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1 982-2002 


The National Endowment for the Arts, an investment 
in America's living cultural heritage, serves the public 
good by nurturing creativity, supporting community 
spirit, and fostering appreciation of the excellence and 
diversity of our nation's artistic accomplishments. 






Photos by Ray Avery, Bob Parent, and Lee Tanner 

Table of Contents 

Introduction 1 

Program Overview 3 

American Jazz Masters (Year Fellowship Awarded) 

David Baker (2000) 6 

Danny Barker (1991) 7 

Count Basie (1983) 8 

Louie Bellson (1994) 9 

Art Blakey (1988) 10 

Cleo Brown (1987) 11 

Ray Brown (1995) 12 

Dave Brubeck (1999) 13 

Donald Byrd (2000) 14 

Benny Carter (1986) 15 

Betty Carter (1992) 16 

Ron Carter (1998) 17 

Kenny Clarke (1983) 18 

Buck Clayton (1991) 19 

Ornette Coleman (1984) 20 

Miles Davis (1984) 21 

Dorothy Donegan (1992) 22 

Sweets Edison (1992) 23 

Roy Eldridge (1982) 24 

Gil Evans (1985) 25 

Art Farmer (1999) 26 

Ella Fitzgerald (1985) 27 

Tommy Flanagan (1996) 28 

Frank Foster (2002) 29 

Dizzy Gillespie (1982) 30 

Benny Golson ( 1996) 31 

Dexter Gordon (1986) 32 

Lionel Hampton (1988) 33 

Barry Harris (1989) 34 

Roy Haynes (1995) 35 

Percy Heath (2002) 36 

Joe Henderson (1999) 37 

Jon Hendricks (1993) 38 

Billy Higgins (1997) 39 

Milt Hinton (1993) 40 

Milt Jackson (1997) 41 

Ahmad Jamal (1994) 42 

J.J. Johnson (1996) 43 

Hank Jones (1989) 44 

Jo Jones (1985) 45 

Andy Kirk (1991) 46 

John Lewis (2001) 47 

Melba Liston (1987) 48 

Jackie McLean (2001) 49 

Marian McPartland (2000) 50 

Carmen McRae (1994) 51 

Jay McShann (1987) 52 

James Moody (1998) 53 

Anita O'Day (1997) 54 

Max Roach (1984) 55 

Sonny Rollins (1983) 56 

George Russell (1990) 57 

Wayne Shorter (1998) 58 

Horace Silver (1995) 59 

Sun Ra (1982) 60 

Billy Taylor (1988) 61 

Cecil Taylor (1990) 62 

Clark Terry (1991) 63 

McCoy Tyner (2002) 64 

Sarah Vaughan (1989) 65 

Randy Weston (2001) 66 

Joe Williams (1993) 67 

Gerald Wilson (1990) 68 

Teddy Wilson (1986) 69 

American Jazz Masters by Year 71 

American Jazz Masters Dizzy Gillespie and Max Roach, 1956. 



United States has produced three original art 
forms: movies, modern dance, and jazz. All 
speak to the genius of American culture. Film is 
indicative of our ability to convert new technology 
into a medium for mass consumption, frequently 
achieving the status of high art. Modern dance, an 
indigenous kinesthetic art capable of an unbounded 
range of expression, from treatments of contempo- 
rary issues to pure abstraction. And then there is 

Jazz lives at the very center of the American ver- 
nacular. It is the gift of the generations of new urban 
African American people whose capacity for the syn- 
thesis of diverse strains of musical forms bought 
schottisches, quadrilles, habaneras, and marches into 
the bases of the blues and ragtime to create a whole 
new way of making music. It was built on the disci- 
pline of collective improvisation, a remarkable skill 
when you think about it, which allowed for maxi- 
mum expression of the individual within the context 
of the group. Jazz is democratic and virtually with- 
out hierarchy: the composer is one more collaborator 
in the group, and even bandleaders do not stand 
above the soloists. 

These qualities are entirely appropriate for what 
is best about America. The old jazz principle that 
"you've got to make it new" is so American that it 
could go on the dollar bill. These defining qualities 
have made jazz arguably the United States' most wel- 
comed cultural export. It has taken root wherever it 
has been planted, moving into and becoming a part 
of the cultures of other countries and then becoming 
an aspect of their national expression, in the way 
that Russian jazz is vastly different from Afro-Cuban 
jazz. Some years ago, just after apartheid had fallen, 
I heard a young South African ensemble that com- 
prised an Indian pianist, a tabla player, a white 
female flutist, and a black bassist. Distinct traces of 
each of these musicians' heritages were audible in 
their solos, yet they performed with intimate ease. I 
thought, how marvelous that, as these young people 
are at a point in history when they can speak to each 
other as equals, jazz provides the vocabulary. 

It is no accident that jazz has been a favored 
medium of cultural diplomacy. For decades, Willis 
Conover's jazz series on the Voice of America kept 
ears open to the United States Information Agency 
(USIA) all over the world. Uncounted numbers of 
jazz musicians have traveled abroad under the aus- 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 1 

pices of the State Department. Many of the National 
Endowment for the Arts' American Jazz Masters, 
such as Dizzy Gillespie, Randy Weston ; and Billy 
Taylor, have toured the globe as our cultural repre- 

The American Jazz Masters Fellowships program 
was created to say to jazz musicians that their gov- 
ernment values the way that they keep our culture 
rich by continually producing such fabulous music. 
Mastery is a difficult status to achieve. No creative 
discipline has more than a few true masters, for it 
takes exceptional talent, dedication, hard work, and 

opportunity to become one. American Jazz Masters 
have demonstrated these qualities arid more. The 
National Endowment for the Arts is honored to rec- 
ognize these great artists for the outstanding contri- 
butions they have made to American culture. 

A. B. Spellman 

Deputy Chairman for Guidelines, Panel & Council Operations 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Author, Four Lives in the Bebop Business 

2 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Program Overview 

recognizes the importance of jazz as one of 
the great American art forms of the 20th cen- 
tury and seeks to increase awareness of our jazz her- 
itage and encourage its perpetuation. 

As part of its efforts to honor those distinguished 
artists whose excellence, impact, and significant 
contribution to jazz have helped keep this important 
tradition and art form alive, the Arts Endowment 
annually awards up to three one-time-only American 
Jazz Masters Fellowships. Each fellowship award 
is $20,000. 

Fellowships are awarded to living artists on the 
basis of nominations from the public, including the 
jazz community. The recipients must be citizens or 
permanent residents of the United States. 
Nominations are made by submitting a one-page let- 
ter that details the reasons that the nominated artist 
should receive an American Jazz Masters Fellow- 
ship. Nominations remain active for five years, 
being reviewed annually during this period. 

Once a nomination has been submitted to the 
Arts Endowment, it is reviewed by an advisory 
panel of jazz experts and at least one knowledgeable 
layperson. Panel recommendations are forwarded 
to the National Council on the Arts. The Council 
sends those nominations that it recommends for 
funding to the Chairman of the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts. 

Since the program began in 1982, 64 artists have 
been awarded American Jazz Masters Fellowships, 
making up a virtual jazz hall of fame. As is shown 
in the pages that follow, some of the biggest names 
in jazz have been honored for their artistic and 
educational contributions to jazz. 

Guidelines for the American Jazz Masters 
Fellowship program can be found on the National 
Endowment for the Arts Web site at 
The International Association of Jazz Educators 
devotes a special section of its Web site to the 
American Jazz Masters Fellowship program at, featuring video and 
audio clips of American Jazz Masters. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 3 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 


National Endowment for the Arts 
m American }azz Masters FeUowship A\ 

Buck Hill (sax) and American Jazz Master 
Clark Terry (flugelhorn) at the 1 991 
Awards ceremony. 



Names in bold in biographies 
denote American Jazz Master 
Fellowship awardees. 

All recordings listed in Selected 
Discography are under the artist's 
name unless otherwise noted. 

Years listed under recordings in 
Selected Discography denote the 
years the recordings were made. 



Born December 21, 1931 in Indianapolis 


A true jazz renaissance man, David Baker has been 
active in the jazz community as musician, com- 
poser, educator, conductor, and author. Of all the 
NEA American Jazz Masters Fellowship recipients, he is one 
of the most active as a college and university educator. 

Baker's music career began on the trombone in the early 
1950s as he worked with local groups, as well as Lionel 
Hampton, while earning his doctorate at Indiana University. 
He lived in California in 1956-57, playing in the bands of 
Stan Kenton and Maynard Ferguson, and returned to 
Indiana in 1958, leading his own big band for two 
years. He then attended the School of Jazz in 
Lenox, Massachusetts in 1959-60, joining a 
stellar class of musicians that included 
members of the Ornette Coleman Quartet. 
Shortly thereafter he worked with the 
George Russell band, playing on some 
of his influential early albums. In 
Russell's band. Baker's trombone play- 
ing displayed exceptional technique, 
utilizing avant-garde effects to accent the 

An accident to his jaw eventually 
forced Baker to abandon his promising career 
as a trombonist He switched to the cello in 
1962, concentrating on composition. As a composer 
he has i ontributed a broad range of works, from small 

ensemble to orchestral, often straddling the fence between 
jazz and chamber music. He has also worked on purely 
chamber and orchestral works. By the early 1970s, he had 
returned to the trombone — playing on Bill Evans' 1972 
album Living Time, with George Russell arranging — while 
continuing to play the cello as well. Although a strong 
player on both instruments, he is most renowned for his 

Baker became a distinguished professor of music at 
Indiana University and chairman of the Jazz Department in 
1966. He has published in numerous scholarly jour- 
-•gE) DlSCoot, nals and has written several musical treatises as 

well as having authored more than 60 books 
on jazz and African American music. Since 
1991, Baker has been the artistic and musi- 
cal director of the acclaimed Smithsonian 
Jazz Masterworks Orchestra. 

He has received numerous 
awards and citations, including being 
nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1973 
for his composition Levels, a concerto for 
bass, jazz band, woodwinds, and strings. 
He has served as a member of the NEA's 
National Council on the Arts, was founding 


George Russell, Stratusphunk, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

George Russell, Ezz-thetics, 
Original Jazz Classics. 1961 

George Russell, The Stratus Seekers, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra 

Big Band Treasures Live, Smithsonian 

Recordings, 1996 

Steppin'Out, Liscio, 1998 

president of the National Jazz Sendee 
Organization, and is president-elect of the 
International Association of Jazz Educators. 

6 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 






Born January 13, 1909 in New Orleans, LA 
Died March 13, 1994 

Upholder of the New Orleans tradition of jazz and 
blues, this master guitar and banjo player was as 
well known for his humor and storytelling as for his 
playing. Many of the younger New Orleans musicians also 
credit him with providing invaluable information, instruc- 
tion, and mentoring. 

He started his musical training on the clarinet, instructed 
by the great Barney Bigard, and moved on to the drums, 
taught by his uncle, Paul Barbarin. These instances of musi- 
cal mentoring and instruction available in New Orleans 
would inspire him to carry on the tradition of mentoring 
younger musicians. He later took up the ukulele and the 
banjo, and began finding work with jazz and blues artists 
such as the Boozan Kings and Little Brother Montgomery. 
In 1930 he moved to New York, where he met his wife, 
vocalist Blue Lu Barker, with whom he frequently recorded. 
He also wrote many of the songs she performed, such as 
"Don't You Feel My Leg." By then he had switched from 
banjo to guitar and found work with Sidney Bechet, James P. 
Johnson, Albert Nicholas, Fess Williams, and Henry "Red" 
Allen. He spent the rest of the 1930s working with the big 
bands of Lucky Millinder, Benny Carter, and Cab Calloway, 
with whom he stayed for seven years. 

In the late 1940s he traveled as a freelance musician, 
making recordings in Los Angeles and New Orleans. In 
1947, Baker appeared on the This Is jazz radio series, and 

began playing banjo again. He returned to New York in 
1949, working with trombonists Wilbur De Paris and Conrad 
Janis, and accompanied his wife on gigs. In the early 1960s, 
he led his own band at Jimmy Ryan's on 52nd Street, then 
returned to the Crescent City in 1965. Barker continued 
playing up to the end of his life, even appearing on the Dirty 
Dozen Brass Band's 1993 recording, felly. A number of his 
compositions have been widely interpreted, such as "Save 
the Bones for Henry Jones." 

Just as important as his performing career were his edu- 
cational activities. When he returned home to New Orleans 
in 1965, he worked for 10 years as an assistant curator for 
the New Orleans Jazz Museum, help- 
ing to continue interest in the 
culture and tradition of the 
music. He also mentored 
young musicians through 
his leadership of the 
Fairview Baptist Church 
Brass Band. Barker was a 
writer as well, co-author- 
ing with Jack Buerkle a 
study on New Orleans 
music:, Bourbon Street 
Blnck, and writing his 
memoirs, A Life in jazz. 


Blue Lu Barker, 1938-39, 
Classics, 1938-39 

Blue Lu Barker, 1946-49, 
Classics, 1946-49 

Save the Bones, Orleans, 1988 

Blue Lu Barker, Live at New Orleans 
Jazz Festival, Orleans, 1989 

Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Jelly, 
Columbia, 1993 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 7 

ffliam "Count' 


Born August 21 , 1 904 in Red Bank, NJ 
Died April 26, 1984 

Though a pianist and occasional organist, Count Basie's 
fame stems mainly from his history as one of the great 
bandleaders. Basie's arrangements made good use of 
soloists, allowing musicians such as Lester Young, Buck 
Clayton, Sweets Edison, and Frank Foster to create some of 
their best work. Although his strength was as a bandleader, 
Basie's sparse piano style often delighted audiences with its 
swinging simplicity. 

Basie's first teacher was his mother, who taught him 
piano. Later, the informal organ lessons from his mentor 
Fats Waller helped him find work in a theater accompany- 
ing silent films. In 1927, Basie found himself in Kansas 
City, playing with two of the most famous bands in the city: 
Walter Page's Blue Devils and the Bennie Moten band. In 
1935, Basie started his own Kansas City band, engaging the 
core of the Moten band. They performed nightly radio 
broadcasts, which caught the attention of music producer 
John Hammond. In 1936, Hammond brought the Basie 
band to New York, where it opened at the Roseland 
Ballroom. By the next year, the band was a fixture on 52nd 
Street, in residence at the Famous Door. 

During this time the key to Basie's band was what 
became known as the "All-American Rhythm Section:" 
Freddie Green on guitar, Walter Page on bass, and Jo Jones 
on drums. The horns were also quite potent, including 
Lester Young. Earl Warren, and Herschel Evans on saxo- 
phones; Buck Clayton and Sweets Edison on trumpets; and 
Benny Morton and Dicky Wells on trombones. With a 
swinging rhythm set Sod and top-notch soloists in the horn 




The Original American Decca 
Recordings. MCA, 1937 '-39 

April in Paris. Verve, 1956 

The Complete Atomic Basie, 
Roulette, 1957 

Count Basie and the Kansas City 7, 
Impulse!. 1962 

The Basie Big Band. 
Pablo, 1975 

section, Basie's band 
became one of the most 
popular between 1937-49, 
scoring such swing hits as 
"One O'Clock Jump" and 
"Jumpin' at the Woodside." 
Lester Young's tenor saxo- 
phone playing during this 
period, in particular on such 
recordings as "Lester Leaps In" and 
"Taxi War Dance," influenced jazz musi- 
cians for years to come. In addition. Basie's use of great 
singers such as Helen Humes and Jimmy Rushing enhanced 
his band's sound and popularity. 

Economics forced Basie to pare down to a septet in 
1950. By 1952 he had returned to his big band sound, 
organizing what became euphemistically known as his 
"New Testament" band, which began a residency at 
Birdland in New York. The new band retained the same 
high standards of musicianship as the earlier version, with 
such standouts as Frank Foster, Frank Wes. Eddie 
"Lockjaw" Smith, Thad Jones, and Joe Williams. Foster's 
composition "Shiny Stockings" and Williams' rendition of 
"Every Day" brought Basie a couple of much needed hits in 
the mid-1950s. In addition to achieving success with his 
own singers, he also enjoyed acclaim for records backing 
such stars as Frank Sinatra, Sammv Davis. Jr., and Tony 
Bennett. Basie continued to perform and record until his 
death in 1984. 

8 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



(Luigi Paulino Balassoni) 

Born July 26, 1924 in Rock Falls, IL 



One of the last survivors of the big band leaders, Louie 
Bellson is a pioneer of several technical innovations 
on the drums, including the use of double bass 
drums, and a leading educator in jazz drum. 

At 16, he won first prize in a national drumming contest 
sponsored by Gene Krupa. The next year, he occu- 
pied Krupa's former chair as drummer with the 
Benny Goodman band. Thereafter, his big 
band reputation growing rapidly, he pow- 
ered the Tommy Dorsey, Harry James, and 
Count Basie bands. But his most famous 
affiliation came with the Duke Ellington 
orchestra, starting with a 1951-53 stint. 
Not only was he Ellington's drummer, 
but the bandleader also performed some 
of Bellson 's earliest arrangements, such 
as "Skin Deep" and "The Hawk Talks." 
His relationship with Ellington continued 
long after he served the band as its regular 
drummer. Bellson appeared with Ellington on 
special occasions, such as the recording of A Dram 
is a Woman in 1956, and Ellington's first sacred concert in 

1965. Ellington considered him one of the best drummers 
in jazz. 

After leaving the Ellington band in 1953, Bellson served 
as musical director for his wife, singer Pearl Bailey, and also 
led his own big bands, which included significant soloists 
such as Blue Mitchell, Conte Candoli, Bobby Shew, 
^•gt) dis Cog» an< ^ ^ at Anderson. He also performed on the all- 




Live at the Flamingo Hotel 1959, 
Jazz Hour, 1959 

Jam with Blue Mitchell, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1978 

Raincheck, Concord, 1 978 

Hot, Musicmasters, 1987 

Live from New York, 
Telarc, 1993 

star Jazz at the Philharmonic tours and 
rejoined the Dorsey and James bands for 
brief periods. 

Since the 1960s, Bellson has been 
involved in educational work, teaching 
young musicians his dynamic drum- 
ming technique. In the 1970s and 
1980s, he could frequently be found on 
recordings from impresario Norman 
Granz's Pablo label, as well as the 
Concord label. He has published many of 
his scores, including his jazz ballet The 
Marriage Vows. For more than twenty years he 
has led big bands internationally, and continued to 
tour through the 1990s, often with a quintet. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 9 


Born October 11, 1919 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Oied October 16, 1990 



Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers not only supplied consis- 
tently exciting and innovative music for nearly 40 
years, but also provided the experience and mentor- 
ing for young musicians to learn their trade. Though self- 
taught, Blakey was already leading his own dance band by 
age 14. Blakey's first noted sideman job came in 1942 with 
Mary Lou Williams, whom he joined for a club engagement 
at Kelly's Stables in New York. The following year he joined 
the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, where he stayed until 
joining Billy Eckstine's modern jazz big band in 1944. A 
subsequent trip to Africa, ostensibly to immerse himself in 
Islam, revealed to him that jazz was truly an American 
music, which he preached from the bandstand thereafter. 
He adopted the Muslim name of Abdullah Ibn Buhaina, but 
continued to record under Art Blakey. 

In the early 1950s, he worked with such greats as Miles 
Davis, Charlie Parker, Horace Silver, and Clifford Brown. 
The latter two became members of the Jazz Messengers, 
which was originally a cooperative unit. Brown, then 
Silver, loft to form their own bands and Blakey became the 
leader of the Jazz Messengers. The Messengers went on to 
play in a style that critics called hard bop, a logical progres- 
sion on the bebop style that was more hard-driving and 
blues-oriented. The Messengers made a concerted effort at 
rekindling the black audience for jazz that had begun to 
erode when the ballroom era of jazz declined. 

Blakey powered his bands with a distinctive, take-no- 
prisoners style of drumming that recalled the thunderous 
and communicative drum traditions of Africa. Though his 
drumming became among the most easily recognized 
sounds in jazz, Blakey always played for the band, prodding 
on his immensely talented colleagues' solos. 

From the first Jazz Messengers band he formed. Blakey 
has welcomed generations of exceptional young musicians 
who have evolved into prominent bandleaders and contribu- 
tors themselves. That list, reading like a Who's Who of jazz, 
includes Donald Byrd, Johnny Griffin, Lee Morgan. Benny 
Golson, Wayne Shorter, Freddie Hubbard. Keith Jarrett, 
Woody Shaw, Joanne Brackeen. Bobby Watson, James 
Williams, and three of the Marsalis brothers (Wynton. 
Branford, and Delfeayo). His mentoring of Uiese musicians, 

helping them to hone their skills 
<?&D DISCOQ& an< i preparing them to lead 



A Night at Birdland, Vols. 1-2. 
Blue Note, 1954 

Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers 
with Thelonious Monk. Atlantic, 1957 

Moanin'. Blue Note, 1958 

Buhaina's Delight. 
Blue Note, 1961 

Keystone 3. Concord, 1982 

their own bands, has 
helped keep the jazz tra- 
dition alive and thriv- 
ing. For the remain- 
der of his career. 
Blakey continued to 
take the Jazz 
Messengers message 
across die globe. 

10 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 

pimo vocals wMm ^J WW U 

Born December 8, 1909 in Meridian, MS 
Died April 15, 1995 

Cleo Brown bears the distinction of being the first 
woman instrumentalist honored with the NEA 
American Jazz Masters Fellowship. Her family 
moved to Chicago in 1919 and four years later, at age 14, she 
started working professionally with a vaudeville show. Her 
brother Everett, who worked with "Pine Top" Smith, taught 
her the boogie woogie piano style that became her trade- 

Brown performed in the Chicago area during the late 
1920s. In 1935, she replaced Fats Waller on his New York 
radio series on WABC, and soon began recording. Her ver- 
sion of "Pine Top's Boogie Woogie" was influential 
on pianists that came after her, and she is cred- 
ited with being an early influence on Dave 
Brubeck, who played during the intermis- 
sions of her shows, and Marian 
McPartland, among others. Through the 
1950s she worked frequently at that city's 
Three Deuces club, establishing a reputa- 

tion as a two-fisted, driving pianist. Brown began to gain 
international renown for her work, and she continued to 
perform regularly in New York, Hollywood, Las Vegas, Los 
Angeles, and San Francisco until 1953, making records for 
Capitol Records and performing with the Decca All-Stars, 
among others. 

