each case is stronger 
than the community consciousness, or antagonistic to it, we 
see that we have an Americanization problem in every ward 
of the city. Our assumption often is not true. But there are 
likely to be other distinguishing elements, less easily defined 
but not less powerful, which make for the development of 
class consciousness rather than community consciousness. 
Extreme sectarianism, either religious or political, may be 
such an element. Another element may be the limitations of 
"society," using the word in its narrower sense, based on the 
economic or cultural conditions of people, tending to become 
established with hard and fast lines which are crossed with 
difficulty and only by the broader spirits. Another element 
may be found in the historic origin of the community itself. 
Communities come into existence usually in one of three 
ways: 

1. Early development of a village, possibly near a large 
city. It grows and the city grows until eventually the village 
becomes a part of the city. 

2. The development of an industrial community, made 
up almost entirely of the employees of some large industry, 
and their families. 

3. The growth of an immigrant settlement, on the out- 
skirts or even in the heart of a city, whence it expels the earlier 
settlers and changes the character of the earlier community. 

Around each of these communities or between them peo- 
ple "settle" who do not belong historically to any community. 
No distinctive community life develops there nor does such 
a settlement become an integral part of the adjacent com- 
munities, although it may later be incorporated with one of 
them in a city ward. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 9 ] 

COMMUNITY SPIRIT MUST BE DEVELOPED 

It is unfortunate, in the political organization of our 
cities, that the wards are not more nearly indentical with the 
natural communities. It is further unfortunate that little 
effort has been made to retain and develop the community 
feeling. Often indeed it has been the effort of ward politi- 
cians to destroy or prevent it, playing various groups against 
each other in such a way as to enable them to manipulate 
elections and set up political control. The inhabitants of a 
ward so organized are likely to feel that they have no part in 
the government. Often the foreign-born refuse to take out 
citizenship papers because the ordinary process of getting 
them is through the local political boss and they say they do 
not want to be placed under obligation to him. 

The political units, it has been declared by various 
leaders in Americanization, should be smaller; identical as 
nearly as possible with the natural communities, or not larger 
than may be embraced within an homogeneous community. 
The Community-consciousness in each of these political units 
should be continuously promoted. Each community should 
have its community house, where all the people of the com- 
munity can come in gatherings, for entertainments, for lec- 
tures, for discussion of questions relating to their welfare and 
progress. 

THE NEGRO RACIAL PROBLEM 

A study of the various groups and their mutual relations 
brings to light many interesting facts. Our only racial prob- 
lem of any consequence relates to the negro one of the 
Englisii speaking groups. The presence of this problem and 
its general difficulties are known to all. There has been a 
large influx of negroes from the south since the war. At the 
time of the Armistice, they were coming into Chicago at; the 
rate of forty car loads a day. In the last year this has been 
reduced, but the present rate is said to average twenty-five car 
loads a day. Not all of these immigrants stop in Chicago; a 
large number pass on to other northern cities; but our own 
colored population has doubled in the last three years. (The 
present colored population is conservatively estimated at 
125,000.) 



[ 10 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

The negroes have been attracted to Chicago by the oppor- 
tunities for employment in Industry, and by the high wages 
they can obtain as compared with wages in the south. They 
are not complaining of wages or conditions of labor and this 
often has caused bitter antagonism on the part of other work- 
ers. Their attempts to find homes is another source of con- 
stant friction. They are frequently and shamefully exploited 
by real-estate sharks and rental agents. Americanization will 
not be complete until the social relations with this large group 
of our population have been satisfactorily adjusted. 

GERMAN POPULATION 

The German population is the oldest and the largest, 
from the standpoint of immigration, of our foreign language 
groups. They have become so far assimulated in the life of 
the city that they do not as a rule live in segregated districts, 
but they are found mingled with the general population in 
nearly every ward in the city. 

It was to be expected that there would be suspicion and 
animosity between the German born and other national 
groups, including our own, because of the war. Their long 
standing antipathy toward the English is well known. It 
must further be admitted that many of them are not in sym- 
pathy with many of the important traditions and customs of 
our own country. The traditions and customs which they 
condemn are largely those which we have inherited from the 
English. Nevertheless there are few who would not admit 
that the people of German extraction as a rule make excellent 
American Citizens. Many of them are of liberal tendencies. 

BOHEMIAN POPULATION 

The Bohemians represent also one of the older immigra- 
tions, the first settlement having been formed in Chicago in 
1850. It was just west of the present boundaries of thf 
"Loop." They still live on the west side, in-so-far as they still 
cling together in a segregated district, living south of twelfth 
street, and west of Halsted street, to the city limits, and in 
Cicero. The older settlers have formed relationships in the 
city life by means of which the new comers also have been 
rapidly assimilated. The Bohemians like America. They 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 11 ] 

form organizations and conduct classes among themselves to 
teach the newcomers American ways. 

THE SCANDINAVIANS 

The Scandinavians have always been a welcome class of 
immigrants. Those who settle in the city are likely to be 
skilled mechanics, commanding high wages, but eagerly 
sought after by the structural industries. They have no segre- 
gated district in Chicago, but are found in many of the wards, 
particularly north-west. They are of a physically active type, 
practical, sturdy, not inclined to intellectual abstractions. 

THE POLES AND LITHUANIANS 

The Poles represent in Chicago a newer immigration. 
They live in clearly defined segregated districts, chiefly north- 
west, but also south-south-west, and in South Chicago. To 
the average citizen, the "Poles" includes the Polish and 
Lithuanians, although there is considerable difference be- 
tween them, and a deep-rooted social antipathy. Both the 
Polish and the Lithuanians are by heredity a rural people. 
In the old country they lived on small farms, cultivated both 
by the men and the women with the help of the children. 
Their homes were small huts; their food was coarse and plain. 
Except in severe weather they slept out doors. They are not 
accustomed to city life. Chicago is the largest Polish city in 
the history of the world. The Polish immigrants have flocked 
here because the city offered them an immediate opportunity 
of making a livelihood. They are a timid people, suspicious, 
non-communicative, and they are impelled to go where they 
will be sure of finding friends. City life does not agree with 
them at first. The women are not housekeepers. The men, 
naturally strong, lose weight when they work in factories. 
They contract tuberculosis readily. The children become 
delinquent often because the parents, away from home during 
the day, have no sense of the necessity of providing for their 
supervision. A "delinquent child" is unheard of in their own 
country. There are many problems of adjustment in the 
Americanization of the Poles. Yet the Pole makes a good 
American citizen. Notwithstanding all his hardships, he is 
better off than he was at home, and, more important still, he 



[ 12 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

sees prospects of a more prosperous future. For the first time 
in his life he has an opportunity to acquire some property of 
his own, and many Poles are buying homes north-west, and 
south-west of the city. Their political hopes, moreover, are 
not unlike ours. They are, indeed rather more conservative 
in their beliefs particularly the Polish, as distinguished from 
the Lithuanians. Few of them will become members of the 
radical societies nor be easily influenced by their specious 
arguments. On the other hand their temperaments would in- 
cline them to be sullen and ugly when they feel they are 
abused. We need to make friends with these people who 
form so large an element of our population. 

