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The American Jewish 

Year Book 

5677 

September 28, 19 16, to September 16, 191 7 



Edited by 

CYRUS ADLER 

for the 
AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 



PHILADELPHIA 
The Jewish Publication Society of America 

1916 



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( JAN 23l9I8n 



Copyright, 1916, by 
The Jewish Publication Society of America 




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PREFACE 

The present issue of the American Jewish Teab Book appears 
under untoward circumstances. Doctor Joseph Jacobs, who had 
undertaken its editorship, passed away on January 31, 1916, before 
any of his plans for the volume matured. As his own lamented 
demise, and that of Doctor Schechter a few months previously, 
removed from the Jewry of the world two of its greatest orna- 
ments, the Publication Committee of The Jewish Publication 
Society of America deemed it appropriate to publish biographies 
of these two distinguished men as the special articles of the 
volume. The biography of Doctor Jacobs was read at a meeting 
of the American Jewish Historical Society, and Its printing here 
Is due to the courtesy of Albert M. Friedenberg, Esq., chairman of 
the Publication Committee of that Society. 

It seemed timely to print the estimate, though incomplete, of the 
number of Jews in the army and navy of the United States. This 
article, prepared by Lewis Landes, shows that there are 3741 Jews 
in the army and 844 In the navy, a total of 4585 Jewish officers and 
men, serving In the very modest regular military organization of 
our country. 

The main portion of the volume is devoted to the events of the 
year. The interruption of communication between various coun- 
tries in Europe, and to some extent between Europe and America, 
due to the great war, has rendered the task much more uncertain 
than heretofore. For foreign news the special correspondents of 
the American Jewish papers and the Jewish press of England, 
Germany, Austria, Italy, and Russia have been relied upon. But 
the mails were slow, and in some cases irregular. Nevertheless 
this impressive collection of material presents a most remarkable 
and objective summary of the condition of Jewry throughout 
the world in these troublous times. It was naturally impossible 
to include all the details which had been gathered from various 
foreign papers. On one point alone the size of the Yeab Book 
would have been greatly increased had the material collected 



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VI PREFACE 

been published in full. The Bureau of Jewish Statistics and 
Research has on file thousands of names of Jews who were deco- 
rated in the various armies of Europe. These names are not 
given for publication, it being assumed that at some time after 
the war Jewish organizations all over the world will publish 
complete lists of the Jewifth officers and men who served in the 
various armies of their respective countries, indicating those who 
received decorations. 

The list of events, if judged alone by the military promotions 
and the necrology on account of the war, shows conclusively that 
the Jewish people are taking their equal share in the stupendous 
conflict. Yet in spite of this fact, the military and governmental 
persecution in Russia is more rigorous than ever, although there 
are glimmerings of hope from the people and the liberal elements. 
The Jewish Publication Society has now made accessible to 
Elnglish readers the background which enables them to understand 
current events in that country through the " History of the Jews 
in Russia and Poland from the earliest times until the present," 
written in Russian by S. M. Dubnow and translated into English, 
by Professor Israel Friedlaender. This work gives in succinct 
form an outline of the long story of Russian Jewry, which goes 
back to the first century of the civil era. The trustworthiness of 
the narrative may not be disputed, as it is based upon an exhaust- 
ive study of Russian archives and Jewish sources. 

The other standing features of the Yeab Book have been 
continued as heretofore. The lists of national Jewish organiza- 
tions and of the new Jewish local organizations, formed in the 
United States during the past year, and the immigration figures 
have been brought up to date. The concluding features of the 
volume are the reports of the American Jewish Committee, which 
is charged with the editorship of the Yeab Book, and the Jewish 
Publication Society, which issues it. The report of the American 
Jewish Committee in the present volume is fuller than usual, 
since it includes a review of the activities of the Committee for the 
past nine years, and also contains the report of the Bureau of 
Jewish Statistics and Research, which gives the results of a very 
interesting inquiry, conducted by the late Doctor Joseph Jacobs, 
as to the amount contributed by the Jews of New York to their 



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PREFACE VII 

charitable institutions and its relationship to the amount contrib- 
uted to the support of these institutions by New York State and 
by the several cities thereof. To this is added a list of the Jewish 
charitable institutions in New York State and a series of very 
important tables in connection with their work. 

The report of the Jewish Publication Society of America shows 
an increasing literary activity on its part, and announces the com- 
pletion of the new Bible Translation and its early publication, the 
inauguration of the series of Jewish Classics, and the preparation 
of a Jewish commentary on the Bible. The membership list, which 
now includes nearly fourteen thousand names, furnishes the only 
available directory of the public-spirited and intelligent Jews of 
the United States. 

The present editor, who, as chairman of the Committee on the 
Bureau of Statistics, reluctantly undertook to carry on the work 
which had been placed in the hands of Doctor Jacobs, desires 
to make acknowledgment to others for any excellencies the volume 
may possess. Excepting for a portion of the manuscript, he did not 
have the advantage of the services of Miss Henrietta Szold, who, 
in one capacity or another, had been closely associated with the 
Year Books from the first number which appeared in 1899. Her 
share in aiding to make these volumes what they have become — one 
of the constructive influences in American Jewry — is gratefully 
acknowledged. 

The calendar and accompanying tables have had, as heretofore, 

the benefit of the revision of Doctor Julius H. Greenstone. Miss 

Rose A. Herzog has borne the major part of the labor in preparing 

the list of events, and has received aid from Mr. Gregory Yarros 

and Miss Amy Schechter. Mr. Harry Schneiderman has given his 

knowledge and experience to the revision of the list of events. 

Miss Clara Goldsmith has brought up to date the statistics in 

accordance with the plans inaugurated by Doctor Jacobs, and has 

aided in the preparation of the manuscript in other ways. Doctor 

B. Halper, who undertook the editorial work of the Publication 

Society, entered upon his duties in connection with this volume 

with great zeal. To all of these I desire to extend sincere thanks. 

Ctbus Adler. 
August 16, 1916. 



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SPECIAL ARTICLES IN PEEVIOUS ISSUES OP THE 
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

The Aixiancb Isba£litb Univebsellb, 5661, pp. 45-65. 

The Jews of Roumania (two articles), 5662, pp. 25-87. 

The American Passport in Russia, 6665, pp. 283-305. 

The Passport Question in Congress, 5670, pp. 21-43. 

Directories of National and Local Organizations, 5661, pp. 67- 
495; 5668, pp. 21-430; 5669, pp. 19-64; 5670, pp. 146-189; 5671, 
pp. 229-253; 5672, pp. 217-265; 5673, pp. 217-263; 5674, pp. 
361-413; 5675, pp. 276-327; 5676, pp. 2S6-339. 

Statistical Summary by States (Jewish Organizations in the 
United States), 5662, pp. 126-156. 

The Jewish Population of Mabyland, 5663, pp. 46-62. 

A List of Jewish Periodicals in the United States, 5660, pp. 
271-282; and in subsequent issues. 

Preliminary List of Jewish Soldiers and Sailors Who Served 
in the Spanish-American War, 5661, pp. 525-622. 

The Hundred Best Available Books in English on Jewish Sub- 
jects, 5665, pp. 309-317. 

One Hundred Available Books in English on Palestine, 5666, 
pp. 153-162. 

A List of Available Stories of Jewish Interest in English, 
5667, pp. 130-142. 

A Syllabus of Jewish History, 5666, pp. 163-170. 

Biographical Sketches of Rabbis and Cantors Officiating in 
THE United States, 5664, pp. 40-108; 5665, pp. 214-225; 5666, 
pp. 119-125. 

Biographical Sketches of Jews Prominent in the Professions, 
etc., in the United States, 5665, pp. 52-213. 

Biographical Sketches of Jewish Communal Workers in the 
United States, 5666, pp. 32-118. 

Uhl^h p. Levy, 5663, pp. 42-45. 

Gershom Mendez Seixas, 5665, pp. 40-51. 

Penina MoXse, 5666, pp. 17-31. 

From Kishineff to Bialystok. A Table of Pogroms from 1903 
TO 1906, 5667, pp. 34-89. 

Sunday Laws of the United States and Judicial Decisions Hav- 
ing Reference to Jews, 5669, pp. 152-189. 

The Jewish Community of New York City, 5670, pp. 44-54. 

In Deeiense of the Immigrant, 5671, pp. 19-98. 

The Passport Question, 5672, pp. 19-128. 

The Jew and Agriculture, 5673, pp. 21-115. 

The Jewish Publication Society, 1888-1913, 5674, pp. 19-187. 

The Behjs Affair, 5675, pp. 19-89. 

Jewish Education in the United States, 5675, pp. 90-127. 

Jewish Population of the United States, 5675, pp. 339-378. 

Recent Jewish Progress in Palestine, 5676, pp. 24-158. 

The Federation Movement in American Jewish Philanthropy, 
5676, pp. 159-198. 



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COI^TENTS 

PAGE 
PEEFACE V 

Speciai. Articles in Previous Issues of the American Jewish 

Year Book viil 

Calendars 1 

Time of Sunrise and Sunset in Six Northern Latitudes. ... 18 
Table Showing Dates on Which Jewish Holidays and Festi- 
vals Occur in 1913-1921 20 

Anniversary and Barmitzvah Tables 21 

Solomon Schechter. A Biographical Sketch. By Cyrus Adler. 25 

Joseph Jacobs. By Mayer Sulzberger 68 

Jews in the United States Army and Navy. By Lewis 

Landes 76 

Events in 5676: 

Table of Contents 80 

A. United States 84 

B. Foreign Countries Ill 

Directories: 

Jewish National Organizations in the United States 221 

New Jewish Local Organizations in the United States 260 

New Jewish Periodicals Appearing in the United States .... 271 

Jewish Members of the Congress of the United States 274 

Statistics of Jews : 

A. Jewish Population of the World 275 

B. Jewish Immigration into the United States 280 

C. Jewish Immigration into Canada 286 

Ninth Annual Report of the American Jewish Committee, 

November 14, 1915 288 

Report op the Twenty-Eighth Year of The Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America, 1915-1916 *..... 411 



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CALENDARS 



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CALEl^ 



1916-1916 


1916- 


1915 




5676 


1916 




Sept. 9 


New Year 


Tishri 


1 


Sept. 28 


New Y 


Sept.] 3 


Fast of Gedaliah 


Tishri 


4 


Oct. 1 


Fast of G< 


Sept. 1.8 


Day of Atonement 


Tishri 


10 


Oct. 7 


Day of Ate 


Sept.23 


Tabernacles 


Tishri 


15 


Oct. 12 


Tabern 


Sept. 30 


Eighth Day of the Feast 


Tishri 


22 


Oct. 19 


Eighth Day oi 


Oct. 1 


Rejoicing of the Law 


Tishri 


23 


Oct. 20 


Rejoicing of 


Oct. 8 


First New Moon Day (of Heshvan) Tishri 


SO 


Oct. 27 


First New Moon Da 


Nov. 7 


First New Moon Day (of Kislev) 


Heshvan 30 


Nov. 26 


New Moc 


Dec. 2 


Hanukah 


Kislev 


25 


Dec. 20 


Hanul 


Dec. 7 


First New Moon Day (of Tebet) 


Kislev 


30 


Dec. 25 


First New Moon D 


Dec. 17 


Fast of Tebet 


Tebet 


10 






1916 








1917 




Jan. 6 


New Moon Day 


Shebat 


1 


Jan. 4 


Fast of 1 


Feb. 4 


First New Moon Day (of Adar) 


Shebat 


30 


Jan. 24 


New Moo 


Mch. 5 First New Moon Day (of Adar Sheni) Adar 


30 


Feb. 22 


First New Moon I 


Mch. 16 


Fast of Esther Adar Sheni 


11 


Mch. 7 


Fast of I 


Mch. 19 


Purim Adar Sheni 


14 


Mch. 8 


Purii 


Apl. 4 


New Moon Day 


Nisan 


1 


Mch. 24 


New Moo 


Apl. 18 


Passover 


Nisan 


15 


Apl. 7 


PassG 


May 3 


First New Moon Day (of lyar) 


Nisan 


30 


Apl. 23 


First New Moon ] 


May 21 


Thirty-third Day of 'Omer 


lyar 


18 


May 10 


Thirty-third Di 


Juno 2 


New Moon Day 


Sivan 


1 


May 22 


New Moo 


June 7 


Feast of Weeks 


Sivan 


6 


May 27 


Feast of "^ 


July 1 


First New Moon Day (of Tammuz) 


Sivan 


30 


June 20 


First New Moon Da 


July 18 


Fast of Tammuz 


Tammuz 17 


July 8 


Fast of T 


July 81 


New Moon Day 


Ab 


1 


July 20 . 


New Mo< 


Aug. 8 


Fast of Ab 


Ab 


9 


July 29 


Fast oJ 


Aug. 29 


First New Moon Day (of Elul) 


Ab 


30 


Aug. 18 


First New Moon D 


Sept.24 


Selihot Services 


Elul 


25 


Sept. 9 


Selihot S< 


Sept.27 


Eve of New Tear 


Elul 


29 


Sept. 16 


Eve of Ne^ 








Die 


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)OQle 



:ndars 



;7i 

n-6677 
6-1917 


ninn-6678 

1917-1918 




5677 


1917 




5678 


Tear 


Tishri 


1 


Sept. 17 


New Year 


Tishri 


1 


Gedaliah 


Tishri 


4 


Sept. 19 


Fast of Gedaliah 


Tishri 


3 


tonement 


Tishri 


10 


Sept. 26 


Day of Atonement 


Tishri 


10 


•oAcles 


Tishri 


15 


Oct. 1 


Tabernacles 


Tishri 


15 


o! the Feast 


Tishri 


22 


Oct. 8 


Eighth Day of the Feast 


Tishri 


22 


)f the Law 


Tishri 


23 


Oct. 9 


Rejoicing of the Law 


Tishri 


23 


)iy(of HeshTan) Tishri 


30 


Oct. 16 


First New Moon Day (of Heshvan 


) Tishri 


30 


)on Day 


Eisley 


1 


Nov. 15 


First New Moon Day (of Kislev) 


Heshvan 30 


ikah 


Kislev 


25 


Dec. 10 


Hanukah 


Kislev 


25 


[)ay (of Tebet) 


Kifllev 


30 


Dec. 15 


First New Moon Day (of Tebet) 


Kislev 


30 








Dec. 25 


Fast of Tebet 


Tebet 


10 








1918 








Tebet 


Tebet 


10 


Jan. 14 


New Moon Day 


Shebat 


1 


»Q Day 


Shebat 


1 


Feb. 12 


First New Moon Day (of Adar) 


Shebat 


30 


}ay (of Adar) 


Shebat 


30 


Feb. 25 


Fast of Esther 


Adar 


13 


vsther 


Adar 


13 


Feb. 26 


Purim 


Adar 


14 


in 


Adar 


14 


Mch. 14 


New Moon Day 


Nisan 


1 


Q Day 


Nisan 


1 


Mch. 28 


Passover 


Nisan 


15 


ver 


Nisan 


15 


Apl. 12 


First New Moon Day (of lyar) 


Nisan 


30 


[)ay (of lyar) 


Nisan 


30 


Apl. 30 


Thirty-third Day of 'Omer 


lyar 


18 


y of 'Omer 


lyar 


18 


May 12 


New Moon Day 


Sivan 


1 


n Day 


Sivan 


1 


May 17 


Feast of Weeks 


Sivan 


6 


V^eeks 


Sivan 


6 


June 10 


First New Moon Day (of Tammuz) 


Sivan 


30 


r (of Tammuz) Sivan 


30 


June 27 


Fast of Tammuz 


Tammuz 17 


immnz 


Tammuz 18 


July 10 


New Moon Day 


Ab 


1 


n Day 


Ab 


1 


July 18 


Fast of Ab 


Ab 


9 


Ab 


Ab 


10 


Aug. 8 


First New Moon Day (of Elul) 


Ab 


30 


iy (of Elul) 


Ab 


30 


Sept. 1 


Selihot Services 


Elul 


24 


rvices 


Elnl 


22 


Sept. 6 


Eve of New Year 


Elul 


29 


' Year 


Elnl 


29 












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jOOQie 





5677 

is called 677 (rinn) according to the short system (p'W). 
It is a regular year of 12 months, 51 Sabbaths, 354 days, 
beginning on Thursday, the fifth day of the week, and 
having the first day of Passover on Saturday, the seventh 
day of the week ; therefore its sign is tdh, i. e., n for fifth, 
D for regular (n"i"iDD), and t for seventh. It is the fifteenth 
year of the 299th lunar cycle of 19 years, and the twenty-first 
year of the 203rd solar cycle of 28 years, since Creation. 



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1916, Sept. 28— Oct. 27] TISHRI 30 DAYS t'TBTI »«T7 


CiTil 
■talk 


Va«k 


UwiA 
MoaU 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCH AL 
PORTIONS 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nnoB.i 


dept. 

28 
29 
30 


Th 
F 
S 


Tiikri 

1 

2 
3 


New Year nXfn 'm 'K 
New Year rUBTl "n '3 

nmc n3E> .wnun 


i Gen. 21 

1 Num. 29: 1-6 

< Gen. 22 

1 Num. 29: 1-6 

Deut. 31 


I Sam. 1: 1-2: 10 
Jer.31:2-20 

fUnn. 14:3-lt; Joel Stlft-17 
i ort7;5ep*.Ho..U:l-lt:i 
\ MIexti 7:I».M ( 


Oct 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


S 
M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


I Fa«t of Gedallah . 

1 [nm3J rybfi mx 

Day of Atonement *)1B3 QV 


Ex. .32: 11-14; 84: MO 

( Lev. 16 

< Num. 29: 7-11 

i Aftemotni: licv. 18 


J Is. 66: 6-66: 8 
( Seph. none 

r Is. 67: 14-68: 14 
Afternoon: Jonah 
Seph. add Micah 

I T:l8-20 


8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


s 

M 
T 

vv 

Th 
F 
S 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Tabernacle* JIIDDT '3 


(Lev. 22: 26-28: 44 
1 Num. 29: 12-16 
j Lev. 22: 26-28: 44 
i Num. 29: 12-16 
I Bx. 88: 12-34:26 
) Num. 29: 17-22 


Zech. 14 

I Kings 8: 2-21 

Ezek. 88:18-89:16 


15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 

F 

S 


18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 

24 


) Eighth Day of the Feast 

' nivr '*yK>^ 

) Rejoicing of the Uw 

< nun nnoK' 
['n,i '30] ,n^tr«in 


(Num. 29: 20-28 
ISep/i. 29:20-25 
(Num. 29:28-81 
1 Sepfe. 29:28-28 
1 Num. 29:26-84 
i8ep7i. 29:26-81 
j Num. 29: 26-84 
1 Seph. 29:29-84 
I Deut. 16: 19—16: 17 
1 Num. 29:86-80:1 
I Deut. 38: 1-84: 12 
{ Gen. 1: 1-2: 8 
(Num. 29: 86-80:1 
Gen. 1: 1-6: 8 


I Kings 8: 64-66 
f Josh.l 
1 Seph, 1: 1-9 
t Is. 42: 6-48: 10 
•jflfep?i.42:5-21;«l:10; 


22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 


s 

M 

T 
W 

Th 
F 


25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


New Moon B'ln '11 'N 


Num. 28: 1-16 


• 



♦ The Book of Ecclesiastes i3 read, 
5 



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1916, Oct. 28-Nov. 26] HESHVAN 29 DAYS 


[t'TK'n 5677 


CiTil 
M«tk 


ortL 

WmIc 


Itmiih 
lontli 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nnDBH 


Oct. 

28 


s 


1 


New Moon B^H "(1 '3 .HJ 


jGen. 6:9— 11:83 
1 Num. 28: 0-15 


Is. 66 


29 


s 


2 








30 


M 


3 








31 


T 


4 








Nov. 

1 


W 


5 








2 


Th 


6 








3 


P 


7 








4 


S 


8 


1^1^ 


Gen. 12: 1-17: 27 


18.40:27-41:16 


5 


s 


9 








6 


M 


10 








7 


T 


11 








8 


W 


12 








9 


Th 


13 








10 
11 


F 
S 


14 
15 


«-l^1 


Gen. 18: 1—22: 24 


JIIKlner8 4:l-87 
1 Seph. 4: 1-23 


12 


s 


16 








13 


M 


17 








14 


T 


18 








15 


W 


19 








16 


Th 


20 








17 


F 


21 








18 


S 


22 


niK' ^^n 


Gen. 23: 1—26: 18 


I Kings 1:1-31 


19 


S 


23 








20 


M 


24 








21 


T 


25 








22 


W 


26 








23 
24 


Th 
F 


27 

28 


[DipiD] pp iiB^ nv 






25 


S 


29 


vnn '3D] rPin^in 


Gen.26:W-28:9 


I Sam. 20: 18-42 



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1916, Nov. 26— Dec. 25] KISLEV 30 DAYS 


[1^3 5677 


loatk 


is. 

Taek 


InrUi 
Mmth 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 

nrens 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nnoDn 


Nov. 




van 








26 


s 


1 


New Moon enn e>tti 


Num. 28: 1-16 




27 


M 


2 








28 


T 


3 








29 


W 


4 








30 


Th 


5 








Dec. 
1 

2 


F 
S 


6 

7 


NVI 


Geii.28:10--82:3 


fHo8.12:18-l4:10; 
I or 11: 7-12: 12; 
1 or 11: 7-14: 10 
I Seph. 11: 7-12: 12 


3 


S 


8 








4 


M 


9 








5 


T 


10 








6 


W 


11 








7 
8 
9 


Th 
P 
S 


12 
13 

14 


n^K"! 


aen. 82: 4-86: 43 


rHo8.12:18-14:10: 
or 11: 7-12: 12; 
or Obad. 1:1-21 

I Sep7^.0bad. 1:1-21 


10 


S 


15 








11 


M 


16 








12 


T 


17 








13 


W 


18 








14 


Th 


19 








15 


F 


20 








16 


S 


21 


nK'M 


Gen. 87:1-40:128 


Amos 2: 6—8: 8 


17 


S 


22 








18 


M 


23 








19 


T 


24 








20 
21 
22 
23 


W 

Th 

F 

S 


25 
26 

27 
28 


S Hanukah, Feast of Dedication 

['nn '31D] ,pD 


j Num. 7: 1-17 
1Sep?i.6:22-7:17 
J Num. 7: 18-29 
1 Seph. 7: 18-28 
j Num. 7:24-85 
1Sep?i.7:24-29 
j Gen. 41:1-44:17 
♦ Num. 7:80 35 


Zech. 2: 14-4: 7 


24 
25 


S 
M 


29 
30 


New Moon B'^H 'IT '« 


j Num. 7: 36-47 
1Ser?i. 7: 86-41 
Num.28:l-16;7:42-47 





Digitized by 



Google 



1916, Deo. 26- 


1917, Jan. 23] TEBET 29 DAYS 


m3lD5677 


CiTll 
Xontli 


VMk 


Jnriih 
Hratk 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 

nVEHD 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nntDsn 


Deo. 




Ttbet 








26 


T 


1 


Naw Moon CIH '11 '2 


Num. 28: 1-16:7:48-63 




27 


W 


2 


Eighth Day of Hanukah 


Num. T: 64-8: 4 




28 


Th 


3 








29 


F 


4 








30 


S 


5 


B>ri 


Gen.44:18-4T:«7 


Ezek. 87: 16-28 


31 


s 


6 








Jan. 

1 


M 


7 








2 


T 


8 








3 


W 


9 








4 
5 


Th 
P 


10 
11 


1 Fast of Tebet 

1 naoa mcr div 


Ex. 33: 11-14; 84: 1-10 


j Is. 66: 6-66: 8 
Seph, none 


6 


S 


12 


>n»i 


Gen. 47: 28-60: 26 


IKingr8 2:l-12 


7 


s 


13 








8 


M 


14 








9 


T 


15 








10 


W 


16 








11 


Th 


17 








12 
13 


P 
S 


18 
19 


niDB' 


Ex. 1:1-6:1 


(18.27:6-28:18; 

< 29:22,28 

ISeph. Jer.l:l— 2:3 


14 


S 


20 








15 


M 


21 








16 


T 


22 








17 


W 


23 








18 


Th 


24 








19 


P 


25 








20 


S 


26 


cnn '3D1 ,KiKi 


Bx. 6:2—9:36 


Ezek. 18: 26-19: 21 


21 


s 


27 








22 


M 


28 








23 


T 


29 


PP "rtD3 D1» 







Digitized by 



Google 



1917, Jan. 24- 


Feb. 22] SHEBAT 30 DAYS 


lanc'se?? 


CiTil 


Te«k 


Xontk 
Sliobat 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nntDBH 


Jan. 










24 


w 


1 


New Moon BHn t?Si 


Num. 28: 1-16 




25 


Th 


2 








26 


P 


3 








27 


S 


4 


K3 


Ex. 10: 1-18: 16 


Jer. 46: 18-28 


28 


s 


5 








29 


M 


6 








30 


T 


7 








31 


W 


8 








Feb. 












1 


Th 


9 








2 
3 

4 


F 
S 

S 


10 
11 

12 




Ex. 18: 17-17: 16 


1 Judflres 4: 4—6: 81 
1 Seph. 6: 1-81 








5 


M 


13 








6 


T 


14 








7 
8 


W 
Th 


15 
16 


s New Year for Trees t t 

1 niJrK7 n"n 






9 
10 


F 
S 


17 

18 


nn^ 


Ex. 18: 1—20: 23 


j Is. 6: 1-7: 6; 9:6, 6 
1Sep7i.6:l-18 


11 


s 


19 








12 


M 


20 








13 


T 


21 








14 


W 


22 








15 


Th 


23 








16 
17 


F 
S 


24 

25 


D^^ptr 'D ['nn '3D] »D*tDDtrD 


j Ex. 21:1-24:18; 
1 80:11-16 


j II. Kings 12: 1-17 
1Sep7i.ll:17-12:17. 


18 


s 


26 








19 


M 


27 








20 


T 


28 








21 


W 


29 


JtDp -I1DD DV 






22 


Th 


30 


New Moon {Tin '11 't< 


Num. 28: 1-16 





Digitized by 



Google 



1917, Feb. 28-Moh. 23] ADAR 29 DAYS 


mx 567- 


OiTil 
Xontli 


VMk 


Jewiik 
Hmth 


PENTATEUCHAL 
SABBATHS. FESTIVALS, FASTS PORTIONS 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nncBH 


Feb. 




liUr 








23 


F 


1 


New Moon Cnn "n '3 


Num. 28: 1-15 




24 


S 


2 


nonn 


Bi. 28: 1—27: 19 


tKing8 5:2(-6:13 


25 


s 


3 








26 


M 


4 








27 


T 


5 








28 


W 


6 








Mch. 












1 


Th 


7 








2 
3 


F 
S 


8 
9 


iiDt 'a .nisn 


1 Ex. 27: 20-30: 10 
1 Deut. 26: 17-19 


II Sam. 15: 2-84 
1«fep/». 16:1-34 


4 


S 


10 








5 


M 


11 








6 


T 


12 








7 


W 


13 


Fast of Esther IDDK DU 


Ex. 83:11-14; 34:1-10 


1 Is. 65: 6—56: 8 
I Seph. none 


8 


Th 


14 


Purim, Fea»t of Esther* DniD 


Ex. 17: 8-16 




9 
10 


F 
8 


15 
16 


Shuthan Purlm D^IB \^^^ 
NBTI "3 


Ex. 30: 11-81: 35 


riKiDe:8l8:l 
■{ (o» 20)-89 
ISeph. 18: 20-39 


11 


S 


17 








12 


M 


18 








13 


T 


19 








14 


W 


20 








15 


Th 


21 








16 


F 


22 








17 


S 


23 


mD'B ('nn'3D) .nips .Snp»i 


I Bx. 88: 1-40: 88 
1 Num. 19 


jEzek. 86: 16-88 
1 Seph. 36: 16-36 


18 


s 


24 








19 


M 


25 








20 


T 


26 








21 


W 


27 








22 
23 


Th 
F 


28 
29 


iDnpitsi lop niB3 DV 







♦The Book of Esther is read. 
10 



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Google 





1017, Mch. 24— Apl. 22] NISAN 30 DAYS 


[|D^3 5677 


1 


latk 


Vadc 


rewish 
Hontk 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS. FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 




»ch. 
24 


s 


Kiwi 
1 


j New Moon 


fLev. 1:1—6: 26 
^ Num. 28: 9-16 
IEx.12:1-20 


JEzek.46:16-46:18 
1 Seph, 46: 18-46: 16 


f 


25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 


s 

M 

T 

W 

Th 

F 

S 


2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 


!?n:n MK^ »iv 


Lev. 6: 1-8: 86 


(Mai. 8: 4-24 or 
Amos 9: 7-16 
Seph. Mai. 8: 4-24 




2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 


S 
M 

T 

W 

Th 

P 

S 


9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 


(FasttftheFirtt-Born 
PMSover HDDT '« 


/-Ex. 12:21-51 
J iSfep?i. 12: 14-61 
LNum. 28: 16-26 


\ Josh. 8: 6-7; 
< 6:2-6:1,27 
(Sep?i. 6: 2-6: 1,27 




8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


s 

M 

T 

W 

Th 

F 

S 


( Passover, First Day of *Omer 

1 noDT 'n 

Passover nofil 'T 
Passover* HOST 'H 


i Lev. 22: 26-23: 44 
1 Num. 28: 16-25 
(Ex. 18: 1-16 
\ Num. 28: 19-26 
J Ex. 22: 24-23: 19 
1 Num. 28: 19-25 

Ex. 34: 1-26 
' Num. 28: 19-25 
Num. 9: 1-14 
Num. 28: 19-25 
) Ex. 18: 17-16: 26 
i Num. 28: 19-26 
fDeut.l4:22-16:17 
I Num. 28: 19-26 


ai Kings 23:1 (or 4) 

II Sam. 22 
18.10:82-12:6 




15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 


s 

M 

T 
W 
Th 

F 

s 


23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 


[Tin '3D] ,*J*D6r 


Lev. 9: 1-11: 47 


I Sam. 20: 18^2 




22 


u 


30 


New Moon tnn "11 '« 


N urn. 28: 1-15 





* The Song of Songs is read. 
11 



Digitized by 



Google 



1917, ApL 23- 


Mar 211 lYAR 29 DAYS 


[^^^K 5677 


CiTil 
Hoath 


Jl-L 


Jtvidi 
Mortk 




PENTATEUCHAL 


PROPHETICAL 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PORTIONS 


PORTIONS 




¥Mk 






nvcns 


nntDsn 


Apl. 




Ijw 








23 


M 


1 


New Moon enn 'm '2 


Num. 28: 1-lS 




24 


T 


2 








25 


W 


3 








26 


Th 


4 








27 


F 


5 








28 


S 


6 


i;"iivt3 .rntn 


I*v.l2: 1-16:88 


II Kings 7: 3-20 


29 


S 


7 








30 


M 


8 








Hay 












1 


T 


9 








2 


W 


10 








3 


Th 


11 








4 


F 


12 






Amos 9: 7-16; or 






Bzek. 22:1-19 (or-16) 


5 


S 


13 


D'B'np .niD nnx 


Lev. 1«: 1—20:27 


Seph. Bzek. 20: 2 {or 
(. l)-20 


6 


S 


14 


^jt? noB 






7 


M 


15 








8 


T 


16 








9 


W 


17 








10 


Th 


18 


33dDayofOm«r ^t^1»3 J'6 






11 


F 


19 








12 


S 


20 


lltSK 


liev.21;l— 24:23 


Bzek. 44: 1&-81 


13 


s 


21 








14 


M 


22 








15 


T 


23 








16 


W 


24 








17 


Th 


25 








18 


F 


26 








19 


S 


27 


['nn '3D] 'nijina /ro ^n3 


Lev. 26: 1-27: 34 


Jer. 16: 19-17: 14 


20 


S 


28 








21 


M 


29 


lop niB3 DV 







12 



Digitized by 



Google 



1817, May 33-June 20] 


SIVAN 30 DAYS 


[JVOBOT? 


BtU 




SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 

ni»BnB 


PROPHFTICAL 
PORTIONS 

mioan 


May 


Sina 










22 


T 1 


Hew Moon 


cnne^i 


Nuin.28:l-U 




23 


W 


2 










24 


Th 


3 










25 


P 


4 










26 


S 


5 




13tD3 


Num. 1:1-4: 20 


Hos. 2: 1-22 ' 


27 
28 
29 


S 
M 
T 


6 

7 
8 


Feast of Weeks 
Feast of Weeks* 


nunaen 'k 


jBx.l9:l-20:M 
1 Num. 28:26-81 
JDeut. 14: 22-16:17 
I Num. 29: 26-81 


Bzek.l:l-2S:8:13 

1 Hab. 8: 1-1» 
l8eph.2:20-8:18 


30 


W 


9 










31 


Th 


10 










June 








• 






1 


P 


11 










2 


S 


12 




»V3 


Num. 4: 21-7: 89 


Judges 18: 2-2S 


3 


s 


13 










4 


M 


14 










5 


T 


15 










6 


W 


16 










7 


Th 


17 










8 


F 


18 










9 


8 


19 




•\Tnhvn2 


Num. 8: 1-12: 16 


Zech.2:14-4:7 


10 


S 


20 










11 


M 


21 










12 


T 


22 










13 


W 


23 










14 


Th 


24 










15 


F 


26 










16 


S 


26 


['nn 


'3D] .ni> rhv 


Num. U: 1-16: 41 


Josh. 2 


17 


s 


27 










18 


M 


28 










19 


T 


29 




PP 11B3 DV 






20 


w sol 


New Meoa 


znn 'ry 'h 


Num. 28: 1-15 





* The Book of Ruth is read. 
13 



Digitized by 



Google 



1917, Juno 21— July 19] 



TAMMUZ 29 DAYS 



[non 5677 



OiTil 

Montk 




ImnA 
Hoath 


June 




TUUBOX 


21 


Th 


1 


22 


F ! 2 


23 


S 


3 


24 


s 


4 


25 


M 


5 


26 


T 


6 


27 


W 


7 


28 


Th 


8 


29 


P 


9 


30 


S 


10 


July 






1 


s 


11 


2 


M 


12 


3 


T 


13 


4 


W 


14 


5 


Th 


15 


6 


F 


16 


7 


S 


17 


8 


s 


18 


9 


M 


19 


10 


T 


20 


11 


W 


21 


12 


Th 


22 


13 


F 


23 


14 


S 


24 


15 


s 


25 


16 


M 


26 


17 


T 


27 


18 


W 


28 


19 


Th 


29 



SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 



New Moon 



cnn "^1 '2 



n-ip 



npn 



p^: 



j Fast of Tarn muz 

1 [nniiinDnn-iK^r nrntr di^j 



['nn '3D] .om^D 



}Dp IIDD DV 



PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 

nrKHB 



Num. 28: 1-16 



Num. 16: 1-18: 83 



Num. 19:1—22:1 



Num. 22: »-26: 9 



Ex. 82:11-14; 84: 1-10 



Num. 26: 10-80: 1 



PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nntDsn 



I Sam. 11: 14-12:22 



Judfiresll:l-83 



Mloah 5: 6—6: 8 



j Is. 65: 6-66: 8 
1 Seph. none 



Jer.l:l-8:8 



14 



Digitized by 



Google 



1917, July 20— Aug. 18] 



AB 30 DAYS 



[2HM^^ 



Qtil 
tatt 




Jtwisk 
Ibatk 


Jul; 




lb 


20 


F 


1 


21 


s 


2 


22 


s 


3 


23 


M 


4 


24 


T 


5 


25 


W 


6 


26 


Th 


7 


27 


P 


8 


28 


S 


9 


29 


s 


10 


30 


M 


11 


31 


T 


12 


Aug. 






1 


W 


13 


2 


Th 


14 


3 


F 


15 


4 


S 


16 


5 


S 


17 


6 


M 


18 


7 


T 


19 


8 


W 


20 


9 


Th 


21 


10 


F 


22 


11 


8 


23 


12 


S 


24 


13 


M 


25 


14 


T 


26 


15 


W 


27 


16 


Th 


28 


17 


F 


29 


18 


8 


30 



SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 



New Moon 






prn 'tr ,Dnm 



i Fast off Ab* 

1 cnm:] a«n nrtrn di^ 






rnn 'aoi ,apr 



tDTpID] pp 11DD DV 
New Moon KHn ni 'K ,n«-| 



PENTATEUCHAL 
PORTIONS 



Num. 28: 1-16 
Num. 80: 2-88: 13 



PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nnoDH 



j Jer.2:4-28;8:4 
t8eph.2:i-28;i:h 3 



Deut. 1:1—8: 23 



Is. 1:1-27 



, Deut. 4: 25-40 
, Afternoon: 

Bx.82:ll-14;84:l-10 



Deut. 8: 28— 7:11 



Deut.7:l»-ll:25 



jDeut. 11:26—16:17 
1 Num. 28: 9-16 



'Morning: 

Jer.8:l»-9:23 

Afternoon: 

18.66:6—66:8 

Seph. H08. 14: 2-10 
tMlcah 7:18-20 



18.40:1-26 



Is. 49: 14-61: 8 



Is. 66 



* The Book of Lamentations Is read. 
16 



Digitized by 



Google 



1917, Augr. 19-Sept. 16] ELUL 29 DAYS 


[Sl^K 6677 


OiTil 

Montk 


Vwk 


Jtwuk 
H«tk 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS. FASTS 


PENTATFUCHAL 
PORTIONS 

ninna 


PROPHETICAL 
PORTIONS 

nnoen 


Aug. 




Bil 








19 


S 


1 


New Moon* Bnn "H '3 


Num. 28: 1-16 




20 


M 


2 








21 


T 


3 








22 


W 


4 








23 


Th 


5 








24 


F 


6 








25 
26 


S 

S 


7 


D'tDBIK' 


I>eut.l6:lS— S1:0 


Is.51:19-SS:12 


8 








27 


M 


9 








28 


T 


10 








29 


W 


11 






' 


30 


Th 


12 








31 


F 


13 








Sept. 












1 


S 


14 


NVn»3 


Dout. 21: 10-25; 1) 


Is. M: 1-10 


2 


S 


15 








3 


M 


16 








4 


T 


17 








5 


W 


18 








6 


Th 


19 








7 


F 


20 








8 


S 


21. 


K3n»3 


Deut. 28:1—21: 8 


Is. 00 


9 


S 


22 


seiihet* mn'VoV D'D'senD 






10 


M 


23 








11 


T 


24 








12 


W 


25 








13 


Th 


26 








14 


F 


27 








15 
16 


S 


28 


DOV3 


I>eat.2l>:S-80:20 


ls.«l:.10-63:« 


s 


29 


n' 1 3->» 







" The Sephardim say Selihot during the whole mouth of Blul, 
10 



Digitized by 



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Digitized by 



Google 



TIME OF SUNRISE AND SUNSET 

(Adapted, hj permission, from T 



Day of 
Month 



Jan. 1 
10 
20 

Feb. 1 
10 
20 

Mdi. 1 
10 
20 

ApL 1 
10 
20 

May I 
10 
20 

June 1 
10 
20 

July 1 
10 
20 

Aug. 1 
10 
20 

Sex>t 1 
10 
20 

Oct. 1 
10 
20 

Nov. 1 
10 
20 

Dec. 1 
10 
20 



Lat. 440 North 
(For Maine, Nova Scotia, 
Northern New York, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
North and South Dakota, 
Montana, Washington, 
Northern Oregon, North- 
ern Idaho) 

Portland, Me. 






5.52 
5.51 
5.47 
5.39 
5.29 
5.15 
5.01 
4.43 
4.26 
4.00 
3.41 
3.19 
2.52 
2.36 
2. 16 
1.55 
1.47 
1.44 
1.55 
2.12 
2.27 
2.46 
3.06 
3.23 
3.40 
S 55 
4.07 
4.22 
4.35 
4.45 
5.00 
6.10 
5.20 
5.32 
5.39 
5.45 



7.37 
7.36 
7.30 
7.19 
7.07 
6.52 
6.37 
6.21 
6.03 
5.40 
5.24 
5.07 
4.49 
4.37 
4.26 
4.17 
4.14 
4.14 
4.18 
4.24 
4.32 
4.46 
4.57 
5.07 
5 22 
5.33 
5.45 
5.58 
6.09 
6.22 
6.38 
6.51 
7.04 
7.17 
7.27 
7.34 



a 

CQ 



4.31 
4.40 
4.58 
5.09 
5.22 
5.36 
5.48 
6.00 
6.12 
6.27 
6.39 
6.51 
7.05 
7.15 
7.26 
7.38 
7.44 
7.49 
7.49 
7.46 
7.39 
7.26 
7.14 
6.58 
9.87 
6.20 
6.01 
6.41 
6.26 
6.07 
4.49 
4.88 
4.28 
4.21 
4.20 
4.23 






6.16 
6.25 
6.35 
6.49 
7.01 
7.12 
7.24 
7.37 
7.49 
8.07 
8.21 
8.39 
9.01 
9.14 
9.37 
10.00 
10.12 
10.18 
10.10 
9.58 
9.44 
9.25 
9.08 
8.41 
8.20 
7.59 
7.39 
7.16 
6.59 
6.4§ 
6.28 
6.18 
6.12 
6.07 
6.08 
6.09 



Lat. 42° North 
(For Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Cen- 
tral New York, Southern 
Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Northern Iowa, Wyoming, 
Southern Idaho, Southern 
Oregon) 

Boston. 



