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B kER8 

Mcmben o( Phibdelphla Stock Ezctuo^ Nev Yoik 
Stock Ezchaiige> and Cbtoigo Board of Trade. 


Send for ILLUSTRATED HANDBOOKS free by mail. 

CR A NR at 1 8th and Filbert Streets J^ j f^ 


MINT A R C A D H Broad & Chestnut St s. 

has the reputation of turning out strictly 
and FANCY PASTRIES. For this reason he 
has built up a large trade amongst HEBREW 
PATRONS, the Mosaic dietary laws being 
strictly observed. 

Office 59 ^ 





Tradesmens National Bank 


Capital - - - 

Liabilities of Stockholders 
Surplus and Profits 




Available in all Parts of the world 


GEORGE H. EARLE, Jr., President. AUGUST B. LOEB, Vice-President, 

H. D. McCarthy, cashier. LOUIS ZEISSE, Asst. Cashier. 

ARTHUR B. NACHMAN, Manager Foreign Exchange Department. 

Henry C. Butcher, 
Richard Y. Cook, 
N. Brooke Dolan, 
George H. Earle, Jr. 


Bayard Henry, 
Herbert M. Howe, 
Jerome Keeley, 
August B. Loeb, 

Howard A. Loeb, 
James F. Sullivan, 
Lewis A. Riley. 

The American Jewish 
Year Book 


September 10, 1904, to September 29, 1905 

Edilfd by 


Copyright, 1904, by 
The Jewish Publication Society op America 





"^ The present, which is the sixth, issue of the American 

Sk^ Jewish Year Book is prevailingly biographical in character, 
vi) From the first, no matter what line of investigation 

*^ was pursued, the experience of the compilers has uniformly 

^ been that the Jews of the United States are unaware of the 

forces at their disposal. In no instance has this been 
more strikingly exemplified than in putting together the list 
of men and women prominent in the professions and in var- 
ious walks of public life. It had to be gathered from cata- 
logues, membership lists of societies, reference books, profes- 
sional directories, and with the aid of individuals interested 
in special departments, to whom due acknowledgment of their 
valuable assistance is herewith gratefully made. In this way 
a list of over a thousand names was compiled, which it is not 
presumptuous to assume will introduce new acquaintances 
even to those most intimately conversant with Jewish affairs 
and conditions in the United States, and that in spite of its 
necessarily abridged form. Over nine himdred persons were 
addressed; for one reason or another 37 desired not to be 
included in the list; 42 were returned by the Post OflBce as 
incorrectly or inadequately addressed, and only 481 returned 
the information blanks filled out with their biographical 


The other important feature of the present issue is the com- 
pilation made from the "Foreign Relations'^ documents on 
the passport question mooted between Russia and the United 
States. It is not hazardous to predict that this article, too, 
will be found to contain an element of novelty. Many Jews, 
especially the public-spirited ones who have concerned them- 
selves with safeguarding the civil and religious rights of their 
co-religionists, are aware that our Government has been 
active in the matter, but few, if any, know of the extent of 
the negotiations, spread over a period of nearly forty years, 
that have been carried on between Russia and our De- 
partment of State. These negotiations have been unavailing, 
up to the present time, to secure from the Russian Govern- 
ment the recognition of the fundamental doctrine of the 
equality of American citizens, and of the serious objection of 
the United States to the exercise of inquisitorial rights, by 
Russian consuls, upon American soil. As a result of the 
Russian policy a diplomatic question, which in practice 
affected but a small percentage of our citizens, has now 
broadened into a national issue to whose solution both of the 
large political parties are pledged, and has led to the determi- 
nation, on the part of our Government, that it will rest 
satisfied with nothing short of the universal inviolability of 
the American passport abroad. 

It is hoped that the list of one hundred accessible books in 
English on Jewish subjects will prove useful to the various 
classes of persons interested in Jewish education. 


Acknowledgment is again due to the many who by their 
courteous co-operation make the Year Book as complete and 
trustworthy a record of Jewish activities in the United 
States as it is. In the measure in which their co-operation 
and the co-operation of still larger circles are assured will 
the Year Book grow completer and trustworthier. 

Cyrus Adler 
Henrietta Szold 

August 39, 1904 





Ybab Book 


The Ybab, by Cyrus L. Sulzbbbobb 

Rby. Gbbshom Mbndbz Sbixas, by N. Taylor Phillips, LL. B 

Biographical Sketches of Jews Prominent in the Profsssions, 

ETC. IN THE United States 5 

Jews in the Gonorbss ov the United States 211 

Biographical Sketches of Rabbis and Cantobs officiating in 

the United States (Additions) 214 

National Obganizations 226 

The Amebican Passport in Russia 288 

Jewish Statistics 806 

The Hundred Best Available Books in English on Jewish 

Subjects, Compiled by Joseph Jacobs 309 

Selected Hbbbaica and Judaica, 5664, Compiled by Israel 

Abrahams * 818 

List of Jewish Periodicals now Appearing in the United 

States , 849 

Bequests and Gifts by Jews or to Jewish Institutions 854 

Synagogues Dedicated in the United States 869 

Homes of Societies Dbdicatbd in the United States 871 

Necrology 872 

A List of Leading Events in 5664 875 

«tTHB Voice of America on Eishineff*'— Additions and Cor- 

bbotions 878 

Report of the Sixteenth Year of the Jewish Publication 

SociBTY OF America, 1Q08-1904 (including Tributes to 

Marcus Jastrow and Simon Adler Stern) 881 

Index to Advertisers 508 


A List of Jewish Periodicals in the United States, 5660, pp. 271- 

The Alliance Isba]^lite Univebselle, 5661, pp. 45-65. 


Preliminary List of Jewish Soldiers and Sailors Who Served 
IN the Spanish-American War, 5661, pp. 525-622. 

The Jews of Roumania (two articles), 5662, pp. 25-87. 

The Jewish Population of Maryland, 5663, pp.* 46-62. 

Biographical Sketches of Rabbis and Cantors Officiating in 
THE United States, 5664, pp. 40-108. 












Sep. 22 

New Year 





New Ye 

Sep. 24 

Fast of Gedaliah 





Fast of Gd 

Oct. 1 

Day of Atonement 





Day of A tea 

Oct. 6 







Oct. 14 

Rejoicing of the Law 





RejoiciDg oft 

Oct. 21 

First New Moon Day (of Heslivan) 





First New Moon D» 


Nov. 20 

New Moon Day 





First New Moon Di 

Dec. 14 







Dec. 19 

First New Moon Day (of Tebet) 





First New Moon B 

Dec. 29 

Fast of Tebet 





Fast of T 


Jan. 7 

New Mooi 

Jan. 18 

New Moon Day 





First New Moon Day( 

Feb. 16 

First New Moon Day (of Adar) 




7 First New Moon Day (( 

Feb. 29 

Fast of Esther 





Fast of I 

Mar. 1 







Mar. 17 

New Moon Day 





New Moo 

Mar. 31 







April 15 

First New Moon Day (of Tyar) 





First New Moon 

May 3 

Thirty-third Day of 'Omer 





Thirty-third Di 

May 15 

New Moon Day 





New Moo 

May 20 

Feast of Weeks 





Feast of 

June 13 

First New Moon Day (of Tammuz) Sivan 




First New Moon Dj 

June 30 

Fast of Tammuz 





Fast of Tj 

July 13 

New Moon Day 





New Mbc 

July 21 

Fast of Ab 





Fast oj 

Aug. 11 

First New Moon Day (of Ellul) 





First New Moon ; 

Sep. 4 

Selihot Services 





Selihot Si 

Sep. 9 

Eve of New Year 





Eve of Ne 






ew Year 



Sep. 30 

New Year 



3f Gedaliah 



Oct. 2 

Fast of Gedaliah 



[ Atonement 



Oct. 9 

Day of Atonement 






Oct. 14 




ig of the Law 



Oct. 22 

Rejoicing of the Law 



3D Day (of Heshvan) 



Oct. 29 

First New Moon Day (of Heshvan) 



[)on Day (of Kislev) 

Heshvan 80 

Nov. 28 

First New Moon Day (of Kislev) 






Dec. 28 




oon Day (of Tebet) 



Dec. 28 

First New Moon Day (of Tebet) 



t of Tebet 




Moon Day 



Jan. 7 

Fast of Tebet 



Day (of Adar Rishon) 



Jan. 27 

New Moon Day 



Day (of Adar Slieni) Adar Rislion 80 

Feb. 25 

First New Moon Day (of Adar) 



t of Estlier Adar Sheni 18 

Mar. 8 

Fast of Esther 



purim Adar Sheni 

I 14 

Mar. 11 




Moon Day 



Mar. 27 

New Moon Day 






April 10 




4oott Day (of lyar) 



April 25 

First New Moon Day (of lyar) 



rd Day of 'Omer 



May 13 

Thirty-third Day of 'Omer 



Moon Day 
t of Weeks 



May 25 
May 30 

New Moon Day 
Feast of Weeks 



)D P&7 (o' Tammuz) 



June 23 

First New Moon Day (of Tammuz) 



Qf Tammuz 



July 10 

Fast of Tammuz 



Moon Day 



July 23 

New Moon Day 



igt of Ah 



July 31 

Fast of Ab 



oon Day (of Ellul) 



Aug. 21 

First New Moon Day (of Ellul) 



jot Services 



Sep. 16 

Selihot Services 



flJew Year 



Sep. 19 

Eve of New Year 




is called 665 (nonn) according to the short system (p"E>^). 
It is a complete Leap Year of 13 months, 55 Sabbaths, 385 
days, beginning on Saturday, the seventh day of the week, and 
having the first day of Passover on Thursday, the fifth day 
of the week; therefore its sign is n^u It is the third year 
of the 299th lunar cycle of 19 years, and the ninth year of the 
203d solar cycle of 28 years, since the Creation. 


1904. Sep. lO-Oot. 9] TISHRI 30 DAYS [^^W 6086 


at a. 











New Year njtJ^ m 'K 

( Gen. 21 

1 Num. 29: 1-6 

I Sam. 1: 1—2: 10 





New Ye«r mVU "Tl '3 
Fattof Gedallah n^bll DU 

j Gton. 22 

1 Num. 29: 1-6 

Bz. 82: 11-14; 84: 1-10 
Deut. 82 


\ Seph. none 

r Hob. 14: 2-10; 

Joel. 2: 16-27 

Sep/t. Hob. 14: 2-10; 





Day of Atonement 11&3 DV 
Tabernacles* HIDIDT 'K 

Lev. 16 
-{ Num. 29: 7-11 
Afternoon^ Lev. 18 

J Lev. 22: 26-23: 44 
1 Num. 29: 12-16 

r IB. 67: 14-68: 14 

Jonah; Seph add 
[ Mlca]i7:]8-0O 

Zeoh. 14 








Tabernacles nOIDT '2 


J The Great Hosanna 
i Eighth Day off the Feast 

1 nnvr '>^'*i2^ 

j Lev. 22: 26—28: 44 
Num. 29: 12-18 
Num. 29: 17-26 
1 Seph, 29: 17-22 
j Num. 29: 20-28 
SepTi. 29: 20-26 
J Num. 29: 2a-81 
1 Seph, 29: 23-28 
Num. 29: 26-84 
iSeph. 29: 26-81 
1 Num. 29: 26-^ 
( Seph. 29: 29-^ 
(Deut. 14: 22— 16:17 
1 Num. 29: 86-80:1 

I Kings 8: 2-21 

j I KinffB 8: S4-66, or 





j Rejoicing off the Law 

( Deut. 33: 1—84: 12 
< Gen. 1: 1—2: 3 
1 Num. 29: 36-80: 1 

Gen. 1: 1—6: 8 

j Josh. 1 
1 Seph. 1: 1-9 

(I Sam. 20: 18-42 
•< Seph. add 
118.61: 10; 62: 6 



New Moon 85nn 'm 'K 

Num. 28: 1-16 

* The Book of EccleslaBteB is read during the Feast of Tabernacles. 



1804, Oct. lO-Nov. 8] HESHVAN 30 OAY3 

[])m 5666 












New Moon Bnn 'IT '3 

Num. 88: 1-16 















Gen. 6: »-ll: ftS 

j 18.64: 1—66:6 
1 SepK 64: 1-10 























Gen. 12: 1—17:87 

Is. 40: 87-41: 16 



















Gen. 18: 1—88:84 

11 Klngrs 4: 1-^ 























ixnnn 'no] rrur ^*n 

Gen. 88: 1-86: 18 

I Khies 1: 1-81 







pp 11M or 




New Moon STTH "Tt 'H 

Num. 88: 1-16 

1904, Nov. 9- 

Dec. 8] KISLEV 30 DAYS 

[1^D3 5665 












New Moon K^IH '^ '3 

Num. 28: 1-16 











Gen. 25: 19—38: 9 

Mai. 1:1-2: 7 



















Gen. 28: 10-82: 3 


or 11: 7-12: 12; 

or 11: 7 -14: 10 
.Sep?i.ll:7— 12:12 

















Gen. 32: 4—38: 43 


or 11: 7—12: 12; 

or Obad. 1: 1-21 
.Sep/i.Obad. 1:1-21 




















Hanukah, Feast of Dedication 

1 HDiin, ['nn '2Dh ntJ^^i 

I Gen. 37: 1-40: 23 
^ Num. 7; 1-17 

Zech. 2: 14-4: 7 






New Moon {Tin 'IT 'K 

J Num. 7: 18-29 
Seph. 7: 18-23 
Num. 7: 24-35 

■ Sep7i.7:24-29 
J Num. 7: 30-41 

■ S6p7i.7:30-«5 

( Num. 28: 1-16 
{ Num. 7: 42-53 
( Seph, 7: 42-47 


1904, Dec. 0-1005, Jan. 6] TEBET 29 DAYS [finiD 5665 













New Moon BHn '"IT '3 
Eighth Day of Hanukah f'pQ 

Num. 28: 1-16 
• Num. 7: 48-59 

j Gen. 41: 1-44: 17 
1 Num. 7: 64-8: 4 

I Kings 7: 40-60 










Gen. 44: 18-47: 27 

Ezek. 87: 16-28 





j Fast of Tebet 

1 nataa mttr div 


Ex. 33: 11-14: 34: 1-10 
Gen. 47: 2^-60: 26 

j Is. 66: 6-66: 8 
1 Seph, none 

I Kings 2: 1-12 










[\inm 'iDi niDK' 

Ex. 1: 1-6: 1 

( Is. 27: 6-28: 13; 

< 29:22,28 

I Seph. Jer. 1: 1—3: 3 







pp 1ia3 DV 

1906, Jan. 7-Feb. 5] SHEBAT 30 DAYS 











New Moon KHH "^ .K^KI 

j Ex. 6: 2-9:85 
Num. 28: 0-16 
























Ex. 10: 1—18: 16 

Jer. 46: 18-28 



















) New Year for Trees 

1 n):h''v6 n"n ,Ki^v 'Dn ,rh^2 

Ex. 13: 17-17: 16 

j Judges 4: 4—6: 81 
1 Seph, 6: 1-81 




















Ex. 18: 1—20: 26 

1 Seph. 6: 1-18 

















|iDp nisi DV 







wmn 'no] D^oDe^D 

Ex. 21: 1—24:18 

I Sam. 20: 18-42 



30 New Moon KHH "n 'K 

Num. 28: 1-16 


1906, 7eb. 6-lfsr. 7] ADAR RISHON 30 DAYS 

[pfiWn TIK 6066 













N«w Moon nn "n 'a 

Num. 28: M6 

















Ex. 26: 1—27: 19 



























Bzek. 48: 10-27 




pp DniD 














Bx. 80: 11-84: 36 

1 8eph, 18: 20-89 





















rnn 'noi n'hp^^ 'a •^npM 

iBx. 80: 11-16 

( II KinOT 12: 1-17 
1 Seph, 11: 17-12: 17 







pp nisi or 




New Moon {Tin lil 'K 

Num. 28: 1-15 


1906, Mar. 8-Apr. 6] AOAR SHENI 29 DAYS [^Jti' -)1K SMS 



















New Moon enn 'm 'a 

Num. 88: 1-16 
Ex. 88: 21-40: 88 

» SepTiVT: 40-60 





-iwt 'B .Knp'i 

j Lev. 1: 1-R: 26 
1 Deut. 26: 17-19 

1 Seph. 16: 1-84 










Fast of Esther tnOK D1V 
Purlm, Feast of Esther* QniD 
Shushtn Purlm DniB ^Zf)^ 

n-IB 'B OS 

Ex. 33: 11-14; 84: 1-10 
Ex. 17: 8-16 

1 Lev. 6: 1—8: 86 
1 Num. 19 

1 Seph, none 

ISepTi. 86: 16-38 







rnn 'id] tinm 'q /o^dk' 

j Lev. 9: 1—11: 47 
1 Ex. 12: 1-20 

j Ezek. 46: 16-46: 18 
1 Seph. 45: 18-46: 16 





|iDp 11M or 

* The Book of Esther is read on Purim. 


1806,AprU6-Ha7 6] NISAN 30 DAYS [}D*] 666B 













New Moon ^H '"1 


Num. 28: 1-16 
Lev. 12: 1—13: 59 

II Kings 4: 42—6: 19 










h)iin '^ ,i;-iiVD 

Lev. 14: 1—15: 83 

( Mai. 3: 4-24; t^- 
-^IIKinfl:8 7:3-20 
( SepTi. Mai. 3: 4-24 






s Fast off the First Born 

Passover* nODT 'K 
Passover, First Day off 'Omer 

(Ex. 12: 21-61 
Num. 28: 16-26 
Lev. 22: 26—23: 44 
Num. 28: 16-26 
Ex. 83: 12-84: 26 

" Num. 28: 19-25 

Josh. 3: 6-7; 6: 2-fl: 

\ 1.27 
Sep?i. 6: 2—6: 1, 27 
II Kings 23:1 (or 4) 
—9; 21-26 


IScpTi. 37-1-14 



iriDH bin 

Passover HDBT 'T 
Passover HDDT 'PI 

['nn 'iDi TWO nnx 

j Ex. 13: 1-16 
' Num. 28: 19-26 

Ex. 22: 24-23: 19 
' Num. 28: 19-26 

Num. 9: 1-14 
1 Num. 28: 19-26 

Ex. 13: 17—16: 26 
■ Num. 28: 19-26 

Deut. 16: 19—16: 17 
' Num. 28: 19-26 

Lev. 16: 1—18: 30 

II Sam. 22 


(Ezek. 22: 1-19 (or -16) 
< or Amos 9: 7-16 
(S6p?i. ^izek.22:l-16 












New Moon C^^n 'm 'K 

Num. 28: 1-16 

* The Song of Songs is read during the Feast of Passover. 


1906,May6-Jime8] lYAR 28 DAYS 
















J New Moon 

1 Knn "\i '3 .DHPnp 

j Lev. 19: 1-80: 27 
1 Num. 28: 9-16 




Is. 06 























Lev. 21: 1—24: 28 

Ezek. 44: 16-81 



















The Second Passover OBf HOD 




^3*D nni 

Lev. 26: 1—26: 2 

Jer. 82: 6-27 










33d Day of 'Omer nOWn yh 














Lev. 28: 3—27: 84 

Jer. 16: 19-17: 14 

























['nn 'nD] innon 

Num. 1: 1—4: 20 

I Sam. 20: 1^-iZ 


1905, June 4— July 8] 


[JVD 5666 















Mew Moon 

Knn 'n 

Num. 28: 1-16 
















Feast off Weeks* 

nimien 'k 

j Ex. 19: 1—20: 26 
' Num. 28: 26-81 

Ezek. 1: 1-28; 8: 12 




Deut.l4:22— 16:17 


Feast of Weeks 

nirnKn 'n 





an noK 




















Num. 4: 21-7: 89 

Judges 18: 2-26 























Num. 8: 1—12: 16 

Zeoh. 2: 14-4: 7 
























'3D] 1^ rhts^ 

Num. 18: 1—15: 41 

Josh. 2 




pp niM or 




New Moon 

enn 'nn 'k 

Num. 28: 1-15 

* The Book of Buth is read during the Feast of Weeks. Sephardim add Azharot. 


1906, July 4^Augr. 1] TAMMUZ 29 DAYS 

[non »6e5 
















New Moon KHH '1*1 '1 

Num. 28: 1-15 











Num. 18: 1—18: 8a 

ISam. 11:14— 12: «2 






















pSni npn 

Num. ]9: 1—26: 

Micah 5: 6—6: 8 
















j Fast of Tammuz 

1 n»nn itrr nritr div 

Ex. 32: 11-14; 34: 1-10 

j Is. 65: 6-56: 8 
1 Seph, none 





Num. 25: 10-30: 1 

Jer. 1:1-2:8 




















['nn 'n»] ^rooi nitoD 

Num. 30: 2-36: 13 

1 Sep?i. 2: 4-28; 4: 1, 2 










JlDp 11Q3 DV 


1905, Aug. 2-Aufir. 31] AB 30 DAYS 














New Moon K^IH '1. 

Num. 28: 1-16 










prn '\^ ,Dnm 

Deut. 1:1— 3:23 












Fast of Ab* n«3 nt^n D1 V 

( Deut. 4: 25-40 

■{ Afternoon, Ex. 32: 

( 11-14; 84: 1-10 

Deut. 3: 28-7: 11 


Jer.8:13— 9:23 
i Is. 65: 6—50: 8 

Hob. 14: 2-10: 
. Micah 7: 18-20 

Is. 40: 1-26 













^v riK^n 











Deut. 7: 12-11: 25 























[K^nnn '3D] nvr\ 


Is. 64: 11-55: 5 












pp niBD nv 




New Moon fsnn 'T] '« 

Num. 88: 1-15 ^ 

* The Book of Lamentations and the Book of Job are read on the Fast of Ab. 


1906, Sep. 1-Sep. 29] ELLUL 29 DAYS 













New Moon* BHn 'Tl '3 

Num. 28: 1-16 





Deut. 16:18-81:9 

18. 61: 19-62: 12 
























l8. 64: 1-10 




















^ * 




«nn ^D 

Deut 26: 1-29: 8 

Is. 60 























n^-'i D^nvi 

Deut. 29: 9-31:80 

Is. 61: 10-68: 9 


Sellhot nin-'^D^ D^D^DC^D 
















n"-i i-ir 

* The Sephardlm say Sellhot durinfir the ^hole month of Bllul. 




No startling tragedy marked the year 5664^ and interest 
centred mainly in the political and diplomatic field. En- 
tirely bloodless no Jewish year can be. A reminder of Kishi- 
nefl was given in the Qomel riots at the end of August^ 1903 ; 
in the early part of September rioting in Oalicia caused in- 
jury to a number of persons^ and destruction to much prop- 
erty; in April Jews in Bulgaria were attacked on account of 
the blood-accusation^ and Jews of Neustadt^ East Prussia^ 
were attacked and plundered; on May 1 five persons were 
killed in anti-Jewish riots in Bessarabia. Morocco^ however^ 
bears the malign supremacy for the year. In November^ a 
hundred Jews fleeing from Taza reported that the Sultanas 
troops while occupying the town had massacred a number of 
Jews^ violated the women and girls^ and pillaged the shops. 
In December^ in the city of Statt^ an attack upon the Jews 
reduced 1500 to misery^ and caused a property loss of 500^000 
francs. Again in January a rioting mob attacked the Jewish 
quarter of the city of Morocco. 

Less shocking^ but more surprising by f ar^ was the thun- 
derbolt from the blue launched by Father Greagh in lim- 
erick. Here the Jews had been residing in peace for twenty 
years^ until last January^ when this Boman Catholic priest 
made an onslaught upon them from the pulpit before a con- 
gregation numbering three thousand persons. The sole basis of 


the attack appeared to be that some of the Jews of Ldmerick 
are largely engaged in the sale of goods on the instalment 
plan^ and the buyers frequently found it onerous to keep up 
their payments. This would hardly seem to warrant the 
indictment of an entire people^ but it sufficed for Father 
Creagh. Here is an extract from the address as reported 
in the Limerick daily press: "Nowadays they dare not 
kidnap and slay Christian children, but they will not hesi- 
tate to expose them to a longer and even more cruel mar- 
tyrdom by taking the clothes oflE their backs and the bit out 
of their mouths. Twenty years ago, and less, Jews were 
known only by name and evil repute in Limerick. They were 
sucking the blood of other nations, but these nations rose up 
and turned them out. And they came to our land to fasten 
themselves on us like leeches and to draw our blood when 
they had been forced away from other countries.*' This in 
the face of the testimony of the Limerick Daily Express that 
" as a race the Jews have, since persecutions in Hussia have 
driven numbers of them to Ireland to find a home, proved 
themselves an eminently industrious and law-abiding section 
of the community.'* 

In Western Europe, as in Eastern, the mob spirit is easier 
to arouse than to allay. Despite the "industrious and law- 
abiding '* character of the Jews, the rabble attacked them on 
every hand, crying "Down with the Jews,'* "Death to the 
Jews.*' A general boycott against them was declared and 
carried on, and the entire community was said to be in dan- 
ger. Michael Davitt promptly took up the matter in a letter 
to the Dublin Freeman's Journal, in which he denounced the 
outrage. The Roman Catholic Bishop promised his assist- 
ance to the extent of his powers, which, however, were lim- 


ited because of Father Creagh's belonging to an independent 
order. John Eedmond, M. P., leader of the Irish Parlia- 
mentary Party, disclaimed any sympathy with the attack, 
and the Irish Mission to the Jews at its annual meeting, held 
in Dublin, adopted resolutions of protest and denunciation, in 
the course of which the Jewish community of Ireland was 
declared to be " always sober, industrious, and law-abiding/^ 
On the other hand, the Limerick Confraternity of the Holy 
Family (a secret order numbering 6000) tendered Father 
Creagh their best thanks for his lecture, and expressed their 
fullest confidence in his views. 

At about the date of this attack, there were renewed dis- 
turbances against the Jewish employees of the Steel Works 
at Dowlais, Wales. These events might be regarded as spo- 
radic were it not that the testimony given before the Royal 
Commission on Alien Immigration, the report of that Com- 
mission, and the debate thereon, and on the East African 
Zionist project in the House of Commons, are all indicative 
of the existence of anti-Semitic feeling in Great Britain. It 
is quite true that in most cases the English anti-Semites lack 
the courage of their narrow-mindedness. The Commission, 
which was ostensibly inquiring into the general subject of 
immigration, was really concerned only with the Jewish 
phase of the subject, and its results, although not avowedly 
directed at the Jews, had in fact no other aim. The expres- 
sions in debate were in many cases most friendly to the Jews, 
though those giving utterance to them voted the other way. 
The Parliamentary discussion on the proposition to estab- 
lish in East Africa an autonomous Jewish settlement under 
an English protectorate disclosed a similar condition. Mr. 
Burke is reported as saying in the House of Commons, on 


June 20, 1904, that he would be " the last to deny the im- 
mense contribution to civilization, science, and art for which 
we are indebted to the Hebrew race .... but it is against 
the public interest of this country to strengthen the forces of 
Judaism as against Christianity, or even, he would say 
boldly, as against paganism.^^ On the other hand, at the 
same sitting, Mr. Lloyd-Qeorge stated that he saw no objec- 
tion to the proposed Jewish settlement, one of his reasons for 
favoring it being that " there were a good many of the Jews 
we might spare.'* 

More satisfactory conditions prevailed in the House of 
Bepresentatives at Washington, where the continued efforts 
of Bepresentative Henry M. Gh}ldfogle to secure recognition 
of the American passport in the hands of a Jewish citizen 
not only called forth no discordant note, but had at least so 
much result that Francis Burton Harrison, of New York, 
and Alfred Lucking, of Detroit, Mich., made strong speeches 
in the House in support of the resolution, and both the Be- 
publican and Democratic parties in their national conventions 
included in their platforms outspoken utterances which should 
bear good fruit. Especially noteworthy in connection with 
this was the reference to the subject in the speech of Mr. John 
Sharp Williams, temporary chairman of the Democratic con- 
vention. An added instance of the " diplomacy of humanity '* 
was the action of President Boosevelt when rumors of a con- 
templated renewal of rioting in Bussia at the usual season dis- 
turbed the community. No one can know what might or 
might not have happened had the President remained in- 
active. However, it is certain that his prompt communication 
with our countr/s diplomatic representatives in Bussia proved 
his thorough sympathy with our oppressed brethren there, as 


completely as did his acts a year ago in connection with the 
Kishinefl petition. 

No single phase of political activity has been of greater 
interest than the matter of immigration restriction in both 
America and England. At home, the subject was largely in 
the public eye. Many bills were introduced in Congress, all 
looking to more rigid enactments and aiming chiefly at illit- 
erate and assisted immigrants. The chairman of the Senate 
Committee, Mr. Lodge, and the Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion, Mr. Sargent, published their views in magazine arti- 
cles and in public addresses, and the spokesmen of the Im- 
migration Bestriction League were active throughout the 
year. In the early summer, the steamship companies having 
reduced their rates for third-class passengers and the num- 
ber of immigrants having increased, the administration at 
Ellis Island became more rigid in the examination of arri- 
vals, and there was a considerably larger number of deporta- 
tions on the ground of ^^ likelihood to become public 

The Jewish immigration for the year will be the largest 
on record. Since 1884 the United Hebrew Charities of 
New York has kept statistics of the Jewish immigrants ar- 
riving at the port of that city. Prior to the present year the 
largest number arriving in any one year was 62,500 from 
October 1, 1890, to September 30, 1891. In the year 1902- 
1903, the number was 60,800, and for the current year the 
indications point to over 80,000. More than 69,000 arrived 
up to July 31, and the arrivals in the months of August and 
September are always numerous. 

This greatly increased movement is directly traceable to 
Kishinefl and Gomel, not so much because of the number 


coming from those cities as on account of the feelings of 
unrest and fear created by the disturbances there. It is 
interesting to observe that the immigration from Boumania 
is smaller, both in proportion to the whole and absolutely. 
Conditions there have been ameliorated to a considerable 
degree, and as the sense of danger in Eussia has increased 
the movement, so that of peace in Eoumania has decreased 
it. To us in America, dealing with a problem of the magni- 
tude of ours, the perturbation of England over Alien Immi- 
gration—which is a British euphemism for Jewish immi- 
gration — ^is incomprehensible. According to the estimate of 
Mr. Joseph Jacobs for the Jewish Encyclopedia, the East 
End (alien) Jewish population of London is about 100,000, 
and the increase by immigration about 2500 per annum. 
When this is compared with the 11,509 who arrived at the 
port of New York in the single month of July, 1904, whereof 
•7804 remained in the city of ITew York, not alone is the con- 
trast presented most striking, but it becomes difficult to 
understand the genesis of the Alien Immigration Bill, in- 
volving, as it does, a reversal of centuries of tradition. It 
is an inscrutable mystery that when this bill was up in Par- 
liament, certain of the Jewish members could vote in its 
favor, when by reference to the conditions in New York they 
could have learned that a Jewish population nearly five times 
as large as London^s, in a total population far smaller than 
that of London, was no menace to the cit/s well-being. On 
the contrary, the Jewish immigrants have added to the mate- 
rial prosperity of New York without making a drain, even 
fractionally proportionate to their numbers, upon either the 
charity budgets or the penal institutions. Yet, notwithstand- 
ing all this, and notwithstanding the opposition of men like 


Sir Charles Dilke, Bryce, Trevelyan, and Asquith, when the 
bill was up on second reading, but three of the ten Jewish 
members of Parliament ranged themselves against the bill, 
and five abstained from voting. Never was public contempt 
more thoroughly earned. The bill has been abandoned for 
this year, and will probably never again be revived in the form 
in which it was introduced at this session of Parliament. In 
the agitation both in and out of Parliament, Major Evans- 
Gordon has been the most active restrictionist. His book, 
** The Alien Immigrant,^' and his magazine articles show the 
interest which the subject has for him, and although he visited 
Eastern Europe in order to study the matter at close range, 
and was convinced of the deplorable conditions under which 
the Jews are living, he nevertheless advocated the setting up 
of restrictions against their admission into England. The 
narrowness of his view and its incompatibility with British 
traditions were admirably pointed out in a letter to him by 
Haham Gaster of London under date of May 4. 

The Hussian situation, probably because it has become 
chronic, has seemed less acute. There was no considerable 
bloodshed, much talk of amelioration, some action in that 
direction, and quite as much or more in the way of further 
restriction. What was given with one hand was frequently 
taken with the other, and if so vacillating a policy as was 
pursued can be characterized at all, it may best be described 
as one calculated to avoid arousing the active concern of the 
world. Whether as a result of the agitation and the repre- 
sentations following Kishineff, or on account of certain let- 
ters in the London Times, or because of the discovery that 
in the war with Japan public favor affords the only means 
by which financial requirements can be satisfied, the atroci- 


ties of former years have not been repeated, demonstrating 
by their absence in this crucial year that their occurrence at 
other times is due to governmental connivance or indiffer- 
ence. In fact, the Holy Synod issued a pronunciamento to 
the clergy instructing them that when a hostile attitude is 
taken toward the Jew, it is their duty to point out to their 
people that such attitude is wrong, and to endeavor by their 
sermons to correct it. At about the same time it was di- 
rected that Jewish exiles to Siberia be permitted in excep- 
tional cases to have their wives and children follow them. 
Although this permission was granted only in special in- 
stances, it is evidently a concession, since it had formerly 
not been allowed at all to Jewish exiles. One is inclined to 
stop and wonder why the Government, being anxious to rid 
itself of as many Jews as possible and exiling to Siberia as 
many as it does, — it is said that 90 per cent of the political 
suspects arrested at Odessa are Jews,— does not send the fami- 
lies with the exiles, or, at all events, freely permit them to 
follow. In connection with this, an encouraging item of news 
comes in the month of July, 1904. Political crimes are no 
longer to be punished by administrative order, but only after 
conviction in court. How much this may mean, how real a 
trial in court may prove, it is, of course, impossible to say. It 
may well be that the proceedings in all political cases will be 
farcical, and yet it is an advantage to have such a trial rather 
than none at all. Not even Russia can forever withstand the 
ridicule of the world, and the form of judicial process once 
granted the substance must ultimately follow. What Rus- 
sian law courts are, is clearly shown by the inadequate sen- 
tences imposed upon the Kishineff murderers, the treatment 
accorded the attorneys in the matter, and the fact that 


Danievsky, who assaulted Krushevan, the immediate insti- 
gator of Kishineff, was sentenced to five years^ imprisonment 
and the loss of all civil rights. 

The real responsibility for Kishineflf was never so clearly 
disclosed as after the assassination of de Plehve in the latter 
part of July. Andrew D. White, formerly Ambassador of 
the United States to Bussia, spoke of the late minister in 
these words : ** His part in the horrible massacre and plun- 
der of the Jews — ^men, women, and children — at Kishineff 
caused him to be regarded with abhorrence by the whole 
world/' The London correspondent of the New York Sun 
said of him that " the world's greatest oppressor and Liberty's 
bitterest enemy died appropriately by an assassin's hand. 
That, in brief, is the view that monarchical Europe takes of 
the murder of M. de Plehve, the recent Minister of the In- 
terior." The press of the civilized world agreed as to the 
execration in which his memory was held by right-minded 
men. Count Cassini, however, described de Plehve as "a 
man of the highest integrity and moral rectitude." 

At Libau in September, 1903, the Czar received a depu- 
tation of Jews and accepted from them a gift of a Scroll of 
the Law. Unfortunately he seems unable to read Hebrew, 
for, within a few months thereafter, eighty Jewish families 
were expelled from Kieff, and a short time later, in Febru- 
ary, 1904, according to the London DaUy Express, the Gov- 
ernment ordered the expulsion of Jewish residents from 
towns along the Trans-Siberian Railway with a degree of 
cruelty and barbarism almost incredible. They were not al- 
lowed to return by rail on the ground that the railroad was 
needed for the troops. From two to three thousand people — 
men, women, and children — ^were compelled to travel afoot a 


distance ranging from twelve hundred to two thousand miles 
with the temperature from twenty to forty degrees below 
zero, without shelter at night and with the Eussian officials 
prohibited (if any such prohibition were required) from 
giving the travellers any facilities. Comment on this per- 
formance is superfluous. 

In the line of concession was the opening of fifty-seven 
new places of settlement in the Pale, and as an offset a con- 
siderable restriction of existing rights of residence and trad- 
ing outside the Pale, together with a more rigid enforcement 
of the law on this point. At the Demidoff Lyceum, where 
formeriy Jewish students were admitted to the extent of 
5 per cent, a limit of 3 per cent has been fixed. A striking 
illustration of Russian intelligence was the closing by the 
police of the Congress on Technical Education, because it 
protested against the anti-Semitic policy, and of the Russian 
Medical College, because it adopted resolutions setting fori;h 
the unsanitary results of the overcrowding of the Pale. The 
London Times in December reported the result of a circular 
of inquiry issued by M. de Plehve, as Minister of the In- 
terior, to the fifteen provinces in which Jews reside. Much 
space in the replies is devoted to the success or otherwise of 
the attempt to make Jewish farmers. The Governor of 
Podolia says it is a failure, while the opposite view is taken 
by the Governor of Minsk and the Governor of Ekaterinoslav. 
Most illuminating are the statistics supplied by the Governor 
of Cherson, a strong anti-Semite. According to these, 73 
per cent of the Jewish population in his district were engaged 
exclusively in agricultural work, 19 per cent in agriculture 
in connection with some commercial pursuit, and 8 per cent 
in trade or industry. In both Ekaterinoslav and Cherson 


the Jewish Colonization Association in its annual report, sub- 
mitted July, 1904, states that the insufficient amount of 
land renders existence very difficult, and that in consequence 
arrangements are pending for the recruiting of immigration 
to the Argentine colonies. The Governor of Wilna, to his 
honor be it written, in his reply to the circular advocates the 
abolition of educational restrictions. 

There seems to have been on the part of de Plehve a special 
fondness for holding symposia on the Jewish question. In 
the spring, he summoned to St. Petersburg sixty representa- 
tives of the leading communities, and instructed them to 
prepare an address to the Ministry setting forth the needs 
of the Jews and the reforms they considered desirable. 
Among the things asked for were the abolition of educational 
restrictions and the extension of the right to reside in the 
country. In the course of his address to these representa- 
tives. Minister de Plehve is reported to have said : *^ If we 
admitted Jews to our universities without restrictions, they 
would overshadow our own Eussian students, and dominate 
in intellectual life. The Jews have declared war on the 
Eussian Grovernment through the press of other countries, 
which your race controls. I warn you that every war costs 
heavy sacrifices; take care that these sacrifices are not re- 
quired from you and your people. The Eussian Govern- 
ment is disposed to improve the economic condition of the 
Jews in Eussia, but only very slowly and cautiously. You 
have no prospect of obtaining the same rights of citizenship 
as are possessed by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Eussia.^^ 
For brutal candor this is admirable. It is, however, quite 
in accord with de Plehve^s letter to Herzl, under date of 
August 12, 1903, written, as he says, ^^to remove anything 


that could give rise to exaggerated hopes or disquieting 
doubts/' In this letter the Minister of the Interior expresses 
his approval of Zionism ^^ insofar as it consists of a desire to 
create an independent State in Palestine, and offers the pros- 
pect of organizing the emigration from Russia of a certain 
number of her Jewish subjects/' He is opposed to mere 
propaganda serving to bring about *^ Jewish national con- 
centration in Russia/' but says that the movement "could 
reckon on moral and material support on the day when cer- 
tain of its practical measures would serve to diminish the 
Jewish population in Russia/' The letter concludes with a 
reference to the amelioration of the condition of the Jews 
brought about by the extension of the Pale, "especially if 
emigration decreases their number/' In an interview with 
Mr. Lucien Wolf some six months later, de Plehve again 
speaks of emigration as a potent remedy, and a cable despatch 
received by the Jewish Daily News, in July, 1904, indicates 
the organization of a movement in Russia looking towards a 
systematic hastening of the emigration of large numbers. 
When it is borne in mind, however, that the annual natural 
increase in the population of five millions is about one hundred 
and fifty thousand, and that heretofore the largest annual emi- 
gration has never nearly equalled this number, the hope of 
amelioration in this direction must be abandoned, unless a 
successful issue of Zionism should by its sentimental asso- 
ciations largely stimulate the movement. 

Since the death of Dr. Herzl, Zionism has hardly had a 
chance to adapt itself to the new conditions imposed by the 
loss of its leader. The Sixth Congress at Basle, in August, 
1903, was the largest yet held, the delegates numbering about 
six hundred. The two great events of the Congress were the 


publication of the letter from de Plehve and the East Afri- 
can proposition. De Plehve^s letter, as outlined above, prom- 
ised moral and material support to the movement. "This 
support,^' the letter says, " would consist in protecting the 
representatives of Zionism in their dealings with the Otto- 
man Qovemment, in facilitating the action of the Emigra- 
tion Societies, and even in meeting the needs of such Socie- 
ties, obviously not at the expense of the State, but by con- 
tributions levied on the Jews.'' 

The East African proposition was an offer from the Eng- 
lish Government to place at the disposal of the Zionists 
a suitable tract of land in East Africa with local self-gov- 
ernment for the people under a Jewish Governor and a 
British Protectorate. This subject was discussed with great 
heat, and by a vote of 295 to 177 it was decided by the Con- 
gress to send a Commission to East Africa to investigate on 
the spot and report to the next Congress, the expenses of 
such commission not to be a charge upon the Zionist funds. 
Immediately after the announcement of this vote occurred 
the great dramatic episode of the convention. The cheering 
with which the result had been received by the majority had 
not yet ceased when the Russian leaders of the minority arose 
from their places with the Actions-Committee, left the plat- 
form and marched down the centre aisle of the hall. Instantly 
the entire minority rose as one man, and followed their leaders 
out of the convention. They regarded the entire proposi- 
tion, even to the extent of a Commission of Investigation, as 
disloyalty to the Basle platform, which calls for a "legally, 
publicly assured home in Palestine.'' They immediately went 
into a meeting of their own, many of them in tears and 
mourning, declaring the day a new Tisha b'Ab, but after an 


all-night session, in the course of which they permitted 
Herzl and Zangwill to plead with them, they returned on the 
following day, and participated in the concluding proceed- 
ings of the Congress. 

The African proposition was not, however, so easily dis- 
posed of. What gave promise of a permanent schism was 
created by a conference held at Charkov, and it was only at 
the meeting of the Greater Actions-Committee at Vienna in 
April that a truce was reached, after renewed expressions of 
fidelity to Palestine on the part of the East African advo- 

Meantime the English people had not taken kindly to the 
proposition that a large tract of land be given over to 
"aliens,^^ and the matter came up in Parliament on the 
ground of "the danger to the peace of East Africa, arising 
out of the steps now being taken, with the sanction of his 
Majesty^s Government, for the establishment of an alien 
settlement in East Africa on lands now in the occupation of 
native populations." Keierence has already been made to 
the debate on this occasion. The Commission ordered by 
the Congress has not yet gone, the present obstacle being lack 
of funds. 

In America the Federation of Zionists held a convention 
at Cleveland in June. Professor Kichard Gottheil declined 
re-election as President, and Dr. Harry Friedenwald, of Bal- 
timore, was chosen his successor. At about the same time 
the Zionists of Pittsburg dedicated their new building, the 
Zion Institute. A Zion Institute was also dedicated at 

The whole Zionist party at the close of 5664 is in gloom, 
and all Israel joins with it in mourning the loss of the great 


leader, Theodor Herzl. To speak of his qualities in mod- 
erate tenns is to speak of them inadequately. What would 
ordinarily seem lavish praise of the dead is, in this case, 
simple justice to a man of heroic mould. The charm of his 
manner, the breadth of his cultivation, the tactfulness of his 
diplomacy, and the ardor of his love for his people, com- 
bined to make him the one man capable of organizing Jewry, 
which for two thousand years has been imorganized, and for 
a large part of that time has been disorganized. His tact 
as well as his dramatic instinct were well shown in his open- 
ing speech at the last Congress. He had the whole house 
rise and stand while he read from his message the brief 
reference to Kishinefif, the silent tribute thus paid being far 
more effective than any oratorical display. Again, in the 
handling of the de Plehve letter he showed his diplomatic 
skill. He was publicly asked whether there was any cor- 
respondence with Eussia that could be laid before the Con- 
gress, and he replied that he would answer on the following 
morning. On that morning he annoimced that the Bussian 
correspondence would be found published in Die Welt (the 
official organ) of that day, and that the letter was not before 
the Congress for discussion. In this, as in the Bashineff 
matter, he eliminated a debate which could only have been 
bitter, and might have been disastrous to the Jews in Bussia. 
Whether the movement which he created is permanent or not, 
certain it is that during his leadership it was very real, so 
real that when England had a proposal to make to the Jews, 
it was made through the Zionist organization, and when Bus- 
sia wanted to annoimce its policy to the Jews, it was an- 
nounced through him; so real that the Sultan of Turkey 
repeatedly negotiated with him, and the King of Italy and 


the Pope of Home were willing to discuss with him the 
prospects of Zionism. No ordinary man this who, a decade 
ago unknown beyond his immediate circle, and dying before 
the full vigor of his powers had yet been reached, left as his 
mourners an organization of thousands who loved him as a 
father and an innumerable unafl&liated multitude who recog- 
nized in him the largest figure that has loomed on the Jewish 
horizon in many a century. OflBcially represented at his 
funeral were the King of England, tiie Emperor of Ger- 
many, the King of Italy, the Sultan of Turkey, and the 
President of France. Unofficially present was the whole 
great grief-bowed heart of universal Jewry desolate and sor- 
rowing in its irreparable loss. 

A meeting of the Greater Actions-Committee will be held 
on August 16 for the purpose of deciding whether a special 
Congress shall be called to elect a successor to Herzl. Tem- 
porarily the Committee has selected Herr Oskar Marmorek, 
of Vienna, to act as chairman. The success of the new 
Zionist leader, whoever he may be, will depend not so much 
upon himself as upon the intrinsic strength of the move- 
ment. If Zionism continues it will be through the ap- 
preciation, by the general membership, of the world-mission 
which it may have. Those to whom Zionism has meant 
simply a philanthropic movement for the amelioration of 
Jewish conditions, have not grasped even the beginning of its 
possibilities. To gather from the fields of Mesopotamia, 
once the world's granary, a harvest abundant to feed the 
starving Orient, and, in supplying this need, to make the 
Jew once more a tiller of the soil; to accept from the sis- 
terhood of states the responsibility of holding in trust 
the key to the East, and to establish under the guardianship 



of that sisterhood a State whose ideal shall be peace and 
whose weakness would be its strength in keeping the peace, 
thereby giving Judea the opportunity to work out the con- 
cepts of its teachers — these are part of that "perpetual 
ideal " which Dr. Herzl once called Zionism. If this '* per- 
petual ideal ^' really inspires the hosts of Zionism, its leader 
will be found, and the movement will succeed; but if Zionism 
be a mere cry and vent for enthusiasm, leadership is unim- 
portant, for not even under Herzl himself could it have 
achieved results. 

Communal leaders, too many, has death claimed during 
the year : Bernard Lazare in Paris, one of the first to arouse 
the world to the Dreyfus infamy; Julius Plotke, of Prank- 
fort, and Alfred L. Cohen, of London, both members of the 
Council of the Jewish Colonization Association; Colonel 
Albert E. W. Qoldsmid, of London, soldier, Zionist, and 
founder of the English Jewish Lads* Brigade; Myer S. 
Isaacs, of New York, President of the Baron de Hirsch Fund 
since its foundation, and foremost in all good works; and 
Leo N". Levi, President of the B'nai B^rith, whose large soul 
and keen intellect inspired the Kishineff petition. His wise 
and energetic administration of his office raised the Order of 
B'nai B'rith in the brief term of his incumbency to an im- 
portant body, to be reckoned with in Jewish afifairs. He 
was succeeded as President by Mr. Simon Wolf, of Washing- 
ton. At the meeting of the Executive Committee at which 
this selection was made, a resolution was adopted declaring 
that no action was to be taken upon any public question 
except by the concurrence of the President, Vice-President, 
and Honorary Secretary. 

Death was busy, too, among scholars and writers. Dr. 


Marcus Jastrow, rabbi and Talmudist, and Simon A. Stern, 
the litterateur, both of the Publication Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society; Karl Emil Franzos, Jewish novel- 
ist; A. B. Arnold, physician and writer; and Chaim Selig 
Slonimsky, scientist and journalist, are some of those who 
died during the year. The passing away of two military 
men of high rank, Leopold S6e, French general, and Jacques 
Nissim Pasha, Turkish surgeon in chief, brings to mind the 
condition in Germany. In March, Justizrath Feigl, of Ber- 
lin, wrote to the Emperor complaining of unfair discrimina- 
tion against his son in the army, stating that in thirty years 
not one Jew had been promoted to the rank of a commis- 
sioned oflBcer, and he felt this all the more keenly because 
he himself had been a commissioned officer in the Franco- 
Prussian war, and had been honored with the Iron Cross. 
The Emperor ordered a reconsideration of the case, and 
after such reconsideration young Feigl was notified that he 
was not promoted because he did not reach the required 

His failure is interesting in connection with the resolu- 
tions of the German Societies for Combating anti-Semitism, 
setting forth the facts that there is not one Jewish officer in 
the army to-day, and there are but two Jewish surgeons, 
and protesting that the discrimination is not made frankly 
as against the Jews, but always on the ground of unfitness. 
It is remarkable how circumstances alter cases, and the unfit 
become fit. At the outbreak of the Eusso- Japanese war, of 180 
Kussian surgeons sent to the front, 110 were Jews. The dis- 
crimination here assumed a most contemptible shape, the 
non-Jewish doctors getting 1250 roubles for travelling ex- 
penses, while the Jews got but 900 roubles. Nor does Jewish 


unfitness extend to Austria, where Sigfried Popper, chief 
engineer of the Austrian navy, was promoted to the rank of 

No pleasanter picture can be found than by turning to 
Italy, where Luigi Luzzati has been appointed Minister of 
the Treasury, and Dr. Alessandro d^Ancona, Signor Eduardo 
Arbib, and Baron Alberto Trevis dei Bonfili have been ap- 
pointed senators by the King. There are now nine Jewish 
senators in Italy. 

In France, the affaire is still the affaire. Another revision 
of the Dreyfus case is in process at the time of this writing. 
It is of interest to note that Dreyfus's son was Bar Mizwah 
in Paris during the spring. 

In Holland, Josef Israels celebrated his eightieth birthday 
and his friends and admirers presented him with a testi- 
monial in the shape of 20,000 gulden. With a greed for 
gold which all anti-Semites agree is a universal Jewish trait, 
he offered the money to a fund for the erection of a suitable 
building for Eembrandt's great picture, " The Night Watch.^^ 
Israels has been elected a member of the Berlin Academy of 
Fine Arts. 

The year's benefactions include three notable instances. 
The Kothschilds in Paris set aside 10,000,000 francs for 
the erection of model dwellings for the poor. In New York, 
Mr. James Loeb donated $500,000 for the establishment of a 
Conservatory of Music, and Mr. Adolph Lewisohn gave to Co- 
lumbia University $250,000 for the erection of a new build- 
ing for its School of Mines. Unique of its kind was the 
gift of a collection of books by Mayer Sulzberger to the Jew- 
ish Theological Seminary of America, causing its library of 
Hebraica tq Tftnjs: among the three or four most valuable in 
the world, 


The first graduation from the Seminary since its reorgani- 
zation took place in the early summer, and was an event of 
imposing and dignified character. The conferring of an 
honorary degree upon Lewis N. Dembitz is noted, not alone 
because of the high attainments of the recipient, but also 
because the title of Doctor of Hebrew Literature was here 
bestowed for the first time. 

The installation of Dr. Kaufmann Kohler as President of 
the Hebrew Union College awakened renewed interest in 
that institution, and the half-million dollar " Isaac M. Wise 
Memorial Fund^' has so far progressed that subscriptions to 
it amounting to $400,000 have been obtained. 

The biennial session of the National Conference of Jewish 
Charities was held in New York. Interest centred chiefly 
in the day on the East Side, when, by visits to the institu- 
tions there and general inspection of the quarter, delegates 
from other cities were shown the overcrowded conditions and 
the need for co-operation in the work of the Eemoval Com- 
mittee. This work has gone on increasingly, the number of 
removals from New York during 1903 having been 5525, as 
compared with 3208 during the preceding twelvemonth. The 
total number of removals from New York made by the So- 
ciety in its three years of work now aggregate 13,000. In 
the face of the tremendous number of arrivals this would 
seem useless but for the thought that those established else- 
where will serve to attract their relatives and friends to the 
same places, and thus ultimately secure the diversion of a 
considerable number from New York. 

The tendency towards a resumption of agricultural pur- 
suits has been more marked, although it cannot be said to 
have reached an epidemic stage. The Hebrew Colonial So- 


ciety of Maryland, an organization of Kussian tailors living 
in Baltimore, has bought a considerable tract of land near 
that city, and its members contemplate carrying on their 
work there in conjunction with tilling the soil. A similar 
spontaneous movement is on foot at Pittsburg, and yet 
another in Texas. As these were all undertaken at the in- 
itiative of the people concerned, they hold forth far more 
hope of success and of duplication by others than had they 
been set in motion by charitable or semi-charitable organiza- 

With the growth and dispersion of population in America, 
synagogues have been established where a few years ago Jews 
were unknown, and over forty houses of worship were dedi- 
cated during the year. The Union of American Hebrew Con- 
gregations is organizing circuit preaching under the director- 
ship of Rabbi Zepin. Several new Jewish newspapers were 
launched, and one monthly magazine was reorganized and 
made into a valuable addition to the list of periodical pub- 
lications. The American Israelite celebrated its semi-cen- 
tennial anniversary. The establishment of the Voice of Sinai 
at Calcutta, the only Jewish paper in India, bears testimony 
to the widespread scattering of the Jewish people. 

American Jewry looks with confidence into the future. 
Growing in numbers and importance, in culture and the 
means of culture, it recognizes the problems wherewith it has 
to deal and its shortcomings in handling them. The closer 
kinship with the newcomer has been slow of attainment, yet 
those on the lookout see the signs of the better day. If that 
day shall dawn during the coming year, joyfully will Israel 
write 6666 as a happy New Year. 

Suguat 12, 1904 



'The Patriot Jewish Minister of the American Revolution 



Through all Eternity to Thee 
A Joyful song Til raise. 

For oh! Eternity is too short 
To utter all Thy praise.' 


The foregoing, with the Thirty-fifth Psalm, poetically 
arranged, was written by Eachel Levy in a Festival Prayer- 
book, now in the possession of the writer, printed in Am- 
sterdam in the year 1726, in which are also recorded the 
births of her children, one of whom is the subject of this 
sketch. She was the daughter of Moses Levy, who was born 
in Spain about the year 1665. When quite a young man he 
went to London, where he became a merchant, and was the 
owner of many vessels engaged in the trade with the north 
of Africa. He arrived in ISTew York about 1705, and he 
immediately took an active interest in the affairs of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Congregation Shearith Israel in 
New York City. He was for several years, and at the time 
of his death, which occurred 14th of June, 1728, its Parnas 
(President). He was buried in the Cemetery on ISTew Bow- 
ery, ISTew York, of the Congregation, and the inscription on 
his tombstone, which is in Hebrew, Spanish, and English, can 
still be seen. Eachel Levy, his daughter, married in 1741 
Isaac Mendez Seixas, born 1708, a native of Lisbon, Portugal. 
He was a merchant in New York, and afterward removed to 
Newport, E. I., where he engaged in active business until his 
deftth in 1780. His remains repose in the ancient Jewish 


cemetery at Newport, made world-renowned by Longfellow^s 
beautiful poem. He was one of the signers, in 1770, of the 
agreement to make more stringent the ^^Non-importation 
Agreement,'^ whereby the merchants of the Colonies took the 
first concerted action to resist the oppression of Great Britain. 

All the six children of Isaac Mendez Seixas and Rachel Levy 
became prominent in American Jewish history. Their son, 
Gershom Mendez Seixas, was born in the city of New York 
on the 14th of January, 1745. At a very early age he 
evinced a disposition to follow the Holy Service of the Syna- 
gogue, and when but five years old read a portion of the 
prayers in the Synagogue of the Congregation Shearith Israel 
in New York City. As early as 1766 he adopted the minis- 
terial profession, and was formally elected and installed, with 
considerable ceremony, as pastor of the above-mentioned 
Congregation, which position he occupied amid vicissitudes 
for half a century. It is said that he was always a serious 
man, and, even when very young, by his bearing and manner 
he impressed those with whom he came in contact as being 
very much further advanced in years. 

From the beginning he seems to have secured the affection 
of the members of his Congregation. He was an ardent 
patriot during the preliminaries to the struggle for inde- 
pendence, and it is related that when at length the crisis came, 
rather than continue the Synagogue under British auspices, 
he closed the doors of the edifice, which act was fiercely con- 
tested, even families being split apart as the result of it. 
Many of the members of the Congregation were merchants 
in active business in New York City, and their interests nat- 
urally were with the Tories rather than with the feeble little 
band of patriots endeavoring to secure freedom for the Colo- 


nies. When the patriot members of the Congregation were 
about to flee from the city upon the appearance of the British 
fleet in New York Bay in August, 1776, pi>eparatory to the 
occupation of the city by Lord Howe, the Kev. Gershom 
Mendez Seixas preached a sermon in English, in which he 
feelingly stated that the service on that occasion might be 
the last to be held in the historic old edifice situated in Mill 
Street (now South William Street), then approaching the 
half-century mark, and we are told that it was delivered with 
such force and eloquence that tears were shed by all present, 
men and women alike. 

He left New York to seek retirement in Stratford, Conn., 
where he took with him for safe-keeping the scrolls of 
the law and the articles of ceremonial belonging to the 
Congregation. The records of the Congregation Shearith 
Israel show by statements rendered by the Eev. Mr. Seixas how 
he personally superintended the closing of the Synagogue 
and the transfer of its property in his flight from the city 
before the enemies of his country. By 1780 the Jewish 
patriots who had fled to Philadelphia, which city was selected 
by many as a place of refuge after incurring the displeasure 
of the Tories elsewhere, demanded the establishment of a per- 
manent Congregation, and the Kev. Seixas was requested to 
officiate, which he consented to do. He at once left Connecti- 
cut, taking with him the sacred objects of holy worship, and 
established at Philadelphia the Congregation Mickve Israel, 
a majority of the members being patriot refugees from New 
York. When the newly-erected house of worship was ready 
for dedication, he was one of a committee who waited on the 
Governor of Pennsylvania, inviting him to attend the cere- 
mony. The occasion was most impressive, the Rev. Seixas deliv- 



ering a memorable patriotic address, and it is related that he 
invoked the blessing of Almighty God " on the members of 
these States in Congress assembled, and on his Excellency 
George Washington, Commander-General of these Colonies/^ 
During his entire stay at Philadelphia he continued his 
labors in the cause of liberty. I must digress here to mention 
the public spirit that was manifested by the Seixas family 
whenever tyranny or oppression became evident. Certain it is 
that the brothers of Gershom Mendez Seixas were just as 
strongly devoted to the patriotic cause as the minister himself. 
One of them, Benjamin, was an oflBcer of the Patriot Militia 
in New York at the outbreak of the Eevolution. He was also 
one of the founders of thi ISTew York Stock Exchange. An- 
other brother, Abraham Mendez Seixas, was a colonel in the 
Georgia Brigade of the Continental Army, serving actively 
and zealously throughout the entire struggle, and a magis- 
trate of the City of Charleston, S. C. He was distinguished 
as an officer in the confidence of Generals Lee and Laurens. 
The eldest brother, Moses, was also devoted to the patriotic 
cause. He addressed a letter of congratulation to George 
Washington, upon the first President's inauguration, to which 
General Washington sent a reply, the original of which is still 
in the possession of his descendants. Moses Mendez Seixas 
was one of the founders, and for many years, until his death. 
President, of the Bank of Ehode Island at Newport, and the 
first Grand Master of Masons of the State of Ehode Island. 
A word must also be said of Grace, sister of Gershom Mendez 
Seixas, who shared the natural ability possessed by her 
brothers. She was thoroughly conversant with many of the 
subjects to which her sex are usually strangers, and could 
discuss politics, finance, and commercial affairs with startling 


intelligence. Many of her writings are still in the possession 
of her descendants, and display striking evidence of her 

To return to the subject of this sketch. After the city of 
ISTew York had been evacuated by the British, the Eev. Ger- 
shom Mendez Seixas returned to his native city, March 23, 
1784, and assumed his old charge as Minister of the Spanish 
and Portuguese Congregation. He was recognized as a truly 
patriotic American and a public-spirited citizen. There never 
was an occasion of general thanksgiving or day of fasting or 
prayer in which he did not take the initiative in leading the 
congregation in a public manner. He was one of the first 
ministers of any denomination to preach a regular Thanksgiv- 
ing sermon on Thanksgiving Day and conduct services in 
connection therewith. To Leon Hiihner, Esquire, the well- 
known Curator of the American Jewish Historical Society, 
we are indebted for the discovery of much valuable informa- 
tion relating to the career of the Rev. Gershom Mendez Seixas. 
In an excellent article published in the Jewish Comment, Jan- 
uary, 1902, he observes: 

Washington's proclamation to him was more than a mere 
formality, and the Jewish minister received it in the proper spirit. 
His conduct in this connection was extensively commented on by 
the press of the day, and among others the following extract from 
the Daily Gazette^ December 23, 1789, may not be inappropriate 
here. After stating that a discourse had been delivered by the 
Rev. Gershom Seixas in the Jewish Synagogue on Thanksgiving 
Day, November 26, 1789, it continues: "This excellent discourse 
(to which is annexed the order of service), the first of the kind 
ever preached in English in this State, is highly deserving the 
attention of every pious reader, whether Jew or Christian, as it 
breathes nothing but pure morality and devotion." 

Theology never crowded out other themes in this minister's 


sermons; he seems constantly to have seized on subjects that 
agitated the public mind and from which some lesson could be 
drawn or which would enlist the sympathies of his audience in 
some charitable enterprise. The country and its institutions were 
always favorite subjects with him. 

He instituted a recital of a prayer for the Government in 
English, it having been theretofore always read in the Span- 
ish language, insisting that as Americans his Congregation 
could not tolerate the use of any tongues but the sublime one 
of Israel and that of their adopted country. Whenever it was 
necessary to raise money for public purposes — for example, to 
carry on the wars, to repel invasion, to relieve the sufferings 
of persons in other States who had endured Indian incur- 
sions, etc., — the Eev. Mr. Seixas never deemed it beneath his 
dignity as a Jewish minister to invite public free-will offer- 
ings in the Synagogue for these objects, and I have drafts of 
formulas in Hebrew, in his handwriting, for use on such occa- 

His name is found in the charter of Columbia College as 
one of the original incorporators, and he was a trustee of the 
College from 1787, the year of incorporation, uninterruptedly 
until 1815, in which year he resigned the position. He is the 
only Israelite who has ever sat upon the Board of Trustees 
of that institution, they being uniformly of the Episcopalian 
faith. He was highly respected and esteemed by his asso- 
ciates on the board and by the ministers and ecclesiastics of 
the Church of England in New York, and it was common 
for him to deliver addresses in the Episcopal diocese of this 
city. One of these, which was delivered in St. Paul's Church 
in the month of August, 1800, contained an historical sketch of 
the Jews in New York City up to that time. The suggestion to 


follow the example of the Rev. Seixas in inviting Episcopal 
ministers, clothed in their robes of office, to seats on the altar 
of the Synagogue during divine service would probably at this 
date be considered out of place, but it was common enough 

The distinguished Jewish divine received many public hon- 
ors. On the inauguration of President Washington as the first 
President of the United States, at New York, 1789, the Rev. 
Mr. Seixas with thirteen other clergymen of various denomi- 
nations participated in the ceremonies, which notable fact 
may serve to remind American citizens for all time that our 
republic is founded on the very broadest principles, tolerat- 
ing every race and creed, and American Israelites should 
ever recall with pride that the lives of Hebrews like the Rev. 
Gershom Mendez Seixas and his brothers, who cheerfully 
offered their lives and fortunes for the establishment of 
American independence, give to their brethren throughout 
the world a right of asylum on these shores which no true- 
hearted or grateful American will ever have the temerity to 
challenge. The Jews of New York City can also ever be proud 
of the fact that while the clergy of other religious faiths, with 
scarcely an exception, sided with Great Britain against the 
Colonies, the Rev. Gershom Mendez Seixas, " the Patriot 
Jewish Minister of the American Revolution/^ from the verv 
beginning of the struggle, loyally and unflinchingly took his 
stand for the cause of liberty, and constantly made the walls 
of the only Synagogue on the Island of Manhattan ring with 
his eloquence in behalf of the doctrine of human rights, 
educating his Congregation to strike for liberty, until the 
day finally arrived when, as a magnificent climax to his 
efforts, he led forth a majority of his flock in flight north- 


ward over the plains of Harlem and Washington Heights to 
a seven years' exile from the city of their birth, abandoning 
in a single day homes and fortunes. 

Something of the Rev. Mr. Seixas' public spirit during 
the War of 1812 may be shown by a sermon, recently re- 
printed, which was delivered at the time when many were 
violently opposed to the existing administration for having 
declared war with Great Britain. After admonishing his 
hearers to support the administration of President Madison, 
he said : 

For the citizens at large it is sufficient for us to know that our 
rulers are chosen to be judges on all affairs concerning the wel- 
fare of their constituents. They have declared war, and it is our 
bounden duty to act as true and faithful citizens, to support and 
preserve the honor, dignity and the independence of the United 
States of America, that they may bear equal rank among the 
nations of the earth. 

These sentiments are followed by a touching appeal to his 
flock to help the families of those whom the war has impov- 
erished, and by a description of the horrors of war, which he 
calls on Heaven to end. 

Witness the distressed situation of our fellow-citizens on our 
frontier settlements in the northern boundaries of our State; 
driven from their peaceful abodes in this inclement season of the 
year, their houses sacked and burned, destitute of food, raiment 
and of every necessary of life, often without a place to shelter 
them from the most piercing cold .... consider for a moment 
the distress of twelve thousand souls in such a pitiable situation; 
widows and orphans, who after passing their blood-stained vil- 
lages, their houses burnt, deprived of parents, husbands, sons, 
with many of their nearest and dearest connections massacred by 
ferocious savages and the unrelenting mercenaries of an im- 
placable and inhuman enemy .... Think, oh think, brethren, 
what must such a multitude suffer! Deprived of their earthly 


comfort, where it is not in the power of one to help another .... 
many would despair in such a miserable situation, but it is to be 
hoped that the kindness of Providence will still strengthen their 
minds to support the trials they are now laboring under. Who 
can hear so deplorable a recital without a sense of feeling^? Human- 
ity is shocked with the melancholy narrative Vouchsafe 

to accept our prayers and penitence, O Lord; deliver us from our 
present impending evils, and guard us in future from those who 
rise up against us; frustrate the designs and machinations of the 

enemy; restore us to the bosom of peace Let us be always 

ready and willing to ameliorate the conditions of the unhappy, 
and in the first instance of benevolence enable us to assist our 
fellow-citizens in the Northwest Territory at this juncture. 

The Eev. Gershom Mendez Seixas was twice married, his 
first wife being Miss Elkalah Cohen, whom he married Septem- 
ber 6, 1775. The following is a copy of the record of their 
marriage as contained in the archives of the Congregation 
Shearith Israel in New York : " On Wednesday, the 11th day 
Elul, September 6th, 1775, was married Hazan Gershom 
Mendez Seixas to Miss Elkaley Cohen, in New York." She 
was born in the year 1749 and died October 30, 1785. Their 
children were Isaac, born at Stratford, Connecticut, July 
30, 1776, who lived but three hours; Sarah, bom at Strat- 
ford, Connecticut, January 9, 1778, who married Israel 
B. Kursheedt; Rebecca, born in Philadelphia in 1780, 
died 1867, unmarried; and Benjamin, died at Baltimore, 
Maryland, unmarried. His second wife, to whom he was 
married on the 1st of November, 1789, was Miss Hannah 
Manuel. He had returned to New York City after the Revo- 
lutionary War, where they were united in marriage. The chil- 
dren of this second marriage were: David, unmarried, the 
founder of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb in Philadelphia (this institution was opened May, 1820, 
temporarily, at Mr, Seixas' residence, and still exists as one 


of the monuments of Philadelphia benevolence) ; Joshua, a 
learned Hebraist and text-book writer, and at one time a 
professor at Andover, who married Miss Kaphael, of Kich- 
mond, Virginia; Theodore J. and Henry N., twins, bom 
1803, the first of whom married Anna, daughter of Naphtali 
Judah, and died 1822, and the second of whom died single; 
Grace, bom December 7, 1789, married February 1, 1815, 
Manuel Judah, and died in Kichmond, Va., August 20, 1826 ; 
Elkalah married Benjamin Solomons; Samuel, born in 1793, 
died in 1852; Kachel, bom January 11, 1801, married Joseph 
Jonas, one of the pioneers of Cincinnati, and died in Cincin- 
nati, February 19, 1827 ; Lucia Orah, born December 26, 1804, 
married Abraham Jonas, brother of Joseph Jonas, and died in 
Cincinnati, June 15, 1825; Selina, bom 1806, married Lucius 
Levy Solomons, and died 1883 ; and Myrtilla, born November 
22, 1807, married William Florance, of Philadelphia. 

The death of Kev. Gershom Mendez Seixas occurred at 
9 A. M. on July 2, 1816, Tammuz 6, 5576. Obituaries were 
published in various papers throughout the United States, 
and services in his memory were held both in New York and 
Philadelphia. Some of the eulogies delivered were pub- 
lished in pamphlet form, and I have copies of addresses de- 
livered at his funeral by Dr. Jacob De La Motta, the Kev. 
Emanuel N. Carvalho, minister of Congregation Mickve Is- 
rael, of Philadelphia, and by the late Mr. Naphtali Phillips, 
who was at that time President of the Congregation Shearith 
Israel, of New York, the last eulogium being delivered at 
the request of the Board of Trustees as a memorial of their 
beloved pastor. One paragraph, which strongly illustrates 
his career, reads as follows : " This city was not only his 
birthplace, but his favorite spot, and he spent the whole of his 
virtuous life within it, excepting those years when, during the 


Eevolution, he fled from the enemies of his country while they 
held it in occupation, for America was the country of his 
love/^ His remains were interred and still rest in the old 
Cemetery on New Bowery, New York City, of Congregation 
Shearith Israel, and the following is a copy of the English 
inscription which was on his tombstone. It is now entirely 
obliterated : 




















In 1902 the " Hebra Hased Va Amet," a Society attached 
to the Congregation Shearith Israel having for its object the 
relief of indigent sick and the burial of the dead, which was 
founded by the Eev. Gershom Mendez Seixas, celebrated its 


centenaial anniversary. The Rev. Mr. Seixas' purpose in or- 
ganizing the Society, which is now in a flourishing condition 
after a century of activity, was to secure for every Israelite of 
New York City not only substantial relief in his last hours, 
but respectable interment upon his demise. He foresaw the 
need of such practical charity for Jews in a great cosmo- 
politan city like New York, and his wisdom has been 
abundantly vindicated. As a tribute to his memory, and to 
perpetuate the virtues of tliis sterling patriot and distin- 
guished clergyman, the Society caused to he erected a tablet 
of bronze and marble in the beautiful Synagogue of the Con- 
gregation Shearith Israel, Seventieth Street and Central Park 
West, New York City, vhere worship the descendants of 
New York's pioneer Jews, who revere the memory of the 
man, the lustre of whose life has shed glory upon the Congre- 
gation and upon American Israel for over a century, Gershom 
Mendez Seixas. 




The Biographical Sketches which follow are a second in- 
stalment of the series begun in the American Jewish Year 
Book for 5664. The Sketches there published were of Rabbis 
and Cantors ofl&cially connected with congregations in the 
United States. On pp. 214-225, will be found additions to 
the list of last year, designed to keep it up to date. 

It is intended to complete the series of Biographical 
Sketches in the American Jewish Year Book for 5666, in 
which an attempt will be made to present the biographical 
data of the men and women who are doing the communal 
work for the Jews of the United States. 

The present instalment does not deal with so unified a set 
of personages as the first dealt with and as the third is de- 
signed to deal with. It aims to bring together the names and 
biographical data of the Jews in the United States who have 
won a place in the professions, in the arts, the sciences, in 
journalism, in business, in public life. Only one class of pro- 
fessional men and women have been excluded from the 
present instalment, namely, those who have trained themselves 
to preside over Jewish charitable institutions; the superin- 
tendents and directors of the charities, the superintendents 
of orphan asylums and kindred institutions, the probation 
officers, the social settlement workers, etc. Their vocation 
is so closely allied to the activities that will constitute the 
ground for inclusion in the next instalment of sketches 


that it seemed proper to associate them with the communal 
workers whose leaders and guides they are. 

A number of cases, indeed, proved the scheme of classifi- 
cation adopted arbitrary. Many of the personages whose 
biographical data are presented below have put their attain- 
ments and their abilities in the service of the Jewish com- 
munity. On the other hand, a few of those addressed began 
their careers as professional men, but are now engaged entirely 
in the service of the community. Their biographies have 
therefore been reserved for the next instalment. 

A word as to the data given below. The list does not lay 
claim to completeness. That it is not even so complete as 
it might have been made with the co-operation of all persons 
addressed will appear from the circumstance that blanks and 
circulars were sent to over nine hundred persons, and only 
about 475 complied with the request for information. Among 
those not heard from were some whose biographical data are 
so well known that they have been compiled from various 
reference books and inserted. An asterisk (♦) marks in- 
formation not obtained directly from the subject of the sketch. 

The circular letters were first sent out in May, a month in 
which the summer travel to Europe had begun. This may 
in a measure account for the paucity of responses received 
from actors, musicians, painters, artists of all sorts. like- 
wise army and navy men, in which the list is deficient, move 
from place to place so frequently and rapidly in the exercise 
of their profession that it is difficult to reach them within a 
given short time through their permanent address. 

These deductions, great as they are, do not cover the large 
number addressed and not heard from. Among them are, 
besides authors, editors, physicians, lawyers, engineers, and 


representatives of many other professions and occupations. 
Over and above all this it must be admitted that if the 
editorial miracle had come to pass, and the co-operation of 
all persons addressed had been secured, the list would still 
have been incomplete, as any list the first of its kind must 
inevitably be. 

Abarbanell, Jacob Ralph. Editor, Author. Born December 6, 
1852, New York City. Son of Rudolph Abarbanell. Graduate 
College City of New York, A. B., B. S., 1872; Columbia Law 
School, LL. B., 1874. Married Cornelia L. Eaton. Practices 
law, New York. Member Medico-Legal Society, New York; Man- 
hattan Single Tax Club. Now editor New York Family Story 
Paper, and Golden Hours. Author: Flirtation, 1884; Monte Cristo 
and his Wife, 1885; Ma, 1888; The Rector's Secret, 1892; serials 
published under i)en name "Ralph Royal." Plays: My Father's 
Will, 1881; A Model Pair, 1882; All on Account of a Bracelet, 
1883; Haydee, Countess of Monte Cristo, 1902; Ma, 1902. Trans- 
lations: novels of Alphonse Daudet, Octave Feuillet, Henri Gr6- 
ville, Boisgobey; short stories from French and German. Resi- 
dence: Coney Island. OflSce: 24 Vandewater, New York. 

Abrams, Albert. Physician. Born December 8, 1863, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Son of Marcus Abrams and Rachael Levey. A. M., 
Portland University; M. D., University of Heidelberg; pursued 
post-graduate courses in London (F. R. M. S.), Berlin, Vienna, and 
Paris. Married Jeanne Irma Roth. Professor of Pathology and 
director Medical Clinic, Cooper Medical College; president Emanu- 
El Sisterhood Polyclinic, San Francisco; trustee National Jewish 
Hospital for Consumptives, Denver, and consulting physician to 
the same institution. One of the original investigators of Helio- 
therapy and Psychotherapy; discoverer of the Heart and Lung 
Reflexes of Abrams, and numerous other organ reflexes bearing 
the same name. Author: Synopsis of Morbid Renal Secretions: 
Manual of Clinical Diagnosis; Consumption, Causes and Preven- 
tion; The Antiseptic Club; Scattered Leaves of a Physician's 
Diary; Diseases of the Heart; Nervous Breakdown; Hygiene, in 
a System of Physiologic Therapeutics; The Blues, Causes and 
Cure; and various contributions to medical journals. Address: 
1519 Van Ness Av., San Francisco, Cal. 

"Addison, Victoria/' See Peixotto, Victoria Maud. 

Adier, Cyrus. Librarian Smithsonian Institution, Honorary 
Curator Historic Religions, and Custodian Historic Archaeology, 


United States National Museum. Born September 13, 1863, Van 
Buren, Ark. Son of Samuel Adler and Sarah Sulzberger. Edu- 
cated Hebrew Education Society's School, and public schools, Phil- 
adelphia; B. A., 1878, Central High School, Philadelphia; B. A., 
1883; M. A., 1886, University of Pennsylvania; Ph.D., 1887, Johns 
Hopkins University. Fellow, instructor, and associate Semitic 
languages, Johns Hopkins University, 1887-1892. President board 
of directors Jewish Theological Seminary of America; president 
American Jewish Historical Society; trustee Gratz College, Phila- 
delphia; trustee, and member Publication Committee, Jewish 
Publication Society of America; member Council American Insti- 
tute of Archaeology; formerly vice-president Philosophical Society, 
and Anthropological Society, Washington; representative World's 
Columbian Exposition to Turkey, Egjrpt, Tunis, Algiers, and 
Morocco; representative United States Government to Interna- 
tional Catalogue of Scientific Literature, London, and member of 
executive committee of Catalogue; member American Philosoph- 
ical Society, Washington Academy of Sciences, American Oriental 
Society, and many other learned bodies. Editor: The American 
Jewish Year Book; The Voice of America on Kishineff; and the 
so-called " Jefferson Bible." Author : Told in the Coffee House 
(with Allan Ramsay) ; many papers on philological, archaeo- 
logical, and American Jewish historical subjects, in the publica- 
tions of the United States National Museum, of various learned 
societies, and in scientific periodicals. One of the Editors of the 
Jewish Encyclopedia. Address: Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

♦Adler, Felix. Educator, Lecturer. Born August 13, 1851, 
Alzey, Germany. Son of Rabbi S. Adler. Graduate, 1870, Colum- 
bia University. Studied at Berlin (Ph.D.). Professor Hebrew 
and Oriental Literature, Cornell University, 1874-1876; estab- 
lished, 1876, New York Society for Ethical Culture, of which he 
is now the lecturer. Professor political and social ethics Colum- 
bia University. Member editorial board International Journal of 
Ethics. Author: Creed and Deed; The Moral Instruction of Chil- 
dren, etc. Address: 123 East 60th, New York. 

♦Adler, Jacob P. Actor. Born January 1, 1855, Odessa, Russia. 
Made his first appearance at the theatre in Cherson, Russia, 1878. 
Emigrated to London, 1883, because the Russian government pro- 
hibited Jewish plays. Removed to New York, 1888, and became 
one of the leading actors on the Jewish stage. Appeared with 
an English company of actors, he playing the title-rdle in Shakes- 
pearean plays in Yiddish. Address: Grand Theatre, New York. 

Alan Dale. 8ee Cohen, Alfred J. 


^Alschuler, Samuel. Lawyer. Bom November 20, 1859, Chicago, 
111. Son of Jacob Alschuler. Educated in Aurora, 111., high 
school. Was clerk in general store two years; studied law In 
oflace in Aurora; admitted to Illinois bar, 1881; Democratic can- 
didate for Congress, 1892; defeated. Member of State Commis- 
sion of Claims, 1893-1896; of legislature, 1896-1900; Democratic 
candidate for governor of Illinois, 1900; defeated. Member law 
firm Kraus, Alschuler, and Holden, since 1901. Residence: 
Aurora, 111. Office: Tribune Bldg., Chicago. 

*Altman, Benjamin. Proprietor department store, B. Altman 
and Company. Director Bank of the Metropolis; trustee Garfield 
Safe Deposit Company. Address: 25 Madison Av., New York. 

Altman, Rebecca Annetta. Writer. Born December 16, 1880, 
Gilnitz, Polish Lithuania. Daughter of Joseph Jacob Altman and 
Leah Oberschmieds. Educated by private tutors, special attention 
being paid to Hebrew. Other studies pursued at Steubenville, O., 
high school. Has written essays, poems, sketches, and transla- 
tions from the German, Hebrew, and Yiddish, for The American 
Jewish press, the Steubenville Herald, and other papers; also sev- 
eral Hebrew articles in Ha-Ibri, 1895, 1896, and 1897. Address: 
238 South Fifth, Steubenville, Ohio. 

Altmann, Aaron. Assistant Professor of Sketching and Per- 
spective at California School of Design, Mark Hopkins Institute 
of Art of the University of California. Born October 28, 1872, 
San Francisco, Cal. Son of Jacob Altmann and Dora Posner. Grad- 
uate San Francisco public schools and Ecole Nationale des Beaux 
Arts, Paris, France. Received William Alvord Medal at Cali- 
fornia School of Design, 1890. Two pictures accepted at Paris 
Salon, 1896. Appointed member Board of Park Commissioners, 
City and County of San Francisco, 1902. Address: 1017 Sutter, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Amram, David Werner. Lawyer, 1889, and Referee in Bank- 
ruptcy, 1903, United States District Court Eastern District of 
Pennsylvania. Born May 16, 1866, Philadelphia, Pa. Son of 
Werner David Amram and Esther Hammerschlag. Educated in 
public schools, and Rugby Academy, Philadelphia; A. B., 1887; 
LL. B., 1889; A.M., 1890, University of Pennsylvania. Married 
Beulah Brylawski. President and honorary member board of 
directors Young Men's Hebrew Association; director Hebrew 
Education Society, Jewish Maternity Association, and Congre- 
gation Mickv6 Israel; trustee and secretary Gratz College; mem- 
ber Law Academy; Medical Jurisprudence Society; Pennsylvania 
State Bar Association; Grand Lodge Pennsylvania Masons; Phari- 


sees; and member Publication Committee Jewish Publication 
Society of America, 1897-1901. Author: The Jewish Law of 
Divorce, 1896; Leading Cases in Biblical Law (in press). Writer 
of legal articles in Jewish Encyclopedia; A Lawyer's Studies in 
Jewish Law, being sixteen articles published serially in The 
Green Bag, Boston. Address: 1717 North 8th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Anspacher, Louis Kaufman. Lecturer, Author, and Dramatist. 
Born March 1, 1878, Cincinnati, O. Son of Leopold Henry Ans- 
pacher and Rosa Kaufman. Educated in New York public schools; 
A. B., 1897, College City of New York; studied at Columbia Law 
School, and pursued post-graduate course in School of Philosophy, 
Columbia University (A.M., 1902; LL. B., 1903). Lecturer in phil- 
osophy in " Mind " Summer School, and teacher in evening schools 
New York City. Contributed articles to magazines. Author: 
Tristan and Isolde, a Poetical Drama; Anna and the Archduke 
John, a Drama (in press). Address: 3 West 122d, New York 

Apotheker, David. Notary Public, and Real Estate and Insur- 
ance Broker. Born August 28, 1855, Ponievezhgov, Government 
Kovno, Russia. Studied at Wilkomir, 1868, under M. L. Lilien- 
blum. Arrested, 1877, at Kiev, for Nihilist agitation; escaped to 
Czernowitz, Austria. Married (3elia Shulman. Emigrated to the 
United States, 1888. Editor: Die Gegenwart, a Yiddish weekly, 
1895. Author: Ha-Nebel, a book of Hebrew and Yiddish poems, 
1882. Contributor to Hebrew and Yiddish papers. Address: 528 
South 4th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

*Appely Aaron H. Major Surgeon, United States Army. Born 
April 3, 1856, Pennsylvania. A. B., 1874, Central High School, 
Philadelphia; M. D., 1878, Jefferson Medical College. Appointed 
assistant surgeon, 1879; captain assistant surgeon, 1884; major 
surgeon, 1897. Address: War Department, Washington, D. C. 

*Appel, Daniel 1^. Major Surgeon, United States Army. Born 
October 28, 1854, Pennsylvania. A. B., 1872; A.M., 1877, Central 
High School, Philadelphia; M. D., 1875, Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege. Appointed assistant surgeon, 1876; captain assistant sur- 
geon, 1881; major surgeon, 1895. Address: War Department, 
Washington, D. C. 

Aronson, l^aurice. Pianist, Writer, Critic. Born June 24, 1869, 
Mitau, Courland, Russia. Son of Herman Aronson and Anette 
Levit. Graduate Mitau Gymnasium, 1885; Ecole PolytechniqUe, 
Riga, 1886; pursued courses of study in St. Petersburg, Riga, and 


Berlin. First studied chemistry, then music. Came to the United 
States, 1888, going to the South as conductor, pianist, and organ- 
ist; removed to Chicago, 1896. Member Piano Faculty Chicago 
Conservatory of Music and Dramatic Art, 1896-1900. Founder and 
director Maurice Aronson Studios for the Art of Piano Playing. 
1900-1903. Called to Berlin, 1903, as chief assistant of Leopold 
Godowsky. Author: Symphony and Symphonic Poem, 1897; 
Schumann's Song Cycles, 1897; Robert Franz in his Relation to 
Music and its Masters, 1897; Franz Schubert (in commemoration 
of the one hundredth Anniversary of his Birth), 1897; The Poles 
in Music, 1898, and articles in- musical journals. Address: Geis- 
berg Strasse 31, Berlin, Germany. 

* Aronson, Rudolph. Theatrical Manager; Musical Composer. 
Now manager Bijou Theatre, New York; projector and builder 
Metropolitan Concert Hall (site of present Broadway Theatre) ; 
also projector and builder Casino (with first roof garden in 
America). Composer of more than 150 pieces for orchestra, in- 
cluding the famous Sweet Sixteen waltz. Residence: 144 West 
94th. Office: 1123 Broadway, New York. 

Austrian, Ben. Artist. Born November 22, 1870, Reading, 
Pa. Son of Raphael Austrian and Fannie Elizabeth Dreifoos. 
Educated at Reading public schools. Began career as clerk and 
travelling salesman. Self-taught as a painter. Began to paint at 
age of nine. Works: Temptations, After the Race, A Day's 
Hunt, The Intruder, A Golden Harvest, After a South Wind, 
His Majesty the King, Motherhood, Love's Nest, The Home of 
Love, Die Mutterliebe. Address: 1252 Perkiomen Av., Reading, 

^Bamberger, Raymond 8. Second Lieutenant, United States 
Army. Born October 29, 1877, Kentucky. A. B., 1895, Male High 
School, Louisville, Ky. Was private and acting hospital steward. 
Hospital Corps, 1898-1900; appointed private and hospital stew- 
ard. Hospital Corps, 1901; second lieutenant, 7th Regiment Cav- 
alry, 1901. Address: War Department, Washington, D. C. 

Barondess, Joseph. Insurance Broker. Born July 3, 1867, 
Kamenetz-Podolsk, Russia. Son of Judah Samuel Barondess and 
Feiga Goldman. Educated in the Cheder. Married Anna Zisels. 
Came to America at age of eighteen. Laborer in Brooklyn sugar 
refinery; worked in sweat shop as tailor; in "Paris Green" 
factory; and on a farm. Leader of Cloak Makers Union of 
16,000 members, chiefly Jews. Organizer of International Ladies 
Garment Workers Union, American Federation of Labor. Leader 


of Union workmen locked out of Abraham Popkin's Cloak and 
Suit factory. Charged with extortion on the successful end of 
the lock-out; found guilty by a jury; the judgment reversed by 
the Supreme Court; for technical reasons the judgment of the first 
court sustained by New York State Court of Appeals; declared 
morally innocent of charge by the District Attorney who had car-, 
ried the case to the Court of Appeals; and pardoned by Governor 
Flower. Twice candidate on Socialist party ticket for Assembly in 
the Twelfth Assembly District, New York. Subject of Edward 
King's "Joseph Zalmonah." Editor: The Baltimore Free Press 
(Labor Paper), 1894; The Union Zeitung (Jewish Trades Union 
paper, published first as a bi-monthly, then as a weekly, by the 
Cloak Makers Union), 1894; Labor Department of Forward, Jew- 
ish daily and weekly. Has written numerous articles for the 
Jewish press. Address: 6 Rutgers, New York. 

Barthold, Manuel. Artist. Born September 9, 1874, Russia. 
Son of Morris Barthold and Sarah Schneider. Educated in 
New York and Paris. Awarded a first Elliot Medal by National 
Academy of Design, New York, 1894, and a Deuxi^me M6daille, 
H. C, by the Salon des Artistes Frangais, Paris, 1904. Works: 
Les Deux Amis; Une petite Hollandaise, both exhibited in Paris, 
1904. Address: 89, rue Deupert-Rochereau, Paris, France. 

Baruch, Emanuel. Physician. Born February 22, 1868, New 
York City. Son of Myron Baruch and Elizabeth Fournier. Father 
and grandfather distinguished physicians, the latter also burgo- 
master of Arolsen, Waldeck-Pyrmont. Graduate University of 
Wiirtemberg, 1887; Columbia University, 1889; pursued courses 
at the Universities of Berlin and Munich. Professor of Bacteriol- 
ogy and Pathology, Flower Hospital and Medical College; of 
Bacteriology and Therapeutics, Metropolitan Post-Graduate Col- 
lege, New York City. Member of many scientific societies. 
Author: On the Aetiology and Therapy of Diphtheria; On the 
Aetiology of Cancer; Serotherapy; The Treatment of Chronic 
Disease; The Bacteriological Diagnosis and Therapy of Typhoid 
Fever; Epidemic Cerebro-spinal Meningitis; etc. Address: 57 
East 77th, New York. 

Baruch, Simon. Physician. Born July 29, 1840, Schwersenz, 
Germany. Son of Bernhard Baruch and Teresa Greer. Educated 
at Gymnasium, Posen. M. D., 1862, Medical College of Virginia. 
Married Belle Wolfe. Surgeon for three years in Army of North- 
ern Virginia under General Lee; practiced medicine for fifteen 
years in Camden, S. C; president South Carolina Medical So- 
ciety, 1873; chairman State Board of Health, South Carolina, 


1880; physician, 1883-1884, and gynaecologist, 1884-1887, to North- 
eastern Dispensary, New York; chairman Committee on Public 
Health, New York County Medical Society, 1890. Now professor 
of Hydrotherapeutics New York Post-Graduate Medical School and 
Hospital; visiting physician Hood-Wright Hospital (formerly 
Manhattan General) ; consulting physician Montefiore Home for 
Chronic Invalids. Advocate of methodical use of physiological 
remedies, such as diet, rest, exercise, and baths. His agitation for 
the introduction of free public cleansing baths resulted in their 
establishment in New York, Buffalo, Syracuse, Rochester, and 
Chicago. Author: The Uses of Water in Modern Medicine; The 
Principles and Practice of Hydrotherapy (both works published 
in Germany, the second also in Sweden). Address: Hotel Ma- 
jestic, New York. 

BelascOy David. Sole Manager Belasco Theatre; Playwright. 
Born July 25, 1859, San Francisco, Cal. Son of A. Belasco and 
Reina Martin. Educated in Lincoln College, Cal. Married Cecilia 
Loverich. Stage manager Baldwin Theatre, San Francisco, 1878; 
Madison Square Theatre, New York, 1880, and Lyceum Theatre, 
New York, 1885. Wrote first play, acted by himself and boy 
friends, at age of fourteen. Came East in 1880. Author: May 
Blossom; La Belle Russe; Hearts of Oak; Valerie; The Heart of 
Maryland; Zaza; Du Barry; Sweet Kitty Bellairs; in collaboration 
with H. C. DeMille: Lord Chumley; The Wife; The Charity 
Ball; Men and Women; with Franklin Fyles: The Girl I Left 
Behind Me; with John Luther Long: Mme. Butterfly; The Dar- 
ling of the Gods. Address: Belasco Theatre, New York. 

*Bendix, Max. Violinist, Conductor. Born March 28, 1866, 
Detroit, Mich. Educated at Detroit. Studied the violin and in 
1885 became concert-master in Van der Stucken's orchestra. New 
York; concert-master of the Theodore Thomas orchestra, 1886- 
1896; assistant conductor, 1891-1896. Conducted orchestral con- 
certs for six weeks at Chicago, 1892; was assistant conductor and, 
after Mr. Thomas' resignation, sole conductor Exposition Orches- 
tra of 114 selected artists at World's Columbian Exposition. 
Organized and for several seasons directed the Max Bendix String 
Quartette. Since 1896 devoted exclusively to solo playing and 
teaching. Address: 489 Fifth Av., New York. 

Benjaminsoriy Abraham L. Mohel and Hebrew Author. Born 
1884, in Russia. Son of Moses Benjaminson and Rashe Brody. 
Educated in Russia and Germany. Married Rachel Herman. 
Author: War in Peace (against Christian missionaries), 1898; 
Th© Valley of JehQshaphat (on Jewish sects) ; Tbe Observer 


(a study of the Jewish problem). Dramas: The Valley of Appli- 
cation; The Treason of Absalom (both unpublished). Address: 
405 Grand, New York. 

Benoliely Solomon D. Electro-chemist. Born June 1, 1874, 
New York City. Son of David J. Benoliel and Pauline Wasser- 
mann. Graduate New York public schools, 1888; scientific course 
College City of New York, B. S., 1893; School of Mines, Columbia 
University, Electr. Eng., 1896; School of Pure Science, Columbia 
University, A. M., 1896. Married Therese Lindeman. Consulting 
electrical engineer and chemist, 1896-1897; instructor electricity 
and chemistry Adelphi College, Brooklyn, 1897-1901; electro- 
chemist, since 1901, and general manager Roberts Chemical 
Company. Lecturer Board of Education, New York and Brook- 
lyn, 1898-1901; Brooklyn Institute Arts and Sciences, 1900-1901. 
Member American Electro-chemical Society, and Alumni Asso- 
ciation School of Applied Science, Columbia University; associate 
member American Institute Electrical Engineers. Perfected new 
process for production of caustic potash and chemically pure 
hydrochloric acid. Writes for scientific magazines. Address: 
Roberts Chemical Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Berensoriy Bernhard. Writer on art. Born. June 26, 1865, 
Wilna, Lithuania, Russia. Son of Albert Berenson and Judith 
Michliszanski. Graduate Boston Grammar and Latin School; 
Harvard University (A. B., 1887). Married Mary Whitall Pearsall 
Smith. Author: Venetian Painters of Renaissance; Florentine 
Painters of Renaissance; Central Italian Painters of Renaissance; 
Lorenzo Lotto, an Essay in Constructive Art Criticism; Study 
and Criticism of Italian Art (first and second series); The Draw- 
ings of the Florentine Painters. Address: 1 Tatti, Settignano, 
Florence, Italy. 

Berliner^ Emile. Inventor. Born May 20, 1851, Hanover, Ger- 
many. Son of Samuel Berliner and Sally Friedman. Graduate 
common schools, Hanover, and Samson* School, Wolfenbiittel. 
Married Cora Adler. Chief Instrument Inspector Bell Telephone 
Company, 1879-1882. Inventor of loose contact telephone trans- 
mitter, 1877; and of gramophone, first talking machine to utilize 
a groove of even depth, and in which the record not only vibrates 
but also propels the reproducing stylus, 1887. First to apply 
induction coil to telephony; discovered "receiving action" of 
loose contacts. At work at the flying machine problem. Author: 
Conclusions, 1899. Address: 1458 Columbia Road, Washington, 
D. C. 


Berliner, Solomon. United States Consul. Born October 6, 
1856, New York City. Son of Julius Berliner and Julia Salomon. 
Educated New York public schools, and at Neuwied am Rbein. 
Married Jennie Ottenberg. Address: Teneriffe, Canary Islands. 

Bernard, Samuel. Actor. Born July 3, 1863, Birmingham, 
England. Son of Benjamin Bernard. Educated in New York 
City. Stage manager, comedian, now star. Address: 61 West 
73d, New York. 

* Bernstein, Bernard. Actor. Born 1861, Warsaw, Russia. Sang 
in chorus of the Polish Opera in Warsaw, and appeared as a 
comedian, 1882, in Goldfaden's comedy. Die Zauberin. Played in 
several Jewish theatres in Russia; when the Jewish theatre was 
forbidden there, 1883, he went to Galicia, Austria, and then to 
Roumanla, where he played various rOles, usually comic. Was 
engaged by Pool's Theatre, New York, 1892. Especially success- 
ful in rdle of Shamai in The Jewish King Lear, by J. Gordin. 
Address: Grand Theatre, New York. 

Bernstein, Herman. Author. Born September 21, 1876, Scher- 
windt, Prussia. Son of David Bernstein and Maria Bison. Edu- 
cated in Russia and United States. Married Sophie Friedman. 
Lived in Moghilev, Russia, twelve years; came to New York, 1893. 
Author: In the Gates of Israel, Stories of the Jews; Contrite 
Hearts. Translator: Maxime Gorky*s Foma Gordeyev; Anton 
Chekhov's stories. Address: Uncasville, Conn. 

Bernstein, Saul. Artist. Born 1872, Posvol, Kovno, Russia. 
Son of Wolf Bernstein and Esther Shalowltz. Talmud stu- 
dent until age of sixteen; came to America, 1888; peddler and 
storekeeper, West Virginia, until 1894; began to study art, 1895. 
Graduate Maryland Institute, Baltimore, Class A Medal, 1895; 
Decorative Art Society prize, Baltimore, 1896; studied in Paris 
and Holland, 1898-1901; admitted to Paris Salon, 1902. Studied 
Jewish life in Galicia, 1902. Married Malco S. Abel, August, 1903. 
Works: Evening Chat; A Good Housekeeper; A Chapter in an 
old Tradition; Sabbath Afternoon; Mordecai the Tailor, modelled 
head of a Galician Jew; portraits. Author: Hints on Art (manu- 
script). Address: 727 W. Fayette, Baltimore, Md. 

Bettmann, Bernhard. Collector Internal Revenue at Cincin- 
nati since 1897. Born August 2, 1834, Weidnitz, Bavaria. Son 
of Jacob Bettmann and Jeannette Kann. Educated in Germany. 
Married Mathllde Wald. President Board of Governors Hebrew 
Union College since 1875; United Jewish Charities, Cincinnati, 


1896-1903; Standard Lodge, Independent Order B'nai B'rith; treas- 
urer Congregation Bnai Jeshurun since 1884. Member Executive 
Board Union American Hebrew Congregations since 1873; Board 
Talmid Yelodim Institute for twenty-two years; Board of Educa- 
tion, Cincinnati, for fourteen years; director Ohio Valley National 
Bank since 1886; master Masonic Lodge. Author: German 
Ritual for Masonic Lodges. Has written poems published in Die 
Gartenlaube, Leipzig, and other papers; orations, and speeches. 
Address: 858 Lexington Av., Avondale, Cincinnati, O. 

Bettman, Henry Wald. Physician. Born January 14, 1868, 
Cincinnati, O. Son of Bernhard Bettmann and Mathilde Wald. 
Educated at Cincinnati, Berlin, Prague, and Vienna. B. L., 1888, 
University of Cincinnati; M. D., 1890, Medical College of Ohio, 
Cincinnati. Pathologist City Hospital, Cincinnati, 1896-1904. Was 
professor of Medicine Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery 
(no longer holds sessions). Has contributed numerous articles 
to the medical journals. Residence: 3593 Bogart Av. Office: 
Groton Building, Seventh and Race, Cincinnati, O. 

Bierii Julius. President Julius Bien and Company; Artist Litho- 
grapher. Born September 27, 1826, Hesse-Cassel, Germany. Son 
of Emanuel M. Bien and Esther Lithauer. Educated at Teachers' 
Seminary, and Academy of Fine Arts, Cassel; Stadel's Insti- 
tute, and Studio of Professor Moritz Oppenheim, Frankfort on 
the Main. Married Almira M. Brown. Was president Independ- 
ent Order B'nai B'rith for thirty-five years. Now Chancellor of 
Foreign Affairs, Independent Order B'nai B'rith; president 
National Lithographers Association; member Academy of Science, 
New York, and many other learned bodies. Medals awarded: 
Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, 1876; Paris Exposition, 1878 
(two medals) ; World's Exposition, Chicago, 1893 (medal and 
diploma) ; Paris Exposition, 1900 (one gold and one silver medal). 
Works: American Locomotives and Railroads, 1852; Yosemite 
Book, Sun Pictures of the Rocky Mountains; Statistical Atlases 
of the United States; Geological Survey Maps of California, New 
Jersey, Michigan; U. S. Geological Survey; Coast and Greodetic 
Survey; Atlas of the Rebellion Record; Atlas of the States of 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire; many State and city 
maps. Address: 140-142 Sixth Av., New York. 

Bien, l^orris. Engineer, since 1902 in charge Reclamation Ser- 
vice, United States Geological Survey. Born April 17, 1859, New 
York City. Son of Joseph Bien and Therese Leipoldt. Educated 
in San Francisco public schools. Ph. B., 1879, University of Cali- 
fornia; LL. B., 1895, Columbian (now George Washington) Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C; LL. M., 1896, National University, 


Washington, D. C. Married Lilla V. Hart. Topographer United 
States Geological Survey, 1879-1893; in charge of Irrigation and 
Railroad Right of Way Section, United States General Land Office, 
1893-1902; in charge of topographic surveys western half of Vir- 
ginia, 1882-1888; in charge of special survey Aspen Mining Dis- 
trict, Colorado. Served on special surveys of mining districts, 
Eureka, Nev., and Leadville, Colo.; conducted special irrigation in- 
vestigations in Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Montana, and North Da- 
kota. Author of reports on federal legislation; drafted acts of 
Congress relative to irrigation and right of way matters; pre- 
pared legal discussions on irrigation, water rights. State and 
federal legislation, several of which were published in magazines 
and official publications. Address: United States Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D. C. 

Bienenfeld, Abel Morris. Division Engineer, San Pedro, Los 
Angeles, and Salt Lake Railroad. Born January 21, 1873, San 
Francisco, Cal. Son of Elias Bienenfeld and Bertha Kunreuther. 
Educated at San Francisco, Cal. Was assistant engineer South- 
ern Pacific Company, and during Spanish-American War assistant 
in Naval Construction Department, United States Navy, at Mare 
Island, Cal. Immediately preceding and during Spanish-American 
War was engaged in reconstruction, at Mare Island, Cal., of war- 
ships subsequently used by Admiral Dewey at Manila. Engaged 
in the location and construction of railroads in California, Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, and Texas for the past twelve years except 
during time of Spanish- American War. Now located at Daggett, 
Cal. Address: 2158 Pine, San Francisco, Cal. 

Bienenfeld, Bernard. Consulting Engineer. Born December 
11, 1861, New York City. Son of Elias Bienenfeld ( a descendant 
of R. Moses Isserles) and Bertha Kunreuther (granddaughter of 
R. Hirsch Kunreuther of Gelnhausen). Educated at San Fran- 
cisco. Ph. B., 1882, University of California. Graduate College 
of Civil Engineering. Late member California Committee As- 
phalt Company of America; Engineer Commission on Appraise- 
ment of the Kern River Oil Field, which resulted in the forma- 
tion of the Associated Oil Company; president and engineer 
Standard Asphalt Company; and was associated in control of 
Franklin Oil Company, Pacific Asphalt Company, Alcatraz Com- 
pany, American Oil and Asphalt Company; formerly assistant 
engineer Southern Pacific Company, and engineer Pacific Im- 
provement Company. Member American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers. Engaged, 1882-1893, in pioneer location and construction 
of railroads in Oregon, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Texas; discovered, 1893, in Kern Co., Cal., purest vein of asphalt 


then known; designed masonry bridge across Napa River, Cal., 
1894; engaged in developing California asphalt interests, 1893- 
1900; in&ugurated the laying of California asphalt street pave- 
ments in New York City, 1897; engaged, since 1900, in the exami- 
nation and exploitation of petroleum deposits of Pacific coast and 
Alaska. Address: 2158 Pine, San Francisco, Cal. 

BiJuPy Nathan. Lawyer. Born June 1, 1862, New York City. 
Son of Asher Bijur and Pauline Sondheim. Educated at Dr. 
Julius Sachs's School, New York. Ph. B., 1881; LL. B., 1882; 
Ph. D., 1883, Columbia University. Married Lilly Pronick. Trus- 
tee Baron de Hirsch Fund; vice-president United Hebrew Chari- 
ties, New York; member commission appointed by Mayor Low to 
investigate riot at funeral of Rabbi Joseph. Special law practice: 
corporations, re-organizations. Frequent contributor to editorial 
columns of daily press. Office: 34 Nassau. Residence: 172 West 
75th, New York. 

Blochy Clement. Physician. Born November 17, 1865, Szaky, 
Russian Poland. Son of Abraham Jacob Bloch and Hannah Frida 
Heshinovitz. Educated at Konigsberg, Prussia. Graduate Kneip- 
hof Gymnasium, 1884. M. D., 1890, University of Konigsberg. 
Removed from Poland to Konigsberg, 1873; denied naturalization 
rights on account of anti-Semitic prejudices; came to America, 
1890. Married Lizzie Maud Dreyfus. Senior resident physician 
Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, 1890-1895; instructor New 
York Polyclinic, 1893-1900; physician in Throat and Ear Depart- 
ment Mt. Sinai Hospital, 1895-1897; and to New York City Board 
of Health, 1896-1902. Address: 68 West 117th, New York. 

Block, Morris. Mayor of City of Kingston, New York. Born 
November 6, 1862, Kingston. Son of Marx Block and Henrietta 
Fogle. Educated at Kingston. Has been county supervisor, alder- 
man, first president Board of Aldermen, city treasurer, and has 
served two terms as Mayor. Address: 29 Abruyn, Kingston, 
New York. 

Bloomfieldy Fannie. See Zeisler, Fannie Bloomfield. 

*Bloomfieldy Maurice. Professor Sanskrit and Comparative 
Philology, Johns Hopkins University. Born February 23, 1855, 
Bielitz, Austria. A.M., 1877, Furman University, S. C; Ph.D., 
1879, Johns Hopkins University; LL. D., 1896, Princeton Univer- 
sity. Married Rose Zeisler. Edited for first time from original 
Sanskrit manuscripts the Sutra of Kaugika; translated the 
Atharva-Veda in the Sacred Books of the East (edited by Max 


Miiller) ; author of The Atharva-Veda and the Gopatha-Brah- 
mana, 1899; edited, with Richard Garbe, the Kashmirian Paip- 
palada-Veda, 1901. Contributor to numerous learned journals and 
reviews on subjects connected with history, religion, mythology, 
and literature of ancient India; on Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and 
comparative grammar; on ethnology and science of religions. 
Member German Oriental Society; American Oriental Society; 
American Philological Association; honorary member Royal Bohe- 
mian Society, Prague. Address: 861 Park Av., Baltimore, Md. 

Bloomgarden, Sol. Merchant. Born April, 1870, Wirballen, 
Lithuania. Son of Caleb Bloomgarden. Educated for the rab- 
binate; self-taught in secular subjects. Came to New York, 1892; 
went to Colorado on account of ill-health, 1899. Writes Yiddish 
verses under nom de plume " Yehoash." Early verses published 
in Perez's Juedisch Bibliotheca. Has written some English verses. 
Address: 722 Twenty-fourth, Denver, Colo. 

Bloomingdale, Charles, Jr. (nom de plume, "Karl"). Adver- 
tising Manager Welsbach Company; Author. Born March 16, 
1868, Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Charles Bloomingdale and Caro- 
line Cadette Elfelt. Graduate Philadelphia private schools, pub- 
lic schools, high school. University of Pennsylvania (1887). Mar- 
ried Katherine Fleck. Editor and owner: Music and Drama; 
Footlights; Stageland. Was department editor " Up the Street 
and down again," Philadelphia Press, and dramatic editor of 
various Philadelphia papers. Writer of short stories, sketches, 
and society verse. Wrote libretto of a travesty on comic opera. 
The Sighing Dutchman, produced at the Mercantile Club, Phila- 
delphia, 1903. Author: Mr., Miss and Mrs., 1899; A Failure, 
1904. Address: 210 South 11th, Philadelphia. 

Bloom! ngdale, Emanuel Watson. Merchant. Born November 
25, 1852, Rome, New York. Son of Benjamin Bloomingdale and 
Hannah Weil. LL. B., 1877, Columbia University. Married Janu- 
ary 3, 1877, Adftle Bernheimer. Republican presidential elector, 
1900; trustee National McKinley Memorial Association; manager 
Society for Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents; president Re- 
tail Dry Groods Association; director Jewish Protectory, New York. 
Address: 42 West 69th, New York. 

Bloom ingdale» Joaeph B. Retired Merchant. Born December 
22, 1842, New York City. Son of Benjamin Bloomingdale and 
Hannah Weil. Educated New York public schools. Married 
Clara Koffman. Vice-president Hebrew Technical Institute; 
United States Savings Bank. Address: 78 Fifth Av., New York. 


Bloomingdale, Lyman G. Merchant. Born February 11, 1841, 
New York City. Son of Benjamin Bloomingdale and Hannah 
Weil. Educated at New York public schools and Smith's Colle- 
giate Institute. Married Hattie Collenberger. Treasurer Monte- 
flore Home for Chronic Invalids, and Temple Beth-El; ex-presi- 
dent Isaiah Lodge, Independent Order B'nai B'rith; and Excel- 
sior Lodge, Kesher Shel Barzel. Member Chamber of Commerce; 
Lafayette Post; educational, charitable, and civic institutions; 
president and director Walters Piano Company, and Arcade Realty 
Company; director Hudson Oil Company, and Vulcan Detinning 
Company. Patron Metropolitan Museum of Art. A founder of 
Montefiore Home Country Sanitarium for Consumptives at Bed- 
ford Station, N. Y. Served in Civil War as non-commissioned 
officer in Kansas Volunteers. Address: Third Av. and 59th, New 

Blumenberg, Louis. Violoncello Soloist. Born Baltimore, Md. 
Son of Julius J. Blumenberg and Fanny Baer. Educated at Balti- 
more. Has travelled extensively, giving concerts in the United 
States, Canada, Mexico, and also in parts of Europe. Address: 
St. James Building, New York. 

Biumenberg, Marc A. Editor-in-chief Musical Courier of New 
York. Born May 21, 1851, Baltimore, Md. Son of Julius J. 
Blumenberg and Fanny Baer. Graduate public schools, and Loyola 
College, Baltimore. Studied musical literature and art in Europe. 
Married Ruth Bailhache. President Blumenberg Press. Was 
musical critic of Baltimore American. Has written articles and 
essays on musical subjects. Expert in acoustics, construction, 
evolution and tradition of old and modern musical instruments. 
Musical Courier, and Blumenberg Press received Grand Prix, Paris 
Exposition, 1900, for artistic and literary productions. Address: 
1135 Broadway, New York. 

Blumenthal, Mark. Physician. Born July 11, 1831, Altenstadt, 
Bavaria, Germany. Son of Lawrence Blumenthal and Rebecka 
Mayer. Educated at Academy, Chambersburg, Pa.; Central High 
School, Philadelphia; M. D., 1852, College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York University. Married Selina Asch (deceased). 
Was assistant physician Blackwell's Island Hospital (1852); 
deputy coroner New York City (1853); physician Mt. Sinai Hos- 
pital (1855-1859); Northeastern Dispensary; Institute for Deaf 
Mutes; surgeon New York State National Guard; consulting phy- 
sician Home for the Aged; member and officer New York Academy 
of Medicine; president Physicians' Mutual Aid, Northwestern 
Medical and Surgical Society, The Medical Union, and for twelve 


years of Institute for Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes; trustee 
and president of medical board United Hebrew Charities; trustee 
Congregation Shearith Israel; etc. Contributed papers to medical 
journals. Address: 123 West 87th, New York. 

Blumenthal, Maurice B. Lawyer. Bom 1870, New York City. 
Son of Benjamin Blumenthal and grandson of Simon Blumen- 
thal, first Habbi Congregation Rodeph Shalom. Educated in 
New York City public schools, College City of New York, and 
New York University. Was for some years editor of the Literary 
Review; admitted to bar, 1891. Organized, 1895, and still presides 
over the speakers' bureau, permanent auxiliary of Tammany Hall 
Executive Committee. Repeatedly delegate to county and State 
conventions of Democratic party; was one of the candidates .for 
Presidential elector, 1896; appointed assistant district attorney, 
1898; deputy attorney general New York State, 1903. Address: 
35 Nassau, New York City. 

BoaSy Franz. Anthropologist. Bom July 9, 1858, Minden, West- 
phalia. Studied at Universities of Heidelberg and Bonn; Ph.D., 
1891, Kiel. Spent the year 1882 at Berlin, preparing for arctic 
voyage; sailed to Cumberland Sound, Baffin's Land, 1883; travelled 
there until 1884; wrote results of voyage and studied, at National 
Museum, Washington, 1884-1885; assistant Royal Ethnographical 
Museum, Berlin, and docent of geography University of Berlin, 
1885-1886; went to British Columbia to study Indians and carried 
on investigations in that area for British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and after 1897 for American Museum 
of Natural History, New York; directed operations and publica- 
tions, Jesup North Pacific expedition; assistant editor Science, 
1886-1888; docent of anthropology Clark University, 1888-1892; 
chief assistant Department of Anthropology, World's Columbian 
Exposition; lecturer, 1895, professor, 1898, anthropology, Colum- 
bia University; assistant curator, 1896, curator, 1901, Department 
Anthropology, American Museum Natural History. Member 
National Academy of Science; fellow American Association for 
the Advancement of Science; corresponding member Anthropo- 
logical Societies of Berlin, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Vienna, Wash- 
ington, of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and of American Antiquarian and Numismatic Society. Author: 
Baffin Land, 1885; The Central Eskimo; Chinook Texts, 1894; 
Indianische Sagen von der Nordwestkiiste Amerikas, 1895; Social 
Organization and Secret Societies of the Kwakintl Indians, 1898; 
Kathlamet Texts, 1900; The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson 
Bay, 1901; Kwakintl Texts, 1901-1902; Triunbian Texts, 1902; also 
reports to United States National Museum, British Associatioi) 


for the Advancement of Science, etc. Address: American Museum 
Natural History, Central Park, New York City. 

Borofskyy Samuel Hyman. Law Stationer, Justice of the Peace, 
Notary Public. Born April, 1865, at Wolkovyshki, Suwalk, Rus- 
sian Poland. Son of Mendel (Poven) Borofsky and Rebecca Tou- 
vim. Educated at Wolkovyshki, and Manchester, England. Mar- 
ried Ettie Wilensky. Justice of the peace since 1891; notary 
public since 1894; member Boston City Council, 1898; Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives, 1900-1901; captain 6th Com- 
pany Infantry Massachusetts Provisional Militia, 1898-1899; pres- 
ident Helping Hand Temporary Home for Destitute Jewish Chil- 
dren, 1899-1902, and life director; member Executive Council 
Federation of American Zionists, 1903-1904; and connected with 
other Jewish charitable, fraternal, and social organizations. 
Author: The Pemberton, Lawyer's Diary and Director (for Massa- 
chusetts). Contributor to Jewish periodicals, and other papers. 
Office: 11-15 Pemberton Sq. Residence: 34 McLean, Boston, 

Brachfield, Charles L. State Senator, Eighth District, Texas. 
Born January 10, 1871, Vicksburg, Miss. Son of Benjamin Brach- 
field and Yetta Baruch. Educated in Texas public schools. Was 
judge of County Court, Rusk County, Texas: Address: Hen- 
derson, Tex. 

*Brandei8| Lewis Dembltz. Lawyer. Born November 13, 1856, 
Louisville, Ky. Son of Adolph Brandeis and Fredericka Dem- 
bitz. Educated in Louisville public and high schools. Attended 
Annen Realschule, Dresden, 1873-1875; graduate Harvard Law 
School, 1877 (honorary A.M.). Married Alice Goldmark. Ad- 
mitted to bar, 1878; has practiced law in Boston and New York. 
Contributor to legal reviews. Member of Phi Beta Kappa (Har- 

Brenner, Jacob. Commissioner of Jurors of Kings County, N. Y. 
Born April 8, 1857, New York City. Son of Simon Brenner and 
Caroline Alexander. Educated in Brooklyn public schools. Was 
counsel to Police and Excise Departments City of Brooklyn; 
police justice City of Brooklyn; city magistrate City of New 
York. Was member Kings County Republican Committee for 
twenty-four years; chairman Executive Committee Kings County 
Republican Committee, four terms. Address: 26 Court, Brooklyn. 

Brenner, Victor David. Medailleur, Sculptor. Born June 12, 
1871, Shavli, Russia. Son of George Brenner, :@ducatQd in 


Russia and at Paris. Arrived New York, 1890; went to Paris, 
1898, pupil of L. O. Roty; honorable mention Salon, 1900; medal, 
Paris Exposition, 1900; medal, Buffalo, 1901. Has works in Paris 
Mint, Munich Glyptothek, Vienna Numismatic Society, New York 
Numismatic Society, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Boston 
Museum. Address: 147 West 23d, New York. 

Brickner, Samuel M. Gynaecologist and Obstetrician. Born 
January 11, 1867, Rochester, N. Y. Son of Max Brickner and 
Caroline Wile. A. B., 1888, A.M., 1891, University of Rochester; 
M. D., 1891, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York; pursued courses at Universities of Berlin and 
Vienna. Married Josephine Hays. Was adjunct gynaecologist, Mt. 
Sinai Hospital; gynaecologist to Mt. Sinai Hospital Dispensary; 
and gynaecologist to Good Samaritan Dispensary, New York. Resi- 
dent physician Sloane Maternity Hospital, 1891; interne Mt. Sinai 
Hospital, 1891-1894. Fellow New York Academy of Medicine; 
member American Anthropological Society; New York State Medi- 
cal Society; New York State Medical Association, and other medi- 
cal societies. Literary editor New York Medical Journal; con- 
tributor to Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, and Foster's Reference 
Book of Practical Therapeutics. Translator, with Dr. N. B. Brill, 
of Klemperer's Clinical Diagnosis, 1898. Articles in American 
Journal of Obstetrics, Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Gyna- 
kologie. New York Medical News, American Medicine, American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences, New York Medical Journal, 
Pediatrics, etc. Address: 136 West 85th, New York. 

Brii, Isaac L. Associate Editor of The American Hebrew. Born 
August 22, 1874, Mainz, Germany. Son of Jechiel Bril (founder 
and editor of The Lebanon) and Sarah Sapir. Educated at 
Dr. Lehmann's Religionsschule, Mainz, Old Castle Street Board 
School, and Jews* College, London. Married Marie Raivid. Was 
assistant editor The Vegetarian, London; The German Times, Ber- 
lin, Germany; Jewish World, London; member of editorial staff 
Jewish Chronicle, London; editor English Department Jewish 
World, New York. At present secretary New York Committee 
Jewish Publication Society of America. Contributor to daily and 
weekly papers and magazines in England and the United States; 
Jewish Encyclopedia; American Year Book and Encyclopedia; 
Jewish Year Book, London. Translator: Die Klatsche, by Men- 
dele Mocher Sphorim. Address: 752 St. Ann's Av., Bronx, New 

Brounoff, Platen G. Teacher of voice and piano, Lecturer Board 
of Education, Composer, Author. Born May 10, 1863, at Eliza- 


bethgrad, Russia. Son of Gregory Brounoff. Graduate Musical 
Academy, Warsaw, Imperial Conservatory, St. Petersburg, pupil 
of Rubinstein and Rimsky Korsakoff. Doctor of Music and M. A., 
Warsaw and St. Petersburg. Married Annie Rombro. Conductor 
Russian Imperial Orchestra; Ladies' Concordia Society; People's 
Male Chorus; Russian Choral Society; assistant conductor to 
Frank Damrosch at People's Choral Union. Founded Liberal Art 
Society, 1903; member Manuscript Society of American com- 
posers. Conducted forty-three concerts, orchestral and instru- 
mental, of Russian music, in this country. Musical works: The 
Emancipation of the Slaves (symphonic overture); Angel (can- 
tata); In the Russian Village (symphonic suite); In the Flower 
Garden (suite for piano) ; Songs of Freedom (song album) ; 
songs, piano compositions, etc. Literary works: Stolen Corres- 
pondence; Types and Sketches of the Ghetto; The Pawnbroker 
(a drama) ; The Czar's Correspondence with Uncle Sam's Nephew; 
articles on art, literature, etc., in magazines. Address: 251 East 
Broadway, New York. 

Broyd6y Isaac. Office Editor Jewish Encyclopedia. Born Feb- 
ruary 23, 1867, at Porozomo, Grodno, Russia. Son of Solomon 
Broyd6 and Malka Leshchinski. Educated at Grodno Gymnasium. 
Diplom6, 1892, Paris Ecole des Langues Orientales; diploma, 1894, 
Ecole des Hautes E^tudes, section des Sciences Historiques et 
Philologiques. Was Librarian Alliance Israelite Universelle; pro- 
fessor of Arabic at La Soci6t6 de Propagation des Langues Etran- 
gftres en France. Author: Resum6 des Reflexions sur Tame de 
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, 1894; Tarat ha-Nefesh; Re- 
flexions sur Tame de Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, translated 
from the Arabic into Hebrew, with notes and introduction, 1894; 
La Prise de Jerusalem par les Perses, sous Heraclius, translated 
from an old Arabic manuscript in Count Couret's collection of 
documents relating to the Crusades, 1896. Address: 1753 Lexing- 
ton Av., New York. 

Brudno, Ezra 8. Lawyer, Author. Born May 28, 1877, Lith- 
uania, Russia. Son of Isaac Brudno and Hannah Model. Edu- 
cated by private tutors in Russia; in Cleveland high school, 
Adelbert College of the Western Reserve University, and Yale 
Law School. Author: The Fugitive. Articles in the Arena, 
World's Work, Bookman, etc. Address: 227 Society for Savings 
Building, Cleveland, O. 

Brunner, Arnold W. Architect. Born September 25, 1857, 
New York. Son of William Brunner and Isabella Solomon. 
Educated at New York, and Manchester, England. Was vice- 
president New York Chapter American Institute of Architects; 


president Architectural League; member Board of Education, 
New York, and Board of Supervision of Public Buildings and 
Grounds, Cleveland, O. Architect: Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York; 
United States Federal Building, Cleveland; Jewish Theological 
Seminary; Educational Alliance Building; Temple Beth El; Syna- 
gogue Shearith Israel; School of Mines, Columbia College; Park 
Pavilions; public baths, all in New York. Author: Interior 
Decorations; Cottages. Contributor to Russell Sturgis' Diction- 
ary of Architecture. Residence: 1748 Broadway. Office: 33 
Union Square West, New York. 

Buchhalter, Julius. Hebrew Teacher. Born August 17, 1860, at 
Mariampol, Suwalk, Russian Poland. Son of Hayim Buchhalter 
and Freda Angenizky. Educated at the Suwalk Talmudical Col- 
lege and privately. Married Hadassa Kahan. Assistant editor 
Ha-Zefirah, 1886-1887. Secretary Union of Orthodox Hebrew Con- 
gregations of the United States and Canada; secretary to late 
chief rabbi Jacob Joseph. Contributed articles to Ha-Zefirah, Ha- 
Melitz, Ha-Asif, Ha-Ibri. Author of Hebrew poems. Address: 
331 E. 89th, New York. 

Buttenwieser, Mose8. Professor of Exegesis, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, O. Born April 5, 1862, Beerfelden, Hessen, 
Germany. Son of Simon Buttenwieser and Bella Saalheimer. 
Studied at PrS.parandenschule, Schwabach; Realgymnasium, Kis- 
singen; Lehrerseminar, Wiirzburg; and Universities of Wurzburg 
and Leipzig. Ph.D., 1896, Heidelberg. Married Ellen Clune, 
Ph. D. (Heidelberg\. Held teacher's position in private schools, 
Wurzburg; school of the Jewish Congregation in Tamowitz, 
Silesia, and in Leipzig. Author: Die hebrllische Elias-Apokalypse 
und ihre Stellung in der apokalyptischen Literatur des rabbini- 
schen Schriftthums und der Kirche; articles in the Hebrew Union 
College Journal and Annual, and in Die israelitische Hausfrauen- 
Zeitung (Leipzig, 1892-93), and reviews in American Journal of 
Theology, and American Journal of Semitic Languages. Address: 
2 Park Place, Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati, O. 