THE ITALIANS 

The Italian is not an organizer. He is an individualist. 
In the midst of organization, your typical Italian in America 
buys a push cart and goes into business for himself. He saves 
his money carefully, buys a tenement house and lives in the 
poorest one himself. If constrained to work for wages he 
prefers out-door labor, which he follows in the summer time, 
laying off in the winter. The Italian is not found in large 
numbers in industry. He is not likely to become a man of 
great wealth. He is of poetic temperament, artistic, musical. 
There is much of value which he can contribute to our waste- 
ful, luxury-loving, materialistic American life. 

The oldest settlement of Italians in Chicago is in the 
vicinity of Grand Avenue west of the river. The Italians in 
that section represent perhaps the best element of our Italian 
immigration. There is a large settlement in the 22nd ward- 
east of the river. The northern half of this settlement, north 
of Division street, is populated largely by Sicilians. Most of 
the Italians of Chicago live in a settlement beginning at the 
southern edge of the Loop, in the first ward and extending 
westward across the river, and north of twelfth street in the 
19th ward. 

RUSSIAN JEWS 

The Russians, who comprise 7 per cent of our total popu- 
lation in Chicago, a very large element, have been regarded, 
since the defalcation of Russia in the war, almost universally 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 13 ] 

with suspicion. Most of the Russians in Chicago are Jews. 
The long oppression they have suffered has left the inevitable 
stamp upon their characters. They are suspicious of every- 
body. They think the world is all wrong. They are likely to 
be against everything that has yet been tried, whether in poli- 
tics, religion, or society. They are a difficult element to 
assimilate. Yet they are intellectually keen, unselfish, exhibit 
religious devotion to any cause which they espouse; and are 
capable of becoming by no means undesirable citizens. They 
live chiefly in a district immediately west of the river and 
south of 12th street, in the 20th, 10th, and llth wards, but are 
also mingled with the Italians north of 12th street in the 19th 
ward; with the Irish, Germans, and Italians in the 18th ward; 
and there is a considerable settlement of them in the 15th 
ward, northwest of the Polish settlement. 

SMALLER GROUPS 

Other distinct social groups have comparatively few re- 
presentatives in Chicago. The Hungarians, like the Germans 
and Austrians, are widely scattered over the city. The Hol- 
landers and the Belgians are close of kin with our earliest 
colonial pioneers. The Greeks, the Creations, the Rouman- 
ians, and the French are friendly peoples and generally sym- 
pathetic with our ideals. We have exceedingly few people 
from southern countries (except our negroes). We have a 
small colony of Chinese in the first ward, south of the Loop, 
introducing another racial problem. It has been predicted 
that the immigration of the next few years to the United States 
will come largely from China. If this should prove true, 
doubtless many of the newcomers will find their way to 
Chicago, and we should be getting ready for them. 

With this picture in mind of Cosmopolitan Chicago, let 
us consider now the activities of the "Reds." 

II. THE "REDS." 

Classified according to doctrine, there are three principal 
"schools" of ultra-radicals: 

a. Anarchists Advocate killing of all public officials, 
their wives and children, also leading capitalists, in order to 



[ 14 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

accomplish the overthrow permanently of all government. 
The Anarchists are represented in the United States princi- 
pally by an organization known as the "Union of Russian 
Working Men." They have no headquarters in Chicago at 
present. 

b. Communists Advocate seizure and overthrow of all 
"Parliamentary Government" in order to set up "Industrial 
Democracy" the government by the "workers" or the prole- 
tariat. There are two principal groups in the United States 
the "Communist Party," with headquarters at 1221 Blue 
Island Avenue, and the "Communist Labor Party," with 
national headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio local headquarters 
at 204 North Clark St., Chicago. 

c. Syndicalists Advocate the organization of "One Big 
Union" a "class conscious group" which will include all 
workers which will overthrow the present industrial system, 
destroy capitalism, and thereafter manage production in the 
interests of the "producers." Principal group "I. W. W." 
with national headquarters at 1001 West Madison Street, 
Chicago. 

RADICAL PROPAGANDA 
These radical schools carry on their propaganda through 

a. Meetings, conducted, regularly or frequently, in 

public meeting places under their own supervision. 
There are a score or more Halls in Chicago which 
are known as radical meeting places. 

b. The radical organizations have a studied practice of 

injecting their teachings at other public meetings, 
especially at labor union meetings. They have 
freely announced their intention to capture the labor 
union organizations and in some cases they seem to 
have succeeded in doing so. 

c. Members of radical organizations are pledged to 

help organize "factory" or "shop committees." It 
is the duty of these committees to stir up discontent 
among employees, enlist members for the radical 
organizations, engage in labor disputes, encourage 
"loafing" on the job and defective workmanship, in- 
timidate faithful workmen, bring about strikes. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 15 ] 

d. Distribution of literature, hand bills, placards, etc. 
The attempts to influence people by printed argu- 
ments and appeals is by no means confined to the 
distribution of free literature. Hundreds of mag- 
azines, pamphlets, and books are printed, widely 
distributed through the mails, purchased and read 
by many thousands of people, the majority of whom 
are probably not actually identified with any of the 
radical societies. This literature, printed in various 
languages, is distributed by members of radical 
societies, it may be obtained at radical meetings, may 
be subscribed for, or purchased at radical book 
stores, of which there are six or more well-known in 
Chicago. 

A critical study of this propaganda would require more 
space than could be allowed in such an outline as this and it 
would be of little value anyhow. Much of the argument is 
specious doctrinaire in character with high sounding 
phrases, big words, finely drawn distinctions, which could 
possibly be understood only by the initiated. Like the philo- 
sophies of India, it has no beginning and no end. Some of it, 
on the other hand, is evidently the product of untutored 
minds, but indicates a sincerity and conviction little short of 
religious fervor. It may be worth while to consider for a 
moment the influence of such teachings. 