^ d 



5.48 
5.48 
5.48 
5.38 
5.29 
5.17 
5.02 
4.48 
4.30 
4.08 
3.49 
3.29 
3.07 
2.53 
2.35 
2.17 
2.11 
2.08 
2.12 
2.23 
2.37 
2.55 
3.12 
8.27 
3.44 
3.55 
4.07 
4.28 
4.33 
4.44 
4.58 
6.07 
6.18 
6.29 
6.37 
5.43 



0) 

f 

a 

CQ 



a 

OQ 



S5 



7.30 


4.38 


7.29 


4.46 


7.24 


4.58 


7.14 


5.14 


7.04 


5.26 


6.50 


5.38 


6.35 


6.50 


6.21 


6.01 


6.08 


6.12 


6.48 


6.26 


6.27 


6.35 


5.11 


6.45 


4.54 


6.59 


4.44 


7.08 


4.36 


7.18 


4.25 


7.29 


4.22 


7.35 


4.23 


7.39 


4.26 


7.40 


4.32 


7.38 


4.40 


7.32 


4.52 


7.20 


6.01 


7.09 


5.11 


6.55 


6.24 


6.36 


6.34 


6.21 


5.44 


6.04 


6.56 


6.43 


6.06 


6.29 


6.18 


6.18 


6., S3 


4.55 


6.44 


4.44 


6.57 


4.36 


7.10 


4.29 


7.19 


4.28 


7.26 


4.30 



6.20 
6.28 
6.36 
6.50 
6.59 
7.12 
7.23 
7.34 
7.46 
8.01 
8.13 
8.28 
8.47 
9.02 
9.18 
9.37 
9.47 
9.53 
9.54 
9.44 
9.35 
9.17 
8.59 
8.39 
8.16 
7.59 
7.38 
7.17 
7.00 
6.46 
6.30 
6.21 
6.14 
6.09 
6.08 
6.11 



Lat. 40«> North 
(For Southern New ' 
Connecticut, Rhode Ii 
Pennsylvania, New J« 
Northern Ohio, Indiai 
linois. Southern Iowa 
braska. Northern Cole 
Utah, Nevada, Calif or 
New York City 
Chicago, 111. 



If 


1 

a 

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43 

1 


5.46 


7.25 


4.43 


5.46 


7.25 


4.51 


5.45 


7.19 


5.03 


5.37 


7.10 


5.18 


5.29 


7.01 


5.29 


5.17 


6.48 


5.40 


5.03 


6.35 


5.51 


4.49 


6.21 


6.01 


4.33 


6.04 


6.11 


4.12 


5.45 


6.24 


3.54 


6.28 


6.33 


3.36 


5.13 


6.43 


3.16 


4.59 


6.55 


3.02 


4.50 


7.04 


2.46 


4.39 


7.14 


2.32 


4.31 


7.24 


2.27 


4.28 


7.29 


2.25 


4.29 


7.34 


2.28 


4.31 


7.35 


2.38 


4.37 


7.33 


2.50 


4.44 


7.27 


3.06 


4.56 


7.16 


3.19 


6.05 


7.06 


3.34 


6.15 


6.53 


3.50 


5.27 


6.83 


4.00 


5.36 


6.19 


4.12 


5.45 


6.02 


4.25 


5.56 


6.43 


4.35 


6.05 


6.31 


4.45 


6.15 


5.16 


4.57 


6.29 


4.59 


5.09 


6.40 


4.49 


6.17 


6.58 


4.39 


5.27 


7.05 


4.34 


5.35 


7.14 


4.33 


5.41 


7.20 


4.36 



Digitized by 



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IN SIX NORTHERN LATITUDES 



e Jewish Encyclopedia, VoL XI) 





Lat. 88^-380 North 






ork, 


(For District of Columbia, 
Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 


Lat.840-320 North 




and; 


ginia, West Viigfinia, South- 


(For South Carolina, North- 


Lat. 9P-Z8P North 


«y, 


ern Ohio, Southern Indiana, 


ern Georgia, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Louisiana, Texas, 
Soutnem New Mexico, Ari- 


(For Florida,Southem Geor- 


i,iJ- 


Southern Illinois, Northern 


gia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas) 


Ne- 


Missouri, Kansas, Central 


ado. 


Colorado, Central Utah, 
Central Nebraska, Central 
California) 


zona, California) 


Pensacola. Fla. 


i*) 


Savannah, Ga. 
Charleston, 8. C. 


New Orleans, La. 




Washington, D. C. 








Norf olJt, Va. 








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1.22 


5.43 


7.19 


4.49 


6.25 


5.36 


7.08 


5.06 


6.33 


5.30 


6.57 


5.11 


6.88 


(i29 


5.45 


7.19 


4.57 


6.31 


5.37 


7.08 


5.18 


6.39 


5.83 


6.58 


5.18 


6.42 


t.38 


5.43 


7.14 


5.08 


6.39 


5.87 


7.01 


6.20 


6.47 


6.82 


6.56 


6.26 


6.51 


(.51 


5.36 


7.06 


5.22 


6.52 


5.81 


6.56 


5.82 


6.57 


5.29 


6.51 


5.37 


6.56 


\00 


5.27 


6.57 


5.81 


7.02 


5.25 


6.48 


5.41 


7.04 


5.22 


6.48 


5.45 


7.05 


-.13 


5.16 


6.46 


5.42 


7.11 


5.16 


6.38 


5.50 


7.11 


5.15 


6.85 


6.52 


7.12 


-.22 


5.04 


6.33 


5.52 


7.21 


5.07 


6.28 


5.57 


7.19 


6.07 


6.26 


5.59 


7.19 


:.32 


4.50 


6.20 


6.01 


7.8i 


4.55 


6.19 


6.04 


7.26 


4.56 


6.16 


6.05 


7.25 


:.44 


4.35 


6.05 


6.11 


7.41 


4.41 


6.05 


6.11 


7.35 


4.43 


6.05 


6.12 


7.83 


'.56 


4.15 


5.46 


6.22 


7.53 


4.25 


5.49 


6.20 


7.48 


4.29 


6.60 


6.19 


7.89 


J. 08 


3.58 


5.31 


6.80 


8.05 


4.18 


5.37 


6.26 


7.50 


4.18 


6.39 


6.24 


7.45 


^21 


3.40 


5.17 


6.40 


8.16 


3.57 


5.25 


6.33 


8.00 


4.04 


6.29 


6.80 


7.64 


!.32 


3.22 


5.02 


6.52 


8.32 


8.43 


5.13 


6.41 


8.11 


8.51 


6.17 


6.37 


8.02 


.45 


3.08 


4.53 


7.00 


8.45 


8.32 


5 05 


6.48 


8.20 


8.41 


6.11 


6.44 


8.13 


'.00 


2.54 


4.44' 


7.09 


9.00 


8.22 


4.59 


6.54 


8.81 


8.88 


5.05 


6.50 


8.22 


?.23 


2.41 


4.36 


7.18 


9.13 


3.13 


4.53 


7.01 


8.41 


8.24 


5.00 


6.55 


8.31 


'.32 


2.36 


4.84 


7.23 


9.21 


3.11 


4.52 


7.05 


8.47 


8.22 


4.59 


6.59 


8.87 


^86 


2.35 


4.34 


7.28 


9.26 


8.10 


4.52 


7.10 


8.52 


8.22 


4.59 


7.04 


8.40 


'.37 


2.39 


4.37 


7.19 


9.27 


3.13 


4.55 


7.11 


8.53 


8.25 


5.01 


7.05 


.8.41 


\8l 


2.47 


4.48 


7.27 


9.22 


8.19 


6.00 


7.10 


8.61 


8.80 


5.06 


7.03 


8.38 


J.21 


2.58 


4.51 


7.21 


9.12 


8.27 


5.05 


7.07 


8.46 


8.88 


5.11 


7.00 


8.33 


'.06 


3.14 


5.00 


7.12 


8.58 


8.39 


5.13 


6.58 


8.88 


8.48 


5.19 


6.53 


8.24 


!.50 


3.26 


5.08 


7.02 


8.44 


8.47 


5.19 


6.49 


8.22 


8.56 


5.24 


6.45 


8.13 


^83 


8.40 


5.18 


6.49 


8.28 


3.57 


6.26 


6.39 


8.08 


4.04 


5.29 


6.36 


8.00 


^10 


3.54 


6.29 


6.31 


8.06 


4.08 


5.85 


6.25 


7.52 


4.14 


6.87 


6.23 


7.46 


.54 


4.01 


6.87 


6. Is 


7.51 


4.15 


5.40 


6.14 


7.89 


4.19 


5.42 


6.12 


7.86 


-.86 


4.16 


5.45 


6.02 


7.32 


4.28 


5.47 


6.01 


7.23 


4.27 


6.47 


6.01 


7.23 


.16 


4.27 


5.56 


5.48 


7.18 


4.32 


6.54 


5.45 


7.08 


4.34 


5.58 


5.46 


7.06 


.58 


4.36 


6.04 


6.31 


6.58 


4.37 


6.00 


5.35 


6.67 


4.39 


5.59 


5.36 


6.65 


.43 


4.46 


6.14 


5.16 


6.45 


4.45 


6.07 


5.23 


6.45 


4.44 


6.06 


5.25 


6.46 


.81 


4.57 


6.29 


5.01 


6.31 


4.54 


6.16 


5.11 


6.34 


4.53 


6.14 


6.14 


6.85 


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5.05 


6.40 


4.52 


6.28 


5.01 


6.25 


5.03 


6.27 


5.00 


6.21 


6.08 


6.80 


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5.14 


6.53 


4.44 


6.18 


5.09 


6.86 


4.57 


6.28 


5.06 


6.29 


6.01 


6.26 


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5.25 


6.59 


4.40 


6.18 


5.17 


6.44 


4.65 


6.21 


6.18 


6.88 


5.00 


6.26 


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5.38 


7.08 


4.38 


6.14 


5.28 


6.51 


4.66 


6.24 


5.21 


6.46 


5.01 


6.27 


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5.38 


7.14 


4.40 


6.17 


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6.28 


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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 

A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 

BY CYRUS ADLER 

Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, founder of the United Synagogue of 
America^ Master of Arts and Doctor of Letters of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge in England, Doctor of Letters of Harvard 
University, sometime reader in Rabbinics at Cambridge, and 
professor of Hebrew at the University College, London, who 
made distinguished contributions to all departments of Jewish 
literature, and was the foremost exponent of Judaism in his 
time, entered upon his eternal reward on November 19, 1915. 

He was bom, with a twin brother, to Isaac and Chaya 
Rachel Schechter in the Roumanian town Fogsani or Pocshan, 
probably on December 7, 1860, and was one of a large family of 
especially fine physique and handsome appearance. Pocshan 
is the capital of the department of Putna in Roumania which 
formed the ancient frontier of the former principalities of 
Moldavia and Walachia. It had a population of about twenty- 
four thousand souls, of whom some six thouaand were Jews. 
The community goes back to an ancient period, among its 
celebrities being Nathan Not6 Hannover, rabbi of the place 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century and author of a 
work, Yewen Me^ldh, which gave an account of the persecu- 
tions of the Jews of his time. There does not appear to have 
been in Pocshan what might be called an institution of higher 
learning. There were no lectures, no libraries, none of the 



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26 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

wealth of aids and apparatus which a student even then could 
have found in the capitals of Europe, and which are now acces- 
sible to students everywhere. 

Doctor Schechter received his education from his father, who 
belonged to the Hasidic sect and was a man at once of scholarly 
mould and saintly character. The boy had learned to read 
Hebrew at the age of three, and at five he had been initiated 
into the Pentateuch. In the Jewish community European 
literature was unknown. He used frequently to tell how his 
initial inkling of geography was derived from the 8ef$r 
Haberith and the letters of Hag Vidaver in the Hebrew 
weekly ha-Magid in which he first read the name America. 
He was deprived of dictionaries, grammars, and concordances, 
those great labor-saving devices. But there were in this 
Roumanian town, whose Jewish population may have gone back 
many hundreds of years, possibly even to the time of the 
Khazars, whose history Doctor Schechter in later years so 
illuminated, copies of the great standard works of Hebrew lit- 
erature — the Bible, the Talmud, and the Midrash — , although 
it is certain that they were not represented either in the first 
or the best editions. 

At the age of ten he was sent to the Yeshibah at Piatra, an 
ancient town which boasted a considerable monastic library, 
but could hardly have possessed a collection of rabbinical 
literature. 

After he had passed his thirteenth year, he was sent to 
Eabbi Joseph Saul Nathanson of Lemberg, a great Talmudist 
and a voluminous author, from whom he received a highly 
complimentary testimonial for his zeal and his originality. In 
fact it seems evident from the meagre information at dis- 
posal that as a boy he evinced an indomitable determination 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTBR 37 

to master the contents of the greatest of Jewish classics. It 
may be that the remarkable knowledge of Jewish literature 
which Doctor Schechter attained, the readiness with which 
he could unerringly turn to a passage, and the facility with 
which he could recognize from a few lines of a single scrap of 
manuscript its relationship to some great lost work, were due 
to the fact that his early education was perforce confined 
to Jewish literature and to the very absence of those aids to 
memory with which our modern systems of teaching are prob- 
ably undermining one of the most important faculties of the 
human mind. 

Be that as it may, the cravings of the student and the rest- 
lessness of the man drove him from the small town. In 1875 
he repaired to Vienna, where he first came in contact with an 
orderly modem system of education, and was a regular student 
at the Beth ha-Midrash. Here he enjoyed the friendship of 
the great preacher Adolph Jellinek, and he especially came 
under the influence of Isaac Hirsch Weiss and Lector Meir 
Friedmann. Of the latter Doctor Schechter said in a charm- 
ing sketch that great as he was as a scholar, he was even 
greater as a Jew and as a man. " What I owe him personally,'^ 
wrote Doctor Schechter, *' concerns the world very little, nor 
have I words at my command to express adequately what he 
meant to me as a teacher and friend for nearly forty years.'' 
And this was not merely a postmortem sentiment, because I 
very well remember that at my first meeting with Doctor 
Schechter in November, 1890, upon learning that it was my 
intention to go to Vienna, he insisted that the one person whom 
I ought to visit was Lector Meir Friedmann, and he provided 
me with an introduction which at once proved a passport to 
Friedmann's home. To him Doctor Schechter dedicated his 



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28 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Saadyana, published in 1903, in these words : " To my Master, 
Lector M. Friedmann of Vienna, this volume is dedicated in 
gratitude and admiration/' Friedmann entrusted to Schechter 
the instruction of his own sons, and from him Schechter 
acquired that deep interest in the Midrash which afterwards 
resulted in most fruitful studies. It is easy to understand how 
a man like Friedmann should have exercised a potent influence 
over the young scholar, for combined with vast erudition, 
scientific method, and saintliness of character there was in 
him a strong human strain not unlike that which exhibited 
itself in Schechter's own character. On the Sabbath after- 
noon, when the young men would come to Friedmann's house, 
he would brush aside even the preoccupations of Jewish litera- 
ture and the study of the Torah, and over a cup of coffee say to 
them : " Come, my young friends, let us have a little gossip " 
{lashon hor-rdh). It was from Weiss, however, that he re- 
ceived, in 1879, the rabbinical diploma, whose functions he 
scrupulously refrained from exercising. 

He then went to Berlin, where he continued to enjoy the 
friendship of Doctor Pinkus Friedrich Frankl previously 
formed in Vienna. Frankl, who was a distinguished editor, 
associated with the great historian Graetz, and an author 
whose contributions covered the whole field of Jewish litera- 
ture, had succeeded Abraham Geiger as rabbi at Berlin. 

Here, too, Schechter came in contact with all the distin- 
guished scholars of the city, especially with Israel Lewy and 
Moritz Steinschneider. Lewy's studies covered the fields of the 
Mishnah, the Talmud, and the Midrash, and indicated the 
possession of an acute and dispassionate critical spirit which 
Schechter followed in his first important work, Abofh di if. 
Nathan. 



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SOLOMON SOHECHTBR 29 

He was vastly impressed with the great range of Stein- 
sdmeider^s knowledge and literary activity, and, while in 
later years he criticized the lack of an historical perspective 
exhibited by him and his school, he commended his important 
liturgical studies, the contributions which he made indicating 
the part that Jewish scholars played in the world of science 
at large, and the absolute objectivity and impartiality of his 
bibliographical work, though he remarked in passing that " you 
cannot, with all the sympathy in the world, alter or interpret 
a single date in favor of a given theory or of a popular person." 

In 1882 Claude G. Montefiore, then a promising young 
student, wished to continue, upon his return to England, the 
studies which he had so favorably begun in Berlin, and it was 
upon the recommendation of Frankl that Montefiore invited 
Schechter to come to England and act as his preceptor. The 
impressions of these early days in England have been chronicled 
for us by two faithful narrators. Joseph Jacobs, a distin- 
guished and versatile scholar, before his untimely death in 
January, 1916, wrote this charming picture of his first impres- 
sions of Schechter in England: 

" It was at this period, when he settled in England, at the 
persuasion of Mr. Montefiore, that I first became acquainted 
with Schechter, and indeed for a time inducted him into the 
mysteries of the English language. When in later years I 
laughingly claimed credit for his incisive English style, he 
would retort that he had simultaneously attempted to teach 
me Babbinics, yet repudiated any responsibility for my Kab- 
binical ignorance. It is impossible to convey any adequate 
idea of the genial radiance and elan of Schechter's personality 
at this period. At the height of his physical and mental 
vigor, appreciated for the first time at his true value, sur- 



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30 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

rounded by an ever-increasing circle of admiring friends, he 
burst upon us as a blazing comet in the intellectual sky. 
There used to be a gathering of friends in London who called 
themselves ^ The Wandering Jews/ partly because they used 
to wander for their meetings from house to house, and partly 
because they claimed the right to wander from the subject of 
discussion of each meeting. Among these Wandering Jews 
were men who afterwards gained reputation in the outer and 
in the Jewish world, like Israel Abrahams, Asher Myers, 
editor of the Jewish Chronicle, Lucien Wolf, and Israel 
Zangwill. Into this circle Schechter burst like an exploding 
bomb, and would bear down the often rationalist and cynical 
comments that flourished there with his mixture of enthusiasm 
and indignation/^ 

Of the same period Mrs. Schechter, in her tribute to Joseph 
Jacobs, wrote : " He soon became one of the inner group of 
Schechter's Liberty Hall, the members of which dropped in 
almost daily at any old time, from early breakfast till midnight. 
The small group grew around Schechter larger and larger 
into ^The Wanderers,' finally developing into ^The Macca- 



" We were all young and strong and keen, and every evenuig 
in our large and cozy study, aroimd the huge log-fire, we read, 
and talked, and discussed every problem imder the sun. There 
never were more jolly, sparkling, deeply earnest and spirited 
talks, and it is a pity that we were all so absorbed in living our 
lives that we failed to write down the best thoughts of those 
men of letters, who were at that time prodigal of their ideas, 
not yet hoarding them for copy. When Zangwill became too 
radical and Schechter stormy, and Lucien Wolf mysterious in 
diplomatic discussions, and Israel Abrahams, a born neutral, 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTBR 31 

would say pacifically : ^ You are both right/ and Asher Myers, 
the late editor of the Jewish Chronicle, and kindest of 
friends, decided with his invariable pronunciamento : ^I 
think Schechter is right/ Joseph Jacobs, the most amiable of 
the group, would often clear the atmosphere with his original 
remarks and laughter/^ 

To another must be left the preparation of the bibliography 
of Doctor Schechter. The earliest literary fruits of his stay 
in England were a review of Edersheim's Life of Jesus, the 
Messiah, published in the Westminster Review, and a small 
pamphlet of Sawwaot (Testaments), which he foimd in the 
British Museum, edited with an introduction in 1885, and 
dedicated to his parents. His first considerable publication, 
however, issued in 1887, was Aboth di R, Nathan, one of the 
so-called minor tractates, usually printed with the Babylonian 
Talmud, which is of high interest on account of its ethical 
contents, and was greatly in need of a critical edition. To fix 
this text, he collated all the manuscripts in which the tractate 
was either wholly or partly contained, and he printed in two 
opposite columns different recensions, one previously published, 
and the other existing only in manuscript. In the notes he 
pointed out the parallel passages in either recension. He 
supplied an introduction to explain the genesis of the tractate 
and its relation to contemporary Hebrew literature, and notes 
and appendices furnished the student with material for under- 
standing the text. He further alludes in his introduction to 
the great task before the modem rabbinical scholar of intro- 
ducing a little order into the existing chaos, to the enormous 
advantages he had in England through the priceless treasures 
of its libraries, and to the debt which he owed to Claude Q. 
Montefiore, who for the first time gave his literary activity an 
2 



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32 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

outlet, and he concludes with the sentence : " As a mark of my 
sincere gratitude for the good fortune which has befallen me — 
a fortune of which better and wiser men than I have been 
deprived — let this, my first large attempt in the field of Hebrew 
literature, be herewith dedicated to you/' 

He very rapidly acquired the English language, and under- 
took constant studies in the great treasure-houses of the 
British Museum and the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the 
Hebrew collections of the latter being then presided over by 
that distinguished bibliographer, Adolf Neubauer. Scheehter 
at once undertook studies in the texts of the Midrash which re- 
sulted in the publication of the splendid edition of the Midrash 
ha-Gadol, forming a collection of ancient rabbinic homilies to 
the Pentateuch which he intended to edit for the first time from 
various Yemenite MSS. It is characteristic of the deliber- 
ation with which Doctor Scheehter carried out his scholarly 
work that the only published volume, that on Genesis, did not 
appear until the year 1902. The publication of this volume has 
had great influence in reviving investigation in this most 
interesting department of Jewish literature. 

About this time the concrete evidence of the revival of 
Jewish learning in England, which was so much hoped for, 
and from which so much was realized, was manifested by the 
publication of the Jewish Quarterly Review, edited by Israel 
Abrahams and Claude G. Montefiore, the first number of 
which was issued in October, 1888. This very first number 
contained an article by Doctor Scheehter entitled "The 
Dogmas of Judaism,^' which was the beginning of that extraor- 
dinary series of essays which afterwards resulted in three 
volumes, " Studies in Judaism, First Series," " Studies in 
Judaism, Second Series," and in the later and even more 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 33 

important work, " Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology," the 
beginning of the first attempt at a systematic presentation 
of the theology of the Rabbis. This essay and the many others 
that followed it gave evidence of his clearness of thought and 
his charm and beauty of expression, both distinguishing marks 
of the great scholar. 

Few of the twenty volumes of the First Series of the Jewish 
Qitarterly Review lacked one or more articles by Doctor 
Schechter, and it is pleasant to think that he who had con- 
tributed so much to the First Series was instrumental in aid- 
ing to establish the New Series of the Jewish Quarterly Review, 
published by the Dropsie College, and that even to the volume 
just completed he gave his guidance in the selection of the 
articles. And let me say here that in our intercourse connected 
with the Quarterly during the six years of the publication of 
the New Series, Doctor Schechter's voice was always in favor 
of a policy of generosity, whether to a dissenting or hostile 
opinion, or to the somewhat immature writings of younger 
men ; he frequently said : " We must give the young men a 
chance.'^ 

The University of Cambridge, in spite of the fact that of 
the two great English Universities it was especially devoted 
to mathematics and the physical sciences, whereas Oxford was 
famed for classics and history, had had for a quarter of a cen- 
tury an instructor in Talmud and rabbinical literature in the 
person of Solomon Mayer Schiller-Szinessy, a native of Hun- 
gary, who published the first part of a catalogue of the Hebrew 
manuscripts in the Cambridge University Library, a critical 
edition of Kimhi's Commentary on the first book of Psalms, 
and other writings. Schiller-Szinessy died in March, 1890, 
and Schechter was appointed to the vacant lectureship, a post 



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34 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

which must have corresponded with his highest hopes and was 
a fitting tribute to the evidence of genius and scholarship that 
he had already given. 

As a boy Doctor Schechter had seen in his Roumanian town 
the insults and oppression to which a Jew was subjected and 
the repression which he was obliged to exercise. He was taught 
that if an insult or even a stone were hurled at him he must 
not retort nor defend himself for fear that greater harm would 
come upon his people. He had looked to the freer states of 
Austria and Germany as places in which a Roumanian Jew 
would be liberated from persecution and from the narrowing 
effects which such persecutions had brought upon the Jewish 
community itself. But while for a time he was attracted by 
the liberalism of Germany and of the Jewish community of 
Berlin, he soon became convinced that this was superficial; 
that whereas the Jew was free politically, he was in an environ- 
ment which was endeavoring to enslave him mentally and 
spiritually, in which the forces of philosophy, and history and 
theology and criticism were alike being used to establish the 
inferiority of the Jewish people, to minimize their history and 
to degrade their literature before the world. The greater free- 
dom of England, the fact that the Universities were not part of 
the Governmental system, the nobility and wide influence of the 
JcMash community of Great Britain, all seemed to hold out to 
him the opportunity both for freedom and for work for which 
he passionately hoped. 

His appointment at Cambridge was a most important step 
in the development of his career. Here he found a congenial 
set of friends who encouraged him and stimulated him and to 
whom in turn he was prodigal of his great gifts. In this circle • 
are to be enumerated Sir James George Frazer, the author of 
the Golden Bough, Doctor Eiriker Magnussen, the great Ice- 



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SOLOMON SCHECTHTBR 35 

landic scholar, W. D. Buckland, regius professor of law, Pro- 
fessor Alfred Haddon, the anthropotogist. Professor Arthur 
S. Strong, librarian of the House of Lords, Sir Donald Mac- 
Alister, now principal of Glasgow University, and Bendel 
Harris, the distinguished New Testament scholar, then a 
Fellow of Clare College. 

I do not recall nor can I find among my papers the occasion 
of my first correspondence with Doctor Schechter. It may 
possibly have begun through Rendel Harris, who had come from 
Cambridge to America, and was a mutual friend. At all 
events upon comiag to London in November, 1890, I wrote to 
Cambridge asking for the privilege of an interview, received 
an invitation by telegram, and promptly repaired to Doctor 
Schechter's house, and thus began a friendship which endured 
to the end, and was one of the greatest privileges of my life. 
One or two of the men I have mentioned I distinctly remember 
meeting upon that occasion. In those days his appearance was 
entirely different from that which he presented upon settling 
in this country. Not quite forty years of age, his hair and 
beard were ruddy without any sign of that premature whiteness 
which afterwards became a crown of glory. He was erect, 
rather spare, and a vigorous walker. 

His going to Cambridge was fortimate in many ways, and 
while it took him out of the great Jewish community of Lon- 
don, to their disadvantage, yet with the comparatively easy- 
going methods of an English University, which does not require 
many lectures from its staflf, and has long vacations, he found 
it possible, without serious anxiety, to give a large part of his 
time to study and reading which intensified and ordered his 
knowledge of Jewish literature, and gave him a wide acquaint- 
ance witii the literature and learning of all other civilized 
peoples. 



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36 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

That he was influencing other scholars in those days may be 
gleaned from Mr. Montefiore's acknowledgment in his Hibbert 
Lectures on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by 
the religion of the ancient Hebrews : " To Mr. Schechter I 
owe more than I can adequately express here. My whole con- 
ception of the Law and of its place in Jewish religion and life 
is largely the fruit of his teaching and inspiration, while 
almost all the Rabbinic material upon which that conception 
rests was put before my notice and explained to me by him.^' 
Jewish literature for the last quarter of a century abounds in 
such acknowledgments, not to speak of the many scholars and 
students he aided, but to whom he denied the opportunity of 
such recognition. 

His merits were speedily recognized by the authorities of the 
University of Cambridge. In 1892 the degree of Master of 
Arts honoris causa was conferred upon him by the University. 
He early formed a close companionship with Doctor Charles 
Taylor, the Master of St. John's College, who had long been 
engaged in Hebrew studies, and was one of the few Christian 
theologians who recognized the importance and the worth 
of post-biblical Jewish literature. As early as 1877 Doctor 
Taylor had published an edition of that famous work, 
Pirlce Ahot (the Sayings of the Fathers). A second edi- 
tion appeared in 1897, in which he said of Schechter that 
it was to his " learning and acumen T am indebted for the sug- 
gestion of additions and improvements throughout the work." 
It was largely due to Doctor Taylor's generosity that Schechter 
was enabled to make the trip to (^airo which resulted in the 
transfer of the greater part of the treasures of the Genizah of 
the old synagogue of that city to the University of (•am])ridge. 
I am, however, anticipating. 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 37 

In 1893, Doctor Schechter was awarded the Worth Student- 
ship, a sort of traveling fellowship, for the purpose of going to 
Italy to examine the great Hebrew treasures in the libraries of 
that country. Of this opportunity he made good use in the 
texts which he afterwards published, and in numerous notes 
and collations of manuscripts, some of which are unpublished, 
but which, it is expected, will see the light of day through the 
labors of his disciples. 

A number of friends in America had recognized the genius 
of Doctor Schechter, and had endeavored to bring about his 
accession to the Faculty of the then struggling Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary. This effort had the full approval of the late. 
Doctor Sabato Morais, then president of the Seminary, and 
upon the death of Doctor Alexander Kohut, the professor of 
Talmud, the idea occurred that it would be very desirable if 
Doctor Schechter could be brought to America for the purpose 
of establishing a mutual acquaintanceship with a larger group 
in the hope that there would result some arrangement by which 
he might be induced to settle in the United States. In 189;5 
there became available the Deed of Trust executed by Hyman 
Gratz in favor of the Congregation Mikve Israel in Philadel- 
phia, " for the establishment and support of a College for the 
education of Jews residing in the city and county of Philadel- 
phia," and the first step taken to inaugurate the academic 
work of this Trust was an invitation to Doctor Schechter to 
come to America and deliver a course of lectures upon this 
foundation. The unofficial approach* wa^ apparently made by 
Doctor Solomon Solis Cohen, for in a letter dated Cambridge, 
June 14, 1894, Doctor Schechter wrote to him : " I think I 
could see my way to falling in with your convenient proposal ; 
matters of this nature, as you say, are better discussed by word 
of mouth than by correspondence. 



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38 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

In answer to your three questions formally, therefore : 1. 1 
should be able to accept your invitation without incurring 
the least risk of compromising my position in Cambridge. It 
occurs frequently that men from the University are invited for 
a course of lectures to America. 

2. I thought it still premature to apply to the General 
Board of Studies for a grant of leave of absence on your private 
letter. That could not be done without enclosing a definite 
invitation and giving them a fixed date. But I have approached 
in an unoflBcial way the Master of our College, and he thinks 
that the Board will probably grant me leave of absence for a 
term which means three months. 

3. I could best absent myself from Cambridge during the 
Lent Term (15th of December to the end of March) .... 
As to" the subject of the lectures, I do not think it advisable 
to make the Talmud the exclusive topic of treatment. The 
poor Talmud has been so often tortured by lecturers and orators 
of both sides that the public must necessarily be suspicious of 
any undertaking of this kind. Besides, the genuine nature of 
the Talmud could after all not be shown without expounding 
to the hearers one tractate at least thoroughly and honestly. I 
would rather prefer to give eight lectures on Jewish Thought 
(post-biblical), dealing mainly with its most important theo- 
logical manifestations. This would, of course, include the 
Talmud, and would bring the subject down to our present cen- 
tury. I shall in this way use some lectures I have given here, 
and write some new lectures for you. I hope to be able to 
make the subject interesting, both to scholars and to the public 
at large.'^ 

A few weeks after this was received I went to England for a 
visit, and took up in person the discussion referred to in the 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 39 

letter to Doctor Cohen, and it must have resulted in a formal 
agreement, because, imder date of December 29, 1894, Doctor 
Schechter wrote me to Washington as follows : " 1 have sent 
oflf a letter to you (to the address of the Mikve Israel Congre- 
gation) containing my formal answer to the invitation of the 
Gratz Trust Committee. I was as stiff as a Dayan, as one 
should be when writing to a real live Chairman. Here I want 
to be cordial and tell you how deeply grateful I feel toward 
you for your kind efforts in my behalf. What a joy in heaven 

there will be to see old friends again At present Neu- 

bauer from Oxford is staying with me, who occupies all my 
time, whilst next week I must go to London to prepare for my 
notes to the Midrash Shir h&Shirim, which must at last be 
sent to the press.'^ (Agadath Shir Hashirim, Cambridge, 1896, 
dedicated "To Dr. Moritz Steinschneider, The Nestor of 
Jewish Bibliography, in Commemoration of his Eightieth 

Birthday.^0 

" I have also to thank you most heartily," he continues, " for 
your religious museum lecture which is very interesting. Only 
such a museimi could give us the proper history of the * domes- 
tication of religious ideas,^ but I should like also to see an old 
Jew exhibited there sitting on the floor in the middle of the 
night and reading Tikkun Hasot, and crying bitterly over the 
Ooluth ha-Shechmdh (the exile of the Shechinah). This 
wotild be something which neither Wellhausen nor W. R. Smith 
could explain." 

Schechter arrived in this country in February, 1895, and 
as I could not come from Washington to hear his opening 
lecture, he made report in the following characteristic note, 
dated at Philadelphia, 1303 Girard Avenue, February 12, 1895. 
He acknowledged the letter received on board the " Teutonic," 



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.to AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

described his delay of three days due to gales, and then added : 
" But all troubles are now over and I am here with S., whose 
house is a little paradise on earth. 1 wonder whether they have 
such nice libraries in the Gan Eden containing so little the- 
ology and so many good novels. I gave my first lecture yester- 
day. The hall was crowded, and I hope that at least a minyan 
understood my English, and that I shall be saved for the sake 
of the ten." 

He returned to England in March, 1895, and from his 
steamship, the " Majestic," he wrote under date of March 28, 
in reply to a letter : " My zeal for democratic institutions has 
not cooled down. I still believe that you .... are the great- 
est and the best of nations. Nor is your Judaism so bad as 
the English Episcopalians think, in spite of the little foxes who 

destroy the vineyards The sea is very rough, which 

interferes very greatly with my spelling and grammar. Have 
you read ' As Other Saw Him A. D. 54 ? ' Do read it." (This 
refers to a book by Joseph Jacobs of which Doctor Schechter 
wrote an interesting review in the Jewish Chronicle.) 

On the 13th of May, 1896, according to the statement of 
Doctor Charles Taylor in the preface to the edition of Ben 
Sira, published by the Cambridge University Press in 1899, 
Doctor Schechter observed at Cambridge in a bundle of frag- 
ments brought by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson from Southern 
Palestine the time-worn leaf of a copy of the lost original 
Hebrew of Ben Sira's work. This book, also called Eccle- 
siasticus, one of the most elevating of the apocryphal literature, 
had been known for nearly a thousand years only in the (treek, 
although there was ample evidence that it had once existed 
in a Hebrew original. This subject had interested Doctor 
Schechter for some time, and in the third volume of the first 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 41 

series of the Jewish Quarterly Review, in the number pub- 
lished July, 1891, he collected the quotations from Eccle- 
siasticus in rabbinic literature, which had been done before to 
some extent, but which he put together with full parallels and 
different readings derived from manuscripts and older editions. 
Thus his discovery was by no means a lucky accident, but, as 
is not infrequent among scientific men, was preceded by the 
most careful preparation. Doctor Schechter's first formal pub- 
lication on the subject was in the Expositor for July, 1896, in 
an article covering only fifteen pages, though a notice of the 
discovery was published prior to this in the London Athenceum 
and the London Academy. Doctor Schechter at once recog- 
nized the capital importance of this recovery of a lost original, 
not only because it gave an additional text in classical Hebrew 
to our scanty collections, but because its far-reaching impli- 
cations had to be reckoned with by the proponents of biblical 
criticism and students of He})rew philology. 

The actual discovery which made a world-wide sensation has 
been variously described. Professor Marx, to whose excellent bi- 
ography, presented to the American Jewish Historical Society, 
1 am greatly indebted, wrote as follows : " As Doctor Schechter 
himself told me, he once visited his friends, Mrs. Lewis and 
Mrs. Gibson, who had just returned from a trip in the East, 
and was shown some old Hebrew leaves which the learned 
ladies had acquired during the voyage. One of these leaves at 
once attracted his special attention, and suggested the idea that 
it was a piece of the original of Ben Sira, in which he had been 
especially interested for a long time, as shown by an article a 
few years before, in which he had collected all the Hebrew 
quotations of this book occurring in Jewish literature. But 
when he wanted to test this idea he had to go home, for the 



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42 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

ladies, as strict Presbyterians, did not have a copy of the 
Apocrypha in their house." 

Another description of this event was brought to my atten- 
tion by Professor Margolis. An article was published in the 
Transactions of the International Scientific Congress of 
Catholics held at Freiburg in Switzerland, written by Doctor 
S. Minocchi of Florence, on the discovery of the original 
Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus. It contains an abstract of the 
following very interesting private letter written by Mrs. Lewis 
from Marseilles on the eighth of April, 1897, recording the 
exact facts of the identification of the first fragment of Eccle- 
siasticus as a result of her request to Doctor Schechter to 
examine some Hebrew fragments that she had purchased in 
Palestine, but which had probably originated in Egypt. " I 
happened," wrote Mrs. Lewis, '^ to meet him in the street, and 
asked him to do so the same day. In less than an hour T 
returned home. Mr. Schechter had already finished his 
examination. He held up a yellow leaf containing part of the 
Jerusalem Talmud, and said it was rather important. Then 
he held up a paper leaf and said : ^ This seems interesting, may 
I take it to the University Library and verify it?^ I said: 
^ Certainly.' ^ May I publish it ? ' I said : ' Mrs. Gibson and 
I will be only too happy if you find it worth publishing.' An 
hour later we got a telegram saying: ^ Your paper leaf is most 
valuable; please come to my house this afternoon.' And ten 
minutes later the postman delivered a letter from Mr. 
Schechter, written in a state of the wildest excitement, and 
telling us that it was a bit of the Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus. 
We drove to Mr. Schechter's house that afternoon, and the 
same evening I wrote to the two literary papers, the Academy 
and the Athenwum, describing the fragments." 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 43 

The only evidence that I can find in my correspondence of 
this discovery are postal cards written in the month of June, 
1896, making requests for some books on Sirach, which 
Doctor Schechter apparently could not procure in England. 

It was not until 1899, as noted above, that Doctor Schechter, 
with Doctor Taylor, published a formal edition of the Wisdom 
of Ben Sira from manuscripts received from the Cairo Genizah, 
which will be referred to later on. 

Doctor Taylor wrote in the preface : " Ben Sira's book is of 
unique interest to the scholar and the theologian as a Hebrew 
work of nearly known date, which forms a link between the 
Old Testament and the rabbinic writings. The first step to its 
right appreciation is to note its discursive use of the ancient 
Scriptures, and the author's free way of adapting their 
thoughts and phrases to his purposes.^' 

In 1904, in a series of public lectures, afterwards printed 
under the title " A glimpse of the social life of the Jews in 
the age of Jesus, the son of Sira,'^ as well as in a previous 
lecture on the study of the Bible, Doctor Schechter emphasized 
the fact that the discovery of this book tended to disprove many 
of the theories which had been advanced concerning the late- 
ness of various works included in the biblical canon. 

Although the fragment of Ecclesiasticus was purchased by 
Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson in Palestine, there seemed to be 
little doubt that its origin was Egypt. For 150 years the 
Genizah at Cairo had been referred to in literature. The prac- 
tice of burying manuscripts and books partially injured is 
a very old one. It existed among old synagogues in the 
Orient, and is practiced there and even in the Occident to this 
very day. The subject had long attracted Doctor Schechter^s 
attention, and he had collected references to it in the works of 



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44 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

travelers as well as in the Responsa of the Eabbis. During my 
own visit to Cairo in March and April, 1891, I secured some 
fifty fragments of Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts from a 
dealer in antiquities, the origin of which was, of course, not 
then known to me. On my way back to America I paid a visit 
to England, and showed these to Doctor Schechter early in 
January, 1892, as well as to Doctor Neubauer and others. It 
may be said in passing that even this small collection has 
yielded some interesting finds, the piost important being the 
recovery of a portion of the lost Book of Precepts of Hefes b. 
Yasliah, an author of the tenth century, edited by Doctor B. 
Halper, a fragment of Sa^adya's Sefer ha-Galuiy edited by Pro- 
fessor Henry Malter, and a poem by Elhanan b. Shemarya, 
edited by Professor Israel Davidson. 