*Cahan, Abraham. Journalist, Author. Born July 7, 1860, 
Wilna, Russia. Graduate Wilna Teachers* Institute. Married 
Anna Braunstein. Came to the United States, 1882; edited a 
weekly newspaper and monthly magazine in Yiddish; contributor 
to leading periodicals since 1887. Author: Yekl, A Tale of the 
New York Ghetto; The Imported Bridegroom and Other Stories; 
The Chasm. Residence: 312 Second Av., New York. 

Cantor, Jacob A. Lawyer. Born December 6, 1854, New York. 
Son of Henry Cantor and Hannah Hanau (daughter of Rabbi of 





Duke's Place Synagogue, London). Educated in New York public 
schools and high school; LL. B., 1875, New York University. 
Married Lydia Greenebaum. Member Assembly State of New 
York, 1885, 1886, 1887. Was member of judiciary and other com- 
mittees of Assembly and Senate; State Senator and Democratic 
leader in State Senate, 1888-1898; chairman Finance Committee 
New York State Senate; president Senate, acting Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, 1892-1893; president Borough of Manhattan (old New York), 
1902-1903. At present chairman Committee on Highways and 
Parks, City Improvement Commission, appointed by mayor of 
New York. Delegate at large from City of New York to Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1896. Declined to support William 
J. Bryan, although Democratic leader in State Senate. Received 
votes for governor in the Democratic State Convention, 1902. 
Was reporter on New York World several years. Has made public 
addresses and contributions to magazines and other periodicals. 
Identified with all Jewish charities. Residence: 9 W. 70th. 
Office: 25 Broad, New York. 

Cardozo, Michael H. Lawyer. Born January 12, 1851, New 
York City. Son of Abraham H. Cardozo and Sarah N. Peixotto. 
Educated in New York public schools. B. S., College City of New 
York; LL. B., University Law School. Married Rosalie Hart. 
Was Supreme Court Examiner for admission to bar of State of 
New York; member Executive Bar Association City of New York; 
chairman Executive Committee New York Law Institute. Ad- 
dress: 123 Broadway, New York. 

*CarvalhOy David Nunes. Expert in handwriting and inks. 
Born September 29, 1848, Philadelphia, Pa. Son of S. N. Car- 
valho (artist) and Sarah Soils. Graduate New York Free Acad- 
emy (now College City of New York). Pursued special studies 
in organic chemistry, photography, light, and color. Married 
Annie Abrams. Handwriting expert since 1876; separated white 
light into complementary parts in order to absorb the actinic rays 
on the sensitive plate, 1880, the present chromatic processes being 
based on this principle; official grand Jury handwriting expert 
New York, 1881-1899; first to make photographs on celluloid, 1883; 
first to restore in open court fraudulently bleached out hand- 
writing, 1884; city librarian in charge of archives, 1885, thus 
enabled to study ancient writing and ink; president New York 
State Reformatory for Women, 1892-1899; testified during twenty- 
five years in over 1000 cases where handwriting was in dispute. 
Has contributed extensively to magazines. Author: Forty Cen- 
turies of Ink, 1904. Residence: Far Rockaway, N. Y. Office: 
265 Broadway, New York. 


Cohen, Abraham. Associate in Mathematics, Johns Hopkins 
University. Born September 11, 1870, Baltimore, Md. Son of 
Simon Cohen and Theresa Brafman. Educated at Zion School, 
and Baltimore City College. A. B. 1891, and Ph.D. 1894, Johns 
Hopkins University; studied at the Sorbonne, Paris. Married Lee 
M. Bren. Co-editor American Journal of Mathematics; member 
Board of Trustees Hebrew Orphan Asylum; chairman Religious 
School Board Oheb Shalom Congregation. Writer: On Functions 
Analogous to the Theta-Functions ; Notes (mimeographed) in 
connection with courses at University. Address: Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. 

*Cohen, Alfred J. (nom de plume, Alan Dale). Dramatic Critic, 
Author. Born May 14, 1861, Birmingham, England. Educated at 
King Edward's School, Birmingham. Married Carrie Livingston 
Frost. Came to America, 1886, and engaged in journalism. 
Dramatic critic for New York World, 1887-1895; New York Jour- 
nal, since 1895. Author: Jonathan's Home; A Marriage below 
Zero; His own Image; Conscience on Ice; and other books. Resi- 
dence: 110 St. Nicholas Av. Office: New York Journal, New 

Cohen, Alfred M. Attorney-at-law. Born October 19, 1859, 
Cincinnati, O. Son of Morton S. Cohen and Phebe Phillips. 
Educated in Cincinnati public schools. LL. B., 1880, Law School. 
Married Millie Phillips. Was member City Council, Cincinnati; 
for four years successively represented Hamilton County, O., in 
Senate of Ohio; member Board of Governors Hebrew Union Col- 
lege; president Young Men's Hebrew Association, Cincinnati, and 
United Young Men's Hebrew Associations of America. Now secre- 
tary Congregation Bene Israel of Cincinnati. Nominated for 
mayor of Cincinnati, 1900. For some years on staff of Cincinnati 
Commercial. Wrote many editorials on Jewish topics. Address: 
S. W. corner 3d and Walnut, Cincinnati, O. 

Cohen, David (da Silva) 8oll8. Lawyer. Born in Philadelphia. 
Son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simiah da Silva Soils. 
Married Bertha Kahn, Portland, Ore. Commissioner of Charities 
and Corrections State of Oregon and Police Commissioner Port- 
land, 1892-1894, 1898-1902. One of the founders of Young Men's 
Hebrew Associations, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Portland. 
Founded and dedicated synagogues in Oakland, Cal.; Seattle, 
Wash.; and Portland. President Portland Zionist Society. Con- 
nected in various capacities with Order of United Workmen, 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith, Masonic lodges, Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks. Has contributed to editorial and liter- 


ary columns of religious, literary, and sociologic periodicals, in 
Philadelphia, New York, California, and Oregon. Author: Daisy 
Shortcut Papers; plays; stories for children; poems. Address: 
Washington Building, 4th and Washington, Portland, Ore. 

Cohen, Jacob Soils. Honorary professor laryngology, Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia; Emeritus professor of Diseases of 
Throat and Chest, Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Grad- 
uates in Medicine; consulting physician to Protestant Episcopal 
City Mission, Philadelphia, and to Hospital for Diseases of the 
Lungs, Chestnut Hill. Born February 28, 1838, New York City. 
Son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simira Soils. A. B., 1854, 
Central High School, Philadelphia; M. D., 1860, University of 
Pennsylvania. Studied also at Jefferson Medical College. Married 
Miriam Binswanger. Was President Philadelphia County Medi- 
cal Society; Northern Medical Association; American Larjmgo- 
logical Association; professor Physiology Wagner Institute, Phila- 
delphia; assistant surgeon 26th Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers; acting assistant surgeon United States Navy; acting assist- 
ant surgeon United States Army, 1861-64. Consulting physician to 
Jewish Hospital, Philadephla, 1866; physician to German Hospi- 
tal, 1871-1888; and to Jefferson Hospital, 1877-1888. Lectured, 
1870, on Acoustics in Franklin Institute, Philadelphia; delivered 
an illustrated course of four lectures on Acoustics, 1872, at the 
opening of Stevens* Institute of Technology, Hoboken; and Mutter 
course on Surgical Pathology before College of Physicians, Phila- 
delphia, 1872. Honorary member of societies in United States, 
France, and Great Britain. Author: A Treatise on Inhalation, its 
Therapeutics and Practice, 1866; Diseases of the Throat and 
Nasal Passages, 1872; Croup in its Relation to Tracheotomy, 1874; 
The Throat and Voice, 1879. Numerous contributions to encyclo- 
pedic works, systems of medicine, and medical Journals. Office: 
1824 Chestnut, Philadelphia. Residence: Abbotsford and Wissa- 
hickon Avs., Germantown, Pa. 

Cohen, Jessica. Editor Jewish Review and Observer, Cleve- 
land. Born July 11, 1869, Cleveland, O. Daughter of Elias 
Cohen. Educated in Cleveland public, high, and normal schools. 
Correspondent Jewish Voice, St. Louis; for five years associate 
editor Jewish Spectator, Memphis, Tenn.; teacher Harmon 
Night School for foreigners. Member and for one year vice- 
president Ohio Woman's Press Club. Was member Executive 
Board Council of Jewish Women. A founder of the Library of 
the Council Educational Alliance. Has written magazine articles. 
Address: 109 Beech, Cleveland, O. 


Cohen, Katherine M. Sculptor. Born March 18, 1859, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Daughter of Henry Cohen and Matilda Samuel. 
Educated Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts; under Augustus 
St. Gaudens, New York; Merci6, Puech, and MacMonnies, Paris; 
and Friedrich Beer, Florence. Works: portrait busts and bas- 
reliefs; groups in bronze, marble, terra-cotta, and plaster; minia- 
tures on ivory; portraits and landscapes in oil and water color. 
Address: care J. S. Morgan and Company, London, England. 

Cohen, Max. Editor and Proprietor of Views, an Insurance 
Journal. Born January 26, 1846, Lowenberg, Germany. Son of 
Edward Cohen and Ricka Kahn. Eucated at Lowenberg and 
Liegnitz. Married Esther E< Schwartz. Enlisted, 1862, in 3d 
Indiana Cavalry; discharged as a minor; worked as compositor in 
Government Printing Office, and re-enlisted. Worked on New 
York Herald and Washington Chronicle. Engaged, 1876, in print- 
ing and newspaper advertising business. Studied the science and 
problem of life insurance, especially in relation to the fraternal 
orders. Superintendent New York Life Insurance Company for 
Northern Pennsylvania, 1877-1878. Secretary and treasurer He- 
brew Orphans Home, Atlanta, Ga., since 1896. Author: Gar- 
field Souvenirs; Gems of Press and Pulpit; Reminiscences of 
Great Men; pamphlets and newspaper articles on the fallacy of 
the assessment system of insurance in vogue among the fraternal 
orders. Address: 509 Seventh, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Cohen, Max. Lawyer. Born June 11, 1853, New York City. 
Son of Julius Cohen and Bertha Fernbach. Educated in New 
York public schools. LL. B., 1893, New York Law School. Mar- 
ried Sarah Rouse. Civil Service Commissioner City of Yonkers, 
and secretary of Board. Lecturer New York Board of Education 
Free Lecture course, 1901-1904. Was librarian of Maimonides 
Library for twelve years; director Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America for ten years; editorial writer The American Hebrew 
for twelve years. Contributed articles to The Sun, Evening Post, 
New York Times. Contributor to Jewish Encyclopedia. Office: 45 
Warburton Av. Residence: 157 Hawthorne Av., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Cohen, Mendes. Civil Engineer. Born May 4, 1831, Baltimore, 
Md. Son of David I. Cohen and Harriett Cohen. Educated in Balti- 
more private schools. Married Justina Nathan. Held subordinate 
positions in service of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1851-1855; as- 
sistant superintendent Hudson River Railroad, 1855-1861; vice- 
president and later president Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Com- 
pany, 1861-1863; superintendent Reading and Columbia Railroad, 
1864-1866; president's assistant and comptroller Lehigh Coal and 


Navigation Company, 1868-1871 ; president Pittsburg and Connells- 
ville Railroad Company, 1873-1875; director in board of same Com- 
pany, 1873-1903 ; chairman Sewerage Commisson City of Baltimore, 
from 1892; member of board appointed in 1894 by the President 
of the United States, under the river and harbor act of August, 
1894, to examine and determine route for construction of the 
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal; member Art Commission City 
of Baltimore since its establishment; corresponding secretary 
Maryland Historical Society, 1894-1904, president since 1904; 
member American Society Civil Engineers since 1867, and presi- 
dent in 1892. Has written numerous official reports. Address: 
825 North Charles, Baltimore, Md. 

Cohen, Morris Raphael. Tutor of Mathematics, College City 
of New York. Born July, 1880, Minsk, Russia. Son of Abraham 
Mordecai Cohen and Bessie Farfel. Received Talmudic educa- 
tion at Nesvizh, Minsk, under Rabbi Joseph Beer. Entered New 
York public schools in 1892. B. S., 1900, College City of New 
York; M. A., 1904, Columbia University. Teacher Davidson Col- 
legiate Institute, 1900-1901; New York public schools, 1901-1902; 
president Thomas Davidson class at Educational Alliance, 1899; 
a founder of Branch B of Educational Alliance. Has written 
articles for The American Hebrew, Alliance Review, Jewish World. 
Address: 58 E. 106th, New York. 

Cohen, Solomon (da Silva) Soils. Physician, Professor of Clin- 
ical Medicine in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Born in 
Philadelphia. Son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simiah (da 
Silva) Soils. Educated in Philadelphia public schools. A. B., 
1872; A.M., 1877, Central High School; M. D., 1883, Jefferson 
Medical College. Studied Hebrew literature under Rev. Dr. S. 
Morals. Married Emily Grace da Silva Soils. Professor Medicine 
and Therapeutics, Philadelphia Polyclinic, 1887-1902; lecturer on 
Therapeutics, Dartmouth Medical College, 1890, 1892; lecturer on 
Special Therapeutics, Jefferson Medical College, 1887-1890; physi- 
cian to Jewish Hospital since 1887; to Philadelphia General Hos- 
pital since 1890; to Rush Hospital for Consumption since 1892; to 
Jefferson Medical College Hospital, since 1900. President Phila- 
delphia County Medical Society, 1898, 1899; recorder Association 
of American Physicians, since 1900; recorder Medical Jurispru- 
dence Society, 1887-1890. President Young Men's Hebrew Associa- 
tion, 1884; Pegasus, 1901, 1902. One of the founders and member 
Editorial Board of The American Hebrew; one of the founders 
and trustee (until the merger), Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America; one of the founders of Jewish Publication Society of 
America, trustee, and at present member of its Publication Com- 


mittee; Trustee Gratz College, K. K. Mickv6 Israel Congregation. 
Fellow College of Physicians, Philadelphia; and American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. Chairman Therapeutic Sec- 
tion American Medical Association, 1903. Member, honorary mem- 
ber, and corresponding member of various learned bodies. Named 
and first described disease known as Vasomotor ataxia, 1893. 
Author: Essentials of Medical Diagnosis (with A. A. Eshner), 
1892, 1902; Therapeutics of Tuberculosis, 1891; clinical lectures, 
addresses to learned societies, contributions to American and for- 
eign medical periodicals, Foster's Practical Therapeutics, Cyclo- 
pedia Practical Medicine, Reference Handbook Medical Sciences, 
etc. Editor: System Physiologic Therapeutics (eleven volumes), 
1901-1904. Writer of essays on historical, religious, and sociologic 
topics, and of verses. Translator of Hebrew poems. Address: 
1525 Walnut, Philadelphia, Pa. 

*Cohn, Adolphe. Professor of Romance Languages and Litera- 
ture, Columbia University, since 1891. Born May 29, 1851, Paris, 
France. Son of Albert Cohn and Mathilde Lowengard. Graduate, 
1868; LL. B., 1873, University of Paris; archiviste Pal6ographe 
Ecole Nationale des Chartes, Paris, 1874. Volunteer in French 
Army during Franco-Prussian war, 1870-1871; came to New York, 
1875; tutor in French, Columbia University, 1882; instructor, 
1882-1884; instructor in French, 1884-1885; and assistant professor 
of French, 1885-1891, in Harvard University. Honorary president 
Alliance Frangaise; Knight of the Crown of Italy; Chevalier 
L6gion d'Honneur. Author: Voltaire's Prose (with Dr. B. D. 
Woodward), 1897; Le Sage's Gil Bias (with R. Sanderson), 1899. 
Contributor to American literary magazines and Parisian jour- 
nals. Address: Columbia University, New York. 

Cohn, Morris M. Attorney-at-law. Born March 14, 1852, New 
Albany, Ind. Son of Mathias A. Cohn and Therese Koebner. 
Educated in Cincinnati public schools; private courses in lan- 
guages, law, and philosophy; B. L., Arkansas State University 
Law School. Married Addie M. Ottenheimer. Was member Gen- 
eral Council American Bar Association for Arkansas; president 
Board of Trade and City Attorney of Little Rock, Ark.; chair- 
man Executive Committee, State Bar Association of Arkansas; 
school director Special School District of Little Rock; member 
Executive Committee, Union American Hebrew Congregations. 
Writer: Essay on the Growth of Law; An Introduction to the 
Study of the (Constitution; articles in the American Law Review; 
occasional contributions since 1873 to American Israelite, Reform 
Advocate, and other Jewish periodicals. Address: Little Rock, 


*Conried, Heinrich. Manager of Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York. Born September 13, 1855, Bielitz, Austria. Graduated 
at Shoefterfield College, 1869. Married Augusta Sperling. Made 
his debut as an actor at the Imperial Court Theatre, Vienna, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1873. Came to the United State 1878; became stage 
manager of the (rer mania Theatre, and later manager of the 
Irving Place Theatre, New York, devoted entirely to the German 
drama. Brought to America Sonnenthal, Kainz, Possart, and 
Agners Sorma, and has produced the plays of Hauptmann, Suder- 
mann, and others, as well as works of the classic dramatists. 
Delivered lectures on the drama at Yale and Columbia Univer- 
sities and the University of Pennsylvania. His company gave a 
performance of Goethe's Iphigenie at Harvard University. Pro- 
duced Wagner's Parsifal at Metropolitan Opera House, 1903-1904. 
Received the order of Knighthood from Emperor Franz Joseph, of 
Austria, and the gold medal of science and art from the King of 
Belgium. Address: Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 

*Cook, Simon. Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy. 
Born in Illinois. Entered service, June 10, 1873. Received pres- 
ent commission, August 30, 1900. At present on duty in New 
York. Address: Navy Department. 

Cowen, Philip. Publisher The American Hebrew and Jewish 
Messenger, and The Menorah Monthly Magazine. Born July 25, 
1853, New York. Son of Raphael Isaac Cowen and Julia Manasseh. 
Educated in New York public schools. Married Lillie Cohen. 
Supervisor City Record, 1902-1903. Publisher: Emma Lazarus' 
Songs of a Semite; Dr. Alexander Kohut's Ethics of the Fathers; 
Oscar S. Straus' Religious Liberty in the United States; Dr. K. 
Kohler's Guide for Instruction in Judaism; etc., etc. Office: 
489 Fifth Av. Residence: 485 Central Park West, New York. 

D'Ancona, Arnoid Abraham. Physician, Dean Medical De- 
partment University of California. Born April 29, 1860, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. Son of David A. D'Ancona and Julia Davis. Educated 
in New York and San Francisco public schools, and San Francisco 
Boys' High School. A. B., 1880; M. D., 1884, Universiy of Cali- 
fornia. Married Lillian Mabel Bussenius. Was teacher public 
schools. Professor of Hygiene, Academic Department; of Physi- 
ology, Medical and Dental Departments; dean of Medical Depart- 
ment; president Alumni Association, all of University of Cali- 
fornia. Now serving third term as member Board of Supervisors 
of San Francisco. Address: 1022 Sutter, San Francisco, Cal. 

Dantzig, l^eyer l^ichael. Artist. Born January 9, 1876, 
Yanova, Russia. Son of Ellas Joseph Dantzig and Sarah Slopo. 


Educated in Philadelphia public schools; Industrial School of Art 
and Pennsylvania Museum; and Academy of Fine Arts. Studied 
in Paris under Bonnat. Developed taste for drawing at six years 
of age; at ten, went to Cracow, Austria, where he made drawings 
from old churches and copied figure work. Address: 114 E. 23d, 
New York. 

DanzigeP; Adolphe. United States Consul at Madrid, Spain. 
Born in 1864. Educated by his father and at a German Gym- 
nasium, from which he was graduated at fourteen. Studied 
at Breslau under Graetz and Levi, at Berlin under Geiger, 
and at the University of Bonn. Came to America in 1883. 
Wrote a series of articles for Die Westliche Post, St. Louis; filled 
positions as rabbi of congregations at Vincennes, Ind., and Port- 
land, Ore. Studied medicine and dental surgery. Went to San 
Diego, Cal., on account of ill-health; practiced dentistry there 
and in San Francisco for seventeen years. Studied law, 1895, 
and practiced in California, but resumed dentistry. Editor of 
Chicago American Israelite, 1902. Appointed to consulship, 1903. 
Author: The Monk and the Hangman's Daughter (with Ambrose 
Bierce), 1889; In the Confessional, 1893; A Man, A Woman, 
and a Million, 1902; Jewish Forerunners of Christianity, 1903, 
1904. Correspondent of Jewish Voice, St. Louis. Contributed 
short stories, poems, and articles to various papers and period- 
icals. Address: American Consulate, Madrid, Spain. 

Davidson, Israel. Semitic Scholar and Writer. Born July 27, 
1870, Yanova, Kovno, Russia. Son of David Movshowitz and 
Rebecca Kohn. Educated at Talmudical College of R. Isaac 
Elchanan Spector, Kovno, and New York public schools. A. B., 
1895, College City of New York; Ph. D., 1902, Columbia University. 
Came to America in 1888. Fellow in Semitic Languages, Colum- 
bia University, 1900; lecturer on Jewish Literature, Educational 
Alliance, 1898-1900; now visiting chaplain Sing Sing Prison and 
Eastern New York Reformatory. Catalogued Hebrew and Arabic 
books in Columbia University. Author: Ha-Yehudi be-Safrut ha- 
Anglit, 1895; The Genesis of Hebrew Periodical Literature, 1900; 
Shylock, and Barabbas, 1901; Sholosh Halozot, 1904; Parody in 
Jewish Literature (almost complete in MS.); Dictionary of 
Pseudonymes in Hebrew Literature (MS.) Contributed articles 
to Jewish Encyclopedia and to Ha-Modia la-Chodashim, Ha- 
Maarabi, Ha-Ibri, and English periodicals. Address: 1702 Lex- 
ington Av., New York. 

De Haas, Jacob. Secretary Federation American Zionists, Edi- 
tor The Maccabsean. Born August 13, 1872, London, England. 


Son of Aron de Haas and Anna Haerbleek (descent traceable to 
Spanish expulsion). Educated at London. Was Editor Jewish 
World, London; and English Department Jewish World, New 
York; chairman and honorary secretary English Zionist Fede- 
ration; English Secretary to Dr. Theodor Herzl, 1896, and of 
four Zionist Congresses; English and American member Greater 
Actions-Committee of Zionist movement; one of the conveners of 
first Zionist Congress; first Zionist to welcome Dr. Herzl in Eng- 
land. Author: Jewish Needs and Jewish Ideals, 1901; Zionism, 
Why and Wherefore, 1902; novels, stories, articles in daily press 
and magazines. Address: 320 Broadway, New York. 

Deinard; Ephraim. Collector of books and antiquities. Born, 
lyar 15, 1846, Shossmaken, Courland, Russia. Son of Jekuthiel 
Gerson Deinard and Leah Cohn. Entirely self-taught. Married 
Margolia Jaffe. Has made many Journeys in America, Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. Organizer of first emigration to Palestine from 
Odessa. Established a Jewish agricultural colony in Nevada, 
1897. Has collected a large Hebrew library and many rare 
Jewish antiquities. Editor: Ha-Leomi, 1888-1889; the Patriot 
(Yiddish), 1892. Author: Atidut Yisrael, 1890; Milhamah la- 
Adonai be-Amalek, 1892; Hokmat Yehudah, 1890; Ha-Kundes, 
1893; Plaudersack (Yiddish), 1891; Or Meir (catalogue of the 
Sulzberger Library), 1896; Zemirat Am ha-Aretz, 1896; Sifrat 
Ziyon, 1897; Kitot be-Yisrael, 1899; Zemir Arizim ha-Sheni, 1899; 
Zemir Arizim ha-Rishon, 1904; Hereb Hadah, 1904; Megillah Afah, 
1904; Bittul Ikre ha-Nozrim, 1904; Hodaat Baal Din, 1904; Dibre 
ha-Yamim li-Bne Yisrael be-Tugarma (in press) ; Dibre ha-Yamim 
le-Ziyon be-Negeb Russya (in press). Address: 86 Windsor, 
Kearny, N. J. 

Dembitz, Arthur Aaron. Instructor, since 1897, in Jewish His- 
tory, Gratz College, Philadelphia. Born February 24, 1870, Louis- 
ville, Ky. Son of Lewis Naphtali Dembitz and Wilhelmlna Wehle. 
Educated in Louisville public and high schools. B. A., 1891, Johns 
Hopkins University. On editorial staff of The American Hebrew, 
New York, 1892-1897; teacher in school attached to Congregation 
Zichron Ephraim, New York, and private teacher of Hebrew, 
1892-1897. Secretary Doreshe Da'ath Society, Philadelphia. Edi- 
tor Department Bible Lessons, Sabbath School Journal, Philadel- 
phia. Contributed articles to The American Hebrew, Jewtsli 
Exponent, Jewish Comment, under pseudonyms, " Uncle Arthur," 
"Aaron Dob," "Harun," and " Bakkol." Address: 1834 Frank- 
lin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dembitz, Lewis N. Lawyer. Born February 3, 1833, at Zirke, 
province of Posen, Prussia. Son of Dr. Siegmund Zabulon Dem- 


bitz and Prancesca Wehle. Educated in city schools of Muenche- 
berg, Brandenburg; privately, and in Gymnasia of Frankfort, 
Sagan, and Glogau. Read law for one semester at Prague; with 
Walker and Kebler, Cincinnati, and with Dunn and Hendricks, 
Madison, Ind. Degree of Doctor of Hebrew Literature, Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 1904. Married Wilhelmina 
Wehle. Assistant City Attorney for Louisville, in charge of tax 
matters, 1884-1888; commissioner named by Kentucky Legisla- 
ture to draw Tax Law for Louisville, 1884; delegate to National 
Republican Convention at Chicago that nominated Lincoln for 
President; drafted first American law establishing Australian 
ballot (for Louisville city elections), 1888. Author: Kentucky 
Jurisprudence, 1889; Law Language for Short Hand Writers, 
1892; Land Titles in United States, St. Paul, 1895; Jewish Ser- 
vices in Synagogue and Home, Jewish Publication Society of 
America, 1897; has written articles for Jewish Encyclopedia, 
mainly on Talnuidic Jurisprudence, some on Liturgy; magazine 
articles on different subjects. Address: 1211 First, Louisville, 

Dittenhoefer, Abram Jesse. Lawyer. Bom, March 17, 1836, 
Charleston, South Carolina. Educated in New York public schools. 
Graduate, 1856, Columbia College. Married Sophie Englehart 
(deceased). Admitted to bar at twenty-one. Appointed by 
the governor of the State as Justice of the City Court, 1857. 
Resumed law practice at expiration of term. Presidential elector 
for Lincoln and Johnson, 1864; declined position of United States 
District Judge for South Carolina offered by President Lincoln; 
delegate to National Republican Convention, 1876; for twelve 
years chairman Republican Central Committee of New York. 
Trustee Temple Emanu-El. Address: 96 Broadway, New York. 

Dolitzky, Menahem Mendel. Journalist and Poet. Born Adar 
27, 1857, Bialystok, Russia. Son of Wolff Dolitzky and Eva Fox. 
Married Rachel Leah Shainak. Expelled from Moscow, 1892. 
Works: Likuy Shne ha-Meorot; Shebet Sofer; Nib Sefataim; 
Mi-bayit u-mi-hutz; Be-tok Lebaim; Kol Shire Menahem; Shire 
Menahem; Ha-Halom ve-Shibro; Neginot Sefat Ziyon; (in Yid- 
dish) Shtarker vun Eisen; Gebildeter Morder; Yiddishe Helden. 
Address: 311 Henry, New York. 

Dreyfus, Woifram E. Consulting Chemist. Born December 21, 
1864, Baden, Germany. Son of Salomon Dreyfus and Augusta 
Schnurman. Graduate Human. Gymnasium, OfCenburg, Baden, 
1884; studied at University of Strassburg; Ph.D., 1900, Univer- 
sity of Munich. Married Emma Wachenheimer. Was assistant 


instructor in chemistry, Columbia University, and chemist. De- 
partment Public Charities, New York; consulting chemist, Belle- 
vue Hospital, New York. Author: On Tragacanth, 1901; On the 
Relation of Chemical Constitution to Physiological Action, 1902; 
Hospital Formulary, 1903; Disinfectants and Antiseptics, 1904. 
Address: 557 W. 124th, New York. 

Dropsie, Moses A. Lawyer (retired from practice). Born March 
9, 1821, Philadelphia. Son of Aaron M. Dropsie and Angeniete 
Engels. Was president Lombard and South Street Passenger 
Railroad Company; South Street Bridge Commission; and Hebrew 
Education Society. Now president Green and Coates Philadelphia 
Passenger Railway Company; Gratz College; and Philadelphia 
Branch Alliance Israelite Universelle. Translator: Mackeldey's 
Manual of the Roman Law; Roman Law of Testaments, Codicils 
and Mortis Causa Donationes. Writer of a number of pamphlets. 
Address: 1316 North Broad, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edmonds, Roy Matthias. Journalist; on editorial staff St. 
Louis Republic. Born December 26, 1877, Houston, Texas. Son 
of Joseph Edmonds and Josephine Bear. Educated in Houston 
public schools. Was stenographer to the Governor of Texas 
throughout the second administration of Joseph D. Sayers. Ad- 
dress: care St. Louis Republic, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ehrich, Louis R. Dealer in antique paintings. Born January 
23, 1849, Albany, New York. Son of Joseph Ehrich and Re- 
becca Sporborg. Educated at Dr. Dulon's School, New York; 
Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven. A. B., 1869; A. M., 
1872, Yale University. Took a course at University of Ber- 
lin, 1870. Married Henriette Minzesheimer. Was only dele- 
gate from Rocky Mountain region to Palmer-Buckner conven- 
tion, 1896; member National Committee, Gold Democratic Party 
for Colorado; executive committee Sound-Money League; execu- 
tive committee Anti-Imperialist League. Temporary chairman 
Third Party Convention, Indianapolis, 1900. Was member firm of 
Ehrich Brothers, New York, until ill-health compelled sojourn in 
Europe, 1878-1885, and Colorado Springs, 1885-1903. Writer: The 
Question of Silver; A Religion for all Time, 1892; A Cure for 
Labor Troubles, 1892; Perfection and the Democratic Party, 1904; 
various addresses. Address: 8 W. 33d, New York. 

Ehriich, Arnold Bogumil. Merchant. Born January 15, 1848, 
at Wlodowka, Russia. Son of Mordecai Ehrlich and Zelda Bieder- 
mann. Educated at Leipzig and Berlin. Married Miss Offner. 
Teacher of Hebrew at Temple Emanu-El Preparatory School for 


the Hebrew Union College during the whole time of its existence; 
for eight years with United Hebrew Charities, New York: Author: 
Talmudic Chrestomathy; Mikra ki-Pheschuta, Biblical Scholia (3 
vols., in Hebrew); Die Psalmen, neu ubersetzt und erklart (in 
press). Address: 123 E. 54th, New York. 

Eichberg, Joseph. Physician. Born March 17, 1859, Cincin- 
nati, O. Son of Frederic Eichberg and Babette Friedlander. 
M. D., Miami Medical College. Married Stella Pritz. Visiting 
physician Cincinnati Hospital; professor Theory and Practice of 
Medicine, Miami Medical College. Address: 1105 E. McMillan, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Einhorn; Max. Physician. Born January 10, 1862, Grodno, 
Russia. Son of Abraham Einhorn and Sara Hoffmann. Educated 
at Posen, Riga, Kiev, Berlin. Married Flora Strauss. Professor 
of Medicine New York Post-Graduate Medical School; visiting 
physician German Hospital and Beth Israel Hospital, New York. 
Author: Diseases of the Stomach, 1896; Diseases of the Intestines, 
1900; both having appeared in English, Grerman, French, and 
Japanese. Address: 20 E. 63d, New York. 

Einstein; Edwin. Born November 18, 1842, Cincinnati, O. Son 
of Lewis Einstein and Judith Lewis. Studied at College City of 
New York; M. A., Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. Married 
Fanny Hendricks. Member of Congress, 1879-1881; commissioner 
and treasurer New York City Department of Docks, 1895-1898. 
Republican candidate for mayor, 1892. Address: 524 Fifth Av., 
New York. 

Einstein, Lewis. Third Secretary of Embassy at Paris. Born 
1877, New York. Son of David L. Einstein and Caroline Fatman. 
B. A., 1898; M. A., 1899, Columbia University. Married Helena 
Ralle. General editor Humanists Library, Boston. Author: Ital- 
ian Renaissance in England, third edition, 1903; The Relation 
of Literature to History, 1903; Luigi Pulci and the Morgante 
Maggiore, 1902. Editor: Leonardo da Vinci, Thoughts on Art 
and Life, 1904. Address: American Embassy, Paris. 

Eisendratli; Simeon B. Architect. Born 1869, Chicago, 111. 
Son of Benjamin Eisendrath and Therese Shoeneman. Educa- 
tion received in Chicago public schools, Chicago Training School, 
and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. Lec- 
turer on Architecture, Chicago high school, 1890-1893. As Commis- 
sioner of Buildings in mayor's cabinet, Chicago, elected 1894, 
instituted reforms which have been incorporated in the munici- 


pal code; served as building expert for Cook County, 111., in liti- 
gation over the construction of public buildings. Works: in 
Chicago: — Home for Aged Jews, Home for Jewish Orphans, 
Michael Reese Hospital, Training School for Nurses of Michael 
Reese Hospital, " The Plymouth," the St. Grcrmain Apartments; 
in Pittsburg: — Peacock Public Baths, Jewish Hospital, the Knick- 
erbocker Apartment Building (Allegheny) ; in New York: — The 
Criterion Club. Address: 41 West 24th, New York. 

Eisenstadt, Benzion. Hebrew Author. Born 1873, Kletzk, 
Minsk, Russia. Son of Moses Eisenstadt (sixth in descent from 
Mei'r Eisenstadt, the author of the Responsa Panim Me'irot) and 
Breina Leah Lipow. Educated at the Cheder and the public 
schools of Kletzk, then studied under R. Nathan Handelsmann 
of Lubeshoff, Minsk, and completed his Talmudic studies at 
Nesvizh, Deretchin (Grodno), and Eiseshok. Self-taught in secu- 
lar studies. Paid great attention to modern Hebrew literature. 
Wrote on the Song of Songs at the age of thirteen. Began to 
preach to congregations in many of the large cities of Rus- 
sia, 1894. Came to America in 1903. Contributed articles and 
reviews to Ha-Melitz; Ha-Zefirah; Keneset ha-Gedolah; Ha-Magid; 
Talpiyot. Author: Ziyoni (poem in honor of 70th anniversary 
of Wissotzki), 1894; Rabbane Minsk va-Hakameha, 1895, 1899; 
Dor Rabbanav ve-Soferav, Part I, 1895; Part II, 1900; Part III, 
1902; Part IV, 1903; Ve-zot li-Yehudah, commentary on Noda bi- 
Yehudah, 1900; printed with it in the edition of 1901; Hakme 
Yisrael be-Amerika, 1903; Rabbi Eizil Hafif, 1904. Address: 78 
Chrystie, New York. 


Eisenstein, Julius (Judah) David. Writer. Born November 21, 
1855, Meseritz, Russian Poland. Son of Wolf Eisenstein and 
Taube Blume Borg. Taught by his grandfather, Azriel Selig Eisen- 
stein. Married Rebecca Cohen. Organizer, 1897, and president 
American Congregation, the Pride of Jerusalem, which aids indi- 
gent American Jews in Palestine. Translated the Constitution of 
the United States and Declaration of Independence into Hebrew 
and Yiddish, with Hebrew notes, 1891. Author: Maamare Bi- 
koret (criticism of Rodkinson's Talmud translation) ; The Classi- 
fied Psalter, 1897; The Code of LiiEe (modified text and transla- 
tion of Shulhan Aruk, Part I), 1899. Has contributed numerous 
articles, since 1876, to Ha-Zefirah, Ha-Melitz, The American He- 
brew, Jewish Comment, Publications American Jewish Historical 
Society, etc. Address: 95 East 116th, New York. 

Eiiassof, Herman. Teacher of Hebrew and German. Born 
March 8, 1849, Wilna, Russia. Son of Moses Eliassow and Chaye 
Sarah Luria. Taught by private tutors and in school of Rabbi 


Jacob Barit, Wilna; studied Talmud in Volosin under Rabbi 
Yehuda Berlin, and Jewish history and Rabbinica under Dr. 
David Cassel, Berlin. Married Rosalia Eisendrath. Taught school 
in Rhein-Hessen, 1869-1870; came to America, 1871; rabbi Con- 
gregation Rodef Shalom, Ogdensburg, N. Y., 1872; first rabbi 
Congregation Beth-El, Chicago, 1873; superintendent Russian Ref- 
ugees Aid Society, Chicago, 1892-1893; principal Sabbath School 
Kehillath Anshe Maarabh, Chicago, 1897. Editor: Jewish Tri- 
bune, St. Louis, 1881; The Occident, Chicago, 1884. Translator: 
Zeror ha-Mor (A Whisp of Myrrh); Be-aharit ha-Yamim (In the 
Last Days), by Rabbi A. J. G. Lesser. Author: History of Con- 
gregation K. A. M. (with Dr. B. Felsenthal) ; Mizrakhi; The Jews 
of Illinois. Author and translator of Hebrew poems. Contributor 
to Ha-Zofeh, first Hebrew weekly published in America; and to 
German, English, and Hebrew periodicals. Chicago correspondent 
of American Israelite, Cincinnati, for many years. Address: 3338 
Prairie Av., Chicago, 111. 

El linger, Moritz. Interpreter in the Surrogate's Court City of 
New York. Born October 17, 1830, Furth, Bavaria. Son of Jacob 
Hirsch Ellinger and Jochebed Fegersheim. Educated at Fiirth 
Orphan Asylum; studied for two years at the Wiirzburg Tal- 
mudical College under Rabbi Seligman Baer Bamberger. Married 
Julia Waterman. Was coroner City of New York for six years, 
and apportionment clerk in Finance Department; secretary Goethe 
Club, Palette Club, and for ten years of Executive Committee 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith. At present corresponding secre- 
tary Medico-Legal Society; member Society of American Authors; 
chairman Council of the Congress of Tuberculosis. Editor: The 
Jewish Times for nine years; the Menorah Monthly for twelve 
years. Delivered numerous lectures, most of which were pub- 
lished. Address: 164 E. 79th, New York. 

*Elsberg, Nathaniel A. State Senator, New York. Born in 
New York. Educated in public schools. Graduate, 1891, College 
City of New York. Engaged in newspaper work for two years; 
associate editor The American Economist. Wrote articles on the 
tariff and other economic subjects used in the Republican presi- 
dential campaign of 1892. Graduate, 1893, Law School Univer- 
sity City of New York, and has since practiced law. Practice 
almost entirely confined to corporation and Federal Court cases. 
Unanimously nominated, 1897, by the Nineteenth Assembly Dis- 
trict of New York as member of the Assembly; elected; re- 
elected 1900 and 1902. Address: 27 William, New York. 

♦ Emerich, Martin. Member of Congress, since 1903, from the 
First District of Illinois. Born April 27, 1847, Baltimore, Md. 


Educated in public schools. Engaged in importing busineBs. Mar- 
ried, Baltimore, September 27, 1871, Lena Strauss. Appointed 
ward commissioner of poor of Baltimore, 1870; elected member 
of Maryland Legislature, 1879; was member Fifth Regiment 
Maryland National Guard, and staff of Governors Hamilton and 
Jackson, with rank of colonel. Removed to Chicago, 1887, and 
engaged in manufacturing. Elected county commissioner, 1892; 
and South Town assessor, 1901. Member of Congressional Stand- 
ing Committee on Accounts and on Manufactures. Identified in 
various capacities with Independent Order B'nai B'rith; Order 
Kesher Shel Barzel; Independent Order Free Sons of Israel; 
Ancient Order United Workmen; Royal Arch Masons of Mary- 
land. A founder of Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Atlanta, Ga. Occu- 
pied positions in the Boards of Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Balti- 
more; Jewish Orphan Asylum, Cleveland; Chicago Home for 
Jewish Orphans; Chicago Orthodox Home for the Aged. Ad- 
dress: Chicago, 111. 

Engelsmari; Gabriel. Instructor in Classics, College City of New 
York. Born February 5, 1862, Maco, Hungary. Son of Gustav 
Engelsman and Betty Rosenberg. A. B., 1880, College City of 
New York. Pursued post-graduate course in Classical and Ori- 
ental Languages, Yale and Harvard Universities, 1880-1881; stud- 
ied comparative philology and linguistics at Leipzig, Berlin, and 
Vienna; Ph.D., 1885, University of Vienna. Married Celestine 
Bader. Was private secretary to Rev. Dr. Adolf Jellinek, Vienna; 
assistant foreign editor New York Herald; revising editor Jewish 
Encyclopedia. Delivered course of thirty lectures on comparative 
philology with special reference to the modern languages at Col- 
lege City of New York, 1901-1902. Address: 232 W. 120th, New 

Epsteen, Saul. Associate in Mathematics, University of Chi- 
cago. Born August 10, 1878, San Francisco, Cal. Educated in 
San Francisco public schools. B. S., 1900, University of Cali- 
fornia; Ph.D., 1901, University of Zurich. Studied in Universi- 
ties of Zurich and Gottingen. Member of Deutsche Mathematiker 
Vereinigung; and American Mathematical Society. Editor of 
American Mathematical Monthly. Author of a number of me- 
moirs in mathematical journals. Address: University of Chi- 
cago, Chicago, 111., also 343 Hayes, San Francisco, Cal. 

Erianger, Abraham L. Theatrical Manager and Owner of The- 
atres. Born May 4, 1860, Buffalo, N. Y. Son of Leopold Erlanger 
and Rachael Lobenthal. Educated at Spencer ian College, Cleve- 
land, 0. Business manager Euclid Avenue Opera House, Clev^ 


land; theatrical advance agent; formed a partnership with Marc 
Klaw, and established a central theatrical agency; manager of 
prominent actors and producer of spectacular plays; controls over 
one hundred theatres in all parts of the United States. Address: 
New Amsterdam Theatre, New York. 

Erianger, Mitcheli L. Sheriff New York County. Born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1857, Buffalo, N. Y. Son of Leopold Erlanger and Rachel 
Lobenthal. Educated at Cleveland public schools; studied medi- 
cine; self-taught in the classics; LL. B., 1882, Columbia Law 
School. For two years librarian Columbia Law School; lectured 
on real estate law and equity to Senior and Junior classes; as- 
sisted Professor Dwight, dean of the college, during that time, 
preparing opinions and examining the law. Practiced law for 
more than twenty years. Member Board of Directors Monteflore 
Home for Chronic Invalids; Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society; 
Hebrew Infant Asylum. Address: 2030 Broadway, New York. 

Eron, Joseph Eli. Teacher and Lecturer on Literature. Born 
December 25, 1872, in Russia. Son of Fischel Eron and Fannie 
Edelstein. Educated at Konigsberg, Prussia, Warsaw, Poland; 
A. B., 1902, and A. M., 1903, Columbia University. Lecturer on 
literature. Educational Alliance, 1892-1904; Board of Education, 
New York; literature and history, Educational League, New York. 
Principal Eron School. Organized Educational Alliance Melam- 
dim Classes, 1892; one of the founders Educational League, 1899. 
Active in educational work. New York East Side. Address: 175 
East Broadway, New York. 

Eshner, Augustus Adolph. Physician, Professor, since 1895, 
of Clinical Medicine in Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for 
Graduates in Medicine. Born November 17, 1862, Memphis, Tenn. 
Son of James Eshner and Johanna Pleschner. Educated in Phila- 
delphia public schools. A. B., 1879; A.M., 1884, Central High 
School ; M. D., Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Physi- 
cian to Philadelphia Hospital, since 1896; assistant physician to 
Philadelphia OrthopaBdic Hospital and Infirmary for Nervous Dis- 
eases, since 1900; chairman directors Philadelphia County Medical 
Society, 1904. Resident physician Philadelphia Hospital, 1888- 
1889; chief clinical assistant out-patient Medical Department Jef- 
ferson Medical College Hospital, 1892; adjunct professor clinical 
medicine Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates in 
Medicine, 1893; physician to Hospital for Diseases of the Lungs, 
at Chestnut Hill, 1901-1903. Editor Transactions Philadelphia 
County Medical Society, 1896, 1897; assistant editor Philadelphia 
Medical Journal, 1898. Was Secretary Pathological Society of 


Philadelphia; secretary Philadelphia Neurological Society; sec- 
ond vice-president Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania; 
second vice-president Philadelphia Pediatric Society. Wrote prize 
essay in the Department of Practice of Medicine, Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, 1888. Author: Essentials of Medical Diagnosis (with 
S. Soils Cohen), 1892, 1900; Handbook on Fevers, 1895; American 
Textbook of Applied Therapeutics (with J. C. Wilson), 1896; 
Christfried Jakob's Atlas of Methods of Clinical Investigation and 
Epitome of Clinical Diagnosis and of Special Pathology (trans- 
lation), 1898; Herman Eichhorst's Textbook of the Practice of 
Medicine (translation), 1901; L. Landois' Textbook of Human 
Physiology (translation), 1904. Has contributed numerous ar- 
ticles to medical journals, encyclopedias, and transactions of med- 
ical societies. Address: 224 South 16th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

*Ezekiel, Moses. Sculptor. Born October 28, 1844, Richmond, 
Va. Son of Jacob E. Ezekiel and Catherine de Castro. After 
service with corps of cadets in Confederate States Army, graduate 
Virginia Military Institute, 1866; studied anatomy Medical Col- 
lege of Virginia. Removed to CJincinnati, 1868; visited Berlin, 
Germany, 1869, and studied at Royal Academy of Art under 
Professor Albert Wolf. Admitted into the Society of Artists, 
Berlin, and was the first foreigner to win the Michael Beer 
prize. Executed, 1874, for Independent Order B'nai B'rith, marble 
group representing Religious Liberty, exhibited at Centennial 
Exposition, now in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; monument to 
Jesse Seligman for Orphan Asylum, New York. After 1886, his 
work became chiefly ideal. Among his productions are busts of 
Washington, Liszt, and Cardinal Hohenlohe, Eve, Homer, David, 
Judith, Christ in the Tomb; statue of Mrs. Andrew D. White for 
Cornell University; Apollo and Mercury, in Berlin; Robert B. 
Lee; Pan and Amor; The Fountain of Neptune, for town of 
Neptune, Italy; bust of Lord Sherbrooke, for St. Margaret, West- 
minster, London; and scores of busts and reliefs, and Jefferson 
Monument, for Louisville, Ky. Address: 18 Piazzo delle Terme, 
Rome, Italy. 

Techheimer; Melville H. Second Lieutenant, United States 
Army. Born December 20, 1872, Michigan. Private and corporal. 
Companies M and D, 18th Regiment Infantry, 1899-1901; second 
lieutenant 11th Regiment Infantry, 1901. Address: War Depart- 
ment, Washington, D. C. 

Fechheimer, Rose. Artist. Born August 15, 1875, Cincinnati, 
O. Daughter of Joseph K. Fechheimer and Therese Gutmann. 
Educated at Cincinnati public schools and Art Academy. Certi- 


ficate of excellence in china painting and honorable mention, Cin- 
cinnati Museum Association. Artist at Rookwood Pottery, Cin- 
cinnati. Address: 3513 Reading Road, Avondale, Cincinnati. 

Feldman, Abram Meyer. Consulting Mechanical Engineer. 
Born August 7, 1863, Kiev, Russia. Son of Simon Feldman and 
Menicha Mermelstein. Graduate Teacher's Institute, Jitomir, 
Russia; B. S., M. E., Towne Scientific School, University of Penn- 
sylvania. Took two special summer courses in mechanical and 
electrical engineering laboratory work at Cornell University. 
Teacher, 1883-1887; draftsman and engineer, 1891-1892; draftsman 
and engineer Machinery Department, World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, Chicago, 1893; associate professor Mechanical Engineering 
Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago, 1894-1900; consulting 
engineering practice, 1901; with New York State Architect, 1902- 
1903, as expert heating and ventilating engineer; since 1904 private 
practice as Consulting Mechanical Engineer, designing and super- 
intending the installation of power plants and heating and venti- 
lating systems for buildings. Came to United States in 1887; 
citizen, 1893. Address: 120 Liberty, New York. 

* Fields, Lewis Maurice. Actor. Born January 1, 1867, New 
York City. Son of Samuel Fields. Educated in New York public 
schools. Married Rose Harris. Began stage career, 1877; head 
Weber and Fields Company, 1885; proprietor Broadway Music 
Hall, 1895. Residence: 307 West 83d. Office: 1215 Broadway, 
New York. 

Fireman, Julius C. Artist and Illustrator. Born June 4, 1872, 
at Nyiregyhaza, Hungary. Son of Sol. Fireman and Elizabeth 
Kellner. Educated at Philadelphia high school, and Academy of 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Came to America at age of fourteen. 
Was teacher Easton High School, Easton, Md.; artist Pennsyl- 
vania Telegram, Reading, Pa.; Philadelphia Times; New York 
World; New York Herald. Was manager Levytype Company, Phil- 
adelphia. At present illustrator of books. Illustrated: War in the 
East; History of the World; Iliowizi's In the Pale; Edward Mar- 
shall's Lizette; Guy de Maupassant's works; and numerous stories 
in the magazines. Address: 23 East 14th, New York. 

Fireman, Peter. Research Chemist. Born April 4, 1863, Lipo- 
vetz, Russia. Son of Khaim Isaac Fireman and Bella Gorkhovski. 
Educated in Odessa Gymnasium. Graduate Charkov Gymnasium, 
1881. Studied at Universities of Odessa, Konigsberg, and Zurich; 
Ph. D., 1893, University of Berne. Came to United States, 1882; 
farmed for several years in western Oregon. Studied in Germany 


and Switzerland, 1888-1892; assistant, 1892-1894; instructor, 1894- 
1898; assistant professor chemistry, 1898-1901, (Jeorge Washing- 
ton (formerly Columbian) University, Washington; professor 
chemistry, Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, 1901-1902; 
chemist, Elmer A. Sperry Electro-chemical Research Laboratory, 
Washington, since 1902. Has published a number of monographs 
in chemical journals. Married Ernestine Weitz. Address: Alex- 
andria, Va. 

Fischer, Louis. Physician. Born November 21, 1864, Kaschau, 
Austria-Hungary. Son of Ignatz Fischer and Louise Frankl. 
M. D., New York University; studied at Berlin. Married Clara 
Robert. Was instructor Diseases of Children, New York Post-Grad- 
uate Medical School and Hospital; physician to St. Mark's Hos- 
pital, New York. At present visiting physician Willard Parker 
Hospital, and Riverside Hospital, New York; attending physician 
since 1887, to Children's Department New York German Poly- 
klinik; consulting physician United Hebrew Charities, and Mes- 
siah Home for Children. Secretary of Section for Diseases of 
Children, American Medical Association, 1900. Read first clinical 
report of treatment of diphtheria by antitoxin before New York 
Post-Gradiiate Medical School and Hospital, and at Municipal 
Hospital, Philadelphia, 1894. Author: Infant Feeding in Health 
and Disease, 1900, 1903. Address: 65 East 90th, New York. 

Fisciikin, Edward A. Physician. Born October 6, 1862, Kre- 
mentshug, Russia. Son of Abraham Fischkin and Rose Berger. 
High school and polytechnic education at Riga and Dresden. 
M. D., 1893, University of Berlin. Married Bertha Felsenthal, 
1899. Adjunct professor Dermatology, Medical Department Illi- 
nois State University; attending dermatologist Cook County Hos- 
pital; Norwegian Lutheran Deaconess Hospital; United Hebrew 
Charities Free Dispensary; Home for Orthodox Aged Jews, all in 
Chicago. Private tutor, 1886-1888; studied medicine, 1889-1893; 
assistant in clinic of Dr. Max Joseph, Berlin, 1893-1894; came to 
-# Chicago, 1894. Among literary essays and medical articles pub- 
lished in various periodicals, the following are of Jewish interest: 
Proletarier-Poesie (on Morris Rosenf eld's Songs from the 
Ghetto), 1899; Tolstoy, 1901; Six Years in a Dermatologic Clinic 
(Free Dispensary United Hebrew Charities, Chicago), 1902. 
Translator of many of Rosenfeld's poems into German. Address: 
692 North Hayne Av., Chicago, 111. 

Fisiiberg, Maurice. Physician. Born August 16, 1872, at Kamen- 
etz-Podolsk, Russia. Son of Philip Fishberg and Gittel Mauer- 
man. Educated in Kamenetz public schools. M. D., 1897, New 


York University. Married Bertha Cantor. Came to United States, 
1890. Fellow American Ethnological Society; member American 
Anthropological Association. Medical Inspector New York Health 
Department; physician Beth Israel Hospital Dispensary, New 
York; medical examiner United Hebrew Charities, New York. 
Has written articles for medical journals dealing with patho- 
logical characteristics of Jews; for Jewish Encyclopedia, on 
Cancer, Consumption, Diabetes, Craniometry, Hair and Byes. Pre- 
liminary specimen of a work on the Anthropology of the Jews 
of various countries, with particular reference to those in the 
United States: Physical Anthropology of the Jews, American 
Anthropologist, 1903, 1904. Address: 79 West 115th, New York. 

Fleischman, Adolph. Architect. Born December 7, 1856, Al- 
bany, New York. Son of Solomon Fleischman and Catherine 
Lederer. Educated in Albany public and high schools. Arch. B., 
1879, Cornell University. Married Rosetta A. Mann. Fellow 
American Institute of Architects, 1884. District Deputy Inde- 
pendent Order B*nai B'rith, District No. 1; superintendent Sun- 
day School, Council of Jewish Women; past president Gideon 
Lodge, Independent Order B'nai B'rith; president Asmonean 
Lodge, of same Order. Architect: Beth Emeth Synagogue, 
Albany, and synagogues in Troy and Rondout, New York. OflOice: 
59 and 61 North Pearl. Residence: 277 Hudson Av., Albany, N. Y. 

*Flei8chmann, Julius. Merchant; Mayor of Cincinnati, O. 
Born June 8, 1872, Riverside, O. Member of the staffs of Gover- 
nors McKinley, Bushnell, and Nash. Nominated as candidate of 
the Republican party for Mayor of Cincinnati, 1900, and elected 
April 2. Re-elected by a largely increased majority, April 6, 1903. 
Address: Cincinnati, O. 

Fleischmann, Simon. Lawyer. Born September 1, 1859, Iowa 
City, la. Son of Emanuel Fleischmann and Eliza Dessauer. 
Graduate Buffalo public schools and Central High School. Mar- 
ried Laura Justice. Was organist of leading Buffalo churches; 
for five years dramatic and musical editor Buffalo Courier; inde- 
pendent supervisor from twenty-first ward of Buffalo, 1898-1899; 
Republican councilman, 1900-1904; president Buffalo Board of 
Councilmen, 1902-1903; president Erie County Bar Association, 
1903. Has written legal papers, dramatic and musical criticisms, 
editorial articles, and addresses. Address: 190 Edward, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

FIcxner, Abraham. Principal of The Flexner School. Born No- 
vember 13, 1866, Louisville, Ky. Son of Moritz Flexner and 


Esther Abraham. A. B., 1886, Johns Hopkins University. Mar- 
ried Anne Laziere Crawford. Instructor Louisville Male High 
School, 1886-1891. Has written essays on educational topics in 
Educational Review, International Journal of Ethics, Popular 
Science Monthly, and Atlantic Monthly. Address: 210 West 
Ormsby Av., Louisville, Ky. 

Flexner, Simon. Director of the Laboratories of the Rocke- 
feller Institute for Medical Research, New York. Born March 25, 
1863, Louisville, Ky. Son of Moritz Flexner and Esther Abraham. 
Educated in Louisville public schools. M. D., 1889, University of 
Louisville. Pursued post-graduate courses, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity and Universities of Strassburg, Prague, and Berlin. Married 
Helen Whitall Thomas. Fellow, associate, associate professor 
Pathology, and professor Pathological Anatomy, 1891-1900, Johns 
Hopkins University; professor Pathology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1900-1904. Member Johns Hopkins University Medical Com- 
mission to the Philippine Islands, 1900; United States Government 
Commission for Investigation of the Bubonic Plague, San Fran- 
cisco, 1901; corresponding member Society Medica-Chirurgica, 
Bologna; member American Philosophical Society, Association of 
American Physicians, and other learned bodies. Wrote mono- 
graphs and papers on many pathological and bacteriological sub- 
jects. Address: Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New 

Fluegel, Maurice. Author. Of German birth; emigrated early 
to Roumania. First education, secular and theological, in Rou- 
mania; attended Gymnasium in Leipzig, and pursued courses at 
Universities of Leipzig and Paris. Theological diploma, 1869, from 
Grand Rabbin Isidore, Paris; diploma for economical science, his- 
tory, and languages, 1862, Bucharest Academy. Docent at Buch- 
arest Academy. Officiated as rabbi in several congregations in the 
United States. Has written numerous essays in German, French, 
Roumanian, and ESnglish (Roumania and the Stroke of Policy 
of Prince Conza, 1865; American and Universal Judaism, 1865- 
1868; The Oriental and the Roumanian Questions, 1868-1880; 
Mosaic Diet and Hygiene, 1881). Author: Thoughts on Religious 
Rites and Views, 1888; Spirit of the Biblical Legislation, 1893; 
Messiah-Ideal: vol. 1, Jesus of Nazareth, 1896; vol. 2, Paul and 
Mohammed, Gospel and Koran, 1896; Zend-Avesta and Eastern 
Religions, 1898; Israel the Biblical People, 1899; Philosophy, Qab- 
bala and Vedanta, 1902. Biblical Legislation is to occupy the 
last three volumes of this series of ten. Address: 1125 North 
Strieker, Baltimore, Md. 


Foreman, Henry G. President Board of Commissioners of Cook 
County, III. Born 1857, Chicago, III. Son of Gerhard Foreman 
and Hannah Greenebaum. Married, 1885, Lottie Schwab. Edu- 
cated at Chicago public schools and business college. Received 
early commercial and financial training in First National Bank 
Has devoted career chiefly to real estate and financial operations. 
Oflicer and director in many corporations; one of the organizers 
Chicago Stock Exchange, Chicago Title and Trust Company, 
Chicago Real Estate Board. Director Chicago Union Traction 
Company since 1902; chairman Board of Directors, 1902; elected 
president Board of Commissioners of Cook County, 1902, for two 
years; appointed member South Park Commissioners, 1902 (term 
expires 1908); chosen president, 1903; inaugurated modern busi- 
ness methods in public oflice, including Cook County Institutional 
Service, erection of new county buildings, and purchase and im- 
provement of new parks in South Division, Chicago. Appointed 
on commission to create outer belt of parks and boulevards to 
circle Chicago and complete outdoor recreation system. Dele- 
gate to National Republican Convention in Philadelphia, 1900. 
Residence: 4706 Grand Boulevard. Oflices: 402-408 Dearborn, 202 
Court House, and corner 57th and Cottage Grove Av., Chicago, 111. 

Fraenkely Joseph. Lecturer on Nervous Diseases, Cornell Uni- 
versity Medical College; Alienist and Neurologist to Bellevue 
Hospital, New York. Born July, 1867, Tysnitz, Austria. Son of 
Marcus Fraenkel and Ester Cohn. Educated at the Imperial 
Royal Gymnasium, Vienna. M. D., University of Vienna. Attend- 
ing physician Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, New York. 
Contributor to Reference Handbook of Medical Sciences. Ad- 
dress: 46 East 75th, New York. 

♦Frank, Nathan. Lawyer; ex-Member of House of Representa- 
tives. Born February 23, 1852, Peoria, 111. Educated in Peoria 
public schools. Studied in Washington University, St. Louis. 
Graduate, 1871, Harvard Law School. Has practiced law, since 
1871, in St. Louis. Republican nominee for the Fiftieth Congress, 
but was defeated; re-nominated for the Fifty-first Congress, and 
elected. Author of a work on bankruptcy law. Address: 1027 
Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

♦Frankenberger, Samuel. Second Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, 
United States Army. Born April 23, 1879, West Virginia. Ap- 
pointed cadet Military Academy, 1898; second lieutenant Artillery 
Corps, 1902. Address: War Department, Washington, D. C. 

Frankenthal, Adolph Levy. United States Consul at Berne, 
Switzerland, since 1898. Born January 1, 1851, Ltibeck, Germany. 


Son of L. J. Frankenthal and Henrietta Hirschberg. Educated in 
Lubeck and Hamburg Academies. Married Ettie J. Jacobs. In 
business in Hamburg, 1864-1871; resident of Boston, Mass., since 
1871; naturalized, 1877; manufacturer fancy leather goods in 
Boston until 1898; inventor patented violin case. Secretary 
Society for Relief of Poor Russians, Boston, 1880. Contributor to 
Jewish papers in Germany and Switzerland on Hebrew literature. 
Home: 46 Quincy, Roxbury, Boston. Address: United States Con- 
sulate, Berne, Switzerland. 

Franklin, Fabian. Editor of The Baltimore News. Bom Janu- 
ary 18, 1853, Eger, Hungary. Son of Morris J. Franklin and 
Sarah Heilprin. Educated at public schools of Philadelphia and 
Washington, and preparatory school Columbian College (now 
George Washington University). Ph. B., 1869, Columbian College; 
Ph. D., 1880, Johns Hopkins University; LL. D., 1904, George 
Washington University. Engaged in surveying and civil engi- 
neering, 1870-1877. Married, 1882, Christine Ladd. Fellow, 
associate, associate professor, and professor Mathematics, Johns 
Hopkins University, 1877-1895. Has written mathematical papers 
in American Journal of Mathematics and other journals, and 
articles on political, economic, and miscellaneous subjects in The 
Nation, New York, and other periodicals. Address: 220 West 
Monument, Baltimore, Md. 

Franklin, Melvin M. Physician. Born August 13, 1874, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Son of Dr. Marcus Franklin and Matilda Morris. 
Studied in Rugby Academy, Pennsylvania Military College, Colum- 
bia University, Medical Department University of Pennsylvania. 
B. S.; Honorary M. A., 1903, La Salle College. Married Elsie 
Nathans. Visiting surgeon, St. Joseph's Hospital; and Jewish 
Hospital. Address: 1700 Oxford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Franko, Jeanne (Mrs. Hugo Kraemer). Violin Virtuoso, Pro- 
fessor of Music. Born February 8, 1868, New Orleans, La. 
Daughter of Herrman Franko and Helene Bergmann. Educated 
in Breslau, Berlin, and Paris; and under De Ahna and Vieux- 
temps. Married Hugo Kraemer. Played in Paris at Trocadero. 
Member Women's String Quartette St. Cecilia. Soloist with Theo- 
dore Thomas Orchestra, Anton Seidl Orchestra, Philip Sousa 
Orchestra, also travelled through United States to San Francisco 
as soloist. Organized the Jeanne Franko Trio. Leader American 
Woman's Orchestra. Address: care Steinway and Sons, 17 East 
14th, New York. 

Franko, Sam. Conductor American Symphony Orchestra; Musi- 
cal Leader, Chorus of Society for Ethical Culture. Born January 


20, 1857, New Orleans, La. Son of Herrman Franko and Helene 
Bergmann. Educated at Breslau and Berlin, Germany; pupil 
of Joachim, Vieuxtemps, and Leonard. Married Elizabeth Saar 
(deceased). Came to United States for a concert tour, 1869; 
played in salons of Mme. Viardot-Garcia, St. Saens, Lalo, De Beri- 
ot, and Godard, 1870-1880. Made his debut in London before 
Prince of Wales, present King Edward. Became member, 1880, 
soloist, and concert-master, Theodore Thomas Orchestra; played 
in important cities in United States as soloist with Mendelssohn 
Quintette Club of Boston; has given string-quartette concerts at 
Stein way Hall. Was viola soloist in Philharmonic Orchestra; and 
conductor of Castle Garden free concerts, 1891. Organized Amer- 
ican Symphony Orchestra and gave a series of concerts with it at 
Chickering Hall. Produced the works of the early masters, from 
the original scores and with an orchestra of the size contem- 
plated by them, before small audiences. Has written composi- 
tions for violin and piano. Address: 717 Madison Av., New York. 

Freiberg, Albert Henry. Surgeon. Born August 17, 1868, Cin- 
cinnati, O. Son of Joseph Freiberg. Educated Cincinnati public 
schools. M. D., 1890, University of Cincinnati (Medical College of 
Ohio) ; pursued courses at Universities of Wiirzburg, Strassburg, 
Berlin, and Vienna. Professor Orthopaedic Surgery, University of 
Cincinnati (Medical College of Ohio); Orthopaedic Surgeon to 
Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati and to Cincinnati Hospital. Mem- 
ber American Orthopaedic Association. Has written articles which 
have appeared in Transactions American Orthopaedic Association 
and in medical periodicals. Address: 19 West 7th, Cincinnati, O. 

Freidus, Abraham Solomon. Chief Jewish Department, New 
York Public Library. Born May 1, 1867, Riga, Russia. Son of 
Abigedor Freidus and Siissle Bass. Went to Paris, 1886; came 
to United States, 1889. Graduate Pratt Institute Library School, 
1894. Librarian Calumet Club Library, 1894; cataloguer Gen- 
eral Theological Seminary Library, 1896; both of New York. 
Assistant cataloguer New York Public Library, 1897, and later 
organized its department of Hebraica and Judaica, now includ- 
ing nearly thirteen thousand volumes. Contributor to the Jewish 
press. Author: Bibliographical Lists of Jewish Subjects, Bulle- 
tin New York Public Library; A Scheme of Classification for 
Jewish Literature in the New York Public Library, containing 
nearly five hundred divisions, 1901. Address: New York Public 
Library, New York. 

Freudenthaly Wolff. Laryngologist. Born January 5, 1858, 
Chrostowo, Posen, Germany. Son of Louis Freudenthal and 


Rosalie Wolff. Pursued courses at Universities of Breslau, Leip- 
zig, and Berlin; state examination, 1894, and M. D., 1894, Freiburg 
in Baden. Married Alice L. Forchheimer. Consulting laryngologist 
St. Marks Hospital, Monteflore Home for Chronic Invalids, and 
Beth Israel Hospital, New York. Honorary president International 
Medical Congress at Madrid, 1903; ex-president German Medical 
Society, New York, and of Deutscher Gesellig-Wissenschaftlicher 
Verein von New York. Served in German army at Berlin as sur- 
geon, 1879, and also at Fteiburg. Author of publications on Dis- 
eases of the Nose and Throat, and on Tuberculosis. Address: 
1003 Madison Av., New York. 

Freund, Ernest. Professor of Law, University of Chicago Law 
School. Born January 30, 1864, New York. Son of Ludwig A. 
Freund and Nannie Bayer. Educated at Dresden and Frankfort 
on the Main, Germany. J. U. D., 1884, University of Heidelberg; 
Ph.D., 1897, Columbia University. Author: The Police Power, 
1904. Address: 5730 Woodlawn Av., Chicago, 111. 

Friedenberg, Albert Marx. Lawyer and Writer. Born January 
9, 1881, New York City. Son of Leopold Friedenberg and Fannie 
Stem. Educated at New York public schools, Chapin Collegiate 
School, College City of New York. B. S., 1900, and LL. B., 1903, 
Columbia University. New York correspondent and representa- 
tive Jewish Comment, Baltimore, since 1902. Instructor in com- 
position, New York evening public schools, 1900-1904; lecturer 
Board of Education free lecture course. Editor of The Jewish 
Home since 1904. Has written monographs in Publications Amer- 
ican Jewish Historical Society; and articles in Jewish Encyclo- 
pedia, Jewish Quarterly Review, Albany Law Journal, Modern 
Language Notes, Queen's Quarterly, and in the American Jewish 
press. Author: Zionist Studies, 1904; The Jews in German 
Literature (MS.). Residence: 186 West 135th. Office: 38 Park 
Row, New York. 

Friedenwald, Harry. Physician, Professor of Ophthalmology and 
Otology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore. Born 
September 21, 1864, Baltimore, Md. Son of Dr. Aaron Frieden- 
wald and Bertha Bamberger. A. B., 1884, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity; M. D., 1886, College of Physicians and Surgeons. Married 
Bertha Stein. Has written essays on Ophthalmological and Oto- 
logical subjects and on Medical History. President American 
Federation of Zionists since 1904; trustee Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. Address: 1029 Madison Av., Baltimore, 


Friedenwald, Herbert. Author. Born September 20, 1870, Bal- 
timore, Md. Son of Moses Friedenwald and Jane Ahlborn. 
Educated at private schools, Baltimore. A. B., 1890, Johns Hop- 
kins University; Ph.D., 1894, University of Pennsylvania. Chief 
of Division of Manuscripts in Library of Congress, Washington, 
1897-1900; one of the founders and first recording secretary 
American Jewish Historical Society; corresponding secretary, 
1898-1903; and now recording secretary. Member Publication 
Committee, Jewish Publication Society of America, and of histor- 
ical and economic societies. Delegate from Philadelphia to Sixth 
Zionist Congress, Basle, 1903. Has written articles for Publica- 
tions of American Jewish Historical Society, and Reports Amer- 
ican Historical Association. Edited draft of an Address of Con- 
tinental Congress to People of United States, 1776, American 
Historical Review, 1896. Author: A Calendar of Washington 
MSS. in the Library of Congress, 1901; The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence (in press). Address: 915 N. 16th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Friedenwald, Julius. Physician. Born December 20, 1866, 
Baltimore, Md. Son of Dr. Aaron Friedenwald and Bertha 
Bamberger. Educated at Baltimore Zion School and at City 
College. A. B., 1887, Johns Hopkins University; M. D., 1890, 
College of Physicians and Surgeons; A.M., 1898, Loyola College, 
Baltimore. Pursued courses of study at Universities of Berlin 
and Vienna. Married Esther Lee Rohr. Professor Diseases of the 
Stomach and director Diseases of the Stomach, Clinical Labora- 
tory, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore. Visiting 
physician to City Hospital, Bay View Hospital, Union Protestant 
Infirmary, and consultant in Digestive Diseases to St. Agnes Hos- 
pital, Baltimore. Has written numerous medical articles. Au- 
thor: A Text Book on Dietetics (with Dr. John Ruhrah). Ad- 
dress: 7 West Franklin, Baltimore, Md. 

Friedlaender, lerael. Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Liter- 
ature, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York. Born 
September 8, 1876, Wlodawa, Siedlec, Russian Poland. Son of 
Pinkus Friedlaender and Gitel Ehrlich. Educated at the Cheder 
and privately in Praga-Warsaw. Pursued courses at University 
of Berlin, 1896-1900. Ph. D., 1901, University of Strassburg. Pri- 
vat-docent Semitic languages, 1902-1903, University of Strassburg. 
Author: Der Sprachgebrauch des Maimonides, Ein lexicalischer 
und grammatischer Beitrag zur Kenntniss des Mittelarabischen, 
Part I, 1902. Translator: The Essays of Achad Haam; Dubnow's 
Essay in the Philosophy of Jewish History (both into German). 
Articles in various publications. Address; 371 West 116th, New 


Friedman, Isaac Kahn. Bom November 3, 1870, Chicago, 111. 
Son of Jacob Friedman and Henrietta Kahn. Educated in Chi- 
cago public schools. Ph. B., 1903, University of Michigan. Author: 
The Lucky Number; Poor People; By Bread Alone; The Auto- 
biography of a Beggar. Address: 1 Van Buren, Chicago, 111. 

Frischy William. Managing Editor of The Baltimore American. 
Born February 14, 1854, in Bohemia. Son of Siegfried Frisch 
and Sophia Krauskopf. Educated at Knapp's Institute, Baltimore, 
1865-1868; and Bryant, Stratton, and Sadler's Business College, 
Baltimore, 1868. Came to America in 1865. General reporter 
on The Baltimore American, 1872-1875; introduced systematic 
City Hall reporting in Baltimore, 1875; City Hall reporter, 1875- 
1880; wrote first weekly political review in Baltimore for The 
Sunday American, 1879, continuing the department until 1889; 
political editor The Baltimore American, 1879-1889; Washington 
correspondent, 1880, 1881; managing editor since 1881. Address: 
Hotel Altamont, Baltimore, Md. 

♦Frohman, Charles. Theatrical Manager. Born June 17, 1860, 
Sandusky, O. Educated in New York public schools. Employed 
in office Daily Graphic, New York; sold tickets at Hooley's Thea- 
tre, Brooklyn; took charge of company sent West to play " Our 
Boys," 1877; was with J. H. Haverly (Haverly's Mastadon Min- 
strels), 1879-1880, in United States and Europe; went on road 
with ** Lady Clare " and '* Victor Durand," 1881 ; organized a com- 
pany to bring out Shenandoah, 1881; organized Charles Frohman 
Stock Company, 1890; now proprietor and manager Empire, Cri- 
terion, Lyceum, Garrick, Savoy, Madison Square, Knickerbocker, 
and Garden Theatres, New York; Duke of York Theatre, London; 
joint manager Vaudeville Theatre, London. Address: Empire 
Theatre, New York. 

Frohman, Daniel. Theatrical Manager. Born 1854, Sandusky, 
O. Son of Henry Frohman. Educated at Sandusky. Married 
Maud Light. Manager of theatres, stars, and plays, and occasion- 
ally of musical artists. Address: 159 West 79th, New York. 

Fromenson, Abraham H. Editor English Department The Jew- 
ish Daily News and The Jewish Gazette, New York. Born No- 
vember 4, 1873, at Chicago, 111. Son of Benjamin Fromenson 
and Dora Fuxman. Educated at New York public schools, even- 
ing high schools, special courses at New York University. Jewish 
education by father. Married Ruth Berman. Was editor Jewish 
Tidings, Rochester, N. Y.; reporter Rochester Democrat and 
Chronicle, Rochester Herald, and Associated Press; editorial 


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writer New York Daily News. Chairman Education Committee and 
member Executive Council Federation of American Zionists; one 
of the organizers Jewish Boys' Brigade, and New Era Club; mem- 
ber New York Committee Jewish Publication Society of America. 
Has written several hundred essays under title. The Voice of the 
Ghetto, in The Jewish Daily News and The Jewish Gazette, and 
magazine articles dealing especially with physical culture for 
Jews. Address : care Jewish Daily News, New York. 

Fuchs, Julius. Professor German Language and Literature, 
Cincinnati High School, since 1895. Born October 16, 1846, St. 
George, near Vienna, Austria. Son of Simon Fuchs and Rebecca 
Weinberger. Elementary education at St. George, secondary and 
college course at Vienna, in Ober-Realschule, 1863-1866; Imperial 
Pedagogical Seminary or Normal School, Vienna, 1866-1869. Di- 
ploma as teacher, Vienna, 1869; English principal's and Special 
or High School certificate Cincinnati Board of Examiners, 1872. 
Married Jeannette Ehrenfest. Director Boys* Institute, Vienna, 
1869-72; principal of German Intermediate School, 1872-1895, 
Cincinnati, O. Three volumes of articles collected from European 
and American periodicals ready for publication: 1. Eighteen Lec- 
tures on Pedagogical Topics; 2. Fifteen Lectures on Home Edu- 
cation, and, 3. Seventy-five poems, Tender Blossoms. Delivered 
lectures before normal institutes, teachers' associations, and liter- 
ary societies. Address: P. O. Box 46, Cincinnati, O. 

Furth, Emanuel. Attorney-at-law. Born September 26, 1857, 
Reading, Pa. Son of Leopold Furth and Babette Levy. Educated 
in Philadelphia public schools. A. B., 1874, Central High School; 
LL. B., 1878, Law Department University of Pennsylvania. Mar- 
ried Lizzie Rosenbaum. Member Pennsylvania Legislature, 1881- 
1885; delegate to City, State, and National Democratic Conven- 
tions; delegate to National Democratic Convention at St. Louis, 
1904; nominated for judge Court of Common Pleas, 1903, on 
Democratic ticket. Prominent in Masonic and State military 
circles; captain in Old Guard Infantry Battalion State Fenci- 
bles; president of several building associations; secretary Law- 
yers Club of Philadelphia since 1892. Author: The Tourist Out- 
ward and Homeward Bound. Address: 13th and Chestnut, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

GanSy Howard S. Assistant District Attorney, County of New 
York. Born October 23, 1872, New York City. Son of Levi L. 
Gans and Adelaide Schiffer. Educated at Friends' Schools, Penn 
Charter School, Philadelphia; and Dr. Julius Sachs's Collegiate 
Institute, New York. B. A., 1892, Harvard College; LL.B., New 


York Law School. Deputy Assistant District Attorney, 1901-1902; 
Assistant District Attorney, since 1902. Wrote article in North 
American entitled, In the Matter of the Lawlessness of the 
Police. Address: Criminal Courts Building, New York. 

Garfunkely Charles. Superintendent of Police, Savannah, Ga. 
Born November 13, 1872, at Savannah, Ga. Son of Benjamin M. 
Garfunkel. Educated at Savannah public schools. Was merchant. 
Address: Police Headquarters, Savannah, Ga. 

GarsBon, Morris. Life and Fire Insurance Broker. Bom De- 
cember 19, 1860, in Russia. Son of Mordechai Gerson and Sarah 
Rosalsky. Chiefly self-taught. Married Annie Epstein. Repre- 
sentative M. Gardner and Company, New York, 1883-1898; in dry 
goods business, 1896-1900; manufacturer during 1901, New York. 
Has written various Hebrew poems published in Ner ha-Maarabi, 
1895-1896; Ha-Ibri, 1895-1896; Die Deborah, 1896. Address: 118 
East 109th, New York. 

Gerson, Emily Goldsmith. Writer of juvenile stories. Born 
April 30, 1868, Philadelphia, Pa. Daughter of Abraham Gold- 
smith and Cecelia Adler. Educated in Philadelphia public schools. 
Married Felix Napoleon Gerson. Teacher in Philadelphia public 
schools, 1887-1892. Author: The German Cousins in America, 
1900 (as a serial); The Picture Screen, 1904; Polly and her 
Chum, 1904 (as a serial). Has written many short juvenile stor- 
ies in various publications since 1890. Address: 1627 North 
Franklin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gerson, Felix N. Journalist, Manager The Jewish Exponent, 
staff writer on Public Ledger, Philadelphia. Born October 18, 
1862, Philadelphia, Pa^ Son of Aron Gerson and Eva Goldsmith. 
Educated in Philadelphia public schools; A. B., Central High 
School. Married Emily Goldsmith. Chief Clerk Coal Shipping 
Department, Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company, 1880- 
1890; managing editor Chicago Israelite, 1890-1891; manager Jew- 
ish Exponent since 1891; staff writer Public Ledger since 1895; 
staff writer American Musician, Freund's Music and Drama, and 
other New York papers at various times. Appointed by president 
of Pennsylvania R. R. Company to take charge of Elisabeth 
coal dock property, and succeeded in settling strike at that end 
of the line. 1887. Wrote poem on death of Queen Victoria which 
received favorable editorial notice in London Times; selected to 
read poem at dedication of new Philadelphia High School build- 
ing, 1902. Author: Some Verses (volume of poems), 1893. 
Poems in magazines and newspapers. Address: 1627 North 
Franklin, Philadelphia, Pa. 



GInzberg, Louis. Professor of Talmud and Rabbinics, Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America. Born November 28, 1873, 
Kovno, Russia. Son of Isaac Ginzberg and Cecilia JafFe. Edu- 
cated at Talmudical Colleges at Telsh and Kovno. Pursued 
courses in Oriental languages and history, and in philosophy, at 
the Universities of Berlin, Strassburg, and Heidelberg. Ph. D., 
1898, Strassburg. Came to America, 1899. Editor Jewish Ency- 
clopedia, Department of Rabbinical Literature, 1900-1903. Author: 
Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatern, 1899; Die Haggada bei den 
Kirchenvatern und in der apokryphischen Litteratur, 1900. Con- 
tributor to Monatsschrift fiir Geschichte und Wissenschaft des 
Judenthums, Breslau; Jewish Quarterly Review, London; and 
Jewish Encyclopedia (about one-fifth of the first volume). Im- 
portant articles in Jewish Encyclopedia: on Akiba, Allegorical 
Interpretation, Baraita, Joseph Caro, Cabala, and Law (Codifica- 
tion of). Address: 60 West 115th, New York. 

Goldensky, Elias. Photographer. Born September 9, 1867, 
Russia. Son of Benjamin M. Goldensky. Married Nettie Gold- 
berg. Received highest awards at various photographic exhi- 
bitions. Address: 270 South Second, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Goldfaden, Abraham. Yiddish Playwright. Born July 12, 1840, 
Starokonstantinov, Russia. Educated at Talmudical College of 
Jitomir. Taught in Government schools of Simferopol and Odessa, * 
1867-1875; founded Yisrolik (a humorous weekly) in Lemberg, 
1875; founded Bukowiner Israelitisches Volksblatt, at Czerno- 
witz; produced his first drama at Jassy, 1876; returned to Odessa, 
1878, with a troupe of actors and a repertoire of fourteen plays. 
Forbidden to produce Yiddish plays in Russia, 1883; went to 
Roumania, Galicia, and Warsaw, and, in 1887, came to New York; 
established the New Yorker Illustrirte Zeitung (Yiddish), and 
was connected with the Roumanian Opera House. Went to Paris, 
1889; and returned to New York, 1903. Author: Zizim u-Ferahim 
(Hebrew poems), 1865; Das Yudele (Yiddish songs), 1866, and 
twenty-five dramas in Yiddish, among them Die Rekruten, 
Schmendrik, Die Kishufmacherin, Shulamit, and Bar Kochba. 
Address: Grand Theatre, New York. 

Goldfogle, Henry Mayer. Member of Congress from the Ninth 
District of New York; Lawyer by profession. Born May 23, 1856, 
New York City. Son of Mayer Goldfogle and Hannah Herz. Edu- 
cated in New York public schools and Townsend's College. Ad- 
mitted to bar when twenty-one. Judge of Municipal Court, New 
York City, 1888-1900; resigned to resume law practice. Drafted 
and secured enactment of a law by the State legislature which 


allows an execution against the body to issue against a delin- 
quent debtor on a judgment in favor of a working woman for 
services performed by her; author present law in New York 
proviaing for an expeditious remedy to collect judgments ob- 
tained by laborers, mechanics, and other wage-earners lor v/ages 
earned or for labor performed; served several terms as grand 
president District No. 1, Independent Order B'nai B'rith, and is 
one of the judges court of appeals of that Order. lb prominently 
identified with many of the leading fraternal organizations and 
clubs, and with several financial institutions. Was governor, 
Home for Aged and Infirm at Yonkers. Is now director, Hebrew 
Infant Asylum, and vice-president Temple Rodeph Shalom, New 
York. Delegate to almost every State convention since 1877; dele- 
gate, 1896, National Democratic Convention. Elected to Congress, 
1900; re-elected, 1902. Author and secured adoption by Congress, 
April 21, 1904, of resolution respecting Russia's refusal to honor 
American passports held by Jews, the basis of recent request by 
American Ambassador at St. Petersburg for abrogation of restric- 
tion or for a new treaty. Address: 271 Broadway, New York. 

Goldmark, Rubin. Composer, Lecturer on musical topics. Born 
August 15, 1872, New York. Son of Leo Goldmark and Augusta 
Stern. Educated at New York public schools and College City 
of New York. Studied at University of Vienna, and Vienna 
Conservatory of Music; subsequently pupil of Dvorak and Joseffy 
in New York; Hon. M. A., 1900, Colorado College. Director Colo- 
rado College Conservatory of Music, 1895-1901. Delivered one 
hundred and fifty lectures between New York, Montreal, and 
Salt Lake City on the Wagner music dramas and other subjects. 
His orchestral works and chamber music performed by the late 
Anton Seidl, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Kneisel Quartette, 
and Prill Quartette of Vienna. Compositions: Trio for piano, 
violin, and cello; Sonata for piano and violin; Romanza for 
cello; numerous songs and piano compositions; unpublished: 
Orchestral Overture Hiawatha (performed by Boston Symphony 
Orchestra) ; Theme and Variations (performed by Anton Seidl 
Orchestra) ; Cantata for orchestra and chorus ; Quartette for 
piano and strings. Address: 144 West 127th, New York. 

Goldsmith, Milton. Merchant. Born May 22, 1861, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Son of Abraham Goldsmith and Cecelia Adler. Grad- 
uate Philadelphia High School, 1877. Studied three years in 
Zurich, Switzerland; special courses in literature, language, and 
music. Married Sophie Hyman. Author: Rabbi and Priest, 1891; 
A Victim of Conscience, 1903; numerous short stories in Jewish 
and non-sectarian papers; poems appearing in The Cosmopolitan, 


Puck, Life, and other periodicals; several librettos of comic 
operas: A Romance of Kief, a drama; Quarantined,* a comedy; 
other literary and musical works. Address: 46 East 58th, New 

Gordln, Jacob M. Playwright. Born May 1, 1853, at Mirgorod, 
Poltava, Russia. Son of Michael Gordin. Educated at private 
schools. Married Anna Itzkowitch. Teacher Russian private 
and public schools. Editor two Russian daily papers, Odesski 
Novesti, and Ellsavetgradski Vestnick, and, in 1893, of a Russian 
paper in New York. Contributor to many Russian and American 
mag:azines and papers. Has written about seventy dramas, in- 
cluding translations and adaptations. Founded, 1879, Bible 
Brotherhood Society, devoted to ethical culture and social re- 
forms. Came to America, 1891. Author: classical dramas: Me- 
dea; Medea's Youth; realistic dramas: God, Man, and the Devil; 
The Orphan: Mirele Efros; The Yiddish King Lear; essay: Vol- 
taire, his Life and Works, his Merits as an Educator and his Atti- 
tude to the Jewish Race. Address: 256 Madison, Brookljm, New 

GottheM, Richard James Horatio. Professor Semitic Languages 
Columbia University. Born October 13, 1862, Manchester, Eng- 
land. Son of Rabbi Gustav Gottheil and Rosalia Wallman. Edu- 
cated at Chorlton High School, Manchester, Eng., and Columbia 
Grammar School, New York. Studied at Columbia College, and 
at Universities of Berlin and Tubingen; Hochschule fiir die Wis- 
senschaft des Judenthums, and Die Veitel-Heine-Ephraimsche 
Lehranstalt In Berlin. A. B., 1881, Columbia College ( now Univer- 
sity) ; Ph. D., Leipzig. Married Emma Rosenzweig, 1891. Presi- 
dent American Federation of Zionists, 1898-1904; head of Ori- 
ental Department New York Public Library; member German 
Oriental Society, Soci6t6 des Etudes Juives, Paris, Jewish His- 
torical Society, England, Council American Oriental Society; 
president Society of Biblical Literature, 1902-1903; treasurer 
American Jewish Historical Society until 1904; vice-president 
Judaeans, New York; member Actions-Committee of Zionist Or- 
ganization. Author: The Syriac Grammar of Mar Elia of Zobha, 
Berlin, 1887; one of the editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia since 
1901; contributor to Johnson's Encyclopedia, 2d edition; Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenlandlschen Gesellschaft, Journal 
American Oriental Society, Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie, Journal 
Society of Biblical Literature, Publications American Jewish His- 
torical Society, Century Magazine, North American Review. Ad- 
dress: Columbia University, New York. 


Gottheil, William S. Physician. Born February 5, 1859, Berlin, 
Germany. Son of Rabbi Gustav Gottheil and Rosalia Wallman. Edu- 
cated at Victoria Park School, Manchester, Eng., studied at New 
York University, and in Scientific Department Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. Licentiate, 1878, Cornell University; M. D., 1882, 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. Married Viola 
Shepperd. House physician Charity Hospital, 1882-1883; lecturer 
Dermatology New York Polyclinic, 1886-1890; professor Pathol- 
ogy, American Veterinary College, 1888-1894; professor Derma- 
tology New York School of Clinical Medicine, 1890-1891; Derma- 
tologist, Northwestern Dispensary, and German West Side Dis- 
pensaries, 1890-1900; consulting Dermatologist Hebrew Sheltering 
Guardian Orphan Asylum, 1900. Is at present visiting physician 
New York City Hospital, Lebanon Hospital, and Beth Israel 
Hospital, New York. Author: Illustrated Skin Diseases, 1897; 
The Treatment of Skin Cancers, 1901; Syphilis, its Diagnosis 
and Treatment, 1901; Elements of Pathology, New York, 1890. Edi- 
tor: Dermatology and Syphilis; and Clinical Recorder, 1896-1898. 
Has written numerous articles and pamphlets. Address: 144 
West 48th, New York. 

Greenbaum, Leon E. Lawyer. Born November 17, 1872, Balti- 
more, Md. Son of Emanuel Greenbaum and Caroline Seliger. Edu- 
cated at Baltimore public schools and Baltimore City College. 
A. B., Johns Hopkins University; LL. B., Law Department Uni- 
versity of Maryland. Was city attorney of Baltimore. Address: 
1614 Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Md. 

Greenbaum, Leopold. Professor, since 1896, of Materia Medica, 
Anaesthesia, and Odontotechny at Philadelphia Dental College. 
Born October 9, 1858, Arva, Hungary. Son of Philip Greenbaum 
and Marie Goldfinger. Educated at Arva and Vienna schools, 
and Philadelphia public schools. D. D. S., 1881, Philadelphia 
Dental College; M. D., 1888, Medico-Chirurgical College, Phila- 
delphia. Appointed assistant professor Materia Medica and Chem- 
istry in Dental College, 1881, and lecturer. Moving spirit in the 
organization of the Garretsonian Society; editor and manager 
of The Stomatologist since the first issue. Member National and 
State Societies and Academy of Stomatology. Has read numer- 
ous papers before other societies. Address: 1420 Chestnut, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Greenbaum, Samuel. Justice Supreme Court, State of New 
York. Born January 23, 1854, London, England. Son of Louis 
Greenbaum and Rachel Deborah Schlesinger. Educated at New 
York public schools. M. A., College City of New York; LL. B., 


Columbia College Law School. Married Selina Ullman. Was 
president Young Men's Hebrew Association; and of Aguilar Free 
Library Society. Now vice-president Educational Alliance; trus- 
tee Jewish Theological Seminary of America; and trustee New 
York Public Library. Address: 2 East 94th, New York. 

Greenstone, Julius H. Born April 23, 1873, Mariampol, Russia. 
Son of Pesah David Grtinstein and Leah Puskelinsky. Jewish 
education in the Cheder and Talmudical College; secular instruc- 
tion private, in Russia, and in New York public schools. A. B., 
1900, College City of New York; A. B., 1902, University of Penn- 
sylvania; rabbi, 1900, Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 
Is pursuing post-graduate course University of Pennsylvania. 
Married Carrie E. Amram. Lecturer to Congregation Mickvfi 
Israel, Philadelphia, 1900-1902. Author: Congregational Activi- 
ties (a series of sermons), 1901; The Religion of Israel, 1902; 
contributor to Talmudic Department Jewish Encyclopedia and 
to Jewish journals. Address: 915 North 8th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gross, Charles. Professor of History, Harvard University, 
since 1888. Born February 10, 1857, Troy, New York. Son of 
Louis Gross and Lottie Wolf. Educated at Troy High School. 
A. B., 1878; A.M., 1882; LL. D., 1904, Williams College; Ph.D., 
1883, Gottingen. Pursued courses at Universities of Berlin, Leip- 
zig, and Paris, 1879-83. Did literary work in England, 1883-1888. 
Author: Gilda Mercatoria, 1883; The Exchequer of the Jews of 
England in the Middle Ages, 1887; The Gild Merchant, 1890; 
Select Cases from the Coroners* Rolls, 1896; A Bibliography of 
British Municipal History, 1897; The Early History of the Ballot 
in England, 1898; The Sources and Literature of English History, 
1900. Address: 11 Putnam Av., Cambridge, Mass. 

Gruening, Emil. Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon, Mount Sinai 
Hospital; consulting ophthalmic surgeon, German Hospital; sur- 
geon New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, all of New York. Born 
October 2, 1842, Inowrazlaw, Prussia. Son of Moritz Gruening 
and Bertha Thorner. Elementary education at Inowrazlaw. Pur- 
sued courses at University of Berlin, and University of Paris. 
M. D., 1867, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. Mar- 
ried Phoebe Fridenberg. Enlisted in Seventh Regiment New Jersey 
Volunteer Infantry, 1865; participated in battle of Hatcher's 
Run, siege of Petersburg, and pursuit of Lee. Studied ophthal- 
mology under A. von Graefe, Berlin, 1867-1870. Professor Oph- 
thalmology New York Polyclinic, 1882-1895. Author: Treatise 
on Wounds and Injuries of the Eyes and their Appendages (in 
American System of Ophthalmology) ; On the Operative Treat- 


ment of Divergent Strabismus; On the Operative Treatment of 
Ptosis and Notes on Operations upon the Mastoid Process; On 
the Operative Treatment of Otitic Brain Abscess; etc. Address: 
36 East 57th, New York. 

Guggenheim, Daniel. Capitalist. Born July 9, 1856, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Myers. 
Educated at Philadelphia, Pa. Married, 1884, Florence Shloss. 
At seventeen years of age went to Switzerland and conducted 
manufacture of embroideries for eleven years. Chairman Execu- 
tive Committee American Smelting and Refining Company; presi- 
dent Guggenheim Exploration Company; member firm of M. 
Guggenheim's Sons, and member Executive Committee and di- 
rector National Bank of Commerce, New York; trustee Temple 
Emanu-El, New York; member Executive Committee and treas- 
urer Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York. Ad- 
dress: 12 West 54th, New York. 

Guggenheim, Isaac. Member firm of M. Guggenheim's Sons. 
Born June 7, 1854, Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Meyer Guggenheim 
and Barbara Myers. Educated at Philadelphia. Married Carrie 
Sonneborn. Treasurer and director American Smelting and Refin- 
ing Company, and Guggenheim Exploration Company; director 
National Park Bank, Plaza Bank, International Banking Corpor- 
ation, and Educational Alliance, all of New York. Address: 763 
Fifth Av., New York. 

Guggenheim, Simon. Capitalist. Born December 30, 1867, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. Son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Myers. 
Educated at Philadelphia; studied languages abroad. Married 
Olga Hirsh. Director and member Executive Committee Ameri- 
can Smelting and Refining Company; managing director Guggen- 
heim Exploration Company, and director and member Executive 
Committee United Lead Company. Address: 71 Broadway, New 

Guggenheim, Solomon R. Capitalist. Born February 2, 1861, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Myers. 
Educated at Philadelphia, Pa., Concordia Institute of St. Gallen, 
and at Zurich, Switzerland. Married Irene Rothschild. Director 
and member Executive Committee American Smelting and Refin- 
ing Company; chairman Board United Lead Company; managing 
director Guggenheim Exploration Company. Was president 
Great Mexican National Smelting Company before merger with 
American Smelting and Refining Company. Address: 71 Broad- 
way, New York. 


Guggenheim, William. Capitalist. Born November 6, 1868, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Myers. 
Educated at Philadelphia public schools and high school; pur- 
sued scientific course at University of Pennsylvania, 1885-1887; 
entered Wharton School of Finance with intention of studying 
law on completing course, but returned to Scientific Department 
University of Pennsylvania (B. S., 1889). Superintendent Phila- 
delphia Smelting and Refining Company, Pueblo, Colo., 1890-1891; 
general manager M. Guggenheim's Sons mining and smelting 
interests in the Republic of Mexico, 1891-1901; constructed their 
lead smelting works at Monterey, Nuevo Leon, 1891; and their 
lead and copper smelting establishment at Aguascalientes, 1894. 
Was secretary and treasurer of these two companies; vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer Philadelphia Smelting and Refining Company, 
Pueblo. Retired from active business pursuits when these com- 
panies were consolidated and merged with others, 1901. At pres- 
ent member of firm of M. Guggenheim's Sons, New York. Inter- 
ested in charitable and educational affairs. Member Pennsylvania 
Society of New York, member and vice-president New York 
Alumni Society University of Pennsylvania. Address: 500 Fifth 
Av., New York. 

Guggenheimer, Aimee. Librarian Bureau of Forestry, United 
States Department of Agriculture (resigned June 1, 1904). Born 
October 20, 1875, Baltimore, Md. Daughter of Isaac Guggen- 
heimer and Clara Hirsh. Educated at Baltimore public schools, 
and Southern Home School, Baltimore. B. A., 1896, Woman's 
College, Baltimore; B. L. S., 1899, New York State Library School, 
Albany. Librarian Bureau of Forestry, United States Department 
of Agriculture, 1899-1904. Author: Frobel and the Kindergarten 
(New York State Library, Bibliography 26), 1901. Address: 1704 
Madison Av., Baltimore, Md. 

Guggenheimer, Randolph. Lawyer. Born July 20, 1848, Lynch- 
burg, Va. Graduate New York University Law School, 1869. 
Married Eliza Katzenberg, 1875. Entered, 1869, upon practice of 
law; 1882, formed partnership with Isaac and Samuel Untermyer; 
since 1893 the firm is Guggenheimer, Untermyer, and Marshall. 
School Commissioner of City of New York, 1887-1896; secured 
enlarged accommodations for the children of school age; pro- 
moted the evening high school system, and the Free Lecture 
courses; obtained legislative grant of $25,000 for a gymnasium 
at the Normal College; advocated the retention of the German 
language on the school curriculum. President Municipal Council 
City of New York, 1898-1902, acting as Mayor of the city during 
the summers of those four years. Erected New York Commercial 


Building, pioneer of the large office buildings on Broadway. 
Address: 923 Fifth Av., New York. 

*Gump, David R. Second Lieutenant, United States Army. 
Born May 19, 1880, Missouri. Private and corporal coast artillery 
(general recording sergeant), 1901-1902; appointed second lieu- 
tenant 18th Regiment Infantry, October 28, 1902. Address: Wary^ 
Department, Washington, D. C. 

Hahn, Frederick E. First Violinist Hahn String Quartette, 
Philadelphia; violin instructor. Born March 23, 1869, New York 
City. Son of Henry Hahn and Clara Mayer. Educated at Leipzig 
Conservatory of Music, 1886-1890; won violin prize for solo play- 
ing, 1890. Member Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig, Germany, 1888- 
1890, Carl Reinesche, director; made concert tour of the United 
States, playing in principal cities; became member and for five 
years first violinist Boston Symphony Orchestra under Arthur 
Nikisch and Emil Paur; retired on account of eye-trouble; settled 
in Philadelphia. Composer of songs, violin solos, and two pieces 
for string orchestra (all in MS.). Address: 1524 Chestnut, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Haligarten, Charles L. Born November 18, 1838, at Mainz, 
Germany. Son of Lazarus Hallgarten. Educated at Mainz and 
Mannheim, Germany, and at New York. Married Elise Mainzer 
(deceased). Connected with various mercantile houses; active 
in firm of Hallgarten and Herzfeld, 1856-1862; Hallgarten and 
Company, 1864-1877. Now special partner in firm of Hallgarten 
and Company, New York. Active in charity and communal work 
in Frankfort on the Main since 1883. Address: Miquelstrasse, 21, 
Frankfort on the Main, Germany. 

Hamburger, Louis Philip. Physician. Born September 18, 
1874, Baltimore, Md. Son of Phillip Hamburger and Rachel 
Bernei. Educated at Baltimore public schools, and pursued 
courses at Maryland College of Pharmacy, and University of 
Berlin. A.B., 1893; M. D., 1897, Johns Hopkins University. Mar- 
ried Freda Hamburger. Resident house officer Johns Hopkins 
Hospital, 1897-1898; assistant in medicine, 1899-1900, and in- 
structor in medicine, 1900, Johns Hopkins Medical School. Now 
associate in medicine Johns Hopkins Medical School; clinical 
assistant Johns Hopkins Hospital Dispensary; visiting physician 
Union Protestant Infirmary; consulting physician Hebrew Hos- 
pital; examining physician National Jewish Hospital for Con- 
sumptives. Has contributed to medical journals. Address: 1210 
Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Md, 


Hammerstein, Oscar. Theatrical Manager. Born May 8, 1848, 
Berlin, Germany. Son of Abraham Hammer stein. Educated at 
Berlin. Married Malvina Jacoby. Has been active as Journalist, 
editor, theatre builder, and theatrical manager. Inventor of 
machinery. Composer of several songs, and the operas Marguerita 
and Santa Maria. Address: Victoria Theatre, New York. 

Harburger, Julius. Under Sheriff, County of New York. Born 
February 22, 1851, New York. Son of Joseph Harburger and 
Rosa Bernstein. Educated at New York public schools. Married 
Lena Reutlinger. Appointed, 1881, interpreter, and 1887-1895, 
clerk Fourth District Municipal Court; excise commissioner, 1895; 
elected to legislature of New York, 1898, 1899, 1900, and 1901; re- 
appointed clerk of court, 1901; resigned 1902 to become under 
sheriff County of New York. Has been member of Free Sons of 
Israel for thirty-one years; United States Grand Master of the 
Order, 1891-1901; and governor Home of B'nai B'rith, Yonkers. 
Has represented the Tenth District of New York City in Tam- 
many Hall for six consecutive years. Address: 50 St. Marks 
Place, New York. 

Harby, Lee C. Writer. Born September 7, 1849, Charleston, 
S. C. Daughter of Marx E. Cohen and Armida Harby. Educated 
at home by father (gold medal graduate of Glasgow University), 
and her grandaunt, Caroline de Litchfield Harby. Married Jacob 
De La Motta Harby. Has been director Daughters of the Con- 
federacy of Charleston; and is now director Memorial Associa- 
tion of Charleston. Was chairman of Literature, Sorosis Society, 
New York; historian and recording secretary Daughters of the 
American Revolution in Charleston; member Board of Lady 
Managers, Executive Committee, and Press Committee, and chair- 
man Convocation Committee, Charleston Exposition. Member 
of various historical societies, and of Society of Authors in 
London and in New York. Read twice before the American 
Historical Society in Washington, on Land of the Tejas and 
Earliest Texas. Author: Judy Robinson, Milliner; The City of 
a Prince; Texas Types and Contrasts; The Old Stone Fort at 
Nacogdoches; An Historical Town; Romance of an Old Town; 
Fidelia; Dr. Bodley; Jessamine; and a number of poems. Won 
hundred dollar prize for the words for an official Flag Song for 
the State of Texas, since set to music and used in public schools 
and colleges of the State. Address: Charleston, S. C. 

Harkavy, Alexander. Representative of the Hebrew Immigrant 
Aid Society of New York at Ellis Island, N. Y. Born May 5, 1863, 
Nowogrudok, Minsk, Russia. Son of Joseph Moses Harkavy and 


Freide Kulik. Educated at Cheder and the Talmud Torah in 
Bible and Talmud; private instruction in ancient and modern 
languages and the sciences. Married Bella Segalowska. At four- 
teen issued a handwritten journal in Hebrew. Employed, 1879- 
1882, in printing establishment of Widow and Brothers Romm, 
Wilna, as type polisher and invoice clerk. Came to America in 
1882; worked on a farm in Dutchess County, N. Y., in various 
factories, and then became a private teacher. Lived in Paris, 
1885; returned to America, 1886; teacher of Hebrew at school of 
Shaar Hashamayim Congregation, Montreal, Can., 1886-1887. On 
editorial staff The Abend-Post, New York, 1902-1903. Founder 
and secretary Hoveve Zion Association, New York, 1885; founder 
and president Hoveve Zion Association, Montreal, 1887; founder 
and president I. B. L. Literary Society, Baltimore, 1888. Has 
contributed articles, since 1885, on linguistic, timely, and literary 
topics, to numerous English, Hebrew, and Yiddish journals, in 
EiUrope and America. Editor: Die Zeit (Yiddish), Montreal, 
1889; Der jddischer Progress (Yiddish), Baltimore, 1900; Der 
Liigner (Yiddish, with A. Tannenbaum), New York, 1892; The 
Hebrew American Weekly (English), New York, 1894; Der neuer 
Geist (Yiddish), New York, 1897; Judisch Amerikanischer Volks- 
Kalender (Yiddish), New York, 1894-1900; Der zwanzigster Jahr- 
hundert (Yiddish almanac), 1900. Author: A number of manuals 
of the English language, Yiddish-English, Russian-English, He- 
brew-English; dictionaries, vocabularies, phrase books, conver- 
sation books, letter writers, etc.; biographies (in Yiddish) of 
Washington and Columbus; defenses of the Yiddish language, and 
treatises on it; and his Autobiography (1903). Address: 427 
East 122d, New York. 

Hart, John I. Dentist. Born August 7, 1865, at New York. 
Son of Benjamin J. Hart and Harriette Morrison. Educated at 
Columbia Grammar School and New York College of Dentistry; 
D. D. S., 1886. Married Augusta J. Solomon. President, Alumni 
Association New York College of Dentistry; New York Odon- 
tological Society; First District Dental Society. Vice-president 
National Dental Association; professor Operative Dentistry, Den- 
tal Pathology, and Therapeutics, New York Dental School. Trus- 
tee Congregation Shaaray Tefillah. Publications: Minute Struc- 
ture of Dentine, in Dental Cosmos, 1891; Diseases of the Antrum, 
read before Dental Society, State of New York, at Albany, 1890; 
A Plea for the Maintenance of High Preliminary Educational 
Requirements, read before Eighth District Dental Society, State 
of New York; The Care of the Teeth from the Second to the 
Twelfth Year, in Information; and The Profession of Dentistry, 
in Success. Address: 118 West 55th, New York, 


^Hauser, Carl Frank!. Humorist and Writer. Born December 
27, 1847, Janoshaza, Hungary. Received rudimentary secular and 
Talmudic education at home. Obtained free scholarship at the 
Theatre Academy, Vienna; accepted engagements with the Vienna 
Stadttheater, 1872, remaining over two years; and with the Duke 
of Meiningen's troupe, at Berlin, 1875. Emigrated to New York, 
1875; was engaged for one season at the Germania Theatre; and 
at Thalia Theatre, 1879-1881. Joined staff of Puck, German edi- 
tion, 1876; associate editor, 1876-1879, 1881-1892. Founded Ger- 
man humorous weekly. Hallo, 1892, conducting it for about 
two years; joined staff of The New York Herald, and was a 
contributor for two years; founder of Biirger-und-Bauern Kalen- 
der (annual), 1897. Author: Twenty-five Years in America: 
Recollections of a Humorous Nature, 1900; the libretto to Made- 
leine, the Rose of Champagne. Contributed to Puck a series 
entitled Letters of Dobbljew Zizzesbeisser. Has taken part in 
many reform movements as member of German-American Reform 
Union and Citizens* Union. Popular lecturer. Address: 171 East 
83d, New York. 

Hays, Daniel P. Lawyer. Born March 28, 1854, Pleasantville, 
Westchester County, New York. Son of David Hays and Judith 
S. Peixotto (daughter of Dr. D. L. M. Peixotto, medical author). 
Educated at New York public schools and College City of New 
York. LL. B., 1875, Columbia Law School. Married Rachel 
Hershfield. President village of Pleasantville; Temple Israel of 
Harlem; Young Men's Hebrew Association, New York; and Har- 
lem Democratic Club. Chairman Municipal Civil Service Com- 
mission, New York; sheriff's counsel New York City; and grade 
commissioner. Secretary Jewish Theological Seminary before its 
reorganization; member Board of Trustees Jewish Publication 
Society of America. Member firm of Hays and Greenbaum for 
seventeen years, now Hays and Hershfield. Active as trial lawyer 
at New York bar. Resides on old homestead farm, in family since 
1785, at Pleasantville. Address: 141 Broadway, New York. 

Heiiprin, Angeio. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale University. Born March 31, 1853, Sator- 
alya-Ujhely, Hungary. Son of Michael Heilprin and Henrietta 
Silber. Studied at Royal School of Mines, London, Geneva, etc. 
Professor Invertebrate Paleontology, subsequently Geology, and 
curator in charge, Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; pro- 
fessor Geology Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia; 
president Geographical Society of Philadelphia, and vice-president 
American Alpine Club. Has made journeys in Okeechobee Wil- 
derness of Florida, 1886; Mexico, 1890; North Africa, 1896; 


Klondike, 1898-1899. Leader Peary Relief Expedition (Green- 
land), 1892. Ascended Arizaba, Popocatepetl, Ixtaccihuatl, etc., 
in Mexico, 1890; P616e, Martinique, 1902-1903. Author: Ex- 
plorations in Okeechobee Wilderness; The Bermuda Islands; 
Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals; Town Geol- 
ogy; Geological Evidences of Evolution; Alaska and the Klon- 
dike; and Mont P616e and the Tragedy of Martinique; etc. Ad- 
dress: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Heilprin, Louis. Encyclopedist. Born July 2, 1851, Miskolcz, 
Hungary. Son of Michael Heilprin and Henrietta Silber. Has 
been connected with various encyclopedic publications, including 
New International Encyclopedia, and Lippincott's Gazetteer, not 
yet completed. Author: The Historical Reference Book, 1884, 
sixth edition, 1899; The Reformed Primer and First Reader, 1900. 
Address: 219 West 138th, New York. 

Held, Anna. Star, Theatrical Company and Anna Held Opera 
Company. Born September 19, 1878, Paris, France. Daughter of 
Jean Held and Emilie Estephe. Educated at Paris. Married 
Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. Star Anna Held Opera Company for seven 
years, producing Smith and DeKoven's operas. Papa's Wife, and 
The Little Duchess; and Jean Richepin and Gustav Liider's 
Mam'selle Napoleon. Actress and leading comedienne Folies Ber- 
gere, Paris, four years. Address: 86, Faubourg St. Honore, Paris, 

Heller, Joseph Milton. Physician, Professor Tropical Diseases, 
George Washington University, Washington. Born January 29, 
1872, Staunton, Va. Son of Jonas Heller and Pauline Frank. Edu- 
cated at Washington, D. C, and Streator, 111., public schools; pri- 
vate tuition from Professor Fisher, Waverly School, Washington. 
M. D., 1896, Georgetown University. Resident physician Garfield 
Hospital, Washington, 1896-1897; assistant demonstrator Anat- 
omy, University of Georgetown, 1898; acting assistant surgeon 
United States Army, 1898-1900; major and surgeon United States 
Volunteers, 1901-1902, the first appointment made by the Presi- 
dent under the Army Reorganization Bill of 1901, consequently 
the ranking major and surgeon of Volunteers. Was recommended 
in General Lawton's report for attending wounded under fire, in 
campaign of Northern Luzon, P. I.; recommended by cable to 
War Department, for promotion, by General Otis, 1900; com- 
mended for efllcient supervision and quarantine of water supply 
of Manila, P. I., during cholera epidemic, 1902. Address: 1510 H, 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 


Hell man, Frances. Bom October 4, 1853, New York. Daughter 
of Joseph Seligman and Babette Steinhart. Educated in New 
York. Studied in Germany for a few years. Married Theodore 
Hellman (deceased). Has been president and director of sev- 
eral charitable and educational institutions, and is interested 
in musical and literary affairs. Has been school inspector in 
New York. Translated from the German: Heine's Lyrics and 
Ballads; Kinkel's Tanagra; from the French: Leroy-Beaulieu's 
Israel among the Nations. Address : care George S. Hellman, 309 
West 80th, New York. 

Herbst, Eva. Teacher. Born January 3, 1867, near Cincinnati, 
O. Daughter of Lemuel Herbst and Lena Joseph. Educated at 
Cincinnati High School, and Cincinnati Normal School. Primary 
teacher Cincinnati public schools; Hebrew Sabbath School teacher, 
K. K. Bene Israel, Cincinnati. Author: Tales and Customs of 
the Ancient Hebrews for Young Readers. Address: 1308 Locust, 
East Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, O. 

Hermann, David M. Playwright. Born May 12, 1865, Vaslin, 
Roumania. Son of Abraham Abba Hermalin. Educated in Buch- 
arest, Roumania. Married Henrietta Lustgarten. Was connected as 
journalist with Roumanian newspapers in Bucharest; compelled 
to leave for protesting against the persecution of Jews; arrived 
in New York, 1886; taught French, then Hebrew. Was editor 
Daily Jewish Herald, and The Jewish World. Translated into 
Yiddish most of Zola's and Tolstoi's works; Gulliver's Travels; 
and Bernstein's Popular Science. Has written a Hebrew pam- 
phlet on The Jews and the Freemasons; and in English an article 
on Roumanian Jews in America. Author: Die Gottheit; Die 
Liebe (both scientific dissertations), and the following novels: 
Die Heirath; Freie Liebe; Letzter Blutsturz; all in Yiddish. 
Has written nine plays. Address: 102 Powell, Brooklyn. 

Herrman, Henry. 8. President Union Exchange Bank of New 
York. Born April 27, 1847, New York. Son of Simon Herrman 
and Celia Hubert. Educated at New York public schools and 
privately. Married Jennie Goodman. Was president Mutual 
Relief Association of New York for sixteen years; president Grand 
Lodge Independent Order B'nai B'rith, 1877-1879; master Mt. 
Neboh Lodge, F. and A. M., 1888-1889. Is director of Montefiore 
Home for Chronic Invalids since 1892; trustee of Temple Beth El 
since 1889; and vice-president Hudson Realty Company. Founded 
firm of Hellman and Herrman, 1870, which became Henry S. 
Herrman & Co., and dissolved, 1886; entered real estate business 
as Adler & Herrman, 1887. Residence: 54 East. 80th, New York. 
Office: 5th Av. corner 20th, New York. 


Herrmann, Leon. Prestidigitateur. Born March 13, 1867, Paris, 
France. Son of Benjamin Herrmann and Caroline Hirshmann. 
Educated at College Springer, Paris, France. Married Marie Vedie. 
Was under direction of his uncle, Carl Herrmann, when twelve 
years old; succeeded him in 1887. Has given performances of 
magic in every large city in the world, and has appeared before 
almost all the crowned heads of Europe; has given a number of 
charitable entertainments for the benefit of Jewish institutions; 
gave performance for Hebrew Orphan Asylum, 1904, and for the 
benefit of National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives at Denver. 
Address: 51 West 91st, New York. 

Herts, Henry B. Architect and Engineer. Born January 23, 
1871, New York. Son of Henry B. Herts and Esther Moss. 
Studied at College City of New York, and Columbia University; 
Ecole National des Arts D^coratives and Ecole National des 
Beaux Arts, Paris, France; South Kensington Arts School, Lon- 
don, Eng.; at Heidelberg, Germany; and Villa Ludovica, Rome, 
Italy. Author: Theory of Modern Art; The Tenement House 
Question; Cement and Iron in Modern Structures. Works: Bates 
College, Lewiston, Me.; Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; Villa 
Julia, Lyceum Theatre, New Amsterdam Theatre, Liberty Theatre, 
New York; the Columbia Memorial, etc. Address: 32 East 28th, 
New York. 

Hertz, Alfred. Musical Conductor at Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York. Born July 15, 1872, Frankfort on the Main, Germany. 
Son of Leo Hertz and Sara Koenigswerther. Educated at Gym- 
nasium, Frankfort on the Main, and Raft Conservatorium. Con- 
ductor Hof theater, Altenburg, Saxony, 1892-1895; Stadttheater, 
Barmen-Elberfeld, 1895-1899; Stadttheater, Breslau, 1899-1902. 
Conductor of concerts in London, 1899; of German operas at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, since 1902. Decorated 
with order for Art and Science of Saxony, 1894. Conducted first 
performance of Parsifal outside of Bayreuth, at Metropolitan 
Opera House, 1903. Address: Metropolitan Opera House, New 

Hessberg, Albert. Lawyer (retired). Born December 13, 1856, 
Albany, N. Y. Son of Simon Hessberg and Hannah Westheimer. 
Educated at Albany public and high schools. Married Frederika 
Cohen. Was assistant corporation counsel, commissioner to draft 
Code of Laws and Ordinances for the City of Albany, and re- 
corder City of Albany. Governor Albany Hospital; trustee South 
End Dispensary, and Albany City Savings Institution; president 
Albany Jewish Home Society, and Capitol Railway of Albany; 


treasurer and has been vicfe-president New York State Bar Asso- 
ciation; director Cohoes Railway Company, local board American 
Surety Company, City Safe Deposit Company, and Home Tele- 
phone Company; ex-president Gideon Lodge, Independent Order 
B*nai B'rith; treasurer University Extension Centre; member 
Executive Committee Albany Branch Industrial Removal Society. 
Member law firm of Rosendale and Hessberg, successors to Peck- 
ham, Rosendale, and Hessberg. Office: 57 State. Residence: 222 
Lancaster, Albany, N. Y. 

Hessberg, Samuel. Banker and Broker. Born June 13, 1859, 
Albany, N. Y. Son of Simon Hessberg and Hannah Westheimer. 
Educated at Albany public and high schools. Married Rose G. 
Brilleman. President Adelphi Club; vice-president Young Men's 
Association; trustee Union Trust Company. Prominent in re- 
organization of Distilling and Cattle Feeding Company. Sent 
Northern Pacific stock by special train to New York from Albany 
during corner in Northern Pacific stock, 1901. Address: 38 Wil- 
lett, Albany, N. Y. 

Heyman, Seymour C. President Chamber of Commerce, Okla- 
homa City. Born August 1, 1861, New York. Son of Caesar Hey- 
man and Caroline Steinberg. Educated at New York public 
schools and College City of New York. Married Beckie Gerson. 
Treasurer Roosevelt's Rough Rider Reunion, 1900; Masonic 
Lodge; Fair lawn Cemetery Association, and Cattlemen's Conven- 
tion, 1904. Oklahoma delegate to Washington, 1902, in behalf of 
single statehood. Chairman Committee World's Fair Affair, Okla- 
homa City. Was president Hebrew Congregation, and has several 
times refused nomination by Democratic party for mayor, as well 
as other political offices. Exalted Ruler Elks. Address: 108 
Main, Oklahoma City, O. T. 

Hillkowitz, Philip. Physician. Born September 7, 1873, Salant, 
Kovno, Russia. Son of Rabbi Elias H. Hillkowitz. Educated 
at Cincinnati public and high schools. B. S., 1894, University of 
Cincinnati; M. D., 1897, Ohio Medical College. Professor Path- 
ology, Denver and Gross College of Medicine, Denver, Colo.; path- 
ologist Denver County and City Hospital, National Jewish Hos- 
pital for Consumptives, St. Anthony's Hospital, and Mercy Hos- 
pital; chemist Colorado State Board of Health. Emigrated to 
United States, 1885; settled in Cincinnati; moved to Denver, 1897; 
while at University and Medical College was translator and cor- 
respondent in French, German, Spanish, Italian, and Russian to 
Cincinnati firms engaged in export business. Address: 1427 
Stout, Denver, Colo. 


^Hiiiquit, Morris. Lawyer. Born A!ugust 1, 1870, Riga, Russia. 
Educated at Riga Gymnasium. Emigrated to the United States, 
1887; studied law, and was admitted to New York bar, 1893. 
Active in the Socialist movement since 1888 ; delegate to Rochester 
convention, 1899-1900; served as a representative of the Rochester 
wing of the Socialist Labor party at Unity convention held at 
Indianapolis, 1900, and was prominent in fusion of his party with 
the Social Democratic party founded by Eugene V. Debs. National 
committeeman from the State of New York, 1903. Counsel for a 
number of trade unions during labor disputes. Has contributed 
numerous articles to the Socialist press of America. Author: 
The History of Socialism in the United States, 1903. Address: 
320 Broadway, New York. 

♦HIrsch, Harry J. Captain, Infantry, United States Army. Born 
December 29, 1867, Pennsylvania. Graduate Central High School, 
Philadelphia, 1885. Cadet Military Academy, 1887; second lieu- 
tenant 15th Regiment Infantry, 1891; first lieutenant, 18th Regi- 
ment Infantry, 1897; transferred to 4th Regiment Infantry, 1900; 
appointed captain 25th Regiment Infantry, July 13, 1900; trans- 
ferred to 20th Regiment Infantry, July 30, 1900. Address: War 
Department, Washington, D. C. 

Hirschberg, Michael Henry. Presiding Justice of the Appel- 
late Division of the Supreme Court, State of New York, Second 
Department. Born April 12, 1847, Newburgh, N. Y. Son of 
Henry M. Hirschberg and Fanny Francks. Married Lizzie 
McAlles. Was special county judge and district attorney Orange 
County, N. Y.; president Board of Education, Newburgh; state 
delegate to constitutional convention, New York State, 1894; 
justice Supreme Court, 1896; appointed on Appellate Division, 
1900; presiding justice, 1904. Address: Supreme Court, New- 
burgh, N. Y. 

Hirschfelder, J. V. Professor Clinical Medicine, Cooper Medical 
College, San Francisco. Born September 8, 1854, Oakland, Cal. 
Son of Aaron Hirschfelder and Henrietta Block. Educated at 
San Francisco public schools. Studied at University of California, 
1869-1871. M. D., 1876, University of Leipzig. Married Clara 
Honigsberger. Professor Materia Medica, 1879-1881, and professor 
Clinical Medicine, 1881-1882, Medical College of the Pacific; pro- 
fessor Clinical Medicine, Cooper Medical College, since 1882. Has 
written various articles for medical journals, and for CyclopsBdia 
of Diseases of Children, also Monograph on Treatment of Tubercu- 
losis. Residence: 1392 Geary. Office: 481 Geary, San Francisco, 


Hirsh, Abram Bernheim. Physician. Born March 21, 1858, 
Lancaster, Pa. Son of Herman Hirsh and Augusta Bernheim. 
Educated at Lancaster public schools. M. D., 1882, Jefferson Col- 
lege, Philadelphia. Pursued post-graduate courses in Berlin and 
other European cities. Fellow College of Physicians of Phila- 
delphia, 1888. Married Olga Tachau. Resident physician German 
Hospital; instructor Operative Gynaecology, Jefterson College; ad- 
junct professor Orthopsedic Surgery, Polyclinic; physician to Char- 
ity Hospital, and Home for Aged Couples, all of Philadelphia. 
Member American Medical Association, Pennsylvania State Medi- 
cal Society, Philadelphia County Medical Society, College of 
Physicians, Philadelphia, Medical Jurisprudence Society, and 
Medical Club. Ex-president Medico-Legal Society of Philadelphia. 
Has done editorial work on medical journals and text books. 
Address: 1711 Diamond, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hirsh, Hugo. Lawyer. Born December 22, 1848, in Germany. 
Son of Philip Hirsh and Dorothea Indig. Educated in New York 
public schools; studied law in oflace of the late Anthony Barrett 
until admission to bar. Married Katie A. Burhaus. Counsel to 
Brooklyn Board of Police and to sheriff of Kings County. Was 
Republican candidate for Supreme Court judge, but was defeated, 
1895; counsel to Assembly Cities Committee to investigate Depart- 
ment of Charities in Kings County, 1895. Thirty-second degree 
Mason, member of Kismet Temple. Author: On Juries; Tabu- 
lated Digest of the Divorce Laws of the United States. Has con- 
tributed articles to magazines. Address: Temple Bar, 44 Court, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hirsh, Jose Lewis. Physician; Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity of Maryland. Born September 12, 1871, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Son of Henry Hirsh and Babette Strauss. A. B., 1892, Johns 
Hopkins University; M. D., 1895, University of Maryland; and 
pursued post-graduate courses in medicine at Johns Hopkins 
Hospital, 1895-1896, and University of Berlin, 1896-1898. Married 
Amelia Moses. Demonstrator Embryology, University of Mary- 
land, 1898; lecturer on Bacteriology, Woman's Medical College, 
1899; assistant professor Pathology, 1900, professor Pathology, 
1901, University of Maryland; coroner Baltimore City, 1902-1904. 
Has written numerous monographs on Bacteriology, Pathology, 
and Diseases of Children. Address: 1819 Linden Av., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Hirshinger, Herbert Jay. Captain United States Marine Corps. 
Born at Thomasville, Ga. Son of Jay Hirshinger and Marion 
Heineman. Educated at public schools and Staunton Military 


Academy, Staunton, Va. Married Ethel Millikin. Second lieu- 
tenant 1st N. C. Volunteers in war with Spain. Appointed second 
lieutenant United States Marine Corps, January, 1900; first lieu- 
tenant, July, 1900, captain, December, 1904. Served in war with 
Spain in Cuba; in China Relief Expedition, 1900; in Philippines, 
1900-1903; Panama, 1903-1904; and on several ships United States 
Navy. Address: Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, League Island, 

Hoffheimer, Harry Max. Justice Superior Court, Cincinnati, O. 
Born August, 1868, Cincinnati, O. Son of Max Hoffheimer and 
Sarah Rauh. Educated at Cincinnati public schools; pursued 
special course at Harvard. LL. B., 1889, Cincinnati Law School. 
Married Stella Feiss. For two years assistant corporation counsel 
City of Cincinnati; elected member Ohio House of Representa- 
tives; resigned after session to assume duties of prosecuting 
attorney for Hamilton County, and was re-elected, 1903. Appointed 
to fill vacancy on bench of Superior Court by Governor M. T. 
Herrick, 1904. Address: 2335 Grandview Av., Walnut Hills, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Hoffman^ Benjamin. Justice Municipal Court, Borough of Man- 
hattan, Fifth District, New York. Born April 15, 1864, New 
York. Son of David L. Hoffman and Babette Heilman. Educated 
at New York public schools. LL. B., University of New York. 
Married Rebecca Wallenstein. Member of State Assembly, 1895- 
1899. One of minority members Mazet Special Committee to 
investigate the affairs of the City of New York, 1899. Address: 
271 Seventh, New York. 