THE ARGUMENT OF THE "REDS" 

The validity of any argument depends first of all upon 
the premise. The argument itself may be never so logical, 
but if the premise is false the whole argument falls. What 
is the premise upon which the radical arguments are built? 
There is a premise which seems to be common to all their 
arguments, which premise itself is generally accepted as need- 
ing no argument. It appears constantly in radical speeches 
and literature, but is well stated in an article in the Prole- 
tarian, November, 1919, page 7. The writer, defining Capital 
and Labor and attempting to show the uncompromisable dif- 
ference between "Capitalists" and "Laborers" says: "The 
term 'Capital' is commonly used to refer to the wealth used 



[ 16 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

in production for profit and to refer to the class of men who 
own that wealth and who, therefore, do not have to do any 
useful work, but receive their income in the form of interest^, 
profit and rent. The term 'Labor' is used to refer to the act 
of applying labor-power to the raw materials in the produc- 
tion of goods and also to refer to the class of men who furnish 
the labor-power." "Do the men who own the capital furnish 
the labor-power themselves? Most certainly not. This 
labor-power is furnished almost entirely by men who do not 
own capital, that is, by workingmen." The writer then pro- 
ceeds, quoting from various economists, to prove that this 
capital itself has been produced by workingmen. 

THE THREE HUMAN ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION 

Now this is an interesting premise. It has indeed been 
accepted by many professional economists for many years and 
it is not strange that it should have become the foundation 
premise for economic radicalism the world over. But it is 
not a true premise. The labor of workingmen is not the only 
human element in production. The first element is self- 
denial, saving, the accumulation of a surplus. That surplus, 
of course, is Capital. But the point is that Capital is not the 
result of labor it is the result of Saving. That is a process 
which is open to any healthy man, and there are many "work- 
ingmen," so-called, and "capitalists" so-called, who are saving 
to-day, while others are spending all they make. 

There is another human element of production; quite 
often overlooked by the professional economist, and always 
ignored by the "Radical," which is quite as important as either 
of the other two. It is the element of brain power, or, since 
every man thinks he has brains, call it genius the genius for 
discovery, the genius for invention, the genius for organiza- 
tion more broadly speaking still the genius for poetry, the 
genius for art, the genius for music, the genius for statesman- 
ship, the genius for religion. All of these, and many more, 
are factors of brain power in production. Without such pro- 
duction mankind would still be in the depths of savagery, 
living in caves or rudest huts, roaming the forests in search of 
food, naked or clad in the skins of wild animals. Starvation 
and disease would carry off whole tribes of people, thus keep- 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 17 ] 

ing the earth from becoming over-populated and maintaining 
the balance of food supply. , 

Brain-power also is available to any man who has the 
energy and the will-power to use it. It serves those best whose 
motives are benevolent. Hatred has never yet developed a 
strong mind. 

"FANNING THE FLAMES OF DISCONTENT" 

The acknowledged object of radical agitation is to stir 
up class hatred "to fan the flames of discontent." Here are 
a few quotations from the "I. W. W. Song Book" : 

(Tune: "Hold the Fort") 
"Down with Greed and Exploitation; 

Tyranny must fail! 
Hail to Toil's Emancipation; 

Labor shall be all." 

Chorus 
"Scorn to take the crumbs they drop us; 

All is ours by right! 
Onward, men! All Hell can't stop us! 

Crush the Parasite." 

(Another song to special music) Page 27. 
"We have fed you all for a thousand years, 

And you hail us still unfed. 
Though there is never a dollar of all your wealth 

But marks the workers dead. 
We have yielded our best to give you rest 

And you lie on crimson wool. 
Then if blood be the price of all your wealth, 
Good God! We have paid it in full." 

(Tune: "Don't Bite the Hand That's Feeding You.) 

Page 36. 
"All hail to the Bolshevik! 

We will fight for our Class and be free, 

A Kaiser, King, or Czar, no matter which you are, 

You're nothing of interest to me. 

If you don't like the red flag of Russia, 

If you don't like the spirit so true, 

Then just be like the cur in the story 

And lick the hand that's robbing you." 



[ 18 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

(Tune: "What Do You Want To Make Those Eyes at Me 

For?") Page 19. 

"So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for, 
When it don't mean life to you? 
Do you think it right to struggle day and night, 
And plow like Hell for the Parasite? 
So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for, 
When there's more in life for you? 
Slow up Bill! that's the way to beat the System; 
Join the Wobbly Gang, they've got the bosses guessing. 
So whadda ya want to break your back for the boss for. 
When it don't mean life to you?" 

SOME LESS-RADICALS 

We have thus far spoken of the teachings and influence 
of only the ultra-radicals. There are other radicals, not so 
extreme in their teachings, but far more numerous, and not 
less effective in stirring up discontent. Among these may be 
included not merely the various varieties of party socialists, 
but also many individuals and societies, more or less extremg 
in their views, not definitely alligned with any radical organi- 
zation, who urge radical and revolutionary governmental 
reforms. These may belong to that class whom Carlyle 
characterized as "rash apostles of change," or they may be 
purely "forward looking" people, whose tendency is to look 
only forward and never circumspectly. They may urge re- 
forms which are equivalent to communism. Or their goal 
may be pure democracy direct democracy in which the 
"people rule." They infer that the people do not now rule 
and that all our ills, which they are inclined to magnify, are 
due to that fact. 

It is not our purpose here to dispute these political views. 
It is our purpose merely to call attention to them and to the 
fact that they are radical, involving fundamental changes in 
our form of government. The American government is a 
republican form of government in which the people rule 
through their chosen representatives. This government is not 
a democracy. The adoption of democracy would involve a 
departure from traditional Americanism. The goverment 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 19 ] 

established by our fore-fathers is the expression of a more 
moderate idea it is the mean between autocracy, on the one 
hand, and democracy on the other. There are those who 
maintain that our social ills are in a considerable measure due 
to our departure from a strictly republican form of govern- 
ment that the real evils of society (and there will always be 
evils to be corrected in any society, so long as people are 
human and some are selfish) that these evils can be corrected 
much more surely under a republican government than under 
a democracy. 

Attention should be called to the fact that legislation 
alone or the particular form of government cannot make 
society right. The basis of happiness is character. Govern- 
ment itself is but an expression of the character of a people. 
The basis of peace is good-will among men. 

///. THE PROMOTION OF GOOD-WILL. 

Good-will, to be effective, must be intelligent. It must 
be concrete, specific. Good-will toward the Hottentots is 
simply an imaginary virtue; it has not been proven; it may 
vanish at the first test. Intelligent good- will cannot exist 
without acquaintanceship. Charles Lamb said he hated the 
man he did not know. Mutual understanding is the basis for 
"Americanization." 