Brown then dropped out of the music business com- 
pletely and took up full-time nursing. After retiring from 
nursing in 1973, she returned to music, spending her latter 
years as a church musician in her Seventh Day Adventist 
Church in Denver, Colorado. In 1987, Marian McPartland 
sought out Brown as a guest on her long-running 
,£g£> DlSCoob radio series, Piano Jazz. A recording of the pro- 

•fyp gram was released as Living in the Afterglow, 
Brown's last recording. Although all the 
numbers are gospel songs (many are origi- 
nals by Brown), they are played in the 
same rollicking style as her 1930s 

Various Artists, Boogie Woogie Stomp, 
ASV/Living Era, 1930s-40s 

The Legendary Cleo Brown, President, 1 930s 

Boogie Woogie, Official, 1935-36 

Here Comes Cleo, Hep, 1935-36 

Living in the Afterglow, 
Audiophile, 1987 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 1 1 




o ^$D DISCOq^ 




Born October 13, 1926 in Pittsburgh, PA 

Oscar Peterson, The Ultimate 
Oscar Peterson, Verve, 1 956-64 

Much in Common, Verve, 1962-65 

Summer Wind: Live at the Loa, Concord, 1988 

Ray Brown's dexterity and rich sound on the bass have 
made him one of the most popular and prolific musi- 
cians in jazz for over 50 years. The Penguin Guide to 
Jazz on CD notes that Brown is the most cited musician in 
the first edition of the guide, both for his own small ensem- 
ble work and as a sideman, testifying to his productivity. 

Brown studied the piano from age eight and began play- 
ing the bass at 17, performing his first professional job at a 
Pittsburgh club in 1943. His first significant tour was with 
bandleader Snookum Russell in 1944, whereupon he moved 
to New York the following year. By 1946 he was working in 
Dizzy Gillespie's band, and in 1948 he formed a trio with 
Hank Jones and Charlie Smith. In 1948, he married Ella 
Fitzgerald and became musical director on her own tours 
and her Jazz at the Philharmonic tours until their breakup 
in 1952. In 1951, he began a stint with the Oscar Peterson 
Trio that lasted until 1966. It was in Peterson's group 
that Brown's prowess on the bass began getting attention, 
anchoring the trio's sound in both the piano-guitar and 
piano-drums configurations. 

In the mid-1960s, Brown co-led a quintet with vibist 
Milt Jackson, with whom he had worked in the 1940s as 
part of Dizzy Gillespie's rhythm section and later as a mem- 

Some of My Best Friends Are.... 
The Sax Players. Je\aK. 1995 

Ray Brown with John Clayton and 

Christian McBride, Super Bass 2, 

Telarc, 2001 

ber of the Milt Jackson 
Quartet, the precursor 
to the Modern Jazz 
Quartet. In the late 
1970s to early 1980s, 
Brown formed his first full- 
time trio, which was to become 
his favored touring and performance unit 
over the next couple of decades, and utilized a variety of 
up-and-coming musicians in his bands, including pianists 
Gene Harris, Monty Alexander. Benny Green, and Geoff 
Keezer and drummers Jeff Hamilton, Lewis Nash, Gregory 
Hutchinson, and Kariem Riggins. 

Brown has also been involved in jazz education, includ- 
ing authoring the Ray Brown Bass Book 1, an instructional 
volume. He has served as mentor to numerous young musi- 
cians, including those who have passed through his groups 
and special guests he invited to play on a series of 1990s 
recordings for the Telarc label titled Some of My Best 
Friends are.... These have included pianists, saxophonists, 
trumpeters, and vocalists. Some of the great younger 
bassists, such as John Clayton and Christian McBride, count 
him as a major influence on their sound. 

12 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 





n ^,^- 





Born December 6, 1920 in Concord, CA 

Dave Brubeck has been one of the most enduringly 
popular jazz musicians in the world since the 1960s 
without ever compromising his artistry. His experi- 
ments with odd time signatures and development of his 
own unique ensemble sound have been hallmarks of his 

Born into a musically inclined family — his mother was a 
music teacher and classical pianist, and two of his brothers 
teach music as well — he was exposed to music from an 
early age and began taking piano lessons from his mother at 
age eleven. His studies with French classical composer 
Darius Milhaud at Mills College had a strong influence on 
his later sound, as did the boogie woogie pianists of the 
1930s, like Cleo Brown. 

His first real group, The Three D's, eventually led to for- 
mation of a larger ensemble with cohorts Paul Desmond, 
Bill Smith, and Cal Tjader, followed 

Jan at Oberlin, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1953 

Time Out, Columbia. 1959 

The Real Ambassadors, 
Columbia/Legacy, 1962 

All the Things We Are, 
Atlantic, 1973-74 

In Their Own Sweet Way, 
Telarc, 1997 

by the formation of his trio 

between 1949-51. In the early 
1950s, he expanded the 
band to include Desmond, 
and began touring. His 
set at Oberlin College 
became a huge success, 
leading Brubeck to be 
the first jazz artist to 
make the cover of Time 
magazine in 1954. His 
interest in sonic textures 

and modulations led to an album of experiments in time 
signatures unusual for jazz, such as 5/4 and 9/8. That 
album, Time Out, became the first million-selling jazz album 
on the strength of two tunes: Desmond's "Take Five" and 
Brubeck's "Blue Rondo a la Turk." Both became permanent 
parts of his repertoire. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, his 
popularity increased as he criss-crossed the globe with his 
famous quartet. 

Brubeck continued to experiment with his compositions, 
pioneering the combination of jazz with symphony orches- 
tras and creating orchestral works (including a 1959 concert 
with Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic) 
and ballets, such as Points on Jazz, commissioned by 
American Ballet Theatre. Keen among his compositional 
interests have been religious themes, which have been real- 
ized in his oratorios, cantatas, choral works, and masses. 
Brubeck also wrote a musical theatre piece, The Real 
Ambassadors, dealing with the exceptional powers of jazz 
artists to travel the globe spreading their unique message. 
Among others, it featured Louis Armstrong, Carmen McRae, 
and Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, with lyrics by Brubeck's 
wife Iola. Brubeck's interest in examining all types of music 
is best demonstrated by his recording with avant-garde jazz 
saxophonist Anthony Braxton. 

Since the early 1970s, Brubeck has been touring as Two 
Cenerations of Brubeck with his three jazz-playing sons, 
Darius, Dan, and Chris. He has been the recipient of numer- 
ous awards, including a National Medal of the Arts awarded 
by President Clinton in 1994. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 13 


Born December 9, 1932 in Detroit, I 

A pioneer jazz educator on African American college 
and university campuses, as well as general colleges 
and universities, Donald Byrd has also been a 
leading improviser on trumpet. Raised in the home of 
a Methodist minister and musician, he learned music 
in the then highly regarded music education system 
in the Detroit high schools. Byrd went on to earn 
degrees from Wayne State University and the 
Manhattan School of Music, eventually earning a 
doctorate from the University of Colorado School of 
Education. He studied music with the famed 
teacher Nadia Boulanger in Paris in 1963. 

Byrd played in the Air Force band during 1951-52, 
then relocated to New York. Some of his earliest gigs in 
New York were with the George Wallington group at Cafe 
Bohemia. He joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers in 
December 1955. Following his Messengers experience, he 
worked in a variety of bands with Max Roach, John 
Coltrane, Red Garland, and Gigi Gryce, refining his playing 
skills. In 1958 he co-led a band with fellow Detroiter 
Pepper Adams, which continued for the next three years. 
In the early 1960s, he became a bandleader of his own 
touring quintet. During 1965-66 he was a house arranger for 
the Norwegian Radio Orchestra. It was also at this time that 

he became more active as an educator, 
rf.-g,D DISCOG ft teaching at New York's Music & Art 

^ C **<ffy High School. He held clinics for 

the National Stage Band Camps, 
giving private lessons and 
instruction. Among the col- 
lege and university teaching 
appointments that followed 
were Rutgers University. 
Hampton University, Howard 
University, North Carolina 
Central University, North 
Texas State, and Delaware 
State University. He also earned 
a law degree between teaching 
At Howard University, where he was chair- 
man of the Black Music Department, he brought together a 
group of talented students to form Donald Byrd & the Black- 
byrds, a pop-jazz band that had a hit record for Blue Note, 
and continued to record — sans Byrd — for the Fantasy label. 
His recorded innovations also included the use of vocal cho- 
rus, which resulted in his popular recording of "Cristo 
Redemptor," as well as his engagements of gospel texts. 

First Flight, Denmark, 1955 

Early Byrd, Blue Note, 1960-72 

Donald Byrd at the Half Note Cafe. 
Vols. 1-2, Blue Note, 1960 

Black Byrd, Blue Note, 1974 

Motor City Scene, Rhino, 1994 

14 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 




One of the last survivors of the swing era, Benny 
Carter has made memorable impressions as a great 
bandleader and improviser with a highly influential 
style. Largely self-taught, Carter's first instrument was the 
trumpet, although the alto saxophone eventually became his 
principle instrument. Some of his earliest professional jobs 
were with bands led by cornetist June Clark and pianist Earl 
"Fatha" Hines, where his unusual ability to play both trum- 
pet and saxophone was highly regarded. In 1930-31 he 
spent a year with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, then for 
a short time he succeeded Don Redman as musical director 
of McKinney's Cotton Pickers. During the early 1930s, he 
also made his first recordings with the Chocolate Dandies, 
which included Coleman Hawkins. In 1932, Carter 
formed his own big band. At various times the 
band included such significant players as Ben 
Webster, Chu Berry, Teddy Wilson, Dicky 
Wells, Bill Coleman, and Sid Catlett. 

In 1934, Carter dissolved his band and 
migrated to Europe the next year, where 
he served as a staff arranger for the BBC 
Orchestra in London until 1938. His 
work in Europe took on an ambassadorial 

Born August 8, 1907 in New York, NY 

tint, playing as a freelance soloist with musicians in 
England and France and leading a multiethnic band in 
Scandinavia in 1937. Growing resdess, Carter returned to 
the U.S. in 1938 and assembled a new big band, which 
became house band at the Savoy Ballroom through 1940. In 
1942, with another new band in tow, he settled in Los 
Angeles, his longtime home base. With lucrative film stu- 
dios calling, Carter began scoring films and television. He 
became one of the first African Americans to be employed 
in the field, easing the way for other black composers. His 
first film work was in 1943 on Stormy Weather. 

Starting in 1946, with his composing and arranging 
skills in constant demand, Carter disbanded his orchestra 
and became largely a freelance player. He partici- 




All of Me, 
Bluebird, 1934-59 

Jazz Giant, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957-58 

Further Definitions, 
Impulse!, 1961-66 

pated in tours with Jazz at the Philharmonic 
and wrote arrangements for major singers 
such as Ray Charles, Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy 
Lee, Sarah Vaughan, and Louis 
Armstrong. Many of his subsequent 
recordings, such as the widely hailed 
Further Definitions, are evidence of tin- 
depth of his composing and arranging 

In the Mood for Swing, 
MusicMasters, 1987 

Harlem Renaissance, 
MusicMasters, 1992 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 15 


(Lillie Mae Jones) 

Born May 16. 1930 in Flint, Ml 

Died September 26, 1998 

Betty Carter developed a legendary reputation, along 
with Art Blakey, as one of the great mentors for young 
jazz musicians. Equally legendary was her singing 
prowess, creating a distinctive style of improvisation that 
could transcend any song. 

Carter studied piano at the Detroit Conservatory, a skill 
that served her well later in her career in writing original 
songs. Growing up in Detroit, she was exposed to numer- 
ous jazz greats who passed through town, even getting a 
golden opportunity as a teenager to sit in with Charlie 
Parker. Carter's big break came in 1948, when she was 
asked to join the Lionel Hampton band. Developing her 
vocal improvisations during the three years with the band 
led to her singular singing style. Hampton, impressed with 
her saxophone-like improvisatory vocals, dubbed her 
"Betty Bebop." After leaving Hampton's band, she worked 
variously with such greats as Miles Davis, Ray Charles, and 
Sonny Rollins before creating her own band. 

Although she recorded for major record labels early in 
her career, Carter became increasingly frustrated with record 
company dealings and disparities and formed her own label 
Bet-Car in 1971, one of the first jazz artists to do so. Selling 
her own recordings through various distributors, she was 
able to sustain her performing career. Carter was uncomfort- 
able with studio recordings, but live recordings, like The 
Audience with Betty Carter, demonstrate her remarkably 

inventive singing and her ability to drive the band. 

Carter's bands served a dual purpose: for her to create 
her own great music and to help the young musicians 
develop their craft. Many of the musicians who passed 
through her groups went on to lead their own groups, such 

as Geri Allen, Stephen Scott, Don 
„ r <£6D DISCOG& Braden, and Christian 






I Can't Help It, 
Impulse!, 1958-60 

McBride. She also devel- 
oped a mentoring pro- 
gram called Betty 
Carter's Jazz Ahead 
through links with 
organizations like the 
Association of Jazz 
Educators, 651 Arts, 
and the Kennedy 
Center. The program 
was a one-to-two week 
teaching seminar where 
nationally selected promising 
young jazz musicians learned from Carter and other sea- 
soned musicians, culminating in a final concert of instruc- 
tors and students together. Jazz Ahead was one of Carter's 
proudest achievements, and she worked with the program 
up until her death. 

At the Village Vanguard, 
Verve, 1970 

The Audience with Betty Carter, 
Verve, 1979 

Look What I Got, 
Verve, 1988 

Feed the Fire, 
Verve, 1993 

16 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 

• •♦• 



Born May 4, 1937 in Ferndale, I 

Ron Carter's dexterity and harmonic sophistication 
have few rivals in the history of bass in jazz. In addi- 
tion to the bass, he has also employed both the cello 
and the piccolo bass (a downsized bass pitched somewhere 
between cello and contrabass), one of the first musicians to 
use those instruments in jazz settings. 

His pursuit of music began with the cello, at age 10. 
One of the many students aspiring to be musicians in the 
Detroit public schools, he switched to the bass at Cass Tech 
High School. He studied at the Eastman School of Music in 
Rochester, New York and eventually made his way to New 
York City, where he earned his master's degree in Music 
from the Manhattan School of Music in 1961. He began 
freelancing, playing with a host of jazz greats, such as Chico 
Hamilton, Randy Weston, Bobby 
.f-t'ED DISC OGto Timmons, Thelonious Monk 



Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

Miles Davis, E.S.P.. 
Columbia, 1965 

Live at Village West, 
Concord, 1982 

Kronos Quartet, The Complete Landmark 
Recordings, 32 Jazz, 1984 

The Bass and I, 
Blue Note, 1997 

and Art Farmer. He cut 

three substantial albums 
with the great saxophon- 
ist Eric Dolphy, two 
under Dolphy's name 
and one under Carter's. 
Carter's Where? and 
Dolphy's Out There 
wore groundbreaking in 
that Carter played cello 
against George Duvivier's 
bass, creating a rich lower 
texture against which Dolphy 
;ould contrast his horn playing. 

In 1963, he joined Miles Davis in what would become 
the trumpeter's second great quintet, eventually including 
Wayne Shorter, Tony Williams, and Herbie Hancock. Davis 
even recorded some of Carter's compositions, notably on 
E.S.P., and the rhythm section of Carter, Williams, and 
Hancock pushed the horn section to greater heights. He 
remained with Davis from 1963-68, whereupon he grew 
tired of the rigors of the road, preferring to freelance, lead 
his own groups, and teach. Among the cooperative bands 
he performed with during the remainder of the 1960s were 
the New York Jazz Sextet and the New York Bass Choir. 
Throughout the 1970s, he was a recording studio bassist in 
high demand, though he never stopped gigging with a vari- 
ety of artists and bands, including several touring all-star 
units such as the CTI All-Stars, V.S.O.R (ostensibly a 
reunion of the Davis band minus the leader), and the 
Milestone Jazzstars. 

His freelance work has continued throughout his career, 
including chamber and orchestral work, film and television 
soundtracks, and even some hip hop recordings. In 1984, 
he performed with the avant-garde string quartet, Kronos 
Quartet, on an album of Thelonious Monk recordings (now 
collected on The Complete Landmark Recordings). Carter 
continues to record with young musicians such as Stephen 
Scott and Lewis Nash, and his college and university teach- 
ing career has also been quite active. He is on the faculty of 
the City College of New York, and has written four books on 
bass playing. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 17 


Born January 2, 1 91 4 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died January 26, 1985 

Kenny Clarke, known among musicians as "Klook" for 
one of his characteristic drum licks, is truly a jazz 
pioneer. He was a leader in the rhythmic advances 
that signaled the beginning of the modern jazz era, his drum 
style becoming the sound of bebop and influencing drum- 
mers such as Art Blakey and Max Roach. 

Clarke studied music broadly growing up, including 
piano, trombone, drums, vibraphone, and theory while in 
high school. Such versatility of knowledge would later 
serve him well as a bandleader. Clarke moved to New York 
in late 1935, where he first began developing his unique 
approach to the drums, one with a wider rhythmic palette 
than that of the swing band drummers. Instead of marking 
the count with the top cymbal, Clarke used counter-rhythms 
to accent the beat, what became known as "dropping of 

He found a kindred spirit in Dizzy Gillespie when they 
hooked up in Teddy Hill's band in 1939. A key opportunity 
to further expand his drum language came in late 1940 
when he landed a gig in the house band (with Thelonious 
Monk on piano, and Nick Fenton on bass) at Minton's 
Playhouse. It was this trio that welcomed such fellow trav- 
elers as guitarist Charlie Christian, Gillespie, and a host of 
others to its nightly jam sessions. These sessions became 
the primary laboratory for their brand of jazz, which came to 
be called bebop. 

A stint in the Army from 1943-46 introduced him to 
pianist John Lewis. After their discharge he and Lewis 

,-fcD DISCOoi, 

Modern Jazz Quartet, 

The Artistry of the Modem Jazz Quartet. 

Prestige, 1952-55 

Bohemia After Dark, Savoy, 1 955 

Discoveries, Savoy, 1955 

Kenny Clarke Meets the Detroit Jazzmen. 
Savoy, 1956 

Clarke-Boland Big Band, 
RTE, 1968 

joined Gillespie's bebop big 
band, which gave Clarke 
his first taste of Paris dur- 
ing a European tour, a 
place that eventually 
became his home for 
nearly 30 years. After 
returning to New York, he 
joined the Milt Jackson 
Quartet, which metamorphosed 
into the Modern Jazz Quartet in 
1952. Though he and Lewis 
remained friends, Clarke chafed at what he felt 
was the too-staid atmosphere of the MJQ. In 1956, he 
migrated to Paris, working with Jacques Helian's band and 
backing up visiting U.S. jazz artists. 

During the years 1960-73, he co-led the major Europe- 
based jazz big band with Belgian pianist Francy Boland, the 
Clarke-Boland Big Band. The band featured the best of 
Europe's jazz soloists, including a number of exceptional 
U.S. expatriate musicians living in Europe. Among these 
were saxophonists Johnny Griffin and Sahib Shihab, and 
trumpeter Idrees Sulieman. After the disbanding of his big 
band, he found numerous opportunities both on the band- 
stand and teaching in the classroom, remaining quite active 
as a freelancer, often working with visiting U.S. jazz musi- 
cians, until his death in 1985. 

18 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born November 12, 1911 in Parsons, KS 
Died December 8, 1991 

A valued member of a variety of classic big bands, 
Buck Clayton was versatile enough to thrive as a 
bandleader, session man, and trumpet soloist. 
Clayton first studied piano with his father beginning at age 
six, taking up the trumpet at age 17. He played in his 
church's orchestra until 1932 when he moved to California, 
taking various band jobs. In 1934, Clayton assembled his 
own band and took it to China for two years. 

He joined Count Basie's band in Kansas City in 1936 at 
the height of its popularity, playing his first promi- 
nent solo on "Fiesta in Blue." He wrote several 
arrangements for Basie, including "Taps 
Miller" and "Red Bank Boogie," before 
joining the Army in 1943. Following his 
discharge, he performed around New 
York through the end of the decade. 
Jazz at the Philharmonic tours took him 
overseas, and he made record sessions 
with artists like Jimmy Rushing and 
wrote charts for Duke Ellington and 
Harry James. In the early 1950s, he part- 
nered with pianist Joe Bushkin in the first 

of the influential Embers quartets. Other artists he worked 
with include Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Eddie 
Condon, Sidney Bechet, and Humphrey Littleton. His 
ability to improvise in a variety of styles made him much 
in demand for sessions, especially with vocalists such as 
Billie Holiday. 

Physical issues with his embouchure — how the mouth 
forms against the mouthpiece of the instrument — caused 
him to relinquish the trumpet from 1972 until late in the 

decade, when he was able to resume playing. While 
-•gp DISCOGft he was unable to perform, Clayton wrote arrange- 

^^ *tu men ts for various bands. That skill was fully 

exercised when he put together his own big 

The Classic Swing of Buck Clayton, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1946 

Buck Special, Vogue, 1949-53 

Jam Sessions from the Vaults, 
Columbia, 1953-56 

Buck and Buddy, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

A Swingin' Dream, Stash, 1988 

band in the mid-1980s, playing almost 
exclusively his own compositions and 
arrangements. He also became an educa- 
tor, teaching at Hunter College in the 
1980s. He continued to freelance for the 
remainder of his career, being called 
upon as an honored soloist, and spent 
much of his last two decades teaching, lec- 
turing, and arranging. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 19 



Born March 19, 1930 in Ft. Worth, TX 

Omette Coleman is one of the true jazz innovators, 
whose sound is instantly recognizable and unques- 
tionably unique. Coleman's work has ranged from 
dissonance and atonality to liberal use of electronic accom- 
paniment in his ensembles, as well as the engagement of 
various ethnic influences and elements from around the 
globe. While experimenting with time and tone, his strong 
blues root is always evident. 