Mr. Elkan Adier of London, on a visit to Cairo in 1888, had 
obtained some Hebrew fragments ; Professor Sayce had others, 
and for two or three years various fragments, all from Cairo, 
indicating a common source, filtered, into the great libraries of 
England and even to America. It was the literary evidence of 
the existence of this Genizah and the results of its pilferings 
by dealers which convinced Doctor Schechter that the time had 
come to make the attempt to save this great collection from dis- 
persion all over the world, and this conviction was strengthened 
by the identification of the fragment of Sirach already alluded 
to. The unearthing of the Genizah was the event of Doctor 
Schechter^s career, more dramatic even than the discovery of 
the Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus. But it was not due to any 
exploitation upon his part that this created a world sensation 
among scholars and among all intelligent men, and he rather 
resented having it alluded to as a discovery, in which word he 
thought sometliing of cliance or accident was involved. Before 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 45 

he went to Cairo he was unerringly sure that great treasures 
were there, though, of course, he could not divine their exact 
nature. In his lectures on the Genizah, delivered before the 
Dropsie College, and as yet unpublished, he used the following 
words : " I should like at once to correct a mistake with which 
I often meet in books and articles, in which I am described as 
the discoverer of the Genizah. This is not correct. The 
Genizah practically discovered itself." 

" The conviction of the importance of the Cairo Genizah," he 
writes, " had grown upon me as I examined the various manu- 
scripts which had found their way from it into English private 
and public libraries, and which had already led to important 
discoveries. I therefore determined to make a pilgrimage to 
the shores whence they had come. My plan recommended itself 
to the authorities of the University of Cambridge, and found 
warm supporters in Professor Sidgwick, Doctor Donald Mac- 
Alister, and especially Doctor Taylor, the Master of St. John's 
College. To the enlightened generosity of this great student 
and patron of Hebrew literature it is due that my pilgrimage 
became a regular pleasure trip to Egypt, and extended into the 
Holy Land." 

The visit to Cairo and the work in the Genizah were the 
turning-points in Doctor Schechter's personal and scientific 
career. The work underground in sorting thousands, possibly 
as many as one hundred thousand fragments, of manuscripts 
amidst the accumulated dust and dirt of centuries impaired his 
health to such an extent that he began to pass almost from the 
appearance of a young man to a man of considerable age, which 
those who did not know his comparative youth were accus- 
tomed to ascribe to him. He gave an account of the external 
part of his work in Cairo and also a rough survey of the 



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46 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

contents of the Genizah in two articles entitled " A Hoard of 
Hebrew Manuscripts," originally published in the London 
Times and reprinted in his " Studies in Judaism, Second 
Series/^ Those who saw him seated in the great basement 
room of the Cambridge Library, with the boxes upon boxes of 
priceless treasures about him, endeavoring to sift out the more 
valuable and place them in some sort of order, can realize the 
force of his words written in the summer of 1897 : " Looking 
over this enormous mass of fragments about me, in the sifting 
and examination of which I am now occupied, I cannot over- 
come a sad feeling stealing over me, that I shall hardly be 
worthy to see the results which the Genizah would add to our 
knowledge of Jews and Judaism. This work is not for one man 
and not for one generation. It will occupy many a specialist, 
and much longer than a lifetime. However, to use an old 
adage, ^ It is not thy duty to complete the work, but neither 
art thou free to desist from it.' " This great collection was 
presented to the University of Cambridge jointly by Doctor 
Schechter and by Doctor Taylor, and to its elucidation practi- 
cally all of Doctor Schechter's scholarly activity was hence- 
forth dedicated. 

Whilst this fact had a profound influence on Doctor 
Schechter's career, it was of even greater significance for the 
development of Jewish literature, because had this opportunity 
not been vouchsafed to him he would have undoubtedly devoted 
himself to other subjects in which his scholarly activities were 
sorely needed. In his generation he was the Jewish scholar 
best fitted to make contributions to Jewish biography and his- 
tory. Essays like those on Krochmal, Nachmanides, and the 
Gaon of Wilna, and even more important, the essay on Safed 
in the 16th century, indicate that he was a master in portray- 



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SOLOMON SOHECHTER 47 

ing the life either of a great man or of the people and in pro- 
viding the proper background and setting for such a picture. 
His talents, if devoted to this subject alone, would have pro- 
duced a most remarkable history of the Jewish people. As 
yet, the successor to Graetz has not been found. 

The other department of Jewish literature which would have 
been greatly enhanced was that of Jewish theology, or, as he 
preferred to call it, Eabbinic theology, although this phase con- 
noted to him nothing separate from Judaism. Rabbinism in 
his opinion was never a movement in Judaism, but represented 
the steady, orderly development of the main stream. All that 
went away from it were movements and currents ; this was the 
principal thing. For his work entitled " Some Aspects of 
Eabbinic Theology ,^^ dedicated to Louis Marshall, which ap- 
peared in book form only in 1909, although based upon essays 
which began to appear in the Jewish Quarterly Review as early 
as 1894, he made a most careful study of general theology, and 
invented new categories, since he was convinced that Judaism 
could not be exactly fitted into the rubrics of other religions. 
" The task I set myself,^' he said, " was to give a presentation 
of Rabbinic opinion on a number of theological topics as 
offered by the Rabbinic literature, and forming an integral 
part of the religious consciousness of the bulk of the nation or 
' Catholic Israel.^ ^' And very characteristic of the intellectual 
humility of this great scholar, as of all great men, is the open- 
ing paragraph of his introductory chapter to this work which 
may be commended to generations of students: "My object 
in choosing the title ^ Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology ' is 
to indicate that from the following chapters there must not be 
expected either finality or completeness. Nor will there be 
made any attempt in the following pages at that precise and 



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48 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

systematic treatment which we are rightly accustomed to claim 
in other fields of scientific inquiry. I have often marvelled at 
the certainty and confidence with which Jewish legalism, Jew- 
ish transcendentalism, Jewish self-righteousness, are delineated 
in our theological manuals and histories of religion; but I 
have never been able to emulate either quality. I have rather 
found, when approaching the subject a little closer, that the 
peculiar mode of old Jewish thought, as well as the unsatis- 
factory state of the documents in which this thought is pre- 
served, ^ are against the certain,' and urge upon the student 
caution and sobriety .'' 

In November, 1915, only a few weeks before his lamented 
death, he was talking over what he proposed to do after he 
might be able to lay down his administrative burdens, and the 
two things that he had particularly in mind were the writing 
of a second volume on Eabbinic Theology and a work showing 
tlie Jewish conception of charity. He frequently regretted the 
ahrence of an adequate presentation of the wonderful wealth of 
material in the Bible, and in the whole of post-biblical Jewish 
literature, of the attitude of a Jew to his fellow-man less 
fortunate than himself, and it was one of his most cherished 
aspirations to be able to supply this want. He had also dur- 
ing his travels in Italy made collections for the writing of a 
history of the biblical Canon, but this work, I think, he was 
prepared to turn over to another, when he found a man in 
whose scholarship and sympathy he had confidence. 

However, the Genizah did come from Egypt to England, and 
with it there was forced upon Schechter the labor that he did 
not shirk, and for M'hich he had few helpers. 

That he was busy in 1898 with the Genizah work may be 
gleaned from a letter of July 12, 1898, in which he wrote : " I 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 49 

sent you with the last mail a photograph of the Aron Kodesh 
of the Cairo synagogue in which the Genizah is placed. The 
Orientals have no idea of repair and preservation, and thus the 
Aron is modern/' It may be said in passing that the original 
of the Aron Kodesh, or the Holy Ark, of the Cairo synagogue 
was presented by the authorities to Doctor Schechter per- 
sonally, who brought it to America, and in turn presented it 
to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, in whose 
synagogue it is now placed. It is figured and described in the 
Biennial Eeport of the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, 1902-4, published in 1906, and is probably the oldest 
piece of ecclesiastical furniture in the United States. A part 
of the inscription was wanting, and by one of those romances 
of archaeology, Professor Marx recently discovered, through 
the last issued section of the Catalogue of Hebrew and 
Samaritan manuscripts in the British Museum, a piece of 
hoard containing the first half of a two-line inscription which 
forms the missing part of the inscription on this Ark. 

In the midst of our Spanish-American War Schechter wrote : 
^^ I wish you all success in your present war. But I can get as 
little enthusiastic over pan-Saxonism as over pan-Oermanism, 
etc. The over-emphasis of the racial principle will be the 
destruction of our people. They will as little forgive us our 
Semitic origin as they did in the Middle Ages our denial of the 
son. We shall only have peace when the sentiments expressed 
in the morning service of Bosh ha-Shanah have become a com- 
plete reality, and my belief is strong that the distant future will 
be for us if we remain ourselves. I am still very busy with the 
Genizah, particularly with the Sirach finds. I have rewritten 
the greatest part of the notes, but T am very anxious to write 
a good introduction.^' 



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50 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Our correspondence was interrupted then, because early in 
July, 1898, 1 went to England, and spent four months there, a 
good deal of it in Doctor Schechter's company in Cambridge 
and in Eamsgate, where we worshipped together in the little 
synagogue of the Montefiore family, at the invitation of 
the distinguished Master of East Cliff Lodge, Sir Joseph 
Sebag-Montefiore. In October of that year I returned from 
England, and must have informed Doctor Schechter of my 
arrival home, for under date of November 24, 1898, he 
writes and thanks me for a letter, and then continues : " The 
degree conferred to-day on Lord Kitchener gives us a little 
Yom Tob (holiday) . I also went to the Senate in all my glory 
of red robes. I am still writing the introduction to Sirach, 
which piece of work will, I think, rejoice your heart. Please 
God I hope to finish it by next week. The chief thing is to find 
out how and what portions of the Bible he used, which gave me 
an enormous piece of work. In fact, I went through all the 
canonical writers to locate all the references.^^ 

Meanwhile more or less animated correspondence was kept 
up between members of the Board of Trustees of the Seminary 
and Doctor Schechter, with a view to his coming to America ; 
hut other opportunities arose in England. On December 23, 
1898, he wrote: " You probably read in the Jewish Chronicle 

of my appointment to the London Professorship I 

have given up thinking of the New York Seminary, where, it 
seems, all things go slowly. They want me perhaps even more 
than I want them. When you give the matter your blessing I 
will answer Amen.'^ 

In the intervening years he continued to give himself en- 
tirely to work on the Genizah manuscripts, and there resulted 
the publication of several very important books. The first oi 



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SOLOMON SCHBCHTBR 5 1 

these, the text of the Wisdom of Ben Sira, has already been 
mentioned. Next in order there came his Saadyana, printed 
in 1903, being fragments of the writings of the great Gaon 
Saadya and others, mostly derived from the Taylor-Schecht^r 
collection, with the exception of a few fragments in the posses- 
sion of Judge Sulzberger of Philadelphia, and Elkan N. Adler 
of London. These documents are of the greatest value for 
Jewish history, and have stimulated other scholars in the pro- 
duction of remarkable contributions to the obscure history 
of the Gaonate. The latest and possibly the most important of 
all of Doctor Schechter^s publications issued as a result of 
these discoveries were the Documents of Jewish Sectaries, in 
two volumes, which he dedicated to Jacob H. Schiflf ; the first 
volume, the Fragments of a Zadokite Work, he ascribed to 
the second century, while the other was The Fragments of the 
Book of the Commandments by Anan, the founder of the 
Karaite Sect. 

The Zadokite work has been followed by a trail of admira- 
tion, criticism, and discussion. I am in position to say that in 
spite of the criticism. Doctor Schechter maintained his view 
as to the antiquity of this sect. He was collecting all the 
criticisms which appeared — some at great length and in serial 
form — ^and had decided to make no further comment until he 
could review the entire discussion. He went about this edition 
with the greatest caution, as was his custom, and wrote his 
introduction, and stated his theory with the full realization 
of the fact that it was an hypothesis and that his conclusions 
anight be attacked, but he deemed it cowardly to simply issue 
a text with philological notes and not be courageous enough to 
endeavor to present it in its proper historical and literary 
setting. 



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52 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Not very long after the publication of this important work, 
on ]\Iay 18, 1911, President Lowell wrote to Doctor Schechter: 
" Harvard University would like to confer upon you the degree 
of Doctor of Letters on Commencement next, June 28, if you 
can be present at that time to receive it." He was very much 
pleased with this distinction, which he felt to be one extended 
not only to him personally but to the Seminary and to the 
community, and the day after the Commencement he wrote 
from the train on his return to Boston : " It was a glorious day. 
Everybody was kind, especially Moore [Professor Geor<Te F. 

Moore], who was my sponsor The papers say that I 

am the first Jew to receive honors from Harvard, which I 
hardly believe.'^ 

In July of 1 899 he had met Doctor Solomon Solis Cohen in 
Amsterdam, where the question of his coming to America was 
again discussed, and he wrote to me on January 1, 1900, his 
views as they had then matured, first stating what his arrange- 
ments were in England, and adding: " America has thus only 
ideal attractions to me, offering as it does a larger field of 
activity which may become a source of blessing to future gener- 
ations. I also feel that I shall be more happy living among 
Jews. I want my synagogue and my proper Yomim Tobim 
among my people. There is also the question of the children 
being brought up among Jews, which is the only guarantee for 
the acquiring of a real heartfelt Judaism. I think we have 
once talked over all those points. This is what attracts me to 
your continent, but I cannot move from here before I see my 
future safe in America. I am prepared to give to the Semi- 
nary all my faculties and energies, even my very life.'^ He 
then asked me to keep an eye for reviews of his Sirach publi- 
cation and other articles that he had written, and added : " I 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 53 

do not care for praise. All that I am anxious for is that my 
results bearing on Bible criticism should become known in 
wider circles/' so that people might learn that Holy Writ 
according to the critics was not itself above criticism. He 
then goes on : "I am now occupied with preparing the author's 
introduction to the Midrash ha-Gadol, which I had to copy 
from another manuscript, my copy being defective at the 
beginning/' and then follows this comment on the Boer War 
then raging, which he considered very unrighteous : " We are 
now blessed with any amount of yellow papers, yellow sermons, 
yellow prayers (written in bad grammar) calling upon their 
yellow god to bless their arms to the glory of his holy name and 
the Anglo-Saxon race. The pro-Boer party, on the other hand, 
quotes aptly Ezekiel 35.10 (look it up). You know I hate 
imperialism of all kinds and of all ages." 

On April 22, 1900, he wrote in acknowledgment of some 
publications for his Sirach collections : " The latter complete 
my Sirach collections, already filling three volumes. At present 
I am chiefly busy with the Book of Jubilees, having discovered 
a fragment which I believe will at last solve this much dis- 
cussed problem." This fragment turned out to be part of the 
Zadokite work described above. 

In November, 1900, he wrote, reproaching me for my silence, 
in these words: ^^ Since months and months and months no 
lines from you. Cheyne has in the meantime discovered an 
eighth Isaiah." 

Doctor Schechter's life in England was a very happy one. 
He married there, and there his children were bom. He helped 
to make something of a Jewish center in Cambridge. The 
Jewish students organized a synagogue which they themselves 
conducted with zeal and devotion. The Cambridge Society for 



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54 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Jewish Studies, named after him before his departure from 
England, continues to exist. The great charm that he exer- 
cised over the learned authorities of Cambridge was evidenced 
by the beautiful parchments and other presentations that were 
made to him when he came to America. A striking example 
of the affection in which he was held is contained in a private 
letter of Sir James 6. Frazer, which I am taking the liberty 
of quoting from the article of Professor Marx : 

** In him we have lost one of our truest friends and one of 
the finest and most renaarkable men we have ever known. 
It would be difficult to say whether he was more admirable for 
the brilliance of his intellect and the readiness of his wit, or 
for the warmth of his affection and the generosity and nobility 
of his character, but I think it was the latter qualities even 
more than his genius which endeared him to his friends. It 
was a wonderful combination of intellectual and moral excel- 
lence, and the longer and the more intimately one knew him the 
more deeply did one feel the impression of his greatness and 
goodness. I reckon it among the good fortunes of my life to 
have had the privilege and honor of his friendship, and I am 
sure that very many who knew him must feel as I do. His 
memory — ^the memory of his intellectual honesty, his generous 
enthusiasm for everything that was noble and beautiful, and 
his unmeasured contempt for everything that was base and 
ignoble — ^the memory of this will abide with us and be an 
inspiration to us to the end of our lives." 

To the Jewish community of England, a conservative body, 
and in those days not readily yielding to the influence of a 
foreigner, he commenced to have more and more of a real 
meaning. He addressed to them in 1901 a series of Epistles, 
originally published in the Jewish Chronicle and reprinted 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTBR 55 

in pamphlet form, which attracted the attention of Jews not 
only there but possibly even more in America. His attack 
upon the occidental ization of the Jewish religion, while it 
again aroused the conscience, sank deep into the minds of 
many thinking Jews the world over, even of those who 
were not in agreement with his theological views. These 
epistles and the stray hints in the letters from which I have 
quoted above explain why it was that Doctor Schechter was 
willing to come to America. As he said, his removal was not 
based upon any material advantage to himself. Indeed, com- 
paratively speaking, there could have been none. There had 
been added to his readership at Cambridge a curatorship in 
the University library, a professorship in London, an exami- 
nership in Manchester, and I believe that a fellowship in 
one of the colleges was imminent. But what moved Doctor 
Schechter most to leave England was the fact that nearly all 
of his disciples at the University of Cambridge were non-Jews, 
and that while he recognized the usefulness of spreading a 
knowledge of Jewish literature among Christian theologians, 
he still had a very strong and natural desire to rear up a 
school of Jewish students who might properly carry on the 
traditions of Jewish learning. It was for this reason that he 
readily accepted the invitation extended to him to deliver a 
course of lectures on the Aspects of Eabbinic Theology before 
the Gratz College in Philadelphia in 1895, and that later on 
he was prepared to accept the new duty of President of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America when it was tendered 
to him in 1901. 

On September 10 of that year he wrote me informally ex- 
pressing his satisfaction that matters had been finally arranged, 
so that he could see his way to accepting the invitation to 
America. He asked for sufficient time to give notice to the 



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56 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

various boards of both Universities, of Cambridge and London, 
as well as to prepare his Genizah work in such a way that he 
could continue its editing in America. 

On October 24, 1901, he writes: " I am now waiting with 

impatience for the days when we shall be colleagues 

Have I told you that among other surprises that 1 still have 
for the world is a fragment of Anan's work, the founder of 
the Karaite Sect?'' 

On October 31, 1901, he wrote with regard to what he called 
the crusade against Jewish learning, which was then being 
taken up by the American Jewish press, and added : " Some- 
thing should be done to show people that ignorance is not the 
best accomplishment for a Jewish Minister." 

The negotiations had been carried on by Judge Sulzberger, 
and very shortly they must have reached a definite conclusion, 
for on November 24, 1901, Judge Sulzberger telegraphed me 
to Washington the very important message: " Schechter ac- 
cepts Presidency," and on December 24, Doctor Schechter 
wrote : " 1 have given to-day notice to all the institutions with 
which I am officially connected to take effect at the end of the 
Lent term, March 15." 

There were various causes, apart from the call to a new post, 
which finally induced Doctor Schechter to come to America. 
When he first went to England he had acquired a real liking 
and respect for the late Chief Eabbi, Doctor Hermann Adler, 
which T know was reciprocated, because when Doctor Jacobs 
came to America Doctor Adler wrote me that, though we were 
to get Jacobs, he thought that he had. succeeded in persuading 
Schechter to stay, and just before leaving England Schechter 
wrote there are " certain people determined to attack Doctor 
Adler, but 1 think that he is right. He has faults, but on the 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 57 

whole he is the real Eav and has the best traditions of the 
office/' He had not, however, found England as free as he 
thought, and the Boer War, which he considered unrighteous, 
had accentuated a feeling which he entertained against the 
ruling classes. In spite of the greatest religious toleration, 
the existence of an established church with its influence on the 
University seemed to him a cramping of the free spirit. The 
definite division into classes, of royalty, nobility, and the com- 
mon people, while gradually coming to mean less and less, was 
nevertheless artificial, and he felt it to be out of consonance 
with the spirit of true freedom. On the other hand, his ex- 
tensive reading of American literature had given him a sin- 
cere admiration for this country. Lincoln he revered as 
one of the greatest men of all times, and his remarkable essay 
on Lincoln indicates how carefully and how deeply he studied 
the character of that great American. His study of the litera- 
ture of the Civil War was as far-reaching and as accurate as 
that of his researches in any department in his own profession. 
He followed the military narratives as carefully as the political 
histories, and every biography and every memoir that he could 
secure he read. Though his partiality was clearly for the 
N^orth, and he believed the abolition of slavery to be one of the 
great triumphs of modern times, he had the deepest sympathy 
for the suffering of the South, and his military heroes of the 
Civil War were Hobert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson rather 
than any northern commander. 

Covering the years of his life in America there are fewer 
letters which illumine his ideas, as frequent contact rendered 
these unnecessary, and his correspondence was restricted to 
matters of business. Like many another, whilst some of the 
dreams which he brought to America became realities, in others 



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58 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

he was doomed to disappointment. His last published volume, 
Seminary Addresses and Other Papers, which appeared in 
September, 1915, indicates in a very fair way his relationship 
to the upbuilding of this distinguished institution of learning 
and the real understanding which he had of the religious needs 
of the Jewish community of America, as well as his opinions 
concerning the great movements which affected Jewry the 
world over. 

His first formal address in America was entitled "The 
Emancipation of Jewish Science/^ in which he pleaded for a 
study of the Bible by Jews. He pointed out that the Bible was 
not discovered by Cheyne and Wellhausen and that the opinions 
of Eashi, Ibn Ezra and Samuel b. Meir often appeared in com- 
mentaries under the name of Dillmann, Delitzsch, and Ewald ; 
that we were not to be satisfied with the recovery of the Bible 
alone, but must turn our attention to the large field of post- 
biblical history and literature, and so it appears that in this first 
public utterance on American soil, given on May 29, 1902, he 
outlined those great projects, a commentary on the Bible and 
the series of Jewish Classics, which are to become realities in 
the near future. It was to the Seminary itself, however, that 
he completely gave himself up, and he did succeed in creating 
a great school. Under his guidance there was assembled a 
faculty of men of learning who have trained a body of a hun- 
dred students, who are now in various pulpits manfully doing 
the work of Judaism throughout the length and breadth of this 
land, and have even penetrated into the British dominions. The 
teachers that he gathered about him, inspired by his example, 
have made notable contributions to Jewish literature, and some 
of them have taken an important share in the upbuilding of 
our Jewish communal institutions. Under his sympathetic 



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SOLOMON SOHECHTBR 59 

guidance and the able administration of Professor Marx there 
grew up the most notable Hebrew library of this continent and 
one of the three or four greatest collections in the world, this 
latter fact being the more remarkable since the European 
collections have had centuries in which to develop, while the 
Seminary library in its present grandeur is less than fifteen 
years old. Other plans, too, for the promotion of Jewish learn- 
ing Schechter had in mind. Of the Dropsie College he early 
became a Governor, and made most helpful suggestions toward 
its organization. A few months after Mr. Dropsie's death he 
conceived the idea of some form of consolidation of the Semi- 
nary with this new foundation, which included a great center 
for Jewish science which Judaism still wants. " It is a great 
opportunity," he wrote, " which must not be allowed to escape 
us. I am even dreaming of a Jewish academy with regular 
academicians which, by reason of its authority for scientific 
merit, should give Jewish opinion weight and importance in 
all matters relating to Hebrew learning.'^ 

At the dedication of the building of the Dropsie College he 
laid a great deal of stress upon the fact that we had an institu- 
tion of Jewish learning with which should always be con- 
nected original investigation and research. " Thank God," he 
declared, ^* we are beginning to be unpractical " ; that whereas 
most men were engaged in doing things, there would at least 
be a few who would think things, which he declared to be the 
mission of universities and colleges. While on this occasion he 
made a plea for impartiality in science, he declared : " I am 
grateful to God that I have still some bias in favor of Judaism 
.... the boast of non-sectarianism in matters of religion does 
not impress me. Tn most cases the man who claims this gift 
means nothing else but that he forms a sect for himself." He 



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60 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

was especially happy and magnetic on this particular evening, 
and 1 recall that the day after the Provost of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Doctor Edgar P. Smith, wrote me among 
other things : " I want to thank you for the opportunity to 
come to Dropsie College. I was delighted with your grand 
old man from New York. It was a real treat to see and hear 
him.^^ And when I sent this letter to Doctor Schechter he 
replied : " I hardly need tell you how pleased I was with the 
letter of your Provost and his kind words about me. Nor need 
I say how glad I was to be with you on the great occasion and 
to speak a few words. I tried to do my best as Governor and 
representative of the Seminary, but especially to please you." 
Although he had a very strong predilection for Philadel- 
phia, where he had formed his early friendships, and had at one 
time preferred that the Seminary should be in that city, he 
began more and more to be convinced of the importance of the 
establishment of a seat of learning in New York. I had sub- 
mitted to him for his criticism in 1909 a paper, the purport 
of which I have entirely forgotten ; but he wrote on April 30 
of that year : " Another point which should perhaps be a little 
more emphasized is also Dr. Morais's merit and foresight in 
establishing the College in New York. You speak of it in 
several places, but the fact of New York becoming with every 
day more and more the center of American thought in litera- 
ture, poetry, etc., is not suflBciently pointed out. What I mean 
to say is that to a certain extent the spiritual hegemony of 
Boston and other places is being transferred to New York. 
Further, it would also be well to dwell a little on the higher 
learning which is cultivated also in other branches, though 
only a little of it comes down and becomes directly useful for 
the public at large. For instance, my druggist is personally 



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SOLOMON SCHECHTER 61 

more useful to me than a Virchow and other famous teachers 
in medicine, whose names are household words in the scien- 
tific world. . But it is in the end these great men who dominate 
the faculties and from whose teachings we benefit, though in 

indirect ways The late Mr. Gladstone was in the habit 

of calling Oxford and Cambridge ^ the eyes of England,' thougli 
they are, as you know, the most conservative places, dominated 
by the most unpractical people, living only in ideas." 

Having secured and co-ordinated a strong faculty, developed 
a great library, and brought about a real spirit of zeal and 
enthusiasm among the students, having raised the Seminary to 
the plane of a post-graduate professional school, he was just 
about preparing to take the step of improving the method of 
teaching through the introduction of the tutorial system, thus 
giving to each student the specialization needed in view of 
the totally different character and previous training of the 
students of the Seminary. It is earnestly to be hoped that this 
plan may be carried out in the near future. But he was not 
content with having established the seat of learning, and so in 
accordance with the spirit of his remark about Virchow and 
the druggist he made provision to carry the fruits of Jewish 
learning, as expressed in traditional Judaism, to the people at 
large. It was with this in view that he created the United 
Synagogue of America, a Union for Promoting Traditional 
Judaism. He had discussed this with his friends for a long 
time, and some of them, I among the number, had doubts as 
to the wisdom or feasibility of the undertaking. When in 
1909 I finally wrote him of my agreement with his views, he 
replied, referring to the proposed organization : " This will be 
the greatest bequest that I shall leave to American Israel." 
The United Synagogue, he declared, had been called into life 



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62 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

without any purpose of creating a new division. " Life is too 
short for feuds, and the task before us is so great and so mani- 
fold that we must spare all our faculties and save all our 

strength for the work of a positive nature Indeed, what 

we intend to accomplish is not to create a new party, but to con- 
solidate an old one, which has always existed in this country, 
but was never conscious of its own strength, nor perhaps real- 
ized the need of organization. I refer to the large number of 
Jews who, thoroughly American in habits of life and mode of 
thinking and, in many cases, imbued with the best culture of 
the day, have always maintained conservative principles and 
remained aloof from the Reform movement which swept over 
the country. They are sometimes stigmatized as the Neo- 
Orthodox. This is not correct. Their Orthodoxy is not new. 
It is as old as the hills, and the taunt *new ^ can only be ac- 
counted for by the ignorance of those who took it into their 
heads that an observant Jew, who has taken a degree in a 
college, is a new phenomenon representing a mere paradox. 
A better knowledge of Jewish history would have taught theiri 
that culture combined with religion was the rule with the Jew ; 
culture without religion was the exception. There were cases, 
of course, of religion without culture, but these were to be 
found only in countries in which culture, such as it was, was 
confined to a small oflBcial class, consisting largely of clerics 
or priests, but in which the population at large had no share, 
whether Jewish or Christian. The ^ New ^ Orthodoxy, there- 
fore, represents very little that is new. It was the normal state 
of the Jew in Spain ; it was the normal state of the Jew in 
Italy ; it was the normal state of the Jew in England and in 
Holland ; it was the normal state of the Jew even in Germany, 
after the first calming down of the deluge, of the rationalism 



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SOLOMON SGHECHTER 63 

that came in the wake of the French Revolution, which swept 
over the country, and the traces of which are more discernible 
on the shores of the North Atlantic than on the banks of the 
Rhine. The frame of mind which insists upon the unbridge- 
able chasm between the ^ntelligentia ^ and devotion and loyalty 
to the religion of the fathers is, at present, limited to the 
countries in the Near East just emerging from a state of bar- 
barism, as is the case with Russia .... there were always 
Jews who were not carried away by big words. They knew well 
that a label meant nothing. You may describe yourself a 
Progressive and find, after a careful analysis, that you are 
woefully backward both in your philosophy and in your con- 
ception of history. You may call yourself a Liberal and be 
as narrow in your sympathies and as limited in the sphere of 
your thought as your worst opponent. You may stigmatize 
Orthodox Judaism as un-American, and suddenly discover that 
real Americanism meant reverence for the Bible as the word of 
Grod, obedience to the authority of the Scriptures, which lay 
at the foundation of this country, and that love for institutions 
and memories of the past is a particular feature with the best 
American minds." 

To the Jewish Publication Society of America he gave his 
powerful support from the very beginning. Indeed he had 
evinced his interest before he came to America. He sat on its 
Publication Committee and was one of the Board of Editors 
of the Bible Translation ; the latter piece of work he did with 
great unwillingness and simply from a sense of loyalty to the 
Society. He often said that for a man of his age and duties 
thirty days in the year for meetings for a period of seven years 
was too large a slice out of his life. Had he been spared he 
would undoubtedly have been the master mind in planning the 
3 



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64 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

commentary on the Bible, a project which he long had at heart. 
He was the Chairman of the Committee on the Series of Jewish 
Classics to be published by the Society, and in this work he had 
genuine pleasure, and it should be recorded that under his 
guidance the general outlines of the plan were agreed upon, 
and the very last days of his life were spent in their execution. 

While he was devoted to matters of Jewish learning, educa- 
tion, and religion, he took no active part in those general 
questions which have stirred the Jews of America, especially 
since the beginning of the Russian persecutions. The agitation 
with reference to the abrogation of the treaty with Eussia and 
its importance from the point of view of American citizenship 
deeply moved him and caused him to write a letter on the sub- 
ject to one of the New York newspapers. And after the House 
of Representatives had approved the resolution to abrogate the 
treaty, he wrote : " Let me congratulate you most heartily on 
your great success and your contribution to this success. It 
is the greatest deed known to me in the annals of Jewish his- 
tory of this century, and its significance probably goes much 
deeper than the public at large is able to see. It means the 
beginning of the redemption of Russian Jewry, which, I still 
hope to God, I may be worthy of seeing. But I am grateful 
for having seen the beginning.'^ 

Prom the important movement known as Zionism for a time 
he held aloof. The original plan of a secular Jewish state 
propounded by Doctor Herzl did not attract him. He was 
interested in Jews mainly because of Judaism, and like every 
good Jew longed and prayed for the restoration of Palestine 
and the coming of the Messiah. The presence among the 
leaders of Zionism of so many who had shown no particular 
allegiance to our religion likewise chilled his ardor. But when 



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SOLOMON SOHECHTBR 65 

there was a new alignment, and the Zionist movement was 
being attacked by some of its former friends and leaders who 
launched the Territorialist movement, which he considered 
purely material and a direct blow to Jewish aspirations, he 
boldly and unhesitatingly in 1906 gave his allegiance to the 
cause, and became one of its most capable and thoughtful advo- 
cates. He never subscribed to the most recent development 
of this movement in its nationalistic form, and his last writing 
on the subject, in the preface to the volume published in 1915, 
undoubtedly expressed his mature and final thought : 

** Speaking for myself, Zionism was, and still is, the most 
cherished dream I was worthy of having. It was beautiful to 
behold the rise of this mighty bulwark against the incessantly 
assailing forces of assimilation, which became the more dan- 
gerous, as we have now among us a party permeated by 
Christianizing tendencies, the prominent leaders of which are 
even clamoring for a recognition of Paul, the apostle to the 
heathen — ^not to the Jews. These tendencies which, it must be 
said in justice, would have been strenuously opposed by the 
founders of the Reform school, are now thrust upon us on every 
occasion, and Heaven knows where they might have landed us 
but for the Zionist movement which again brought forth the 
national aspect as a factor in Jewish thought. 

But this dream is not without its nightmares. For in their 
struggle to revive the national sentiment, some of the Zionist 
spokesmen, calling themselves by preference Nationalists, 
manifested such a strong tendency to detach the movement 
from all religion as can only end in spiritual disaster. There 
18 such a thing as the assimilation of Judaism even as there is 
such a thing as the assimilation of the Jew, and the former is 
bound to happen when religion is looked upon as a negligible 



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66 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

quantity. When Judaism is once assimilated the Jew will 
surely follow in its wake, and Jew and Judaism will perish 
together. All this is a consequence of preaching an aspect of 
nationalism more in harmony with Eoman and similar modern 
models than with Jewish ideas and ideals. However, night- 
mares are fleeting and evanescent — ^the vision as a whole still 
remains glorious. The aberrations will, let us hope, be swept 
away quickly enough, as soon as their destructive nature is 
realized by the majority of the Zionists whose central ideas 
should and will remain God and His people, Israel.^' 

The milestones of his work in America can best be found in 
this last published work which appeared in Septemljer, 1916. 
Upon his arrival he saw the vision of creating a theological 
center which should be all things to all men, reconciling all 
parties and appealing to all sections of the community. That 
he did appeal to all sections of the community there is no 
doubt, but it was not long before he saw that the reconciliation 
of all parties was not possible in the immediate future. But 
he nevertheless did his best to sound the conciliatory note, and 
in the preface to this last book he writes : " Standing, as 
the seminary does, for the healthy development of traditional 
Judaism in the midst of many movements and vagaries, none 
of which are without excesses and against which we are con- 
stantly struggling, it was not possible that the controversial 
feature should be entirely eliminated from the volume. Yet it 
will be found that the ultimate goal at which we are aiming is 
union and peace in American Israel ; the union of which I am 
thinking is not one of mere organization .... the union we 
are in need of is one on principle and the recognition of vital 
facts decisive in our past and indispensable for our safety in 
the future, by which alone Israel can hope for a name and 
remainder upon the earth." 



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SOLOMON SOHECHTER 67 

I have tried faintly to portray an outline sketch of a man 
who was unique in his generation^ a giant of intellect and 
learning in the world of scholarship at large, and who was in all 
probability the most important Jew of his time. But his 
genius, his scholarship, his leadership, the contributions that 
he made to every department of Jewish learning, the glory that 
he reflected upon the Jewish name are but a small portion of 
the picture of this noble and good man. He had sagacity, 
insight, and what I would call Jewish statesmanship in its 
highest form. While every fiber of his being was consecrated 
to Judaism, he was a citizen of the world, and no man could 
have taken a deeper interest in the great currents which move 
humanity, nor would there be found any who could interpret 
them more clearly than he. He was simple, tender, and con- 
siderate; he respected age and position, but even more, hon- 
esty and worth. He loved children, and counted hosts of little 
ones among his friends. He was a deeply religious man, re- 
ligious not only in the outward sense, but all his acts in life 
were conditioned by his belief and trust in God, and his 
belief in God^s goodness was so great that even under circum- 
stances which would have depressed most men, he was confi- 
dent and happy. And above all the material things that this 
world could bring him, all the scholarly success that he had, 
and all the honors that were bestowed upon him, he cherished 
love for his family and affection for his friends. 

While I exult in the man, I mourn and lament the friend 
whom I loved. " There is no exchange for a faithful friend." 



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68 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



JOSEPH JACOBS 

BY MAYER SULZBBBGEB 

Joseph Jacobs was one of the important figures in the Jewry 
of our age. Bom in New South Wales, educated in England, 
living there till his forty-sixth year, settled in this country 
during the last sixteen years of his life, he was in himself a 
type of the humanity and universality of the Jewish people. 

He was bom at Sydney on August 29, 1854, and died at 
Yonkers, in the State of New York, on January 30, 1916, in 
the sixty-second year of his age. 

His life was thus sharply divided into three periods. Of 
his first — ^the stage of juvenile preparation — we know nothing. 
At an early age, probably in his eighteenth year, we find him 
at St. John^s College, University of Cambridge. His degree 
of B. A. he took yi 1876, being the senior " moralist '^ of the 
year. At the university he appears to have been keenly inter- 
ested in mathematics, in history, in philosophy, in anthro- 
pology, and in general literature. 

These interests, as he developed, took shape in two distinct 
lines of mental activity, literature and anthropology, of which 
folk-lore is an important part. For the former, whoever may 
have been his living preceptors, he sat at the feet of the great 
masters from Chaucer to Browning. He was at home in the 
whole field of English literature, and loved its masterpieces in 
prose and poetry. He wrote with ease and grace, so that even 
his researches in matters of pure science were free from the 
stiffness commonly ascribed to the average professor's style. 



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JOSEPH JACOBS 69 

Had he followed literature as a career he might have at- 
tained a high place in the illustrious roll of honor of Britain's 
literary worthies. One has but to read the specimens embodied 
in his "Essays and Eeviews'^ (London, 1891) to be con- 
vinced of his marvellous powers of thought and diction. 

Fate, however, determined otherwise. In the very year of 
his graduation (1876) George Eliofs Daniel Deronda was 
published. It ventured to treat a great Jewish problem with 
understanding and sympathy. That this might not rouse the 
enthusiasm of critics the authoress well knew. On December 
1, 1876, she writes in her journal : " I have been made aware of 
much repugnance or else indifference towards the Jewish part 
of * Deronda,' and of some hostile as well as adverse reviewing. 
.... Words of gratitude have come from Jews and Jewesses, 
and these are certain signs that I may have contributed my 
mite to a good result." 

That the hostility of the criticisms on Daniel Deronda 
grieved George Eliot is doubtless true, notwithstanding her 
assertion that she never read criticisms of her works. There 
are always good friends who spare us the labor of reading 
disagreeable things by telling us of them with painful fidelity. 

To the fresh and youthful mind of Jacobs the practical una- 
nimity of hostile criticism conveyed the message that even in 
his beloved England there was a strain of Jew-hatred, uncon- 
scious perhaps, but widely prevalent. 

Under the stress of this feeling he wrote the critical essay 
entitled "Mordecai,'' which appeared in Macmillan's Maga- 
zine (June, 1877). It is one of the series afterwards pub- 
lished under the title of " Jewish Ideals " (Macmillan & Co., 
1896). As the production of a youth fresh from college, it is 



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70 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

a marvellous piece of work, displaying wide knowledge and 
deep thought couched in language at once apt and noble. 

Under the spur of the feeling which produced " Mordecai," 
he went in the same year to Berlin, and there studied Jewish 
literature and bibliography under Steinschneider and Jewish 
philosophy and ethnology under Lazarus. 

When he came back to England he turned to anthropology, 
under the guidance of Sir Francis Galton. In the pursuit of 
this study his interest in folk-lore increased, and he pursued 
the subject earnestly, never, however, allowing his attention to 
the Jewish side of the subject to flag. 

With interests so wide, an intellect so keen, and a pen so 
ready, his literary productivity was naturally great. His pub- 
lished writings, numerous as they are, give but an imperfect 
idea of Jacobs^ phenomenal industry. While engaged in these 
serious studies he did an enormous amount of practical work. 
From ISTS to 1884 he was secretary of the Society of Hebrew 
Literature. When Russia, in 1881, began its present cruel 
persecution of the Jews, it was Jacobs who, in the London 
Times of January 11 and January 13, 1882, drew the atten- 
tion of Europe to this new development of barbarism. The 
result was the Mansion House meeting of February 1, 1882, 
and the formation of the Mansion House Fund and Com- 
mittee, whose secretary he was from 1882 to 1900. 

He was, too, very active in promoting the Anglo-Jewish 
Historical Exhibition of 1887, was the honorary secretary of 
its literature and art committee, and in that capacity com- 
piled (with Lucien Wolf) its excellent catalogue. That 
exhibition, held in Eoyal Albert Hall, London, also resulted 
in a series of publications of papers of great historic value, in 
which he took a leading part. Especially important was the 



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JOSEPH JACOBS 71 

Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica, a work which, in the language of 
Doctor Israel Abrahams, " has been the inspiration of all sub- 
sequent researches in that field /^ 

In 1888 Jacobs visited Spain for the purpose of investigat- 
ing the manuscript sources of the history of the Jews of that 
country, on which occasion the Eoyal Academy of History at 
Madrid elected him a corresponding member. His note- 
worthy discourse at his reception into that society is the last 
article in his book entitled "Jewish Ideals'' (London and 
New York, 1896). 