There are many Americanization agencies in Chicago. 
Some of them have Americanization as a definite program. 
There are more than sixty-five such agencies operating in the 
city. Other agencies have Americanization only as a by-pro- 
duct. Some agencies have as their principal object the educa- 
tion of the immigrant. Some look to the promotion of pa- 
triotism and good citizenship. A classification of such agen- 
cies and the character of activities in which each may engage 
is indicated in the accompanying chart. Page 20 

Undoubtedly the most important agencies in the educa- 
tion of the foreigner are the Public Schools and the Industries. 
The immigrant gets most of his knowledge of American cus- 
toms from the places in which he works. The public schools 
reach the children and also conduct special classes for adults. 
The women are the hardest of all to reach because so many of 
them do not come in touch with either of these agencies. 



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[ 22 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The Public Schools are maintained by the public and to 
them we must look as the chief agency to carry out the wishes 
of the public for education. The Public Schools of Chicago 
are not to be criticised, as compared with the public schools 
of most cities, for the Americanization work already begun. 
They are reaching more people in definite Americanization 
activities than all other specific Americanization activities 
combined. But all the Americanization agencies combined 
are reaching not more than 25,000 people, and these only for 
very brief periods in a week or month, whereas there are esti- 
mated to be more than 300,000 unnaturalized immigrants in 
Chicago who are not at all in touch with definite American- 
izing institutions. 

MOTHERS' CLASSES 

The Americanization activities of the Public Schools are 
directed in four channels : Mothers' Classes, Factory Classes, 
Night Schools, and Community Centers. Mothers' Classes 
are held in the day time (usually afternoon) in public school 
buildings. There are at present twenty such classes, with an 
average enrollment of about twenty women each and an aver- 
age attendance of about twelve women each. Most of the 
classes meet once a week. English is the principal subject 
taught. 

FACTORY CLASSES 

The Factory Classes for the teaching of English are con- 
ducted in factories, under the auspices of and with teachers 
furnished by the public school system. The consent and co- 
operation of the factory management is of course necessary. 
This is being obtained in the first instance largely through the 
activities of the Americanization Committee of the Associa- 
tion of Commerce. The latter committee also assists in ob- 
taining individual enrollment for the classes and in maintain- 
ing interest. Most of the classes meet, half an hour at noon, 
twice a week, on employees' time, although a number meet 
in the afternoons or just before closing time, partly or wholly 
on the employer's time. There are at present sixty of these 
factory classes, with an average enrollment of twenty-five 
each (mostly men) and an average attendance of twenty each. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 23 ] 

NIGHT SCHOOLS 

There are at present thirty-one night schools. These are 
conducted in school buildings, wholly under school authority. 
A wide variety of subjects are taught, not only literary but 
vocational, as well. The enrollment is not confined to foreign 
born, and only a few of the classes are especially designed for 
them. There are no figures to indicate how many foreign 
born are actually reached or how effectively. It can only be 
remarked, from the general experience of Americanization 
workers, that a full-grown adult who has worked hard at 
physical labor all day, will not learn much after dinner at 
night, cramped up in a child's desk in a poorly lighted school 
room. 

SCHOOL COMMUNITY CENTERS 

There are sixty-two community centers, conducted in 
school buildings by the Board of Education. These are in the 
nature of public assemblies, where opportunities are provided 
for lectures, moving pictures, entertainments, community 
singing, debating, recreation, gymnasia. Most of the Centers 
are open twice a week, in the evenings from 7:30 to 9:30 
o'clock. These centers are or may be made very effective 
Americanizing agencies. A very popular form of entertain- 
ment consists of programs especially arranged, one evening 
each, for the various national groups in the neighborhood. 
There will be a program for the Lithuanians, for instance, 
arranged with the co-operation of a committee of Lithuan- 
ians. The music may be furnished by a Lithuanian orchestra 
or a Lithuanian glee-club. A f iaylet may be presented, or 
folk dancing, portraying ancient customs. Where possible, 
also, moving picture slides are obtained showing scenes in the 
old country. These may be varied with scenes in our own 
country. Local customs may be explained, American songs 
will be sung. Another profitable form of evening program 
may consist of a party, with Lithuanians and Americans 
present, in which the Lithuanians teach the Americans some 
of their customs, dances, methods of cooking, etc., and the 
Americans present teach the Lithuanian immigrants some of 
our customs. 

Other general Americanizing activities of public schools 
are indicated in the accompanying chart. From this it would 



[ 24 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

appear that almost every form of educational activity for 
Americanization which may be conceived may be included 
in the school's program, and such is the case. The public 
school system itself is an American institution, all its activities 
should contribute to the building of good American citizen- 
ship and every sound educational activity which is needed for 
the building of citizenship may and probably should be in- 
cluded in its program. The public school is our foremost 
Americanizing institution. 

AMERICANIZATION IN INDUSTRIES 

The Americanization activities of Industries cover a 
wide range. Besides the opportunity which industrial plants 
provide for adult immigrants to make a living in this country 
immediately upon arrival and to become acquainted with 
American ways of doing things, the special welfare activities 
of the various plants cover almost the entire range of activities 
of all other agencies combined. The English classes have 
been mentioned. Many industrial institutions conduct civic 
classes also, classes in history, classes in arithmetic, vocational 
classes, classes in home-making, classes in personal hygiene. 
Visiting nurses are provided, day nurseries are maintained, 
community centers are established, relief and benefit societies 
are organized, facilities for recreation and entertainment are 
furnished and the employees, regardless of race, color or 
creed, are encouraged to make the fullest use of them. These 
industrial activities have a great advantage over the purely 
benevolent institutions in this, that they really reach the 
people. If properly managed, and especially if so organized 
that the employees themselves have a large feeling of respon- 
sibility in the management, they grade high in efficiency. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS DEPARTMENTS AND SHOP 
COMMITTEES 

The movement among many industries to give employees 
a larger share in the management of the industrial activities 
which directly affect them is another interesting tendency of 
the times. The value of the feeling of personal interest and 
responsibility is immeasurable. The need for individual 
recognition in the midst of social organization seems to be 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 25 ] 

one of the greatest needs of modern life. And the craving to 
have one's individuality respected is not confined to the breasts 
of Yankees. To be known by number only is quite as repug- 
nant to the newly arrived immigrant as it would be to the 
individual whose ancestors came over in the Mayflower. He 
too has an ancestry. And the newly arrived immigrant may 
submit to being "cussed around" by an inferior petty boss, 
because he dare not do otherwise, but the feelings of resent- 
ment which are planted deep in his consciousness may bode 
ill for the future. The remarks along this line of the vice- 
president of one of the largest industrial institutions in 
Chicago, which institution has recently established a plan for 
co-operation of the employees in the management, were sig- 
nificant. He said, "We (the officers and directors of the or- 
ganization) have had ideals for the fair and kindly treatment 
of the men who work in our shops, but we have been stupid 
in the matter of communicating these ideals to the men them- 
selves. The men in the shops are under the immediate direc- 
tion of shop superintendents, foremen, and petty bosses. If 
these overseers treat the men harshly, their attitude will 
naturally be interpreted as the attitude of the entire manage- 
ment. In order that these overseers may properly interpret 
the spirit of the institution, we have established classes which 
every superintendent, foreman, and petty boss in our entire 
organization is required to attend. Lessons are prepared 
which these men are required to learn and recite in class as 
schoolboys. The men are graded both on the class work and 
on the ability and faithfulness with which they put the lessons 
into practice. The results have been most gratifying. We 
find, coo, that the participation of all the men in the manage- 
ment of the institution, through representatives elected by the 
employees in each department of each shop, is having a most 
beneficial effect in stimulating personal interest, understand- 
ing and good-will among the men and women of all depart- 



ments." 