For the most part, Coleman has been self-taught, begin- 
ning on the alto saxophone at age 14. Coleman's earliest 
performing experiences were mostly with local rhythm & 
blues bands. Coleman eventually settled in Los Angeles in 
1952. His search for a different sound and approach, a 
means of escaping traditional chord patterns and progres- 
sions, led some critics to suggest that he did not know how 
to play his instrument. However, he was studying harmony 
and theory zealously from books while supporting himself 
as an elevator operator. His performances in clubs and jam 
sessions were often met with derision if not outright rejec- 
tion and anger from his fellow musicians and critics. 
Coleman soldiered on, honing his sound with like-minded 
musicians, including trumpeter Don Cherry, drummer Billy 
Higgins, and bassist Charlie Haden. 

The year 1959 was an important one for Coleman and 
his band mates: he signed a recording contract with Atlantic 
Records, recording the first album to really present his new 
sound. Tomorrow Is The Question!: his quartet was invited 
to participate in what became a historic session at the Lenox 
Si tool nl Jazz in Massachusetts, being championed by John 
Lewis ,md ( iunthei Schuller; and the band began an 


The Shape of Jazz to Come, 
Atlantic, 1959-60 

Free Jazz, Atlantic, 1960 

At the Golden Circle, Stockholm, 
Vol. 1-2. Blue Note, 1965 

In All Languages. 
Verve/Harmolodic, 1987 

Verve/Harmolodic, 1 996 

extended engagement at the Five 
Spot Cafe in New York. 
Meanwhile, Omette Coleman 
was developing an approach 
to his music that he was to 
dub "harmolodics." 

Coleman's albums for 
Atlantic, while tame by 
today's standards, were 
quite controversial at the 
time. Perhaps the most con- 
troversial of this series of 
albums was Free Jazz, recorded 
with a double quartet as essen- 
tially one continuous collective 

improvisation, which influenced avant-garde recordings in 
the 1960s and 1970s. After that recording, Coleman took 
time off from playing and recording to study trumpet and 

Since that time Coleman has expanded his composi- 
tional outlook. His writing includes works for wind ensem- 
bles, strings, and symphony orchestra (notably his sym- 
phony Skies of America, recorded with the London 
Philharmonic). Coleman's ongoing experiments have taken 
him to Northern Africa to work with the Master Musicians 
of Joujouka, and in recent years he has performed with an 
electric ensemble he calls Prime Time. A recipient of 
Guggenheim Fellowships for composition, and a MacArthur 
grant, Coleman continues to astound audiences with his 
imaginative approaches to music. 

20 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born May 25, 1926 in Alton, IL 
Died September 28, 1991 

Miles Davis is arguably the most influential jazz 
musician in the post-World War II period, being at 
the forefront of changes in the music for more than 
40 years. Born into a middle class family, Davis started on 
the trumpet at age 13. His first professional music job came 
when he joined the Eddie Randall band in St. Louis from 
1941-43. In the fall of 1944 Davis took a scholarship to 
attend the Juilliard School, a convenient passport to New 
York. It didn't take him long to immerse himself in the New 
York scene and he began working 52nd Street gigs alongside 
Charlie Parker in 1945. Soon, Davis found work with 
Coleman Hawkins and the big bands of Billy Eckstine and 
Benny Carter. 

During the late 1940s, a number of musical contempo- 
raries began to meet and jam regularly at the small apart- 
ment of arranger-pianist Gil Evans. Among them were saxo- 
phonists Gerry Mulligan and Lee Konitz, and pianist John 
Lewis. Out of this group of musicians, Davis formed the 
nonet to record his first major musical statement, Birth of 
the Cool. In addition to the standard piano, bass and drums 
rhythm section, Davis' nonet horn section used French horn 
and tuba along with trombone, alto and baritone saxo- 
phones, lending the band a unique harmonic sound. 

In 1955, Davis assembled his first important band with 
John Coltrane, Red Garland, Paul Chambers, and Philly Joe 
Jones, adding Julian "Cannonball" Adderley in 1958. By 
this time Davis, influenced by George Russell's theories, had 
begun playing in modes rather than standard chord changes, 
which led to his most famous album (and the all-time 
biggest selling jazz album), Kind of Blue, in 1959. Davis also 

continued an important musical partnership with Gil Evans, 
recording four releases in five years: Miles Ahead, Porgy and 
Bess, Sketches of Spain, and Quiet Nights. 

In 1964, Davis assembled a new band of younger musi- 
cians, which became known as his second great quintet. 
This included Herbie Hancock, Tony Williams, Ron Carter, 
and Wayne Shorter. By this time, the Miles 
Davis Quintet was recording mostly 
originals, with all the band mem- #£■ G ^4/j 


bers contributing memorable 
tunes. Davis' horn playing 
also changed, increasing the 
spacing of notes to create 
more suspense in the 

In 1968, Davis again 
changed direction, leading 
the way for electric jazz with 
the release of In a Silent Way. 
By the 1969 release of Bitches 
Brew, the transformation was 
complete as he deepened the elec- 
tronic elements and rock rhythms of his 
music. By the mid-1970s, following the debilitating effects 
of a 1972 auto accident, Davis went into semi-retirement. 
He returned to the scene in 1980 and resumed touring in 
1981, with even newer fans in his wake. From then to 1991, 
Davis remained vital and popular despite some criticism 
that he had softened his electric; approach. 


Birth of the Cool, 
Capitol, 1949-50 

Kind of Blue, 
Columbia, 1959 

The Complete Live at the Plugged Nickel, 
Columbia, 1965 

Bitches Brew, Columbia, 1969 

Warner Brothers, 1989 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 21 

%; *v 






Born April 6, 1924 in Chicago, IL 
Died May 19, 1998 

Blessed with an enormous orchestral capacity at the 
keyboard, Dorothy Donegan was fluent in several 
styles of jazz as well as with European classical 
music. Underrated by some due to her proclivity towards 
showy flamboyance and her penchant for entertaining an 
audience, she was nonetheless an exceptional pianist with a 
rich harmonic sense. 

Given her virtuosity, it's no wonder her earliest influence 
and one of her champions was the peerless master of the 
piano, Art Tatum. Encouraged by her mother to be a profes- 
sional musician, Donegan was playing piano for a dollar a 
night at Chicago's South Side bars when she was only 14. 
She subsequently attended the Chicago Conservatory, 
Chicago Music College, and the University of Southern 
California, where she studied classical piano. 

In 1943, Donegan gave a concert at the Orchestra 
Hall in Chicago, the first African American performer 
to do so. This created publicity that led to some 
work in film (Sensations of 1945) and theater (Star 
Time). Her playing career was largely centered 
around nightclub engagements, as Donegan was 
more comfortable in a live setting than a studio. 

In the 1950s, she developed her flamboyant performance 
style, which at times tended to obscure her extraordinary 
piano playing, deep sense of swing, and wide-ranging reper- 
toire. She would often spice her performances with 
uncanny impressions of other pianists and singers, skills 
that enhanced her abilities as an entertainer. 

She spent the bulk of her career performing in trios with 
bass and drums. Her appearance at the Sheraton Centre 
Hotel in 1980 broke all previous attendance records. In the 
early 1990s, her show-stopping appearances on Hank 
O'Neal's Floating Jazz cruises brought her talents to the 
attention of another generation of jazz fans. She also lec- 
tured at several colleges and universities, including Harvard. 
Northeastern, and the Manhattan School of 

Music, and received an honorary doctoral 



„£££> DISCOq. 



Dorothy Romps: A Piano Retrospective, 
Rosetta, 1953-79 

Makin' Whoopee, Black & Blue, 1979 

Live in Copenhagen 1980, 
Storyville, 1980 

Live at the 1990 Floating Jazz Festival, 
Chiaroscuro, 1990 

Live at the Floating Jazz Festival 
1992. Chiaroscuro, 1992 

degree from Roosevelt University in 
1994. Donegan performed at the 
White House in 1993 and gave her 
last major performance at the 
Fujitsu Concord Jazz Festival in 

22 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Harry TSweets 


Born October 10, 1915 in Columbus, OH 
Died July 27, 1999 

Known in the jazz world as "Sweets," for both his dis- 
position and his playing ability, Edison was a con- 
summate big band section trumpeter and skilled 
soloist whose ability to enhance a piece without overpower- 
ing it was renowned. 

A self-taught musician, his earliest gig came 
in high school with the Earl Hood band. 
From 1933-1935, he played in the Jeter- 
Pillars Orchestra, a prominent territory 
band of the time. After moving to New 
York in 1937, he spent six months with 
Lucky Millinder's band, until joining 
Count Basie later that year. It was with 
Basie that he truly began to distinguish 
himself, not only as a strong member of 
the trumpet section, but also as a distinc- 
tive soloist. His warm sound, using 
repeated notes that he would bend and rip- 
ple, was a welcome contrast to the usual high- 
note, piercing solos of most tnimpet players. Edison 
stayed with the band from 1938 until Basie disbanded in 

Rarely a bandleader under his own name, he spent the 
bulk of his career working with singers and with big bands 
on the road and in the recording studio. Edison's work with 
Billie Holiday and the Nelson Riddle Orchestra backing 

Frank Sinatra during the 1950s is some of his finest, accent- 
ing the vocals and setting up the mood of the songs. His 
echoing trumpet on Sinatra's Songs for Swingin ' Lovers, for 
example, helped set the pace of the songs, playing off 

Sinatra's phrasing of the lyrics. Edison provided 
^•gD DISCOG& some of the bright moments in Holiday's output 

^fyj^ in the 1950s on albums such as Songs for 

Distingue Lovers. His tasteful playing cre- 
ated a great demand from singers for his 
services, and besides Sinatra and 
Holiday, Edison played behind Ella 
Fitzgerald, Josephine Baker, Sarah 
Vaughan, and Nat "King" Cole. Edison 
was also a welcome addition to the big 
bands he worked with, including Buddy 
Rich, Louie Bellson, and Quincy Jones. 
Although leaving the Basie band as a 
full-time member in 1950, he rejoined the 
band on many subsequent occasions for the rest 
of his career. He worked as musical director for 
such artists as Redd Foxx and Joe Williams, and collabo- 
rated with other soloists, such as Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis 
and Oscar Peterson. Valued for his superb sense of dynam- 
ics, he carved out a beautiful trumpet style noted for its sim- 
plicity and good taste. He also found a home in film and 
television soundtrack work. 

Frank Sinatra, Songs for Swingin' Lovers, 
Capitol, 1955-56 

Original Jazz Classics, 1962 

Edison's Lights, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1976 

Swing Summit, Candid, 1 990 

Live at the Iridium, 
Telarc, 1997 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 23 


Born January 30, 191 1 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died February 26, 1989 

Also known as "Little Jazz," Roy Eldridge was a fiery, 
energetic trumpeter, the bridge between the towering 
trumpet stylists Louis Armstrong and Dizzy 
Gillespie. Some of the great rhythmic drive of Eldridge 's 
later trumpet exploits could be traced to his beginnings on 
the drums, which he began playing at age six. 
Eldridge's older brother Joe, who played alto saxo- 

phone, was his first teacher. 

In 1930, Eldridge moved to New York, 
heading straight to Harlem where he 
gained work with a number of dance 
bands before joining the Teddy Hill 
band. By 1935, Eldridge and saxophon- 
ist Chu Berry (who would later join the 
Count Basie Orchestra) were Hill's prin- 
cipal soloists, and after gigs they would 
go around town on cutting contests, chal- 
lenging musicians to see who could play 
the best; with his lightning speed and awe- 
some range, Eldridge rarely lost. After Hill's 
band, Eldridge became the lead trumpeter in the 
Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, where his upper register 
abilities were highlighted. It didn't take long for Eldridge to 
exert himself as a bandleader, forming his own octet in 1936 
in Chicago, a band that included his brother Joe. 

By the end of the 1930s, after freelancing with a wide 
array of bands, Eldridge gained notice as one of the swing 



After You've Gone. 
GRP/Decca, 1936-46 

Little Jazz: The Best of the Verve Years, 
Verve, 1951-60 

Roy and Diz, Verve, 1954 

Just You Just Me, 
Stash, 1959 

Montreux 77, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1977 

bands' most potent soloists. In 1941. he joined drummer 
Gene Krupa's band. Not only did he provide trumpet fire- 
works for Krupa's outfit, he also sang, recording a memo- 
rable duet with the band's female singer, Anita O'Day, on 
the tune "Let Me Off Uptown" in 1941. Later, after Krupa's 
band disbanded in 1943 and a period of freelancing, he 
toured with the Artie Shaw band in 1944. Then 
Eldridge led his own bands, usually small 
swing groups. 

In 1948, Norman Granz recruited 
Eldridge for his Jazz at the Philharmonic, 
an ideal situation since Eldridge was one 
of the ultimate jam session trumpeters. 
He toured briefly with Benny Goodman 
and took up residence in Paris in 1950, 
where he made some of his most suc- 
cessful recordings. He returned to New 
York in 1951 and continued freelancing 
with small bands, including work with 
Coleman Hawkins. Benny Carter. Ella 
Fitzgerald, and Johnny Hodges. He made notable 
albums for Verve Records alongside Hawkins and con- 
tinued freelancing and leading a house band at Jimmy 
Ryan's club in New York. A stroke in 1980 stopped him 
from playing the trumpet, but Eldridge continued to make 
music as a singer and pianist until his death in 1989. 

24 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 




(Ian Ernest Gilmore Green) 

Born May 13, 1912 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Died March 20, 1988 

As an arranger, Gil Evans has few peers in jazz his- 
tory. His style is instantly recognizable, often using 
unusual brass colorations for jazz, such as combi- 
nations of tuba and French horn. Arranging started 

early for Evans, leading his own band when he y ° G ^f, 

was 16 and taking piano gigs at local hotels. 

In junior college, he and Ned Briggs joined 

forces to lead a 10-piece band modeled 

after the popular Casa Loma Band. The 

band was the house band at the 

Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa Beach, 

California, where they remained for two 

years, up until 1937. 

In 1937, singer Skinny Ennis took over 
leadership of the band, retaining Evans as 
pianist and arranger as they moved to 
Hollywood, where they were regularly featured 
on the Bob Hope radio show. In 1941, Claude 
Thornhill, who had been associated with the Hope 
show, hired Evans as an arranger for his first orchestra, 
which lasted for seven years. Evans was influenced by 
Thornhill's unusual voicings, particularly for brass and 

Evans settled permanently in New York in 1947 and his 
unusual arrangements for Thornhill began to attract the 
attention of some of the nascent beboppers of the time, 
including Miles Davis, John Lewis, and Gerry Mulligan. 
It was around this time that Evan's apartment became a 
meeting ground for these and other musicians seeking fresh 

approaches. These musical and conversational exchanges 
led to the recording of Miles Davis' Birth of the Cool session 
for Capitol Records. That album was marked by its 

cooler, less bustling tempos than was characteris- 

Miles Davis, Sketches of Spain, 
Columbia, 1959-60 

Out of the Cool, 
Impulse!, 1960 

The Individualism of Gil Evans, 
Verve, 1963-64 

Svengali, Atlantic, 1973 

Gil Evans Orchestra Plays the Music 

of Jimi Hendnx, Bluebird, 


tic of bebop, the modern jazz of the day. 

Several Evans arrangements stood out, espe- 
cially "Moondreams" and "Boplicity." 
Evans spent much of the 1950s as a 
freelance arranger, until 1957 when he 
began working with Davis on the first of 
their four collaborations, Miles Ahead, 
featuring Davis on flugelhorn as the 
only soloist, an unusual arrangement in 
jazz at the time. Over the next few years, 
Evans and Davis worked together on 
Porgy and Bess, Sketches of Spain and 
Quiet Nights. 

In the 1960s, Evans began making his own 
recordings, displaying his unusual voicings and dis- 
tinctive settings for some of the best soloists of the time, 
such as Steve Lacy, Wayne Shorter, and Eric Dolphy. In the 
1970s, Evans began exploring the music of Jimi Hendrix and 
taking on some of the accoutrements usually associated with 
rock music, including guitars, synthesizers, and electric 
bass. In the 1980s, his shifting cast of exceptional soloists 
included Billy Harper, George Adams, Howard Johnson, 
John Scofield, and David Sanborn, and Evans would have 
occasional weekly shows at New York clubs such as the 
Village Vanguard and Sweet Basil. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 25 





Born August 21, 1928 in Council Bluffs, IA 
Died October 4, 1999 


tf&D dis COg^ 

One of the more lyrical of the post-bop musicians, Art 
Farmer helped to popularize the flugelhorn in jazz. 
He switched to a hybrid instrument known as the 
flumpet later in his career, an instrument that combined the 
power of the trumpet with the warmth of the flugelhorn. 
He and his late twin brother, bassist Addison Farmer, 
were raised in Phoenix, Arizona. Farmer took up the piano, 
violin, and tuba before settling on the trumpet at 14. He 
later moved to Los Angeles and worked with Horace 
Henderson, and Floyd Ray, eventually travel- 
ing east to New York with the Johnny 
Otis Revue in 1947. In New York, he 
studied with Maurice Grupp and 
freelanced in the clubs. In 1948 
he returned to the West Coast 
and found work with Benny 
Carter, Gerald Wilson, Roy 
Porter, Jay McShann, and 
Wardell Gray through 1952. He 
toured with Lionel Hampton in 
1952-53. moving once again to 
New York after the tour. 

Between 1954-56, he intermit- 
tently co-led a band with Gigi Gryce, 
then joined Horace Silver from 1956-58, 
and Gerry Mulligan from 1958-59. with whom 



When Farmer Met Gryce, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1954-55 

Meet the Jazztet, MCA/Chess. 1960 

Live at the Half Note, 
Atlantic, 1963 

Blame It on my Youth, 
Contemporary, 1 988 

Silk Road. Arabesque, 1996 

he appeared in two films: J Want to Live and The Subter- 
raneans. Farmer's performances with the various groups 
earned him a reputation for being able to play in any style. 

In 1959, he and Benny Golson formed the Jazztet, whose 
first incarnation lasted until 1962. The Jazztet's tightly 
arranged music defined mainstream jazz for several years. 
Farmer switched to the flugelhorn in the early 1960s, find- 
ing a rounder, mellower sound with the instrument, and co- 
led a band with guitarist Jim Hall until 1964. He worked in 
Europe from 1965-66. and when he returned stateside he 
again co-led a band, this time with Jimmy Heath. In 1968 
he moved to Vienna, joined the Austrian Radio 

Orchestra, and worked with such European outfits as 
the Clarke-Boland Big Band, and Peter 
Herbolzheimer. He toured Europe and Asia with 
Jimmy Smith's band in 1972. and his appearances 
in the U.S. became rarities. 

In 1982, Farmer and Golson re-formed the 
Jazztet for a short while. Otherwise his perform- 
ances in the U.S. were on an annual basis. For a 
time he teamed up with yet another saxophonist, 
Clifford Jordan, for annual New York visits. He 
continued to lead his own bands on occasion, partic- 
ularly at festival time. In 1991, he began employing the 
flumpet, specially designed for Farmer by David Monette. 


American Jazz Masters Fellowships 








Born April 25, 1917 in Newport News, VA 
Died June 15, 1996 

It is quite apropos that Ella Fitzgerald is the first vocalist 
recipient of the American Jazz Masters Fellowship, 
because she is who most people consider the quintessen- 
tial jazz singer. The purity of her range and intonation, 
along with her peerless sense of pitch, made her a signature 
singer. In addition, her scat singing, using the technique 
of a master instrumental improviser, was her hall 
mark. These characteristics make her an endur- 
ing purveyor not only of jazz and the art of 
improvising, but also of the classic 
American songbook. 

Fitzgerald was raised in Yonkers, 
New York, and her first artistic proclivi- 
ties were as a dancer, even though she 
sang with her school glee club. At 1 7, 
she entered the famous amateur show 
competition at the Apollo Theatre, which 
led to her being hired as a singer for Chick 
Webb's orchestra. She soon became a popu 
lar attraction at the Savoy, and Fitzgerald 
recorded her first song, "Love and Kisses," with 
Webb in June 1935. Three years of steady work later, 
she had her first major hit with her rendition of "A-Tisket, 
A-Tasket." That lightweight ditty remained a popular 
request throughout Fitzgerald's ensuing decades. 

When Chick Webb died in 1939, Fitzgerald assumed 
leadership of the band for the next two years, beginning her 
solo career. In 1946 she began an enduring relationship 



75th Birthday Celebration, 
GRR 1938-55 

The Complete Ella Fitzgerald 
& Louis Armstrong on Verve, Verve, 1 956-57 

Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook, 
Verve, 1956-57 

The Complete Ella in Berlin, Verve, 1960-61 

Montreux '77, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1977 

with producer Norman Granz, becoming part of his Jazz at 
the Philharmonic concert tours. At the time her regular trio 
leader was bassist Ray Brown, to whom she was married 
from 1947 to 1953. By 1955, Granz had become her man- 
ager and had begun recording Fitzgerald for his Verve label. 
This affiliation led to her recording with numerous 

greats, including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, 
Count Basie, and Oscar Peterson. Among the 
landmark recordings she made with Granz 
were her historic songbook treatments of 
the music of Ellington, Cole Porter, 
Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, Richard 
Rodgers & Lorenz Hart, Harold Arlen, 
Johnny Mercer, and Ira and George 

Fitzgerald's superb intonation and 
crystal clear voice was also blessed with 
a rhythmic flexibility to effortlessly swing. 
Though she came up in the swing era, 
Fitzgerald also could hang with the best of the 
beboppers. Her ability to scat with the most 
skilled instrumentalists served her well on such 
notable voice-as-instrument hits as "Lady Be Good," "Flying 
I lome," and "I low 1 ligh The Moon." Each became enduring 
parts of her repertoire. She forged memorable partnerships 
with her piano accompanists, most notably Tommy 
Flanagan and Paul Smith. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 27 



Born March 16, 1930 in Detroit, 

Tommy Flanagan is noted as both a stimulating accom- 
panist and a superb small ensemble leader, playing 
with some of the biggest names in jazz. A product of 
a noteworthy arts education system in the Detroit public 
schools, he began his musical pursuits on clarinet at six 
years old, switching to the piano at age 11. At 15, he made 
his professional debut. Thereafter he performed with fellow 
Detroiters Milt Jackson, Rudy Rutherford, Billy Mitchell, 
Kenny Burrell, and Thad and Elvin Jones as part of the fer- 
tile Detroit jazz scene in the 1950s. 