Hoi lander, Jacob H. Professor of Political Economy, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Born July 23, 1871, Balti- 
more, Md. A. B., 1891; Ph.D., 1894, Johns Hopkins University. 
Instructor Political Economy, Amherst College, 1894. Instructor, 
1895, associate, 1896, and associate professor Finance, 1899-1900, 
Johns Hopkins University; associate professor Political Economy, 
1900-1902, director of department, 1902-1904, professor and head 
of department, 1904, Johns Hopkins University. Secretary Bime- 
tallic Commission abroad in 1897; chairman Municipal Lighting 
Commission, City of Baltimore, 1900; chairman Committee on 
Municipal Finance, Baltimore Reform League; appointed special 
commissioner to revise the laws relating to taxation in Puerto 
Rico by Secretary of War, 1900; while engaged in this service 
was appointed treasurer of Puerto Rico by President McKinley; 
organized treasury department and devised and introduced pres- 
ent revenue system (Hollander Law) of island, resigning August, 


1901, after system was in successful operation. Appointed, 1904, 
special agent for the United States to devise a system of taxation 
for Indian Territory. Member of various historical, economic, and 
statistical societies. Trustee American Jewish Historical Society, 
and member Publication Committee, Jewish Publication Society of 
America. Author: The Cincinnati Southern Railway, A Study 
in Municipal Activity, 1894; The Financial History of Baltimore, 
1899; Letters of David Ricardo to J. R. McCuUoch, 1895 (edited) ; 
Letters of David Ricardo to Hutches Trower (edited, with James 
Bonar, LL. D.), 1899; The Financial History of Baltimore, 1899; 
Studies in State Taxation, with particular reference to the South- 
ern States, 1900; Reprint of Economic Tracts (edited), 1903. 
Contributor to economic and other Journals and Publications 
American Jewish Historical Society. Address: 2011 Eutaw Place, 
Baltimore, Md. 

♦Hopowitz, Moses Ha-Levi. Playwright. Born Adar 7, 1844, 
Stanislau, Galicia. Established Jewish theatre at Bucharest, 1876, 
and was the first to Introduce actresses on the Jewish stage. 
Went to New York, 1884, with a company of his own. Has written 
one hundred and sixty-nine plays, among them. Das Polische 
Yingel; Schlome Chochom; Kuzri; Chochmath Noshim; Ben 
Hador; Yetzlath Mizraim; Tissa Eslar, and a play on Kishineft. 
Address: Windsor Theatre, Bowery, New York. 

Hourwich, Isaac A. Expert Special Agent, Bureau of the 
Census. Born April 27, 1860, Wilna, Russia. Son of Adolph 
Hourwich and Rebecca Shevelevich. Educated at Classical Gym- 
nasium, Minsk; studied at University of St. Petersburg, Russia; 
LL. M., 1887, Demidov Juridical Lyceum, Jaroslav, Russia; Ph. D., 
1893, Columbia University, New York. Married Louise Joffe. 
Docent in Statistics, University of Chicago, 1893-1895; instructor 
in Statistics, Columbian (now Greorge Washington) University, 
Washington, D. C, 1901-1903; translator. Bureau of the Mint, 
1900-1902; expert special agent, Bureau of the Census, since 1902. 
Imprisoned four times in Russia for being " politically unsafe," 
and deported to Siberia for four years. Emigrated to escape 
further unpleasantness. Practiced law three years in Russia, and 
seven years in the United States. Author: Peasant Emigration 
to Siberia (in Russian), 1888; The Economics of the Russian Vil- 
lage, 1893. Has written a number of articles and monographs for 
periodical publications. Address: 1347 East Capitol, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Hiihner, Leon. Lawyer. Born September 18, 1871, Berlin, 
Germany. Son of Edward Htihner and Minna Jakmuss. B. A., 


1890, College City of New York; M.A., 1893, and LL. B., 1893, 
Columbia University. Came to New York in 1876. Curator Amer- 
ican Jewish Historical Society. Author: Francis Salvador, a 
Prominent Patriot of the Revolutionary War; The Jews of 
Georgia in Colonial Times; The Jews of New England prior to 
1800; Gershom Mendez Seixas, the Patriot Jewish Minister of 
the American Revolution; and a number of additional essays on 
the history of the Jews in America; Andrew H. Green, a Tribute 
to his Memory, 1903. Contributed articles to the Publications of 
the American Jewish Historical Society, Jewish Encyclopedia, 
Jewish Comment, American Hebrew, and other periodicals. Ad- 
dress: 64 East 58th, New York. 

Hummeiy Abraham Henry. Lawyer. Born July 27, 1850, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Son of Moses Hummel and Hannah Newburge. Edu- 
cated at New York public schools. Counsel for theatrical mana- 
gers of America and Great Britain; also attorney for French 
dramatic authors. Address: 346 Broadway, New York. 

Huslk, Isaac. Instructor in Hebrew, Gratz College, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Born February, 1876, at Vasentinez, Poltava, Russia. 
Son of Wolf Husik and Hanna Pia Husik. Received private 
Hebrew instruction in Russia before age of twelve; studied with 
Rev. Dr. Sabato Morals, and at Central High School of Philadel- 
phia. A. B., 1897; A. M., 1899; Ph. D., 1903, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Holder of University Research Fellowship in Philosophy, 
University of Pennsylvania. Teacher of Hebrew, Hebrew School 
No. 3, Hebrew Education Society, Philadelphia. Has ready for 
publication: Messer Leon's Commentary upon the Vetus Loglca; 
The Categories of Aristotle. Has contributed to the Jewish 
Encyclopedia. Address: 616 Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Iliowizi, Henry. Author. Born January 2, 1850, Choinick, 
Minsk, Russia. Son of Elijah Sckorow and Dinah Moses. Studied 
in the Chedarim of Choinick; the Talmudical College of Vietka, 
near Gromel; under Dr. H. Baerwald, Frankfort on the Main, 1870- 
1872; in the Jewish Teachers' Seminary, Berlin, under Ch. Hor- 
witz, 1872-1875; at the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, 
1875-1877; and spent two years in London and Paris under the 
Anglo- Jewish Association and the Alliance Israelite Universelle. 
Naturalized in Roumania under the name Iliowizi. Married 
Mathilda Flesch. Taught in school of the Alliance at Tetuan, 
Morocco, for three years, and for four years at Gibraltar. Emi- 
grated to the United States, 1880; preacher of Congregation 
Sharai Tob, Minneapolis, Minn., 1881-1888; rabbi of Congre- 
gation Adath Jeshurun, Philadelphia, 1888-1901. Travelled in 


the Azores and North Africa, 1901-1902; and now resides in 
London. Author: Sol (an epic poem); Herod (a tragedy); 
Joseph (a drama); Jewish Dreams and Realities; Saul (a Bibli- 
cal tragedy) ; Through Morocco to Minnesota; In the Pale; The 
Weird Orient; The Archiery of Samara; The Quest of Columbus 
(an epic poem). Several works in press (The Hand of the 
Kabbalist, The Little Fugitive, Zrona Podolska). Address: 63 
CoUingwood Av., Muswell Hill, N., London, Eng. 

Illoway, Henry. Physician. Born November 29, 1849, at Kollin, 
Bohemia. Son of Rabbi Bernhard Illoway and Katharine Schift. 
Educated in public schools and under private tutors. M. D., 1869, 
Miami Medical College, Cincinnati. Resident physician, Cincin- 
nati Hospital, 1869-1870; formerly professor Diseases of Children, 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, and visiting physi- 
cian Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati. Has contributed articles to the 
medical press. Author: Constipation in Adults and Children; 
Ueber diatetlsche Vorschriften bei der Behandlung chronischer 
Herzleiden, in Berliner Klinik, 1903; The Summer Diarrhoeas of 
Infants, in Berliner Klinik, 1904. Address: 1113 Madison Av., 
New York. 

Imber, Naphtali Herz. Author. Born December 25, 1856, Zlo- 
czow^ Galicia. Son of Samuel Imber. Married Amanda Katie 
Davidson. Author: Barkai (two volumes of poems); Topics of 
To-day in the Talmud; Keynote to Mystical Science; Treasures of 
Ancient Jerusalem; The History of the Golden Calf; The Educa- 
tion of the Talmud; Autobiography (in press); Ha-Tikwah, the 
Zionish anthem. Editor: Uriel, a monthly magazine, Boston. 
Address: care A. S. Freidus, New York Public Library, New 

Isaacs, Isaac S. Lawyer. Born, 1845, New York. Son of 
Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs and Jane Symmons. Educated at Forrest 
and Quackenbos' Collegiate School, New York. A. B., 1865; and 
A.M., 1867, New York University; LL. B., 1867, Columbia Uni- 
versity. Married Estelle Solomon (deceased). President West 
End Synagogue since 1898; of Hebrew Benevolent Fuel Associa- 
tion since 1879; secretary United Hebrew Charities since 1879; a 
founder and, 1876-1879, president of Young Men's Hebrew Associa- 
tion; president Union of Jewish Congregations in New York, 1900; 
president first National Conference of the Jewish Charities of the 
United States, 1899; vice-president of the same, 1900. Editor of 
The Jewish Messenger, 1867-1878; contributor thereto, until 1902. 
Publisher of Friday Night (Jewish tales), 1871. Address: 110 
Ea«t 73d, New York. 


Israels, Charles Henry. Architect. Born December 23, 1865, 
New York. Son of Lehman Israels (brother of Josef Israels, the 
Dutch painter) and Florence Zilla Lazarus. Educated at Irving 
Institute, Tarrytown, and Art Students League, and studied for 
a short time in Paris. Married Belle Lindner. Employed by 
the late Charles B. Atwood for some years; manager office of 
Richard Berger; worked in many other offices during career as 
draughtsman. Firm constructed Hahnemann Monument, Wash- 
ington, D. C; Hudson Theatre, Arlington Hotel, and Warrington 
Hotel, New York. Winners of second and third prizes in com- 
petition for Model Tenements held by Charity Organization So- 
ciety. Member American Institute of Architects, New York 
Chapter Architectural League, and Municipal Art Society. Has 
done occasional newspaper work, chiefly for New York Herald. 
Writer for the technical press on architectural topics, especially on 
improved tenements and on hotels and apartment houses. Edi- 
torial writer for Architecture. Residence: 179 West 97th.* Office: 
31 West 31st, New York. 

Jacob, Ephralm A. Attorney-at-law. Born January 14, 1845, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Julius Jacob. B. S., College City of 
New York, and LL. B., Columbia University Law School. Mar- 
ried Miss Bendit. Justice of the Court of Special Sessions, City 
of New York, 1895-1901. Author: Jacob's Fisher's Digest of the 
English Common Law (11 vols.); New York Common Pleas Re- 
ports (vols. 10-17 Daly's Reports). Address: 25 Broad, New 

Jacobs, Joseph. Author and Critic. Born August 29, 1854, 
Sydney, N. S. W. Educated at Sydney Grammar School and 
University; St. John's College, Cambridge, Eng. (senior moralist, 
1876). Also studied under Steinschneider and Lazarus, 1877, in 
Berlin. Secretary Society of Hebrew Literature, 1878-1884; secre- 
tary of the Mansion House Committee (in aid of Russian 
Jewish immigrants), 1882-1900; honorary secretary Literature 
and Art Committee of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, 
1887; went to Spain to investigate Jewish manuscript sources, 
1888; lecturing tour in the United States, 1896; came to New 
York, 1900, to act as revising editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia, 
which position he now occupies. Corresponding member Royal 
Academy of History, Madrid, and Brooklyn Institute. One of 
the founders and, 1898-1899, president Jewish Historical Society 
of England; one of the founders of the Maccabeans, London; 
member for many years of Executive Committee Anglo-Jewish 
Association, and of conjoint committee of the same association 
with Board of Deputies, London, Was honorary secretary Inter- 


national Folk-Lore Council, and, 1881, chairman literary com- 
mittee Folk-Lore Congress in London. Member Publication Com- 
mittee, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1904. Contributor 
to Jewish Chronicle, Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 
Athenaeum, and numerous other periodicals. Editor: Folk-Lore; 
Jewish Year Book (English), 1896-1899; Literary Year Book, 
1898-1899; The Jewish World, New York; and, at present, Jewish 
Charity, New York. Has issued many collections of fairy tales, 
and many editions of the English classics. Edited: North's 
Fables of Bidpai, 1887; Caxton's iEsop, 1889; Painter's Palace of 
Pleasure, 1891; Howell's Familiar Letters, 1892; Day's Daphnis 
and Chloe, 1890. Has written introductions to Arabian Nights, 
Morris's Old French Romances, Austen's Emma, Chamisso's Peter 
Schlemihl, Thackeray's Esmond, etc. Author: Bibliography of 
Anglo-Jewish History (with Lucien Wolf), 1887; English Fairy 
Tales,. 1890; Studies in Jewish Statistics, 1890; Celtic Fairy Tales, 
1890; The Persecution of the Jews in Russia (appendix: Anti- 
Jewish Legislation in Russia), 1891; Indian Fairy Tales, 1892; 
Tennyson and In Memoriam, 1892; Jews of Angevin England, 
1893; More English Fairy Tales, 1893; Sources of the History of 
the Jews in Spain, 1894; More Celtic Fairy Tales, 1894; Studies 
in Biblical Archseology, 1894; Statistics of Jewish Population in 
London, 1894; JEsop's Fables, 1894; Literary Essays, 1895; Rey- 
nard the Fox, 1895; As Others Saw Him, 1895; Jewisjx Ideals, 
^896; Wonder Voyages, 1896; Story of (Geographical Discovery, 
1898. Address: care Funk and Wagnalls Company, 44-60 East 
23d, New York. 

Jacobson, Maurice. Librarian, Bureau of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. Born July 5, 
1868, at Riga, Russia. Son of Lazar B. Jacobson and Ida Cohn. 
Educated at Riga Classical Gymnasium, 1879-1885; University of 
Moscow, 1885-1890; School of Political Science, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, 1892-1893, 1894-1895. Author: The World's Sugar 
Production and Consumption, 1800-1900; Commercial Russia. 
Address: Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and 
Labor, Washington, D. C. 

Jacobson, Nathan. Physician and Surgeon. Born June 26, 
1857, Syracuse, N. Y. Son of Israel Jacobson and Mary Sulz- 
bacher. Educated at Syracuse high school. M. D., 1877, College 
of Medicine, Syracuse University. Married Minnie Schwartz. 
Professor Clinical Surgery, College of Medicine, Syracuse Uni- 
versity; surgeon St. Joseph's Hospital, Syracuse, and consulting 
surgeon Syracuse Hospital for Women and Children. Has con- 
tributed to medical societies and Journals. Address: 430 South 
Salina, Syracuse, N. Y, 


Jastrow, Joseph. Professor of Psychology, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison. Born January 30, 1863, Warsaw, Poland. Son of 
Rabbi Marcus Jastrow and Bertha WolfFsohn. Educated at Rugby 
Academy, Philadelphia. A. B., 1882, University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., 1886, Johns Hopkins University. Married Rachel Szold, 
1888. Fellow in Psychology, Johns Hopkins University, 1885-1886. 
In charge of psychological exhibit of Chicago World's Fair, 1893; 
president American Psychological Association, 1900. Author: 
Time Relations of Mental Phenomena, 1890; Fact and Fable in 
Psychology, 1900. Contributor to Psychological Review, American 
Journal of Psychology; Popular Science Monthly; Century Maga- 
zine; Harper's Magazine; Scribner's; Educational Review; Har- 
per's Weekly; Science; etc. Address: 247 Langdon, Madison, 

Jastrow, Morris, Jr. Professor Semitic Languages and Libra- 
rian, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Born August 13, 
1861, Warsaw, Russia. Son of Rabbi Marcus Jastrow and Bertha 
Wolffsohn. Educated at private schools, 1866-1877; B. A., 1881, 
University of Pennsylvania; Breslau and Leipzig Universities, 
1881-1884; Ph.D., Leipzig University; Paris and Strassburg Uni- 
versities, 1884-1885. Married Helen Bachman. One of the Secre- 
taries of the American Philosophical Society. Author: Religion 
of Babylonia and Assyria, 1898; Die Religion Babyloniens und 
Assyriens, 1902; The Study of Religion, 1901; two grammatical 
treatises of Abu Zakarijja Hayyug. Editor: Selected Essays of 
James Darmesteter (translated by Mrs. Jastrow), 1895. Editor 
of the Jewish Encyclopedia, Department of the Bible, vols. 1 and 
2, and Semitic Department, International Encyclopedia. Con- 
tributor to Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, the Encyclopedia 
Biblica, etc. Has written numerous papers in technical periodi- 
cals. Address. 248 South 23d, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joff6, Joshua Abraham. Instructor in Talmud, especially Rab- 
binical Jurisprudence, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
at New York, since 1902. Born February 2, 1862, Nesvizh, Minsk, 
Russia. Son of Passah Joft6. Talmudic education received in 
Nesvizh, Lechowitz, Selvde, and Volosin. Rabbinical authoriza- 
tion conferred by I. J. Reiness, 1881, and the "Hochschule" of 
Berlin, 1888. Officiated as rabbi in Vishnove, 1880, and in Moabit 
(a suburb of Berlin), 1889-1892. Pursued courses in philosophy 
under Paulsen, Zeller, and Lazarus; in history under Erdman 
and Treitschke; and in Semitics under Sachau and Diteritzi, at 
the University of Berlin, 1886-1890. Came to America, 1892; 
preceptor in Talmud and Rabbinical Ethics, Jewish Theological 
Seminary, 1892-1902; instructor in Hebrew and Jewish Ethics, 


Hebrew Orphan Asylum, since 1893. Author: Emendationen 
in Talmud und Midrasch (in Israel), 1885; Zu Rappaport's Erech 
Millin (in Israel), 1886; Beitrage zur Geschichte der Amoraim 
(Berliner's Magazin), 1885; En Yafeh (specimens of a Tal- 
mudic Concordance not yet completed), 1885; Le-Toledot ha- 
Amoraim, 1886; Biography of Graetz (Rab Poalim Mekabziel), 
1887; Gabra de-Moreh Mesayeh (in Ha-Asif), 1887; Metibe Zaad 
va-Leket (in Ha-Asif), 1887; Al ha-Halifot ve-ha-Temurot (in 
Ha-Zefirah), 1887-1889; M. Lazarus, 1894; H. Steinthal, 1893, and 
Salvation without Noise, 1898 (in American Hebrew), 1898; Spirit 
of Judaism (in Hebrew Standard), 1896; Beni u-ben Chomi 
(in Jewish Exponent), 1901. Correspondence, editorial articles, 
etc., in various periodicals. Address: 530 West 123d, New York. 

Jonas, Benjamin F. Attorney and Counsellor at Law. Bom 
July 19, 1834, Williamstown, Kentucky. Son of Abraham Jonas 
and Louisa Block. Educated at private schools in Illinois; LL. B., 
1855, Law University of Louisiana (now Tulane). Married Jose- 
phine A. Block. Member both branches Louisiana legislature, 
1865-1867, 1870, 1872, 1877-1878; city attorney New Orleans, 1874- 
1878; United States Senator from Louisiana, 1879-1885; collector 
of customs at New Orleans, 1885-1889; member Democratic Na- 
tional Committee, Louisiana, 1876-1888. Has lived in Louisiana 
and practiced law there since 1853. Served in Confederate Army 
during Civil War, was paroled, and discharged, March, 1865. 
Represented Louisiana in five National Democratic Conventions. 
Delivered addresses, lectures, and arguments on political, histor- 
ical, and legal subjects. Address: New Orleans, La. 

Jonathanson, Jonas A. Merchant. Born July 6, 1855, Wilna, 
Russia. Son of Aaron Jonathanson and Helena Blumberg. Edu- 
cated at Russian Gymnasium, and graduate in pharmacy, Char- 
kov University, 1878. Married Dora K. Katzenelenbogen. Came 
to New York, 1891. Has written poems, sketches, and novels, 
mostly humorous, in Hebrew, Russian, and German. Address: 
89 East 4th, New York. 

Joseph!, Isaac A. Artist. Born New York City. Son of 
Alexander Josephi. Educated in New York and Paris. Honor- 
able mention, 1900, Paris; silver medal, Charleston, 1902. Presi- 
dent American Society of Miniature Painters; member Royal 
Society of Miniature Painters, London. Regular contributor of 
landscapes to exhibitions. Address: 556 Fifth Av., New York. 

Judd, Max. Born 1851, Cracow, Austria. Son of Adolf Judkie- 
wicz. Self-taught since the age of twelve. Married Jennie T. 


Meyberg. United States consul general, Vienna, Austria, 1893- 
1897. Winner of second prize in Centennial Chess Tournament, 
Philadelphia, 1876. Address: care Monticello Hotel, St. Louis, 

Judson, Solomon. Born March 26, 1877, at Deretchin, Grodno, 
Russia. Son of Judah Judson and Hannah Rosenberg. Educated 
privately. Married Minnie Shapiro. Edited (with Ph. Turberg) 
Me'et Le'et (a Hebrew periodical), 1900. Author of Agadot 
ve-Dimyonot, 1903. Has contributed articles to various Hebrew 
periodicals. Address: 194 Columbus Av., New York. 

Jurist, Louis. Physician. Born April 10, 1855, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Son of Sigmund Jurist and Theresa Trautmann. Educated 
at Philadelphia public schools, and Jefterson Medical College 
(M. D., 1880). Married Louise Stieglitz. Lecturer Jefferson Medi- 
cal College; visiting physician St. Mary's Hospital; laryngologist 
Jewish Hospital. Has written articles on medical questions. 
Address: 916 North Broad, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kahn, Juiius. Attorney-at-law. Born February 28, 1861, Kup- 
penheim, Baden, Germany. Son of Herman Kahn and Jeanette 
Weil. Educated at San Francisco public schools. Married Flor- 
ence Prag. Member of the legislature, California, 1893-1894; 
member of United States Congress, 1899-1903. Followed theatrical 
profession for a number of years, playing with Edwin Booth, 
Joseph Jefferson, Tomaso Salvini, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence, 
Clara Morris, and others. Address: Mills Building, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Kalischy Bertiia. See Spaciiner, Bertiia Kaliscii. 

Karfunkle, David. Artist. Born June 10, 1880, in Austrian- 
Poland. Son of Julius Karfunkle and Victoria Langsam. Edu- 
cated at New York; studied art at National Academy of Design, 
New York, and Royal Academy, Munich, 1897-1900. Came to 
America at age of ten years; entered National Academy of Design 
five years later. Work has been exhibited at Pittsburg, Chicago, 
and Philadelphia since 1900. Address: 329 East 79th, New York. 

" Karl." See Bloomingdale, Cliarles, Jr. 

Kaufmann, Edward. County Clerk, Kings County, N. Y. Born 
September 17, 1856, New York. Son of Veit Kaufmann. Edu- 
cated at New York public schools. Married Sarah Rossman. 
Chairman Law Committee, Brooklyn Public Library; counsel to 


Carnegie Committee Public Libraries; trustee and chairman 
Board of Education, Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum; vice- 
president People's Hebrew Institute. Member of law firm Davis 
and Kaufmann. Address: 49-51 Chambers, New York, or 573 
Jefferson Av., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kempner, Isaac Herbert. Banker. Born January 14, 1874, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Son of Harris Kempner and Elizabeth Seins- 
heimer. Educated at Washington and Lee University, Lexing- 
ton, Va. Married Henrietta Blum. Treasurer City of Galveston 
(elective office) ; commissioner of Finance and Revenue, City of 
Galveston (appointed by Grovernor of State). Address: Galves- 
ton, Texas. 

Keyser, Ephraim. Sculptor. Born October 6, 1850, Baltimore, 
Md. Son of Moses Keyser and Betty Preiss. Educated at Balti- 
more public schools. City College, Baltimore, and Royal Art 
Academies, Munich and Berlin. Instructor of Modelling Classes, 
Maryland Institute Art Schools and the Rinehart School for Sculp- 
ture, Baltimore, Md. Works: Busts of Sidney Lanier, Cardinal 
Gibbons, Dr. Daniel C. Gilman, Henry Harland, and others; 
Statue of Major-General Baron de Kalb, erected at Annapolis, 
Md., for the United States Government; Tomb of President 
Chester A. Arthur, Rural Cemetery, Albany; the Stein Tombs, 
Baltimore Hebrew Cemetery; Psyche (for which the Michael 
Beer scholarship for Rome was awarded him; in marble in 
Cincinnati Art Museum); the Page; The Old Story; Titania; 
The Rose; A Duet; and a number of portrait memorial tablets. 
Address: 5 West Mulberry, Baltimore, Md. 

Keyser, Ernest Wise. Sculptor. Born December 10, 1874, 
Baltimore, Md. Son of Solomon Keyser and Helena Wise. Edu- 
cated at Deichmann's Preparatory Academy, Baltimore, and stu- 
died art at Maryland Institute Art Schools; Art Students League, 
New York; and Julien's, Paris, France. Studied sculpture under 
St. Gaudens, Puech, and Dampt, Paris. Married Beatrice Obern- 
dorf. Member National Sculpture Society of the United States. 
Ophelia (marble bust), exhibited in Salon, 1897; and in Salon of 
the Champs Elys6es, a life size alto relievo portrait bust of 
Enoch Pratt and a medallion portrait of a lady. Works: memorial 
tablet to Doctors Harris and Hayden, Baltimore; heroic bust of 
Admiral W. S. Schley, ordered by State of Maryland; bust of 
William S. Barry for School for the Deaf, Frederick, Md.; Harper 
statue representing Sir Galahad, for Ottawa, Canada; mausoleum 
Simon Goldenberg, New York; numerous busts, medallion por- 
traits, etc., private commissions received in Baltimore, Paris, and 
New York. Address: rue de Bagneux, Paris, France. 


*Klaw, Marc. Theatrical Manager. Born May 29, 1858, Padu- 
cah, Ky. Son of Leopold Klaw. Educated in Louisville public 
and high schools. Married Antoinette M. Morris (deceased). 
Studied law and was admitted to bar; since 1881 has been 
engaged as theatrical manager. Residence: New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Office: New Amsterdam Theatre, New York. 

Kobrin, Leon. Novelist and Playwright. Born March 15, 1872, 
Vitebsk, Russia. Son of Raphael Kobrin. Educated privately. 
Married Pauline Segal. Wrote stories and sketches in Russian at 
the age of fifteen. Came to America, 1892, and began to write 
Yiddish tales in 1893; has written in Yiddish since. Was engaged 
successively in shirtmaking, cigarmaking, bread baking, weaving, 
and as newsdealer, failing in all on account of his strong desire 
to devote himself to literature exclusively. Author: Yankel 
Boyle and Other Sketches; Collection of Stories or Ghetto-Dramas 
(2 vols.); and the following plays: Mina; East-Side Ghetto; 
Broken Chains; Sonia of Bast Broadway; Lost Paradise; Blind 
Musicians; God and Trust; Two Sisters. Address: 293 Henry, 
New York. 

Kohler, Max J. Attorney-at-law. Born May 22, 1871, Detroit, 
Mich. Son of Rabbi K. Kohler and Johanna Einhorn. Edu- 
cated at public and private schools; B. S., 1890, and M.S., 1893, 
College City of New York. M. A., 1891, and LL. B., 1893, Law 
and Political Science Schools, Columbia University. Admitted 
to bar, 1893. Assistant United States District Attorney, New 
York, 1894-1898; special assistant United States District Attorney, 
1898-1899. Recording secretary, American Jewish Historical So- 
ciety, 1901-1903; corresponding secretary since 1903. Occasional 
lecturer before Jewish Chautauqua Society, Judseans, and Young 
Men's Hebrew Association. Edited Judge Daly's Settlement of the 
Jews in North America, 1893 ; and Methods of Review in Criminal 
Cases in the United States, 1899. Author: Chapter on Jews and 
Judaism in America for Halliday and Gregory's The Church in 
America, 1896; Rebecca Franks, an American Jewish Belle of the 
Last Century, 1894. Contributor to the Publications of the Amer- 
ican Jewish Historical Society, Jewish Encyclopedia, American 
Hebrew, Menorah Monthly, and Albany Law Journal. Occa;gional 
special contributor to New York Times. Office: 119 Nassau. 
Residence: 34 East 76th, New York. 

Kohn, Annette. Born at New York. Daughter of Hezekiah 
Kohn and Louise Sanger. Travelled extensively in Europe. Has 
written numerous poems and articles for secular and religious 
papers and magazines in the United States, England, and Aus- 
tralia. Address: 3 West 39th, New York. 


Kohuty George Alexander. Assistant Librarian Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary, since 1902. Born February 11, 1874, Stuhlweis- 
senburg, Hungary. Son of Rabbi Alexander Kohut and Julia 
Welssbrunn. Educated at Realschule and Gymnasium, Grosswar- 
dein, Hungary; New York public schools, Columbia University, 
Jewish Theological Seminary, University of Berlin, and Hoch- 
schule fiir die Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin. Received 
private instruction in Rabbinics from his father. Rabbinical de- 
gree conferred by Rev. Dr. B. Felsenthal, Chicago, 1897. Rabbi in 
Dallas, Texas, 1897-1900; principal Religious School Temple 
Bmanu-El, since 1902; editor Jewish Home, 1903-1904; rabbi of the 
Emanu-Bl Sisterhood. Author: Italian Index to the Arukh Com- 
pletum, 1892 ; Early Jewish Literature' in America, Publications 
American Jewish Historical Society No. 3; Jewish Martyrs of the 
Inquisition in South America, Publications No. 4; other essays in 
other volumes of the Publications; Bibliography of the Writings 
of Professor M. Steinschneider in the Steinschneider Festschrift, 
1896; Bibliography of the Writings of Alexander Kohut in Tri- 
butes to the Memory of Reverend Doctor A. Kohut; Ezra Stiles 
and the Jews, 1902; contributions to the Revue des Etudes Juives, 
Jewish Quarterly Review, Zeitschrift fiir Hebraische Bibliogra- 
phie. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Magyar Zsid6 
Szemle, American Hebrew, and Jewish Comment. Has written 
numerous essays on historical topics, bibliography, and folklore, 
also verse for various religious and secular periodicals. Address: 
44 West 58th, New York. 

*Koopman, Augustus. Artist. Born 1869, Charlotte, N. C. Son 
of Bernard Koopman. A. B., 1886, Central High School, Phila- 
delphia. Married Louise Lovett Osgood. Studied at Pennsylvania 
Academy Fine Arts under Bouguereau and Fleury, and at Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, Paris. Taught painting in Paris, 1896-1899, now 
resident in London, specializing in portraits. Exhibitor at Paris 
Salons, Munich, London, and American exhibitions since 1890. 
Won first William Clarke prize, American Art Association, Paris. 
1899. Awards: second Wanamaker prize, 1898; bronze and silver 
medals, Paris Exposition, 1900; represented in French and Amer- 
ican collections, Detroit Museum, portraits and decorations. 
Decoration in United States National Pavilion, Paris Exposition, 
1900; medal Pan-American exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Works: Le 
Ben§dict6; Two Forces. Address: The Players, New York, and 
5 Rosetti Studios, Flood, Chelsea, London, Eng. 

♦Koplik, Henry. Physician. Born October 28, 1858, New York 
City. Son of Abraham S. Koplik. Graduate College City of New 
York, 1878; M. D., 1881, College Physicians and Surgeons. Pur- 


sued post-graduate courses at Uniyersities of Leipzig, Prague, 
and Vienna. Married Stephanie Schiele. Connected with Bellevue 
Hospital; the Good Samaritan Dispensary; assistant professor 
of Pediatrics at Bellevue Medical College. First to describe an 
early diagnostic sign in measles, since known as Koplik's Spots; 
also found the bacillus of whooping-cough. Introduced free de- 
livery of pasteurized milk to the needy. Has written essays in 
medical journals. Author: Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, 
1902. Address: 66 East 58th, New York. 

Korn, Louis. Architect. Born March 19, 1869, New York. 
Son of Jacob Korn and Caroline Sink. Educated at New York 
public schools, Columbia Grammar School, Columbia University 
School of Mines (Ph. B., 1890). Married Lillie E. Schleestein. 
Consulting Engineer for Public Buildings under Mayor Low's 
and under Mayor McClellan's administration. Address: 31 West 
33d, New York. 

Kotinsky, Jacob. Entomologist, Assistant in Division of Ento- 
mology, United States Department of Agriculture. Born July 22, 
1873, in Province of Poltava, Russia. Son of Joseph Kotinsky and 
Matlie-Bessie Zitkin. Educated in a Russian Cheder until thir- 
teen years of age; at Baron de Hirsch Agricultural School, 
Woodbine, N. J., 1893-1894; and at Rutgers College (course in 
agriculture; B. S., 1898), 1894-1898. Married Sara R. Levin. 
Instructor Natural Sciences, Baron de Hirsch Agricultural School, 
1898-1899; Scientific Aid, 1899-1900, and, since 1900, Assistant in 
Division of Entomology, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. Author: Autobiography of an Immigrant; The First North 
American Leaf-gall Diaspine, in Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society, Washington; Observations on Some New and Little 
Known Orthoptera with Biological Notes (translated from the 
Russian), in Entomological Record, London, 1902; Suggestions 
on Removal, in American Hebrew, 1903; Our Insect Neighbors, 
Mosquitoes, Hirsch School Journal; The Woodbine Colony, Amer- 
ican Hebrew, 1899. Address: United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Division of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Kraemer, Mrs. Hugo. See Franko, Jeanne. 

" Krantz, Philip.'' See Rombro, Jacob. 

KrauSy Adolf. Lawyer. Born at Blowitz, Bohemia. Son of 
Jonas Kraus and Ludmila Ehrlich. Educated at Rokycan, Bohe- 
mia. Married Mathilde Hirsch. President Board of Education; 
president Civil Service Commission; and corporation counsel; 


president Isaiah Temple since 1899, all of Chicago. Was pub- 
lisher and editor of The Chicago Times. Address: Tribune 
Building, Chicago, 111. 

Kronberg, Louis. Artist. Born 1872, Boston, Mass. Graduate 
Eliot grammar school, and studied art at Boston Art Museum, 
and Art Students League, New York. Pursued course in music 
in Boston. Studied works of the great masters in Europe, and 
on his return won Longfellow Travelling Scholarship. Studied 
in Paris under Benjamin Constant, Jean Paul Laurens, and 
Raphael Collin. Painted several pictures of Loie Fuller in Paris, 
one being exhibited in the Salon, 1898. Returned to Boston, 1898, 
and opened studio, also became instructor in Boston Art Stu- 
dents Association, and in the Copley Society. Travelled in 1899 
with Richard Mansfield to paint him in different characters. 
Painted portraits of leading actors and musicians. His painting. 
Behind the Footlights, purchased for the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Has exhibited in Paris and America. 
Address: 3 Winter, Boston, Mass. 

Kursheedt, Manuel Augustus. Lawyer. Born August 14, 1840, 
New York. Son of Asher Kursheedt and Abigail Judah. Edu- 
cated at private schools, New York public schools, and Free 
Academy (now College City of New York); B. A., 1858; M. A., 
1862, College City of New York. Was Director United He- 
brew Charities, and the Educational Alliance; managing secre- 
tary Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society; secretary Hebrew Technical 
Institute; vice-president Aguilar Free Library Society; president 
Young Men's Hebrew Association. Has written a few articles for 
periodicals and society reports. Address: 280 Broadway, Room 
269, New York. 

Lachman, Arthur. Chemical Engineer. Born December 4, 1873, 
San Francisco, Cal. Son of Abraham Lachman and Marie Laz- 
arus. Educated at San Francisco public schools; Real Gymna- 
sium, Posen, Germany; University of California, Berkeley (B. S., 
1893); University of Munich (Ph.D., 1895). Married Bertha 
Nathan. Assistant Instructor University of Michigan, 1896-1897; 
professor chemistry, 1897-1902, and dean College of Science, Uni- 
versity of Oregon, 1900-1902. Fellow American Association for 
the Advancement of Science; member American Chemical Society, 
German Chemical Society, Verein deutscher Chemiker, Deutsche 
Bunsen Gesellschaft, and Society of Chemical Industry. Author: 
The Spirit of Organic Chemistry, 1899; numerous technical papers 
in scientific Journals. Address: 131 Second, San Francisco, Cal. 


Lachman, Samson. Lawyer. Born May 2, 1855, New York. 
Son of Samuel Lachman and Babette Hirsch. Educated at New 
York public schools; graduate College City of New York and 
Columbia University Law School. Justice Sixth District Court, 
New York City, 1888-1894. Address: 35 Nassau, or 233 Bast 19th, 
New York. 

Landsberg, Emil M. Index Editor New York Times. Born 
November 28, 1871, Rochester, N. Y. Son of Rabbi Max Lands- 
berg. Educated at Darmstadt, University of Rochester, and 
University of New York. Was librarian Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, New York State; assistant librarian Buffalo Public Library. 
Address: New York Times, New York. 

Landsberg, Leon. Department Editor, New York Tribune, since 
1889. Born February, 1853. Educated at Leipzig, Germany. 
Was teacher of modern languages in the South; editor of Anzeiger 
des Siidens, Birmingham, Ala.; and lecturer on Vedanta philos- 
ophy. Contributor to Staats-Zeitung, New York, and to num- 
erous English, French, and Spanish newspapers. Address: 16 
Irving Place, New York. 

*Lauchheimer, Charles Henry. Lieutenant Colonel, Assistant 
Adjutant, and Inspector, Marine Corps. Born September 22, 1859, 
Baltimore, Md. Graduate United States Naval Academy, Annap- 
olis, 1881. LL. B., Columbia University, 1884. Entered Marine 
Corps, 1883; first lieutenant, 1890; captain, 1898; major, since 
1901. At present on duty at Manila, P. I. Author: Naval Courts 
and Naval Law, 1896; Forms of Procedure for Naval Courts and 
Boards, 1896, 1902. Address: Navy Department, Washington, 
D. C. 

Lauterbach, Edward. Lawyer. Born August 12, 1844, New 
York. Son of Solon Lauterbach and Mina Rosenbaum. Graduate 
New York public schools, and College City of New York (then 
Free Academy; A. B., 1864; A. M., 1867. Married Amanda Fried- 
man. Delegate at large to Constitution Convention, 1894; and to 
Republican National Convention, 1896; chairman Republican 
County Committee, 1896-1898, and Board of Trustees College City 
of New York; delegate to National Convention, 1900; vice-presi- 
dent Maurice Grau Opera Company; director of various corpora- 
tions, and of Hebrew Orphan Asylum for twenty years. Member 
State Commission to Remedy Law Delays. Now Regent of the 
University of the State of New York. As vice-president of He- 
brew Emigrant Aid Society went to Europe in 1881, held con- 
ferences with European delegations, attended general conference 


at Vienna, and succeeded in regulating emigration of Russian 
exiles. Residence: 761 Fifth Av. Office: 22 William, New York. 

Lauterbach, Jakob Zailel. Office Editor Jewish Encyclopedia. 
Born January 6, 1873, at Monasterzyska, Gallcia. Son of Israel 
Lauterbach and Taube Bandler. Educated at University of Ber- 
lin, and Gottingen (Ph.D., 1902), and at the Berliner Rabbiner 
Seminar (Rabbinical authorization, 1903). Author: Saadja Al- 
fayyumi's Arabische Psalmeniibersetzung und Commentar, 1903. 
Address: care Funk and Wagnalls Company, 44-60 East 23d, 
New York. 

Lazarus, Edgar M. Architect. Born June 6, 1868, Baltimore, 
Md. Son of Edgar M. Lazarus and Minnie Mordecai. Educated 
at Baltimore public schools, and Maryland Institute Art Schools. 
Received George Peabody diploma for architectural design. Super- 
intendent of Construction United States Public Buildings for 
eight years. Architect of one hundred and twenty buildings, 
State, municipal, and private, during the fourteen years of activ- 
ity in his profession. Address: 665 Worcester Building, Port- 
land, Ore. 

Lazarus^ Josephine. Author. Born March 23, 1846, New York. 
Daughter of Moses Lazarus and Esther Nathan. Educated at pri- 
vate schools. Author: Spirit of Judaism, 1895; Madame Dreyfus, 
1899; biographical sketches: Emma Lazarus, Century Magazine, 
1888; Marie Bashkirtseflf, Scribner's Magazine, 1889; Louisa May 
Alcott, and Margaret Fuller, Century Magazine, 1893; articles on 
Zionism in the American Hebrew, Maccabsean, and The New 
World, 1899. Has written numerous reviews and articles for The 
Critic, etc. Address: 38 West 10th, New York. 

Lederer, Ephraim. Attorney-at-law. Born January 24, 1862, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Leopold Lederer and Fanny Weil. 
Educated at Philadelphia public schools; graduate Central High 
School; and pursued a partial course in University of Pennsyl- 
vania Law School. Married Grace M. Newhouse. Vice-president 
and former Secretary Young Men's Hebrew Association; secre- 
tary Philadelphia Branch Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica; director and former secretary Jewish Hospital Association, 
Philadelphia; director, and, 1888-1890, assistant secretary, Jewish 
Publication Society of America; trustee Gratz College, Philadel- 
phia; was member State Committee of the Jeffersonian Party. 
Associate editor Jewish Exponent, Philadelphia, 1901-1904. Has 
written a number of lectures and essays on Jewish subjects pub- 
lished in Jewish journals. Address: 1317 North 12th, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 


Lehman, Israel J. Architect. Born October 29, 1859, St. Joseph, 
Mo. Son of Joseph Lehman and Hannah Schwarz. Educated at 
Cleveland, O., public schools, and privately. Married Nannie 
Scheuer. Member of firm of Lehman and Schmitt. Works: 
Cuyahoga County Court House, Cleveland; Bradford County Court 
House, Towan da, Pa.; Fayette County Court House, Lexington, 
Ky. ; Sheriff St. Market and Storage Buildings, The Temple, Anshe 
Chesed Synagogue, Central Armory, Central Police Station, 
United Banking and Savings Company Building, The Bailey Com- 
pany Building, and City Hospital, all of Cleveland; City National 
Bank, Canton, O. Address: 625 Garfield Building. Residence: 
121 Euclid Av., Cleveland, O. 

Leipziger, Henry M. Supervisor of Lectures, Board of Educa- 
tion, New York. Born December 29, 1854, Manchester, England. 
Son of Marcus Leipziger and Martha Samuel. Educated in Man- 
chester, and New York public schools. A. B., 1873, College City 
of New York; LL. B., 1875, and Ph.D., 1888, Columbia University. 
Organizer Hebrew Technical Institute and director, 1884-1891; 
assistant superintendent New York public schools, 1891-1896; 
supervisor of lectures since 1890. Chairman Library Committee 
Aguilar Free Library (now part of New York Public Library), 
1887-1903; president New York Library Club, 1901; and Depart- 
ment Manual Training, National Education Association, 1896. 
Vice-president Jewish Publication Society, and member of its 
Publication Committee. Addresses on ethical and educational 
topics before colleges, congregations, American Library Associa- 
tion, and National Educational Association. Author: The New 
Education, 1887; The Education of the Jews, 1889 (translated and 
adapted from the monograph of Samuel Marcus). Address: 229 
East 57th, New York. 

Leipziger, Pauline. Librarian Fifty-Ninth Street Branch New 
York Public Library. Born in England. Daughter of Marcus 
Leipziger and Martha Samuel. Educated at New York public 
schools. Pursued special courses in Library Economy. Chief 
librarian Aguilar Free Library of New York (now part of the 
New York Public Library), 1892-1903. Address: 229 East 57th, 
New York. 

Leo, Richard Leopold. Architect. Born September 7, 1872, 
New York. Son of Arnold Leo and Sarah Leopold. Educated at 
Columbia Grammar School, and School of Arts and Mines, Colum- 
bia University (Ph. B., 1895). Works: residences at 1069 Fifth 
Av.; S. E. corner 50th St. and Madison Av.; and 2 East 87th St., 
New York; resideace of Isidor Straus, Elberon; and of S. Ull- 


mann, Tarrytown; building for Government of Ecuador, Pan- 
American Exposition, Buffalo; Emanu-El Sisterhood Building, 
New York; Century Country Club, White Plains; and several 
apartment buildings, New York. Residence: 172 West 86th. 
Office: 124 West 45th, New York. 

* Leopold, Harry Gerard. Lieutenant Commander, United States 
Navy. Born in Iowa. Entered service of United States Navy, 
October 1, 1878; appointed lieutenant commander, October 11, 
1903. Ordered to Cincinnati, 1903. Address: Navy Department, 
Washington, D. C. 

Lessler, Montague. Lawyer. Born January 1, 1869, New 
York. Son of Siegmund Lessler and Annie Schreier. Educated 
at New York public schools. College City of New York (B. S., 
1889), and Columbia University Law School. Member Fifty- 
seventh Congress from the Eighth Congressional District, New 
York. Office: 31 Nassau, New York. Residence: 7 Central Av., 
Tompkinsville, S. I. 

Leventritt, David. Justice of Supreme Court, State of New 
York. Born January 31, 1845, at Winnsboro', S. C. Son of George 
M. Leventritt. Educated at New York public schools. College 
City of New York (then Free Academy; A. B., 1864), and Law 
School University of New York (LL. B., 1872). Married Matilda 
Lithauer. Was commissioner for condemnation of lands; vice- 
president Aguilar Free Library. Was long active as trial lawyer 
in corporate and commercial cases, and acted as special counsel 
to City of New York in important cases. Address: 34 West 77th, 
New York. 

Levi, Louis. Architect. Born December 29, 1868, Baltimore, 
Md. Son of Joseph Levi and Babetta Apfel. Educated at private 
school, Baltimore public schools, and Baltimore City College. 
Began the study of architecture at the office of the late Charles 
L. Carson, and completed his studies at the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, Boston, Mass., 1893. Works: Shearith Israel 
Synagogue, Children's Home, Department Store buildings, and 
dwellings, all in Baltimore. Is building a number of warehouses 
in the burnt district, Baltimore. Address: Room 41, Central 
Savings Bank Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Levi, IVIoritz. Junior Professor Romance Languages, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Born November 23, 1857, Sachsen- 
hausen, Waldeck, Germany. Son of Hirsch Levi and Helen e 
Rosenbaum. Educated in Germany, University of Michigan (A. B., 


1887), and Sorbonne, Paris. Married Bertha Wolf. Author: 
(with V. E. Francois) French Reader, 1896. Edited: Molidre, 
L'Avare, 1900; and Manzoni, I Promessi Sposi, 1901. Has written 
article on V. Hugo, the Novelist, Forum, 1902. Address: 1029 
Vaughn, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Levi as, Caspar. Instructor Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 
O. Born February 13, 1860, at Szagarren, Russia. Son of Jacob 
Levias and Mary Kahan. Educated privately, and at Columbia 
University, New York (B. A., 1893; M. A., 1894); pursued post- 
graduate courses at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Married Irene Schwarz. Fellow in Oriental Languages, Columbia 
University, 1893-1894; fellow in Semitic Languages, Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1894-1896. Author: A Grammar of the Aramaic 
Idiom contained in the Babylonian Talmud, 1900. Has written 
articles in the American Journal of Semitic Languages and Liter- 
atures, American Journal of Philology, American Journal of 
Theology, Hebrew Union College Journal, Kadimah, and other 
periodicals. Address: Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. 

Levin, Isaac. Surgeon. Born November 1, 1866, at Sagor, 
Russia. Son of Salom Levin and Etta Brick. Educated at Fifth 
Gymnasium, and Imperial Military Medical Academy, St. Peters- 
burg (M. D., 1890). Pursued studies in clinical surgery and ex- 
perimental pathology in Germany, France, and Switzerland, 1895- 
1896. Married Sophie Bloch. Ordinator in Surgery at Alex- 
ander's Military Hospital, St. Petersburg, 1890-1891; attending 
surgeon West Side German Dispensary of New York, 1897-1903; 
now surgeon to Sydenham Hospital, New York. Has contributed 
articles on medical subjects to medical journals in this country 
and abroad. Address: 1883 Madison Av., New York. 

Levin, Louis H. Attorney-at-law, Editor Jewish Comment, Bal- 
timore. Born January 13, 1866, Charleston, S. C. Son of Harris 
Levin and Dora M. Levine. Educated at Baltimore public schools, 
and Baltimore University (LL. B., 1903). Married Bertha Szold. 
Engaged in mercantile pursuits for many years. Was lecturer 
at Baltimore University. Has written Jewish stories in the Jew- 
ish Comment, Jewish Exponent, American Hebrew, and Menorah, 
and a Syllabus of Lectures on Bills and Notes. Address: 837 
West North Av., Baltimore, Md. 

Levussove, Moses 8. Instructor College City of New York. 
Born February 22, 1874, at Rossiena, Russia. Son of Benedict 
Levussove and Victoria Margolis. Educated at New York public 
schools. B. S., 1893, College City of New York. LL.B., 1900, 


New York Law School; pursued courses at New York University 
and at Art Students League. Was head of English Department, 
Hebrew Technical Institute, New York. Had charge of Literary 
Department of the Twentieth Century Magazine. Has written 
articles on art, letters, ana descriptive geometry, for magazines. 
Address: 17 Lexington Av., New York. 

Levy, Clifton Harby. Writer. Born June 21, 1867, New Or- 
leans, La. Son of Eugene H. Levy and Almeria E. Moses. Edu- 
cated at New Orleans, Cincinnati high school. University of Cin- 
cinnati (B. A., 1887), and Hebrew Union College (Rabbi, 1890); 
pursued post-graduate courses at Johns Hopkins University. 
Married Cora Bachrach. Rabbi in New York, one year; Lan- 
caster, Pa., two years; Baltimore, Md., two years; contributor to 
periodical press, seven years. Organized classes for instruction 
of immigrant children for Baron de Hirsch Fund, 1890. Has 
written articles on Biblical, archaeological, and scientific subjects 
for magazines and newspapers. Address: Hotel Balmoral, or 
320 Broadway, New York. 

Levy, Ferdinand. Lawyer. Born December 11, 1843, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Son of Simon Levy and Adele Bernard. Educated 
at German American Academy, Milwaukee, and Milwaukee high 
school. Married Rachel Fisher. Has been alderman at large, 
coroner, register, and commissioner of Taxes and Assessments, 
City and County of New York. Grand master Sons of Benjamin 
since 1887; past commander Stein wehr Post, G. A. R., Depart- 
ment of New York; member Grand Lodge Free Masons, State of 
New York, and all Jewish and fraternal organizations. Served 
in the Federal army during Civil War with father and two 
brothers. Residence: 235 West 112th. Office: 290 Broadway, 
New York. 

Levy, Florence N. Editor American Art Annual. Born 1870, 
New York. Daughter of Joseph Arthur Levy and Pauline Good- 
heim. Educated at New York private schools. Pursued special 
course in the History of Art under M. Lafenestre, curator of 
paintings at the Louvre, Paris. In charge of catalogue work. 
Division of Fine Arts, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. 
Editor New York Art Bulletin, lecturer and instructor in the 
History of Art. Address: 226 West 58th, New York. 

♦Levy, Jefferson Monroe. Ex-Congressman, Lawyer. Son of 
Captain Jonas P. Levy and Fanny Mitchell. Educated in public 
schools. Graduate University City of New York. Studied law 
and was admitted to bar. Member Chamber of Commerce; 


Board of Trade and Transportation; and Real Estate Exchange. 
Vice-president Democratic Club many years. Owns home of 
Thomas Jefterson, Monticello. Member of Congress, 1899-1901, 
Thirteenth New York District. Address: 20-22 Broad, New York. 

Levy, Louis Edward. Photo-chemist, Inventor. Born October 
12, 1846, Steinowitz (Pilsen), Bohemia. Son of Leopold Levy and 
Wilhelmina Fischer. Educated at Detroit, Mich., public schools. 
Field work and study with M. Thelen, surveyor, Detroit, 1860- 
1861. Special course in mathematics, 1866-1867, University of 
Michigan. Microscoplst to Investigate trichinosis, Detroit, 1866; 
meteorological observer, 1863-1871, Detroit and Milwaukee; pub- 
lished new method of micro-photography, 1869; field photo- 
grapher, 1872-1873; invented "Levytype" (photo-engraving) pro- 
cess, 1873; established Levytype Company, Baltimore, 1875; Phila- 
delphia, 1877-1899 ; invented, with brother, Max Levy, " Levy Line 
Screen," 1887; "photo-mezzotint" process, 1889; new method of 
etching, "Levy Acid Blast," 1896; and recently Levy Etch-Pow- 
dering Machine. Received medals, premiums, and diplomas, from 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1889, 1899; Columbian Exposi- 
tion, Chicago, 1893; Imperial Russian Photographic Society, Mos- 
cow, 1896; and Paris Exposition, 1900. One of the organizers, 
1888, and member of Executive Committee, 1889-1895, Philadel- 
phia Typothetae; vice-president and chairman Executive Com- 
mittee Philadelphia Exhibitors' Association, Columbian Exposi- 
tion, 1893; member Board of Judges, National Export Exposition, 
Philadelphia, 1899; delegate of Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 
to Scientific Congresses, Paris Exposition, 1900; vice-president, 
Congr^ des Associations d' Inventeurs; member, since 1896, and 
chairman in 1901, of Committee on Science and the Arts, Frank- 
lin Institute; member Board of Managers, chairman Library Com- 
mittee, and chairman School City Committee, Franklin Institute, 
since 1903, and its lecturer on Techno-Graphic Arts since 1904. 
Director Rappaport Benevolent Association, 1879-1883; director, 
1882, and since 1900, honorary life director, Hebrew Education 
Society; an organizer, since 1884 a director, and since 1888 the 
president, of the Association for the Relief and Protection of 
Jewish Immigrants, all of Philadelphia; an organizer and director 
of the Jewish Alliance of America, 1891. Organized Iconographic 
Publishing Company, and published seven volumes of Brockhaus' 
Ikonographische Encyklop£ldie, 1884-1893; edited and published, 
1896, English translation of Raimundo Cabrera's Cuba and the 
Cubans; collaborated with Cabrera, 1897-1899, in publication of 
Cubay America, New York; one of the founders, 1887, and since 
then director of The Jewish Exponent Publishing Company; 
compiler, editor, and publisher, Wolf's American Jew as Patriot, 


Soldier, and Citizen, 1895; author and publisher, 1896, Business, 
Money, and Credit (brochure); author and publisher. The Jewish 
Year (Oppenheim's pictures of Jewish life), 1895. Part owner 
and chief editor, Philadelphia Evening Herald, 1887-1890, and 
Philadelphia Sunday Mercury, 1887-1891. Contributed articles to 
Polytechnic Review, Journal of Fabrics, and Jewish Exponent. 
Laboratory: 1221 Spring Garden. Residence: 854 North 8th, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Levy, Max. Electrician. Born October 6, 1868, Galveston, 
Texas. Son of I. C. Levy and Minna Posner. Educated at Galves- 
ton public schools, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (Elec. Eng., 
1890). Married Stella Dreeben. Constructing engineer. Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr and Company, 1890-1891; electrical engineer. 
Interstate Railroad, Kansas City, Kansas, 1891; chief engineer 
Galveston City Railroad Company, 1891-1892; engaged in prac- 
tice as electrical engineer since 1892. Author: The Effect of 
Electricity on Traction. Address: 21st and Av. K, Galveston, 

Levy, Max. Inventor and Manufacturer. Born March 9, 1857, 
Detroit, Mich. Son of Leopold Levy and Wilhelmina Fischer. 
Educated at Detroit public schools. Married Diana Franklin. 
Received John Scott medal, Franklin Institute, Philadelphia; 
silver medal. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic; gold medals, Chicago, 
1893, Paris, 1900, and Buffalo, 1901. Engaged in photo-engraving 
until 1890; invented, with brother, Louis Edward Levy, engraved 
screen for half-tone process; prominent in development of half- 
tone process. Contributed to Photographic Society, Philadelphia, 
1896; Paper and Press, 1894-1896, also articles for photo-engrav- 
ers' Annuals in America and England. Address: Wayne Av. and 
Berkley St., Wayne Junction, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Levy, William. Architect. Born December 31, 1866, New 
Orleans, La. Son of Marx Levy and Rosa Meyer. Educated at 
St. Louis public schools; Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111.; Wy- 
man Institute, Alton, 111.; and at architectural schools, London, 
Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Florence, and Rome. Member American 
Institute of Architects. Address: Odd Fellows Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Lewi, Isidor. Editorial Writer New York Tribune and Pub- 
lisher New Era Illustrated Magazine. Born May 9, 1850, Albany, 
N. Y. Son of Doctor Joseph Lewi and Bertha Schwarz. Edu- 
cated at Albany. Married Emita Wolff. Address: 38 Park Row, 
New York. 


Lewin-Epstein, Elias Wolf. Manager Carmel Wine Company 
for the United States. Born July 22, 1863, Vilkovishken, Poland. 
Son of Samuel Lewin-Epstein and Euge Rokeach. Educated in 
Vilkovishken, and the Talmudical Academy of Volosin, Russia; 
received secular education in Russian, German, and French, in 
Warsaw and Germany. Married Judith Feinberg. Was adminis- 
trator for ten years of Jewish Agricultural Colony, Rehobot, 
Palestine; and manager of the Hebrew Publishing Company, 
Gebriider Lewin-Epstein, Warsaw. Actively interested in the 
Zionist movement in Russia since 1882; founder of the society 
Menuha ve-Nahlah, which established the colony Rehobot in 
Palestine. One of the founders of the international Carmel Wine 
Companies in Europe and America. Assisted in creating the 
Hebrew Publication Society Achiassaf. Author: The History of 
the Colony Rehobot (in Hebrew and English). Address: 70 East 
122d, New York. 

Lewisohn, Adolph. President United Metals Selling Company, 
vice-president Utah Mining Company and New York Metal Ex- 
change; director of other corporations. Born May 27, 1849, Ham- 
burg, Germany. Son of Samuel Lewisohn. Educated at Ham- 
burg. Married Emma Miriam Cahn. Vice-president Hebrew 
Technical School for Girls; director Mount Sinai Hospital, United 
Hebrew Charities, Educational Alliance, all of New York, and 
other institutions. Address: 9 West 57th, New York. 

. Lichtenauer, J. Mortimer. Artist. Born May 11, 1876, New 
York. Son of Joseph M. Lichtenauer and Rebecca Deutsch. Edu- 
cated at private schools until the age of nineteen, and 1895-1898 
at Art Students League, New York, under H. S. Mowbray and 
Kenyon Cox. Studied for two years under Sue Olivier Mersoni 
in France, and for two years copied frescoes and studied the 
early old masters in Italy. Received President's prize (bronze 
medal) for design for mural decoration, Architectural League of 
New York, 1903. Decorated ceiling of Music Room, residence of 
Ferdinand Hermann, 1904. Portraits and decorative pictures 
exhibited at St. Louis Exposition and other exhibitions. Member 
Architectural League of New York. Address: 58 West 52d, New 

Lichtenstein, Joy. Assistant Librarian, Public Library, San 
Francisco, Cal. Born October 14, 1874, San Francisco, Cal. Son 
of Morris Lichtenstein and Amelia Marks. Educated at San 
Francisco public schools and University of California. Married 
Anna Wolfe, 1899. President Library Association of California, 
1904. Author: For the Blue and Gold, a Tale of Life at the 



University of California; Bibliography of Louis Agassiz (In his 
"Life" by C. F. Holder). Has contributed to periodicals. Ad- 
dress: Public Library, San Francisco, Cal. 

Liebling, Max. Pianist and Musical Director. Born September 
22, 1846, in Silesia, Prussia. Son of Jacob Liebling. Educated at 
the Royal Conservatory of Music, Berlin. Married Mathilde Ben- 
jamin. Director Piano Department at Conservatories of Music in 
Berlin, Cincinnati, Chautauqua, and New York. Has made con- 
cert tours with August Wilhelmj, Marianne Brandt, and Lili Leh- 
mann, through Germany and America. Works: Songs, piano 
compositions, violin and cello compositions. Address: 57 West 
83d, New York. 

" Liesin, A/' See Walt, Abraham. 

Lipman, Clara (Mrs. Louis Mann). Actress. Born December, 
1875, Chicago, 111. Daughter of Abraham Lipman and Josephine 
Bruckner. Educated at Chicago and New York, at schools and 
under private tutors. Pupil of Professor Oskar Guttmann. Mar- 
ried Louis Mann. Played with Mme. Modjeska, and then with 
A. M. Palmer's Company; played in classical drama in German 
and English companies. Starred with her husband, Louis Mann, 
for five years; will star alone, season 1904-1905. Owing to severe 
accident to arm did not play during season 1902-1903. Author: 
Pepi (a play in four acts) ; Julie Bon Bon (comedy in three acts) ; 
Eleanor's Poet (short story). Has written magazine articles. 
Address: 1239 Madison Av., New York. 

Lipman, Jacob G. Soil Chemist and Bacteriologist for the 
New Jersey State Experiment Station. Born November 18, 1874, 
Friedrichstadt, Courland, Russia. Son of Michael Lipman and 
Ida Birkhahn. Educated privately at Moscow; attended Oren- 
burg Classical Gymnasium, Woodbine Agricultural School, Rut- 
gers College (B. S., 1898), Cornell University, Ithaca (A.M., 
1900; Ph.D., 1903). Married Cecelia Rosenthal. Came to Amer- 
ica, 1888; factory employee and lawyer's clerk, 1888-1891; one 
of the pioneer farmers Baron de Hirsh Agricultural Colony, 
Woodbine, 1891-1894. Assistant chemist New Jersey State Experi- 
ment Station, 1898-1899; Graduate Scholar Cornell University, 
1900-1901; Sage Fellow in chemistry, Cornell University, 1901- 
1902 ; soil chemist and bacteriologist New Jersey State Experiment 
Station since 1902. Author: Studies in Nitrification, Master's 
Thesis, Cornell, 1900, and 1902; (with Professor E. B. Voorhees) 
Individuality of Plants an Important Factor in Plant Nutrition, 
1902; Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria, 1902; Contributions to the Mor- 


phology and Physiology of Denitriflcation, 1902; Nitrogen Fixing 
Bacteria, Doctor's Thesis, Cornell University, 1903; The Fixation 
of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Bacteria, 1903; Bacterial Life in the 
Soil, 1903; Bacterial Purification of Sewage, 1904. Has written 
biographical and historical sketches in the Jewish Encyclopedia. 
Address: Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Lipsky, Louis. Corresponding Secretary of the Independent 
Order of B'nai B'rith. Born November 30, 1876, Rochester, N. Y. 
Son of Jacob Lipsky and Dinah R. Philipowsky. Educated at 
Rochester public and high schools; studied at Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, one year, and studied law in Rochester two 
years. Editor: The Shofar, Rochester; The Maccabaean, and 
English page, Jewish Daily Herald, New York; assistant editor. 
The American Hebrew, New York, for four years. Has contrib- 
uted to various magazines; translated Yiddish sketches, many 
by I. L. Perez. Address: 723 Lexington Av., New York. 

LIttauer, Lucius Nathan. Manufacturer, and Member of Con- 
gress from the Twenty-fifth District of New York. Born Jan- 
uary 20, 1859, Gloversville, N. Y. Son of Nathan Littauer and 
Harriet Sporborg. B. A., 1878, Harvard University. Engaged in 
glove-manufacturing business, 1878. Elected to Fifty-fifth, Fifty- 
sixth, Fifty-seventh, and Fifty-eighth Congresses, and unani- 
mously renominated by the Republican party for the Fifty-ninth. 
Director National and State Banks and Trust Companies. Presi- 
dent and director of manufacturing corporations; president Glove 
Trade Association. Founder and executive manager Nathan Lit- 
tauer Hospital, Gloversville. Address: Gloversville, Fulton 
County, N. Y. 

Loeb, Abraham UN man. First Lieutenant Ninth Regiment In- 
fantry, United States Army. Born September 19, 1878, La Fayette, 
Ind. Son of Gustav Loeb and Ada Ullman. Educated at La Fa- 
yette public and high schools, and at Purdue University. Served 
with Company C, 160th Indiana Volunteers Infantry as private 
and corporal, 1898-1899, spending three months in Cuba; ap- 
pointed second lieutenant 9th Infantry, December, 1899; joined 
9th Infantry in Philippines, 1900; served for eleven months in 
China during the Boxer uprising, 1900, participating in the 
engagements of Tien Tsin, Pie Tsan, Yang Tsun, capture of Pe- 
king; and in expedition under General Wilson to Ming Tombs and 
Great Wall of China, 1901. Participated in quelling insurrection 
on Island of Samar, 1901-1902. Recommended for brevet for 
bravery at battle of Tien Tsin, and promoted first lieutenant, 1902. 
Address: War Department, Washington, D. C. 


Loeb, August B. Vice-president Tradesmen's National Bank, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Born June 16, 1841, Bechtheim, Germany. Son 
of Benjamin Loeb. Educated at Philadelphia public schools. 
Married Mathilde Adler (deceased). Director and member Fi- 
nance Committee of Market Street National Bank, and of Finance 
Company of Pennsylvania; director and member Executive Com- 
mittee South Chester Tube Company, Chester, Pa.; president 
Tartar Chemical Company, Jersey City, 1876-1889, when Company 
sold out to a syndicate; treasurer Jewish Hospital Association, 
Philadelphia, since 1879. Address: 2030 North 60th, Philadelphia, 

Loeb, Isidor. Professor Political Science and Public Law, Uni- 
versity of Missouri, since 1902. Born November 5, 1868, Roan- 
oke, Howard County, Mo. Son of Bernhard Loeb and Bertha 
Myer. Educated at Columbia, Mo., private schools. University 
of Missouri, Columbia (B. S., 1887, M.S. and LL. B., 1893); 
Columbia University, New York (Ph.D., 1901); Berlin Univer- 
sity. Teaching Fellow in history, University of Missouri, 1892- 
1894; University Fellow in jurisprudence, Columbia University, 
New York, 1894-1895; assistant professor History, 1895-1899; and 
professor History, 1899-1902, University of Missouri. Secretary 
State Historical Society of Missouri, 1898-1901. Author: The 
Legal Property Relations of Married Parties. A Study in Com- 
parative Legislation, Columbia University Studies in History, 
Economics, and Public Law; The German Colonial Fiscal System, 
publications American Economic Association; How the Common- 
wealth is Governed in the State of Missouri, published by Mis- 
souri Commission to Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Has written 
articles in various periodicals. Address: University of Missouri, 
Columbia, Mo. 

*Loeb, Jacques. Professor of Physiology, University of Cali- 
fornia, since 1902. Born April 7, 1859, in Germany. Graduate 
Ascanisches Gymnasium, Berlin; studied medicine at Berlin, 
Munich, and Strassburg (M. D., 1884). State examination, 1885, 
Strassburg. Assistant in physiology. University of Wurzburg, 
1886-1888; assistant in physiology. University of Strassburg, 1888- 
1890; biological station, Naples, 1889-1891; associate in biology, 
Bryn Mawr, 1891-1892; assistant professor physiology and experi- 
mental biology, 1892-1895; associate professor, 1895-1900; pro- 
fessor, 1900-1902, University of Chicago. Married Anne L. Leon- 
ard. Author: The Heliotropism of Animals and its Identity with 
the Heliotropism of Plants, 1890; Physiological Morphology, 1891, 
1892; Introduction to the Comparative Physiology of the Brain 
and Comparative Psychology, Leipzig, 1899; Comparative Physiol- 


ogy of the Brain and Comparative Psychology, 1900. Address: 
Berkeley, Cal. 

*Loeb, Louis. Artist, Illustrator. Born Cleveland, O. Son 
of Alexander Loeb and Sarah Ehrman. Studied under G6rOme 
in Paris. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1895; third medal 
Paris Salon; two silver medals, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 
1901; second Hallgarten prize. National Academy of Design, 1902. 
Associate National Academy of Design, 1901. Address: 58 West 
57th, New York. 

Loeb, Morris. Chemist. Born May 23, 1863, Cincinnati, O. 
Educated at New York College of Pharmacy, Harvard University, 
and Universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Leipzig. Private 
assistant to Professor Gibbs, Newport, R. I., 1888; docent 
at Worcester University, Mass., 1889. Has been professor of 
Chemistry, since 1891, and director of the chemical laboratory, 
since 1894, New York University. Interested in Jewish affairs 
and movements, and holds offices in many charitable associations 
and other communal organizations. Was vice-president Hebrew 
Technical College; president Hebrew Charities Building Fund; 
director, 1892-1897, Educational Alliance, and is now director of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Author of various 
scientific articles, chiefly on physical and inorganic chemistry. 
Address: 273 Madison Av., New York. 

Loew, Rosalie. See Whitney, Rosalie Loew. 

Loveman, Robert. Poet. Born April 11, 1864, Cleveland, O. 
Son of David Reuben Loveman and Esther Schwartz. Educated 
at Dalton, Ga., and University of Alabama (A.M.). Author: 
Collections of Poems, 1889, 1893, 1897; A Book of Verses, 1900; 
The Gates of Silence with Interludes of Song, 1903, New York. 
Address: Dalton, Ga. 

Lovenberg, Isidore. President Galveston School Board. Born 
September 9, 1843, Paris, France. Son of Isaac Lovenberg and 
Fleurrette Laurier. Educated at Paris Talmud Torah. Married 
Jennie Samuels. President District No. 7, Independent Order 
B'nai B'rith, 1895-1896. Now president Board of Trustees Galves- 
ton Orphans' Home; director and secretary Rosenberg Library 
Association. Member of Galveston School Board for eighteen 
years. Address: 2201 Strand, Galveston, Texas. 

Low, A. Maurice. Author and Journalist. Born July 14, 1860, 
London, England. Son of Maximillian Low and Theresa Schach- 


erls. Educated at London and in Austria. Married Annie W. 
Baden. Specialty, European and American politics. Author: 
The Supreme Surrender; Protection in the United States; Amer- 
ican Life in Town and Country; The British Workman's Com- 
pensation Act; The Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act; 
Trade Unionism and British Industries. Contributor to North 
American Review, Harper's Magazine, Atlantic Monthly, Scrib- 
ner's Magazine, Contemporary Review, London, National Review, 
London. Address: Washington, D. C. 

Lowenburg, Harry. Physician. Born December 25, 1878, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Son of Jacob Lowenburg and Henrietta Lebach. 
Educated at Philadelphia public and high schools. A. B., 1897, 
and A.M., 1902, Central High School, Philadelphia; M. D., 1901, 
Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia. Married Anna R. 
Braunstein. Lecturer on Pediatrics, Medico-Chirurgical College; 
assistant pediatrist Medico-Chirurgical and Philadelphia General 
Hospitals; pediatrist St. Joseph's Hospital Dispensary; lecturer 
on Pediatrics and Urinalysis, Nurses' Training School, Medico- 
Chirurgical Hospital. Appointed, by mayor of Philadelphia, 1901, 
resident physician Philadelphia General Hospital. Has written 
papers on pediatric subjects. Address: 2321 North 16th, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Lubin, David. Merchant and Farmer. Born June 10, 1849, 
Klodowa, Poland. Son of Simon Lubin and Rachel Holtz. Edu- 
cated at New York public schools. Married Florence Platnauer. 
President California Art Museum Association; United States dele- 
gate to the International Agricultural Congress at Budapest, 
Hungary, 1896. Distributed several hundred thousand pamphlets, 
among members of the Grange, on the Protective Tariff and its 
influence on the producers of the staples of agriculture, 1893-1901; 
pamphlet debated in the United States Senate. Inventor of the 
Lubin Windlass Cultivator. Author: Let there be Light, 1900. 
Residence: 278 West 113th. Oflftce: care Weinstock, Lubin & Co., 
395 Broadway, New York. 

Lust, Adeline C. (Mrs. Philip G.). Author. Born April 12, 
1860, at Crefeld, Germany. Daughter of Albert Cohnfeld and 
Henrietta Davis. Educated at boarding school in England and 
privately at home. Came to America, 1876. Married Philip Lust. 
Developed good voice early in life, and was destined for concert 
platform; owing to an unforeseen incident the plan was not car- 
ried out. Author: Features of New York Life (New York Illus- 
trated Weekly Graphic); Harum Scarum (serial story for Cin- 
cinnati Graphic); A Tent of Grace. Has written short stories, 


editorials, and various articles for American Press Association. 
Address: 4744 Vincennes Av., Chicago, 111. 

Lyons, Julius J. Lawyer. Born October 7, 1843, New York 
City. Son of Rabbi Jacques J. Lyons and Grace Nathan. Edu- 
cated in New York City public schools and University City of New 
York Grammar School. Married Constance Hendricks. Was 
honorary secretary for ten years, and director Monteflore Home 
for Chronic Invalids; secretary for over ten years and honorary 
secretary and director Mount Sinai Hospital; director, incorpor- 
ator, and attorney for The State Bank, all of New York City. 
Judge Advocate, with rank of Major, Third Brigade New York 
State National Guard. Prominent as an amateur musician; com- 
posed opera The Lady or the Tiger, produced by McCaull's Opera 
Company and by De Woolf Hopper Company. Composer of reli- 
gious and other musical compositions. For many years connected 
with and writer for Musical Department, New York Herald, and 
for Sunday Herald. Wrote on musical and religious subjects for 
other New York newspapers. Founded, organized, and conducted 
the largest amateur orchestra in New York, which devoted the 
receipts of concerts and operatic entertainments to charitable 
and educational purposes. Address: 76 William, New York. 

Mack, Julian W. Judge of Circuit Court, Cook County, 111., 
and Professor of Law, University of Chicago. Born July 19, 1866, 
San Francisco, Cal. Son of William J. Mack and Rebecca Tand- 
ler. Educated at Cincinnati public and high schools, Harvard 
University Law School (LL. B., 1887), and Universities of Berlin 
and Leipzig. Received special teacher's medal, Hughes High 
School, Cincinnati, 1884; holder of Parker Fellowship Harvard 
University for study in foreign universities, 1887-1890. Married 
Jessie Fox. Professor of Law Northwestern University, 1895- 
1902; at University of Chicago, since 1902; Civil Service Com- 
missioner City of Chicago, 1903; judge Circuit Court, since 1903; 
president National Conference of Jewish Charities, 1904; secre- 
tary United Hebrew Charities of Chicago, 1892-1900; trustee, 
1903-1904, and secretary, 1900-1903, and again since 1904, Asso- 
ciated Jewish Charities of Chicago. Office: Court House. Resi- 
dence: 4651 Drexel Block, Chicago, 111. 

M alter, Henry. Professor Medieval Philosophy and Arabic, 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. Born March 23, 1869, 
Zabno, Galicia. Son of Solomon Malter and Rosa Malter. Edu- 
cated at the normal school of Zabno, University of Berlin, Veitel- 
Heine-Ephraimsche Lehranstalt, Berlin, and Lehranstalt fiir die 
Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin (Rabbi, 1898). Ph.D., 1894, 


University of Heidelberg. Married Bertha Freund. Librarian 
Bibliothek der jildischen Gemeinde von Berlin, 1899. Rabbi Con- 
gregation Sheerith Israel, Cincinnati, Ohio. Author: Die Ab- 
handlung des abd HAmid Al-GazzAll, 1896; Siphruth Israel (He- 
brew edition of M. Steinschneider's Jewish Literature), with 
introduction and notes, 1897; Catalogue of the Library of Fischl 
Hirsch, 1899. Contributor to Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, 
Judischer Volkskalender, American Journal of Semitic Lan- 
guages, Deborah, Hebrew Union College Journal and Annual, 
Jewish Encyclopedia, and Hebrew periodicals. Address: 3040 
Cleinview Av., N. W., Cincinnati, O. 

Mandelkern, Israel. Portrait and Illustrating Photographer. 
Born December 10, 1861, Dubin, Volhynia, Russia. Son of Solo- 
mon Mandelkern and Chaie Kritzler. Educated at Hebrew (Gov- 
ernment School, Odessa, Realist School of St. Paul, and Odessa 
School of Fine Arts. Married Fanny Magidow. Came to America 
in 1882; was connected with first Jewish colony in Oregon. Illus- 
trator of Jewish topics, types, and characters in The World's 
Work, Supplement of New York Times, Tribune, Christian Her- 
ald, Sun, and other periodicals. Illustrations used by Jewish 
Encyclopedia. Address: 1670 Madison Av., New York. 

Mandlebaum, Fred. 8. Physician, Pathologist to Mount Sinai 
Hospital, New York, since 1893- Born January 18, 1867, Hart- 
ford, Conn. Son of Jacob Mandlebaum and Henrietta Waldman. 
Educated at Hartford public and high school, Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York (M. D., 1889), and pursued post- 
graduate courses in Europe, principally at Vienna and Berlin. 
House physician Mount Sinai Hospital, 1891; lecturer on clinical 
medicine. New York Polyclinic, 1893-1894. Member Academy of 
Medicine, New York Pathological Society, New York State Medi- 
cal Association, and American Association of Pathologists and 
Bacteriologists, etc. Has contributed to medical literature. Ad- 
dress: 1300 Madison Av., New York. 

Manges, Morris. Physician.^ Born 1865, New York. Son of 
John Feist Manges and Bertfia May. Educated at New York 
public schools. College City of New York (A. B., 1884; A.M., 
1887); College of Physicians and Surgeons (M. D., 1887); pur- 
sued post-graduate courses in Berlin and Vienna. Professor clin- 
ical medicine. New York Polyclinic Medical School; visiting 
physician Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. Edited translations 
of Ewald's Diseases of the Stomach, 1892, 1897. Has written 
numerous medical articles. Address: 941 Madison Av., New York. 


Mann, Louis. Actor. Born April 20, 1865, New York. Son of 
Daniel Mann and Caroline Hecht. Educated privately at New 
York and San Francisco, and San Francisco high school and 
College. Married Clara Lipman. Began acting at five; at eighteen 
travelled with small companies in opposition to the wishes of his 
family; later played with the elder Salvini, Lewis Morrison, 
J. K. Emmett, etc.; played Utterson, the lawyer, in Daniel Band- 
mann's production of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; appeared In one 
of leading rOles in Incog; was original caricaturist of Svengali 
in Merry World; created German comedy parts in The Strange 
Adventures of Miss Brown, and in Girl from Paris; starred five 
years jointly with Clara Lipman, his wife; now starring under 
management of Charles B. Dillingham. Address: 1239 Madison 
Av., New York. 

Mann, Mrs. Louis. See Lipman, Clara. 

Mannheimer, Jennie. Director of School of Expression, College 
of Music of Cincinnati. Born January 9, 1872, New York City. 
Daughter of Sigmund Mannheimer and Louise Herschman. Edu- 
cated at Deutsche Real-Schule, Rochester, N. Y.; Hughes High 
School, Cincinnati; Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati (B. H., 
1888); University of Cincinnati (B. L., 1892); and College of 
Music of Cincinnati. Taught also by private tutors and both 
parents. Teacher of Elocution and History, Hughes High School; 
founder, principal, and director of dramatic club, Cincinnati 
School of Expression. Teacher Walnut Hills Jewish Sabbath 
School, 1890-1893; superintendent, 1892-1893. Leader of Tuesday 
Shakespeare Circle since 1903. Read Midsummer Night's Dream 
with Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra at College of Music Silver 
Jubilee, 1903. Has given recitals before many clubs. Address: 
639 June, Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, O. 

Mannheimer, Louise. Born September 3, 1845, Prague, Bohe- 
mia. Daughter of Joseph Herschman and Katherine Urbach. 
Educated at St. Teine School, privately, and at Normal School, 
Prague, and University of Cincinnati. Married Sigmund Mann- 
heimer. Director of private school, Prague; Sabbath School 
teacher. Congregation Berith Kodesh, Rochester; teacher Mrs. 
Leopold Weirs School, New York; contralto. Temple Ahawath 
Chesed, New York; Sabbath School teacher. Temple Shaare 
Emeth, St. Louis; president German Women's Club, Rochester; 
founder and president. Boys* Industrial School, Cincinnati. In- 
ventor Pureairin Patent Ventilator. Speaker World's Fair Con- 
gress of History, 1893, and of Religions, 1893, Chicago; for Moth- 
ers' Meetings, Cincinnati. Has written poems for German and 


English periodicals; prize poem, The Harvest. Author: How Joe 
Learned to Darn Stockings, and other juvenile stories. Trans- 
lated Nahlda Remy's The Jewish Woman. Composer of The 
Maiden's Song. Address: 639 June, Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, O. 

Mannheimer, Sigmund. Professor, Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, O. Born May 16, 1835, Kemel, Germany. Son of Simon 
Mannheimer and Yette Levi. Educated at Seminary of Ems, 
Prussia, and University of Paris (Bachelor of Letters, 1863; Pro- 
fessor, 1864). Married Louise Herschman. Author: Hebrew 
Reader and Grammar. Translated into German S. Klein's La 
V6rit6 sur le Talmud ( Judalsme) ; into English, Solomon Alami's 
Iggeret Musar; Nehemiah Brilirs Sabbatal Zebl; Anatole Leroy- 
Beaulieu's L'Antis^mitisme. Contributor to the Jewish Ency- 
clopedia. Address: 639 June, Cincinnati, O. 

Marcus, Edwin. Staff Artist New York Herald. Born March 
16, 1885, Dutch Kills, L. I. Son of Adolph Marcus and Caecllle 
Schwerin. Educated at New York public schools, Morris High 
School, and Art Students League; and attended night classes at 
Cooper Union. Filled mercantile position after leaving Morris 
High School; was apprenticed with the American Lithograph 
Company, there learning to draw on stone; has since been sketch 
artist for Sackett and Wilhelm Lithograph Company; cartoonist 
for a Hungarian Weekly; artist on Herald staff since 1902, doing 
chiefly decorative work for the Magazine Section and assignment 
work. Has made cartoon for the Telegram. Exhibited work 
with various associations at the Waldorf, Fifth Avenue Art Gal- 
leries, etc. Address: 127 East 90th, New York. 

Marcus, Louis Wiliiam. Surrogate of Erie County, New York. 
Born May 18, 1863, Buffalo, N. Y. Son of Leopold Marcus. Edu- 
cated at Williams* Academy, and Buffalo High School; LL. B., 
1889, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Married Ray R. Dahlman. 
Elected surrogate of Erie County for term of six years, 1895; re- 
elected, 1901. Address: 10 City and County Hall, Buffalo, N. Y. 

I^largolis, IVlax Leopold. Associate Professor Semitic Lan- 
guages, University of California, Berkeley, Cal., since 1898. Born 
October 15, 1866, Merecz, Wllna, Russia. Son of Rabbi Isaac 
Margolis and Hinde Zirilstein. Educated privately and in schools 
of native town, 1875-1879; Leibnitz Gymnasium, Berlin, 1885-1889 
(testimonium maturitatis, 1889); School of Philosophy, Columbia 
University, New York (M. A., 1890; Ph.D., 1891). Instructor and 
later assistant professor Hebrew and Biblical Exegesis, Hebrew 
Union College, Cincinnati, 1892-1897; assistant professor Semitic 


languages, University of California, 1897-1898. Member of vari- 
ous learned societies. Author: Commentarius Isaacidis quatenus 
ad textum talmudicum investigandum adhiberi possit tractatu 
Erubhin ostenditur, 1891; The Columbia College MS. of Meghilla, 
1892; An Elementary Text Book of Hebrew Accidence, 1893; The 
Theological Aspect of Reformed Judaism, 1904. Has written num- 
erous articles in American and foreign scientific magazines. Ad- 
dress: University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Markens, Isaac. Journalist. Born October 9, 1846, New York. 
Son of Elias Markens and Rosetta Friedlander. Educated at 
Richmond, Va., private schools and New York public schools. 
Married Rachel Benjamin. Assistant manager. United Press 
Association, New York; reportorial staff New York Commercial 
Advertiser, New York Evening Mail and Express, New York Re- 
corder, and Commercial Edition New York Star; private secretary 
to Albert Fink, Railroad Trunk Line Commissioner; private 
secretary to Gen. John M. Corse, and to B. H. Green, president 
Louisville and Nashville R. R. Co.; secretary to Board of Arbitra- 
tion of Eastern and Western Railroads. Member Blue Lodge, 
and Royal Arch Chapter of Masons; Knights of Pythias; Knights 
of Honor; Knights and Ladies of Honor, and Free Sons of Israel. 
Author: Hebrews in America, 1888. Address: 2460 Seventh Av., 
New York. 

Marks, Marcus M. President of David Marks & Sons, Clothing 
Manufacturers. Born March 18, 1858, New York. Son of David 
Marks and Leontine Meyer. Educated in New York public 
schools and College City of New York. Married Esther Friedman. 
President National Association of Clothiers; chairman Concilia- 
tion Committee Civic Federation; second vice-president Educa- 
tonal Alliance; trustee Hospital Saturday and Sunday Associa- 
tion; director Credit Men's Association. Has written pamphlets 
and magazine articles on the labor question and on credit co- 
operation. Address: 687 Broadway, New York. 

Marshall, Louis. Lawyer. Born December 14, 1856, Syracuse, 
New York. Son of Jacob Marshall and Zilli Strauss. Educated 
in Syracuse high school, and Columbia University Law School, 
New York City. Married Florence Lowenstein. Appointed mem- 
ber of Commission to Revise Judiciary Article of New York Con- 
stitution, by Governor Hill, 1890; member New York Constitu- 
tional Convention, 1894, and of Commission to investigate Rabbi 
Joseph Riot, 1902. Chairman Executive Committee Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America; trustee and secretary Temple 
Emanu-El, New York; director Educational Alliance, Jewish Pro- 


tectory and Aid Society, etc. Lecturer Constitutional Law, Syra- 
cuse University Law School. Has written essays, lectures, and 
addresses on legal topics and subjects pertaining to Judaism and 
charity. Was interested in establishment of The Jewish World, a 
Yiddish daily. Residence: 47 East 72d. Office: 30 Broad, New 

Marx, Alexander. Professor of History and Literature, and 
Librarian, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York 
City. Born January 29, 1878, Elberfeld, Germany. Son of George 
Marx and Gertrude Simon. Educated at Kneiphof Gymna- 
sium, Konigsberg; Universities of Konigsberg (Ph.D., 1903) and 
Berlin; Rabbinerseminar, Berlin, and Veitel-Heine-Ephraimsche 
Lehranstalt, Berlin. Was Scientific Aid at Royal Library, Berlin. 
Author: Seder '01am (cap. 1-10) nach Handschriften und Druck- 
werken herausgegeben, ubersetzt und erklart, 1903. Has written 
short articles and reviews, in Orientalische Literaturzeitung, and 
Zeitschrift fiir hebraische Bibliographie. Address: 371 West 
116th, New York. 

Masliansky, Harris. Preacher and Lecturer Educational Alli- 
ance, New York City. Born Sivan 3, 1856, Slutzk, Minsk, Russia. 
Son of Rabbi Chayim Masliansky and Rebecca Popok. Educated 
in the Talmudical Colleges of Mir and Volosin. Rabbinical 
authorization conferred by Rabbi Isaac Elchanan, Kovno, and 
Rabbi Samuel Mohilever, Bialystok. Married Yetta Rubinstein. 
Was principal Hebrew public schools, Pinsk; founder of a Hebrew 
school at Bkaterinoslav, and later travelling preacher. Preached 
in three hundred towns of Russia, Germany, Great Britain, 
France, Holland, Belgium, and the United States. Interested in 
propaganda of Zionism, after anti-Jewish riots in Russia, 1882; 
banished from Russia for liberal utterances at public meetings, 
1894; arrived in the United States, 1895; appointed official lec- 
turer in Yiddish by the Educational Alliance, 1898; an organizer 
and the president, 1902-1904, of the Lebanon Printing and Pub- 
lishing Company, which issued a daily. The Jewish World. 
Author: Stories of my Travels (2 parts). Has written literary 
articles in Hebrew and jargon periodicals. About three hundred 
of his lectures have been published. Address: 262 East Broad- 
way, New York. 

May, Mitchell. Lawyer. Born July 10, 1871, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Son of Nathan May and Matilda Muhlhauser. Educated in Brook- 
lyn public schools and Polytechnic Institute. LL. B., Columbia 
College Law School, New York. Married Pauline Joli. Was 
member of Congress from Sixth New York Congressional District 


in the Fifty-sixth Congress. President Unity Club of Brooklyn, 
1896-1900; charter director Brooklyn Hospital and Hebrew Educa- 
tional Society, Brooklyn. Residence: 95 Division Av. Office: 350 
Fulton, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mayer, Edward Everett. Physician. Born June 18, 1875, Alle- 
gheny, Pa. Son of Rabbi Lippman Mayer and Elise Hecht. Edu- 
cated in Pittsburg; B. A., 1895; M. D., 1897; M. A., 1898, Western 
University of Pennsylvania; courses at Universities of Wurzburg, 
Vienna, Paris, and London. Married Rose Mae Lamm. Associate 
professor Mental and Nervous Diseases, Western University of 
Pennsylvania; neurologist to Memorial Hospital for Crippled 
Children and to Presbyterian Hospital; president Western Penn- 
sylvania Medical Society; treasurer Pittsburg Academy of Medi- 
cine. Was city physician Allegheny City; first national president 
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity; physician for Western Pennsyl- 
vania to National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Denver. 
Translated and edited Oppenheim's Diseases of the Nervous Sys- 
tem. Address: 524 Penn Av., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Mayer, Emil. Physician, Specialist for Diseases of the Nose, 
Throat, and Ear. Born May 23, 1854, New York City. Son of 
David Mayer and Henrietta Rosenbaum. Educated in New York 
public schools, and College City of New York. .Graduate College of 
Pharmacy, 1873, and M. D., 1877, New York University. Married 
Louise Blume. Surgeon Throat Department, New York Eye and 
Ear Infirmary, since 1893; adjunct attending laryngologist, Mount 
Sinai Hospital; chairman of Section on Laryngology and Otology, 
American Medical Association, 1898-1899; of Section on Laryn- 
gology, New York Academy of Medicine, 1902; chairman, 1901, and 
now vice-president. Fifth District Branch New York State Medi- 
cal Association. Member House of Delegates American Medical 
Association, 1902-1904; and of a number of medical societies. 
Originator of tubes used in nasal operations, and other instru- 
ments. American editor Internationales Centralblatt fiir Laryn- 
gologie. Contributor to American and European medical journals. 
One of the authors of Text Book on Diseases of the Nose and 
Throat. Address: 25 East 77th, New York. 

Mayer, Henry ("Hy" Mayer). Artist, Caricaturist. Born 
July 18, 1868, Worms, Germany. Son of Hermann Mayer, Sr., 
and Helene Loeb. Educated at Worms Gymnasium. Contributor 
to Life, Judge, Truth, Harper, Century, Fliegende Blatter, Figaro 
Illustr6, Le Rire, Black and White, and Pall Mall Magazine. 
Works: In Laughland; Fantasies in Ha Ha; Autobiography of a 
Monkey; A Trip to Toyland; Adventures of a Japanese Doll; 
The Real New York. Address: 30 West 24th, New York. 


Mayer, Julius M. Lawyer. Born September 5, 1865, New York. 
Son of Joseph Daniel Mayer and Fannie Marshuetz. A. B., 1884, 
College City of New York; LL. B., 1886, Columbia College Law 
School. Counsel to Excise Board, 1895-1896, Building Depart- 
ment, 1897-1898; justice Court of Special Sessions, 1902-1904; 
counsel, 1894, to Legislative Committee which investigated con- 
dition of women and children in workshops, and effected im- 
portant remedial legislation as to factories; all in New York City. 
At present president Jewish Protectory and Aid Society, New 
York. Residence: 375 West 123d. Office: 38 Park Row, New 

Meltzer, Samuel James. Physician, and Associate Rockefeller 
Institute for Medical Research. Born March 22, 1851, Trolp, 
Kovno, Russia. Son of Simon Meltzer. Received rabbinical edu- 
cation in Russia; general education at Konigsberg, Prussia. M. D., 
1882, University of Berlin; also studied philosophy at University 
of Berlin. President Society for Experimental Biology and Medi- 
cine, and American Gastro-Enterological Association; fellow Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and of New York Acad- 
emy of Science; chairman Section of Physiology World's Congress 
of Arts and Sciences at Louisiana Purchase Exposition; member 
Association of American Physicians, American Physiological So- 
ciety, Society of American Pathologists, Society of American 
Bacteriologists, etc. Attending physician Harlem (Bellevue) 
Hospital. Author of over ninety publications on biology, physiol- 
ogy, scientific and practical medicine. Address: 107 West 122d, 
New York. 

Messing, Alfred H. News Editor Hearst's Chicago Examiner. 
Born November 9, 1875, Williamsport, Pa. Son of Henry J. Mess- 
ing and Jennie May. Educated in St. Louis public and high 
schools, and Washington University (St. Louis, Mo.) Law Depart- 
ment. Married Grace Moss. Was real estate editor, St. Louis 
Globe Democrat; Sunday, telegraph, city, and assistant managing 
editor, of St. Louis Star. Address: care Hearst's Chicago Ameri- 
can, 214-216 Madison, Chicago, 111. 

•Meyer, Ado! ph. Member of Congress from First District of 
Louisiana. Born October 19, 1842. Was a student at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia until 1862, during which year he entered the Con- 
federate army and served until the close of the war on the stafC 
of Brigadier-General John S. Williams, of Kentucky, holding fin- 
ally the position of assistant adjutant general; at the close of the 
war returned to Louisiana, and has been engaged largely in the 
culture of cotton and sugar since; has also been engaged in com- 


mercial and financial pursuits in the city of New Orleans; was 
elected colonel of the First Regiment of Louisiana State National 
Guard in 1879, and in 1881 was appointed brigadier-general to 
command the First Brigade, embracing all the uniformed corps 
of the State; was elected to the Fifty-second, Fifty-third, Fifty- 
fourth, Fifty-fifth, Fifty-sixth, and Fifty-seventh Congresses, and 
re-elected to the Fifty-eighth Congress. 

Meyer, Alfred. Physician. Born June 18, 1854, New York 
City. Son of Isaac Meyer and Mathilda Langenbach. Educated in 
Doctor Gerke's German American Institute. A. B. and A. M., 
Columbia University; M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons; 
pursued courses at Universities of Leipzig and Vienna. Married 
Annie Florance Nathan. Attending physician Mount Sinai Hos- 
pital; consulting physician Bedford Sanitarium for Consumptives 
of Montefiore Home, and for Diseases of Lungs, United Hebrew 
Charities; chairman Library Committee, New York Academy of 
Medicine; director United Hebrew Charities. Active worker for 
the establishment of a New York State Hospital for Incipient 
Tuberculosis; made the first plea for a Municipal Sanatorium for 
Consumptives before the New York Academy of Medicine. Author: 
On Empyema; On the Pathology of Bright's Disease; On the 
Massachusetts State Hospital for Consumptives; On Paroxysmal 
Tachycardia; On Five Hundred Cases of Lobar Pneumonia; On 
the Relationship of Fistula in Ano to Pulmonary Tuberculosis , On 
a Case of Complete Fibrous Obstruction of the Superior and 
Inferior Venaa Cavae, etc. Address: 801 Madison Av., New York. 

Meyer, Annie Nathan (Mrs. Alfred). Writer. Born February 
19, 1867, New York City. Daughter of Robert Weeks Nathan and 
Anne Augusta Florance. Taught at home, and at a school for 
one year. Took one year examinations at Columbia College before 
Barnard was founded. Married Dr. Alfred Meyer. Was chairman 
Literary Congress Chicago World's Fair Congresses of Women; 
trustee Aguilar Free Circulating Library; and has been trustee 
Barnard College since its foundation. Founder of Barnard Col- 
lege; wrote essay on Need of an Afllliated College for Women, in 
The Nation, January, 1888, placed in corner-stone of one of the 
Barnard College buildings; wrote original petition to trustees of 
Columbia College, and obtained all the hundreds of signatures to 
it; for four years personally raised most of the funds for the 
College, also got together first board of trustees. Author: 
Women's Work in America; Helen Brent, M. D.; My Park Book; 
Robert Annyss, Poor Priest. Writer on literary subjects, skits, 
sketches, critiques on painting and on fiction, appearing in Book- 
man, Critic, Harper's Monthly, Bazar, and Weekly, North Ameri- 


can Review, Llppincott's, Evening Post, New Bra, American 
Hebrew and Jewish Messenger. Address: 801 Madison Av., New 

Mielzlner, Leo. Artist. Born December 8, 1869, New York. 
Son of Rabbi Moses Mielziner and Rosette Levald. Educated at 
Cincinnati Art Academy and Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Mar- 
ried Ella M. Friend. Was first vice-president American Art Asso- 
ciation, Paris. Made oil portrait of the late Dr. M. Mielziner; 
portrait busts of the late Dr. I. M. Wise and of Israel Zangwill; 
miniature portrait of Dr. Alexandre Marmorek. Address: 17, rue 
Boissonade, Paris, France. 

Miller, Sara. Teacher New York elementary schools. Born 
November 7, 1876, New York. Daughter of Emanuel Miller and 
Carolina Katz. Educated in elementary private and public 
schools, Normal College, and Columbia University. Author: 
Under the Eagle's Wing. Address: 183 West 87th, New York. 

Milwitzky, William. Philologist. Born December 24, 1874, Jan- 
ishki, Lithuania, Russia. Son of Jacob Men'asseh Milwitzky and 
Hinda Riva Mandelstamm. Educated in German Gymnasium, 
Goldingen, Courland; Newark, N. J., public and high schools, 
Columbia College, New York, and University of Paris (616ve 
titulaire de I'Ecole des Hautes Etudes). Was private instructor 
to the son of Gaston Paris, 1896-1898; assistant Philological De- 
partment, Harvard College Library, 1899-1900; assistant Jewish 
Encyclopedia, 1900-1901; engaged in private work and publica- 
tion of philological studies, since 1901; is collecting and arranging 
material for philological work on Spanish dialects. Emigrated to 
America, 1888; private pupil of Gaston Paris, 1895-1898; travelled 
through Turkey, Greece, and Roumania, to collect material for 
study of JudsBO-Spanish dialects. Contriljuted articles to Modern 
Language Notes, and Jewish Encyclopedia (vols. 1-3). Author: 
(in collaboration with Gaston Paris) Glossaires latin-francais du 
Moyen Age (unpublished); (in collaboration with S. Berger) La 
Bible en Espagne. Address: Quinta Palatino, Cerro, Habana, 
Cuba, or 367 Morris Av., Newark, N. J. 

Mordecai, Augustus. Assistant Chief Engineer Erie Railroad. 
Born September 8, 1847, Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Alfred Mordecai 
and Sara A. Hays. Educated in private schools and Polytechnic 
College of the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Married Mar- 
garet E. Bowman. Appointed engineer Pennsylvania Railroad, 
1867; St. Louis, Council Bluffs, and Omaha Railroad, 1870; Pitts- 
burg, Virginia, and Charleston Railroad, 1871; Atlantic and Great 


Western Railroad, 1873; general roadmaster New York, Penn- 
sylvania, and Ohio Railroad, 1888; chief engineer Erie Railroad, 
1892; assistant chief engineer Erie Railroad, 1894. Address: Gar- 
field Building, Cleveland, O. 

Moritz, Albert. Lieutenant-Commander United States Navy; at 
present Chief Engineer United States Battleship Alabama. Born 
June 8, 1860, Cincinnati, O. Son of Mayer Moritz and Caroline 
Frank. Educated in public schools, New York City; College City 
of New York, 1875-1877. Appointed, by competitive examination. 
Cadet Engineer from New York to Naval Academy, Annapolis, 
1877. Graduate Naval Academy, 1881. Married Henrietta Good- 
man. Commissioned assistant engineer, 1883; passed assistant 
engineer, 1894; promoted lieutenant, 1899; promoted lieutenant- 
commander, 1903. Served on the following ships: Enterprise, 
1882-1883; Juniata, 1886-1889; Yorktown, Baltimore, and Mon- 
terey, 1893-1896; Minneapolis, Saturn, Brooklyn, Topeka, New- 
ark, Yosemite, and Brutus, 1898-1901; Kearsarge and Ala- 
bama, 1903-1904. Served on shore: inspector of machinery of 
Maine, 1889-1893; New York Navy Yard inspector of brass and 
copper material, 1896-1898; inspector of machinery, engineering 
material, and ordnance, 1901-1903. Erected first ice-plant, in 
Guam, P. I., 1900. Commended for gallant conduct when Yosemite 
was wrecked in typhoon off Guam, 1900. Address: Navy Depart- 
men, Washington, D. C. 

•Morris, Nelson. Packer. Born January 21, 1839, Black Forest, 
Germany. Self-educated. Emigrated to the United States at 
twelve; went to Chicago, 1854; secured employment in stock 
yards. Began business for himself two years later. Married 
Sarah Vogel. President Nelson Morris and Company. Officer or 
director of several banks and other enterprises. Residence: 
2453 Indiana Av. Office: Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 111. 

Morse, Godfrey. Lawyer. Born May 19, 1846, Wachenheim, 
Bavaria. Son of Jacob Maas Morse and Charlotte Mehlinger. 
Educated in Boston public schools. A. B., 1870, and LL. B., 1872, 
Harvard University; A. M., 1900, Tufts College. Member Boston 
School Committee, 1876-1878; Common Council, 1882-1883, and 
president of Council, 1883; commissioner for building a court 
house for Suffolk County, Mass., 1885-1892; assistant counsel for 
the United States, Court of Commissioners of Alabama Claims, 
1883; trustee Boston Dental College; president Boston Federation 
of Jewish Charities, Leopold Morse Home for Infirm Hebrews and 
Orphanage, Boston Branch Alliance Israelite Universelle, Purim 
Association, Elysium Club, and member and trustee of many 


other charitable and semi-public organizations. Address: Ex- 
change Building, 53 State, Boston, Mass. 

Moschcowitz, Paul. Artist. Born March 4, 1873, Giralt, Hun- 
gary. Son of Morris Moschcowitz and Rose Baumgarten. Edu- 
cated at Giralt and New York public schools. Pupil of H. 
Siddons Mowbray, Benjamin Constant, and J. McNeill Whistler. 
Instructor Art Students League, 1902; Sketch Club, 1896-1897, 
both of New York. Member Society of American Artists; trustee 
Artists Aid Society of New York. Has painted numerous por- 
traits. Address: 939 Eighth Av., New York. 

Moses, Jacob M. Lawyer. Born 1873, Baltimore, Md. Son of 
Moses Moses and Rose Levi. Educated in Baltimore public 
schools. A. B., 1893, Johns Hopkins University; LL. B., 1895, 
University of Maryland. Married Hortense E. Guggenheimer. 
State Senator, 1900-1904; member Maryland and Virginia Oyster 
Commission, 1902, and member Phi Beta Kappa, Johns Hopkins 
University. Author: The Law Applicable to Strikes. Address: 
2321 Linden Av., Baltimore, Md. 

Mosler, Gustave Henry. Artist. Born June 16, 1875, Munich, 
Grermany, of American parents, Henry Mosler and Sara Cahn. 
Educated at Paris. Received gold medal, Paris Salon, 1901. Pic- 
ture purchased by Erie Art Club, Erie, Pa. Works: The Empty 
Cradle, reproduced by Raphael Tuck; De Profundis, exhibited at 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo. Address: Euclid 
Hall, 2347 Broadway, New York. 

Mosler, Henry. Artist. Born June 6, 1841, in Silesia. Son of 
Gustave Mosler and Sophie Wiener. Educated in Prance and 
Germany. Married Sara Cahn. Special artist for Harper's Weekly 
during Civil War. Chevalier de la L6gion d'Honneur, 1892, and 
OfBcier d'Acad6mie, 1892; 1879, honorable mention, and 1888, gold 
medal. Salon; medal Royal Academy, Munich, 1874; gold medals: 
International Exhibition, Nice, France, 1879; Archduke Carl Lud- 
wig of Austria, 1893; Atlanta Exposition, Ga., 1895; The Art Club, 
Philadelphia, 1897; and Charleston (S. C.) Exposition, 1902; 
silver medal. Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1889; Hors Concours, 
1890; prize ($2500), Prize Fund Exhibition, New York, 1885; 
Thomas B. Clarke prize. National Academy of Design, 1896. Le 
Retour purchased, 1879, by the French Government for the Mus6e 
de Luxembourg. Other paintings in museums in Sydney, Aus- 
tralia; Grenoble, France; Louisville, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and 
New York. Address: Euclid Hall, 2347 Broadway, New York. 

Moss, Mary. Author. Born September 24, 1864, Chestnut Hill, 
Philadelphia. Daughter of Wm. Moss, M. D., and Mary Noronha. 


Has written a Jewish novel, Julian Meldohla (Lippincott's, Mar., 
1903); a Jewish story, Judith Llebestraum (Scribner's, August, 
1904) ; a sketch on the Yiddish Theatre in the Philadelphia Press. 
Of non- Jewish works, two novels, A Sequence in Hearts and 
Fruit Out of Season, as well as essays in the Atlantic Monthly, 
McClure's Magazine, The Bookman, Ainslee's, etc. Residence: 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. 

Moss, William. Physician. Born 1833, Philadelphia, Pa. Son 
of Joseph L. Moss and Julia Levy. Studied at University of Penn- 
sylvania; M. D., 1855, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 
Married Mary Noronha. Served in Civil War as private soldier, 
16th Pennsylvania Volunteers; surgeon 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
and United States Volunteers. Address: Chestnut Av., Chestnut 
Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Muhlfelder, David. Lawyer, Justice City Court of Albany. 
Born December 26, 1860, Ballston Spa, New York. Son of Lewis 
Muhlfelder and Rosa Schwarz. Educated in Ballston Spa public 
schools; A. B., 1880, Union College, Schenectady; LL. B., 1882, 
Albany Law School. Has been officer, director, and trustee, of 
social and charitable organizations. Address: 50 Jay, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Myers, IHerman. Mayor of Savannah, Ga. Born January 18, 
1847, Bavaria, Germany. Son of Sigmund Myers. Educated at 
Richmond, and Warm Springs, Bath County, Va, President 
National Bank of Savannah; of Oglethorpe Savings and Trust 
Company, and of Macon Railway and Light Company. Address: 
Savannah, Ga. 

Nathan, Edgar J. Lawyer. Born January 25, 1860, New York 
City. Son of Gershom Nathan and Rosalie Gomez. Educated in 
Friends Seminary; LL. B., 1881, Columbia University. Married 
Sara N. Soils. Belongs to firm of Cardozo and Nathan, direct 
successor to Morris and Billings, formed in New York, 1863. 
Has had an active professional career of over twenty years. 
Address: 128 Broadway, New York. 

Nathan, Maud (Mrs. Frederick). President, since 1897, of the 
Consumers* League of the City of New York. Born October 20, 
1862, New York City. Daughter of Robert Weeks Nathan and 
Anne Augusta Florance. Educated in private schools. New York, 
and in public high school. Green Bay, Wis. Married Frederick 
Nathan. One of the organizers and incorporators, and was vice- 
president, Consumers* League, City of New York; was chairman 


Committee on Industrial Conditions Affecting Women and Chil- 
dren, in General Federation of Women's Clubs; vice-president 
Woman's Municipal League; twice speaker at International Con- 
gress of Women; first president Shearith Israel Sisterhood. On 
three occasions the only woman speaker at mass meetings with 
men. Addressed by invitation: American Academy of Political 
and Social Science; Brooklyn and Philadelphia Ethical Culture 
Associations; The Cambridge Conferences; Congress of Liberal 
Religions; three Biennial Meetings of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs; National Congress of Mothers; National Council 
of Women; National Woman's Suffrage Association ; People's Insti- 
tute; and League for Political Education. Has written short arti- 
cles in North American Review, The World's Work, The New 
Era, New York Times, etc.; annual reports; and papers on Chris- 
tianity and Judaism, read before the Unitarian Alliance of 
Women; The Heart of Judaism, read before the Council of Jew- 
ish Women, and in pulpit of Temple Beth-El, New York; Philan- 
thropy vs. Charity, read in pulpit of All Souls Unitarian Church, 
Chicago. Address: 162 West 86th, New York. 

Newburger, Joseph E. Judge Court of General Sessions since 
1896. Born 1853, New York City. Son of Emanuel Newburger 
and Lotte Fuchs. Educated in New York public schools. LL. B., 
Columbia University. Judge City Court, 1891-1895. Was presi- 
dent Independent Order B'nai B'rith, District No. 1; member 
Executive Committee Independent Order Free Sons of Israel, and 
Order Kesher Shel Barzel. Now member Board of Trustees and 
chairman Executive Committee Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan 
Asylum Society, New York. Was trustee and president Congre- 
gation Rodeph Shalom; trustee Hebrew Free Schools; and one 
of the founders Jewish Theological Seminary of America; all of 
New York. Address: Criminal Court Building, New York. 

Newburger, Morris. President Mechanics National Bank. Born 
November 12, 1834, Haigerloch, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Ger- 
many. Son of Samuel Newburger. Educated in Real-Schule and 
Preceptorate, Haigerloch. Vice-president and chairman School 
Committee Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia; 
president Jewish Publication Society of America, 1888-1902; mem- 
ber Citizens' Permanent Relief Committee, Philadelphia. Pater- 
nal ancestors for many generations rabbis and teachers. Address: 
323 Chestnut, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Newmark, Leo. Physician, Professor Clinical Neurology,. Medi- 
cal Department University of California. Born May 22, 1861, San 
Francisco, Cal. Son of J. P. Newmark and Augusta Leseritz. 


Educated In San Francisco public schools, Friedrichs Gymnasium 
of Berlin, and University of Berlin. M. D., 1887, University of 
Strassburg. Has written articles on subjects relating to diseases 
of the nervous system in American and German medical periodi- 
cals. Address: 590 Sutter, San Francisco, Cal. 

Newmark, Nathan. Lawyer. Born June 3, 1853, New York 
City. Son of Simon Newmark. Educated in Sacramento and San 
Francisco public schools, and San Francisco Boys High School. 
A. B., 1873, and A. M., 1877, University of California; LL. B., 1875, 
Harvard University. Admitted to bar, 1875. Editorial contrib- 
utor to The Hebrew, San Francisco, for twenty years. Author: 
On Sales and Bank Deposits; Annotations of California CodB of 
Civil Procedure and Political Code. Contributor to The Green 
Bag, Central Law Journal, etc. Office: 12 Sutter. Residence: 
758 Golden Gate Av., San Francisco, Cal. 

Nusbaum, Louis. Assistant Professor Pedagogy, Central High 
School, Philadelphia, Pa., since 1904. Born 1877, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Son of Isaac Nusbaum and Julia Kohlberg. Studied in 
Central High School (A. B., 1893); Philadelphia School of Peda- 
gogy; special student University of Pennsylvania; and Illinois 
Wesleyan University (Ph. B., 1899). Instructor Philadelphia ele- 
mentary schools, 1895-1900; critic teacher, Central High School, 
1900-1902; instructor Pedagogy, Central High School, 1902-1904. 
Was secretary and treasurer Herbart Club of Philadelphia, 1896- 
1899; member Executive Council Educational Club of Philadel- 
phia, 1901-1904; chairman Committee on Publicity, Philadelphia 
Teachers* Association, during salary campaign, 1903. At present 
secretary Schoolmen's Club of Philadelphia. Compiler: A Hun- 
dred Songs for Public Schools. Associate editor, 1899-1902, chief 
editor, since 1902, of The Teacher, Philadelphia. Address: Cen- 
tral High School, Broad and Green, or 2422 North Park At., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ochs, Adolph S. Publisher The New York Times, Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, Chattanooga, Tenn., Times. Born March 12, 
1858, Cincinnati, O. Son of Julius Ochs and Bertha Levy. Edu- 
cated in Knoxville, Tenn., public schools. Married Effie Miriam 
Wise, daughter of Rabbi I. M. Wise. Director and treasurer. The 
Associated Press. Address: The New York Times, New York. 

Ochs, George Washington. Vice-president and General Man- 
ager of The Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Pa. Born October 
27, 1861, Cincinnati, O. Son of Julius Ochs and Bertha Levy. 
Educated in University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Mayor of Chat- 


tanooga, 1893-1897 (two terms). President Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1897, Board of Education, 1897-1899, and Library Associa- 
tion, 1892-1897, all of Chattanooga. Delegate National Demo- 
cratic Convention, Third Tennessee Congressional District, 1892; 
delegate from State at large to Sound-Money Democratic Con- 
vention, 1896, and Ohio State Delegation; delivered seconding 
speech nominating Cleveland, 1892. Chevalier Legion of Honor 
of France; decorated by President Loubet through the United 
States Secretary of State. Member Executive Committee National 
Municipal League, and vice-president 1894-1900. Address: The 
Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oppenheim, Nathan. Physician. Born October 17, 1865, Albany, 
New York. Son of Gerson Oppenheim and Theresa Stein. Edu- 
cated in Albany high school. A. B., 1888, Harvard University; 
M. D., 1891, Columbia University. Studied and travelled in Ger- 
many, Austria, and Prance. Married Bertha Elsberg. Attending 
pediatrist Sydenham Hospital, New York; attending neurologist 
New York City Children's Hospital and Schools; was attending 
physician Children's Department Mount Sinai Hospital Dispen- 
sary, New York. Author: The Development of the Child; The 
Medical Diseases of Childhood; The Care of the Child in Health; 
Mental Growth and Control. Has written various essays. Address : 
50 East 79th, New York City. Summer residence (from July to 
September) : Basin Harbor, Vermont. 

Osterberg, Max. Consulting Engineer. Born June 12, 1869, 
Frankfort on the Main, Germany. Son of Henry Osterberg and 
Toni Oppenheim. Educated in Real-Schule, and Philanthropin, 
Frankfort, 1875-1884. Elec. Eng., 1894; A. M., 1896, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York. Received honorary university fellowship, 
1895. Engaged in commerce, 1885-1891; entered college, 1891, to 
study electrical engineering, and pursued advanced courses in 
mechanics, mathematics, and philosophy. Has done teaching, lec- 
turing, and writing. Member of a number of scientific bodies. 
Was editor Electric Power. Author: Text book on Thermody- 
namics, 1894; Index to Current Electric Literature, 1885. Editor 
Proceedings of the Chicago Electrical Congress, 1893. Wrote 
pamphlets on Rontgen Rays, etc. Delivered about eight hundred 
public lectures, 1894-1903. Address: 11 Broadway, New York. 

Pa ley, John. Editor The Jewish Daily News, and The Jewish 
Gazette, since 1893. Born February, 1871, Radishkowitz, Wilna, 
Russia. Son of Hyman Paley and Chaye Chortow. Educated in 
private schools, Talmudical Colleges of Minsk and Volosin, and 
Libau Rabbinical School under Dn Klein, Majried Sophia 


Amchaintzky. Editor Volksadvocat, New York, 1889-1891; Jew- 
ish Press, Philadelphia, 1891-1892; editor and publisher Volks- 
wachter, 189^-1893. Author: The Russian Nihilists, and Life in 
New York, dramas; two vaudevilles for the Yiddish stage; Die 
Schwarze Chevrah; Uriel Acosta; Mysteries of the East Side; 
The Erev Rav; Yichus und Verbrechen; Das Leben in New York; 
etc. Has written over one hundred essays. Address: 161 Barbey, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pastor, Rose Harriet ("Zelda"). Assistant Editor English 
Department, The Jiewish Daily News, and The Jewish Gazette. 
Born July 18, 1879, Augustovo, Suwalk, Russia. Daughter of 
Jacob Weislander and Hinda Lewin. Educated in London Jewish 
Free School. Left Russia for London, 1882; attended school from 
age of seven to nine; assisted mother by making slipper bows at 
home; family emigrated to Cleveland, O., 1891; worked as cigar- 
roller in factory, 1891-1902; wrote first collection of poems, 1898; 
wrote a letter to Jewish Daily News, 1900, receiving ofCer of 
monthly check by return mail, with suggestion from the editor 
to write talks to girls; has written Talks since 1900; left cigar 
factory, 1902, for New York City. Has written short stories, 
sketches, and poems, in Jewish Review and Observer, Cleveland, 
and International Socialist Review, and numerous essays under 
headings Observer, and Just Between Ourselves, Girls, as well 
as poems and short stories, in Jewish Daily News, and Jewish 
Gazette. Address: 1374 Webster Av., Bronx, New York. 

Peixotto, George Da Maduro. Portrait Painter, Painter of 
Mural Decorations. Born Cleveland, O. Son of Benjamin Frank- 
lin Peixotto and Hannah Straus. Educated in public schools in 
the United States, Krause Gymnasium, Dresden, and Dresden 
Royal Academy of Arts. United States vice-consul at Lyons, 
France, during Garfield's administration. Received silver medal 
of Royal Academy at Dresden. Works: Portraits from life of 
Cardinal Manning, President McKinley, John Hay, William Win- 
dom. Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, Victorien Sardou; and 
many others of note; decorations of New Amsterdam Theatre, 
and Criterion Club, New York. Address: Carnegie Hall, New 
York City. 

Peixotto, Irma Maduro. Born January 10, 1881, New York City. 
Daughter of Daniel L. M. Peixotto and Ida J. Solomons. Educated 
at Washington, D. C, in private schools, and public elementary 
and high schools. Has written afrticles for Lippincott's Magazine, 
Bookman, and Good Housekeeping. Drawings published in Good 
Housekeeping. A^ldress: 1205 K, Washington, D. C. 


Pelxotto, Victoria Maud ("Victoria Addison"). Actress. Born 
at Lyons, France. Daughter of Benjamin F. Peixotto and Hannah 
Straus. Educated at Paris. Played with Mrs. Fisk, 1902; Stuart 
Robson, 1903; Henry Miller, 1904. Has been on the stage two 
years; was the last Agnes of Stuart Robson In his favorite 
play, The Henrietta, and has come under the favorable notice 
of Belasco, Mrs. Flsk, and the Frohman brothers. Has toured the 
West as far as San Francisco. Specialty: interpretation of classi- 
cal and modern comedy rfiles. Address: Carnegie Hall, New 
York City. 

Pessels, Constance. Teacher of English, San Antonio High 
School, San Antonio, Texas, since 1897. Born September 9, 1864, 
New York City. Son of Gustave Pessels and Aloine Steenbock. 
Studied in University of Texas, Austin. B. L., 1886; M. A., 1892; 
Ph. D., 1894, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Teacher in 
Tyler (Tex.) high school, 1887-1888; Galveston public schools, 
1888-1891; instructor in English, University of Texas, 1896-1897. 
Author: The Present and Past Periphrastic Tenses in Anglo- 
Saxon (Dissertation), 1896; The Religious and Ethical Import 
of Judaism, published in the Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth 
Annual Session of District Grand Lodge No. 7, Independent Order 
B*nai B'rith. Address: 429 Goliod, San Antonio, Texas. 

♦Phillips, Barnet. Journalist. Born November 9, 1828, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Graduate, 1847, University of Pennsylvania. Studied 
in Europe and engaged in journalism. Since 1872 on staff of 
New York Times. Author: The Struggle; Burning their Ships. 
Address: 41 Park Row, New York. 

Phillips, J. Campbell. Artist. Born February 27, 1873, New 
York City. Son of Isaac Phillips and Adeline Cohen. Studied in 
Metropolitan Museum of Art School, Art Students League, and 
private studio of William M. Chase. Illustrator for New York 
Herald, Truth, Judge, Once a Week (now Collier's Weekly), at 
sixteen years of age; illustrator for Harper's, Scribner's, and other 
magazines, until 1900. Then devoted time to painting in oils, 
making a specialty of negro life on the rice and cotton plantations. 
At present makes a specialty of portraits. First painting exhib- 
ited in National Academy, 1893; has since exhibited in National 
Academy, Society of American Artists, and throughout the United 
States. Works: Cupid's Calendar, 1898; Plantation Sketches, 
1899; reproductions and engravings from paintings, among them 
Breaking Home Ties, The Hunter's Yarn, Memories, Meditations, 
etc. Address: Carnegie Hall Studios, 56th and 7th Av., New 


Phillips, Morris. Author, Traveller, Editor (retired from ac- 
tive life). Born May 9, 1834, London, England. Son of Philip 
Phillips. Educated in Cleveland, O., and under private tutors, New 
York; studied law in Buffalo and New York. Married Elizabeth 
Rode. Entered law oflace of Brown, Hall, and Vanderpoel; asso- 
ciated himself with the old Mirror; in conjunction with the poets 
N. P. Willis and George P. Morris, its founders, conducted the 
New York Home Journal (since 1900 Town and Country), 1854; 
became sole editor and proprietor in the 80's; and at present re- 
tains proprietary interest in it. Originated publication of social 
news and other features of modern journalism. Travelled exten- 
sively in America and abroad. Author: Abroad and at Home. 
Has contributed to many periodicals and newspapers, especially 
travel sketches. Address: 235 Broadway, New York. 

Phillips, Naphtall Taylor. Deputy Comptroller New York City 
since 1902. Born December 5, 1868, New York City. Son of Isaac 
Phillips and Miriam Trimble. Educated in Columbia Grammar 
School; LL. B., 1888, Columbia University. Married Rosalie Solo- 
mons. Member New York State Legislature, 1898-1901; member 
Joint Statutory Revision Commission of Legislature, State of New 
York, 1900; member New York bar and bar of United States 
Supreme Court; Sons of American Revolution; Bar Association 
of New York City; New York Historical Society, etc. Contributor 
to Publications American Jewish Historical Society. Address: 
280 Broadway, New York. 

Platzek, M. Warley. Lawyer. Born August 27, 1854, North 
Carolina. Graduate University of New York; LL. B., 1876; LL. D., 
1899, Rutherford College, North Carolina. Member Constitutional 
Convention, 1894, New York. Trustee College City of New York. 
Author: (essays) Trial by Jury; Israel and Islam; American 
Grit; etc. Address: 320 Broadway, New York. 

Poilak, Gustav. Editor Babyhood, since 1884, and Contributor 
to The New York Evening Post. Born May 4, 1849, Vienna, Aus- 
tria. Son of Lazar Pollak and Magdalena Klein. Educated at 
Vienna. Married Celia Heilprin. Was connected with the edi- 
torial revision of the Century Cyclopedia and the New Interna- 
tional Encyclopedia. Cashier New York Evening Post, 1881-1893. 
Was interested in local political matters while resident of Summit, 
N. J., 1884-1901; nominated State Senator from Union County, by 
the Sound-Money Democrats, 1896; several times a delegate to the 
State conventions at Trenton. Author: (with Dr. L. M. Yale) 
The Century Book for Mothers, and Our Success in Child Train- 
ing. Wrote article on Vienna in Appleton's New American Bncy- 



eloped la; contributor for many years to Nation and Evening Post 
on foreign politics and literary matters. Address: 219 West 
138th, New York. 

Popper, William. Gustav Gottheil Lecturer In Semitic Lan- 
guages, Columbia University; Associate Revising Editor and 
Chief of Bureau of Translation, Jewish Encyclopedia. Born 
October 26, 1874, St. Louis, Mo. Son of Simon Popper and Bar- 
bara Cohn. Educated in Brooklyn public schools; College City of 
New York; A. B., 1896; A.M., 1897, and Ph.D., 1899, Columbia 
University. Studied also in Universities of Strassburg and Berlin; 
Seminar ftir Orientalische Sprachen, Berlin; Ecole Sp6ciale des 
Langues Orientales Vivantes; Ecole des Hautes Etudes; College de 
France, Paris. Travelled in Germany, France, Austrift, and Spain, 
1899-1901; Egypt, Syria, Palestine, the Hauran, North Syrian 
Desert, the Euphrates region, Bagdad, and Bombay, 1901-1902. 
Contributed to the Jewish Encyclopedia and the International 
Encyclopedia. Doctor dissertation: The Censorship of Hebrew 
Books, 1899. Address: 260 West 93d, New York. 