In 1891 he wrote, in connection with the Guildhall meeting, 
a further account of Eussian persecutions, with an appendix 
on anti-Jewish legislation in Eussia. This is the carefully pre- 
pared paper in which occurs the fateful sentence : " The Eus- 
sian law declares all Jews to be aliens.'' The little book was 
entitled " The Persecution of the Jews in Eussia," was pub- 
lished in London in 1891, and was promptly republished in 
this country by the Jewish Publication Society of America. 

In 1896 he began the issue of the Jewish Year Books in 
England, which have become an institution. He continued 
their publication until his departure from England, the last 
one issued by him being the one for 1899. These Year Books 
were works of great usefulness. They furnished not only 
practical information to the many, but contained matter of his- 
torical and other scientific value. Indeed, they set a standard 
for that kind of publication, which has since been followed in 
England and in our own country. 

With the year 1900 the second period of Jacobs' life ended. 
He had in 1896 visited the United States, and had delivered 
his lectures on The Philosophy of Jewish History before Gratz 



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72 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

College in Philadelphia, and before the Council of Jewish 
Women at New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago. 

When in 1900 the fertile brain of Dr. Isidore Singer evolved 
the audacious scheme of a great Jewish Encyclopedia, which 
should enlist the service of six hundred collaborators, of whom 
nearly one-half were residents of countries in which English 
is not the national language, it was apparent that the work 
could not succeed unless the department for revising the manu- 
scripts was of the highest capacity and efficiency. There was but 
one opinion as to the proper man for the place, and Joseph 
Jacobs was called to enter upon his American career. 

It is needless in this presence to enlarge upon the character 
of that enterprise. It is one of the greatest works of construc- 
tive scholarship that has been produced in America. To quote 
Dr. Jacobs himself : " It gives a complete Jewish history, a 
complete Jewish theology, a nearly complete account of Jewish 
literature, and the first sketch of a complete Jewish sociology.'' 
Moreover, it furnishes illustrations to the number of nearly 
2500. Of these, 63 are maps, 112 are specimens of Hebrew 
typography, 333 are portraits, and there is a goodly number 
of facsimiles of manuscripts. 

Jacobs was not only the revising editor, responsible for the 
English of the myriad articles contained in the work, but he 
had also his special departments in which he was an expert, 
namely, " Anthropology " and " Jews of England." An idea 
of his labors may be obtained from the fact that more than 
four hundred articles were written by him, and that the-valu- 
able illustrations were largely due to his efforts. 

During his presence in this country he was actively engaged 
in practical affairs. He took a lively interest in the American 
Jewish Historical Society, was a working member of the Publi- 



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JOSEPH JACOBS 73 

cation Committee of the Jewish Publication Society, was for 
some years a professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
since 1906 was editor of the American Hebrew, and since 1914 
director of the Bureau of Jewish Statistics. With these mani- 
fold occupations he found time to make psychological experi- 
ments and observations intended to be utilized in a great book 
he had long planned, and to which I shall presently allude. 

As far back as 1889 he had privately printed his " Plan of 
a Projected Work,^^ which he tentatively called " The Jewish 
Race — ^A Study in National Character.^' It was to be divided 
into two main parts, with an introductory part. 

The introduction was to have two chapters (three sections). 

The first part was to have nine chapters (twenty-two sec- 
tions) . It was entitled " Traits." 

The second part was to have twelve chapters (forty-two 
sections). Its title was to be " Historic Causes." 

And the whole was to be rounded out by a " Conclusion." 

He had tentative titles for each of the sections. Sixteen of 
these sections had as early as 1889 been printed under various 
titles, and there is little doubt that he had always worked at 
some of the others, and it may be that he left the book in a 
finished state. The hope that this may be so is strengthened by 
the remark of Professor Marx, in the American Hebrew of 
February 11, 1916, that he saw all but the concluding chapter 
of a work which is probably the same as that so carefully 
planned more than a quarter of a century since. 

Needless to say, Dr. Jacobs^ reputation in England was 
great. He was one of the leading contributors to the 
AthencBum, was called to edit Folk-Lore, was looked upon as 
the leading authority on fairy tales and the migration of fables. 
He was president, too, of the Jewish Historical Society. In 



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74 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Spain he was received into the Eoyal Academy of History, and 
in this country the Brooklyn Institute elected him a member, 
and the University of Pennsylvania conferred on him its de- 
gree of Doctor of Letters. 

It is still too early to assign to Dr. Jacobs the place to 
which he is fairly entitled in the realms of English literature, 
of folk-lore, of anthropology, and of Jewish history and eth- 
nology. Personally I am convinced that it will be high. 

In conclusion, let me speak a word of appreciation of the 
man. His was a noble nature, incapable of envy. With an 
insatiable thirst for knowledge, he was always ready to wel- 
come a fellow-inquirer. His abundant stores were at every 
one's disposal, and neither the youth nor the humble position 
of the worker hindered his admiration of any achievement. 

He was, in the beautiful language of his friend and mine, 
Israel Zangwill, of " the simple brotherhood of souls that seek 
the highest good," "confronting life with kindly eyes, a 
scholar unafraid.'^ 

The opportunity to prepare a complete bibliography has 
been denied me. Enough, however, can be mentioned offhand 
to show his fertility. The. dates of the publications do not 
refer to the dates of authorship of the contents, but to their 
collection into volumes. 

1 1886 The Comparative Distribution of Jewish Ability. 

2 1887 The Fables of Bidpai (edited). 

3 1888 A Bibliographical Guide to Anglo-Jewish History (with 

Lucien Wolf). 

4 The London Jewry of 1290. 

5 1889 The Jewish Race. 

6 Aesop's Fables (edited). 

7 1890 English Fairy Tales. 

8 Day's Daphnis & Chloe (edited). 

9 The Persecution of the Jews in Russia. 

10 Painter's Palace of Pleasure (edited). 

11 1891 Celtic Fairy Tales. 

12 Essays and Reviews. 



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JOSEPH JACOBS 75 



13 Jewish Statistics. 

14 Gracian's Art of Worldly Wisdom (translated and 

edited). 

15 1892 Indian Fairy Tales. 

16 Howell's Familiar Letters (edited). 

17 Tennyson and In Memoriam. 

18 1893 More English Fairy Tales. 

19 Jews of Angevin England. 

20 1894 More Celtic Fairy Tales. 

21 Studies in Biblical Archaeology. 

22 Aesop's Fables. 

23 Statistics of Jewish Population in London, etc 

24 1895 Reynard the Fox. 

25 Literary Studies. 

26 As Others Saw Him. 

27 Sources of the History of the Jews of Spain. 

28 1896 Jewish Ideals. 

29 Wonder Voyages. 

30 Introduction to Job. 

31 Morris* Old French Romances (edited). 

32 Goldsmith's Comedies (edited). 

33 Thackery's Esmond (edited). 

34 Barlaam and Josaphat (edited). 

35 Jewish Year Book (edited). 

36 Arabian Nights (edited). 

37 1897 Jewish Year Book (edited). 

38 1898 Jewish Year Book (edited). 

39 1899 Jewish Year Book (edited). 

40 Introduction to Austin's Emma. 

41 Introduction to Chamisso's Peter Schlemihl. 

42 Story of Geographical Discovery. 

43 Tales from Boccacio (edited). 

44 1916 Europa's Fairy Book. 



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76 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND NAVY 

BY LEWIS LANDES • 

As the question of preparedness is before the public, and as 
the Council of Young Men's Hebrew Associations extend 
their activities to the soldiers and to the sailors, it is naturally 
of interest to know how many Jews there are in our Army and 
Navy. The Jews constitute only two per cent of the country's 
population ; what percentage do they form in the military and 
naval service ? For the past four months the Bureau of Sta- 
tistics of the American Jewish Committee, in conjunction 
with the Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Asso- 
ciations, has been endeavoring to answer this question. 

This is the first attempt that has been made to secure such 
figures, and the task has been a difficult one. It is not half 
completed yet. 

The method employed was as follows : 

A letter was written to all regimental post commanders 
throughout the Army, asking them to send the names of Jews 
in their commands; and a similar letter was written to the 
commanding officers of ships in the Navy, asking the names of 
the men of Jewish faith on the ships. 

These answers, of course, were purely voluntary. 

Accordingly 757 letters were sent to such commanding 
officers, 383 to the Army and 364 to the Navy. Of the total 
number of 757 letters sent, 181 replies have to date been 

♦Executive Secretary Army and Navy Department Council of 
Y. M. H. and Kindred Associations. 



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JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND NAVY 77 

received from the Army officers and 149 from the Naval 
oflScers. In very many instances these answers have been 
incomplete. 

In the following r6sum6, which gives the results and esti- 
mates thus ascertained, the different branches of the service 
are arranged not according to the military requirements, but 
according to the larger numbers as secured by the Bureau of 
Statistics. 

1. Infantry. 5. Signal Corps. 

2. Coast Artillery. 6. Engineers. 

3. Cavalry. 7. Hospital Corps. 

4. Field Artillery. 8. Ordnance Corps. 

Infantry 

At present there are 30 regiments of Infantry, one regiment 
consisting of colored men. Our estimate is therefore based on 
29 Infantry organizations. 

Eeplies were received from 12 regimental commanding 
officers with a total of 729 names of Jewish men. The average 
for a regiment would be about 61, although in many instances 
the figures given amounted to more than 100 to a regiment. 
The estimated result would, therefore, total 1709 Jews in the 
29 Infantry regiments. 

Coast Artillery 

There are 170 companies of Coast Artillery. Figures were 
secured from 59 companies with a total of 377 Jews; the 
average would, therefore, be about 6 to a company and a total 
of 1020 for 170 companies. 



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78 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Cavalry 

There are 15 regiments of Cavalry, one being colored. 

Our estimate is, therefore, based on 14 organizations. Of 
14 commanding officers, 6 replied as having 336 Jews. The 
average secured, therefore, would be about 56 to a regiment, 
or an estimated total of 784 for the 14 regiments. 

Field Artillery 

Of the 6 regiments of this branch of the service, 5 organiza- 
tions sent complete returns, with a total of 188 Jews. That 
gives an average of 38 to an organization and a total of 228. 

Signal, Hospital, Engineers, and Ordnance Corps did not 
send in complete returns, and for that reason no estimate can 
as yet be presented. 

According to the available records, the number of men 
serving with the different military organizations of the country 
is given below, and directly opposite is placed the estimated 
number of Jews in these branches, of the service. 

War Department Estimate of Jews 

June 1916 January 1916 

Infantry 28,998 1,709 

Coast Artillery 17,901 1,020 

Cavalry 12,823 784 

Field Artillery 4,992 228 

Total 64,714 3,741 

These figures do not include the Porto Eico regiment and 
the Philippine scouts. 

It will, therefore, be noted that these estimates and the 
figures given by the War Department show that Jews serving 
in the Army amount to six per cent of the total enlistment. 



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JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND NAVY 79 

It may be asked, if the War Department does not keep a 
record of Jews, how can the commanding oflBcer reply to our 
question ? 

In investigating this matter, it was found that in nearly all 
cases notices were placed on the bulletin board of barracks, 
with a request that Jews send in their names to the office. In 
many cases the men failed to do this; one company in the 
vicinity of New York City is known to have over eight per cent 
of Jewish men in it, yet only one sent in his name to the office. 
It can readily be seen, therefore, that the figures upon which 
our estimates are based are probably much below the real 
figures. 

According to information furnished by officers, the actual 
number of Jews who are serving on 128 ships is 844. These 
figures do not include the men on the ships of the dreadnought 
type in the Navy, for which no estimate can be made. It, 
nevertheless, appears that there are 4,585 Jewish officers and 
men serving in our moderate military establishment. 

N. B. — Since the preparation of this article the army has been 
increased by Congress to a very great extent. 



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80 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



EVENTS IN 5676 
June 1, 1915, to May 31, 1916 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 
A. United States 

PAGE 

I. The Government of the United States and Affairs of 

Interest to Jews 84 

II. General Events of Interest to Jews 

Bible in Schools; Religion in Public Schools; Facilities 
for Jewish Religious Observance; Miscellaneous 84 

III. European Wab 

Congress and Conference Movements; Relief Work; 
Other Events 88 

IV. Jewish Communal Life 

Anniversaries; Activity of Organizations; Other Events 93 

Synagogues and Homes of Societies Dedicated 96 

V. Appointments, Honors, and EJlections 99 

VI. Necrology 105 

B. B\>REiGN Countries 
Arabia 

General Ill 

Australia and New Zealand 

General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Necrol- 
ogy; European War Ill 

Austria-Hungary 

I. General Events Affecting Jews 112 

II. Appointments, Honors, and Elections 113 

III. Necrology 114 

IV. European War 

General; Decorations; Promotions; Necrology 115 



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EVENTS IN 5676— CONTENTS 81 

Belgium page 

European War 120 

BULGABIA 

European War 120 

Canada 

General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Euro- 
pean War 120 

Egypt 

European War 121 

Prance 

I. General Events Affecting Jews 122 

II. Appointments, Honors, and Elections 122 

III. Necrology 123 

IV. European War 

General; Decorations; Promotions; Necrology 124 

Germany 

I. General Events Affecting Jews 127 

II. Appointments, Honors, and EIlections 128 

III. Necrology 130 

IV. European War 

General; Decorations; Promotions; Necrology 132 

Greece 

General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Necrol- 
ogy; European War 136 

India 

Appointments, Honors, and Elections; European War. . 137 

Italy 

I. General Events Affecting Jews 137 

II. Appointments, Honors, and Elections 138 

III. Necrology 138 

IV. European War 

General; Decorations; Promotions; Necrology 138 

V. Jewish Officers in Italian Army in War, 1915-1916 140 

Jamaica 

Necrology 148 



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82 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Netherlands page 

General; Necrology 148 

Palestine 208 

Persia 

General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections 149 

ROUMANIA 

General; Necrology; Ehiropean War 149 

Russia 

I. Persecution and Repression 

Anti-Jewish Propaganda 151 

Attacks on Jews 154 

Blood Accusation 154 

Expulsions and Domiciliary Restrictions 156 

Industrial and Professional Restrictions 157 

Suppression of Zionist Propaganda 158 

Educational Restrictions 159 

Other Forms of Repression 103 

II. General Events Affecting Jews 

Growth of Pro-Jewish Sentiment 104 

Duma Discussions and Legislation 109 

Polish-Jewish Relations 173 

Finland 175 

Miscellaneous 175 

III. Jewish Communal Life 177 

IV. Appointments, Honors, and Elections 178 

V. Necrology 179 

VI. European War 

Places Destroyed; Accusations of Treachery; Expul- 
sions; Extension of Pale; Condition of Refugees; Re- 
lief Work; Miscellaneous; Decorations; Promotions. . 179 
Servia 

European War 200 

Spain 

Appointment 200 

Sweden 

General; Necrology 200 



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EVENTS IN 6676— CONTENTS 83 

Switzerland paoe 
General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Ne- 
crology; European War 206 

Tripoli 

General 207 

Tunis 

General; Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Ne- 
crology 207 

Turkey 

I. Turkey (except Palestine) 

General ; European War < 208 

II. Palestine and Syria 

General Events Affecting Jews; European War; Ap- 
pointments, Honors, and Elections; Necrology 208 

Union of South Africa 

Appointments, Honors, and Elections; Necrology; Euro- 
pean War 210 

United Kingdom 

I. Jewish CJommunal Life 211 

II. Appointments, Honors, and Elections 213 

III. Necrology 213 

IV. European War 

General; Decorations; Promotions; Necrology 215 



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84 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



A- 
UNITED STATES 



THE GOVERNMENT OP THE UNITED STATES AND AFFAIRS 
OF INTEREST TO JEWS 

June 2. New York City: Upon appeal of Hebrew Sheltering and 
Immigrant Aid Society, Secretary of Labor Wilson suspends order 
deporting two hundred Russian immigrants, on ground that it is 
inhuman to subject them to hardships of trip to their homes via 
Archangel. — October 29. United States Supreme Court decides 
that immigration authorities are not authorized to take into 
account alleged industrial conditions in place of immigrant's desti- 
nation, in their supposed relations to immigrant's becoming a 
public charge. — December 7. Senator William P. Dillingham, Ver- 
mont, introduces bill containing a literacy test and providing for 
the limitation of admissions in a year of any nationality to ten per 
cent of the residents of that nationality. — January 20-21. Wash- 
ington, D. C: Hearing before House Committee on Immigration 
on Burnett Bill (H.R. 10384). Louis Marshall appears for the 
American Jewish Committee, Leon Sanders for the Hebrew 
Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, Manuel F. Behar for Lib- 
eral Immigration League, and Louis E. Levy for the Philadelphia 
Association for the Protection of Jewish Immigrants and for the 
Independent Order B'nal B'rith. — 31. Burnett Immigration Bill, 
reported by Committee to the House of Representatives, practically 
exempts Jewish immigrants from Russia from literacy test. — 
March 27. Literacy Test retained in Burnett Immigration bill by 
House of Representatives by vote of 225 to 82. — ^April 17. Louis 
Marshall, president of American Jewish Committee, informs De- 
partment of State that the Committee has received cablegram stat- 
ing that Jewish population of Russia fear new series of pogroms in 
cities and villages, where Jews are now congregated, during Easter. 

II 
GENERAL EVENTS OF INTEREST TO JEWS 

BIBLE IN SCHOOLS:— October 29. Indianapolis, Ind.: Pro- 
posal to have Bible readings in the high schools opposed by Rabbi 
Feuerlicht, tabled by School Board. — February 28. Newark, N. J. : 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 85 

Julius Silberfeld, rabbi, Temple B'nai Abraham, appears before 
New Jersey State Senate Committee to protest against bill for com- 
pulsory Bible reading" in elementary schools. — March 14. Albany, 
N. Y.: Rabbis Bernard Drachman and David de Sola Pool appear 
before the Senate Judiciary Committee to oppose the Greiner bill 
providing for reading of selected verses from the Bible in the 
public schools. — 15. Trenton, N. J.: Senate passes Bill requiring 
the reading of passages from the Old Testament daily in the public 
school of the State, by vote of 17 to 4. — 17. Greenville, Miss.: 
Reading of Bible In Public School eliminated through efforts of 
Rabbi Jacob Mielziner. — April 7. Harry Plotz, physician of Mt. 
Sinai Hospital, New York City, awarded medal, at Uskub, for 
services in typhus epidemic. 

RELIGION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS : —November 4. New York 
City: Board of Jewish Ministers considers Gary system of school 
organization with special reference to its provisions for religious 
instruction, and adopts resolution favoring introduction of the 
system into New York schools. Committee of five appointed to 
report to special meeting of the board some method of co-operation, 
by which all Jewish pupils may be reached effectively. — 12. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.: Rabbis oppose introduction of Gary system in Public 
Schools. — 13. New York City: Meeting of principals and directors 
of Talmud Torahs and representatives of organizations interested 
in teaching of Jewish children adopts resolution against intro- 
duction of Gary system, it being opposed to the spirit of equality 
now prevailing in the public schools and to the interests of the 
Jewish people. — 24. New York City.: Isadore M. Levy, member 
of Board of Education, introduces resolution opposing religious 
instruction feature of Gary plan. — 26. Independent Order Free 
Sons of Israel adopts resolution protesting against the religious 
education feature of the Gary plan. — 28. New York City: Con- 
vention of Delegates of Jewish Community (Kehillah) discusses 
Gary system and a statement by the Bureau of Education on its 
probable effect on Jewish education. Resolutions adopted oppos- 
ing any change in the traditional American attitude toward public 
education, in regard to its non-sectarian and non-religious charac- 
ter, and recommending a six consecutive hour school day, or less, 
thus affording Jewish parents opportunity of giving their children 
religious instruction outside of Public School hours. — December. 
Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, First District, General Com- 
mittee, adopts resolution opposing religious education feature of 
Gary plan. — January 17. Boston, Mass.: Nathan Ullian protests 
to School Committee against further use in Boston Public Schools 
of doctrinal song books.-r-MARCH 20. Boston : Boston School Com- 
mittee holds public hearing on merits of petition to eliminate all 
Christological references from song books in public schools. — May 



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86 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



16-17. New York City: Annual convention of Orthodox Rabbis 
of United States and Canada adopts resolution opposing Gary plan 
in public schools. 

FACILITIES FOR JEWISH RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES:— 
July 9. Camden, N.J. : Petition addressed to Board of Education 
by the Young Men's Hebrew Association praying that Jewish 
pupils be not made to suffer deduction marks for absence on holy 
days. — September 18. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University de- 
clines to change date of examinations scheduled for Yom Kippur, 
but grants permission to Jewish students to dictate answers to 
stenographers. — Octobeb 21. Lorain, O.: Board of Education re- 
ceives petition signed by citizens asking for use of Garden Avenue 
school building for purpose of instructing Jewish children in Jew- 
ish religion. — November 5. Philadelphia, Pa.: Cyrus Adler, presi- 
dent, on behalf of the Jewish Community of Philadelphia, protests 
to Governor Brumbaugh against discrimination by hotels in the 
State against Jews, and urges passage of a law prohibiting such 
discrimination. — December 6. Washington, D. C: Secretary of 
War Garrison in reply to inquiry by Representative Chandler of 
New York denies charge that discrimination is practiced against 
Jews in admissions to West Point Military Academy. — March 10. 
New York City: Interborough Rapid Transit Company, upon re- 
quest of Jewish Sabbath Association, agrees to excuse Jewish em- 
ployees on the Sabbath, upon receipt of individual applications. — 
21. Governor McCall, of Massachusetts, signs the Kosher Meat 
Bill. 

MISCELLANEOUS:— June 7-12. New York City: National 
Women's Trade Union League of America at fifth biennial con- 
vention expresses indignation against inhuman acts of Russian 
Government. — July 20. New York City: Strike of sixty thousand 
workers of the American Manufacturers* Association averted by 
agreement valid until Sept. 1, 1916, which guarantees employees 
from 12 to 15 per cent increase in wages. — 22. In a letter to editor 
of Jewish Daily News of New York City, the Pope states that Holy 
See has in past acted in accord with dictates of justice in favor of 
Jews, and intends to follow that path on every propituous occasion 
that may present itself. — ^August 16. Leo M. Frank, leading 
figure in celebrated murder trial, victim of mob near Marietta, Ga. 
— 20. St. Louis, Mo. : Eleven Jewish grocers summoned into City 
Court on complaint of police, because shops are open on Sunday. — 
October 11. Conneaut, O. : " Merchant of Venice " removed from 
the curriculum of Public Schools. — November 19. Albert Bonn- 
heim, of Sacramento, presents to University of California fund of 
^100,000 to be known as the Joseph Bonnheim Memorial Fund. — 
January 20. George Alexander Kohut, New York City, presents 
father's collection of Hebrew and rabbinic literature to Yale Uni- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— QNITBD STATES 87 



versity. — Febbuary 1. New York City: Columbia University 
includes In its curriculum a course in Yiddish, to be conducted by 
Elias Margolis.— 11. New York Chamber of Commerce adopts 
resolution in favor of enactment of commercial treaties with Rus- 
sia, Nicaragua and United States of Colombia, provided such 
treaties can be negotiated without departing from those principles 
of equality and justice for which the Government of the United 
States aims to stand in relation to all its citizens and to all foreign 
nations. — 25.^New Haven, Conn.: Board of Education votes to 
prohibit reading of " Merchant of Venice " in Public Schools. This 
prohibition applies also to Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare" 
until an edition is published which omits this play. — 26. New 
York City: Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador to Turkey, on visit 
home, given public reception at College of City of New York. — 
Mabch 3. New York City: Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant 
Aid Society informed that Russian Government grants travel- 
ing permission to wives and children of men who e&igrated to 
America before the war. — 10. New York: Rabbis warned by Dis- 
trict Attorney against solemnizing marriages for couples who had 
not obtained civil licenses. — 21. Democratic State Convention, 
Missouri, adopts resolution endorsing nomination of Louis D. 
Brandeis as Associate Justice of Supreme Court. — 27. Mobile, 
Ala.: Monument to Esau Frohlichstein, Jewish marine of Mobile, 
killed at Vera Cruz two years ago, t6 be erected in Fearn Way, on 
a plot to be called " Frohlichstein Square." — April 25. Represen- 
tative William S. Bennet (N. Y.), in a speech in House of Repre- 
sentatives, criticises Department of State for refusing to investi- 
gate case of Solomon Schwartz, an American citizen of Austrian 
birth, retained in an English prison for a year. — 26. Mayor 
Mitchell, Jacob H. Schiff, Oscar S. Straus, Felix Adler, and others 
^11 conference of representatives of cloak and suit manufacturers 
with view to averting lock-out proposed for April 29th. — Henry 
Morgenthau resigns as Ambassador to Turkey. — May 13. Harper's 
Weekly, under title " Jews and Immigration," publishes an article 
by Louis Marshall, president of American Jewish Committee, refut- 
ing editorial statement by Norman Hapgood that the Committee 
had maintained a lobby in Washington to have the words " includ- 
ing Hebrew and Yiddish" inserted in literacy test provision in 
immigration bill, and also refuting charge of unfairness to Russia 
in book published by Committee entitled " The Jews in the Eastern 
War Zone." — 26. Atlantic City, N. J.: General assembly of 
Presbyterian Church in United States of America adopts resolu- 
tions petitioning President Wilson that the United States partici- 
pate in an international conference for alleviating condition of 
Jews in Europe. — Maurice Simmons, former national commander- 
in-chief of United States Spanish war veterans, presents to 



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88 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Governor Whitman, of New York, formal charges against captain 
H. E. Sullivan, Battery D., 2d Field Artillery, National Guard 
of New York, accusing him of having refused to enroll Jews on 
account of their religion. * 

HI ' > 

EUROPEAN WAR 

CONGRESS AND CONFERENCE MOVEMENT§?^JifNK 7. At- 
lantic City, N. J.: Independent Order Brith Abraham at seventh 
annual convention adopts resolution declaring itself " in favor of 
the calling of a Jewish conference at the most opportune time to 
consider all Jewish questions." — 17. Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish 
Community adopts resolution leaving the American Jewish Com- 
mittee to decide as to the advisability of calling a general Jewish 
Conference and the manner of constituting such a conference, 
if called. — 20. New York City: American Jewish Committee 
at special meeting adopts resolution approving a conferenc^ 
of not more than One hundred and fifty delegates of Jewish 
national organizations, at Washington, D. C, about October 
24, for sole purpose of considering the Jewish question as it. 
affects Jews in belligerent lands. — 27. Boston, Mass.: Provi-/ 
sional Committee for General Zionist Affairs adopts resolution 
in favor of the convening of. an American Jewish Congress on 
a democratic basis, and that other national Jewish organiza- 
tions in the United States be invited to issue a joint call for 
an American Jewish Congress, to consider the proper steps to 
be taken to obtain full civil status for the Jews in all lands and for 
the development of a home land for the Jews in Palestine. — Jul'x 
11. Buffalo, N. Y. : Jewish National Workers' Alliance of America, 
at annual convention, endorses a Jewish Congress. — Attgtjst 4. At- 
lantic City, N. J. : Executive Committee of the Independent Order 
of B'nai B'rith, adopts motion that the communication from the 
American Jewish Committee inviting the Order to participate in 
a conference and the invitation from Jewish Congress Organiza- 
tion Committee be referred to the president of the Order with a 
view of making an effort to secure a union of forces. — 5. New York 
City: Nationalist Socialist Congress Agitation Committee holds 
mass meeting to promote Jewish Congress. — 19. New York City: 
Mass meeting called by Jewish Congress Organization Committee 
adopts resolution favoring a Congress to consider the Jewish 
Question in all its phases and that the Congress be democratically 
convened and constituted, and give free and public expression to 
the aims and aspirations of the Jewish people. — Arverne, N. Y. 
C: Meeting under auspices of the Society for the Advancement 
of Judaism approves Conference of representatives of national 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 89 



Jewish organizations called by the American Jewish Committee. — 
31. Philadelphia, Pa. : Meeting of conference of delegates of local 
organizations adopts resolutions favoring a Jewish Congress. — 
OcTOBEB 3. Meeting called by Adolf Kraus, attended by heads of 
twenty-two national Jewish organizations and institutions, dis- 
cusses the Congress. — 10. Executive Committee of the American 
Jewish Committee adopts resolution postponing the proposed 
Washington conference, pending negotiations with various organ- 
izations and bodies and in view of approaching annual meeting. — 
No\'EMBEB 14. New York City: American Jewish Committee at 
ninth annual meeting adopts resolution that the American Jewish 
Committee join with other national Jewish organizations in the 
calling of a conference for the purpose of considering the rights of 
Jews in belligerent lands and in Roumania, and that it take steps 
to call a congress on a democratic basis after the termination of 
hostilities and at such place and in such manner as it may seem 
best for the securing of these rights. — 21. New York City: Pre- 
liminary Conference of representatives from National Jewish or- 
ganizations to discuss ways and means of convening a Jewish Con- 
gress. — January 16. Executive Committee of the Independent 
Order of B'nai B'rith adopts resolutions to the effect that the or- 
ganization stands ready to co-operate in emergencies with other 
recognized Jewish organizations in matters affecting the Jew- 
ish cause. It is not deemed advisable to participate in the 
proposed congress, but the Ordei* will co-operate with the Jew- 
ish Congress if in the opinion of the Advisory Committee the 
plan and method adopted at such Congress, if held, shall be 
deemed practical and feasible. — 17. San Francisco, Cal.: Meet- 
ing of two hundred delegates representing more than sixty Jewish 
organizations endorses Jewish Congress. — 23. Chicago, 111.: Meet- 
ing of Congress Convention adopts resolutions: (1) recom- 
mending consideration of Jewish immigration at Congress; (2) 
that the central committees of the Jewish national organizations 
be urged to call a Conference for arranging details of Congress; 
(3) that a permanent Executive Committee of twenty-five be 
elected in this convention. — 24. New York City: Mass meeting 
under auspices of Jewish Congress Organization Committee. Ad- 
dresses by Louis D. Brandeis, Adolph Lewfsohn, Representatives 
Chandler and Siegel, and Immigration Commissioner Howe. 
Resolutions adopted calling on American Government to " secure 
for Jewish people their just and full rights." — Februaby 22. New 
York City: Meeting of delegates of Jewish organizations of 
Borough of Manhattan, under auspices of Congress Organization ' 
Committee, adopts resolutions calling for equal rights and a home 
land in Palestine. — March 19. Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Con- 
gress State Convention of Pennsylvania held. — 26.. Philadelphia, 
Pa.: Preliminary conference of national and central organizations 



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90 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



and of Jewish Congress Committees, to consider details regarding 
arrangements for a Congress, adopts resolutions: that Congress 
be convened as soon as practicable but not later than December 
31, 1916, unless Executive Committee shall determine otherwise by 
a three-fourths vote; that Conference accepts principle of a demo- 
cratic and universal suffrage in election of delegates to Congress; 
that Conference recommends that Congress consider question of 
acquiring equal rights for Jews and n atjnu al yjgj jts in countries 

" " ^ of Jewlsl 



where these are recognized; the problems of Jewish development 
in Palestine, in all its phases; co-operation with Jews of all lands 
in furtherance of Congress program; the question of creating a 
commission to submit proposals of Congress to Peace Conference; 
the advisability of establishing Congress as a permanent institu- 
tion; the problem of constructive relief in lands affected by war; 
and the problem of Jewish migration in all its aspects. — May 5. 
Executive Organization Committee for the American Jewish Con- 
gress addresses letter to leading Jewish organizations of Europe, 
South Africa, Australia, and South America, presenting platform 
and offering to co-operate with societies and committees of other 
countries. — 9. Baltimore, Md.: Congregation Chizuk Emunoh 
at special meeting adopts resolution favoring Jewish Congress 
movement. — 14. New York City: American Jewish Committee 
at additional meeting of General Committee adopts resolution that 
the executive committee be authorized to proceed, in conjunction 
with such other national Jewish organizations as are prepared to 
unite with it in issuing call for that purpose, to convene a con- 
ference of national Jewish organizations at some time during 
June, 1916, at a place and on basis of representation agreed upon, 
for the purpose of considering suitable measures to secure full 
rights for the Jews of all lands and the abrogation of all laws 
discriminating against them, it being understood that the phrase 
" full rights " is to be deemed to include civil, religious, and 
political rights, and. In addition, wherever separate group rights 
are recognized in any land, the conferring upon the Jews there of 
such rights, if desired by them. 

RELIEF WORK:— June 7. Atlantic City, N. J.: Independent 
Order Brith Abraham at seventh annual convention adopts reso- 
lution for collection of a voluntary per capita tax of twenty cents 
to aid Jews In the war zone. — 18. American Jewish Relief Com- 
mittee receives dispatch from chief rabbi Ehrenpreis, Stockholm, 
to effect that 200,000 Jews were expelled from provinces of Cour- 
land, Kovno, and parts of the province of Suvalk. — August 30. 
St. Paul, Minn.: Jewish Community levies tax of one cent on 
every pound of Kosher meat sold and two cents on every fowl 
killed by a Shochet; proceeds to be sent to the Central Relief 
Committee. — September 21. American Jewish Relief Committee 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 91 

receives communication from the Jewish Colonization Association 
of Petrograd stating that they are making all efforts to locate 
refugees about whom American Jews are inquiring.^^croBER 21. 
Isidore Hershfield, New York City, commissioned by Hebrew Shel- 
tering and Immigrant Aid Society to locate in the war zone miss- 
ing relatives of American citizens. — December 21. New York 
City: Mass meeting arranged by American Jewish Relief Com- 
mittee, to launch campaign for five million dollars. Addresses 
by J. L. Magnes, Louis Marshall, Bishop David H. Greer. Over 
^800,000 contributed or pledged. — ^January 2. Baltimore, Md.: 
At mass meeting under auspices of American Jewish Relief Com- 
mittee $64,603 is contributed in response to appeal of J. L. Magnes. 
— 6. American Jewish Relief Committee informed by wireless 
from Berlin that Jews in Alexandria face starvation and disease. 
— Senator James D. Martine, New Jersey, introduces resolution 
requesting President Wilson to set aside a day for collection of 
funds for the relief of Jews in the war zone. — 13. President 
Wilson issues proclamation designating January 27 as special 
day for the collection of funds for relief of Jewish war sufCerers. — 
20. Washington, D. C: At mass meeting under auspices of Amer- 
ican Jewish Relief Committee about $10,000 is contributed in 
response to appeal of J. L. Magnes. — 25. Cincinnati, O. : At mass 
meeting under auspices of American Jewish Relief Committee 
$60,000 is contributed in response to appeal of J. L. Magnes. — 27. 
Jewish Relief Day in United States.— 30. Philadelphia, Pa.: At 
mass meeting under auspices of American Jewish Relief Com- 
mittee $200,000 is pledged in response to appeal of J. L. Magnes. — 
February 7. At request of Albert Lucas, representing the Cen- 
tral Relief Committee of New York, Hon. Josephus Daniels, 
Secretary of the Navy, permits Committee to send a cargo of 
medicine and matzos to Palestine on the U. S. Collier Sterling to 
leave on February 16th. — March 20. American Jewish Relief 
Committee apportions $225,000 for Poland, Lithuania, and Cour 
land; for Russia $150,000; for Galicia $75,000; for relief of Jewish 
writers in Poland and Lithuania $2500; for Palestine $30,000; 
Palestine soup kitchens $1000 monthly until September, 1916; 
Turkish Jews outside Palestine $3000 monthly for ten months. — 
26. New York City: Meeting under auspices of National Jewish 
Workmen's Committee attended by five hundred delegates. Reso- 
lution adopted demanding equal rights for Jews in countries where 
they are oppressed and persecuted. — April 28. Jacob H. Schiff, 
New York City, donates $10,000 to American Red Cross toward 
special fund for equipment of three military hospitals for the 
United States.— May 11. Chicago, III.: At mass meeting under 
auspices of American Jewish Relief Committee $350,000 is con- 
tributed in response to appeal of J. L. Magnes.— 15. Philadelphia, 
Pa.: Two hundred and fifty delegates representing the War Relief 



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92 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Organizations of fourteen States meet and render reports to the 
Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering on Account of 
the War. Resolutions adopted for the continuation of their work. — 
21. Buffalo, N. Y.: At mass meeting under auspices of American 
Jewish Relief Committee about ^50,000 is contributed in response 
to appeal of J. L. Magnes. — 31. During the year there was appro- 
priated by the Joint Distribution Committee of the American 
Jewish, Central, and Peoples* Relief Committees, the following 
sums: Austria-Hungary, $700,000; German-Poland, $1,042,500; 
Russia, $985,000; Palestine, $190,282.60; Vulcan, $64,506.09; Greece 
and Turkey (outside of Palestine), $59,500; Alexandria, $4000; 
Jewish students at Swiss Universities, $2500. Total, $3,048,288.69. 
These appropriations make the totals for the duration of the war 
as follows: Austria-Hungary, $785,000; German-Poland, $1,237,500; 
Russia, $1,340,000; Palestine, $292,788.69 (includes Vulcan); 
Greece and Turkey (outside of Palestine), $73,325; miscellaneous, 
$12,000 (includes Alexandria and Jewish students at Swiss Uni- 
versities). Total, $3,740,613.69. 

OTHER EVENTS: — ^June 4. Cablegram sent to Rockefeller 
Foundation from Poland states that conditions are worse than In 
Belgium or France. — Cable from American Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople to the American Jewish Relief Committee states that 
about fifteen hundred Jews from Gallipoli and Dardanelles obliged 
to leave their homes are in want in Pauderma, Rodosto and Con- 
stantinople. Chief Rabbi and local Committee ask for help. — 
September 5. United Orthodox Rabbis of America, at special 
assembly in New York City suggest that all orthodox Jews observe 
this day as a special fast day on account of the war. — November 
14. Chelsea, Mass.: Mass meeting to protest against persecution 
of Jews in Russia adopts resolution to ask the United States 
Grovernment to use its good offices, when a peace conference of 
European nations is held, to obtain a guarantee of equal civil, 
political and national rights for Jews in all European countries. — 
December 6. Cleveland, O.: Mass meeting adopts resolutions 
protesting against oppression of Jews and requesting the Govern- 
ment of the United States to use its friendly offices with the 

- governments of the nations of Europe to bring about the emanci- 
pation of the Jews.— 12. Cincinnati, O.: Mass meeting of Inde- 
pendent Order B'nai B'rith adopts resolutions requesting Govern- 
ment of United States to use its friendly offices at the Peace Con- 

•ference toward securing for Jews>^of the world equal civil and 
political rights.— 17. Seattle (Wash.) and San Francisco (Cal.): 
Jewish refugees arrive from Russia in large numbers. Organiza- 
tion of branch of Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society 
planned.— January 21. Albany, N. Y.: Resolution introduced into 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 93 



Legislature by Abraham i. Shiplacoff requesting United States to 
urge Governments at war "to remove political and civic discrimina- 
tion " against Jews. — February 4. American Jewish Committee 
publishes book entitled " The Jews in the Eastern War Zone." 



IV 
JEWISH COMMUNAL LIFE 

ANNIVERSARIES:— October 16. Cincinnati, O.: Bene Israel 
Temple celebrates centenary of birth of Rev. Dr. Max Lilienthal. — 
22. Philadelphia, Pa.: Celebration of seventy-ffth anniversary 
of Congregation Beth Israel. — November 6. Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Congregation Keneseth Israel celebrates one-hundredth anni- 
versary of birth of Dr. Samuel Hirsch, rabbi from 1866 to 1887. — 21. 
New York City: Celebration of twenty-fifth anniversary of Beth El 
Sisterhood. — 29. Boston, Mass. : Celebration of twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of Hebrew Industrial School. — December 5. Washington, 
D. C. : Celebration of sixtieth anniversary of Washington Hebrew 
Congregation. — January 14. New York City: Celebration of 
twenty-fifth anniversary of Beth Israel Sisterhood. — February 11. 
New York City: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of Congre- 
gation Shaaray Tefila (West End Synagogue). — 27. New York 
City: Celebration of twenty-fifth anniversary of Temple Israel 
Sisterhood. — March 5. New York City: Celebration of twenty- 
fifth anniversary of United Krakauer Charity and Aid Society. — 
10-14. Baltimore, Md. : Celebration of twenty-fifth anniversary of 
Hebrew Friendly Inn and Aged Home. — 18. Boston, Mass. : Cele- 
bration of twenty-fifth anniversary of Bnai Zion Educational 
Society. — 19. New York City: Celebration of twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of Rodeph Shalom Sisterhood.— 23. San Francisco, Cal.: 
Celebration of twenty-fifth anniversary of Jewish Women's Club. — 
26. Natchez, Miss.: Celebration of fiftieth anniversary of Ladies' 
Hebrew Aid Society.— 27. Chicago, 111.: Celebration of fiftieth 
anniversary of Reform Advocate. — 27-29. Richmond, Va.: Cele- 
bration of seventy-fifth anniversary of Congregation Beth Ahaba. — 
29. Philadelphia, Pa.: Louis Edward Levy elected president of 
Jewish community. 