Flanagan moved to New York in 1956, securing his first 
job as a replacement for Bud Powell at Birdland. Powell, 
along with Art Tatum and Nat "King" Cole, was a major 
influence on Flanagan's playing. 
Throughout the 1950s, he worked 
with many of the biggest names 
in jazz, including J.J. Johnson, 
Miles Davis, Harry "Sweets" 
Edison, Sonny Rollins, 
Coleman Hawkins, Jim 

Enja, 1982 

Hall, and Tony Bennett, playing on some of the landmark 
recordings of that decade. One of his most significant 
recordings was with John Coltrane on the wildly influential 
recording, Giant Steps. His playing on the complex tide 
track, using space between the notes to contrast Coltrane's 
rapid-fire attack, was especially inspired. 

He also met and began performing with Ella Fitzgerald. 
an association that lasted until the end of the 1970s, his trio 
touring exclusively with her from 1968-78. After leaving 
Ella Fitzgerald in 1978, some of his best, most compelling 
work was in the trio format, with George Mraz on bass and 
Elvin Jones or Lewis Nash on drums, influenced by the 
playing and arrangements of Duke Ellington and Thelonious 
Monk, Flanagan's lyrical playing and harmonic sophistica- 
tion place him in the top echelon of jazz pianists. He has 
been an especially tasteful interpreter of Billy Strayhorn, 
Thad Jones, and Tadd Dameron's music. Flanagan is a 
multiple jazz poll winner, and in 1992 was recipient of 
the prestigious Danish Jazzpar prize. 

Beyond the Bluebird, 
Timeless, 1990 

Giant Steps, Enja, 1992 

Let's Play the Music of Thad Jones, 
Enja, 1993 

Lady Be Good. ...For Ella, 
Verve, 1994 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Born September 23, 1928 in Cincinnati, OH 

Although best known for his work in the Count Basie 
Orchestra (and as the composer of the Count Basie 
hit, "Shiny Stockings"), Frank Foster's saxophone 
playing owes more to the bebop of Charlie Parker and 
Sonny Stitt than the swing of Basie. 

Foster began playing clarinet at 11 years old before tak- 
ing up the alto saxophone and eventually the tenor. By the 
time he was a senior in high school, he was leading and 
writing the arrangements for a 12-piece band. Foster stud- 
ied at Wilberforce University in Ohio before heading to 
Detroit in 1949 with trumpeter Snooky Young for six weeks, 
becoming captivated by its burgeoning music scene. Drafted 
into the Army, Foster left Detroit and headed off to basic 
training near San Francisco, where he would jam in the 
evenings at Jimbo's Bop City. 

After being discharged in 1953, two life-changing events 
happened to Foster: he sat in with Charlie Parker at 
Birdland and he was asked to join Count Basie's band, 
where he stayed until 1964. Foster's fiery solos contrasted 
nicely with Frank Wess' ballad work, providing Basie with 
an interesting contrast. Foster, already an accomplished 
composer by this time, learned from Basie how to simplify 
arrangements to make the music swing. He soon was pro- 
viding compositions and arrangements for the band ("Blues 
Backstage," "Down for the Count," the entire Easin' It album 
just to name a few), with his most popular number being 
"Shiny Stockings." He also was an extremely successful 

freelance writer, creating a large body of work for jazz, 
including works contributed to albums by singers Sarah 
Vaughan and Frank Sinatra, and a commissioned work for 
the 1980 Winter Olympics, Lake Placid Suite, written for 
jazz orchestra. 

In the 1970s, Foster played with contemporary musi- 
cians such as Elvin Jones, George Coleman, and Joe Farrell 
and began expanding his compositions. He led his own 
band, the Loud Minority, until 
1986 when he assumed leader- 
ship of the Count Basie 

c ^mscoo. 

Orchestra from Thad 
Jones. While playing the 
favorites, Foster also 
began introducing orig- 
inal material into the 
playlist. Foster 
resigned as the musical 
director of the orchestra 
in 1995 and began 
recording albums again. 
In addition to performing, 
Foster has also served as a 
musical consultant in the Now York 
City public schools and taught at Queens College and the 
State University of New York at Buffalo. 

Count Basie, Verve Jazz Masters, 
Verve, 1954-65 

No Count, Savoy, 1956 

Original Jazz Classics, 1965 

Shiny Stockings, Denon, 1977-78 

Leo Rising, 
Arabesque, 1996 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 29 




Born October 21, 1917 in Cheraw, NC 
Died January 6, 1993 

Dizzy Gillespie's effect on jazz cannot be overstated: 
his trumpet playing influenced every player who 
came after him, his compositions have become part 
of the jazz canon, and his bands have included some of the 
most significant names in the business. He was also, along 
with Charlie Parker, one of the major leaders of the bebop 

Gillespie's father was an amateur bandleader who, 
although dead by the time Gillespie was ten, had given his 
son some of his earliest grounding in music. Gillespie 
began playing trumpet at 14 after briefly trying the trom- 
bone, and his first formal musical training came at the 
Laurinburg Institute in North Carolina. 

Gillespie's earliest professional jobs were with the 
Frankie Fairfax band, where he reportedly picked up the 
nickname Dizzy related to his outlandish antics. His earli- 
est influence was Roy Eldridge, who he later replaced in 
Teddy Hill's band. From 1939-41, Gillespie was one of the 
principal soloists in Cab Calloway's band, until he was dis- 
missed for a notorious bandstand prank. It was while with 
Calloway that he met the Cuban trumpeter Mario Bauza, 
from whom he gained a great interest in Afro-Cuban 
rhythms. At this time he also befriended Charlie Parker, 
with whom he would begin to develop some of the ideas 
behind bebop while sitting in at Minton's Playhouse in 

Pram 1941-43, Gillespie freelanced with a number of big 
bands, including th ;i t of Earl "Fatlia" Hines. Hines' band con- 
fined several musicians Gillespie would interact with in the 


The Complete RCA Victor Recordings 
7557-7943. Bluebird, 1937-49 

Dizzy's Diamonds, Verve, 1954-64 

Birk's Works: Verve Big Band Sessions, 
Verve, 1956-57 

Gillespiana/Camegie Hall Concert, 
Verve, 1960-61 

Max + Dizzy, Paris 1989, 
A&M, 1989 

development of bebop, such as 
singer Billy Eckstine, who 
formed his own band featuring 
Gillespie on trumpet in 1944. 

1945 was a crucial year for 
both bebop and Gillespie. He 
recorded with Parker many of 
his small ensemble hits, such as 
"Salt Peanuts," and formed his own 
bebop big band. Despite economic woes, 
he was eventually able to keep this band together for four 
years. His trumpet playing was at a peak, with rapid-fire 
attacks of notes and an amazing harmonic range. A number 
of future greats performed widi Gillespie's big band, includ- 
ing saxophonists Gene Amnions, Yusef Lateef, Paul 
Gonsalves, Jimmy Heath, James Moody, and John Coltrane. 
The rhythm section of John Lewis, Milt Jackson. Kenny 
Clarke, and Ray Brown became the original Modern Jazz 

He took various bands on State Department tours around 
the world starting in 1956, the first time the U.S. govern- 
ment provided economic aid and recognition to jazz. Those 
excursions not only kept Gillespie working, they also stimu- 
lated his musical interests as he began incorporating differ- 
ent ethnic elements into his music, such as the Afro-Cuban 
rhythms he weaved into his big band arrangements. Never 
losing his thirst for collaboration, Gillespie worked with a 
variety of jazz stars as well as leading his own small groups 
on into the 1980s. 

30 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Born January 25, 1929 in Philadelphia, PA 


Benny Golson is renowned for being a distinctive com- 
poser and tenor saxophonist with a warm, somewhat 
burly sound. Major cornerstones of his career have 
also included his work in film and television studios, and in 

Golson began on the piano, at age nine, moving to the 
saxophone at age 14. He earned a degree from Howard 
University, then joined Bull Moose Jackson's band in 1951. 
Arranging and composing became a serious pursuit for 
him at the encouragement of composer-arranger Tadd 
Dameron, who he met in Jackson's band. Other 
early band affiliations included Lionel Hampton, 
Johnny Hodges, and Earl Bostic. He toured 
with the Dizzy Gillespie big band from 1956- 
58, then joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. 
His robust playing added extra kick to the 
band, and his solo on Bobby Timmons' song 
"Moanin"' is a classic. With the Messengers, 
Golson 's writing skills blossomed as he con- 
tributed pieces for the band that have entered 
the jazz canon, including "Along Game Betty," 
"Blues March," "I Remember Glifford" (written 
upon the death of his friend Glifford Brown), "Killer 
Joe" (which later became a hit for Quincy Jones), and 
"Are You Real." 

After leaving the Messengers, he and Art Farmer formed 
the hard bop quintet known as the Jazztet. The original 
incarnation of the Jazztet lasted from 1959-62. In 1963, he 
moved to California and began to concentrate on composing 
and arranging. He scored music for European and American 
television and films, and essentially discontinued touring 
until 1982, when he and Farmer revived the Jazztet briefly. 
Thereafter he played more frequently, working in all-star 
aggregations and completing commissioned 
assignments, such as a Philip Morris com- 



Benny Golson's New York Scene, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957 

The Other Side of Benny Golson, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

Groovin' with Golson, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1959 

Up Jumped Benny, 
Arkadia, 1986 

That's Funky, 
Arkadia Jazz, 2000 

mission for the Bangkok Symphony. His 
soundtrack credits include M*A*S*H, 
Mission Impossible, Mod Squad, and 

As an educator he has lectured, 
given clinics, and performed 
extended residencies at New York 
University, Stanford University, 
University of Pittsburgh, Cuyahoga 
Community College, Rutgers 
University, William Paterson College, 
and Berklee College of Music. Among 
his awards is a 1994 Guggenheim 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 31 


Born February 27, 1923 in Los Angeles, CA 
Died April 25, 1990 


Dexter Gordon was one of the leading bebop tenor 
saxophonists, with his near-vibratoless sound and 
prodigious ability to improvise. He was a strong 
influence on the tenor saxophonists who came after bebop, 
especially Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane. 

Gordon took up the clarinet at age 13, switching to the 
saxophone at 15. His first formal teacher was Lloyd 
Reese, who had other notable students, including 
Charles Mingus and Buddy Collette, with 
whom Gordon interacted in Reese's student 
band. Gordon left school in 1940 and 
joined a local band before taking a posi- 
tion with the Lionel Hampton band from 
1940-43, cutting his first recordings with 
the band in 1942. Back home in Los 
Angeles, Gordon played with Lee Young 
(brother of Lester) and Jesse Price, and 
made a subsequent record with Nat 
"King" Cole at the piano. 

Gordon began to garner attention when 
he moved to New York in 1944 to join the Billy 
Eckstine Orchestra. He recorded with Eckstine and 
made his own recordings for the Savoy label. Through the 

under of the 1940s, he played and recorded with the 
majoi figures in bebop, such as Charlie Parker. Dizzy 
Gillespie, and Tadd Dameron. Between 1947 and 1952, he 
lot ked horns with fellow tenor saxophonist Wardell Gray for 

t £D DISCOg 

4^ ' " i5 > 

3 *^ 

Dexter Gordon on Dial: 
The Complete Sessions, Spotlite, 1947 

Doin' Alright, 
Blue Note, 1961 

Go', Blue Note, 1962 

Our Man in Paris, 
Blue Note, 1963 

Something Different, 
Steeplechase, 1975 

a series of classic two-tenor duels, including their classic 
recording of "The Chase." Continuing to freelance through- 
out the 1950s, he began touring Europe as a soloist in the 
early 1960s to acclaim, eventually settling in Copenhagen 
in 1962. 

Gordon continued to play in Europe as a soloist, making 
a series of recordings for the Danish label 

Steeplechase. He added the soprano sax to his 
arsenal in the early 1970s. During a trip back 
to the States in 1976, he took a gig at the 
Village Vanguard and the response to his 
playing was overwhelming. He found 
willing partners in several musicians of 
a younger generation, including trum- 
peter Woody Shaw. The response 
prompted him to return permanently to 
the U.S., where he made a series of well- 
received records for die Columbia label. 
Included was a notable return to his two- 
tenor battle days, this time with fellow 
expatriate Johnnv Griffin. 
The culmination of the decade-long renewal of 
interest in Gordon was his starring role in the film 'Round 
Midnight, which garnered an Oscar nomination. Thereafter, 
until felled by ill health, he continued to tour with his own 
potent quartets and returned to his former record label. Blue 
Note, for a brief time following his film success. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born April 20, 1908 in Louisville, KY 

Featuring outstanding sideman and soloists, as well as 
his own swinging vibe playing, Lionel Hampton's 
bands during the 1940s and 1950s were among the 
most popular and most exciting in jazz. Hampton was 
raised in the Midwest, primarily in Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
where he received his first musical training. His career 
began behind the drums, taking his first music job in a 
newsboys band sponsored by the Chicago Defender. 

In 1928, Hampton moved west to California, landing 
first in the Paul Howard Orchestra, later working with band- 
leaders Eddie Barefield and Les Hite. In 1929 he took up 
the vibraphone with the Hite band, which at the time was 
led by Louis Armstrong, becoming a pioneering figure in the 
use of vibes in a jazz band. 

Hampton made his recorded debut on an Armstrong ver- 
sion of "Memories of You" in 1930. By 1934, Hampton had 
become leader of his own band, performing at Sebastian's 
Cotton Club in Los Angeles. Benny Goodman saw Hampton 
perform at one of his gigs and recruited him to augment his 
trio, with Teddy Wilson and Gene Krupa, for a 1936 record- 
ing date. Hampton remained in Goodman's band through 
1940, occasionally replacing Krupa on the drums. Hampton 
became well known with the Goodman band, and started 
his own big band, achieving his biggest recorded hit with 
"Flying Home" in May 1942, driven by Illinois Jacquet's 
unforgettable tenor saxophone solo. 

Hampton's popular big band boasted such potent musi- 
cians as Dexter Gordon, Clifford Brown, Fats Navarro, 


c ^DI S CO G ^ 


The Complete Lionel Hampton, 
Bluebird, 1937-39 

Hamp: The Legendary Decca Recordings, 
Decca, 1942-63 

Hamp and Getz, Verve, 1 956 

Reunion at Newport, 
Bluebird, 1967 

Made in Japan, Timeless, 1 982 

Johnny Griffin, Charles 
Mingus, Art Farmer, Clark 
Terry, Cat Anderson, Wes 
Montgomery, and singers 
Dinah Washington, Joe 
Williams, Betty Carter, 
and Aretha Franklin. He 
toured the globe and con- 
tinued to nurture young 
talent, often providing 
some of the earliest band 
experiences to musicians who 
went on to become leaders in 
their own right. His band became 
the longest established orchestra in jazz history. 

Lionel Hampton has been recipient of numerous awards 
of merit, including several honorary doctoral degrees, the 
National Medal of Arts, and the Kennedy Center Honors. 
His diligent work with the jazz festival at the University of 
Idaho in Moscow led to it being renamed the Lionel 
Hampton Jazz Festival in 1985. The university's music 
department shortly followed suit and became the Lionel 
Hampton School of Music. Winner of numerous polls, 
Lionel Hampton had been an honored soloist into the 1990s, 
performing in numerous festivals as part of all-star assem- 
blages. In 2001, he donated his vibraphone to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 33 

TI * ' 4 







Born December 15, 1929 in Detroit, 

Barry Harris is part of an exceptional crew of Detroit- 
bred jazz musicians, including Tommy Flanagan and 
Donald Byrd, who rose through the extraordinary arts 
education program in the public school system during the 
1930s and 1940s. Harris' earliest musical mentor was a 
church piano-playing mother who exposed him to piano 
lessons at age four. He became seriously immersed in jazz 
in the mid-1940s and fell under the spell of Thelonious 
Monk, Charlie Parker, and Bud Powell. As a professional, 
he would become a key translator of 
„ c r£6l> d1 SCOg^ Monk's music. 




Chasin' The Bird. 
Original Jazz Classics. 1962 

Barry Harris Plays Tadd Dameron, 
Classics, 1975 

ToAyo: 7375, Classics. 1976 

For The Moment, 
Uptown, 1984 

Live at Maybeck Recital Hall, 
Vol. I &2. Concord, 1990 

Detroit was blessed with a 
high-energy jazz scene during 
the 1940s, and Harris was 
house pianist at one of the 
hottest spots, the Blue Bird 
Lounge. At the Blue Bird 
and later at the Rouge, he 
backed such traveling 
soloists as Miles Davis, 
Wardell Gray. Max Roach, 
Sonny Stitt, Lee Konitz, and 
Lester Young. Displaying an 
early interest in passing the torch 
through education. Barn' began teach- 

ing his bebop theories as early as 1956, tutoring young talent 
such as Joe Henderson. It is a tradition he has carried on 
throughout his life. 

At the urging of Julian "Cannonball" Adderley. Barry 
Harris left Detroit in 1960 and moved to New York. In addi- 
tion to Adderley, Harris found work in the 1960s and 1970s 
with fellow Detroiter Yusef Lateef, Charles McPherson, and 
Coleman Hawkins. In addition to sideman work, Harris led 
various trios and duos at piano bars and restaurants around 
New York. He also began to get work as an arranger and 
composer, showing a particular adeptness for his treatment 
of strings. A consummate freelancer, he found work in a 
variety of diverse settings and continues to play, inaugurat- 
ing the Lincoln Center's Penthouse piano series in 1997. 

By the early 1980s, Barrv Harris' acumen as a teacher 
and mentor to developing pianists had become legendary. 
He was able to expand these interests when he opened the 
Jazz Cultural Center in 1982 on Eighth Avenue in 
Manhattan. The Center served as workshop, educational 
facility, and performance space for Harris and his affiliated 
artists, but unfortunately only lasted until 1987. Harris sol- 
diered on, though, continuing to teach and mentor young 
musicians. He also continues to present and produce 
annual multimedia concert spectaculars at places like 
Symphony Space and the Manhattan Center in New York. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 

M * • 

t • 



Born March 13, 1925 in Roxbury, MA 

Seemingly ageless, Roy Haynes has played the drums 
from the bebop days of the 1940s to the present day 
with the same restless energy. Haynes has remained 
fresh in his outlook and in his thirst for collaborating with 
younger artists and those who play in challenging styles, as 
is shown in his work with such disparate artists as 
Roland Kirk, Danilo Perez, and Pat Metheny. He 
also has been a favorite sideman for any num- 
ber of artists because of his crisply distinc- 
tive drumming style. 

Haynes became interested in music 
through his father, a church organist. 
In his earliest professional playing years 
in the mid-1940s, he worked in Boston 
with Sabby Lewis, Frankie Newton, and 
Pete Brown. In 1945, he joined the Luis 
Russell band, remaining until 1947, 
whereupon he joined Lester Young's band. 
In the late 1940s to mid-1950s, he worked 
with such greats as Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, 
Bud Powell, and Kai Winding. He later played in 
the Thelonious Monk band at the Five Spot Cafe before 
forming his own band in 1958. 

Some of his most noted work in the early 1960s came 
when he subbed for Elvin Jones in the John Coltrane 
Quartet, both on gigs and on records. His drumming style 
was a marked change for Coltrane from Elvin Jones' 
approach — lighter, less aggressive than Jones — and it gave 

We Three, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

Out of the Afternoon, 
Impulse!, 1962 

When It's Haynes It Roars, 
Dreyfus, 1993 

Te Voul, Dreyfus, 1995 

The Roy Haynes Trio, 
Verve, 2000 

the quartet a different sound. Among his other affiliations 
during the late 1950s to early 1960s were with George 
Shearing, Kenny Burrell, Lennie Tristano, and Stan Getz. 
In addition, his style of drumming was an ideal accompani- 
ment to singers, accenting the vocals without overpowering 
them, and he worked with Sarah Vaughan and Lambert, 
Hendricks & Ross. 

He later joined vibist Gary Burton, who 
had been a member of Getz's band. After 
Burton's band, which was one of the 
precursors of the jazz-rock movement, 
Haynes formed the Hip Ensemble, featur- 
ing such musicians as George Adams 
and Hannibal Marvin Peterson. The 
band had a decidedly contemporary fla- 
vor, often employing various guitarists. 
He also has enjoyed an occasional play- 
ing relationship with Chick Corea, dating 
back to their Stan Getz days. He joined 
Corea's Trio Music: band in 1981. 
While periodically leading his own bands, he 
has also worketl with artists such as Billy Taylor, Hank 
Jones, and Ted Curson. His bands, ranging from his Hip 
Ensemble to his various quartets and trios, have included 
some of the more exceptional young musicians on the scene. 
He continues to influence the next generation of drummers 
with his distinctive sound. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 35 





Born April 30, 1923 in Wilmington, NC 

Percy Heath was the backbone of the popular jazz 
group Modern Jazz Quartet, and a superb bassist so 
sought after that he has appeared on more than 200 
jazz albums. Heath is a member of one of the great families 
of jazz (along with the Joneses and Marsalises), with broth- 
ers Jimmy (on saxophone) and Albert "Tootie" (on drums) 
also being stellar jazz musicians. 

Heath started on the violin in his school 
orchestra but began to seriously study music 
at the Granoff School of Music in 
Philadelphia after his service in the Air 
Force. In 1947, he joined his brother 
Jimmy in Howard McGhee's band, end- 
ing up in New York where he per- 
formed regularly with jazz greats such 
as Miles Davis, J.J. Johnson, Sonny 
Rollins, Fats Navarro, and Charlie 
Parker. Heath joined Dizzy Gillespie's 
sextet from 1950-52, where he met the 
other members of the soon-to-be Modern Jazz 
Quartet (MJQ): John Lewis, Milt Jackson, and 
Kenny Clarke. Heath stayed with MJQ from its 
beginning in 1952 for more than 40 years, off and on 

Lewis' arrangements brought the bass into greater promi- 
nence, prompting Heath to greater heights with his perform- 
ances. During his time with MJQ, Heath performed on film 
soundtracks and with symphony orchestras and string quar- 
tets, always exhibiting style and poise in every setting. 
During the break from the MJQ in 1975-82, Heath 

worked with Sarah Vaughan and began performing 
C ^P DISCOQfc with the Heath Brothers band, which included 

Jimmy and Tootie. His talents on bass were 
much in demand as the house bass player 
for both Prestige and Blue Note record 
labels, providing a confident, straight- 
ahead style of playing reminiscent of the 
great Ray Brown. 