AMERICANIZATION AND THE PRESS 



The newspapers are agencies of tremendous power for 
Americanization. They not only interpret American ideals 
they help to create them. Their influence is very great. So 
far as our foreign language immigrants are concerned, this is 



[ 26 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

true not only of the English language newspapers, but of the 
foreign language newspapers as well. The latter have a very 
definite and a very important field in the work of Americani- 
zation. Most of them have been highly faithful to their obli- 
gation. The Foreign Language Division of the Liberty Loan 
organization watched the foreign language newspapers close- 
ly during the war, and the Chicago District Committee 
declares that of the 276 foreign language newspapers in this 
district, 260 were without any shade of doubt highly loyal to 
our country and our government throughout the war. It is 
doubtful if the percentage of loyalty among the English 
language newspapers was any higher. The foreign language 
newspapers are important because they reach so many immi- 
grants who cannot be reached by English language newspa- 
pers. This is a condition which naturally must continue for 
many years after the average immigrant arrives. For even 
after the immigrant has learned to speak the English language 
quite well he will hardly read English written articles on 
abstract subjects understandingly. We need the foreign lan- 
guage newspapers and we should use them constantly and 
aggressively in Americanization work. Editors of foreign 
language newspapers, however, should have in mind the idea 
that it is the function of their papers not so much among their 
readers to retain interest in the old country as it is to establish 
interest in the new. 

The newspapers, in addition to publishing the news, fre- 
quently maintain welfare activities of considerable import- 
ance. This refers not only to the strictly charitable activities, 
such as collection and distribution of relief funds, maintenance 
of fresh air missions, and the like, but more especially to their 
activities in maintaining employment bureaus, information 
bureaus, vocational and home-making education bureaus, lec- 
ture platforms, etc. 

GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES 

The best contribution which the government can make 
for Americanization is in good government. This is particu- 
larly true of the local governments which touch the lives 
of the immigrants most closely. If the local municipal gov- 
ernment is less efficient, for instance,! than the immigrant has 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 27 ] 

known in Europe, his measure of respect for our government 
will be a disappointment both to himself and to us. If, on 
the other hand, our local government is better than he has ever 
known before, his pride in becoming a citizen and his respect 
for our institutions will be encouraging. The specific con- 
tributions of our government federal, state and local for 
Americanization through Public Agencies, aside from the 
Public School System, have not in the past been of any great 
magnitude. The process of Naturalization itself, which 
should represent on the part of the government the culmina- 
tion of its training of the immigrant for citizenship, has been 
generally so inefficient, so tied up with political red-tape 
to say nothing of petty graft as to discourage the immigrant 
even from making application for citizenship papers. There 
has been little effort on the part of the government to educate 
the immigrant in preparation for citizenship. But through 
the activities of the Americanization Division of the Bureau 
of Education, Federal Department of the Interior, together 
with the co-operation of many state governments, we are now 
in a fair way to change this condition. The Department has 
appointed Americanization Committees in each state. Under 
the auspices of the Department of the Interior an important 
Americanization Conference was held in Washington in May, 
1919. Representatives of Americanization agencies, both 
public and private, from all over the country, were present. 
This conference called public attention to the Americaniza- 
tion work now being done, the importance of it, and advocated 
greatly increased activity. Following that conference public 
sentiment has been developed to support the passage in the 
Senate recently of the Kenyon Bill, which, if it becomes a 
law, will set up the machinery and provide the funds, jointly 
with state educational departments, for compulsory education 
of illiterate citizens and aliens. Mr. Max Loeh is chairman 
of the Illinois Committee on Americanization, Department 
of the Interior. If the Kenyon Bill becomes a law, this com- 
mittee may have at its disposal, under supervision of the na- 
tional bureau, a limited fund annually, possibly $10,000, for 
the printing of literature, publicity and general educational 
activities, or the equivalent in material already prepared for 
distribution. We have also in Illinois a State Committee on 



[ 28 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

Immigration, appointed under authority of the Legislature by 
Governor Lowden, and having an appropriation of $10,000 
for Americanization work. Hon. Frank W. Shepardson, 
Director of Education, Springfield, is the chairman of this 
committee, and our own Col. Abel Davis, of the Chicago 
Community Trust, is a member. This committee has only 
recently been organized. 

The Chicago Public Library has done little specifically 
for Americanization. Some lists of books on the subject have 
been published, including books for use in class-work for im- 
migrants. 

CHURCH ACTIVITIES 

Specific Americanization work on the part of churches 
officially is of comparatively recent origin. The Catholic 
Church has for some time maintained a number of social set- 
tlements and day nurseries. The Presbyterians, Methodists, 
Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples and 
Lutherans have denominational Social Service Departments 
in the city, whose object is to stimulate social service activities 
among their respective churches. There are also a number 
of social settlements, day nurseries and missions maintained 
in the foreign settlement neighborhoods more or less officially 
by the Protestant churches. The philanthropies of the He- 
brews are well-known. Few of these, however, are main- 
tained directly or officially by the church. 

A number of church denominations have lately under- 
taken aggressive programs for Americanization and good 
citizenship. The Inter-Church World Movement, recently 
organized in behalf of the Protestant churches generally, has 
been making a survey preparatory to a wide-spread campaign 
along these lines. The New World Movement of the Baptist 
Church has recently announced its plan to expend $200,000 
in Chicago for evangelistic and educational work and for war 
type huts in "radical centers." The Catholic Church has al- 
ready under way a plan for a very broad educational cam- 
paign, making use especially of moving-pictures, lectures and 
distribution of literature. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 29 ] 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATIONS 

All the important immigrant groups in Chicago have 
one or more ancestral societies. Most of these are of the 
nature of fraternal societies, with insurance and other special 
benefit features. The membership includes not only natural- 
ized American citizens, but also very many who have been 
born in this country. These societies render great service to 
the newly arrived immigrants of their respective nationalities, 
helping them to find homes, to find work, and otherwise to get 
themselves settled in the new world. Some of the societies 
extend their activities very definitely into Americanization 
work. It is evident that such societies can be of value in pro- 
moting speedy adjustment of the newcomers. Among the 
best known societies in Chicago are the Polish National 
Alliance, the Polish Women's Alliance, the Bohemian Na- 
tional Alliance, the Lithuanian Women's Alliance, and the 
Italian Benevolent Society. 