ACTIVITY OF ORGANIZATIONS:— June 20. Boston, Mass.: 
Annaal convention Independent Order Sons of Israel adopts reso- 
lutiS endorsing the Zionist platform and authorizing the collec- 
tion of the Shekel from each enrolled member for Zionist purposes. 
—24. Cambridge, Mass.: Intercollegiate conference at Harvard 



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94 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



University for purpose of forming an Intercollegiate Zionist Or- 
ganization.— 25. Philadelphia, Pa.: Council of Jewish Clubs 
proposes to call meeting of presidents and rabbis of orthodox 
congregations to take action against missionaries. — 26. Boston, 
Mass.: Wholesale Grocers' Salesmen Association resolves to sup- 
port Zionist movement. — 26-27. New York City: Federation 
of Roumanian Jews at eighth annual meeting adopts resolution^ 
(1) favoring a Jewish Congress and agreeing to co-operate in the 
Zionist movement; (2) recommending that the constituent organi- 
zations assess their members five cents a week toward the relief 
of Jews in belligerent lands. — 28. Denver Council of Jewish 
Women becomes re-affiliated with the National Organization as 
Denver Section. — August 3. Atlantic City, N. J.: Independent 
Order of Bnai Brith, meeting of Executive Committee, appoints 
Immigration Committee, and decides to consider the practicability 
of the establishment of Boards of Inquiry in foreign ports for the 
examination and certification of all aliens at the ports of embarka- 
tion. — September 7. American Jewish Committee takes over 
supervision of the work for the Falashas on account of difficulty 
of communicating with the main office at Frankfort. — 20. New 
York Section of the Council of Jewish Women by vote of 37 to 27 
secedes from the National Organization. Action repudiated by 
later meeting attended by several hundred members. (Sept. 27.) — 
October 11. New York City: Council of Jewish Women decides 
to submit to arbitration the difCerences existing between the New 
York Section and the National Body. Resolution adopted an- 
nulling the withdrawal motion. — 19-20. New York Jewish Com- 
munity (Kehillah), through mediation of its Bureau of Industry, 
settles strike of leather bag workers. — November 21. Phila- 
delphia, Pa.: Annual meeting of Jewish Community adopts 
resolution concurring in view of its president, Cyrus Adl^r, that 
professional politicians who hold out the Jew as a distinct entity 
in matters pertaining to local or national politics give rise to 
misapprehension. — December 10. New York City: Guggenheim 
Memorial Building, gift of Guggenheim brothers, added to Mt. 
Sinai Hospital. — 24. Cyrus Adler, Philadelphia, Pa., appointed by 
Board of Directors of Jewish Theological Seminary as acting 
president of the Seminary. — 30. American Jewish Committee 
submits to Pope Benedict XV, a copy of its booklet on " The Jews 
in the Eastern War Zone," with a petition praying him to exert 
his influence to ameliorate conditions in that region, especially in 
Poland. Reply of Holy See, dated Feb. ^, with statement that it 
is a virtual encyclical, and has been followed by directions to 
the Catholic clergy of Poland, admonishing them to use their 
best endeavors to put an end to persecution which has prevailed, 
published in Europe and America by joint agreement April 17. — 
January 9. New York City: Meetiug of Board of Synagogue and 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 95 

School Extension of the Union of American Hebrew Congrega- 
tions; ^25,000 subscribed for promotion of school extention in 
New York City. — 16. Executive Committee of the Independent 
Order of B'nai B'rith at annual meeting decides to cable to leading 
citizen of a neutral country requesting him to confer with leaders 
in belligerent countries with regard to means of presenting to a 
peace conference question of securing equal rights for all inhabi- 
tants of European lands. — 30. Boston, Mass.: Independent He- 
brews of America at annual convention adopt resolutions: (1) 
expressing appreciation to President Wilson for nomination of 
Louis D. Brandeis as Associate Justice of Supreme Court; (2) 
thanking President Wilson for appointment of Jan. 27 as Jewish 
relief day. — Februaby. San Francisco, Cal., annual convention 
of District Grand Lodge No. 4, Independent Order B'nai B'rith 
appoints committee to consider advisability of establishing agri- 
cultural colonies for Jewish immigrants on the Pacific Coast. — 
18. Brooklyn Section, Council of Jewish Women, appeals to 
Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis to take action against objec- 
tionable missionary activities of Leopold Cohn, a converted Jew. — 
20. Newark, N. J.: Independent Order of King Solomon at annual 
convention unanimously endorses Zionist movement. — 21. Balti- 
more, Md.: Baltimore Association of Jewish Women decides to 
re-affiliate with the Council of Jewish Women. — May 22. Louis 
Marshall, in letter to American Hebrew, condemns systematic 
attacks against the American Jewish Committee. — 29. New York 
City: Group of delegates of the Kehillah, headed by Louis 
Lipsky, resolve: (1) to propose the termination of the connection 
of the Kehillah with the American Jewish Committee; (2) to ask 
Kehillah convention to unqualifiedly endorse the Jewish Con- 
gress; (3) to propose that members of the Executive Committee 
of the Kehillah resign from the American Jewish Committee; (4) 
to leave convention in a body if these demands are refused. 

OTHER EVENTS:— June 4. Jacob H. Schiff contributes $20,000 
and Julius Rosenwald $10,000 to an international loan fund for the 
benefit of orange cultivators in Palestine.— 17. New York City: 
Organization of Jewish Immigrant Bank to provide banking facili- 
ties and a safe depository for Jewish immigrants. — August 6. 
New York City: Jacob H. Schiff makes gift of $5000 a year to the 
Teachers* Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica. — Septembkb 9. Mobile, Ala.: Congregation Shaarai Shomayim 
discontinues sale of seats or pews; synagogue to be open to all. 
—October 21. Clarion, Utah: Jewish agricultural colony aban- 
doned because of hard times due to poor crops. State Land Board 
cancels all contracts with the colony, and State reclaims land. 
(Nov. 24.) — December 24. Boston, Mass.: A. C. Ratshefsky gives 
$100,000 to start Jewish foundation.— January 3. Memorial meet- 



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96 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

ings for Solomon Schechter throughout the United States. — 21. 
Alumni of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America decide 
to raise fund of ^100,000 in memory of Dr. Solomon Schechter to 
endow chair in Jewish Theology at the Seminary. — Februaby 18. 
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Straus give $50,000 for Jewish charities in 
Southern California. — ^Apbil 21. Kansas City, Mo.: Nathan 
Schloss donates $5000 to Jewish Educational Institute on occasion 
of sixty-eighth birthday. — May 14. American Jewish Committee 
at meeting adopts resolution expressive of loss to Jews of the 
world by death of Sholom Aleichem, and committee, consisting of 
Cyrus Adler, J. L. Magnes and Herman Bernstein, is appointed 
to draft a suitable memorial. Dr. Magnes pleads for establish- 
ment of fund of $10,000, half of which is raised at the meeting. — 
19. New York City: Chas A. Wimpheimer gives $150,000 to Mt. 
Sinai Hospital for endowment of the department of enteric 
surgery. 

SYNAGOGUES AND HOMES OP SOCIEyTIES DEDICATED 
ARKANSAS 
Hot Springs. — Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital, May 3, 1916. 

CALIFORNIA 

DuARTE. — Jewish Consumptive Relief Association — Women's Build- 
ing, Oct. 24, 1915. 
Los Angeles. — Home for the Aged, Aug. 29, 1915. 
San Francisco. — Ahabat Achim Synagogue, June 13, 1915. 

Keneseth Israel Synagogue, Jan. 30, 1916. 

Anshe Sfard Temple, Mch. 19, 1916. 

CONNECTICUT 
New Haven. — Jewish Home for the Aged, May 21, 1916. 

GEORGIA 
Savannah. — ^Jewish Alliance, Jan. 26, 1916. 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago. — Chicago Hebrew Institute Gymnasium, June 6, 1915. 
Sons of Joseph Hebrew School, June 12, 1915. 
Associated Jewish Charities, West Side Building, Nov. 28, 1915. 
Kehillath Jacob Synagogue, May 2, 1916. 
Hebrew Sheltering Home, May 21, 1916. 

IOWA 
Ottumwa. — Temple B'nai Jacob, Aug. 22, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--UNITED STATES 97 

KENTUCKY 
Covington. — Temple Israel, Nov. 28, 1915. 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge.— B'nal Israel Temple, rededicatefl, Feb. 11, 1916. 
New Obleans. — Chevra Thillim, July 25, 1915. 
Shbeveport. — Hebrew Zion Congregation, Oct. 22, 1915. 

MAINE 
Old Town.— Synagogue of the Hebrew Congregation, Dec. 19, 1915. 

MARYLAND 

Baltimobe. — ^Ahawas Sholom, Aug. 29, 1915. 

B'nai Israel Synagogue, rededicated, Sept., 1915. 
West End Talmud Torah, Oct. 17, 1915. 
Machazika Hadath Synagogue, Jan., 1916. 
Daughters of Hannah Home, Feb., 1916. 
Hess Memorial Dispensary, Apr. 20, 1916. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston. — Frauen Verein Home for Convalescent Jewish Women, 

Dorchester, Oct. 24, 1915. 
LowEix. — Anshe Sfard, Aupr. 15, 1915. 
Salem. — Synagogue Anshe Sfard, July 25, 1915. 

MICHIGAN 
Detboit. — Shaare Zedek Synagogue, Dec. 5, 1915. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 
Manchestbb. — Synagogue Anshe Sfard, Apl., 1916. 

NEW JERSEY 

Camden. — Ohav Zedek, June 13, 1915. 

Jebset City. — ^Agudath Yisroel, June 23, 1915. 

LoNGPOBT. — Max and Sarah Bamberger Seashore Home, Aug. 1, 

1915. 
Monboeville. — Crown of Israel Synagogue, Dec. 5, 1915. 
Newabk. — Ahawath Zion Synagogue, Aug. 29, 1915. 
B'nai Jeshurun Temple, Dec. 3-5, 1915. 



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98 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



NEW YORK 

Buffalo. — Beth Zlon Temple, Sept. 24, 1915. 
Fulton. — Tifereth Israel, Dec. 5, 1915. 
New York City 
Brooklyn and Queens.— Petach Tikvah (Brownsville), Aug. 15, 
1915. 
Beth Israel Synagogue, Richmond Hill, Aug. 29, 1915. • 
Bnai Sholaum Synagogue, Sept. 26, 1915. 
Zlon Hospital (Borough Park), Sept. 12, 1915. 
Beth Sholom Synagogue, Mch. 5, 1916. 
Manhattan and the Bronx. — Hebrew Sheltering Society Home, 

June 28, 1915. 
Bnai Israel Synagogue, Sept. 26, 1915. 
West Side Young Men's Hebrew Association, Oct. 24, 1915. 
Harlem Day Nursery, Nov. 28, 1915. 
First Orthodox Rabbinical College, Dec. 5, 1915. 
Hebrew Technical Institute Building, Feb. 27, 1916. 
Sinai Temple of the Bronx, Mch. 12, 1916. 
B'nai B'rith Building, Apl. 16, 1916. 
Teachers' Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Apl. 

16, 1916. 
Central Jewish Institute, May 21, 1916. 
Niagara Falls.— Temple Beth El, Sept 6, 1915. 
Nyack. — Jewish Home for Convalescents of Federation of Rou- 
manian Jews, Sept. 6, 1915. 
Syracuse. — Synagogue of Central New York Jewish Home for the 
Aged, Dec. 12, 1915. 

OHIO 

Cincinnati. — Beth Hamedrash Hagodol Synagogue, Aug. 29, 1915. 

Temple Israel, Nov. 28, 1915. 

Talmud Torah, May 28, 1916. 
Cleveland. — Jewish National Workmen's School and Institute, 

Sept. 4-6, 1915. 
Columbus. — Tifereth Israel Synagogue, Sept. 26, 1915. 
Toledo. — Anshe Sfard Synagogue, Sept. 5, 1915. 
Youngstown. — Rodef Sholem Temple, June 11, 1915. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Canonsburg. — Tree of Life Synagogue, June 20, 1915. 
Hazleton.— Beth Israel, Feb. 13, 1916. 
KAifE.--Hebrew Congregation, Feb. 20, 1916. 
McKeespobt. — Hebrew Institute, June 6, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 99 

Philadelphia.— Ohav Zedek, Aug. 22, 1915. 

Rothschild Memorial Synagogue, Beth El, Sept 5, 1915. 

Shaare Torah Anshe Sfard Synagogue, Aug. 27, 1915i- 

Tifereth Israel Synagogue, Sept. 9, 1915. 

Uptown Home for the Aged, Dec. 5, 1915. 

Young Men's Hebrew Association, rededicated, Dec. 16, 1915. 

Montefiore Synagogue, rededicated, Feb. 6, 1916. 

Hebrew Day Nursery, Feb. 13, 1916. 

Jewish Sheltering Home, May 7, 1916. 

Grace Aguilar Home, May 25, 1916. 
Pittsburgh. — Young Men's Hebrew Association, Apl. 9, 1916. 
ScBANTON. — Young Men's Hebrew Association, Dec. 5. 1915. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 
Columbia. — B'nal Sholom Ssrnagogue, Aug., 1915. 

TENNESSEE 
Memphis. — Congregation Children of Israel. May 12. 1916. 

TEXAS 
San Antonio. — B'nai Israel, Aug. 15, 1915. 

VIRGINIA 

Norfolk. — ^Young Men's Hebrew Association, Oct. 23, 1915. 
Petersburg. — Brith Achim Sjrnagogue, Aug. 26, 1915. 
Richmond. — Zion Institute, Sept. 26, 1915. 

WASHINGTON 
Seattij:. — Chevra Bikur Cholum Synagogue, July 25, 1915. 



APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Alschuler, Samuel, Chicago, 111., appointed by Governor, chair- 
man of State Railway Commission, July, 1915. — Appointed by 
President, Judge of the United States Seventh Circuit Court, Aug. 
17, 1915; confirmed by Senate Jan. 18, 1916. 

Altman, Emil, appointed by President, first lieutenant, medical 
reserve corps. May 5, 1916. 

Aranow, Frank, New York City, re-elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Arnold, Philip, Jr. (deceased), Philadelphia, Pa., awarded 
Carnegie Hero Medal, Aug. 5, 1916. 



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100 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Arnstein, Leo, New York City, appointed by mayor, member of 
Board of Education, Dec, 1915. 

BergeRj Mrs. Meta, Milwaukee, Wis., elected president of the 
Milwaukee School Board, July 7, 1915. 

Bernstein, Alexander, Cleveland, O., elected member of City 
Council, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Bernstein, Maurice, Cleveland, O., elected Municipal Court 
Judge, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Bernstein, Sam, Kingston, N. Y., elected president of Board of 
Education, Jan., 1916. 

BnxiKOPF, Jacob, Kansas City, Mo., appointed lecturer on 
Sociology at University of Missouri, Oct., 1915. 

Bleecker, Leon, New York City, elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Block, D. Maurice, New York City, re-elected to State Legisla- 
ture, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Bloomfield, Meyer, Boston, Mass., appointed faculty advisor in 
Vocational Guidance and Education at Columbia University, Apl., 
1916. 

Blumenthal, Wm. B., Cleveland, O., appointed assistant profes- 
sor of History and Government at Ohio University, July, 1915. 

Brandeis, Louis D., Boston, Mass., nominated by President, 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Jan. 
29; confirmed by Senate, June 1, 1916. 

Cardozo, Benjamin N., New York City, receives from Columbia 
University honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, June, 1915. 

Cohen, Aaron B., Toledo, O., appointed Commissioner of Play- 
grounds, Apl., 1916. 

Cohen, Charles J., Philadelphia, Pa., elected president of Fair- 
mount Park Art Association, Feb. 11, 1916. 

Cohen, Ira, appointed by President, lieutenant, medical reserve 
corps, Mch. 15, 1916. 

Dannenbaum, Henry J., Houston, Tex., appointed by Governor, 
judge of the 61st District Court, Oct., 1915. 

Davis, Henry Levi, appointed by President, lieutenant, medicfal 
reserve corps, Dec. 17, 1915. 

Deutsch, Isaac, Philadelphia, Pa., elected member of Common 
Council, Nov. 2, 1915. 

DiNKELSPiEL, H. G. W., appointed Consul-General of Siam, at San 
Francisco, June, 1915. 

DoBLiN, Louis, appointed by Governor of Idaho, member of his 
staff with rank of colonel. May, 1916. 

Eckstein, Nathan, Seattle, Wash., elected president of the 
School Board, Jan. 5, 1916. 

Einstein, Lewis, appointed American Minister to Bulgaria, 
Nov., 1915. 

EisLER, Solomon, Hartford, Conn., re-appointed Fire Commis- 
sioner, Oct., 1915. 



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« 



EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 101 



EixENBOOEN, Abram, New York City, re-elected to State Legisla- 
ture, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Ettelson, Habby W., Hartford, Conn., appointed by Mayor to 
serve as member of Juvenile Commission, Oct., 1915. 

Ettelson, Samuel A., Chicago, 111., appointed Corporation Coun- 
sel, Nov., 1915. 

Evans, Wm. S., New York City, re-elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Febtio, Moses M., New York City, re-elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Filene, E. a., Boston, Mass., appointed member of Governing 
Board of the United States Chamber of Commerce, Feb., 1916. 

Fischer, Abraham, appointed a Commissioner of Health, Hart- 
ford, Conn., for three years, Apl., 1916. 

Fischer, Harry M., Chicago, 111., appointed Judge of Court of 
Domestic Relations, June, 1915. — Elected to preside over the Boys* 
Court, Dec, 1915. 

Fischer, Jonas, Williamsport, Pa., elected Mayor, Feb., 1916. 

Fleishhacker, Mortimer, San Francisco, Cal., appointed by 
Governor, member of the rural Credit Commission, Sept., 1915. 

Flexner, Simon, New York City, receives from Johns Hopkins 
University, and from Washington University Medical School, de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws, June, 1915. — Decorated by Emperor of 
Japan with Third Order of the Sacred Treasure, Dec, 1915. — Ap- 
pointed Cutler lecturer at the Harvard Medical School for 1915- 
1916, Apl., 1916. 

Folz, Samuel, Kalamazoo, Mich., appointed by President, post- 
master, Apl. 19, 1916. • 

Frank, Jacob, surgeon-general of Illinois National Guard, elected 
president of the Army and Navy Club, Feb., 1916. 

Franklin, Melvin M., Philadelphia, Pa., appointed orthopedic 
surgeon at the Philadelphia General Hospital, October, 1915. 

Friedlander, Walter J., Cincinnati, O., appointed by mayor-elect, 
Director of Public Safety, Dec, 1915. 

Gerson, Armand J., Philadelphia, Pa., appointed district super- 
intendent of schools, Dec. 8, 1915. 

GiNSBURO, EiDWARD E., Worcestcr, Mass., appointed by Governor, 
trustee of Worcester Hospital for Insane, Jan., 1916. 

GiNSBURG, Jacob, Philadelphia, Pa., elected member of Common 
Council, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Goldberg, Lewis, Boston, Mass., appointed Third Assistant U. S. 
District Attorney, Sept. 27, 1915. 

Goldberg, Mark, New York City, re-elected to State Legislature,. 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Goldstein, Barnett H., Portland, Ore., appointed third United 
States District Attorney for Oregon, Apl., 1916. 

GoLDSTERN, Jacob, New York City, elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 



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102 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Goodman, A., New York City, elected to State Legislature, Nov. 
2, 1915. 

Greenbaum, Samuel, New York City, re-elected Judge of Su- 
preme Court, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Habt, Isaac, Col., Hopkinsville, Ky., re-appointed on staff of 
Governor, Feb., 1916. 

HiBSCH, Kabl, Chillicothe, Mo., elected city attorney, June, 1915. 

HiBSCHBEBG, Henby, appointed District Attorney of Orange 
County, N. Y., Nov., 1915. 

HiBSHFiELD, Albebt Cliffobd, appointed by President, lieutenant, 
medical reserve corps, May 6, 1916. 

HocHFELDEB, Mbs. A. W., Brooklyu, N. Y., receives from New 
York University, degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence, June, 1915. 

HoLLANDEB, JACOB H., Baltimore, Md., appointed by Secretary of 
Treasury McAdoo to serve on committee of the Pan-American 
Financial Conference, June, 1915. 

HusiK, Isaac, Philadelphia, Pa., appointed assistant professor 
of philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania, Pa., May, 1916. 

Isaacs, Habby Ezekiel, appointed by President, lieutenant, med- 
ical reserve corps. May 6, 1916. 

Jack, Emanuel, rabbi, Pueblo, Colo., elected for three year term, 
member of Board of Pueblo City and County Bureau of Charities 
and Social Service, Mch., 1916. 

Jacobi, Abraham, New York City, receives from Washington 
University Medical School, degree of Doctor, of Laws, June, 1915. 

Jacobs, David S., elected president of American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, New York, Dec, 1915. 

Jacobs, Manuel Joseph, Berkeley, Cal.,' appointed Director of 
Education in Folsom prison, Dec, 1915. 

Jonas, L., Nashville, Tenn., elected member of Board of Educa- 
tion, Feb., 1916. 

JuDELL, Adolph, Sau Francisco, Cal., re-appointed member of 
Board of Public Works, Jan., 1916. 

Kahn, Nathan, Louisville, Ky., appointed by Governor, City 
Prosecutor, Dec, 1915. 

Kaplan, Fbank, McKeesport, Pa., elected member of Board of 
Education, Nov., 1915. 

KoENiG, MoBRis, New York City, appointed by Mayor, City Magis- 
trate, July, 1915. 

KoHEN, Herman E., Cleveland, O., appointed by Mayor, police 
prosecutor, Jan., 1916. 

KoHN, John C., appointed by President, postmaster, Elgin, 111., 
Mch. 15, 1916. 

KoPALD, Louis J., Buffalo, N. Y., appointed member of Board of 
Education, Jan., 1916. 

Kornfeld, Joseph, Columbus, O., re-elected member of Board of 
Education, Nov. 9, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--UNITED STATES 103 

Kbameb, Samuel B., Cleveland, O., elected Municipal Court 
Judge, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Kbieoshabeb, Victob H., Atlanta, Ga., elected president of Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Dec, 1915. 

Laski, Habold J., appointed Instructor in history, politics, and 
(Government, at Harvard University, Mch., 1916. 

Laueb, Edgab J., New York City, elected Municipal Court Judge, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Leipzigeb, Henby M., New York City, receives gold medal from 
National Institute of Social Sciences, Feb., 1916. 

Levenson, Joseph M., Chelsea, Mass., elected to Massachusetts 
Legislature, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Levey, Philip, Nebraska, appointed by President, lieutenant, 
medical reserve corps. May 16, 1916. 

Levy, Fbed, Louisville, Ky., appointed colonel on staff of Gover- 
nor, May 1, 1916. 

Levy, Meyeb, New York City, elected to State Legislature, Nov. 
2, 1915. 

Lewin, a. L., Pittsburgh, Pa., appointed member of Board of 
Education, Nov., 1915. 

Lewis, Habby S., Brooklyn, N. Y., appointed by Governor Whit- 
man, District Attorney of Kings County, Apl., 1916. 

Lewis, Wm. W., Philadelphia, Pa., elected member of Common 
Council, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Lewisohn, Adolph, New York City, receives gold medal from 
National Institute of Social Services, Feb., 1916. 

LoEB, Jacob M., Chicago, 111., appointed president of Board of 
Education, Dec, 1915. 

LoEB, Leo, appointed professor of comparative pathology at the 
Washington University School of Medicine, Apl., 1916. 

Loeb, Max, Chicago, 111., appointed by Mayor, member of Board 
of Education, Oct., 1915. 

Mancovitz, David, Boston, Mass., elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

May, Mitchell, Brooklyn; N. Y., elected Municipal Court Judge, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Mendelsohn, Isaac, Brooklyn, N. Y., re-elected to State Legisla- 
ture, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Meyeb, Milton, San Francisco, Cal., appointed Immigration Com- 
missioner for the District, June 1, 1915. 

Newman, Louis, Brooklyn, N. Y., re-appointed member of Board 
of Education, Dec, 1915. 

Nusbaum, Louis, Philadelphia, Pa., appointed Associate Superin- 
tendent of Schools, Jan., 1916. 

Peblman, Benjamin, appointed by President, lieutenant (junior 
grade) in Navy, Dec. 17, 1915. 



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104 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Peelman, Nathan D., New York City, re-elected to State Legis- 
lature, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Prager, Otto, appointed by Postmaster General, Second Assistant 
Postmaster General, Sept., 1915. 

RiEGELMAN, Edward, elected Sheriff of Kings County, New York, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

RiPiNSKY, Sol., Haines, Alaska, elected Mayor, Apl. 9, 1916. 

RosANOFF, Martin A., Worcester, Mass., appointed professor of 
research in pure chemistry at University of Pittsburgh, Dec, 
1915. 

Rosenberg, Herbert Jerome, appointed by President, lieutenant 
medical reserve corps, Mch. 15. 1916. 

Rosenberg, Samuel, Portland, Me., appointed by Governor, mem- 
ber of State Board of Charities and Corrections, Feb., 1916. 

Rosenow, E. C, Chicago, 111., appointed director of the Mayo 
Foundation and chief of the department of bacteriological re- 
search, June, 1915. 

Rosenstein, Ludwig, appointed professor of inorganic chemistry 
at Throop College of Technology, Pasadena, Cal., Mch., 1916. 

Rosenthal, Jonas, Alexandria, La., appointed postmaster, 
Mch. 30, 1916. 

RowE, Leo S., Philadelphia, Pa., appointed by the Secretary of 
State, United States representative at the Pan-American Scientific 
Congress, at Washington, D. C, Dec. 27-Jan. 8, Nov., 1915. 

ScHiMMEL, Henry S., New York City, re elected to State Legis- 
lature, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Schlossbach, Isaac, appointed by President, ensign in navy, 
Dec. 17, 1915. 

Schwartz, Benj. H., Cleveland, O., elected to city council, Jan. 
3, 1916. 

Shapiro, Nathan D.. Brooklyn, N. Y., re-elected to State Legis- 
lature, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Shiplacoff, Abraham i., Brooklyn, N. Y., elected to State Legis- 
lature, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Silbert, Samuel H., Cleveland, O., elected Municipal Court 
Judge, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Silverman, Samuel, Boston, Mass., elected to State Legislature, 
Nov. 2, 1915. 

Sleppacher, W. Maurice, Philadelphia, Pa., awarded Carnegie 
Hero medal. May, 1916. 

Solomon, Henry, New York City, re-elected president of the 
State Prison Commission, Jan., 1916. 

Speyer, Jacob, Lexington, Ky., appointed by Governor, member 
of his staff with rank of colonel. May 1, 1916. 

Stacel, Jacob, Cleveland, O., appointed claim adjuster and real 
estate agent in the Department of Public Service, Jan., 1916. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--UNITED STATES 105 

Steiglitz, Julius, Chicago, 111., appointed head of department of 
che mist ry of Chicago University, Oct., 1915. 

Stein, Salo, Akron, O., appointed professor of languages at 
Kentucky State University, Oct. 1, 1915. 

Stebn, Leon, Philadelphia, Pa., appointed to take charge of 
Municipal Court's Desertion Cases, Jan., 1916. 

Stebnbebgeb, Heney S., lieut.-colonel. New York City, appointed 
chief quartermaster with rank of colonel, Mch., 1916. 

Steinfeldeb, Jacob Jebome, appointed by President, lieutenant, 
medical reserve corps. May 5, 1916. 

Stbaus, Oscab S., New York City, appointed by Governor, mem- 
ber and chairman of Public Service Commission, Dec. 6, 1915. 

Sulzbebgeb, Mayeb, Philadelphia, Pa., elected member of the 
Philadelphia Board of City Trusts, Jan., 1916. — Awarded honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws by Temple University, Feb. 16, 1916. 

SussDOBF, Louis A., appointed by President, secretary of United 
States Embassy, class 4, May 9, 1916. 

Swig, Simon, Boston, Mass., elected to State Legislature, Nov. 2, 
1915. 

Ungsb, Isidob Mack, New York, appointed by President, first 
lieutenant, medical reserve corps, May 16, 1916. 

Walpeb, David, Chelsea, Mass., elected to School Commission, 
Dec, 1915. 

Walteb, Simon, Philadelphia, Pa., elected member of Common 
Council, Nov. 2, 1915. 

Wein STOCK, Habbis, San Francisco, Cal., appointed by Governor, 
member of state commission on rural credits, Sept., 1915. 

Wessel, Henby N., Philadelphia, Pa., elected Judge in Court of 
Common Pleas No. 2, Nov. 2, 1915. 

WoLP, MoBBis B., Middletown, N. Y., re-elected president of the 
Chamber of Commerce, Feb., 1916. 

Zalinski, Moses, appointed by President, colonel, quartermaster 
corps, Dec. 17, 1915. 

Zinneb, Otto J., Cleveland, O., appointed United States Com- 
missioner for Ohio, June, 1915. 



VI 

NECROLOGY 

Adleb, Abbaham S., merchant, Baltimore, Md., aged 84, July 22, 
1915. 

Adleb, Max, manufacturer and communal worker. New Haven, 
Conn., aged 75, Jan. 15, 1916. 

Appel, Alexanoeb M., Civil War veteran, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 
73, Nov., 1915. 



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106 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Aybes, T., mining expert, Oakland, Cal., aged 87, Feb., 1916. 

Barkhouse, Louis, communal worker, Louisville, Ky., aged 82, 
May 5, 1916. 

Barron, Isaac, member of Chamber of Commerce, Shreveport, 
La., aged 68, May 3, 1916. 

Baum, Abraham, rabbi, Augusta, Ga., July 12, 1915. 

Baumann, J. P., Civil War veteran. Glen Falls, N. Y., Apl., 1916. 

Baumgarden, Bernard, philanthropist, Chicago, 111., Aug. 20, 
1915. 

Bayersdorfer, Wiixiam, merchant, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 80, 
Mch. 20, 1916. 

Berliner, Adolph, Civil War veteran, St. Louis, Mo., aged 73, 
Nov., 1915. 

Bernstein, Simon, rabbi, Winthrop, Mass., aged 85, Feb. 20, 1916. 

Bettman, Bernhard, internal revenue collector and communal 
worker, Cincinnati, O., aged 81, June 18, 1915. 

Block, Jacob, rabbi, Portland, Ore., aged 70, May 3, 1916. 

Blumenthal, Solomon, Civil War veteran, Brooklyn, N. Y., aged 
93, Feb. 18, 1916. 

Blyn, Isaac, pioneer shoe manufacturer. New York City, aged 
83, June 27, 1915. 

Boas, Judah, financier, San Francisco, Cal., aged 79, July, 1915. 

Brandon, Joseph Rodrigues, importer, San Leandro, Cal., aged 
88, Apl. 22, 1916. 

Brooks, Ludwig, rabbi, Seattle, Wash., aged 72, Oct. 29, 1915. 

Cohen, Abraham, rabbi, Minneapolis, Minn., aged 78, Apl. 4, 
1916. 

Cohen, Marcus K., publisher, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 80, Dec. 2, 
1915. 

Cohen, Mendes, civil engineer, Baltimore, Md., aged 84, Aug. 13, 
1915. 

Cohn, Sam, County Tax Commissioner, Toledo, O., aged 59, Nov. 
10, 1915. 

Cranmer, , rabbi. Civil War veteran, Washington, D. C, July 

19, 1915. 

Dalkowitz, Samuel, merchant, San Antonio, Tex., Mch. 11, 1916. 

Decker, Adolf, chess expert and physician, Chicago, 111., Nov. 20, 
1915. 

Deiches, William, communal worker, Baltimore, Md., aged 73, 
May 24, 1916. 

Durst, William, Civil War naval veteran, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 
77, Jan. 4, 1916. 

Einstein, Morris, merchant, Chicago, 111., aged 90, Jan. 11, 1916. 

Eiseman, David, merchant, St. Louis, Mo., aged 70, Aug. 23, 1915. 

EiSFELDT, Wm. T., Civil War veteran, Alameda, Cal., June, 1915. 

Elkin, Meyer, rabbi, Hartford, Conn., aged 75, Dec. 11, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 107 



Elsneb, Henby L., professor of medicine, Syracuse, N. Y., aged 
61, Feb. 18, 1916. 

Engel, Mabtin, politician. New York City, aged 68, July 15, 1915. 

Eppingeb, HebXian, real estate operator, San Francisco, Cal., 
aged 74, Jan. 15, 1916. 

Fabeb, Henby E., former Mayor of Montgomery, Ala., Yonkers, 
N. Y., at New York City, aged 78, June 26, 1915. 

Feinbebg, Isbael, rabbi, Buffalo, N. Y., aged 62, Feb., 1916. 

Feinbebg, Mobdecai, rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 28, 1915. 

FiNBEBG, Benjamin, real estate operator and communal worker, 
Philadelphia, Pa., aged 47, Oct. 21, 1915. 

Fleishman, Samuel G., pianist, San Francisco, Cal., Mch., 1916. 

FoBEMAN, Edwin G., banker, Chicago, 111., at San Francisco, Cal., 
aged 53, Aug. 26, 1915. 

Fbanklin, Andbew, captain, Civil War veteran. East St. Louis, 
Mo., aged 79, June 4, 1915. 

Fbeedman, Andbew, politician. New York City, aged 55, Dec. 4, 
1915. 

Fbeudenthal, Joseph, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., aged 70, June 
28, 1915. 

Fbiedman, David, civic worker, Caldwell, O., aged 49, Mch. 10, 
1916. 

Galland, Bonham, philanthropist, member of Nevada Legisla- 
ture 1883, Seattle, Wash., aged 82, Nov., 1915. 

Gittebman, Henby, importer. New York City, aged 82, Jan. 21, 
1916. 

Glass, Henby, merchant and communal worker, New York City, 
aged 63, Feb. 27, 1916. 

Goldbebg, Isaac, merchant and philanthropist. New York City, 
aged 62, Jan. 6, 1916. 

Golden, Mobbis N., rabbi, Bangor, Me., aged 57, May 31, 1916. 

Goodhabt, Joseph, formerly member of Board of Education, 
Cleveland, O., aged 70, Dec. 31, 1915. 

Gboss, Hebman, rabbi, Chicago, 111., aged 63, Sepl 7, 1915. 

Guedelia, Moses, Hazan and teacher. New York City, at Arverne, 
N. Y., aged 76, Mch. 16, 1916. 

Haas, William, merchant and philanthropist, San Francisco, 
Cal., aged 67, May 31, 1916. 

Halle, Chas. K., merchant, Cleveland, O., aged 71, Feb. 5, 1916. 

Hanaw, Henby, attorney. Mobile, Ala., aged 60, Feb. 9, 1916. 

Habkavy, Elchanan, Hebrew teacher and author, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., aged 74, Apl. 26, 1916. 

Habbis, Alexandeb, professor of music, Leavenworth, Kan., at 
Denver, Colo., aged 58, Apl. 30, 1916. 

Habbis, Henby, author, Denver, Colo., Oct., 1915. 

Habt, Abbaham, captain, Washington, D. C., aged 84, July, 1915. 



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108 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Haspel, Simon, organizer of Board of Trade, New Orleans, La., 
aged 74, Apl., 1916. 

Hays, Kaufman, philanthropist, former member of City Council, 
Cleveland, O., aged 81, Apl. 12, 1916. 

Heller, H. H., rabbi, Portland, Ore., aged 54, June 4, 1915. 

HiRSCH, Lazarus,* Civil War veteran, Vicksburg, Miss., aged 73, 
Mch., 30, 1916. 

HiRSHFiELD, Henry P., physician and coroner of Mobile County, 
Mobile, Ala., aged 61, Nov. 14, 1915. 

Jacobs, Joseph, scholar and litterateur, editor-in-chief of Amer- 
ican Hebrew, Yonkers, N. Y., aged 61, Jan. 30, 1916. 

Jacobson, Mrs. Janie, author. New York City, aged 55, July 2, 
1915. 

JosEFFY, Israel, pianist, Tairrytown, N. Y.-, aged 63, June 25, 1915. 

Kaletzky, Julius, rabbi. New York City, aged 68, July 2, 1915. 

Kamenetsky, Hyman, rabbi. New York City, aged 75, June 1, 
1915. 

Katzenstein, Leopold, inventor, New York City, aged 73, Dec, 
1915. 

Kessler, Adolph, physician. New York City, aged 82, Oct. 19, 
1915. 

KoHLMAN, Louis, manufacturer. New Orleans, La., aged 50, July 
20, 1915. 

KoHN, Aaron, lawyer, Louisville, Ky., aged 61, Jan. 29, 1916. 

KoHN, Arnold, merchant and communal worker, Philadelphia, 
Pa., aged 77, Feb. 13, 1916. 

KoHN, S. S., rabbi, lawyer, and physician, Boerne, Tex., aged 72, 
Apl., 1916. 

KuHN, Joseph, Civil War veteran. Champaign, 111., aged 78, Dec. 
28, 1915. 

Lachman, Henry, Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, Cal., aged 55, July 10, 1915. 

Langfeld, Abraham M., manufacturer, Philadelphia, Pa., at At- 
lantic City, N. J., aged 71, Apl. 7, 1916. 

Lasker, Morris, philanthropist, Galveston, Tex., aged 76, Mch. 3, 
1916. 

Levine, Abraham, philanthropist, Hackensack, N. J., July 14, 
1915. 

Levine, Max, rabbi, Chicago, 111., Dec, 1915. 

Levinson, Maxymilian, civil engineer. New York City, aged 60, 
Sept. 19, 1915. 

Levinson, Samuel, rabbi, Boston,. Mass., aged 51, Jan. 26, 1916. 

Levy, Abraham G., Confederate War veteran. Mobile, Ala., aged 
75, Mch. 12, 1916. 

Lipshitz, Sander, rabbi, Cleveland, O., aged 66, June 11, 1915. 

LivERiGHT, Henry, mine owner, Philadelphia, Pa., at Clearfield, 
Pa., aged 74, Dec. 17, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED STATES 109 

Livingston, CHABiiEs, communal worker, Chicago, III., aged 52, 
Nov. 1915. 

LoEB, August B., financier and communal worker, Philadelphia, 
Pa., aged 75, Aug. 23, 1915. 

Lyons, Alfred, retired lawyer. New York City, aged 60, July 14, 
1915, 

Mandelbaum, Jacob, philanthropist, Cleveland, O., aged 81, Dec. 
16, 1915. 

Mabcus, Mendel, rabbi, Indianapolis, Ind., June, 1915. 

Mabks, M. H., merchant and Civil War veteran, Cincinnati, O., 
aged 77, Mch. 5, 1916. 

Marshall, Mrs. Louis, communal worker. New York City, aged 
44, May 27, 1916. 

Marx, Franklin, former member of EJxcise Board, Newark, N. J., 
Feb. 1, 1916. 

Mayer, Abraham, physician and author, Allenhurst, N. J., Aug. 
20, 1915. 

Merzbach, Felix H., lawyer, San Francisco, Cal., aged 64, Feb., 
1916. 

Meyer, Siegmund T., real estate operator. New York City, at 
Long Branch, N. J., aged 86, Oct. 11, 1915. 

Minzesheimer, Charles, member of Stock Exchange, New York 
City, aged 79, Apl. 1, 1916. 

Moses, Gustave, photographer. Civil War veteran. New Orleans, 
La., aged 79, Oct. 23, 1915. 

MuHR, Philip, painter, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 54, Feb. 2, 1916. 

Mundheim, Lewis, Civil War veteran, Brooklyn, N. Y., aged 84, 
Nov. 28, 1915. 

Naar, Samuel Grey, judge, Trenton, N. J., aged 68, Sept., 1915. 

Nathan, Ernest, internal revenue collector, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
aged 74, Sept. 3, 1915. 

Nathanson, Julius, rabbi, San Jose, Cal., aged 53, Apl. 7, 1916. 

Nickelsbero, Siegfried, merchant, vice-president of San FYan- 
Cisco Board of Trade, San Francisco, Cal., aged 66, June 18, 1915. 

Noot, Meyer, rabbi, Williamsport, Pa., aged 67, Mch. 23, 1916. 

NuRBiN, S., rabbi. New Orleans, La., aged 51, June 19, 1915. 

Oppenheim, Nathan, physician. New York City, aged 50, Apl. 5, 
1916. 

Oppenheimer, Daniel, banker. Civil War veteran, San Antonio, 
Tex., aged 79, Dec. 14, 1915. 

OscHER, Max, banker. New York City, aged 62, Feb. 7, 1916. 

Pfaelzsr, David M., member of Board of Assessors, Chicago, 111., 
aged 63, Nov., 1915. 

Phillips, Gustave, manufacturer, Boston, Mass., aged 86, Apl., 
1916. 

Phillips, Wolfe, publisher. New York City, aged 70, Jan. 28, 
1916. 