Heath has received many honors in 
his career, such as the Maria Fischer 
Award, France's Cross of Officer of Arts 
and Letters, and an honorary doctoral 
degree from Berklee College in Boston. 
Massachusetts, hi addition. Heath has per- 
formed at the White House for Presidents Nixon 
and Clinton. Heath continues to record and release 
well-received albums with his brothers. 

4^ ~"% 

Modern Jazz Quartet, 

The Artistry of the Modern Jazz Quartet, 

Prestige, 1952-55 

Jimmy Heath, Really Big!, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

Heath Brothers, Marchin'On!, 
Strata East, 1976 

Heath Brothers, Brotherly Love, 
Antilles, 1991 

Heath Brothers, Jazz Family, 
Concord, 1998 

36 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 





One of the more distinctive tenor saxophone voices to 
have emerged during the 1960s, Joe Henderson's rich 
tone and strong sense of rhythm influenced scores of 
tenor saxophonists who followed him. In concert, his 
aggressive playing was often tempered by a melodic touch 
on ballads. 

Growing up in Lima, Ohio, he first played the drums, 
switching to tenor saxophone at age 13. After high school 
he studied at Kentucky State College, then Wayne State in 
Detroit from 1956-60, as well as under the private tutelage of 
pianist Barry Harris. One of his first jazz jobs was alongside 
saxophonist Sonny Stitt, then he led his own band around 
Detroit in 1960. He entered the Army band that year, 
remaining until 1962. 

After leaving the Army, Henderson eventually moved to 
New York, where he worked with organist Jack McDuff, then 
co-led a band with Kenny Dorham during 1962-63. His first 
recording as a leader in 1963, Page One, was one of the most 
popular releases for the Blue Note label, and led to one of 
his richest recording periods both as a leader and sideman. 
He played with Horace Silver in 1964-66, and Andrew Hill 
in 1965, both Blue Note artists. His work on Lee Morgan's 
album The Sidewinder, especially on the hit title track, con- 
tains some of his best solos of the period. During the late 
1960s, he was part of the cooperative band, the Jazz 


Born April 24. 1937 in Lima, OH 
Died June 30, 2001 

Communicators, with Freddie Hubbard and Louis Hayes. 
At the end of the decade he spent over a year with the 
Herbie Hancock Sextet (1969-70), and joined the pop band 
Blood, Sweat & Tears for a short time in 1971. Thereafter 
he worked mainly as a leader 
and freelance saxophonist. 
His bands employed a 


number of outstanding 
musicians and, fol- 
lowing his Blue 
Note years, he made 
a series of reward- 
ing discs for the 
Milestone label. 
In the 1990s, 
Henderson experi- 
enced a resurgence in 
popularity with a series 
of well-received albums on 
the Verve label. His record- 
ings of the music of Billy Strayhorn, 
Miles Davis, and Antonio Carlos Jobim in inventive 
arrangements were inspired, and he showed a skill for 
big band arrangement with his 1996 release. 

Page One, Blue Note, 1963 

Four!, Verve, 1968 

The State of the Tenor, Vol. 1 & 2, 
Blue Note, 1985 

Lush Life: The Music of Billy Strayhorn, 
Verve, 1991 

Big Band, Verve, 1992-96 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 37 


Born September 16, 1921 Newark, OH 

Ion Hendricks helped create the singing style known as 
vocalese, or crafting songs and lyrics out of the note 
sequence of famous jazz instrumental solos, as a member 
uf the great jazz vocal ensemble Lambert, Hendricks & 
Ross. A gifted lyricist, he has added words to classics by 
Count Basie, Horace Silver, Miles Davis, and Art Blakey, 
brilliandy mirroring the instrumental effects. 

He grew up largely in Toledo, Ohio, one of 17 children. 
His singing career began at age eight, singing at parties and 
dinners. Later he sang on a radio show on which he was 
occasionally accompanied by another Toledoan, the great 
pianist Art Tatum. Returning home from service in the 
Army, he studied at the University of Toledo and taught 
himself to play drums. In 1952, he relocated to New York 
and found his initial work as a songwriter, 

working for such artists as Louis 
**4/> Jordan and King Pleasure. One of 

Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, 
Sing a Song of Basie. Verve, 1 957 

Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, 
Everybody's Boppm, Columbia, 1959-61 

Love, Muse. 1981-82 

Freddie Freeloader, 
Denon, 1989-90 

Wynton Marsalis, Blood on the 
Fields. Columbia, 1994 

his earliest recordings came on 
a version of the Woody 
Herman band feature, "Four 

His collaboration with 
vocalist Dave Lambert 
began in 1957 when he re- 
recorded "Four Brodiers." 
which led to their associa- 
tion with singer Annie Ross 

on a collection of Count Basie songs. Sing a Song of Basie, 
using innovative multitracked arrangement of vocals, 
became a hit when released in 1958 and gave birth to 
Lambert, Hendricks & Ross as a full-time act. They subse- 
quendy toured with the Basie band and were a top-selling 
act for nearly four years, until Ross left the band. Lambert 
and Hendricks continue for a while with new singer 
Yolande Bavan, eventually breaking up in 1964. Hendricks 
found work as a soloist, then moved to England in 1968. In 
the early 1970s he put together another trio, this time with 
wife Judith and daughter Michelle, an arrangement he has 
occasionally revisited over the years. 

Evolution of the Blues, an extended stage work 
Hendricks had first performed with Lambert and Ross at the 
Monterey Jazz Festival in 1960, went on a five-year run at 
the Broadway Theatre in San Francisco in the 1970s. 
Thereafter he took a variety of university teaching positions 
in California, and continued to work with Judith, Michelle, 
and youngest daughter Aria, with occasional male singers 
such as Bobby McFerrin. Kevin Burke, and Miles Griffith. 
He has written for and played with the Manhattan Transfer, 
a jazz vocal group heavily influenced by Hendricks. More 
recently he was one of three singers in Wynton Marsalis' 
Pulitzer Prize-winning oratorio. Blood on the Fields. He has 
written lyrics to a number of jazz standards, including 
"Four," "Hi Fly," "Along Came Betty," "Desifinado." and 
"No More Blues." 

38 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 




Born October 11, 1936 in Los Angeles, CA 
Died May 3, 2001 

Known among musicians and fans as "Smiling Billy," 
Billy Higgins was first introduced to the broader jazz 
public when he came to the East Coast with the 
Omette Coleman Quartet in 1959 for their extended engage- 
ment at the Five Spot Cafe. Although he does not have 
many records under his own name, Higgins was often in 
great demand as a sideman, providing sensitive 

accompaniment in a variety of settings. 

Higgins started on the drums at age 12. 
By the time he was 19, he was working in 
rhythm and blues bands, including Amos 
Milburn and Bo Diddley. Other early 
affiliations included singers Brook 
Benton, Jimmy Witherspoon, and Sister 
Rosetta Tharpe. He also began working 
with jazz artists, such as Dexter Gordon, 
Don Cherry, James Clay, and Walter 
Benton. He joined the Red Mitchell band 
in 1957, but soon left to join Omette 
Coleman's new band, with whom he worked 
steadily in 1958 and 1959. In the early 1960s, he 
worked with Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, and 
Sonny Rollins. By then he had become one of the most in- 


Ornette Coleman, 

Change of the Century, 

Atlantic, 1959 

Soweto, Red, 1979 

Mr. Billy Higgins, Evidence, 1 984 

For Peace, Red, 1993 

Charles Lloyd, Hyperion with Higgins, 
ECM, 2001 

demand freelance drummers on the scene, particularly on 
many Blue Note sessions. 

His drumming was an important addition to many 
recordings, such as Andrew Hill's Point of Departure, Herbie 
Hancock's Talari Off, and Lee Morgan's The Sidewinder, the 
last two being especially popular jazz albums. He would 
intermittently work with Coleman again in the 
1960s and 1970s as well. Outside of Coleman, 
a frequent musical collaborator was Cedar 
Walton, an association that began in 1966 
and continued into the 1990s, often in 
the Walton's Eastern Rebellion bands. In 
the 1990s his career was halted by kid- 
ney disease, leading to a subsequent 
kidney transplant. After resuming play- 
ing, he remained much in demand for 
record dates. During 1999-2001, he 
worked frequently with Charles Lloyd 
when not leading his own bands, recording 
some of his most inventive drumming while 
playing against Lloyd's saxophone. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 39 


Born June 23, 1910 in Vicksburg, MS 
Died December 19, 2000 

Milt Hinton's career spanned the gamut of jazz gen- 
erations, working from the early swing days of the 
1930s with Cab Calloway through the end of the 
millennium with the new guard of jazz, such as Bradford 
Marsalis and Christian McBride. His ability to make a con- 
tribution in any setting allowed for his vast array of work. 
As a soloist, Hinton, nicknamed "The Judge," was adept at 
the early bass tradition of slapping the strings. In addition 
to his love of music, Hinton was a perceptive and widely 
exhibited photographer. Much of the history of jazz can be 
found in his photographs, which were published in several 
magazines and in two extraordinary coffee-style table books. 
Like many African American families in the early part of 
the 20th century, his family migrated north from Mississippi 
to Chicago, where he was raised. His mother was a church 
musician, playing organ, piano, and directing the choir. She 
bought him a violin for his thirteenth birthday, which he 
studied for four years from 1923-27. Later he picked up the 
bass horn and tuba while studying music at Wendell 
Phillips High School in Chicago. In 1928, he found his 
voice when he switched to string bass. One of his earliest 
professional affiliations was with violinist Eddie South, 
with whom he played intermittently between 1931-36. 
Other early affiliations included Zutty Singleton, Erskine 
Tate, Art Tatum, and Jabbo Smith. 

Hinton's early career experience was centered around 
the Cab Calloway Orchestra, with which he worked from 





Various Artists, 
J he Modern Art of Jazz, Biograph, 1 956 

The Judge at his Best, 
Chiaroscuro, 1973-95 

Back to Bass-ics, Progressive, 1984 

Bradford Marsalis, TrioJeepy. 
Columbia, 1988 

Laughing at Life, 
Columbia, 1995 

1936-51. After leaving 
Calloway, he worked with 
the big bands of Joe 
Bushkin, Jackie Gleason, 
Phil Moore, and Count 
Basie. He played with 
Louis Armstrong 
between 1952-55, then 
became a staff musician 
for CBS, one of the first 
African American musicians 
welcomed into the TV studios 
From 1956 on, Hinton was a much 
in-demand studio musician, adept at 

different styles of playing, from the pop of Paul Anka to the 
jazz of Teddy Wilson. He also was in-demand in live set- 
tings, performing with Jimmy McPartland, Benny Goodman, 
Ben Webster, Sammy Davis, Jr., Judy Garland, and Harry 
Belafonte, among odiers. In the 1960s, he became a staff 
musician at ABC, working on the Dick Cavett Show: In the 
last decades of his life, Hinton continued to play and record 
inspiring new generations of jazz musicians and fans. 

He received numerous honorary doctoral degrees and 
taught jazz at several colleges and universities, including 
Hunter College, Baruch College, Skidmore College, and 
Interlochen Music Camp. 

40 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Characterized by a slower vibrato than his predeces- 
sors, Milt Jackson's ability to swing and to create 
vocal-like inflections made his an instandy recogniz- 
able sound on the vibes. Another jazz musician whose ear- 
liest experience was in the church, he sang gospel duets 
with his brother and played the guitar. At age 11, he began 
playing the piano, moving to the xylophone and the vibes in 
his early teens. After studying music at Michigan State 
University, his musical career actually began with a touring 
gospel ensemble in the early 1940s. Upon hearing him in 
Detroit, Dizzy Gillespie arranged for Jackson, known by the 
nickname "Bags," to come to New York in 1945 to join his 
band. After leaving Gillespie's pioneering bebop big band in 
1948, he went on to play with Howard McGhee, 
Thelonious Monk, Tadd Dameron, and Charlie 
Parker, applying the bebop sound to the vibes. 

He replaced Terry Gibbs in the Woody 
Herman band during 1949-50, returning to 
the Gillespie band from 1950-52. Thereafter 
he formed his own quartet, featuring John 
Lewis, Ray Brown, and Kenny Clarke. 
The Milt Jackson Quartet then became the 
Modern Jazz Quartet, with Percy Heath 

Born January 1, 1923 in Detroit, Ml 
Died October 9, 1999 

replacing Brown, and Connie Kay eventually replacing 
Clarke. The MJQ would become an enduring jazz institu- 
tion for more than 40 years, with Jackson's blues-drenched 
solos being a crucial ingredient in their sound. When the 
MJQ wasn't touring, Jackson occasionally led bands featur- 
ing Jimmy Heath and Ray Brown and worked on recording 
sessions that included Julian "Cannonball" Adderley and 
Ray Charles. 

He left the MJQ in 1974, leading his own groups or play- 
ing with all-star aggregations until 1981, when the MJQ 
reunited for a concert in Japan. Following that concert, the 
quartet made annual tours from 1982 through the early 
1990s. For most of the remainder of his career he worked 
with his own groups, which often included such 
£<££,£> disc Og/j musicians as Mickey Roker, Bob Cranshaw, 

Modern Jazz Quartet, MJQ, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1954-56 

Plenty, Plenty Soul, Atlantic, 1957 

Bags Meets Trane, Atlantic, 1959 

Milt Jackson + Count Basie + The Big Band, 
Vol. 1 & 2, Original Jazz Classics, 1978 

and Mike LeDonne. 

The winner of numerous jazz polls, 
Jackson's vibe-playing dominated the 
field for much of his career, leading to 
his induction into the Percussion Hall 
of Fame and Down Beat Hall of 
Fame, among other honors. 

Sa Va Bella, 
Warner Brothers, 1996 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 4 1 



(Fritz Jones) 

Born July 2, 1930 in Pittsburgh, PA 

One of the subtlest virtuosos of jazz piano, 
Ahmad Jamal's uncanny use of space in his 
playing and leadership of his small ensem- 
bles have been hallmarks of his influential career. 
Among those he has influenced is most notably 
Miles Davis. Davis made numerous and promi- 
nent mentions of Jamal's influence on the trum- 
peter, particular in his use of space, allowing the 
music to "breathe," and his choice of composi- 
tions. Several tunes that were in Jamal's playlist, 
such as the standard "Autumn Leaves" and Jamal's 
own "New Rhumba," began appearing in the playlist of 
Davis' 1950s bands. Additionally, Jamal's textured 
rhythms on piano influenced Davis' piano players as well, 
from Wynton Kelly in the 1950s to Herbie Hancock in 
the 1960s. 

His piano studies began at age three, and by age 11, he 
was making his professional debut with a sound strongly 
influenced by Art Tatum and Erroll Garner. Following grad- 
uation from Pittsburgh's Westinghouse High School, he 
joined the George Hudson band in 1947. He formed his 
own group, Four Strings, in 1949 that included violinist Joe 
Kennedy and the percussive guitarist Ray Crawford. This 

led to formation of his trio Three 
Strings in 1950-52, which 
debuted at Chicago's Blue Note 
club, and later became the 
Ahmad Jamal Trio. His 1958 
album At the Pershing became 
a surprising smash hit, high- 
lighted by his interpretation of 
"Poinciana." With the popu- 
larity of the album and the 
advocacy of Davis, Jamais trio 
was one of the most popular jazz 
acts in the late 1950s and early 1960s. 
For the most part, Jamal has worked in 
piano-bass-drums trios, using the intricate relationship of 
the band to explore his sound, directing the trio through 
seemingly abrupt time and tempo shifts. His piano virtuos- 
ity has also been welcomed by a number of orchestras and 
his abilities as a composer are considerable. His approach 
has been described as being chamber-jazz-like, and he has 
experimented with strings and electric instruments in his 

At the Pershing/But Not for Me, 
Chess, 1958 

Ahmad's Blues, GRP, 1958 

The Awakening, 
Impulse!, 1970 

Chicago Bevisited: Live at Joe Segal's 
Jazz Showcase, Telarc, 1 992 

The Essence of Ahmad Jamal, 
Part 7, Verve, 1994-96 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Born January 22, 1 924 in Indianapolis, IN 
Died February 4, 2001 

Often referred to as the "Charlie Parker of the trom- 
bone" due to his uncanny musical dexterity and flu- 
ency, J.J. Johnson dominated his instrument for over 
40 years, and was known as a potent composer and arranger. 
He was a perennial jazz magazine poll winner for his peer- 
less trombone playing. 

Between ages nine and eleven, he studied piano with his 
family's church organist, picking up the trombone at age 14. 
His first professional experience came with the bands of 
Clarence Love and Snookum Russell. It was in the Russell 
band that he met jazz trumpeter Fats Navarro, an early influ- 
ence on the young trombonist. After leaving Russell, he 
spent three years with Benny Carter's band, then gigged 
with Count Basie in 1945-46. He worked briefly with Dizzy 
Gillespie, and Woody Herman, then toured the Far East with 
Oscar Pettiford. The difficulty of making a living in the jazz 
field affected Johnson; from 1952-54 he occupied a day job 
as a blueprint reader. Then came one of his most significant 
early bands, a two-trombone group he co-led with Kai 
Winding — the Jay and Kai Quintet — from 1954-56; after a 
period of freelancing and bandleading, he re-joined Winding 
in 1958. The group was instrumental in demonstrating the 
power and possibilities of the trombone in modern jazz. 
In the late 1950s, he began to gain recognition as a com- 

poser. Two of his extended works 
"El Camino Real," and "Sketch 
for Trombone and Orchestra," 
were commissioned by the 
Monterey Jazz Festival. A 
commission from Dizzy 
Gillespie resulted in 
"Perceptions," a large- 
scale work for orchestra 
that was recorded for 
Verve Records. In addition 
to his work as a composer, 
he performed with groups led 
by Miles Davis, Clark Terry, 
and Sonny Stitt, then moved to 
California in 1970. There he immersed 
himself in lucrative television and film scoring. His scores 
can be heard on such television programs as Mayberry RFD 
That Girl, Mod Squad, Six Million Dollar Man, and Starsky 
and Hutch. 

In 1987, he returned to his hometown Indianapolis 
and began playing, touring, and recording again. His 
awards include an honorary doctoral degree from Indiana 
University and the Indiana Governor's Arts Award in 1989. 

The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson, 
Vol. 1 &2. Blue Note, 1953-55 

Stan Getz & J.J. Johnson at the Opera House, 
Verve, 1957 

The Great Kai and J. J., 
Impulse!, 1960 

Live at the Village Vanguard, 
EmArcy, 1988 

Tangence, Verve, 1 994 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 43 


Born July 31. 1918 in Vicksburg. MS 



Hank Jones, a member of the famous jazz family that 
includes brothers cornetist Thad and drummer 
Elvin, has served as a pianist in a vast array of set- 
tings, always lending a distinctive, swinging sensibility to 
the sessions. Although born in Mississippi, Jones grew up 
in Pontiac, Michigan, listening to such performers as Earl 
Hines, Fats Waller, and Art Tatum. A performer by 
the time he was 13, Jones played with territory 
bands that toured Michigan and Ohio. In one 
such band he met saxophonist Lucky 
Thompson, who got him a job in the Hot 
Lips Page band in 1944, prompting Jones' 
move to New York. 

Once in New York, Jones became 
exposed to bebop, embracing the style 
in his playing and even recording with 
Charlie Parker. Meanwhile, he took jobs 
with such bandleaders as John Kirby, 
Coleman Hawkins, Andy Kirk, Billy 
Eckstine, and Howard McGhee. He toured 
with Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic 
in 1947. As a result, he became Ella Fitzgerald's 
pianist, touring with her from 1948-53. These experiences 
Berved to broaden his musical palette and sophistication. 

A consummate freelancer, Jones found work with artists 
Buch as Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Milt Jackson, and 

Julian "Cannonball" Adderley. The versatility Jones 
acquired through such affiliations served him well when he 
joined the staff of CBS as a studio musician, remaining for 
17 years. Although his studio work found him working on 
productions like the Ed Sullivan Show, Jones continued his 
touring and recording experiences in a variety of settings. 
His broad range and ability to fit in different settings 
also landed him in Broadway pit bands, where 

f r 


The Jazz Trio of Hank Jones, 
Savoy, 1955 

The Oracle, EmArcy, 1989 

Lazy Afternoon, 
Concord Jazz, 1989 

Upon Reflection, Verve, 1993 

Charlie Haden/Hank Jones, Steal Away, 
Verve, 1994 

he served as pianist and conductor for such 
shows as Am 't Misbeha\in '. 

Jones was the first regular pianist in 
brother Thad's co-led orchestra with Mel 
Lewis, beginning in 1966. Throughout 
the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Jones con- 
tinued to be much in demand for record 
dates and tours. Among his affiliations 
was the Great Jazz Trio, a cooperative 
unit with Ron Carter and Tony Williams, 
who were later supplanted by Buster 
Williams and Ben Riley. Jones has also expe- 
rienced his share of piano duos, with the likes 
of Tommy Flanagan — with whom he became 
acquainted when both were developing around the Detroit 
area — George Shearing, and John Lewis. As a leader and 
valued sideman, Hank Jones can be found on thousands of 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 





Born July 10, 1911 in Chicago, IL 
Died September 3, 1985 

Io Jones' uncanny way around the drums, ability to truly 
swing a band without ever overpowering it, and slick, 
smiling sense of showmanship made him one of the 
niost influential of the early swing band drummers. Jones 
made an art form of the use of brushes on the drum kit, with 
accents timely and thoroughly appropriate for whatever 
band with which he played. Jo Jones is credited 



with the transfer of the essential pulse of jazz 
music from the bass drum to the hi-hat cym- 
bal, influencing such modern drummers as 
Max Roach. His technique was to leave 
the hi-hat cymbals just slightly apart, 
which produced a sound different from 
the relative staccato approach of his 
predecessors. Never one to engage in 
extended solos, his delight was in driv- 
ing a band with his incomparable swing. 

Jones grew up in Alabama, touring 
with various shows and carnivals as a tap 
dancer and instrumentalist while still in his 
teens. His first major jazz job came when he 
joined the territory band known as Walter Page's Blue 
Devils in Oklahoma City in the late 1920s. Jones stayed in 
the Midwest for quite some time, working with trumpeter 
Lloyd Hunter and moving to Kansas City in 1933. 