Price, George Moses. Physician and Sanitarian. Born May 
21, 1864, Poltava, Russia. Son of Nison Pris. Educated in Real 
Gymnasium, Russia; M. D., 1895, New York University Medical 
College. Married Anna Orshansky. Came to America in 1882. 
Sanitary inspector, New York Sanitary Society, 1884; manager 
Model Tenements, 1888; correspondent American Hebrew, Jewish 
Messenger, and Evening Post, 1889; inspector New York State 
Tenement Commission, 1894; inspector New York Health Depart- 
ment since 1895. Author: Russian Hebrews in America (pub- 
lished in Russian and in Yiddish), 1891; A Handbook on Sanita- 
tion, 1901; The Sanitary Laws of Moses, 1901; Tenement-House 
Inspection, 1904; The Hygiene of Occupations, 1903. Address: 
254 East Broadway, New York. 

Putzel, Lewis. Lawyer. Born December 16, 1866, Baltimore, 
Md. Son of Selig G. Putzel and Sophie Neuberger. Educated in 
Baltimore public schools. Graduate Baltimore City College; 
LL. B., 1888, University of Maryland. Married Birdie Rosenberg. 
Elected to Maryland House of Delegates, 1895; to State Senate, 
1897, re-elected, 1901; Republican caucus nominee for President of 
the Senate, 1902. Appointed Baltimore city attorney, 1896; ap- 
pointed member Charter Commission that prepared new charter 
for City of Baltimore, 1898; president Republican city convention, 
1903. Residence: 804 Reservoir. Office: 114 East Lexington, 
Baltimore, Md. 

" Ralph Royal." See Abarbanell, Jacob Ralph. 


Rayner, Isidor. Lawyer, United States Senator-elect from Mary- 
land. Born April 11, 1850, Baltimore, Md. Son of William S. 
Tiapiiir Educated in University of Virginia, Academic and Law 
DepartmentET. Student in law office of Messrs. Brown and Brune, 
Baltimore. Married MiMk Bevan. Elected member Maryland Legis- 
lature, 1878; was acting chairman of Judiciary Committee during 
the session; returned to practice of law until 1886, when he was 
elected State Senator, again working on tbe Judiciary Committee 
and taking leading part in debates. Was elected to Congress, 
1886, and has served three times in Congress since, each time 
receiving unanimous nomination; declined nomination for a 
fourth term. Served upon the Committees of Foreign Affairs, 
Coinage, Weights and Measures, and Commerce; was chairman 
Committee on Organization, conducting contest for repeal of the 
Sherman Silver Bill. Elected attorney-general of Maryland, 1899. 
Conducted canvass with Vice-president Stevenson in the Eastern 
States in Cleveland campaigns; was leading counsel for Rear 
Admiral Schley before the Court of Inquiry. Address: 8 East 
Lexington, Baltimore. 

Reiwitch, Herman L. Assistant Advertising Manager, Selz, 
Schwab, and Company, Chicago, 111. Born December 25, 1868, 
Odessa, Russia. Son of David Reiwitch and Fannie Zack. Left 
school at eleven years of age to aid in support of family. Came 
to America at the age of three; removed from New York to 
Chicago at twelve. Married Fay Sachs. Messenger boy until 
fourteen; entered the office of The Chicago Tribune, remaining 
there for ten years in the capacity of office boy, reporter, and 
assistant editor; for one year assistant city editor Chicago Herald 
(now Record-Herald), and for ten years its city editor. Was 
labor reporter on the Tribune during the Haymarket riot, 1886. 
Address: 5335 Prairie Av., Chicago, 111. 

Rice, Isaac Leopoid. Bom February 22, 1850, Wachenheim, 
Bavaria. Son of Meier Rice and Fanny Sohn. Educated in public 
schools and Central High School, Philadelphia. Graduate Law 
School Columbia College, 1880. LL. D., 1902, Bates College. Mar- 
ried Julia Hynemann Barnett, 1884. Appointed lecturer on bib- 
liography of political science, Columbia College, 1882; took up 
practice of law, 1883; returned to Columbia College as instructor 
in the Law School, 1884, giving courses of lectures on history of 
the courts in England and America; resigned, 1886, to devote him- 
self to railroad law. Reorganized Brooklyn Elevated Railroad 
Company; helped to reorganize St. Louis and Southwestern Rail- 
way, 1885; also Rio Grande Division Texas-Pacific; became director 
Richmond Terminal and Richmond-Danville and Tennessee Sys- 


terns of the Georgia Company controlling Central Railway and 
Banking Company of Georgia, all of which properties now con- 
stitute the Southern Railway; called to settle the difficulties of 
the Philadelphia and Reading Railway, 1889, and went to Europe 
as its foreign representative. Founder Electric Storage Battery 
industry, and president Electric Storage Battery Company; organ- 
izer and first president Electric Vehicle Company, thus founding 
electric automobile industry in the United States; organizer and 
now president Electric Boat Company, which purchased Holland 
Torpedo Boat Company. Now president Consolidated Railway 
Electric Lighting and Equipment Company; Consolidated Rail- 
way Lighting and Refrigerating Company; Lindstrom Brake Com- 
pany; Holland Torpedo Boat Company; Electric Launch Com- 
pany; Forum Publishing Company; first vice-president and treas- 
urer Casein Company of America, and of Casein Manufacturing 
Company; chairman board of directors Consolidated Rubber Tire 
Company; member board of directors Buckeye Rubber Company; 
Chicago Electric Traction Company; and National Art Theatre 
Society. Invented opening known as the Rice Gambit in chess; 
presented silver trophy for the International Universities Chess 
Match, contested annually by cable for England by Oxford and 
Cambridge, for America by Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Colum- 
bia. Author: What is Music. Has written articles for the Cen- 
tury, North American Review, and Forum. Residence: 89th and 
Riverside Drive, New York City. 

♦Rice, Joseph M. Physician, Editor The Forum. Born 1857, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Educated in Philadelphia and New York. 
Studied in College City of New York. Graduate, 1881, College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York. Practiced medicine in New 
York, 1881-1888; studied psychology and pedagogics. Universities 
of Jena and Leipzig, 1888-1890; has published many articles on 
educational subjects. Author: The Public School System of the 
United States; The Rational Spelling Book. Residence: 7 Hill- 
side Av., Summit, N. J. Office: 125 East 23d, New York. 

Richards, Bernard G. Journalist. Born March 9, 1877, Keidan, 
Kovno, Russia. Son of Alexander Richards and Ghana Sirk. 
Attended Cheder until fourteen years of age. Married Gertrude 
Gruzinskie. Came to America, 1886; returned to Keidan at the 
end of ten months, and again came to America, 1891, and has 
lived in New York, Boston, and Denver, supporting himself as 
peddler, clerk in dry goods store, English teacher, and Yiddish 
journalist. Was Boston correspondent New York Yiddish dailies; 
editor Boston Israelite (Yiddish) ; reporter for the Boston Post 
for six years, and for The Boston Journal; contributor to the 


Boston Evening Transcript; editor English Department Jewish 
World, New York. Author: Discourses of Keidansky. Has 
written magazine and newspaper articles and stories. Address: 
220 West 114th, New York. 

Rich man, Julia. District Superintendent New York Public 
Schools. Born October 12, 1855, New York. Daughter of Moses 
Richman and Theresa Mellis. Educated in New York City public 
schools and Normal College. Pursued post-graduate courses at 
School of Pedagogy, University City of New York. Was succes- 
sively teacher, principal, and district superintendent of New York 
public schools. First Chairman Committee on Religious Work, 
National Council of Jewish Women; pioneer in educational reform 
in public school work; originated Parents* Meetings in connection 
with public schools. Director Hebrew Free School Association, 
and Educational Alliance, New York, and Jewish Chautauqua 
Society. Created and edited Helpful Thoughts. Has written edu- 
cational articles in Educational Review, School Journal, School 
Work, and other periodicals. Address: 116 Henry, New York. 

Ries, Elias Elkan. Inventor, Consulting Electrical and Mechan- 
ical Engineer, Solicitor of Patents. Born January 16, 1862, Ran- 
degg, Baden. Son of Elkan Elias Ries and Bertha Weil. Came 
to America, 1865. Educated in New York and Baltimore public 
schools. Pursued courses in technical and mechanical drawing 
at Cooper Union, New York City, and Maryland Institute, Balti- 
more, and attended lecture courses at Johns Hopkins University. 
Studied telegraphy, at a business college in Baltimore, while 
assisting his father in his shoe factory. Became telegraph opera- 
tor, 1876, making improvements in telephone, telegraph, and 
other electrical apparatus. Removed to New York from Balti- 
more, and held positions with the Edison Company; United States 
Electric Illuminating Company; and Fuller Electric Manufactur- 
ing Company. Returned to Baltimore, 1884, and developed his 
own inventions in electric signalling, electric railways, etc.; 
organized Ries Electric Specialty Company, 1891, which intro- 
duced the Ries regulating socket for " turning down " the light 
or " candle power " of electric lamps. Inventor of alternating- 
current electric railway system; of the method of electrically 
welding track rails; of various motor controllers; of a new tele- 
phone system; etc., holding over one hundred and fifty patents 
for inventions chiefly in the electric field. ' Member of various 
scientific societies; charter member American Association of In- 
ventors and Manufacturers; and of American Electrochemical 
Society. Married Helen Hirshberg, 1895. Resident of New York 
since 1896. Has contributed articles to scientific and technical 
journals since 1886. Address: 116 Nassau, New York. 


Riesman, David. Physician. Born March 25, 1867, Stadt-Lengs- 
feld, Saxe-Weimar, Germany. Son of Nathan Riesman and Sophie 
Eisman. Educated in Ducal Gymnasium, Meiningen, Germany; 
Portsmouth, O., public and high schools. Studied medicine in 
University of Michigan, and University of Pennsylvania (M. D., 
1892). Was professor Clinical Medicine, Philadelphia Polyclinic 
and College for Graduates in Medicine; associate in Medicine, 
University of Pennsylvania; visiting physician Philadelphia Gen- 
eral Hospital and Jewish Hospital; neurologist Northern Dispen- 
sary. Ex-president Northern Medical Association, Philadelphia. 
Fellow College of Physicians, Philadelphia; member American 
Medical Association; American Association for the Advancement 
of Science; German- American Historical Society; honorary mem- 
ber Cumberland County, New Jersey, Medical Society; member 
University Club; and Medical Club of Philadelphia. Editor: 
(with Dr. Ludwig Hektoen) American Text-Book of Pathology; 
Proceedings of Pathological Society of Philadelphia. Has con- 
tributed articles to medical journals. Address: 1624 Spruce, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rombro, Jacob (nom de plume, "Philip Krantz"). Editor of 
Die Arbeiter Welt, and of Die Zukunft. Born October, 1858, 
Podolia, Russia. Son of Baruch Rombro and Bella Rosa Uger. 
Entered Jitomir Rabbinical school at age of fourteen; attended 
the Real-Gymnasium at Biala-Zerkoff, Kiev, 1879; St. Petersburg 
Technological Institute, 1879-1881; studied at Sorbonne, Paris, 
1882; pursued post-graduate courses in chemistry. New York 
University, 1893. Married Eva Gordon. Arrested 1877, and im- 
prisoned for one year, in Charkov for political propaganda; sen- 
tenced to be under supervision of police. Emigrated to escape 
arrest for affiliation with Russian Revolutionary Party, 1881, and 
has lived in Paris, London, and New York as a political exile 
since. Engaged in journalism, 1880; first connected with Rus- 
sian Jewish weekly Razsviet; assistant lecturer in chemistry. 
New York University, 1893; teacher of English, New York public 
evening schools, 1894-1902. Connected with Socialistic movement. 
First editor London Arbeiter Freund, 1885. Now writer for the 
International Publishing Company, New York. Contributed, in 
Russian, to Razsviet, Voschod, and Zarya (daily, in Kiev, sup- 
pressed by the Government). Has written in Yiddish articles for 
labor and radical periodicals since 1885. Author: History of 
Culture; History of the French Revolution; Exodus according 
to Egyptian Sources; English Teacher for Jews. Writer of social- 
istic pamphlets. Address: 26 Canal, New York. 

RosenaUy Milton J. Passed Assistant Surgeon and Director of 
the Hygienic Laboratory of the United States Public Health and 


Marine Hospital Service since 1900. Born January 1, 1869, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Son of Nathan Rosenau and Mathilda Blitz. Grad- 
uate Philadelphia high school, 1886; studied medicine in Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania (M. D., 1889); Hygienic Institute, Berlin; 
Pasteur Institute, Paris; laboratories and hospitals of Vienna. 
Married Myra B. Frank, 1900. Entered United States Marine 
Hospital Service, 1890; sanitary attach^ to United States consul- 
ates at Hamburg and Antwerp, during cholera epidemic in 
Europe, 1893; United States quarantine officer at port of San 
Francisco, Cal., 1895-1898; established, upon original ideas, quar- 
antine system and regulations for Island of Cuba, 1899; studied 
abroad, 1901; delegate from United States to Tenth International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography, and Thirteenth Interna- 
tional Congress of Medicine, Paris, 1900; represented United 
States on International Committee called by France to revise the 
nomenclature of the causes of death; sanitary expert to second 
Pan-American Congress held in City of Mexico, 1901-1902; repre- 
sented United States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service 
at various gatherings of American Medical and American Public 
Health Associations, New York Academy of Medicine, and meet- 
ings of Associations for Study of Tuberculosis; chairman of Sec- 
tion on Etiology of the Yellow Fever Institute of United States, 
Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and conducted experi- 
ments in search of the cause of yellow fever in Vera Cruz in 1902 
and 1903. Author: Disinfection and Disinfectants (foreign edi- 
tion entitled, A Practical Guide to Disinfection), 1902. Con- 
tributed medical articles to medical journals and Government 
bulletins. Address: 3211 13th, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rosenberg, Abraham H. Printer. Born October 17, 1838, Pinsk, 
Russia. Son of Uziel Jaffa Rosenberg and Leah Lieberman. 
Educated by father and in Rabbinical Seminary, Jitomir, Russia 
(1871). Began the study of secular branches at age of twenty- 
two. Married Clara Bercinsky. Life member, since 1872, Society 
for the Diffusion of Knowledge among Jews in Russia; Chief 
Rabbi district of Pinsk, 1872-1881; Chief Rabbi district of Niko- 
laiev, Russia, 1881-1890; instructor Jewish history and religion, at 
Classical Gymnasium of Nikolaiev, Russia, 1882-1890. Author: 
Ge Hizayon, 1867-8, Ha-Melitz (on the belief in spirits and 
ghosts); Tridensky Evrei, 1878 (an historical sketch of Jewish 
life in the Middle Ages) ; History of the Jews for High Schools 
and Rabbinical Seminaries (in Russian), 1889; Hatan Damim, 
1892, Ha-Ibri ( a novel of Russian Jewish life) ; Ozar ha-Shemot 
(Cyclopedia of the Bible; only 2 vols, issued); Anshe ha-Shem 
(biographical; in MS.). Address: 1 West 115th, New York City. 


Rosendale, Simon W. Lawyer. Born June 23, 1842, Albany, 
N. Y. Son of Sampson Rosendale and Fannie Sachs. Educated 
at Albany, and Barre, Vt., Academy. Married Helen Cohn. 
Assistant district attorney, 1864-1867; recorder, 1868-1872; and 
corporation counsel, of Albany; Attorney General State of New 
York, 1892-1894; commissioner State Board of Charities, since 
1899. President board of trustees Union University. Trustee and 
director of various organizations. Author: The Involution of 
Wampum as Currency. Contributor to Publications American 
Jewish Historical Society. Address: 325 State, Albany, N. Y. 

Rosenfeld, Morris. Editor of The Jewish World. Born Decem- 
ber 28, 1862, Boksha, Suwalk, Poland. Son of Ephraim Rosenfeld 
and Rachel Wilchinsky. Educated at Cheder and Beth Hamid- 
rash of Suwalk, New Praga (Warsaw), and Boksha, Russia. Mar- 
ried Bella Guttenberg. Worked at tailoring in sweat shops in 
London and New York; learned the diamond-cutting trade in 
Amsterdam, Holland; was engaged in work at Columbia Univer- 
sity library; delivered lectures and gave recitations in the promi- 
nent cities of England and America; has been connected with the 
editorial staff of all the leading Jewish journals of America. 
Delegate to Fourth Zionist Congress, London, 1900; appointed on 
Propaganda Committee for America, at Fifth Zionist Congress, 
Basle. Gave readings at Harvard University, 1898; Chicago 
University, 1900; Wellesley and RadclifCe Colleges, 1902; Tech- 
nical Institute, Worcester, Mass., 1902. Author: Die Glocke, 
1888; Die Blumenkette, 1890; Das Lieder Buch, 1897; Songs from 
the Ghetto, 1898; Collection of Poems, 1904. Contributor to 
Der Fraind, and Der Tog, of St. Petersburg, and other papers. 
Address: 50 Croton Terrace, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Rosenfeld, Sydney. Dramatist. Born October 26, 1855, Rich- 
mond, Va. Educated in Richmond and New York public schools, 
and by private tutors. Married Genie Holzmeyer Johnson, 1883. 
First editor of Puck; one of the main movers in the effort to 
secure a National Theatre for the United States; secretary Na- 
tional Art Theatre Society; president and managing director of 
National Theatre Company. Author: (plays) A Possible Case; 
Imagination; The Club Friend; The Politician; A Man of Ideas; 
A House of Cards; The Senator (co-author); (operettas and mu- 
sical plays) The Lady or the Tiger; The Mocking Bird; The Pass- 
ing Show; The Giddy Throng; The King's Carnival; The Hall 
of Fame; (adapter) The White Horse Tavern; The Two Escutch- 
eons; The Black Hussar; Prince Methusalem; Nanon, etc. Ad- 
dress: The Albany, 215 West 51st, New York. 


Rosenheim, Alfred Faist. Architect. Born June 10, 1859, St. 
Louis, Mo. Son of Morris Rosenheim and Matilda Ottenheimer. 
Educated at public schools and Washing:ton University, St. Louis; 
Hasseirs Institute, Frankfort on the Main, Germany; B. A., 1881, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. Married Frances 
Graham Wheelock. Was employed as assistant by several lead- 
ing architects of Boston and St. Louis; first important commis- 
sion executed at twenty-seven; called to Los Angeles in 1903, to 
take charge of construction of one of the costliest and most im- 
portant office buildings on the Pacific coast. Was for two years 
member Board of Directors American Institute of Architects; 
secretary for eight years of St. Louis Chapter of American Insti- 
tute of Architects; consulting architect for Rosenberg Memorial 
Library, Galveston, Tex., in 1901. Address: Suite 815-818 Her- 
man W. Hellman Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Rosenthal, Albert. Artist. Born January 30, 1863, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Son of Max Rosenthal and Caroline Rosenthal. Edu- 
cated at Philadelphia and Paris. Married Henrietta Nuneville. 
Lithographer, etcher, and painter. Address: 1529 Chestnut. Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Rosenthal, Herman. Chief of Slavonic Department, New York 
Public Library; editor Russian Department, Jewish Encyclopedia. 
Born October 6, 1843, Friedrichstadt, Courland, Russia. Son of 
Moritz Rosenthal and Pauline Birkhahn. Educated at Bausk 
district school, and private boarding school at Jacobstadt. Mar- 
ried Anna Rosenthal. Arrived in United States, 1881; started the 
first agricultural colony for Russian Jews in America, in Loui- 
siana; organized two more colonies in South Dakota and New 
Jersey; was sent by the Great Northern Railway on mission to 
Japan and China, 1892-1893; secretary German- American Reform 
Union, 1893-1894; started the Russian daily Zarya, 1890; pub- 
lished and edited the Hebrew Monthly Intelligencer, New York; 
member Imperial Russian Orphan Asylum; Red Cross Society, 
medal of latter, 1877-1878. Contributor since 1885 to New York 
Staats-Zeitung. Author: Worte des Sammlers, 1893; Lied der 
Lieder, 1893; Report on Japan, China and Corea, 1893. Address: 
New York Public Library, Lafayette PI., New York. 

Rosenthal, Jonas. Merchant. Born June 21, 1843, Oberlauter- 
bach, Alsace. Son of Isaiah Rosenthal and Rosa Walter. Edu- 
cated in BYench and Alexandria, La., schools. Married Jeanette 
Weil. Came to the United States, 1860; served three years and a 
half in the Confederate Army during the Civil War; member 
City Council at various times for about fourteen years; member 



of Parish Rapides School Board since 1879, and president for 
twenty years; appointed postmaster of Alexandria by President 
Cleveland; member of Democratic Executive Committee of the 
Parish. Address: Alexandria, La. 

Rosenthal, Leasing. Lawyer. Born November 23, 1868, Chi- 
cago, 111. Son of Julius Rosenthal and Jette Wolf. Educated at 
grammar school, and South Division High School, Chicago, 111; 
Johns Hopkins University (A. B., 1888) ; studied law in North- 
western University (LL. B., 1891); post-graduate course, Chi- 
cago College of Law (LL. B., 1892). Married Mrs. Lillie Frank 
Myers. Admitted to bar of Illinois, 1891, and is associated in 
practice with his father under the firm name Julius and Lessing 
Rosenthal. Was chairman Committee on Judicial Administration 
of Illinois State Bar Association; vice-president German- American 
Charity Association of Chicago. Now vice-president Chicago Bar 
Association, and Civil Service Reform Association of Chicago; 
member Executive Committee Municipal Voters' League of Chi- 
cago; secretary Northwestern Association of Johns Hopkins 
Alumni; director of Jewish Training School, Chicago. Contrib- 
uted papers, reports, and articles to law journals and periodicals, 
among them: Some Recent Constructions of Wills, 1896; Ten- 
dencies in Modern Industrial Society, particularly of Trusts and 
Combinations, 1899; Some General Reflections touching Recent 
Progress and Present Tendencies, 1902. Address: 1007 Fort Dear- 
born Building, Chicago, 111. 

Rosenthal, Max. Painter, Engraver, Etcher, Lithographer, Il- 
lustrator. Born November 23, 1833, Turek, near Kalish, Russian 
Poland. Son of Wolf Rosenthal and Esther Kolsky. Studied art 
at Berlin under Professor Carl Harnisch; in Paris, under Martin 
Thurwanger; at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadel- 
phia. Married Carolina Rosenthal. Came to Philadelphia, 1849, 
with his teacher, Thurwanger; devoted himself to chromo-litho- 
graphy, a process in which he was the pioneer; received second 
prize for composition in Pennsylvania Academy, 1853; silver 
medal from Franklin Institute for Applied Science in the Graphic 
Arts, 1854; diploma for achievements in lithographic art from 
Massachusetts Institute for Arts and Sciences, 1857; diploma 
from Historical Society of Pennsylvania, for first fac-simile of 
water colors reproduced in the United States by lithographic 
process, 1858; successful competitor in Surgical and Medical de- 
partment of United States in contest to illustrate reports of 
Medical Staff, 1867; received first prize, 1870, and second prizes 
in 1873 and 1885, for original designs; invented a process of 
decorating glass by "sand blast," 1872; during the Civil War 


followed the Army of the Potomac, making illustrations for the 
United States Military Commission; since 1880 has etched more 
than five hundred historical portraits, a collection of which is in 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington; also painted original 
pictures illustrating Longfellow's Building of the Ship, Legend 
of Rabbi Ben Levi, etc.; produced a number of mezzotihto engrav- 
ings since 1890; and recently has turned his attention to painting 
in oil and painting of miniatures. Last work: Jesus at Prayer. 
Address: 1613 Wallace, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rosenthal, Moritz. Lawyer. Born May 4, 1866, Dixon, 111. Son 
of Samson Rosenthal and Mina Cahn. Educated at preparatory 
schools and in University of Michigan (B. L., 1888). Married 
Virginia Moses. Assistant State's Attorney Cook County, 111.; 
Assistant United States Attorney Northern Illinois. Residence: 
5478 Greenwood Av. Office: 600-614 The Temple, Chicago, 111. 

*Ro8enthal, Toby Edward. Artist. Bom March 15, 1848, New 
Haven, Conn. Studied art under Fortunato Arviola, San Fran- 
cisco, 1864; Carl von Piloty, Munich, 1865; and Royal Academy, 
Munich. Received medals in Munich, 1870, and 1883; Philadel- 
phia, 1876. Removed with family to San Francisco, in 1855. 
Professional life spent in Europe. Works: Love's Last Offering; 
Spring, Joy and Sorrow, 1868; Morning Prayers in Bach's Fam- 
ily, 1870, bought by the Saxon Government, and now in museum 
of Leipzig; Elaine, 1874; Young Monk in Refectory, 1875; For- 
bidden Longings; Who laughs Last laughs Best; Girls' Boarding- 
School Alarmed, 1877; A Mother's Prayer, 1881; Empty Place, 
1882; Trial of Constance de Beverley, 1883; Departure from the 
Family, 1885; Danciilg Lesson during the Empire; Out 6f the 
Fryingpan into the Fire, 1871. Very few of his works have been 
exhibited in this country. Address: San Francisco, Cal. 

Roaentreter, David. President of the Washington National 
Bank of St. Louis. Bom January 30, 1861, Gollantsch, Germany. 
Son of Meyer Rosentreter. Educated in Berlin, Germany, and 
Missouri College of Law, St. Louis, Mo. Married Miss Greene- 
wald. Was first treasurer of St. Louis Jewish Hospital Associa- 
tion; director Jewish Relief Association; and founder of Jewish 
Farmers' Colony in Washington County, Mo. Organized the 
Washington National Bank of St. Louis. Address: 1401 Wash- 
ington Av., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rosenzweig, Gerson. Editor, Author, Poet. Born April, 1861, 
Bialystok, Russia. Son of Solomon Rosenzweig. Educated in 
Jewish schools in Berlin and Russia. Married Hannah M. Abram- 


son. Conducted a school in Suwalk, Russia, for ten years, and 
since 1888 has been interested in Hebrew educational institutions 
in New York. Co-editor of The Jewish Daily News, and of The 
Jewish World, New York; published and edited Ha-Ibri, and 
The Kadimah. Author: Masehet Amerika; Shirim u-Meshalim; 
American National Songs in Hebrew; Hamisha ve-Aleph. Ad- 
dress: 1726 Madison Av., New York. 

Rosewald, Julie. Professor of Singing at Mills College Con- 
servatory of Music, San Francisco, Cal. Born March 7, 1847, 
Stuttgart, Germany. Daughter of Moriz Eichberg, Obercantor of 
Wurtemberg, and Leonore Seligsberg. Member of a musical 
family. Educated at Stuttgart and Frankfort on the Main, Ger- 
many. Married Jacob H. Rosewald (deceased). Prima donna in 
the Kellogg, the Strakosch, and the Abbott Opera Company; for 
ten years solo soprano at Temple Emanu-El, San Francisco, dur- 
ing that time singing and reciting the parts of the service usually 
sung and recited by a Cantor, in place of that functionary; given 
title of Professor of Vocal Music by Regents of Mills College of 
Music, 1894. Many of her pupils, among them Caroline Hamilton, 
Marie Barna, Anna Miller Wood, Mabelle Oilman, etc., achieved 
success on the operatic and the concert stage. Published small 
theoretical works for students, as How Shall I Practice, etc. 
Address: Hecht Brothers and Company, San Francisco, Cal. 

*Rosewater, Andrew. Civil and Sanitary Engineer. Born 
October 31, 1848, Bohemia. Educated in Cleveland common and 
high schools. Married Frances Meinrath, of Boston. Flagman 
engineer corps. Union Pacific Railway explorations and surveys, 
1864; later in other engineering positions same road; assistant 
city engineer Omaha, 1868-1870; city engineer, 1870-1875; manager 
and editor Omaha Bee, 1876-1877; engineer in charge construc- 
tion Omaha and Northwestern Railway, 1878-1880; resident engi- 
neer Omaha Water Works Company, 1880-1881; city engineer 
Omaha, 1881-1887; 1887-1891 consulting and designing engineer 
of sewerage for twenty-five cities; president electrical subway 
commission of Washington, 1891-1892; consulting engineer for 
cities in Colorado, South Dakota, etc. Since 1897 city engineer 
Omaha and president Board of Public Works, etc. Member 
American Society of Civil Engineers; president Nebraska Society 
of Engineers. Wrote report of the Electrical Commission of the 
District of Columbia to the President, 1891. Address: Omaha, 

Rosewater, Edward. Editor and Publisher Omaha Bee. Born 
January 28, 1841, Bukowan, Bohemia. Son of Herman Rosen- 


wasser and Rosalia Kohn. Educated at Bukowan common 
schools; Breznltz Real-Schule, Prague; and Commercial College, 
Cleveland, O.; chiefly self-taught. Married Leah Colman. Came 
to United States, 1854; peddler, clerk, and bookkeeper, 1854-1858; 
telegraph operator at eighteen; in United States military tele- 
graph corps, 1861-1863, transmitting General Pope's despatches 
from various battlefields; went to Omaha, as manager Pacific 
Telegraph, 1863; member Nebraska legislature, 1871; founded, 
1871, The Omaha Evening Bee, which afterwards became a morn- 
ing daily, weekly, and Sunday paper. On Republican National 
Committee, 1892; on advisory board National Committee, 1896 and 
1900; received many votes on numerous ballots in Nebraska legis- 
lature for United States senator, 1901; member United States Mint 
Commission, 1896; representative of United States and vice-presi- 
dent Universal Postal Congress, Washington, 1897; original pro- 
moter Trans-Mississippi Exposition, Omaha, 1898; member of its 
executive committee in charge of publicity and promotion. Ad- 
dress: Omaha, Neb. 

Rosewater, Victor. Managing Editor Omaha Bee, since 1895. 
Bom February 13, 1871, Omaha, Neb. Son of Edward Rosewater 
and Leah Colman. Educated at Omaha public schools; Johns 
Hopkins University; and Columbia University (Ph. B., 1891; 
A. M., 1892; Ph.D., 1893); fellow in political science, Columbia 
University, 1892-1893. Married Katie Katz. Began newspaper 
work on The Bee, 1893. Regent Nebraska State University, 1896- 
1897; special lecturer on Municipal Finance, University of Wis- 
consin, 1904; University of Nebraska, 1895; member Board of 
Review (city taxes), Omaha, 1902; Omaha Public Library Board, 
since 1894. Member of General Committee Taxation Department, 
National Civic Federation, and of economic and historical asso- 
ciations. Author: Special Assessments: a Study in Municipal 
Finance, 1898; and Omaha, in Historic Towns of the Western 
States, 1901; "Laissez faire" in Palgrave's Dictionary of Political 
Economy; and Omaha, in Encyclopedia Britannica Supplement. 
Has contributed articles on economics and finance to Political 
Science Quarterly; Quarterly Journal of Economics, American 
Statistical Association Quarterly; Booklovers' Magazine, Munici- 
pal Affairs, New York Independent, etc. Address : Omaha, Neb. 

Rowe, Leo 8. Assistant Professor Political Science, University 
of Pennsylvania. Born September 17, 1871, McGregor, Iowa. 
Son of Louis R. Rowe. Educated at University of Pennsylvania, 
Arts Department, and Wharton School of Finance and Economy 
(Ph. B., 1890). As Fellow of the Wharton School with privilege 
of foreign study, spent 1890-1892 in Germany, and took the 


Doctor's degree at the University of Halle in 1892. Travelled in 
France and Italy, 1892-1894; appointed lecturer in public law, 
University of Pennsylvania, 1894; instructor, 1895; assistant pro- 
fessor, 1897; appointed, by President McKinley, member of the 
GommissioA to Revise and Compile the Laws of Porto Rico, 1900; 
chairman Insular Code Commission, 1901-1902; resumed his aca- 
demic duties, 1902. Elected president American Academy of Polit- 
ical Science. Author: The United States and Porto Rico; (co- 
author) Report of the United States Commission to Revise the 
Liaws of Porto Rico (2 vols.); (co-author) Report of the Insular 
Code Commission. Published reports and contributed articles on 
political science and city government to magazines, journals, 
Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy, The Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, Proceedings 
of various societies, and foreign publications. Address: Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Rubinow, Isaac M. Examiner United States Civil Service Com- 
mission since 1903. Born April 19, 1875, Lunny (near Grodno), 
Russia. Son of Max Rubinow and Esther Shereshewsky. Studied 
in Petri-Pauli Gymnasium, Moscow, Russia, 1885-1892; Columbia 
University, 1893-1895 (A. B., 1895); University Medical College, 
New York, 1895-1898 (M.D., 1898); Columbia University School 
of Political Science, 1900-1903. Married Sophie Himowich. Came 
to United States, 1893, after the expulsion of the Jews from 
Moscow. Correspondent of Russian newspapers since 1897, and 
contributor to Russian magazines; Washington Staff Correspond- 
ent of The Publications of the Russian Ministry of Finance, of The 
St. Petersburg Wedoniosti, Voschod, etc. Has written articles for 
The American Hebrew, Arena, International Socialist Review, 
Messenger of Education, The Week's Library, etc., on timely, eco- 
nomic, and educational topics. Address: 511 8th, N. B., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Ruskayi Esther J. (Mrs. S. S.). Writer, Journalist. Born 1857, 
New York City. Daughter of Abraham Baum and Goldie Web- 
ster. Educated in New York City public schools and Normal 
College (B. A., 1875). Studied belles lettres and English litera- 
ture at Columbia University for one year. Married Samuel S. 
Ruskay. Teacher in public schools, New York City, for two years. 
Interested in communal work. Author: Book of Poems for 
Children; Hearth and Home Essays. Contributed stories, poems, 
and articles to newspapers and magazines. Address: 244 East 
86th, New York. 

Sabsovich, Hlrsch Leib. Mayor of Woodbine, N. J.; Superin- 
tendent of the Woodbine Land and Improvement Company since 


1891, and of the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial 
School since 1894. Born February 25, 1860, Rodovka, Charkov, 
Russia. Son of Ezekiel Ber Sabsovich and Bella M. Simonovich. 
Studied in the Classical Gymnasium of Berdiansk-Taurida; for 
two years at Odessa University; for three years in the Agricul- 
tural School of the Federal Polytechnicum, Zurich, Switzerland. 
Married Ekatherina Groushke. Agricultural chemist in Odessa 
University, 1885-1886; manager of landed estates in the Caucasus, 
Russia, 1886-1888; private teacher in New York, 1888-1889; agri- 
cultural chemist at Experiment Station of Colorado State Agricul- 
tural College, 1889-1891. Organized the Committee of Safety in 
Odessa, during anti-Jewish riots, 1881; organized the Society Am- 
01am, which sent about 400 persons to America, 1882; organized 
The United States Humane Society, in Denver, Colo., to liberate 
political exiles from Siberia, 1890. Contributed articles on agricul- 
ture to periodicals in Russia; reports and articles on present 
work. Address: Woodbine, Cape May Co., N. J. 

Sachs, Julius. Professor of Secondary Education, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University; principal of Collegiate Institute, New 
York City. Born July 6, 1849, Baltimore, Md. Son of Joseph 
Sachs and Sophia Baer. Educated in a private school, New York 
City; Columbia College (A. B., and A. M., 1867) ; Rostock, Germany 
(Ph.D., 1871). Married Rosa Goldman. Was President School- 
masters Association, New York; American Philological Associa- 
tion, 1891; Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools, 1898; Headmasters' Association of United States, 1899; 
New York Society of Archaeological Institute, 1900-1903; member 
Latin Conference Committee (of Ten), 1893; Secondary School 
Representative on College Entrance Examinations Board, 1900- 
1904. Has written articles on educational subjects in Educational 
Review, and on philological and archaeological subjects in Annual 
Reports of American Philological Association; papers, reports, 
and presidential addresses. Address: 149 West 81st, New York. 

Sale, Moses N. Judge Circuit Court, City of St. Louis, Mo. 
Born October 17, 1857, Louisville, Ky. Son of Isaac Sale i^nd 
Henrietta Dinkelspiel. Educated in Louisville, ICy., public 
schools, and graduate of Law Department of University of Louis- 
ville. Married Florence D. Rider. Address: St. Louis, Mo. 

Saiomon, Edward S. Lawyer. Born December 25, 1836, Schles- 
wig, Schleswig-Holstein. Son of Salomon M. Salomon and Caro- 
line Samuels. Educated in Schleswlg high school. Married 
Sophie Greenhut (deceased). Was alderman, Chicago, 1860; 
during the Civil War was lieutenant, captain, and major 24th 


Illinois Infantry; lieutenant-colonel and colonel 82d Illinois In- 
fantry; promoted, 1865, to brigadier-general of Volunteers, "for 
distinguished gallantry and meritorious services during the war." 
Elected county-clerk of Cook County, 111.; appointed Governor of 
Washington Territory by President Grant, 1870; moved to San 
Francisco, and elected twice to Legislature; District Attorney of 
San Francisco. Has been Department Commander of Grand Army 
of Republic; and for eight years commander-in-chief of Army and 
Navy Republican League. Address: Parrote Building, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Sampson, Arthur Fichell. Physician and Surgeon. Born July 
1, 1855, Georgetown, S. C. Son of Joseph Sampson and Esther 
Cohen. Educated in Indigo Society School and Academy, George- 
town, S. C; studied chemistry and medicine at Washington and 
Lee University, Virginia; University of Virginia (M. D., 1878); 
pursued post-graduate courses at University of Pennsylvania, and 
New York University, and studied under Dr. Simon Baruch. 
Married Barbetta Levy. Practiced medicine in Galveston, 1884- 
1901; in San Francisco, since 1901. Member of Board of Medical 
Examiners for Eleventh District, Texas, for eight years; city 
health physician of Galveston; plenary power conferred upon 
him by Mayor and Adjutant General of State, during the trials 
following the Galveston hurricane, 1900. Removed to San Fran- 
cisco in 1901 on account of ill-health. Inventor of the Sampson 
Urethral Speculum. Has written monographs in medical Journals. 
Address: 751 Sutter, San Francisco, Cal. 

*Samuel8on, Leo I. Second Lieutenant, 7th Regiment Infantry, 
United States Army. Born July 17, 1879, Illinois. Appointed 
cadet Military Academy, 1899; second lieutenant 2d Regiment 
Infantry, 1903; transferred to 7th Regiment Infantry, 1903; Ad- 
dress: War Department, Washington, D. C. 

Sanders, Leon. Lawyer. Born May 25, 1867, Odessa, Russia. Son 
of, Nathan Sanders. Educated in Odessa Gymnasium, New York 
public schools, and under private tutors. Studied in New York 
Law School. Clerk in banking house, bookkeeper, and 1890-1895, 
Commissioner of Jurors, New York City. Admitted to the bar, 
1895. Married Bertha Fischer, 1896. Tammany Hall leader in 
the Twelfth Assembly District, and elected to legislature from 
that district, 1899-1902; refused re-nomination, 1902; elected 1904, 
for term of ten years, as Justice of the Thirteenth District of the 
Municipal Court of the City of New York. Address: 309 Broad- 
way, New York. 


Schalkewitz (Shomer), Nahum Meyer. Writer. Born Decem- 
ber 25, 1849, Nesvizh, Minsk, Russia. Son of Isaac Schaikewitz and 
Hodie Goldberg. Educated at home. Married Dinah Bercinsky. 
Was Hebrew teacher; business manager in Wilna, Russia; novel- 
ist; manager of and writer for a theatre in Odessa, Russia; editor 
and publisher of Der Menschenfreund and The Jewish Puck; con- 
tributor to Jewish dailies. Began literary career when twenty 
years old; his first fifteen novels were written in Hebrew, and 
were directed against the fanaticism prevalent in certain Russian- 
Jewish circles. Has written besides two hundred and five novels 
in Yiddish, and fifty plays in Yiddish. Among his novels are: The 
Convict; A Bloody Adieu; Alexander III; Between two Flames; 
Murder for Love; Last Jewish King; From the Throne to the 
Gallows; The Bloody King; Jew and Duchess; A Spark of Juda- 
ism; The Bees about the Honey; The Iron Woman. Among his 
plays are: The Repenter; Coquettish Woman; The Usurer; Ha- 
man the Second; The Jewish Immigrants; A Blow for a Blow; 
Spanish Inquisition; The Grolden Land. Address: 54 East 63d, 
New York. 

Schamberg, Jay Frank. Physician. Bom November 6, 1870, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Gustav Schamberg and Emma Frank. 
Educated in Philadelphia public schools; Central High School, 
Philadelphia (A. B., 1889); University of Pennsylvania (M. D., 
1892); post-graduate work in hospitals of Vienna, Berlin, and 
Paris. Professor of Dermatology and Eruptive Infectious Dis- 
eases in Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates in 
Medicine; assistant diagnostician to Bureau of Health of Philadel- 
phia; consulting physician to Municipal Hospital for Infectious 
Diseases; fellow of College of Physicians of Philadelphia; mem- 
ber of American Dermatological Association. Has written num- 
erous articles in medical journals. Author: A Compendium of 
Diseases of the Skin; (with Dr. William M. Welch) A Treatise 
on Acute Contagious Diseases (in press). Address: 1636 Walnut, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

*8chechter, Solomon. Theologian, Author; President Faculty 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America since 1902. Bom 1849, 
Fokshan, Roumania. Son of Isaac Schechter. Educated at Uni- 
versities of Vienna and Berlin. Graduated as rabbi in Vienna. 
Specialized in theology and Semitics. A. M., and hon. Litt D., 
University of Cambridge. Married Matilda Roth. Formerly 
Reader in Rabbinics, University of Cambridge; professor Hebrew, 
University College, London. Travelled in Italy, Egypt, Palestine, 
and elsewhere; sent by University of Cambridge to examine the 
contents of the Cairo Greniza; made many valuable discoveries 


among the manuscripts there found, especially the original He- 
brew of Eccleslasticus. Was curator of Oriental Languages and 
Literature, University Library; member Oriental Board of Stu- 
dies, Board of Theology, and Board of Oriental Languages and 
Literature, University of London. External Examiner at Victoria 
University, Manchester. Now member of Senate of New York 
University; director of the Educational Alliance, New York. 
Editor: Aboth de Rabbi Nathan, 1887; (with S. Singer) Tal- 
mudic Fragments in the Bodleian Library (Tractates Kerithoth 
and Berachoth), 1896; Saadyana, Oeniza fYagments, 1903; Mid- 
rash Haggadol, 1903. Author: Studies in Judaism, 1896; (with 
C. Taylor) The Wisdom of Ben Sira, 1899; numerous articles in 
Jewish Quarterly Review (especially series on Aspects of Jewish 
Theology) ; addresses and lectures. Office: 531 West 123d, New 

Schiff, Jacob Henry. Banker. Born January 10, 1847, Frank- 
fort on the Main, Germany. Son of Moses Schiff and Clara Nieder- 
hofheim. Educated in the schools of Frankfort on the Main. Mar- 
ried Therese Loeb. Address: 965 Fifth Av., New York City. 

Schiff, Mortimer L. Banker. Born June 5, 1877, New York 
City. Son of Jacob H. Schiff and Therese Loeb. Educated in 
private school, New York, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.; 
Columbia University School of Political Science, New York. 
Married Addle G. Neustadt. Spent two years in railroad work in 
New York and the West, and two years in Europe studying the 
banking systems of England and (^rmany. Partner in firm of 
Kuhn, Loeb and Co., New York. Trustee of various charitable 
institutions and corporations. Residence: 932 Fifth Av. Office: 
52 William, New York. 

Schloesslnger, Max. Librarian and Instructor, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, O. Born September 4, 1877, Heidelberg, Ger- 
many. Son of Jacob Schloessinger and Brunette Oppenheimer. 
Educated in Volksschule and Gymnasium, Heidelberg; University 
of Heidelberg; Israelitisch-Theologische Lehranstalt, Vienna; 
University of Berlin (Ph.D., 1901); and Lehranstalt ftir die 
Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin (Rabbi, 1903). Office editor 
Jewish Encyclopedia, 1903-1904. Address: Hebrew Union Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, O. 

Schtfney, Lazarus. Physician. Bom December 18, 1838, Buda- 
pest, Hungary. Son of Caspar Schoney and Golde Ehrentreu. 
Educated in Hebrew and Rabbinics at Prague, receiving the Rab- 
binical authorization from R. Solomon Rappaport; studied at 


University of Prague, Austria (Ph.D., 1857); and medicine at 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (M. D., 1869). Mar- 
ried Theodosia Secor Fowler, M. D. Came to United States 1860; 
served as surgeon United States Army during Civil War, 1862- 
1865; for ten years professor Pathology and Clinical Microscopy, 
New York Eclectic Medical College. Fellow American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science; New York Academy of 
Science; member American Microscopic Society; New York 
Microscopic Society; etc. Published researches in New Formation 
of Red Blood Corpuscles, in Waldeyer's Archiv ftlr mikroskopische 
Anatomie, 1876; incorporated in Heitzman's Microscopical Mor- 
phology, and translated by Klein in London Royal Microscopical 
Journal, 1882. Address: St. James Court, Seventh Av. and 143d, 
New York. 

Schottenfels, Sara X. Librarian of Maimonides Free Library, 
New York. Daughter of Julius Schottenfels and Minna Ambrunn. 
Has pursued special courses in the languages, in political economy, 
sociology, and literature. Engaged in library work since 1892, in 
present position since 1898. Reorganized the Maimonides Free 
Library. Has published, A List of Jewish Periodicals contained in 
the Maimonides Free Library; A List of Judaica in the Maimon- 
ides Free Library. Has written papers for societies and clubs on 
literary subjects. Address: Maimonides Free Library, 58th and 
Lexington Av., New York. 

Schur, William. Dealer in Hebrew Books. Born October 27, 
1844, Outian, near Wilkomir, Russia. Son of Tobias Schur. 
Studied the Talmud until twenty years of age; attended Tal- 
mudical College at Kovno; studied theology at Berlin. Married 
Fannie Gordon. Soon after arrival in America, published a 
Hebrew weekly, Ha-Pisgah, 1890-1894, at New York and Baltimore, 
and 1897-1900, at Chicago. At age of thirty travelled for five 
years in Asia, Africa, India, China, Philippine Islands, and neigh- 
boring islands. Published a description of his journeys in two 
books: Mahazot ha-Hayim, and Massat Shelomoh. Besides, he 
wrote the following novels: Massat Nafshah; Afikomen ha-ganub; 
Ha-Nebiah Nilel Hilton; Ha-halikah el ha-Heder; Kapparat Avon; 
Va-yipol ba-Shahat; Ahar ha-Meridah ha-gedolah; and a histor- 
ical religious work, Nezah Yisrael. Address: 557 N. Wood, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

*8ellgman, Albert Joseph. Banker, Merchant. Born February 
24, 1859, New York City. Son of Jesse Seligman. Educated in 
New York public schools. M. E., 1878, Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute. Pursued post-graduate studies at Royal Berg-Aka- 


demie, Freiberg, Saxony, 1878-1880; Royal School of Mines, Li6ge, 
Belgium, 1880-1881; since 1881, interested in mines near and 
resident of Helena, Mont. Member Territorial legislature, 1884- 
1885; chairman Republican State Committee, 1889-1890; chair- 
man Montana delegation, Minneapolis Convention, 1892; grand 
chancellor, Knights of Pythias of Montana, 1888-1890; exalted 
ruler Helena Lodge, No. 193, B. P. O. of Elks, 1897, 1898. Left 
Montana to engage in banking and brokerage business in New 
York, firm of Seligman and Meyer, 1899. Residence: 66 West 52d. 
Office: 109 Exchange Court Building, New York. 

Seligman, Edwin R. A. Professor of Political Economy and 
Finance, Columbia University, New York. Born April 25, 1862, 
New York City. Son of Joseph Seligman and Babette Steinhart. 
Educated by private tutor (Horatio Alger, Jr.) and in Columbia 
Grammar School; graduate Columbia University (A. B., 1879; 
Ph.D., 1884, and LL. B., 1884); pursued courses at University of 
Berlin, Heidelberg, Geneva, and Paris. Married Caroline Beer. 
President Tenement House Building Company, New York; Amer- 
ican Economic Association; Ethical Culture Society, New York; 
secretary Committee of Fifteen, New York, 1901; member Com- 
mittee of Seventy; honorary member Russian Imperial Academy 
of Science; member American Statistical Association; (British) 
Royal Economic Society; Washington Academy of Science; Phi 
Beta Kappa Society; manager American Archaeological Associa- 
tion, and American Historical Association, and of Authors, City, 
National Arts, Sculptors, and Columbia Alumni Clubs. Chair- 
man Committee on Education, Educational Alliance, until 1902. 
Editor: Political Science Quarterly; and Series in History, Eco- 
nomics, and Public Law of Columbia University. Author: Two 
Chapters on the Mediaeval Guilds of England, 1887; Railway 
Tariffs and the International Commerce Law, 1887; Finance Sta- 
tistics of the American Commonwealth, 1889; The Shifting and 
Incidence of Taxation, 1892, 1901; Progressive Taxation in Theory 
and Practice, 1894; Essays in Taxation, 1895, 1903; The Eco- 
nomic Interpretation of History, 1902. Several of these works 
have been translated into French, Italian, and Japanese. Has 
written numerous articles in the periodical press. Address: 314 
West 86th, New York. 

Selignrtan, Isaac Newton. Banker; head of the banking house 
of J. and W. Seligman and Company, New York. Born July 10, 
1856, Staten Island, New York. Son of Joseph Seligman and 
Babette Steinhart. Educated in Columbia Grammar School. 
B. A., 1876, Columbia College. Married Guta Loeb. Member of 
winning crew in Saratoga boat races, 1874. Director in num- 


erous railway companies; trustee Munich Fire Insurance Com- 
pany; United Hebrew Charities Building; Manhattan State Hos- 
pital (appointed by Grovernor Morton) ; Columbia University 
Memorial Hall (appointed by President Low) ; Legal Aid Society; 
Orators Society; Symphony Society; Historical Society; Lawyers' 
Club; Midday Club, all of New York; Pairmount College, Wichita, 
Kan.; and American Academy of Political Science; trustee and 
treasurer St. John's Guild, and City and Suburban Home Com- 
pany (Model Tenement Association), both of New York; trustee 
and chairman Finance Committee City Club, New York; trustee 
and vice-president People's Institute, New York; member Com- 
mittee National Conferences of Charities and Correction; Execu- 
tive Committee, Chamber of Commerce, New York; Indian Famine 
Relief Fund; Committee on State and Municipal Taxation of 
Chamber of Commerce, New York; Executive and Finance Com- 
mittees National Civic Federation; McKinley Memorial Com- 
mittee, for State of New York; Finance Committee Roumanian 
Relief Fund; Finance Committee Canal Association of Greater 
New York; Executive Committee of One Hundred, New York; 
Executive Committee of Citizens Union, New York, and chairman 
of Its Finance Committee, 1901, and treasurer, 1903; Executive 
Committee on Playgrounds; Executive Committee Economic Asso- 
ciation; National Arts Club; Lotos Club; City Club; and Sound 
Money League, all of New York. Appointed by General Horace 
Porter chief of staff at President McKinley's Inaugural; treasurer 
Carl Schurz Endowment Fund; director General Grant Tomb 
Committee; vice-president Admiral Perry Relief Fund, Japan; 
chairman (Chamber of Commerce Committee on Commercial Edu- 
cation; appointed by Mayor Low on Committee for Reception 
of Prince Henry of Prussia. Residence: 36 West 54th. Office: 
Mills Building, New York. 

*8ellgman, Jefferson. Banker. Born November 26, 1858. Son 
of James Seligman and Rosa Content. Preparatory education in 
Columbia Grammar School. Graduate Columbia University, 1878. 
Studied medicine in Germany, but did not practice, becoming 
member of the banking firm of J. and W. Seligman and Company. 
Residence: 11 East 69th. Office: 21 Broad, New York. 

Seligsohn, Max. Office Editor Jewish Encyclopedia. Born 
April 13, 1865, Russia. Son of Seelig Seligsohn. Educated at 
Slutzk, Russia; New York, and Paris. Is 616ve diploma de 
I'Ecole des Langues Orientales, Paris, 1896; 616ve diploma 
de I'Ecoles des Hautes-Etudes, Paris, 1900. Came to New York, 
1888, and studied modern languages; left for Paris, 1894, and 
studied Semitic languages, Sanskrit, Persian, and Turkish. Sent 


by Alliance Israelite Unlverselle to Abyssinia, 1898, to seek out 
the Falashas, but was unable to go further than Cairo; school 
master in Cairo for eighteen months. Called to New York as 
contributor to the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1902. Author: Le Diwan 
de Tarafah ibn Al-Abd, 1900; Kitab Ibn Al-Raml, with preface and 
notes; Salaman u-Absal, a diwan of the Persian poet Jaml, trans- 
lated into English, with notes and preface (unpublished); Une 
nouvelle chronique samaritalne (in collaboration with E. N. 
Adler), 1903. Contributor to Jewish Quarterly Review and Revue 
des Etudes Juives, on Judseo-Persian literature. Paris correspond- 
ent Jewish Comment for one year and a half. Address: 54 East 
98th, New York. 

Selikovitsch, George (Goetzel). Editor Jewish Daily News; 
Editor-in-Chief Jewish Gazette, New York City. Born 1863, Retovo, 
Kovno, Russia. Son of Rabbi David Selikovitsch and Rachel 
Sundelevitz. Educated at the Talmudical Colleges of Karlin, Mir, 
and Tauroggen. Studied at the Department of Semitic Languages 
and Egyptology, Ecole des Hautes-Etudes, Paris (diploma, 1884). 
Married Bertha Berman. Was attach^ to the Bibliothdque Na- 
tionale at Paris; head interpreter to Lord Wolseley for the Arabic 
and Nubian dialects during the British expedition to relieve 
Oeneral Gordon from the Soudanese at Khartoum, 1885; lectured, 
1887, on Hieroglyphics and Egyptology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Franklin Institute, Philadelphia; literary editor of 
the Ha-Melitz and Ha-Magid for three years; member of Ath^n^e 
Oriental, Paris. Author: Le School des H^breux, la division 
mystique du temps chez les Semites et les Egyptiens, 1881-1882; 
Dawn of Egyptian Civilization, 1887; also several Yiddish novels. 
Contributed numerous articles, poems, and dissertations to He- 
brew and English periodicals and to L'Univers and L'lntransi- 
geant. Address: 185 East Broadway, New York. 

Shleslnger, Sigmund. Merchant. Born December 29, 1848, 
Hungary. Son of Emanuel Shlesinger and Lena Kulka. Edu- 
cated in Hungary. Married Fannie Flesheim. Member of 
Col. George A. Forsyth's Company of Scouts; participated in battle 
with Indians on Beecher's Island, Colo., September 17, 1868. Ad- 
dress: 105 St. Clair, Cleveland, O. 

Shomer, Nahum Meyer. See Schaikewitz. 

*8iegel, Henry. Merchant. Born March 17, 1852, Eubigheim, 
Germany. Son of Lazarus Siegel and Zerlina Koch. Educated 
in Germany. Married Julia Rosenbaum (deceased); re-married, 
Marie Vaughn Wilde. Came to United States, 1867. First busi- 


ness experience gained in Washington, D. C, Parkersburg, W. Va., 
and Laurenceburg, Pa. Established firm of Siegel, Hartsfield, and 
Company, 1876 ; department store of Siegel, Cooper, and Company, 
1886, both of Chicago, 111.; Siegel, Cooper, and Company, 1896, 
New York. Purchased Simpson-Crawford Company, New York, 
and Schlesinger and Mayer Company, Chicago, 1902. Controls 
five large department stores; director in several banks, street rail- 
ways, and various corporations. Fellow Geographical Society. 
Residences: 26 East 82d, New York, and Driftwood, Mamaroneck, 
Westchester Co., N. Y. Address: care Simpson-Crawford Com- 
pany, New York. 

Silberberg, Max. State Senator, representing the First Dis- 
trict of Ohio in the Seventy-sixth General Assembly. Born Sep- 
tember 21, 1843, Bromberg, Prussia. Son of Moses Nathan Silber- 
berg and Pauline Pulvermacher. Educated at the Bromberg 
G3nnnasium. Married Dora Feder. Emigrated to America, 1859. 
Member from Hamilton County to the Seventy-fifth General As- 
sembly, State of Ohio; past commander August Willich Post No. 
195, G. A. R. of Cincinnati; was chairman National Legislative 
Committee, and now vice-president, Credit Men's Association; 
president Business Men's Building and Loan Association; vice- 
president Ohio Valley Building and Loan Company; president 
Queen City Telephone Company of Cincinnati; chairman Ohio 
Legislative Committee of the Credit Men's Association. While 
member of the House of Representatives of Ohio served on Stand- 
ing Committee on Manufacturing and Commerce (chairman) ; 
on Federal Relations; and on Public Highways. As member of 
the Senate served on Standing Committee on Finance; on Insur- 
ance; on Manufacturing and Commerce; on Military Affairs; on 
Medical College; on Privilege and Election; on Public Works; on 
Soldiers and Sailors Home (chairman) ; and on Labor. Address: 
30 and 32 W. 3d, Cincinnati, O. 

Sllberstein, Solomon (Sholem) Joseph. Writer. Born March 
10, 1845, Kovno, Russia. Son of Rabbi Aaron Silberstein and 
Zibhya Sandler, and grandson of the Cabbalist Naphtali Herz. 
Educated privately. At the age of nineteen had received the Rab- 
binical authorization from a number of Rabbis in the provinces 
of Kovno and Wilna. Rabbi in Dershunisok, Kovno, 1867-1868. 
Elaborated a system of philosophy based upon the Mosaic and a 
large part of the Talmudical and Rabbinical Law as a natural 
theology. Author: CJelui Enayim (poems), 1881; Ha-Dat ve-ha- 
Torat, 1887; Meziut Yehovah ve-ha-Olam, 1893; The Universe and 
its Evolution, 1891; Gieneral Laws of Nature, 1894; The Dis- 
closures of the Universal Mysteries, 1896; The Jewish Problem 


and Theology in General, 1904. Address: 1834 Lexington Av., 
New York. 

Silverstein, Albert. Physician and Surgeon. Bom April 18, 
1875, Syracuse, N. Y. Son of Solomon Silverstein and Esther 
Shevelson. Educated in Syracuse public schools, and Denver 
High School. B. A., 1897, Yale University; M.D., 1900, Gross 
Medical College, Denver, Colo. Professor Physiology, Dental 
Department University of Denver; assistant professor Orthopaedic 
Surgery, Denver and Gross College of Medicine; attending ortho- 
paedic surgeon, Mercy Hospital, Denver; professor Anatomy Mercy 
Hospital Training School for Nurses. Served in medical depart- 
ment United States Army, 1898-1899, in the Philippines, during 
Spanish American War, and during the Filipino Insurrection. 
Address: 316 Mack Block, Denver, Colo. 

Simon, Joseph. Lawyer. Born February 7, 1851, Bechtheim, 
Hessen Darmstadt, Germany. Son of David Simon and Elise 
Leopold. Educated in Portland, Ore., public schools. Came to 
Oregon, 1857, and has sinjce resided in Portland; entered law 
office of Mitchell and Dolph, 1870; admitted to bar, 1872, and 
engaged in law practice since; member firm of Dolph, Mallory, 
Simon, and Gearin. Elected member City Council of Portland, 
1877, and served term of three years; appointed secretary Repub- 
lican State Central Committee of Oregon, 1873; elected chairman 
of the same committee, 1880, 1884, and 1886; elected five times, 
covering a period of twenty years, to represent Multnomah 
County (including the city of Portland) in the Oregon State 
Senate; elected president of the Senate in five difiFerent sessions, 
and presided over the deliberations of the Senate and joint con- 
ventions of the two houses; delegate to the Republican National 
Convention at Minneapolis, 1892; at Philadelphia, 1900; member 
Republican National Committee, 1892-1896; was member and 
president Police Commission, City of Portland; elected to United 
States Senate in 1898, to fill a vacancy for term ending 1903; 
serving during the second session of the Fifty-fifth Congress, and 
in the Fifty-sixth and the Fifty-seventh Congress. Has been active 
in Masonry; past master of his lodge and past high priest of his 
chapter; honorary inspector general 33d degree A. A. S. R. 
Address: Portland, Ore. 

Singer, Isidor. Managing Editor Jewish Encyclopedia. Born 
November 10, 1859, Weisskirchen, Moravia, Austria. Son of 
Joseph Singer and Charlotte Eisler. Educated in Gymnasia of 
Ungarisch-Hradisch, Kremsier, and Troppau, and studied at Uni- 
versity of Berlin and University of Vienna (Ph.D., 1884). Went 


to Paris, 1887, as literary secretary to Count Foucher de Careil, 
former French ambassador at Vienna; came to New York, 1895, 
to execute the project of a Jewish Encyclopedia, of which seven 
volumes have appeared. President Justice Lodge, Independent 
Order B'nai B'rith, 1903. Was editor of AUgemeine Oesterreich- 
ische Literaturzeitung; La Vraie Parole; and Bureau de la Presse. 
Author: Berlin, Wien, und der Antisemitismus, 1882; Presse und 
Judenthum, 2d ed., 1882; SoUen die Juden Christen werden? 2d 
ed., 1884; Briefe beruhmter christlicher Zeitgenossen iiber die 
Judenfrage, 1885; Die beiden Elektren — humanistische Bildung 
und der klassische Unterricht, 1884; Auf dem Grabe meiner 
Mutter (translated into Hebrew by Dr. Solomon Fuchs), 1888; 
Le prestige de la France en Europe, 1889; La question juive, 
1893; Anarchie et Antis^mitisme, 1894; Der Juden Kampf ums 
Recht, 1902; Russia at the Bar of the American People, 1904. 
Translated from French into German: Foucher de CareiFs Hegel 
et Schopenhauer, 1889; Zadoc Kahn, L'esclavage selon la Bible 
et le Talmud, 1888, and other writings by Boulanger, Barth61emy 
Saint-Hilaire, and Edouard Lockroy. Address: care Funk and 
Wagnalls Company, 44-60 East 23d, New York. 

Singer, Jacob. Lawyer. Bom October 22, 1860, Staunton, Va. 
Son of Abraham Singer and Regina Gutman. Educated at Phila- 
delphia public schools; B. A., 1877, Central High School, Phila- 
delphia; LL. B., 1881, University of Pennsylvania. Married Lea 
Marguerite Frank. Register of wills, County of Philadelphia, 
1901-1904; member Court of Appeals Independent Order B'nai 
B'rith, since 1890; was president District Grand Lodge No. 3 for 
four years; representative to Constitution Grand Lodge at Rich- 
mond, 1890; Cincinnati, 1895; Chicago, 1900; New Orleans, 1905; 
is vice-president Associated Alumni Central High School, and 
vice-president Philadelphia Branch Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, and formerly trustee of the Seminary; director 
Congregation Adath Jeshurun and of B'nal B'rith Manual Train- 
ing School. Made many public addresses in political campaigns 
of the Republican party, national and State, and at Jewish edu- 
cational and eommunal afiFairs. Preparing for publication opin- 
ions delivered by him in probate cases tried in his court while 
Register. Office: S. E. corner Thirteenth and Chestnut. Resi- 
dence: 4108 Parkside Av., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sobel, isador. Postmaster, Erie, Pa. Born August 28, 1858, 
New York City. Son of Semel Sobel and Cecelia King. Educated 
in New York public schools, College City of New York, and Erie 
High School. Married Emma Auerhaim. Admitted to Erie bar, 
1888. Elected to Erie City Councils, 1891; re-elected, 1893; presi- 


dent Councils, 1894; secretary Republican County Committee, 
1889-1891; chairman, 1893-1896; vice-president Republican League 
of Pennsylvania, 1894-1896; president, 1896-1897; presidential 
elector, 1896; appointed postmaster by President McKinley, 1898; 
re-appointed by President Roosevelt, 1902. Republican candidate 
for mayor, 1895; president Anshei Chesed Congregation, 1900- 
1902. Address: 540 West 10th, Erie, Pa. 

Soils, Isaac Nathan (da Silva). Lawyer and Banker. Born 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of David Hays da Silva Solis and Elvira 
Nathan. Educated in Philadelphia private and public schools. 
A. B., 1876, Central High School, Philadelphia; studied law in 
office of Judge F. Carroll Brewster. Married Marcia M. Morgan, 
1881. Admitted to the bar, 1879; became associated with banking 
house of Dick Brothers and Company, 1894. Has been connected 
with the Republican party in several Presidential campaigns as 
" spell-binder." Wrote articles on political and financial topics 
for editorial columns of newspapers or over a pen-name. Ad- 
dress: 2211 Walnut, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Solomon, Jacob P. Editor of The Hebrew Standard; Attorney- 
at-law. Born May 22, 1838, Manchester, England. Son of Phillip 
Solomon and Catherine Hart. Educated in Manchester Jews Free 
School; studied in Franklin College, Franklin, Ind.; Notre Dame 
University, Notre Dame, Ind.; LL. D., 1864, Columbia College, 
New York. Married Frances Stich. Grand Saar, Kesher Shel 
Barzel; past master, past high priest, junior grand deacon, com- 
mander and thirty-third degree Masonic; past grand, past dis- 
trict deputy, past grand conductor. Independent Order Odd Fel- 
lows; past chancellor commander, past grand chancellor com- 
mander. Knights of Pythias; past grand secretary. Order Royal 
Maccabees. Editor: News, Columbus, Ind.; Democrat, Franklin, 
Ind.; Jewish Record, New York; Hebrew Leader, New York; He- 
brew Standard, New York. Author: Chronicles of the Rabbis; 
Chips from Masonic Quarries; The Modern Wandering Jew. Ad- 
dress: care Hebrew Standard, 87 Nassau, New York. 

Solonrtcns, Adolphus S. Honorary Trustee and General Agent 
of the Baron de Hirsch Fund. Born October 26, 1826, New York. 
Son of John Solomons and Julia Levy. Educated at the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York. Married Rachel Seixas Phillips 
(deceased). Appointed, 1851, by Secretary of State Daniel Webster 
" special bearer of dispatches to Berlin '* ; with others gave, 1857, a 
ball at Niblo's Garden, New York, and donated the amount realized 
as the nucleus of a fund to establish a " Jews* Hospital in New 
York," now Mount Sinai Hospital; elected to the first legislature 


of Washington, D. C, and was chairman Committee of Ways and 
Means which projected and began the improvement of Washing- 
ton; as a representative of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, 
moved, at a public meeting, the establishment in New York of 
the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids to mark the hundredth 
anniversary of Sir Moses Montefiore; acting president Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America at the time of its re-organiza- 
tion, 1902; charter member of the New York Protectory for Jew- 
ish Children; member Central Committee Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle, and its treasurer for the United States; charter member 
and for seventeen years member National Association of the Red 
Cross, and at one time its vice-president; appointed by President 
Arthur to represent the United States at International Convention 
Red Cross Societies, Geneva, Switzerland, 1881; elected vice-presi- 
dent of the Convention. Has been for over twenty years director 
Government Columbia Hospital and Lying-in Asylum ; is a charter 
member of Garfield Memorial Hospital, and of Providence Hos- 
pital, Washington, and acting president of Providential Aid 
Society, and of Charities of the District of Columbia. Pounder 
Night Lodging House Association of the District of Columbia, and 
now its president; vice-president of The Sanitary Aid Society of 
New York; vice-president New Era Club, New York; and treas- 
urer Columbia Street Sewing and Religious Classes, New York. 
Address: 1205 K, Washington, D. C. 

Solomons, Aline Esther. Artist. Born New York. Daughter 
of Adolphus S. Solomons and Rachel Seixas Phillips. Educated 
in Washington private schools and at Art Students League. 
Founder and secretary, for over ten years, Washington Art 
Students League; vice-president Washington Water Color Club. 
Painter of still-life and portraits. Works: Portraits of A. S. Solo- 
mons, Baron and Baroness de Hirsch, James H. Hoffman, Miss 
Solomons, etc. Exhibits annually in Washington Society of 
Artists and Washington Water Color Club. Residence: 1205 K. 
Studio: 808 17th, Washington, D. C. 

Sonneschein, Rosa. Journalist. Born March 12, 1847, Pross- 
nitz, Moravia, Austria. Daughter of Oberrabiner Hirsch B. Fassel 
(decorated by three emperors for his literary works) and Fannie 
Sternfeld. Graduate Nagy-Kanissa, Hungary, high school. Was 
publisher and editor The American Jewess; correspondent for 
German, American, and English periodicals and newspapers; rep- 
resentative of various newspapers at the Chicago, Paris, and 
St. Louis Expositions. Writer of short stories. Came to America, 
1869. Address: 4910 Washington Block, St. Louis, Mo. 


Sossnitz, Joseph (Jehuda) Loeb. Lecturer on Jewish Ethics, 
Educational Alliance, New York, since 1899. Bom September 17, 
1837, Birzl, Kovno, Russia. Son of Yehiel Michel Sossnitz and 
Tony Zive. Studied until thirteen years of age in Cheder; self- 
taught later. Married Freida Luria. Superintendent Jewish 
Asylum, Riga, 1887; in charge of scientific and Cabbalistic sub- 
jects in the Jewish Encyclopedia, Ha-Eshkol, Warsaw, 1888 ; came 
to America in 1891; founder, 1893, and principal, until 1897, 
Uptown Talmud Torah, New York. Author: Ahen Yesh Adonai; 
Ha-Shemesh; Ha-Maor; Sehok Ha-Shach; Ewiger Kalender (Ger- 
man and Hebrew); (unpublished) On Mathematics; On Physics; 
On three Branches of Astronomy; On the Earth's Meteorology, 
etc. Address: 1526 Washington Av., Bronx, New York. 

Spachner, Bertha Kalisch. Leading Lady and Part Owner of 
the Thalia and Grand Theatres. Born May 17, 1874, Lemberg, 
Austria. Daughter of Salomon Kallsch and Babette Halber. Edu- 
cated at Lemberg, Austria. Graduate Lemberg Conservatory of 
Music. Married Leopold Spachner. Acted at Polish Theatre, 
Lemberg; National Theatre and Stadt Theatre, Bucharest. Came 
to New York, 1894, and has since been leading lady and part 
owner New York Jewish Theatres. Played the title r61e in 
Hamlet at Thalia Theatre, 1901; has produced Fedora; Magda; 
Sapho; Kreutzer Sonata; Romeo and Juliet; Zaza; Resurrec- 
tion; Mme. Sans G^ne; Monna Vanna; Gorki's Mischanic; Nacht- 
asyl. Has given interviews to New York newspapers on theatres, 
the drama, and the art of make-up. Address: 242 East 72d, New 

Speaker, Henry M. Principal of Gratz College, Philadelphia, 
and Instructor in Jewish Literature since 1897. Born April 6, 
1868, Wisoko, Lithuania, Russia. Son of Elhanan Speaker and 
Miriam Lewisohn. Educated in Russian Rabbinical academies; 
studied in Swintzyani Talmudical College under Rabbi Isaac J. 
Reiness; Jewish Theological Seminary of America (Rabbi, 1896); 
studied at the New York Law School, 1894-1897: for three years 
in Columbia University, and one year in University of Pennsyl- 
vania, pursued courses in philosophy, literature, and Semitics. 
Married Sarah R. Ginsburg Came to America, 1887. Instructor 
in Bible and Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
1892-1897; chaplain to Sing Sing Prison, 1895-1898. First president 
Alumni Jewish Theological Seminary, 1901-1904; member local 
Jewish Board of Ministers during his residence in New York. 
Wrote articles and monographs on Jewish subjects for The Amer- 
ican Hebrew, Jewish Comment, Jewish Exponent, and The Macca- 
baean. Talmudic contributions to the Jewish Encyclopedia (vol. 
II). Address: Gratz College, 117 North 7th, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Speyer, James Joseph. Banker; senior member firm of Speyer 
and Company. Born July 22, 1861, New York City. Son of 
Gustavus Speyer and Sophie Rubino. Elducated at Frankfort on 
the Main. Married Ellen Prince (Mrs. John A. Lowery). Trustee 
Mutual Life Insurance Company; Union Trust Company; Girard 
Trust Company, Philadelphia; Bank of the Manhattan Company; 
Central Trust Company; German Savings Bank; North British 
and Mercantile Insurance Company. Director Southern Pacific 
Company; General Chemical Company; Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road Company; Lackawanna Steel Company; Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company. Trustee Mount Sinai Hospital; Teachers College; 
Hospital Saturday and Sunday Association; Charity Organization 
Society; Isabella Heimath; trustee and treasurer. University Set- 
tlement Society; Provident Loan Society. Interested in philan- 
thropic and educational movements. Member Chamber of Com- 
merce. Treasurer German American Reform Union, 1892. Mem- 
ber Executive Committee of Seventy, New York, 1895; served as 
school commissioner under Mayor Strong's administration. Ad- 
dress: 257 Madison Av., New York; or Waldheim, Scarborough- 
on-the-Hudson, New York. 

Spicker, Max. Musical Director Temple Emanu-El; Superin- 
tendent Department of Theory, National Conservatory of Music, 
New York. Born August 16, 1858, Konigsberg, Prussia. Son of 
Michaelis Spicker and Flora Rosenthal. Studied in Royal Con- 
servatory, Leipzig, under Professor E. F. Richter, S. Jadassohn, 
Professor O. Paul, Carl Reinecke, and Professor E. F. Wenzel. 
Married Isabel Sternthal. Was conductor of opera at Heidelberg, 
Cologne, Ghent (Royal Opera), Aix-la-Chapelle, Potsdam (Royal 
Theatre), and Hamburg. Called to conduct Beethoven M&iner- 
chor. New York, 1883; conducted with Anton Seidl, the orchestral 
concerts at Brighton Beach, 1889-1890. Made extended concert 
tour as pianist with the violinist Miska Hauser, 1878, through 
Germany and Russia. Author: Anthology of Oratorio (4 vols.); 
Anthology of Opera (5 vols.); The Masterpieces of Vocalization 
(23 vols.); The Synagogal Service (with William Sparger, 2 
vols.); choral works, songs, anthems, and music for the Jewish 
Temple. Address: 1361 Madison Av., New York. 

Spiegel, Frederick 8. Judge of Court of Common Pleas, First 
Judicial District of Ohio, Cincinnati, O. Born November 20, 1857, 
Hovestadt, Westphalia, Prussia. Son of Solomon Spiegel and 
Rosalie Herzberg. Educated in Gymnasium, Paderborn, Prussia, 
and Southern Institute, Gadsden, Ala. LL. B., Law School of 
Cincinnati College. Married Minnie Steinberg. Was chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics, State of Ohio; counsel County of Hamilton, 


O.; for a long time member Cincinnati Board of Education; was 
president District No. 2, Independent Order B'nal Btlth, dnrir* 
man of ita District Court, and at present member Supreme Court 
of tlie Order. Has written numerous legal essays, and is engaged 
in translating and annotating, by comparison with English and 
French law, the new German Civil Code, which went into force 
January, 1900. Address: 2302 Kemper Lane, Walnut Hills, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Spivak, Charles D. (Hayem David Splvakovsky). Physician. 
Born December 25, 1861, Krementshug, Poltava, Russia. Son of 
Samuel David Splvakovsky and Deborah Adel Dorfman. Hebrew 
education In the Cheder and with his father. Self-taught in secular 
branches. Studied medicine at JefiFerson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia (M. D., 1890). Post-graduate courses at University of 
Berlin, 1891-1892. Married Jennie (Gittel) Charsky. Member in 
Russia of the (Nihilist) Socialist party; had to flee to escape 
exile to Siberia. Member in Lemberg of the Am-Olam Society, 
composed of Russian students and professional men whose aim 
it was to become agriculturists in America. Came to America, 
1882; worked at loading and unloading freight In railroad yards, 
at paving Fifth Avenue, New York, in wool and cotton mills in 
Maine, as type-setter on Jewish Messenger, and as farmer in Alli- 
ance, N. J., 1882-1885; taught at Alliance, N. J., under Emigrant 
Aid Society, and in Philadelphia for Hebrew Education Society, 
1886-1890. Organizer, temporary president, and first vice-presi- 
dent Jewish Alliance of America, Philadelphia, 1891-1892. Chief 
of Clinic Diseases of the Stomach and Intestines, Philadelphia 
Polyclinic, 1895; associate professor Medicine, Denver University, 
Medical Department, 1896-1901; professor of Anatomy, 1897-1898; 
clinical professor of Medicine, Denver and Gross College of Medi- 
cine, 1902; chief of Clinical Laboratory since 1900. Secretary 
Denver and Arapahoe County Medical Society, 1897; president 
Colorado Medical Library Association, 1901, and secretary since 
1902; librarian Denver Academy of Medicine. Member of a num- 
ber of medical societies. Organizer and secretary Jewish Con- 
sumptives' Relief Society, 1904. Editor Medical Libraries, 1898- 
1902. Has written for Voschod, St. Petersburg, Ha-Melitz, Ameri- 
can Hebrew, Jewish Exponent, and various Yiddish Journals in 
New York. Contributor, chiefly on Gastro-Enterology, to various 
medical Journals. Address: 1421 Court PL, Denver, Colo. 

Steckler, Alfred. Lawyer. Born December 18, 1856, New 
York City. Educated in New York public schools. Graduate 
Columbia Law School, 1877. Nominated as Judge of the Fourth 
District Court as an independent candidate; elected, and served 


from 1881 to 1893. Abolished dispossess bureau; inaugurated re- 
form in district courts in manner of drawing juries where parties 
demanded jury trial; and in many ways considered the needs 
of the foreign populations on the Lower East Side. Ran as an 
independent candidate for Justice of the Supreme Court of New 
York County, 1895; appointed to fill vacancy left by the death of 
Justice McAdam of the Supreme Court in the First Judicial Dis- 
trict. Identified with a large number of charitable and fraternal 
organizations in New York. Address: 170 Broadway, New York. 

Stein, Modest. Illustrator. Born February 13, 1871, Kovno, 
Russia. Son of Lazar Stein and Rosalia Lewinson. Educated In 
Kovno Classic Gymnasium. Spent a short time in Paris. Came 
to United States, 1888. Married Marcia Mishkin. Was connected 
with the New York Press, 1891; New York Herald; Philadelphia 
North American; and is now connected with The New York 
World. Address: 152 West 64th, New York. 

Stein, Philip. Judge Appellate Court, First District of Illinois, 
Chicago. Born March 12, 1844, Steele, Rhenish Prussia. Son 
of Israel Stein and Rosetta Kappel. Studied in (Germany and at 
Milwaukee public and high schools; University of Wisconsin 
(B. A. and M. A., 1868); and for two years at Universities of 
Heidelberg, Bonn, and Berlin. Married Emma Stein. Elected 
judge Superior Court Cook County, 111., 1892; re-elected, 1898; 
appointed to Appellate Court, 1903. Settled in Chicago imme- 
diately after admission to Milwaukee bar, 1868; has taken active 
interest In charitable and educational matters. Address: 4340 
Grand Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Stelnbach, Lewis W. Born June 4, 1851, Vysoka, Bohemia. 
Son of Simon Stelnbach and Rosalie Welsskopf. Educated at 
Pribram and Prague, Bohemia, and in Philadelphia. M. D., 
Jefterson Medical College. Married Johanna Rosenbaum. Pro- 
fessor Surgery Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates 
in Medicine; consulting surgeon Philadelphia Hospital and Jew- 
ish Hospital of Philadelphia. Address: 1309 North Broad, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Stern, Helnrlch. Physician; Director Institute for Medical 
Diagnosis and Research In the City of New York. Born January 
28, 1868, Frankfort on the Main, Germany. Son of Leopold Stern 
and Bertha Bendheim. Educated at the Philanthropln, Frank- 
fort. M. D., 1889, St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons. 
Married Selma Hellenberg. Was professor Diseases of Meta- 
bolism, College of Physicians and Surgeons, St. Louis; now pro- 


fessor Internal Medicine New York School of Clinical Medicine; 
consulting physician Red Cross and St. Elizabeth Hospital, New 
York; visiting physician Metropolitan Hospital and West Side 
German Dispensary, New York. Gold medallist of the Medical 
Society of the County of New York. Author: Die Gottesidee, 
1888; Angewandte Physiologie, 1888; Die Zersetzung animalischer 
Materie, 1889; Der Untergang Israels, 1894; The Urine, 1897; 
Recent Studies in Urinology, 1898; Auto-intoxication and its 
Treatment, 1904. Has written numerous essays on clinical, chem- 
ical, physical, and philosophical topics. Address: 56 East 76th, 
New York. 

Stern, Leon. Architect. Born April 9, 1867, Rochester, N. Y. 
Son of Abram Stern and Caroline Stern. Educated in Rochester 
public schools. B. S., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Member 
State Board of Building Commissioners under Governor Flower, 
to make uniform building laws for State of New York. Member 
American Institute of Architects. Works: Chamber of Com- 
merce Building; Berith Kodesh Temple; State Industrial School; 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company Buildings, Rochester. Resi- 
dence: 7 Hyde Park. Oflace: 1017 Chamber of Commerce Build- 
ing, Rochester, N. Y. 

Stern, Louis. Merchant. Bom February 22, 1847, Germany. 
Son of Meyer A. Stern and Sophia Rosenstock. Educated in 
Albany public schools and academy. Married Lisette Strupp. 
President Republican Club; Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asy- 
lum Society; Albany Society; Library Square Realty Company, 
all of New York. Was United States commissioner, Paris Expo- 
sition, 1900; chairman Executive Committee New York State 
Commission, St. Louis Exposition, 1904; Republican candidate for 
President Borough of Manhattan, New York, 1897. Director of 
Lincoln Trust Company; Mutual Alliance Trust Company; New 
Amsterdam National Bank; Madison Safe Deposit Company; New 
Amsterdam Safe Deposit Company; Casein Company of America. 
Address: 993 Fifth Av., New York. 

Stern, Samuel R. Lawyer. Born July 7, 1855, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Son of Abraham Stern. Educated in Syracuse common and high 
schools. Married Libbia Wile. Appointed first assistant district 
attorney of Onondaga County, N. Y., when first admitted to bar. 
Was president Washington State Bar Association. Contributed 
to the New York Sun, Harper's Monthly, Judge, and other period- 
icals. Address: Spokane, Washington. 

*Sterner, Albert Edward. Artist. Born March 8, 1863, London, 
England. Educated in King Edward's School, Birmingham. 


Pursued studies at Julien's Academy and Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
Paris. Married July 17, 1894. Came to United States, 1881; was 
artist, scene painter, and lithographer, in Chicago, 1881-1885; 
opened studio in New York, 1885; received honorable mention for 
oil painting, The Bachelor, at Paris Salon, Champs Blys6es. 
Bronze medal, Paris EJxposition, 1900. Illustrator of George W. 
Curtis's Prue and I; Copp^e's Tales, 1891; Poe's Works, 1894; 
Eleanor, by Mrs. Humphry Ward, 1900; illustrator for Harper's 
Century, and Scribner*s. Member American Water Color Society. 
Residence: Nutley, N. J. 

Stoiper, J. H. General Superintendent Sanitary Department of 
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa F6, and of Gulf, Colorado, and Santa 
F6 Railroad. Born 1871, Bordeaux, France. Author of a number 
of pamphlets. Address: Galveston, Texas. 

Stone, Nahum I. Manufacturer. Born July 29, 1873, Odessa, 
Russia. Son of Isaac Stone and Rose Leviash. Graduate, 1891, of 
Imperial Gymnasium, Odessa; studied at Armour Institute of 
Technology, Chicago. M. A., 1901, Columbia University, New 
York. Married Bertha Esther Levinson. Editor of The People, 
1899; statistician Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1899- 
1900; editor Department of Countries, New International Encyclo- 
paedia, 1900-1902. Author: Capitalism on Trial in Russia; Eco- 
nomic Resources of Siberia; A Study of Agricultural Statistics of 
the United States; A Critical Study of the American Census 
(agriculture); Special Report for the Industrial Commission on 
Speculation and Prices of Wheat and Cotton; Political Conditions 
in Russia; etc. Address: 1570 Washington Av., New York. 

Straus, Isidor. Merchant. Born February 6, 1845, Rhenish, 
Bavaria. Son of Lazarus Straus. Educated in Collingsworth 
Institute, Talbotton, Ga., and prepared to enter military academy 
at West Point, which breaking out of Civil War prevented. Mar- 
ried Ida Blun. Came to America with family, 1854, and settled 
in Talbotton, Ga. Prevented from entering Confederate Army 
when sixteen years old by lack of arms in Georgia; went to Eng- 
land for importing company organized to build ships for blockade- 
running purposes, 1863. Removed from Georgia to New York, 
1865, where firm of L. Straus and Sons was organized; entered 
firm of R. H. Macy and Company with brother, 1888, and became 
partner in Brooklyn dry goods firm of Abraham and Straus, 1892. 
Consulted by the Democratic leaders in the campaign of 1892, 
which resulted in election of President Cleveland; went to Wash- 
ington in 1893 to urge the President to avert a panic by taking 
steps to repeal the Sherman Act, and the President issued the 



same afternoon the proclamation convening Congress in special 
session, which resolved its repeal. Was member of Fifty-third 
Congress, and declined re-election. Supported the Committee on 
Ways and Means which was considering the Tariff Bill. Presi- 
dent Educational Alliance; vice-president Chamber of Commerce; 
member Board of Trade; vice-president J. Hood Wright Memorial 
Hospital, all of New York. Director of several banks and finan- 
cial institutions, and connected with a number of institutions of 
science, art, education, and philanthropy. Address: Broadway 
and 34th, New York City. 

Straus, Nathan. Merchant. Born January 31, 1848, Rhenish 
Bavaria. Son of Lazarus Straus. Attended school at Talbotton, 
Ga., whither he had come with his family, 1854. Removed to 
New York; with father and brothers established firm of Lazarus 
Straus and Sons, importers of pottery and glassware. Married 
Lina Gutherz. Since 1888 partner in R. H. Macy & Co.'s store. 
New York, and since 1892, in Abraham and Straus's store, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. Appointed Park Commissioner; in 1894, Democratic 
nominee for mayor (declined) ; in 1898 president Board of Health, 
New York City (resigned after a few months* service). Origi- 
nated, in 1890, and maintains depots for the sale and distribution 
of sterilized milk among the poor; also depots for distribution of 
coal in winter. Has presented sterilized milk plants to Phila- 
delphia and St. Louis. Is largely interested in charitable under- 
takings. Also interested in sports. Address: Broadway and 34th, 
New York. 

Straus, Oscar S. Member Permanent Court of Arbitration at 
the Hague, appointed in place of President Harrison, deceased. 
Born December 23, 1850, Otterberg, Rhenish Bavaria. Son of 
Lazarus Straus. Educated in Georgia. A. B., 1871; A.M., 1873, 
and LL. B., 1873, Columbia University; L. H. D., 1896, Brown 
University; LL. D., 1897, Washington and Lee University; LL. D., 
1898, Pennsylvania University. Married Sarah Lavanburg. Envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Turkey, 1887-1890, 
1897-1900. President National Primary League, 1895; American 
Social Science Association, 1899-1903; and National Conference of 
Capital and Labor, 1901; first president, until 1898, American 
Jewish Historical Society; vice-president National Civic Federa- 
tion. Was member Indian Commission appointed by President 
Roosevelt as Governor State of New York; of Commission to 
Investigate New York City Public Schools; and of Commission to 
Investigate Pauper Insane Institutions. Author: The Origin of 
Republican Form of Government In the United States, 1885; 
Roger Williams, the Pioneer of Religious Liberty, 1894; The 


Development of Religious Liberty in the United States, 1896; 
Reform in the Consular Service, 1897; Our Diplomacy, 1902; The 
Protection of Naturalized Citizens, 1900; The American Doctrine 
of Citizenship, 1904; etc. Address: 42 Warren, New York. 

*8traus8, Joseph. Lieutenant United States Navy. Born No- 
vember 16, 1861, Mount Morris, New York. Graduate Naval 
Academy, 1885. Married Mary Sweitzer. Cruised in various parts 
of the world, 1885-1887; engaged in hydrographlc surveys on east 
and west coast of United States and in Alaska, 1887-1890; cruis- 
ing, 1890-1893; in Bureau of Ordnance Navy Department, 1893- 
1896; invented (with Admiral Sampson) superposed turret sys- 
tem of mounting guns on battleships, 1895; cruised in South 
America, 1896-1900, and engaged in the blockade of the Cuban 
coast; in charge of United States Naval Proving Ground, 1900- 
1903 ; now attached to United States Steamship Arkansas. Member 
United States Naval Institute. Has written various articles on 
ordnance and ballistics. Address: Navy Department, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Strauss, Maicolm Atherton. Pen and Ink Artist; Illustrator. 
Born September 19, 1879, New York City. Son of Nathan Strauss 
and Minnie Gladken. Educated in Columbia Grammar School, 
New York. Pursued special course in Columbia College. Work 
has appeared in Life, Truth, Metropolitan Magazine, New York 
Herald, New York Journal, The North American, Philadelphia, 
etc. Issued book of drawings: Cupid and Coronet. Address: 57 
West 75th, New York. 

Strauss, Seligman Joseph. Lawyer. Born August 19, 1852, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Son of Abraham Strauss and Emilie Boden- 
heimer. Educated at Wilkes-Barre and in New York City. Grad- 
uate, 1872, M. A., 1876, College City of New York. Married 
Miriam Weiss. Member Wilkes-Barre School Board, 1886-1895. 
Was president District Grand Lodge No. 3, and member Execu- 
tive Committee, Independent Order B'nai B'rith. Address: 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

*Strunsky, Anna. Author. Born 1881, Russia. Educated in 
Leland Stanford, Jr., University, Palo Alto, Cal. Wrote articles 
for socialistic magazines and lectured while in college. When 
about to be graduated, planned to collaborate with Mr. Jack 
London in writing the series of documents now published under 
the title of Kempton-Wace letters. Travelled in England, France, 
and Italy. Address: San Francisco, Cal. 


Strunsky, Simeon. Editor on the Staff of the New International 
Encyclopaedia. Born July 23, 1879, Vitebsk, Russia. Son of 
Israel Mordecai Strunsky and Pearl Schweistein. Educated in 
New York public schools, and Horace Mann High School ; B. A., 
1900, Columbia College. Came to the United States, 1887. Con- 
tributor in history, New International Encyclopaedia, 1900-1901; 
office editor history and political science, 1901-1904; editor of 
Index and Guide, 1904; contributor in history and politics. Inter- 
national Year Book, 1900-1902; contributor in history Encyclo- 
paedia Americana, 1904; instructor History and English, Educa- 
tional League, since 1901. Address: 1125 Washington, Hoboken, 
N. J. 

Sulzbacher, Louis. United States Judge for the Western Dis- 
trict of Indian Territory. Born May 10, 1842, Rhenish Palatinate. 
Son of Jacob Sulzbacher and Regine Schwarz. Educated in Ger- 
many. Married Pauline Flersheim. Was justice Supreme Court, 
Porto Rico. Address: Kansas City, Mo. 

Sulzberger, l^ayer. President Judge Court of Common Pleas, 
No. 2, First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Born June 22, 
1843, Heidelsheim, Grand Duchy of Baden. Son of Abraham 
Sulzberger and Sophia Einstein. Educated at Philadephia. Ad- 
dress: 1303 Girard Av., Philadephia, Pa. 

Tannenbaum, Abner. Yiddish and Hebrew Journalist. Born 
March 1, 1848, Shirwint, Russia. Son of Hirsch Tannenbaum. 
Educated in Kamenetz-Podolsk Jewish primary school, and grad- 
uate Kishineff First Gymnasium. Was teacher in public schools, 
in private schools, bookkeeper, commercial correspondent, and 
manager wholesale drug business. Came to New York, 1887, and 
opened small candy and cigar store; wrote for Der Morgenstern, 
1889-1890, then for other Yiddish and Hebrew publications. 
Translated nearly all the works of Jules Verne into Yiddish, 
popularizing the scientific facts they contain; wrote several novels 
with the purpose of popularizing scientific knowledge; contrib- 
utes to Tageblatt, Judische Gazetten, Herold, Volksadvokat, and 
other Yiddish and Hebrew periodicals, on scientific and historical 
subjects, especially on the history of the Jews. Address: 107 
West 113th, New York. 

" Tashrak." See Zevin, Israel Joseph. 

Thomashefsky, Borris. Leading Actor, Manager, and Lessee, 
People's Theatre, New York City. Born May 30, 1866, Kieff, Rus- 
sia. Son of Philip Thomashefsky and Bertha Wishnefsky. Stud- 


led at Jewish, Russian, and German schools. Married Bessie 
Kaufman. Was leading actor and manager of theatres in Chicago 
and Philadelphia. Address: 549 Bedford Av., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Traubei, Horace. Editor of The Conservator, and The Artsman. 
Born December 19, 1858, Camden, N. J. Son of Maurice Traubel 
and Katharine von Grunder. Educated in public schools. Mar- 
ried Anne Montgomerie. In early life was practical printer, prac- 
tical lithographer, bank clerk, general clerk, pay master, and 
served daily newspaper route. Founder and for sixteen years 
treasurer Contemporary Club, Philadelphia; one of the founders 
of the Philadelphia Ethical Society; and one of the founders, and 
since its foundation secretary-treasurer, of the Walt Whitman 
Fellowship (international). Was associated with Whitman for 
the last fifteen years of his life, helping him to prepare his 
works for final publication. Editorial writer at different periods 
on Boston Commonwealth, and Chicago Unity; writer of " spe- 
cials '* on Chicago American, Philadelphia North American, and 
Philadelphia Times. Edited: several books in connection with 
Walt Whitman; The Dollar or the Man, cartoons by Homer 
Davenport. In preparation: An economic work, and the first 
volume of his Whitman Diary. Residence: Camden, N. J. Oifice: 
200 South 10th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tuska, Gustave R. Consulting Engineer. Born July 15, 1869, 
New York City. Son of Adolph Tuska and Elise Robitscher. 
Studied in College City of New York, B. S., 1888; M. S., 1891; and 
Columbia University, C. E., 1891. Married Isabel Pappenheimer. 
Tutor Civil Engineering, Columbia University. Bridge engineer 
Long Island R. R. Co.; engineer Central New York and Western 
R. R.; engineer Knoxville, Cumberland Gap, and Louisville R. R.; 
chief engineer Panama R. R. Co.; president and chief engineer 
Atlantic Construction Co.; chief engineer American Power Co.; 
chief engineer Atlantic Fisheries Co. Member of various engi- 
neers' societies. Director Hebrew Technical Institute, Under- 
writers Club, and The Judaeans. Contributor to technical journals 
and proceedings of engineering societies. Residence: 40 East 
65th. Office: 62-64 William, New York. 

Ulmann, Albert. Banker and Broker. Born July 2, 1861, New 
York City. Son of Edward Ulmann and Philippine Michels. 
Educated in New York City public schools. B. S., 1881, College 
City of New York. Married Tillie Sulzbacher. Trustee American 
Scenic and Historic Preservation Society; governor and one of 
the founders of The Judaeans. Member Phi Beta Kappa; New 
York Historical Society; and American Historical Association. 


Author: Frederick Struther's Romance; Chaperoned; A Land- 
mark History of New York; New York's Historic Sites, Land- 
marks, Monuments, and Tablets. Residence: 101 West 80th. 
Oifice: 40 Exchange Place, New York. 

Van den Berg, Brahm. Concert Pianist, Teacher, Composer. 
Born May 20, 1876, Cologne, Germany. Son of Simon Van den 
Berg and Catherine Van Stratum. Educated at Antwerp and 
Vienna under Verhulst (cello), Rurwelds (piano), Josef Wien- 
iawski, Peter Benoit, Jean Bloch, and Theodor Leschetizky (1892- 
1893). As a very young man was engaged for a series of con- 
certs in London, Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, and Li^ge. Mar- 
ried Bertha Delden. First conductor in National Opera House, 
Antwerp, 1896-1898; conductor Grand Opera House, Algiers, 1898- 
1900. Member of Faculty and Board of Examiners College of 
Music, Cincinnati, O. Address: 2153 St. James Av., Walnut Hills, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Vineberg, Hiram Nahum. Physician. Born December 20, 1857, 
emigrated to Canada when six years old. Son of Alexander 
Vineberg. Educated in Canada public schools and privately. 
M. D. C. M., 1878, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Married 
Lena Bernheimer. Instructor Gynaecology New York Polyclinic 
and New York Post-Graduate Medical School; attending gynae- 
cologist St. Vincent's Hospital, and Monteflore Home for Chronic 
Invalids; adjunct attending gynaecologist Mount Sinai Hospital. 
Author of numerous papers on gynaecological subjects. Address: 
751 Madison Av., New York City. 

^Waidstein, Charles. Educator, Author. Born March 30, 1856, 
New York City. Son of Henry Waldstein. A. M. and L. H. D., 
Columbia College; Ph.D., 1875, University of Heidelberg; M. A. 
and Litt. D., Cambridge, Eng. University lecturer, classical 
archaeology, Cambridge University, 1880; University reader, clas- 
sical archaeology, 1882; director Fitzwilliam Museum, 1883-1889. 
Fellow King's College, Cambridge, 1883; Slade professor fine arts, 
King's College, since 1885; director, 1889-1895, and professor, 
1895-1897, American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece; 
directed excavations of American Archaeological Institute at 
Plataea, Eretria, Heraion of Argos, etc. Knight Commander 
Hellenic Order of the Redeemer; and of Ernestine Saxon Order. 
Author: Excavations at the Heraion of Argos; Balance of Emo- 
tion and Intellect, 1878; Essays on the Art of Phidias, 1885; The 
Work of John Ruskin, 1894; The Study of Art in Universities, 
1895; The Surface of Things, 1899; The Jewish Question, 1899; 
The Expansion of Western Ideals and the World's Peace, 1899; 


The Argive Heraeum, 1902. Address: King's College, Cambridge, 

^Waidstein, Louis. Physician. Born April 15, 1853, New York 
City. Son of Henry Waldstein. Studied in College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York; Heidelberg, Zurich, Vienna, London, 
and Paris. M. D., 1878, Heidelberg. Assistant Pathological Insti- 
tute, Heidelberg, 1878-1880; practiced in New York, 1880-1898; 
since then in London. Author: The Sub-Conscious Self in Its 
Relation to Education and Health, 1897; also numerous medical 
and scientific memoirs and articles. Address: 38 Montpeller Sq., 
London, Eng. 

♦Waldstein, M. E. Chemist. Born October 18, 1854, New York 
City. Son of Henry Waldstein. Educated in Columbia College 
School of Mines. Ph.D., 1875, Heidelberg. Head of Atlantic 
Chemical Works. Has written various chemical articles. Resi- 
dence: Orange, N. J. Office: 107 Murray, New York. 

Waikowitz, Abraham. Artist, Instructor in Art, Educational 
Alliance. Born March 22, 1880, Tuiemen, Siberia. Son of Jacob 
Walkowitz. Educated in Russia and the United States. Came 
to America with mother when ten years old; worked at various 
trades, last in sign painting establishment for five years; mean- 
while studied art in the evening at the National Academy of 
Design; received honorable mention for etching and medal for 
life-drawings. Later devoted whole time to study of painting. 
Exhibitor at the National Academy and Art Culture League, also 
private exhibitions. Address: 25 East 3d, New York. 

Waliach, Isabel R. Writer. Born April 15, 1858, New York. 
Daughter of Moses Richman and Rosa Mellis. Graduate Normal 
College, New York. Married Dr. Joseph G. Wallach (deceased). 
Vice-president for New York State of Council of Jewish Women; 
president Shaaray Teflla Sisterhood of Personal Service. Author: 
Historical and Biographical Narratives (for school children). 
Address: 15 West 91st, New York. 

Walt, Abraham (nom de plume, "A. Liesin"). Poet, Journalist, 
and on editorial staff of Yiddish paper Vorwarts. Born May 2, 
1872, Minsk, Russia. Son of Yehuda Leib Walt and Relie Ham- 
burg. Educated in Cheder at Minsk and at Talmudlcal College 
in Volosin. Married Libbey Ginsburg. Was intended for the 
Rabbinate by his parents; expelled from the Talmudical College 
on account of heretical views. Went to Wilna when fifteen years 
old; participated in the socialist, labor, and revolutionary move- 


ments in Russia; persecuted by agents of the government and com- 
pelled to live under assumed names, 1895; obliged to leave Rus- 
sia, 1897, and emigrated to the United States. Wrote poems, arti- 
cles, and essays for Yiddish periodicals in Russia and the United 
States. Contributions to Vorwarts and Zukunft. Address: Vor- 
warts. New York. 

Warburg, Feiix M. Banker, in the firm of Kuhn, Loeb, ana 
Company. Born January 14, 1871, Hamburg, Germany. Son of 
Moritz Warburg and Charlotte Oppenheim. Educated in the Gym- 
nasium of Hamburg. Married Frieda Schiff. Appointed by 
Mayor Low Commissioner Board of Education, to serve until 
1906. Address: 18 East 72d, New York. 

Weber, Joseph. Theatrical Manager. Born August 11, 1867, 
New York City. Son of Abraham Weber and Gertrude Enoch. 
Educated in New York public schools. Married Lillian Friedman. 
Owner Weber's Music Hall; member The Weber and Ziegfeld 
all-star stock company. German comedian. Address: 1213 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Well, Abraham. Artist. Born July 12, 1869, New York City. 
Son of Jacob A. Weil and Dina Lilienthal. EJarly evinced taste 
for art. Entered business at fourteeen, and studied in the even- 
ings at Cooper Union; later at Academy of Design. Began career 
on The New York Star at the age of eighteen; was later con- 
nected at different periods with The Press, Commercial Adver- 
tiser, Mail and Express, The World, The Journal, The Herald, 
The St. Louis Post-Despatch, and Philadelphia North American. 
Had daily cartoons in The Evening Telegram, New York. With- 
drew from newspaper work, 1898, and has since done work for 
various magazines, illustrated books of fiction and travel, and 
designed art calendars, theatrical posters, etc., for lithographing 
firms. Address: 154 East 117th, New York. 

Weill, Edmond. Artist. Born 1872, New York City. Son ot 
Max Weill. Educated in National Academy of Design, New York. 
Married Rose Bader. Charter member and first president County 
Sketch Club; charter member Society of Younger Painters. Has 
exhibited in oil and water colors, at Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg; 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts; Philadelphia Art Club; and 
Art Institute, Chicago; Society of American Artists; National 
Academy of Design; American Water Color Society; etc. Ad- 
dress: 1132 Hancock, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Werner, Adolph. Professor of the German Language and Liter- 
ature, College City of New York. Born January 5, 1839, Frank- 


fort on the Main, Germany. Son of Edward Werner and Rosalie 
Schlesinger. Studied in College City of New York (B. S., 1857; 
M. S., 1860) ; Ph. D., 1880, Rutgers Female College. Senator United 
Chapters Phi Beta Kappa since organization. Address: 339 West 
29th, New York. 

Werner, Simon. Artist and Illustrator. Bom April 21, 1871, 
New York. Son of Bernard Werner. Educated at New York. 
Studied art in Paris under Benjamin Constant, J. P. Laurens, and 
William Bouguereau. Engaged as lithographic designer from the 
age of fifteen to twenty-two. Since completion of art studies 
engaged in making drawings and illustrations for Harper's, Cen- 
tury, Ladies' Home Journal, Delineator, and other monthly maga- 
zines. Paintings exhibited at National Academy of Design; So- 
ciety of American Artists; Associated Illustrators; Carnegie 
Institute; Salon in Paris, and Glass Palast, Munich. Address: 
43 East 59th, New York. 

Weyl, Max. Artist; Landscape Painter. Born 1837, Miihlen on 
the Neckar, Wiirtemberg, Germany. Son of Veit Hirsh Weyl and 
Miriam Gotz. Self-taught. Married Miriam Raff. Past president. 
Society of Washington Artists. Received medal at the Atlanta 
Exhibition, 1895; A. J. Parsons prize, 1904, for the best landscape 
in Society of Washington Artists Exhibition, bought by Corcoran 
Gallery of Art. Address: 522 Corcoran Building, Washington, 
D. C. 

Weyl, Walter Edward. Economist. Born March 11, 1874, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. Son of Nathan Weyl and Emilie Stern. Educated 
in Philadelphia public schools, and Central High School, Phila- 
delphia. Ph. B., 1892; Ph.D., 1897, University of Pennsylvania. 
Pursued courses at Universities of Halle, Berlin, and Paris. 
Junior fellowship, 1896-1897, senior fellowship, 1897-1898, 1898- 
1899, University of Pennsylvania. In charge of Statistics of Inter- 
nal Commerce, United States Bureau of Statistics. Author: 
Passenger Traffic of Railways; Railway Labor in Europe; Labor 
Conditions in Mexico; Street Railway Labor; and about a dozen 
magazine articles. Address: care University Settlement, 184 
Eldridge, New York. 

White, Henry (or Harry). General Secretary United Garment 
Workers of America. Born May 21, 1866, Baltimore, Md. Son 
of Max White and Annie Lewin. Educated in New York public 
schools. Served apprenticeship to trade of clothing cutter; jour- 
neyman at eighteen; joined union of trade affiliated with Knights 
of Labor; organized secession movement and issued call for 
national convention in New York, 1891, which organized the 



United Garment Workers of America, affiliated with American 
Federation of Labor; has been general officer from first, since 
1896 general secretary; has represented body at nearly all con- 
ventions of American Federation of Labor; one of the represen- 
tatives of New York at Chicago Trust Conference, 1899, appointed 
by Governor Roosevelt; nominated by Governor Roosevelt chief 
factory inspector of New York; nomination withdrawn; served 
on Executive Committee Citizen's Union; member National Civic 
Federation; trustee People's Institute; identified with Ethical Cul- 
ture Society and with Social Reform Club. Editor: The Garment 
Worker, and Weekly Bulletin of the Clothing Trade. Address: 
95 West 119th, New York. 

Whitney, Rosalie Loew (Mrs. T. H.). Attorney Legal Aid 
Society of New York; Attorney-at-law. Born May 4, 1873, New 
York City. Daughter of William H. Loew and Lottie Wechsler. 
Educated in New York public schools; A. B., 1892, Normal College; 
LL. B., 1895, New York University. Married Travis H. Whitney. 
Address: 239 Broadway, New York. 

Wiernik, Peter. Yiddish Journalist; Collaborator in the Jewish 
Encyclopedia. Born March, 1865, Wilna, Russia. Son of Zebi 
Zeeb (Hirsch Wolf) Wiemik and Sarah Milchiger. Educated in 
Cheder until thirteen years old; eelf-taught in all but Hebrew 
studies. Came to America, 1885, and settled in Chicago. Was a 
peddler, common laborer, printer, writer for Yiddish papers and 
occasional contributor to Hebrew and English periodicals. Con- 
nected with the Jewish Courier in various capacities, from type- 
setter to editor, 1887-1896; came to New York, 1898. Author: 
History of the Jews, 1901. Office: care Jewish Morning Journal, 
228 Madison. Residence: 54 Broome, New York. 

Winkler, Max. Professor German language and literature, Uni- 
versity of Michigan. Born September 4, 1866, Cracow, Austria. 
Son of Simon M. Winkler and Mathilde Greiwer. Educated in the 
Gymnasium of Cracow, and Hughes High School, Cincinnati, O. 
A. B., 1889, Harvard University; Ph.D., 1892, University of Michi- 
gan; post-graduate courses in University of Berlin. Assistant pro- 
fessor Modern Languages, University of Kansas, 1889-1890; in- 
structor in German, University of Michigan, 1890-1892, and 1893- 
1895; assistant professor German, 1895-1900; acting professor 
German, 1900-1902; professor German Language and Literature 
since 1902. Member Phi Beta Kappa of Harvard University and 
University of Kansas. Editor: Lessing's Emilia Galotti, with 
introduction and notes, 1895; Goethe's Egmont, with introduc- 
tion and notes, 1898; Schiller's Wallenstein, with introduction 


and notes, 1901; Goethe's Iphigenie, with introduction and notes 
(in press). Contributions to Modern Language Notes. Address: 
730 South Thayer, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Wise, Leo. Publisher and Managing Editor, American Israelite, 
Cincinnati; Publisher Chicago Israelite. Born October 28, 1849, 
Albany, N. Y. Son of Rabbi Isaac M. Wise and Therese Bloch. 
Educated in Talmid Yelodim Institute, Cincinnati; St. Xavier's 
College, Cincinnati; Cincinnati Farmers' College, College Hill, O.; 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. ; LL. B., University of Michigan. 
Married Pauline Goodman. While a boy served a brief time in 
the United States Navy (River Flotilla) during the Civil War; 
was one of the original settlers at the Kimberley diamond mine, 
having pre-empted claims when it was opened. Has been con- 
nected with The American Israelite during his entire active career. 
Conducted Die Deborah for a number of years; issued the Amer- 
ican Jews' Annual for eight years. Established Chicago Israelite, 
1885. Residence: 361 Heame Av., Avondale. OfElce: 56 Perin 
Bldg., Cincinnati, O. 

Witmark, Juiius P. Music Publisher. Born September 19, 1870, 
New York City. Son of Marcus Witmark and Henrietta Peyser. 
Educated in New York. Married Carrie J. Rosenberg. Belongs 
to the firm of M. Witmark and Sons, music publishers. New York, 
Chicago, San Francisco, and London. In his youth, until 1885, 
boy soprano on the stage. Address: 144-146 West 37th, New York. 

Witty fAsix 8. Composer; General Musical Director of Messrs. 
Broadhurst and Currie's productions. Born November 12, 1870, 
Stettin, Germany. Son of Elias Witt and Sophie Schlesinger. 
Educated in Stettin Stadt Gymnasium and New York public 
schools. Married Margaret Gonzalez. Was intended for com- 
mercial career, but abandoned it for music; has written many 
popular melodies. Composer: The Moth and the Flame; My 
Little Georgia Rose; First Violin Waltzes; Phyllis Waltz; The 
A. B. C. of Love, etc. Address: 34 East 21st, New York. 

Wolbarst, Abraham Leo. Physician. Born August 4, 1872, 
New York City. Son of Bernard Wolbarst and Jane Appelbaum. 
Educated in New York public schools and College City of New 
York; M. D., 1898, College of Physicians and Surgeons. Attend- 
ing surgeon, Beth Israel Hospital Dispensary; clinical surgical 
assistant. New York Polyclinic, School and Hospital. Special 
writer for New York Evening Sun on Jewish affairs; organizer 
and president four terms, New Era Club; founder. Society for 
the Aid of Crippled Children, all of New York. Associate editor. 


Whitman's Orthopaedic Surgery; and Weir's Lectures on Surgery. 
Formerly associate editor, New York Journal of Cutaneous and 
Genito-Urinary Diseases. Has written technical articles on sur- 
gery, and articles on social conditions in the Jewish quarter of 
New York. Address: 24 East 119th, New York. 

Wolf, Adolph Grant. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Porto Rico. Born January 11, 1869, Washington, D. C. Son 
of Simon Wolf and Caroline Hahn. Studied in Johns Hopkins 
University (A. B., 1890); LL. B., 1892, LL. M., 1893, Columbian 
(now George Washington) University, Washington; post-graduate 
work at University of Berlin. Financial secretary, United Hebrew 
Charities, Washington; treasurer Civil Service Reform Associa- 
tion, District of Columbia. Address: 926 F, N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Wolf, Emma. Author. Born June 15, 1865, San Francisco, Cal. 
Daughter of Simon Wolf and Annette Levy. Educated in San 
Francisco grammar, high, and normal schools. Author: Other 
Things Being Equal; A Prodigal in Love; The Joy of Life; Heirs 
of Yesterday. Has written short stories for magazines. Address: 
2874 Washington, San Francisco, Cal. 

Wolf, Simon. Attorney-at-law. Born October 28, 1836, Hinz- 
weiler, Rhenish Bavaria. Son of Levi Wolf. Educated in public 
schools; graduate Ohio Law College, Cleveland. Doctor's degree. 
University of Strassburg. Married Amelia Lichtenstein. Was 
recorder District of Columbia, 1869-1878, United States consul 
general and agent diplomatique to Egypt, 1881-1882; member 
Board of Charities and School Board, District of Columbia. At 
present Chairman Board of Delegates for Civil and Religious 
Rights of Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Twice presi- 
dent Constitution Grand Lodge Conventions, and now president. 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith; for twelve years president Order 
Kesher Shel Barzel; president Washington Schuetzen Verein for 
twelve years; president Masonic Veterans Association; Bund der 
Alten; Ruppert House for Aged and Indigent, and German 
Orphan Asylum; founder and president Hebrew Orphans Home, 
Atlanta, Ga. Author: The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier, and 
Citizen; Biographies of Mordecai M. Noah and Commodore U. P. 
Levy. Address: 926 F, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Wolfenstein, Martha. Born August 5, 1869, Insterburg, Prus- 
sia, Germany. Daughter of Dr. Samuel Wolfenstein and Bertha 
Brieger. Educated in Cleveland, O., public schools. Author: 


Idyls of the Gass; short stories in various magazines. Address: 
Jewish Orphan Asylum, Cleveland, O. 

Wolfson, Arthur Mayer. First Assistant in History (chairman 
of department), De Witt Clinton High School; teacher in charge 
of Annex to DeWltt Clinton High School, New York. Born April 
10, 1873, Chicago, 111. Son of Rudolph Wolfson and Nancy Mayer. 
Educated in Kansas City and Philadelphia public schools. B. A., 
1893; M. A., 1896, and Ph.D., 1898, Harvard University. Teacher 
Central High School, Kansas City, Mo., 1893-1895; assistant in 
History, Harvard University, 1896-1898; teacher DeWitt Clinton 
High School since 1898. Has writen reviews and monographs, 
among them. The Ballot and Other Forms of Voting in the Italian 
Communes (in American Historical Review); Some Bibliograph- 
ical Notes on Italian Communal History (in Year Book of Biblio- 
graphical Society of Chicago), 1902-1903; Some Modern Theories 
of History Teaching Tested by Actual Practice (in Annual Re- 
port Schoolmasters* Association, New York and Vicinity), 1902- 
1903. Author: The Essentials in Ancient History (text book). 
Address: 140 West 102d, New York. 

Wolfstein, David I. Physician. Born January 11, 1862, Hanni- 
bal, Mo. Son of Isaac Wolfstein and Caroline Levy. Studied 
medicine in Ohio Medical College; pursued courses in Europe, for 
three years, at Strassburg, Zurich, Berlin, and Vienna. Fellow 
in Biology, University of Cincinnati. Married Nettie F. Scheuer. 
Is neuro-pathologist to Cincinnati Hospital, University of Cin- 
cinnati; neurologist to Jewish Hospital. Was bacteriologist, 
Miami Medical College; professor of Pathology, University of 
Cincinnati; of Mental and Nervous Diseases, Cincinnati College 
of Medicine and Surgery; secretary. Section of Nervous and Men- 
tal Diseases, American Medical Association. Has written articles 
on diseases of the nervous system. Address: 22 West 7th, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

*Woog, Benjamin Bernard. First Lieutenant, Marine Corps, 
United States Navy. Born in District of Columbia. Entered 
service and received present commission, July 1, 1899. Ordered 
to Guam, P. I., 1903. Address: Navy Department, Washington, 
D. C. 

Woolf, Albert Edward. Electrician; Inventor. Born Septem- 
ber 25, 1846, New York City. Son of Edward Woolf and Sarah 
Michels. Educated in College City of New York. Married Rosa- 
mund Wimpfheimer. Member American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, and of Society of Arts, London, Eng. Introduced Per- 


oxide of Hydrogen for bleaching ostrich feathers; discovered and 
introduced disinfection by means of electrolysis of a saline solu- 
tion; purified Rikers Island; sterilized New York drinking water 
during typhoid fever epidemic, 1893; disinfected Havana for 
United States officials; eradicated yellow fever. Residence: 832 
West End Av. Office: 415 Lexington Av., New York. 

Woolf, Samuel Johnson. Portrait and Figure Painter. Born 
February 12, 1880, New York City. Son of Albert Edward Woolf 
and Rosamund Wimpfheimer. Graduate, 1899, College City of 
New York, and studied at Art Students League. Pupil of Ken- 
yon Cox and Greorge DeForrest Brush. Awarded Hallgarten prize 
National Academy of Design, 1904; represented at exhibitions in 
National Academy of Design, New York; Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Society of American Artists; Carnegie 
Institute, Pittsburg; and St. Louis Exposition. Works: Portraits 
of William J. Lemoyne; Jonathan Scott Hartley; Professor Solo- 
mon Woolf; Subject pictures: Finale; Idle Hours; The Chemist; 
The Story of Christmas; Girl with Violets. Residence: 832 West 
End Av. Studio: 139 West 55th, New York. 

"Yehoash." See Bloonngarden, Sol. 

*Zallnski, Ednnund L. Captain, United States Army (retired). 
Born in Poland. Graduate, 1880, of the Artillery School. Ap- 
pointed second lieutenant, 2d New York Artillery of Volunteers, 
1865; second lieutenant, 5th Artillery regular army, 1866; first 
lieutenant, 1867; captain, 1887; retired, 1894. Address: War 
Department, Washington, D. C. 

*ZaMnski, Moses Q. Major, Quartermaster's Department, United 
States Army. Born January 23, 1863, New York. Graduate, 1894, 
of the Artillery School. Appointed private, corporal, and sergeant. 
Batteries G and H, first Artillery, 1885; second lieutenant, second 
Artillery, 1889; first lieutenant, fourth Artillery, February, 1895; 
transferred to second Artillery, March, 1895; captain and quarter- 
master, 1898; major quartermaster, 1903. Address: War Depart- 
ment, Washington, D. C. 

Zeisler, Fannie Bloonnfleld (Mrs. Sigmund). Concert Pianiste. 
Born July 16, 1865, Bielitz, Austrian Silesia. Daughter of Solomon 
Bloomfield and Bertha Jaeger. Came to Chicago when two years 
old. Taught by Carl Wolfsohn, Chicago, and 1878-1883 by Lesche- 
tizky, Vienna. First public appearance in Chicago, 1875. On her 
return from abroad, played at piano and orchestral concerts in the 
cities of the United States. Soloist with New York Philharmonic 


and Symphony Societies, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Chicago, 
Buffalo, Cincinnati, and St. Louis Orchestras, and at the Worcester 
Festivals. In 1893-1895 appeared with great success in all the large 
cities of Oermany, Austria, Denmark, and Switzerland; 1896, 
made a tour of the Pacific Coast; 1898, played in England, and 
was soloist at the Lower Rhine Music Festival, at Cologne; in 
1902 again played in the large cities of Europe, including Paris. 
Accounted one of the greatest living piano artists. Married Sig- 
mund Zeisler. Honorary member Chicago and Peoria Woman's 
Club; Saturday Club, Sacramento; Chicago Women's Aid; Chi- 
cago Woman's Club; and Chicago Amateur Musical Club. Ad- 
dress: 5749 Woodlawn Av., Chicago, 111. 

Zeisler, Sigmund. Lawyer. Born April 11, 1860, Bielitz, Aus- 
tria. Son of Isaac L. Zeisler and Anna Kanner. Educated in 
Bielitz public schools, and Imperial and Royal Gymnasium, 
Bielitz. J. D., 1883, University of Vienna; LL. B., 1884, North- 
western University. Married Fannie Bloomfleld, 1885. Was 
associate counsel for defense in Anarchist cases, 1886-1887; 
chief assistant corporation counsel of Chicago, 1893-1894 ; resigned 
because of ill-health and travelled in Europe several months; 
since then engaged in private law practice; prominent as Sound- 
Money Democrat in campaign of 1896; speaker at the first anti- 
Imperialist meeting held west of the Alleghanies, Chicago, 1899; 
member Executive Committee American anti-Imperialist League, 
1899; acting chairman during entire business session National 
Liberty Congress, 1900; stumped country as an anti-Imperialist 
in favor of Bryan, campaign of 1900. Member Executive Com- 
mittee of Voters' League; and of Civil Service Reform Associa- 
tion. Contributor to reviews and law journals. Ofllce: Rookery. 
Residence, 5749 Woodlawn Av., Chicago, 111. 

"Zelda/' See Pastor, Rose Harriet. 

Zevin, Israel Joseph ("Tashrak"). Associate Editor Jewish 
Daily News (Yiddish), New York. Born January 31, 1872, Gori- 
Gorki, Moghilev, Russia. Son of Judah Leib Zevin. Educated in 
Russian Cheder and privately. Was editor Philadelphia Jewish 
Press (Yiddish). Came to New York, 1889; started as newsboy 
on Park Row; wrote first literary productions while selling can- 
dies from a stand on the Bowery, 1893; joined editorial staff 
Jewish Daily News, 1900. Has written sketches, short stories, and 
biographies, in Hebrew in Ha-Ibri, and Yalkut Maarabi; in 
English in the English Department Jewish Daily News, Jewish 
Comment, and other Jewish weeklies; in Yiddish for nearly every 


Yiddish publication in the United States. Address: 185 East 
Broadway, New York. 

Zolotkoff, Leon. Assistant State's Attorney, Chicago. Born 
May 15, 1865, Wilna, Russia. Son of Jehudah Zolotkoff and Re- 
becca Ostriner. Educated in Russian Cheder; and Wilna schools; 
at nineteen attended lectures of the historico-philological faculty, 
Sorbonne, Paris; B. L., 1895, Lake Forrest University, Chicago. 
Married Fanny Ogus. Was associate editor Hebrew daily Ha- 
Yom, St. Petersburg, 1886-1887; contributed to Russian periodi- 
cals, and wrote several short stories, one entitled " Prison Types," 
1887. Came to Chicago, 1887, established the Daily and Weekly 
Jewish Courier; attempted publication of a Hebrew monthly 
magazine, Keren Or, 1888, but published only two issues on ac- 
count of lack of funds. Has contributed numerous sketches under 
the heading Zauberspiegel to the Yiddish press for fifteen years. 
Organized and is grand master. Order Knights of Zion. Attended 
Second, Third, and Fifth Zionist Congresses at Basle, and was 
twice elected member Actions-Committee. Address: 936 Stock 
Exchange Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Zon, Raphael Q. Field-Assistant Bureau of Forestry, United 
States Department of Agriculture. Born December 1, 1874, Sim- 
birsk, Russia. Son of Gabriel Zon. Graduate, 1893, of Classical 
Gymnasium at Simbirsk; studied in Medical and Natural Science 
Department, University of Kazan, Russia, 1893-1896; attended lec- 
tures on political economy, at University Nouvelle, Brussels, 1897; 
graduate New York State College of Forestry of Cornell Univer- 
sity, 1901, with degree F. E. (Forest Engineer). Has been con- 
nected with the Bureau of Forestry since 1901. Has investigated 
the Chestnut in Maryland; Balsam Fir in the Adirondacks; and 
silviculture of Longleaf Pine in Texas. Defined the treatment of 
Mohegan Park, Hamilton Co., N. Y , and is studying the Loblolly 
Pine in connection with the Kirby Working Plan. Has contributed 
papers to The Forester, Forestry Quarterly, and The Popular 
Science Monthly. Address: Bureau of Forestry, Washington, 
D. C. 

Zunser, Eliakum. Born Heshvan 1, 5602 (1841), Wilna, Russia. 
Son of Feiwe Zunser and Ita Glasstein. Studied at the Talmu- 
dical Colleges of Wilna; in secular studies self-taught by means of 
the Hebrew Haskala literature. Married Feige Katzewitz. Wrote 
poetry in Judseo-Grerman, beginning at age of thirteen; com- 
posed words and music, frequently extempore; sang at concerts 
and weddings. Came to America, 1889; gave up writing, 1895; 
is now a printer. First volume of poems printed in 1861; has 


since published sixty-five collections of poems, some with music 
and some with translations into Hebrew; the volume entitled 
Shirim Hadoshim is best known. Also wrote and published a 
drama, Mehirat Joseph, 1871. Address: 156 East Broadway, New 


Mabtin Emebich, of Illinois, in the House of Representatives. 

Henby Mayeb Goldfogle, of New York, in the House of Repre- 

Lucius Nathan Littaueb, of New York, in the House of Repre- 

Adolph Meyeb, of Louisiana, in the House of Representatives. 

IsiDOB Rayneb, of Maryland, Senator-elect. 

For biographical sketches of the above, see pp. 86, 102, 143, 
154, 167. 




The subjoined biographical sketches and notices are to be 
regarded as additions to the Sketches published in the Amer- 
ican Jewish Year Book 5664, pp. 40-108. An eflEort was 
made to reach all new incumbents and to follow up all changes. 
Also, a renewed effort was made to obtain authentic data from 
those whose sketches last year were marked with an asterisk 
to indicate that they had been compiled from secondary 
sources. The asterisk continues to serve this purpose in the 
appended list, which is still limited to such Rabbis and 
Cantors as are at present officially connected with congrega- 
tions in the United States. 

Abbey, Adolph. Minister Hall Street Synagogue (Congrega- 
tion Nvay Tsedek Talmud Torah), Portland, Ore. Born at Riga, 
Russia, February 28, 1875. Educated at the Gymnasium and the 
Talmud ical Colleges of Shavli, Kovno, and Bialystok, Russia. 
Diploma conferred by Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Specter, Kovno. 
LL. B., University of Oregon. Held positions in Washington, 
D. C, and Spokane, Wash. Contributor to the Jewish Tribune, 
Portland; Hebrew Standard, New York. Address: 615% First, 
Portland, Ore. 