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110 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Plaut, Albebt, chemist and financier, New York City, aged 59, 
June 18, 1915. 

Rabinowitz, Shalom (Sholem Aleichem), Yiddish writer and 
humorist, New York City, aged 58, May 13, 1916. 

Rauh, Mbs. Rosaue, philanthropist, Pittsburgh, Pa., aged 82, 
Dec. 27, 1915. 

Rbinstein, Simon, communal worker, Boston, Mass., aged 80, 
Feb. 18, 1916. 

Rice, Isaac Leopold, lawyer and financier. New York City, aged 
64, Nov. 2. 1915. 

Rosenbebg, Felix, colonel, Civil War veteran, Cleveland, O., aged 
72, Mch. 23, 1916. 

Rosenbebg, Max, merchant, Pittsburgh, Pa., aged 66, July 31, 
1915. 

RosENFELD, Zachabias, rabbi, St. Louis, Mo., aged 70, Sept. 2, 
1915. 

Rothschild, Alonzo, author and journalist. East Foxboro, Mass., 
aged 54, Sept. 28, 1915. 

Rothschild, Maubice, Stock Exchange, New York City, aged 50, 
Mch. 31, 1916. 

Rubin, Mendel, rabbi, Brooklyn, N. Y., aged 39, Dec. 4, 1915. 

Sachs, Theodobe B., physician, Municipal Tuberculosis Sani- 
tarium, Chicago, 111., aged 48, Apl. 3, 1916. 

Salomon, Mabk M., communal leader. New York City, at Ken- 
sington, N. Y., aged 38, Jan. 6, 1916. 

Samfield, Max, rabbi, Memphis, Tenn., aged 71, Sept. 29, 1915. 

ScHACHET, Max L., talmudic scholar, Cincinnati, O., aged 63, 
Apl., 1916. 

ScHECHTEB, SoLOMON, scholar and theologian, president of Jew- 
ish Theological Seminary of America, New York City, aged 68, 
Nov. 19, 1915. 

ScHWEBiNEB, Theodobe, Civil War veteran, Philadelphia, Pa., 
aged 73, Dec. 8, 1915. 

Seeman, Geobge, communal worker, Cincinnati, O., aged 80, 
May 18, 1916. 

Shabtenbebg, Jacob, 'merchant, Providence, R. I., July, 1915. 

Shields, Joseph, in Charlestown, W. Va., collector of internal 
revenue, Cincinnati, O., aged 82, Apl. 7, 1916. 

Siedenbach, Henby, financier, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 70, Apl. 
1916. 

Stebn, Max, member Board of Education and of City Council, 
Fargo, N. D., Mch., 1916. 

Stbauss, Nathan, confederate army veteran, formerly member 
of State Legislature, New Orleans, La., aged 81, Nov. 2, 1915. 

SuHLEB, Aabon, rabbi, Waco, Tex., aged 70, Mch. 1, 1916. 

SuLZBEBGEB, Febdinand, fouudcr of meat packing industry. New 
York City, at Konstanz, Germany, aged 84, Aug. 6, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND m 



Thbelkeld, C. H., educator, Memphis, Tenn., Mch. 21, 1916. 

Ulman, Ansel, formerly member of State Legislature, Williams- 
port, Pa., aged 51, Sept. 5, 1915. 

Wbbneb, Wm. E., judge, Rochester, N. Y., aged 61, Mch. 1, 1916. 

WiEDEB, MoBiTz, councilman and health commissioner, Hartford, 
Conn., aged 71, Nov. 27, 1915. 

WiLDBEBG, Simon, manufacturer, Cincinnati, O., aged 79, Jan. 28, 
1916. 

Wolf, Henry, wood engraver. New York City, aged 64, Mch. 18, 
1916. 

ZucKEB, Max, rabbi, Patchogue, L. I., aged 63, Oct., 1915. 

B 

FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

ARABIA 

July 8. Aden: Water shortage causes great distress among 
Jews. Government takes steps to ensure a sufficient supply. 

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

GENERAL 

July 23. Melbourne: Crown Law Department at request of 
Jewish lawyers provides copy of Old Testament at Courts for use 
In swearing Jewish witnesses. — Novembeb 7. Sydney: Consecra- 
tion of Hall intended to form nucleus of Central Synagogue. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Myers, Arthur M., Auckland, N. Z., appointed Minister of Muni- 
tions and Customs, Aug., 1916. 

NECROLOGY 

Cohen, Folk, former member of City Council, Wellington, N. Z., 
aged 70, June, 1915. 

Fox, E. Phtt.t.tps, artist, at London, Dec, 1915. 

Gerson, Morris, commimal worker, Brisbane, aged 74, Dec, 1916. 

Solomon, Charles, former Mayor, Cooma, N. S. W., aged 84, Nov. 
15, 1915. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Decorations • 

October 22. John Monash, colonel, temporarily brigadier-gen- 
eral, decorated Companion of Order of Bath. — December 3. Dis- 
tinguished Conduct Medal awarded A. L. Caselberg, Masterton, 
New Zealand, for gallantry on Aug. 22, 1915, at the Dardanelles. 



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112 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Promotions 
OcTOBEB 29. H. E. Cohen, major, promoted lieutenant-colonel. 

Necrology on Account of War 
October 7. Keith Levi, captain, at Dardanelles. 

AUSTKIA-HUNGAEY 



GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JEWS 

July 3. Vienna: Memorial Day for Theodor Herzl. — 11. 
Marienbad: Memorial meeting for Theodor Herzl. — August 13. 
Vienna: Members of Jewish community petition for revision of 
Hilsner ritual murder case. — ^November 19. Committee for En- 
lightenment of Eastern Jewish Questions formed. — January 4. 
Vienna: West Austrian, Galician and Bukowinfian Zionist Central 
Committee adopts resolutions expressing hope that the Jewish 
question will be discussed at the Peace Congress, and that the 
Actions Committee will find suitable ways and means to bring 
about unanimous demonstration of Jews of all countries for the 
demand for civil and political equality for Jews everywhere, and 
also national recognition in the states of composite nationality, and 
calling upon the Actions Committee to take steps to safeguard the 
interests of political Zionism at the Peace Congress. — 28. Neu- 
Sandec, Galicia: M. Marshalk, Polish Assistant Public Prosecutor, 
during trial of a Jew, alleges that Jewish religion teaches that 
revenge on non-Jews is justified. Zionist organization protests to 
government against libel, and demands inquiry. — February 11. 
Bernard Wetzler, sets aside sum of fifty thousand crowns ($10,000) 
to erect institute for study of technical aspects of food problem on 
basis of scientific discoveries in chemistry, biology, and physiology. 
— March 3. Vienna: Conference of Galician and Bukowinean 
rabbis and communal workers forms Committee with view to 
working for solution of eastern Jewish problem. — 7. Lemberg: 
Austrian Minister of Interior, prince Hohenlohe, receives deputa- 
tion of Jewish Rescue Committee who hand him detailed memo- 
randum containing following demands: (1) Creation of Central 
Care Ofiice in Lemberg for Jewish fugitives of provincial towns; 
(2) granting of State aid to these fugitives, as to those in West 
Austrian provinces; (3) postponement of last date of return to 
end of April for fugitives of East Galician towns, some of which 
have been burned down, and others destroyed; (4) establishment 
of orphanages in co-operation with the Rescue Committee for at 



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EVENTS IN 5676— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 113 

least 10,000 war* orphans whose total number exceeds 20,000; (5) 
establishment of homes for children of soldiers and of those trans- 
ported to Russia, whose mothers are employed during the day; 
(6) maintenance and support of Jewish soup-kitchens for dura- 
tion of war; (7) extension of law concerning relief grants and its 
application to " ritual marriages "; (8) consideration to be shown 
to Jewish tradesmen and artisans in the restoration of the country. 
— May. Celebration of twentieth anniversary of the enactment of 
complete equality of Jews and recognition of Jewish religious 
communities in Hungary. 

II 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Badasz, Leopold, awarded Commander's Cross of the Leopold 
Order, Feb., 1916. 

Babany, Robert, physician, Vienna, receives Nobel prize for 
medicine, Dec, 1915. 

Debi, Fbanz, Budapest, elected Vice-Mayor, Jan., 1916. 

FiscH, Ebnst, appointed new Member of the Senate in Hungary, 
Feb. 25, 1916. 

Fleischmann, Leo, Vienna, appointed Professor in medical de- 
partment of University, Mch., 1916. 

Fbankel, Otto, Prague, elected dean of the German University, 
Aug., 1915. 

GoLDziHEB, IGNATZ, profossor, Budapost, elected member of Royal 
Spanish Academy of History, as successor to Joseph Jacobs, May 
19, 1916. 

Gboss, Sieqfbied, Vienna, appointed professor in medical depart- 
ment of University, Mch., 1916. 

Gbuenhut, Kabl Samuel, professor of law department. Uni- 
versity of Vienna, receives title of Court Councillor, with decora- 
tion of Commander of the Orders of Francis Joseph and Leopold, 
Nov., 1915. 

HiTSCHMANN, Fbtiz, Vienna, appointed professor in medical de- 
partment of University, Mch., 1916. 

Kappelmacheb, Jacob, Vienna, receives Badge of Honor after 40 
years' service as Head Master of schools, Aug. 6, 1915. 

KoHN, Samuel, rabbi, Budapest, made royal Hungarian Court 
Councillor, Mch., 1916. 

Kbonland, David, well-known Jewish opera singer of Lemberg, 
appointed professor of singing at Lemberg Conservatory of Music, 
Nov. 19, 1915. 

Pbibbam, Ebnst, Vienna, appointed professor in medical depart- 
ment of University, Mch., 1916. 

Rothschild, Gustav, appointed mayor of Jewish community of 
Eisgrund, Jan. 4, 1916. 



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114 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Rothschild, Louis de, Baron, Vienna, named da membef of the 
Executiye Committee of the Jewish community (Kultusyorstand), 
Jan., 1916. 

ScHUB, Heinrich, Vienna, appointed professor in medical de- 
partment of University, Mch., 1916. 

Weisselbebgeb, , Czernowitz, created by Emperor a Noble of 

the Empire, Mch., 1916. 

Weisz, Manfbied, Budapest, created member of Hungarian 
House of Magnates, Jan., 1916. 

Ill 
NECROLOGY 

Adutt, Licco L., communal worker, Vienna, Mch., 1916. 

Bihab, Alexandeb, opera singer, Sept. 10, 1915. 

Cabo, Ezekiel, rabbi, Lemberg, at Vienna, aged 71, Jan., 1916. 

Cohen, Gustave, vice-president of Jewish community, Vienna, 
Oct. 22, 1915. 

Epstein, Mobitz, editor of "Neues Weiner Tageblatt," Vienna, 
aged 72, Nov., 1915. 

Fabkas, Albebt, publicist, Oct. 17, 1915. 

Pbankl-Gbun, Adolf, rabbi, Vienna, aged 80, Mch., 1916. 

Goldbaum, M. J., Hebrew writer, Lemberg, aged 79, Nov. 2, 1915. 

GoLDSCHMiDT, GuiDi, chemist, Vienna, aged 65, Sept., 1915. 

Haas, Ebwin, director of Insurance Co., aged 28, Aug. 6, 1915. 

Hahn, Samuel von, banker, Vienna, aged 79, Jan., 1916. 

Hebzbebg-Fbaenkel, Leo, author, Teplitz, Bohemia, aged 88, 
July, 1915. 

Hohenbebo, Emanuel, member of Tempelverein, Vienna, aged 72, 
Aug. 23, 1915. 

Kabman, Mobiz von, professor, father of Hungarian pedagogics, 
and creator of model high school, Budapest, aged 72, Nov. 5, 1915. 

Kohn, Alois, editor, Marienbad, Feb. 16, 1916. 

Kohn, Gustav, lawyer, decorated with Iron Cross and Francis 
Joseph Order, Vienna, aged 75, Oct. 8, 1915. 

Landsbebgeb, Loeb, rabbi, Segholm, Hungary, Sept., 1915. 

Langstein, Gustav, lawyer, Vienna, Dec. 13, 1919? 

Mahleb, Abthub, former Reichstag deputy, professor of classic 
archaeology, Prague, at Vienna, aged 48, Apl. 22, 1916. 

Meyeb, Fbitz, decorated with Iron Cross, Oct. 17, 1915. 

Pick, Rudolph, cartoonist, Vienna, Mch., 1916. 

PoLLAK, Kabl, editor, Vienna, aged 49, June, 1915. 

Sallos, Joseph, last of the Sabbatharians, Boezoed Ujfalu, Hun- 
gary, Jan., 1916. 

Schefteb-Naumann, Imperial Councillor, age 74, Aug. 6, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY II5 



ScHBAMCK, Adolt, Imperial Councillor, Vienna, aged 71, Dec. 17, 
1915. 

ScHTJTZ, Eduabd, judge, Bruz, June 30, 1915. 

ScHWABZFELD, Db. Elias, authoF, July 16, 1915. 

Stern, Bernhabd (Beriscu), mayor, Buczacz (Galicia), Sept, 
1915. 

SzABOLCsi, Max, editor, Barolon-Fured, aged 50, June, 1915. 

Weinberger, Johann Isidob, Commercial Councillor, Vienna, 
Sept. 8, 1915. 

ZiPFEB, Lazab, lawyeif, Sept. 17, 1915. 

IV 

EUROPEAN WAR * 

May 25. Vienna: Poalei Zion, Jewish Socialist Labor Party in 
Austria, publishes manifesto calling attention to distressing situa- 
tion of Jews in present day, and urging their complete emancipa- 
tion. — 26. Hungarian Minister of Interior orders all Galician 
fugitives to be removed to Austria, following decision of latter 
Government to grant no state aid to such fugitives in Hungary, but 
to settle them in small groups in Bohemia, Moravia, and even 
Styria and Tyrol. — ^June 4. Government deports all Galician Jew- 
ish refugees who fled to Hungarian towns. — Budapest: Many fugi- 
tives deported. — 15. Trieste: Edoardo Almagi^ gives five thou- 
sand lire ($1000) to Red Cross and fifteen thousand lire ($3000) 
to families of soldiers. — 17. Niemirow burned by Russians. — 
July 6. Sadagora: Seventy Jews transported to Russia because 
of alleged treachery. — Schipenitza: One hundred and thirty-two 
houses burned down and place plundered by the Russians, for 
alleged favorable attitude of population toward Austrian troops. — 
9. Alkotmany, anti-Semitic Budapest paper, praises warmly 
ensign Emanuel Beregi, a Jew, for valor. — Twelve hundred chil- 
dren from Galicia and Bukowina cared for in schools conducted 
by Baron Hirsch Fund, Israelitische Allianz, and Brunner Hilfs- 
comit6. — 16. Bohemia and Moravia: Council of Baron de Hirsch 
Foundation with approval of Government establishes courses in 
elementary education for children of Galician refugees. Israel- 
itische Allianz co-operates in Moravia. — 16. Przemysl: Jews 
either shot or sent to Siberia. — 16. Dr. Rafael Taubenschlag re- 
ceives special recognition from commanding officer. — 16. Four 
thousand Jews driven out of Sniatyn by Cossacks. — 23. Lemberg: 
Gtovemor-general count Bobrinsky on retirement of Russians 
invites male population to emigrate to Russia, but expressly ex- 
cludes Jews from invitation. — 23. Tarnow: Austrians on their re- 

♦ Owing to the war, the news for May came too late to be 
included in Yeab Book 5676. 



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116 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

entry accuse population of sympathy with the Russians and hang a 
Jew, Solomon Fasd, for assisting them. — August 6. The family of 
Bassevi v. Threwenberg erect home for war orphans in honor of 
anniversary. — 14. Franz Ritter von Wikullil, general of artillery, 
announces forthcoming appointment of teachers in occupied dis- 
tricts, and that applications will be received only from invalid 
officers of the Roman Catholic or Greek Catholic religion. — 15. 
Austrian Government orders all refugees, coming from places 
evacuated by the enemy, to return, under penalty of losing the 
privilege of free transportation and the claim to further subsidies 
by the Government. — 17. Vienna: Schools opened for children of 
fugitives from Galicia and Bukowina under directorship of Dr. 
Fliegelman. — 17. Lemberg: Polish anti-Jewish agitators accuse 
Galician Jews of friendship for Russia. — 20. Jastrow: Grand 
rabbi Josef Rubin taken as hostage by Russians because he re- 
fuses to offer prayer for Czar instead of usual one for emperor 
Franz Josef. — 25. Vienna: In a memorandum on work of restora- 
tion to be undertaken in Galicia and Bukowina submitted to the 
Imperial Government, Adolf Standi president of the Central Com- 
mittee of Galician Zionists, and Dr. Karl PoUak, president of the 
Executive Committee of the Austrian Zionists, declare that the 
economic, social, and political restoration of Galicia and Bukowina 
is an affair that concerns the whole Austrian Empire, and that only 
if the Central Government itself directs the work will a guarantee 
of justice be provided. — 25. Cracow: Czar publishes article by 
Dr. Hupka, former member of Galician Diet, charging Jews of 
Lemberg with disloyal conduct during the Russian occupation. 
Herr Reizes, Jewish parliamentary deputy, refutes charges. — 
September 2. Moravia: Governor telegraphs to Israelitische Al- 
lianz, Vienna, for assistance for six thousand fugitives in Nlkols- 
burg. — 16. Galicia: Synagogue dedicated in refugees' camp at 
Bruck-an-der-Leitha. — 28. Austrian Minister of Interior, In inter- 
view with Heinrich Reizes, promises thorough inquiry into com- 
plaint against Galician authorities, and gives assurance that Cen- 
tral Government would not tolerate the oppression of any national 
group by any other. — The Poalei Zion in manifesto charges 
that anti-Semitism is systematically practiced by the Poles in 
Russian and Austrian Poland, and demands equality of oppor- 
tunity and of rights for the Jewish people. — October 7. Oester- 
reichische Wochenschrift reports two cases in which it is found 
that non-Jews are guilty of selling above the prescribed prices, 
with which Jews were charged. — 12. Lemberg: In appeal issued 
by Jewish Relief Committee it is stated that nine-tenths of the 
Jews in Galicia are utterly ruined. — 19. Tlust: Russians, in ad- 
vance over Galician Sereth, hang nine Jews. — ^Zalerzczki: Jewish 
farmer, Rubel, and son murdered. — November 12. In bulletin of 
diocese Roman Catholic community of Pest-St. Lorincz warm 



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EVENTS IN 5676— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 117 



praise given to a Jew for his help in caring for the wounded. — 16. 
Vienna: Committee for Enlightenment of Eastern Jewish Ques- 
tions established for purpose of disseminating correct informa- 
tion about the conditions of the Jews in Eastern Europe. — Dscem- 
BEB 25. Budapest: Jewish firm of Julius Wofner & Co. transmits 
to Hungarian Premier, Count Tlsza, five hundred thousand crowns 
($100,000), as a fund for widows and orphans of war. — 17. Bos- 
nia: Jewish landowner suggests to leaders of Jewish community 
of Vienna settling Gallcian Jewish refugees in Bosnia as agricul- 
turists. — ^February 9. Tischmienitz: Eighty per cent of Jewish 
population in great distress, aggravated by fact that large pro- 
portion of population consists of artisans, especially furriers, at 
present unemployed. — Otinio: Town suffers two Russian inva- 
sions. — 15. Cracow, Hamizpe, Hebrew weekly, suspended; editor 
called to the colors. — Vienna: Jewish National Society of 
Austria issues manifesto to Jews, stating that after the war the 
monarchy will be reconstructed into a modern state, and that all 
nationalities and classes will advance their claims. — 23. Turka: 
three hundred and forty-five houses burned. Synagogues and all 
but fifteen Sefer Torahs destroyed. Cemetery devastated. — 24. 
Budapest: Congregation subscribes nine hundred and twelve thou- 
sand crowns ($182,400) to war loan fund. Huszt: Congregation 
subscribes three hundred thousand crowns ($60,000) and its old 
copper vessels. — March 17. Gallcia: Turka, with population of 
6080, 3000 being Jews, has 345 houses burned, all synagogues de- 
stroyed. Similar conditions in Podhelze, Jewish population of 
3800; Jaslowitz, 1500; Narejow, 800. — 31. Reported that Yid- 
dish language has been practically interdicted by Austrian censor 
for past six months. — Ban by Austrian military government 
against use of Yiddish resented by Jews; petition submitted to 
government authorities requesting removal of decree. — May 15. 
Pomorzany: Russians drive out all Jews, but permit them to 
return, after their houses were burned. Thirty-three Jews de- 
ported when Russians evacuate town. One hundred Jews die 
of «holera. — 19. Circular letter distributed by Rabbis in Austria 
to their colleagues in the provinces suggesting that every husband 
leaving for the front give his wife a conditional divorce, so that 
a year after peace, if the husband does not return, the women may 
'safely marry again. 

Decorations 

Commander's Cross of Franz Josef on ribbon of Valor Medal: 
Alois Pick; Salomon Spitzer. — Officer's Cross of Franz Josef on 
ribbon of Valor Cross: Leopold Austerlitz; Karl Feiertag; Eduard 
Groldmann; Simon Heller; Alfred Herz; Josef Pewny; Siegmund 
Taussig; Otto Zuckerhandl. — In addition to the honors and decora- 



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118 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



lions enumerated, there are on record at the office of the Bureau 
of Statistics more names of Jews awarded decorations, as follows: 

Knight's Cross of Franz Josef on ribbon of Valor 

Medal 104 

* Signum Laudis on ribbon of Valor Medal 1060 

Military Service Cross, 3d class, with war deco- 
ration on ribbon of Valor Medal 155 

Gold Cross with crown on ribbon of Valor Medal 321 

Gold Cross on ribbon of Valor Medal 176 

Silver Cross with crown on ribbon of Valor Medal 541 

Silver Cross on ribbon of Valor Medal 130 

Gold Valor Medal 42 

Silver Valor Medal, 1st class 478 

t Silver Valor Medal, 2d class 1266 

t Bronze Valor Miedal 1575 

Iron Cross, 2d class 32 

Honors from Red Cross 113 

Miscellaneous 21 

Promotions 

October 15. Dr. Leopold Sofer appointed regimental physician, 
— November 4. Promoted lieutenant-colonel: Moritz Mansch; Ed 
uard Goldmann. — 19. Major Moriz Feldman promoted lieutenant 
general. — 19. General Leopold Austerlitz promoted major-gen 
eral. — February 10. Joseph Neumann, Moravia, breveted colonel 
— May 5. Colonel Julius Bauer promoted brigadier-general, 
— Promoted head surgeons: Dr. Leo Kurzweil, Josef Plautus. 
— Promoted sergeant-major: Norbert Erber, Salomon Schmierler. 
— ^Promoted majors: D. E. Bloch, Heinrich Friedlaender, Sieg- 
fried Strauss, David Thorman.— Promoted captains: Tobias Asck 
enase, Siegmund Defris, Fritz, Siegmund Wertheimer. — Pro- 
moted lieutenants: Josef Abeles, Leopold Adler, Salomon Adler, 
Max Allerhand, I. Barbag, Maximilian Bardach, Geza Bergmajin, 
Leopold Blumberg, Wolf Chypres, Bernhard Dattner, Ernst 
Deutsch, Eugen Deutsch, Hans Deutsch, Oskar Deutsch, Moses 
Dreifuss, Oskar Fischel, Karl Fischl, Max Fischl, Erich Flecker, 
S. Franken, Fritz Freund, Moriz Friedmann, Elias Gabriel, Wil- 
belm Gans, Motel Gingold, Julius Goldberg, Otto Goldstein, Paul 
Griinbaum, Max Hegedus, Moriz Heller, Herbert Hirsch, Rue Horo- 
witz, Hugo Kauders, Eugen Kaufman, Nikolaus Kemeny, Samuel 

♦ 256 of these not on file at the office. 

t None of these on file at the office. All names can be obtained 
at the New York Public Library. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--AUSTRIA-HUNGARY ng 



Kiska, Andor Konigstein, Erwin Korn, Max Krausher, Artur 
Kulka, Ernst Kulka, Karl Kulla, Robert Landau, Moses Laub, 
Isaac Lechner, Moses Leitner, Alfred Low, Artur Lowental, Julius 
Lowy, Moriz Mansch, Hugo Marmorek, Moriz Munk, Rudolph 
Naschitz, Paul Neustadtl, Wilhelm Offenbacher, D. B. Oppenheim, 
Jacques Omstein, Karl PoUak, Wilhelm PoUak, Maximilian 
Prager, Moriz Puliczer, Maximillian Rechenberg, Heinrich 
Reichenberg, Artur Reiss, Ignaz Reisz, Alfred Rosenberg, Oskar 
Rosenfeld, Julius Rosenzweig, Hermann Saphier, Ferdinand Schon, 

Alexander Shay, Isak Steindling, Emil Stem, Ladislaus Stern, 

Sternberg, Wilhelm Sternberg, Julius Strauss, Armin Taub, Lud- 
wig Taub, Priedrich Taussig, Victor Taussig, Leopold Tugendhat, 
Karl Unger, Gustav Weinberger, Friedrich Zeckendorff. 

Necbology on Account op Wab 

June. Anselm Gorge, lieutenant; Edmund Honig, lieutenant; 
Max Rappaport, lieutenant; Hugo Schlesinger, lieutenant; Michael 
M. Stern, lieutenant, age 39. — ^July. Otto Herz, lieutenant; Arpad 
Katona, lieutenant, age 29; Emil Kortmeny, lieutenant, aged 38; 
Paul Pisk, lieutenant, aged 25; Johann Saborsky, lieutenant; 
Wilhelm Sonnberg, lieutenant. — August. Hugo Fadenhecht, 
lieutenant; Paul MuUer, lieutenant; Theodore Steinberg, lieuten- 
ant, aged 22. — September. Salo AUerhand, lieutenant, aged 30; 
Leo Bloch, lieutenant; Bela Fischer, lieutenant; Maximilian 
Gelehrter, lieutenant; Siegmund Ullmann, lieutenant — October. 
Alexander Friedlander, lieutenant; Emil Gottlieb, lieutenant; 
Rudolf Jellinek, lieutenant; Bela Leslauer, lieutenant; Josef 
Lichtenstern, lieutenant; Artur Maurer, lieutenant; Oskar Munz, 
lieutenant; Viktor Neumann, lieutenant; Samuel Bonis, lieuten- 
ant; Desider Schulz, lieutenant; Ladislaus Schwartz, lieutenant, 
decorated with military service cross and large silver valor medal. 
— ^November. Dr. Ludwig Fischl, lieutenant, aged 25; Eugen 
Geiringer, lieutenant, Signum Laudis and gold military cross; 
Hans Herzl, lieutenant; Eugen Kjiebel, lieutenant; Eugen Mayer, 
lieutenant; Wilhelm Revesz, lieutenant, aged 42; Abraham Werner, 
lieut^iant. — December. Leopold Deutsch, commander of field 
hospital, knight of Franz Josef Order, decorated with honor badge, 
2d class, from Red Cross, gold service cross with crown; Aldo 
Padoa, Trieste, lieutenant, infantry; Marco Prister fu Moisd, 
Trieste, second lieutenant; Josef Zimer, aged 25. — January. Ander 
Wessel, lieutenant, aged 26. — Febbwary. Richard Fischer, lieuten- 
ant; Giorgia Piazza, Trieste, second lieutenant, bersaglieri. — 
March. Hugo Zuckermann, lieutenant. 



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120 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

BELGIUM 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Decoration 

August 20. Otto Rabinovitch, corporal, Berdichev, Russia, 
receives from King Albert medal of the Chevalier of the Ordre de 
Leopold. — May 26. Charles Bloch, grand rabbin, sentenced by 
Von Bissing, German governor of Belgium, to six months im- 
prisonment in Germany, because after service at synagogue he 
blessed Belgian royal family, and called the plagues of Egypt upon 
the invaders. 

BULGAEIA 

EUROPEAN WAR 

October 20. Permission obtained from Government for Bes- 
sarabian Jews, refugees from Russia, to settle in Bulgaria upon 
condition that Bulgarian Jewry provide them with all necessities, 
so that they do not become a burden to the State. 

CANADA 

June 18. Montreal: Jewish Court of Arbitration proposed. — 
July 16. Ottawa: Jewish women's league formed to oppose 
Christian missionary activity. — February 25. Montreal: Private 
Bills Committee of Upper Canadian House passes Jewish philan- 
thropies bill. — March 24. Board of Deputies of Canadian Jews 
formed. — 31. Montreal: In course of discussion on question of 
immigration in Canadian Parliament, Boulay, Conservative mem- 
ber for Rimouski, makes violent attack on Jewish immigrants, 
declaring them to be undesirable. A. Verville replies with forceful 
speech. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Abramowitz, Herman, rabbi, Montreal, appointed by major-gen- 
eral Hughes, chaplain for Jewish soldiers at Volcartier, Nov., 1915. 

Cohen, E. Arakie, Winnipeg, appointed lecturer in law at the 
-University of Manitoba, Oct., 1915. 

Gold, Eduard, appointed mayor of South Vancouver, Dec. -24, 
1915. 

Ruben STEIN, Louis, Montreal, chosen acting mayor by the City 
Council, Feb., 1916. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— EGYPT 121 



EUROPEAN WAR 

November 14. Montreal: Conference of Canadian Jews adopt 
resolutions: (1) pledging loyalty to the British Empire; (2) ex- 
pressing hope that the British Empire and its Allies will be 
victorious; (3) that the Jews in every land may be accorded those 
rights of equality and justice which are the prerogative of all 
mankind; (4) that in fixing terms of peace provision be made that 
in those belligerent countries in which Jews are deprived of rights 
accorded to other citizens, all disabilities burdening Jews and 
other peoples at present suffering from a denial of such rights be 
removed; (5) that steps be taken to get the Peace Congress to 
insure the absolute right of Jews now residing in the Holy Land, 
or who may settle there subsequently, to develop that land with- 
out any unjust discrimination or hinderance, and that all in- 
habitants of the land be accorded equal rights and full citizenship ; 
(6) that a committee be elected to give effect to the resolutions 
passed at this conference, and to interest itself in all matters affect- 
ing Canadian Jews, and that it have power to add to its numbers, 
to organize and arrange by-laws and to appoint its own executive 
and replace those who, may cease to be members. — 15. Montreal: 
Canadian Jewish Alliance and the Canadian Jewish Workmen's 
Federation at meeting protest against the claim of the Conference 
that it represented all the Jews in Canada, whereas it represented 
only the Zionist section. Two delegates sent to the conference to 
urge the adoption of a resolution that all Jewish societies be in- 
cluded in the conference, and that the two executive committees 
work in harmony and at some future date call a Congress in 
Canada to take definite steps toward the amelioration of the con- 
dition of the Jews. Resolution adopted, and recognition extended 
to all societies. 

Decoration 

February 4. Hyman Lightstone, Montreal, captain in royal 
army medical corps, receives Military Cross. 

EGYPT 

EUROPEAN WAR 

June 4. M. Grouchkowsky, private, Zion Mule Corps, at 
Dardanelles, receives D. C. M. for bravery. — 18. Alexandria: 
Arrival of Louis H. Levin, in charge of distribution of food- 
stuffs conveyed by steamship Vulcan, from the United States. — 
25. British military authorities order that Jewish dead be 
buried with Jewish rites in Jewish cemetery and that their 
names be inscribed in Hebrew on their coffins. — August 27. 



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122 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Alexandria: Annie Landau opens new school for Palestine 
refugees. — December 31. Alexandria: Up to this date eleven 
thousand two hundred and seventy- seven refugees arrived from 
Palestine. — March 17. Alexandria: Osmania, Khedivial Mail 
Steamer, leaves for Cyprus with one hundred and ninety Jewish 
refugees from Palestine. 

Promotions 

June. Garodisky, Alexandria, gazetted first lieutenant. 

Claude Rolls, lieutenant, Alexandria, promoted captain. 

Necrology on Account of War 
October 22. Garodisky, lieutenant, at Gallipoli. 



FEANCJE 



GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JEWS 

• 

June 25. Nice: In name of municipality, mayor addresses letter 
to rabbi M. Bauer, condemning attack on Jews by Russian count 
Muraviev Amursky in L'Eclaire de Nice, and expressing admira- 
tion for the French Jews at the front.— July 16. Gustave Herv6 
protests against anti-Semitic paper. Petit Parisien. — October 29. 
Paris: Publications in La Guerre Sociale of open letter to Czar 
by Jewish professor of Sorbonne University asking whether Czar 
does not think that the persecution of Jews injures Russia. — 
December 24. Rothschild brothers, Paris, give Prefect of the 
Seine, one hundred thousand francs ($20,000) for purchase of 
fuel for poor. — ^January 7. French Minister of Interior in inter- 
view with representatives of press severely condemns agitation 
against Russian immigrants in Paris. The anti-Semites persist in 
referring to the immigrants as pro-Germans and deserters. With 
view to explaining to public, their position with regard to service 
in the army in Russia the immigrants are preparing a memorial. — 
28. Andr6 Vervoort, former anti-Semite, publishes book on Jews 
and the war, in which he renounces his former attitude and com- 
mends loyalty of the Jews. 

II 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Bakst, Leon, painter, Paris, receives Nobel Art Prize, Dec, 1915 
BoKANowsKi, Maurice Moise, Paris, receives order of Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor, Mch., 1916. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— FRANCE 123 



Dreyfus, Louis, appointed consul-general for Roumania at Paris, 
June, 1915. 

Helbbonneb, , captain, chosen as Cabinet Minister of War 

(administrative section) . 

Klotz, Louis Lucien, appointed president of the Budget Com- 
mittee of the Chamber of Deputies, Nov., 1915. 

Laboque, Naquet, general, named member of commission on 
inventions for national defense, Dec, 1915. 

WoBMSEB, ANDBfi, awarded half of the Alphonse de Rothschild 
Prize, ten thousand francs ($2000), by Academy of Fine Arts, Dec, 
1915. 

Ill 
NECROLOGY 

Aron, Jules, medical inspector of army. Commander of Legion 
of Honor, aged 86, April 10, 1916. 

Bb6al, Michel Jules Alfbed, philologist, former inspector-gen- 
eral of higher education. Officer and Commander of Legion of 
Honor, Paris, aged 83, Dec, 1915. 

Cahan, Emile, grand rabbi, Lille, aged 76, Feb. 6, 1916. 

Dreyfus, Febdinand Camille, Senator, politician and journalist, 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, Paris, aged 64, July 19, 1915. 

Dbeyfus, Gaston, banker, Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 
Paris, aged 61, Sept 14, 1915. 

Fbiboubg, Gebson, retired inspector-general of Posts and Tele- 
graphs, officer of Legion of Honor, Paris, Dec, 1915. 

Hatchowel, , officer of Academy, aged 65, Aug. 8, 1915. 

Kanowi, Simon, president of Jewish Consistory of Oran, Dec 26, 
1915. 

Levy, Abbaham, minister to Oran, Aug. 15, 1915. 

Levy, Ebnst, Chevalier, judge, Paris, Dec. 17, 1915. 

Levy, Kifa, palm of officer of Academy, aged 90, Oct. 21, 1915. 

Netter, Moi'SE, former chief rabbi of Oran (Algeria), Paris, 
June, 1915. 

Reitmnqeb, Alfbed H., Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, Paris, 
aged 78, Oct. 14, 1915. 

Schwabzfeld, Elias, secretary of the Jewish Colonization Asso- 
ciation, Paris, aged 60, June 25, 1915. 

Seligman, Edmond, lawyer, journalist, and historian, Paris, June, 
1915. 

SfiLiGMAN-Lui, M. G, inspector-general of French telegraphs and 
director of the telegraphic service, Commander of Legion of Honor, 
Dec, JL915. 

SoBANO, AuQUSTE, chcmical engineer, aged 23, Oct. 6, 1915. 

Weill, Emmanuel, rabbi, Paris, Apl. 14, 1916. 



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124 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

IV 
EUROPEAN WAR 

June 1. Paris: L'Echo de Russie, new weekly, started. — 18. 
Libre Parole criticises grand rabbin of France for endeavoring to 
arrange religious services for German Jewish prisoners of war. 
The Action Frangaise attacks Paris Rothschilds, alleging that 
they carry on business with German relatives. — July 2. Com- 
mittee of the League of the Rights of Man resolves to appeal to 
the Government to exempt those Jews from being Interned with 
Turkish Jews who served as volunteers in the Foreign Legion 
during the first stages of the War. — 30. Russian Embassy issues 
appeal to Russians in France to report for military service in 
Russia, and appeals to Police Prefecture of Paris to round up the 
recruits. — M. Bokanowski, deputy of the Seine and lieutenant of 
the reserve at headquarters of the 42d division of infantry men- 
tioned in Orders of the Day. — Nordmann, second lieutenant, men- 
tioned in Army Orders. — August 9. Anti-Jewish press asserts 
that Russian Jews in France are parasites, while sons of France 
are bleeding for their country. — Journal OflSciel confirms report 
that Minister of Interior, through effort of Gustave Herv§, promises 
the Jewish Russo-Polish Committee in Paris not to force Russians 
into military service nor to expel them. — 13. Camille L6vi, brevet- 
colonel mentioned three times in Army Orders. — September 3. Al- 
bert Hertz, rabbi, attached to 4th French Army Corps as Jewish 
chaplain, mentioned in Order of the Day of his corps. — ^Maurice 
Maier, Rheims, soldier of the First Class, named in despatches 
about ten times. — October 1. Germain Mayer, lieutenant-colonel, 
appointed principal private secretary of the Under Secretary of 
State for Military Aeronautics at the Ministry of War. — 8. Cen- 
tral Consistory of French Jews issues appeal to Jews of neutral 
lands to support the Allies. — 22. Georges Dreyfus, recommended 
for British Distinguished Service Order. Haim Elie, formerly 
from Smyrna, in French Army Medical Corps, mentioned in de- 
spatches. — November 26. Paris: Municipality adopts resolution 
that all aliens living in Paris, who are citizens of England, Russia 
or Italy, must join the army, if of military age, or leave the country. 
— December 10. Minister of Interior declines to comply with de- 
mands of anti- Jewish newspapers, several deputies and the Munici- 
pality of Paris, that Russian immigrants be compelled to join the 
army, return to Russia, or go to the concentration camps. (See 
also Nov. 26.) — 17. Minister of Interior announces that a com- 
mittee will examine immigrants eligible for service and willing to 
serve, but that committee would not possess any powers to cgmpel 
enlistment. — January 14. French League of Mercy Issues circular 
defending the Jews against calumnies and reciting Jewish suffer- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— FRANCE 125 



Ing in the war zone. French ambassador in London expresses in- 
dignation at assertion that Jews are in sympathy with Teutonic 
allies. — 23. Alfred L^vy, Grand Rabbin of France, cables Chicago 
Examiner as follows: I declare false the rumors regarding the 
hostile attitude of the French authorities toward Russian and 
Turkish Jews living in France. — ^Febbuaby 11. Picquart, in- 
terpreter, receives British D. C. M. — 18. Ajaccio (Corsica): 
Refugees from Palestine to Corfu, removed here on demand of 
Greek Government. — Mabch 24. Arthur Reitlinger, Paris, men- 
tioned in Army Order. 