C ^D DISCoq^ 

In 1934 came the affiliation with which his artistry is 
forever identified, drumming with the Count Basie band, 
with whom he worked on and off for over 15 years. Jones' 
drumming was the final ingredient to what became known 
as the "All-American Rhythm Section." Besides Jones, this 

included guitarist Freddie Green, bassist Walter Page, 

and Basie on piano. They provided the irresistible 




Count Basie, The Original American 
Decca Recordings, MCA, 1937-39 

The Essential Jo Jones, 
Vanguard, 1955 

Jo Jones Trio, Fresh Sounds, 1 959 

Jo Jones Sextet, Fresh Sounds, 1 960 

The Main Man, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1976 

pulse that drove the Count Basie band of the 
day to be called the swinging-est band in the 
land. Jones served two years in the Army 
from 1944-46, then returned to the Basie 
band, where he remained a full-time 
member until 1948. 

Thereafter, though frequently 
reuniting with Basie on special occa- 
sions, Jones became a freelance drum- 
mer. He played on tours with Jazz at the 
Philharmonic, and recorded with many 
of the jazz greats, including Billie Holiday, 
Duke Ellington, Johnny Hodges, Teddy 
Wilson, Lester Young, Art Tatum, and Benny 
Goodman. Jones was constantly in demand for a 
variety of all-star swing sessions and made numerous 
recordings as a highly valued sideman. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 45 



Born May 28, 1898 in Newport, KY 
Died December 11, 1992 

Andy Kirk, though virtually unknown nowadays out 
side of jazz circles, led one of the hottest swing 
bands in the country during the 1930s, rivaling 
Basie's. His band, the Clouds of Joy, also introduced some 
of the biggest names in jazz, most notably Mary 
Lou Williams. 

Kirk grew up in Denver, Colorado, where 
he came under the musical tutelage of Paul 
Whiteman's father, Wilberforce 
Whiteman. His first job, as bass saxo- 
phonist and tuba player, came with the 
George Morrison Orchestra in 1918. In 
1925 he relocated to Dallas and joined 
Terence Holder's Dark Clouds of Joy, a 
band he eventually took over in 1929, 
changing the name to the Clouds of Joy 
(sometimes being known as the Twelve 
Clouds of Joy, depending on the number of 
musicians in the band). 

He moved the band to Kansas City, where they 
made their first recordings in 1929-30, including Mary Lou 
Williams' "Froggy Bottom," which has been covered count- 
less times since. Kirk's band was highly popular, becom- 
ing — along with the Count Basie band, the Benny Moten 



Classics, 1929-31 

Classics, 1936-37 

Classics, 1937-38 

Kansas City Bounce, 
Black and Blue, 1939-40 

Classics, 1940-42 


Orchestra, and Jay McShann's band — one of the purveyors 
of the Kansas City swing sound. Particularly popular was 
their recording of "Until the Real Thing Comes Along" 
in 1936. 

Although the leader of the band, Kirk usually 
was not a soloist, utilizing the talent in his band 
for the spotlight instead. His genius lay in 
realizing how best to make use of his band 
members' skills. Realizing the awesome 
writing and arranging aptitude of Man* 
Lou Williams, for example, he made her 
the chief composer and arranger for the 
Clouds of Joy from 1929-42. Other 
notable band members who Kirk high- 
lighted as soloists included Shorty Baker, 
Don Byas, Kenny Kersey, Howard 
McGhee, Fats Navarro, and Dick Wilson. 
The band continued to tour and record until 
disbanding in 1948. 

Kirk led another band in California in the early 
1950s, then went into other professions. In the 1970s he led 
pickup bands on occasion, though he spent the remainder of 
his life working for his Jehovah's Witness church. 

46 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Bom May 3, 1920 in La Grange, IL 
Died March 29, 2001 

Iohn Lewis' artistry flowered during his historic tenure 
as musical director of the longest continuing small 
ensemble in the annals of jazz, the Modern Jazz Quartet, 
vvith whom he was able to realize his unique vision of 
fusing blues, bebop, and classical music into an artful, 
elegant balance. 

Raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Lewis' mother was 
a primary musical influence. After high school, Lewis 
joined the Army in 1942, where he met drummer Kenny 
Clarke and trumpeter/bandleader Dizzy Gillespie. 

In 1946, Lewis and Clarke joined the rhythm section of 
Gillespie's pioneer big band, which included vibraphonist 
Milt Jackson and bassist Ray Brown. The Gillespie band 
provided a convenient canvas for Lewis to write composi- 
tions and craft arrangements, utilizing the talents of some of 
the finest young musicians in jazz. Lewis' first extended 
composition for Gillespie was his 1947 "Toccata for 
Trumpet," which premiered at Carnegie Hall. Other early 
contributions to the Gillespie book included Lewis' arrange- 
ments of the tunes "Two Bass Hit" and "Emanon." 

Coinciding with his work with the Gillespie band, Lewis 
continued his music studies at the Manhattan School of 
Music, eventually earning his master's degree in 1953. Lewis 
also worked with other jazz greats in between tours with 
Gillespie's band, including serving as pianist and arranger for 
the Miles Davis recording, Birth of the Cool, in 1950. 

In 1951, the Gillespie band rhythm section of 1946 — 
Lewis, Clarke, Jackson, and Brown — reunited in the record- 
ing studio as the Milt Jackson Quartet, later becoming the 
Modern Jazz Quartet. By the time those recordings were 



Modern Jazz Quartet, Django, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1953-55 

Grand Encounter, Blue Note, 1956 

The Wonderful World of Jazz, Atlantic, 1960 

Kansas City Breaks, DRG, 1982 

Private Concert, EmArcy, 1 990 

issued, Percy Heath had replaced 
Brown. In 1954, the Modern 
Jazz Quartet began touring 
and Connie Kay replaced 
Clarke on drums the follow- 
ing year. Lewis would use 
his time in the more than 
40 years with MJQ to hone 
his composing and arrang- 
ing skills, experimenting 
with form and sound, while 
collaborating with guests rang- 
ing in diversity from Sonny 
Rollins to the Beaux Arts String 
Quartet to singer Diahann Carroll to full 
orchestras. Perhaps his most widely interpreted composi- 
tion is "Django," which he wrote in honor of the legendary 
Gypsy guitarist Django Reinhardt. 

Throughout his career, John Lewis had written for a vast 
number of musical configurations in a dizzying array of 
styles, from solo piano to symphonies, ballets to film and 
television scores. Lewis was part of the first wave of what 
composer Gunther Schuller dubbed the Third Stream — an 
effort at forging a third stream through the fusing of the two 
primary streams: jazz and European classical music. 

As an educator, he served as director of faculty at the 
Lenox School of Jazz, where he first championed Ornette 
Coleman; on the trustee board of the Manhattan School of 
Music; and in faculty positions at Harvard University and 
City College of New York. 


American Jazz Masters Fellowships 47 

^m* ^ 




Born January 13, 1926 Kansas City, MO 
Died April 23, 1999 



Although a formidable trombone player, Melba Liston 
was primarily known for her arrangements, espe- 
cially working with Randy Weston, and composi- 
tions. Growing up mosdy in Los Angeles, some of her first 
work came during the 1940s with two West Coast masters: 
bandleader Gerald Wilson and tenor saxophonist Dexter 
Gordon. In Gordon's small combos, she began to 
blossom as a trombone soloist, and Gordon 
wrote a song as a tribute to her, "Mischievous 
Lady." Despite her obvious talent as a 
soloist, Liston became an in-demand big 
band section player, which likely fueled 
her later work as an arranger. During the 
1940s, Liston also worked with the 
Count Basie band and with Billie 

Following a brief hiatus from music, 
she joined Dizzy Gillespie's bebop big 
band in 1950, and again for two of 
Gillespie's State Department tours in 1956 
and 1957, which included her arrangements of 
"Annie's Dance" and "Stella by Starlight" in per- 
formances. She started her own all-woman quintet in 1958, 
working in New York and Bermuda, before joining Quincy 
Jones' band in 1959 to play the musical Free and Easy. She 
stayed in [ones' louring band as one of two woman mem- 
bers until 1961. 



Dizzy Gillespie, Dizzy In South America, 
Vol. 7 & 2, CAP, 1 956 

Quincy Jones, Q Live in Paris, 
Warner Brothers, 1960 

Randy Weston, Tanjah, Verve, 1 973 

Randy Weston/Melba Liston, 
Volcano Blues, Verve, 1993 

Randy Weston, Khepera, 
Verve, 1998 

In the 1950s, Liston began a partnership that she would 
return to on and off for more than 40 years. From the semi- 
nal 1959 recording Little Niles through 1998's Khepera, 
Liston was the arranger on six of Randy Weston's albums. 
Her arrangements, with a powerful base of brass and percus- 
sion and expressive solo performances, helped shape and 
embellish Weston's compositions. 

Other affiliations during the 1960s included 
co-leading a band with trumpeter Clark Terry. 
and writing for the Duke Ellington orches- 
tra, singers Tony Bennett and Eddie 
Fisher, and the Buffalo Symphony 
Orchestra. During the 1970s, she 
worked with youth orchestras in Los 
Angeles, continuing to write for Basie, 
Ellington, and singer Abbey Lincoln. 
Liston also became a staff arranger for the 
Motown label. Later that decade she took 
up residence in Jamaica, where she taught 
at the University of the West Indies and was 
director of Popular Music Studies at the Jamaica 
Institute of Music. 
Slowed by a stroke in 1985, which effectively ended her 
playing career, she was able to resume work as a composer 
and arranger in the 1990s through the aid of computer tech- 
nology. Liston's career helped pave the way for women in 
jazz in roles other than as vocalists. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born May 17, 1931 in New York, NY 

Known in the jazz community as "Jackie Mac," Jackie 
McLean has been a stalwart, enduring force in jazz 
since the early 1950s, and a distinguished educator 
since 1968. Long the possessor of one of the most recogniz- 
able alto saxophone sounds and styles, he has explored the 
cutting edge of jazz creativity. 

McLean grew up in a musical family, his father being a 
guitarist for bandleader Tiny Bradshaw and stepfather own- 
ing a record store. By age 15, he chose the alto saxophone 
as his instrument. Jackie's earliest studies came through the 
tutelage of Foots Thomas, Cecil Scott, Joe Napoleon, and 
Andy Brown in his native New York. Another of his infor- 
mal teachers was piano master Bud Powell. McLean's most 
significant early band affiliation came during the years 1948- 
49, when he joined a Harlem neighborhood band led by 
tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins and including pianist 
Kenny Drew. McLean's stints with the Miles Davis band, 
between 1949-53, yielded his first recording sessions as a 
sideman and marked the beginning of what became known 
as hard bop, an advanced progression on bebop. 

During McLean's busiest period as a sideman in the 
1950s, he worked with pianist George Wallington, drummer 
Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, and bassist Charles Mingus. 
McLean's first recording as a leader came in 1955, when he 
cut a quintet date for the Ad Lib label. His intense playing 
has fit in well with both hard bop and the avant-garde, two 
schools of jazz in which McLean has experimented. 

Throughout the 1960s, McLean continued to work with 
his own bands and occasional all-star aggregations, but also 


4, 5 and 6, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1956 

New Soil, Blue Note, 1959 

Let Freedom Ring, Blue Note, 1962 

The Jackie Mac Attack Live, 
Verve, 1991 

Nature Boy, 
Blue Note, 2000 

became more interested in social 
issues. In 1959-60 he acted in 
the off-Broadway play The 
Connection, a cautionary 
tale dealing with jazz and 
the perils of drug abuse, 
which evolved into a 1961 
film. In 1967 he took his 
music into prisons, working 
as a music instructor and 
counselor. Then in 1968, he 
moved to Hartford, Connecticut 
to take a teaching position at Hartt 
College of Music of the University of 
Hartford. It was in Hartford that McLean and his wife 
Dollie founded the Artists Collective, a widely hailed com- 
bination community center/fine arts school, primarily aimed 
at troubled youth. The Artists Collective opened a beautiful 
new building in 1999 following years of residence in a for- 
mer schoolhouse in one of Hartford's most disadvantaged 

At the University of Hartford, Jackie McLean established 
the school's African American Music Department and subse- 
quent Jazz Studies degree program. The program DBS 
instructed a number of exceptional young jazz musicians, 
including saxophonist Antoine Roney, drummer Eric 
MacPherson, saxophonist Abraham Burton, trombonist 
Steve Davis, pianist Alan Palmer, and saxophonist Jimmy 


American Jazz Masters Fellowships 49 


Born March 20, 1918 in Slough, England 

Best known as the host of the weekly national radio 
program Piano Jazz, Marian McPartland has helped to 
popularize jazz with her intricate knowledge and 
prowess on the piano. She has made the program one of the 
most popular in the history of public radio. 

Born to a musical mother who played classical piano, 
she studied at the famed Guildhall School of Music 
in London. Her first professional activity was as 
part of a touring vaudeville act featuring four 
pianists. During World War II, she enter- 
tained the troops and while playing in 
Belgium met her late husband, cornetist 
Jimmy McPartland, whom she married 
in 1945. They relocated to the U.S. in 
1946, whereupon she performed in his 
band in Chicago. She formed her first 
active trio in 1950 for an engagement at 
the Embers in New York. Two years later, 
she began what would be an eight-year res 
idency at the Hickory House in New York 
with her trio. 

In 1963, she worked with the Benny Goodman 
Sextet, ;ind in 1965 she began her radio career, at WBAI in 


New York. In 1970 she started her own record company, 
Halcyon Records, one of the first jazz women to do so. In 
1979 she began her weekly program Piano Jazz, the longest 
running syndicated National Public Radio program. An 
intimate program involving just her and a guest — usually a 
pianist — the program has won numerous awards, including 
the Peabody Award. Many of the programs have been 
subsequently released on compact disc. As part 


Jazz at the Hickory House, 
Jasmine, 1954 

Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz 
with Guest Bill Evans, Jan Alliance, 1 978 

Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz 
with Guest Eubie Blake, Jazz Alliance, 1 979 

Plays the Benny Carter Songbook, 
Concord, 1990 

Just Friends, Concord, 1 998 

of the segments, McPartland would interview 
the guest, drawing out colorful anecdotes 
and stories about their careers. The shows 
also included performances of 
McPartland and the guest together. 
Taken as a whole, the series presents a 
formidable history of jazz. 

Her playing career has also included 
piano tours with such greats as Earl 
Hines, Teddy Wilson. Ellis Larkins. and 
Benny Carter. She has performed with 
symphony orchestras and at many of the 
major jazz festivals, and has received numerous 
awards, including a Down Beat Lifetime 
Achievement award in 1997. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


*~ X 






Born April 8, 1920 in New York, NY 

Died November 10, 1994 

Tender and warm with a ballad, Carmen McRae was 
one of the great singers of jazz, finding the depth of 
feeling in the lyrics of the songs she interpreted. 
An accomplished pianist who in her early career accompa- 
nied herself, she occasionally returned to the piano later in 
her career. 

McRae learned piano through private lessons 
and was discovered by Irene Wilson Kitchings, 
a musician and former wife of pianist Teddy 
Wilson. McRae sang with the Benny 
Carter, Count Basie, and Mercer Ellington 
big bands during the 1940s and made her 
recorded debut as Carmen Clarke while 
the wife of drummer Kenny Clarke. 
During the bebop revolution at Minton's 
Playhouse, McRae was an intermission 
pianist, which is likely where she first 
heard Thelonious Monk's music, which 
influenced her piano playing and musical 
sense. In the early 1950s, she worked with the 
Mat Mathews Quintet. She signed her first signif- 
icant recording contract with Decca in 1954. 


Here to Stay, MCA/GRP, 1955-59 

Carmen McRae Sings 

Great American Songwriters, 

MCA/GRP, 1955-59 

Sings Lover Man 

& Other Billie Holiday Classics, 

Columbia, 1961 

Carmen Sings Monk, Novus, 1 988 

Sarah — Dedicated to You, 
Novus, 1990 

Working as a soloist, she gained wide recognition and 
was often seen in the pantheon of jazz singers that included 
Ella Fitzgerald and Sarah Vaughan, to whom she idolized 
and later paid homage on a recording. Her greatest idol was 
Billie Holiday, whom she feted on record and in perform- 
ances on many occasions. Although she admired these 
singers, she never resorted to sheer mimicry and 
developed her own original style. 

She recorded notably alongside Louis 
Armstrong on Dave Brubeck's extended 
work The Real Ambassadors, a social 
commentary written with his wife Iola. 
She made several film and television 
appearances, and performed as an 
actress in the landmark television series 
Roots. In the late 1980s, she returned to 
her first love, recording a full album of 
Monk's music with lyrics by Jon 
Hendricks, Abbey Lincoln, Mike Ferro, 
Sally Swisher, and Bernie Hanighen. The 
album became one of her signature recordings. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 51 



Born January 12, 1916 in Muskogee, OK 

For better or worse, Jay McShann is tied to the legend 
of Charlie Parker. Parker's first real professional work 
was with McShann 's Kansas City band, and McShann 
is credited with helping Parker to hone his talents. 
Arguably more important, McShann — along with Andy 
Kirk's Clouds of Joy, the Bennie Moten Orchestra and the 
great Count Basie bands — shaped and developed the Kansas 
City swing sound that was so popular in the 1930s and 

Known in jazz circles as "Hootie," McShann is for the 
most part a self-taught artist, though he did attend Tuskegee 
Institute. He developed a piano style that drew heavily on 
blues and boogie woogie. McShann 's earliest professional 
job came with tenor saxophonist Don Byas in 1931. 
Following his days at Tuskegee, McShann 
played in bands in Oklahoma and Arkansas 
prior to joining a trio with bassist Oliver 
Todd and drummer Elmer Hopkins in 
late 1936 in Kansas City. 

In subsequent months, he worked 
with alto saxophonist Buster Smith 
and trumpeter Dee Stewart before 

forming a sextet in 1937. In late 1939, McShann put 
together his first big band. His recording career commenced 
in 1941 with the Decca label, records that often featured 
blues singer Walter Brown. McShann 's first New York 
appearance, at the Savoy Ballroom, came in February 1942. 
His band during the height of his popularity included such 
notables as Parker, bassist Gene Ramey, drummer Gus 
Johnson, and saxophonists Paul Quinichette and Jimmy 
Forrest, all of whom McShann used brilliantly as soloists. 
Following service in the Army, McShann reformed his 
band, which played New York spots and traveled west to 
California. Towards the end of the 1940s. McShann 's small 
band fronted blues singer Jimmy Witherspoon. 

In the early 1950s, McShann moved his home base back 
to Kansas City, where he continues to reside. In the 
C ^-BD DISc °G^. 1970s and 1980s, McShann experienced a bit of a 

renaissance, with increased recording and per- 
forming opportunities, often with Kansas City 
violinist Claude "Fiddler" Williams, and he 
continues to perform throughout the 

Blues from Kansas City, 
MCA, 1941-43 

1944-46, Classics, 1944-46 

With Kansas City in Mind, 
Swaggie, 1972 

Vine Street Boogie, Black Lion, 1974 

A Tribute to Charlie Parker, 
Music Masters, 1989 

52 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 









Born March 26, 1925 in Savannah, GA 

One of the surviving champions of Dizzy Gillespie's 
music, James Moody is an accomplished musician 
on the tenor and alto saxophones, as well as the 
flute, despite being born partially deaf. In addition to his 
instrumental prowess, Moody is an engaging entertainer, 
captivating audiences with his personal charm and wit. 

Although born in Savannah, he was raised in 
Reading, Pennsylvania, and Newark, New 
Jersey. His interest in jazz was sparked by a 
trumpet-playing father who gigged in the 
Tiny Bradshaw band. His first musical 
training came in the Air Force, and after 
leaving the service in 1946 he joined the 
Dizzy Gillespie big band, staying until 

1948. Gillespie became his musical 
mentor. In 1948 he moved to Paris for 
three years, often playing with visiting 
American musicians, including the Tadd 
Dameron-Miles Davis band in 1949. 

In Sweden, he recorded his famous 
improvisation on "I'm in the Mood For Love" in 

1949, playing on an alto saxophone instead of his 
usual tenor. His solo was later set to lyrics by Eddie 
Jefferson and recorded by King Pleasure, known as 
"Moody's Mood for Love," becoming a surprise hit in 1952 




James Moody and Frank Foster 
in Paris, RCA, 1954 

Moody's Mood for Blues, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1954-55 

Return from Overbrook, GRP/Chess, 1956-58 

Don't Look Away Now!, 
Original Jazz Classics. 1969 

Mainly Mancini, 
Warner Brothers, 1997 

Throughout the rest of his career, Moody would be more 
known for the vocal version of the song based on his solo 
than for the instrumental version itself, and obliged requests 
for the song by singing his famous solo. 

Through the 1950s and 1960s, he led his own bands, 
and worked alongside other saxophonists, notably Gene 
Amnions and Sonny Stitt, with whom he co-led a 
three-tenor sax band. In 1963 he returned to 
the Dizzy Gillespie small group, where he 
largely remained until 1971. In 1975, he 
moved to Las Vegas and worked numer- 
ous hotel and casino shows with singers 
and comics, picking up the clarinet 
along the way. In 1979, he left Las 
Vegas and moved back to New York to 
lead his own quintet. 

Then in 1989 he moved to San Diego 
and worked as a soloist and member of 
1-star touring units. He continues to 

experiment with his music, sometimes includ- 
ing synthesizers on his recordings. He has occa- 
sionally taught on college and university campuses, 
and even acted in the Clint Eastwood film Midnight in the 
Garden of Good and Evil. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 53 

(Anita Belle Colton) 

Born October 18, 1919 in Chicago, IL 

Anita O'Day's unique sound and swinging rhythmic 
sense put her in the upper echelon of jazz singers, 
as skillful with ballads as with scatting and liberal 
interpretations of standard songs. Her career spans the late 
swing and bebop eras, inspiring many singers who followed 
her, such as June Christy, Chris Connor, and Helen Merrill. 
She began her performing career as a ballroom dance con- 
test winner in the 1930s, which is when she adopted the 
stage name O'Day. At 19, she began singing professionally 
in clubs around Chicago. 