Bergman, MoTse. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation Gates of 
Prayer, New Orleans, La. Born November 10, 1877, at Shreveport, 
La. Son of J. A. Bergman and Annie Wise. Educated at the 
public schools of Shreveport and New Orleans; Tulane Prepara- 
tory School; Cincinnati High School; Hebrew Union College 
(B. H., and Rabbi), and University of Cincinnati (B. A.). Was 
Rabbi of Temple Emanuel, Grand Rapids, Mich. Has done circuit 
work at Saginaw and Battle Creek, Mich. Address: 850 Caron- 
delet. New Orleans, La. 


Bloch, Jacob. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Emanu-EI, 
Spokane, Wash., in June, 1904. 

* Brown, A. B. J. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Shaarey 
Zedek, San Francisco, Cal., in 1904. 

Cahan, Morris. Rabbi of Congregation Children of Israel, 
Augusta, Ga. Born May, 1878, Proskurov, Podolia, Russia. Son 
of Simon Cahan. Studied at Jewish Theolpgical Seminary, Col- 
lege City of New York, University of Cincinnati (B. A., 1903), 
and Hebrew Union College (Rabbi, 1903). Address: 1019 Greene, 
Augusta, Ga. 

*Cohen, P. H. Elected Cantor of Congregation Shaarey Zedek, 
San Francisco, Cal., in 1904. 

*Cohn, Frederick. Rabbi of Congregation Achduth Vesholom, 
Fort Wayne, Ind., elected, in 1904, Rabbi of Temple Israel, Omaha, 
Neb., and of Congregation B'nai Yeshurun, Lincoln, Neb. Ad- 
dress: 1302 Park Av., Omaha, Neb. 

Cooper, Israel. Cantor (since 1886) of Congregation Sons of 
Israel (B'nai Israel Kalvaria), New York City. Bom January 
25, 1843, at Alusenitz, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Russia. Son of Isaiah 
Cooper and Frieda Rosa Millinitzer. Educated at Jassy, Rou- 
mania. Smuggled across the Black Sea into Roumania at the age 
of fifteen to escape the child-stealers seeking Jewish recruits for 
the army. Married Fannie Rebecca Engelscher. Was cantor in 
Bucharest, Roumania, five years; Wilna, Russia, ten years; and 
Chicago, 111., two years. Address: 3 Rutgers, New York. 

*Dubov, Marcus H. Rabbi of Congregation Bnei Moshe, Evans- 
Yille, Ind., elected Rabbi of Congregation B'rith Achim, Rich- 
mond, Va., in 1904. 

Elseman, Aaron. Rabbi (since 1903) of Congregation Beth 
Israel Bikur Cholim, New York City. Born March 20, 1879, New 
York City. Son of Bernhard Eiseman and Rebecca Rosenblatt. 
Secular education in the New York public schools; New York 
University (B.A., 1901); and Columbia University (M. A., 1902). 
Rabbinical education under Rev. Dr. H. Pereira Mendes and at the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America. One of the founders 
of the Z. B. T. Fraternity, and for two years its Nasi. Address: 
1067 Lexington Av., New York. 

Ettelson, Harry W. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation Ach- 
duth Vesholom, Fort Wayne, Ind. Born October 2, 1881, in 


Poland. Son of Samuel A. Ettelson and Miriam Harris. B. A., 
1903, University of Cincinnati; Rabbi, 1904, Hebrew Union Col- 
lege. Pursued a course of study at University of Chicago. Ad- 
dress: Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Farber, Rudolph. Rabbi of Congregation Shaaray Zedek, De- 
troit, Mich. Born April 5, 1862, at Zator, Austria. Son of Jacob 
Farber and Rosa Getreider. Elementary Jewish and secular edu- 
cation in the schools of Zator and Neutra, Hungary. Talmudic 
education for ten years under Klemperer and Dr. Abraham Stein, 
Prague. Rabbinical authorization conferred, 1880, by Rabbi Aaron 
Kornfeld, Jenikau, Bohemia; and 1883, by Dr. Saul Kaempf, 
Prague. Held rabbinical positions in Glozan, Bohemia; Erie, Pa.; 
Chicago, 111.; Portland, Ore.; and Vancouver, B. C. Taught Sem- 
itics in Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. Editor: The Occident, 
Chicago; The American Hebrew News, Portland, Ore. Contrib- 
utor to The Oregonian, and other papers. Address: 104 Adelaide, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Feuerlicht, Morris Marcus. Rabbi of Congregation Ahawas 
Achim, Lafayette, Ind., elected Associate Rabbi of the Indian- 
apolis (Ind.) Hebrew Congregation, in 1904. 

Friedman, Henry. Rabbi (since 1904) of Temple Sinai, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Born July 21, 1846, Worne, Russia. Son of Lewis 
Friedman and Bella Sofer. Educated at Wilna, Russia. Rabbin- 
ical authorization conferred, 1867, by Dr. Landsberg, Darmstadt; 
and 1869, Dr. Alex. Stein, Worms. Married Sarah Daneman. 
Held position for four years in South Germany; as assistant rabbi 
in Congregation B*rith Kodesh, Rochester, N. Y.; in Congregation 
Shaareh Tpve, Minneapolis, Minn.; for four years in Congrega- 
tion Beth El Emeth, Camden, Ark.; for seven years in United 
Hebrew Congregation, Gainesville, Tex.; and for two years in 
Tampa, Fla. Founder of Congregation Shaareh Tove, Minneap- 
olis, Minn. Address: 380 Boylston Place, Milwaukee, Wis. 

♦Friednnan, J. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Rodef Sholom, 
Homestead, Pa., in 1903. 

♦Frisch, Ephrainn. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Anshe 
Emeth, Pine Bluff, Ark., in 1904. 

*Qoldenson, Sannuei H. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Adath 
Israel, Lexington, Ky., in 1904. 

♦Heinnan, Leopold. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Beth-Bl, 
Norfolk, Va. 


Heller, Nachman. Rabbi (since 1903) of Congregation Aha- 
bath Israel, Philadelphia, Pa. Born Heshvan 15, 1862, at Bialy- 
stok, Poland. Son of Israel Heller and Taube Feiga Thai. Tal- 
mudic education received from his father, from Rabbi Samuel 
Mohilever, the Malbim, Rodkinson, and M. Friedmann, Vienna. 
Studied at the Gymnasium in Konigsberg, and pursued courses in 
philosophy, physiology, pedagogy, economics, etc., at the Univer- 
sity of Vienna; Baylor University, Texas (1902-1903), and Univer- 
sity of Chicago, 1903. Rabbinical authorization conferred, 1880, 
by Rabbi M. L. Malbim, Konigsberg; 1883, by Rabbi Alexander 
Lapidus, Rossiena; 1884, by Rabbi Samuel Mohilever, Bialystok. 
Married Esther Gorfinkel (granddaughter of the Bigde-Yesha) . 
Taught Hebrew school Shaarei Zedek, New York, 1900; principal 
Hebrew school Shaare-Zedek, Winnipeg, Man., 1901; and Rabbi 
Congregation Agudath Jacob, Waco, Tex., 1902-1903. Works: 
Rabbi Nachman-bar- Jacob (Hebrew poem), 1883; Doresh TZion 
(on Zionism), 1900; Translation of the Aramaic parts of Daniel 
and Ezra into Hebrew (in press). Address: 2076 Letterly, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Hirschensohn, Haylm. Rabbi (since 1903) of Congregation Ez 
Hachayim, Hoboken, N. J. Born EUul 11, 1858, in Safed, Pales- 
tine. Son of Jacob Mordecai Hirschensohn and Sarah Bela 
Zartkis. Educated at the elementary schools of Safed; the Sukkat 
Sholom u-Maor Jacob Academy, Jerusalem, of which his father 
was principal; and in Cabbalah in the College of Rabbi Shalom 
Sharabi, Jerusalem. Self-taught in modern Hebrew literature. 
Rabbinical authorization conferred by Rabbis of Jerusalem, Egypt, 
Germany, Holland, Roumania, and Russia, and the title of Hakam, 
by Kalman Shulman and S. Rubin. Was principal, later vice- 
principal, of College in Jerusalem, in succession to his father; 
teacher in the orphan asylum at Jerusalem; engaged in business 
pursuits, 1894-1895; studied hieroglyphics in Egypt; director of a 
Sephardic school in Constantinople, 1896-1903; came to America, 
1903. EJarly interested in Zionist movement; delegate to the 
Sixth Congress at Basle; organizer of a B'nai B'rith lodge in 
Jerusalem; associated with Ben-Jehuda and Yellin in various 
educational movements looking to the introduction and use of the 
Hebrew language in Palestine; and the establishment of libraries. 
Editor: Hebrew and Yiddish monthly; Hebrew monthly Ha- 
Misderonah; the Or Zarua, from a MS. in the British Museum, 
1887. Author: Mosedot Torah shebeal Pe; Ateret Zekenim; 
articles in the periodical press. Address: 202 Park Av., Hoboken, 
N. J. 

Hirschowitz, Abraham Eber. Rabbi of Congregation Sons ot 
Israel, New York City, elected Rabbi of Congregations B'nai 
Jacob and B'nai Israel, Toledo, O., in 1903. 


*Hir8hberg, Samuel. Rabbi of Congregation unabei Uhaiom, 
Boston, Mass., elected Rabbi of Congregation Emanu-El, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., in 1904. 

Hoffman, Charles Isaiah. Rabbi, since 1904, of the United 
Hebrew Congregation of Indianapolis, Ind. Born January 3, 1864, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Son of Moses Hoffman and Hannah Kaufman. 
Educated at Philadelphia public schools, and Rugby Academy, 
Philadelphia. A. B., A. M., and LL. B., University of Pennsylvania. 
Pursued post-graduate course at Cambridge University, England, 
and Jewish Theological Seminary (Rabbi, 1904, valedictorian). 
Married Fanny Binswanger. President District Grand Lodge 
No. 3, Independent Order B'nai B'rith. Editor and one of the 
founders of the Jewish Exponent. Member of the Philadelphia 
bar, and practiced law in Philadelphia. Has made addresses 
before Jewish societies, and written essays for the Jewish Expo- 
nent. Address: Indianapolis, Ind. 

*lsrael, Solomon. Appointed Cantor of Congregation Agudath 
Achim Anshe Orange, 258 Main Street, Orange, N. J. 

Israeli, Phlneas. Rabbi (since 1903) of Congregation Tifereth 
Israel, Des Moines, la. Bom April 24, 1880, at Elizabethgrad, 
Russia. Son of Elimelech Israeli and Sima Zlotsky. Elementary 
education at a Cheder in Russia and in the Hartford, Conn., 
public schools. A. B., 1899, College City of New York; M. A., 
1902, Columbia University; Rabbi, 1902, Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America. Married Sophia Kaplan. Rabbi, 1902-1903, at 
Allen town. Pa. Address: 1047 Sixth Av., Des Moines, la. 

*Kahn, Emanuel. Rabbi of United Hebrew Congregation, Fort 
Smith, Ark., elected Rabbi of the Congregation in Joplin, Mo., in 

*Kamenskl, Herman. Elected Rabbi of the Jewish Congrega- 
tion in Corning, N. Y., in 1903. 

*Kaplan, Bernard Michael. Rabbi of Congregation B'nai Israel, 
Sacramento, Cal., elected Rabbi of Congregation Ohabei Shalome, 
San Francisco, Cal., in 1904. 

Kaplan, Jacob H. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation Albert, 
Albuquerque, N. M. Born December 26, 1874, at Adelnau, Posen, 
Grermany. Son of Louis Kaplan and Minna Margolius. Educated 
at Buffalo high school; Hughes High School, Cincinnati; Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati (B. A., 1901), and Hebrew Union College 
(Rabbi, 1902). Address: 106 North 12th, Albuquerque, N. M. 


*Kaplan, Mordecal M. Elected Minister of Kehilath Jeshurim, 
New York City, in 1904. Address: 103 East 90th, New York. 

*Karfunkel, Solomon. Elected Rabbi of the Hungarian Hebrew 
Congregation Oheb Zedek, Schenectady, N. Y., in 1904. 

Klein, Jacob. Rabbi of Congregation Emanuel, Statesville, 
N. C, elected Rabbi of the Congregation in Sumter, S. C, in 1904. 
Address: 209 North Washington, Sumter, S. C. 

Klein, Max. Minister (since 1903) of Congregation Bikur 
Cholim, Donaldsonville, La. Born February 2, 1853, at Hatten, 
Alsace. Son of Frederic Klein and Therese Moock. Diplomas 
conferred by Rabbi Grtinebaum, Landau; Cantor Jacob Stern, 
Ingenheim, Palatinate; Cantor Zacharie Klein (his brother), 
Brumath, Alsace. Held positions, 1872, at Kolbsheim, Alsace; 
1873-1885, Alexandria, La. Address: Donaldsonville, La. 

*Kleinfeld, A. 8. Elected Cantor of Congregation B'nai Je- 
shurun, Paterson, N. J. 

Kleinfeld, Solonnon. Cantor and Preacher of Congregation Bnai 
Sholom, New Haven, Conn. Born November 12, 1869, in Austria. 
Son of Jacob Kleinfeld and Ester Goldbaum. Educated at the 
Stern Conservatory of Music, Berlin, Germany. Urged by his 
teachers to adopt the stage as his profession, but was prevented 
by his father, who feared the effect upon his religious attitude. 
Married Julia Gross. Held positions in the Oranienburger Vor- 
stadt, Berlin; Congregation Atereth Israel, New York; and Con- 
gregation Beth Israel, Philadelphia. Address: 98 Olive, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Kopfatein, Mayer. Rabbi of Congregation Mount Sinai of Har- 
lem, New York, founded by him. Congregation incorporated June 
27, 1904. 

*Kornfeld, Joseph Saul. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation 
Anshe Emeth, Pine Bluff, Ark., and accepts a position in Mont- 
real, Canada, in 1904. 

♦Krohn, 8. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Ohev Israel, Kansas 
City, Mo., in 1904. 

Levi, Qerson Benedict. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congregation 
Beth El, Helena, Ark. Born January 23, 1878, in Russia. Son 
of Israel Levi and Miriam Saltzman. Elementary education in 


public schools of Glasgow, Scotland, and public and high schools 
of Philadelphia. B. A., 1899, University of Pennsylvania; Rabbi, 
1904, Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Private study 
with Rev. Dr. Sabato Morals, 1888-1897. Post-graduate course in 
Semitics, 1900-1902, University of Pennsylvania. Head of Hebrew 
Department, Jewish Chautauqua Society. Author : Beginners* 
Book in Hebrew; Advanced Lessons in Hebrew. Address: Helena, 

Levine, David. Rabbi (since 1904) of Temple Emanu-Bl, Spo- 
kane, Wash. Born October 5, 1876, in New York City. Son of 
Herman I. Levine and Pauline Meiersohn. Educated at Baltimore 
City College, College City of New York, and Columbia University 
(Ph.D., 1902), and completed the course at the Jewish Theologi- 
cal Seminary of America. Married Daisy Baum. Rabbi, 1900- 

1902, of Congregation Adath Jeshurun, Syracuse, N. Y.; acting 
Rabbi, 1903-1904, of Temple Beth Israel, Portland, Ore. Author: 
The Garden of Wisdom of Rabbi Nathanel bar Payyumi, trans- 
lated from the original Arabic, and edited with notes, critical, 
literary, and explanatory. Address: 719 Riverside Av., Spokane, 

*Levin8on, J. Elected Cantor of Congregation Beth David, 
Detroit, Mich., in 1904. 

*Magne8, J. Leon. Elected Rabbi of Temple Israel, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., in 1904. 

Mandel, Morris. Minister, since 1903, of Congregation Keneseth 
Israel, Allentown, Pa. Born April 1, 1875, Bely, Hungary. Son 
of Elijah Mandel and Lena Kastor. Elementary education in 
the graded schools of Hungary and the public schools of New 
York. Came to America, 1888. A. B., 1897, College City of New 
York; Rabbi, 1898, Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 
Pursued post-graduate studies in School of Philosophy, Columbia 
University. Rabbi Congregation Adas Israel, Washington, D. (3., 
1898-1901; Beth Israel Congregation, Atlantic City, N. J., 1901- 

1903. Vice-President, 1899-1900, Federation of American Zionists. 
Address: 747 Turner, Allentown, Pa. 

Mannheimer, Leo. Resigns as Rabbi of Mizpah Congregation, 
Chattanooga, Tenn., in 1904. 

*l\1argolies, M. 8. Elected Rabbi of Congregation B'nai Jacob, 
South Brooklyn, N. Y., 1903. Elected Rabbi of Congregation 
Anshei Emeth, Cleveland, O., in 1904. 


*Markovitz, M. A. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Chevra 
Thillim, San Francisco, Cal., 1903. 

Mayer, Eli. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Beth El, Helena, 
Ark., and is elected assistant rabbi to the Rev. Dr. Joseph Kraus- 
kopf, of Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia, Pa. Ad- 
dress: 263 Berkeley St., German town. Pa. 

*Medvidov8ky, Israel. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Nvay 
Tsedek Talmud Torah, Portland, Ore., in 1904. 

Mendelsohn, G. Minister of Congregation Rodef Sholom, Home- 
stead, Pa., elected Rabbi of Congregation Adath Israel, Nashville, 
Tenn., in 1903. 

Meyer, Julius Henry. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Emanu- 
El, Milwaukee, Wis., in 1903. 

Minkowsky, Abrahann. Cantor of Congregation Shaarei Zedek, 
New York. Born November 15, 1869, at Biala-ZerkofC, Russia. 
Son of Mordecai Minkowsky and Malka Freinkel. Educated at 
Cheder and at a Talmudical College. Graduate of the Moscow 
Imperial Conservatory of Music. Married Bertha OsofCezky. Was 
Cantor of the Great Temple, Odessa; Cantor of Reformed Tem- 
ple, Cherson, for more than twelve years; professor of vocal 
culture and theory of music, Cherson Imperial Institute of Music; 
and director of the Tchaikowsky Musical Circle, Cherson. Com- 
poser of synagogue music. Address: 207 Clinton, New York. 

*Morgen8tern, Julian. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Emanuel, 
Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1904. 

*Myer8, Isidor. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Ohabei 
Shalome, San Francisco, Cal., in 1904. 

Nelson, Leon M. Resigns as Rabbi of Temple Israel, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., in 1904. 

Raisin, Max. Rabbi of K. K. Bene Abraham, Portsmouth, O., 
elected Rabbi of Congregation Ryhim Ahoovim, Stockton, Cal., in 
1903; resigns from the Congregation, in 1904, and is elected 
Rabbi of Temple Sinai, St. Francisville, La. 

Reichert, isidor. Rabbi of Temple Beth El, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
officiated as Rabbi at Temple Beth-Zion, Johnstown, Pa., 1903- 
1904, and was elected Rabbi in Temple Israel, Uniontown, Pa., in 


*Rldwas (Willonski), Jacob David. Rabbi (since 1903) of 
Congregation Anshe Kaneses Israel, Chicago, 111. Born, 1845, at 
Kobrin, Russia. Rabbi at Zabolin, Bobruisk, and Slutzk, and 
Maggid of Wilna, 1889-1900. Came to America, 1900. Author: 
Migdal David, 1874; Hanah David, 1876; Teshubah Rabbah, 1883. 
Editor: Jerusalem Talmud, text, with all former commentaries in 
addition to his own (11 vols. fol.). 

Rivkind, Moses Mordecai. Rabbi of Congregation Beth El 
Jacob, Des Moines, la. Born 1864, at Toshnat, Hungary. Son 
of Gedaliah Rivkind. Educated in Russian towns. Rabbinical 
authorization conferred by Chief Rabbi Myer Jonah, Swislitz; 
Rabbi Michael Wolfson, Janishok; Rabbi K. Natan, Augustovo; 
Chief Rabbi Samuel Salant, Jerusalem; and Chief Rabbi J. D. 
Ridwas. Married Selda Lossman. Held positions in Indianapolis, 
Ind.; and St. Paul, Minn. Author: Gedulat Mordecai. Address: 
508 East First, Des Moines, la. 

Rosenberg, Solomon. Resigned as Rabbi and Cantor of Temple 
Beth El, Jersey City, N. J., in 1903. 

*Rosenstein, M. Elected Rabbi of Congregation B'nai Sholom, 
Toledo, O., in 1906. 

* Rosenthal, Abraham. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Beth 
Israel, Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1903. 

Rothstein, Leonard Julius. Rabbi (since 1904) of Congrega- 
tion B'nai Israel, Kalamazoo, Mich. Born October 1, 1880, in 
Poland. Son of Isaac Rothstein and Yetta Rosenberg. Educated 
at the Cincinnati public and high schools; Hebrew Union College 
(B. H., 1900; Rabbi, 1904); and University of Cincinnati (B. A., 
1904). Officiated temporarily at Jefferson City, Mo.; Anniston, 
Ala.; and Binghamton, N. Y. Address: 420 North 5th, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

*Ruppln, Louis. Elected Rabbi of Congregation Bene Abraham, 
Portsmouth, O., in 1903. 

Schaffer, Schepschel. Rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel, 
Baltimore, Md. Born May 4, 1862, at Bausk, Courland, Russia. 
Son of Aaron Schaffer and Taube Jaffe. Educated at the Gymna- 
sium of Libau, Courland. Studied at University of Berlin, and 
the Rabbinical Seminary, Berlin. Ph.D., 1888, University of 
Leipzig; Rabbinical authorization conferred, 1889, by the Rab- 
binical Seminary, Berlin, and by Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Spector, 


Koyno. Married Anna Lapidusson. President Baltimore Zion 
Association. Author: Das Recht und seine Stellung zur Moral 
nach Talmudischer Sitten- und Rechtslehre, 1889. Address: 2566 
McCulloh, Baltimore, Md. 

Scheinman, Jacob Hirsh. Rabbi (since 1903) of Congregation 
Beth David, Detroit, Mich. Born May 12, 1844, at Saane, Russian 
Poland. Son of Israel L. Scheinman and Hannah Franklin. Rab- 
binical authorization conferred, 1859, by Rabbi Isaac Avlgdor, 
Kovno; Rabbi Margolius, Kalvaria; Rabbi Lipsitz, Suwalk; and 
Rabbi Moses Bezalel Luria, Saane. Married Rebeccah Komi- 
sarsky. Rabbi for twenty years at Saane; also at Chicago, 111.; 
Pittsburg, Pa.; Norwich, Conn.; and Brooklyn, N. Y. Address: 
313 East Montcalm, Detroit, Mich. 

8ch lager, Simon. Cantor (since 1904) of Temple Emanu-El, 
New York City. Born May 1, 1869, at Cracow, Galicia. Son of 
David Schlager and Rosa Ree. Studied at National Conservatory 
of Music, New York. Married Sally Wachsteter. Was Cantor for 
two years at Temple Beth Zion, Buffalo, N. Y.; for five years of 
Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, Newark, N. J.; and for two years 
of Congregation Oheb Sholem, Newark, N. J. Address: 25-33 
East 99th, New York. 

*Schorr, Saul. Elected Rabbi of the Congregation House of 
Israel, Sharon, Pa. 

*Schwanenfeld, J. 8. Elected Cantor of Baltimore Hebrew Con- 
gregation, Baltimore, Md. 

8es8ler, Morris. Rabbi (since 1904) of Temple Israel, Jones- 
boro. Ark. Born August 16, 1850, at Freistadt a/d. Waag, Hun- 
gary. Son of David Sessler and Josephine Weiss. Studied at 
Pressburg, Budapest, Vienna, and University of Pennsylvania 
(B. A., 1876). Married Louisa Cahn (deceased). Has held posi- 
tions in Alexandria, Va.; Wheeling, W. Va.; Providence, R. I.; 
and New Orleans, La. Address: Jonesboro, Ark. 

Silber, Mendel. Rabbi (since 1904) of Temple Emanuel, Du- 
luth, Minn. Born December 10, 1882, in Lithuania, Russia. Son 
of Jacob Silber and Esther Mipoz. Studied at Talmudical Col- 
leges in Russia; at Gymnasium, Frankfort on the Main, 1895-1900; 
B. A., 1904, University of Cincinnati; Rabbi, 1904, Hebrew Union 
College. Officiated at Temple Emanuel, Duluth, 1902; rabbi of 
Congregation Ahavath Achim, Cincinnati, O., 1902-1904. Contrib- 
uted articles, 1902-1903, to the Hebrew Union College Journal, of 


which he was co-editor; and Hebrew Union College Annual, 1904, 
of which he is assistant editor. Ready for publication: Elijat 
Gaon of Wilna. Address: Duluth, Minn. 

♦Silverman, Maurice. Elected Cantor of Congregation Sons of 
Jacob, Salem, Mass., in 1904. 

Simon, Abram. Rabbi of Temple Israel, Omaha, Neb., and 
Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, Lincoln, Neb., elected Rabbi of the 
Washington (D. C.) Hebrew Congregation, in 1904. 

Solomon, Ellas Louis. Rabbi of Congregation Beth Mordecai, 
Perth Amboy, N. J. Born May, 1879, at Wilna, Russia. Son of 
Jacob Solomon and Helen Frankfurt. Educated at Hebrew School. 
Jerusalem; Machzikei Talmud Torah, New York; Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America (Rabbi, 1904); New York public 
schools; College City of New York (A. B., 1900); and Columbia 
University. Spent childhood in Jerusalem. One of the founders 
and now serving second term as president of the Jewish Endeavor 
Society of America. Rabbinical dissertation: The Halachic Con- 
ception of Minhag and its Application in Rabbinical Law. Ad- 
dress: 213 Bast Broadway, New York. 

Spiegel, Adolph. Rabbi of Congregation Shaari Zedek, New 
York City, elected Rabbi of Congregation Etz Haim of Yorkville, 
New York, in 1904. 

*Stern, Jacob Ludwig. Resigns from Be'er Chayim Congrega- 
tion, Cumberland, Md., July, 1904. 

Stern, Nathan. Rabbi, since 1904, of The Hebrew Congregation 
of Marion, Ind., and of Congregation Rodef Sholom, Wabash, Ind. 
Born February 12, 1878, New York City. Son of Julius Stern and 
Jeanette Young. Educated at the public schools of New York, 
and Halsey's Collegiate School, New York. B. A., 1898 ; M. A., 
1899; Ph.D., 1901, Columbia University. Studied also at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, Eng. Rabbinical education at Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, and Hebrew Union College 
(Rabbi, 1904). Author: The Jewish Historico-Critical School of 
the Nineteenth Century. Address: Marion, or Wabash, Ind. 

Stollnitz, Henry Sande. Rabbi of Congregation Adath Emuno, 
Hoboken, N. J., elected Rabbi of Congregation Beth El, Corsicana, 
Texas, 1903. Address: P. O. Box, 474, Corsicana, Tex. 

Taubenhaus, Godfrey. Rabbi of Congregation Shaarey Zedek, 
Brooklyn. Born in 1856, at Warsaw, Poland. Son of Benjamin 


Taubenhaus and Esther Danziger. Educated in Warsaw under 
Rabbi Samuel Hirsh; at Berlin under Dr. Kirstein and Professor 
Dr. Ludwig Geiger; also attended Eger institute, and the Rab- 
binical Seminary, Berlin, and pursued a course in philosophy at 
the University of Berlin. Married Carrie Strauss. Held posi- 
tions as Rabbi in Paducah, Ky.; Dayton, Ohio; Sacramento, Cal.; 
Brooklyn and New York, N. Y. Organized benevolent societies 
in Paducah, Ky., and Dayton, Ohio; was grand president Order 
Kesher Shel Barzel, in California; introduced Sabbath afternoon 
services in the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum; was instrumental in 
the establishment of the Brownsville Kindergarten under the 
Council of Jewish Women, the nucleus of the Educational Society. 
Author: A paper on Judaism in The Church of America; Echoes 
of Wisdom (Talmudic sayings with classical parallels) ; Hints on 
General History; The Jew in Politics; Milat Gerim, etc. Revised 
ninth volume of Rodkinson's Talmud. Address: 1195 Boston 
Road, Bronx, New York. 

Warsaw, Isidor. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Beth Te- 
filloh, Brunswick, Ga., in 1904. 

Welnstock, Isidore H. Cantor (since 1901) of K. K. Bene 
Yeshurun, Cincinnati, O. Born 1871, at Yanova, Russian Poland. 
Son of Hersch Isaac Weinstock and Rebecca Leah Glouzer. Studied 
at various Talmudical Colleges in Poland; music under Draginsky 
in Warsaw, and in conservatories in New York and Cincinnati. 
Pursued a two years course in theory of music at the University 
of Pennsylvania. Cantor in Congregation Beth Israel. Philadel- 
phia, 1897; Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, New York, 1900. Com- 
poser: The Prayer of the Repentant (solo for Atonement Day). 
Address: 731 West 8th, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Weiss, Louis. Resigns as Rabbi of Congregation Beth Israel, 
Palestine, Tex., in 1904. 

Woif, Nathan. Rabbi of Congregation Adath Emuno, Hoboken, 
N. J. Born March 8, 1877, at Angelthuern, Baden. Son of Bern- 
hard Wolf and Hannah Brettenheimer. Ph. B., 1900, New York 
University; M. A., 1902, Columbia University; Rabbi, 1902, Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America. Was teacher at Educational 
Alliance, New York; superintendent Montefiore Hebrew School, 
New York. Address: 710 Bloomfield, Hoboken, N. J. 

♦Yasgour, Louis. Rabbi of Congregation Brethren of Israel, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., elected Rabbi of Congregation Kneseth Is- 
rael, Birmingham, Ala., in 1903. 



The Secretaries or other officers of the NRtlonal Organizations, 
Including the branches of the Alliance iBTailite Univeraelle. were 
requested to compile an account Of the work done by their re- 
apectlve associations during 1903-04 (5664), for puljllcatlon In the 
present issue of the Amebicam Jewish Year Book, The accounts 
compiled from the newspaper clippings and printed reports sent 
by some in response to the request are marked with an aster- 
isk (*). A da^er (f) indicates those taken from any available 
source in the absence of an official response. 


Baltimobe Branch 

The Baltimore Branch of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 
sent the Central Committee at Paris its annual remittance 
of t2G0.00. The membership of the Branch is 139. 

Ofticbbs abd Dibbctobs: President, Dr. Harry Frie- 
denwald; Vice-President; Simon DalBhelmer; Treasurer, 
Wm. Levy; Secretary, B. H. Hartogensia, 204 North Cal- 
vert, Baltimore, Md.; Reverends A. Guttmacher, Wm. 
Rosenau, Chas. A. Rubenstein, H. W. Schneeberger, and 
A. Kaiser; Isaac Davidson, Silas M. Fleischer, Louis J. 
Cohen, T. Silberman, Dr. Jos. Blum, Z. Hofhelmer, M. S. 
Levy, L. Kaufman, J. Rotholtz, L. Schlff, BenJ. Cohen, 
Jonas Hamburger, and Louis B. Kohn. 

HoNOBABT DtBBCTOBs: Rev. Dr. 8. Schafter, and Dr. 
A. B. Arnold (deceased). 

Boston Branch 

Elmiba Branch 

At the instance of Benjamin F. Levj' an BImira Branch of the 
Alliance lara^Hte Vnivertelle was organized in January, 
1904, with a membership of over sixty. 


This branch, besides making remittance to the Paris 
headquarters, provides for an emergency fund. 

On April 7, 1904, a public meeting was held by the 
Alliance Israelite at the High St. Temple to protest 
against the Lodge immigration amendments, in which 
it was provided that only a citizen of this country can 
be instrumental in bringing to this country other persons 
from abroad. The outcome of the meeting was that Mr. 
Levy communicated with Senator Lodge, pointing out to 
him the obvious injustice of such a measure. 

At a meeting held on May 22, 1904, the Elmira Branch 
of the Alliance Israelite Universelle adopted resolutions 
calling on this Government to obtain from Russia such 
uniformity of treatment and protection as may tend to 
secure the honoring of American passports by the Rus- 
sian Government, irrespective of the religious faith of 
their holders. 

Officebs: President, Benjamin F. Levy; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Harris Levine and S. J. Friendly; Treasurer, F. 
Lande; Secretary, Jonas Jacobs, M. D. 

HoBOKEN Branch 

Through the instrumentality of Andrew Vogel an Alliance 
Israelite Universelle organization meeting was held on 
May 25, 1904, at Hoboken, N. J. 

Officers: President, Asher Cohen Fisher; Treasurer, 
the Rev. Nathan Wolf; Recording Secretary, Jacob Sha- 
piro; Corresponding Secretary, Andrew Vogel, 316 Second. 

Jersey Cffy Branch 

On January 3, 1904, Nissim B6har, American Representative 
of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, assisted by the Sec- 
retary, Abraham H. Simon, organized a Jersey City 
Branch of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, with a mem- 
bership of about fifty. 

A public meeting was held March 27, 1904, to protest 
against Russia's discrimination against American citizens 
of the Jewish faith, and to acquaint the public with 
the persecutions Jews endure in Russia. Congressmen 
McDermott and Benny of New Jersey, Ferdinand Levy, 
Grand Master of the Independent Order Sons of Benjamin, 
and a number of other prominent persons addressed let- 
ters to the meeting endorsing the movement, and express- 
ing sympathy with the persecuted Jews. 

Among the speakers were Representative Goldfogle of 
New York, ex-Mayor Hoos, Assistant Corporation Attor- 

^ ney Goldenhorn, and others. 


The meeting adopted resolutions pledging assistance to 
the Alliance in its efforts for the betterment of the con- 
dition of Jews, and calling upon the Government to use 
its influence to induce the Government of Russia to with- 
draw its discrimination against American citizens of the 
Jewish faith. 

Officers: President, Ignatz Hyman; Vice-Presidents, 
H. Babchin and A. J. Goldstein; Treasurer, S. Kleinhaus; 
Secretary, Dr. B. J. Pollok, 241 Grove, Jersey City, N. J. 

Philadelphia Bbanch 

A draft of Fr. 2571.85 was sent to Paris, the income derived 
by the Philadelphia Branch from the Federation of Jew- 
ish Charities of the city. 

Officers and Dibectobs. — President, Moses A. Dropsie; 
Vice-President, D. Sulzberger; Treasurer, A. M. Frechie; 
Secretary, Horace A. Nathans (deceased); David Teller, 
Raphael Brunswick, A. M. Kohn, Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow 
(deceased), Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Isaac Rosskam, 
Levi Mayer, Louis Gerstley, and J. I. Burnstine. 

New Yobk Branch 

A public meeting was held by the New York Branch of the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle on February 17, 1904, in 
the Educational Alliance, presided over by President 
Louis Marshall, for the purpose of denouncing the atti- 
tude of Russia in refusing to admit American citizens 
of Jewish faith provided with American passports; and 
also to protest against the proposed restriction of immi- 

Among the speakers were Frank Moss, the Rev. H. 
Masliansky, and Jos. M. Baum, president of the Israelite 
Alliance of America. 

Mr. Marshall read a letter from the Department of 
State at Washington, D. C, addressed to the Israelite 
Alliance, stating that the Government of the United 
States had given instructions to its representatives in 
Persia and Morocco to use the good oflaces of the United 
States in favor of the inhabitants of Persia and Morocco 
who do not profess the dominant religion of those coun- 
tries. This step in the Government's policy was brought 
about by a series of letters exchanged between the Israel- 
ite Alliance of America and the Department of State. 

The propaganda carried on during the year by Mr. 
Nissim B6har, the American Representative of the 
Alliance, was devoted to acquainting Jews living in 


towns in the vicinity of New York City with the aims 
and objects of the Alliance Israelite Universelle and in- 
ducing them to appoint standing committees in the vari- 
ous cities for the purpose of helping persecuted Jews. 

Officers: President, Louis Marshall; Treasurer, A. S. 
Solomons; Secretary, Rev. Dr. H. Pereira Mendes, 70 Cen- 
tral Park West, New York City; American Representative 
• of the central body, Nissim 66har, 177 High, Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; American Secretary, S. P. Frank. 

Worcester Branch 

The Worcester Branch of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 
held a mass meeting December 13, 1903, to protest against 
Russia's discrimination against American passports and 
pass resolutions disapproving Senator Lodge's Bill, which 
seeks further to restrict immigration. Speakers at the 
meeting were Dr. Van Horn, a Protestant minister, and 
David A. Lourie, a director of the Boston Branch of the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle. 

Copies of resolutions protesting against the Lodge Bill 
and the passport situation were sent to President Roose- 
velt, to Secretary of State John Hay, and to members of 

The annual meeting was held April 3, 1904. The speak- 
ers were Dr. G. Stanley Hall, of Clark University; Rabbi 
Samuel Hirshberg, and David A. Lourie, of Boston. 

Officers: President and Secretary, Bernard Wolko- 
wich, 193 Front; Vice-President, Max Feiga; Treasurer, 
L. Morell. 


The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Jewish Histori- 
cal Society was held in New York City, March 20-21, 1904, after 
arrangements had been made to meet at Baltimore on Lincoln's 
Birthday, which were changed on account of the Baltimore fire. 
The first session was held Sunday evening the 20th, in the Vestry 
Rooms of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue. Dr. Cyrus 
Adler, President of the Society, was in the chair, and delivered 
the presidential annual address at the opening session. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Mr. Max J. Kohler, reported that 
the Society has on its rolls 237 members: 7 Honorary, 26 Corre- 
sponding, 3 Life, and 201 Regular Members. It lost 11 members 
during the year by death, resignation, and non-payment of dues, 
and 7 Regular Members and 1 Corresponding Member were elected 
during the same period. 



Professor Richard J. H. Gottheil, Treasurer, reported that the 
Society's receipts during the year ending October 1, 1903 (includ- 
ing a balance on hand October 1, 1902, of $1120.36), aggregated 
$1968.07, and its expenditures were $841.57, leaving a balance of 
$1126.50 besides a special fund of $2404.86. In addition to these 
amounts $1500 insurance money was collected by the Society, by 
reason of the destruction by fire of its " Publications " In Balti- 

Professor J. H. Hollander, Chairman of the Publication Com- 
mittee, reported that vol. 11 of the Society's " Publications " had 
just been issued and distributed, its appearance having been 
delayed by the fire aforementioned. Considerable additional 
material to make up a further volume was reported to be in the 
possession of the Committee. 

Mr. Leon Hiihner, Curator, reported that arrangements had 
been completed with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America 
for storing the Society's " Collections " in the fire-proof building 
of that institution, a separate room having been set aside for the 
use of the Society. 

A resolution was adopted, directing the issuance of a circular to 
members and other friends of the Society, calling their attention 
to the fact that the Society was able properly to house such 
books, manuscripts, prints, medals, and other objects of historic 
interest, as persons interested might desire to entrust to it, and 
that in this way efforts might be made to enlarge its collections. 
The circular was also to call attention to the Society's desire to 
secure back volumes of its ** Publications " by gift or otherwise, 
to replace the stock lost by fire. 

On recommendation of the Council of the Society, the following 
resolution was adopted: 

** That the American Jewish Historical Society views with 
favor proposals concerning the collection of statistical informa- 
tion concerning the Jews of America, and authorizes the appoint- 
ment of a committee to co-operate with other organizations 
having a like purpose." 

The President appointed, to constitute such committee, Pro- 
fessor J. H. Hollander, Chairman; Joseph Jacobs, Esq., and 
Professor Morris Loeb. 

A resolution was also adopted providing for the appointment 
of a Committee of five, to take up the subject of indexing Ameri- 
can Jewish periodicals, with power to add to their number. The 
President appointed, to constitute such committee, Max J. Kohler, 
Esq., Chairman; A. S. Freidus, Esq.; George A. Kohut, Esq.; Miss 
S. X. Schottenfels, and A. M. Friedenberg, Esq. The Committee 
subsequently added to its numbers Mr. Joseph Jacobs, Miss Hen- 
rietta Szold, and Mr. Julian Isaacs. 


An invitation to hold the next annual meeting of the Society 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, from the Honorable Julius Fleishman, Mayor 
of Cincinnati, was read and referred to the Executive Council for 

Necrologies of deceased members were read and submitted as 
follows : 

Of the Honorable Andrew H. Green, by the Honorable N. Taylor 
Phillips; of the Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow, by Miss Henrietta Szold, 
and of Horace A. Nathans, by David Sulzberger, Esq. 

The following papers were read: 

Wm. B. Hackenburg, Esq., Philadelphia: Outlines of a Plan to 
Gather Statistics Concerning the Jews of the United States. 

Rev. Alfred G. Moses, Mobile, Ala.: The History of the Jews 
of Mobile. 

I. S. Isaacs, Esq., New York: Edward Woolf, Musician and 

Leon Hiihner, Esq., New York: Isaac de Pinto. 

Honorable Myer S. Isaacs, New York: A Jewish Army Chaplain. 

J. D. Eisenstein, Esq., New York: Russian Jewish Immigrants 
in American Commerce and Industry. 

Albert M. Friedenberg, Esq., New York: Calendar of American 
Jewish Leading' Cases. 

Rev. George A. Kohut, New York: Some Unknown American 
Jewish Authors (mostly from manuscript sources). 

Max J. Kohler, Esq., New York: Judah P. Benjamin, American 
Jewry's Most Distinguished Statesman, Orator, and Lawyer. 

Dr. Herbert Friedenwald, Philadelphia: The Banishment of 
Jews from the Island of St. Eustatius (W. I.) in 1781. 

Leon Hiihner, Esq., New York: Naturalization of Jews in New 
York under the Act of 1740. 

Elkan Adler, Esq., Lonaon, England: The Inquisition in Peru. 

Dr. Cyrus Adler, Washington, D. C: Further Documents Con- 
cerning the Mexican Inquisition. 

Also the following, which were read by title: 

Albert M. Friedenberg, Esq., New York: The Jews of Per- 

Leon Huhner, Esq., New York: The Struggle for Religious 
Liberty in North Carolina with Special Reference to the Jews. 

Max J. Kohler, Esq., New York: Phases in the History of 
Religious Liberty in America with Particular Reference to the 

Rev. George A. Kohut, New YorJc: Two Autograph Letters: 
(a) A Letter from the Rev. Gei^shom Mendes Seixas to his 
Brother, 1790; (b) A Circular Appeal from S. H. Jackson, Editor 
of The Jew, dated 1823, on behalf of his Periodical. Unpublished 
Letters which Passed between Ezra Stiles and Rabbi Carregal. 


Joseph Lebowich, Esq., Cambridge, Mass.: The Jews in Boston 
till 1875; Leopold Morse. 

Mrs. Helen Wise Molony, Cincinnati: A Simile — A Poem con- 
tributed by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to The American 
Israelite, April 26, 1861. 

Henry Necarsulmer, Esq., New York: Disenfranchisement of 
the Jews of New York in 1737. 

Sol. M. Stroock, Esq., New York: American Jews in China and 

Officers and Executive Council: President, Dr. Cyrus Adler; 
Vice-Presidents; Honorable Simon W. Rosendale, Rev. Dr. B. 
Felsenthal, Professor Charles Gross, Professor Richard J. H. 
Gottheil; Corresponding Secretary, Max J. Kohler, Esq., 119 Nas- 
sau, New York City; Recording Secretary, Dr. Herbert Frieden- 
wald; Treasurer, Honorable N. Taylor Phillips; Curator, Leon 
Htihner, Esq.; Honorable Mayer Sulzberger, Professor Morris 
Jastrow, Jr., Honorable Simon Wolf, Professor J. H. Hollander, 
John Samuel, Esq., the Rev. Dr. David Philipson, the Rev. Henry 
Cohen, Professor Morris Loeb, Honorable Myer S. Isaacs (de- 
ceased) ; also. Honorable Oscar S. Straus, ex officio t as Past 
President of the Society. 


During 1903-1904 the Baron de Hirsch Fund Committee con- 
tinued its fourfold work: I. Reception of immigrants; II. English 
education; III. Mechanical education; IV. Productive work in its 
agricultural and industrial department, with its leading educa- 
tional feature, the Woodbine Agricultural and Industrial School. 
(For a full description see American Jewish Year Book, 5663, 
pp. 90-96.) 

Mechanical Education 

During 1903 there were graduated 195 students at the Baron 
de Hirsh Trade School, New York City, and in July, 1904, 98, mak- 
ing a total of 1083 since the establishment of the school in 1890. 

In the last class graduated, 26 students completed the course 
in the electrical department; 24 in the plumbing department; 
18 in the machinist department; 10 in the sign painting depart- 
ment; 7 in the carpenter department; 7 in the patternmaking de- 
partment; and 6 in the house and fresco painting department. 

The weekly average of the wages received immediately after 
graduation by the 351 graduates of the last four classes but one is 

Advisory Committee: Alfred R. Wolff, chairman; Charles B. 
Meyers, A. S. Solomons, J. Ernest G. Yalden, and Julian Isaacs. 


(For Curriculum, etc., see American Jewish Year Book, 5664, 

p. 115.) 


The year 1903 was an important year for Woodbine, New Jersey. 
It found it a settlement in the Township of Dennis: it left it a 
Borough in the County of Cape May, and the year 1904 witnessed 
a growth unparalleled in the history of the settlement. 

During 1903-1904, 20 houses were built in the town, making a 
total of 226. Only 13 of these belong to the Baron de Hirsch 
Fund. Eighteen are rented, and the balance, over 85 per cent, are 
occupied by the owners. The total estimated cost of these houses 
is $200,000, of which amount more than one-third has been paid 
by the owners. Each house is surrounded by a garden and a 
lawn; and some are covered with ivy, grapes, or rambler roses. 

The Borough of Woodbine celebrated, in a fitting manner, the 
tenth anniversary of its birth by passing an ordinance providing 
for the building of a Central School House at a cost of $15,000. 
It will have a large hall for dancing and social entertainments 
of all sorts, and two smaller rooms for the social work of Debat- 
ing Clubs, Reading Circles, etc., together with recreation grounds, 
equipped with tennis courts, base ball grounds, etc. There are 
also among the organizations doing excellent social work a Girls' 
Club, a Mothers' Club, and Reading Circles. The school house 
when completed in November, 1904, will be the only High School 
within a radius of sixteen miles. Besides the Central School there 
are at present in the Borough of Woodbine five school houses, 
with an aggregate of thirteen rooms, an enrollment of 413 pupils, 
and an average daily attendance of 388. Also a night school, with 
an enrollment of 55, and a kindergarten are maintained by the 
Board of Education. The number of graduates from the public 
schools was 16, 30 per cent of the total number in Cape May 
County, with its 15,000 inhabitants as against Woodbine's 2500. 

The Borough of Woodbine now has two synagogues, one a large 
brick building, the other a frame building recently purchased 
from a Christian congregation. Rabbi B. L. Levinthal, of Phila- 
delphia, has been elected Chief Rabbi of Woodbine, and a house 
has been built for him to serve as his summer residence. 

The majority of the residents are employed in the industrial 
establishments of Daniel and Blumenthal, which employs 200 
hands; the Quaker City Knitting Company, employing 115 hands; 
Ingber and Wertheimer, manufacturers of ladies' garments, 50 
hands; the M. L. Bayard Machine Shop, 26 hands; The Wood- 
bine Beef and Storage Company, 13 hands; Paper Box Factory, 7 
hands; Woodbine Cigar Company, 6 hands; Stone Brothers and 
Company, Ladies' Garments, 6 hands; Soap Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 6 hands, and Hat Factory, 40 hands; making a total of 468 


hands, who earn an average of $8.00 per week, $1.50 per week 
more than the average earnings of factory employees in the 
United States, as computed in the Annual Report for 1903 of 
the United States Commissioner of Labor. The total pay roll of 
the Woodbine industries for 1903 was $176,036.36. 

At a recent election, Professor H. L. Sabsovich was re-elected 
mayor of the borough for the ensuing two years. 

There are at present 42 farmers in Woodbine. One of them 
realized $324.72, and several $125 and more, after paying all run- 
ning expenses during the past year. 

The Baron de Hibsch Agbicultubal and Industrial School 

During 1903-1904, 182 pupils were enrolled in the Baron de 
Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School. Fifty-five were gradu- 
ated, 15 left the school before graduation, and 112 are at present at 
the school. The average age of the pupils in 1903 was 17.1; in 
1902, it was 16.4; in 1901, 16.1, and in 1900, 15.6. The status of the 
pupils in 1903 was as follows: orphans, 10; half-orphans, 28; with 
parents in Austria, 1; with parents in Roumania, 6; with parents 
in Russia, 17; with parents in the United States, 78. All but one 
are free pupils, and they are receiving tuition, room, board, cloth- 
ing, etc., during the entire term. The school has a dormitory 
with a capacity of 100; a teachers* cottage; a dining hall; a 
kitchen; a hospital, and other buildings, such as silos, barns, 
seed stores, blacksmithshop, two greenhouses, hot beds, etc. The 
school owns a herd of 23 cows, 2 bulls, 10 horses, 29 acres of 
orchards, 4 acres of nurseries, 4.5 acres of grapes, 4.5 acres of 
small fruit, and about 600 fowls. 

The pupils of the school have organized the De Hirsch Literary 
and Debating Society, the Davidsonian Club, four football teams, 
two baseball teams, and a volunteer fire company. 

(For further particulars regarding Woodbine and The Baron 
de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School, see Amebican 
Jewish Year Book, 5664, pp. 115-116.) 

Trustees. — Acting President, Eugene S. Benjamin, New York; 
Vice-President, Jacob H. Schiff, New York; Treasurer, Emanuel 
Lehman, New York; Honorary Secretary, Nathan Bijur, New 
York; Henry Rice, New York; Abraham Abraham, Brooklyn; 
William B. Hackenburg, Philadelphia; Mayer Sulzberger, Phila- 
delphia; Julius Goldman, New York (vice Myer S. Isaacs, de- 
ceased) ; Acting General Agent, Emanuel Marx, 45 Broadway, New 
York City; Superintendent Agricultural School, Professor H. L. 

Chairman of the Philadelphia Committee, William B. Hacken- 
burg; Chairman of the Baltimore Committee, Moses Pels; Chair- 


man of the St. Louis Committee, Elias Michael; Chairman of the 
Boston Committee, Ferdinand Strauss. The Fund co-operates in 
other cities with existing societies when circumstances warrant. 


The Fifteenth Annual Convention of the Central Conference of 
American Rabbis was held June 26-30, 1904, at Louisville, Ky. 
Fifty-eight Rabbis were in attendance. 

The Treasurer reported the receipts for the year to be $6288.61; 
expenditures, $4094.18; amount in treasury, $13,021.00. 

The Publication Committee reported the sale of 4812 volumes 
of the Union Prayer Book, 97 copies of the Mourner's Service, and 
1613 copies of the Union Hymnal. 

During the year 8 congregations adopted the Union Prayer 
Book, and the Book is now in use in 183 congregations. 

The following papers were read: 

" Reform Judaism and the Recent Jewish Immigrant," by 
Rabbi A. Hirschberg. 

" A Proposed Change in the Selection of Weekly Portions of 
Scriptures," by Rabbi M. H. Harris. 

" Some Jewish Questions of the Day," by Rabbi B. Felsenthal. 

"Religious Conditions in Scattered Communities," by Rabbi 
G. Zepin. 

Life of Sulzer," by Rabbi A. Guttman. 
Sulzer's Music," by the Rev. A. Kaiser. 

The following Committees submitted reports: 
Contemporaneous History," Professor G. Deutsch. 
Seder Haggadah," Rabbi H. Berkowitz. 
On Synod," Rabbi H. G. Enelow. 

The Conference Sermon was delivered by the Rev. Dr. D. 
Philipson, Cincinnati. 

Cleveland was chosen for the next Annual Convention, on June 
27, 1905. 

The Bloch Publishing Co., of New York, was chosen to be the 
Sole Agent of all the Publications of the Conference. 

Officers and Executive Board. — Honorary President, K. Koh- 
ler, Cincinnati, O.; President, J. Krauskopf, Philadelphia; First 
Vice-President, J. Stolz, Chicago, 111.; Second Vice-President, J. 
Voorsanger, San Francisco, Cal.; Treasurer, Chas. Levi, Peoria, 
111.; Recording Secretary, A. Guttmacher, Bolton and Newington 
Avs., Baltimore, Md.; Corresponding Secretary, Wm. Rosenau, 
825 Newington Av., Baltimore, Md.; H. G. Enelow, Louisville, 
Ky.; L. M. Franklin, Detroit, Mich.; L. Grossmann, Cincinnati, O.; 
M. L. Margolis, San Francisco, Cal.; D. Philipson, Cincinnati, O.; 




M. Samfield, Memphis Tenn.; T. Schanfarber, Chicago, III.; 
J. Silverman, New York City. 

Committee on Publications. — J. Stolz, I. S. Moses, J. Silverman. 

Trustees of Ministers' Fund. — J. Krauskopf, M. H. Harris, R. 
Gross mann. 


The work of the Council of Jewish Women during 5664 was 
pursued along the lines laid down at the Third Biennial Conven- 
tion of December, 1902. 

New Sections. — During the year four new Sections were organ- 
ized, at Baton Rouge, La.; Lexington, Ky.; Macon, Ga.; and St. 
Francisville, La., making sixty-eight Sections in all. 

Junior Sections. — The number of Junior Sections is sixteen: 
at Boston, Mass.; Bradford, Pa.; Chicago, 111.; Cincinnati, O.; 
Dayton, O.; Denver, Colo.; Elmira, N. Y.; Greenville, Miss.; 
Kansas City, Mo.; Louisville, Ky.; New York City; San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.; Shreveport, La.; Sioux City, la.; Toronto, Can.; and 
Washington, D. C. They include a membership of six hundred, 
and sustain twenty-one Study Circles, all studying Jewish history, 
Jewish literature, and the Bible. Five circles report Religious 
School work. Settlement work, and an Industrial School. The 
Louisville Junior Section held a public Seder in the Temple. 

New Activities and Achievements. — The Boston Section fur- 
nishes a Probation oflScer for Juvenile Court work; the Cincinnati 
Section has been active in securing the passage of a Juvenile 
Court Law in Ohio; the New York City Section is prosecuting 
vigorous rescue and preventive work among Jewish girls, main- 
taining a teacher of religion at the Bedford Reformatory for 
Women and at the House of Refuge on Randall's Island, and a 
paid worker in the Juvenile Court and the Police Court, who 
looks after girls and women and gives especial attention to un- 
married mothers; through the Baron de Hirsch Fund Committee 
it has secured the appointment of a woman to be stationed at 
Ellis Island for the purpose of meeting, guarding, and serving 
immigrant women and girls; the Philadelphia Section has opened 
and is maintaining an Industrial Home for Girls, which was 
established and equipped by Mrs. Kirschbaum and her family; 
the Portland (Ore.) Section has erected a building, and main- 
tains a Manual Training School, which has developed from a 
small class. In general, the Sections are engaging most vigor- 
ously in Rescue and Preventive Work for Girls. 

The Council has co-operated with the Exposition Traveller's 
Aid Committee formed for the protection of girls stranded or in 
danger at St. Louis. 


Publications. — 1. "Program, 1904" (containing the reports of 
the Committees on Religion, on Philanthropy, on Religious 
Schools, on Reciprocity, and on Junior Sections) ; 2. " Organiza- 
tion Leaflet." 

The Third Quinquennial Meeting of the International Congress 
of Women, held in June at Berlin, was attended by Mrs. Henry 
Solomon, the President of the Council of Jewish Women, as 
alternate to one of the delegates of the Council of Women of the 
United States, and Miss American, the Corresponding Secretary 
of the Council of Jewish Women, spoke before the International 
Congress on " The Juvenile Court." At London, on June 2, a 
meeting of the Jewish Study Society was convened at the house 
of its President, Mrs. Henry Lucas, to greet Mrs. Solomon and 
Miss American. In Berlin, on June 15, Mrs. Solomon and Miss 
American were among the speakers who addressed a meeting 
that had been called to deliberate upon the formation of a 
" Jiidischer Frauenbund," and on June 20, Miss American ex- 
plained the aims and activities of the Council of Jewish Women 
to a Convention of the " Verband fur jiidlsche Wohlthatigkeits- 

Officebs and Directors. — President, Hannah G. Solomon (Mrs. 
Henry), 4406 Michigan Av., Chicago, 111.; First Vice-President, 
Pauline H. Rosenberg (Mrs. Hugo), Allegheny, Pa.; Second Vice- 
President, Mrs. Moses Goldenberg, Baltimore, Md.; Recording 
Secretary, Gertrude Berg, Philadelphia, Pa.; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Sadie American, 448 Central Park West, New York City; 
Treasurer, Rebecca Judah (Mrs. J. B.), 639 Fifth, Louisville, 
Ky.; Auditor, Mrs. Ben Lowenstein, (Cincinnati, O. Directors 
(1903-1909): Mrs. Eli Strouse, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. M. Lands- 
berg, Rochester, N. Y.; Mrs. M. C. Sloss, San Francisco, Cal.; Mrs. 
M. Schwab, Cleveland, O.; Mrs. Seraphine Pisko, Denver, Colo. 
Those holding over (1900-1906) are: Miss Mary Cohen, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Miss Jeannette Groldberg, Jefferson, Texas; Mrs. 
Joseph Ransohoff, Cincinnati, O. To fill unexpired terms: Mrs. 
Jacob Hecht, Boston, Mass.; Mrs. Melida Pappe, Sioux City, Iowa. 

Chairmen of Standing Committees. — On Religion, Miss Evelyn 
Kate Aronson, 1348 (Jeary, San Francisco, Cal.; on Philanthropy, 
Miss Rose Sommerfeld, 225 East Sixty-third, New York, N. Y.; 
on Junior Sections, Miss Jeannette Goldberg, Jefferson, Texas; 
on Religious Schools, Mrs. Joseph Steinem, 119 Fifteenth, Toledo, 
O.; on Reciprocity, Miss Mary Cohen, 1922 Rittenhouse, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 


The Educational League for the Higher Education of Orphans 
with headquarters in Cleveland, O., was organized in 1896, and its 



first annual meeting was held in July, 1897. On June 30, 1903, 
it counted 1218 members, chiefly girls and boys, living in 58 
towns, in the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, 
Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Min- 
nesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin, and one 
member each in Canada and Germany. Among the members are 
5 Honorary Life Members, 127 Patron Members, and 1086 Con- 
tributing Members. 

The chief purpose of the Educational League is to give talented 
young men and young women a chance to develop their powers. 
The benefits of the organization are restricted to orphans. As- 
sistance has been given to seven young men and one young 
woman; two students of medicine, one of whom is now a practi- 
cing physician; two art students, one of whom is doing newspaper 
work; one is studying for the ministry; one is a student of den- 
tistry; one is studying music, and one student of science, who 
has returned the loan made to him. 

In connection with the Educational League, local ** Sunshine 
Clubs " have been organized among the members, for the purpose 
of inculcating the idea of " personal service," and emphasizing 
" the underlying thought of the League, that it is a work of 
children for children." 

A plan for awarding scholarships in art and technical schools 
is now being held under consideration. 

The balance in the treasury on December 16, 1903, was $5989.69. 

The Eighth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors was 
held July 11, 1904, at Cleveland, O. During the year one of the 
League's beneficiaries was graduated from a well-known medical 
college with the highest honors of his class. Several additional 
applications were received by the Board, one from Illinois, in 
behalf of a young woman desirous of securing a Normal School 
course to fit her for Kindergarten work, another from Indiana, in 
behalf of a young woman desiring to become a teacher of science, 
and a third from Ohio, in behalf of a young man who wishes to 
pursue a course at college. The first two were acted upon favor- 
ably, the last was referred to a local board for consideration. 

Increased membership was reported from ten towns. 

Officers and Board of Governoes. — President, Rabbi Moses J. 
Gries, Cleveland, O.; Vice-President, S. Grabfelder, Louisville, 
Ky.; Treasurer, Dr. S. Wolfenstein, Cleveland, O.; Acting Secre- 
tary, F. H. Jones (Address: Educational League, Cleveland, O.); 
Selma Altheimer, St. Louis, Mo.; Myrtle Baer, Milwaukee, Wis.; 
Alfred J. Benesh, Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. Rosalie Cohen, Colum- 
bus, Ohio; Nathan Cohn, Nashville, Tenn.; Rabbi Leo M. Frank- 
lin, Detroit, Mich.; Philip W, Frey, Evansville, Ind.; Isaac G. 


Haas, Cleveland, Ohio; M. Heyman, New Orleans, La.; Mrs. 
Michael Heller, Cleveland, Ohio; Henry Greenebaum, Chicago, 
111.; Simon Greenebaum, Cincinnati, Ohio; Minnie Halle, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Sol S. Kiser, Indianapolis, Ind.; Louis S. Levi, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; Rabbi Leo Mannheimer, Chattanooga, Tenn.; 
Martin A. Marks, Cleveland, Ohio; Beatrice Moss, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Emil Nathan, Memphis, Tenn.; Mrs. Jacob Ottenheimer, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; Sidney Pritz, Cincinnati, Ohio; Bertha Rosen- 
feld, Cleveland, Ohio; Anna Roth, Toledo, Ohio; Rabbi Isaac L. 
Rypins, St. Paul, Minn.; Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber, Chicago, 111.; 
Helen H. Schwab, St. Louis, Mo.; Rabbi Abram Simon, Washing- 
ton, D. C; Sidney Stearn, Cleveland, Ohio; E. F. Westheimer, 
St. Joseph, Mo.; Rabbi Louis Wolsey, Little Rock, Ark. 


The Seventh Annual Convention of the Federation of Ameri- 
can Zionists was held June 3-7, 1904, at Germania Hall, Cleve- 
land, O. The Convention was noteworthy not only for the repe- 
tition of the enthusiasm referred to in last year's report, but for 
an increase in the delegation. The Credentials Committee re- 
ported 188 delegates as being present. Owing to the illness of 
Professor Richard Grottheil, Mr. G. H. Mayer, Eastern Vice-Presi- 
dent, presided, occasionally resigning the chair to Mr. Leon 
Zolotkoff, Western Vice-President. A long message from Dr. 
Herzl on the East African question and the presidential address 
of Professor Gottheil were read, the latter followed by a vote of 
thanks acknowledging his services as President of the Federation. 
It was also resolved to record Professor Gottheil's name in the 
Golden Book of the National Fund. 

The Executive Council report showed that 308 organizations 
are regularly and completely aflSliated with the Federation, 65 of 
them under the control of the Order Knights of Zion; the net 
gain of new organizations during the year was 102 societies. The 
report showed in much detail the changes in figures that had 
taken place in the number of organizations, and described the 
effects of the Constitution passed last year, creating the local 
councils, of which there are now nine. The income from all 
sources was $6339.68, the balance in hand being $497.96. The 
Shekel Day receipts equalled payment for 7356 shekel payers, 
which, together with the regular payment of shekel taxes, brought 
the total up to 14,000 shekel payers; and the real membership of 
the movement in America to about 21,000 members. The report 
further showed the receipts on account of the National Fund to 
be a considerable gain on last year, and the sale of 802 Jewish 


Colonial Trust shares also a gain on last year's sales; payments 
on Golden Book entries amounted to more than twice the amount 
remitted on the same account last year. It was further shown 
that there had been a considerable advance in the general work 
of organization and the establishment of centres and Zion Homes, 
of which there are now four, in Pittsburg, Baltimore, Philadel- 
phia, and Cleveland. 

The Committee on Education reported on the enlistment of 700 
boys in the ranks of the Jewish Boys' Brigade, and the Com- 
mittee on Organization on the grouping of the orthodox element 
into a " Mizrachi." 

The Board of Deputies reported In detail on the work of the 
various councils, and the Convention itself carried out its work 
by means of sectional conferences. The other features of the 
Convention were the reading of the roll of all Zionists throughout 
the country who had died during the previous year; and the fur- 
ther amendment of the Constitution, providing: (a) for the re- 
naming of the Executive Council as Executive Committee; (b) for 
the enlargement of the Executive Committee; (c) for the regula- 
tion of the number and election of the members; (d) for the crea- 
tion of departmental chairmanships, including a chairmanship for 
women's organizations; (e) for the defining of the work of every 
officer of the organization; (f) for the defining of the work of 
local councils, districts, and territorial boards, and of the Board 
of Deputies; (g) for the issue of a membership card to every 
member of the movement and of certificates of membership to 
each organization. 

Through the various conferences resolutions were brought in 
and approved for the founding of a Yiddish magazine, for the 
development of the work of the " Mizrachi," for the establish- 
ment of Hebrew classes and a system of tuition for Jewish chil- 
dren, and for the general supervision of the education of Jewish 
children throughout • the country. It should be added that this 
last phase of Zionist work attracted considerable attention, far 
more than had been accorded it in any previous year. 

One session of the Convention was given over to a paper by 
Dr. Maurice Fishberg, of New York City, on " Physical Culture 
and the Jews," and a presentation of views by Mr. Joseph SefC on 
Removal Work. 

A meeting was held of the stockholders of the Maccabsean Pub- 
lishing Company, at which the Directors reported considerable 
advance in the position of the Company. 

The Convention declined to discuss the East African project, 
but authorized the convening of a special Convention, if neces* 
sary, for the discussion of that issue when the Special Commis- 


sion sent to investigate the East African domain shall have re- 
ported. In connection with this action the Convention renewed 
its pledges of loyalty to the leaders of the movement, expressed 
its satisfaction with the administration of Dr. Herzl, and recom- 
mended various steps for the regulation of the business of future 

A large number of social functions were held in connection with 
the Convention, and the delegates acknowledged the hospitality of 
their Cleveland co-workers. 

When the news of Theodor Herzl's death reached this country, 
the President, Dr. Harry Friedenwald, issued a message to the 
Federation, and through the Secretary made a series of recom- 
mendations to the constituent organizations regarding the expres- 
sion of mourning. In obedience to these recommendations, the 
memory of the departed leader was honored by offerings at the 
synagogue on Sabbath, July 16; memorial meetings were held in 
many cities on Sunday, July 17; and memorial services (Hes- 
pedim) at the synagogues on the Ninth of Ab, Thursday, July 21. 
Also the whole month of Ab was observed as a period of mourn- 
ing by Zionist societies, and they countermanded all social aftairs 
previously arranged for. 

Officers. — President, Dr. Harry Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md.; 
Vice-President, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, New York City; Honorary 
Vice-Presidents, G. H. Mayer, Philadelphia, Pa.; Jonas Gross, 
Cleveland, O.; Professor Richard Grottheil, New York City; George 
Tunkle, Augusta, Ga.; the Rev. Dr. Philip Klein, New York City; 
Leon ZolotkofT, Chicago, 111.; the Rev. Dr. Max Heller, New 
Orleans, La.; the Rev. Dr. A. M. Radin, New York City; Rabbi 
B. L. Levinthal, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rabbi A. M. Ashinsky, Pitts- 
burg, Pa.; the Rev. Dr. S. Schaffer, Baltimore, Md.; the Rev. Dr. 
B. Felsenthal, Chicago, 111.; Treasurer, E. W. Lewin-Epstein, New 
York City; Secretary, J. de Haas, 320 Broadway, New York City. 

Chaibmen of Committees. — On Propaganda, Dr. D. Blaustein, 
New York City; on National Fund, L. D. Livingston, New York 
City; on Organization, L. Lipsky, New York City; on Education, 
A. H. Fromenson, New York City; on Women's Organizations, 
Miss E. Weinschenker, Chicago, 111. 

Dibectobs. — C. W. London, Baltimore, Md.; I. Kahanowitz, 
Greensburg, Pa.; M. L. Avner, Pittsburg, Pa.; M. Neaman, Pitts- 
burg, Pa.; E. J. Bromberg, Boston, Mass.; H. H. Levenson, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; S. Abel, New York City; D. H. Lieberman, New York 
City; the Rev. S. Margolies, Cleveland, O.; J. H. Luria, New 
York City; P. P. Bregstone, Chicago, 111.; A. Kolinsky, Cleveland, 
O.; M. Rosenbaum, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. B. L. Singer, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; the Rev. Dr. J. L. Magnes, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



The Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America held no session 
during the past year. The next biennial meeting will be held in 
January, 1905. During the year it issued a series of Midrashic 
Leaflets, prepared by Rabbi Abraham Rhine, of Hot Springs, Ark. 

The Leaflets issued by the Union continua to be used in over 
a hundred schools throughout the country. Rabbi George Zepin, 
Director of Circuit Work for the Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations, has found them of great assistance in organizing 
Sabbath Schools in communities where none have existed hitherto. 

Ofiticebs. — President, the Rev. Dr. David Philipson, 852 Lin- 
coln Av., Cincinnati, O.; Treasurer, Simon Greenebaum; Secre- 
tary, Jacob Ottenheimer, 533 Walnut, Cincinnati, O.; Assistant 
Secretary, S. H. Goldenson. 


No report received. Grand Secretary, L. Herman, Grermania 
Bank Building, 190-194 Bowery, Rooms 207 and 211, New York 


The Eighteenth Annual Convention of the Independent Order 
Brith Abraham took place May 8, 1904, in New York City. 
According to the Report of the Grand Secretary, 31 new lodges 
had been formed during 1903, making the number of lodges 367; 
male lodges, 353; female lodges, 14; situated in 19 States and the 
District of Columbia. The number of members was 69,957; male 
members, 36,200; female members, 33,757. From the end of 1903, 
until the assembling of the Convention, three lodges more had 
been formed, and the membership had increased to 71,157. The 
membership of the female lodges is 1364. The Reserve Fund now 
stands at $168,506.40, the increase during 1903 having been 
$19,514.71. The receipts in the Endowment Fund and the Gen- 
eral Expense Fund amounted to $226,587.52, which with the 
balance on hand at the beginning of the year made the available 
funds, $236,470.35. The expenditures on account of the same Funds 
were $223,301.04, leaving on hand a balance of $13,169.31, ex- 
clusive of the Reserve Fund. The expenditures on account of the 
Endowment Fund were $203,150.00, in this sum being contained 
$199,000.00 for 398 death claims. The Age Fund stands at 

At the Convention 548 delegates were present, among them 8 
female delegates. At the recommendation of the Grand Master, 


the constitution was amended so that the place of the next con- 
vention may be voted upon together with the balloting for 
officers. The action of the Executive Committee in voting $500 
to the sufferers by the Baltimore fire was sanctioned. Appro- 
priations were voted to unfortunate members of the Order, and 
to the United Austrian Hebrew Charity Association, the Rouma- 
nian Hebrew Aid Association, and the Hebrew Immigrants Aid 
Association. It was decided to institute a per capita tax of 2V^ 
cents for the benefit of the National Jewish Hospital for Consump- 
tives, Denver, Colo. Voluntary subscriptions taken up during the 
Convention for the Hospital amounted to $606.00. During the 
year the lodges had disbursed $97,624 for sick benefits, funeral 
expenses, and assistance to the needy, $1500 had been sent to 
Kishineff, $785 to the Passaic flood victims, and $5240.58 had been 
given to the indigent of the Order. 

The next convention will be held at Boston, Mass. 

Grand Officers. — Grand Master, Herman Herschkowitz ; First 
Deputy Grand Master, Joe Mann; Second Deputy Grand Master, 
Isaac Weiss; Grand Secretary, Jacob Schoen, 37 East 7th, New 
York City; Grand Treasurer Henry Kalchheim; Endowment 
Treasurer, Max Schwartz; Grand Messenger, Moses Gross; Coun- 
sel to the Order, Leop. Moschcowitz. 

Chairmen of Committees. — Finance, Jonas Hecht; Endowment, 
H. Mahler; Laws, Max Eckman; Appeals, M. L. Hollander; State 
of the Order, Herman Kaufman; Printing, Moritz Korn; Ritual, 
AU. Moschkowitz; Charity, Ed. Kohn. 


The Independent Order Free Sons of Israel was founded in 
1849. The fundamental object of the organizers was to provide 
the family of a deceased member with a suflicient sum to relieve 
the immediate necessity of the family, insure proper burial of 
the deceased, and leave to the living members of the family a 
helpful sum. Equally fundamental was its second object, to 
spread " intelligence and enlightenment," and bring about the 
Americanization of the Jew. Though a majority of those who 
first sought membership had but a limited knowledge of the Eng- 
lish language, the Order prescribed that as soon as possible the 
proceedings of the lodges should be in the English language. And 
it likewise advocated at this early period the bringing into the 
lodge room of Jews from all countries. 

The Independent Order Free Sons of Israel is under the govern- 
ment of the Grand Lodge of the United States, a body that meets 
in general convention once every five years. Each lodge in the 


United States Is entitled to send a representative to the conven- 
tion, which selects the general officers and an executive committee. 

Furthermore the United States have been divided into two divi- 
sions; namely, District Grand Lodge No. 1 with headquarters in 
New York City, and District Grand Lodge No. 2, with head- 
quarters in the City of Chicago. These local divisions likewise 
have officers and an executive committee. They attend to the 
immediate needs of the lodges under their jurisdiction, with 
power to appeal, if need should arise, to the United States Grand 

The policy of the Order is not to establish buildings of its own 
for the housing of the sick or needy, but to contribute toward 
such Jewish institutions as exist, whether they be maintained by 
local bodies in various cities or by another Order. The Order, for 
example, contributed $10,000 to the new Mount Sinai Hospital in 
New York. In the City of Chicago it owns a valuable burial 
ground, notwithstanding its contributions to the local charities. 

At present funds are being collected and plans being formed for 
the following: In New York City it is proposed to erect a " Free 
Sons of Israel Building" at a cost of $100,000, having meeting 
rooms, reception rooms, lecture rooms, general assembly rooms; a 
building in which local lodges may meet, concerts, lectures and 
entertainments be held, and in which members, friends, and 
visitors may be entertained. In Chicago funds are now being 
gathered for the erection of the new hospital by the Jewish 
citizens of Chicago. 

The Order now counts 107 lodges with an aggregate membership 
of 12,000. It has a Reserve Fund of $1,000,000, and has during 
the more than fifty years of its existence paid $4,000,000 to wid- 
ows, orphans, and other beneficiaries; during the same time the 
individual lodges of the Order have disbursed $3,165,000 for bene- ^ 
fits and donations. The funds of the individual lodges at present v 
aggregate $333,277.00. The Order pays an Endowment benefit of 
$1000.00 in case of the death of a member, and in addition pro- 
vides for its sick and maintains a Relief Fund for its needy. No 
members are taken into the Order except such as participate in 
the Endowment Fund. 

Officers of the United States Grand Lodge and Executive 
Committee. — Grand Master, M. S. Stern, 2013 Fifth Av., New 
York City; First Deputy Grand Master, S. Hoffheimer; Second 
Deputy Grand Master, Adolph Finkenberg; Third Deputy Grand 
Master, Adolph Pike; Grand Treasurer, I. Franken thaler; Chair- 
man Committee on Endowment, William A. Gans; Grand Secre- 
tary, I. H. Goldsmith, 1161 Madison Av., New York; Henry Jacobs, 
Charles M. Obst, Benjamin Blumenthal, Isaac Hamburger, Julius 


Harburger, Henry Lichtig, Raphael Rosenberger, Herman Stiefel, 
Honorable Philip Stein. 

Officers and General Committee of District Grand Lodge 
No. 1. — Grand Master, Emil Tausig, 1772 Madison Av., New York 
City; First Deputy Grand Master, Isaac Baer; Second Deputy 
Grand Master, Samuel Ornstein; Third Deputy Grand Master, 
Aaron Wolfsohn; Grand Treasurer, A. E. Karelson; Grand 
Warden, M. Groldberg; Grand Tyler, Abm. Sanders; Chairman 
Committee on Appeals, Eugene D. Klein; on Laws, M. S. Keller; 
on Finance, J. L. Wallace; on State of the District, Daniel 
Krause; President District Deputies, M. J. Lichtenberger. 

Officers and General Committee of District No. 2. — Grand 
Master, Isaac A. Loeb, 322 Ashland Block, Chicago, 111.; First 
Deputy Grand Master, Henry Kohn; Second Deputy Grand Master, 
Wm. Haberman; Third Deputy Grand Master, L. Hoffman; Grand 
Secretary, Eli Brandt; Grand Treasurer, Ignatz S. Lurie; Grand 
Warden, Henry Goldsmith; Grand Tyler, Albert Weil; Louis 
Witkowsky, Leopold Reiss, Frank Kern, Sol. H. Myers, Benjamin 


The Eighth Biennial Convention of the Independent Order Free 
Sons of Judah was held April 10, 1904, in New York City. The 
Grand Secretary reported as follows: Balance on hand, Decem- 
ber 31, 1901, $27,057.58; receipts, $216,495.98; total, $243,553.56; 
disbursements, $209,906.21, leaving a balance of $33,647.35 on 
hand. These assets were appropriated to the various Funds as 
follows: Reserve Fund, $20,603.18; Aged and Infirm Fund, 
$2075.48; Endowment Fund, $4059.57; Sick Benefit Fund, $3376.24 ; 
General Fund, $2875.80; and Cemetery Fund, $657.08. 

The total membership December 31, 1903, was 7608, showing 
an increase of 1161 since the previous convention. The number 
of lodges on December 31, 1903, was 115, of which 6 were ladies' 
lodges. The lodges are located in the States of Connecticut, 
Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Penn- 
sylvania, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin, and in the District of 

The cemeteries of the Order consist of plots at Bayside and 
Mt. Zion cemeteries. 

Officers. — Grand Master, Isidor Byk, New York City; First 
Deputy Grand Master, Isaac Grossman, New York City; Second 
Deputy Grand Master, Levy Abrahams, Baltimore, Md.; Grand 
Treasurer, Victor Steiner, Bergen Beach, L. I.; Grand Secretary, 
Sigmund Fodor, 47 St. Marks Place, New York City. Office of 
the Grand Lodge, 78 Second Av., New York City. 



An occurrence deeply lamented by the members of the Order, 
as well as by all Jews interested in the welfare of the race, 
befell in the death of Leo N. Levi, President of the Fraternity. 
With all the energy and enthusiasm of his nature President 
Levi devoted himself to the task of widening the influence of 
the organization and of bringing it into prominence as something 
of international import. That he succeeded in accomplishing 
this in the short three years of his Presidency, is evidence of the 
strength and sincerity of his convictions and the weight of his 
ideas. He led the Order into the field of many new activities. 
He it was who, pledging the loyalty of all the lodges in this 
country, instituted and achieved the organization of the Indus- 
trial Removal Work, and his prompt remonstrance through the 
Government against the atrocities perpetrated at KishinefT 
brought the Order into deserved world-wide prominence. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Order held in 
New York on February 14, 1904, the Honorable Simon Wolf, of 
Washington, D. C, was elected to succeed Mr. Levi. 

When, in December, 1903, rumors of an intended uprising 
against the Jews of Kishinefif were circulated, the Order ad- 
dressed a letter to the Secretary of State requesting him to ascer- 
tain the state of affairs in Southern Russia. As a result, a cable- 
gram dated December 31, 1903, was received at the State Depart- 
ment from the Ambassador at St. Petersburg, in which the 
reports were condemned as entirely unwarranted. The Ambas- 
sador also reported that Kishineff had been in a state of thorough 
tranquillity for a considerable period. This despatch was made 
public, together with a letter dated December 29, 1903, from the 
United States Consul at Odessa which verified the report of the 
Ambassador. In this matter, the Order acted in agreement with 
the Anglo- Jewish Association, London, England, and the Alliance 
Israelite Univeraelle, Paris. 

During the past year the Order has put itself into close com- 
munication with the Anglo-Jewish Association, and with the 
Alliance Israelite IJniverselle, so as to be in a position to co- 
operate in behalf of American Jews, with these representative 
bodies of Jews in England and France, in all undertakings look- 
ing to the amelioration of the condition of Jews. 

On the organization of the Industrial Removal Work by Presi- 
dent Levi, it was given in charge of a joint committee known as 
the Industrial Removal Committee of the Jewish Agricultural 
and Aid Society. An account of the results achieved by this 
Committee will be found under the heading The Industrial Re- 
moval Office, pp. 249-251. 


The Executive Committee has considerably assisted the refugees 
from Roumania and Russia. There have been many deplor- 
able cases among assisted immigrants, who come here prin- 
cipally from England. The Government, ordinarily humane and 
considerate in its treatment, under an imperative law has de- 
ported a considerable number of these unfortunates. In response 
to the efforts of the Order to ameliorate conditions, the Immigra- 
tion Bureau maintains that it has no power in the matter, the 
only remedy being the repeal of the present law or such an 
amendment thereof as may enable such persons, under a humane 
interpretation of the policy of our Government, to escape from 
being classified as Assisted Immigrants. 

The Executive Committee of the Order at its meeting in At- 
lantic City in July, 1902, authorized and directed the President 
to formulate plans for conducting a bureau for the placing out 
of orphan children. This action of the Committee was commun- 
icated to the Executive committee of the National Conference of 
Jewish Charities, which entrusted the entire project to the 
Order, tendering at the same time the co-operation of its com- 
mittee in formulating modes of proceedure. 

The Executive Committee has seriously considered the advis- 
ability of continuing the experiment, and has concluded, from the 
results at hand, that it would be unwise to persevere in the at- 
tempt to establish the proposed Bureau; it is of the opinion that 
before a National Bureau can be undertaken, serious local efforts 
should be made in the many centres of Jewish population. 

The building established on Forsyth Street, New York City, 
has been the centre of good work during the last two years. The 
Executive Committee decided to transfer the building to the 
charge of District No. 1, fearing that they were usurping the 
functions of that District, in the jurisdiction of which the build- 
ing is situated. An Employment Bureau, opened March 15, 1904, 
had been attached to the building proper by the Executive Com- 
mittee, which had intended to establish also a Bureau of Civic 
Information. These activities were turned over to District No. 1, 
with the building, on July 1, 1904. 

The statistics of the Employment Bureau show a record of four 
hundred situations procured since its Inception. 

There has been a general increase of the Order in all its Dis- 
tricts, despite losses by death and resignation. The net increase 
in District No. 1 is 179; in District No. 2, 179; in District No. 3, 
177; in District No. 4, 28; in District No. 5, 286; in District No. 
6. 24. There is a substantial increase in the members of District 
No. 7, and of the foreign Districts as well. 


Meetings of the Distbicts 

District No. 1, met at Providence, R. I., May 15, 1904 ; President, 
J. B. Klein, Bridgeport, Conn.; Secretary, S. Hamburger, New 
York City. 

District No. 2, met at Indianapolis, Ind., May 22, 1904; Presi- 
dent, Leon Block, Kansas City, Mo.; Secretary, Abe Bloch, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

District No. 3, met at Lancaster, Pa., February 1, 1904; Presi- 
dent, the Rev. I. Rosenthal, Lancaster, Pa.; Secretary, M. K. 
Cohen, Philadelphia, Pa. 

District No. 4, met at San Francisco, Cal., February 21, 1904; 
President, M. H. Wascerwltz, San Francisco, Cal.; Secretary, I. J. 
Aschheim, San Francisco, Cal. 

District No. 5, met at Washington, D. C, April 9, 1904; Presi- 
dent, E. A. Waxelbaum, Macon, Ga.; Secretary, Joseph L. Levy, 
Richmond, Va. 

District No. 6, met at Des Moines, la.. May 29, 1904; President, 
Adolf Kraus, Chicago, 111.; Secretary, A. B. Seelenfreund, Chicago, 

District No. 7, met at San Antonio, Texas, April 18, 1904; 
President, Joseph Beitman, Birmingham, Ala.; Secretary, Nat. 
Strauss, New Orleans, La. 

Executive Committee. — President, Simon Wolf, 923 F, N. W., 
Washington, D. C; Chancellor of Foreign Affairs, Julius Blen, 
New York City; Vice-President and Treasurer, Jacob Furth, 
Cleveland, Ohio; Honorary Secretary, Solomon Sulzberger, New 
York City; Joseph D. Coons, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Albert Elkus, 
Sacramento, Cal.; Adolph Moses, Chicago, 111.; Joseph Hlrsh, 
Vicksburg, Miss.; Joseph Salabes, Baltimore, Md.; Corresponding 
Secretary, Louis Lipsky, 723 Lexington Ave., New York City. 


The Independent Order Sons of Benjamin publishes the follow- 
ing financial statement for 1902 and 1903: Balance on hand 
January 1, 1902, $839.77; receipts, $12,448.77; total, $13,288.54; 
disbursements, $14,218.41; leaving a deficit of $929.87. Receipts 
during 1903, $9627.43; interest transferred from the Mutual 
Guarantee Fund, $9000; total $18,627.43; deficit January 1, 1903, 
$929.87; disbursements, $13,620.11; total, $14,549.98; balance on 
hand December 31, 1903, $4077.45. 

Grand Secretary, Adolph Silberstein, 212 East 58th, New York 



The Eleventh Annual Convention of the Independent Western 
Star Order was held June 19-20, 1904, at St. Louis, Mo. There 
were present 91 delegates representing 51 lodges. 

Officebs. — Grand Master, Wm. A. Jonesi; Vice-Grand Master, 
I. Schwartz; First Deputy Grand Master, A. Greenspan; Second 
Deputy Grand Master, A. L. Ratner; Grand Secretary, I. Shapiro, 
183 West 12th, Chicago, 111.; Grand Endowment Treasurer, H. M. 
Stone; Grand General Fund Treasurer, L. Rosenberg. 


The work of the Industrial Removal Office during the past year 
has been very considerably increased, the total number of persons 
sent away from New York since the inauguration of the move- 
ment being 10,563. Applying to this number the percentage re- 
turning to New York, we have 10,000 persons who have been 
sent away and who have remained away from the city. 

It will be observed that there was a smaller proportion of 
single men amoiig those sent out this year than in the previous 
year; for obvious reasons the heads of families have been given 
the preference over single men. 

The occupations of the persons removed cover as wide a range 
as in former years, and the places to which they were sent are 
likewise as numerous. A most gratifying sign is the large num- 
ber of cases sent by "request," and upon the advice and con- 
sent of the receiving community. These are chiefly cases in 
which a husband, or some other member of a family, had pre- 
viously been sent away, and his progress was sufficiently encour- 
aging to justify him in sending for his relatives. Of such cases 
the records of' the current year show a total of 47 per cent. No 
more gratifying testimony can be had to the satisfactory nature 
of the employment found for those removed from New York 
than is furnished by the fact of sending for relatives. 

It should be said that in some cases the head of the family left 
New York without assistance from this office, and, after being 
sufficiently well established to warrant his doing so, requested the 
Bureau to send his family to join him, the alternative being his 
return to New York to join them, because of the natural desire 
for reunion and insufficient funds to pay transportation charges. 

1 For the Report of The Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society, 
see p. 2o0. 


The number of such cases, however, is not large; the vast bulk 
of those sent by request followed the man originally sent away 
by the Removal Office, whose success attracted his relatives. 
The power of this attraction cannot be measured solely by the 
removals made directly through the Committee. According to the 
statistics gathered by the representative of the Removal Office at 
Ellis Island of the Jewish immigration that arrived at the port of 
New York in the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, 73 per cent had the 
City of New York as their ultimate destination; of those arriv- 
ing in the current year 69^ per cent were destined for New York. 
On the basis of immigration for the current year, this shows that 
the number of persons who moved directly and at their own ex- 
pense to the interior towns was 3% per cent, or 2224 persons 
more than last year. Furthermore, the unfailing experience of 
the past twenty years has been that the establishment of a num- 
ber of Jewish immigrants at a given point speedily results in 
attracting a considerable additional number to the same point, 
so that it is reasonable to expect that the 10,000 persons who have 
been sent away in the past three years will bring five times their 
number to the same places within the next decade. 

During the year 1903, 5525 persons were sent out from New 
York: 485 families removed with their heads, 206 families follow- 
ing their heads (the two classes comprising 2896 persons), 318 
married men who had their families in the United States, 983 
married men whose families were in Europe, and 1328 unmarried 

In classifying the men sent out according to their occupation, 
we find the following facts for 1903: 

Mechanics 70.7% 

Clerks 2.5% 

Laborers 23.7% 

Teachers 4% 

Peddlers in New York 2.7% 


To ascertain the results of the work, regular inquiry sheets 
are sent to the local communities some weeks after each case has 
been sent out. Those inquiry sheets are returned to the New 
York Office after being filled out by the receiving committee. 
The information thus obtained yields the following result of the 
work done from November 1, 1902, to November 1, 1903. The 
tables cover 3347 cases, consisting of 5525 persons, and they 
make a comparison with results for the same period of 1902, as 
stated in last year's report: 


8ATI8PAOTORY Cases 1903 1902 Ter- 1903 1902 1901 

% % sons % % % 

Still at place of settlement. 2,766 82.9 71.8 4,866 88.2 80.2 65.3 

Left for places known 126 3.8 8.7 138 2.6 6.2 5.5 

Left for places unknown.... 120 3.6 7.8 128 2.3 5.4 6.8 

Returned to New York 38 1.1 1.0 52 .9 .7 1.2 

3,060 91.4 89.3 6,183 93.9 92.5 77.8 

Still at place of settlement. 33 1.0 1.1 46 .8 .8 14 

Left for places known 76 2.3 3.0 84 1.6 2.1 3.3 

Left for places unknown.... 121 3.6 3.6 135 2.4 2.5 4.7 

Returned to New York 33 1.0 1.0 42 .8 .7 6.1 

263 7.9 8.7 307 5.5 6.1 15.5 
Not heard from in answer to 
inquiry sheets, althougrh 
ten of these are accounted 
for by return postal cards 
as arrived at places of des- 
tination 24 .7 2.0 35 .6 1.4 6.7 

Grand Totals 3,347 100. 100. 5,525 100. 100. 100. 

Officers and Directors. — Chairman, Cyrus L. Sulzberger ;Vice- 

Chalrman, Nathan Bljur; Secretary, Eugene S. Benjamin; Max 
Senior, Jacob Furth. 

.General Manager, David M. Bressler; Assistant Manager, Morris 
D. Waldman. Address: 104 Rivington, New York City. 


The Israelite Alliance of America held a number of meetings 
during the year at which the various committees presented re- 
ports of their work for discussion. 

The Pope Petition Committee met several times to consider the 
" Blood Accusation " problem. 

The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of the United 
States and Canada assisted this committee by furnishing it with 
copies of petitions addressed by the Union, the preceding year, to 
the Pope and to Pobiedonostseff, in which an urgent appeal was 
made to the heads of the Roman and Greek Catholic Churches to 
declare the ritual murder charge against Jews as unfounded, and 
incompatible with the Jewish religion. The Union having re- 
ceived no reply to these petitions, the Israelite Alliance decided 
to frame a petition on the same question, to be signed only by 
prominent Gentiles of all denominations. Rabbi S. Schulman has 
undertaken to study the matter historically, collate the facts, 
and frame the memorial. 

In accordance with the aim of the organization, to bring to the 
notice of the public Russians discriminations against American 


citizens of the Jewish faith, the secretaries wrote articles for 
publication on the Russian American passport question. 

Officers. — President, Joseph M. Baum; Vice-Presidents, Philip 
Fischer, Miss Jeanette Schwabe, and Dr. A. L. Wolbarst; Secre- 
taries, A. H. Simon, D. P. Swick, and S. P. Frank, 177 High, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

See also Alliance Israelite Univeraelle. 



1. Fabm Loans 

During 1903 the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society 
granted 117 farm loans, amounting in the aggregate to $46,590.51; 
during the first six months of 1904, 72 farm loans, amounting in 
the aggregate to $28,835.69. 

Including the loans turned over to the Society by the Baron de 
Hirsch Fund, it has now on its books over five hundred farm loans 
made to an equal number of Jewish families. 

2. Home Building Loans 

During 1903 the Society granted 38 home building loans, 
amounting in the aggregate to $16,919.00; during the first six 
months of 1904, 7 home building loans, amounting in the aggre- 
gate to $3029.00, to industrial families in rural districts, and it 
has now on its books 52 home building loans granted to an equal 
number of Jewish families since the incorporation of this Society. 

Officers and Lirectors. — President, Cyrus L. Sulzberger; Vice- 
President, Eugene S. Benjamin; Treasurer, Eugene Meyer; Sec- 
retary, Percy S. Straus; Mark Ash, Morris Loeb and Fred. M. 
Stein, all of New York City. 

General Manager, William Kahn, 725 Broadway, New York City. 


Compared with former years, the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid 
Society of America more than doubled its work during the 
year 1903. Eighty families were assisted to settle on as many 
farms during the year. Of these, fifty-nine settled under the 
homestead law on free Government land, each taking possession 
of one hundred and sixty acres of land. Seventeen purchased 

1 For the report of The Industrial Removal Office, see pp. 249-251. 


farms in the States of Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin, and four 
rented lands in Illinois and Iowa. All these were more or less 
assisted by the Society, loans having been made to them in sums 
from one hundred to one thousand dollars. In all the Society 
loaned out nearly $26,000.00 during the year. This amount was 
expended in the purchase of live-stock and implements, for build- 
ing material, for seed, and for feed needed for the live-stock dur- 
ing the first few months. The transportation of the families from 
the city to the farm, as well as clothing, shoes, and provisions, 
which in some instances were furnished to the families, were 
paid for from the general fund of the Society. 

In doing its work, the Society has followed its old method. 
The loans made to its prot^g^s are secured by mortgages, which 
become a lien on the real and personal property of the borrower. 
The loans are repayable in installments, arranged to suit the case 
of the borrower, and they bear interest at the rate of four per cent 
per annum. The Society up to the present has assisted nearly 
three hundred families, aggregating over 1450 persons. Many of 
these families have repaid the loans made to them, principal and 
interest in full, and are now in a prosperous condition. 

The Society proposes to expand its work and operate on a 
much larger scale than hitherto. Thus far the benefits of the 
Society have been extended to people in Chicago, and the means 
for its operation were gathered chiefly in that city, excepting 
what aid has been extended to it by The Jewish Agricultural and 
Industrial Aid Society, of New York. In pursuance of the policy 
of expansion, applicants from outside the city of Chicago were 
assisted during the first half of the present year, from January 1 
to July 1, 1904. 

BoABD OF Directors. — President, Adolph Loeb; Vice-President, 
Bmil G. Hirsch; Treasurer, Edward Rose; Secretary, Hugo Pam: 
Corresponding Secretary, Dr. A. R. Levy, 507-511 S. Marsfield Ave., 
Chicago, 111.; Israel Cowen, Harry Hart, Jacob L. Kesner, Adolph 
Moses, David M. Pfaelzer, Dr. J. Rappaport, Julius Rosenwald, 
Emanuel F. Selz, Milton L. Strauss, Morris Weil. 

Advisory Board. — Joseph Basch, A. Bauer, Louis Becker, Joseph 
Beifeld, Eli B. Felsenthal, Oscar J. Friedman, Maurice W. 
Kozminski, I. S. Lurie, Max M. Markwell, Benj. Rosenberg, Morris 
S. Rosenwald, Toby Rubovits, David Simon, Leo Straus, David 


The Eighth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua So- 
ciety was held at Atlantic City, N. J., July 10 to 31, 1904, under 
direction of the Chancellor, Dr. Henry Berkowitz, the President, 


Mr. Jacob Gimbel, and the Director, Isaac Hassler, Esq., all of 

The work was divided into departments, as follows: 

1. Depabtment of Religious School Work, according to the 
plans of the Committee of Fifteen appointed at the Sixth Summer 
Assembly : 

Opening Address: "The Reform Movement in Jewish Educa- 
tion," Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Philadelphia. 

Discussion of Curriculum for Religious Schools presented by 
Rabbi Abram Simon at the Seventh Summer Assembly: " What 
Should be Taught in Confirmation Classes — Why and How?" 
Rabbi Abram Simon, Washington, D. C. 

" How Shall the Bible Be Taught? " Rev. Dr. Jos. Stolz, Chicago, 
111., and Rabbi Edward N. Calisch, Richmond, Va. 

"The Value of Pictures in Teaching," Rev. Clifton H. Levy, 
New York. 

" Criticism of Rabbi Simon's Currictilum," Miss Julia Richman, 
New York. 

"Application of Educational Reforms," Rev. Dr. David Philip- 
son, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

" The Study of the Hebrew Language," Dr. S. Benderly, Balti- 
more, Md., being in the main a presentation of the Yellin method. 

" The Study of the Hebrew Language," Rabbi Gerson B. Levi, 
Helena, Ark., a presentation of Mr. Levi's methods, as published 
by the Jewish Chautauqua Society. 

" The Study of Post-Biblical History and Literature in the 
Schools," Dr. Israel Davidson, New York. 

Illustrative Lesson : Subject, " The Sabbath," Primary Depart- 
ment, Miss Ella Jacobs, Philadelphia. 

General discussions were held during all the sessions. Several 
Conferences of Teachers, Rabbis, and others interested In school 
work were held and valuable discussions of school work had. 
Thirty-three teachers, of whom a number were sent at the ex- 
pense of congregations to represent them, and twenty-one rabbis, 
were in attendance during the sessions. The outcome of the 
school work was the following resolution passed by the Assembly: 

" As a result of the experiences derived from the conduct of 
the Department of Religious Pedagogy and at the earnest solici- 
tation of the teachers who attended, we recommend that: 

" 1st. At the next Assembly, classes and conferences, composed 
of Jewish educators and Jewish religious school teachers, be 
organized for the purpose of explaining and discussing methods 
of instruction, and a series of Bible Lessons for Teachers, primary, 
intermediate, and advanced, be given in connection therewith; 

" 2nd. In addition to Hebrew, classes be organized also for the 
study of Post-Biblical History, special eras being made the subject 


of particular lessons, and that lectures on biographies of the 
leading men of such era constitute a feature of this work; 

" 3rd. The study of the geography of the Bible be among the 
subjects included in the curriculum of the Assembly; 

'' 4th. A full set of ceremonial objects, models, lantern slides, 
and maps, suitable for Jewish religious schools, to form a travel- 
ling library, be secured by the Jewish Chautauqua Society, to be 
sent to schools upon application, the expense of transportation 
to be borne by the schools; 

" 5th. A parents' meeting or series of meetings of parents be 
held at the next Assembly for the purpose of having Jewish cere- 
monials explained, with the view to their rehabilitation in the 
homes in which they have passed into neglect; 

" 6th. In order to carry into effect the practical propositions 
made by the Chancellor in his opening address, a Committee of 
Five be appointed to formulate a series of lesson helps for teach- 
ers, to constitute a manual for their guidance, the work of this 
Committee to be based on the Curriculum submitted to the Assem- 
bly by Rabbi Abram Simon, to whom grateful acknowledgment 
for his valuable labors is herewith expressed." 

2. CouBSE IN Applied Philanthropy. — Addresses were delivered 
as follows: 

" The Value of Training for Philanthropic Work," Dr. Edward 
T. Devine, Secretary Charity Organization Society, New York. 

" Jewish Scholarships in Philanthropy," Mr. Sol. C. Lowen- 
stein, United Hebrew Charities, New York. • 

"The Housing Problem," Mr. Robert W. De Forest, President 
of the Charity Organization Society, New York. 

" Discussion of Mr. De Forest's Address," Miss Emily W. Din- 
widdle, Philadelphia. 

" The Labor Problem in its Relation to Applied Philanthropy," 
Mr. Marcus M. Marks, of the Civic Federation, New York. 

"The Relation of Charities to Corrections," Dr. Frederick H. 
Wines, Montclair, N. J. 

" Juvenile Crime Among Boys," Mr. F. H. Nibecker, Superin- 
tendent House of Refuge, Glen Mills, Pa. 

" Juvenile Crime Among Girls," Miss Rose Sommerfeld, Director 
of the Clara De Hirsch Home, New York. 

The following resolution was passed by the Assembly: 

" In view of the fact that thousands of our American youth are 
early drafted into the ranks of the industrial workers, be it 

" Resolved, That the Board of the Jewish Chautauqua Society 
be instructed to request the Civic Federation to plan methods for 
elementary instruction in economics in the public schools, with 
the view to the enlightenment of pupils on practical social 



3. Depabtment of Summer School and Seminar. — ^Rabbi Gerson 
B. Levi, of Helena, Ark., conducted a class in Hebrew, meeting 
every day during the sessions and using the Advanced Hebrew 
Course, which was compiled by Mr. Levi and recently issued by 
the Society, including instruction in Hebrew Grammar and exer- 
cises in translation of Hebrew into English and English into 
Hebrew. Seventeen members, principally teachers, were enrolled 
in the class. 

Five lectures on "Recent Discussions of Biblical Problems," 
by Professor Max Margolis, of the University of California, as 

(1) "Babylonian Elements in Civilization and Religion of 
Ancient Israel." 

(2) " The Rise of Early Judaism." 

(3) " The * I ' of the Psalms." 

(4) "Foreign Elements in Late Judaism." 

(5) "The Son of Man." 

Courses of Lectures on the *'^Life and Times of Ben Sira," and 
" The History of Hebrew Liturgy," by Dr. Solomon Schechter, 
President of The Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 

4. PopuLAB Conferences and Lectures. — Conference on " The 
Stage as an Educational Force": Address by Mr. Sydney Rosen- 
feld, New York, President of the National Theatre Company, on 
" The Stage of To-Day and Its Needs"; Address by Mr. Jacob M. 
Gordin, Brooklyn, on " The Jewish Drama and its Effect in 

Conference on "Immigration": Address by the presiding offi- 
cer, Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, New York; "The Status of Immigra- 
tion," by Honorable Frank P. Sargent, United States Commis- 
sioner General of Immigration. 

Lecture: Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, Philadelphia, "Lessing, the 
Brave, and Nathan, the Wise." 

Lecture: Rear-Admiral Geo. W. Melville, U. S. N., "Arctic Ex- 

Lecture: Dr. Talcott Williams, Editor of the Philadelphia 
" Press," on " Some International Lessons of the War in the 

Two musical entertainments and several social evenings and 
receptions were held during the sessions. 

Divine services were held every Friday evening and Sabbath 
morning at Beth Israel Synagogue, under the direction of Rabbi 
Henry M. Fisher, of Atlantic City. Sermons were preached by 
Rabbis G. Freund, of Toledo, 0.; David Philipson, of Cincinnati, 
O.; and N. Krasnowetz, of Owensboro, Ky. 


The Annual Meeting at the close of the session was presided 
over by the President, Mr. Jacob Gimbel, Philadelphia. Reports 
were presented by the Secretary, Isaac Hassler, and the Treasurer, 
Clarence K. Arnold, Philadelphia. Addresses were made by the 
Chancellor, Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, and by Honorable Simon 
Wolf, Washington, D. C. 

In the Reading Course work circles were organized or Chau- 
tauqua work introduced in the following cities: 

Anniston, Ala.; Augusta, Ga.; Baltimore, Md.; Boston, Mass.; 
Charleston, W. Va.; Chattanooga, Tenn.; Chester, Pa.; Chicago, 
111.; Cincinnati, O.; Columbus, Miss.; Denver, Colo.; El Paso, 
Texas; Galveston, Texas; Hannibal, Mo.; Harrisburg, Pa.; Hazle- 
ton. Pa.; Hot Springs, Ark.; Houston, Texas; Indianapolis, Ind.; 
Memphis, Tenn.; Monroe, La.; Nashville, Tenn.; Natchez, Miss.; 
Newark, N. J.; New York, N. Y.; Peoria, 111.; Philadelphia, Pa.; 
San Antonio, Texas; Scranton, Pa.; Seattle, Wash.; Selma, Ala.; 
St. Louis, Mo.: Syracuse, N. Y.; Tacoma, Wash.; Tyler, Texas; 
Utica, N. Y.; Vicksburg, Miss.; Wheeling, W. Va.; Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa.: Melbourne, Australia; and Montreal, Can. 

The reports showed that a large number of schools had followed 
the Hebrew Courses of the Society, though these were not ready 
at the beginning of the school year 1903-1904. 

Officers. — Chancellor, Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz; President, 
Jacob Gimbel; Vice-President, William B. Hackenburg; Treas- 
urer, Alfred H. Newburger; Secretary, Isaac Hassler, Esq., P. O. 
Box 825; all of Philadelphia. 

BoABD OF Trustees. — ^Leon Dalsimer, Mrs. Eva Coons, Samuel S. 
Pleisher, Louis Gerstley, Mrs. Rosa Frank, Mrs. Charles Heidel- 
berger, Mrs. Fannie Muhr, Clarence K. Arnold, (Jeo. W. Ochs, 
Edward Wolf, Mrs. Jos. H. Rubin, of Philadelphia; Marcus M. 
Marks, Jacob H. SchifF, Sol. Sulzberger, of New York; Honorable 
Simon Wolf, of Washington, D. C; Mrs. Eli Strouse, of Balti- 
more, Md.; Joseph Hirsch, ot Atlanta, Ga., and Israel Cowen, of 
Chicago, 111. 

Educational Council. — ^Max Herzberg, D. W. Amram, Charles 
S. Bernheimer, Miss Corinne B. Arnold, Rabbi Julius H. Green- 
stone, Dr. Lewis Steinbach, Miss Ella Jacobs, of Philadelphia: 
Rev. Dr. Maurice H. Harris, Dr. Richard Gottheil, Dr. Lee K. 
Frankel, Professor Morris Loeb, Miss Julia Richman, Miss Rose 
Sommerfeld, of New York; Rabbi Gerson B. Levi, of Helena, 
Ark.; Rev. Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, Rev. Dr. Jos. Stolz, Chicago, 111.; 
Rabbi Harry Levi, Wheeling, W. Va.; Rabbi Abram Simon, Wash- 
ington, D. C.; Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, Cincinnati, O. 

Honorary Vice-Presidents. — Adolph S. Ochs, Milton Gold- 
smith, New York; J. B. Klein, Bridgeport, Conn.; Mrs. Jacob H. 


Hecht, Boston, Mass.; Max Senior, Cincinnati, O.; Mrs. S. L. 
Frank, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Jonathan Rice, St. Louis, Mo.; Rev. 
Dr. Jacob S. Voorsanger, Mrs. M. S. Sloss, San Francisco, Cal.; 
Louis Bamberger, Newark, N. J.; Rev. Dr. Max Heller, New 
Orleans, La.; I. Isenberg, Wheeling, W. Va.; Jacques Loeb, Mont- 
gomery, Ala.; Mrs. S. Lesser, Augusta, Ga.; Mrs. Alex. Friend, 
Dallas, Texas; Wm. J. Berkowitz, Kansas City, Mo.; Isaac L. Blaut, 
Washington, D. C; Honorable Josiah Cohen, Pittsburg, Pa. 


For an account of The Jewish Publication Society of America, 
see Report of the Sixteenth Year, p. 381. 


During 1903-1904, thirty-eight students were enrolled in the 
Rabbinical Course of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 

At the Commencement exercises, held on June 5, 1904, the De- 
gree of Rabbi was conferred upon the following: Rudolph Isaac 
Coffee, of California, B. A., Columbia University; Charles Isaiah 
Hoffman, of Philadelphia, B. A., M. A., and B. L., University 
of Pennsylvania; Gerson Benedict Levi, of Philadelphia, B. A., 
University of Pennsylvania; Elias Louis Solomon, of New York, 
B. A., College of the City of New York. 

Honorary Degrees were awarded as follows: Lewis Naphtali 
Dembitz, of Louisville, Ky., Doctor of Hebrew Literature; Henry 
Pereira Mendes, Minister of Congregation Shearith Israel, of 
New York, Doctor of Divinity; Samuel Schulman, Rabbi of Tem- 
ple Beth-El, of New York, Doctor of Divinity. 

Teachers Course. — The Seminary, recognizing the urgent need 
of providing proper teachers for the religious schools in the city 
of New York and elsewhere, has established a special Teachers 
Course, to be conducted under the supervision of the President 
of the Faculty, Professor S. Schechter, by the members of the 
Faculty. The course occupies three years, at the end of which 
a certificate will be awarded to persons who successfully pass 
the prescribed examinations. The course of study is as follows: 

First Year. — Two hours, Elementary Hebrew; one hour, Bible 
Lessons; one hour, Jewish Religion. Second Year. — One hour. 
Contents of the Prayer Book; one hour, Post-Biblical History and 
Literature; one hour, Bible Lessons; one hour, Selections from the 
Pentateuch. For the third year of the course arrangements 
are to be made for the establishment of a model school, in which 
the students will obtain practical instruction in the methods of 


teaching and conducting a religious school. During 1903-1904, 
130 students were enrolled in this department. 

Pbeparatoby Department. — To enable students who are attend- 
ing a college or university in New York City to prepare them- 
selves for entrance to the Seminary, it has been decided to es- 
tablish a Preparatory Course, with the following curriculum: 
First Year. — One hour, Hebrew Grammar; two hours, Pentateuch; 
one hour, Prayer Book. Second Year. — One hour, Hebrew Gram- 
mar; one hour, Pentateuch with Rashi and Onkelos; one hour, 
Judges; one hour, Mishnah, Berakot and Shabbat. Third Year. 
— One hour, Outlines of Jewish History; First Term — One hour, 
Isaiah; one hour, Daniel; one hour, Mishnah, Pesahim, Yoma 
and Sukkah; Second Term — One hour, Talmud (Berakot); one 
hour, Shulhan Aruk; two hours. Psalms. 

Degree of Doctor of Divinity. — A course leading to the Degree 
of Doctor of Divinity will hereafter be given. . Any person hold- 
ing the degree of Rabbi, or such other equivalent degree or 
diploma as may be deemed sufficient by the Faculty, may be ad- 
mitted to it. The following lectures will be given during the 
academic year 1904-1905 for the candidates for the Degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity: Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts; Crit- 
ical and Historical Analysis of the Halachic Midrashim; Syriac; 
Reading of the Syriac Version of Ben Sirach; Text and Compo- 
sition of the Books of Samuel; Arabic, the eight chapters of 
Maimonides; Cuneiform Texts bearing upon the Bible; Historical 
Texts, Megillat Ta'anit and the Letter of Sherira; North Semitic 
Inscriptions; Literature of Doctrine and Dogma; Selected Read- 
ings of Rabbinical Responsa; Practical Exercises in the Decision 
of Ritual Questions. 

Lectures. — A course of lectures will be given during 1904-1905, 
to which the public will be admitted. A special course of lectures 
will be given to the members of the Senior Class on the manage- 
ment of the Jewish philanthropic and educational institutions 
of New York City. 

Synagogue. — A Synagogue is attached to the Seminary. Ser- 
vices are conducted every Sabbath and holiday by the Hazan with 
the aid of the students, under the direction of the President of 
the Faculty. 

Library. — The Library consists of 15,000 printed volumes and 
750 Hebrew MSS. 

Course of Study. — The course of study pursued in the Seminary 
extends over a period of four years, and comprises lectures 
and instruction on the following subjects: 1. The Bible; 2. Tal- 
mud of Babylon and Jerusalem; 3. Jewish History and the History 
of Jewish Literature, with specimen readings; 4. Theology and 
Catechism; 5. Homiletics, including a proper training in elocu- 


tlon and pastoral work; 6. Instruction in Hazanut is provided, 
and is optional with members of the Senior Class. 

Requirements for Admission. — Students desiring to enter the 
Seminary as candidates for the degree of Rabbi must be members 
of the Jewish faith, of good moral character, and should have 
received from a university or college in good standing the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts or such other equivalent degree as shall be 
approved by the faculty. Students attending universities and 
colleges which permit the election of professional or post-graduate 
studies as the major portion of the work of the senior year, and 
who are otherwise properly qualified, may be admitted to the reg- 
ular Rabbinical Course upon the presentation of a certificate 
of the satisfactory completion of their three years' college work, 
provided they present satisfactory assurance that they will 
immediately proceed to obtain their Bachelor's Degree. In view 
of the elective system in American colleges, it is strongly recom- 
mended to students intending to enter the Seminary that they 
especially devote themselves during their college course to the 
following subjects: English literature, rhetoric, and composi- 
tion; ancient and medieval history; philosophy, psychology, and 
logic; Cerman, Greek, and Latin. In the case of students pre- 
senting a certificate from a European institution, the English 
requirements may be temporarily waived, with the understanding, 
however, that the prescribed English must be completed before 
final graduation. Candidates for admission are expected to pass 
successfully an entrance examination on the following subjects: 
Elementary grammar of the Hebrew language and of Biblical 
Aramaic, including the paradigm of the verb and noun; the whole 
of the Pentateuch, translation and interpretation at sight, and 
the Book of Genesis with Targum Onkelos and the commentary 
of Rashi and Rashi characters; the book of Judges (with the ex- 
ception of the Song of Deborah); Isaiah I-XII; Psalms I-XXII; 
Daniel 1-3; the second Order of the Mishna, Seder Moed, with the 
exception of the Tractates Erubin, Betzah, and Hagigah ; Gemara, 
the first Perek of Tractate Berakot, pages 1-13; general acquaint- 
ance with the contents of the Prayer Book; general acquaintance 
with Jewish history. Every student who is a candidate for a 
degree is expected to observe the Jewish Sabbath and to conform 
to the Jewish dietary laws. 

Special students not candidates for degrees may be admitted to 
the classes of the Seminary. 

Harvard University has established a group leading to the 
Bachelor's Degree which includes the foregoing subjects required 
for admission, and Columbia University, the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Chi- 
cago have agreed to provide instruction necessary for admission 


to the Seminary. The Gratz College, of Philadelphia, prepares 
students for admission to the Seminary. 

There is no tuition fee at the Seminary, and regular students 
are admitted to the courses of Columbia University free of charge. 
The Seminary has no dormitories, and does not provide lodging 
or board for students. 

Scholarships. — A scolarship of the value of two hundred and 
fifty dollars per annum has been established by the Board of Di- 
rectors in memory of Joseph Blumenthal, to be awarded annually 
by the President of the Faculty, after consultation with the 
Faculty, to the most deserving student of the Senior Class. The 
Philadelphia Branch of the Seminary ofters for the scholastic 
year 1904-1905 four scholarships of the value of two hundred 
and fifty dollars each to the candidates passing the best entrance 
examinations. These scholarships will be known as the Phila- 
delphia Scholarships, and, other things being equal, preference 
in their award will be given to students from Philadelphia. 

Phizes. — Prizes have been announced as follows for the aca- 
demic year 1904-1905: 1. The Laemmlein Buttenwieser Bible 
Prize — ^value forty dollars: "Textual Repetitions and Quotations 
in the Book of Jeremiah." 2. The Laemmlein Buttenwieser 
Talmud Prize — rvalue forty dollars: "Composition of the Tractate 
Abot, critically analyzed." 3. The Aaron Friedenwald Prize in 
Jewish Theology — value forty dollars: " Individual Prayers in 
Rabbinic Literature, their influence on the Liturgy, and their 
theological significance." 4. The Alexander Kohut Memorial 
Prize — value forty dollars: " The use and the meaning of the term 
Ruah ha-Kodesh in the Targumin and In the Rabbinical Liter- 

Entrance Examinations. — The entrance examinations will be 
held on Thursday, October 6, 1904, beginning at 10.30 a. m. The 
Seminary will be open for instruction on Monday, October 10, 
1904. Instruction in the Teachers' Course will begin on Monday, 
October 17, when candidates for admission are expected to pre- 
sent themselves. 

Faculty. — President and Professor of Jewish Theology, Profes- 
sor Solomon Schechter, M. A., Litt. D. (Cantab.) ; Sabato Morals 
Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis : Israel Friedlaender, 
Ph. D. (Strassburg) ; Professor of Talmud: Louis Ginzberg, Ph. D. 
(Heidelberg); Professor of History: Alexander Marx, Ph. D. 
(Konigsberg) ; Professor of Homiletics, Reverend Joseph Mayor 
Asher, B. A., M. A. (Owens College, Victoria University, Man- 
chester) ; Instructor in the Bible and Hebrew Grammar and Act- 
ing Reader in the Codes, Bernard Drachman, Ph. D. (Heidel- 
berg); Instructor in the Talmud. Joshua A. Joff$; Hazan and 



Instructor In Hazanut, Reverend Simon Jacobson; Tutor of Elo- 
CI 'Ion, Grenville Kleiser; Tutor of English, Eugene H. Lehman. 

liiBBABY Staft. — ^Principal Librarian, Professor Alexander 
Marx; Assistant Librarian, George Alexander Kohut. 

Publications. — The following Publications have been issued 
during 1903-1904: 1. "Teachers' Course," 1903; 2. "Register 
1904-1905," 1904. 

Officers and Boabd of Directors. — ^President, Cyrus Adler; 
Vice-President, Newman Cowen; Honorary Secretary, Irving 
Lehman; Treasurer, Daniel Guggenheim. Directors: for life, 
Jacob H. SchifF, Daniel Guggenheim, Mayer Sulzberger, Cyrus 
Adler, Simon Guggenheim, Adolphus S. Solomons, Felix M. 
Warburg, Philip S. Henry, Louis Marshall; elected for one year, 
Newman Cowen, Simon M. Roeder, Harry Friedenwald, Irving 
Lehman, Samuel Greenbaum, Morris Loeb and William Gerstley. 
Executive Committee: Louis Marshall, chairman; Jacob H. Schifl, 
Daniel Guggenheim, Mayer Sulzberger, Simon M. Roeder, together 
with the President and the Vice-President, ex-offlcio. 

The Alumni Association of the Jewish Theological Seminary 

The Fourth Annual Reunion of the Alumni Association of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America was held on June 5, 
1904, in the building of the Seminary in New York. There were 
two sessions, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Two 
papers were read: "The Establishment of the Bet Din in 
America," by the Rev. Julius H. Greenstone, of Philadelphia; and 
" Circuit Preaching," by the Rev. Herman Abramowitz, of Mont- 
real, Canada. Inquiry into the feasibility of establishing a Bet 
Din and the formulating of a plan of operation, if it should be 
found feasible, were referred to a committee consisting of Julius 
H. Greenstone, Philadelphia, Pa.; H. M. Speaker, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; C. H. Kauvar, Denver, Colo.; C. I. Hoffman, Indianapolis, 
Ind.; and Gerson B. Levi, Helena, Ark. The question of Circuit 
Preaching was referred to the following committee: H. Abram- 
owitz, Montreal, Can.; C. I. Hoffman, and B. C. Ehrenreich, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

During the year the Association established a prize to be 
known as " The Alumni Prize," which is to be awarded to the 
student writing the best paper on a subject assigned by the 
Alumni Association. This year it was won by Abraham B. 
Dobrzynski, the subject being " Tehinnot." 

On the evening of June 4, after the Commencement exercises 
at the Seminary, the Alumni Association tendered a reception to 
the class just graduated. The reception was held in the Seminary 
Assembly Rooms. 


Officers and Executivb Council. — President, M. M. Eichler, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Vice-President, Dr. J. H. Hertz, Johannesburg, 
South Africa; Recording Secretary, B. C. Ehrenreich, 1914 North 
Franklin, Philadelphia, Pa.; Corresponding Secretary, Herman 
Abramowitz, Montreal, Can.; Treasurer, Leon H. Elmaleh, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; S. Reich, J. H. Greenstone, C. H. Kauvar, H. M. 
Speaker, M. Mandel, and M. Waldman. 



The Third Biennial Meeting of the National Conference of 

Jewish Charities In the United States was held in New York 

City, May 24-27, 1904. The Conference now comprises the fol- 
lowing 75 organizations: 

Albany, N. Y., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, the Rev. 
Dr. M. Schlesinger, 334 Hudson Av. 

Atlanta, Ga., Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, A. Benjamin, 
care of Standard Ice Co. Home for Hebrew Orphans; Secre- 
tary, Max Cohen, 509 7th, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Baltimore, Md., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, M. Bren- 
ner, 411 W. Fayette. 

Boston, Mass. (see also Mattapan), Federation of Hebrew Char- 
ities; Superintendent, Max Mitchell, 43 Hawkins. Hebrew 
Women's Sewing Society; Secretary, Miss Ida Engel, 23 
Arborway, Jamaica Plain. 

Buffalo, N. Y., Hebrew Board of Charities; President, J. L. Sapers- 
ton, Main and Seneca. 

Butte, Mont., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, L. Helman. 

Chicago, 111., United Hebrew Charities; Secretary, A. J. Pflaum, 
1215 Association Building. Home for Jewish Orphans; Secre- 
tary, S. Ettelson, Fort Dearborn Building. 

Charleston, S. C, Hebrew Benevolent Society; Montague Triest, 
54 Wentworth. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Mizpah Relief Society; Secretary, H. Good- 
man, Market. 

Cincinnati, O., United Jewish Charities; President, Max Senior, 
731 W. 6th. 

Cleveland, O., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, M. Wurten- 
berg, 183 Orange. Jewish Orphan Asylum; Secretary, S. 

Columbus, O., Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, W. N. 

Dallas, Tex., Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, Joseph Wolf. 


Dayton, O., Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, Mrs. 

Minnie Haas, 22 DeKalb. 
Denver, Colo., Jewish Charity Association; Secretary, Mrs. H. 

Siegel, Pioneer Building. 
Des Moines, la., Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society; President, 

Mrs. H. Hirsch, 1605 High. 
Detroit, Mich., United Jewish Charities; Secretary, A. Benjamin, 

118 E. High. 
Evansville, Ind., Hebrew Ladles' Benevolent Society; President 

Mrs. M. Oberdorfer, 1245 Upper 1st. 
Houston, Tex., Beth Israel Benevolent Society; Secretary, Jonas 

Levy, 317 Main. United Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Ella Altmont, 10 Jackson. 
Indianapolis, Ind., Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, 

Mrs. H. Marks, 22 N. Michigan. 
Kansas City, Mo., United Jewish Charities; President, W. J. 

Berkowitz, 1920 Wyandotte. 
Lafayette, Ind., Jewish Ladies' Aid Society; Secretary, Mrs. R. 

Oppenheimer, 604 N. 6th. 
Lancaster, Pa., United Hebrew Charity Association; Secretary, 

L. R. Giesenberger, 123 E. King. 
Little Rock, Ark., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, Rabbi L. 

Wolsey, 1419 Louisiana. 
Louisville, Ky., United Hebrew Relief Association; Secretary, 

G. S. Rosenberg, 310 E. Walnut. 
Los Angeles, CaL, Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, I. Sal- 

monson, Hellman Building. 
Mattapan, Mass., Leopold Morse Home and Orphanage; President, 

Godfrey Morse. 
Memphis, Tenn., United Hebrew Relief Association; President, 

Dr. M. Samfield, 104 Adams. 
Milwaukee, Wis., Hebrew Relief Association; President, A. L. 

Saltzstein, Mack Block. 
Minneapolis, Minn., Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society; Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Charles Moss, 2104 Portland Av. 
Mobile, Ala., Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, S. Haas. 
Montgomery, Ala., United Hebrew Charities; President, B. Wolft, 

100 Commerce. 
Nashville, Tenn., United Hebrew Relief Association; President, 

Dr. I. Lewinthal, 1912 West End Av. 
Natchez, Miss., Hebrew Relief Association; Secretary, Rabbi S. G. 

Newark, N. J., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Gabriel J. Kempe, 

530 Clinton Av. Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Secretary, Gabriel 

J. Kempe, 530 Clinton Av. 


New Hayen, Conn., Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, F. M. 
Adler, care of Strouse, Adler and Co. 

New Orleans, La., Hebrew Benevolent Society; President, Dr. I. L. 
Leucht, P. O. Drawer 431. Association for Relief of Jewish 
Widows and Orphans; Superintendent, Michael Heyman, St. 
Charles and Peters. 

New York City, N. Y., United Hebrew Charities; Manager, Dr. 
L. K. Frankel, 356 Second Av. 

Oakland, Cal., Daughters of Israel Relief Society; Secretary, Mrs. 
G. Cohn, 1142 Filbert. 

Peoria, 111., Hebrew Relief Association; President, W. F. Wolfner. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Home for Hebrew Orphans; President, H. H. 
Ginsberg, 10th and Bainbridge. Orphans Guardians Society; 
Secretary, Samuel Goodman, 116 N. 3d. United Hebrew Char- 
ities; President, Max Herzberg, 636 N. 6th. Jewish Foster 
Home; Secretary, Benjamin F. Teller (deceased). Mill St., 
Germantown, Pa. 

Pittsburg, Pa., United Hebrew Relief Association; President, A. 
Lippman, Second National Bank Building. 

Portland, Ore., First Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, S. 
Blumauer, 108 Fourth. Jewish Women's Benevolent Society, 
Secretary, Mrs. Ben Selling, 434 Main. 

Richmond, Va., Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society; President, 
Mrs. A. Levy, 101 Marshall. 

Rochester, N. Y., United Jewish Charities; Secretary, Dr. Max 
Landsberg, 420 Main. Jewish Orphan Asylum Association of 
Western New York; Secretary, Dr. Max Landsberg, 420 Main. 