Decobations 

Order of Leopold: Otto Rabinovitch. — Military Cross: Abra- 
ham Baril, volunteer; Ya. Bruker, physician (given to his mother 
after his death) ; Emile Dreyfus, lieutenant; Andr6 Felix, lieuten- 
ant; A. Kaufman, second lieutenant; Mayer Soskin, volunteer. — 
Military Medal: Edmund Abraham, adjutant; Maurice Alexan- 
dre; Eduard Leopold Bamberger; Picard Blum, marshal; 

Bouchera; Andr6 Caen; Dahan; Maurice Ben Djem; Memoun 

Djiam; Ben Douyeb; Max Dreyfous; Isaac Oscar Dyehl; David 
Elbaz; Simon Fedida; Isaac Gabison; E. P. Gougenheim, sergeant 
in aviation corps; Hai Hannoun; Lionel Hart; Emil Herscivici; 

Isaac, corporal; Albert Kalfon; Joseph Kaplan; Joseph 

Koubi; J. Kremper; Marc Levy; Djian Maklouf; Masse; 

Francois Meyer; Joe Moise; Elle Ozanne; Edmund Picard; 
Armond Charles Reinach; Henry Saftel; Gaston Salomon; Lucien 
Samuel; Felix Sevor; Maurice Stern; Leon Storck; Joseph Teboul; 
Alexander Varshavsky, Russian volunteer; Bourhuera Vidal; 
Rene Willard; Camille Wurms. — Cross of St. George: Michel 

Coreck; Goloubtchik; Grauberg; Leifmann; 

Leiserovitch ; Isaac Rosenfeld, aged 17. — Medal of St. George with 
ribbon: Joseph Gutman, aged 13. — ^Medal of St. George, 4th 

class: Schapiro, aged 13. — War Cross: Nedjar Albert; 

A. H. C. Bacharah, captain; M. R. Bloch, medical-major; 

Dahan: Georges Dreyfus; Gutman, lieutenant; Lionel Hart; 

Albert Hertz, rabbi; Henri Maru Isidor; Albert Kalfon; Jacob 
Kaplan; Camille Levy; Marc Levy; R. V. Levy; Maurice Maier, 
Rheims; Adrian Metzger; Henri Meyer, colonel; Joe Moise; Jules 
Perquel; Edmund Picard; Daniel P.omp6; H. E. Praeger, captain; 
Arthur Reitlinger, Paris; L. C. Rheims; L. A. Schill, lieutenant; 
Benjamin Schverzenzer ; Jean Seligmann-Lui ; Maurice Weill; 
Leon Wertheimer. — ^War Cross with Crown: Max Dreyfous; 
Joseph Koubi; Felix Sevor. — ^War Cross with Palm: Georg Ren6 
Alexander; Robert Bloch, medical major; Andr6 Caen; Lionnel 
Hart; Ren6 Lang; Marc Levy; Maurice Maier. — War Cross with 
three palms: Debenedettl; Camille Levi, brevet-colonel.— 



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126 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



War Cross with two stars: Ren6 Blum. — Commanders of Legion 
of Honor: Mayer, colonel of Colonial Infantry, and Commander 
of Expeditionary Column to the Cameroons; Seligmann-Levi. — 

Officers of Legion of Honor: Franck; Kahn; Camille 

lAvy, colonel; Leopold Levy; Libman; Albert Lubetzki, 

Paris; Wahl; Weill; Weiller, colonel. — Chevaliers 

of Legion of Honor: Abraham; Adda; Beckart; 

Beer, second lieutenant; Bloch; Georges Bloch; Louis 

Bloch; E. Bloom, captain; Blum; Pierre Braun; Bmile Drey- 

fous; Cerf; Dreyfous; J. A. Ernst, quartermaster; 

Passlna; M. Gompel; Gougenheim, staff lieutenant; 

Hauser, staff captain; Pierre Herzog; Isidor; Louis Job, 

adjutant; Kahan; Kahn; Jacques Kahn, lieutenant; 

A. Kaufman, second lieutenant; Kohn; Long; 

Lattes; Levy; Camille Levy; Marcel Jean Baptiste Michel 

Levy; Michel Levy, captain; P. P. Levy, lieutenant; May, 

second lieutenant; Mayer; Meyer, captain; Pernand 

Netter; Charles Nordman, lieutenant; Pauin, second lieuten- 
ant; H. Polack; Rheims; Rothstein; Joseph Saffer; 

Salomon, second lieutenant; Schuhl; Schwarz; Louis 

Schwob; Eugene Silz, captain; Spire, surgeon major; Joseph- 
Levy Valensi, staff major; M. Weill; Weiller, captain; 

Wolff; Wormser. — Cross of Legion of Honor: Henri Maru 

Isidor. 

Promotions 

Promoted brigadier-general: M. Levi. — Promoted lieutenant- 
general: Bernheim. — Promoted chief of battalion: 

Alvarez. — Promoted commandant: Block. — Promoted com- 
mander: Cohen; Heyman. — Promoted staff major: 

Leon Wertheimer. — Promoted brigade major: Spire. — Pro- 
moted sergeant-major: Grauberg. — Promoted lieutenant- 
general: Bernheim; Weiller. — Promoted captain: J. 

M. Dreyfous; M. Ettinghausun ; J. J. Gompel; R. M. Gougenheim; 
G. Gumpel; Andr6 H6s; G. Lang; J. A. Levi; Michel-Levy; G. 

Meyer; C. Polack; Rueff; E. Schwarzfeld; E. Weil; P. Weill. 

— Promoted lieutenant: H. Cahen; Elkaim; Pierre Herzog; 

Georges Levi; Alexander Varshavsky, Russian volunteer. — Pro- 
moted second lieutenant: Lucien Dreyfous; Georges Dreyfus; 
Henri Halphen; Georges Sachs; Yona Zhuk, Russian volunteer. 

Necrology on Account op War 

May. Charles Halphen, lieutenant, at Neuville-St.-Vaast, aged 
29. — June. Jacques Blumenthal, second lieutenant; M. Boris, 
rabbi, Luneville; Georg L6vy, lieutenant; Jean Rotwand, second 
lieutenant; Leon Wertheimer, lieutenant. — July. Royer Carvallo, 



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EVENTS IN 5676— GERMANY 127 



second lieutenant; L6on L^vy, captain (Algeria); Meyer Tou- 
biana, chazan, Constantine (Algeria). — August. Maurice Bloch, 
seccmd lieutenant; Andre Felix, lieutenant aviator; Robert Hilde- 
sheimer; adjutant; Lucien Salomon, lieutenant. — Septbmbeb. 

Henry Braun, captain; Cahen, Chevalier of Legion of Honor; 

Victor Kiefe, lieutenant; A. Kopelman, staff major, aged 38; Paul 
Lerylier, second lieutenant; Levy, second lieutenant, Bor- 
deaux; Jacques Daniel Mayer, lieutenant; M. Rosf elder, captain; 
Joseph Henry Sciama, second lieutenant — October. Jacques 
Brucker, staff major; Emile Dreyfous, second lieutenant. Cheva- 
lier of Legion of Honor, aged 24; Henri Franck, captain, Paris; Ekl- 
ward Godchau, major; Raymond Levy, second lieutenant, age 21. — 
Decembeb. Emile Dreyfus, lieutenant, aged 24. — Mabch. Ren6 
Weill, brigadier, age 27; Jean Seligman-Lui, brigadier, aged 18. — 
Apbdl Pierre Braun, lieutenant. Chevalier of Legion of Honor, 
aged 21; Maurice Ettinger, second lieutenant; Max Frank, quarter- 
master, age 20; Jacques-Emile Debray, medical staff major, Cheva- 
lier of Legion of Honor; Georg Meyer, captain. — May. Raoul 
Bloch, captain; Andr6 Blumenfeld-Sciama, second lieutenant; Ya. 
Bruker, physician; Maurice Levy, second lieutenant; Marcel Levy- 
Salomon, sergeant, aged 22; Jean Rotwand, second lieutenant. 



GERMANY 



GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JEWS 

June 4. Berlin: At annual meeting of Hilfsverein der 
Deutschen Juden Paul Nathan, vice-president, states that Haifa 
Technicum was purchased in order to create a sound state of 
affairs, but that further decisions as to working of institution 
would not be taken until after the war. — Septembeb 1. East Prus- 
sian Synagogue Association appoints special committee to deal 
with work of restoration of Jewish communal life. — 2. At in- 
stance of Prussian Minister of Instruction, (Jerman Imperial 
Chancellor grants to non-Government Jewish teachers' seminaries 
in Hanover, Munster, Cassel and Cologne, authority to issue certifi- 
cates entitling bearers to the one year's volunteer military service. 
— 4. Elberfeld: Celebration of fiftieth anniversary of synagogue. 
—7. Wilhelmshaven-Rustringen: Synagogue dedicated.— 17. Ins- 
terberg: Celebration of fiftieth anniversary of Synagogue.— Ocro- 
beb. 20. Strehlen: Town Council announces bequest from Paul 
Bhrlich of ten thousand marks ($2500).— Berlin: Julius Roden- 
berg bequeaths twenty-five thousand marks ($6250) for benefit of 
needy students.— Novembeb 16. Frankfort-on-the-Main: Free 



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128 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Association for the Interests of Orthodox Judaism obtains grant 
from Imperial Grain Dep6t of necessary flour to supply matzos. — 
19. Hermann Jacoby, Berlin, bequeaths $40,000 to Berlin. — Jan- 
uary 12. Association of German Commercial Travellers renews 
petition made to German Imperial Chancellor in 1911 asking same 
rights for Jewish travellers as for non-Jewish travellers. — 14. Herr 
von Bonin, Neu-Stettin, Conservative member of Parliament, dis- 
tributes large number of copies of pamphlet containing insinua- 
tions against, and libels on, German Jews. He urges Government 
not to be deceived by the Jews who should in future be treated as 
elements dangerous to the State. — 21. Anti-Jewish agitators 
favor plan of anti-alien agitators to introduce severe immigration 
laws imposing educational, financial, and sanitary tests in order 
to bar entrance to Polish and Russian Jews who are described as 
an undesirable element. — March 21. Number of, university pro- 
fessors request Prussian Minister of Education to establish chair 
in Jewish science in the Philosophical Faculty of Frankfort Uni- 
versity. — May 5. German authorities, in reply to appeal of Polish 
Jews for representation on Committees to register losses to citi- 
zens through the war, state that Jews could not be represented as 
such, although some of those named may be Jews. — 18. Weiner, 
member of Reichsrat, recommends strong measures against admis- 
sion of Polish Jews to Germany, and denounces Lodz chief of 
police for having suggested sending of Jewish mechanics to 
Poland to relieve the dearth of male labor. — Formation of German 
Union for the Interests of the Jews of Eastern Europe; James 
Simon, president. 

II 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Bebostbaessbb, Gotthelf, Leipzig, accepts call to Constantinople 
University, Dec, 1915. 

Bernheimeb, Samuel, judge, Nuremberg, appointed to bench 
with rank of Oberlandesgerichtsrat, Mch., 1916. 

Cassel, Oscar, Berlin, re-elected president of city council, Mch., 
1916. 

Davidson, Robert, elected ordinary member of Munich Academy 
of Sciences, Feb., 1916. 

Ehrlich, Paul, receives Royal Roumanian Cross of the first class 
for Sanitats^erdienst, June, 1915. 

GoLDSCHMiDT-RoTHSCHiLD, RuDOLF VON, Frankfort-on-thc-Main, 
awarded by king of Wurtemberg, grand Gold Medal for Science 
and Art attached to ribbon of the Crown Order, Dec., 1915^ 



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EVENTS IN 5676— GERMANY 129 



Haas, Ludwig, Karlsruhe, appointed to civil administration of 
Warsaw, Sept. 30, 1915. 

Hausmann, August, Bavaria, appointed high counsellor in the 
railroad service, Nov., 1915. 

Heilbbunn, Ludwio, Frankfort-on-the-Main, appointed to Prus- 
sian Diet, Mch., 1916. 

Israel, James, receives from the Sultan of Turkey the Osmanieh 
Order, 1st Class, Aug. 6, 1915. 

JAFFE, , appointed extraordinary professor of physics at 

Leipzig, Apl., 1916. 

Kabewski, Ferdinand, appointed on Board of Health of Berlin, 
Dec. 3, 1915. 

LuRiE, , engineer, Hamburg, appointed mayor of Pinsk, 

Dec, 1915. 

Mannheim, D., Graudenz, elected to Board of City, Nov. 19. 1915. 

Morris, Max, named as honorary professor in Lieipzig Univer- 
sity, Nov. 5, 1915. 

MosER, Henri, Charlottenfels, awarded doctor's degree honoris 
causa by faculty of philosophy of Berne University, Dec, 1915. 

NossiQ, , Berlin, decorated with the Order of Medjidieh, Nov., 

1915. 

Oppenheim, iIermann, neurologist, named as honor member of 
Society for Psychiatry and Neurology, July 30, 1915. 

ScuowER, Rudolph, appointed by German GUrvernment as chief 
justice of Belgium, Sept, 1915. 

Schwarzschild, Karl, Potsdam, appointed honorary professor 
of University of Berlin, Apl., 1916. 

SiLBERMANN, Eduard, lawycr, Munich, appointed Crown At- 
torney, Bavarian Supreme Court, May, 1916. 

SiSioN, G., Berlin, decorated with Order of Medjidieh, Nov., 1915. 

Steinberg, Max, Munich, appointed public prosecutor, Nov., 1915. 

Stebn, William, Breslau, appointed professor at Hamburg Pub- 
lic Lecture Institution, Apl., 1916. 

Uhlman, Alfred, judge, Augsburg, appointed to bench with 
rank of Oberlandesgerichtsrat, Mch., 1916. 

WnxsTATTER, RiCHARD, Munich, appointed to chair of chemistry 
at the University, September, 1915; receives Nobel prize for 
chemistry, Dec, 1915. • 

Wolff, David, Berlin, re-elected president of the American 
Chamber of Commerce, Dec, 1915. 

ZwEiQ, Arnold, awarded prize of Kleist Foundation for Merito- 
rious Writers, Dec, 1915. 



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130 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



III 

NECROLOGY 

Alport, Julius, merchant, Posen, aged 73, Aug. 20, 1915. 

Bendemann, Felix von, retired admiral, Jan., 1916. 

Blumenthal, Julius, physician, Berlin, Apl., 1916. 

Bbaun, Hbnbi, municipal councillor, Strasburg, Sept. 5, 1915. 

BucHOWETZKY, , former member of Royal Opera in Moscow 

and Petrograd, June, 1915. 

Cabo, Rudolf, physician, member of Board of Health, Landsberg, 
aged 54, Aug. 11, 1915. 

CoHN, Leopold, librarian and titular professor, aged 60, Jan., 
1916. 

Costa, Meyer da, merchant, Hamburg, aged 80, July 16, 1915. 

Ehrlich, Paul, discoverer of salvarsan, winner of Nobel prize, 
Bad-Homburg, aged 61, Aug. 20, 1915. 

EiFEBT, IsiDOR, member of Board of Representatives, Oraudenz, 
aged 86, Feb. 22, 1916. 

Eisner, Julius, Court Tailor, Karlsbad, Aug. 13, 1915. 

Feuchtwanger, Siegmund, merchant, Munich, aged 67, Feb., 
1916. 

Finder, Isaac, teacher, Cammin, aged 92, Oct 31v 1915. 

Frankel, Heinrich, member of City Council, Leobschutz, aged 
75, Sept., 1915. 

Frankenstein, Louis, rabbi, Berlin, aged 83, Jan. 7, 1916. 

Freund, Siegfried, rabbi, Gorlitz, aged 87, Nov. 21, 1915. 

FhEUND, William S., lawyer, Breslau, aged 84, Aug. 26, 1915. 

Freundlich, M., head of Jewish community, Neustettin, aged 80, 
Sept. 12, 1915. 

Friedlander, Max, journalist, Berlin, aged 62, Sept. 20, 1915. 

Fromm, Joseph, member of Municipal Council, Frankfurt, aged 
63, Feb., 1916. 

Galland, Georg, professor of history of art and classical litera-' 
ture in Royal Academy High School for Art Students, Charlotten- 
burg, aged 58, Sept., 1915. 

GoLDE, Lazarus, Order of Crown, Stolp, aged 80, June, 4, 1915. 

Harburger, Heinrich, judge, Munich, aged 65, Apl., 1916. 

Heilbronner, Ludwiq, Iron Cross, Memmingen, Sept. 20, 1915. 

Herrmann, Louis, author, Schwerin, aged 79, Nov. 9, 1915. 

Heymann, Julius, vice-president Board of Trade, Breslau, aged 
90, July 9, 1915. 

Heymann, Walter, Kdnigsberg, poet, June 15, 1915. 

Hollerbaum, Max, major, decorated with Iron Cross and Bava- 
rian Military Service Order, Munich, aged 66, Sept. 26, 1915. 

Horsch, August, merchant, Nierstein, aged 65, Jan. 20, 1916. 

ISRAELOwiTSCH, , rabbi, Tomaschow, aged 64, Oct. 2, 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— GERMANY I3I 

Jacobsohn, Mobitz, head of Jewish community of Harburg, aged 
85, June 15, 1915. 

Jacoby, Isidob, lawyer, Berlin, aged 58, June, 1915. 

Lacquer, Siegfried, insurance, Berlin, Sept. 29, 1915. 

Landsberg, Max, judge, Berlin, Oct., 1915. 

Landsbebg, Theodor, government surveyor, Berlin, aged 68, Oct. 
20, 1915. 

Ledebmann, Gustav, communal worker, Gtotha, aged 74, Dec. 24, 
1915. 

Leiser, Jakob, merchant, Exin, aged 54, Nov. 30, 1915. 

Leo, Ludwig, honorary citizen of Kdnigsberg, Aug., 1915. 

Levi, Adolf, teacher, Dresden, aged 48, Feb. 4, 1916. 

Levin, Louis, member of Board of Trade, Berlin, Oct. 19, 1915. 

Levy, Isidor, banker, Hohenfalza, aged 60, July 23, 1915. 

Lieoner, Ferdinand, magistrate, Steinau, Aug. 5, 1915. 

LoEWENOABD, Max, muslcal critic, Hamburg, aged 56, Jan., 1916. 

LoEWENSTEiN, WoLFF, banker, Cottbus, Nov. 19, 1915. 

LoMNiTZ, Bernhard, city delegate, K5nigshiitte, Nov. 5, 1915. 

MA.0NUS, David, engineer, Leipzig, aged 80, Nov. 19, 1915. 

Mannheimer, Joseph, magistrate, Jnowitz, Nov. 12, 1915. 

Marcus, Aaron, writer on Cabbala, Hamburg, Apl., 1916. 

Marx, Maximilian, major, Munich, aged 74, Apl., 1916. 

Meidneb, Wilhelm, president of Community, Ramslau, aged 69, 
Sept. 21. 1915. 

Meyeb, Mobitz, professor Technical High School, Charlottenburg, 
aged 74, July 16, 1915. 

MiJNSTEBBEBO, Otto, member of Prussian Diet, Danzig, aged 62, 
Aug., 1915. 

Neububgeb, Theodob, physician, Frankfurt, aged 84, Dec. 10, 
1915. 

NoBD, Semmy, member of Board of Trade, Hamburg, aged 86, 
Sept. 29, 1915. 

NussBAUM, Mobitz, director of Biological Institute, Bonn, Nov. 
26, 1915. 

Oppenheimeb, Adolph, banker, Wiesbaden, aged 62, Aug., 1915. 

Pbins, Philipp, Frankfurt-a.-M., scholar, Oct. 24, 1915. 

Pboskaueb, Bebnhabd, Privy Councillor, Berlin, aged 65, July 
25, 1915. 

Rathenau, Emcl, Privy Councillor, Berlin, aged 76, June, 1915. 

Hawicz, Victob Meier, rabbi, Berlin, aged 69, Oct. 10, 1915. 

KiESENFELD, HuQO, member of Board of Representatives, Ohlau, 
aged 62, Nov., 1915. 

RoTHMAN, Max, neurologist and privat-dozent, Berlin, aged 48, 
Aug. 12, 1915. 

RoTHMAN, OsKAR, physiciau, Berlin, aged 81, Dec. 28, 1915. 

RuELF, GuTMANN, rabbi, Brunswick, aged 64, Jan., 1916. 

Sachs^ Isidor, banker, Berlin, aged 64, Oct., 15, 1915. 



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132 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Sarasohn, Jakob, head Cantor, Hamburg, aged 71, Mch. 2, 1916*. 

ScHAEFER, Julius, president, Board of Representatives, Loslau, 
aged 90, July 15, 1915. 

ScHREiBER, Benjamin, teacher, decorated with Order of House 
of Hohenzollern, Danzig, aged 71, July 9, 1915. 

Schwarzfelder, Elias, religious teacher, Schluchtern, aged 80, 
Jan. 14, 1916. 

Seligsohn, Hermann, alderman, Samotschin, aged 79, July 23, 
1915. 

Silberberg, Berthold, board of Representatives, IHlsseldorf, Jan. 
14, 1916. 

Silberstein, Lewin, founder of Synagogue of Schwiebus, Schwie- 
bus, aged 87, Nov. 14, 1915. 

Sklarek, Wilhelm, professor, medical writer, Berlin, aged 80, 
Oct. 9, 1915. 

Stein, Isaak, rabbi, Memel, aged 38, July 18, 1915. 

Stein, Leopold, rabbi, Berlin, aged 42, Jan. 15, 1916. 

Steinschneider, Max, lawyer, Berlin, Nov., 1915. 

Strassburger, , rabbi, Ulm, Sept. 18, 1915. 

Uhry, Adolph, chief rabbi, Strasburg, aged 66, Aug. 26, 1915. 

Wahl, Herman, president of Jewish Community, Barmen, aged 
75, Dec, 1915. 

Walter, Louis, teacher, Berlin, aged 85, Feb., 1916. 

Weil, Artur, physician, Karlsbad, aged 27, Nov. 26, 1915. 

IV 

EUROPEAN WAR 

June 18. Leipzig: Der Hammer suspended by Government 
for anti-Jewish attacks and accusation that Jews are responsible 
for the war. — Zionist organization refuses request of Government 
that it issue appeal to all Zionists asking for sympathy with Ger- 
many, replying that it could not involve the Zionist movement in 
world politics. — July 23. Lichterfelde: Alex Baerwald appointed 
regimental architect — August 18. Ortelsburg, Neidenburg, Sol- 
dau, Johannlsburg, Lyck, Marggrabowa, Goldap, Angerburg, 
Schmalleningken, Gerdauen, Friedland, Tapiau, Stalluponen, 
Eydtkuhnen, and Darkehmen, partially destroyed or plundered 
during retreat of Russian army. — 20. Rabbis of Germany issue 
appeal to Polish rabbis to render all possible assistance to the 
German troops in their endeavor to convert Poland into a German 
province. — 23. Renewal of order of German War OflBce, of Oct. 3, 
1913, exempting from participation in the common food arrange- 
ments individuals who desire to cater for themselves on ground of 
religious scruples. — Mrs. Marie Breslauer, Breslau, gives $4000 
to war widows and orphans of Breslau. — September 3. Ber- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— GERMANY 133 

lin: Vossische Zeitung publishes plea for safeguarding the rights 
of Jews in Poland, no matter what the final disposition of that 
territory may be.— 6. Berlin: VorwHrts, in editorial entitled 
" Jewish Ghetto," opposes plan for the creation of a Pale for Jews 
in Russian districts occupied by Germany, advocated in pamphlet 
entitled '* The Eastern Jewish Question, Zionism, and Border Pro- 
tection," by Geo. Fritz. — 8. Saxony: Order issued permitting 
children of Russian Jews to study at higher educational institu- 
tions. — 10. Berlin: Official announcement of State Bureau, that 
rights of Jews in conquered provinces will be fully safeguarded. — 
14. Resolution adopted in Reichstag providing that Jewish army 
chaplains be salaried. — 16. Berlin: Traditionell Gesetzestreue 
Rabbinervereinigung and Verband Orthodoxer Rabblner of Frank- 
fort-am-Main form a central bureau, headed by rabbi P. Kohn of 
Ansbach, to examine all cases of reported death on battlefield in 
order to pass on question of remarriage of widows. — October 20. 
The Commercial Treaty Society, the Hansa Bund, and the Society 
of German Manufacturers and Exporters for trade in Russia, ad- 
dress joint petition to the Imperial Chancellor praying that 
the future Peace Treaty with Russia be made to include articles 
permanently exempting Jews from the existing restrictions in 
Russia. — November 4. German Society for Commercial Treaties 
petitions the Chancellor not to conclude any peace with Russia 
without demanding equal rights for Jews. — 12. Reichstag deputies 
belonging to the anti-Semitic Economic Union (Wirtschaftliche 
Vereinigung) petition German Imperial Chancellor to secure in 
the Peace Treaty a provision closing the present frontiers of 
the German Empire to Jewish immigration. — Herman Pick, Ber- 
lin, appointed censor of German municipal government of Lodz, 
with full titles and privileges of an officer in tne German army. — 
22. Berlin: German branch of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 
issues protest against circular sent abroad by the French secre- 
tary general of the organization. — December 17. Nieuwe Rotter- 
damsche Courant states that at annual meeting of Society for Com- 
bating anti-Semitism held in Berlin it was asserted that anti-Jew- 
ish feeling, which had diminished at beginning of war, is again 
showing itself boldly, and that anti-Semites are only awaiting re- 
moval of censorship to renew their opposition to Jews. — ^Januaby 
12. Friedrich Wagner, commercial traveller, who made anonymous 
accusation to commander of Third Bavarian Army Corps in Nurem- 
berg against commander of local prisoners of war camp and against 
two Jewish soldiers stationed there, sentenced to one month's im- 
prisonment for slander, and his appeal to German Imperial Court 
of Justice rejected. — ^February 10. Bavarian war department per- 
mits Jewish soldiers, who prove they always observed dietary laws, 
to abstain from official mess, and whenever possible to have food 



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134 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



brought into barracks from outside. They receive equivalent of 
food in money.— Mabch 3. Frankfort: Community agrees to re- 
build synagogues and other Jewish institutions in Loetzen and 
Johannisburg, E. Prussia, destroyed during Russian invasion. — 
April 7. Headquarters of pro-Falasha Committee removed from 
Frankfort to Basle. — May 19. Berlin: Die Sueddeutsche Monat- 
shefte devotes an entire issue to east European Jewish ques- 
tion. Among contributors are Franz Oppenhelmer, Bodenheimer, 
Adolph Friedmann, and Eliasberg. — 26. Government rejects peti- 
tion of trade unions to restrict immigration of Polish Jews, and 
requests Agudas Yisroel and Hilfsverein der Deutscnen Juden to 
attract a large number of Jewish workmen to Germany from 
Poland. 

Decorations 

Iron Cross, first class: Albert Ballin; Fritz Beckhardt; Otto 
Beer; Arthur Bornstein; Fritz Charig; Georg Davidsohn; Max 
Elias; Wilhelm Frankl; Julius Gerstl; Dr. Ludwig Haas; George 
Herzog; Joseph Hesselberger; Josef Kuhnberg; Kurt Levinsohn; 
Berthold Lewin; Fritz Meyer; Erich Nathan; Paul Pulvermacher; 
Andreas Ruelf;Max Samuel; Leopold Seligmann; Josef Stras- 
burger; Max Thalheimer; Arthur Waitski; Alfred Wiener; Fritz 
Zernik; Hugo Zweig. — In addition to the honors and decorations 
enumerated, there are on record at the office of the Bureau of 
Statistics more names of Jews awarded decorations, as follows: 

Bavarian Military Service Cross 30 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 1st class, with sword.. 18 
Bavarian Military Service Cross, 1st class, with crown 

and sword 12 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 2d class 7 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 2d class, with sword . . 2 
Bavarian Military Service Cross, 2d class, with crown 

and sword 7 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 3d class 6 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 3d class, with sword.. 9 
Bavarian Military Service Cross, 3d class, with crown 

and sword 11 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 4th class VZ 

Bavarian Military Service Cross, 4th class, with sword. . 14 
Bavarian Military Service Cross, 4th class, with crown 

and sword 8 

Iron Cross, 2d class 2364 

Iron Cross, 2d class, on black and white ribbon 4 

Hess Valor Medal 40 

Baden Silver Medal 23 



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BVE3NTS IN 5676— GERMANY 135 



Bavarian Silver Medal 7 

Mecklenburg Cross 6 

Wurttemberg Cross 2 

Wurttemburg Silver Medal 16 

Meiningen Medal 3 

Saxe Meiningen Medal 3 

Saxe Priedrich August Medal ^ 6 

Friedrich August Medal 4 

Braunschweig Military Service Medal 2 

Oldenburg Friedrich August Cross 2 

Hesse Sanitary Cross 6 

Knights Cross of Royal Saxe Albrechts Order with sword . 2 

Honors from Red Cross 33 

Miscellaneous 91 

Pbomotions 

Head surgeons: Dr. Abraham; Dr. Danziger. — Lieutenant- 
colonels: FYiedmann, Bavaria; Bertold Lewin. — Majors: 

Bloch; Siegfried Sismann; Siegfried Straus; David Thor- 

mann. — Sergeant-majors: Manfred Burg; Martin Mendelsohn; 
Philipp Selig. — Captains: Ruben Braun; Leopold Neuberger; 
Leopold Schweizer; Siegmund Wertheimer. — ^Lieutenants: Benno 
Abraham; Erich Adam; Fritz Arndt; Heinrich Auerbach; Fritz 

Behren; George Bing; Hans Block; Blumenthal; Walter 

Callmann; Cohn; Fritz Dessauer; Paul Drey; Emil Fried- 

mann; Martin Friedmann; August Herz; Herzfeld; Josef 

Hesselberger; Hans Hirschberg; Ludwig Katz; Katzmann; 

Felix Kauffmann; Wilhelm Kiefe; Levy; Paul Liepmann; 

Albert Lustig; Marmenberg; Matthias; Mendel- 
sohn; Hermann Mendelsohn; Erich Nathan; Oskar Neu; Wilhelm 

OfPenbacher; Orgler; Perl; Paul Prager; Edmund 

Rebstein; Ignatz Reis; Felix Rosenbluth; Eugen Rosenf elder; 

Rothfels; Fritz Schneider; Ernst Selig; Artur Simon; Walter 

Sieberth; Walter Simon; Ernst Sondheimer; Bruno Stern; Walter 

Sternberg; Karl Taussig; Bemhard Trier; Curt Walter; 

Weigert; Franz Weil; Karl Weil; Wilhelm Weil; Kurt Wolff; 
Richard Wolfsohn; Max Wronker; Walter Zadig. 

Negbolooy on Account of Wab 

May. Joseph Rosenbaum, lieutenant — June. John Gutwillig, 

lieutenant; Sender, lieutenant, Iron Cross, 1st and 2d class, 

Berlin. — ^July. Hartmann, lieutenant, Iron Cross and Austria- 
Hungary Valor Medal, 1st class; Leo Leyser, lieutenant, Order of 
the Crown, aged 55; Hans Philipp, lieutenant, Berlin, aged 38; 
Max Rappaport, chemist, Leipzig, at Ypres, aged 25. — August. 



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136 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Bertram Ascher, Iron Cross, Hamburg; Karl Mossmann, lieu- 
tenant, Iron Cross and Bavarian Military Service Order, Berlin. — 
OcTOBEB. Max HoUerbaum, major, aged 65; Max Littauer, army 
surgeon, aged 37; Max Rosenthal, vice-field marshall, Iron Cross, 
Ostrowo, aged 43; Heinrich Steiner, first clown of Berlin circus; 
Alfred Story, lieutenant, Berlin, at Gorlice. — December. Jacob 
Moller, physician, Altona, on Western battle front; Joseph Zun- 
dorfer, flight lieutenant of the reserve, Relingen. — F^bbuaby. 
Carl Ettlinger, writer. Maximilian Marx, major, Munich. — Mabch. 
Joseph Gumperz, lieutenant, age 38. 

GREECE 

August 10. Salonica: Chief rabbi receives telegram from 
Minister of Interior stating that Government has taken adequate 
measures to ensure the tranquility of the Corfu Jews in the matter 
of the recent revival of the blood accusation. — September 10. 
Salonica: Lemaan Zion Society formed which will make monthly 
collections for benefit of Palestine. — April 21. Greek Government 
oflScially declares that Jews are entitled to complete equality in 
Greece and its dependencies, and that the Government expects them 
to respond readily to call for arms whenever necessary. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

CoFFiNAS, M., Volo, elected to Parliament for Salonica, June, 
1915; re-elected Jan., 1916. 

Cohen, Haym Elia, Tricala, elected to Parliament for Salonica, 
June, 1915; re-elected Jan., 1916. 

CuBiEL, Albert, elected to Parliament for Salonica, June, 1915. 

Gattagno, Leon, elected to Parliament for Salonica, Jan., 1916. 

Mallah, Joseph, elected to Parliament for Salonica, June, 1915; 
re-elected Jan., 1916. 

Matalon, David, elected to Parliament for Salonica, June, 1915. 

Meier, Jacob, chief rabbi, Salonica, receives from King of Greece 
the honor of the Commander of the Order of the Redeemer, June, 
1915. 

Meir, Salomon, elected to Parliament for Salonica, Jan., 1916. 

NECROLOGY 
Salomon, Mair, philanthropist, Volo, June, 1915. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

November 24. Salonica: Government considers call on Jews to 
serve in army, though heretofore exempt. They will be employed 



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EVENTS IN 6676— ITALY 137 

for auxiliary service, and can no longer receive foreign passports. — 
February 4. Salonica: Anglo-French military authorities arrest 
number of persons on suspicion of espionage in interests of Ger- 
many, among whom are two Jews, proprietor of caf6 and a ship- 
ping agent. Chief rabbi assured by commander and chief of ex- 
peditionary force and by commander of the English forces that all 
would be liberated whose innocence could be established. 



INDIA 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

GuBBAY, Moss MoRDECAi SrMBON, Indian Civil Service, receives 
C. I. E., Jan., 1916. 

NissiM, Meyer, J. P., M. A., elected president of the Bank of Bom- 
bay, Jan., 1916. 

EUROPEAN WAR 
Necrology on Account of War 
November. David Samson Shapoorkar, major, at Mesopotamia. 

ITALY 



GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JEWS 

June 25. Italian Government publishes decree to assure the 
execution of terms of bequest of 10,000 lire ($2000) by Emilio 
Treves, to be awarded as prize for publication written in Italian 
to combat anti-Semitism. Competition international; MSS. to be 
sent to Minister of Eklucation, Rome, before February 1, 1916. — 
Jx7i«Y 30. Committee of the Association of Young Jews adopts 
resolution of sympathy for the cause of Italy in the campaign for 
completing the liberation of all Italians. — December 15. Commit- 
tee of Roman Community submits to the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs a memorandum pointing out the necessity of his intervention 
to put a stop to the terrible state of affairs in regard to the 
Jews of Russia. The Minister of Foreign Affairs answers that he 
is enlisting the interest of the Russian ambassador at Rome in the 
question. — January 21. F. Servi, editor of II Vessillo Israelitico, 
Turin, addresses letter to number of Italian statesmen and 
politicians, calling attention to situation of Jews in various Euro- 
pean states, especially Russia and Roumania. 



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J 38 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

II 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Babzilai, Salvatore, Trieste, appointed by King Victor Emanuel, 
member of the Cabinet, without portfolio, for the Italian provinces 
of Austria, for the so-called Irredenta, July, 1915. 

Colombo, Adofe, professor, Turin, appointed director of National 
Museum of the Italian Renaissance of Turin, Jan. 15, 1916. 

Levi, Ugo, Venice, appointed Chevalier of the Order of the Crown 
of Italy, June, 1915. 

MoRTABA, LuDovicio, Senator, promoted president of the Court of 
Cassation, July, 1915. 

PiPEBNO, GiNo, Venice, appointed Chevalier of the Order of the 
Crown of Italy, June, 1915. 

RossELLi, Angelo, Leghorn, receives from king Cross of Com- 
mander of the Italian Crown, Dec, 1915. 

Tedeschi, Felice, appointed by king OflScer of Order of St. 
Maurus and Lazarus, entitling him to be styled " cousin of thf 
king," Nov. 24, 1915. 

Ill 
NECROLOGY 

Sacebdoti, Vittobio, professor of commercial law in University 
of Ferrara, Modena, Feb. 27, 1916. 

Zammatto, Alessandbo, chief rabbi, Padua, aged 72, Apl. 15, 1916. 

IV 
EUROPEAN WAR 

June 15. Salvatore Segr^ places at disposal of Premier Salan- 
dra ten thousand lire ($2000). — ^Padua: Donated to Red Cross: 
Baron Camillo Treves de Bonfili, fifteen thousand lire ($3000); 
Baron Mario Treves de Bonfili, ten thousand lire ($2000) ; Baron 
Ugo Treves de Bonfili, ten thousand lire ($2000); Giuseppe Da 
Zara, ten thousand lire ($2000) ; Romanin Jacob, five thousand lire 
($1000); Maurizio Wollemburg, five thousand lire ($1000).— July 
15. General Zuppelli, Minister of War, accepts Enrico Garda's 
gift of ten thousand lire ($2000) for Italian aviator achieving 
greatest distinction during war. — Septembeb 18. Milan: First 
field hospital for wounded opened gift of Signora Fanny Finzi 
Ottolenghi, widow of Senator Ottolenghi. — Januaby 31. Aristide 
Luria, captain of engineer corps, collaborates with vice-admiral 
Leonardi-Cattolica in authorship of naval book of importance, 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ITALY 139 



" Pari e Seguali Maritimi." — Apbil 28. Cameri (near Novara) : 
At aviation ground two machines collide in mid air; lieutenant 
Luigi Cassin and Mario Lattes, Turin, both Jews, killed. 

Decorations 

July 31. Cesare Formiggini, second lieutenant, Modena, re- 
ceives medal for bravery. — Giuseppe Zamorani, second lieutenant, 
Ferrara, awarded silver medal for bravery. — Decembeb 15. Aldo 
Padoa di Vittorio, second lieutenant, Venice, awarded medal for 
bravery. — January 15. Leone Ascoli, Perugia, made Chevalier of 
the Crown of Italy at proposal of Minister of Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce. — ^Vittorio Ehnanuele Debenetti decorated with 
Cross of Chevalier of the Crown of Italy. — February 7. Eurico 
Vitale, lieutenant, commended for bravery. — 29. ESmanuele Pu- 
gliese, major, receives medal and Cross of Chevalier of Military 
Order of Savoy in recognition of heroic conduct at battle of Due 
Palme. — Moise Leone Diena, captain, Turin, receives silver medal. 
— March 15. Giacomo Esdra, Rome, appointed Commander of the 
Crown of Italy. — 24. Adolfo Vitule, Turin, lieutenant, mentioned 
in despatches for daring flights as aviator. 

Promotions 

Arrigo and Aurelio D'Ancona, Venice, and Giorgio and Bruno 
Usigli, Treviso, promoted to officers in Royal Army. — ^Vittorio 
Piperno and Abrama Vcdacco di Davide promoted to staff officers. — 
Colonel : Marco Levi, Venice. — Lieutenant-colonels : Paolo Brrera, 
Venice; Luigi Magrini, Venice; Emanuele Pugllese. — Majors: 
Emilio Franco, Venice; Giuseppe Pardo, Venice; Umberto 
Ravenna, Ferrara. — Captains: Mario Deangelis; Umberto De- 
benetti, artillery; Guide Friedmann, Livorno; Giullo Levi, Rovigo; 
Fuginio Levi, Venice; Ugo Modena, Modena; Gino Rav^, Bologna; 
Pacifico hi Segni, Rome; Attilio Soave, Venice; Ciro Soliari. — 
Lieutenants: Angelo Castelfranco; Giuseppi di Giacomo Coen, 
Rome; Marco Lampronti, Venice; Ernesto Nathan, Rome; Bruno 
Scazzocchio, Rome. — Second lieutenants: Abrama Polacco di 
Davide, Turin; Armando Desossi, Turin; Beniamino Grtlnwald, 
Venice; Mario Levi, Rovigo, Mario Murgi, Ancona; Ettore Seniga- 
glia, Padua. 

Necrology on Account of War 

July. Amedeo Soave, second lieutenant, Alpines; Angelo Levi, 
captain, at Isonzo. — August. Piero Cassuto, second lieutenant, 
Livorno; Ugo Castelfranco, captain, in Red Cross hospital at 
Modena; Leone Diena, captain, at Isonzo; Riccardo Finzi, lieu- 



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140 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



tenant, Genoa; Alessandro dl Veroli, second lieutenant, Ron^e. — 

Septembeb. Sacuto, second lieutenant, Genoa. — December. 

Elio Cassuto, second lieutenant, Livorno; Sergio Levi, second 
lieutenant, Florence; Ippolito Segr6, lieutenant, Rome; Giacomo 
Venetiani, major; Aldo Padoa de Vittorio, second lieutenant, 
Venice; Emilio Vitta Zelman, second lieutenant, Rome. — ^Januaby. 
Angelo Astrologo, captain; Giorgio Levi, lieutenant; Abrama 
Polacco, second lieutenant, Turin; Decia Pontecorvo, captain; 
Gualtiero Verchio, captain. — Febeuaby. Moise Leone Diena, cap- 
tain, Turin; Lelio Levi, captain, Saluzzo; Amedeo Dello Strologo, 
second lieutenant, Livorno, at Port Said. — Mabch. Osvaldo Servi, 
lieutenant, Florence, aged 22. — ^Apbil. Luigi Cassin, second 
lieutenant, Cuneo, aged 23; Mario Levi, second lieutenant, Modena, 
aged 22; Mario di Carlo Leonir, Genoa, second lieutenant; Roberto 
Liebman, second lieutenant, at Carso; Aldo Rosselli, second lieu- 
tenant, at Pal Piccolo. 



Jewish Officees in Italian Abmy in Wab, 1915-1916 

Alhaique, fu Angelo, Naples, commander, submarine. 

Amab, Pio Tobia, Turin, captain, reserves. 

Anaving, Renzo, Florence, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Aechivolti, Caelo di Raffaele, Bologna, major, fort artillery. 

Ancona, Asdeubale, Verona, major. 

Ancona, Aubelio di Guido, Venice, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Ancona, Emelio di Lazzaro, Ferrara, lieutenant, Bersaglieri. 

Ancona, Ugodi Lazzabo, Ferrara, lieutenant, fort artillery. 

Angeli, Bruno di Moise, Padua, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Aetom, Aetubo, Turin, lieutenant, infantry. 

Aetom, Camillo fu Michele, Asti, lieutenant-colonel, cavalry. 

Aetom, Cesabe fu Michele, Asti, second lieutenant 

Aetom, Elia, Turin, chaplain. 