The Ail-American League, an outgrowth of the Foreign 
Language Division of the Chicago Liberty Loan organiza- 
tion, is a federation with representatives of all the foreign 
language groups, definitely organized for the development of 
good American citizenship. This organization could be used 
very effectively in city-wide Americanization efforts. 

SEMI-PUBLIC AGENCIES SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS 

The semi-public agencies include a large number of wel- 
fare societies more or.less definitely organized for the promo- 
tion of community understanding and good citizenship. The 
social settlements are for this purpose directly perhaps the 
most valuable of all of these. Normally a social settlement 
is a neighborhood house in which people live who know about 
this country, are familiar with its customs, and represent the 
best standards of citizenship; located in a neighborhood in 
which the people need to learn about this country and its cus- 
toms and to have their standards of citizenship established; 
among whom the activities of the residents of the neighbor- 
hood house are devoted to that end. There are twenty or 
more such social settlements in Chicago, not including 
churches and church missions whose object is religious rather 
than civic. All kinds of classes are conducted in the neighbor- 



[ 30 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

hood houses. Lectures are provided, entertainments are 
given. The people of the neighborhood participate actively 
in the management of these. Various local clubs of men, 
women, boys or girls are organized and have their clubrooms 
in the house. Many of these institutions have their greatest 
value as practical instructors in home-making. 

DAY NURSERIES 

Day nurseries are valuable not only for the care they pro- 
vide for young children but for the practical lessons they give 
mothers in the care of children in this country. There are 
forty-five or more of these. 

Y. M. C. A. AND KINDRED ORGANIZATIONS 

The Young Men's Christian Association, especially 
through its Americanization Department and the various 
special shop departments, is reaching many people. It stimu- 
lates enrollment for the factory classes and the night schools ; 
urges immigrants to take out their citizenship papers, both 
first, and second, and instructs them in preparation for the 
examinations; co-operates with public and private agencies 
in community "clean-up" campaigns, and in the development 
of community gardens ; maintains speakers' bureaus and pro- 
vides speakers for shop meetings; conducts series of public 
meetings, in the small parks in summer, out-doors, and in the 
park houses in winter, with lectures on subjects relating to 
good citizenship, and community singing and moving pic- 
tures. The total number of out-door meetings held last year 
was one hundred (100) and the average estimated attendance 
was thirty-one hundred (3,100) ; there were two hundred and 
thirty-two (232) indoor meetings, with an average attendance 
of two hundred and eighty (280). 

COMMUNITY SERVICE 

Some similar work has been done by the Knights of Co- 
lumbus. The Chicago Community Service, recently organ- 
ized as the successor to War Camp Community Service, has 
also outlined an extensive program along similar lines, but 
with more emphasis on recreational features and with hopes 
of covering the entire city more thoroughly. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 31 ] 

Hospitals, dispensaries, visiting nurses, children's insti- 
tutions, infant welfare work, and charitable and philan- 
thropic agencies generally contribute largely to the promotion 
of good citizenship. There are, of course, a multitude of such 
organizations in Chicago. But their work bears only indi- 
rectly on Americanization. 

PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES 

Among the constructive agencies for Americanism and 
good citizenship must be mentioned finally a new class of 
organizations, brought together specifically for the promotion 
of patriotism and good citizenship, especially as an antidote 
for the activities of "radicals" and destructionists. Many of 
these have been formed all over the country some only local, 
some with national programs. In Chicago, a number of these 
societies have agreed to merge their activities in a national 
organization known as the United Americans. This organi- 
zation has its national headquarters in New York City, and 
state committees have been organized in most of the states. It 
is the plan of this and similar organizations to stimulate all 
kinds of activities for the promotion of good citizenship, espe- 
cially by means of speaking campaigns and distribution of 
literature to overcome the malicious influence of anti- 
Americans. 

LIST OF AMERICANIZATION AGENCIES 

Following is a list of organizations in Chicago engaged 

in Americanization work. It cannot be presumed that the list 

is complete. 

Board of Education, Department of School Extension, Trib- 
une Building. There are Community Councils or com- 
mittees in connection with each of the 62 Community 
Centers under direction of this department. 

Patriotic Community Councils organized chiefly for the 
promotion of additional community centers and commu- 
nity councils 105 W. Monroe St. 

Illinois Council of Parent Teacher Associations (Mrs. Harry 
L. Fleming, Bloomington, President). 

Association of Commerce, Americanization Committee, 10 S. 
La Salle St. 

Chicago Public Library, Randolph St. and Michigan Ave. 



[ 32 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

CHURCH ORGANIZATIONS 

Social Service Departments 

Baptist Church, 125 N. Wabash Ave. 

Disciple Church, 19 S. La Salle St. 

Congregational Church, Association Bldg., 19 S. La Salle St. 

Episcopal Church, 1500 Heyworth Building. 

Lutheran Church, 159 N. State St. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, 58 E. Washington St. 

Presbyterian Church, Stevens Building, 17 N. State St. 

Chicago Church Federation, 19 S. La Salle St. 



Inter-Church World Movement, Association Building, 19 S. 
La Salle St. 

New World Movement, Baptist Church, 417 S. Dearborn St. 
The Night Church, 22 Quincy St. 



Illinois Committee on Americanization (Department of the 
Interior), 140 S. Dearborn St. 

Illinois State Committee on Immigration, State House, 
Springfield, 111. 

U. S. Immigration Service (Department of Labor), 542 S. 
Dearborn St. 

U. S. Bureau of Naturalization (Department of Labor), Fed- 
eral Building. 

The following Governmental Bureaus have been partic- 
ularly active in investigations of conspiracies against the 
government : 

U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Investigation, Fed- 
eral Building. 

War Department, Central Division, Intelligence Dept., 240 
E. Ohio St. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 33 ] 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATIONS 

The All-American League, 38 S. Dearborn St., The Execu- 
tive Committee of 33 members is representative of all 
foreign language associations. 

Polish National Alliance, 1406 W. Division St. 

Polish Women's Alliance of America, 1309 N. Ashland Ave. 

Polish Roman Catholic Union of America, 984 Milwaukee 
Ave. 