St. Joseph, Mo., Jewish Ladies' Benevolent Society; Secretary, 
Mrs. Julius Rosenblatt, 410 N. 6th. 

St. Louis, Mo., Jewish Charitable and Educational Union; Secre- 
tary, Bernard Greensfelder, 701 Commonwealth Trust Build- 

St. Paul, Minn., Jewish Relief Society; President, Mrs. J. M. Sil- 
berstein, 216 E. Summit Av. Bikur Cholim Society; Presi- 
dent, Mrs. S. Mark, 589 Pine. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Jewish Relief Society; President, Mrs. 
Jacob Bamberger, 539 E. 1st South. 

San Antonio, Tex., Montefiore Benevolent Society; President, M. 
Friedman, care of D. and A. Oppenheimer. 

San Francisco, Cal., Eureka Benevolent Association; President, 
Charles Hirsch, 308 Market. Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum; 
President, S. W. Levy, 212 Sansome. 

Savannah, Ga., Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, 
Mrs. S. L. Lazaron, 124 Park Av. 

Scranton, Pa., Jewish Ladies' Relief Society; Secretary, Mrs. M. 
Simmons, 415 Madison Av. 


Syracuse, N. Y., United Jewish Charities; President, Rev. A. Gutt- 
man, 102 Walnut Place. 

Terre Haute, Ind., Jewish Aid Society; Secretary, Rabbi Emil 
Lelpziger, 706 S. 5th. 

Toledo, O., Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society; Secretary, Mrs. N. 
Kaufman, 211 Scottwood Av. 

Vicksburg, Miss., Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society; Secretary, 
Mrs. Gabriel Brown, 114 Baum. 

Washington, D. C, United Hebrew Charities; Secretary, J. Sol- 
omon, Columbian Building. 

Wheeling, W. Va., United Jewish Charities; President, Rabbi 
Harry Levi, P. O. Box 121. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Young Men's Hebrew Association Ladies' 
Auxiliary; Secretary, Miss Pamela Constine, 51 Public Square. 

Wilmington, Del., Hebrew Charity Association; President, Morris 
Levy, 210 Market. 

Over a hundred delegates attended the Conference. The pro- 
gram covered the entire field of Jewish philanthropy. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the papers presented: 

May 24, Temple Emanu-El. Jacob H. Schift, Chairman Recep- 
tion Committee, presided. Addresses were given by Jacob H. 
Schiff, New York; George B. McClellan, Mayor of New York; Dr. 
Jeffrey R. Brackett, Boston; Robert W. Hebbard, Albany, and Max 
Herzberg, Philadelphia. 

May 25, The Hebrew Charities Building. Paper: " Adequacy of 
Relief," by Solomon Lowenstein, New York. Discussion by Max 
Mitchell, Boston; E. Rubovits, Chicago; B. Greensf elder, St. 
Louis; the Rev. Leo M. Franklin, Detroit, and Boris Bogen, Cin- 
cinnati. General Discussion : " How to Help the Unskilled." 
Papers: "Women with Children," Mrs. William Einstein, New 
York; " Men without Trades," William Kahn, New York. 

The Hebrew Orphan Asylum. Address: Edward Lauterbach, 
New York. Papers: "The Ideal Orphan Home," by Michael 
Heyman, New Orleans; "What becomes of our Graduates?" by 
Rudolph I. Coffee, New York; "Placing Out of Jewish Children," 
by Lee K. Frankel, New York. Discussion: Rev. Dr. I. L. Leucht, 
New Orleans; Rev. Dr. Max Landsberg, Rochester. 

May 26, The Educational Alliance. Address: Isidor Straus, 
New York. Papers: "Delinquent Girls," by Miss Rosetta Stone, 
New York; " Preventive Work Among Girls," by Dr. Bertha F. 
Lubitz, New York. Discussion: Miss Rose Sommerfeld, New 
York; Mrs. Sol. Selig, Philadelphia. "Preventive Work on the 
East Side," by Dr. David Blaustein, New York; A. H. Fromenson, 
New York. 


May 27, The Hebrew Charities Building. Address: Simon 
Wolf, Washington. Paper: "Work of the Removal Office," by 
David M. Bressler, New York. Discussion: "Work of the Indus- 
trial Removal Office," Max Senior, Cincinnati; A. W. Rich, Mil- 
waukee; Nat. Strauss, New Orleans; Bernard Ginsberg, Detroit; 
the Rev. Isidor Rosenthal, Lancaster; S. H. Frohlichstein, St. 
Louis. Subject: "Federation of Charities." Reports by Rabbi 
Moses J. Gries, Cleveland; Bernard Ginsberg, Detroit; Louis Wolf, 
Philadelphia; Julian W. Mack, Chicago; Max Senior, Cincinnati. 

Divine service was held at Beth-El Synagogue; the sermon was 
delivered by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Sale, St. Louis. 

The delegates were afforded every opportunity for the inspec- 
tion of the numerous institutions of New York City. They spent 
an entire afternoon on the lower East Side, thus securing, at first 
hand, knowledge of the conditions there existing as a result of 
the overcrowding. There can be no doubt that by reason of this 
the work of the Industrial Removal Office will be greatly assisted 
by the co-operation of the interior communities. 

Another result of the session is the appointment of a committee 
to devise means for the establishment of a National Child-Placing 
Bureau, to obviate the commitment of dependent children to in- 
stitutions whenever some other treatment may be preferable. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported that since the last 
Conference three men had been given training in social work. 

Officers and Executive Committee. — President, Julian W. 
Mack, Chicago, 111.; Vice-Presidents, Bernard Ginsberg, Detroit, 
Mich.; Mrs. Jacob Wirth, St. Paul, Minn; Treasurer, O. H. Rosen- 
baum, Pittsburg, Pa.; Secretary, Solomon Lowenstein, 356 Second 
Av., New York City; Max Senior, Cincinnati, O.; Max Herzberg, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Nathan Bijur, New York City; the Rev. Dr. I. L. 
Leucht, New Orleans, La.; Dr. J. H. Hollander, Baltimore, Md.; 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Sale, St. Louis, Mo.; A. W. Rich, Milwaukee, 


The Seventh Annual Meeting and Pilgrimage of the National 
Farm School was held October 11, 1903, on the grounds of the 
School, at Farm School, near Doylestown, Bucks Co., Pa. 

The President reported that the assets of the Farm School con- 
sisted of ten substantial buildings, twenty cows, ten horses, a 
poultry yard, a duck pond, a sheep fold, and pig-pens, the whole, 
together with the grounds, covering one square mile, valued at 


The Director reported that telephones had been installed in 
each building, a station and post-office established, and individual 
gardens introduced in the Horticultural Department. 

At the opening of the school term In September, 1903, there 
were 34 students: Seniors, 5; Juniors, 9; Sophomores, 12; BYesh- 
men, 8. 

For the year ending October 1, 1903, the receipts from mem- 
bership dues and general donations were $6,472.50, and from other 
sources $9700.34, which together with the cash on hand at the 
beginning of the year, $1,887.02, made the funds available $18,- 
059.86. The expenditures for the same period were $16,522.68, 
leaving a balance of $1,537.18 on hand, and unpaid bills to the 
amount of $3000. 

In addition to the memorial buildings reported before, a cold 
storage plant will be erected in memory of Henry Heyman, by 
his wife and family. 

Diplomas were awarded to four graduates, constituting the 
fourth class graduated from the school, on June 12, 1904. All the 
graduates were provided with positions. In connection with the 
graduation exercises Memorial Trees were planted. 

Faculty. — President, Joseph Krauskopf , D. D. ; Director and 
Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, John Hosea Washburn, 
Ph.D. (Gottingen); Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of 
Farm, Lucius J. Shepard, B. Sc. (Maine Agricultural College) ; 
Professor of Agricultural Physics and Literature, and Mathe- 
matics, Isaac Bradlee Gage, A. B. (Tufts College) ; Professor of 
Horticulture, Superintendent of the Grounds, Warren B. Madison, 
B. Sc. (Rhode Island College) ; Professor of Veterinary Science 
and Farm Hygiene, W. G. Benner, V. S. ; Director of Domestic 
Work, and Matron, Mrs. John R. Histand; Assistant in Agricul- 
ture, George Hoops; Stenographer, and Superintendent of Re- 
pairs, John R. Histand. 

Officebs and Boasd or Dieectoes. — President, Joseph Kraus- 
kopf, 122 W. Manheim, Germantown, Pa.; Vice-President, Morris 
A. Kaufmann; Treasurer, Frank H. Bachman; Secretary, Harry 
Felix, 258 Zeralda, Germantown, Pa.; Sidney Aloe, Hart Blumen- 
thal, Adolph Eichholz, Esq., Simon Friedberger, Adolph Grant, 
Alfred M. Klein, Howard A. Loeb, Joseph Loeb, Isaac H. Silver- 
man, Jos. N. Snellenburg, Benj. F. Teller (deceased), Harry 


The following report of the National Jewish Hospital for Con- 
sumptives at Denver, Colo., covers the period from January 1, 


1903, to May 1, 1904, four months more than the calendar year. 
This is due to the fact that by a resolution of the National Board 
the fiscal year now begins on May 1. 

The subscriptions for the sixteen months to May 1, 1904, were 
$57,154.80, with a balance of $2856.56 making a total of $60,000.46. 
The cost of maintenance during this period was $39,704.98; of 
administration, $5254.80; of equipment, $883.37; of propaganda, 
$7351.90, leaving a balance of $6816.41 in the treasury on May 1, 

The sinking fund, started in 1902, now stands at $5638.79. Sub- 
scriptions to this fund during the sixteen months were $3200. 
Of the total $4000 is invested at 4 per cent. 

The special building fund, started by Mr. Adolph Lewisohn 
with $5000, was increased by subscriptions to $9350. Of this 
$3540 was expended in the purchase of hospital lots, and $471.19 
in grading, etc., leaving on hand a balance of $5428.81. The addi- 
tional subscription of $5000 for the Guggenheim Pavilion made by 
M. Guggenheim's Sons was expended on that structure. 

The cash on hand in all the funds May 1, 1904, was $14,266.36. 

Admissions and Dismissions. — January 1, 1903: Patients In 
hospital, 69; admitted during the year, 165; total treated during 
the year, 234; recovered, 37; greatly improved, 45; slightly im- 
proved, 30; unimproved, 35; not tubercular, 4; died, 4; in hospi- 
tal, 79. 

Recapitulation since the opening of institution: Patients ad- 
mitted from December 10, 1899, to January 1, 1903, 389; from 
January 1, 1903, to December 1, 1903, 165; total admitted from 
December 10, 1899, to January 1, 1904, 554; in hospital January 
1, 1904, 79. Daily average number of patients during 1903, 78.3; 
discharged from December 10, 1899, to January 1, 1903, 288; died 
from December 10, 1899, to January 1, 1903, 32; total, 320; dis- 
charged from January 1 to December 31, 1903, 151; died, 4; total 
155. Discharged from December 10, 1899, to January 1, 1904, 439; 
died, 36; total, 475. 

Daily per capita expenses during 1903: for maintenance, $1.10; 
for maintenance and other expenses, $1.48. 

The term " greatly improved," as used in the above report, is 
intended to convey that, though not entirely recovered, patients 
have so much improved that they are able to follow their usual 
vocations amid the proper sanitary surroundings, and in most in- 
stances are able to support themselves and their families. 

In the list of patients since December, 1899, nearly every State 
and every city of note in the country has been represented. 





tion on 
ing the 



and First 



Cases in 



Cases in 

Condltion on 

Leaving the 



Recovered . . 
Improved. . . 

Recovered . . 
Improved. . . 

Recovered . . 
Improved. . . 

Present Condition 

46 80 1 
83 8 .. 

47 87 8 
1 .. .. 

.. .. 8 
6 .. 8 

.. .. 8 

.. .. 1 
8 .. .. 

86 8 16 


14 . 
18 . 

8 . 
1 . 

15 . 

6 . 


• • • 


• • • 



8 . 
8 . 

• • • 


• • • 

8 . 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



. 89 


. 81 

. 18 

Remained In Denver. Well. 
Remained in West. Well. 
Returned home. Well. 
Unsatisfactory cond^n in Denver. 
Unsatisfactory cond^n in West. 
Unsatisfactory cond^n at home. 
Died in Denver. 
Died in West. 
Died at home. 
Whereabouts and history unkn'n. 

It will be noted in the above statistics that a great many deaths 
occurred during the first year. This is due to the fact that as 
there was room in the institution, patients who were in the last 
stages were taken in because they had no shelter, nor care, nor 
food. Again, that many patients lost ground or died after leav- 
ing the Institution markedly improved, was due to several 
causes. Most of them left the institution before they ought to 
have done so and against the advice of the medical attendants, 
because they felt their strength returning and were anxious to pro- 
vide for themselves and their families. They could not be made to 
understand that the Improvement in their condition would not last 
unless a longer time were given to build up the system. Others 
received letters from home describing the want and privations 
other members of the family were sufTering. Whether warranted 
or not, such news produced worry and home-sickness in the pa- 
tients, and they returned to their homes to take care of their 
families. Others, again, notwithstanding the attending physi- 
cians' advice to remain in Colorado after discharge, returned to 
their old homes and to the same conditions that caused the 
disease in the first instance, and succumbed. However, as shown 
by the tabulated statistics, a relatively large number of dis- 
charged patients are at their former homes and are doing well. 


In considering the statistics, the reader must remember that very 
few Incipient cases are received In the hospital. The class of 
patients cared for by the Hospital do not have the opportunity to 
discover Incipient consumption, and even If they should, they 
have not the means to take care of themselves at once. Otherwise 
results would be greater still. 

The rules governing the admission of patients to the Hospital 
have received the endorsement of the authorities of the Agnes 
Memorial Hospital, Denver, founded by LAwrence Phlpps In honor 
of his mother, and endowed with a very large fund. The organ- 
izers of this Institution Inspected the best hospitals of Europe 
and America, and In the end adopted, with slight alterations, the 
rules of the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, which 
the latter, being at the time of Its establishment the only chari- 
table Institution In America for the free treatment of the 
tuberculous poor, had formulated as the result of its own exper- 
ience. The modifications made by the Agnes Memorial Hospital 
tend to make the rules more stringent. As In the National Jewish 
Hospital, only curable cases are accepted, but the time limit Is 
six Instead of twelve months. By reason of the longer limit the 
Jewish Hospital Is continually confronted with the problem of 
caring for those who are dismissed either becauiie of the expira- 
tion of their time or because they are found Incurable. In all 
cases a guarantee for the care or the return of the patient to his 
or her home Is on hand. But the return Is often undesirable, and 
committees are now at work to solve this problem, so that light 
labor for a period after dismissal can be provided. That would 
give many a slowly-Improving patient an opportunity to get the 
full benefit of the climate. It Is highly desirable that patients 
before attempting to go to the Hospital, or those Interested In 
patients, shall acquaint themselves with the rules governing the 
admissions of patients. They will be found In full on pp. 151-153, 
Amebican Jewish Teab Book, 5664. 

The Guggenheim Pavilion, dedicated January 25, 1903, was the 
gift of M. Guggenheim's Sons, and was erected at a cost of 
$35,000 In memory of their mother Barbara Guggenheim. This, 
though It Increased the facilities appreciably, has not fully met 
the needs of the Institution. The waiting list Is crowded largely 
with women. There Is urgent need of a new woman's pavilion 
so that the segregation of the sexes may be more strict, besides 
giving the additional much-needed room. 

During the summer of 1904 a stretch of ground In front of the 
Hospital was cleared and seeded. The free use of this frontage 
Is given by the New York owners of the property until such a 
time as It shall be disposed of. 

The Hospital management has In contemplation the Immediate 


erection of two long tents with adjustible sides. These will ma- 
terially assist the patients in getting the greatest possible good 
out of the open air. 

Officebs. — President, Samuel Grabfelder, Louisville, Ky.; First 
Vice-President, Sol. W. Levi, Cincinnati, O.; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, Louis Gerstley, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treasurer, BenJ. Alt- 
heimer, St. Louis, Mo.; Secretary, Alfred Muller, 521%-526 Ernst 
and Cranmer Building, Denver, Colo.; Field Secretary, Mrs. S. 
Pisko, Denver, Colo. 

Tbustees at Denveb. — Rabbi W. S. Friedman, Meyer Friedman, 
and Simon Guggenheim. 

Auxiliary Boabd of Dibectobs. — Jos. Hlrsch, David Kaufman, 
Rabbi David Marks, Atlanta, Ga.; Rabbi H. Schlesinger, Albany, 
N. Y.; Rabbi Dr. L. Mayer, Dr. Edward E. Mayer, Allegheny City; 
Abe Morgenroth, Anderson, Ind.; Mrs. Levi S. Levor, Attica, Ind.; 
Rev. Dr. Isidore Philo, Akron, O.; Samuel Katzenstein, Alliance, 
O.; Mrs. Edna Weil Dreyfus, Boston, Mass.; Herman Wile, 
Buffalo, N. Y.; Mrs. Jos. Siegel, Butte, Mont.; Samuel Ullman, Bir- 
mingham, Ala.; Sigmund B. Sonneborn, A. A. Brager, Baltimore, 
Md.; Oscar Mandel, Bloomington, 111.; B. Blum, Bellaire, O.; 
Leo Newman, Braddock, Pa.; L. B. Oppenheim, Bay City, Mich.; 
Leo A. Loeb, E. J. Kohn, Mrs. Hannah G. Solomon, Israel Cowen, 
Chicago, 111.; Ed. Goodman, Columbus, Ohio; Martin A. Marks, 
Cleveland, O.; Sol. W. Levi, Max Senior, Abe Bloch, Cincinnati, 
O.; J. M. Kaufman, Champaign, 111.; Mrs. Leopold Rauh, Dayton, 
O.; E. M. Kahn, Dallas, Tex.; Milton D. Goldman, Des Moines, la.; 
Alfred Rothschild, Detroit, Mich.; S. Plant, Danville, 111.; Henry 
Bachrach, Decatur, 111.; Louis S. Loeb, Duluth, Minn.; Philip W. 
Frey, Evansville, Ind.; Louis Levy, Eau Claire, Wis.; M. Eppstein, 
Frankfort, Ky.; Rabbi A. Brill, Greenville, Miss.; Nate Salinger, 
Goshen, Ind.; Jacob Ely, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Morris Baldauf, 
Henderson, Ky.; Mrs. Herman Gans, Rabbi Jacob Mielziner, 
Helena, Mont.; Sol. S. Kiser, Mrs. Emma Eckhouse, Indianapolis, 
Ind.; Nathan Lorie, Kansas City, Mo.; S. Schnewind, Kokomo, 
Ind.; Rabbi Louis Wolsey, Max Heiman, Louis M. Levy, Little 
Rock, Ark.; Henry C. Mayer, Lincoln Neb.; Henry Doob, LaSalle, 
111.; Harris Newmark, Rabbi Dr. S. Hecht, H. W. Frank, Los 
Angeles, Cal. ; D. W. Stern, La Porte, Ind. ; Henry Loevenhart, Lex- 
ington, Ky.; N. L. Michael, Lima, Ohio; Joseph Wiler, Logansport, 
Ind.; Frank Atlass, Lincoln, 111.; Hy. M. Oberndorfer, M. D. 
Newald, Mrs. I. D. Adler, Charles Friend, Paul Sldenberg, Mil- 
waukee; J. M. Davis, Minneapolis, Minn.; Rabbi W. H. Fine- 
shriber, Moline, 111.; Ellas Lowenstein, Memphis, Tenn.; M. 
Mohr, Montgomery, Ala.; E. E. Richard, Mobile, Ala.; Leo Nuss- 
baum, Marion, Ind.; Louis Katz, Mattoon, 111.; Lee Rosenbaum, 
Mt. Vernon, Ind.; Henry Strelitz, Marion, O.; Jacob Aarons, Man- 


istee, Mich.; Max Bachman, McKeesport, Pa.; Archibald A. 
Marx, Isidore Newman, Sr., Rabbi I. L. Leucht, New Orleans, La.; 
Mrs. Ludwig Dreyfus, Mrs. Hannah B. Einstein, Ignatius Rice, 
Jos. E. Shoenberg, H. Sirotta, Simon Guggenheim, Adolph Lewi- 
sohn, Louis Stern, Mrs. Ira L. Bamberger, New York; Jos. Goetz, 
Newark, N. J.; Wm. Herman, Nashville, Tenn.; Rabbi S. G. 
Bottigheimer, Natchez, Miss.; Joseph H. Ullman, New Haven, 
Conn.; Sol. Kahn, Oakland, Cal.; Ben Wile, Owensboro, Ky.; Max 
Bamberger, Louis Gerstley, Philadelphia; Philip Hamburger, M. 
Oppenheimer, A. Lippman, O. H. Rosenbaum, Rabbi J. Leonard 
Levy, D. D., Pittsburg; Samuel Woolner Peoria, 111.; Benj. F. 
Koperlik, Pueblo, Colo.; Jos. L. Friedman, Paducah, Ky.; Rabbi 
Jos. S. Kornfeld, Pine Bluff, Ark.; Rabbi Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Ben 
Selling, I. M. Fleischner, Portland, Ore.; Ike L. Price, Paris, Ky.; 
Felix Levy, Peru, Ind.; Abe Louis, Piqua, O.; Sol. Spear, Ply- 
mouth, O.; Rabbi Edward N. Calisch, Richmond, Va.; B. Roth- 
schild, Toby Meyer, Martin Wolf, Rochester; Ben Altheimer, Chas. 
H. Stix, Mrs. Aug. Frank, J. D. Goldman, St. Louis; J. West- 
heimer, St. Paul, Minn.; Dr. O. A. Blumenthal, Syracuse, N. T.; 
Rabbi M. P. Jacobson, Shreveport, La.; Samuel Westheimer, St. 
Joseph, Mo.; Judge M. C. Sloss, Rev. Dr. J. Nieto, M. J. Branden- 
stein, Phil. N. Aronson, I. W. Hellman, Jr., Bert Hecht, Sanford 
Goldstein, Moses Gunst, Abe Brown, Jacob Greenebaum, Lucius L. 
Solomons, Rabbi Jacob Voorsanger, Ben Schloss, San Francisco, 
Cal.; Leo Kohn, Seattle, Wash.; Leo S. Schwabacher, Seattle, 
Wash.; Samuel R. Stern, Spokane, Wash.; F. L. Womser, Scran- 
ton, Pa.; Sol. Goldsmith, Scranton, Pa.; Albert Elkus, Sacramento, 
Cal.; Joseph Rosenheim, Savannah, Ga.; Mrs. Jacob Rothschild, 
Springfield, Mo.; S. Grossman, South Bend, Ind.; B. Engle, Shelby- 
vllle, Ky.; S. Altshul, Jr., Springfield, O.; Rabbi S. Freudenthal, 
Trinidad, Colo.; J. Lasalle, Rev. Chas. J. Freund, Toledo, Ohio; 
Harry T. Schloss, Terre Haute, Ind.; S. Benda, Traverse City, 
Mich.; S. Stettheimer, Titusville, Pa.; Joseph Hirsh, Rabbi S. L. 
Kory, Vicksburg, Miss.; Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C; Louis 
Schloss, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Henry New, Wabash, Ind.; S. M. Rice, 
Wheeling, W. Va.; Leo Guthman, Toungstown, O.; Julius Frank, 
Zanesville, Ohio. 


The year 5664 was intermediate between two biennial sessions 
of the Order Brith Abraham. Grand Secretary, Leonard Leiser- 
sohn, Florence Building, Second Av. and First Street, New York 



t District Grand Lodge No. 1 of the Order Kesher Shel Barzel 
held its Biennial Convention February 14, 1904, in New York City. 
The President, A. N. Rotholz, in his report advocated the amal- 
gamation of lodges. The report of the Grand Secretary, Moses 
Greenbaum, showed the endowment receipts for 1903 to be 
$13,411.59, and the payments to be $21,500, necessitating a with- 
drawal of $9,300 from the Reserve Fund, which now stands at 
$73,044. The number of members is 799. The following officers 
were elected: Grand President, A. N. Rotholz; First Grand Vice- 
President, J. Ankel; Second Grand Vice-President, S. Cahn; 
Grand Treasurer, Charles Marks; Grand Secretary, Moses Green- 
baum; Chairman Board of Endowments, L. S. Davidson; Treas- 
urer Board of Endowments, N. Cowen. 

District Grand Lodge No. 3 of the Order Kesher Shel Barzel 
held its Annual Convention in Philadelphia, Pa., April 24, 1904. 
The following officers were elected: President, H. Herzberg, 
Philadelphia; First Vice-President, Simon Heller, Washington, 
D. C; Second Vice-President, Isaac L. Greenewald, Wilmington, 
N. C; Treasurer, Isaac Alkus, Philadelphia; Secretary, Sam'l 
W. Goodman, 116 North 3d, Philadelphia. The report of the 
Endowment Commissioner for 1903 showed receipts $30,347.47; 
disbursements $26,005.10; balance in bank January, 1904, $4342.37. 

District Grand Lodge No. 4 of the Order Kesher Shel Barzel, as 
reported in the last issue of the American Jewish Yeab Book 
(p. 154), is engaged in winding up its affairs. Secretary, Max 
Liebschiitz, 12th and Vine, Cincinnati, O. 


No report received. Grand Secretary, J. D. Zinner, 36 Black- 
stone Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 


The Ninth Annual Convention of the Progressive Order of 
the West was held January 31 to February 3, 1904, at St. Louis, 
Mo., two hundred delegates being present. The Grand Secretary 
reported that the receipts from all sources had been $9209.44, to 
which must be added $9852.92, the balance on hand after the 
previous convention. The disbursements, among them death 
claims to the amount of $5500, were $8375.20, leaving a balance 
of $10,687.16 on hand. The number of members, male and female. 
In the twenty-five lodges of the Order, situated in St. Louis and 
Kansas City, Mo., Kansas City, Kan., and Chicago, 111., was re- 


ported to be 2145. Since the convention this number has in- 
creased to 2514. 

Officers. — Grand Master, M. I. De Vorkln, St. Louis, Mo.; First 
Deputy Grand Master, B. Frank, St. Louis, Mo.; Second Deputy 
Grand Master, Wolf Kirshbaum, Kansas City, Mo.; Third Deputy 
Grand Master, James Rosenthal, Chicago, 111.; District Deputies, 
A. Bay less, Kansas City, Kan.; M. Englander, Kansas City, Mo.; 
I. Sandler, Chicago, 111.; Grand Treasurer, S. Levitt, St. Louis, 
Mo.; Beneficial Treasurer, John Ellman, St. Louis, Mo.; Grand 
Secretary, Gus. Cytron, Fraternal Bldg., Room 9, 11th and Frank- 
lin Av., St. Louis, Mo. 


The work accomplished by the Society of American Cantors 
since its reorganization in May, 1903, has established it firmly as 
a factor in the development of Judaism in America and more 
particularly in the development of the Cantorate in America. 

The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Salomon Sulzer, which took place on March 22, 1904, at Temple 
Ahavath Chesed Shaar Hashomayim, New York City, was a not- 
able event, and it was so considered by the rabbinate and the 
Jewish press of the country and by all persons interested in the 
regulation of the Jewish divine service. Three addresses were 
delivered, one on Salomon Sulzer, by the Rev. A. Kaiser, of 
Baltimore, the President of the Society; one by the Rev. Dr. I. S. 
Moses, of New York City, on " The Cantor as a Religious Func- 
tionary," and the third by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Silverman, New 
York City. The members of the Society together with the choirs 
of the various congregations of New York City sang selections 
from Sulzer's " Schir Zlon." In honor of the occasion the Society 
had published a souvenir volume of selections from this work of 
Sulzer's, adapting them for use at the Friday evening service in 
the American synagogues. 

At the suggestion of the Society, the Central Conference of 
American Rabbis had fixed a date, the last Sabbath in March, 
on which all the members of the Conference were requested to 
speak to their congregations on the life and infiuence of Sulzer. 
In the course of the year there had appeared the first biographical 
sketch of Sulzer in the English language, written and published 
by a member of the Society, the Rev. S. Rappaport, New York 

The First Annual Meeting of the Society of American Cantors 
since its reorganization (the Eleventh since its formation) took 
place on March 23, 1904, in New York City. It was resolved to 
publish the annual report of the Society and include in it the 


program of the Sulzer celebration and» in extenao, the three ad- 
dresses delivered on that occasion. The pamphlet, under the edi- 
torship of the Rev. S. Rappaport, has since appeared. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Society held at 
Philadelphia on April 10, 1904, it was resolved to issue a supple- 
mentary volume to contain all the music for Sabbath morning 
and the three Festivals, adapted and arranged for the American 

The following advisory committee was appointed to outline a 
plan for the future activity of the Society: Chairman, H. Silver- 
man; Secretary, S. Rappaport, Ed. Kartschmaroff, D. Cahn, Theo. 
Guinsburg, M. Martin, all of New York City; Ed. Stark, San 
Francisco, Cal.; M. Goldstein, Cincinnati, O.; Wm. Loewenberg, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

A local branch of the Society for New York City was organized 
on November 15, 1903. During the winter of 1903-1904 it under- 
took to furnish, and did furnish, a cantor, every Saturday after- 
noon, for the divine service at the Educational Alliance, bedsides 
holding itself ready to meet all local emergencies that arise from 
time to time in the community. A movement is now on foot to 
make efTorts tending toward uniformity in the worship, music, and 
hymns of the educational and benevolent institutions of New York 
City. Officers and Trustees. — President, S. Rappaport, 256 W. 
98th; Vice-President, Ed. Kartschmaroff; Secretary, Joseph Man- 
delberg; Theo. Guinsburg, D. Cahn. 

Officebs and Boabd of Dibectobs. — President, Alois Kaiser, 
Baltimore, Md.; Vice-President, S. Rappaport, New York City; 
Treasurer, Ed. Kartschmaroff, New York City; Secretary, Wm. 
Loewenberg, 1842 North 13th, Philadelphia, Pa.; David Cahn, 
Theo. Guinsburg, and H. Goldstein, New York City. 


The Second Annual Convention of the Southern Rabbinical 
Association was held March 9-12, 1904, at Birmingham, Ala. 
There were twenty-four rabbis present, representing the fol- 
lowing Southern States: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. The Secretary 
reported eight new members, elected during the year. 

The first evening of the Convention, the address of welcome 
was delivered by Rabbi Morris Newfleld, of Birmingham, Ala., 
the response by the Rev. Dr. I. L. Leucht, of New Orleans, La.^ 
and the president's message by the Rev., Dr. Max Samfleld, ojf 
Memphis, Tenn. 

The following papers were presented during the sessions: " The 


Jew as Statesman/' by the Rev. Dr. Henry Barnsteln, of Houston, 
Tex.; "Marcus Jastrow — ^his Life and Times," by Rabbi Wolf 
Wlllner, of Meridian, Miss.; "The Position and Influence of the 
Southern Rabbi among non-Jews/' by Rabbi Joseph Blatt, of 
Columbus, Ga.; "Methods of Studying the History of Southern 
Jews and Judaism/' by Rabbi Alfred G. Moses, of Mobile, Ala.; 
" Modern Tendencies in Judaism,' by Rabbi David Wittenberg, of 
Jacksonville, Fla. An address on " Circuit Work " was also given 
by Rabbi George Zepin, Director of Circuit Work of the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations. The Executive Committee pre- 
sented a report on " Rabbinical Ethics." 

The invitation of the Jewish Orphans' Home of New Orleans 
to meet in that city in January, 1905, and participate in the fiftieth 
anniversary of the institution, was unanimously accepted. 

It was moved to devote an entire day of the next session to a 
discussion of Sabbath School Work. 

Officebs and Executive Committee. — ^President, Max Samfield, 
Memphis, Tenn.; Vice-President, George Solomon, Savannah, Ga.; 
Secretary, David Marx, 270 Whitehall, Atlanta, Ga.; Treasurer, 
E3dward S. Levy, Selma, Ala.; I. L. Leucht, New Orleans, La.; 
Morris Newfield, Birmingham, Ala.; Louis Wolsey, Little Rock, 

The session closed with Sabbath Services, the Conference lee* 
ture being delivered by Rabbi Louis Wolsey, of Little Rock, Ark., 
and the Conference sermon by Rabbi George Solomon, of Savan- 
nah, Ga. 


On July 8, 1904, The Union of American Hebrew Congregations 
completed the thirty-first year of its existence. The past year 
was intermediate between two meetings of the Council, whose 
next meeting will be held in Chicago, 111., on January 17, 1905. 
The Union now comprises 128 congregations with an aggregate 
membership of fourteen thousand. 

.The three most important subjects that have occupied the 
attention of the Executive Oflicers of The Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations during the past year are: The Hebrew 
Union College, the organization of Congregations and Sabbath 
Schools, and the protection of the civil rights of Jews where they 
were in Jeopardy. 

Hebrew Union Colleqs 

During the past year the number of registered students was 
thirty-seven. Of these ten were in the Preparatory Department, 
and twenty-seven in the Collegiate Department. 


Ten members of the Senior Class were ordained at the Com- 
mencement exercises on June 11, 1904, the degree of Rabbi being 
conferred by the President, the Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, on Harry W. 
Bttelson, B. A.; Harry G. Friedman, B. A.; Bphraim Frisch, B. A.; 
Alfred T. Godshaw, B. A.; Samuel H. Goldenson, B. A.; Joseph 
Jasin, B. A.; Leonard J. Rothstein, B. A.; Mendel Silber» B. A.; 
Joseph H. Stolz, Ph. B.; and Nathan Stern, Ph. D. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Sale, of St. Louis, Mo., delivered the Bac- 
calaureate sermon. 

Many valuable works have been added to the Library during the 
past year by purchase, and the card system of cataloguing has 
been introduced. It is intended to make large additions, by pur- 
chase, to the Library during the coming year, which will add 
materially to the scientific opportunities ottered by the College. 

CouBSE OF Study. — Hebrew Grammar, Bible and its Commen- 
taries of ancient and modern times, Talmud, Rabbinical Codes, 
Midrash, Jewish History and Literature, Jewish Philosophy, 
Liturgies, Pedagogics, Homiletics, Syriac, Arabic, and Aramaic. 

Scholarships. — ^Three annual scholarships have been estab- 
lished by patrons: The " Solomon Rayner Scholarship," donated 
by Mrs. Bertha Rayner Frank, of Baltimore, Md., of the value 
of three hundred dollars; the ''Kaufmann Kohler Scholarship," 
donated by Mr. Jacob H. Schilf, of New York, of the value of 
one hundred dollars; the ''Madeline Wise Rheinstrom Scholar- 
ship," donated by Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom, Mi's. Eva Wise, and 
Mr. Jacob Rheinstrom, of Cincinnati, O., of the value of two 
hundred and forty dollars. To these, the Board of Governors 
have added a number of scholarships ranging from one hundred 
and fifty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars a year, which 
are awarded to deserving students as a reward for excellence In 

Publications. — ^The following publications have been Issued 
during the past year: 1. "Program," 1903-1904; 2. "Ceremonies 
at the Installation of Rev. Dr. Kaufmann Kohler as President of 
the Hebrew Union College," Sunday, October 18, 1903; 3. "The 
Hebrew Union College Annual," June, 1904. 

A movement is now on foot to erect a new College Building in 
the vicinity of the University of Cincinnati. 

Faculty. — ^President and Professor of Historical and Systematic 
Theology and Hellenistic Literature, the Rev. Dr. Kaufmann 
Kohler; Professor of Jewish History and Literature, Uie Rev. 
Dr. G. Deutsch; Professor of Homiletics, Rabbi David Phllipson, 
D. D.; Professor of Pedagogics and Ethics, Rabbi Louis Gross- 
mann, D. D.; Professor of Jewish Philosophy and Instructor in 
Talmud (Registrar), the Rev. Ephralm Feldman, B. D.; Professor 
of Talmud and Instructor in Jewish-Arabic Philosophy and Litera- 


ture, the Rev. Henry Malter, Ph. D.; Instructor in Bible and 
Targum, the Rev. S. Mannheimer, B. A.; Instructor in Hebrew 
and Aramaic (Secretary), Caspar Levias, M. A.; Instructor in 
Bible Eizegesis, Moses Buttenwieser, Ph. D.; Instructor in Bible 
Eixegesis and Rabbinic Literature, and Librarian, Max Schloes- 
singer, Ph.D.; Tutor in Elocution, James Madison Chapman, of 
Miami University. 

Board of Governors of the Hebrew Union College. — Bemhard 
Bettmann, President; Edward L. Heinsheimer, Vice-President; 
Abe Bloom, Alfred M. Cohen, Nathan Drucker, Julius BYeiberg, 
Simon Greenebaum, Jacob Kronacher, Louis S. Levi, Max B. 
May, Jacob Ottenheimer, the Rev. Dr. David Philipson, and Emil 
PoUak, of Cincinnati, O.; the Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Alfred 
M. Klein, and the Rev. Dr. Jos. Krauskopf, of Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Samuel Grabf elder, Louisville, Ky.; the Rev. Dr. Max Landsberg, 
Rochester, N. Y.; the Rev. Dr. J. Leonard Levy, Pittsburg, Pa.; 
Solms Marcus, Chicago, 111.; the Rev. M. Samfield, Memphis, 
Tenn.; the Rev. Dr. Joseph Silverman, New York City; Louis 
Stern, New York City; and the Rev. Dr. Jacob Voorsanger, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Circuit Work 

Rabbi George Zepin, formerly of Kalamazoo, Mich., a graduate 
of the Hebrew Union College, was appointed on September 1, 
1903, as Director of Circuit Work. He has since then organized 
forty Congregations in Michigan, Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. 
These have an aggregate membership of nine hundred. The 
Sabbath Schools organized in these places instruct more than 
seven hundred pupils. These forty congregations have subscribed 
thirty thousand dollars for religious purposes for the first year. 
The Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congre- 
gations has made a liberal appropriation for this work for the 
coming year, to include the appointment of an assistant to the 
Director, for which position the Rev. Alfred T. Godshaw has 
been chosen. It is contemplated by Rabbi Zepin to visit Span- 
ish-American countries for the purpose of Jewish propaganda, 
and sending Spanish-speaking students to the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege to qualify themselves for the Jewish ministry in their respec- 
tive homes. 

The Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights 

This Board, under the chairmanship of the Honorable Simon 
Wolf, of Washington, D. C, has taken active measures for the 
protection of worthy Jewish immigrants who are in danger of 
being unjustly discriminated against when making efltorts to 
find a home in this country. 


BoABD OF Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights. — David 
Adler, Milwaukee, Wis.; Josiah Cohen, Pittsburg, Pa.; Israel 
Cowen, Chicago, 111.; Felix J. Dreyfous, New Orleans, La.; 
Henry S. Frank, Butte, Mont.; Nathan BYank, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Jacob Furth, Cleveland, O.; Louis J. Goldman, Cincinnati, O.; 
Joseph B. Greenhut, Peoria, 111.; Wm. B. Hackenburg, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Isaias W. Hellmann, San BYancisco, Cal.; Moritz Loth, 
Cincinnati, O.; M. War ley Platzek, New York City; Charles H. 
Schwab, Chicago, 111.; Lewis Seasongood, Cincinnati, O.; Alfred 
Selligman, Louisville, Ky.; Leo Wise, Cincinnati, O.; Simon Wolf, 
Chairman, Washington, D. C; Samuel Woolner, Peoria, 111. 

The Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund 

Subscriptions to the Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund have reached 
the sum of four hundred thousand dollars. It is contemplated to 
continue the subscriptions until the sum of one million dollars 
shall have been raised. 

Executive Boabd of the Union of American Hebrew Congre- 
gations. — Isaac W. Bernheim, Louisville, Ky.; Marcus Bern- 
heimer, St. Louis, Mo.; Bernhard Bettmann, Cincinnati, O.; 
Josiah Cohen, Pittsburg, Pa.; Morris M. Cohn, Little Rock, Ark.; 
Solomon Fox, Cincinnati, O.; Julius Freiberg, Cincinnati, O.; 
Louis J. Goldman, Vice-President, Cincinnati, O.; Nathan Ham- 
burger, Milwaukee, Wis.; Samuel B. Hamburger, New York City; 
Samuel Heavenrich, Detroit, Mich.; Lewis Heinsheimer, Cincin- 
nati, O.; Abram J. Katz, Rochester, N. Y.; Adolf Kraus, Chicago, 
111.; Louis Krohn, Treasurer, Cincinnati, O.; Moritz Loth, Cin- 
cinnati, O.; Baruch Mahler, Cleveland, O.; Morris Newburger, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Abram Oppenheimer, Buffalo, N. Y.; Sigmund 
Rheinstrom, Cincinnati, O.; Jacob H. Schiff, New York City; 
Charles Shohl, Cincinnati, O.; Julius Straus, Richmond, Va.; 
Isaac Strouse, Baltimore, Md.; Julius Weis, New Orleans, La.; 
Emanuel Werthelmer, Pittsburg, Pa.; Samuel Woolner, President, 
Peoria, 111.; Sol. Sulzberger, New York City; Lipman Levy, Secre- 
tary, Commercial Tribune Building, Cincinnati, O. 

Hebrew Union College Alumni Association 

The annual meeting of the Alumni Association of the Hebrew 
Union College was held at Louisville, Ky., June 28, 1904, Rabbi 
Joseph Stolz presiding. Rabbi Emil Leipziger serving as Secre- 
tary, 36 members present. 

A constitution was adopted containing the following provision: 
" The object of this Association shall be to cement the bonds of 
fraternal relationship and elevate the ethics of the profession; 
to keep the graduates in closer touch with their Alma Mater and 


the student body; to secure and exercise a collective voice and 
representation in ihe administration of the College; to encourage 
united effort in bringing the interests of the College before the 
people, looking towards the establishment of professorships and 
scholarships and the securing of additional subscriptions to the 
Endowment Fund; to encourage the study of Jewish lore and 
scholarly investigations; to co-operate with the Union of Amer- 
ican Hebrew Congregations and the Central Conference of Amer- 
ican Rabbis, enlarge their usefulness and secure their perpet- 
uation; to assist one another in the furthering of national pro- 
jects for the advancement of American Israel; to collate statistics 
regarding the life and activities of the graduates/' 

The Historian and Treasurer submitted their annual reports. 

The President reported that the monument erected by the 
Alumni upon the grave of the Rev. Dr. Moses Mielziner would be 
dedicated July 3, with the following program: Prayer, Rabbi 
Nathan Krasnowetz; Scriptural Reading, Rabbi Harry Levi; Ad- 
dresses: Rabbis Stolz, Franklin, and Rosenau; Kaddish, Rabbi 
Jacob Mielziner. 

Fifty Dollars was appropriated for the next Hebrew Union 
College " Annual." Two annual prizes consisting of a copy of 
Mikraot Gedolot and of Yad ha-hazaka were voted for the most 
meritorious scholars in the collegiate department of the Hebrew 
Union College. 

In honor of the seventieth birthday of Mr. B. Bettmann, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Governors of the Hebrew Union College, 
Mr. Leo Mielziner, of Paris, was commissioned to paint an oil 
portrait of the septuagenarian, the same to be hung on the walls 
of the college as a testimonial of the Alumni's appreciation of 
Mr. Bettmann's valuable services to the institution. 

Dr. Krauskopf reported that the Isaac M. Wise Endowment 
Fund, started by the Alumni and fostered by the Union of Amer- 
ican Hebrew Congregations, amounted to $387,000, and the indi- 
vidual members of the Alumni had subscribed $20,275 to the Fund. 
An additional pledge of $15,000 was made at the meeting. 

A committee was appointed to write a College Song. 

Officebs. — President, Joseph Stolz, Chicago, 111.; Vice-President, 
E. N. Calish, Richmond, Va.; Treasurer, A. Hirshberg, Chicago, 
111.; Secretary, E. W. Leipziger, 706 South Fifth, Terre Haute, 
Ind.; Historian, D. Lefkowitz, Dayton, Ohio. 


The year 5664 was intermediate between two biennial meetings 
of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of the United 


States and Canada. President, Rev. Dr. H. Perelra Mendes, 99 
Central Park West, New York City; Secretary, Albert Lucas, 56 
West 105th, New York City. 


The Third Annual Convention of the United Orthodox Rabbis 
of America was held in New York City July 3-7, 1904. There 
were present upwards of fifty members, out of a membership of 
somewhat more than eighty. In the absence of the Rev. B. L. 
Levinthal, of Philadelphia, the earlier sessions of the Conven- 
tion were presided over by Rabbi A. J. G. Lesser, of Cincinnati. 

On the receipt of the news of the death of Theodor Herzl, reso- 
lutions of respect to his memory were adopted, and a eulogy 
pronounced by Rabbi S. Margolies, of Boston. On the last even- 
ing but one of the Convention, a memorial service under the 
auspices of the Mlzrachi wing of the Zionist organization was 
held at the synagogue of the Anshe Suwalk Congregation, which 
was attended by the rabbis in a body, the service being conducted 
by Rabbi J. D. Ridwas, of Chicago, and the Rev. Dr. Philip Klein, 
of New York. Among the speakers were Rabbis Sivitz, of Pitts- 
burg; Lasker, of Troy; Rosenberg, of Brooklyn; Goodman, of 
Jersey City; and Rosenberg, of Bayonne, N. J. 

The following resolutions were passed: That laymen be Invited 
to Join the organization in order to represent the orthodox con- 
gregations in all matters save those pertaining to the rabbinical 
law; that a conference of teachers be convened to draft the cur- 
riculum for Talmud Torahs; that a special organization to 
strengthen orthodox Judaism be called into existence; and that 
the authorities presiding over Talmud Torahs and Yeshibahs be 
requested to institute lectures for the young on Saturday and 
Sunday afternoons. 

Officers. — President, A. J. G. Lesser, Cincinnati, O.; First 
Vice-President, S. Margolies, Boston, Mass.; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, B. Abrahamowitz, New York; Treasurer, D. Ginsburg, 
Rochester, N. Y.; Secretary, J. J. Falk Israelite, Chelsea, Mass. 



The National Convention of the Republican Party held at 
Chicago, 111., adopted, June 22, 1904, the following declara- 

We commend the vigorous efforts made by the Administration 
to protect American citizens in foreign lands and pledge our- 
selves to insist upon the Just and equal protection of all our 
citizens abroad. It is the unquestioned duty of the Government 
to procure for all our citizens without distinction the rights of 
travel and sojourn in friendly countries, and we declare ourselves 
in favor of all efforts tending to that end. 

The National Convention of the Democratic Party held at 
St. Louis, Mo., adopted, on July 8, 1904, the following: 

We pledge ourselves to insist upon the Just and lawful pro- 
tection of our citizens at home and abroad, and to use all proper 
measures to secure for them, whether native born or naturalized, 
and without distinction of race or creed, the equal protection of 
laws and the enjoyment of all rights and privileges open to 
them under the covenants of our treaties of friendship and com- 
merce; and if, under existing treaties, the right of travel and 
sojourn is denied to American citizens or recognition is withheld 
from American passports by any countries on the ground of race 
or creed, we favor the beginning of negotiations with the govern- 
ments of such countries to secure by treaties the removal of these 
unjust discriminations. 

We demand that all over the world a duly authenticated pass- 
port issued by the Government of the United States to an Amer- 
ican citizen shall be proof of the fact that he is an American 
citizen, and shall entitle him to the treatment due him as such. 

These two declarations, although general in terms, refer, 
as a matter of fact, to the Russian Empire. Though the 
abuse at which they are aimed concerns all the citizens of the 
United States, it more specifically affects those of the Jewish 
faith, whether natural bom or naturalized. Article VI, Sec- 
tion 2, of the Constitution reads as follows : 


This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which 
shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or 
which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, 
shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every 
State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or 
Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

Prom this it will be seen that it is part of our fundamental 

system that all treaties made with the authority of the United 

States are the supreme law of the land. The relations of this 

Government with the Russian government so far as commerce, 

access, and travel are concerned, rest upon the treaty of 1832. 

The first article of this treaty reads as follows : 

There shall be between the territories of the high contracting 
parties a reciprocal liberty of commerce and navigation. The in- 
habitants of their respective States shall mutually have liberty to 
enter the pprts, places, and rivers of the territories of each party 
wherever foreign commerce is permitted. They shall be at liberty 
to sojourn and reside in all parts whatsoever of said territories, in 
order to attend to their affairs ; and they shall enjoy, to that effect, 
the same security and protection as natives of the country wherein 
they reside, on condition to their submitting to the laws and or- 
dinances there prevailing and particularly to the regulations in 
force concerning commerce. 

By the wording of this treaty, the executive branch of the 
government is obligated to secure, in Russia, equal rights, 
without any distinction whatsoever, for all citizens of the 
United States. 

That such rights are not secured may be learned from the 
following circular issued by the Secretary of State to natural- 
ized American citizens born in Russia who apply for a pass- 
port with the intention of travelling in Russia : 


Washington, 19 



The Department has received your letter of 

stating that you were born in Russia and have acquired natur- 


alization as a citizen of the United States, and asking whether, 
in the event of your return for a limited period to your native 
country, your passport as an American citizen will protect you 
from molestation or punishment from the Russian authorities. 
In reply, you are informed that, according to this Department's 
information, it is a punishable offense under Russian law for a 
Russian to become a citizen of any other country without Imperial 
consent. Although this law is at variance with our institutions 
and our statutes, this Government cannot encourage American 
citizens whom the law might affect to expect immunity from its 
operations if they place themselves within its sphere. 

The laws of Russia also exclude from Russian territory, except 
by special permission, all people of the Jewish faith, and while 
this Government has been endeavoring for some years past to 
secure a relaxation of these enactments, it is only proper to warn 
those who are within the category to which they refer that it has 
not yet been able to secure from the Russian Government a prom- 
ise of uniform treatment for all American travellers in Russia, 
without regard to their religious faith or place of birth. 

I am, sir. 

Your obedient servant. 

The refusal of the Russian Government to abide by the 
terms of its treaty and the obligation of the United States, 
both by law and treaty, to the protection of all its citizens 
has led to discussion in various quarters. On two occasions 
it has formed the subject of reference in the annual message 
of the President of the United States to the Congress. Presi- 
dent Arthur, in December, 1883, wrote: 

While there has arisen during the year no grave question 
affecting the status in the Russian Empire of American citizens 
of other faith than that held by the national church, this Govern- 
ment remains firm in its conviction that the rights of its citizens 
abroad should be in no wise affected by their religious belief. 

Again, in 1895, President Cleveland made the following 
statement in his message to Congress : 

Correspondence is on foot touching the practice of Russian 
consuls within the jurisdiction of the United States to interrogate 
citizens as to their race and religious faith, and upon ascertain- 
ment thereof to deny the Jews authentication of passports or 


legal documents for use in Russia. Inasmuch as such a proceed- 
ing imposes a disability which in the case of succession to pro- 
perty in Russia may be found to infringe the treaty rights of our 
citizens, and which is an obnoxious invasion of our territorial 
jurisdiction, it has elicited fitting remonstrance, the result of 
which, it is hoped, will remove the cause of complaint. 

But long before this diplomatic correspondence was active 
on the subject. Indeed, it is not too much to say that the viola- 
tion of this article of the Treaty of Commerce of 1832 has 
been the principal cause of difference between our own country 
and that of the Czar. A cursory examination of the diplomatic 
correspondence of the United States offers a mass of material 
on the subject, double in size of that which could be contained 
in a volume like the present one. As early as 1866, a case of 
this kind formed the subject of correspondence between Cas- 
sius M. Clay, our Minister to St. Petersburg, and William H. 
Seward, and there were other sporadic cases, but it was not 
until 1880 that diplomatic correspondence concerning the 
Jews in Eussia became active. William M. Evarts, in for- 
warding a communication on the subject to John W. Foster, 
Minister to St. Petersburg, under date of April 14, 1880, ob- 
served : 

You are sufficiently well informed of the liberal sentiments of 
this government to perceive that whenever any pertinent occasion 
may arise its attitude must always be in complete harmony with 
the principle of extending all rights and privileges, without dis- 
tinction on account of creed. 

On June 28, 1880, he wrote: 

I have to observe that in the presence of this fact, that an 
American citizen has been ordered to leave Russia on no other 
ground than he is the professor of a particular creed, or the 
holder of certain religious views, it becomes the duty of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, which impartially ceeks to protect 
all its citizens of whatever origin or faith, solemnly, but with all 
respect to the Government of His Majesty, to protest. .... The 


United States could not fall to look upon the expulsion of one of 
its citizens from Russia, on the simple ground of his religious 
ideas or convictions, except as a grievance, akin to that which 
Russia would doubtless find in the expulsion of one of her own 
citizens from the United States on the ground of his attachment 
to the faith of his fathers. 

It appears, however, that the person involved was obliged 
to leave Russia. Nevertheless, our Government did not aban- 
don his case, for on September 4, 1880, Mr. Evarts wrote to 
Mr. Foster as follows : 

If the meaning of this is that a citizen of the United States has 
been broken up in his business at St. Petersburg, simply for the 
reason that he is a Jew rather than a believer in any other creed, 
then it is certainly time for this government to express Itself as 
set forth in the instructions above mentioned. It should be made 
clear to the Government of Russia that In the view of this govern- 
ment the religion professed by one of its members has no relation 
to that citizen's right to the protection of the United States, and 
that in the eye of this government an Injury officially dealt to Mr. 
Pinkos in St. Petersburg, on the sole ground that he is a Jew, 
presents the same aspect that an Injury officially done to a citizen 
of Russia In New York for the reason that he attends any par- 
ticular church there, would to the view of His Majesty's Govern- 

But this strong protest apparently had no result, for on 
October 20, 1880, Mr. Poster reported to the Department of 
State that *^ it became his impleasant duty to report another 
similar case,^' which later formed the subject of correspondence 
between John W. Poster, when Secretary of State, and Andrew 
D. White, the latter writing : " I am satisfied that sooner or 
later the Russian Government must modify or repeal its illib- 
eral laws respecting the Jews, and I will lose no opportunity to 
do what I can to hasten that event.^^ On October 7, 1880, Mr. 
Poster addressed a note to the Eussian Government on the 
subject, and on October 22 of the same year, Mr. Hay wrote 
to Mr. Poster with regard to this case as follows : 


Your course appears to have been discreet, and it is hoped that 
you will press your representations to the successful establish- 
ment of the principle of religious toleration for our citizens 
peacefully travelling abroad, which we as a nation have such a 
deep interest in maintaining. 

On December 30, 1880, Mr. Foster reports an interview 
with M. de Giers. The dispatch, which is a very long one, 
contains an account of interviews both with the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and with General Melikoff, Minister of the 
Interior, and from it the following paragraphs are quoted : 

It will be seen that the answer to my protest, in the case of 
Pinkos, is in substance that all the acts of the Russian authorities 
complained of were in strict accordance with the existing laws. 
In Wilczynski's case the minister states that, in view of the 
intervention of the legation, he will be permitted to return to St. 
Petersburg and remain for six months. It is to be noted that this 
is the extreme length of time granted to any foreign resident upon 
his national passport. 

Notwithstanding the definite character of these replies, I 
deemed it important to hold the conference with the minister, 
agreed upon in my last visit, and I accordingly called at the 
foreign office at the hour designated, on the 16th instant, and was 
received by Mr. de Giers. I thanked him for the prompt answer 
which he had given to my notes in regard to Pinkos and Wil- 
czynski, but said that I had thought it desirable to have a personal 
interview (especially as the conclusions reached by his govern- 
ment In neither case were entirely satisfactory), as in this way 
we might the better reach some understanding and avoid future 
trouble. His answer in the case of Pinkos was that all the acts 
complained of were in strict accordance with the laws. In my 
effort to investigate the question I had found great difficulty in 
learning what the laws were in relation to the Jews. I could 
find no digest of them, but had been given a large volume, in the 
Russian language, of nearly twelve hundred pages, which I was 
informed related exclusively to the laws and regulations govern- 
ing the Jews in Russia. It appeared almost impossible for me to 
learn what the laws now existing were, and he could readily 
understand the difficulty a foreign Jewish merchant or visitor 
would have in understanding them. I recognized the considerate 
attention which the Russian Government had shown to all the 
requests of the legation regarding American Jews; but my gov- 
ernment objected to the discrimination on account of religion or 


race, which made the intervention of the legation necessary. 
It claimed for its citizens of the Jewish faith the same rights and 
protection extended to other American citizens, and insisted that 
there should be no distinction in applying the treaty guarantee of 
reciprocal liberty of commercial intercourse. If the Russian gov- 
ernment was not prepared to concede this, then until the views 
of these two governments could be harmonized, as new cases were 
constantly arising, it was desirable to know what the Russian 
laws and regulations in regard to foreign Jews were, and whether 
some general rule or course of action could be indicated, so that 
American Jews would know what treatment they might expect. 

The minister, Mr. de Giers, answered that the Russian Govern- 
ment had found the Jewish question a very vexatious and dis- 
agreeable one, both as to the internal relations, and the treatment 
of foreign Jews. 

So far as concerned Jews who were bona flde American citizens 
(not disguised German Jews), he would assure me of the most 
liberal treatment, as he knew it was the desire of the Emperor 
to show all possible consideration to American citizens. If such 
came to St. Petersburg and encountered any trouble, If I would 
merely send him an unofficial note, he would give them all the 
time I might ask for them to remain here to attend to their 
business. He expected to go to see the Emperor that day and 
would inform him that he had given me assurance that the 
American Jews should have this privilege, and he was sure his 
sovereign would approve his action; but this would be a special 
exception, as the existing laws must stand for the present for the 
protection of the government. 

I thanked the minister for the consideration which he proposed 
to show to this class of my countrymen and to the legation, and 
assured him that I highly appreciated the friendly spirit mani- 
fested towards the United States. I was, however, sorry to learn 
that the laws could not be entirely repealed, as such a course 
would be much more in accordance with the views entertained by 
my government, and it would be highly gratifying to it to see all 
prohibitions against Jews, naturalized or foreign, abolished. 

I have further to report that, acting upon the spirit of the in- 
structions contained in your No. 2, of April 14 last, and with the 
object of Impressing more fully upon the ministry the views of 
our government on the general subject of reform in Jewish legis- 
lation, I have also had a conversation with the minister of wor- 
ship, who listened with much interest to my presentation of 
the subject. He said that a commission was now engaged in 
studying the question of reform In these laws. He frankly 
recognized that the laws were not fully in accordance with the 
spirit of the age, and stated that it was the earnest desire of the 


Russian Government to conform its code on this subject more 
nearly to the civilization of this century, but it found itself 
surrounded by many difficulties to which other nations were not 
subjected, and that great prudence had to be exercised in the 

remedial measures taken 

I thought proper to again visit the foreign office on yesterday, 
and in recalling the subject to Mr. de Giers' attention, I referred 
to my interview with the minister of the interior. General Meli- 
koff, as very pleasant and cordial, but said that that interview 
developed more fully that the Russian Government was disposed 
to grant what we desired only as a tavor when my government 
asked it as a right. We objected to any discrimination being 
made against American citizens on account of religion, as our 
government was bound to extend equal protection to all its 
citizens without distinction; and, wLile I highly appreciated the 
consideration which it was proposed to show to American citizens 
of the Jewish faith, I feared my government would not be 
satisfied with the attitude which was assumed on the question 
as a matter of right. 

In a dispatch dated March 3, 1881, Mr. Evarts, in a letter 
to Mr. Poster, shifts the discussion to the sole ground of 
American citizenship in the following words : 

I have observed, however, that, in some of your conversations 
and writings with the foreign office, you give prominence to the 
natural American sympathy with oppressed Jews elsewhere as a 
motive for our solicitude as to the treatment of the Jews in 
Russia. Such solicitude might very properly exist; but in your 
presentation of the facts you should be careful to impress that we 
ask treaty treatment for our aggrieved citizens, not because they 
are Jews, but because they are Americans. Russia's treatment of 
her own Jews, or of foreign Jews resorting thither, may, in deter- 
minate cases, attract the sympathy of the American People, but 
the aim of the Government of the United States is the specific 
one of protecting its own citizens. If the hardships to which 
Russian and foreign Jews are subjected involves our citizens, we 
think we have just grounds for remonstrance and expectancy of 
better treatment. 

This government does not know or inquire the religion of the 
American citizens it protects. It cannot take cognizance of the 
methods by which Russian authorities may arrive at the con- 
clusion or conjecture that any given American citizen professes 
the Israelitish faith. The discussion of the recent cases has not 
yet developed any judicial procedure whereby an American citi- 


zen, otherwise unoffending against the laws, is to be convicted of 
Judaism, if that be an offense under Russian law; and we are 
not disposed to regard it as a maintainable point that a religious 
belief is, or can be, a military offense, to be dealt with under the 
arbitrary methods incident to the existence of a " state of siege." 

This government is not unmindful of the difficulties under 
which, as is alleged, that of Russia labors in dealing with those of 
her subjects whom she may deem disaffected; but the reasons 
adduced and methods adopted against them should have no appli- 
cation to American citizens sojourning peacefully for business or 
pleasure, in Russia, for they are not to be charged with abstract 
political disaffection to a government to which they owe no 
allegiance; and, if charged with the commission of unlawful acts, 
they should have guilt explicitly imputed and proven. In the 
latter case, the religion of the accused cannot be admitted as 
proof or presumption, either of guilt or Innocence. 

It Is not the desire of this government to embarrass that of 
Russia by insistence upon these points with any degree of harsh- 
ness, when the disposition reported in your dispatches Is so con- 
ciliatory, and when the treatment offered may operate effectively 
to remove or prevent future causes of complaint based on the ill- 
treatment of American citizens alleged to be Jews. It is most 
desirable, however, that you should not pretermit your efforts to 
bring the matter to such a stage as will insure for peaceable and 
law-abiding Americans in Russia like treaty rights and personal 
freedom of creed as Russians enjoy in the United States. 

All the answers of the Kussian Foreign Office to the rep- 
resentations of the United States appeal to the fact that the 
proscriptive laws against the Jews were in existence prior to 
the treaty of 1832; that they, therefore, must be assumed 
under the treaty, and, furthermore, that the Jewish question 
in Bussia presented economic and other difficulties, and that 
the Jews were allied with the Revolutionary Party. In a dis- 
patch from Mr. Blaine to Mr. Foster, dated July 29, 1881, 
there occur the following passages, which are worthy of note, 
and which effectually disputed this claim : 

These questions of the conflict of local law and international 
treaty stipulations are among the most common which have en- 
gaged the attention of publicists, and it is their concurrent judg- 
ment that where a treaty creates a privilege for aliens in express 


terms, it cannot be limited by the operation of domestic law with- 
out a serious breach of good faith which governs the intercourse 
of nations. So long as such a conventional engagement in favor 
of the citizens of another state exists, the law governing natives 
in like cases is manifestly inapplicable. 

I need hardly enlarge on the point that the Government of 
the United States concludes its treaties with foreign states for 
the equal protection of all American citizens. I can make 
absolutely no discrimination between them, whatever be their 
origin or creed. So that they abide by the laws, at home or 
abroad, it must give them due protection and expect like protec- 
tion for them. Any unfriendly or discriminatory act against 
them on the part of a foreign power with which we are at peace 
would call for our earnest remonstrance, whether a treaty ex- 
isted or not 

From the time when the treaty of 1832 was signed down to 
within a very recent period, there had been nothing in our rela- 
tions with Russia to lead to the supposition that our flag did 
not carry with it equal protection to every American within the 
dominions of the empire. Even in questions of citizenship affect- 
ing the interests of naturalized citizens of Russian origin, the 
good disposition of the imperial government has been on several 
occasions shown in the most exemplary manner; and I am sure 
the actual counselors of His Majesty cannot but contemplate with 
satisfaction the near approach made in 1874 to the arrangements 
of negotiation for a treaty of naturalization between the two 

The imperial ordinance of the Czar Alexander I, of 13th August, 
1807, decrees a rigid system of passports for foreigners, entering 
Russia, and is applicable to " all foreigners, of whatsoever nation- 
ality," but intimates no restriction on travel or sojourn in Russia 
by reason of race or faith. This ordinance was modified and 
amplified by the ukase of 25th February, 1817, but still without 
any manner of religious proscription or restriction. 

From this time down to 1860, I can find no trace of the enforce- 
ment, especially against American citizens, of the restrictions 
against Jewish travel or residence which are stated to have ex- 
isted when our treaty with Russia was signed 

To bar an American citizen whose rights might be so concerned 
from personal appearance in protection of those rights might 
be a distinct departure from the engagement of the treaty, while 
to suppose that his case might come under the discretional author- 
ity of the police or the military power, which might refuse 
his personal sojourn in any part of the empire, or allow it under 
conditions depending on their good will, is to suppose a sub- 
mission of the guarantees of the treaty to a tribunal never 
contemplated by its framers. 


I cannot better bring this instruction to a close than by re- 
peating and amplifying those views which the President so firmly 
holds and which he so anxiously desires to have recognized and 
responded to by the Russian Government. 

He conceives that the intention of the United States in negoti- 
ating and concluding the treaty of December 18, 1832, and the 
distinct and enlightened reciprocal engagements then entered into 
with the Government of Russia, give us a moral ground to expect 
careful attention to our opinions as to its rational interpretation 
in the broadest and most impartial sense; that he would deeply 
regret, in view of the gratifying friendliness of the relations of 
the two countries which he is so desirous to maintain, to find 
that this large national sentiment fails to control the present 
issue, or that a narrow and rigid limitation of the construction 
possible to the treaty stipulations between the two countries is 
likely to be adhered to; that if, after a frank comparison of the 
views of the two governments, in the most amicable spirit and 
with the most earnest desire to reach a mutually agreeable con- 
clusion, the treaty stipulations between the United States and 
Russia are found insufficient to determine questions of national- 
ity and tolerance of individual faith, or to secure to American 
citizens in Russia the treatment which Russians receive in the 
United States, it is simply due to the good relations of the 
two countries that these stipulations should be made sufficient in 
these regards; and that we can look for no clearer evidence of the 
good will which Russia professes toward us than a frank declara- 
tion of her readiness to come to a distinct agreement with us on 
these points, in an earnest and generous spirit 

You can further advise him that we can make no new treaty 
with Russia, nor accept any construction of our existing treaty, 
which shall discriminate against any class of American citizens 
on account of their religious faith. 

I cannot but feel assured that this earnest presentation of the 
views of this government will accord with the sense of justice and 
equity of that of Russia, and that the questions at issue will soon 
find their natural solution in harmony with the spirit of tolerance 
which pervaded the ukase of the Empress Catherine a century 
ago, and with, the statesman-like declaration of the principle of 
reciprocity found in the later decree of the Czar Alexander II, 
in 1860. 

On September 7, 1886, a new case having arisen, Mr. 
Lothrop sent a dispatch lo Mr. Bayard, from which the fol- 
lowing extracts are made : 


Every effort seems to have been made to induce the Imperial 
authorities to modify its laws in favor of our citizens, but, 
wholly without success. There is now no probability of any such 
modification. Indeed, there seems now to be a revival of strict- 
ness in enforcing this restriction. Strict orders have been issued 
to Russian officials abroad not to visa the passports of any 
persons recognized as foreign Jews. The object is to turn all such 
persons back at the frontier, and thus prevent their entering the 
empire. If, however, any get through, their passports are sub- 
jected to renewed scrutiny in all large cities, and if they are 
recognized they are ordered forthwith to leave. The papers an- 
nounce that only a few days ago two English Jews, one of them 
a member of Parliament, were peremptorily expelled at Moscow. 

On August 29, a most respectable Hebrew merchant of New 
York, a native-born citizen of the United States, who was travel- 
ling in Russia as a tourist with his family, was waited on at his 
hotel in this city by the police, his passport returned to him, and 
he was ordered to leave the city that night. He came to me im- 
mediately, and I at once not only went to the foreign office, but 
filed a protest in writing against this order, and asked its revo- 
cation. My explanation of this gentleman's character and the 
purpose of his visit was very readily accepted and the order of 
expulsion revoked 

.... The Imperial Government defends its position on the 
ground that every country must have full liberty to determine 

who shall have the right to enter and dwell in its territory 

It is not pretended that American citizens of the Hebrew faith 
have ever at any time proved dangerous to the peace or safety of 
the Empire. But it is urged that discrimination between nation- 
alities is inadmissible, and that the harshness of the general rule 
is mitigated by special permission given in all proper cases upon 
special application. 

I believe that the Russian officials are disposed to be obliging 
in this respect, but it can never be acceptable that any body of 
American citizens should be subject to any such necessity. It 
seems to be an imputation on that which is justly held most 
sacred. Still, as there is not the slightest inclination to abro- 
gate, or even modify the law, it may be desirable that the facts 
be more fully known in America. 

Much annoyance and mortification would be saved if our He- 
brew fellow-citizens desiring to come to Russia should apply for 
special leave. Letters of introduction to the legation would be 
most useful in promoting such application. Permission could 
doubtless be obtained in all ordinary cases. 

Mr. Bayard, replying under date of September 23, 1886, 
wrote as follows ; 


The Gtovemment of the Caar is fully aware that we do not admit 
the principle of discriminating against any American citizens be- 
cause of their religious tenets. 

Another case arose in 1893, and the Department of State 
wrote to Mr. White as follows : 

It is not constitutionally within the power of this Government, 
or of any of its authorities, to apply' a religious test in qualifi- 
cation of the equal rights of all citizens of the United States; 
and it is therefore impossible to acquiesce in the application of 
such a test, within the jurisdiction of the United States, by the 
agents of a foreign power, to the impairment of a right of any 
American citizen or in derogation of the certificate of this 
Government to the fact of such citizenship. 

On several occasions in the past this Grovernment has made 
temperate but earnest remonstrance against the examination into 
the religious faith of American citizens by the Russian author- 

His Majesty's Government, however, surely cannot expect the 
United States to acquiesce in the assumption of a religious in- 
quisitorial function within our own borders, by a foreign agency, 
in a manner so repugnant to the national sense. 

I cannot but surmise that some strange misapprehension exists 
in this regard in the mind of His Majesty's Government, which 
your accustomed ability and tact may explain and perhaps remove. 

In 1895, Mr. Breckinridge, our Minister at St. Petersburg, 
wrote to the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs as follows : 

I am directed by my Government to bring to the attention of 
the Imperial Government the refusal of the Russian consul of 
New York to vis6 passports issued by the United States to its 
citizens if they are of the Jewish faith. 

As your excellency is aware it has long been a matter of deep 
regret and concern to the United States that any of its citizens 
should be discriminated against for religious reasons while peace- 
fully sojourning in this country, or that any such restraint should 
be imposed upon their coming and going. Painful as this policy 
toward a class of our citizens is to my Government, repugnant to 
our constitutional duty to afford them in every possible way equal 
protection and privileges and to our sense of their treaty rights, 
yet it is even more repugnant to our laws and the national 
sense for a foreign official, located within the jurisdiction of the 
United States, to there apply a religious test to any of our citizens 


to the impairment of his rights as an American citizen or in 
derogation of the certificate of our Government to the fact of 
such citizenship. 

It is not constitutionally within the power of the United 
States Government, or of any of its authorities, to apply a reli- 
gious test in qualification of equal rights of all citizens of the 
United States, and no law or principle is more warmly cherished 
by the American people. It is therefore impossible for my Gov- 
ernment to acquiesce- in any manner in the application of such a 
test within its jurisdiction by the agents of a foreign power. 

When this matter was the subject of correspondence between 
my Government and the Imperial representative at Washington, 
as shown by Prince Cantacuzene's note of February 20, 1893, such 
action by the Russian consul at New York was shown to be 
** according to the instructions of his Government." 

I can sincerely assure you that the continuation of this practice 
is as embarrassing as it is painful to my Government, especially 
when it is on the part of a nation for whose Government and 
people such intimate friendship has so long been manifested by 
the United States. I am happy that in this spirit I can frankly 
submit the matter to your excellency with the sincere hope that 
assurance can be given that such practices will be henceforth 
interdicted on the part of Russian officials located within the 
jurisdiction of the United States. 

Mr. Peirce, writing to the State Department on June 13, 
1895, reported a conversotion with the Russian Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, from which the following extracts are made : 

That viewing the Jewish question as she (Russia) does, as 
one of race and not of religion, but in which the two questions are 
inseparable, so far as her purposes are concerned, she refuses to 
permit foreign Jews of any nationality to enter her borders and 
swell the numbers already there. For this reason the Govern- 
ment has instructed all Russian consuls in all countries to refuse 
to vis6 the passports of foreign Jews. On the other hand, and 
speaking of his own opinion, as the real purpose of the laws for- 
bidding the entry of foreign Jews into Russia is to prevent their 
settlement here and their engaging in trade within Russian terri- 
tory, and not to prevent the entrance of tourists, temporary so- 
journers, or Jews whose purpose in coming is not of an objection- 
able nature to the Government, Baron Osten-Sacken said that, in 
his opinion, there should be a change in the present practice re- 
garding the admission of foreign Jews. 

I expressed the hope that the Imperial Government would find 


it compatible with Its policy to admit American citizens Into 
Russia, without Inquiry as to their religious opinions or race, 
upon presentation of their passports. That with us the Hebrews 
had proved themselves to be good and law-abiding citizens, who 
prospered without preying upon others, but that whatever might 
be the opinion of the Imperial Government upon this question, 
the Interpretation and application of the Federal Liaws discourage 
citizens of the United States of all creeds, taking up permanent 
residence in a foreign country and continuing to claim the pro- 
tection of our Government as such citizens; that such citizenship 
involves certain oollgatlons which require a residence in our 
country, and that therefore it Is unlikely that Hebrews bearing 
American passports would become permanently settled In Russia. 
This Baron Osten-Sacken admitted was a forcible argument, and 
he expressed himself as hopeful that it would be possible to bring 
about a satisfactory revision of Russian practice as regards the 
admission of American Jews into the Empire. 

At the same time, he said that were an answer to Mr. Breck- 
inridge's note demanded the reply could not be favorable. That 
the laws of Russia are framed with regard to her own views of 
her own good. I took occasion to point out to the Baron that 
the purport of Mr. Breckinridge's note was to protest against the 
extra-territorial act of an agent of a foreign Government, upon 
our soil, applying a religious test to citizens of the United States, 
an act not constitutionally within the power of any officer of our 
own government to perform, and not to criticise the Russian 

On July 5, 1895, Mr. Adee, writing to the Legation at St. 
Petersburg, said: 

Your conclusion that it is inexpedient to press the complaint 
to a formal answer at presenl: appears to be discreet, but the De- 
partment must express its deep regret that you have encountered 
in the foreign office a reluctance to consider the matter in the 
light in which this Government has presented it. The Russian 
Government can not expect that its course in asserting inquisi- 
torial authority in the United States over citizens of the United 
States as to their religious or civil status can ever be acceptable 
or even tolerable to such a Government as ours, and continuance in 
such a course after our views have been clearly but considerately 
made known may trench upon tne just limits of consideration. 

This dispatch is illustrated by a letter to the Russian Con- 
sulate General at New York from an American citizen asking 


permission to visit Russia. Upon h\s declaration that he was 
a Jew, he received a reply to the effect that he must secure per- 
mission to visit Russia from the Ministry of the Interior. 

Under date of July 4, 1895, in course of a long dispatch, 
Mr. Breckinridge wrote t«:) Mr. Olney as follows : 

The first and chief difficulty so far experienced has been to 
get the Russian Government to consider this question separately 
and simply as it is presented by the United States apart from any 
collateral question. 

As the record shows, former discussion has largely involved 
the general Jewish question, particularly as presented by the in- 
ternal policy of Russia. So long as an ulterior purpose of this 
character is in any degree suspected, the Russian Government will 
consider that to be the real issue it has to meet, and it will po- 
litely but consistently refuse to amend its ways. 

The next difficulty has been to secure a due apprehension of the 
real nature and importance of the matter, even after it has been 
separately considered. It is quite difficult for Russians to con- 
sider it as more than an administrative regulation pitted against 
their regulations, changeable at the will of some high official, 
and meant only to serve purposes of convenience. 

I have politely but consistently refused to enter into any discus- 
sion in this connection except under the precise proposition sub- 
mitted by the Department, and I have iterated and reiterated that 
proposition, to the exclusion of all others, as clearly and as point- 
edly, as I could. 

On August 22, 1895, Mr. Adee wrote to Mr. Breckinridge 
as follows: 

Apart from the constitutional objections to the discrimination 
made by Russian consular officers against American Jews, this 
Government can never consent that a class embracing many of its 
most honored and valuable citizens shall, within its own territory, 
be subjected to invidious and disparaging distinctions of the 
character implied in refusing to vis6 their passports. For, not- 
withstanding Prince Lobanow's suggestion that his Government's 
consular regulation upon the subject under consideration does 
not apply to all Israelites and therefore can not be regarded as a 
discrimination against them on religious grounds, the fact re- 
mains that the interrogatories propounded to applicants for the 
consular vis6 relate to religious faith, and upon the response de- 
pends the consul's action. 


Viewed in the light of an invidious discrimination tending to 
discredit and humiliate American Jews in the eyes of their fellow- 
citizens, it is plain that the action of Russian consular officers 
does produce its effect within American territory, and not ex- 
clusively in Russian Jurisdiction. 

But the Russian discrimination against American Jews is not 
confined simply to the matter of visaing passports. This Depart- 
ment was informed a few years since by the Russian minister 
here that Russian consuls in this country would refuse authenti- 
cation to legal documents for use in Russia when Jews are ascer- 
tained to be interested. This is not merely an unjust and in- 
vidious discrimination against Jews, but would seem to be plainly 
a violation of the spirit of Article X of the treaty of 1832 between 
this country and Russia in respect to the property rights of 
American citizens in that country. 

In a dispatch dated October 23, 1895, from the Departmeut 
of State to the Legation at St. Petersburg, after acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of a set of regulations relating to the Jews in 
Bussia, the document continues: 

This does not touch the essential question to which the Depart- 
ment's previous instructions have invited attention, namely, the 
assumption by the agents of Russia in the United States of In- 
quisitorial functions touching the religious faith of applicants for 
passports. If anything, it presents the subject in a still more 
unfavorable light, for it seems that those Russian agents in a 
foreign territory may in their discretion inquire into the business 
standing of the principal of the commercial house employing 
a Hebrew agent, and act favorably or unfavorably, according 
to their own judgment of its importance. 

The question is not whether the Russian Government by 
Imperial order or ministerial regulation has directed its consuls 
to make such inquiries in respect to the religious faith or business 
transactions of American citizens, but whether the Imperial Gov- 
ernment has any right to make such inquisition in a foreign 
country when the effect may be to disregard the Government's 
certification of the fact of citizenship; or, assuming for the argu- 
ment's sake, but not by way of admission, that such a right may 
technically exist, the question remains whether the assumption to 
exercise it in face of the temperate but earnest remonstrances of 
this Government against foreign interference with the private con- 
cerns of its citizens, Is in accordance with those courteous prin- 
ciples of comity which this Government is so anxious to observe 
in its relations with all foreign states. 


These are but example.^ of the numeroue dispatches inter- 
changed between the United States and Bussia during the 
past forty years, upon this subject. That the result thus far 
has been unsatisfactory to our Government appears from the 
circular issued to naturalized American citizens bom in 
Bussia, who desire to obtain passports, and from the following : 

Depabtment of State, Washington, August 1, 1901. 



The information given below is believed to be correct, yet is 
not to be considered as official, as it relates to the laws and regu- 
lations of a foreign country. 

A Russian is enrolled for military service at the beginning of 
the twenty-first year of his age, and remains on the rolls to the 
end of his forty-third year; but at the age of 15 he is considered to 
be among those who are liable to perform military service, and he 
can not, after reaching that age, ask for permission to become a 
citizen of a foreign country, unless he has performed his military 
service. A Russian who becomes a citizen of a foreign country 
without Imperial consent is liable under Russian law to the loss 
of all his civil rights and to perpetual banishment from the 
Empire. If he returns he is liable to deportation to Siberia. 
When a Russian emigrates before he is 15 years old, and subse- 
quently becomes a citizen of another country, he is equally liable 
to punishment, unless when he attained the age of 21 years he 
took steps necessary to obtain the consent of the Emperor to his 

Naturalized Americans of Russian birth, of the Jewish race, 
are not allowed to enter Russia except by special permission. 
For this, they may apply to the minister of the interior, but the 
Department can not act as intermediary in making the appli- 

There is no treaty between the United States and Russia 
defining the status of American citizens of Russian birth upon 
their return to Russia. 

No one is admitted to Russia without a passport. It must be 
visaed by a Russian diplomatic or consular representative. Upon 
entering Russia it should be shown at the first (government house, 
and the holder will be given another passport or permit of 
sojourn. At least twenty-four hours before departure from Russia 


this permit should be presented and a passport of departure will 
be granted and the original passport returned. A fresh permit 
to remain in Russia must be obtained every six months. 

Within the past two years the subject has attracted atten- 
tion in Congress. 

On March 28, 1902, the Honorable Henry M. Goldfogle, 
representing the Ninth District of New York in the Congress 
of the United States, submitted to the House of Eepresenta- 
tives the following resolution: 

Resolved, by the House of Representatives of the United States, 
That the Secretary of State be, and he hereby is, respectfully re- 
quested to inform this House whether American citizens of the 
Jewish religious faith, holding passports issued by this Qovern- 
ment, are barred or excluded from entering the territory of the 
Empire of Russia, and whether the Russian Qovernment has made 
or is making any discrimination between citizens of the United 
States of difterent religious faiths or persuasions, visiting or 
attempting to visit Russia, provided with American passports; 
and whether the Russian Qovernment has made regulations re- 
stricting or specially applying to American citizens, whether 
native or naturalized, of the Jewish religious denomination hold- 
ing United States passports, and if so, to report the facts in re- 
lation thereto, and what action concerning such exclusion, dis- 
crimination, or restriction, if any, has been taken by any Depart- 
ment of the GU>vernment of the United States. 

This resolution was referred to the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs and ordered to be printed. On April 30, 1902, the 
Committee made the following report : 

The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred House 
resolution 183, calling upon the Secretary of State to inform the 
House of Representatives whether the Russian Qovernment is 
discriminating against Americans of Jewish faith visiting or at- 
tempting to visit Russia, have duly considered the same, and re- 
port it back to the House with the following amendment: 

In line 3, after the word "Representatives," insert the words 
" if not incompatible with public interests." 

As amended the Committee recommends the adoption of the 



The amendment was agreed to. Before the resolution as 
amended was voted npon, Mr. Goldf ogle spoke to it at length. 
The resolution was adopted. 

On May 5, 1902, the following letter from the Secretary of 
State responding to the above inquiry was received by the 
House of Eepresentatives, referred to the Committee on For- 
eign Affairs, and ordered to be printed : 

To the House of Representatives: In response to the resolution 
of the House of Representatives, of April 30, 1902, the undersigned 
Secretary of State has the honor to say that the resolution in- 
volves two questions: 

(1) Whether American Jews holding American passports are, 
as a fact, excluded from Russia, and 

(2) Whether American Jews are discriminated against by 
Russia, and are at a greater disadvantage before that Oovemment 
than are the Jews of other countries. 

The second question may be categorically answered In the 
negative. Such a discrimination, if it were made, would call forth 
immediate action of protest from this Government. 

This Department has no information remotely indicating that 
American Jews stand upon a footing different from that occupied 
by the Jews of other countries in the administration of Russian 

The exclusion of naturalized citizens of Russian origin and of 
Jews from Russia was commented upon by Secretary Olney in 
his report to the President for the year 1896: 

'' The published correspondence for a number of years back 
has shown the persistence of the United States in endeavoring 
to obtain for its citizens, whether native or naturalized, and ir- 
respective of their faith, the equality of privilege and treatment 
stipulated for all American citizens in Russia by existing treaties. 
Holding to the old doctrine of perpetual allegiance; refusing to 
lessen its authority by concluding any treaty recognizing the nat- 
uralization of a Russian subject without prior imperial consent; 
asserting the extreme right to punish a naturalized Russian on 
return to his native jurisdiction, not merely for unauthorized 
emigration, but also specifically for the uApermitted acquisition 
of a foreign citizenship, and sedulously applying at home and 
through the official acts of its agents abroad, to all persons of 
the Jewish belief, the stern restrictions enjoined by Russian 
law, the Government of Russia takes ground not admitting of 
acquiescence by the United States, because at variance with the 


character of our institutions, the sentiments of our people, the 
provisions of our statutes, and the tendencies of modern inter- 
national comity. 

Under these circumstances conflict between national laws, each 
absolute within the domestic sphere and inoperative beyond it, is 
hardly to be averted." 

Since this report the position of the Department has not 
changed, and its efforts to secure uniform treatment for American 
citizens in Russia, begun many years ago, have continued, al- 
though they have not been attended with encouraging success. 

The Department of State now sends to all persons of Russian 
birth who receive passports an unofficial notice showing what are 
the provisions of Russian law liable to affect them, in order that 
they may not incur danger/ through ignorance. In transmitting a 
copy of this notice to the ambassador of the United States at St. 
Petersburg, for his information, he was instructed February 15, 
1901, as follows: 

" The inclosed notice to American citizens formerly subjects 
of Russia who contemplate returning to that country the Depart- 
ment is sending to all persons born in Russia who receive pass- 
ports. It is sent to you merely for your information and you 
are instructed that it is not intended to mean that there has been 
any abatement on the part of this Qovernment in its policy of 
protecting equally naturalized and native-born Americans during 
their travels or sojourn abroad, as the law requires. Nor does 
the notice foreshadow any mitigation of such dissent as this 
Government may have expressed to the laws or regulations of 
Russia which may deny equality of treatment to all law-abiding 
American citizens, regardless of their place of birth." 

Respectfully submitted. 

John Hay. 

Depabtment of State, Washington, May 2, 1902. 

There the matter rested until, on January 4, 1904, Mr. 
Goldf ogle introduced a second resolution : 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the people of the United States 
that uniform treatment and protection should be accorded to every 
American citizen, regardless of race or creed, when travelling or 
sojourning abroad, and that every earnest effort should be made 
by the executive department of this Government to secure from 
the Imperial Government of Russia such uniformity of treatment 
and protection, especially in the recognition and honoring of the 
passports held by our citizens, to the end that there be no dis- 
crimination made by the Government of Russia between Amer- 
ican citizens on the ground of their religious belief or faith; and 


the President of the United States is hereby respectfully requested 
to take such steps and cause such diplomatic negotiations to be 
set on foot as may tend to secure, through means of treaty or 
otherwise, the honoring and the uniform recognition by the Rus- 
sian Government and its authorities of American passports, ir- 
respective of the religious faith or denomination of their holders 
to the end that every law-abiding citizen provided with a passport 
duly issued by this Government shall, regardless of what may be 
his race, creed, or religious faith, have freedom in travelling and 
sojourn in the territory of Russia, subject to such provisions in 
any treaty between the United States and Russia as are not in- 
consistent with the spirit and intent of this resolution. 

This resolution gave rise to notable addresses in the House 
of Eepresentatives by the Honorable Francis Burton Harrison, 
of New York, the Honorable Henry M. Goldfogle, of New 
York, the Honorable Martin Emerich, of Illinois, and the 
Honorable Alfred Luckincr, of Michigan. 

On February 18, 1904, the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs granted a hearing to Mr. Goldfogle, Mr. Harrison, and 
the Honorable Simon Wolf, on the resolution introduced by 
Mr. Goldfogle concerning the treatment of Americans abroad. 

On April 14, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs sub- 
mitted a favorable report on the following substitute for the 
Goldfogle resolution, which was unanimously adopted on 
April 21 : 

That the President be requested to renew negotiations with the 
Governments of countries where discrimination is made between 
American citizens on the ground of religious faith or belief, to 
secure, by treaty or otherwise, uniformity of treatment and pro- 
tection to American citizens holding passports duly issued by the 
authorities of the United States, in order that all American citi- 
zens shall have guaranteed freedom of travel and sojourn in 
those countries without regard to race, creed or religious faith. 

In conformity with this action taken by the House of Eep- 
resentatives, the Department of State has again formally 
opened the passport question. At the date of writing no reply 


has been received from Bussia^ and the American dispatch is 
as yet unpublished. 

That the diplomatic correspondence of many years and the 
campaign carried on in the House of Eepresentatives more 
recently has not been without result, is evident from the 
" planks ^^ adopted by the two great political parties. Ameri- 
can citizens are thus irrevocably committed to the inviolability 
of the American passport. With the Jewish citizens of the 
United States the settlement of the question has become a 
passion, and they will not rest content until the rights of 
American citizenship are recognized by all nations who 
desire to maintain friendly relations with this Government, 
and until the absolute equality of all American citizens regard- 
less of race or creed is fully and finally admitted. 

August S, 1904 



The statistics of Jews in the world rests largely upon estimates. 
In Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and a few other countries, 
official figures are obtainable. In the main, however, the numbers 
given are based upon estimates repeated and added to by one 
statistical authority after another. In spite of the unsatisfactor- 
iness of the method, it may be assumed that the numbers given 
are approximately correct. 

For the statistics given below various authorities have been 
consulted, among them the " Statesman's Year Book " for 1904, 
the English "Jewish Year Book" for 5664, the "Jewish Ency- 
clopedia," and the Alliance Israelite Univeraelle reports. Some 
of the statements rest upon the authority of competent individ- 
uals. A comparison with last year's statistics will show that for 
several countries the figures have been changed. In most of the 
cases, the change is due to the fact that the results of the census 
of 1900 and 1901 have only now become available. 


As the census of the United States has, in accordance with 
the spirit of American institutions, taken no heed of the reli- 
gious convictions of American citizens, whether native-born or 
naturalized, all statements concerning the number of Jews living 
in this country are based upon estimate, though several of the 
estimates have been most conscientiously made. 

The Jewish population was estimated 

In 1818 by Mordecai M. Noah at 3,000 

In 1824 by Solomon Etting at 6,000 

In 1826 by Isaac C. Harby at 6,000 

In 1840 by the American Almanac at 15,000 

In 1848 by M. A. Berk at 50,000 

In 1880 by Wm. B. Hackenburg at 230,257 

In 1388 by Isaac Markens at 400,000 

In 1897 by David Sulzberger at 937,800 

The following table by States is a modification of that given in 
the American Jewish Year Book for 5664, by reason of changes 
in the estimated populations of Georgia, the Hawaiian Islands, 
Illinois, and New York. For the first three the new figures have 
been adopted from " The Jewish Encyclopedia.' 




Alabama 7,000 

Arizona 2,000 

Arkansas 3,085 

California 28,000 

Colorado 6,800 

Connecticut 5,500 

N. and S. Dakota 3,500 

Delaware 928 

District of Columbia . . 3,500 

Florida 3,000 

Georgia 7,000 

Hawaiian Islands .... 100 

Idaho 300 

Illinois 100,000 

Indiana 25,000 

Iowa 5,000 

Kansas 3,000 

Kentucky 12,000 

Louisiana 12,000 

Maine 5,000 

Maryland 26,500 

Massachusetts 60,000 

Michigan 9,000 

Minnesota 10,000 

Mississippi 3,000 

Missouri 50,000 

Montana 2,500 

The total Jewish immigration to the United States, through 
the ports of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, from 18S1 
to July 1, 1904, is stated to have been 827,424, although it is by 
no means certain that this number does not include Christians 
from Russia and Austria. The immigration at the same ports 
from July 1, 1903, to June 30, 1904, was as follows: 

Port of Port of 

Noir rork Philadel 

f K ^ phia 

Nebraska 8,000 

Nevada 300 

New Hampshire 1,000 

New Jersey 25,000 

New Mexico 1,500 

New York 600,000 

North Carolina 6,000 

Ohio 50,000 

Oklahoma 1,000 

Oregon 5,500 

Pennsylvania 95,000 

Philippine Islands ... 100 

Porto Rico 100 

Rhode Island 3,500 

South Carolina 2,500 

Tennessee 10,000 

Texas 15,000 

Utah 5,000 

Vermont 700 

Virginia 16,000 

Washington 2,800 

West Virginia 1,500 

Wisconsin 16,000 

Wyoming 1,000 

Total 1,263,213 

Port of Totals 
Bam- attfttee 

Ato- Ron- Bas- #wk— Totals at Totals 

trians mantaiw rtaas ^^Bwt Kew York 

July 2,039 741 4,605 188 7,578 481 

Jlngutt 1,275 561 4,796 080 7,562 558 

September. 1,998 780 5,702 281 8,656 766 

October.... 589 112 1,511 138 2,860 20S 

Noyember.. 8,804 690 8,849 139 6,991 498 

December.. 1,789 645 4,817 112 6,818 446 

January... 1,175 448 4,249 57 5,924 869 

February.. 974 880 3,774 60 5,188 228 

March 1,256 812 5,809 54 6,931 490 

April 328 122 1,896 74 1,916 217 

May 1,788 415 6,758 159 9,065 492 

June 2,024 418 9,388 142 11,917 567 







1,218 18,702 

17,424 5,573 55,604 2,284 80,885 5,310 6,606 92,801 



The total number of immigrants at each of these three ports for 
the preceding year was: New York, 58,079; Philadelphia, 3367; 
Baltimore, 2993; in all, 64,429.' 


England and Wales 




Canada and British 




Jamaica , 











South Africa .... 



Aden . . ^ 


Hong Kong 

Straits Settlement 


Total 286,598 


United States 1,263,213 

British Empire 286,598 

Abyssinia (Fala- 

shas) 120,000 

Argentine Republic .. 22,500 

Austria-Hungary 2,076,378 

Belgium 12.000 

Bosnia, Herzegovina . 8,213 

Brazil 3,000 

China 300 

Costa Rica 43 

Cuba 4,000 

Denmark 3,476 

France 90,000 

Algeria 57,132 

Tunis 60,000 

Germany" 586,948 

Greece 5,792 

Italy 36,617 

Luxembourg 1,201 

Mexico 1,000 








Russia 5 


Spain ^,, 

Sweden and Norway* . 






Turkistan and Af- 



















Total 10,932,777 

iFor a more detailed statement of Jewish immigration into the United 
States, see the American Jewish Year Book for 6000, pp. 288-284. 

s 892,822 in Prussia. 



Inquiries are often made as to suitable books in English for 
the nucleus of a library of Judaica, and it occurred to the 
Editors of this Year Book to have a list drawn up to which 
persons making such inquiries could be referred, and the 
following is the result. The limitations imder which such a 
list can be compiled are rather numerous. In the first place 
books have to be available; that is, in print, and purchasable 
at reasonable prices, and many valuable books are qo longer 
current on the publishers^ shelves : Deutsch^s " Literary Ee- 
mains,^' and Franzos^s " Jews of Barnow ^^ may be mentioned 
as two prominent examples. Then, again, the. books have to 
be readable, and not mere works of reference. Young's " Con- 
cordance to the Bible " is perhaps as useful a book for Jewish 
students as one could mention, but from the present point 
of view it cannot be regarded as a book at all. So much for ' 
omissions which will doubtless be observed by a keen-eyed 

On the other hand, many books find a place in the list 
because, though not of very great value themselves, they hap- 
pen to be the only ones available for the particular purpose 
in view. A book may not be good and yet be the best. The 
need of filling out a roimd hundred has also caused several 
books to gain an entry which might otherwise not have re- 
ceived that honor. No sermons are included. 

As the list is comparatively small it is arranged alpha- 
betically. No man's classification ever satisfies any other 
man, and to insure a book being readily found in a classified 


list it has often to be inserted under two or more rubrics. 
It is, of course, assumed that the Jewish reader will have 
a Bible in the Leeser version, and one would wish that 
one could assume that the reader also possessed that most 
valuable and interesting supplement to the Bible known as 
the Apocrypha, and recording the spiritual experiences of 
Israel between the Bible and the Talmud. The short anno- 
tations on the various books are intended as merely hints 
and warnings and have necessarily been put in a somewhat 
dogmatic form. 

Besides books in the proper sense of the word there are 
periodical collections and publications which often contain 
interesting matter and information, such as the Publications 
of the American Jewish Historical Society and the Jewish 
Historical Society of England, The Jewish Quarterly Review, 
The Year Book of the Conference of American Jewish Rabbis, 
The Jewish Literary Annual ; while much information is con- 
tained in the Jewish Year Book of London and the Ambrican 
Jewish Year Book. Above all, " as in private duty bound," 
there is the Jewish Encyclopedia, from which information full 
and accurate can be obtained on all matters Jewish. With 
the following books as a nucleus, supplemented by some of the 
series just mentioned, and a couple of good Jewish newspapers, 
a foundation would soon be made for a Jewish library for 
home or Sunday School, or for a Jewish section of a free 
public library. Joseph Jacobs. 

Abrahams, Isbael. Chapters on Jewish Literature. 1899 (Jew- 
ish Publication Society of America) . |1.25. 
(Sketchy, but attractive; further reading in BngUsh is suggested.) 

Abrahams, Isblasl.. Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 1897 (Mac- 
millan). |1.75. 
(All sides of Jewish social life dealt with sympathetically.) 


AfiuiLAB, GsACK. Spirit of Jiidai8m, 1873 (Bloch). $.50 net. 

(Somewhat auperflcial and scarcely dealing with modern problems and 

Aguilab, Gbacb. The Yale of Cedars, 1903 (Jewish Publication 
Society of America). |1.50. 

Ahkam, Danux WsBinis. The Jewish Latv of Divorce, 1879 
(Bloch). 11.50. 

AuEBBACH, B. Poet and Merchant. (Macmillan). |.75. 
(Bomanoe based on the life of Bphralm Kuh, poet of the eisrhteenth century.) 

Babing-GiOuld, S. Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets, 
(Bloch). 1.50. 

(Giving many of the better known Talmudic legends, though not in a 
very scholarly or trustworthy manner.) 

BEAC0I7SFIELD, LoBD. David Alroy, (Longmans). |.60. 

(Dealing with the life of a pseudo-Messiah of the twelfth century.) 

BEAC0I7SFIELD, LoBD. Contngshy, (Longmans). $.60. 

Bebnstein, H. In the Gates of Israel, 1902 (Taylor). |1.50. 

Bbsant and Palmeb. History of Jerusalem. 1888 (Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund). 7s. 6d. 
(The only accessible history of Jerusalem.) 

BissELL, E. C. Biblical Antiquities, 1901 (Union Press). |1.50 

(The most recent and handy account.) 

CAHAI7, A. The Imported Bridegroom, (Houghton, Mifflin and 
Company). |1.50. 

(Series of sketches dealing with the life of Russian Jews in America.) 

Cainv:, Hall. The Scapegoat. (W. Heinemann). 6s. 
(Novel of Morocco life; of some Jewish Interest.) 

Cabsel, D. Manual of Jewish History and Literature. Trans- 
lated from the (German by Alice Lucas. 1903 (Macmillan). 
1.60 net. 
(Very dry list, but gives a skeleton of the whole subject.) 

Chxtbch, A. J. The Hammer, (Putnam). $1.50. 
(Historical novel of the Maccabean Revolt.) 

Cohen, F. L., and M. D. Davis. Handbook of Synagogue Music, 
1899 (Greenberg). 58. net. 

(Scarcely a book, but some persons would like to know where they 
can find the old Jewish tunes. See also Kaiser, Alois.) 


CoNDOB, C. R. Judas Maccabaeus, 1881 (Sampson Low). 2s. 6d. 

(The only separate account of the Maccabean Revolt; somewhat tinged 
with chrlstologlcal interpretations.) 

CoNTBEABE, F. C. The Dreyfus Case, 1899 (Dodd, Mead and Com- 
pany). $1.00. 

CoBNiLL, C. H. Prophets of Israel, (Open Court). Paper, |.25; 
Cloth, 11.00 net. 

Daly, C. The Settlement of the Jews in North America. 1883 
(Cowen). 12.50. 
(Gives the only account of the early history of the Jews in this country.) 

Dabmesteteb, ABStNE. The Talmud, 1899 (Jewish Publication 
Society of America) . 
(Fuller details than the article by Emanuel Deutsch.) 

Dabmesteteb, James. Selected Essays, Translated from the 
French by H. B. Jastrow. 1895 (Houghton, Mifflin and Com- 
pany) . 11.50. 
(One of the most brilliant studies of Jewish history is included.) 

Davis, Niita (Mrs. Redcliffe N. Salaman). Songs of Exile, 1900 
(Jewish Publication Society of America). |.75. 
(Translations of medieval Hebrew poems in English verse.) 

Davitt, Michael. Within the Pale. 1904 (A. S. Barnes and 
Ck)mpany). |1.20 net. 
(A special correspondent's account of the Kishineff massacres,) 

Delitzsch, Fbanz. JevAsh Artisan Life in the Time of Jesus, 
Translated from the German by B. Pick. 1883 (Funk and 
Wagnalls). |.75. 
(A new translation appeared in 1903 in the Unit Library.) 

Dembitz, Lewis N. Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home. 
1899 (Jewish Publication Society of America). |1.75. 

Dbummond, James. Philo Judaeus, or the Jewish- Alexandrian 
Philosophy. 2 vols. 1888 (Williams and Norgate). 

(Suitable only for persons interested in metaphysics and theology; the 
best account of the most influential Jewish thinker.) 

Dbummond, James. The Jewish Messiah. 1877 (Longmans). 

(Only accessible account of the older Jewish notions on the Messiah 
including the Talmudlc.) 

Dubnow, S. M. Jewish History. Translated from the German. 
1903 (Jewish Publication Society of America). |1.00. 
(A brilliant sketch of the spirit of Jewish history.) 


Early Travels in Palestine, (Bohn). 4s. 
(Including Benjamin of Tudela.) 

Eliot, Geobge. Daniel Deronda. |.60. 

(Perhaps the most sympathetic stndy of Jewish Ideals, made from the 
outside and in imaginative form.) 

Ebbeba, L. The Russian Jews. Translated from the French by 
Bella L5wy. 1894 (Macmillan). |1.50 net. 

F^DEBic, H. The New Exodus. 1893 (W. Heinemann). 16s. 
(An account of the May Laws of 1S91 and their results.) 

Fbiedlandeb, M. The Jewish Religion. 2d edition, 1900 (Bloch). 
12.00 net. 

(Strictly orthodox and somewhat dry.) 

GoBDON, Samuel. Strangers at the Oate. 1902 (Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America). |1.50. 
(Short stories, mainly of Russo- Jewish life.) 

G0BD017, Samuel. Sons of the Covenant. 1900 (Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America) . 11.50. 
(Scenes from East End life in London.) 

Gbaetz, H. History of the Jews. 6 vols. (Jewish Publication 
Society of America). |9.00. 
(The standard work; gives both spiritual and political history.) 

Hapgood, H. Spirit of the Ghetto. 1902 (Funk and Wagnalls). 
(Impressionist sketches of the East Side of New York.) 

Hebzl, Theodob. a Jewish State: An Attempt at a Modern 
Solution of the Jewish Question. Revised edition with pref- 
ace and notes by J. de Haas. 1904 (Maccabeean Publishing 
Company, New York). 

(The document on Zionism ; some of the views were afterward modi- 

Hibsch, S. R. Nineteen Letters. Translated by B. Drachman. 
1899 (Funk and Wagnalls, New York). |1.00. 
(The best defense of orthodoxy.) 

Iliowizi, H. The Archiery of Samara. (H. H. Coates and Com- 
pany). 11.50. 
(Mystical in tendency.) 

Isaacs, A. S. Stories from the Rabbis of the Talmud. (Bloch). 

Jacobs, J. Jewish Ideals. 1895 (Macmillan). |1.50. 
(Inserted under friendly compulsion by the editors.) 


Joseph, Mobris. Judaism as Oreed and Life. 1903 (Macmillan). 
$1.60 net. 
(Admirable in tone, conservatiye in treatment.) 

Joseph, Nathan S. Religion^ Natural and Revealed, 1875 
(Bloch). 11.20. 

(Rlitlonalistic and clear account of Natural Religion.) 

Kaiseb, Alois, and Wm. Spabgeb. A Collection of the Principal 
Melodies of the Synagogue from the Earliest Times to the 
Present. 1893 (Rubovits, Chicago). 

(See also under Cohen, F. L., and M. D. Davis.) 

Kabpeles. Jewish Literature and Other Essays. 1895 (Jewish 
Publication Society of America). |1.25. 
(Sketchy, but interesting.) 

Kabpeles. Sketch of Jewish History. 1898 (Jewish Publication 
Society of America). ?.30. 

Katsebling, M. Christopher Columhus. (Longmans). $1.00. 

(Full of novel light on the beginnings of American history from Jewish 
sources. ) 

Kittel. History of the Hebrews. 2 vols. 1895-6. Theological 
Translation Library (Williams and Norgate). 21s. 

(The most conservative of the critical accounts; goes down to the 

Kohut, Alexandeb. Ethics of the Fathers. (CJowen). 
( Homiletic exposition. ) 

Kompebt, L. Scenes of the Ghetto. (Macmillan). |.75. 

Lazabus, Emma. Poems. 2 vols. (Houghton, Mifflin and Com- 
pany) . 12.50. 
(With many of Jewish interest.) 

Lazabus, Emma. An Epistle to the Hebrews. (Maccabsean Office) . 
(Burning appeal for Zionism.) 

Lazabus, M. Ethics of Judaism. Parts I and II. Translated 
from the Oerman. 1901 (Jewish Publication Society of Amer- 
ica). $1.25 each part. 

(Unfinished as yet; special ethics will follow.) 

Lazabe, Bebnabd. Anti-Semitism. Translated from the French. 
1903 (International Library). $2.00. 

(To be used with caution, but the only account in English of the 
movement. Original published in 1806.) 


Liebot-Beauijeu, Anatole. Israel among the Nations. Trans- 
lated from the French by Frances Hellman. 1895 (Putnam). 
(The most sympathetic study of Jewish characteristics.) 

Lessing. Nathan the Wise. Translated by Helen Frothingham. 
(Holt and Company). 

Lucas, Alice. Songs of Zion. 1894 (Dent). 
(Translations from the medieval Jewish poets.) 

Ludlow, J. M. Deborah. 1901 (Revell). |1.50. 
(Novel of the Maccabean times.) 

Magnus, Lady. Jewish Portraits (Bloch). |1.00 net. 
(Bright impressionistic sketches.) 

Magnus, Ladt. Outlines of Jewish History. (Jewish Publication 
Society of America). Library edition, 11.00; school edition, 

(Sympathetic, but requires supplementing by a book of facts like 

Maimon, Solomon. Autobiography. Translated by Professor 
Watson. 1890 (McGill, Toronto). |1.50. 
(Qives an insight into eighteenth century .Jewish life.) 

Maimonides. Guide of the Perplexed. Translated by M. Fried- 
lander. (Dutton). 

(The classic work on Jewish theology and philosophy ; requires some 
training to appreciate the unaccustomed line of thought; second edition 
appears in the autumn of 1004.) 

Mendelsohn, S. Civil and Criminal Jurisprudence of the Tal- 
mud. 1891 (M. Curlander, Baltimore). 

MiELZiNEB, M. Introduction to the Talmud. 2d edition, 1903 
(Funk and Wagnalls). |2.00. 

(Dry, but accurate account of contents and method.) 

MiELZiNEB, M. Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce. 1901 
(Bloch). 11.50. 

MoNTEFiOBE, C. G. Liberal J udaism. 1903 (Macmillan). 11.25. 

(Best statement of the Reform position, but in detail personal to 

MONTEFIOBE, C. G. The Bible for Home Reading. Parts I and 
II. (Macmillan). 11.25 per vol. net. 

(The best family Bible for Jewish readers : comments sympathetically 
from critical standpoint. There has been published separately " The 
Book of Psalms." (Macmillan). $.35 net 1901.) 


MoNTEFiOBE, C. G. The Hihhert Lectures, 1892 (Bloch). |1.50 

(Account of the development of the religion <ft Israel ; critical, yet 

MouLTON, R. G. T?ie Literary Study of the Bible. 1896-1900 
(Heath). |2.00. 

Obzeszko, EjLisa. Meir Ezofovitch the Jew. Translated from the 
Polish by Iza Young. 1898 (Allison Co.). |1.50. 
(Account of Polish Jewish life by a Christian author.) 

Philipson, D. Old European Jewries. 1895 (Jewish Publication 
Society of America) . |1.25. 

Philipson, D. The Jew in English Fiction. 2d edition, 1903 
(Bloch). 11.00. 

PoLANO, M. Selections from the Talmud. (Warne). |1.00. 
(The fullest selection in English, but rather poor.) 

Pollock, Sib F. Spinoza. 1899 (Duckworth). 10s. 

(The standard English life of the great philosopher, but little of 
Jewish interest.) 

QuABTEBLT Revieweb. Aspects of the Jewish Question. 1902 
(Dutton). 11.00 net. 
(Admirably written; by Laurie Magnus.) 

Remy, Nahida. Jewish Women. (Bloch). |1.50. 

RosENAU, Wm. Jewish Ceremonial Institutions and Customs. 
1903 (Bloch). 11.50 net. 

RosENFELD, MoBBis. SonQs from the Ghetto. Translated by Leo 
Wiener. 2d edition, with additions 1900 (Small and Maynard, 
Boston). 11.50. 

(Full of pathos: English somewhat wooden.) 

Sacheb-Masoch, M. Jewish Tales. (Bloch). |.75. 

ScHECHTEB, S. Studies in Judaism. 1896 (Macmillan). |1.75. 
(Masterly studies of typical Jewish persons and movements.) 

Smith, G. A. Historical (geography of the Holy Land. 1897 
(Armstrong). |4.50. 

Stanley, Dean. Sinai and Palestine. 1883 (Armstrong). |2.50. 
(Still the most vivid account of the Holy Land.) 

Taylob, C. Ethics of the Fathers. 2d enlarged edition, 1897 
(Macmillan). $2.75 net. 

(Admirable edition of the Pirke Aboth with instructive notes.) 


Thompson, W. M. The Land and the Book, 3 vols. 1880-$ 
(Scribner). $7.50. 

Todd, J. G. Polities and Religion in Ancient Israel. (Macmillan). 
(A fresh study of the historic background of Biblical religion.) 

Toy, C. H. Judaism and Christianity. 1891 (Little, Brown). 


(The most temperate account of the difference from a liberal Christian 
standpoint. ) 

VooBSANOEB, J. Moses Mendelssohn, his Life and Works. 

Waldstein, C. Jewish Question and the Mission of the Jews. 
1894 (Bloch). $1.00 net. 

WiENEB, Leo. The History of Yiddish Literature in the Nine- 
teenth Century. 1899 (Scribner). $2.00 net. 
(With numerous selections translated; the book has been a revelation.) 

Wolf, Emma. Heirs of Yesterday. (McClurg). $1.00. 

Wolf, S. The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen. 1892 
(Bloch). $2.00. 

WoLFENSTEiN, Mabtha. Idyls of the Gass. 1901 (Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America) . $1.25. (Macmillan). |1.00. 
(Sympathetic sketches of Jewish life in Moravia.) 

Yellin, D., and Israel Abrahams. Maimonides. 1903 (Jewish 
Publication Society of America). |1.00. 

Zangwill, I. Dreamers of the Ghetto. (Harper and Bro.). |1.50. 

(Imaginative studies of Jewish idealists, more successful with emanci- 
pated moderns like Heine and Lassalle than with the earlier heroes.) 

Zangwill, I. The Children of the Ghetto. 1892 (Macmillan). 


{The English novel on Jewish life from a Jewish standpoint: better 
on the children than on the grandchildren.) 

Zanowill, I. The King of Schnorrers. 1894 (Macmillan). $1.50. 
(Full of fantastic wit.) 

Zangwill, I. They that Walk in Darkness. 1899 (Macmillan). 
(Contains some of his best work, "The Ghetto Tragedies.") 




Compiled by Isbael Abrahams 

In this year's list some articles in Periodicals are for the first 
time included; they are distinguished by an asterisk (*). The 
principles of selection are otherwise identical with those pre- 
viously adopted. The list, though longer than before, is still 
weak in Yiddish publications, as these are hard to obtain through 
the usual channels. It covers the period between July, 1903, and 
July, 1904. 

E. A. Abbott. Paradoaia (London, A. and C. Black, 1904). 

On the use of the Hebrew verb "^DD* &&d other Hebrew expressions, 
in their bearing on New Testament passages. 

J. AcHELis. Der religionsgeschichtliche Gehalt der Psalmen mit 
Bezug auf das sittlich-religidse Lehen der nachexilischen 
Qemeinde (Berlin, Weidmann, 1904). 

Th. Achelis. Ahriss der vergleichenden Religionstoissenschaft 
(Leipzig, (Joschen, 1904). 

Mathias Acher. Achad UorAm, ein Denker und Kdmpfer der 
judischen Renaissance (Berlin, Jiidischer Verlag, 1903). 

C. Adleb. The American Jewish Year Book, 5664 (Philadelphia, 
Jewish Publication Society of America, 1903). 

C. Adleb. The Voice of America on Kishineff (Philadelphia, 
Jewish Publication Society of America, 1904). 

A splendid record of the American protest. Introduction ; Meetings, 
Sermons, Resolutions ; Editorial Articles ; Relief Measures and the Pe- 
tition ; Indexes. 

E. N. Adleb and M. Seligsohn. Vne nouvelle chronique samarir 
taine (Paris, Durlacher, 1903). 

Hebrew text, French translation, and notes. 

M. Adleb. First loteps in Hehreto Grammar (London, Nutt, 

*M. N. Adleb. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (Critical 
edition with English translation in progress in the " Jewish 
Quarterly Review"). 

N. Adleb. Hehrdische Buchstahenhilder fiir das ganze Alphabet 
(Furth, 1904). 


Grace Aouiijlb. The Women of Israel (London, Myers, 1903). 

Alien Immiobation Commission. (London, Eyre and Spottis- 
woode, 1903). 
3 vols. Report, minutes of evidence, appendix. 

♦M. ALTScHtJLEB. yierteljahrsschrtft fur Bibelkunde, Talmudische 
und Patristische Studien (Berlin, Calvary, 1904). 

A new Quarterly In which Christian as well as Jewish theological and 
historical topics are discussed. 

W. F. Tony Ande^. Les apocryphes de Vancien testament (Flor- 
ence, Paggi, 1904). 
Includes only those which are contained in the Anglican versions. 

American Jewish Historical Society. Publications, Number XI 
(for 1903). 

Contents : C. Adler, " Presidential Address ; " S. M. Stroock, ** Swlts- 
erland and the American Jews ; " M. J. Kohler, " Phases in the History 
of Religious Liberty in America with Special Reference to the Jews ; " 
L. Hiihner, " Jews of New England (other than Rhode Island) prior 
to 1800 ; " A. M. Frledenberg, " The Jews and the American Sunday 
Laws ; " H. Bliassof, " The Jews of Chicago ; " G. H. Cone, " New Mat- 
ter relating to Mordecai M. Noah ; " Blvira N. Soils, *' Note on Isaac 
Gomez and Lewis Moses Gomez ; " J. Jacobs, '* Report on the Society's 
Collections ; " N. Taylor Phillips, " Items relating to the History of the 
Jews of New York ; " G. A. Kohut, " The Trial of Francisco Maldonado 
de Silva." Notes, Necrology, Reports. 

L. K. Amitai. La caract6ristique de la charity juive (Brussels, 
Dantzig, 1904). 
Two addresses on (a) Material Charity, (b) Spiritual Charity. 

H. Baar. Bible Lessons for School and Home (New York, Bloch 
Publishing Co., 1903). 
Part II. 

W. Bacher. Die Agada der Tannaiten (Strassburg, 1903). 

Second edition of Vol. I, dealing with the Tannalm from HlUel to 
Akiba (30 B. C. to 135 C. B.) 

W. Backer. Aus dem Worterbuche Tanchum Jeruschalmi*s 

(Budapest, 1903). 

Prefixed to the twenty-sixth Jahresberlcht of the Budapest Jewish 
Theological Seminary ; with an appendix on the style of Maimonides' 

B. Baentsch. Numeri (Gottingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 
In Nowack's *' Handkommentar Eum Alten Testament." 

♦F. Baethgen. Das angebliche Akrostikon Simon in Psalm 110 
und einige andere Notarika in den Psalmen (" Zeitung der 
Deutschen Morgenl&ndischen Geaellschaft," 57). 


♦P. G. Baldenspeboeb. The Immovable East (Quarterly State- 
ment, " Palestine Exploration Fund," 1904). 
A series of papers on present-day life among the villagers of Palestine. 

W. Baldenspeboeb. Die mesaianischrapokalyptischen Hoffnun- 
gen der Juden (Strassburg, Heitz, 1903). 

Finds in Jewish Apocalyptical writings the source of important ele- 
ments of Christianity. 

S. Bambebgeb. Die neueaten VeroftentUchungen aus dem arahi- 
schen Mischnakommentare dea Maimonidea (Frankfort, Kauff- 
mann, 1904). 

Bennett. See Temple Sebies of Bible Chabactebs. 

W. H. Bennett. Genesis (Edinburgh, Jack, 1904). 

In the " Century Bible." Revised version, introduction, notes. A 
neat, compact, cheap edition. 

A. Beblineb. Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Raschi-Commentare 
(Berlin, Rosenstein, 1903). 

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, students prepared for communal 
use collections of notes by approved authorities. Such reference books 
existed in Mainz and Rome. Rashi no less than the author of the Aruch 
drew on such sources. Dr. Berliner gives new material concerning Rashi's 
disciple Shemaya.) 

A. Beblineb. Zur Lehr' und zur Wehr, Uber und gegen die kirch- 
liche Or gel im jUdischen Gottesdienste (Berlin, Nathansen 
und Lamm, 1904). 

The organ question has again become prominent in Germany. Hence 
much has been published during the year on the subject. The contents 
of this brochure are opinions by A. Ackermann and Michael Sachs on 
the organ ; and from David Oppenheim's ** The Synagogue and Music " and 
A. Berliner's *' The Christian Organ in Jewish Worship." 

A. Beblineb.!^ Sr pip (Berlin, Itzkowski, 1904). 

Collection of smaller texts from Hebrew MSS. Edited by A. Berliner, 
for the Society ** Mekize Nirdamlm." 

M. H. Beestein. D^DDHD D^DanS n^lN (London, Narodiczky, 1904). 
307 anecdotes and incidents in Hebrew. 

E. BiscHOFF. Die Kahhalah (Leipzig, Grieben, 1903). 

An eclectic collection of Cabbalistic ideas ; metaphysical, anthropolo- 
gical ; magical. 25 illustrations. 

W. Blake. Illustrations of the Book of Job (New York, 1903). 
New edition. 

*M. Blanckenhobn. Die Mineralschdtze Paldstinas (" Zeitschrift 
des Palastina Vereins," 1903). 

*M. Bloch. Conference sur la sodH^ juive en France depuis la 
Revolution ("Revue des Etudes Juives," No. 95). 


F. BoHN. Der Sahhat im Alien Testament und im aJtjUdUchen 
religioaen Aberglauben (Gtitersloh, Bertelsmann, 1903). 

A. Bouch^-Leclebcq. Histoire dea Lagidea (Paris, Leroux. Vol. 
I, 1903; vol. II. 1904). 
Frequent points of contact with Jewish history. 

♦G. H. Box. The Jewish Prayer-Book: A Study in the Worship 
of the Synagogue (A series of articles in the " Expository 
Times," 1904). 

F. Bbadshaw and C. Emanuel. Alien Immigration: Should re- 
strictions be imposed? (London, Isbister, 1904). 

One of the " Pro and Con " series, edited by Dr. H. Murray. The 
first-named takes the pro-restriction ist side, the second-named the contra. 

H. Bbody. IKin (Berlin, Itzkowski, 1904). 

Continuation of new edition of Jehuda Haleyi*8 Poems. Publication 
of the Society " Mekise Nirdamlm." 

H. Bbodt. See also A. Fbeimann and H. Bbodt. 

M. BuBEB. JUdische KUnstler (Berlin, Jiidischer Verlag, 1903). 

Biographies of living Jewish artists, with many beautiful reproduc- 
tions of their works: Josef Israels (biography by F. Stahl) ; Lesser 
Ury (M. Buber) ; B. M. Lilien (A. Qold) ; Max Liebermann (G. Her- 
mann) ; Solomon J. Solomon (S. L. Bensusan) ; Jehudo Epstein (F. 

S. BuBEB. n^8?K")n maK (Cracow, Fischer, 1903). 

New edition of the Agadat Bereshit, on basis of Lonsano's edition of 
1618, with variants from only extant MS. (Oxford, No. 2340). 

A. Buchanan. The Essence of Ecclesiastes (London, Stock, 1904). 

The main contents of Ecclesiastes are rendered into 103 quatrains in 
the Fitzgerald (Omar Khayyam) metre. 

E. W. BuLLiNGEB. The Book of Job (London, Eyre and Spottis- 
woode, 1904). 

"The distinguishing features of the following version are: (1) that 
it is rhythmical; (2) that it is based on the structure of the book; 
(3) that it notes the figures of speech ; (4) that it is idiomatic ; (5) 
that it gives the critical readings of Dr. Ginsburg's Hebrew Bible ; and 
(6) that it distinguishes the various Divine Names and Titles." 

W. Canton. History of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
(London, Murray, 1904). 

Vol. I and II. To be completed in 4 vols. Also, In one volume, by 
same author. The Story of the Bihle Society (Ibid.). 

y. Castiguoni. Mishnah (Drohobycz, Zupnik, 1904). 

Punctuated Hebrew text, Italian translation and notes. Tractate 


L. Chaine. Ij€9 cathoUquea frangaia et leura difflcult^a actuellea 
(Paris, Storck, 1903). 
A Catholic protest against a policy of anti-Semitism. 

H. Chajes. n'hnn IDD (Jitomlr, A. Kahana, 1903). 
Critical Hebrew Commentary on Psalms 1-72. See A. Kahana. 

H. P. Chajes. JUdiache und jildiach-indiache Grahinachriften 
aua Aden (Vienna, Oerold, 1903). 
8 illustrations and a table. 

T. K. Cheyne. The Book of Paalma (London, Kegan Paul, 1904). 

Two vols. Maintains that many of the Psaims were written during 
North-Arabian persecutions. 

A. Chubch. The Laat Day a of Jeruaalem (London, Seeley, 1904). 
From Josephus. Cheap, illustrated reprint. 

E. Clarke. The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond (London, 
Moring, 1903). 

A picture of monastic life In the days of Samson (1135-1211), Abbot 
of Bury St. Edmunds. Many references to Jews. On this ** Chronicle," 
Carlyle based his " Past and Present." The new edition, which has 
preface and notes, forms a volume of Professor I. Oollancz's *' King's 

♦E. COHN. Der jiidiache Student (Berlin, 1904). 
A new German quarterly ; organ of the Yerein Jttdischer Studenten. 

E. Collins. Bachya'a Dutiea of the Heart (London, Orient Press, 
Selected passages in English from the niD3?n HmM 

A. S. Cook. Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers 
(New York, Scribner, 1904). 

Second series (first series appeared in 1898), edited with Latin origi- 

S. A. Cook. The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi 
(London, A. and C. Black, 1903). 

Full account of the Code in eleven chapters. Maintains the independ- 
ence of the Mosaic legislation. 

LiLLiE G. CowEN. Haggadah shet Pesach (New York, Cowen, 

Passover Haggadah; new English translation and notes; illustrations. 

W. E. CuBTis. To-day in Syria and Palestine (New York, Revell, 

Reprint of newspaper articles on a Journey through Palestihe. Illus- 

♦L Ch. Daiches. D^DDH^ IV) n^n (Leeds). 
A Hebrew learned periodical. 


S. Daiches. AUhahylonische RechtBurkunden aua der Zeit der 
Hammurahi-Dynastie (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1903). 

A. Danzioeb. Jewish Forerunners of Christianity (London, Mur- 
ray, 1904). 

Hlllel ; Jesus ; Yochanan ben Zakkai ; Haninah ben Dosa ; Eliezer ben 
Hyrkanos ; Joshua ben Hananiah ; Akibah ; Meir and Acher ; Simon ben 
Yohai ; Judah the Prince. " I have tried to show the modern reader 
what manner of men these Masters in Israel and their fellows were." 

T. H. Dablow and H. F. Moule. Historical Catalogue of the 
Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society (1904). 

A. B. Davidson. Old Testament Prophecy (Edinburgh, T. and T. 

Clark, 1903). 

Twenty-four chapters. Edited from late author's papers by J. A. 

A. B. Davidson. The Theology of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 
T. and T. Clark, 1904). 

A volume of the International Theological Library. Edited from the 
late author's papers, by S. Salmond. 