In 1941 she joined Gene Krupa's big band, recording a 
memorable duet with Roy Eldridge on "Let Me 
Off Uptown," one of the first interracial 
vocal duets on record. She also may 
have been the first feminist big 
band singer, refusing to appear in 
the standard gown and gloves, 
instead opting for band jacket 
and short skirt. She stayed 

with the Krupa organization until 1943. In 1944 she joined 
Stan Kenton's band. She then re-joined Krupa in 1945. 
remaining there until 1946, when she began a solo career. 
In the mid-1950s she made a few notable albums for the 
Verve label, demonstrating the power of her vocals. 

In 1958 her appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, 
replete with characteristic big hat, caused a sensation. She 
provided one of the highlights of the subsequent film of the 
festival, Jazz on a Summer's Day. From that point on she 
worked mainly on the club circuit with her own groups. 

Always a hit in Japan, she made her first tour there in 
1964, returning on several occasions. Frustrated with 
record label indifference to her artistry, she developed her 

«f$&° DISCo °^ yb own record labels. In the 1980s and 1990s, she contin- 


The Complete Recordings, 1949-50, 
Baldwin Street Music, 1949-50 

Swings Cole Porter with Billy May 
Verve, 1952-59 

Anita Sings the Winners, 
Verve, 1956-62 

Anita Sings the Most, Verve, 1957 

Rules of the Road, Pablo, 1 993 

ued to work the club and jazz festival circuits, includ- 
ing a concert at Carnegie Hall in 1985 to celebrate 
her 50 years in jazz and notable performances at 
the Vine Street Bar & Grill in Los Angeles in 1992. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born January 10, 1924 in New Land, NC 

Max Roach is one of the two leading drummers of 
the bebop era (along with Kenny Clarke) and has 
remained one of the leading musicians, com- 
posers, and bandleaders in jazz ever since the 1940s. His 
often biting political commentary and strong intellect, not to 
mention his rhythmic innovations, have kept him at the 
vanguard of jazz for more than 50 years. 

Roach grew up in a household where gospel music was 
quite prominent. His mother was a gospel singer and he 
began drumming in a gospel ensemble at age 10. Roach's 
formal study of music took him to the Manhattan School of 
Music. In 1942, he became house drummer at Monroe's 
Uptown House, enabling him to play and interact with some 
of the giants of the bebop era, such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy 
Gillespie, Thelonious Monk, and Bud Powell. Roach would 
later record with Parker, Gillespie, Powell, and bassist 
Charles Mingus at the historic Massey Hall concert in 1953. 

Throughout the 1940s, Roach continued to branch out in 
his playing, drumming with Benny Carter, Stan Getz, Allen 
Eager, and Miles Davis. In 1952, he and Mingus collabo- 
rated to create their own record label, Debut Records. 
In 1954, Roach began a short-lived but crucial band with 
incendiary trumpeter Clifford Brown. This historic band, 
which ended abruptly with Brown's tragic death in 1956, 
also included saxophonists Harold Land and Sonny Rollins. 

In the late 1950s, Roach began adding political commen- 
tary to his recordings, starting with Deeds Not Words, but 
coming into sharper focus with We Insist! Freedom Now in 


Brownie Lives!, Fresh Sounds, 1956 

Deeds Not Words, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

We Insist! Freedom Now Suite, 
Candid, 1960 

Historic Concerts, Soul Note, 1979 

7b 777e /Wax, Enja, 1990-91 

1960, on which he collabo- 
rated with singer-lyricist 
Oscar Brown, Jr. From 
then on he has been an 
eloquent spokesman in 
the area of racial and 
political justice. 

Roach continued to 
experiment with his 
sound, eschewing the use 
of the piano or other chord- 
ing instruments in his bands 
for the most part from the late 
1960s on. His thirst for experimenta- 
tion has led to collaborations with seemingly disparate 
artists, including duets with saxophonist Anthony Braxton 
and pianist Cecil Taylor, as well as partnerships with 
pianist Abdullah Ibrahim and saxophonist Archie Shepp. 

As a drum soloist he has few peers in terms of innova- 
tions, stemming from his deeply personal sound and 
approach. His proclivities in the area of multiethnic percus- 
sion have flowered with his intermittent percussion ensem- 
ble M'Boom, founded in 1970. A broad-based percussionist 
who was a pioneer in establishing a fixed pulse on the ride 
cymbal instead of the bass drum, Roach has also collabo- 
rated with voice, string, and brass ensembles, lectured on 
college campuses extensively, and composed music for 
dance, theater, film, and television. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 55 

k.W co 


Born September 7, 1930 in New York, NY 


Saxophone Colossus, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1956 

With more than 40 years in jazz, Sonny Rollins' tow- 
ering achievements on the tenor saxophone are 
many, and he continues to be one of the most 
exciting and fiery players in concert. Inspired by the exam- 
ple of his brother's pursuit of music, Rollins began piano les- 
sons at age nine. At 14 he picked up the alto saxophone, 
and switched to the tenor two years later. Soon he was play- 
ing dances in a band of youngsters in his New York commu- 
nity, which included Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, and Art 
Taylor. Rollins' first recording was made alongside the bop 
singer Babs Gonzales in 1949. Later that year he played at 
sessions with f. J. Johnson and Bud Powell, recording his 
song "Audubon" with Johnson. 

In the 1950s, Rollins began by serving as a sideman on 
sessions with Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, Art Farmer, 
and the Modern Jazz Quartet. In late 1955, while living in 
Chicago, he began one of his most fruitful band affiliations 
when he stood in for Harold Land in the superb Clifford 
Brown-Max Roach Quintet at the Bee Hive club. He 
remained a regular member until Brown's tragic June 1956 
death from an auto accident. 

Rollins continued to record, mainly for Prestige, where 
his output was some of the finest music recorded in the 
mid- 1950s OH any label. Among his recorded highlights 
during this period were Tenor Madness, which included an 
eni ountei with John Coltrane; Saxophone Colossus, a 
sparkling album thai introduced his most noted composi- 
tion. "St. Thomas," which honored his parents' Virgin 

A Night at the Village Vanguard, 
Blue Note, 1957 

The Quartets. Bluebird, 1962 
East Broadway Rundown, Impulse!, ' 
Silver City, Milestone, 1972-95 


Islands roots; and 
Way Out West, which 
took seemingly mun- 
dane songs like "I'm 
an Old Cowhand" 
and spun them out 
with extraordinary 

By 1959, Rollins had grown 
impatient with the vagaries of the jazz scene and took a hia- 
tus. He would often practice his horn deep into the night on 
the upper reaches of the Williamsburg Bridge, which crosses 
the East River from Manhattan to Brooklyn. In 1961 he 
returned to the scene, refreshed and playing better than ever. 
He made a series of recordings for the RCA label with musi- 
cians such as Jim Hall, Don Cherry, Billy Higgins. and 
Herbie Hancock, and also began his long-term employment 
of bassist Bob Cranshaw. 

In London in 1966, he composed and recorded a sound- 
track album for the film Alfie for die Impulse! label, which 
brought him some popularity beyond jazz audiences. By 
1968 Rollins again required a break from the scene, return- 
ing in 1971. He has been playing and growing ever since, 
continuing his long affiliation with the Fantasy family of 
labels (including Prestige and Milestone) and working 
almost exclusively on concert stages. Sonny Rollins' record- 
ings have continued to reflect his interest in Caribbean 
rhythms, particularly the calypso. 

56 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 





Born June 23, 1923 in Cincinnati, OH 

Unique among NEA American Jazz Masters recipients 
in that he is first and foremost a composer rather 
than an instrumentalist, George Russell is one of the 
most important jazz theorists of the latter half of the 20th 
century. He first expressed himself musically on the drums 
in the drum and bugle corps. After high school, Russell 
attended Wilberforce University, where he found 
gigs playing drums at local clubs. Russell's 
study of composing and arranging increased 
while he was bedridden with a case of 
tuberculosis at 19. It was during this time 
that he began formulating his unprece- 
dented musical theorems. 

While his first arrangements were for 
the A.B. Townsend Orchestra, a 
Cincinnati dance band, Russell's initial 
major band affiliation was as a drummer 
with Benny Carter. Later he found work 
arranging with the Earl Hines band. His first 
major score was "Cubana Be, Cubana Bop," an 
Afro-Cuban piece written for the Dizzy Gillespie 
big band. Russell followed that with charts for Lee 
Konitz ("Ezz-thetic" and "Odjenar") and Buddy DeFranco 
("A Bird in Igor's Yard"). He continued his advanced com- 
position study with Stefan Wolpe. His theory, The Lyclian 
Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization, was eventually 
published in book form in the mid-1950s. Russell's concept 
involves a composition system based on the grading of inter- 
vals by the distance of their pitches from a central note. 




Jazz Workshop, RCA Victor, 1956 

New York, NY, Impulse!, 1958 

Ezz-Thetics, Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

New York Big Band, Soul Note, 1 977-78 

The African Game, Blue Note, 1983 

Music theoreticians hailed this as a breakthrough, being 
perhaps the first major contribution by a jazz musician to 
the field of musical theory. Russell's continued refinement 
and study of this concept eventually led him to academia 
when he taught at the Lenox School of Jazz during 1958-59. 
In the meantime, his theories on modals influenced 
Miles Davis and Bill Evans (who studied with 
Russell), leading to the creation of Davis' mas- 
terpiece, Kind of Blue. In the early 1960s, 
Russell led several small groups, which 
included musicians such as Eric Dolphy 
and David Baker, and made some signif- 
icant recordings before moving to 
Scandinavia. There he continued to 
refine his theories and work with 
Scandinavian musicians, returning to 
the U.S. in 1969. That year he took a 
teaching position at New England 
Conservatory of Music. In the late 1970s, 
Russell formed big bands to play his music, 
creating his Living Time Orchestra in 1978. 
In addition to teaching and lecturing at other con- 
servatories and universities, Russell has been the; recipient 
of numerous awards, honors, and grants, including a 
MacArthur award, two Guggenheim fellowships, and the 
National Music Award. Though his recording and concert 
opportunities in the U.S. have been sporadic, George Russell 
has continued to refine his Lydian theories. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 57 


Born August 25, 1933 in Newark, NJ 


Equally renowned for his compositions as for his saxo- 
phone playing, Wayne Shorter has contributed many 
songs to the jazz canon while participating in some of 
the major changes in jazz music over the last 35 years. 

Shorter's musical pursuits started on the clarinet, at age 
16, evolving to the tenor saxophone soon thereafter. Shorter 
majored in music education at New York University from 
1956-58, working for a short while with Horace Silver in 
1956. After serving in die Army, he joined Maynard 
Ferguson's band for a couple of months in 1959, followed by 
one of his most fruitful jobs: playing with Art Blakey's Jazz 
Messengers. He remained in the Messengers until 1964, 
establishing himself as both composer and saxophonist, and 
began making his own records, first for Vee Jay, then for the 
Blue Note label. His three releases for Blue Note in 1964, 
Night Dreamer, Juju, and Speak No Evil, are considered the 
quintessential Blue Note sound: sophisticated structures and 
rhythms, strong melodies, exceptional playing. 

He left Blakey in 1964 to assume another productive 
affiliation with the Miles Davis Quintet, where he remained 
until 1970. VVbiln with Davis, he further solidified his posi- 
tion as one of the most intriguing composers of his time, 
contributing tunes such as "Nefertiti," "Fall," "ESP," 
"Paraphernalia," and "Sanctuary." He also developed his 

sound, a mixture of technique and emotion, able to find the 
appropriate mood in his playing to fit the song. During the 
latter stages of his Davis tenure, he took up the soprano sax- 
ophone, which thereafter often became his principle horn. 
In 1971 he and pianist Joe Zawinul, who also had been part 
of Davis' recording sessions in the late-1960s to early-1970s. 
formed one of the pioneering jazz fusion bands. Weather 
Report. The band stayed together for 15 years through sev- 
eral different permutations, engaging electronics and numer- 
ous ethnic influences and furthering Shorter's reputation as 
a composer. 

After the breakup of Weather Report he made occasional 
recordings and tours, continuing to mine the influences he 
felt from other musical cultures and con- 
tinuing to write intriguing music. DISCrv-* 
He is a major influence on the 
generations of musicians who 
have entered die scene 
since the 1970s. Shorter, 
who originally studied as 
a visual artist, continues 
to pursue the visual arts 
as well as music. 



Night Dreamer, Blue Note, 1964 

Speak No Evil. Blue Note, 1964 

Miles Davis, Miles Smiles, Columbia, 1966 

Weather Report, Live in Tokyo, 
Columbia, 1972 

Herbie Hancock/Wayne Shorter, M, 
Verve. 1997 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 




Born September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, CT 

Horace Silver was the heart of the hard bop era, help- 
ing to form the influential Jazz Messengers and com- 
posing many blues and gospel-flavored songs that 
have become part of the jazz canon, including "Lonely 
Woman," "Song For My Father," "Sefior Blues," "The 

with Coleman Hawkins, Bill Harris, Oscar Pettiford, Lester 
Young, and Art Blakey. In 1952, as a result of a Lou 
Donaldson record session, he began what became a 28-year 
relationship with the Blue Note label. Between 1953-55 he 
played in a band called the Jazz Messengers, co-led 


Preacher," "Nica's Dream," and "Peace." His 
piano playing is heavily rhythmic, driving his 
musical colleagues to greater heights in 
their solos. 

Silver was exposed to music at an 
early age, hearing Cape Verde Islands 
folk music from his father. Silver later 
used the island rhythms and flavor to 
great effect on his 1960s albums Song 
For My Father and Cape Verdean Blues. 
He took up the saxophone and piano in 
high school, and was influenced early on by 
the blues of Memphis Slim, various boogie 
woogie piano players, and the hebop pianists 
Bud Powell and Thelonious Monk. After a 1950 
stint backing guest soloist Stan Getz on a gig in Hartford, 
Connecticut, Silver was enlisted by Getz to join him on tour 
for the next year. Getz recorded three of Silver's earliest 
compositions, "Split Kick," "Potter's Luck," and "Penny." 

In 1951, he moved to New York and quickly found work 

C ^D DISCoq^ 




Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers, 
Blue Note, 1954 

Blowin' the Blues Away, Blue Note, 1 959 

Song For My Father, Blue Note, 1964 

Cape Verdean Blues, Blue Note, 1965 

The Hardbop Grandpop, GRP, 1996 

by Blakey. The band was at the forefront of the 
hard bop movement that followed bebop. By 
1956, Silver formed his own band and 
Blakey maintained the Jazz Messengers 
name as his own. Both Silver's band and 
the Jazz Messengers turned out to be 
proving grounds for a number of excep- 
tional, aspiring musicians. Among 
those who passed through his band 
were Art Farmer, Donald Byrd, Joe 
Henderson, Blue Mitchell, Charles 
Tolliver, Stanley Turrentine, Woody Shaw, 
and Randy and Michael Brecker. Silver's 
terse, funky playing has influenced pianists as 
disparate as Herbie Hancock and Cecil Taylor. For 
several years in the 1980s, he recorded on his own Silveto 
label, writing lyrics to his compositions with a decidedly 
metaphysical bent. In the 1990s, he returned to the hard 
bop sound he helped create. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 59 

i » ■ 




*.. 1* 

** . 




(Herman "Sonny" Blount) 

Born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, AL 
Died May 30, 1993 

Sun Ra was one of the most unusual musicians in the 
history of jazz, moving from Fletcher Henderson swing 
to free jazz with ease, sometimes in the same song. 
Portraying himself as a product of outer space, he "traveled 
the spaceways" with a colorful troupe of musicians, using a 
multitude of percussion and unusual instrumentation, from 
tree drum to celeste. 

Sun Ra, who enjoyed cloaking his origins and develop- 
ment in mystery, is known to have studied piano early on 
with Lula Randolph in Washington, DC. His first noted pro- 
fessional job was during 1946-47 as pianist with the Fletcher 
Henderson Orchestra at the Club DeLisa on the South Side 
of Chicago. In addition to playing piano in the band he also 
served as one of the staff arrangers. Finding his calling as an 
arranger, he put together a band to play his compositions. In 
the 1950s, he began issuing recordings of his unusual music 
on his Saturn label, becoming one of the first jazz musicians 
to record and sell his own albums. 

Sun Ra's band became a central part of the early avant- 
garde jazz movement in Chicago, being one of the first jazz 
bands to employ electronic instruments (as early as 1956), 
including electric piano, clavioline, celeste, and synthesiz- 
ers. In 1960, he moved his band to New York, where he 
established a communal home for his musicians, known as 
rln- Sun Palace. In March 1966, the band began one of its 
most significant residencies, playing every Monday night at 
Slug's nightclub on New York's Lower East Side. 

The Singles, Evidence, 1 954-82 
Jazz in Silhouette, Evidence, 1958 

The Heliocentric Worlds of Sun Ra, 
Vol. 1 & 2, ESP, 1965 

Space is the Place, Evidence, 1972 

Purple Night, b&M, 1989 

By the 1970s, the 
Sun Ra Arkestra and 
its various permuta- 
tions began touring 
Europe extensively. 
His band had by then 
expanded to include 
singers, dancers, martial 
arts practitioners, film, and 
colorful, homemade costumes, 
becoming a true multimedia attraction. 
Their performances would often stretch on for hours, 
including hypnotic, chanting processionals through the 
audience. Sun Ra's global following had become significant, 
though his recordings had become sporadic. His arrange- 
ments of his songs, however, were among the best in jazz. 
He made excellent use of his soloists, especially the great 
tenor saxophonist James Gilmore. alto saxophonist Marshall 
Allen, and baritone saxophonist Pat Patrick, all of whom 
were with the Arkestra on and off for decades. 

An outsider who linked the African American experi- 
ence with ancient Egyptian mythology and outer space. Sun 
Ra was years ahead of all other avant-garde musicians in his 
experimentation with sound and instruments, a pioneer in 
group improvisations and the use of electric instruments in 
jazz. Since Sun Ra's death, the Arkestra has continued to 
perform, usually under the direction of Gilmore or Allen. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 


Born July 24, 1921 in Greenville, NC 

Although well respected for his tasteful, non-intrusive 
accompaniment as a sideman, Billy Taylor is known 
for his championing of jazz music, especially 
through his radio series, Billy Taylor's Jazz at the Kennedy 

After growing up in Washington, DC and studying music 
at Virginia State College, where he earned a degree in music 
in 1942, Taylor moved to New York. He spent the 1940s fre- 
quently playing the clubs on New York's famed 52nd Street, 
performing with greats such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy 
Gillespie, Ben Webster, Stuff Smith, Machito, Slam Stewart, 
and Don Redman. His adroit abilities enabled him to freely 
cross over from swing to the then-burgeoning modern jazz 
called bebop. 

In the 1950s, he served as the ideal sideman, finding 
work with Roy Eldridge, Oscar Pettiford, and Lee Konitz 
while employed as house pianist at 

Birdland in 1951. Beginning in 


cfC gD DISCO G/i , 


Original Jazz Classics, 1953-54 

My Fair Lady Loves Jazz, Impulse!, 1965 

White Nights and Jazz in Leningrad, 
Taylor-Made Music, 1988 

Its a Matter of Pride, GRP, 1993 

Homage, GRP, 1994 

1952 he became a bandleader, 
primarily heading trios with 
bass and drums. 

Taylor started in 
radio with a program in 
the 1960s on WLIB in 
Now York. From 1969- 
72 he was house band- 
leader for the David 
Frost television show, 
and in the 1970s also 
served as host-director of 

the NPR syndicated Jazz Alive radio series. Since 1981, 
Taylor has been an interviewer and reporter for CBS televi- 
sion's Sunday Morning program. 

As a jazz educator, Taylor's experience has been vast, 
starting with authoring a series of beginning piano primers. 
He was a founder of New York's successful Jazzmobile com- 
munity performance and school-without- walls, beginning in 
1965. He earned his doctorate in music at the University of 
Massachusetts in 1975, with a dissertation on The History 
and Development of Jazz Piano: A New Perspective for 
Educators. Taylor has subsequently taught at Yale, 
Manhattan School of Music, Howard University, University 
of California, Fredonia State University, and C.W. Post 
College. His experience at the University of Massachusetts 
led to a lead faculty position at the university's annual sum- 
mer intensive, Jazz in July. 

As a composer he has written a number of commis- 
sioned works, his most well-known composition being 
"I Wish I Knew How it Would Feel to be Free." In the 
1990s, Billy Taylor became artistic director of the Jazz at 
the Kennedy Center program in his adopted hometown, 
Washington, DC, from which emanates his syndicated 
NPR radio series. He has also served on the NEA's National 
Council on the Arts. Taylor is currently working with the 
National Endowment for the Arts as chairman of the advi- 
sory group for a research project to study the financial con- 
dition and needs of jazz artists in four cities: New York, 
Detroit, New Orleans, and San Francisco. The results of the 
study will be used in the design of future; NEA programs to 
support jazz. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 61 


Born March 15, 1929 in New York, NY 

Cecil Taylor is one of the most uncompromisingly 
gifted pianists in jazz history, utilizing a nearly over- 
whelming orchestral facility on the piano. While his 
work has elicited controversy almost from the start, Taylor's 
artistic vision has never swayed. 

At his mother's urging he began piano studies at age 
five. He later studied percussion, which undoubtedly influ- 
enced his highly percussive keyboard style. At age 23 he 
studied at the New England Conservatory, concentrating on 
piano and music theory. He immersed himself in 20th cen- 
tury classical composers, including Stravinsky, and found 
sustenance for his jazz proclivities in the work of Lennie 
Tristano and Dave Brubeck. Later Duke Ellington, 
Thelonious Monk, and Horace Silver began to 
influence his playing. By 1956 he was 
working as a professional, taking a pro- 
longed engagement at New York's Five 
Spot Cafe, recording his first album, Jazz 
Advance, and making his Newport Jazz 
Festival debut. 