Bohemian National Alliance, 3734 W. 26th St. 

Creation League of Illinois, 2552 Wentworth Ave. 

Chicago Norske Club, 2346 N. Kedzie Ave. 

Hungarian University Club, 305 S. La Salle St. 

Swedish Club, 1258 N. La Salle St. 

Italian Benevolent Society, cor. Dearborn & Washington Sts. 

Lithuanian Women's Alliance. 

Ukranian Women's Alliance. 

SEMI-PUBLIC AGENCIES 

Social Settlements 

Abraham Lincoln Center, 700 Oakwood Blvd. 
Association House of Chicago, 2150 W. North Ave. 
Bohemian Settlement House, 1831 S. Racine Ave. 
Catholic Social Center, 308 S. Sangamon St. 
Chicago Commons, 955 W. Grand Ave. 
Chicago Hebrew Institute, 1258 W. Taylor St. 
Christopher House Association, Altgeld and Greenview Sts. 
Eli Bates House, 621 W. Elm St. 
Emerson House Association, 1901 W. Ohio St. 
Erie Chapel Institute, 1347 W. Erie St. 
Fellowship House, 831 W. 33rd St. 
Gads Hill Center, 1919 W. 20th St. 
Guardian Angels Center, 927 Polk St. 
Henry Booth House, 701 W. 14th PI. 
Hull House, 800 S. Halsted St. 
Northwestern University Settlement, 1400 Augusta St. 



[ 34 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

Olivet Institute, 444 Blackhawk St. 

Paulist Settlement and Playground of Chicago, 1122 S. 

Wabash Ave. 

St. Mary's Settlement and Day Nursery, 656 W. 44th St. 
University of Chicago Settlement, 4630 Gross Ave. 

Association of Practical Housekeeping Centers, 724 Gilpin 

PL, 4748 Bishop St. 

Augustana Central Home, 1346 N. La Salle St. 
Chicago Urban League, 3032 S. Wabash Ave. 
Chicago Woman's Aid, 41 1 48th St. 
Chicago Woman's Club, Americanization Committee, 410 

S. Michigan Ave. 

Civic Music Association of Chicago, 410 S. Michigan Ave. 
Immigrants' Protective League, 824 S. Halsted St. 
Associated Jewish Charities of Chicago, 1800 Selden St. 
Bohemian Charitable Association, 2603 S. Kedzie Ave. 
German Aid Society of Chicago, 160 N. Wells St. 
Community Service of Chicago, 108 S. La Salle St. 
Y. M. C. A. Americanization Dept, 19 S. La Salle St. 
Stock Yards Community Clearing House, Stock Yards. 
Chicago Association of Day Nurseries, 17 N. State St. 
Woman's City Club, 17 N. State St. 

INDUSTRIAL AND TRADE AGENCIES 

Attempt to publish a complete list of individual firms 
engaged in definite forms of Americanization work would be 
impractical. The activities of the International Harvester 
Company, the Illinois Steel Company and the Garment Trades 
Association are typical and outstanding examples. The Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, Americanization Committee, can fur- 
nish further information. Among national associations which 
might be mentioned are : 

National Metal Trades Association, 1021 People's Gas Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

Fire Insurance Americanization Movement, 76 Williams St., 
New York City. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 35 ] 

PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES 

American Legion, 5 S. Wabash Ave. 

American Law and Order League (Masons), 5410 S. Park 
Ave. 

Patriotic American League, 38 S. Dearborn St. 
United Americans, 38 S. Dearborn St. 
Inter-Racial Council, 764 People's Gas Building. 
Colonial Dames, 333 N. Euclid Ave., Oak Park. 
American Brotherhood, Masonic Temple Building. 

Daughters of the American Revolution, All America Shop, 
1 7 N. State St. 

National Security League, 19 W. 44th St., New York City. 

White Star League, Washington, D. C. 

National Security Council, 168 N. Michigan Ave. 

Art Service League, Art Institute. 

IV. A PROGRAM OF CO-ORDINATION. 

It would seem from this brief survey of Americanization 
agencies, that we have organizations enough. However, when 
we consider the work to be done and how far we are from 
doing it; and especially when we consider the importance of 
the work, in view not merely of unusual social unrest follow- 
ing the war, but of widespread agitation for the overthrow of 
our institutions, which agitation finds fruitful soil in the social 
unrest of the times; when we contemplate the character of 
the radical changes proposed, involving the destruction of 
representative government and the setting up instead of auto- 
cratic reigns of terror; when we bring to mind the large immi- 
gration which is almost certain to come to this country in the 
next few years, an immigration of peoples unaccustomed to 
the privileges of free citizenship when we reflect upon these 
things we are persuaded ( 1 ) that we need better co-ordina- 
tion and greatly extended activities on the part of agencies 
already existing; or (2) that we need more agencies (a sug- 
gestion which would hardly meet with general approval) ; or 



[ 36 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

(3) that we need to discover and apply wholly new methods 
to bring about among ourselves a normal and healthy state of 
mind and a broad appreciation of the splendid character of 
our government and the sure benefits to be derived by exer- 
cise of the established rights and privileges of citizenship. 
The best results will be obtained, perhaps, by the intelligent 
use of each of these remedies. But we need to avoid bureau- 
cracy and professionalism, providing opportunity rather for 
the exercise of the talents and the patriotic impulses of the 
average citizen. 

Having in mind these considerations, the Community 
Trust suggests the calling of a conference of representatives 
of Americanization agencies operating in Chicago and the 
selection by this conference of a Chicago Americanization 
Commission which shall serve as a clearing house to keep the 
agencies and the public advised of the work being done and 
needing to be done, to the end that duplication may be avoided 
and efficiency promoted. 



"An American is one who reveres our flag, loves our coun- 
try, and cherishes our ideals and institutions." 



"Americanization applies equally to the native born and 
foreign born. It means the development and possession by 
the individual of intelligent pride, loyalty, love and devotion 
to the government, institutions and ideals of the United States, 
and the practical identification of his interests with those of 
the nation and its people. It involves the practical realiza- 
tion of the doctrine of the brotherhood of man. It may take 
place in the native born by the regular and usual influences 
of home, society and the school. In the case of the foreign 
born, Americanization is mainly dependent, on the one hand, 
upon the expression of cordial welcome and sincere friend- 
liness toward him, and, on the other hand, upon his own initia- 
tive and interest, and is promoted by such social, linguistic 
and civil intercourse and education, as he may be able to find, 
and of which he may of his own accord avail himself." 