Contents: (I) The Science of Old Testament Theology; (II) The 
Doctrine of God; (III) The Divine Nature; (IV) The Spirit of God; 
(Y) The Divine Attributes (Righteousness, Holiness, Natural Attributes, 
Redemptive Attributes) ; (VI) Human Nature (" Body," *' Flesh," 
"Spirit," "Soul"); (VII) Sin; (VIII) Redemption; (IX) Angels, 
Satan; (X) Priesthood and Atonement; (XI) The Messianic Idea; (XII) 

ISBAEL Davidson. Three Satires: The Physicians* Aphorisms, A 
Widow*s Vow, The Contentions of a Wife, ascribed to Joseph 
Zabara (New York, 1904). 

Edited anew from a unique copy In the Bodleian Library. Notes, emenda- 
tions, and introduction. 

W. T. Davison. Psalms, 1-72 (Edinburgh, Jack, 1904). 
In the "Century Bible." 

M. Davitt. Within the Pale (London, Hurst and Blackett; New 
York, A. S. Barnes and Co., 1903). 

" The true story of anti-Semitic persecution in Russia." The Kish- 
ineff massacres arose essentially from " the special legislation which 
gives the Jews the mockery of civil rights within a pale of legal domi- 
cilei" The author favors the Zionist solution of the Jewish problem. 

A. Deissmann. Die Hellenisierung des semitischen Monotheis- 
mus (Leipzig, Teubner, 1903). 

On the importance of the Greek Bible for the mission of Judaism to 
the world. In form (for the Greek was the Koivii, well known every- 
where), and in substance (e. g., using xvpiot for the Tetragrammat 
the Septuagint was adapted to reach the heathen world. 

C. L. Deletba. Recherches sur les vestiges d'un culte des morts 
Chez les anciens h^hreux (Geneva. DissertatioUi 1904). 


F. Delitzsch. Babel und Bihel, Bin RUckbMck und AushUck 
(Stuttgart, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1904). 
Replies to critics, especially H. Gunkel (q. t.)» of the former lectures. 

B. D'Etbaoues. Lea paaumea, traduita de Vh^hreu (Paris, Le- 
coffre, 1904). 
With notes. Catholic and christological. 

W. DiTTMAB. Vetua Teatamentum in Novo (Oottingen, Vanden- 

hoeck und Ruprecht, 1903). 

Second part, containing the Epistles and Apocalypse, completes the 
work. The Old Testament parallels (more or less close) to the New 
Testament are given in the Hebrew and in the Greek version. 

E. VON DoBscH^Tz. Prohleme dea apoatoliachen ZeitaMera (Leip- 
zig, Hinrichs, 1904). 

Five lectures: (1) Rise of the primitive community; (2) Jewish-Chris- 
tians and Judaism; (3) Heathen-Christians and Heathenism; (4) Jew- 
ish-Christianity and Pagan-Christianity; (5) Primitive Christianity and 

J. DoLLEB. Geographiache und ethnographiache Studien zum III, 
und IV, Buche der Konige (Vienna, Mayer, 1904). 

Interesting and full discussions of disputed points in Palestinian 
geography and ethnography. 

S. R. Dbiveb. The Book of Cfeneaia (London, Methuen, 1904). 

Bnglish version, introduction, notes. A ** critical " edition which 
maintains that the value of the Bible is not lessened by the results of 
criticism. Many long notes on important points of archaooiogy and religion. 

♦S. R. Dbiveb. Tranalationa from the Propheta (Series in "Ex- 
positor," 1903-1904). 

New translations and notes. Passages from Jeremiah. 

E. Duckesz. 2mt:h niK (1903). 

The Rabbis of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. In Hebrew and 
German. Contains a successful rehabilitation of Jonathan Eibeschtttz. 

Duff. See Tempo: Sebies of Bible Chabactebs. 
W. Ebstein. Die Medizin im Neuen Teatament und im Talmud 
(Stuttgart, Enke, 1903). 

Sequel to same author's "Medizin im Alten Testament" (1901). 

♦R. D. Eebdmans. De Groote Yerzoendag (Theol. Tijd., Jan., 

Maintains that the Dav of Atonement was the New Year festival of 
the pre-exilic solar calendar. 

J. Elbogen. Die Religionaanachauungen der Phariader, mit be- 
aonderer BerUckaichtigung der Begriffe Gott und Menach 
(Berlin, Itzkowski, 1904). 

Prefixed to the twenty-second Bericht of the Berlin Lehranstalt ftir dis 
Wlssenschaft des Judenthums. 


C. Emanxtel. See F. Bbadshaw and C. Emanuel. 

Encyclopedia, The Jewish. (New York, Funk and Wagnalls 
Co., 1903, 1904). 

Vol. V. Dreyfus-Brisac — Goat; Vol. VI. God — Istrla; Vol. VII. Italy 
— Leon. 

W. Bngelkempeb. Die religionsgeschichtUche Lehre Saadja 
Gaons Uber die HI. 8chrift (Miinster, Aschendorff, 1903). 
Translated from the Arabic original of the " Emunot ve-Deot." 

L. Ebbeba. Les massacres de Kichinev (Brussels, Falk, 1903). 

" L'examen attentif des faits ne permet pas d'autre conclusion que 
celle-ci : Tautorit^ a 6t6 inerte, Incapable, et complice." 

W. EvANS-GoBDON. The Alien Immigrant (London, Heinemann; 
New York, Scribner, 1903). 

The London problem ; the Russian Jews at home ; in Poland, Galicia, 
Roumania, America. Illustrations. 

H. Falconeb. The Maid of Shulam (London, Hodder and Stough- 
ton, 1904). 

Maintains typical significance of Song of Songs over and above literal 
meaning. It is an erotic poem, but something more besides. 

B. Feiwel. Junge Barf en, Eine Sammlung jungjildiacher Ge- 
dichte (Berlin, Jtidischer Verlag, 1904). 

H. Feldeb. Die Krisis des religioaen Judentums zur Zeit Christi 
(Stans, Matt, 1903). 

F. Fenton. The Bible in Modern English (London, Partridge, 

A. PuLiDO Febnandez. Los israelitas espaHoles y el idioma ca^- 
tellano (Madrid, Rivadeneyra, 1904). 

On the use of Spanish (Ladino) among present-day Jews In the Orient. 
Illustrations, and accounts of the Alliance Schools, etc. 

P. FiEBio. Altjiidische Oleichnisse und die Gleichnisse Jesu 
(Tubingen, Mohr, 1904). 

Compares the parables of the Mehllta with those of Jesus. 

Concludes : The parables of Jesus are original, not in form, but in 
substance ; they are superior to the other Jewish parables. Author does 
not consider that parables are a continuous phenomenon in Jewish Haga- 
dic literature, and that the New Testament parables are but a link in a 
long chain. 

*M. FisHBEBG. Leaves from a Doctor* s Note-book (New York 
"Jewish Charity," 1903-1904). 
On medical questions concerning Jews. 

R. FiTZNEB. Aus Kleinasien und Syrien (Rostock, 1904), 
Illustrated. Appearing in parts. 


F. FoAKES- Jackson. The Biblical History of the Hebrews (Cam- 
bridge, Heffer, 1903). 

S. and M. Frankfubteb. Moses ben MaimunVs MischnarKommen- 
tar zum Traktat Kethuboth (Berlin, Nathansen und Lamm, 

Two parts. Chs. I-V. Arabic text, revised version of Jacob ibn 
Abbasi's Hebrew translation, German translation, and notes. The form 
" ben Maimunl " in title is unusual. 

*H. Fbaubeboeb. Uber alte Kultusgegenstdnde in Synagoge und 
Hans (Frankfort, October, 1903). 

Parts III and IV of the " Mlttellungen der Gesellschaft zur Erfor- 
schung Jfldischer Kunstdenkmftler zu Frankfurt am Main." Many fine 
illustrations of objects used in Jewish worship, public and domestic. 

*A. Freimann and H. Bbody. Zeitschrift filr hebrdische Biblio- 
graphie (Frankfort, Kauffmann). 

List of Hebraica and Judalca (with some critical notices) and literary 
articles. Appears six times a year. 

J. Fbeimann. nK'r taps (Berlin, Itzkowski, 1904). 

Edition (Part I) of collected notes by Joseph b. Moses, regarding the 
personal customs and religious decisions of his teacher, Israel Isserleln. 
Publication of the Society " Meklze Nirdamim." 

J. Feeudenthal. Das Leben Spinoza^ (Stuttgart, Hauff, 1904). 

Biography of Spinoza, forming first volume of a work on Spinoza's 
Life and Doctrines. Breaks much new ground. 

M. Fbiedlander. Geschichte der jiidischen Apologetik als Yor- 
geschichte des Christenthums (Zurich, Schmidt, 1903). 

An important addition to the literature on the relations between the 
Jews and the world in pre-Christian times. The oldest Jewish propa- 
ganda ; the Sibylline oracles ; Sirach, Pseudo-Solomon, Pseudo-Arlsteas ; 
Apologetic histories (Demetrius, Eupolemos, Artapanos, Greek additions 
to Esther, Haman in the canonical and additional sections) ; Poetry in 
the service of Apologetics; Apocalypse (Daniel, Enoch, Psalms of 
Solomon, Baruch, Testament of the twelve Patriarchs, Jubilees) ; Phllo; 
Josephus ; Polemics from within. 

M. Fbiedlander. Der Freiwillige des Ohetto (Zurich, Schmidt, 
Life-pictures of past and present. 

M. Fbiedlander. Oriechische Philosophie im Alien Testament 
(Berlin, Reimer, 1904). 

Psalms ; Proverbs ; Job ; Kohelet ; Sirach ; Pseudo-Solomon ; Jonah and 
Ruth. The Wisdom literature, which belongs to universal literature, 
grew up under Greek influence. Makes an appeal to Jews to study this 
world-wide aspect of Jewish development. 

MosES Friedlander. Genealogische Studien zum Alt en Testa- 
ment (Berlin, Poppelauer, 1903). 

The name-lists in Chronicles. Calls attention to the iDfluence on the 
chronicler of the 9igniflcatioe of the names. 


A. Priedemann and H. Struck. Paldstina: Reisebilder (Berlin, 
Cassirer, 1904). 

Text by first-named, original drawings by latter. Deals with recent 

M. Fbiedmann. Pseudo-Seder Eliahu zuta (Vienna, 1904). 
Additions to same author's in*7fc< nO (1901). Introduction (In 

Hebrew) and three chapters of " Derech Eretz " and seven of *' Plrke R. 
Eleazar." Prefixed to the eleventh Jahresberlcht der Israelltlsch-theo- 
loglschen Lehranstalt. In Vienna. 

A. Fbiss. Magyar-Zsidd Oklev^ltdr kiadja az izr. magyar iro- 
dalmi tdrsulat (Budapest, 1903). 

Documents (chiefly In Latin and German) relating to the history of 
the Jews in Hungary from 1092 to 1539. First part of a series. 

S. Gallineb. Saadia Al-fajjumVs arabische Psalmeniihersetzung 
und Commentar (Berlin, Poppelauer, 1903). 

Psalms 73-89. The Arabic text, with German translation and notes. 
Only a portion of Saadiah's " Psalms " has so far been edited. See J. 
Z. Lautbbbach. 

H. Ganz. Reiseskizzen aus Rumdnien (Berlin, Hermann, 1903). 
Has chapters on the Jewish question in Roumanla. 

J. K. Gasseb. Die Bedeutung der Spriiche Jesu ben Sira fiir die 
Datierung des althehr. Spruchbuches untersucht (Giitersloh, 
Bertelsmann, 1904). 

♦M. Gasteb. The Political Aspect of the Future of Palestine 
(London, "Jewish Chronicle," February, 1904). 

♦L. Geigeb. Karl Emil Franzos (New York, "New Era Illus- 
trated Magazine," April, 1904). 

S. Gelbhaus. Esra und seine reformatorischen Bestrehungen 
(Vienna, Lowit, 1903). 

W. Gesenius. a Hebrew and English Lexicon (Oxford, Claren- 
don Press, 1904). 
Part XI, "IDK'— )^1p» Complied by F. Brown, on the basis of Gesenius. 

♦L. GiNZBEBG. The Moralist Movement in Russia (Philadelphia, 
Jewish Exponent," February, 1904). 


R. Gluck. Die Scholien des Barhebrwus auf jiidische Quellen 
untersucht (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1904). 

On Genesis 21-50 ; Exodus 14, 15 ; chapters from Leviticus, Deute- 
ronomy, and Joshua. German translation of the Syriac. 

L. (SoLDSCHMiDT. Bpruchc der Vdter (Berlin, Calvary, 1904). 

Text, critical notes, German translation. Part of same writer's full 
pdltioa of Babylonia?! TftJmud, Qf whHh much has already appeared, 


*I. QoLoziHEB. Melanges judio-arabea (Series of articles in the 

" Revue des Etudes Juives "). 

G. GoTTHEiL. See M. Nobdau and G. Gottheil. 

G. Greenwood. The Book of Genesis treated as an Authentic 
Record (London, Church Printing Co., 1904). 
Part III, " from the Death of Noah to the Call of Abram." 

H. Gbessmann. Musik und Musikinstrumente im Alien Testa- 
ment (Giessen, Ricker, 1903). 

M. Gbossbebq. DDDDil 1DD (Lemberg, 1904). 

Portion of a British Museum MS. containing David b. Levi's Notes 
on Tractate Megillah. 

*H. Gbothe. Beitrdge zur Kenntnis des Orients (Munich). 

Vol. I. contains "Die jUdische Mohamedaner Sekte der Donm6 in 

L. GbI^nhut. Die Reiseheschreibungen des R, Benjamin von 
Tudela (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1903-1904). 

Hebrew text and Qerman translation, of the Itinerary of Benjamin of 
Tudela. See M. N. Adlvr. 

♦M. Gbunwald. Mittheilungen der Gesellschaft filr jUdische 
Volkskunde (Hamburg, 1903-1904). 

Important information on antiquities, folk-lore, and literature. The 
latest number (Heft XIII) includes "The Purim Play of Ahasuerus and 
Esther" (S. Welssberg) ; stained glass windows in Szegedln, illustrated 
(I. L5w) ; Sumptuary Laws (Kayserllng) ; "Hamburg's German Jews" 
(Grunwald) ; Hamburg Medals by or concerning Jews with 27 illustra- 
tions (A. Wolf). 

H. GuNKEL. Ausgewdhlte Psalmen ilhersetzt und erkldrt (G5t- 
tingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1904). 

H. GuNKEL. Israel and Babylon (Philadelphia, M*Vey, 1904). 
English translation of Gunkel's reply to Delitzsch's " Babel und Bibel." 

W. W. GuTH. Die dltere Schicht in den Erzdhlungen ilber Saul 
und David untersucht (Berlin, Mayer und Muller, 1904). 

On I Sam. ix to I Kings ii. 

H. GuTHE. Kurzes Bibelworterbuch (Tubingen, Mohr, 1903). 

Concise Bible Dictionary in 1 vol. of 800 pages ; 2 maps and 215 illus- 

A. GuTTMACHEE and W. Rosenau. Year Book of the Central Con- 
ference of American Rahbis. Vol. XIII, for 1903. 

Contents : Proceedings of the Conference and an Appendix, consisting 
of : K. Kohler " Assyriology and the Bible ; " J. Voorsanger, S. Son- 
neschein, and H. Enelow, " Report of Sabbath Commission ; " L. Gross- 
mann, " Pedagogical Methods in the Modern Jewish Religious School : " 
M. L. Margolis, " The Theological Aspect of Reformed Judaism ; " G. 
Deutsch, " Life of Solomon Munk ; " Tributes ; T. Schanf arber, " Con- 
ference Lecture ; " S. Hlrschberg, " Conference Sermon." 


J. GuTTMANN. Die Bedeutung des Judentums im Leben der 
Oegenwart (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1904). 
An address on the continued significance of Judaism. 

C. Haebleb. Bibliografa iberica del aiglo XV (Leipzig, Hierse- 
mann, 1904). 

Contains bibliograpliical details of early publications (including He- 
brew) in Spain and Portugal. 

A. Hahn. Genesis (Leipzig, 1904). 
Hebrew text. 

G. Halpern. Die jUdischen Arheiter in London (Stuttgart, Gotta, 

Economic conditions of Jews in Russia; statistics of the immigration 
in London ; the housing problem ; industries of the Jewish workers ; 
Jews and the trades-unions ; effects of the Jewish immigration. A favor- 
able verdict. 

S. Hannover. Das Festgesetz der Samaritaner nach IhrAMm ihn 
Ja'kHh (Berlin, Nathansen und Lamm, 1904). 

Edition and translation of Ibrahim's Arabic Commentary to Leviticus 
XXIII. Not earlier than the middle of the 17th century, as the author 
mentions coffee and tobacco. 

*A. Harnack and E. Schijrer. Theologische Literaturzeitung 

Fortnightly. Contains reviews and full bibliography of Hebraica and 

R. F. Harper. The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 
2250 B. c. (Chicago, The University Press, 1904). 

Translation, transliteration, an autographed text, map, and glossary. 
Frontispiece, photograph of text. 102 facsimile plates. (See also 
" American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures." Oct, 1903, 
where the text of the Code is given). 

I. Harris. The Jeunsh Year Book 5664 (London, Greenberg, 

I. Harris. Pfefferkorn to Eisenmenger (London, 1903). 

Syllabus of Jewish History from 1500-1700. Publication of the " Jew- 
ish Study Society." 

J. Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible (Edinburgh, Clark; New 
York, Scribners, 1904). 

Extra volume. The " Dictionary " was completed in four volumes 
(1902). There are now complete Indexes and maps. Professor Schechter 
writes on the Talmud ; Professor Kautzsch on the *' Religion of Israel " ; 
Professor Schilrer on the " Diaspora." 

Hebrew Union College Annual (Published by the Students of 
the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O., 1904). 

Contents : Preface ; Prologue (Harry Ettelson) ; Poem (Yiddish)— Frftnkel, a 
Bild von Tiddischen Sweat-Shop Leben in New York (Morris Rosenfeld) ; The 


Four Ells of the Halakah and the Requirements of a Modem Jewish Theolo- 

fical School (Kaufmann Kohler) ; Oemara ( Wilhelm Bacher) ; The Year 1903 In 
ewish History (Gotthard Deutsch) ; Al-Kindl, "The Philosopher of the 
Arabs " (Henry Malter) ; The Jewish Minister (Claude 6. Montefiore) ; Essence 
of Prophecy (Moses Buttenwieser) ; Zwei Bachurim (Gustav Karpeles) ; tte- 
ligrious Education in Modem Judaism (Louis Grossmann) ; Stray Leaves from 
a Note Book (Ephraim Feldman) ; The Church and the Individual (Max L. 
Margolis) ; The Names of the Hebrew Vowels ; Word Studies (Caspar Levias) ; 
In What Does the Originality of Judaism Consist? (Emil G. Hirsch); The 
Pulpit and Politics (David Philipson) ; Learning and Wealth (Sigmund Mann- 
heimer) ; Some Poems of H. N. Bialik (J. Leon Magnes) ; The Procrustean Bed 
(Ephraim Frisch) ; Kiddush Hashem and Hillul Hashem (Harry G. Friedman) ; 
Elijah Gaon of Wilna: His Importance (Mendel Silber); Isaac Erter— His 
Life and Works (Meyer Lovitch); Joseph Perrs Megalleh Temirin (Nathan 
Gordon) ; Notes on the Liturgy (Max Reichler) ; My Diary (Aaron L. Sapiro) ; 
Zechuth Aboth and the Akedah i Ephraim Frisch) ; Poem— Ecclesiastes: Some 
Quatrains (Harry W. Ettelson) ; Memorable Dates of Jewish History (Gott- 
hard Deutsch) (also separately published by Bloch Publishing Company. New 
York); Minutes of the Alumnal Association of the Hebrew Union College; 
Resolutions oi the Alumni in Memory of Rabbi Moses Mielziner ; Installation 
of Dr. Kaufmann Kohler as President of the Hebrew Union College ; Hebrew 
Union College Graduation, 1904; Portraits of the Faculty; Portraits and 
Sketches of the Graduates of 1904. 

E. Hennecke. NeutestamentUche Apokryphen (Tubingen, Mohr, 

Contains 27 Apocryphal writings, including Apocryphal Gospels, Let- 
ters, the Didache, Hermas, and Old-Testament pseudepigraphic writings 
of a Christian character (Apocalypses). 

*H. S. Q. Henbiques. The Jews and the English Law (A series 
of articles in the "Jewish Quarterly Review"). 

R. T. Hebfobd. Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (London, 
Williams and Norgate, 1903). 

An elaborate treatise, containing Introduction ; Passages from the 
Rabbinical Literature (the original texts appear usefully at end of 
volume) with reference to Jesus, and to the Minim (here identified with 
Jewish-Christians). Specially criticises Priedlander's theory that the 
Minim were Gnostics of the Ophite sect. 

H. Hebkenne. Die Briefe zu Beginn des zweiten Makkahder- 
buches (Freiburg, 1. B., Herder, 1904). 
Maintains the integrity and genuineness of these letters. 

Theodob Hebzl. a Jewish State: An Attempt at a Modern Solu- 
tion of the Jewish Question (New York, Maccabaean Publish- 
ing Co., 1904). 

Revised from the English translation of " Der Judenstaat," by Miss 
Sylvie d'Avigdor, with special preface and notes by J. de Haas. 

*P. HiLDENFiNGEB. La figure de la synagogue dans Vart du 
moyen age ("Revue des Etudes Juives," No. 94). 

H. HiBscHFELD. Descriptive Catalogue of the Hebrew M88. of 
the Montefiore Library (London and New York; Macmillan, 

The Montefiore MSS. are for the most part at the Jews* College, 
London ; some remain in Ramsgate. 



♦H. HiBSCHFELD. The Arabic Portion of the Cairo Geniza at 
Cambridge (A series of articles in the " Jewish Quarterly 

D. Hoffmann. Die wichtigsten Instanzen gegen die Chraf-Well- 

hausenache Hypothese (Berlin, Itzkowski, 1904). 

Prefixed to the Jahresbericht of the Berlin Rabbiner-Seminar. An 
important criticism of the Wellhausen theories. 

F. HoLL. Das politische und religiose Tendenzdrama des 16. 
Jahrhunderts in Frankreich (Erlangen, Deichert, 1903). 

The Political Drama before and after Luther ; didactic and mystical 
plays ; satire and polemic in the theatre for and against Protestantism. 
Much of interest concerning polemical use of the Bible on the stage. 

H. HOLZINQEB. Numeri (Tubingen, Mohr, 1903). 

A volume of Marti's " Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament." 

O. HoLTZMANN. The Life of Jesus (London, A. and C. Black, 

Translated by J. T. Bealby and M. A. Canney. 

E. HoRA. Die hehrdische Bauweise im Alten Testament (" Pro- 

gramme," Karlsbad, 1903). 

S. HoBBOwiTz. Der Mikrokosmos des Josef ibn Saddik (Breslau, 
In the Jahresbericht of the Breslau Seminary. 

R. F. HoBTON. Hosea, Joel, Amos, Ohadiah, Jonah, and Micah 
(Edinburgh, Jack, 1902). 

In the " Century Bible." 

♦H. HowoBTH. Some Unconventional Views on the Text of the 
Bible (Series in "Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 

C. Hughes. 8hakespeare*s Europe, Unpublished Chapters of 
Fynes Moryson's Itinerary, being a Survey of the Condition 
of Europe at the End of the 16th Century, 

The last chapter is entitled : *' A Generall and Briefe Discourse of the 
Jewes and Greekes." 

♦A. M. Hyamson. Bibliography of English Books and Articles 
of Jewish Interest that have appeared in British and Ameri- 
can Periodicals from November 1, 1903, to May 15, 1904 
(London, "Jewish Literary Annual," 1904). 

B. Jacob. Im Namen Oottes (Berlin, Calvary, 1903). 

On the Hebrew DK' (name) ; DK^S (esp. '1* DK'n ) ; the Greek bvofia 
in the New Testament, and in the Apocrypha ; the ** Name " as a magical 
instrument ; to baptize '* in the name ; " the spoken substitutes for the 


Jahbbuch deb ji^iscH-LiTEBABiscHEN Gesellschaft (Frankfort, 
Kauffmann, 1903). 

Contents : A. Berliner, " Rabbenu Tarn : " M. Weinberg, " Die hebrft- 
ischen Druckerelen in Sulzbach ; " M. Lerner, '* Yelamdenu Rabbenu " 
(Tanchuma) ; H. Kottek, (a) " Der Kaiser Dlokletlan In Pamstina," 
(b) ** Paneas ; " E. Blberfeld, " Zur Metbodologle der halachlschen Ez- 
egese;" J. Bondl. *'Rabhl Jochanan;'* I. Unna, ^'Babyloniea um das 
Ende der Tannaitenzeit : " D. Hoffmann, '* Zur talmudlscben Lexlco- 
graphle ; " L. Wreschner, " Dlmlnutlv-Blldungen Im Talmud ; " 8. Bam- 
berger, *' Die neuesten Ver5ffentllchungen aus dem arablscben Mlschnakom- 
mentar des Malmonldes ; " Notes. 

S. Jampel. Die Wiederherstellung Israels unter den Achdmeni- 
den (Breslau, Koebner, 1904). 

J. M. Japhet. Illustrierte hebrdische Leseflhel (Frankfort, 
Hofmann, 1903). 

Newly revised by Rosenthal. Begins with vowels (with aid of pic- 
tures), then the consonants In phonetic order. Pictures are used thus: 
the first picture Is an Eagle (German Adler), and under this Is written 
the patah sound (ft) ; and so forth. 

M. Jastbow. a Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli 
and Yerushalmiy and the Midrashic Literature (New York, 
Putnams; London. Luzac, 1903). 
This Important work Is now complete. 
W. Jawitz. mtDn (Cracow, Fischer). 
New Hebrew monthly : Zlonlstlc. 

J. Jedlicska. Der angehliche Turmhau zu Bahel, die Erlehnisse 
der Famine Abrahams und die Beschneidung (Leipzig, 
Seemann, 1903). 

A. Jebemias. Das Alte Testament im Lichte des alien Orients. 
Handhuch zur bihlisch-orientalischen Altertumskunde (Leip- 
zig, Hinrichs, 1904). 

The Bible discussed with relation to archseologlcal facts. Ancient 
Oriental conception of the universe ; the Babylonian Pantheon ; old extra- 
Biblical cosmogony ; the Biblical Creation narrative and the Sabbath ; 
Paradise; the Fall of Man; the Urvftter (first men) ; chronological eras; 
eztra-Blbllcal traditions as to the Flood ; the Biblical Flood story ; the 
ethnological table In Genesis X ; the Tower of Babel ; Abraham the 
Babylonian ; pre-Israelite Canaan ; Abraham as Canaanite ; Glosses on 
the history of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; the story of Joseph ; the 
Exodus ; Israelite and Babylonian Law ; Leviticus-Deuteronomy ; Joshua. 
Judges, Samuel ; the political history of the kingdoms of Israel and 
Judah In the light of the monuments ; Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. 
Esther ; Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles ; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezeklel, 
Daniel, Twelve Prophets. A very compact and useful book. Two maps 
and 145 illustrations. 

Jewish Histobical Society op England. Transactions, Vol. IV 
(London and New York, Macmillan, 1903). 

Contents : C. G. Monteflore, " Nation or Religious Community ; " M. 
Adler, " History of the Domus Conversorum from 1290-1891 ; '* S. Levy, 



" John Dury and the English Jewry ; " I. Abrahams, (a) " Joachim 
Oaunse: A Mining Incident in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth." (b) "The 
Jewish Monarch and Queen Elizabeth ; ^' S. Singer, *' The Earliest Jewish 
Prayers for the Sovereign ; " P. D. Mocatta, " Presidential Address ; " 
L. Abrahams, " Sir I. L. Goldsmid and the Admission of the Jews of 
England to Parliament ; " L. Wolf, ** Status of the Jews in England 
after the Re-settlement : C. H. Firth, " Some Historical Notes. 1648- 
1680;" Ada Corcos, "Extracts from the Close Rolls, 1279-1288;" P. 
Haes, (a) "The Canterbury Synagogue," (b) "Clifford's Tower, York;" 
E. N. Adler, " The Jews of Amsterdam in 1655." Illustrations. 

Jewish Litebaby Annual, 1904. 

Organ of the Union of Jewish Literary Societies, London. Second 

Contains Annual Reports of 40 Literary Societies and following papers : 
I. Gollancz. " Literature and Race ; " B. N. Adler. " Jewish Literature 
and the Diaspora ; " I. Cohen, " Literature in the Ghetto ; " S. Wallach, 
" The Town and its Interpreter ; " A. Wolf, " Pioneers in the Struggle 
for Jewish Emancipation In Germany;" L. Wolf, "Cromwell's Jewish 
Intelligencers ; " A. M. Hyamson, " A Bibliography of all Books and 
articles on subjects of Jewish History, Nov., 1903-May, 1904." 

Jewish Religious Union. Order of Service (London, Wertheimer, 
Lea and Co., 1903). 
Second revised edition. 

W. L. Jordan. Astronomical and Historical Chronology (London 
and New York, Longmans, 1904). 

Objects to the current method of passing from B. C. 1 to A. D. 1, 
without an intervening year (zero). 

M. Joseph. Judaism as Creed and Life (London and New York, 
Macmillan, 1903). 

A liberal conservative exposition of Judaism. Introduction : Religion 
in general; the Bible; Other Sources of Judaism. Book I: Beliefs (ten 
chapters); Book II: Ceremonial (twelve chapters). Book III: Moral 
Duties (thirteen chapters). A full and systematic text-book: 

J. M. JuDT. Die Juden als Rasse, eine Analyse aus dem Gehiete 
der Anthropologic (Berlin, JMischer Verlag, 1904). 

With 24 illustrations of Jewish types, statistical tables, etc. Dis- 
cusses many questions of physical characteristics. 

A. JtJLicHEB. An Introduction to the New Testament (London, 
Smith Elder, 1904). 

English translation by Janet P. Ward. . . 

S. Kahan. Die Q^schichte der Beschneidung hei den Juden, von 
den dltesten Zeiten his auf die Gegenwart (Cracow, Fischer, 

In Hebrew. 
A. Kahan a. n^BVin "lOD (Jitomir, 1904). 

This and Chajes' " Psalms " are the first volumes of a new Hebrew 
Commentary on the Scriptures. Takes full account of critical methods 
and results. The work is thus a remarkable phenomenon in Jewish 
literature. The full title of the series is K'n^D WO D^3inD1 D^fc<*33 IT^in 

'^^' on 



E. Kautzsch. Bihelwissenschaft und Religionsunterricht (Halle, 
Strien, 1903). 

Second edition of this collection of six theses. Kautzsch maintains 
that criticism is not inconsistent with belief in inspiration. 

J. Kennedy. The Note-Line in the Hebrew Scriptures^ commonly 
called Paseq or Pesiq (Edinburgh, T. and T. Clark, 1903). 

The writer's theory is that the Pasek (vertical line between certain 
words in the Hebrew text of Scripture) calls attention to some peculiarity 
or corruption in the accepted Massoretlc reading. 

C. F. Kent and J. S. Riogs. History of the Hebrew People (New 
York, Scribner, 1904). 

New edition of this useful work In four volumes. From the settle- 
ment in Canaan till the Roman period. 

*E. G. King. The Influence of the Triennial Cycle on the Psalter 
(Cambridge, "Journal of Theological Studies," Jan., 1904). 

See also " Jewish Quarterly Review," April, 1904. 

J. Kxausneb. Die messianischen Yorstellungen des jUdischen 
Volkes im Zeitalter der Tannaiten (Berlin, Poppelauer, 1904). 

J. Kley. Die Pentateuchf rage (Munster, Alphonsus, 1903). 

K. KoHLER. The Book of Psalms (Philadelphia, Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America, 1903). 

The first volume of a new translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into 

B. KoHN. MaimunVs Commentarius in Mischnam (Berlin, Cal- 
vary, 1903). 

Tractate Sabbat, chs. 19-24. Arabic text, notes. 

E. KoNiQ. GlaubwUrdigkeitsspuren des A, Test, (Gross-Lichter- 
felde, 1903). 

*E. KoNiQ. Polyandrie im vorhistorischen Israel (" Neue Kirchen- 
Zeitung," 1903). 

J. Krameb. Das Problem des Wunders im Zusammenhang mit 
dem der Providenz bei den jUdischen Religionsphilosophen 
von 8aadia bis Maimuni (Strassburg, Singer, 1903). 

Examines the views of Saadiah ibn Chofni, the Gaon Hal, Bahya ibn 
Pekuda, Jehuda Halevi, ibn Daud, ibn Ezra, and Maimonides, on the 
Biblical miracles. 

R. Kurtz. Zur Psychologic der vorexilischen Prophetic in Israel 
(Possneck, Feigenspan, 1904). 

B. KuTTNER. Jiidische Sagen und Legenden (Frankfort, Kauft- 
mann, 1904). 

Third Part of a collection of legends pealing with ancient and medieval 
Ifewis^ Qotabilitie^. 


J. L. Landau. Nachman Krochmal ein Hegelianer (Berlin, Cal- 
vary, 1904). 

J. Z. Lautebbach. Saadja Al-fajjumVa arabiache Psalmeniiher- 
setzung und Commentar (Berlin, Poppelauer, 1903). 

Psalms 107-124. Arabic text, German translation, and notes. See 
S. Gallinbb. 

J. F. Lee. The Oreater Exodus (London, Stock, 1903). 

Bible story of Exodus preserves account of a " greater exodus " from 
South America, through North America, to Asia. 

A. C. M. Leesebebg. Comparative Philology^ a Comparison he- 
tween Semitic and American Languages (Leyden, Brill, 1903). 

♦F. Lejay. Le sahhat et les podtes latins ("Revue d'histoire et 
de la littSrature religieuse," 1903). 

L Litvi. The Hebrew Text of the Book of Ecclesiasticus edited 
with Brief English Notes and a Selected Glossary (Leyden, 
Brill, 1904). 

♦L L6vi. Revue des Etudes Juives (Paris). Quarterly. 
♦I. Lfivi. Revue hihliographique (Periodically, in the "Revue 
des Etudes Juives). 

L. G. litvY. Une religion rationelle et latque (Dijon, Barbier-Mari- 
lier, 1904). 

Maintains that Judaism can and ought to be the religion of the. 20th 

♦L Lewi. New Era Illustrated Magazine (New York). 
A Jewish monthly. 

H. LiETZMANN. Kleine Texte filr theologische Yorlesungen und 

ijhungen (Bonn, Marius und Weber, 1903-4). 

Series of short texts, with critical notes, published at very low price. 
Now contains Didache and Babylonian Creation Story, and promises 
others of special interest to Jewish students. 

E. M. LiLiEN. J)ie Judenmassacres in Kischinew (Berlin, 1904). 

Lilien supplies the frontispiece to this account of the Kishineff mas- 
sacre. There are other illustrations of scenes during the attack on the 

K. LiNCKE. Samaria und seine Propheten (Ttibingen, Mohr, 

The Prophets of Ephraim ; Phokylides (6th cent. B. C.) and the Bible; 
the Essenes ; the Wisdom of Solomon ; the Maccabees. In an appendix, 
the Greek of Phokylides with German translation. ^ 

|Cnox Lit^e. See Tempu; Sebies of Bible Chasacteb^, 


E. LiTTMANN. The Legend of the Queen of Sheba in the Tradi- 
tion of Axum (Princeton, N. J., University Library, 1904). 

Solomon and Menelik. First of a (series of studies on the languages, 
literature, and history of Abyssinia (*' Blbliotheca Abesslnica " ) . 

E. LoHMANN. Tharaia Oder Nineve (Preienwalde, Ruger, 1904). 

An essay towards the explanation of the Book of Jonah. 
J. London. People of the Ahysa (London, Isbister, 1903). 

On the East End (London and New York) problem. 

L. LowENSTEiN. Geschichte der Juden von der hahylonischen 
Oefangenschaft his zur Gegenwart (Mainz, Wirth, 1904). 

A. LowY. A Critical Examination of the So-called Moahite In- 
scription in the Louvre (London, 1903). 
Disputes the authenticity of the Moablte Stone. 

♦M. LowY. Die Pauliniache Lehre vom Gesetz (Series in "Mo- 
natsschrift fUr Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Juden- 

S. LuBLiNSKi. Die Enstehung des Judentums (Berlin, Judischer 
Verlag, 1903). 

E. Maass. Ch'iechen und Semiten auf dem Isthmus von Korinth 
(Berlin, Keimer, 1903). 

♦R. A. S. Macalisteb. Excavations at Gezer (Reports in the 
Quarterly Statement of the * Palestine Exploration Fund," 

McDouoALL, Lady. Songs of the Church with Stories of their 
Writers (London, Kelly, 1904). 
Has a chapter on hymns of Jewish origin. 

A. H. McNeile. An Introduction to Ecclesiastes (Cambridge, 
University Press, 1904). 

Discusses select passages of the Hebrew, and especially throws light 
on the Greek version. Holds that Ecclesiastes (written in third cent. 

B. C.) was well known (practically in its present form) to Ben Sira. 
Disputes direct influence on Ecclesiastes of Greek philosophers, but con- 
cludes that " In the mind of Koheleth were germinating^ thoughts which 

find striking parallels in the fragments of Xenophanes, in the teaching 
of the earlier Stoics, and in that of the Sceptics represented by Pyrrho." 

B. Mandl. Das jildische Schulwesen in Ungarn unter Kaiser 
Josef II (1780-1790) (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1903). 

S. Mandl. Das Wesen des Judentums dargestellt in homile- 
tischen Essais (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1904). 

M. Maboel. Deutsch-hehrdisches Worterhuch (Pozega, Klein, 

Parts 1-4. To be complete in 40 parts. 


*0. MA^TM^Tim. Contributions d la geographic de la Palestine et 

des pays voisins (Series of articles in the " Revue des Etudes 

K. Mabti. Dodekapropheton (Ttibingen, Mohr, 1903). 

Commentary on the Twelve Minor Prophets. Part of the now all 
but complete " Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament." The 
present volume contains Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Obadiah. 

A. Mabx. Seder Olam (Cap. 1-10) (Berlin, 1903). 

Critical text, translation, notes. 

♦E. W. G. Mastebman. Feasts and Fasts of the Jews in Modern 
Palestine ("Biblical World," Jan., 1904). 

S. Maybaum (and others). Verhandlungen und BeschlUsse der 
Oeneralversammlung des Rahhiner-Yertandes in Deutschland, 
1902 (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 1903). 

Present significance of Judaism (See J. Guttmann) ; Against the White 
Slave Traffic (Rosenack) ; Religious teaching of the young after school 
years (Eschelbacher) ; the Pension-question (Munk, Vogelstein) ; Protest 
against the Oath more Judaioo in Roumanla (Cohn) ; Religious care for 
Jewish prisoners (Prager). 

G. R. S. Mead. Did Jesus live 100 B. CJ (London, Theosophical 
Publishing Society, 1903). 

Discusses the Talmud stories as to Jesus, the Toledot Jeshu, and 
certain statements of Epiphanius. 

J. Meinhold. Der heilige Rest (Weber, 1903). 

History and significance of the conception of the " remnant " of Israel. 

Meteb. Paldstina und Syrien (Leipzig, 1904). 
Fourth edition of the guide book. 

K. MoLLDUB. Die Musik (Lorch, Rohm, 1903). 

I. Music in relation to religion ; II. and III. as a medium for healing 
the sick. 

♦W. MoLLEB. Are the Critics right? (London, " Review of Theolo- 
gical Science," 1903). 

Against the Graf-Wellhausen theories. Translated by C. H. Irwin. 
Introduction by C. von Orelli. 

C. MoMMEBT. Typographic des alten Jerusalem (Leipzig, Haber- 
land, 1903). 
Part II. The Solomonic Temple and Palace on Moriah. 

Lily H. Montagu. Thoughts on Judaism (London, Brimley John- 
son, 1904). 

A statement of the writer's personal faith. *' This little book purposes 
to explain my conception of Judaism as a living religion ... It owes 
a good deal to Mr. Montefiore's essay on ' Liberal Judaism,' though the 
point of view is not everywhere the same." 


♦C. G. MoNTEFioRE. Jewtsji Scholarship and Christian Silence 
("Hibbert Journal," Oct., 1903). 
Laments lack of attention paid to Jewish presentations of Judaism. 

♦C. G. MoNTEFiOBE. RahHntc Conceptions of Repentance (" Jew- 
ish Quarterly Review," Jan., 1904). 

♦B. MoNTET. Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Oriental- 
ism. Periodically in the " Asiatic Quarterly Review." 

H. F. MouLE. See T. H. Dablow and H. F. Moule. 

D. H. MtJiXEB. Die Oesetze Hammurabis und die mosaische Qe- 
setzgehung (Vienna, Holder, 1904). 

Transliteration of the Assyrian text of the Hammurabi Code, Hebrew 
translation, German version, and notes. Facsimile of text. 

R. Mudie-Smith. The Religious Life of London (London, Hodder 
and Stoughton, 1904). 
A census of attendance at places of worship in London. 

B. Naville. See P. le Page Renouf and E. Naville. 

B. Neteler. Die Biicher Samuel, der Vulgata und des hehrdischen 
Textes (Miinster, Theissing, 1903). 

D. Neumabk. Lebensanschauung und Weltanschauung (Cracow, 
Fischer, 1903). 

In Hebrew. 

D. NiELSEjT. Die altarahische Mond-religion und die mosaische 
Uherlieferung (Strassburg, 1904). 

B. NiESE. Oeschichte der griechischen und makedonischen 
Staaten (Gotha, Perthes). 

Vol. Ill (1903) deals with the years 188-120 B. C, and contains 
account of Maccabean period of Jewish history. 

C. NiNCK. Auf hihlischen Pfaden (Leipzig, 1904). 

A journey through Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and 
Turkey. 400 illustrations, 3 maps. 

M. NoBDAU and G. GJottheil. Zionism and Anti-Semitism (New 
York, Scott-Thaw Co., 1903). 
In '• Contemporary Thought Series." 

♦A. NossiG and D. Tbietsch. Paldstina (Berlin, Judischer Ver- 

Second volume (1903) of periodical devoted to practical questions 
(trade, industry, agriculture, etc) connected with Palestine. 


W. NowACK. Die kleinen Propheten (Gottingen, Vandenhoeck 
und Ruprecht, 1904). 

Second edition. Volume of same editor's complete " Handlcommentar zum 
Alten Testament." 

S. Oettli. Die Propheten als Organe der gottUchen Offeribarung 
(Berlin, 1904). 

A. S. Ondebwizzeb. Pentateuch (Amsterdam, Van Creveld, 1904). 

Hebrew text, including Haftarot, Sabbath Prayers, Yoserot, with Dutch 

P. Otto. Register zur Geachichte dea neueren Dramas von Wil- 
helm Creizenach (Halle, Niemeyer, 1904). 
Contains entries of interest concerning Jews and the drama. 

A. S. Peake. The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament 
(London, Kelly, 1904). 
Holds that the Old Testament gives no complete solution. 

*F. B. Peiseb. Orientalische Litteraturzeitung (Berlin). 

Contains many reviews and articles on Hebraica and Judaica. Twelve 
issues yearly. 

S. P. Pells. Thomson's Beptuagint (London, Skeffington, 1904). 

Reprint of C. Thomson's English translation (Philadelphia, 1808) of 
the septuagint Greek version of the Scriptures. 2 vols. 

*I. L. Pebez. prtDX^^n^n V^nv n (Cracow, Fischer, 1904). 
A new Yiddish monthly. 

F. Pebles. Dew (}ehet im Judentum (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 
A" lecture. 

M. Petuchowskl Mischnaiot Nedarim (Berlin, Itzkowski, 1903). 

Continuation of the new edition of the Mishnah, punctuated Hebrew 
text, German translation and notes. 

♦D. Philipson. The Reform Movement in Judaism (A series of 
articles in the " Jewish Quarterly Review " ) . 

♦T. J. Pinches. The Old Testament in the Light of the Histor- 
ical Records of Assyria and Babylonia (London, S. P. C. K., 

Second edition of this useful collection of English translations of 
monumental records. New matter consists of full translation of Ham- 
murabi's Code, notes on Delitzsch, and additions bringing the informa- 
tion up to date. 

T. J. Pinches. The Fragment of an Assyrian Tablet found at 
Gezer (Quarterly Statement, "Palestine Exploration Fund," 
July, 1904). 


A. PosNANSKi. Schiloh. Ein Beitrag zur Oeschichte der Messias- 
lehre (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1904). 

Part I. The interpretation of Genesis XLIX, 10 in antiquity till the 
end of the middle ages. In the form of a systematic presentation of 
ancient and medieval versions of and comments on Shiloh, this book is 
a contribution to the history of exegesis (Jewish, Christian, Mohamme- 
dan) in general and to the nistory of Messianic doctrines in particular. 
Its importance far transcends its special title. In an appendix are given 
the Hebrew or Arabic originals oi more than hundred passages cited 
in the body of the work. 

S. PozNANSKi. Jehuda ibn Balaam zum Buch Josua (Frankfort, 
Kauffmann, 1903). 
Arabic commentary. 

S. PozNANSKi. Fragments de Vexegdse hihlique de Menahem bar 
Helho (auteur du Xle Steele) (Warsaw, Schuldberg, 1904). 
An early French commentator on lines of peahat. 

L. Pbaoeb. Die Lehre von der Vollendung aller Binge aua der hi. 
Schrift hegriindet und verteidigt (Leipzig, Deichert, 1904). 

R. E. Pbothebo. The Psalms in Human Life (London, Murray, 

Association of Psalms with national and individual life, illustrated 
by a long array of historical references. 

L. Rabbinovitz. nan n^n t]DV (St. Petersburg, Hamelitz, 1904). 
A Hebrew tragedy in five acts. 

H. Rabbinowicz. Thorat Chajim (Frankfort, Kauftmann, 1903). 

German translation of author's Hebrew readings (published 1902) for 
use during mourning. 

M. W. Rapapobt. Die unerlaubte Handlung nach jUdischem 
Rechte (Stuttgart, 1903). 

A. Rattbay. Divine Hygiene (London, Nisbet, 1903). 

Two large volumes on ** Sanitary Science and Sanitarians of the 
Sacred Scriptures and Mosaic Code." 

♦S. Reinach. La pr6tendue race juive ("Revue des Etudes 
Juives,"No. 94). 

Concludes : *' II n'y a jamais eu de race Juive ; 11 n'y en a pas ; 11 
n'y en aura pas." 

T. Reinach. Jewish Coins (London, Lawrence and Bullen, 1903). 

Translated from the French by Mary Hill. Reinach has revised his 
opinion as to the Maccabean coins ; he now holds that the supposed coins of 
Simon are genuinely Maccabean. G. F. Hill appends a paper on ** Blaise 
Shekels." With 12 plates. 

P. LE Page Renouf and E. Naville. The Egyptian Book of the 
Dead (London, Society of Biblical Archaeology, 1904). 

Complete translation. 


P. RiEQEB. Hillel und Jesus. Ein Wort zur Versohnung (Ham- 
burg, Boysen, 1904). 

J. S. Rioos. See C. F. Kent and J. S. Rigos. 

M. L. RoDKiNSON. The History of the Talmud from the Time of 
its Formation, about 200 B. C, up to the Present Time 
(New York, New Talmud Publishing Ck>., 1903). 

2 vols. 

W. RosENAu. Brief History of the Congregation Oheh Shalom^ 
Baltimore (Baltimore, 1903). 

W. RosENAU. See also A. Guttmacheb and W. Rosenau. 

L. Rothschild. Die Judengemeinden zu Mainz, Speyer und 
Worms von 1349-1438 (Berlin, Nathansen und Lamm, 1904). 

Continues E. Carlebach's account of the same communities (1901). 
Carlebach broke off in 1349. In 1438 the Luxembourg dynasty ceased. 
A contribution to the medieval history of the Jews. 

S. J. RuEGENWALD. Humor aus dem jiidischen Leben (Frankfort, 
Kauffmann, 1903). 
In verse. 

C. Ryan. Poems, Songs, Ballads (Montreal, Lowell, 1903). 

Contains some poems on Jewish subjects : A Song of Zlon ; The Jew- 
ish New Year 5660; En-Sof; the Ninth of Ab; The Devil and Death 

A. Sabatieb. Religions d'autorit6 et la religion de Vesprit (Paris, 
Fischbacher, 1903). 

Also English translation (London, Williams and Norgate, 1004). The 
late author maintained that Christianity, not as now taught, is the 
ultimate religion. 

♦M. G. Savitch. The Jew in Russian Literature (Paris, " La 
Revue," 1904). 
On Ansky's Jewish tales. 

A. H. Sayce. Monument Facts and Higher Critical Fancies (Lon- 
don, R. T. S., 1904). 

Maintains that recent arohseologlcal discoveries are not favorable to 
the '* critical " position. Contents : Historical Evidence (as opposed to 

Shllology) ; the Antiquity of Literature (early use of writing) ; the 
dissection of the Pentateuch ; Genesis XI v and the trustworthiness of 
Old Testament history (**We may place the same confidence in the letter 
of its texts as we do in that of the clay tablets of Nineveh ") ; the Laws 
of Amraphel (Khammu-rabi) and the Mosaic Code ("That Babylonian 
law should have been already codified in the age of Abraham deprives 
the * critical ' theory, which makes the Mosaic Law posterior to the 
Prophets, of one of its two main supports. The theory was based on 
two denials — that writing was used for literary purposes in the ^ime 
of Moses, and that a legal code was possible before the period of the 
Jewish kings. The discovery of the Tel el-Amarna tablets disproved the 
first assumption ; the discovery of the code of Khammu-rabi has dis- 
proved the second"); the Geography of the Pentateuch; Hebrew and 
Babylonian Cosmology; the doctrine of Religious Evolution. 


A. H. Sayce. See also Temple Series of Bible Chabagtebs. 

♦D. S. ScHAFF. The Treatment of the Jews in the Middle Ages 
("Biblia Sacra," July, 1903). 

D. ScHAPiRO. L'ohstetrique des anciens hehreux (Paris, Cham- 

pion, 1904). 

♦S. ScHECHTER. OeMza Fragments (" Jewish Quarterly Review," 
April and July, 1904). 

J. ScHEFTELOwiTz. Arisches im Alten Testament (Berlin, Cal- 
vary, 1903). 
Septuagint studies. 

V. ScHEiL. La loi de Hammurahi, vers 2000 av. J, C. (Paris, 
Leroux, 1904). 

L. ScHERMAN. Oriental Bibliography ( Berlin, Reuther und Reich- 
ard; New York, Lemcke and Buechner). 
Annual bibliography of Orientalia of previous year. 

G. ScHiAPARELLi. L'astronomia nelV antioo testamento (Milan, 
Hoepli, 1903 X. 

P. N. ScHLOQL. Die Bilcher Samuels (Vienna, Mayer, 1904). 

In parallel columns German translation of Hebrew text and of Vulgate 
Latin. A volume in Schftfer's *' Kurzgefasster wissenschaftlicher Com- 
mentar zu den heiligen Schriften des Alten Testaments." 

A. ScHMiEDL. Die Konflrmationsfeier der weibUchen Jugend in 
ihrer hochwichtigen Bedeutung (Vienna, "Ezra," 1903). 
Three sermons, with an appendix of hymns and Psalms. 

J. ScHOR. D^nrn nSD (Berlin, Fischer, 1904). 

Conpletion of the Rit\ial Compendium by Judah b. Barzilai of Bar- 
celona (12th century). Publication of the Society ** Meklze Nirdamim." 

N. ScHORSTEiN. Der Commentar des Karders Jephet ben 'Ali zum 
Buche Ruth (Berlin, Poppelauer, 1903). 
Edited for first time. 

E. ScHtJRER. See A. Harnack and E. Schurer. 

M. Schwab. Le docteur J. M. Rabbinowicz (Paris, Alcan, 1904). 

A lecture on Israel Rabbinowicz (1818-1903), author of the series of 
French volumes on Talmudic law. 

F. ScHWALLY. See B. Stade and F. Schwally. 

A. VON Schweiger-Lerchenfeld. Die Frauen des Orients in der 
Dichtung und im Leben (Vienna, 1904). 
Illustrated. Appearing in parts. 

M. Seliosohn. See E. N. Adler and M. Seligsohn. 


F. Sebvi. Album (Torino, Slmondelti, 1903). 

In honor of the jubilee of the " Vesslllo Israelitlco," the editor has 
published an Album of portraits of the contributors to this periodical. 
The Album includes many Italian notabilities of the nineteenth century. 

A. M. Simon. Sociales zur Judenfrage (Frankfort, Kauffmann, 


Advocates formation of Jewish schools for manual labor and horticul- 

I. SiNOEB. Russia at the Bar of the American People (New York, 

Funk and Wagnalls, 1904). 

Collection of material and comments on the Klshlneff massacre. 

♦S. SiNQEB. Where the Clergy fail (London, " Jewish Chronicle, 

Jan., 1904). 
SiNKEB. See Temple Sebies of Bible Chabactebs. 

J. Skinneb. I and II Kings (Edinburgh, Jack, 1904). 
In the "Century Bible." 

N. Slouschz. La renaissance de la litt^rature h^hraique, 174S- 
1885. Essai d'histoire litteraire. (Paris, 1903). 

D. M. Sluys. De Maccahworum Lihris I et II Quaestiones (Am- 
sterdam, Clausen, 1904). 

Criticism of recent theory on II Maccabees, the importance of which 
(as against I Mace.) is firmly maintained; a chapter on the Seleucld era 
In the two books of the Maccabees. 

H. P. Smith. Old Testament History (Edinburgh, T. and T. 
Clark, 1903). 

A volume of the International Theological Library. Goes down to the 
reign of Herod. 

W. RoBEBTSON Smith. Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia 
(London, A. and C. Black, 1903). 
New edition by S. A. Cook, with notes by Professor Ignaz Goldzihe^. 

H. VON SoDEN. Bericht uber die in Kubbet in Damaskus gefun- 
denen Handschriftenfragmente (Berlin, Reimer, 1903). 

Professor Barth has classified the Hebrew fragments included in this 
" find " in the Damascus Mosque store-room. Marriage contracts, leaves 
of liturgies, portions of Hebrew Bibles, and Samaritan fragments includ- 
ing a Calendar. It was not previously known that the Samaritans had 
reached so far north as Damascus. 

N. SoKOLOw. hlV7\ IBD (Warsaw, Schuldberg, 1904). 

By friends of Sokolow, and In honor of the twenty-fifth year of his 
literary activity. In Hebrew. With portrait of Sokolow. 

♦S. SosKiN. Altneuland (Berlin, 1904). 

A new German monthly devoted to the economical development of 
Palestine. Organ of the Zionist Commission for the Investigation of 
Palestinian affairs. 


Robinson Souttab. A Short History of Ancient Peoples (London, 
Hodder and Stoughton, 1903). 

Sections on Eeypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Medes, and Persians, the He- 
brews (till Herod), Phoenicia, Carthage, Greece, and Rome. 

W. Spieoelbebo. Der Aufenthalt Israels in Aegypten im Lictite der 
aegyptischen Monumente (Strassburg, Schlesier, 1904). 
12 illustrations. 

B. Stade and F. Schwally. The Books of Kings in Hebrew 
(Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1904). 

In the Polychrome Bible (Haupt's SBOT). 
*B. Stade. Zeitschrift filr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 
(Giessen, Ricker). 

Two parts annually. Full bibliography. 

M. Steckelmacheb. Das Princip der Ethik vom philosophischen 
und jUdisch-theologischen Standpunkte aus betrachtet (Mainz, 
Wirth, 1904). 

♦M. Stein scHNEiDEB. Purim und Parodie (Series in "Monats- 
schrift fiir Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums). 

*M. Steinschneideb. Allgemeine Einleitung in die jildische Lite- 
ratur des Mittelalters (A series of articles in the " Jewish 
Quarterly Review"). 

M. Stebn. Andreas Osianders Schrift iiher die Blutheschuldigung 
(Berlin, " Hausfreund," 1903). 

Reprint of a booklet of the year 1540. 

♦W. Steueb. Die altfranzosische Histoire de Joseph ("Roma- 
nische Forschungen," XIV). 

With an introduction on Old French translations of the Bible. 

H. L. Stback. Hehraisches Schreihheft (third edition) and He- 
hraisches Vokahularium (seventh edition) (Munich, 1904). 

H. L. Stback. Joma (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1904). 

Second revised issue of Strack's edition of the Mishnah Yoma. Notes, 

H. Stbuck. See A. Fbiedmann and H. Stbuck. 

J. Stbzgowski. Kleinasien, ein Neuland der Kunstgeschichte 
(Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1904). 

162 illustrations. Valuable for history of ecclesiastical architecture 
in the Orient. 

*M. Sulzbebgeb. Books and Bookmen (Philadelphia, "Jewish 
Exponent," Jan., 1904). 

Historical notes on Jewish printing. 


G. Taaks. Alttestamentliche Chronologie (Uelzen, 1904). 

Temple Series of Bible Characters (London, Dent; Philadelphia, 
Lippincott, 1903-4). 


"Abraham and the Patriarchal Age" (Duff). 
"David, the Hero King of Israel^* (Knox Little). 
"Joseph and the Land of Egypt" (Saycb). 
"Joshua and the Palestinian Conquest" (Bennett). 
"Saul and the Rise of the Hebrew Monarchy" (Sinkee). 
There is a frontispiece to each volume. 

F. R. Tennant. The Sources of the Doctrines of the Fall and 

Original Sin (Cambridge, University Press, 1903). 

The Fall-Story and its Exegesis (Genesis III) ; the Ethnological origin 
and relations of the Fall-Story; the Psychological origin of the Fall-Story ; 
its relation to History, Allegory, and Myth ; the preparation in the Old 
Testament for a doctrine of the Fall and of Original Sin ; the teaching of 
Ecclesiasticus on Sin and the Fall ; the preparation for the doctrine of 
the Fall in Alexandrian Judaism ; the Fall and Original Sin in Rabbinical 
literature ; the Fall and Original Sin in Jewish Pseudepigraphic litera- 
ture ; the growth of the doctrine of the Fall, and of its elements, in 
Jewish literature as a whole ; St. Paul's doctrine of the Fall ; the doctrines 
of the Fall and Original Sin in the Fathers before Augustine. As to the 
Rabbinic doctrine, the writer concludes that " No diminished freedom of 
will, no permanent ascendancy of the yeaer hara established for all genera- 
tions, were ascribed to the first transgression ; " but, on the other hand, 
with special reference to IV Ezra, "It is unfair to suppose that religious 
inwardness was necessarily lacking to a non-Christian Jew ; and it Is 
certainly an exaggeration to assert, as has frequently been represented, 
that Judaism possessed no doctrine of Original Sin." 

H. St. John Thackeray. The Letter of Aristeas (London and 
New York, Macmillan, 1904). 

New English translation and notes. 

G. W. Thatcher. Judges and Ruth (Edinburgh, Jack, 1904). 
In the " Century Bible." 

J. Theodor. Bereschit Rahha (Berlin, Itzkowskt, 1903). 

Part I of a critical edition of the Midrash Rabba. Contains textual 
and explanatory notes, and variae lectiones. Part I includes (Genesis 
Rabba, chs. 1-10. 

J. W. Thirtle. The Titles of the Psalms (London and New 
York, Macmillan, 1904). 

Maintains that the musical headings of the Psalms have been mis- 
placed ; thev belong to the previous Psalm. The theory bases itself on 
the third chapter of Habakkuk, which begins: "A Prayer of Habakkuk 
the prophet, set to Shlgionoth," and ends: "For the Chief Musician, on 

my stringed instruments." Thus the author contends that nV3)D^ always 
marks the end, not the beginning of a Psalm. 

H. Thompson. The Unknown God (London and New York, 
Warne, 1903). 

" And the result of my labour has at least brought me its own reward 
by conferring emancipation from the fetters of all the creeds, and unshak- 


able confidence In the Power, the Wisdom, and the Beneficence which 
pervade and rule the Universe." Holds that " the Unknown God *' will 
not always remain " unknowable." 

J. C. Todd. Politics and Religion in Ancient Israel (London and 
New York, Macmillan, 1904). 

Growth of monarchy followed by its weakening; Jerusalem becomes a 
constitutional state with the law above t^e King. Before the aristocracy 
succeed in expelling the monarch the city is destroyed ; but after return 
from Exile there is no restoration of the monarchy. In the sphere of 
morals we begin with tribal ethics, where sin is wrong against a fellow- 
clansman ; we end with religious individualism — sin is a violation of tho 
law, which the self-revealing Creator has written on the heart of man. 
An original book. 

L. Tolstoy. King Assarhadon and Other Stories (London, Free 
Age Press, 1904). 

Three stories written by Leo Tolstoy in aid of the Kishlneff Relief 
Fund. Introduction contains letters by Tolstoy on the Kishlneff affair. 

H. Trabaud. La loi mosaique, ses origines et son d^veloppement^ 
son rdle dans le judaisme et dans le christianisme primttif 
(Paris, Fischbacher, 1903). 

J. Te6nel. L*Anci€n Testament et la langue frangaise du moyen 
dge (Paris, Cerf, 1904). 

The influence of Biblical idioms on the French language till the end of 
the 15th century. 

D. Tbietsch. See A. Nossig and D. Teietsch. 

♦Unsebe Hoffnung (Vienna, 1904). 
A new Zionist monthly for young readers. 

J. Ubquhabt. Wie man die Bihel lesen soil (Stuttgart, Kiel- 
mann, 1904). 

Translated by E. Splledt. 

C. VoYSEY. Religion for all Mankind (London and New York, 
Longmans, 1903). 

G. Walleb. The Biblical View of the Soul (London and New 
York, Longmans, 1904). 

Ta.bulated and statistical on the occurrence of the Hebrew {J^Q^ 

and nn in the Massoretic text, the Greek ^t/vxv and nvevfia in the 

Septuagint, the Latin anima and spiritus in the Vulgate, and the English 
soul in the Anglican Versions. Also words referring to human mortality 
and the resurrection. 

I. Wassilevsky. The Hebrew Teacher (Manchester, Weingold, 

A new text-book for teaching elementary Hebrew on modern methods^ 


J. Wellhaxjsen. Das Evangelium Marci und Das Evangelium 
Matthdi (Berlin, Reimer, 1903-4). 
Translation and notes. 

J. Wellhaxjsen. Israelitische und jiidische Geschichte (Berlin, 
Reimer, 1904). 

Fifth edition ; only slight changes from the fourth edition. 

S. Werner. Ruth und andere Gedichte (Vienna, " Die Welt," 

Poems on the following subjects : Ruth ; Jabne (Jochanan b. Zakkal, 
Joshua b. Chananya, Gamaliel, Akiba) ; elegies on " Golut " (exile) ; and 
poems on Zionlstlc hopes. 

G. WiLDEBOBR. De letterkunde des Ouden Verbonds (Groningen, 
Wolters, 1903). 

♦H. WiLLRicH. Der historische Kern des 3. MakkaMerbuches 
("Hermes," Vol. XXXIX, pp. 244-258). 

♦H. WiNCKLER. North Arabia and the Bible ('* Hibbert Journal," 
April, 1904). 

Defence of the North Arabian theory (Mizr not Egypt). 
F. WiTTELS. Der Taufjude (Vienna, Breitenstein, 1904). 

♦L. Wolf. M. de Plehve and the Jewish Question (London 
"Times," Feb. 6, 1904). 

M. Wolff. Musa MaimunVs Acht Capitel (Leyden, Brill, 1903). 

Arabic text, notes, introduction, German translation. A revised edition 
after forty years. 

♦B. Wolff-Beckh. Kaiser Titu^ und der jiidische Krieg ("Neue 
Jahrbucher fur das klassische Alterthum," 1903, XI and XII). 

E. Wordsworth. Some Hints on how to teach the Bible (London, 
Simpkin, 1903). 

♦C. WoRTSMANN. Die jiidische Zukunft (London, 1904). 
A new Yiddish monthly. 

P. WuRM. Handbuch der Religions geschichte (Calwer Verlags- 
verein, 1904). 

A. S. Yahuda. Prolegomena zu einer erstmaligen Herausgabe 

des Kitab Al-hidaja Hla FaraHd al-Qulub von Bachja ibn Josef 

ibn Paquda aus dem ^Andalus nebst einer grosseren Text- 

beilage (Darmstadt, Winter, 1904). 

On the MSS. of the original Arabic of Bahya's " Heart Duties " ^niDin 

nUD^n; on Bahya's indebtedness to Gazali. Dr. Yahuda is editing the 

vfhol^ of the Afabic text. 


*I. Zangwill. Language and Jewish Life (London, " New Liberal 
Review," Dec, 1903). 

Absence of a distinctive Jewish language prevents a distinctive Jewish 
life in England and America outside the Ghettos. 

V. Zapletal. AUtestamentliches (Freiburg, Veith, 1904). 

Man in the Image of God ; the Fall ; Jacob's Blessing ; the Ephod ; 
Jephtha's vow ; Hannah's hymn of praise ; David's elegy over Saul and 

Jonathan ; Psalm 11 ; Selah ( H/D ) In the Psalms ; Isaiah's Parable of 

the Vineyard ; Isaiah on Moab ; the Creation Story. 

I. ZiEOLEB. Die Konigsgleichnisse des Midrasch heleuchtet durch 
die romische Kaiserzeit (Breslau, Schottl&nder, 1903). 

The ** royal " parables and similes in the Mldrash : Royal symbols, pror 
consuls ; imperial justice : royal officers ; ** friends " of the Emperor ; 
f reedmen and slaves ; royal buildings and gardens ; *' panem et clrcenses ; " 
royal property ; Augusta ; sons and daughters of the Emperor. In an 
appendlz are all the original texts cited. 


Now Appeabing in the United States 

An asterisk (*) placed before the name of a periodical in the 
following list indicates that the Editors of the American Jewish 
Yeab Book have not been able to secure a copy of the publication 
issued during 5664. Its appearance in this list is justified by 
references to it in other periodicals. 

The Amebican Hebrew and Jewish Messengeb. Weekly. New 
York. Est. 1879. 

The Amebican Isbaeltte. Weekly. Cincinnati, Ohio. ESst. 1854. 
See also The Chicago Israelite. 

Die Abbeiter Welt. Yiddish. Weekly. New York. Est. 1904. 

English title, "The Labor World." Published by the United Hebrew 
Trades of the State of New York. 

The Associate. Monthly. Philadelphia, Pa. Est. 1901. 

Organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association, Associate Organization. 

Der Baltimorer Weoweiser. Yiddish. Weekly. Baltimore, Md. 
Est. 1897. 
English title, "The Baltimore Guide." 

♦Der Blumengarten. Yiddish. Weekly (?). Chicago. 

B'nai B'rith Messenger. Weekly. Los Angeles, Cal. Est. 1897. 

♦B'nai B'rith Mirror. Monthly. Vicksburg, Miss. ~ 

Published by the Intellectual Advancement Committee, District Grand 
Lodpe No. 7 of the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith. 

Cap-Makers Journal. Yiddish and English. Monthly. New York. 
Elst. 1903. 

Official organ of the United Cloth and Cap-Makers of North America. 

Chicaooer Wochenblatt. Yiddish. Weekly. Chicago, 111. Est. 


English title, "The Chicago Weekly." Weekly edition of "Der tfig- 
licher JUdischer Courier." 

The Chicago Israelite. Weekly. Chicago, 111. Est. 1854. 

Chicago edition of The American Israelite. 
East-Side Life. Weekly. New York. Est. 1903. 
Emanu-el. Weekly. San Francisco, Cal. Est. 1895. 
♦Emanuel Bulletin. Monthly. Pueblo, Colo. 

Published by Temple Emanuel. 


Fabmebs' Leaflet. Occasional. Woodbine, N. J. Est. 1903. 
Published by the Baron de Ilirsch Agricultural and Industrial School. 

Fbeie Arbeitee Stimme. Yiddish. Weekly. New York and Phila- 
delphia. Est. 1900. 

Die Fbeie Stunde. Yiddish. Monthly. New York. Est. 1904. 

English title, "The Leisure Hour." 
The Gleaneb. Monthly. Farm School, Pa. Eat. 1901. 

Published by the National Farm School, Doylestown, Pa. 
Ha-Leom. Hebrew. Weekly. New York. Est. 1902. 

English title, "The Nation." Monthly publication until 1904. 

The Hebbew. English and German. Weekly. San Francisco, Cal. 
Est. 1863. 

The Hebrew Standabd. Weekly. New York. EJst. 1883. 

HiBscH School Joubnal. Published periodically. Woodbine, N. J. 
Est. 1901. 
Published by the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School. 

Independent Obdeb Fbee Sons of Isbael. Monthly. Chicago, 111. 
Est. 1903. 
Organ of the Order. 

The Jewish Amebican. Weekly. Detroit, Mich. Est. 1901. 

Jewish Chabity. Monthly. New York. Est. 1902. 

Published by the United Hebrew Charities. The official organ of the 
National Conference of Jewish Charities.. Formerly "Charity Work." 

The Jewish Chbonicle. Weekly. Atlanta, Ga.; Montgomery, 
Birmingham, and Mobile, Ala.; and Shreveport, La. Est. 1899. 

The Jewish Citizen. Weekly. Omaha, Neb. Est. 1904. 

Jewish Comment. Weekly. Baltimore, Md. Est. 1895. 

The Jewish Consebvatob. Weekly. Chicago, 111. Est. 1904. 

The Jewish Cbitebion. Weekly. Pittsburg, Pa. Est. 1895. 

The Jewish Exponent. Weekly. Philadelphia, Pa. Est. 1886. 

♦The Jewish Expbess. Yiddish. Weekly. St. Louis, Mo. Est. 

♦The Jewish Fbee Pbess. Yiddish. Weekly. Cleveland, Ohio. 

♦The Jewish Hebald. Weekly. Des Moines, la. Est. 1903. 

The Jewish Home. Monthly. New York. Est. 1894. 
Formerly "Helpful Thoughts." 

The Jewish Ledqeb. Weekly. New Orleans, La. Est. 1895. 

OflBcial organ of the Joint lodges of New Orleans, Independent Order 
of B'nai B'rith. 


The Jewish Orphan Asylum Magazine. Monthly. Cleveland, O. 
Est. 1903. 

The Jewish Outlook. Weekly. Denver, Colo. Est. 1903. 
First two numbers issued as a monthly. 

♦Jewish Pbess and Peogress. Yiddish. Semi-weekly. Chicago, 

The Jewish Peogbess of the Twin Cities. Weekly. Minneapo- 
lis and St. Paul, Minn. Est. 1904. 

Early numbers appeared under the name " The Israelite of the Twin 

The Jewish Quarterly Review. London and New York, Est. 

♦The Jewish Record. Weekly. Kansas City, Mo. 

♦The Jewish Review. Monthly. St. Joseph, Mo. 

The Jewish Review and Observer. Weekly. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Est. 1889. 

The Jewish Spectator. Weekly. Memphis and Nashville, Tenn. 
Est. 1885. 

The Jewish Times and Observer. Weekly. San Francisco, Cal. 
Est. 1855. 

The Jewish Tribune. Weekly. Portland, Ore., Seattle and Ta- 
coma. Wash., and Vancouver, B. C. Est. 1902. 

The Jewish Voice. Weekly. St. Louis, Mo. EiSt. 1884. 

JuDiscHE Gazetten. Yiddish and English. Weekly. New York. 
Est. 1874. 

English title, " The Jewish Gazette." Weekly edition of JifoiscHES 

Die jiJDiscHE Post. Yiddish. Weekly. Pittsburg, Pa. Est. 1903. 
English title, "The Jewish Post." 

Die jt)DiscHE Welt. Yiddish and English. Daily. New York. 
Est. 1902. 

English title, "The Jewish World." 

Dee jiJDiscHEB Journal. Yiddish. Weekly. New York. Est. 1899. 

English title, '* The Jewish Journal." Weekly edition of New Yorkbb 
Abend-Post and Deb Mokgen Jouunal. 

JtJDisciiES Taoeblatt. Yiddish and English. Daily. New York. 

Est. 1885. 

English title, " Jewish Dally News." See also Judische Gazetten. 
The MACCABiEAN. Monthly. New York. Est. 1901. 

Published under the supervision of the Federation of American Zionists. 


The Menobah. Monthly. New York. Est. 1886. 

The Mexobah. Monthly. Toledo, Ohio. Est. 1904. 

Published by the Sabbath School ''Children of Zion.'* 
*Mizpah Bulletin. Monthly. Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Organ of Mizpah Congi'egation. 
The Modebx Buu^deb. Monthly. Kansas City, Mo. Est. 1901. 

Organ of the Modern Builders of Israel. 

The Modern View. Weekly. St. Louis, Mo. Est. 1901. 

Monthly Bulletin. New York. Est. 1900. 
Organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association. 

Deb Mobgen Joubnal. Yiddish. Daily. New York. Est. 1902. 

English title, "The Jewish Morning Journal." bjyeumg euiuon, jnew 
lOKKEB AuEKD-rosT ; Weekly eaition, JJeu JCdiscuuk Joubjsal. 

♦Mount Sinai Monthly. Boston, Mass. 

Publisned in the interest ot the projected Mount Sinai Hospital. 

Die neue Stimme. Yiddish. Quarterly. New York. Est. 1904. 

Uingusn title, "The JNew Voicu. ' i^ubiishea by tne Kadicai-Zionists 

New Eba Comment. Monthly. New York. Est. 1904. 
Orgau of the tiew Bra Ciuu. 

The New Eba Illustbated Magazine. Monthly. New York. Est. 


li'rom 1900-1903 *' The New Era ' Boston, Mass. 
♦The New Occident. Monthly. San Francisco. 

New Yobkeb Abend-Post. Yiddish. Daily. New York. Est. 1899. 

Also a Philadelphia edition. English title, *' New i'ork Jewlsn Abend- 

See also Deb Mobgen Joubnal and Deb juoischbb Joubnal. 

♦Obdens Echo. German. Monthly. New York. 
Organ of the Order of True Sisters. 

♦Pannonia. Monthly. Philadelphia^ Pa. 

The p. T. T. S. Review. Monthly. New York. Est. 1904. 

issued by the Junior Class of the Polonies Talmud Torah School of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Congregation Shearitn Israel. 

The Refobm Advocate. Weekly. Chicago, 111. Est. 1891. 

Sabbath School Joubnal. Monthly. Philadelphia, Pa. Est. 1904. 

Sinai. Monthly. Baltimore, Md. Est. 1904. 

Published by Har Sinai Temple. Discontinued after second issue. 

Deb taglicheb Hebold. Yiddish. Daily. New York. Est. 1894. 
English title, " Dally Jewish Herald." See also Deb Volksadvokat. 


Deb taoligheb jt^iscHEB Coubieb. Yiddish. Daily. Chicago, 

III. Est. 1887. 

English title, " The Dally Jewish Courier. See also Chicaoobb Woch- 


Deb Volksadvokat. Yiddish. Weekly. New York. Est. 1891. 
Weekly edition of Deb taglicheb Hebold. 

Deb Volksfbeund. Yiddish and Hebrew. Weekly. Pittsburg, 
Pa. Est. 1889. 

VoBWABTS. Yiddish. Daily. New York. Est. 1896. 
English title, " Forward." 

The Weekly Bulletin of the Refobm Congbegation Keneseth 
IBBAEL. Philadelphia, Pa. Est. 1896. 

Y0U170 Mei^'s Hebbew Association Magazine. Semi-monthly. New 
Orleans, La. Est. 1903. 

Die Zukunft. Yiddish. Monthly. New York. Est. 1902. 
English title, "The Future." 

Yeab Books, Annuals, and Occasional Publications* 
The Amebican Isbaelite. Golden Jubilee. 1854-1904. 
Amebican Jewish Yeab Book. 5664. Fifth of the Series. 
Published by The jewish Publication Society of Ambbica. 
Annual XI Congregation Rodeph Shalom, Philadelphia. 1903-04. 
Annual No. 2 Congregation Ohavai Sholem, Nashville. 1903-04. 
Annual of the Congregation B'nai B'bith, Los Angeles, Cal. Vol. 

IV. 1903-04. 

Hebbew Union College Annual. Cincinnati, O. 1904. 

Published by the Students of the College, 
Jewish Pbogbess in Saint Louis. 1904. 
New Yobk Section Council of Jewish Women. 1903-04. 
Reform Congregation Keneseth Isbael, Philadelphia, Pa. Year 

Book No. XV. 1903-04. 
Yalkut Maababi. a Literary Annual. New York. Vol. I. 1904. 

Issued by the Ohoie Shem Association. 
♦Year Book of Congregation Tifebeth Isbael, Cleveland, O. 
Year Book of the Centbal Confebence of Amebican Rabbis. 

Volume XIIL 1903. 
Year Book, Twenty-Ninth Year. Nineteen Three-Four. Young 

Men's Hebbew Association of Philadelphia. 5664. 

1 See also Publications: American Jewish Historical Society, p. 230; Council 
of Jewish Women, p. 337 ; Jewish Theologrical Seminary of America, p. 262 ; 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, p. 278. 



(1500 AND upwabd) 


August 26, 1903, to August 12, 1904 

Abraham Abraham, Brooklyn, gives |25,000 to the Jewish Hos- 
pital of Brooklyn, provided an equal amount is raised within 
a year. 

Jacob H. Abraham, New Orleans, La., bequeaths |2000 to each 
of the following: Shakespeare-Touro Alms House, Associa- 
tion for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans, Touro 
Infirmary and Hebrew Benevolent Association, Kingsley 
Social House Settlement, Home for Incurables, Charity Organi- 
zation Society, St. Alphonso's Orphan Asylum, and Home 
for Homeless Women, all of New Orleans. 

A. Adler and Company, New Orleans, La., give |500 to the Build- 
ing Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Hannah Adler, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths |2000 to the Mathilde 
Adler Loeb Dispensary of the Jewish Hospital; and |250 to 
the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum, both of Phila- 

Wiliam Adler, New Orleans, La., gives |500 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Henry S. Allen, |2500 given in memory of, to the Memorial 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Ben Altheimer, St. Louis, Mo., gives |600 to the Jewish Charita- 
ble and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

E. Asiel, New York City, gives |10,000 to Mount Sinai Hospital 
of New York. 

Joseph Austrian, Chicago, 111., and Henry Block, New York City, 
give 16000 to Yale University as a scholarship fund in mem- 
ory of Walter Joseph Austrian, a victim of the Iroquois 
Theatre Fire. 

A. Baldwin, New Orleans, La., gives $1000 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, La. 

iThe contributions of individuals to the Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund of 
the Hebrew Union College were not all published. It has been officially 
announced that nearly $400,000 has been subscribed. Of the contributions 
to the various Federations of Charities, only those to the newly-formed 
Unions in Cleveland and St, Louis are noted in the list, ^ 


Walter B. and George Louis Beer, New York City, give $10,000 

to Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 
Bernard Bettmann, Cincinnati, O., gives $500 to the Union of 

American Hebrew Congregations for a new building for the 

Hebrew Union College. 

Mrs. Herman Black, Cleveland, O., bequeaths $2500 to the Federa- 
tion of Jewish Charities; and $500 to the Council Educational 
Alliance; both of Cleveland. 

Morris A. Black, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federa- 
tion of Jewish Charities. 

Simon L. Bloch, Philadelphia, Pa., gives $1000 to the Jewish 
Foster Home and Orphan Asylum, Philadelphia, in memory 
of his parents. 

Henry Block. See Joseph Austrian. 

Albert Blumberg, Pittsburg, Pa., bequeaths $500 to the Gusky 
Orphanage and Home; $1000 to the Columbian Council 
School; and $1000 for a room in a non-sectarian hospital; 
all of Pittsburg. 

Isaac Blumenthal, $50,000 given in memory of, to Mount Sinai 
Hospital, New York. 

J. Bookman, the Estate of. New York City, gives $1000 to the 
United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Andrew Carnegie, New York, gives $25,000 to the Educational 
Alliance, New York City. 

C. C. Cordill, New Orleans, La., gives $1000 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

R. E. Craig, New Orleans, La., gives $500 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

The Deborah Benevolent Sewing Society, New York City, gives 
$500 to the Guarantee Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, 
New York. 

Denis, Danziger, and Tessier, New Orleans, La., give $500 to the 
Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

C. F. Doe, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths $8000 to the Pacific 
Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home, San Francisco. 

Emanuel Eichold, Mobile, Ala., bequeaths $5000 to the Association 
for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans of New Or- 
leans, La.; and $1000 to each of the following: Female 
Benevolent Society, Catholic Female Benevolent Association, 
Church Home, Colored Old Folks and Orphans Home, and 
Hannah Home for the Aged and Infirm; all of Mobile. 

Mary Einstein, $1000 given in memory of, to the Memorial Fund 
of the United Hebrew Charities, New York, 


D. Eiseman, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Wise Memorial 

Temple Emanu El, New York City, gives $500 to the "General 
Slocum " Fund. 

Jacob Epstein, Baltimore, Md., gives |luOO to the Hebrew Chil- 
dren's Protective and Sheltering Association, Baltimore. 

Simon Epstein, New York City, bequeaths |1000 to each of the 
following: Hebrew Free Loan Association, Beth Israel Hos- 
pital, Machzikei Talmud Torah, and Yeshibah Etz Chaim; $500 
to each of the following: Yeshibah Rabbi Itzhok Elchonon, 
Chesed Shel Emeth Society, Mount Sinai Hospital, Monte- 
fiore Home for Chronic Invalids, and Hebrew Orphan Asy- 
lum and Benevolent Association; and $250 to each of the 
following: Daughters of Jacob, and Nashim Rachmonuth. 

Julius FeiSB, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Leon Fellman, New Orleans, La., gives |500 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Mrs. Rosalia Fisher, St. Louis, Mo., bequeaths $500 to the Jewish 
Orphan Asylum, Cleveland, O., and $100 to the Jewish Hos- 
pital, St. Louis, Mo. 

Moyer Fleisher and Mrs. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa., give $500 
to the Children's Ward of the General Hospital, Bangor, Me. 

Abraham Fredig, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $750 to the Jewish 
Hospital Association; $750 to the Jewish Foster Home and 
Orphan Asylum; and $250 to the Jewish Orphans Guardians; 
all of Philadelphia. 

Julius Freiberg, Cincinnati, O., gives $25,000 to the Jewish Hos- 
pital of Cincinnati in memory of his wife. 

Lazard Freres, New York City, gives $500 to the Guarantee Fund 
of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

A Friend, through N. B., gives $2000 to the Guarantee Fund of 
the United Hebrew Charities. 

Louis Gans, New York City, bequeaths $25,000 to the Montefiore 
Home for Chronic Invalids; $2500 to each of the following: 
Mount Sinai Hospital, United Hebrew Charities, Hebrew 
Sheltering Guardian Society, Hebrew Orphan Asylum and 
Benevolent Association, Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, and Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, O.; $2000 
to the Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and 
Orphans, New Orleans, La.; $2000 to be divided among the 
poor of Helena, Mont.; $1000 to each of the following: Home 
for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, Hebrew Technical Institute, 


Educational Alliance, Beth Israel Hospital, Lebanon Hospital, 
Colored Orphan Asylum, Free Loan Association, and Society 
for Ethical Culture; |1000 to be distributed among the poor 
of Neustadt, Bohemia; $500 to the Ladies' Auxiliary Society 
of Temple Emanu El, and $500 to the Hebrew Benevolent 
Society, of Helena, Mont.; and $2500 to the Montefiore Home 
for Chronic Invalids, to found a perpetual bed in memory 
of his wife, Fannie Gans. 

Valentine Geng, Darby, Delaware County, Pa., bequeaths $500 to 
the Jewish Hospital Association, Philadelphia. 

Joseph Glaser, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Wise Memorial 
Fund; and $500 to the Jewish Charitable and Educational 
Union, St. Louis. 

Morris Glaser, St. Louis, Mo., gives $600 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Joel Goldberg, the Estate of, New York City, gives $15,000 to 
Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 

Simon A. Goldberg, New York (deceased, 1897), bequeaths the 
residue of his estate, amounting to $300,000, on the demise of 
his wife, for the purpose of creating some charitable or educa- 
tional institution in New York. The trustees applied to the 
courts for an interpretation of the clause, and the Hebrew 
Technical Institute was named as the residuary legatee in 
accordance with the wishes of the testator verbally expressed 
shortly before his death. 

Marcus Goldman, New York City, bequeaths $1000 to each of the 
following institutions, all in New York: Hebrew Benevolent 
and Orphan Asylum; Mount Sinai Hospital; Home for Aged 
and Infirm Hebrews; United Hebrew Charities; Hebrew Tech- 
nical Institute; Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids; He- 
brew Technical School for Girls; and Hebrew Sheltering 
Guardian Society. 

J. D. Goldman, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Jacob Goldsmith, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federa- 
tion of Jewish Charities. 

George Goodman, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths $500 to each 
of the following: Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home, 
Catholic Orphan Asylum, Protestant Orphan Asylum, Nur- 
sery for Homeless Children, Little Sisters' Infant Shelter, 
Children's Hospital, Ladies* Relief Society, all of San Fran- 
cisco; $600 to City and County Hospital of Alameda; $500 
to the Children's Hospital of Alameda; and $1000 to th^ 
Masonic Home at Decoto. 


■J J ^ 'a 


• • « • 

* » • 




Samuel Grabfelder, Louisville, Ky., gives $500 to the National 
Jewish Hospital for Consumptives at Denver, Colo. 

Adam Grant, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths |5000 to each of the 
following: Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home, 
Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, and Protestant Orphan 

Abraham Green, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths |500 to the 
Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society, and 
$500 to the Hebrew Home for Aged Disabled, San Francisco. 

Abraham Green, the Estate of, San Francisco, Cal., gives |500 
to the Hebrew Home for Aged Disabled, San Francisco. 

Mrs. Gussie Greenebaum, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths $3000 
to Temple Emanu El, New York, the interest to be distributed 
among poor Jews of New York to be designated by the presi- 
dent and rabbi of the congregation; and $5000 for distribution 
among charitable organizations of New York to be selected 
by her executors. 

Daniel Guggenheim, New York City, contributes $500 to a special 
library fund of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 

M. Guggenheim's Sons, New York City, give $2500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York; and $1000 
to the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives at Denver, 
Colo., for a special Building Fund. 

William Guggenheim, New York City, gives $2500 to the Guar- 
antee Fund of the United Hebrew Charities. 

Simon Gumbel, New Orleans, La., gives $10,000 to the Orphans 
Home for a Dowry Fund. 

Bmilie Jones Gutheim, New Orleans, La., bequeaths $1000 to the 
Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans; 
$1000 to the Julius Weis Home; and makes the Touro Infirm- 
ary and Hebrew Benevolent Association her residuary lega- 
tee; all these institutions being in New Orleans. 

William Haas and Mrs. Haas, San Francisco, Cal., in celebration 
of their daughter's marriage, give $500 to the Pacific Hebrew 
Orphan Asylum and Home; $500 to Mt. Zion Hospital; $100 
to the Emanu El Sisterhood; and $100 to the Emanu El 
Kindergarten; all of San Francisco. 

Joseph H. Hagedorn and Mrs. Hagedorn give $2500 to the Young 
Women's Union, Philadelphia, in memory of Estelle Fleischer 

Manuel Halle, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Kaufman Hays, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 


Amelia Hecht, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths $250 to each of the 
following: Armitage Orphanage, Eureka Benevolent Associa- 
tion, Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home, Pioneer 
Kindergarten Society, Occidental Kindergarten, Fruit and 
Flower Mission, Emanu-El Sisterhood, all of San Francisco; 
Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Baltimore, Md., and Hebrew Indus- 
trial School, Boston, Mass. 

Jacob H. Hecht, the Estate of, Boston, Mass., gives $500 to the 
National Farm School, Doylestown, Pa. 

Mrs. Lina F. Hecht, Boston, Mass., gives $500 to the National 
Farm School, Doylestown, Pa. 

Joseph E. Heimerdinger, New York City, bequeaths $5000 to the 
Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids; $3000 to the United 
Hebrew Charities; $2000 to each of the following: Hebrew 
Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society, Home for Aged 
and Infirm Hebrews, Mount Sinai Hospital, Educational Alli- 
ance, and German Hospital; and $100 to each of the follow- 
ing: Hebrew Technical Institute, Hebrew Infant Asylum, 
Hebrew Technical School for Girls, Hudson Guild, Sani- 
tarium for Hebrew Children, and Society for the Aid of 
Jewish Prisoners; all of New York. 

Mrs. D. Heinsheimer, New York City, gives $500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities; and $500 to the Hebrew 
Free Loan Association, New York. 

Louis A. Heinsheimer, New York City, gives $5000 to the Guar- 
antee Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

H. Heller, New Orleans, La., gives $500 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Michael L. Hiller, New York City, bequeaths $5000 to the Society 
for Ethical Culture; and $500 to each of the following: 
University Settlement, German Hospital and Dispensary, 
Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society, and Hebrew 
Technical Institute; all of New York. 

F. T. Howard, New Orleans, La., gives $5000 to the Building 
Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

C. H. Hyams, New Orleans, La., gives $1000 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Henry Jacobs, Wheeling, W. Va., bequeaths $200 to the Wise 
Memorial Fund; $200 to Congregation Leshem Shomaim; 
and $100 to the City Hospital, the latter two of Wheeling. 

Isaac Joseph, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Joseph Joseph, Cincinnati, O., gives $15,000 to the Jewish Hos- 
pital of Cincinnati for a Nurses' Dormitory. 


Morris Joseph, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Max Kahn, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Jewish Charitable and 
Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Abraham Kaufman, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $200 to each 
of the following: United Hebrew Charities, Jewish Orphans 
Guardians, and Jewish Hospital Association; $150 to the 
Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum; and $250 to the 
Congregation Keneseth Israel; all of Philadelphia. 

Kaufmann Brothers, Pittsburg, Pa., give $1000 to the National 
Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Denver, Colo., in memory 
of their sister. 

Mrs. A. B. Klrschbaum, Philadelphia, purchases a property and 
furnishes it for use as an Industrial Home for Jewish Work- 
ing Girls, under the supervision of the Philadelphia Section, 
Council of Jewish Women, which agrees to maintain the 

Henry Klein, Helena, Mont., bequeaths $5000 to each of the follow- 
ing: Wesleyan Methodist University, and St. John's Roman 
Catholic Bishopric, at Helena; National Jewish Hospital for 
Consumptives, at Denver, Colo., and the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege, at Cincinnati, O.; and $2500 to Temple Emanu El, 

Mrs. Bertha Koch, Baltimore, Md., bequeaths $1000 to the Hebrew 
Friendly Inn and Aged Home; $200 to the Hebrew Hospital 
and Asylum Association; $200 to the Talmud Torah; and 
$100 to the Hebrew Children's Protective and Sheltering 
Association; all of Baltimore. 

Mrs. Laura B. Koch, Cleveland, O., bequeaths a library estimated 
at $5000 to the Case Library Association, In memory of her 

U. Koen and Company, New Orleans, La., give $1000 to the 
Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Mrs. Rebekah Kohut, and the children of Dr. Kohut, New York 
City, give $1000 as a prize fund to the Jewish Theological 
Seminary in memory of Dr. Alexander Kohut. 

Bernhard Kuppenheimer, Chicago, 111., bequeaths $1000 to the 
Michael Reese Hospital; $500 to the Home for Jewish Or- 
phans, both of Chicago; and $500 to the Jewish Orphan Asy- 
lum, Cleveland, O. 

Bernhard Kuppenheimer, the Estate of, Chicago, 111., gives $25,000 
for a building for the Jewish Friendless and Working Girls 


S. Lavanburg, New York, bequeaths $5000 to each of the following 
institutions: Mount Sinai Hospital; Montefiore Home for 
Chronic Invalids; and Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asy- 
lum; and 12500 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, all 
of New York, these bequests to become operative on the death 
o( his wife. 

Emanuel Lehman, New York City, gives |500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Meyer Lehman, the Children of. New York City, erect a dis- 
pensary for the Mount Sinai Hospital, in memory of their 
father, at a cost of |93,000. 

The Leon Godchaux Company, New Orleans, La., gives |5000 to 
the Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Isaac Levi, Cleveland, O., contributes |500 to the Federation of 
Jewish Charities. 

Matthias Levy, New Orleans, La., bequeaths |100 to Temple Sinai; 
1400 to the Touro Infirmary and Benevolent Association; 
and 1200 to the Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows 
and Orphans, all of New Orleans. 

Mrs. Rosa Levy, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths |500 to the 
Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home; 1500 to the 
Old People's Home; |250 to each of the following: Hebrew 
Home for Aged Disabled, Women's Hospital of California, 
Catholic Orphan Asylum, Protestant Orphan Asylum, and 
Children's Hospital; |100 to the Ladies' United Hebrew 
Benevolent Society; 1100 to the Allgemeiner Deutscher 
Frauen Verein; and $50 to the Fruit and Flower Mission; 
all of San Francisco. 

Adolph Lewisohn, New York City, gives $10,000 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities; $125,000 to the Build- 
ing Fund of the Hebrew Technical School for Girls; an an- 
nual donation of $1500 to the Emanu EI Sisterhood of Per- 
sonal Service for a workshop for the unskilled; $10,000 to the 
Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, New York; and $250,000 
to Columbia University for the erection of a building for the 
School of Mines; all of New York. 

Abraham Lippman, Pittsburg, Pa., gives $1000 to the National 
Jewish Hospital for Consumptives at Denver, Colo. 

James Loeb, New York City, gives $25,000 as a fund for the use 
of the Sun-Rooms in the Montefiore Home for Chronic In- 
valids, in memory of his mother, Betty Loeb; and offers 
$500,000 for a conservatory of music, if an equal amount 
is raised by subscription. 


Morris Loeb, New York City, gives $500 to the Guarantee Fund 
of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Solomon Loeb, New York City, bequeaths $10,000 to each of the 
following: Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, Mount 
Sinai Hospital, Hebrew Technical Institute, Educational Alli- 
ance, Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society, and 
Chemical Laboratory of New York University; $5000 to each 
of the following: Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, 
American Museum of Natural History, and Sanitarium for 
Hebrew Children; $2500 to each of the following: Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, General Memorial 
Hospital, Hebrew Charities Building, all of New York; 
$10,000 to the United Hebrew Charities of New York, or a 
Federation of New York Charities, if any is formed; $5000 
to the Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati; and $5000 to the Jew- 
ish Hospital at Worms, Germany. 

I. L. Lyons and Company, New Orleans, La., give $500 to the 
Building of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Maison Blanche, New Orleans, La., gives $1000 to the Building 
Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Louis Marshall, New York City, contributes $500 to a special 
library fund of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 

Felix Marx, New York City, bequeaths $1000 to a congregation 
in Plainfleld, N. J. 

Adolph Mayer, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Leopold Mayer, Chicago, 111., bequeaths $2000 to the Home for 
Jewish Orphans; $1000 to the Jewish Training School; $500 
to each of the following: Uhlich's Orphan Asylum, German 
Catholic Orphan Asylum, the German Altenheim, Harmonia 
Lodge (Odd Fellows), Michael Reese Hospital and Home for 
Aged Jews, all of Chicago; and $500 to the Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, O., and $500 to the Jewish Orphan 
Asylum, Cleveland, O. 

Leopold Mayer, the Estate of, Chicago, 111., gives $500 to the 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. 

Mrs. Aaron Meier, Portland, Ore., gives $500 to the Council of 
Jewish Women, Portland Section. 

Fistel Meis, Cincinnati, O., bequeaths $100 to the United Jewish 
Charities; $100 to the Jewish Hospital, both of Cincinnati; 
$100 to the Jewish Orphan Asylum, Cleveland, O.; $200 for 
the benefit of the Jewish poor in Jerusalem; $100 to the 
Mayor of Ingweiler, Alsace, to be distributed among the poor; 
and $100 to the president of the Jewish Congregation at 
PfafTenhofen, Alsace, to be distributed among the poor. 


Mente and Company, New Orleans, La., give |500 to the Building 
Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Elias Michael, St. Louis, Mo., gives |1000 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis, Mo.; and |1000 to the 
Wise Memorial Fund. 

Herman Molner, Chicago, III., gives |1000 to the Orthodox Home 
for Aged Jews, and |3000 to the Building Fund of the Sab- 
bath School of Congregation Beth El, both of Chicago. 

Simon Muhr, at the second accounting of the Estate of, the fol- 
lowing sums are paid to legatees: |5000 to the Jewish 
Hospital Association; |3000 to the Jewish Foster Home and 
Orphan Asylum; flOOO to the United Hebrew Charities; 
11000 to the Jefferson Medical College; |1000 to the Home 
for Incurables; |500 to the Hahnemann Medical College; |500 
to the Polyclinic and College for Graduates in Medicine; 
1400 to the Lying-in Charity; f400 to the Woman's Hospital; 
1400 to the Children's Hospital; |200 to the West Philadel- 
phia Hospital for Women; |1000 to the Sanitarium Associa- 
tion; fSOO to the Pennsylvania Society to Protect Children 
from Cruelty; |400 to the Children's Aid Association; |400 
to the Northern Home for Friendless Children; |200 to 
the Northern Day Nursery; |200 to the Home Missionary 
Society; |400 to the Southern Home for Destitute Children; 
1500 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons; 
1400 to the Merchants Fund; |400 to the Pennsylvania Re- 
treat for Blind Mutes and Aged and Infirm Blind Persons; 
f200 to the Pennsylvania Working Home for Blind Men; 
1200 to the Old Ladies' Home, Wissinoming; and |10,000 to 
the Board of City Trusts for Scholarships for Public School 
pupils; all of Philadelphia. 

M. J. Mandelbaum, Cleveland, O., gives |500 to the Federation of 
Jewish Charities. 

Marks Nathan, Chicago, 111., bequeaths |46,500 for charitable ob- 
jects, of which 115,000 is to be used for the erection of a 
synagogue and the support of charities in Jerusalem. 

Max Nathan, New York City, gives |10,000 to Mount Sinai Hos- 
pital, New York. 

Isidore Newman, New Orleans, La., gives |1000 to the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Nashville, Tenn., for im- 
proved bathing facilities; f500 to the Building Fund of Con- 
gregation Somech Nophelim and Chevra Tehillim (consoli- 
dated) ; 1500 to the Charity Organization Society; |10,000 to 
the Manual Training School founded by him in connection 
with the Orphans Home; and |5000 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary; the last four of New Orleans. 


JoliuB Newman, San Francisco, Cal., bequeaths |250 to each of the 
following San Francisco institutions: Ladies' Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society; Eureka Benevolent Society, and Home for Aged 
People; and 1000 marks to the Jewish Congregation of Zem- 
pelburg. West Prussia. 

The New Orleans Brewing Association, New Orleans, La., gives 
11000 to the Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New 

Aaron Nusbaum, Chicago, 111., establishes a scholarship, yielding 
1300 annually, at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. 

M. Oppenheimer, Pittsburg, Pa., gives |1000 to the Gusky Orphan- 
age and Home, Pittsburg, in memory of his daughter. 

Simon Pfaelzer, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths |1000 to each of 
the following: Jewish Hospital Association, and Jewish 
Foster Home and Orphan Asylum; |500 to each of the follow- 
ing: German Hospital, Friends Home for Children, United 
Hebrew Charities, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children, Hebrew Education Society, Jewish Seaside Home, 
German Society of Pennsylvania, Jewish Orphans' Guard- 
ians; and 110,000 to the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan 
Asylum as trustee of the Cassie Theobald Pfaelzer Educa- 
tional Trust Fund; all of Philadelphia. 

Sigmund Rheinstrom, Cincinnati, O., gives |6000 to the. Hebrew 
Union College, Cincinnati, to endow a scholarship to be 
known as the Madeline Wise Rheinstrom Scholarship. 

Mrs. Aurelia Rice, St. Louis, Mo., gives |1000 to the Wise Me- 
morial Fund. 

Jonathan Rice, St. Louis, Mo., gives |750 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Sigmund Rosenwald, New York City, gives |500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

William Salomon, New York City, gives |500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Samuel M. Schafer, New York City, gives $5000 to the Memorial 
Fimd of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Jacob H. Schiff, New York City, gives |25,000 to the Machzikei 
Talmud Torah; f 10,000 to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian 
Society; |1000 to the Hebrew Free Loan Association; |1000 
to the United Hebrew Charities; and |1000 to the "General 
Slocum " Fund; all of New York. 

Mrs. Jacob H. Schiff, New York City, gives |18,500 to the Emanu 
El Sisterhood of New York to pay the debt on its building. 


Mortimer L. Schlff, New York City, gives $2500 to the Building 
Fund of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society; $2500 to 
the Hebrew Technical Institute, New York, to defray the ex- 
penses of twenty-four boys at the St. Louis Exposition; and 
11000 to the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Edward G. Schlieder, New Orleans, La., gives |500 to the Building 
Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Mrs. Carrie Schloss, Baltimore, Md., bequeaths $100 to each of the 
following: Hebrew Hospital and Asylum Association; He- 
brew Orphan Asylum; Hebrew Benevolent Society; Ladies' 
Sewing Society; German Orphan Asylum, and Association for 
the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, all of Balti- 
more. By her death, the will of her husband, Nathan Schloss 
(died 1886), becomes operative, according to which his for- 
tune, amounting to $200,000, is to be divided equally among 
the following Institutions in Baltimore: Baltimore Hebrew 
Congregation; Hebrew Benevolent Society; Hebrew Hospital 
and Asylum Association; Hebrew Orphan Asylum, and He- 
brew Free Burial Society. 

L. D. Schoenberg, Cleveland, O., gives $500 to the Federation of 
Jewish Charities. 

Moses Schoenberg, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Jewish Chari- 
table and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Mrs. Ella Schwab, St. Louis, Mo., gives $750 to the Jewish Chari- 
table and Educational Union, St. Louis. 

Max Schwab, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis, Mo. 

Abraham Schwartz and Mrs. Schwartz, $1000 given in memory of, 
to the Touro Infirmary and Hebrew Benevolent Association, 
New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Nettie Schwarz, San FYancisco, Cal., gives $500 to the Build- 
ing Fund of the Emanu El Sisterhood, in memory of her hus- 
band; $1000 for a memorial bed at Mt. Zion Hospital; $1250 
to the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home; and $500 
to the Eureka Benevolent Society; all of San Francisco. 

Laura Seasongood, Cincinnati, O., the Estate of, gives $5000 to the 
Jewish Hospital for the Children's Ward; and $1000 to the 
Jewish Home for Aged and Infirm, both of Cincinnati. 

Isaac N. Seligman, New York City, gives $10,000 to Columbia 
University for an athletic field; and $5000 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the UQited Jlebr^w Charities, N^w Yorfe. 



K. K. Shearlth Israel, New York City, members of, give |5000 to 
the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 

Abraham Slimmer, Waverly, la., gives $5000 to the Home for 
Jewish Friendless and Working Girls, Chicago, 111. 

James Speyer, New York City, gives $25,000 to Columbia Univer- 
sity for an athletic field; and $10,000 to Mount Sinai Hos- 
pital, New York. 

Abraham Stern, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federation 
of Jewish Charities. 

Benjamin Stern, New York City, gives $1000 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Simon A. Stern, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $500 to the Jewish 
Hospital Association; $100 to the Pennsylvania Society to 
Protect Children from Cruelty; $100 to the Hebrew Educa- 
tion Society; $100 to the United Hebrew Charities; and $100 
to the Jewish Orphans Guardians; all of Philadelphia. 

Steinhardt and Company, New Orleans, La., give $500 to the 
Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Charles A. Stix, St. Louis, Mo., gives $500 to the Wise Memorial 

William Stix, St. Louis, Mo., gives $850 to the Jewish Charitable 
and Educational Union, St. Louis; and $1000 to the Wise 
Memorial Fund. 

Nathan Straus, New York City, gives a plant for the supply of 
sterilized milk to the Provident Association of St. Louis, 

Ferdinand Strauss, Cleveland, O., contributes $500 to the Federa- 
tion of Jewish Charities. 

Leopold Strouse, Baltimore, Md., bequeaths $500 to the Hebrew 
Hospital and Asylum Association, $1000 to the Hebrew Or- 
phan Asylum, both of Baltimore; $150 to the Jewish Com- 
munity of Grumbach, Germany; $150 to the town of Grum- 
bach, Germany; and $2000 to the Johns Hopkins University 
for the Leopold Strouse Rabbinical Library. 

Mayer Sulzberger, Philadelphia, Pa., gives 7500 books and 750 
Hebrew MSS. to the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica, New York; and contributes $500 to a special library 
fund of the same institution. 

Benjamin F. Teller, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $50,000 to Con- 
gregation Rodeph Shalom; $15,000 to the Jewish Foster Home 
for a synagogue on its grounds; and, on his daughter's death. 


unless she makes other testamentary provisions, |35,000 to 
the Jewish Hospital Association, Philadelphia; |5000 to the 
Hebrew Union College; and 15000 to the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. The codicil in which the above be- 
quests are devised being dated less than a month before the 
decease of the testator, they are void under the law of the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

Vincent and Hayne, New Orleans, La., give |500 to the Building 
Fund of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Richard Henry Wald, Cincinnati, O., gives a |10,000 life insurance 
policy to the Cincinnati Hospital. 

Aaron Waldheim, St. Louis, Mo., gives |600 to the Jewish Chari- 
table and Educational Union, St. Louis; and |500 to the Wise 
Memorial Fund. 

Mrs. Selina Walker, Philadelphia, bequeaths her estate to Jewish 
institutions in Philadelphia, as follows: four-fourteenths to 
the Jewish Foster Home; three-fourteenths to the Jewish 
Hospital; three-fourteenths to the United Hebrew Charities; 
and one-fourteenth each to the Hebrew Education Society, 
Jewish Maternity Hospital, Orphans' Guardians, and Alliance 
Israelite Universelle; each of the fourteen parts into which 
the estate was divided approximating |2500 in value. 

Felix M. Warburg, New York City, gives |2500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York; and con- 
tributes 1500 to a special library fund of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America. 

Paul M. Warburg, New York City, gives |500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Weil and Mayer, New York City, give |500 to the Guarantee 
Fund of the United Hebrew Charities, New York. 

Herman Weiller, Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths |500 to the Jewish 
Hospital Association, and |500 to the Jewish Foster Home 
and Orphan Asylum, both of Philadelphia. 

Julius Weis, New Orleans, La., gives |500 to the Young Men's 
Hebrew Association for its free lecture course; $629.28 to 
the Pathological Department of the Touro Infirmary; and 
15000 to the Building Fund of the Touro Infirmary, all of New 

Gustav Weinstein, Louisville, Ky., bequeaths |500 to the Jewish 
Orphan Asylum, Cleveland, O.; |200 to the Jewish Hospital, 
Louisville, Ky.; and |200 to the Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 


Sol. Wexler, New Orleans, La., gives |500 to the Building Fund 
of the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 

Daniel Wolf, Cincinnati, O., bequeaths |250 to each of the fol- 
lowing: Jewish Hospital, Home for Aged and Infirm, and 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, and the Jewish Orphan 
Asylum, Cleveland, O. 

Louis Wormser bequeaths |950 to the Pacific Orphan Asylum and 
Home, and |950 to the Eureka Benevolent Society, both of 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Henrietta Wurtzburger, Baltimore, Md., bequeaths |200 to the 
Hebrew Hospital and Asylum Association; |200 to the He- 
brew Orphan Asylum; and |100 to the German Orphan 
Asylum; all of Baltimore. 








IN THE United States 
August 26, 1903, to August 12, 1904 * 

6. Beth Hamedrash Hagodol, Boston, Mass. 

6. Chevra Kadisha Talmud Torah, New York. 

11. Emanu-El, Spokane, Wash. 

11. Shearith Israel, Baltimore, Md. 

18. Adas Israel, York, Pa. 

13. Agudas Achlm (united with Congregation Tife- 

reth Israel), Brockton, Mass. 

13. Agudas Achlm, Maiden, Mass. 

13. Ahavath Achim, Quincy, Mass. 

13. Ohel Jacob, Pittsburg, Pa. 

13. Sons of Jacob, Salem, Mass. 

18. Beth El, Detroit, Mich. 

18. Beth El, San Antonio, Tex. 

18. Ohave Zedek, Chicago, 111. 

20. Agudath Jacob, Houston, Tex. 

20. Adath Jeshurun, Minneapolis, Minn. 

20. B'nai Jacob, Toledo, O. 

20. Keneseth Israel, San Francisco, Cal. 

20. Knesseth Israel, Birmingham, Ala. 

20. Shearith Israel, San Francisco, Cal. 

20. Congregation at Glens Falls, N. Y. 

21. Agudath Jacob, Waco, Tex. 

3. Lewissohn Memorial Synagogue, Bedford Sani- 
tarium, Westchester Co., N. Y. 
B'nal Israel, Steubenville, O. 
Agudath Sholem, Lynchburg, Va. 
United Hebrew Congregation, St. Louis, Mo. 
Shaare Toy, Minneapolis, Minn. 




Beth Israel, Charlottesville, Va. 
Holche Yosher, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Synagogue at the Home of the Emanu-El Sister- 
hood, New York. 
B'nal Israel, Butte, Mont. 

1 To complete the record of " Synagroffues Dedicated," published in the last 
issue of the American Jewish Year Book, the two f ollowingr entries should 
be added : Augrust 2, 1908, Spring Valley, N. Y.; and August 28, 1903, B*nal 
Abraham, St. Paul, Minn. 


Mabch 6. Agudas Achim, Chelsea, Mass. 

6. Chesed Shel Emeth, New Bedford, Mass. 

13. Congregation, Galveston, Tex. (built by the 
Young Men's Hebrew Association). 

13. Sons of Israel Kalvaria, New York City. 

Afbil 15. B'nai Israel, EvansYille, Ind. 

May 6. Mount Zion, St. Paul, Minn. 

29. Anshe Emeth, Cleveland, O. 

June 4. B'nai Israel, Columbus, O. 

26. Oheb Zedek, Yonkers, N. Y. 

July 22. Congregation of Sharon Springs, N. Y. 

24. B'nai Israel, Woonsocket, R. I. 




IN THE United States 
August 26, 1903, to August 12, 1904 

September 4. 

Cleveland (O.) Hebrew School. 
Club House of the Industrial Aid Society for 
Immigrants, Milwaukee, Wis. 
25. Bene Jeshurun Sabbath School Building, Cincin- 
nati, O. 
28. Hannah Schloss Memorial Building, United 
Hebrew Charities, Detroit, Mich. 
October 4. Guggenheim Hospital for Private Patients, the 

LiOeb Operating Building, and the Eisner Home 
for Nurses, in connection with the Jewish 
Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 
December 13. Annex to the Educational Alliance, New York 

20. Zion Institute, Cleveland, O. 
27. Hebrew Education Society, Baltimore, Md. 
January 4. Isidore Newman Manual Training School, New 

Orleans, La. 
March 15. Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City. 

20. Young Men's Hebrew Association, Boston, Mass. 
May 1. Rooms of the Boston Educational Union. 

31. Rooms of the Young Men's Hebrew Association, 
Atlanta, Ga. 
June 5. Industrial Home for Jewish Working Girls, Phila- 

delphia, Pa. 
12. Hebrew Children's Sheltering and Protective As- 
sociation, Baltimore, Md. 
12. Home and Institute of the Zionists of Pittsburg, 

12. Rabbi Jacob Joseph School, New York City. 
July 10. Jewish Seaside Home for Invalids, Ventnor, N. J. 

31. Northwest Side Talmud Torah, Chicago, 111. 
August (beginning). Hebrew School, Grand Forks, N. D. 


DIED August 26, 1903, to August 12, 1904 ^ 

August . 29. Hirsch, Goitein, rabbi, at Copenhagen, Denmark, 

aged 40. 
Seftembeb 1. Bernard Lazare, publicist, at Paris, aged 38. 

9. Aaron Herman Sinai, rabbi, at Minneapolis, 

Minn., aged 62. 
18. Eugene Merzbacher, numismatician, at Munich, 
Germany, aged 57. 

21. Richard Landau, physician and historian, at 

Nuremberg, Germany, aged 39. 
23. Salo Bloch, rabbi, at Jarotschin, Posen, aged 62. 

27. Julius Plotke, attorney and communal leader, at 

Frankfort on the Main, Germany, aged 46. 
October 2. Friedrich Lippmann, chief of the department .of 

engravings in the National Museum, Berlin, 
6. Saul Isaac, sometime member of Parliament, Lon- 
don, Eng., aged 80. 
13. Marcus Jastrow, rabbi, at Philadelphia, Pa., aged 

22. Isaac Reingold, Yiddish poet, at Chicago, 111., 

aged 30. 
NovEMBEB 28. Jules Levy, cornetlst, at Chicago, 111., aged 68. 
December 3. Deborah Romm, Hebrew printer, at Wilna. 

4. Alfred L. Cohen, communal leader, at London, 

Eng., aged 67. 
6. Chaim Boas Rabinowitz, Spanish Consul-General 

in Russia, at Warsaw, aged 56. 
8. Herman Rubin, rabbi, at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., aged 

10. Arthur de Rothschild, of Paris, philatelist, at 

Monaco, aged 52. 
12. Solomon Loeb, communal leader, at New York 
City, aged 75. 

28. Joseph Kohn Zedek, rabbi, at London, aged 76. 

1 After last year's record had been closed the news was published of the 
death on August 28, 1908, of Isaac Z. Warsohawskjr, censor of Hebrew books, 
at Odessa, Bussia, aged 79 ; and on August 26, of Jacques Nissim Pasha, sur- 
geon in chief of the Third Turkish Army Corps, and of the Military Hospital, 
at Salonlca, aged 68. 





















31. Lewis Abraham, communal leader^ at Washing- 
ton, D. C, aged 78. 

M. Lublinsky, cantor, at New York City, aged 48. 
Michael L. Rodklnson (Frumkln), Talmudic 

scholar and writer, at New York City, aged 59. 
Leo N. Levi, president of the Independent Order 

of B'nai B'rith, at New York City, aged 47. 
Flaminio Seryi, chief rabbi of Casale Monferrato, 

Karl Emil Franzos, Jewish novelist, aged 56. 
Meir Noah Levin, preacher (Maggid), of Wilna, 

Russia, aged 70. 
George Lewis Lyon, founder of The Jewish 

World, at London, aged 76. 
Adolf Caiman, rabbi, at New York City, aged 64. 

Moritz Rahmer, rabbi, at Magdeburg, aged 66. 

Leopold S6e, general of division in the French 
Army, at Paris, aged 82. 

M. Wolf, rabbi emeritus of Gothenburg, Sweden. 

A. B. W. Goldsmid, Colonel in the British Army, 
at Paris, aged 57. 

A. B. Arnold, physician and writer, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., aged 86. 

Sophie Karp, actress, at New York City, aged 89. 

Chaim M. Horowitz, publisher, bookseller, and 
antiquarian, at Frankfort on the Main. 

1. Youssouf EfTendi Krieger, member of the Council 

of Inspection at the Ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion, Constantinople, aged 66. 

2. Simon A. Stem, financier and writer, at Phila- 

delphia, Pa., aged 66. 
6. Bmilie Jones Gutheim, widow of Rabbi James K. 

Gutheim, communal worker, at New Orleans, 

La., aged 64. 
15. Chayim Selig Slonimsky, mathematician and 

journalist, at Warsaw, aged 94. 
18. Paul Hlrschfeld, political economist, at Berlin, 

aged 56. 

24. Myer S. Isaacs, president of the Baron de Hirsch 

Fund, at New York City, aged 63. 

25. Kalman Wolf Wissotzky, philanthropist and 

scholar, at Moscow, aged 80. 

18. E. C. Hamburgher, communal worker, Chicago, 
111., aged 63. 


22. Julius Silyersmith, newspaper publisher and 
writer, at Chicago, 111. 

26. Zacharias Oppenheimer, extraordinary professor 

of medicine, Uniyersity of Heidelberg, aged 74. 

27. Isaac P. Mendes, rabbi, at Savannah, Ga., aged 51. 
July 3. Theodor Herzl, founder and leader of political 

Zionism, at Edlach, aged 44. 
16. Benjamin F. Teller, communal worker in Phila- 
delphia, at Frankfort on the Main, aged 51. 
(beginning) L. Landsberg, chief rabbi of Limberg, aged 78. 
(middle) Solomon Jona, rabbi, at Rome, Italy, aged 84. 



August 26, 1903, to August 12, 1904 
Septbmbeb 3. A synagogue destroyed by fire at Travnik, Bosnia. 
9. Fire at Ostrog, Volhynia, renders 300 Jewish fam- 
ilies homeless. 
10, 13, 14. Anti-Jewish disturbances at Gomel, Government 

Moghilev. Eight Jews killed, 100 injured, 400 
families ruined; and damage to property to the 
amount of 110,000 roubles. 
11. Anti-Jewish riot at Zablotow, Eastern Galicia, 
caused by the rumor that Jews had killed a 
Christian woman. 
30. Panic in the synagogue of Strzeliska, Galicia. 
Seven women perish. 

October 18. Installation of the Rev. Dr. Kaufmann Kohler as 

President of the Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

30. Conflict between 500 Jews and the gendarmerie 

at the Town Hall at Warsaw, on the occasion 
of the selection of recruits. Forty persons 
wounded, several mortally. 

31. Congregation Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, Md., cele- 

brates the fiftieth anniversary of its existence. 

NovBMBEB 19. Beginning of the trial of the rioters at Kishinefl. 
21. Temple B'nai Israel, Natchez, Miss., almost 
totally destroyed by fire. 

Decembeb 4. Rabbi M. Spitz, St. Louis, Mo., celebrates the 

twenty-fifth anniversary of his connection as 
rabbi with Congregation B'nai Israel. 
Januabt 3. An attack on the Jews, planned by the Persians 

of Urmia, Persia, frustrated by the Russian 
Vice-Consul. The ringleaders arrested. 
11. Fire guts the synagogue of Congregation Ahawat 

Achim Anshe Roumani, St. Louis, Mo. 
18. Anti-Semitic riots at Limerick, Ireland, in con- 
sequence of an address delivered by Father 
Creagh in a Catholic church. 
18. Renewed disturbances against the Jewish em- 
ployees at the Dowlais (Wales) Steel Works. 



25. Date of the dispatch reporting the destitution of 
Jews in Morocco on account of the depreda- 
tions committed by native tribes. 

28. The Jewish quarter of the City of Morocco at- 
tacked by a mob rioting on account of the 
attempt by the Government to force new copper 
coins into circulation. 
Febbuabt 1. Fire at Bayonne, N. J., makes forty Jewish fam- 
ilies homeless. 

6. Temple Israel, Jonesboro, Ark., badly damaged 

by a storm. 

7. The synagogue of the Congregation B'nai Emeth 

Mariampoler, New York City, burnt. 
Apbil 3. The Jews of Lom-Palanka and Widdin, Bulgaria, 

attacked on ground of a blood accusation. 
7. The Jews of Neustadt, East Prussia, attacked and 
14. The " Philanthropin," Frankfort on the Main, cele- 
brates the first centenary of its existence. 
Mat 1. Anti-Jewish excesses at Bender, Bessarabia. Five 

persons killed. 

23. Dedication of the Jewish synagogue at Lisbon, 

the first opened since the expulsion of the 
Jews in 1497. 

24. Rev. Dr. Isaac Schwab celebrates the twenty-fifth 

anniversary of his connection as rabbi with 
Congregation Adath Joseph, St. Joseph, Mo. 

25. The Jewish quarter of Chotin, Bessarabia, at- 

tacked by a mob of three thousand. Syna- 
gogues demolished and looted. One hundred 
Jews injured. 
June 3. K. K. B'nai Yeshurun, Dayton, O., celebrates the 

fiftieth anniversary of its existence. 

16. Fire at Wilkomir, Government of Kowno, Russia, 

a Jewish town. Twenty-five hundred houses 

destroyed, and 10,000 Jews left without shelter. 

JiTLT 5. Date of dispatch from St. Petersburg announcing 

that the Council of the Russian Empire had 
repealed the law forbidding Jews to live in the 
villages of the Pale of Settlement. 

11. The Aliens Bill abandoned in the House of Com- 

20. Date of Report of the Committee on Slaughtering 
Cattle appointed by the Admiralty, London. 
The Jewish method of slaughtering only par- 
tially endorsed. 


21, 22. At Astrovetz, Government of Radom, Russia, 
street fights occur between Jews and factory 
hands. The houses of the Jews stoned. Ten 
Jews wounded and one killed. Cause: a Jew- 
ish lad throws a stone at the brother of one 
of the factory hands. 
23. Affray at Parchevo, Government of Siedlec, Rus- 
sia, between Jews and Christians, on account 
of a Jewish girl converted to Christianity. 
Twenty-nine Jews wounded, 
(beginning) The United States Government reopens negotia- 
tions with Russia looking to the settlement of 
the passport question. 




The Editor of " The Voice of America on Ki&hineflE ^^ is de- 
sirous of making a few additions and corrections that have 
been called to his attention since the publication of the book. 


On p. 89, under Galesburg, Illinois, it is reported that 
Mayor George Shumway issued an appeal for a public meet- 
ing. The copy of the appeal and the a<;count of the meeting 
given below came to hand too late for publication : 

Not only the Jewish people but the civilized world stands aghast 
at the horrors of Kishineff. Such barbarism should not be allowed 
to go unheeded by civilized nations. 

Therefore let all the good people of Galesburg, Illinois, unite in 
condemning these atrocities, and in generously responding to the 
pitiful cry for help which comes to us from across the sea. 

All are earnestly invited to meet for action at the Mayor's 
Office this evening at 8 o'clock, May 20, 1903. 

Gbobob Shumwat, Mayor, 

A large number of the prominent citizens attended this 
meeting, and it was determined to hold a public mass meeting, 
and after speeches were made by Mayor Shumway, Honorable 
Mack J. Mack, Frank J. Sisson, of the Daily Mail, and George 
Perry, of the Daily Eepublican Eegister, the committee ap- 
pointed for that purpose reported the following resolutions : 

Whebeas, At a meeting of citizens held on the evening of May 
20, 1903, the undersigned were appointed a committee to arrange 
for a mass meeting to protest against the horrible brutalities 
perpetrated upon the Jews of Kishineff, Russia; and 

Whebeas, It is thought best to hold a public mass meeting to 



arouse sentiment against such outrages and to protest in the 
name of humanity against this wave of fanaticism which seems 
to be sweeping across the far-away E}astern countries; 

Therefore, Acting in accordance with instructions heretofore 
given, a public mass meeting of men and women is hereby called 
for Sunday afternoon, at 3 o'clock, in the Y. M. C. A. Hall, and 
all are earnestly urged to come. 

GlJOBGB Shumwat, 
Chas. H. Mat, 
Geoboe Pebbt, 
Henbt Embich, 
J. W. Collins, 
Hbitbt Smallet, 
S. Speab, 



Among the numerous newspaper clippings examined by the 
Editor, several referred to the large sum of money collected 
for the Kishineff sufferers in Portland, Oregon, but it hap- 
pened that none referred to the meeting held there, in the 
Synagogue of the Congregation Talmud Torah, on Sunday, 
May 17, 1903, at which the principal speakers were Ben 
Selling, Eabbi N". M. Mosessohn, D. Solis Cohen, Judge John 
T. Caples, and Eabbi S. S. Wise. 


On p. 187, an account is given of the meeting held in 
St. Louis, Mo., at Shaare Emeth Temple, on May 24, 1903, 
under the auspices of the Young Men^s Hebrew Association. 
By a clerical error the name of one of the speakers is omitted, 
that of the Eeverend Doctor Samuel Sale, in whose synagogue 
the meeting took place, and also the name of Eabbi H. J. 
Messing, who delivered the opening prayer. 


The Editor takes this opportunity to give publicity to the 
report of the Committee in charge of the Kishineff Eelief 
Fund, which ended its labors January 25, 1904. The report 
was published in July, 1904. It states that 1,010,343.30 
roubles came in to Kishineff from 728 towns, 663 of which 
are in Eussia. The following account is given of the money : 

533,673.35 roubles distributed among the plundered. 
100,200.00 roubles distributed among orphans. 
156,071.86 roubles distributed among merchants. 
15,390.00 roubles distributed among emigrants. 
13,056.94 roubles spent for food and clothing. 
3,041.00 roubles spent for medical assistance. 
23,057.00 roubles for a soup kitchen. 

581.03 roubles for the burial of the mutilated Torah 

4,041.00 roubles for Eelief Committees^ expenses. 
14,700.00 roubles for legal expenses. 
16,748.24 roubles spent in repairing public and private 

50,000.00 roubles given to the Jewish Colonization Asso- 
ciation to found a Jewish colony in Bessarabia. 

50,000.00 roubles set aside to found a colony in Palestine 
for 50 Kishineff families. 