Playing in the manner he did — an 
aggressive style of almost assaulting the 
piano, often breaking keys and strings — 
presented challenges in terms of finding 
steady work. Taylor struggled to find gigs 
leu most of the 1950s and 1960s, despite 
being recognized by Down Beat magazine in its 


Jazz Advance, Blue Note, 1956 

3Phasis, New World, 1978 

ForOlim, Soul Note, 1986 

Alms/Tiegarten, FMP. 1988 

Dewey Redman/Cecil Taylor/Elvin Jones, 
Momentum Space, Verve, 1998 

"New Star" poll category. He eventually found work over- 
seas, touring Scandinavian countries during the winter of 
1962-63 with his trio, including Jimmy Lyons on alto saxo- 
phone, and Sunny Murray on drums. His approach had 
evolved to incorporate clusters and a dense rhythmic sensi- 
bility, coupled with sheer physicality that often found him 
addressing the keyboard with open palms, elbows and fore- 
arms. His solo piano recordings are some of the most chal- 
lenging and rewarding to listen to in all of jazz. 

Controversy has continued to follow him throughout his 
career. Fortunately, his work as a pianist and composer 
gained much-needed momentum in the 1970s and 

beyond, as touring and recording opportunities 
increased, largely overseas, though finding reg- 
ular work for his uncompromising style of 
music still remains a struggle. Throughout 
his career, he has worked with many 
important, like-minded musicians, 
including Archie Shepp, Albert Ayler, 
Steve Lacy. Sam Rivers, Max Roach, the 
Art Ensemble of Chicago, and a host of 
European and Scandinavian musicians. 
His influence on tire avant-garde, espe- 
cially of the 1960s and 1970s, in terms of 
performance and composition is enormous. 


62 American Jazz Masters Fellowships 






Born December 14, 1920 in St. Louis, MO 


Clark Terry is the consummate freelance musician, able 
to add a distinctive element to whatever band or jam 
session of which he is a part. His exuberant, swinging 
horn playing was an important contribution to two of the 
greatest big bands in jazz, Count Basie's and Duke 
Ellington's. In addition, his use of the flugelhorn 
as an alternative to trumpet influenced Art 
Farmer and Miles Davis, among others. 

In high school, Terry took up the valve 
trombone, later playing the bugle with 
the Tom Powell Drum and Bugle Corps. 
Upon his discharge in 1945, he found 
work with Lionel Hampton's band. He 
rounded out the 1940s playing with 
bands led by Charlie Barnet, Eddie 
"Cleanhead" Vinson, Charlie Ventura, and 
George Hudson. From 1948-51, Terry was a 
member of Basie's big band and octet. 

Terry's reputation grew with Ellington's 
band, with whom he worked from 1951-59, often 
featured as a soloist on trumpet and flugelhorn. He also led 
his own recording dates during this time. After working 
with Quincy Jones in 1959-60, he found steady work as a 
freelance studio artist, eventually becoming a staff musician 
at NBC. As a member of the Tonight Show orchestra — one 

of the first African American musicians employed in a tele- 
vision house band — he came to prominence through his 
popular "Mumbles" persona, his unique way of mumbling a 
scat vocal solo. He worked and recorded with artists such 
as J.J. Johnson, Oscar Peterson, and Ella Fitzgerald, 
r <E,D DIS cooc> then co-led a quintet with Bob Brookmeyer. 




Duke with a Difference, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957 

In Orbit, Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

Mellow Moods, Prestige, 1961-62 

The Clark Terry Spacemen, Chiaroscuro, 1976 

One-on-One, Chesky Jazz, 2000 

Thereafter he led his own small and large 
bands, including his Big Bad Band, begin- 
ning in 1972. He also became part of 
Norman Granz's traveling all-stars, Jazz 
at the Philharmonic. 

As a jazz educator he was one of the 
earliest active practitioners to take time 
off from the road to enter the classroom, 
conducting numerous clinics and jazz 
camps. This work culminated in his own 
music school at Teikyo Westmar University 
in Le Mars, Iowa. A distinctive stylist on his 
horns, he is also a consummate entertainer, 
often alternating trumpet and flugelhorn in a solo 
duel with himself in concerts. He continues to play in both 
the U.S. and Europe, recording and performing in a wide 
variety of settings, such as the recent One-on-One recording 
of duets with 14 different pianists. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 63 

red McCoy 


Born December 11, 1938 in Philadelphia, PA 


McCoy Tyner's powerful, propulsive style of piano 
playing was an integral part of the John Coltrane 
Quartet in the early 1960s and influenced count- 
less musicians that followed him. His rich chord clusters 
continue to be copied by many young jazz pianists. 

Growing up in Philadelphia, Tyner's neighbors were 
jazz musicians Richie and Bud Powell, who were 

After leaving the quartet, Tyner demonstrated his 
tremendous melodic and rhythmic flair for composition on 
such albums as The Real McCoy, which featured "Passion 
Dance," "Contemplation," and "Blues on the Corner," and 
Sahara, which featured "Ebony Queen" and the title track. 
Tyner has continued to experiment with his sound, push- 
ing rhythms and tonalities to the limit, his flutter- 

very influential to his piano playing. Studying -ep^ 0< ^<i& ^8 right hand creating a cascade of notes. In 

music at the West Philadelphia Music 
School and later at the Granoff School of 
Music, Tyner began playing gigs in his 
teens, and first met Coltrane while per- 
forming at a local club called the Red 
Rooster at age 17. His first important 
professional gig was with the Benny 
Golson - Art Farmer band Jazztet in 
1959. with whom he made his recording 

Soon he began working with Coltrane, a 
relationship that produced some of the most 
influential music in jazz. From 1960-65, Tyner 
played a major role in the success of the Coltrane 
quartet (which included Elvin Jones on drums and Jimmy 
i son on bass), using rich-textured harmonies as rhyth- 
mic devices against Coltrane's "sheets of sound" saxophone 

John Coltrane, My Favorite Things, 
Atlantic, 1960 

The Real McCoy, Blue Note, 1.967 

Sahara. Original Jazz Classics, 1972 

Remembering John, Enja, 1 991 

McCoy Tyner with Stanley Clarke 
and Al Foster, lelaic, 2000 

particular, he has explored the trio form, 
recording with a series of different bassists 
and drummers, such as Ron Carter, Art 
Davis, Stanley Clarke, Elvin Jones. Tony 
Williams, and Al Foster. In the 1980s, he 
recorded with a singer for the first time, 
Phylis Hyman. 

In the 1990s, he led a big band in 
new arrangements of previously recorded 
songs, used Latin American rhythms and 
forms, and revealed the romantic side of his 
playing with a surprising album of Burt 
Bacharach songs. While experimenting with his 
sound, Tyner has eschewed the use of electric pianos, 
preferring the warm sound of an acoustic piano. 
A dynamic performer in live settings, Tyner has continued 
to tour steadily with his excellent, longtime trio: Avery 
Sharpe on bass and Aaron Scott on drums. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Born March 27, 1924 in Newark, NJ 
Died April 3, 1990 

The power, range, and flexibility of her voice made 
Sarah Vaughan, known as "Sassy" or "The Divine 
One," one of the great singers in jazz. With her rich, 
controlled tone and vibrato, she could create astounding 
performances on jazz standards, often adding bop-oriented 
phrasing. Along with Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald, 
Vaughan helped popularize the art of jazz singing, influenc- 
ing generations of vocalists following her. 

Vaughan began singing at the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in 
her native Newark, and started extensive piano lessons at 
age seven. Winner of the amateur contest at the Apollo 
Theatre, Vaughan was hired by Earl Hines for his big band 
as a second pianist and singer on the recommendation of 
Billy Eckstine in 1943. She joined Eckstine's band in 
1944-45, and made the first recording under her own 
name in December 1944. 

After leaving Eckstine, Sarah worked briefly in the 
John Kirby band, and thereafter was primarily a vocal 
soloist. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie often sang 
her praises, assisting her in gaining recognition, particu- 
larly in musicians' circles. They worked with her on a 
May 25, 1945 session as well, which was highlighted by 
her vocal version of Gillespie's "A Night in Tunisia," called 
"Interlude" on the album. Her first husband, trumpeter- 

bandleader George Treadwell, helped re-make her "look" 
and she began to work and record more regularly, starting in 
1949 with Columbia Records. In the 1960s, Vaughan made 
records with bandleaders such as Count Basie, Benny 
Carter, Frank Foster, and Quincy Jones on the Mercury and 
Roulette labels among others. It was during this time that 
her level of international recognition began to grow as she 
toured widely, generally accompanied by a trio, and on 
occasion doing orchestra dates. 

These large ensemble dates 
ranged from the Boston Pops to 
the Cleveland Orchestra as her 
voice became recognized as 


1944-46, Classics, 1944-46 

In Hi-Fi, Columbia/Legacy, 1949-53 

The Complete Sarah Vaughan 
on Mercury, Vol. 1, Mercury, 1954-56 

Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown, 
Verve, 1955 

The Duke Ellington Songbook, 
Vol. /.Pablo, 1979 

one of the most beautiful 
and versatile in all of jazz, 
blessed with a range that 
literally went from bari- 
tone to soprano. In the 
1970s and 1980s, her voice 
darkened, providing a 
deeper and all the more 
alluring tone. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 65 


Born April 6, 1926 in Brooklyn, NY 




Randy Weston has spent most of his career combining 
the rich music of the African continent with the 
African American tradition of jazz, mixing rhythms 
and melodies into a hybrid musical stew. 

Weston received his earliest training from private teach- 
ers in a household that nurtured his budding musicianship. 
Growing up in Brooklyn, Weston was influenced by such 
peers as saxophonist Cecil Payne and trumpeter Ray 
Copeland as well as the steady influx of great jazz musicians 
who frequented Brooklyn clubs and jam sessions on a regu- 
lar basis. Such musicians as Thelonious Monk and Duke 
Ellington would have a lasting influence on Weston's music, 
both in terms of his piano playing and composition. 

After a 1945 stint in the Army, Weston began playing 
piano with such rhythm and blues bands as Bull Moose 
Jackson and Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson. At the Music Inn 
educational retreat in Lenox, Massachusetts in 1954, he took 
work as a cook during the summer, while playing the piano 
at night. The head of Riverside Records heard him and 
signed Weston to do a record of Cole Porter standards. 

Weston's recording sessions frequently included contri- 
butions from his Brooklyn neighborhood buddies Copeland, 
Paj iir. and bassisl Ahmed Abdul-Malik. It was at diis early 
juncture thai he also began his long and fruitful musical 
partnership with trombonist-arranger Melba Liston (a listing 
of some nt tin- albums on which they collaborated can be 
found in the Listen Sele< ted Discography), a relationship 
thai would ' ontinuc until her death in 1999, forming some 
ol Weston's besl re< ordings. 

Uhuru Africa/Highlife, 
Roulette, 1960-63 

Blues to Africa, Arista/Freedom, 1974 

Portraits of Monk, Verve, 1989 

The Spirit of Our Ancestors, 
Verve, 1991 

Saga. Verve, 1995 

Weston's interest 
in the African con- 
tinent was sparked 
at an early age, 
and he lectured 
and performed in 
Africa in the early 
1960s. He toured 14 
African countries 
with his ensemble in 
1967 on a State 
Department tour, eventually 

settling in Rabat, Morocco. He later moved to Tangier, open- 
ing the African Rhythms Club in 1969. It was in Morocco 
that Weston first forged unique collaborations with Berber 
and Gnawan musicians, infusing his jazz with African 
music and rhythms. 

Since returning to the U.S. in 1972, he has lived in 
Brooklyn, traveling extensively overseas with bands that 
generally include trombonist Benny Powell and longtime 
musical director, saxophonist Talib Kibwe (aka T.K. Blue). 
In recent years, a number of Weston's U.S. concert appear- 
ances have been true events, including 1998 and 1999 
Brooklyn and Kennedy Center collaborations with the 
Master Musicians of Gnawa, and a triumphant 1998 recre- 
ation of his masterwork suite "Uhuru Africa" in Brooklyn. 
Many of Weston's compositions, such as "Hi Fly" and 
"Berkshire Blues," have become jazz standards. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 



Ioe Williams' versatile baritone voice made him one of 
the signature male vocalists in jazz annals, responsible 
for some of the Count Basie band's main hits in the 

Though born in Georgia, Williams was raised in that 
great haven of the blues, Chicago, Illinois. His first 

(Joseph Goreed) 

Born December 12, 1918 in Cordele, GA 
Died March 29, 1999 

Rushing's vocal style, but offered a new range of opportuni- 
ties for Basie to use. Williams' sound was smoother, strong 
on ballads and blues, while Rushing was a more aggressive 
singer, best on the up-tempo numbers. 

Williams' hits with the Basie band included "Alright, 
Okay, You Win," "The Comeback," and what would 


professional job came with clarinetist Jimmie 
Noone in 1937. In the 1940s, in addition to 
singing in Chicago area groups, he worked 
with the big bands of Coleman Hawkins, 
Lionel Hampton, and Andy Kirk. Later 
he sang with two of Cafe Society's 
renowned pianists, Albert Ammons and 
Pete Johnson. From 1950-53, he worked 
mostly with the Red Saunders band. 
What came after would be a job he would 
cherish and return to frequently through- 
out his career: fronting the Count Basie 
band. Often referred to jokingly as "Count 
Basic's #1 son," he stepped right into the band 
upon the departure of Jimmy Rushing. Williams was 
the perfect replacement in that he did not just duplicate 

c <y£D DISC OGb become one of his most requested tunes, "Every 


J '/, 

Every Day — The Best 
of the Verve Years, Verve, 1955-90 

Count Basie, Count Basie Swings/ 
Joe Williams Sings, Verve, 1955-56 

Count Basie, Count on the Coast, 
Vol. 7 &2, Phontastic, 1958 

Me and the Blues, RCA, 1963 

Here's to Life, Telarc, 1993 

Day." Starting in the 1960s, he was a vocal 
soloist, fronting trios led by such pianists 
as Norman Simmons and Junior Mance. 
Simmons would later become his longest 
tenured musical director-pianist. He 
also toured with fellow Basie alumnus 
Harry "Sweets" Edison. He continued 
to expand his range, becoming a supe- 
rior crooner and exhibiting a real depth 
of feeling on ballads. 

Among his many awards and citations 
were a number of jazz poll commendations 
and honors. Late in life, he had a recurring role 
on the Cosby Show television program as the star's 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 67 



Born Septembers 1918 in Shelby, MS 

Gerald Wilson's use of multiple harmonies is a hall- 
mark of his big bands, earning him a reputation as a 
leading composer and arranger. His band was one of 
the greats in jazz, leaning heavily on the blues but integrat- 
ing other styles. His arrangements influenced many musi- 
cians that came after him, including multi-instrumentalist 
Eric Dolphy, who dedicated the song "G.W." to Wilson on 
his 1960 release Outward Bound. 

Wilson started out on the piano, learning from his 
mother, then taking formal lessons and classes in high 
school in Memphis, Tennessee. The family moved to 
Detroit in 1934, enabling him to study in the noted music 
program at Cass Tech High School. As a profes 
sional trumpeter, his first jobs were with the 
Plantation Club Orchestra. He took Sy 
Oliver's place in the Jimmie Lunceford 
band in 1939, remaining in the seat until 
1942, when he moved to Los Angeles. 

In California, he gained work in the 
bands of Benny Carter, Les Hite, and 
Phil Moore. When the Navy sent him 
to its Great Lakes Naval Training Station 
in Chicago, he found work in Willie 

# ^-«* x 

7345-46, Classics, 1945-46 
Love You Madly. Discovery, 1982 

Jenna, Discovery, 1989 
State Street Sweet, Mama, 1995 
Theme For Monterey, Mama, 1998 

Smith's band. He put together his own band in late 1944, 
which included Melba Liston, and replaced the Duke 
Ellington band at the Apollo Theatre when they hit New 
York. Wilson's work as a composer-arranger enabled him to 
work for the Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie bands. 
Wilson then accompanied Billie Holiday on her tour of the 
South in 1949. 

In the early 1960s, he again led his own big bands. His 
series of Pacific Jazz recordings established his unique har- 
monic voice, and Mexican culture — especially the bullfight 
tradition — influenced his work. His appearance at the 1963 
Monterey Jazz Festival increased his popularity. 

He has contributed his skill as an arranger and 
composer to artists ranging from Duke Ellington, 
Stan Kenton, and Ella Fitzgerald to the Los 
Angeles Philharmonic to his guitarist-son 
Anthony. Additionally he has been a 
radio broadcaster at KBCA and a frequent 
jazz educator. Among his more noted 
commissions was one for the 40th 
anniversary of the Monterey Jazz Festival 
in 1998. 

68 American Jazz Masters FeUowships 



Teddy Wilson was one of the swing era's finest pianist, 
a follower of Earl "Fatha" Hines' distinctive "trumpet- 
style" piano playing. Wilson forged his own unique 
approach from Hines' influence, as well as from the styles of 
Art Tatum and Fats Waller. He was a truly orchestral pianist 
who engaged the complete range of his instrument, and 
he did it all in a slightly restrained, wholly digni- 

fied manner at the keyboard. 

Raised in Tuskegee, Alabama, Wilson 
studied piano at nearby Talladega College 
for a short time. Among his first profes- 
sional experiences were Chicago stints in 
the bands of Jimmie Noone and Louis 
Armstrong. In 1933, he moved to New 
York to join Benny Carter's band known 
as the Chocolate Dandies, and made 
records with the Willie Bryant band dur- 
ing 1934-35. In 1936, he became a member 
of Benny Coodman's regular trio, which 
included drummer Cone Krupa, and remained 
until 1939, participating on a number of Coodman's 
small group recordings. Wilson was the first African 
American musician to work with Goodman, one of the first 
to integrate a jazz band. Wilson later appeared as himself in 


1934-35, Classics, 1934-35 

Benny Goodman, The Complete Small 
Group Recordings, RCA, 1935-39 

Masters of Jazz, Vol. 11, Storyville, 1968-80 

With Billie in Mind, Chiaroscuro, 1972 

Runnin'Wild, Black Lion, 1973 

Born November 24, 1912 in Austin, TX 
Died July 31, 1986 

the cinematic treatment of The Benny Goodman Story. 

During his time with Goodman, Wilson made some of 
his first recordings as a leader. These records featured such 
greats as Lester Young, Billie Holiday, Lena Home, and Ella 
Fitzgerald. Wilson's arrangements with Holiday in particu- 
lar constitutes some of the singer's finest work, mostly 
due to Wilson's ability to find the right sound to 
complement Holiday's voice and singing style. 
Following his Goodman days, he led his 
own big band for a short time, but most of 
his work came with his own small 
groups, particularly a sextet that played 
regularly at the famous Cafe Society in 
New York. In 1946, he was a staff 
musician at CBS Radio, and also con- 
ducted his own music school. During 
the early 1950s, he taught at the Juilliard 
School, one of the first jazz musicians to 
do so. Wilson's relationship with Goodman 
was his most noted, and was an ongoing factor 
in his work. He was part of Goodman's storied 
Soviet tour in 1962, and continued to work occasional 
festival gigs with the enigmatic clarinetist. 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 69 

el „ „ Masters 






Roy Eldridge* 

Barry Harris 

Tommy Flanagan 

Dizzy Gillespie* 

Hank Jones 

Benny Golson 


Sarah Vaughan* 

J.J. Johnson* 




Count Base* 

George Russell 

Billy Higgins* 

Kenny Clarke* 

Cecil Taylor 

Milt Jackson* 

Sonny Rollins 

Gerald Wilson 

Anita O'Day 




Ornette Coleman 

Danny Barker* 

Ron Carter 

Miles Davis* 

Buck Clayton* 

James Moody 

Max Roach 

Andy Kirk* 

Wayne Shorter 


Clark Terry 


Gil Evans* 


Dave Brubeck 

Ella Fitzgerald* 

Betty Carter* 

Art Farmer* 

Jo Jones* 

Dorothy Donegan* 

Joe Henderson* 


Sweets Edison* 


Benny Carter 


David Baker 

Dexter Gordon* 

Jon Hendricks 

Donald Byrd 

Teddy Wilson* 

Milt Hinton* 

Marian McPartland 


Joe Williams* 


Cleo Brown* 


John Lewis* 

Melba Liston* 

Louie Bellson 

Jackie McLean 

Jay McShann 

Ahmad Jamal 

Randy Weston 


Carmen McRae* 


Art Blakey* 


Frank Foster 

Lionel Hampton 

Ray Brown 

Percy Heath 

Billy Taylor 

Roy Haynes 
Horace Silver 

McCoy Tyner 

* Deceased 

American Jazz Masters Fellowships 71 


This publication is published by: 
National Endowment for the Arts 
Office of Communications 

Mark D. Weinberg, Director 

Katherine L. Wood. Media and Publications Manager 

Don Ball. Editor 

Designed by: 

Fletcher Design, Washington DC 

Cover Photo of American Jazz Masters 
Dizzy Gillespie and Ornette Coleman 
at the Jazz Gallery in New York City, 
December 5. 1960 by Bob Parent 

Special Thanks: 

Ray Avery. Dale Parent (on behalf of Bob Parent), 

and Lee Tanner for the use of their photographs, 

A.B. Spellman for his introduction, 

and Wayne Brown, Jan Stunkard, and 

the International Association of Jazz Educators 

for their contributions to the text. 

The following reference texts were used in researching 
biographical information of the American Jazz Masters: 

American Musicians II 

by Whitney Balliett, Oxford University Press, 1996 

Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz 
by Leonard Feather and Ira Gitler, 
Oxford University Press, 1999 

Four Lives in the Bebop Business 

by A.B. Spellman, Limelight Editions, 1994 

Jazz: The Rough Guide 

by Ian Carr, Digby Fairweather, and Brian Priestley, 

Rough Guides, 1995 

Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD. 4th Edition 

by Richard Cook and Brian Morton, Penguin, 1998 

Talking Jazz: An Oral History 

by Ben Sidran, Da Capo Press, 1995 


(202) 682-5496 

For individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. 

Individuals who do not use conventional print may contact 
the Arts Endowment's Office for AccessAbility to obtain this 
publication in an alternate format. Telephone: (202) 682-5532 

National Endowment for the Arts 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20506-0001 
(202) 682-5400 

Additional copies of this publication can be ordered on the NEA Web 
Site: Additional information about the jazz artists noted 
in this publication can be accessed at the International Association of 
|az2 Educators Web site: 

© 1 1: '..r. printed on rot \< led papa 

72 American Jazz Masters Fellowships