Americanization Committee, 
Chicago Association of Commerce. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO [ 37 ] 




CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST encourages bequests 
for benevolent purposes. It does so by providing a means 
whereby such gifts are protected, both as to principal and in- 
come, and the revenue distributed in accordance with the wishes 
of the donors and the conditions and needs of any time. Institutions may 
come and go, the character and efficiency of management may be greatly 
altered, present social needs may cease to exist, new needs not now 
foreseen may develop whatever conditions in established society may 
arise, the Community Trust, as a perpetual body with a personnel rep- 
resentative of the best living citizenship, is prepared to use the funds 
at its disposal to intelligently meet those conditions. 

The Community Trust was organized in Chicago in 1916, to meet 
the situation due to the fact that conditions do change have changed in 
the United States in the last hundred years that institutions once pow- 
erful and most useful have gone out of existence altogether or have 
ceased to function efficiently, and that large and small bequests left for 
the benefit of mankind by men and women of good intentions have been 
dissipated, or stand now inoperative, contrary to the wishes of the donors 
and the needs of the present. 

The management of the Chicago Community Trust is vested in an 
Executive Committee of five men, appointed, one by the Judge of the 
Federal Court in Chicago, one by the Judge of the Probate Court, one 
by the chief executive of (the City of Chicago, and two by the Harris 
Trust and Savings Bank the trustee of the only funds yet available to 
the Community Trust ; and an Advisory Council of not to exceed fifteen 
men, chosen as representative of the financial institutions and business 
interests of Chicago. Any reputable bank or trust company in the City 
of Chicago may be made the trustee or the depository of funds for the 
Community Trust. 

Community Trusts have been organized in most of the larger cities 
of the United States and are rapidly being formed elsewhere. All of 
these are organized on the same general principal and for the same 
general purposes. These purposes are so broad that no intelligent 
benevolent purpose is excluded. The plan has so strongly appealed to 
business men, philanthropists, bankers, trust officers and social workers 



[ 38 ] 



THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 



everywhere that it is predicted such Community Trusts will soon be 
organized in every important city of this country, and even in smaller 
cities and villages, and that these Community Trusts will receive and 
hold a very large part of the bequests of individuals for local benevolent 
purposes. 

The funds already at the disposal of the Chicago Community Trust 
with the principal amounting to upwards of three-quarters of a million 
dollars have been made available almost entirely through the generosity 
of the Harris family, the largest single gift being from the Norman Wait 
Harris Memorial Fund. Other gifts are desired. A prospective donor 
need not wait until death to place funds in the hands of the Community 
Trust, but, as a number have done, may give funds in trust now, the 
income or part of the principal or both of which may be devoted to such 
causes as the donor selects. The Chicago Community Trust is prepared 
to receive special donations or to give advice to contributors on practical 
uses to which special gifts may be applied. 



For further information, forms 
of bequest, etc., address The Chi- 
cago Community Trust, 1340, 10 
So. La Salle St., Chicago, Illinois. 



AMERICANIZATION IN CHICAGO 



[ 39 ] 



CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

Classification of Purposes and a Summary of Charitable Gifts 

From Beginning of Organization, January 1916, to 

December 31, 1919. 



A. 



O. 



PURPOSES 



GIFTS 



For assisting charitable Institutions (In- 
cluding educational institutions not oper- 
ated for profit) whether supported by 
private donations or public taxation, 1. e.: 

A. Charitable Institutions Relief, Per- 
sonal Assistance 

A*. Educational Institutions General 
Education; Cultural and Religious 
Activities 

For promoting scientific research along 
lines for the alleviation of human suffering, 
1. e. Social Study, Discovery, Analysis, 
Surveys 



Committee 



17,000.00 



2,350.00 



1,500.00 



In accordance 
with stipula- 
tion of Donor 



5.000.00 
9,320.31 



Total 



Care of Sick, Aged and Helpless, i. e. Phys- 
ical Care, as in Hospitals, Old People's 
Homes, Institutions for Defectives, Home 
Nursing 6,400.00 

D. Care of Children, 1. e. Physical Care of 
Dependent Children, as in Orphan Asy- 
lums, Foster Homes, and Special Schools.. 3,250.00 

E. For aiding in reformation of (1) victims of 
narcotics, drugs, and liquors, (2) released 
inmates of penal and reformatory institu- 
tions, and (3) wayward or delinquent 

persons, i. e. Individual Reformation 2,000.00 

F. For improvement of living and working 
conditions, 1. e. "Housing," "Industrial 
Relations," Community Betterment, Social 

Uplift, Economics. 1,850.00 

Q. For providing facilities for recreation, i.e., 
Leisure time activities, Playgrounds, En- 
tertainments, Dramatics, Popular Lectures. 500 . 00 

H. For encouragement of social and domestic 
hygiene, i.e., Individual and Social Moral- 
ity, Law Enforcement, Social Reform, 700 00 
Health Education 

I. For the encouragement of sanitation and 
measures for the prevention or suppression 
of disease, i.e., General Health Activities, 
such as Clean Streets, Pure Water, Pure 
Milk Campaigns 

TOTAL $35,65000 



Dec. 31, 1919. 



13,635.93 
3,514.06 



500.00 



$31,870.30 



33,670.31 
1,600.00 

20,035.93 
6,764.06 

2.000.00 

2,350.00 
600 00 
700 00 

$67.520 SO 



Total Receipts $102.053 05. Total Disbursements $79.003 25. Balance $23.049 80. 



[ 40 ] THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

THE CHICAGO COMMUNITY TRUST 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Clifford W. Barnes, Chairman, 1340 Otis Building 
E. J. Buffington, 208 South La Salle Street 
Charles S. Cutting, 5 North La Salle Street 
Abel Davis, 69 West Washington Street 
B. A. Eckhart, 1300 Carroll Avenue 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

J. Ogden Armour, President Armour and Company. 
Frank H. Armstrong, President Reid, Murdoch and Co. 
Judge Orrin N. Carter, Supreme Court of Illinois. 

James B. Forgan, Chairman Board of Directors, First 
National Bank. 

Albert W. Harris, President Harris Trust and Savings Bank. 
Morton D. Hull, Attorney, State Senator. 

Edmund D. Hulbert, President Merchants Loan and Trust 
Company. 

Charles H. Markham, President Illinois Central Railroad 
Company. 

John J. Mitchell, Chairman Board of Directors, Illinois 
Trust and Savings Bank. 

James A. Patten, Capitalist. 

Frederick H. Rawson, President Union Trust Company. 

George M. Reynolds, President Continental and Commercial 
National Bank. 

John G. Shedd, President Marshall Field and Company. 



FRANK D. LOOMIS, Acting Secretary. 

Office Address, 10 S. La Salle St. 
Room 134Q Phone Franklin 3356 
Chicago, - Illinois. 




30112064782649