After the payment of unclassified items the balance, 11,- 
035.88, was handed over to the representatives of the local 
Jewish community to assist special cases. 

Cybus Adlbe, 







1 903- 1 904 






EDWIN WOLF, Philadelphia 


Dr. henry M. LEIPZIGER, New York 






Dr. LEWIS W. STEINBACH, Philadelphia 








Dr. Cyrus Adler* Washington, D. C. 

Solomon Blumenthal ' Philadelphia 

Edwin A. Fleisher ' Philadelphia 

Daniel Guggenheim ' New York 

Daniel P. Hays • New York 

Ephraim Lederer ' Philadelphia 

Dr. Henry M. Leipzioer ^ New York 

Simon Miller ' Philadelphia 

Morris Newburger ^ Philadelphia 

Seugman J. Strauss ' Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Cyrus L. Sulzberger ' New York 

Hon. Mayer Sulzberger ^ Philadelphia 

Benjamin F. Teller * Philadelphia 

Harris Wbinstock ' Sacramento 

Edwin Wolf * Philadelphia 

^ Term expires in 1905. ^ Term expires in 1906. " Term expires in 1907. 



Isaac W. Bebnheim ' Louisville 

Mabcus Bebnheimeb ^ St. Louis 

Rev. Henby Cohen * Galveston, Tex. 

Louis K. Gutman ^ Baltimore 

Jacob Haas ' Atlanta 

Mbs. Jacob H. Heght ' Boston 

Rev. Db. Max Helleb ' New Orleans 

Hon. Joseph Hibsh ' Vicksburg, Miss. 

Miss Ella Jacobs ' Philadelphia 

Hon. Simon W. Rosendale ' Albany, N. Y. 

Alfbed Seasongood ^ Cincinnati 

Mbs. Henby Solomon '. Chicago 

Rev. Db. Joseph Stolz ' Chicago 

Rev. Db. Jacob Voobsanqeb ^ San Francisco 

Hon. Simon Wolf • Washington, D. C. 

pubugation committee 

Hon. Mayeb Sulzbebqeb, Chairman Philadelphia 

Db. Cybus Adleb Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Db. Henby Bebkowitz Philadelphia 

Db. S. Solis Cohen Philadelphia 

Rev. Db. B. Felsenthal Chicago 

Db. Hebbebt Fbiedenwald Philadelphia 

Felix N. Gebson Philadelphia 

Db. Chables Gboss Cambridge, Mass. 

Re7. Db. Max Helleb New Orleans, La. 

Db. Jacob H. Hollandeb Baltimore 

Joseph Jacobs New York 

Rev. Db. Max Landsbebo Rochester, N. Y. 

Db. Henby M. Leipzioeb New York 

Rev. Db. David Philipson Cincinnati 

Db. Solomon Schechteb New York 

Hon. Oscab S. Stbaus New York 

The Board of Trustees meets In the evening of the third 
Wednesday of January, March, June, and October. 

The Publication Committee meets in the afternoon of the first 
Sunday of January, February, March, October, November, and 

^ Term expires in 1905. * Term expires in 1906. * Term expires in 1907. 



The meeting of the Jewish Publication Society of America 
was held Wednesday afternoon, May 22, 1904, in the Assembly 
Hall of the Keneseth Israel Temple, Broad Street above 
Colimibia Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The President of the Society, Mr. Edwin Wolf, called the 
meeting to order. 

Prayer was oflEered by the Rev. Dr. David Davidson, of New 
York City. 

President's Address 
The President delivered the following address: 

The Jewish Publication Society of America can point to 
various achievements this year. 

First is the publication of the first instalment of the new 
English Bible translation. Our Book of Psalms, in a dainty 
leather binding clearly printed, is not only an attractive 
production in the mechanical make-up, but — ^what is of more 
importance — it is a product of the highest scholarship, both 
as to literalness of translation and as to style. It is a volume 
symbolic of the culture of the twentieth century Jew of 
America, a valuable stone in the monument of learning the 
Jewish people of the United States are rearing for them- 

Our second achievement is the publication of two volumes 
in relation to the Kishineff affair. Last year's meeting 
directed the publication and distribution of material bearing 


upon the condition of the Jews in Russia. We accordingly 
arranged with the publishers for the publication of a special 
edition of "Within the Pale/^ The author of the volume, 
Michael Davitt, being a trained non-Jewish writer, his strong 
impartial story of Kishineff has been effective in helping to 
form an unprejudiced opinion of the Eussian atrocities. 

The other volume is " The Voice of America on Kishineff,'* 
edited by Dr. Cyrus Adler. A resume of the discourses, the 
resolutions, and the editorials, by Jews and non-Jews through- 
out the country, expressive of the feelings and the opinions 
of Americans on the barbarian acts of Russians against their 
townsmen, this volume will stand in the history of civilization 
as a record of the sympathetic, humanitarian attitude of 
Americans toward the Jews. 

Owing to the fact that a special Kishineff Fund was 
available, we were enabled to give both volumes wider publicity 
than is the case with our ordinary publications. 

In addition to the three books referred to, we issued the 
Year Book, the first of the fiscal year's publications, and 
"In Assyrian Tents,'' a juvenile story, the last of the year's 

This makes altogether fifty-one separate volumes during 
the history of the society. We have distributed upwards of 
226,000 copies of our various works. 

An achievement which we are confident will strengthen our 
work on its administrative side is the formation of the New | 

York Committee, with Mr. Cyrus L. Sulzberger as Chairman. 
This committee has established an office on the East Side of 
New York City and organized an auxiliary Society there. 
Much interest has been shown in the quarters in which the 
committee has made propaganda, and it is expected that 


eventually there will be a material increase of membership 
as a result of the efforts of this committee. New York, with 
its large Jewish population, should contribute a very large 
proportionate number of the membership of this society. 

Our membership has not varied much in recent years. It 
still remains about five thousand. Additions have come chiefly 
through our representative, Mrs. K. H. Scherman. During 
the fall and winter she made a trip through the Southern 
States, and the results of her canvass show themselves in an 
increased membership in that section of the country. As, 
however, there are losses by death and resignations our total 
number of members is not much larger than before. 

We have been helped financially through special contri- 
butions to the Kishineff Fund, and I most heartily thank the 
several contributors. 

It is my sad province to speak of a learned man whose death 
was a loss to the community in general, but particularly to 
us. Since the Society was formed Dr. Jastrow was a mem- 
ber of its Publication Committee, and in his later years h-e 
devoted himself largely to the most important work 
which the Publication Society has ever attempted — a trans- 
lation of the Bible. For this task, a life of study had fitted 
Dr. Jastrow, and it will be a most diflBcult matter to replace 
him as Editor of the Bible Translation. 

The death of Mr. Simon A. Stem has removed one whom 
the community delighted to honor because he so signally 
brought honor to it. For years he, too, had been a member 
of our Publication Committee, ever since the Society was 
organized, and all those who know how helpful his broad 
ideas were, will appreciate the loss which the Society has 


And we have to mourn still another who, almost since the 
beginning of its existence, had served the Society, as treasurer, 
director, and then sjs second vice-president, Mr. Herman 
Friedman, whose sudden death was a matter of deep regret to 
the Society. 

With these losses, we can refer to at lesflt one gain among 
our governing committees and oflBcers. Dr. Solomon Schech- 
ter, president of the faculty of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary, was chosen a member of the Publication Committee 
to succeed Dr. Jastrow. 

Mr. Morris Dannenbaum, who served the Society as treas- 
urer for some years, declining re-election, we chose Mr. Her- 
man Femberger for the office. 

I thank the officers and members of committees for helping 
me in the management of the society. 

Year after year the Society is increasing the number and 
variety of publications on Jewish subjects in the English 
language. Year after year the number and variety from other 
sources are increasing. The Jewish Publication Society and 
the Jewish Encyclopedia are supplying material for Jewish 
study; students of Jewish subjects are applying themselves 
to the study of books in English; Jewish societies are pro- 
moting a knowledge of Jewish problems. We are laying the 
foundation for a Jewish renaissance in America. 

With some degree of confidence I ask your continued and 
increasing help for our work. For centuries the enemies of 
Judaism have been presenting their side to the public. The 
aim of the Publication Society is to bring before that generally 
impartial judge the Jewish standpoint ; to teach it our history, 
our philosophy, our ideals, and in teaching, better to learn 
them ourselves. Is there ftny better way by which to change 


the prejudice and misunderstanding which arises from ignor- 
ance than by the sympathy and appreciation which knowledge 
of what we have done and thought, and of what we are doing 
and thinking would create? 

I, therefore, hope the Jews of the United States will more 
and more realize the great work this Society is doing. The 
greater the number that join our ranks, the greater the 
interest shown in our purpose, the more powerful becomes 
our influence in furnishing information on Jewish subjects, 
in stimulating a study of Jewish problems, and in moulding 
public opinion. I appeal, therefore, to Jews throughout the 
land to help us make this organization strong in members, so 
that it may be strong in its effect on Jewish development, 
that it may go from "strength to strength.^^ 

Organization of the Meeting 

Dr. Jacob H. Hollander, of Baltimore, was called upon to 
act as chairman of the meeting. 

Dr. Hollander delivered an address. 

Dr. Charles S. Bernheimer acted as secretary of the meet- 

Eeport of the Board of Directors 

The report of the Board of Directors was presented in 
printed form to the members. It is as follows : 

The Jewish Publication Society of America has concluded 
its sixteenth year. 

After last yearns meeting, in May, 1904, the Board of 

Directors elected the following officers: Treasurer, Henry 

Femberger, of Philadelphia; Secretary, Lewis W. Steinbach, 

of Philadelphia; Assistant Secretary, Charles S. Bernheimer, 


of Philadelphia; Secretary to the Publication Committee, 
Henrietta Szold, of New York. The following were chosen 
members of the Publication Committee: Mayer Sulzberger, 
of Philadelphia; Cyrus Adler, of Washington, D. C. ; David 
W. Amram, of Philadelphia; Henry Berkowitz, of Phila- 
delphia; Solomon Solis Cohen, of Philadelphia; B. Pelsen- 
thal, of Chicago; Herbert Friedenwald, of Philadelphia; Felix 
N. Gerson, of Philadelphia; Charles Gross, of Cambridge, 
Mass. ; Max Heller, of New Orleans ; Jacob H. Hollander, of 
Baltimore; Marcus Jafitrow, of Philadelphia; Max Lands- 
berg, of Eochester, N. Y.; Henry M. Leipziger, of New York; 
David Philipson, of Cincinnati; Simon A. Stem, of Phila- 
delphia; and Oscar S. Straus, of New York. Mayer Sulz- 
berger was elected by the Committee as its Chairman. 

The deaths of the following are recorded : Marcus Jastrow, 
who was a member of the Publication Committee and editor- 
in-chief of the Bible translation; Herman S. Friedman, 
Second Vice-President; Simon A. Stern, a member of the 
Publication Committee. 

Solomon Schechter, of New York, was elected to the Pub- 
lication Committee to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of Dr. Jastrow. 


The Permanent Fund amounts to $17,345.50, as follows: 

Michael Heilprin Memorial Fund: 

Donation of Jacob H. Schiff |5,000 00 

Donation of Meyer Guggenheim 5,000 00 

110,000 00 

Morton M. Newburger Memorial Fund 500 00 

Bequest of J. D. Bernd 500 00 

Donations 145 50 

Life Membership Fund 6,100 00 

Bequest (Lucien Moss) 100 00 

|17»345 50 




The Membership by States 

Alabama 88 

Arizona 3 

Arkansas 25 

California 75 

Colorado 26 

Connecticut 31 

Delaware 4 

District of Columbia 20 

Florida 13 

Georgia 101 

Illinois 241 

Indiana 98 

Indian Territory 2 

Iowa 19 

Kansas 7 

Kentucky 25 

Louisiana 218 

Maryland 251 

Massachusetts 116 

Michigan 56 

Minnesota 21 

Mississippi 78 

Missouri 83 

Montana , 


New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico.... 






and Territories is as follows: 

New York 1,405 

North Carolina 24 

Ohio 307 

Oklahoma Territory 2 

Oregon 9 

Pennsylvania 1,308 

Rhode Island 20 

South Carolina 42 

South Dakota 2 

Tennessee 75 

Texas 64 

Utah 6 

Virginia 70 

Washington 6 

West Virginia 21 

Wisconsin 57 
















Dutch West Indies 








South Africa 

Total 5,340 

Of these there are : 

Life Members 61 

Patrons 19 

Organizations 5 

Members 5,238 

Subscribers 17 

Total 5,340 

There are included in the above 439 members whose 
dues remain unpaid for the year ending June 1, 1903, and 
who have not received the publications of the current year. 


Mrs. K. H. Scherman, our representative, has canvassed 
for members during the past year chiefly in the Southern 


In view of the requirement to hold the annual meeting in 
May, it has been decided to begin the fiscal year hereafter 
on May 1st, instead of June 1st, so that all reports and ac- 
counts may be concluded on the former date. Heretofore 
there has been a lack of uniformity as to the dates on which 
accounts were closed for report to the annual meeting. 


The formation of a New York Committee, with Cyrus L. 
Sulzberger as Chairman, will be most helpful in promoting 
the influence of the Society. The Committee has formed an 
auxiliary society and opened an office on the East Side, and 
has planned other means for stimulating greater interest in 
the Society, to the end that a larger membership shall be 
obtained. A number of canvassers have recently been em- 
ployed for the purpose of securing members in New York 


The Publications of the past year have been as follows : 

American Jewish Year Book, 5664 (1903-1904), edited by 
Cyrus Adler. 

Within the Pale, by Michael Davitt. 

The Book of Psalms. 

The Voice of America on Kishineff, edited by Cyrus Adler. 

In Assyrian Tents — The Story of the Strange Adventures 
of Uriel, by Louis Pendleton. 



The Book of Psalms is the first instalment of the new 
English translation of the Bible. It has been received with 
such eclat as to give encouragement to the great work which 
the Society has planned in translating the Bible into Eng- 
lish according to the latest Jewish scholarship. 

Attention is called to the fact that the sum of $213.31 is 
all that remains unexpended of the money contributed to the 
Bible Fund. Additional contributions must be received to 
insure the continuance of the work. 


Two of the publications of the year were issued in accord- 
ance with the following resolution adopted at the last meet- 
ing: "That the Publication Committee be requested to 
prepare from time to time, and the Board of Directors to pub- 
lish and distribute in such manner and in such quantity as 
may be most effectual, information bearing upon the condi- 
tion of the Jews in Eussia.^^ 

"Within the Pale*^ was published in a special edition of 
the Society in accordance with an arrangement with the pub- 
lishers of the regular edition. The other publication is 
" The Voice of America on Kishineff.^^ Both were given a 
circulation outside of the regular membership of the Society. 

The amount received for the Kishineff Fund was $5260. 
The amount expended for the manufacture and distribution 
of the books referred to was $5420.96, leaving a deficit of 
$160.96 against the fund. 

Eespectfully submitted by the Board of Directors, 

Edwin Wolf, 
May 2, 1904 President, 



Showing Receipts and Disbubsements fbom May 13, 1903, 

TO June 24, 1903 

Morris Dannenbaum, Treasurer, 

In account with the Jewish Publication Society of America 


To Balance, as audited. May 13, 1903: 

General Fund |769 04 

Permanent Fund 43 00 

Bible Fund 331 12 

»1,143 16 

To Cash received to date: 

Members' dues |957 00 

Patrons' dues 80 00 

Sales of books 211 94 

Interest on investments and deposits . . 114 40 

n,363 34 

12,506 50 
By Disbursements to date: 

Collectors' and canvassers' commissions |15 85 
General Canvasser, salary, commission 

and expense 137 00 

Salaries of Secretaries 212 50 

Office expenses for office work, postage, 
stationery, delivery of books, etc... 740 91 

Insurance on plates and stock 153 85 

1,260 11 

Balance |1,246 39 

Balance deposited with Finance Co. of 

General Fund |872 27 

Permanent Fund 43 00 

Bible Fund 331 12 

11,246 39 
Respectfully submitted, 

MoBBis Dannenbaum, 
June 30, 1903 Treasurer. 

The accounts of the Treasurer and of the Assistant Secretary 
have been examined and found correct. The cash and securities 
have been examined and found correct. 

June 30, 1903 Edwabd Loeb 

Adolph Eichholz 



Showing Receipts and Disbursements from June 24, 1903, 

TO April 30, 1904 

Henry Fernberger, Treasurer, 

In account ivith the Jewish Publication Society of America 


To Balance, as audited, June 24, 1903 |1,246 39 

To Cash received to date: 

Members* dues |14,183 03 

Patrons' dues 320 00 

Organizations' dues 50 00 

Sales of books 1,579 48 

Interest on investments and deposits. . 628 07 

Klshineff Fund 5,2e0 00 

Tear Book advertising 155 60 

Publications account — insurance 193 55 

Members' dues account — refund 63 25 

Expense account 31 80 

122,464 78 

Cr. 123,711 17 

By Disbursements to date: 

Collectors' and canvassers' commissions |156 40 
General Canvasser, salary, commission 

and expense 1,862 00 

Salaries of Secretaries 2,337 50 

Cost of publications, authors' fees, and 

advertising commissions on Tear Book 7,860 35 
Office expenses for office work, postage, 

stationery, delivery of books, etc. . . . 3,320 25 

Insurance on plates and stock 113 08 

Bible Fund 117 81 

Kishineff Fund 5,420 96 

Sales account 12 60 

Members' dues account 63 25 

121,264 20 

Balance |2,446 97 

Balance deposited with Fidelity Trust Co.: 

General Fund |2,190 66 

Permanent Fund 43 00 

Bible Fund 213 31 

12,446 97 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry Febnbergeb, 
May 2, 1904 Treasurer. 



Electric and People's Traction Company's Cost Par value 

4 per cent bonds |8,972 50 |9,000 00 

One bond, 4% per cent, Lehigh Valley con- 
solidated mortgage loan 1,000 00 1,000 00 

One bond, 4% per cent, Lehigh Valley first 

mortgage 1,030 00 1,000 00 

Mortgage, 2200 Woodstock St., Philadelphia 2,200 00 2,200 00 

Mortgage, 2221 Carlisle St., Philadelphia.. 1,300 00 1,300 00 

Mortgage, 2737 N. Fifth St., Philadelphia. . 2,800 00 2,800 00 

Cash on hand, uninvested 43 00 43 00 

117,345 50 117,343 00 

The accounts of the Treasurer and of the Assistant Secretary 
have been examined and found correct. The cash and securities 
have been examined and found correct. 

May 18, 1904 Edwakd Loeb 

Adolph Eichholz 


The following committees for the meeting were appointed : 

On Nominations, Mr. William B. Hackenburg, Philadelphia, 
chairman ; Dr. Lee K. Frankel, New York City, and Mr. Max 
Herzberg, Philadelphia. 

On the Part of the Eeport of the Board of Trustees relating 
to Publications, Mr. David W. Amram, Philadelphia, chair- 
man; Mr. Jacob de Haas, New York, and Mr. Isaac Hassler, 

On the Part of the Eeport of the Board of Trustees relating 
to Membership, Mr. David Sulzberger, chairman; Mr. Louis 
Fleisher, and Mr. Samuel M. Hyneman, all of Philadelphia. 

Officers Elected 

The Committee on Nominations presented the names of 
the following: 


Trustees (for three years) : Edwin A. Fleisher, Phila- 
delphia; Daniel Guggenheim, New York City; Ephraim 
Lederer, Philadelphia; Simon Miller, Philadelphia, and 
Harris Weinstock, Sacramento, Cal. 

Trustee for the unexpired term of Herman S. Friedman 
(for two years), Cyrus L. Sulzberger, New York City. 

President (for one year) : Edwin Wolf, Philadelphia. 

Vice-President (for one year) : Henry M. Leipziger, New 
York City. 

Second Vice-President (for one year) : Sol. Blumenthal, 

Honorary Vice-Presidents (for three years) : Jacob Haas, 
Atlanta, 6a.; Max Heller, New Orleans, La.; Ella Jacobs, 
Philadelphia; Simon W. Eosendale, Albany, N. Y., and 
Joseph Stolz, Chicago. 

On motion, the Secretary was instructed to cast the unani- 
mous ballot of the meeting for the nominees, and the Chair- 
man declared them duly elected. 


The Committee on the Part of the Eeport of the Board of 
Trustees relating to Membership presented the following: 

The Committee on Membership reports that several recom- 
mendations have been made at various times. One of these 
was that committees should be appointed some time previous 
to the annual meeting, so that the subject could have some 
consideration, it being impossible to recommend any definite 
action without more time. Such being the case the under- 
signed recommend that the present plan of obtaining members 
be continued. 

The report was adopted. 



The Committee on the Part of the Report of the Board of 
Trustees relating to Publications presented the following: 

In the opinion of the Committee the most important publi- 
cation of the year was the Book of Psalms, transcending the 
temporary importance of the books on Kishineff and marking 
the beginning of the issue of the Bible. The translation is 
excellent, and the form of the publication adds greatly to the 
convenience and usefulness of the book. 

The books on Kishineff are useful as historical documents, 
reporting the opinions of many men as well as the facts on 
which those opinions were based, concerning one of the most 
important events in recent Jewish history. This is their 
value to the historian. They have another and equally im- 
portant purpose in informing public opinion and the public 
conscience of the world about the status of the Jew in Russia. 

Although the Committee has not seen " In Assyrian Tents," 
it nevertheless assumes the risk of cheerfully approving 
this publication, first because it has confidence in the 
judgment of the Publication Committee, and second, because 
it strongly favors the issue of juvenile publications. 

As to the future, the Committee expresses the hope that 
the publication of the Bible will be proceeded with, without 
delay, so that the Jewish public ss well as the world at large 
may soon have a true and imprejudiced translation of that 
most important of all books. 

In view of the valuable work done during the past sixteen 
years by the late Dr. M. Jastrow and the late Simon A. Stem 
the Committee recommends that a memoir expressive of the 
sense of obligation under which this Society rests toward these 


lamented valuable co-workers be published in the forth- 
coming Year Book. 

The report was adopted. 


The Chairman of the New York Committee, Mr. Cyrus L. 
Sulzberger, reported on the work of organizing the New York 

On motion, the Chairman of the meeting, Dr. Hollander, 
was authorized to organize a local committee in Baltimore. 

The Philadelphia members of the Board of Trustees were 
authorized to organize an Auxiliary Society on membership. 


Mr. Philip Cowen, of New York City, presented the follow- 
ing resolution: 

Eesolved, that a committee of three be appointed by the 
President to co-operate with any other committees appointed 
or to be appointed for the same purpose by other organizations 
to gather statistics of the Jews in America, and that the 
Board of Trustees be authorized to make such appropriation 
towards the cost thereof as the funds of the Society may 

On motion, the resolution was referred to the Board of 

The resolution in memory of Simon A. Stern adopted by 
the Board of Trustees in the morning was read. 

Mr. Philip Cowen moved that the Board of Trustees be 
requested to appoint, a f orinight before each annual meeting, 
hereafter, a committee to whom shall be submitted such pari» 
of the foriihcoming annual report as it is deemed proper to 


submit for the special consideration of members at snch 
annual meetings and their report shall be presented thereat. 


The meeting on motion adjourned. 

In the evening, at a banquet, Mr. Morris Newburger was 
presented with a set of the Society^s publications bound in 
red morocco leather which were issued during the time when 
he was president, as a testimonial in appreciation of his 

Charles S. Bernheimer^ 


[In pursuance of the recommendation made by the Ck>mmittee 
on the Part of the Report of the Board of Trustees relating to 
Publications, and adopted by The Jewish Publication Society of 
America at the above meeting (p. 398), the Publication Committee 
offers the following tributes to the memory of Mabcus Jastbow 
and Simon Adleb Stebn, members of its body from the origin 
of the Society until the day of their death.] 



In the foregoing report of the sixteenth year of the Jewish 
Publication Society of America a triumphant note rings 
through the thrice-repeated announcement: The past year 
saw the publication of the Psalms, the first of the books of 
the Bible translated under the auspices of the Society. Why 
exult over the completion of a miniature volume, over a ver- 
sion that varies from other versions mainly in here a word, 
there a turn of the phrase, a heightened accent, the mechani- 
cal arrangement of the strophe, a particle making closer or 
less close the syntactical connection of sentences? In the 
strong-box of the Society lies locked up a mass of manuscripts 
and a mass of correspondence. They answer the question. The 
slender volume, its elegant simplicity, its minute scholarship, 
its detailed completeness, represent the care and thought of 
years; the care and ability of an enthusiastic translator; 
the care and acumen of revisers, sub-revisers, and super- 
revisers; the care, ability, and acumen of an untiring, con- 
scientious editor. AH the way through the mass, and all the 
way through another and bulkier mass lying beside it, but 
not yet vivified by the printer's art, notes upon notes, now in 
black ink, now in red, run in and out on the margins, at the 
bottom, on the top, between the lines. The curiously close- 
cramped yet distinct hand, jagged yet in a way regular, 
fashions here a query, there a suggestion, now it tentatively 
puts an amendment, finally it gathers up the argument and 
points the way to a decision. The handwriting is Marcus 
Jastrow's, the notes are his visible legacy to the Jewish Pub- 
lication Society of America. 

All men can follow up these evidences of devotion. Only 


his associates know how much ampler the legacy than the 
crowded notes betoken. 

The Psalms had been put into type. All the editors and 
sub-editors and style reyisers and members of committees 
had submitted their comments and suggestions. These had 
been collated, digested, and applied. Again and again the 
Hebrew and the English had been compared with each other, 
verse by verse, word by word, letter by letter, sign by sign. 
The final proof lay before the chief editor. A doubt — is this 
expression correct? Instantly tiie frail man was up and out 
of the armchair by the desk and across the room with a short, 
energetic step. He lifted the package of papers out of the iron 
safe, traced the development of the expression from copy to 
copy of the manuscript, and satisfied himself that he was 
presenting the views of the translator and his advisers. Back 
to his desk, only to repeat the process twice and three times 
on every page, for the sake of a word, for a comma, for the 
indentation of a line. At last he uttered the " imprimatur." 
Before the order could be executed, the soul that had put 
so much of itself into the work fled the hindering body. The 
editor was not permitted to see the product of ten years' 

On June 5, 1892, at a general meeting of the Society, the 
formidable project of a new English Bible translation was 
publicly framed. In December, 1903, the first booklet was 
finished. Who cares to count the meetings of committees in 
the interval, the consultations had between revisers and trans- 
lators, the letters and reports written! And with all of 
them, since they concerned the Bible Translation, Marcus 
Jastrow was identified. This is his invisible legacy to the 
Jewish Publication Society of America. 


Not yet has the whole magnitude of the heritage been set 
down. When Doctor Jastrow first undertook the chief edi- 
torship of the Bible, there was a tacit agreement among his 
associates of the Publication Committee to spare him other 
duties of the position. The Chairman of the Committee 
did, indeed, refrain for a while from assigning manuscripts 
to him for examination and report. But a Hebrew book was 
suggested for translation, a Talmudic study submitted, a 
liturgical essay received, a tale of Eastern Jewish life writ- 
ten, a history of the Jews, of Jewish literature was under 
consideration, and the sub-committee of readers needed his 
aid imperatively this one time yet. Laughing and shrug- 
ging his shoulders, he stretched out his hand for the manu- 
script and tucked it under his arm. At the next Committee 
meeting, without fail, there was a report, carefully elabo- 
rated in writing, treating of the subject matter and the style 
of the book, as well as of the practical question of its rela- 
tion to the Society and to the needs of the members of the 

There is still more. Who does not remember the voice all 
but quenched in tears with which Marcus Jastrow pleaded for 
the Kishineff victims, and urged the Society to accept the 
proposition for the publication of campaign literature that 
should look to the amelioration of Eussian-Jewish condi- 
tions? Was there any biennial or annual meeting of the 
Society at which his statuesque face was not seen to light 
up with a humorous or a trenchant thought, at which his 
voice did not give utterance to a wise or a stimulating 
thought? Was he not one of those who fought the battle 
for the History of Graetz when its publication was antago- 
nized in open meeting? Nor was he less ready to espouse 


the cause of the book when to bring it out required his read- 
ing of the proof and a toilsome comparison between the trans- 
lation and the original. 

Once, indeed, he rendered the Society a doubtful service. 
It was at a meeting of the Publication Committee in the 
very early days — ^he was identified with the Society and the 
Committee from the beginning. The first book was about to 
appear. The type had been selected, the format determined, 
the order for the paper given, the legend on the side and 
back arranged. There remained only the momentous ques- 
tion of the color of the binding-cloth, momentous because the 
decision might affect all future publications. The Com- 
mittee was divided into the partisans of the sombre and the 
partisans of the gay. Doctor Jastrow was sitting apart, and, 
weary of the arguments of the two sides, he engaged his 
nearest associate in conversation. Still the discussion on 
colors raged hot. " Whether red or blue, we want our books 
to be read,'^ he suddenly ejaculated. The great question was 
decided amid laughter — how, all the patrons of the Society 

Such disinterested sacrifice of time and working powers 
would suffice to justify the subvention the Society awarded 
"A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and 
Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature,^^ even if the Dic- 
tionary were not a monument of Jewish scholarship. As it 
is, the Society did but honor itself in causing its name to be 
connected with Doctor Jastrow^s magnum opus, to which he 
gave over twenty-five years of his life, and from which he 
diverted his exclusive attention only when the Bible Trans- 
lation made its appeal, which he regarded as all but para- 
mount. Often in the later days when he was saddened by 


the ileath of friend after friend, he addressed to the sympa- 
thizers who were left the question, pathetic in its futility 
and in his insistent demand for an answer : " Do you think 
I shall be spared to finish my Dictionary ? ^^ Happily he was 
spared. A few hours before he was stricken while at work 
at his desk with the illness that resulted fatally five days later, 
he examined the last sheet of the Dictionary, containing its 
preface and its index. 

To write a memoir of a man like Marcus Jastrow is a 
task worthy of distinguished ability, and we could not hope 
to do it justice. To our readers we may seem to have fallen 
far below adequacy if only by reason of dwelling, to 
the exclusion of all else, upon the period of scholarly retire- 
ment, the last ten or twelve years of a beautifully rounded 
life of seventy-four, each adult year of which was fraught 
with achievements for Jews and for Judaism. The space 
allotted us permits only a small canvas. Forced to limit 
ourselves, we chose his work for the Jewish Publication So- 
ciety, which, when the whole picture was unrolled before the 
mind's eye, appeared, indeed, an epitome of his life, mind, 
and character. 

The devotion he displayed in behalf of his Dictionary re- 
peats itself in the Bible work, and with it go the scholarship 
and the love of accuracy amounting to a passion that charac- 
terize all his productions, from his "Vier Jahrhunderte aus 
der Geschichte der Juden^' down to his editorial work for 
the Talmudic Department of the Jewish Encyclopedia, and 
his many scientific papers, popular lectures, and timely news- 
paper articles. The literary ability which, on its construct- 
ive side, was evinced in that vivid picture of his prison life 
at Warsaw, " Bar Meisels, Oberrabiner zu Warschau,'' reap- 


pears on its critical side in his painstaking and luminous 
reports on the manuscripts submitted to him. His public 
spirit, growing out of love for his people and out of love for 
truth no matter what the class of society affected, is revealed 
by the aid he gave to the minutely laborious and little appre- 
ciated task of building up a Jewish literature in the English 
language, no less than by his contest with Jewish obscur- 
antism and his struggle against Eussian degradation of Jews 
in Poland; or by his communal activity in Philadelphia in 
behalf of charitable institutions; or by the services he ren- 
dered the Eussian Jewish immigrants ; or his fervent espousal 
of Zionism; or his eager interest in American politics and 
national affairs. In the religious school of Michael Sachses 
congregation in Berlin, on the lecture platform of Maimoni- 
des College, when superintending the religious school of 
Eodeph Shalom Congregation, as guide of the Jewish Culture 
Association, and at the Summer Assemblies of the Jewish 
Chautauqua, he was not more a teacher than in the commit- 
tee room of the Publication Society. Only of him as a con- 
troversialist the last period of his life furnishes no typical 
picture. NTot that he had grown less fearless or less enthu- 
siastic or less capable of just indignation than in the days 
when he combated conferences and movements tending in 
his opinion to erroneous ends. The conservatism, the mod- 
eration, the philosophic regularity of living, which were so 
basic in his nature that they literally counteracted the ravages 
of disease, at the last triumphed wholly. They acted as 
solvents in which the acerbities of the hotspur period and the 
aristocratic aloofness of his middle age were mellowed into 
complete geniality. 

In contrasting the present stage of Jewish development 


in America with earlier stages, the historical critic is in the 
habit of dwelling upon the lack of organizing ability among 
the rabbis of the past generation. The rabbis, it is said, were 
extreme individualists, the most Jewish of Jews in their 
revolt against organization. Marcus Jastrow, a rabbi of the 
old school, filled with the ideals, the traditions, and the in- 
spiration of an earlier age, was yet modem to the core. 
Whether the question waa the formation of a Board of Dele- 
gates of Civil and Eeligious Eights of the Jews of the United 
States, or the support of an Association of Jewish Ministers, 
or the founding of a Jewish Alliance, or propaganda for the 
Alliance Israelite TJniverselle, he stood for concerted action, 
and his activities for the welfare of this, the third Jewish 
Publication Society in America, are a striking instance of 
his faith in harmonious union. Like his efforts for the estab- 
lishment of the second of the three American Jewish Publi- 
cation Societies, they demonstrate not only that he favored 
and promoted organization, but also that, in spite of strong 
individuality and rare attainments, he was able and willing to 
practice the most rigid self-denial for the general good and 
subordinate himself to the accomplished organization. 

And, finally, who will venture to question that this sym- 
metrical personality was the result of the unified, single- 
minded training as rabbi which, in Warsaw, Mannheim, 
Worms and Philadelphia, or wherever his word was heard, 
made Marcus Jastrow a power as a religious leader? 

So true is it that every act is the expression of the whole 

man, and with Marcus Japtrow every act was the whole noble 


[Mabgus Jastbow. Born June 5, 1829, at Rogasen, Posen; died 
Oct. 13, 1903, at Germantown, Pa. Son of Abraham Jastrow and 
Yetta RoUe. Early education: private instructors; at the Jewish 


elementary school of Rogasen, 1840; at the Friedrich Wllhelm 
Gymnasium in Posen, 1844-1852. Studied at University of Berlin, 
1852-1855. Ph.D., 1855, Halle. Talmudic studies under Rabbi 
M. Feilchenfeld, Rogasen, and the rabbis of Berlin. Rabbinical 
authorization conferred, 1857, by Rabbi M. Feilchenfeld, Rogasen, 
and Dr. Wolf Landau, Dresden. Teacher, 1856-1858, at the school 
of the Berlin congregation while Michael Sachs was preacher, and 
David Rosin principal. Married, May 16, 1858, Bertha Wolff- 
sohn. Preacher of the German Congregation at Warsaw, 1858- 
1863; imprisoned in the citadel of Warsaw for alleged participa- 
tion in Polish agitation against Russia, November 10, 1861, to 
February 12, 1862; exiled from Warsaw, 1862; preacher at Mann- 
heim, autumn, 1862; returned to Warsaw congregation, winter, 
1862; second banishment from Warsaw, 1863. Kreisrabbiner at 
Worms, 1864-1866. Rabbi and preacher of Congregation Rodeph 
Shalom, Philadelphia, 1866-1892; Rabbi Emeritus, 1892-1903. Pro- 
fessor at Maimonides College, Philadelphia, 1867-1873. Fell seri- 
ously ill, 1876. Degree of Litt. D. conferred, 1900, by University 
of Pennsylvania. Left an " ethical " will. Identified with Board 
of Delegates of Civil and Religious Rights of Jews (1871) ; Amer- 
ican Jewish Publication Society (1873); Jewish Ministers Asso- 
ciation (1885); Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Young 
Men's Hebrew Association, Philadelphia, and Jewish Publication 
Society of America (1888-1903). Member central committee Alli- 
ance Israelite Universelle; and committee of Mekize Nirdamim; 
vice-president American Federation of Zionists (1899-1903). Edi- 
tor of Department of Talmud, Jewish Encyclopedia (three vol- 
umes). Publications: Die Lage der Juden in Polen (anonymous, 
Hamburg, 1859); Kazania Polskie (volume of sermons in Polish, 
Posen, 1863) ; Die Vorlaufer des polnischen Aufstandes (anony- 
mous, Hamburg, 1864) ; Vier Jahrhunderte aus der Gteschichte der 
Juden von der Zerstorung des ersten Tempels bis zur makkabai- 
schen Tempelweihe (1865); Abodath Israel (1871), and Hegyon 
Leb (in collaboration with Benjamin Szold) ; A Dictionary of 
the Targumim, the Talmud Babll and Yerushalmi, and the 
Midrashic Literature (London and New York, 1886-1903). Con- 
tributed scientific articles to Monatsschrift fiir die Geschichte und 
Wissenschaft des Juden thums; Revue des Etudes juives; Magazin 
fiir die Wissenschaft des Judenthums; Hebraica; and Journal of 
Biblical Literature; and essays, of historical, popular, scientific, 
and literary character, and controversial and timely articles, to 
Sippurim, Hebrew Leader, Young Israel, Libanon, Jewish Times, 
Jewish Messenger, Jewish Record, American Hebrew, Jewish Ex- 
ponent, etc. Numerous sermons, pamphlets, and lectures.] 



A string is broken, and the instrument 

Whose harmonies throughout the bounteous days 
Beckoned our hearts along serener ways. 

Lies tuneless, without passion or lament. — 

And unto those to whom its sentiment 

Changed life's dull duties into hymns of praise 
A note is stilled, e'en as they stand at gaze 

In vain expectance of a cadence spent. 

Yet not in vain shall this expectance prove; 

For in our souls these melodies we hold 
In ever dearer, unforgetting love, 

Veining the coming years with fairest gold: 
The sweet remembrance of a nobleness 
That dwelt among us to uplift and bless. 

Felix N. Gebson. 

In the death of Simon Adier Stern not only the Jewish 
community of Philadelphia but the world at large mourns 
the loss of a man whose life and attainments reflected the 
best and noblest qualities of the American Jew. He was be- 
loved and esteemed by the foremost citizens of his com- 
munity as well as by all whose good fortune it was to know 

In Simon Stem the man stood higher than his works. In 
his personality there was a charm and gentleness that dis- 
tinguished him as a man of culture and native refinement. 
He showed himself possessed of marked capacity as a writer 
and translator. He was recognized as a skilled musician 
and critic. Had he made literature or music his life work, 
the rank he would have gained in these arts would have 
been high and lasting. Even though he pursued these as 
avocations, he stood as the foremost authority among the 
Jews of America on literature and music. In him, however, 
art was not an end in itself, but a means towards producing 


the finished man of culture. It was this that won him his 
host of friends among all classes; it was this that made his 
life of special impori;ance in a materialistic age. 

He was bom in Philadelphia on the 8th day of December, 
1838, the oldest of nine children, five sons and three daugh- 
ters having been bom after him. His father was Julius 
Stem, a native of Germany. The elder Stem took, in his 
days, a hearty interest in Jewish affairs. He was one of the 
founders and the first president of the Keneseth Israel Con- 
gregation. Of his oldest son^s musical talents he was par- 
ticularly proud, and he gladly afforded him the opportunity 
to develop them. On one occasion he, with his son, was at^ 
tending an entertainment at which it had been announced 
a juvenile violinist would astonish the audience by his musical 
ability. After listening to the performance, Mr. Stem de- 
clared that his son was able to play better. The remark was 
overheard, and the youthful Simon brought before the audi- 
ence and a violin placed in his hands. His performance won 
the plaudits of the assembly. 

When he had attained the requisite age, young Stem was 
sent to the public schools. In these he made such rapid 
progress that at the age of eleven he had passed through the 
grammar grades and was ready for admission to the high 
school. His youth, however, disqualified him for promotion. 
Perhaps this was fortunate, for the next two and a half 
years were devoted to music, German, and French — studies 
to which his talents were specially adapted, and which tended 
toward their early development. In 1853 he was admitted 
to the high school, where he remained two years. 

His musical studies began with his eighth year. The in- 
strument on which he performed, the violin, is the most eflS- 


cient for the development of the true musician. Heine's 
statement of this truth, as rendered into English by Mr. 
Stern, is one of the most striking that has ever been made. 
He says: 

The virtuosity of the violinist, unlike that of the pianist, is not 
merely the result of digital dexterity and technical proficiency. 
The violin is an instrument with almost human moods, and is in 
sympathetic accord with the feelings of the performer. The slight- 
est annoyance, the gentlest emotion, the merest breath of feeling, 
is immediately re-echoed by it, and perhaps this arises from the 
fact that the violin is pressed so close to the heart that it hears its 
every throb. But this only applies to artists who have a heart. 
The cold and soulless violinist is always the same, and is able at 
any moment to reckon upon the implicit obedience of his fiddle. 
But this much-bepraised certainty of execution results from lim- 
ited mental resources; for the greatest masters were those whose 
playing was not infrequently affected by disturbing influences 
from without or within. 

Stern's first music teacher was Adolph Scherzer, and he 
afterward studied under Ahrens, Waldteufel, and Hauser. 
Even as a boy his proficiency on the violin attracted atten- 
tion, and although never engaged in any professional enter- 
tainments, he was frequently called upon to display his 

He was in his seventeenth year when, in 1855, he left the 
high school and entered the millinery store of his father. 
After a few years he, together with his brother, David Stem, 
opened a millinery store under the firm name of S. A. & D. 
Stem. In this business he continued until 1871. He then 
associated himself with his brothers, Edward and Harry, in 
the printing and publishing business, the house being known 
as Edward Stem & Co. In this business, which has since 
assumed large dimensions, he remained for over eighteen 
years. The firm printed a number of books, magazines, and 


journals, and gained a wide reputation for the excellent typo- 
graphical appearance of their work. 

In 1887 the Finance Company of Pennsylvania was char- 
tered, and Mr. Stern was selected as its treasurer. For 
fifteen years a large part of Mr. Stem's time and labor was 
devoted to the furtherance of its interests. About two years 
before his death, failing health compelled him to relinquish 
the work. 

Although Mr. Stem's career as banker, printer, and mer- 
chant had been honorable, it was not due to these that he 
gained the distinction which he enjoyed. 

His early taste for music, developed under good instruc- 
tors, increased rather than grew less with advancing years. 
The youthful violinist became the devoted musician by whom 
the science as well as the art Of music was studied, and 
in whom mind and ear and hand were in harmonious uni- 
son. Although never performing professionally, and very 
seldom in public, he was regarded as the best amateur violin- 
ist in Philadelphia. His skill with the violin and his love 
and knowledge of music brought him into close contact with 
some of the leading musicians in the country. Michael 
Cross's house was a centre for distinguished musicians, and 
there, at regular intervals, Mr. Stern met with Hennig and 
Schmitz, Jarvis and others equally devoted and equally dis- 
tinguished in musical circles. Among his friends were 
Theodore Thomas and Carl Wolfson. Mr. Stern was one of 
the leading promoters of the Philadelphia Music Festival 
Association, of which he was likewise a director. He was 
also a director and treasurer of the Beethoven Society. 

With Mr. Stem music was not a barren study; it did not 
result merely in " digital dexterity and technical proficiency,'' 


but ripened into a sound musical judgment that made him 
rank high among musical critics. His contributions on this sub- 
ject were at one time somewhat copious. His first opportunity 
to express his critical ability came through the newspapers. 
He became the Philadelphia correspondent of Dwighf s Musi- 
cal Journal, of Boston. He contributed criticisms frequently 
to the North American, the Evening Bulletin, and other news- 
papers, by which his work was favorably regarded and ac- 
cepted as accurate and correct. Not only in newspapers, how- 
ever, but in such periodicals as the Penn Monthly his articles 
on musical subjects were welcomed and read with interest and 

Mr. Stern^s musical criticisms naturally led him into the 
field of literature. He had from his childhood been devoted 
to his books^ — not, perhaps, with the close study and applica- 
tion of the specialist student, nor with the careless super- 
ficiality of the mere dilettante, but with the devotion and 
nice judgment of a lover of literature, and one whose delights 
are found in its pursuit. Not only was he familiar with the 
best works in English literature, but the French and German 
tongues yielded their best fruits to his grasp. In all three of 
these languages he had a ready and choice vocabulary, and 
his ability to converse with ease in any of them was of much 
service to him. 

In 1873 his first permanent work of importance was pub- 
lished. It is a peculiar f aot that the two authors whose works 
Mr. Stern translated from the German were Jews, both men of 
artistic temperament, and both among the foremost in Ger- 
man literature. ^^ Do Boeme and Heine belong to Jewish 
history ? " asks the historian Graetz. " Unquestionably,'' is 
his answer. It was the latter — Heine, the brilliant, yet unfor- 


tunate, genius — ^that Mr. Stern undertook to interpret in 
English. The book was entitled " Scintillations from the 
Prose Works of Heinrich Heine/^ and was one of the " Leisure 
Hour Series'' published by Henry Holt & Co. Charles 
Godfrey Leland had translated Heine's poetry into English, 
but the prose works which Mr. Stem Englished had never 
before been translated. The book was introduced by a chap- 
ter on Heine himself. In this Mr. Stem gave a brief but 
clear account of the poefs life. 

Though he was not blind to Heine's faults, he was still the 
devoted admirer of his great qualities. As he himself said, 
" Heine's faults were, unfortunately, as patent as his vir- 
tues; but his genius was greater than either;" and although 
he condemned those who feel it their duty to apologize for 
Heine's frailties and explain them away, he nevertheless as- 
serted that " an enlightened critic feels forced to admit that 
in judging of the character and motives of a great genius, 
that genius must, to a certain extent, furnish the tests by 
which he is to be criticised. 

The book itself consisted of two parts. The first was a 
translation of almost the whole of the ^^ Florentine Nights," 
a series of love tales told to a dying woman, in Heine's most 
peculiar humor. The balance of the book consisted of ex- 
cerpts from Heine's works, in part personal and autobio- 
graphical, but mainly presenting his views on "Men, Man- 
ners, and Society," on "France and the French," on "Woman, 
Love, and Matrimony," on "Art, Literature, Criticism," on 
" Eeligion, Philosophy," etc., on " Death and Immortality," 
and miscellaneous. The excerpts are so aptly chosen that they 
give a rapid but very accurate insight into Heine's genius and 


The book, which has been out of print for some years past, 
was a charming one throughout. Of Mr. Stern^s translation 
it need only be said that it reads with the grace and force of 
an original work in the English language. To those unac- 
quainted with the difiSculties that confront the translator, and 
of the great variety in the quality of translations that exist, 
this may seem to have been an easy task. To have done it 
with the skill and care which Mr. Stem devoted to it, and 
which resulted in this finished production, required not only 
knowledge and understanding, but patient and continued 

The second German-Jewish author whose works Mr. Stem 
translated into English was Berthold Auerbach, whose novels, 
depicting life not only among the great and noble, but more 
particularly among the lowly and obscure, are such graphic 
and faithful portraits of German life that they roused in the 
German public an unsurpassed degree of interest. The first 
work of Auerbach which Mr. Stem translated was "Wald- 
fried,^^ in 1873, and is not very widely known. It was trans- 
lated in accordance with an agreement with Henry Holt & 
Co., the publishers of his ^^ Scintillations.^^ The best evidence 
of the faithful and satisfactory manner in which this work 
was done is that it was at Auerbach^s own suggestion that Mr. 
Stem was selected to translate one of the best known of his 
books, entitled "Auf der Hohe.^' Stem^s translation was 
published in 1875, by the Holts, and entitled, " On the 
Heights. A Novel. By Berthold Auerbach. Translated by 
Simon Adler Stem.^^ In this long novel Mr. Stern displayed 
the same care as in previous works. 

Among Mr. Stern^s warm friends was Mr. Wharton Barker, 
the banker, and it was as the immediate personal representa- 


tive of the latter that he went to China. Here he superin- 
tended with ability the important business with which he was 
charged. One of the results of his travels was the publica- 
tion of the " Jottings of Travel in China and Japan ^' (1888), 
dedicated to Wharton Barker. The book is largely made up 
of letters written to his relatives and friends at home, and was 
published by the author at their earnest solicitation. 

He left on the 9th of April, 1887, and returned on the 4th 
of September, after having visited a number of places in 
China and Japan. Several gentlemen accompanied him. Mr. 
Stern brought home with him numerous valuable and inter- 
esting Japanese and Chinese articles, but nothing so valuable 
and interesting as the memories of the scenes and adventures 
of his journey as they are presented in his " Jottings.^' 

This book is not a learned dissertation upon the habits, the 
customs, the occupations, the religions of these distant peo- 
ples; or an elaborate description of the climate, topography, 
the products, the finances, the exports and imports, the gov- 
ernment and castes of these far-off lands, but it is simply the 
impressions made upon the writer in his travels through these 
distant and interesting portions of the globe. Throughout 
the whole book the personality of the author is gently mani- 
fest. He did not undertake to tell everything that can be 
seen, nor even all that he himself saw. It is on subjects 
that are most real to himself, in which he takes a personal 
interest, that one can write most interestingly, and it was 
to these things alone that Mr. Stern addressed himself in 
this compilation of letters which he sent to his friends. He 
brightly described the varied scenes spread out before him 
on his journey, the character and customs of the people whom 
he visited, and devoted a chapter to the great problems of 


intercommunication and finance in the Chinese Empire, with 
which his visit was intimately connected. 

In addition to these literary labors Mr. Stern had been a 
contributor to a number of magazines on a variety of topics 
connected with literature and art. Foremost among these 
periodicals was the Penn Monthly, of which Mr. Stern was 
for several years the managing editor. The American, the 
successor of the Penn Monthly, also received his contribu- 
tions, and he was for a time connected with the management 
of its publication. Some of the descriptions of countries in 
the catalogue of the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 were writ- 
ten by him, and he was also connected with its art depart- 
ment. He was the editor of the Industrial Eeview, a position 
which he occupied for many years. 

While exercising a decided influence in the Jewish com- 
munity, he never took a leading part in its communal affairs. 
In 1880 he was elected secretary of the Jewish Hospital Asso- 
ciation, in which position he served continuously until the 
time of his death. 

On the organization of the Publication Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society of America, Mr. Stern was chosen 
a member, and his critical discernment and literary skill 
proved of great service in this place. 

In the general community of Philadelphia Mr. Stern was 
well known and very popular. He was a member of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania and of the Union League. 
One of the founders and for a number of years a director of 
the Penn Club, he resigned his directorship when he went to 
China, though he remained a member. He was also a 
member of the Journalists' and Mercantile Clubs, and was on 
the Publication Committee of the Civil Service Reform Asso- 


elation. He also formed one of the " Triplets/^ an organiza- 
tion of well-known men who meet together every month at 
the Penn Club house. 

All these varied activities ceased when death claimed him, 
May 2, 1904, but the influence he exerted through them and 
through his genial personality upon the Jewish community 
of Philadelphia and the larger community outside will re- 
main a monument to his memory for all time. 







Katzensteln, I. 
Rund, S. J. 
Saks, Jos. 
Schwartz, D. 
Ullman, L. 

Brown, A. I. 
Forst, Mrs. Louis, 1810 5th Av. 


Beitman, J., 1128 S. 16th 

Caheen, F., 2015 Park Av. 

Feis, Mrs. J., 2163 Highland Av. 

Fox, Dr. Bertram A., 213% N. 19th 

Fox, Dr. Carl A., Woodward Bldg. 

Friedman, J., 2109 8th Av. 

Jacohs, Bertram 

Jacobs, Eugene, 209 N. 19th 

Joseph, M. v., 2617 Highland Av. 

Lesser, Emil, Metropolitan Hotel 

Loveman, Mrs. A. B., care of Love- 
man, Joseph & Loeb 

Marx, Mrs. Morris, 2207 Highland 

Newfleld, Rev. Morris 

Oberdorfer, A. Leo, Lyon-Terry Bldg 

Phoenix Club, 19th & 8th Av. 

Rotholz, G., 1926 1st Av. 

Saks, Mrs. Louis, 2201 Highland 

nilman, Samuel, 715 N. 8th 

Wald, B., 116 20th 

Williams, T., 2007 2nd Av. 


Falk, L. M. 


Ely, M. 
Folda, Louis 
Marx, J. L. 
Mayer, Lewis 
Mayer, M. 
Morris, Wm. 
Newhouse, Mrs. S. H. 
Rosenbush, Julius 
Stern, M. 


Ezekiel, A. A. 
Long, J. 

Jacobs, Rev. P., P. O. Box 115 
Lyons, S. 

Bloch, Alex., care of Bloch & New- 

Cramer, A., care of Pollock & Bern- 

Eichold, L. 

Eichold, S., 403 Church 
Forchhelmer, Henry A. 
Hahn, S. L. 
Hammel, L. 
Hanaw, Henry 
Hess, C., 10 N. Royal 
Hess, Henry, 19 S. Water 
Lelnkauf, H. W. 

Levinsohn, R. A., 265 St. Emanuel 
Levy, A. 6. 

Marx, Mrs. Lee H., 353 Government 
Moses, Miss Addle C. 
Moses, Rabbi Alfred G., 407 Contl 
Piser, H. 
Pollock, J. 

Richard, Ralph G., 450 Church 
Schwartz, R. M., 160 St. Emanuel 
Schwarz, Lewis B., 20 N. Water 
Shaarai Shomayim Sabbath School 
Spira, A. H. 
Swope, S. 

Weiss, J. W., 303 Church 
Zelnlcher, Jas. H. 


Kahn, M. 

Loeb, Jacques 

Rice, Alex., 426 S. Perry 

Strauss, Leopold, 113 Montgomery 


Benish, L., Lauderdale 

Frohlich, I. 

Hirschfield, J. 

Kayser, Mrs. A., Tremont 

Lewis, A. 

Liepold, Julius 

Meyer, M. J. 

Rosendorf, Mrs. I. L., Box 227 

Rothschild, J. 

Schuster, BenJ. J. 

Schwartz, Isaac 

Thalhelmer, Leon 

Marx, S. 





Goldman, Mrs. Leo 



Jacobs, Lionel M. 
Lowenstein, Isidore, Box 245 



Hot Bprinsrs 
Fellheimer, Mrs. H., 905 Central Av 
Gross, Wm. B., 1003 Central Av. 
Laser, Mrs. David, 916 Central Av. 
Mendel, A., 12 Cedar 
Moscowltz, Miss Emma, 7 Crest 
Rhine, Rev. A. B., 110 Spring 
Roth, Mrs. B. N., 207 Prospect Av. 
Straus, Mrs. Gus 

Berger, Marcus 

Little Bock 

Abeles. Mrs. Chas. T., 1421 

Back, Wm., 201 B. 15th 

Blass, Mrs. Louis, 5th & State 

Cohn, Mark M. 

Cohn, Morris M. 

Heiseman, A. M. 

Lane, Dr. M. E. 

Loeb. Jos. 

Mandelbaum, L. K., 1901 Arch 

Pfeifer, Leo, 520 W. 3rd 

Sanders, F. W., 408 Main 

Stiflft, Mrs. Chas. S., 1302 Scott 

Wolsey, Rev. Louis, 917 Centre 

Schott, Henry 

Pine Bluff 

Dryfus, Isaac, 510 Main 
Weil, Chas. 


Oser, M. 


Los Angeles 

Congr. B'nai B'rith, S. S. Llbry.. 

N. B. Cor. 9th & Hope 
Hecht, Rev. Dr. S., 81* Beacon 
Klein, Mrs. A., Hotel Gray, 3d & 

Hellman, H. W., 958 S. Hill 
Los Angeles Lodge, No. 487, I. O. 

B. B., 831 S. Broadway 


Frank, Miss Esther, 1409 Castro 
Kahn, Fred., N. B. Cor. 12th & 

Neuburger, Morris 


Life Mbmbbb 
Weinstock, Harris 

Bonheim, Albert 
Jaffe, M. S., 321 K , "" 


Ban Francisco 

Life Mbmbbrs 

Altschul, C, 1 Sansome 

Anspacher, A., 2604 Pacific Av. 

Brown, L., 121 Sansome 

Castle, Est. of Fred. L^ 200 Davis 

Davis, Ansley G., 1605 Scott 

Ehrman, M.. 104 Front 

Gerstle, Louis, 1517 Van Ness Av. 

Greenbaum, Sig., 1806 Pacific Av. 

Hecht, A. B., 1201 Van Ness Av. 

Heller, Samuel, 621 Leavenworth 

Hellman, I. M., Pine and Mont- 

Heyman, Henry W., 1946 Cali- 

Jacobs, Isidor, 423 Brannan 

Levi, J., Jr., 117 Market 

Lilienthal, B. R., 1510 Van Ness 

Lilienthal, P. N., Cor. Sansome and 

Meyer, Mrs. C, care of Brown 
Bros. & Co., 121 Sansome 

Meyer, Daniel, 212 Pine 

Neustadter, Mrs. J. H., 1701 Van 
Ness Av. 

Rosenbaum. Est. of Moses, N. E. 
Cor. California and Front 

Rosenstock, Samuel, 4 Sutter 

Rosenthal, I. L., 107 Kearny 

Samuel, M., 132 First 



Scheellne, S., 1827 California 

Sliainwald, Herman, 218 Montgom- 

Sloss, Louis, 1500 Van Ness Ay. 

Stern, Jacob, 621 Leavenworth 

Strauss, Levi, 14 Battery 

Sutro, Est. of Hon. Adolpli, 74 

Toklas, Ferdinand, 922 O'Farrell 

Walter, Emanuel, 1700 Van Ness 

Weill, Raphael, Cor. Post and 

Wiel, Louis P., 1817 Jackson 


Arnhold, B., 2342 Devisadero 
Bienenfeld, Bernard, 2158 Pine 
Bernstein, Sylvan L., 3020 Clay 
Cowen, A. H., 318 Front 
Epstein, Mrs. T., 1615 Bush 
Frank, Nathan H., 320 Sansome 
Greenebaum, J., 337 Pine 
Greenebaum, M., 17 Sansome 
Jacobs, Julius, 204 Sansome 

Levy, Meyer H., 436 O'Farrell California 

Levy, Rev. M. S., 420 Montgomery 

Levy, S. W., 212 Sansome 

Marks, S. M.. 2527 Fillmore 

Marx, Melville, Columbia Theatre 

Michael, D., 791 McAllister 

Myers, Rev. Isidore, 1836 Sutter 

Peixotto, Raphael, 1626 Sutter 

Rothschild, Hugo, 33 Main 

Rothschild, Joseph, Chronicle Bldg. 

Sachs, Henry, 820 Post 

Savannah, M., 606 Fell 

Schloss, Benjamin, 514 Devisadero 

near Hayes 
Shirpser, Max, 2220 Post 
Silverman, Moritz, 1230 Market 
Sloss, Mrs. Max. C., 2016 California 
Voorsanger, Rev. Dr. J., 1247 

Voorsanger, Sol., 2103 O'Farrell 
Toung Men's Hebrew Association, 

1970 Page 


Stein, M. P. 



Davedoff, Mrs. M. R., 1332 Lafa- 
yette Av. 
Eisner, Dr. John, 1014 14th 
Friedman, Rev. W. S., 1060 Emer- 
Grosser, Bruno, 716 25th 
Harrison, J. H., P. O. Box 503 
Harrison, Meyer, 1457 Vine 
Kauvar, C. H., 308 E. 25 th A v. 
Kubitshek, H., 1435 Stuart 
Levy, Lesser, 1613 Market 
Lewin, Ed., 2400 Larimer 
Muller, Mrs. Alfred, Ernest & Cran- 
mer Bldg. 

Public Library, 1444 Arapahoe Colorado 

Saly, M. A., 1607 Larimer 
Siegel, Mrs. H., Tremont Av. & 15th 
Straus, Max, 934 Equitable Bldg. 
Summerfeld, M., 523 Ernest & Cran- 

mer Bldg. 
Weil Bros., 1401 Larimer 
Weiner, Louis, 3256 Curtis 

Herman, Henry 

Sanders, Leopold 


Klein, J. B. 


Halper, Charles J. 


Elkin, Rev. M., 16 Shultas PI. 
Greenberg, Leon, 72 Trumbull 
Haas, L. jB., 150 State 

Kew Haven 

Adler l^ax 

Bercinsky, Dr. David, 126 Lafa- 


Brody, Jacob, 693 Chapel 
Herz, Leo H., 118 Edward 
Kleiner, Charles 
Kleiner, Isaac L. 
Kugel, Simon H., 42 Church 
Levin, Yale E., 126 Lafayette 
Levy, Isaac H., 81 Lafayette 
Nathanson, Samuel J., o9 Church, 

Room 11 
Newman, Jacob J., 41 Park 
Notkln, James A., Congress Av. 
Schoenburger, William, 130 Daven- 
port AV. 
Shoninger, B., 
Sonnenberg, M. 





Steinbach, A. D., 124 George 
UUman, Isaac M., 621 Chapel 
Ullman, Jacob B., 169 Oliye 
Wolfe, Isaac, 157 Church 
Wolodarsky, Dr. M., 255 Columbia 

Zunder, Albert, 454 Elm 
Zunder, Theo. 

South Norwalk 

Greenstein, Samuel 


Wilson, Wayne W. 




Greenbaum, B. 
Van Leer, Chas. 


Bachrach, Abe, 411 King 
Barsky, Nathan. 409 King 

District of 


Mbmbbr Fating $10 per Annum 

Berliner, E., 1438 Columbia Rd. 


Aarons, Max, 525 4^, S. W. 

Adler, Dr. Cyrus, 1627 R, N. W. 

Auerbach, Joseph, 811 L, N. W. 

Baumgarten, Mrs. H., 466 Massa- 
chusetts Av., N. W. 

Behrend, Dr. A., 1214 K St., N. W. 

Behrend, A., 412 H, N. W. 

Blout, I. L., 710 7th 

Coblenzer, Mrs. Bertha, The Lenox, 
1523 L 

Cohen, Myer, 936 F, N. W. 

David, Levi H., 1422 N, N. W. 

Eisenmann, Mrs. J., 914 M, N. W. 

Heilprin, Giles F., 926 B, S. W. 

Hillman, Mrs. Joel, 1305 Yale 

Horn, N., 1225 1st, N. W. 

Hillersohn, L. A., 128 Market 
Jacobson, Dr. A. D., 409 Shipley 
Levy, Morris, 223 Market 
Ostro, Dr. M., 6th & Pine 
Slesinger, Samuel, 706 French 
Snellenburg, David, 7th & Market 
Topkis, Chas., 417 King 
Weil, Edgar, 1249 N. 13th 


Lansburgh, Mrs. James, 2511 14th, 

N. W. 
Loeb, Rev. Julius T., 1509 First 
Luchs, Mrs. M., 1627 R, N. W. 
Lyon, Simon, 1416 F, N. W. 
Neuman, Mrs. Isaac, The Home 

Apts., 7th & Massachusetts A v. 
Newburgh, Charles, 310 T, N. W. 
Nordlinger, W., 3107 M 
Oppenheimer. Mrs. Simon, 1406 

f2th, N. W. 
Peyser, Julius I.. Columbian Bldg. 
Rich, M., 1322 7th, N. W. 
Rosenau, Mrs. Milton J., 3211 13th, 

N. W. 
Simon, Rev. Abram, 1415 Chapin 
Solomons, A. S., 1205 K, N. W. 
Stern, Rev. L., 1325 10th 
Washburger, Milton J., Century 

Washington Hebrew Congregation, 

care of I. L. Blout, 806 7th, N. W. 
Wolf, Hon. Simon. 926 F, N. W. 



Bear, Morris 
Cahn, Sol. 

Caiman, Mrs. Joseph 
Friedman, Louis 
Gerson, B. 
Greenhut, A. 
Heinberg, Herman 
Jacoby, Laz., 23 S. Palafox 


Brown, Mrs. D. 
Brown, T. B. 


Kahn, Harry, care of Welles-Kahn 

Koch, Rabbi Samuel 
Neuman, H. P., P. O. Box 307 


Diamond, Julius 
HIrschberg, Julius 


Cohn, Marvin 
Ehrlich, Joseph 
Gortatowsky, M. D. 


Landau. Rev. Edmi 

IUiseali«rg, J. 
Sterne, Slgmuna 
Wesloakj, MorrlB 

BIgler, Mrs. J,. do6 '&. Prj< 
Bluthenthal. FeUi, 410 S. i liui 
Brown, Julius L., Jos. E. Brown 

Bldg. (Subscriber) 
Dorfan, Joel. 91 QUmer 
Elaas, Bugene M., 21S Washington 
Elson, Philip, 231 Central 4 v. 
EpIoD. Leon, 180 Central At. 
Frank, M., 341 WashlngtOD 
Haas, Aaron, 206 8. Forsyth 
Hans, I. H., 385 8. Prjor 
Haas, Jacob. 285 WashlnetDD 
He; man, Arthur. S&G WashiDgton 
Hlrach, MlltOD M., 18S Ponce de 

HlrschberK, .T., 207 Kawson 
Jacobs, Mrs. loa., 6 Marietta 
Eaufman, Darld, National Straw 

Hat Works 
Kutz, Mrs. Max, 245 Waahlagton 
Llchtensteln, E., Ill E. Ellis 
Llchtensteln, J., 1!53 Piedmont At. 
Llchtensteln, U., TS Decatur 
Lleberman, Leon. 92 WbltebaM 
HarcuB, M., 72 E. Fair 
Man, RCT. DbtIH, 270 Whitehall 

Hlrach, M. M.. 1029 2nd At. Georela 

JnlluB, M. 

Kaulmaa. L. H., 1120 Ist At. 

Loeb, Lee 

Loeb, B. 

Loewenberz, Leo 

Itoaenberg, Uei, llOH 4tb At. 

RothBchlld, D. 

Rothschild, H. 

Simons, Hai 

nirscb, Jacob, 810 4th 

Newman, L. 

Popper. Stephen 

Wachtel, Chas. 

Waterman. Mrs. H., 356 Spring 

Wltman, D. 

Witt, Rev. Dr. Louis. 818 Cherry 

Wolff, Edward, 410 4th 

SllTerman, H,. 286 Rawaon 
Sommer, H, C. 269 Glenn 
Stern, Mrs. QeorKe, 371 8. Pryor 
Strauss. O. R., 386 Waahlngton 
Trounstlne. L, J., care of Atlai 

Well, Slgmund. 248 S. Pryor 

Apple Sep J., 117 Bay. E. 
Byck, M. 8., 128 Taylor. E. 
Dijtut, Mra. M.. 113 Huntingdon, 

Ferat, Aaron 

Ferat, Joseph, 209 E, Gaston 

Ferst. Leon, 18 Jones 

Mendel. J. 

Mendes, Mrs. I. P., 210 W. Gwlnett 

Mohr. Mrs. L., 9 Garden 

Sbulhafur, A., 406 lIuntlUEdon. E. 

Sundbelmer. A. 

Wltcovar, " H. W., Germanla Bank 

Btatt, ReT. Dr. Joseph, ] 

I ley man, Mra, 





Udelowish, Paul 


Library Abr. Lincoln Lodge, No. 
190, I. O. B. B., care Slg. Liv- 

Livingston, Slg. 

Mbmebb Paying $10 per Annum 
Nelson, Morris, Union Stock Yards 
Members Paying $5 per Annum 

Becker, A. O., 5132 East End Ay. 

Benslnger, M., 2217 Calumet Av. 

Foreman, Edwin G., 3750 Michigan 

Solomon, Mrs. Henry, 4406 Michi- 
gan Av. 


Abraham, A.. 233 92nd, S. Chicago 
Abt. Dr. I. A., 4326 Vincennes Av. 
Adler, Miss Celia, 166 34th 
Adler, Mrs. D., 3543 Ellis Av. 
Agat, Rev. I., 69 Fowler 
Arnstein, Mrs. C, 3326 Wabash 

Bach,' Mrs. E., 3545 Ellis Av. 
Bacharach, H., 6340 Ellis Av. 
Basch, Joseph, 3363 Calumet Av. 
Bauer, Rev. S. H., 568 N. Lincoln 
Beck, Dr. Carl, 42 Roslyn PI. 
Beck, Dr. Joseph C, 565 E. 45th 
Becker, Benj. V., 4459 Berkeley 

Becker, Dr. Emil G., 620 La Salle 

Becker, L., 5012 Ellis Av. 
Benjamin, Mrs. Louis, 4111 Grand 

Binswanger, A, 1124 N. Y. Life 

Blrkenstein, David, 396 La Salle 

Birkinstein, Louis, 12 Lane PI. 
Buchsbaum, S., 5407 Michigan Av. 
Burger, Nathan, 447 La Salle Av. 
Chicago American, 214 Madison 

Cohen, Abe., 2626 Cottage Grove 

Cohn, Herman, 4418 Prairie Av. 
Cohn, Moses, 4450 Langley Av. 
Cowen, Israel, 3216 S. Park Av. 
Cowen, Miss Millie, 3218 S. Park 

D'Ancona, E. N., 108 La Salle 
David, Mrs. J. B., 943 West Mon- 

Davis, Abe S., 2254 La Salle 
Davis, Benjamin, Ogden & Albany 

Davis, James, 1075 Milwaukee A v. 
De Lee, S. T., 3634 Prairie Av. 
Despres, I, 3249 Rhodes Av 
Despres, Samuel, 3218 Calumet Av. 
Deutelbaum, Leopold, Home for 

Jewish Orphans, Drexel Av. & 

Deutsch, Samuel, 4908 Ellis Av. 
Diamond, Dr. I. B., 294 W. Divi- 
Dryfus, J., 214 Michigan Av. 
Bderheimer, M., 3926 Grand Boul. 
Eisendrath, B. D., 3566 Prairie 

Eisendrath, D. N., 3125 Michigan 

Eisendrath, H. J., 165 Lake View 

Eisendrath, S. J., 284 Hawthorn 

Eisenstaedt, I., Van Buren & 

Eisenstaedt, R.. 674 48tli 
Eisenstaedt, S. H., 230 Market 
Elkan, Mrs. H., 594 Dearborn Av. 
Ellbogen, M., 3700 Forest Av. 
Falter, D. B., Jackson & 5th Av. 
Feldmann, Chas., 5i7 Larrabee 
Felsenthal, Rev. Dr. B., 4635 

Prairie Av 
Felsenthal, Eli B., 4108 Grand 

Finn, J. M.. 203 Randolph 
Flschell. Albert, 3448 Wabash Av. 
Florshelm, Simon, 4913 Grand 

Foreman, Oscar G., 3415 Michigan 

Fox, Leo, 3353 S. Park Av. 
Frank, Henry L., 90 Washington 
Prank, Julius, 956 W. Monroe 
Freund, Mrs. G., 4416 Michigan 

Friedman, L., 3647 Michigan Av. 
Friedman, Monroe J. 12 Dearborn 
Furth, J. E., 192 E. 35th 
Gatzert, August, 4915 Washing- 
ton Park Place 
Gatzert, J. L., 220 Adams 
Ginsburg, Dr. J., 184 W. x2th 
Glaser, B. L., 3311 Michigan Av. 
Glaser, Mrs. G. D., 4342 Grand 

Goldsmith, S., 4551 Forrestville 

Greenebaum, Ellas, 4510 Grand 




Grusln, Mrs. M., 580 S. Halsted 
Guettel, M., care Ries & Co., 126 

Haas, Mrs. Charles, 3331 S. Park 

Hartman, Joseph S., 233 E. Jack- 
son Boul. 

Hasterllk, Chas., 3938 Grand 

Herzog, S., 668 E. 48th PI. 

Hirsch, Rev. Dr. Emil G., 3612 
Grand Boul. 

Hirsch, Morris, 2915 Prairie Av. 

Hirschberg, Rev. Abram, 294 La 
Salle Av. 

Hochstadter, G., 4527 Ellis Av. 

Horwich, Henry J., 2242 La Salle 

Hyman, Mrs. David, 4350 Grand 

Hyman, Joseph, 4617 Ellis Av. 

Isaiah Sabbath School, care Rev. 
Dr. Jos. Stolz, 157 42nd PI. 

Jacobson, D., 4461 Ellis Av. 

Jacoby, Ernest, 19 Wabash A v. 

Jonas, Mrs. I., 395 Ashland Boul. 

Joseph, Carl, 4406 S. Park Av. 

Joseph, Jacob M., 3326 Calumet 

Kadimoh Gate, No. 9, K. of Z., 
care W. E. Walpert, 312 W. 

Kalish, Louis P., 930 W. Monroe 

Karpen, Adolph, oz9 Orchard 

Katlinsky, L., 5930 S. Park Av. 

Kaul, Leo, 4837 Champlain Av. 

Keim, Isaac, 4117 Grand Boul. 

Kirchberger, Mrs. S. H., 4815 
Drexel Boul. 

Kirchheimer, Joseph, 4339 For- 
restville Av 

Kline, Sol., 4807 Prairie Av. 

Kohn, Louis H., 4639 Drexel Boul. 

Kohn, Manuel, 5116 Indiana Av. 

Kreeger, M., 313 W. 63d 

Kuh, Julius S., 97 34th 

Landau, K., 155 Market 

Leopold, H. F., 4437 Ellis Av. 

Leopold, Mrs. Max, 3426 Prairie 

Leopold, N. F., 3223 Michigan Av. 

Levinkind, Hyman, 213 92nd 

Levinson, S. O., Chamber of Com- 
merce Bldg. 

Levy, A., 3141 Michigan A v. 

Levy, Rev. A. R., 1180 Douglas 

Lewinsohn, L., 4511 Indiana Av. 

Lilienfeld, Wm., 79 Jackson Boul. 

Lipson, Isaac B., 1016 The Tem- 

Loeb, Emanuel, 4633 St. Lawrence niinois 

Loeb, Isaac A., Room 322-59 

Loeb, James I., 189 La Salle 

Loeb, Leo A., 4113 Grand Boul. 

Loeb, Sigmund E., 1004 Ft. Dear- 
born Bldg. 

Loewenstein, Mrs. L., 3316 Calu- 
met Av. 

Loewenthal, B., 1829 Indiana Av. 

Mack, Hon. Julian W., 153 La 

Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel, 3400 Michi- 
gan Av. 

Manheim, Mrs. Fannie, 514 Mil- 

nrprilpOO AV 

Mannheimer, Mrs. M., 1822 Indi- 
ana Av. 

Mayer, Mrs. Levy, 79 Dearborn 

Messing, Rev. Dr. A. J., 4337 Vin- 
cennes Av. 

Moog, David, 4401 Prairie A v. 

Moses, Adolph, 4139 Drexel Boul. 

Myers, Miss Esther M., 63 Win- 
throp PI. 

North Chicago Hebrew Congrega- 
tion Sabbath School, care Rev. 
A. Hirschberg, 294 La Salle Av. 

Oppenheim, M. J., 4818 Forrest- 
ville Av. 

Pam, Hugo, 841 Rookery 

Perlberg, S. E., Turner Hotel, 33d 
&: W&b&sh 

Pfaelzer, David M., 4109 Grand 

Pfaelzer, Jonas S., 4959 Washing- 
ton Park Place 

Pflaum, A. J., 153 La Salle 

Pike, Adolph, Stock Exchange 

Plaut, Abe, 4846 Langley Av. 

Rabinoff, M., 74 Lincoln Av. 

Radzinski, Mrs. A. I., 4827 Vin- 
cennes Av. 

Rappaport, Rev. Julius, 87 Poto- 
mac Av. 

Regensburg, Samuel H., Vendome 
Hotel, 62nd & Monroe 

Rose, Edward, 4619 Prairie Av. 

Rosenbaum, David, 770 N. Irving 

Rosenbaum, Jos., Auditorium An- 

Rosenbaum, M., 3311 Michigan 

Rosenberg, Mrs. Julius, 3754 Michi- 
gan Av. 

Rosenblatt, Mrs. A., 26oo Michi- 
gan Av. 

Rosenfeld, Mrs. M., 1620 Michi- 
gan Av. 



Illinois Rosenfield, L., 3147 Calumet Av. 

Rosenwald, M. S., 4907 Grand 

Rubovits, E., 4626 Indiana Av. 

Samuels, Mrs. Moses, 372 S. Win- 
chester Av. 

Schaffner, Arthur B., 801 Cham- 
ber of Commerce Bide. 

Schaffner, Mrs. Chas., 412 Taco- 
ma Bldg. 

Schaffner, Robert, 178 La Salle 

Schanfarber, Rev. T., 4049 Grand 

Schiff, Samuel, 6242 Wentworth 

Schlesinger, L., State & Madison 

Schlesinger, T., State & Madison 

Schneidig, Jacob, 4202 Drexel Boul 

Schoen, Geo. B., HE. 46th 

Schram, Jacob, 4833 Grand Boul. 

Schutz, S. P., 1541 S. Park Av. 

Schwartz, H., 350 S. Center Av. 

Selz, Mrs. Morris, 1717 Michigan 

Siegei, F., Adams «c Fifth Av. 

Silber, Fred. D., 5515 Woodlawn 

Simon, Mrs. M., 1131 Douglas 

Simon, Philip, 4343 Prairie Av. 

Singer, Harry, 53 Waller 

Spiegel, Mrs. J. 3344 S. Park Av. 

Spiegel, Jonas, 4107 Grand Boul. 

Spitz, S.J 238 Market 

Steele, Mrs. Henry B., 3119 Calu- 
met Av 

Steele, S. B., 3339 Michigan Av. 

Stein, Adolph, 369 Ashland Boul. 

Stein, Hon. Philip, 4340 Grand 

Stein, Samuel, 372 S. Halsted 

Stern, David, 314 W Madison 

Stolz, Rev. Dr. Joseph, 157 42nd 

Stone, Mrs. Julius, 3339 Forest 

Stone, Mrs. Nat., 3436 Vernon Av. 

Straus, Meyer, L., 171 W. Madi- 

Straus, Mrs. Eli M., 2509 Indiana 

Straus, Leo, 2955 Prairie Av. 

Straus, Simon W., 3440 Michi- 
gan Av. 

Sulzberger, Sol. L., 4404 Michi- 
gan Av. 

Ungerleider, Rev. Dr. M., Michael 
Reese Hosp., 29th & Groveland 

Wasserman, D., 4519 Forestville 

Weil,' Julius B., 4921 Ellis Av. 

Weil, Morris, 3336 South Park 

Weinshenker. Miss Esther, 330 N. 

Ashland Av. 
Weissenbach, Joseph, 159 La Salle 
Werner, Rev. Hirsch, 140 Wash- 

burne Av. 
Witkowsky, Mrs. C, 2802 Prairie 

Witkowsky, D., 4942 Vincennes 

Wolf,* Eli, 652 B 43d 
Wolf, Henry M., The Winamac, 

Ellis and Oakwood Avs. 
Wolfner, E. R., 292 42nd 
Yondorf, Mrs. A., 567 La Salle Av. 
Yudelson, Rev. A. B., 3137 Rhodes 

Zolotkoflf, Hon. Leon, 940 Stock 

Exchange Bldg. 

Freiler, Philip 
Miller, Mrs. I. B., 826 Spring 

Frankfort Station 

Balchowsky, B. 
Balchowsky, C. H. 


Froehlich, Sol. 
Nirdlinger, L. 

Katzen, L. 



Rosenstein, L. 


Greenhut, J. B., 148 High 
Levi, Rev. Charles 
Szold, Joseph, 2418 S. Adams 
Wolfner, W. F, 205 Moss Av. 
Woolner, Samuel, 317 Perry 

Diamond, Max 
Rose, M. 


Eppstein, Rev. E. 


Traugott, Rev. Abraham, 850 N. 

Lowenstein, M. 

Weil, Theodore, 914 Central Av. 





Levor, Mrs. Levi S. 

Columbia Olty 

Daniels, Dan. 
Larber, S. 

Goldberg, J., 408 High 


Sive, S. 
Welsskers, A A. 


Bernstein, David S., 408 Line 
Bitterman, Adolph, 300 Main 
Frey, Philip W. 
Skora, Philip, 923 W. Franklin 

Fort Wajme 

Baum, Joseph, 536 W. Washing- 
Baum, Samuel, 230 W. Wayne 
Epstein, H., 339 E. Washington 
Frank, Max 
Freiburger, Herman, 825 West 

Frelberger, Joseph, 327 W. Berry 
Hallenstein, I. M^ 909 W. Main 
Kann, Mrs. Sol.. Randall Hotel 
Karn, Miss Pearl, 718 W. Wayne 
Lehman, Isidore, 720 Ft. Wayne 
Rothschild, Solomon, 228 W.Berry 

Oas City 
Adler, J. 


Goldstein, Hermann, 422 S. 5th 
Lewis, Mrs. Sam. 
Salinger, Harry 
Salinger, Louis 
Salinger, N 


Auerbach, M., 13 Kentucky Av. 

Bamberger, Ralph, 706 Stevenson 

Cohen, A. B^ 40 E. South 

Efroymson, G. A., 1424 N. Jersey 

Efroymson. M., 2107 N. Delaware 

Feuerlicht, Rev. Morris M. 

Fishbein, B., 52 Commercial Bldg. 

Hoffman, Rev. Charles I. 

Indianapolis Hebrew Congrega- 
tion School Board, care Morris 
Solomon, Sec^y, 222 B. Pratt 

Kahn, Sylvan W., 415 E. 16th 

Kiser. Sol. S., 806 Indiana Trust 

Madias, C, 510 Indiana 
Mantel, Emil, 111 W. 10th 
Messing, Rev. M., 523 N. Delaware 
Moyer, M., 217 S. Illinois 
Newberger, Louis, Columbia Club 

Rauh, Henry, 2032 Illinois 
Rauh, S. E., 1311 Capital Av. 
Rothschild, S. G., 2224 Talbott 

Selig, Moses, 1-14 N. Penn 
Tratcky, Sol., 1731 Howard 
Weill, Harry, 419 S. Penn 
Wineman. Joseph, 2037 N. Dela- 
ware Av. 
Wiseman, Harry S., 1731 Union 

Dreidel, M. E., 8th & Spring 

La Fayette 
Atlas, M. 

Dryfoos, Ferdinand, 1307 Colum- 
Dryfoos, L., Cor. 6th & Cincinnati 
Eckhouse, A., 427 N. 5th 
Hene, S. 

Hirsh, Benj., 624 N. 6th 
Mayerstein, Selma, 806 Cincinnati 
Oppenheimer, Julius, 519 N. 6th 
Rosenthal, Henry, 523 Brown 

Eichman, D. 


Goldsmith, Abe 
Jacob, Mrs. M. 
Magil, Rev. Julius M. 
Mier, Mrs. Sol. 
Solomon, Miss Ruby 
Straus, Mrs. Ike 
Straus, J. 
Straus, S. J. 
Werthhelmer, M. 

Greensfelder, E. 


Marks Edward A. 
Sulzer, Louis 

Goldrelch, H., 1104 S. McClure 

Moritz, B. 

Michigan Oity 



Indiana Biolimond 

Saffer, Solomon, 331 S. 6th 

Strauss, Simon 

Joseph, Jonas 

Bouth Bend 

Adler, Mrs. Samuel, 1012 Wash- 
Greenebaum, Simon 

Livingston, Max 

Silverman, Mrs. Sam., 615 Clinton 

Warner, Wm. & Sons 

Doob, A. 

Lowenberg, W. L. 
Rosenbaum, E. 
Wolf, Harmon 


Phillipson, M. 


Goldsmith, Jos. 


Oedar Bapids 
Salomon, Oscar 

Salinger, Lewis 

Oounoil Bluffs 
Cherniss, Julius, 627 Sixth Av. 


Petersberger, Isaac, 43 Whltaker 


Daube, Mrs. Samuel 
Kahn, Julius H. 


Hirsch, Mrs. Cecile B., The Vic- 
Joseph, S., 519 Fourth 
Samish, M. 
Younker, A. 

Levi, James 

Stein, I. 




Rothschild, Mrs. D., 14 Oak Lane Bernstein, Mrs. A., 401 B. Church 

Silberstein, Martin, 206 W. 2nd 

Des Moines 

B'nai Teshurun Sabbath School, 
care Miss May Goldman, 521 

Gutfreund, Gus, 911 W. 8th 

Bernstein, Mrs. Chas., 107 W. 

Pappe, Henry 

Biouz Oity 

Mannheimer, Babbl Eugene, 905 


Lamed Salina 

Krouch, G. Bondi, August 

Ettenson, Henry, 514 Pottawato- Topeka 

mie Snattinger, M., 309 W. 10th 

Woolfe, B. B. 

Pittsburg Wichita 

Degen, Harry Younghelm, Charles 


Salinger, J. 
Sherrlck, H. 




Baldauf, M. 




Breckenridge, Col. Wm. 

C. P. 

Bernheim, I. W., 1208 Secohd 


Adath Israel Religious School, cor. 

Broadway & 6Ui 
Bernheim, B» 202 W. Ormsby Av. 
Bloom, Dr. I. N., 321 W. Walnut 
Brandeis, Albert S., 788 Third 
Dembitz, Lewis N., Louisyille Tr. 

Enelow, Rey. Dr. Hyman G., 1115 

Hepburn Ay. 

Flarsheim, Morris H., 1410 First Kentucky 

Flexner, Bernard, 26 Kenyon Bldg 

Grabfelder, S. 

Grossman, Louis, care Hirsh Bros. 
14 th & Grayson 

Isenberg, Sol., 914 2nd 

Kaufman, Henry, 1609 Fourth Ay. 

Mueller, Rey. Dr. Ign., 1127 South 

Selligman, Alfred, 105 W. Ken- 

Shaplnsky, Simon, 215 E. Walnut 

Washer, BenJ. F., Kenyon Bldg. 

Hechinger, D. 


Friedman, Mrs. Jos. L., 326 N. 


Wise, Sol. 

Abramson, Miss Rose, Walls P. O. 



Cohn, Joseph 
Marcus, M. 

Marks, Mrs. Jefferson D., E. 5th 
& Ay. J. 

Bauer, G. 
Chaplan, D. 
Gehr, Gus. 

Ellinger, Rey. Emll, 830 Fisk 
Mayer, Moses 
Nachman. W. B., Box 2? 
Rosenthal, Mrs. Jonas 
Simon, A. E. 

Baton Bouge 
Abramson, Abe 
Blum, Laz., 810 Africa 
Cohn, Mrs Henry, Jr. 
Farnbacher, Solon 
Leyy, Louis 

Mendelsohn, Miss Justine J. 
Rosenthal, Rabbi S. L. 
Sachse, Mrs. V. A. 

Bayou Sara 

Dreyfus, Mrs. Sam. 
Hartson, Mrs. Hattle 
Kahn, Wm. 
Leyy, M. C. 
Mann, Ben 
Moses, A. H. 
Sinks, J. A. 
Stern, Joseph 
Teutsch, Mrs. A. 


Bojarsky, E. H. 
Leopold, Mrs. A. 


Randolph, Frank (Subscriber) 
Reisfeld, Wm. 

Ascheflfenburg, L. 


Abramson, N. 
Bendel, I. B. 
Coronna, Mrs. B. N. 
Leyy Bros. 
Rosenfleld, M. 
Schwartz, Dayid 

Lake Charles 

Bloch, Henry M., Box 424 
Mayer, A. W., Box 123 

Israel, Mrs. M. 

Kew Iberia 

Dreyfus, Jules 
Dreyfus, Leon, Main 
Hacker, L. O. (Subscriber) 
Weil, Sam 

Kew Orleans 

Life Members 

District Grand Lodge, No. 7, I. O. 
B. B., care Nat. Strauss, 2831 



Louisiana Mhhbebs 

Aaron, Edward, 1539 Jackson Av. 
Aarons, Gus., 7535 St. Charles 

Adler, Jacob, 2216 Canal 
Adler, Wm., 2281 ijanal 
Aschaffenburg, 5414 St. Charles 

Barnett. B., 815 Poydras 
Beer, Bertrand, 825 Baronne 
Benjamin, Bd., 3316 St. Charles 

Bloch, Jacob, 1666 Peters Av. 
Block, Jos., 4102 Prytania 
Block, Lazare. 1307 Peters Av. 
Blum, Sam., 2311 Magazine 
Braunfeld, Rev. Julius, 1482 Oc- 

Bruenn, Bernard. 1020 Hennen 

Cahn, Bdgar M., 320 St Charles 

Cain, J. L., 5323 Coliseum 
Campbell, Laurence, 2021 Clio 
Cohn, B., 1810 Marengo 
Dahlman, Mrs. I., 1318 South 

Danziger, T. W., 3615 St. Charles 

Dreifus, Dr. E., 1409 Carondelet 
Dreyfous, Felix J., 1140 Jackson 

Biseman, Mrs. C. M., 6846 Pry- 
Bisenmann, Dr. Nathan, 1629 Mel- 
Feibleman, B^ 21 S. Peters 
Feibleman, T. J., 1406 General 

Feingold, Dr. M., 124 Baronne 
Felix, A., 1748 Jackson A v. 
Friend, Jos. B., 1139 Jackson 
Gluck, P. P.. 1324 Peters Av. 
Godchaux, Albert, 4036 St. Charles 

Godchaux, Charles, 3924 St. 

Charles Av. 
Goetz, Ed., 1805 S. Rampart 
Goldsmith, Mrs. J. F., 1526 St 

Charles Av. 
Goldstein, Mrs. Louis,, 2520 Maga- 
Gumbel, Ferdinand, 812 Perdldo 
Gumbel, Mrs. Horace, 1733 Napo- 
Gumbel, Simon, 2320 Prytania 
Gutman, Eugene H., P. O. Box 

Harmony Club, St. Charles Av. & 

Hayem, Lazard, 817 Gravier 

Hechinger, I., 4201 St Charles Av. 
Heidenheim, A., 3425 St Charles 

Heidenheim, E., 216 Chartres 
Heller, Rev. Dr. Max, 1828 Ma- 
Henriques, D. N., 1424 Toledano 
Hess, Bernard, 1522 St Charles 

Hyman, Sam., 3323 St Charles 

Isaacs, M., 1708 St Charles Av. 
Jewish Orphans Home, cor. St 

Charles & Peters A vs. 
Jonas, Hon. B. F., Hennen Bldg. 
Kahn, Dave, 2010 Milan 
Kahn, Gabriel, 1373 Annuncia- 
Katz, Gustave, 2139 St Charles 

Kaufman, Arthur I., 1/06 Berlin 
Kaufman, Chas. A., 1707 St. 

Charles Av. 
Kaufman, Louis, 1135 Camjp 
Keiffer, Mrs. Julius, 1613 Caron- 
Kiam, Mrs. Ben, 1705 Berlin 
Kohlmann, S., 2215 Canal 
Kohlmann, Dr. W., 3516 Prvtania 
Kohlmeyer, Chas., 1814 St Charles 

Kohn, Jos., 1208 Phillip 
Kory, Max A., 5112 Pitt 
Kruttschnitt, E. B., 20 Camp 
Ladies Guild of Temple Sinai, care 
Mrs. P. L. Godchaux, 1237 
Jackson Av. 
Lamm, Alex., 1921 Napoleon Av. 
Lazarus, H. L., 3519 Camp 
Lebermuth, Mrs. Julia, 1636 Ber- 
Lehman, Gustave, 3628 St. Charles 

Lemann, F. B., 3617 St Charles 

Lemann, M., 4132 St. Charles Av. 
Leopold, H., 1633 Dufossat 
Leucht, Rev. I. L., 226 Carondelet 
Levy, Leopold, 133 Canal 
Levy, Mrs. L., 4320 Prytania 
Levv, Mrs. Morris, 1520 Jose- 
Levy, M. James, 1847 Carondelet 
Levy, Wm. M., 1384 Magazine 
Loeb, Ernest M., 1*507 Phillip 
Marx, Henry W., 837 CaiTal 
Marx, Salomon, Rosa Park, P. O. 

Box 127 
Maas, E., 415 Decatur 
Mayer, Erhard 1731 Milan 
Mayer, Norman, 4923 St. Charles 



MendelBon, Mrs. Chas., 1412 Lou- 

Meyer, B., 1806 Milan 
Moss, Hartwig, 220 Baronne 
Newberger, S., 1829 Milan 
Newman, A. B., 1421 Gen. Taylor 
Newman, Harold W., 909 Hennen 

Newman, Henry, 3512 St Charles 

Newman, Dr. J. W., Touro In- 
Newman. S., 3607 St. Charles Av. 
Oury, Mrs. H., 2220 St. Charles 

Pfeifer, Leon, 3305 St Charles 

Pfeifer, Simon, 3931 St. Charles 

Pokorny, D., 2113 St Charles Av. 
Rich, Isidor, 1307 Louisiana Av. 
Rosen. Chas., 317 Hennen Bldg. 
Rosenberg, A., 1104 3rd 
Rosenberg, Eph., 1521 Dufossat 
Rosenberg, J., 731 Canal 
Rosenfield, A., 1204 Magazine 
Rosenthal, S., 1238 St. Andrew 
Roth, Mrs. Chas.. 1417 Carondelet 
Rubin, S., 223 Decatur 
Samson, Max, 1715 Camp 
Scheuer, L. L., 1631 Jackson 
Schwabacher, Max, 1446 Joseph 
Schwartz, L. E., 4436 St. Charles 

Seckbach, A., 1533 St. Andrew 
Shwartz, M., 1472 State 
Shwartz, S. J., St. Charles Av. and 

Steinhardt, E., 260 Baronne 
Stem, Henryi 12*2 Chartres 
Stern, Maurice, 5115 St. Charles 

Stern, Morris, 426 Canal 
Stern, Sam'l. H., 2013 Palmer Av. 
Stern, Mrs. Sol., 330 Decatur 
Titche, Bernard, 3303 Carondelet 
Trautman, Jos., 4010 St. Charles 

Waldhom, M., 4125 St Charles 


Weill, Abe., 1605 Baronne Louisiana 

Weinberger, Frank, Cor. Pitt & 

Henrv Clav Av 
Weis, Dr. Jos. D., 1319 St Charles 

Weis, Julius, 1237 Jackson A v. 
Weis. S. W., 1548 Jackson Av. 
Welsh, M. J.. 1619 Melpomene 
Wenar, Chas. 1527 Camp 
Wexler, Miss M., 1737 Napoleon 

Wolbrett David, 2323 Magazine 
Wolf, Mrs. Isaac B.. 1112 Third 
Wolf. M. J., 518 Bienville 
Wolfl:, Solomon, Macheca Bldg. 
Worms, G. K., 520 Canal 
Toung Men's Hebrew Association, 

St. Charles Av. & Clio 


Kahn, Mervine 
Sommer, Marx 
Weil, Jonas 

St. Franoisville 

St Prancisville Section, C. J. W., 
care Miss Bessie Schlesinger, 


Benson, M., 630 Travis 

Braunig, H., and Bro. 

Dreyfus, S. J. 

Ehrlich, Mrs., Hotel Phoenix 

Plorsheim, Seymour L., 424 Travis 

Freedman, H. G., 419 Texas 

Groner, L., 311 Texas 

Herold, H. 

Herold, Jos. K. 

Jacobson, Rev. M. P., 750 Hope 

Levy, Leopold, care Crescent 
Liquor Co. 

Levy, Marx M., 219 Cotton 

Liebman, Louis 

Loeb, Herman 

Lowenthal, Mrs. Paul, 710 Crock- 

Myer, Nathan 

Phelps, E. 

Silbernagel, B., 420 Faunn 

Wiener-Loeb Grocery Co. 





Gutman, Mrs. Joel, 1903 Eutaw 

Gutman, L. K., 112-122 N. Eutaw 


Brager. Albert, St. James Hotel 
Cahn, B., 1609 Eutaw Place 
Hutzler, D., 1801 Eutaw Place 

Rosenthal, Samuel, Jr., 1905 Eu- 
taw Place 

Members Paying $5 per Annum 
Epstein, Jacob. 1729 Park Av. 
Frank, Sydney S., 1325 Eutaw PI. 
Hecht Albert S., 1913 Eutaw PI. 
Hecht, Emanuel, 1616 Eutaw PI. 
Kann, Louis, 1500 McCulloh 
SchlosB, Michael, 500 W. Balto, 



Maryland Mbmbbrs 

Adler, Chas., 1313 Butaw Place 

Adler, Mrs. S. J., 2109 Bolton* Av. 

Ambach, David, 1510 Butaw PI. 

Ambach, Max, 1714 Butaw PI. 

Ansell, Mrs. Bvelyn C, 3025 St. 

Ash, Mrs. L., 2136 Bolton Ay. 

Balser, Jos. S., 118 Hopkins PI. 

Bamberger, B., 1306 Linden Ay. 

Bamberger, Jacob, 1727 McCuUoh 

Barron, Joseph, 912 B. Fayette 

Bernheimer, F., 311 W. Lexing- 

Bernstein, Dr. B. J., 1511 Madison 

Bernstein, Mrs. M., 2332 Madison 

Billstein, Nathan, S. W. Cor. Lib- 
erty Rd. & 11th 

Binswanger, Augustus C, 1619 
Butaw Place 

Blaustein, S., 605 W. German 

Block, M. J., 541 Bouitable Bldg. 

Blum, Gumpert, 1816 Madison Av. 

Brausky, Simon B., 2049 Wilklns 

Brownold, S. M., 2227 Madison 

Burk," Chas., 617 B. Baltimore 

Cahn, M. U., 2116 Bolton 

Coblenz, L. C, 1919 Linden Av. 

Cohen, Dr. Abraham, 1744 Park 

Cohen, B., 1709 Linden Av. 

Cohen, Miss Bertha. 416 N. Chas. 

Cohen, Mrs. I. Lou.. 8025 St. Paul 

Cohen, Jacob I., 1727 Guilford Av. 

Cohen, L. J., 301 Fidelity Bldg. 

Cohen, Mendes, 825 N. Charles 

Cohen, M. S., 208 Maryland Tele- 
phone Bldg. 

Cone, Miss Btta, 821 Park Av. 

Cone, Mrs. Moses, care Miss Lin- 
dau, 1600 Linden Av. 

Crockin, Bmil, 2400 McCulloh 

DaCosta, Mrs. E., care H. G. Da- 
Costa, 1733 Fulton Av., N. 

Dalsheimer, Simon, 1702 Linden 

Davidson, Isaac, 816 N. Howard 

Denison, Michael. 221 S. Bden 

Drey, Sylvan, 301 Fidelity Bldg. 

Duval, F. M., Baltimore & Grant 

Eilau, Dr. B. W., 1908 Madison 

Biseman, Mrs. G., 1910 Butaw PI. 

Ember, Aaron, 201 S. High 

Erlanger Bros., 510 W. Pratt 

Erlanger, Max R., 1821 McCul- 

Ezras ChovevI Zion Society, 1110 
B. Balto. 

Federlelcht, L., 25 W. Baltimore 

Feuerlicht, Rev. J., Hebrew Hosp. 

Fineman. L., 653 W. Lombard 

Fleischer, Silas, 2010 Madison 

Frank, Alex., 1506 Butaw PI. 

Frank, Ell, 1504 Bolton 

Frank, Samuel, 1616 Madison Av. 

Frank, Mrs. S. L., 8 B. Lexington 

Frank, Sol., 1407 Butaw PI. 

Franklin, Dr. Fabian, care The 

Freedman & Sworzyn, 213 W. 

Freedman, H., 507 Aisquith 

Freudenthal, Rev. S., Hebrew Or- 
phan Asylum 

Friedenwald, Mrs. A., 1616 Lln- 
den A.V 

Friedenwald, Dr. Harry, 1029 
Madison Av. 

Friedenwald, Joseph, 1916 Butaw 

Friedenwald, Dr. Julius, 32 W. 

Friedman, B., 307 W. German 

Frlsch, W., Altamont Hotel 

Fuechsl, B. S., 10 W. Lexington 

Fuld, Miss Rosa, care S. Salomon, 
Liberty & Lexington 

Gamse, Herman, 315 W. German 

Gans, Mrs. Chas., 2222 Butaw PI. 

Ginsberg, S. M., 734 W. North 

Goldbloom, L. S., 613 W. Balto. 

Goldenberg, Julius, 1736 McCul- 

Goldenberg, Mrs. M., 1628 Bolton 

Goldsmith, Meyer B., 414 B. Balto. 

Goldstrom, Isidor, 9 B. Lexington 

Glyder, Mrs. J., 421 N. Charles 

Gordon, Paul, 228 N. Front 

Gottshalk, Mrs. Levi, 1805 Butaw 

Greenbaum, Daniel, 1908 Butaw 

Greenbaum, Leon E., 1614 Butaw 

Greensfelder, Mrs. Hannah, McCul- 
loh & Presstman 

Gump, Louis G., 850 W. North 

Gundesheimer, Mrs. B. A., 1601 
Madison Av. 

Gusdorff, I. A., 1505 Madison Av. 

Gutman, Miss Carrie E., 1803 Bu- 
taw PI. 

Gutman, Julius, 1714 Butaw PI. 

Gutman, L. N., 15 W. Lexington 

Guttmacher, Rev. A., 2239 Bolton 



Halle, M. S., 2222 Callow Ay. 

Hamburger, Mrs. Henry I., 2245 
Eutaw PI. 

Hamburger, Isaac, & Sons, Balti- 
more & Howard 

Hamburger, Leon, 2121 Bolton 

Hamburger, P., 16-20 S. Butaw 

Hamburger, Sol., 1426 Madison 

Hanline, Alex M., 23 S. Howard 

Harsh, Geo. M., 2309 Maryland 

Herrman, Jacob, 120 N. Howard 

Hess, Michael, 1212 W. North Av. 

Himmel, Sol., 1805 Bolton 

Hirshberg, Nathan H., 1807 Madi- 
son Av. 

Hochheimer, Lewis, 215 Courtland 

Hochschlld, M., 1922 Eutaw PI. 

Holzman, Michael, 2014 Madison 

Hollander, Dr. J. H., 2011 Eutaw 

Homsteln, Jacob D., 2400 McCul- 

Hutzler, A. G., 1801 Eutaw PI. 

Jewish Llbr'y Association, care 
S. Benderly. 125 Aisquith 

Kahn, Chas., 2103 W. Pratt 

Kahn, Dr. S., 1438 Fort Av. 

Kaiser, Rev. A., 1713 Linden Av. 

Katz, Moses, 1818 Linden Av. 

Katzenstein, Mrs. B., 1521 Eutaw 

Kaufman, Louis. Gay & Forrest 

Keiner, Mrs. G., 1708 Madison 

Kemper, I. L., 2127 Callow Av. 

Kerngood, H., 2007 McCulloh 

Kohn, Benno, 2119 Callow Av. 

Kohn, L. B., 2029 Eutaw PI. 

Kraus, Mrs. H., 1817 Madison Av. 

Krulewitch, Bernard, 18 S. How- 

Lauchheimer, C. H., 2220 Eutaw 

Lauchheimer, J. M., 1820 Bolton 

Lauer, Mrs. Leon, 2024 Butaw PI. 

Lauer, Martin, 2001 Eutaw PI. 

Lehmayer, Martin, 1727 Park Av. 

Leopold, Isaac, 2218 Eutaw PI. 

Levi, Louis, 2217 Callow Av. 

Levin, Charles J., 331 N. Charles 

Levin, Louis H., 835 W. North Av. 

Levy, Julius, 1827 Eutaw PI. 

Levy, Wm., 2352 Eutaw PI. 

Likes, Mrs. H., 1610 Eutaw PI. 

Lion, S. John, Roslyn Av., Wal- 

Lobe, Napoleon B., 3021 St. Paul 

Loewy, Simon, 1008 Bolton A v. 

London, Chas. W., 522 W. Balti- MaryUnd 

Lowenstein, Mrs. David, 748 W. 
North Av. 

Lutzky, Louis, 1928 McCulloh 

Maas & Kemper, 109 W. Balto. 

Mandelbaum, Mrs. S., 607 Fidelity 

Mann, Mrs. Jacob, 1622 Eutaw PI. 

Marcus, Mrs. Wm., Eutaw PI. & 

Merwltz, I., 1236 McElderry 

Metzger, Louis A., 2104 Callow 

Miller, L., 10 N. Caroline 

Miller, S. F., 1615 McCulloh 

Miller, Mrs. Wm., 1907 Butaw PI. 

Millhauser, Henry, care S. Straus- 
berg, Cor. Sharp & Pratt 

Mitnick, Jacob J. H., 110 St. Paul 

Naiman, Nathan, 118 Hopkins PI. 

Nasanowitz, A., 2014 McCulloh 

Nassauer, F., care Joel Gutman 
& Co. 

Oettinger, Mrs. H.. 1608 Park Av. 

Oheb Shalom Cong. S. S., Eutaw 
PI. & Lanvale 

Oppenheimer, Mrs. Antonia, care 
Mrs. Kraus, 2220 Callow Av. 

Oppenheimer, Henry, 1729 Bolton 

Oppenheimer, Max, 2110 Bolton 

Ottenheimer, Eli, 2072 Linden Av. 

Ottenheimer, R. M., 1634 Linden 

Phoenix Club, Eutaw PI. 

Pollock. Mrs. Uriah, 112 W. Mt. 
Royal Av. 

Posner, Samuel, 217 W. Lexing- 

Preiss, Miss Fannie, 18 W. Sara- 

Raffel, J. M., 733 Newington 

Rayner, A. W., 1814 Eutaw PI. 

Ring, Lewis, 2223 Callow Av. 

Rohr, E., 2224 Callow Av. 

Rosenau, Rev. Dr. Wm., 825 New- 
ington Ave. 

Rosenfeld, Ephraim, 82-38 Paca 

Rosenfeld, Mrs. G., 1718 Eutaw 

Rosenheim, C. H., 413 W. Balto. 

Rosnaur, Abr. L., 216 W. Balto. 

Rubenstein, Rev. Chas. A., 2031 
Eutaw PI. 

Saenger, Dr. I., 2031 Eutaw PI. 

Salabes, J., 1714 Guilford Av. 

Salabes, S., 1708 Eutaw PI. 

Sauber, A., 827 E. Baltimore 

Savage, Dr. M., 1204 E. Balto. 

Schiif, Miss Amelia, 1906 Madison 



Maryland Schloss, Mrs. Carrie, 238 Laurens 

SchlosB, Nathan, 1901 Eutaw PI. 

Schneeberger, Rev. Dr. H. W., 1628 
Druid Hill Av. 

Schoenberger, Isidor. Calyert Bldg. 
229 Calvert 

Schwab, Wm. A., 928 W. North 

Seldenman & Brother, Gay & East 

Seigel, Eli, 1610 Madison Av. 

Sellgman, Dr. Joseph A., 905 W. 
North Av. 

Silberman, T., 2000 Madison Av. 

Simon, Frank, 844 N. Howard 

Slpser, S., 216 Hanover 

Skutch, Max, 1415 Linden Av. 

Sonneborn, Mrs. Henry, 1608 Eu- 
taw PI. 

Sonneborn, Mrs. M., 828 Newing- 
tou Av. 

Sonneborn, Slgmund B., Eutaw & 

Stein, Simon H., 2324 Eutaw PI. 

Stlebel, Isaac, 2019 Callow Av. 

Straus, Aaron, 119 N. Howard 

Strauss, Alex., 2340 Eutaw PI. 

Strauss, Mrs. Wm. L., 1628 Eutaw 

Strouse, BenJ^ 1704 Eutaw PI. 

Strouse, Mrs. Ell, 1808 Madison Av. 

Strouse, Isaac, 1706 Eutaw PI. 

Strouse, Leopold, Garrison Av., Ar- 

Strouse, Mrs. Leopold, Garrison 
Av., Arlington 

Strouse, Moses I., 1919 Eutaw PI. 
Ulman, A. J., The Emerson Co., 

Fidelity Bldg. 
Van Leer, Mrs. S., 1427 McCulloh 
Walter, A., 1015 Madison Av. 
Walter, M. R., 407 Herald Bldg. 
Walter, Mrs. M. R., 407 Herald Bg. 
Waxman, N., 9 Irvine PI. 
Well, Albert, Liberty & Lombard 
Weinberg, Abraham I., 2102 Bolton 

Weinberg, Mrs. C, 1513 Mt. Royal 
Wolf, Dr. Wm., 1836 Druid Hill Av. 
Yaffe, Wolf, 118 Hopkins PI. 


Rosenbaum, Simon, 70 Washington 
Rosenbaum, Susman, 86 Bedford 

Rosenstock, J. 


Kaplan, Robert 
Stem, George 
Wineland, Max 


Kahn, I. S. 

Lyon, G. I., 117 S. Potomac 

Rose, Louis 

Schwartz, Samuel 

Simon, Mrs. M. 



LiFB Mbmbbb 

Hecht, Mrs. Jacob H., 118 Common- 
wealth Av. 


Abrams, Maurice D., 216 W. New- 
Ackerman, J. E., 177 Naples Rd. 
Adams, Geo., 8 Dale 
Adath Israel Temple Sunday School, 

B. Hyneman, 33 Milk 
Albertstamm, J., 1107 Tremont 

Amster, N. L., Hawes & Colchester 
Andrews, Mrs. Julius, 6 Maple 
Arkln, Miss Pauline, 1 Weld Av. 
Aronson, S., 660 Washington 
Bergman, Joseph L., 30 Court 
Bernard, Dr. F., 291 Shawmut Av. 
Bilofsky, Benjamin F., 78 Westland 

Borofsky, Hon. S. H., Pemberton 

Bromberg, Edward J., 99 Kitt- 

rldge, Rosllndale 
Bychower, Dr. Victor, 11 Chamber 
Cobe, M. H., 29 Howland 
Cohen, M. W., 112 Glen way, Dor- 
De Boer, D. H., Verndale, Brook- 
Ellis, David A., 82 Harold 
Evges, Leon R., 97 Ruthven 
Fleischer, Rev. Charles, 40 Con- 
cord Av., Cambridge 
Frank, Daniel, 232 Washington 
Franks, J., 18o Hanover 
Freedman, D., 83 Waumbeck 
Friedman. Max, 44 Wlnthrop 
Galbenewitz, Dr. B. G., 344 Han- 
Gallert, Mrs. M., 34 University Bd. 
Glnzberg, Albert A., 28 Court 
Goldsmith, Miss Lillle O., 108 Sea- 


Qordon. UaccT, 
Gordon, Mr- ' 

,ltb, Mfb. Hlnnle, 137 Cedar 
'"■ School 

lie, 26 Woodbine, 

."* \ 

J i!:ope]Rnd 

oclatlon. 170 

Jacob J., 12 WoreeBter H 


r. Philip B., 88 Weatland 

Tltieb'ailii, K ^., ISS Haiiover 
Wachtel, Bldnej, 13 Kingston 
Waiman. Josepb, IS Wlntbrop. 

"■■•■— ' " "1 Devon. Dorchester 
-, 268 Newbury 

Hecht, Simon, WeBtmlngter Hotel 
Hellbron, Jacob, G03 WBahlnKton 
Herman, Mrs. J. M., 424 Marlbor- 
Hlrschberg, A. 8,, 406 WaBhington 
Holiman, Dr. Josepb, 281 Haoover 


Laurie, Myer L., 1 
Lurle, J. L., 85 Le 

HeDdelaohn, laador. 

Das., itio rtewuurj 
. 12 Naples Rd., 

Weber, A. < 
Well, Mrs. 
White, A. 4_., 

WoM, Bernard M., 67 HountlDrt 
Wyaanakl, Uai B.. 63 Court 
YouQgerman, Mosea, 23 Court 

laaaca, Jacob, 21 
Jackson, I. w., 1 
Jacobovlti, J. / 

JeBelBohn. Lou.„, ,«„.v.».. 

Kaffenburgh, Isaac, 40 Broad 

King. Dr. H. B., 624 Chamber oi 

Klein. Icnatz. 76 Wanmbeck 
Koopman, J., 18 Beacon 
Kuhna. Henry, care of Leopold 

Morse k Co. 
Knrti. GuHtarua E., 82 Walnut Av. 
Lett, Dr. Isidore, TS Commonwealth 

Levenaon, Henry, 177 Blaekstone 
Levenson. JuUua, 177 Blaekstone 
Levy, Hra. Ben]., 423 Harvard 
Llssner, Bphraim, 428 Maaaachu* 

Lourle, David A., T4 CoDcress At., 


3S0 Main 
. S., BoD Marcbe, S3S 




Dephoure, Henry W., 74 Grafton 
Oodlng, J., 196 Front 
Goldstein, Samuel O., 405 Main 
' — el. A.. 14 Bradley 
,lan. Maurice, 7 barclay 
nlti, Mrs. 8., 68 ProTltlencB 
LiCwlB, Israel, 69 WlQter 
Llpschnti, 8amael I., 4S Water 
Schleslnger, M., 238 Front 
SIckels, A. M., 4T Providence 
Silver, Rabbi Hvman J., IT Ledge 
Talamo, Mrs. J. M., 07 Providence 
WotfBoa, Mrs. Samuel, 74 Frovl- 




IficUftti Orystal Falli 

Lustfield, A. 
Warshawsky, Nathan 


Aronheim, S., 81 E. Hieh 
Aronstam, Dr. Noah B., 164 B. 

Barnett, K., 2016 Blver 
Baruch, J. B., M. D., 282 Montcalm 

Beisman, Dr. Jos., Washington 

Beth El Temple Sabbath School, 

care of Bev. L. M. Franklin 
Blumenthal, D^, 90 Alfred 
Brilling, Mrs. Henry. 96 Lincoln 
Butzel, Henry M., 406 Woodward 

Butzel, Leo. M., 897 Woodward Ay 
Farber, Bey. Dr. B., 104 Adelaide 
Flnsterwald, Ad^h, 78 Adelaide 
Franks, I., 226 Hancock Av., B. 
Ginsburg, Bernard, 84 Adelaide 
Goldman, A., 299 Beaubien 
Helfman, Mrs. Hannah, 138 Ers- 

Jacobson, Benl. 89 Home Bk. Bldg. 
Krolik, Mrs. Henry A., 115 High, 

Lambert, Mrs. B. L., 43 Winder 
Levin, J., 18 Farrar 
Marymont, A., 64 Woodward At. 
Poloker, Dr. I. L., 270 Woodland 

Bobinson, I., 369 Michigan Av. 
Bosenzweig, J., 231 Fourth 
Saulson, wm., Ill Edmund PI. 
Scheinman, I. L., 240 Montcalm 
Schloss, Seligman, 65 Winder 
Shellfish, Dr. Joseph, 249 E. 

Adams Av. 
Simon, A., 33 Alfred 
Simons, David W., 64 High, B. 
Sloman, Adolph, 451 Fourth Av. 
United Jewish Charities, High, E. 
Van Baalen, I., 51 Sproat 

yineberg, L., 185 Gratiot Av. 
Zachman, Jos. A., 246 E. Mont- 


Oppenheim, Mark 
Pbilllpson, E. 

Goldstein, Mrs. S. 

Grand Eapids 
Houseman, Joseph 
Pantlin, J. B., Morton House 

Horwltz, Harris 


Desenberg, B. L. 
Folz, Samuel 


Leviton, D. 

Blumrosen, Moses 

Stern, S. 

Bending, Mrs. F., Hewitt & Front 

Mount demons 
Jacob!, Alex. 

Julius, Chas. 

Mautner, Louis, 804 Millard, E. S. 

Bault Bte Marie 
Desenberg, B. 
Moses, D. K. 




Silber, Bev. Mendel 
Silbersteln, B. 

Stein, A. M. 

Adelshelm, B., 2310 Colfax Av., S. 

B'nai Zlon Kadimah. care Abra- 
ham Stern, 215 Nicollet Av. 
Cohen, Emanuel, 313 Nicollet Av. 
Frank, M. W., 18 Third 
Goldstein, Simon, 329 E. 15 
Gordon, Dr. Geo. J., 801 8th, S. 
Harpman, J., 1811 Ninth Av., S. 
Kaufman, I^ 2000 2nd Av. 
Moss, Mrs. Chas., 116 Hennepin Av. 



Simon, Mrs. D., 714 E. 17th Saint Paul 

gPausslg, S., 19 Washington Av., N. Aberle, D., 264 S. Exchange 

Weil, Isaac, 42-44 S. 6tt Haas, Mrs. H., 340 Grove 
Weiskopf, Henry, 31 5th, S. ' 

Wolff, Max, 2120 6th Av. Winona 

Woolpy, J. H., 1915 11th Av., S. Kahn, David 


Wolf, B. 

Lewinthal, Max, Lock Box 183 

Herz, Rev. J. 


Blum, Abe 
Brill, Sol. 

Elkas, Miss Pauline 
Fass, N., 114 S. Shelby 
Qoldstein, Nathan 
Hafter, Chas. 
Isenberg, Will & S. 
Levingston, C. B. 
Moyse, Leon 
Rlteman, Mrs. Helen 
Romanskv, J. 
Scott, Isidor 
Wilzen, L., 617 Main 



Coleman, Jos. 

Dreyfus, Alex. F. 

Fischer, Isidore, 629 N. Union 

Geisenberger, A. H., 834 Main 

Hellman, Moritz 

Jacobs, Adolph 

Landauer, Mrs. A., Clifton Heights 

Lisso, Miss Ida, N. Commerce 

Moses, Mrs. Simon N., 406 Orleans 

Samuels, E. 

Seiferth, Joe 

Taussig, Jos. 

nUman, M. M., 405 Monroe 

Vlener, Rudolph 

Port Gibson 

Abraham, Louis 

Bernheimer, Jacob 

Bloch, Chas. D. 

Cohn, Maurice 

Heidenreich, L. M. 

Levy, Mrs. Byron 

Marx, Miss Blanche, Box 12 

Raisin, Rev. Jacob S. 


Rothschild, J. 


Arky, Louis H. 

Baum, Marx 

Jacobson, Gabe 

Klein, Abr. 

Loeb, Alex. 

Lyon, A. J. 

Meyer, Sam. 

Pappenheimer, Wm. 

Rotnenberg, Mrs. Marks, 10th St. 

& 22nd Av. 
Threefoot, H. M. 
Threefoot. K. 
Winner, Rev. W. 


Beekman, Dr. Philip 

Beer, Mose 

B'nai Israel Library, 

S. G. Bottigheimer 
Bottigheimer, Rev. S. 


Degen, Solomon 

care Rev. 
G., 211 S. 

\ icksbnrg 

Adler, Alfred A. 

B. B. Literary Stock Co., care of 

Laz. Hirsch 
Brown, Samuel Jr., 211 Cherry 
Feld, Philip H. 
Fried, Sol. 
Hirsch, J. 

Hirsch, J. K., 202 N. Cherry 
Kory, Rabbi Sol. L. 
Kuhn, A. S. 

Levy, M. F., 431 S. Cherry 
Levy, Wm. B. 
Rice, H. E., 718 Cherry 
Rose, Mrs. A., 110 South 
Schwarz, L. 429 Cherry 
Wachenheim, S. 

Davidson, J. A. 
Gunst, R., City Hotel 
Rothschild, Morris H. 
Sandman, A. H. 
Schloss, Mrs. L. C. 



Levy, S. H., P. O. Box 922 





Epstein, H. 


Kansas City 

Askanas. A. L., care of Nebraska 

Clothing Co. 
Berkowitz, Mrs. W. J., 1016 Grand 

Bernheimer, G., 2220 E. 12th 
Brenner, S. H., 415 S. W. Boul. 
Plohr, Jacob, 1518 Lydia Av. 
New, Alexander, Herst Bldg. 
Rabinowitz, Zellg, 1434 E. 18th 
Reefer M. C. 

Rosenwald, Dr. L., 209 Rialto Bldg. 
Rubin, Heiman, 17 E. 6th 
Wolf, I. J., 210 Rialto Bldg. 

Michael, Isadore 

Barth, Joseph 

8t. Joseph 

Paying $10 pbb Annum 

Joseph Lodge, No. 73, I. O. B. B., 
care M. C. Strauss, 115 N. 3d 


Meyer, Julius 

Mund, Samuel, 6th & Felix 
Newburger, Bernard 
Robinson, J^ 502 S. 6th 
Rosenthal, J. 
Westheimer, Ferd. 

St. Louis 

Paiing $10 PBB Annum 

Ebn Ezra Lodge, No. 47, I. O. B. B., 
S. Eliel, Koken Bldg., 716 Locust 


Altheim, BenJ., 217 N. 4th 
Bass, Simon S., 1119 Clark Ay. 
Bernheimer, Marcus, 4356 Lindell 

Bowman, Samuel, 612 Chestnut 
Cohn, Mrs. M. M., 4012 W. Belle 

Eiseman, B., 4516 Lindell Boul. 
Eiseman, David, 4387 Westminster 

Fraley, Moses, Century Bldg. 
Freund, F. S., 1903 Lafayette A v. 

Freund, Simon, 1722 Missouri Av. 
Friedman, J., 4449 W. Pine 
Friedman, N., 8th & Lucas Av. 
Godlove. Louis, 2344 Whitmore PI. 
Goldstein, Dr. M .A. 3858 West- 
minster PI. 
Greensfelder, B., 701 Bank of 

Commerce Bldg. 
Guntzler, Theo. L., 4 S. Main 
Haas, B., 1300 Washington Av. 
Harris, B., 4110 Cook Av. 
Harrison, Rev. Dr. Leon, Temple 

Israel, 28th & Pine 
Hellman, A. M., 508 N. 2nd 
Isaacs, J. L., y. M. C. A. Bldg., 

Grand & Franklin Avs. 
Ittleson, H., Broadway & Morgan 
Jackson, Charles S., 5048 Page 

Jonas, M. B., 504 Commerce Bldg. 
Kahn, Miss Babette, 3906 Delmar 

Kaufman, Nathan, 314 Odd Fellows 

Kinealy, Michael, 506 Olive (Sub- 
Kline, B. B., 4124 W. Pine 
Levinson, Morris G., 615 Missouri 

Trust Bldg. 
Lewin, Dr. Wm. A., 4443 Morgan 
Lippelt, Lewis A. J., 824 Chestnut 
Loeb, Dr. Hanau W.. 4401 Delmar 

Michael, Ellas, 4838 Westminster 

Milius, George W., 6014 W. Cabanne 
Public Library (Subscriber) 
Rice, A. J., 3733 Pine 
Rice, Jonathan, 3733 Pine 
Rider, S. A., 708 Washington Av. 
Rosentreter, Rev. Adolf, 3028 

Lawton Av. 
Russack, Max, 712 Lucas A v. 
Sale, Lee, Commercial Bldg. 
Sale, Rev. Dr. Samuel, 4344 Cook 

Schwab. Isaac N., 4522 Lindell Av. 
Stix, Charles A., " Grand Leader " 
Stix, William, 3125 Washington 

Straus, J. D., 1308 Washington 

Straus, Louis, 3901 Pine, W. 
Strauss, Miss Blanche M., 3430 

Belle Av. 
Summerfleld, Moses, 214 N. Main 
Treichlinger, David, 813 Spruce 
Tuholske, Dr. H., Jefferson Av. & 

Lucas PI. 
United Hebrew Congregation, S. S. 

814 A. N. Kingshl^way 
Wasserman, B., 108 w. Broadway 





Welsa, Rev. Harry 

Frankle, Marcus 

Grand Island 
Wolbach, S. N. 

Cohn, Rev. Frederick 


Klein. Henry 
Mielziner, Rev. Jacob 



Levy, Morris, 2037 Dodge 
Omaha Public Library, care of 

Edith Tobitt, Libr. (Subscriber) 
Temple Israel Sabbath School, care 

Rev. Frederick Cohn 

Pepperberg, Julius 


Eatz, Julius, 1077 Elm 



New Jersey 

Asbnry Park 

Goldstein, Louis 

Rose, Mrs. M.. 928 W. Bangs Av. 

Sharfstein, M., 146 Main 

Atlantic Oity 
Jeitles, H. A., The Cecil 
Mendel, M^ 1625 Atlantic Av. 
Muhlrad, wm., 15 8. Delaware Av. 


Botkin, Abraham. 460 Av., C. 
Bradberg, C, 464 Av. D. 
Gamson, Dr. Emil, 41 W. 24th 
Gerzog, G^, 130 W. 32d 
Halpern, Paul, 471 Av. C. 
Klein, H., 230 E. 22nd 
Lazarus, Hyman, 461 Av. D. 
Lubin, Benjamin, 23 St. & Boul. 
Nalltsky, Dr. D. I., lo W. 23d 
Solinsky, Max L., Boulevard & 19th 


Blank, Jacob, Z., 817 Broadway 
Bumstine, Jasper, 327 Kaighn's Av. 

Steinberg, Jacob 

East Orange 

Back, Mrs. A., 16 N. Arlington Av. 
White, H., 30 Harrison 


Brenner, Max, 230 Second 
David, A