Aetom, Giulio di Guido, Asti, lieutenant-colonel, infantry. 

Aetom, Mabio di Guido, Asti, engineer, radio-telegraph. 

aetom, Samueli fu Alessandeo, Asti, second lieutenant, medical 
corps.. 

Aetom, Vittobio fu Isbaele, Asti, captain, cavalry. 

AscAEELLi, David fu MoisI:, Rome, second lieutenant, artillery. 

AscAEELLi, GiOBQio DI Pacifico, Naplcs, second lieutenant, C. V. 
automobile corps. 

ASCAEELLI, Mabio, Rome, captain, infantry. 

AscoLi, Abeigo di Caelo, Ancona, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Bachi, Aldo di Ottavio, Turin, second lieutenant, commissariat. 

Bachi, Abmando di Ottavio, Turin, captain. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ITALY 141 



.Baohi, Sansoms fu Lelio, Turin, lieutenant-colonel, engineer 
corps. 

Basevi, Afbedo, Verona, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Basevi, Umberto di Enrico, Verona, lieutenant, infantry. 

jSasola, Enrico, Turin, lieutenant, aviation corps. 

Bassani, Edoabdo di Giacomo, Venice, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Bassani, Enrico di Davide, Ferrara, second lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

Bassani, Eugenic fu Feuce, Ferrara, major, engineer corps. 
. Bassani, Felice fu Leonello, Ferrara, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Bassi, Girolamo di Giuseppe, Venice, second lieutenant. 

Beer. Arnaldo di Vittorio, Ancona, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Beer, Guido di Vittorio, Ancona, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Bemtotad di Sabutino, Florence, captain, medical corps. 

Berg MANN, Giacomo, Verona, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Bergmann, Giulio fu di Giuseppe, Milan, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

Bianchini aw. Giuseppe fu Sumvelb, Padua, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

Blanes, Enzo del fu Emanuele, Rome, corporal major, infantry. 

Bondi, Attilio di Pace, Rome, corporal major, infantry. 

Bondi, Romeo di Pace, Rome, corporal major, infantry. 

Cabib, Eziodi Isacco, Genoa, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Cabibbe, Abtubo fu Cesabe, Siena, second lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

Cabibbe, Renato di Ferruccio, Siena, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Calabi, D. Tullio, Verona, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Cal6, Afredo, Rome, lieutenant, medical corps. 

CALd, Silvio di Abramo, Rome, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Cameo. Giacomo, Rome, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Camerino, Mario di Salvatore, Florence, adjutant-officer, cavalry. 

Cantoni, Aldo fu Achille, Modena, second lieutenant. 

Carmi, Giuseppe di Eugenic, Florence, second lieutenant, terri- 
torials. 

Carpi, Claudio di Timoleone, Rome, second lieutenant, cavalry. 

Cabpi, Leone di Timoleone, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

Cassuto, PncRO fu Guglielmo, Livorno, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Castelfranco, — r-, Vcnicc, captain. 

Castelnuovo, Angelo, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

Castelnuovo, Tedesco Guido, Florence, second lieutenant, en- 
gineer corps. 

Castiglioni, Giuseppi Enrico, Florence, second lieutenant. 

Castro, Maurizio, Venice, officer, reserves. 

Cavaglione, Emanuele di Abramo, Genoa, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 



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142 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Cavaliebi, Deodato, Bologna, captain. 

Cavalieri, Deodato, Rome, captain, aviation corps. 

Cavalieri, Luca fu Pacifico, Ferrara, lieutenant, bersaglieri. 

Cavalieri, Picodi di Giuseppe, Ferrara, captain, cavalry. 

Caviglia, Marco di Sabato, Rome, corporal major, infantry. 

Chimichi, D. Giorgio, Modena, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Chimichi, Giorgio, Florence, lieutenant, medical corps. 

CiTONi, Beniamino, Rome, second lieutenant, medical corps. 

CoEN, D. Alessandro di Federico, Urbino, lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

CoEN, Giorgio di Giulio, Venice, captain, engineer corps. 

CoEN, PiRANE Giorgio di Pario, Florence, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

CoEN, Porto Augusto di Mos6, Venice, captain, medical corps. 

CoEN, Silvio Renzo di Giuseppe, Venice, second lieutenant, com- 
missariat. 

CoEN, ViTo di Marco, Rome, second lieutenant, grenadiers. 

CoEN, ViTo Umberto, Livomo, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Colombo, Guido fu Giuseppe, Vercelli, second lieutenant, terri- 
torial militia. 

Colombo, Mario di Giuseppe, Turin, lieutenant, medical corps. 

CuzzERi, GiNo, Verona, second lieutenant, automobilists. 

Cuzzi, Leone di Angelo, Venice, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Da Fana, Cobbado di Alessandro, Milan, captain, medical corps. 

Da Zara, Leone, Parma, captain, territorial cavalry. 

Da Zabo, Marco di Giuseppe, Padua, second lieutenant, infantry. 

D'Ancona, Napoleon, Parma, colonel. Red Cross. 

D'Augeli, Pellegbino fu Elia, Venice, vice-brigadier, carabinieri. 

Deangeli, Mario fu Abramo, Turin, lieutenant, infantry. 

Deaugelo, Emanuele, Turin, lieutenant, Alpines. 

De Benedetti, Edoardo fu Alessandro, Milan, lieutenant-colonel. 

De Benedetti, Ermanno di Zaccabia, Padua, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

De Benedetto, Enrico, Turin, second lieutenant, Alpines. 

De Benedetti, Ettore di Israel, Asti, second lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

De Benedetti, Guido, Turin, lieutenant, navy. 

De Beneditti, Lionello fu Samuele, Milan, captain, Infantry. 

De Benedetti, Ugodi Isaago, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

De Benedetti, Umberto di Israel, Asti, lieutenant, artillery. 

Debenedetti, Giacomo fu Gabbiele, Asti, second lieutenant, 
commissariat. 

Debenedetti, Guido fu Isaia, Turin, second lieutenant, engineer 
corps. 

Debenedetti, Mabio, Turin, second lieutenant, engineer corps. 

Debenedetti, Mabio di Giacomo, Turin, second lieutenant, navy. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ITALY 143 

Debenedetti, Salvatobe di Giaoomo, Turin, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

Debenedetti, Ugo 01 Isbael, Asti, second lieutenant, artillery. 

De Gobi, Vebona, lieutenant-colonel, fort artillery. 

Deixa Peboola, Raffaello, Ancona, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Della Rocca, Gablo, Rome, lieutenant, navy. 

Deuui Seta, Augusto, Rome, second lieutenant, grenadiers. 

Della Seta, Edoabdo, Rome, second lieutenant, grenadiers. 

Del Vecchio, Adbiano 01 Gmuo Gesabe, Rome, lieutenant, 
cavalry. 

Del Vecchio, Gualtiebo di Giulio, Rome, captain, infontry. 

De Paz, Gixjuo di Gustavo, Livorno, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Deungeli, Emanuele fu Abbamo, Turin, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

De Vebou, Alessandbo, Rome, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Di Gapua, Emilio fu Albebto, Genoa, lieutenant, infantry. 

DiENA, GiAcoMO FU Emilio, Turin, second lieutenant, engineer 
corps. 

Di Gobi, Rololfo, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

DiENA, Leone, Turin, captain, infantry. 

Di Nola, Angelo di Sabuto, Rome, captain, medical corps. 

Di Nola, Gastone di Pacifico, Florence, lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

Di Noto, Uoo fu Giacomo, Rome, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Di Segni, ESnbico di Giacomo, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

Di Segni, Salvatobe fu Amadio, Rome, second lieutenant, artil- 
lery. 

Diena, Jacobo di Benetto, Genoa, lieutenant, infantry. 

DoNATi, Angelo, Modena, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Donati, Angelo di Salvatobe, Turin, lieutenant, infantry. 

DoNATi, Pbedebico, Modeua, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Donati, Fbi^'debico di Salvatobe, Milan, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

Donati, Lazzabodi Salvatobe, Milan, captain, infantry. 

r>ONATi, Lazzabo, Modena, captain, infantry. 

Eminente, Umbebto, Naples, lieutenant. 

Ebbeba, Belling fu Vittobio, Florence, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

Ebbeba, Mabio di Paolo, Venice, oflftcer, reserves. 

Ebbeba, Paolo, Venice, major, territorial militia. 

Fano, , Parma, colonel, artillery. 

FiNzi, Amleto fu Dabio, Ferrara, lieutenant, infantry. 

E^Nzi, Gablo, Ferrara, field marshal, red cross. 

B^zi, Giobgio, Parina, second lieutenant, territorial militia. 

B^zi, PoLiUTO FU Dabio, Ferrara, lieutenant, engineer corpa 

FiNzi, Ruggebo di Oscab, Venice, second lieutenant, artillery. 



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144 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



FoA, Aldo di Fbedebico, Parma, second lieutenant, artillery. 

FoA, Raffaello di Mos£:, Ancona, lieutenant, commissariat. 

FoA, Sanson Riccabdo di Salvatobe, Turin, second lieutenant, 
aviation corps. 

FoLiOBA, Alfredo di Mois£, Milan, lieutenant, artillery. 

FoBLi, Enrico di Giuseppe, Boloona, second lieutenant, infantry. 

FoRMiGGiNi, Cesare, Modeua, second lieutenant, Infantry. 

FoRMiGGiNi, Leone fu Giacobbe, Padua, lieutenant, infantry. 

FoRMiGGiNi, ViTTORio FU Angelo, Modeua, second lieutenant, 
infantry. 

FoRTi, EM:iLio FU Alessandro, Milan, major, infantry. 

FoRTi, Paolo di Carlo, Florence, captain, artillery. 

FoRTi, Paolo di Carlo, Naples, adjutant major. 

FoRTi, Ugo di Carlo, Naples, lieutenant, infantry. 

Franco, Emilio, Venice, captain, medical corps, infantry. 

FuA, Emelio di Geremia, Ancona, lieutenant, medical corps. 

FuA, Riccardo di Geremia, Ancona, lieutenant, medical corps. 

FuBiNE, Emanuele DI Samuele, Turiu, lieutenant, medical corps. 

E^NARo, Giuseppe, Livorno, second lieutenant, artillery. 

FuNARO, Mario, Florence, field-marshal, coast artillery. 

Gallichi, Raffaele Alfredo fu Volunio, Florence, major, in- 
fantry. 

Gallico, Guglielmo di Raffaele, Turin, second lieutenant. 

Gentilli, Carlo, Verona, lieutenant, infantry. 

Ghiron, Ernesto Camillo di Pacifico, Turin, officer, artillery. 

GoLDscHMiEDT, Alberto, Verona, second lieutenant, automobilist. 

GoLDSTAUB, Giorgio fu Dante, Genoa, second lieutenant. 

Grego, Emilio fu Giuseppe, Genoa, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Hazzan, Abbamo, Bologna, officer aide infantry. 

HntscH, GiAcoMO di Carlo, Florenfce, captain, lancers. 

HiRSCH, Walter fu Emujo, marine. 

Jarach, Guido di Leone, Turin, lieutenant, navy. 

JoNA, Ottavio fu Cesare, Vercelli, second lieutenant, infantry. 

JoNA, Ettore, Turin, lieutenant, medical corps. 

JoNA, Vittorio di Giacomo, Florence, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Lattes, Adolfo fu Alfredo, Turin, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Lattes, Aldo di Guglielmo, Turin, chaplain. 

Lattes, Alessandro di Cesare, Naples, lieutenant, infantry. 

Lattes, Attilio di Raffuele, Turin, second lieutenant. 

Lattes, Benvenuto di Raffaele, Turin, captain, royal cavalry. 

Lattes, Camillo di Giuseppe, Genoa, second lieutenant, medical 
corps. 

Lattes, Enrico di Giobbe, Turin, lieutenant. 

Leoni, Emilio, Verona, captain, medical corps. 

Levi, Achille, Parma, lieutenant. 

Levi, Alfredo, Parma, second lieutenant. 

Levi, Anthony, Florence, second lieutenant, Savoy cavalry. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ITALY 145 

Levi, Augusto fu Donato, Turin, captain, artillery. 

Levi, Bianchi Achillb di Michelunoelo, Padua, captain, in- 
fantry. 

Levi, Bianchini Anoelo, Parma, captain. 

Levi, Cabes Armando, Parma, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Levi, Cattelan Adolfo fu Giacomo, Padua, major, infantry. 

Levi, Edoabdo fu Cesabe, Genoa, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Levi, Emilio, Parma, second lieutenant, engineer corps. 

Levi, Enrico fu Donato, Turin, captain, infantry. 

Levi, Ebnesto di Salomone, Genoa, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Levi, Febbuccio, Parma, captain, commander royal marines. 

Levi, Gino di Ioino, Venice, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Levi, Gino di Salomons, Genoa, lieutenant, infantry. 

Levi, Gioboio di Enbico, Florence, officer, reserves. 

Levi, Giorgio, Parma, second lieutenant, engineer corps. 

Levi, Giobgio di Clbmente, Rome, second lieutenant, engineer 
corps. 

Levi, Giulio fu Giacomo, Turin, captain, artillery. 

Levi, Guido di Guilio, Turin, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Levi, Giuseppe di Alessandbo, Genoa, second lieutenant, artil- 
lery. 

Levi, Ivo di Enbico, Florence, second lieutenant, Alpines. 

Levi, Leone fu Giuseppe, Genoa, captain, medical corps. 

Levi, Leone fu Samuele, Turin, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Levi, Livio di Augusto, second lieutenant. 

Levi, Mabio di Remigio, Florence, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Levi, Mabio fu Giuseppe, Turin, second lieutenant, fort artillery. 

Levi, Mabio fu Salvatobe, Turin, lieutenant, artillery. 

Levi, Minzi Aldo, Parma, captain, infantry reserves. 

Levi, Mobeus Albebto di Cablo, Venice, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Levi, Mobtaba Aldo, Venice, second lieutenant, grenadiers. 

Levi, Mobtaba Enbico, Venice, captain, bersaglieri. 

Levi, Oscab, Parma, second lieutenant, engineer corps. 

Levi, Renato di Remigio. Florence, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Levi, Sai^vatobe fu Sabato, Padua, captain, medical corps. 

Levi, Ugo, Parma, captain, engineer corps. 

LiNENTANi, Giovanni di Giacomo, Rome, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

Liuzzi, Giorgi, Turin, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Liuzzi, GiUDO, Turin, lieutenant-colonel. 

Louj, Enzo di Eude, Turin, officer, aide, engineer corps. 

LoBiA, Cesabe di Leonabdo, Livorno, second lieutenant, infantry. 

LuBiA, Abistide, Naples, captain, engineer corps. 

LusENA, Edgardo fu LEONARDO, Floreucc, lieutenant, infantry. 

Lusena, Gustavo, Genoa, captain, medical corps. 



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146 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



LusTio, GuiDO, Milan, second lieutenant, grenadiers. 

LuzzATTi, Dabio di Emanuele, Asti, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Ldzzatti, Ippouto, Bologna, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Malvano, Mabio di Giuseppe, Turin, captain, artillery. 

Malvano, Salomone fu Alessandbo, Turin, major, infantry. 

Melli, Cablo, Parma, second lieutenant, medical corps. 

MiuLNO, RoMOLO DI Giuseppe, Rome, second lieutenant, engineer 
corps. 

MiLLA, Romeo, Verona, captain. 

MiNERBi, GuouELMO DI FELICE, Ferrara, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

MiSANi, GiACOMo FU Angelo, Romc, lieutenant, artillery. 

MoDiGLiANo, Pbof. Eneico, Rome, captain, medical corps. 

MoNTALCiNi, Alessandbo fu Salvatobe, Turin, captain, medical 
corps. 

MoNTALCiNi, Valebiodi Tobia, Asti, second lieutenant, infantry. 

MoNTEL, Lelio fu Salomone, Turiu, captain, medical corps. 

Mobais, Anqelo, Bologna, second lieutenant. 

MoBPUBGO, Edoabdo FU Mabco, Padua, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Mobpubgo, Renzo, Parma, second lieutenant, infantry* 

Mobpubgo, Umbebto fu Salomons, Ancona, lieutenant, artillery. 

Mobtaba, Giulio, Florence, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Moscati, Robebto fu Salvatobe, Florence, lieutenant, infantry. 

MoscATO, Ugo di Pace, Rome, second lieutenant, infantry. 

MuGGiA, Achille, Turin, major, engineer corps. 

Muggia, Camillo fu Isacco, Vercelli, captain, infantry. 

MusATTi, Albebtodo Cesabe, Venice, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Navabbo, Achille, Rome, captain, infantry. 

Neppi, Modena di Leone, Florence, second lieutenant, infantry. 

NissiM, Anselmo di Guglielmo, Turin, lieutenant, infantry. 

NizzA, Umbebto fu Teodobo, Turin, second lieutenant, artillery. 

NoBSA, Paolo di Dionisis, Bologna, second lieutenant. 

Obeffice, Fausto fu Moisfe, Venice, captain, medical corps. 

Obvieto, Gino di Giacomo, Florence, second lieutenant, volun- 
teers. 

Ottolenghi, Enbico, fu Samuele, Rome, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Ottolenghi, Simone a. di Camuxo, Turin, second lieutenant, 
engineer corps. 

Ottolenghi, Vittobio, Turin, lieutenant-colonel, infantry. 

OvAzzA, Ebnesto fu Vittobio, Turin, captain, infantry. 

OvAzzA, Michel Angelo, Turin, captain, infantry. 

Pacifici, Enbico, Florence. 

Padova, Enbico, Parma, second lieutenant. 

Pabdo, Diego di Napoleone, Bologna. 

Passigli, Alessandbo di Adolfo, Rome, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ITALY 147 

Pavia, Allegro, Turin, major, infantry. 

Pavia, Caliman, Turin, major, medical corps. 

Pavla, Clemente, Verona, major, medical corps. 

Pbsaro, Adolfo del Carlo, Milan, lieutenant, cavalry. 

Pesaro, Max del comm Carlo, Milan, second lieutenant, cavalry. 

Pescarolo, Alfredo Giacomo di Natale, Turin, lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Pescarolo, Daniele fu Moise, Naples, captain, infantry. 

Piazza, Isacco di MosI:, Ancona, second lieutenant, infantry. 

PiPERNo, Benedetto fu Amadio, Rome, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

PiPERNo, Gualtiero FU GiAcoMo, Rome, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

PiPBatNo, RuGGERo DEL FU GiAcoMo, Rome, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

Pisa, Luigi fu Ugo, Milan, second lieutenant, cavalry. 

PiZA, Alberto fu Luigi, Ferrara, lieutenant, cavalry. 

PoLiTi, DI Marco, Naples, infantry. 

Pontecorvo, Decio fu Benedetti, Rome, lieutenant, grenadiers. 

Procaccia, Daniele di Angelo, Florence. 

Phocaccia, Giorgio di Angiolo, Florence, lieutenant, infantry. 

PROVENZAL, Giuseppe di Alfredo, Naples, lieutenant, infantry. 

Puoliese, Alessandro di Isacco, Turin, lieutenant, medical corps. 

RavA, Gino di Aristide, Bologna, lieutenant, medical corps. 

RavA, Giuijo di Giuseppe, Venice, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Ravenna, Bruno di Samuele, Ferrara, second lieutenant, in- 
fantry. 

Ravenna, Enrico di Samuele, Ferrara. 

Ravenna, Giorgio fu Guido, Bologna, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Ravenna, Reno di Tullio, Ferrara, lieutenant, artillery. 

Ravenna, Silvio di Clemente, Ferrara, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Ravenna, Umberto fu Giuseppe, Ferrara, captain, medical corps. 

Reichenbach, Carlo, Verona, second lieutenant. 

Revere, Amedeo di Giuseppe, Padua, second lieutenant, infantry. 

RiGXANi, — — , Parma, second lieutenant, infantry. 

RoccA, Giuseppe di Leone, Turin, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Romanelli, MicheLe, Rome, lieutenant, infantry. 

RoMANiN, JACUR Leone DI Emanuele, Vcnice, second lieutenant, 
engineer corps. 

RosEL, Mario fu Filippo, Naples, lieutenant, cavalry. 

Sacerdote, Amecdeo DI Samuele, Turin, lieutenant, artillery. 

Sacbrdoti, Cbsare di Giorgio, Siena, lieutenant, aviation corps. 

Sacerdote, Umrerto di Vittorio, Turin, second lieutenant, 
artillery. 

Sacerdoti, Massimo, Rome, second lieutenant. 

Sanguinetti, Angelo, Bologna, second lieutenant, medical corps. 



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148 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



SANGuiNum, GiuDo, Bologna, second lieutenant. 

Sanguinetti, VrrroEio, Bologna, major, infantry. 

Segbe, Cesare di Napolbone, Turin, second lieutenant, infantry. 

Segre, Giulio fu Napoleone, Turin, lieutenant, medical corps. 

Segbe, Giuseppe fu Giacomo, Turin, captain, lancers. 

Segbe, Guiseppe fu Giacome, Rome, captain, cavalry. 

Segbe, Leone fu Giacomo, Rome, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Segbe, Luciano G. fu Abbamo, Turin, second lieutenant, engineer 
corps. 

Segbe, Mabio di Giacbbbe, Turin, second lieutenant. 

Segbe, Massimo di Giuseppe, Vercelli, lieutenant. 

Segb^:, Salvatobe fu Giacobbe, Milan, second lieutenant. 

Sebeni, Giulio, Rome, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Sebbavaixe, Rafaele fu Augusto, Padua, captain, Alpine regi- 
ment. 

Sfobni, Vittorio di Giuseppe, Parma, lieutenant. 

SoNNiNO, AxBssANDBo FU Davide, Romc, captaiu, infantry. 

Son NINO, Bbuno di Giuseppe, Naples, second lieutenant. 

SoNNiNo, Cesabe di Giuseppe, Naples, second lieutenant, artillery. 

Son NINO, Gustavo di Vito, Venice, second lieutenant, Infantry. 

SoNNiNo, RoDOLFO DI ViTO, Veuicc, sccoud lieutenant, artillery. 

SoBiA, Ga STONE DI Cablo, Naplcs, lieutenant, territorials. 

Spagnoletto, Enbico di Giuseppe, Rome, second lieutenant, 
artillery, 

Stebnfeld, Oscab, Verona, lieutenant, infantry. 

Stebnfeld, Oscab di Giacomo, Venice, lieutenant, infantry. 

SupiNO, Paolo, Rome, second lieutenant. 

SupiNO, Renato, Rome, second lieutenant, artillery. 

JAMAICA 
NECROLOGY 

Myebs, Frederick Louis, merchant, Kingston, at New York City, 
aged 63, Oct. 5, 1915. 

NETHERLANDS 
GENERAL 

July 3. Hague: First number of Jiidische Arbeiter Korres- 
pondenz published. — 9. Hague: Private conference of prominent 
Dutch Jews discusses Jewish emigration after the war; appoints 
committee to place itself into communication with leading Jews in 
various countries. — August 10. Committee to provide for require- 
ments of Jewish emigrants after the war favors establishment of a 



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EVENTS IN 5676— ROUMANIA 149 



world-wide organization in connection with an emigration bank, 
the opening of information bureaus and of classes for intending 
emigrants. 

NECROLOGY 

GoMPEBTZ, B. L., banker, Amsterdam, Feb. 2, 1916. 
OsoRio, E. CoLAgo, communal worker, Amsterdam, Dec, 1915. 
Prins, Liepman Philip, Hebrew scholar, Amsterdam, Dec, 1915. 
Van Ameeingen, M. L., inspector of Jewish religious education 
in Holland, Amsterdam, aged 89, July, 1915. 

PERSIA 
GENERAL 

August 6. Arag: Persians vainly attempt to create a pogrom 
by libelling member of Jewish community. — September 17. Ke- 
renda: During fight between Turks and Persians, property of en- 
tire local Jewish community plundered; Jews flee to Kermanshah. 
— January 21, Ispahan: Municipality, prompted by Sheikh ul- 
Islam, forbids sale of grapes and raisins to Jews on pretext that 
wine and brandy, forbidden to Mohammedans, are made from these 
fruits. — 21. Kermanshah: Without sanction of Central Govern- 
ment, financial agent levies heavy tax on grapes and raisins, thus 
preventing Jews from manufacturing wine. — March 17. Yezd: 
Society Ohab^ Aniyim, for relief of Jewish poor, established. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Nehoray, Marco, Mechedser, appointed director of the Financial 
Administration, Apl., 1916. 

EOUMANIA 
GENERAL 

June 1. Bucharest: A. P. Cuza, professor of the Bucharest Uni- 
versity, dismisses principal of a students' home for admitting a 
Jewish girl student; the girl is expelled, and other students repri- 
manded for having tolerated her. — July 16. Union of native Jews 
of Roumania approach the king with a memorial, presented to the 
king by president Dr. Stern, praying for conferring of civil rights 
on Jews. — August 19. Appeal to Jewish intellectual circles calls 
upon them to form a national Jewish association, with the motto 
" Judaism above all," and with the object of rejuvenating and 
fortifying Jewish national life. 



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150 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

NECROLOGY 
LiippE, Kabpel, educationalist, Jassy, at Vienna, aged 85, July 26, 
1915. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

June 9. In response to criticism of the press, Roumanian 
Government officially states that it expelled only Jews of foreign 
nationality and Roumanian Jews who were conducting speculative 
transactions. — Mamornitza (Dorohoin), Bistricioara, Bicaz, and 
Prisacani (Neamtz), Valea Glodulin, Silishtea, and Picsheshti 
(Suceava) : All Jews expelled on account of order to all districts 
bordering on Austria-Hungary. — July 2. Telegram from Odessa 
to the Den (Petrograd) states that, according to persons arriving 
from Roumania, the premier has ordered expulsion of Jews from 
seven frontier districts and interior provinces on twenty-four 
hours' notice; gendarmes chased those who did not execute order 
quickly enough. A telegram from Bucharest to the Utro Rossiy 
(Moscow) confirms this report. — 30, Expulsion of Jews from the 
frontier districts proceed despite assurance of Ministry that they 
would be stopped. Local Jewish communities send protest to Gov- 
ernment on assumption that expulsions were being carried out by 
local authorities without knowledge of the Ministry. — August 19. 
Bucharest: Local authorities of districts situated near East Hun- 
garian frontier receive secret order from the Roumanian Govern- 
ment that Jews may not inhabit those districts. Expulsions occur 
from Marmowitza (Doroboi district) , Bicaz, Bistricioara, Prisecani, 
Plesesci, Palanci, Predeal, Caineri Comanesci, etc. — 20. Galatz: 
Jews organize meeting to protest against expulsion of their co- 
religionists from frontier districts and against Jewish disabilities 
in general. — 27. King orders suspension of expulsion of Jews 
from the frontier towns. — September 3. Jassy: The Gloria, new 
organ of the Conservative-democratic party, commenting on atti- 
tude of Jews, accuses them of not standing on Roumanians side, and 
of espousing German cause. — Octobeb 1. Bucharest: Vitorul, 
official organ of Liberal party, states that reports of expulsions are 
incorrect; that Minister of the Interior did not intend to expel 
Jews as such, but only hostile foreigners and native Jews who, 
although they do not live in the frontier towns, travel there as 
corn brokers. The independent organ Adeverul in reply states that 
it can publish a list of the " peaceful Jewish population " which 
has been the object of official oppression, of reservists who were 
mobilized in the hour their children were driven from home. — 
JANUABY 20. Bucharest: Government orders further expulsions 
of Jews from villages near Hungarian frontier. Families, whose 
fathers or sons have been for months with troops, commanded to 
leave within three days. Good conduct certificates are demanded 
from the mayors of villages in Which banished Jews formerly lived. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--RUSSIA 151 



but are seldom obtained. — Bucharest: Congress of Roumanian 
Jews, attended by one hundred and thirty-five delegates, adopts 
resolution to solicit the Government to grant equal rights to all 
Jews of the land. — Mabch 10. Bucharest: Report of expulsion of 
large number of Jews from frontier towns. 



RUSSIA' 

I 

PERSECUTION AND REPRESSION 

Anti- Jewish Pbopaqanda 

June 25. Fine of one hundred roubles ($50) imposed on the 
Rostov Listok for publishing incendiary articles against Jews. — 
JUI.Y 2. Archangel Michael Real Russian Union publishes official 
statement announcing the exclusion from its ranks of a member 
who favored emancipation of J«ws. — 16. Kishinev Real Russians 
submit to their partisans inquiry in circular whether it is possible 
to extend to Jews the rights enjoyed by Orthodox Russians, and 
if so, on what grounds. — September 4. Luminiee: Anti-Jewish 
riot lasting three days; all Jewish shops destroyed. Authorities 
inactive. — Octobe» 1. Den, liberal paper, declares that great 
pressure was brought to bear on the Czar by the Holy Synod and 
Premier Goremykin to postpone extension of rights of the Jews. — 
15. Moscow: Zemstchina and other anti-Jewish organs, accuse 
Jews of having been promoters of recent Zemstvo and municipal 
conferences. — 22. In telegram to members of Cabinet reactionary 
leaders declare that the Jews are still " the enemies of Russia " ; 
M. Purishkevitch asserts that the " nation " would not allow the 
Duma to emancipate the Jews, even if it passed a bill to this effect. 
— Anti-Jewish agitators protest against election of M. Weinstein 
to the Upper House, on ground of an old law prohibiting even 
converted Jews to sit in the Council of the Empire, though law 
was repealed upon reconstruction of Council. — 29. Upon appoint- 
ment of M. Khvostov as Minister of Interior, group of bureau- 
cratic ladies present to Czar anti-Semitic memorial, denouncing 
the demands of the Moscow conferences for reforms and the 
emancipation of subject nationalities. — Kostroma and Ivanovo- 
Voznesensk: Anti-Jewish agitators openly distribute pogrom 
literature among populace until police intervene. — 30. Kostroma: 
Leaflets spread broadcast appeal for extermination of Jews. — No- 

* The items for May, 1915, were received too late for inclusion in 
Year Book 5676. 



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152 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



VBMBEB 5. Theodosia: Municipality unanimously resolves to ask 
authorities to remove priest Serapion, who carries on violent 
agitation against Jews in educational institutions and communal 
circles. — 12. Golos Russi, semi-official organ, disavows declaration 
made in London by Minister Bark regarding further privileges 
for Jews, and states that alliance with England and France does 
not give these powers right to interfere in internal affairs of 
Russia. — Moscow: Conference of reactionaries issues manifesto 
in which Government is severely criticized for taking up the 
solution of the Jewish problem at the present time. The mani- 
festo states that unless the Government desists from these re- 
forms, a split will be created in the Russian people, which might 
have more terrible consequences than the war itself. — 26. Real 
Russians issue manifesto urging active preparations to combat the 
Liberals and the Jews, and advising their followers to arm them- 
selves. Several Real Russian branches petition the Synod to send 
bishop Panteleimon, Dvinsk, to a monastery, because he visited a 
synagogue and praised the Jews. — Theodosia: Priest Serapion, 
enraged by municipal petition praying for his removal, preaches 
violent sermon against the Jews; many worshippers leave the 
church in protest. — December 10. Manifesto issued by fifty-four 
students' organizations against activity of the an ti- Jewish Stu- 
dents' Union. — 17. Kiev: Conference of Orthodox clergy resolves 
to recommend to its members to preach against demands of 
Liberals to emancipate subject nationalities. — Theodosia: Arch- 
bishop of Taurida informs municipality of his disapproval of 
policy of priest Serapion in sowing hatred against Jews. Priest 
addresses insulting letter to mayor, announcing intention to con- 
tinue his campaign. Governor summons priest, and warns him to 
desist. — 24. Petrograd: Conference of Black Hundred leaders 
complains that Moscow merchants have sold themselves to Jewish 
bankers, and states that Jews have captured the press, the schools, 
and city of Odessa. Conference adopts resolution opposing emanci- 
pation of Jews and religious tolerance. In resolution proposed by 
Markov for transmission to Czar, Government is asked to destroy 
influence of aliens in Russia and ruthlessly to suppress enemies at 
home. — JANUABY 3. By order of Russian Department for Press 
Affairs, anti-Jewish pamphlet " The Truth About the Jews " has 
been confiscated. — 7. Real Russians organize conferences to 
counteract progressive congresses. In conference at Nizhni-Nov- 
gorod, Real Russians boast of approval of their policy by the 
Government, condemn Minister of Education for his pro-Jewish 
policy, and adopt resolutions demanding closing of Chedarim, ex- 
pulsion of Jews from all schools, re-establishment of the Pale 
after the war, confiscation of land held by Jewish colonists, and 
rejection of any plan aiming at assimilation of Jews. The reason 
given is because they are harmful and are guilty of murder of 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 153 



Yuschinsky. — Orenburg: Governor, at request of Jewish deputa- 
tion, orders removal from streets of Real Russian proclamations 
inviting the people to initiate a campaign against the Jews. — 14. 
Reactionaries revive agitation for Russification of credit, and advo- 
cate exclusion of Jews from all joint stock companies and prohibi- 
tion of Jewish lawyers to represent non-Jewish clients. — 28. Real 
Russians resolve to urge Holy Synod to declare talmudic Judaism 
harmful to the Church and State, inasmuch as the Jewish doctrines 
teach the Jews to maintain an intelligence department which is 
acquainted with all Imperial secrets. — Real Russians in circular 
draw attention to attempt of Liberals and Jews to utilize crisis 
for purpose of overthrowing the Government. They demand help 
of Governors in agitation against Jews and Liberals, and ask that 
every constable be empowered to arrest persons denounced by 
Real Russians. They appeal to Government not to assist Jewish 
refugees. — ^B^ebbuary 4. Moscow: At conference of Real Russians, 
Jewish question cause of quarrel between the ultra-nationalists 
and the moderate group led by M. Orlov. — Purishkevitch, in speech 
at Kiev, speaks against extending additional privileges to Jews. — 
Real Russians open campaign against metropolitan archbishop of 
Petrograd for visiting and bestowing praise on Jewish military 
hospital. — Ekaterinoslav: Real Russians renew their anti-Jewish 
agitation. — Odessa: Anti-Semites determine to inaugurate cam- 
paign, with a Real Russian Conference. — 11. Representatives of 
various parties, including the nationalist party, charge that Gov- 
ernment funds are used to support Black Hundred anti-Jewish 
agitation. — 25. Real Russian organization urges branches to re- 
quest Government to prohibit exchange of amenities between clergy 
and Jews, such as visits of former to synagogues and Jewish hos- 
pitals. — March 10. Holy Synod and Government yield to represen- 
tations of the mayor and nobility of Theodosia, and remove the 
anti-Jewish agitator, priest Serapion, from his post. — 17. M. Bark, 
Minister of Finance, confers with representatives of press with 
reference to action in connection with the government loan; press 
representatives call attention to circular of Police Department 
which accuses Jews of working against success of loans and of 
hiding small coins, and demand that circular be revoked. — 31. 
Government circles blame M. Kaffarov, vice-director of Police De- 
partment, for publishing circulars containing charges against 
Jews as official communications, without consulting his superiors. 
— Russkoe Znamya commences campaign against Jewish medical 
men, and specially urges Orthodox clergy to boycott Jewish physi- 
cians. — May 5. Briansk: Governor of Oryol reprimands chief 
of police for creating disorder in the town by officially stating that 
Jews were responsible for the high prices of food. Liberal organs 
demand that Government prohibit such actions of anti-Semitic 
officials. — 20. Alexandrovsk (Ekaterinoslav) : Bishop Agapit de- 



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154 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



livers sermon on cowardice of Jewish soldiers, alleging that they 
surrender voluntarily and induce Russians to follow them; that 
of 18,000 Russian prisoners in Japanese war 12,000 were Jews for 
whom Russia had to pay large indemnity; that if not for Jewish 
espionage the Russians would not have been driven out of Galicia 
and Poland. — 26. Minsk: Jewish shopkeepers send delegation to 
governor to protest against attacks made on them in connection 
with increase in food prices.— Kherson : Authorities still treat 
circular of M. Kaffarov, assistant director of police department, 
accusing Jews of raising prices of food, as being in force, despite 
assurance of the Government that it has been recalled. 

Attacks on Jews 

July 23. Ihumen (near Minsk) : Mob attacks and plunders 
Jewish shops. Forty-seven arrests made. — August 6. Tokmak 
(Taurida) : Mob attacks and plunders Jewish shops and houses. 
Authorities suppress disturbance, and chief of police declares such 
attacks at present time equivalent to treason. — Ihumen: Trial of 
forty-seven ringleaders of anti-Jewish riots. Seven acquitted and 
forty sentenced to imprisonment for four to eighteen months. 
Thirteen thousand seven hundred roubles ($6850) granted to suf- 
ferers from riot. — Octobee 22. Rovno, near Elizabethgrad : Anti- 
Jewish riot follows rowdyism of crowd at the market. 

Blood Accusation 

June 11. Petrograd (Ochta district) : Accusation by a Tartar 
that Jew had abducted his two children for ritual purposes, ener- 
getically investigated; missing children are found. — July 2. Sen- 
ate dismisses appeal of Giontcharuk, sentenced to twelve years 
penal servitude for murder of Jewish boy Pashkov at Fastov, 
which gave rise to blood accusation in 1914. (See Year Book 5676, 
p. 242.) — 9. Rogatchev (Moghilev): Loss of Christian girl leads 
to blood accusation by Black Hundred. — Octobeb 29. Senate dis- 
misses appeal of Dr. Dubrovin, Rakitsky, and Eremetchenko to set 
aside sentence of imprisonment of Smolensk court for instigating 
blood libel against a Jew in 1915. — November 12. Kiev: Acquittal 
of advocate Wilensky, accused of having instructed the pro-Beilis 
witnesses. — February 11. Court rejects request of advocate 
Grusenberg that inquiry be instituted into selection of jury which 
tried Beilis, in view of trial of the famous novelist Korolenko who 
published article during trial criticizing composition of jury. — 
April 7. Blood accusation revived against Jews in Novoselie, town 
near Petrograd, and in Petrograd. In both cases police disprove 
charges, and Jews are saved from riots. — 28. Riga: Ritual mur- 
der charge against Hinda Kopilin collapses on investigation of 
police. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 166 



Expulsions and Domiciliary Restbictions 

June 4. Petrograd : Municipal authorities plan new restrictions 
on domicile of Jews in summer resorts in vicinity. — Minister of 
Interior prohibits Jewish students from residing outside the Pale 
where the high schools are situated, thereby frustrating plan of 
Minister of Education, who wished to admit Jewish students who 
had studied abroad to private Russian high schools and to permit 
them to take State examinations. — Ministry of Interior orders 
authorities to take care that converts, who went to Finland and 
adopted Protestantism in order to obtain permission to return to 
war zone, be not permitted to return to their homes. — 10. Minister 
of Interior permits Jewish delegates to attend the convention of 
stock exchange delegates at Petrograd, provided that in addition 
to the regular passport they produce a certificate of membership 
in this convention, and that their stay terminate with the con- 
vention. — Berditchev: Senate rules that house bought by Jew, 
incorporated within the city and paying city taxes, is not to be 
classed as rural property, and may be legally held. — July 9. New 
order issued in Kovel, Rovno, Dubno, Zonerinka, Proskurov, and 
Novoselitza, to the effect that all non-permanent residents must 
obtain permits to remain there. — 16. Senate permits Jewish 
physicians born in Siberia to reside and practice throughout 
Asiatic Russia. — 30. Kiev: Organization of the Schools of Com- 
merce protests to Ministry of Interior against refusal to permit 
Jewish pupils to reside in the summer home of the Organization. 
Despite appeal of Organization for Development of Russian Spas, 
authorities in resorts on the Black Sea intimate that only Jews 
possessing special permits would be allowed to stay. — Vinnitza: 
CJourt sentences Jewess Pochish and three children to expulsion 
from village despite plea that her husband was killed in battle 
in Carpathians. — August 10. Kharkov: Jews possessing right 
to live in vicinity, who have taken summer residences, are 
prohibited from moving there; order later revoked. — 13. Minsk: 
Jewish community appeals to ministry to allow Jewish refugees 
from war zone to remain there, notwithstanding expulsion order 
of Governor. — Tambov: At request of Military Industrial Commit- 
tee Government agrees to employ Jews in Government ammunition 
fact(»'ies instead of expelling them to Ekaterinoslav. — 16. Petro- 
grad: Minister of Interior permits Jews, who have admission 
tickets for sessions of the Twelfth Russian Convention of Millers 
made out to them personally, to remain from August 18 to 30. — 
Slobodka (Kovno) : One hundred and eighty Jewish families ex- 
p^led on three days' notice, because they spent a day in Kiev and 
returned to Slobodka in evening. Passports taken from them, and 
temporary certificates given them. — 19. Nizhni-Novgorod: Jews 
permitted to attend the fair. — 27. Kharkov: Governor Protassiev 



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156 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

abolishes restrictions introduced by his predecessor with regard 
to residence of Jews in neighboring summer resorts. — 31. Petro- 
grad: Police order immediate departure of small group of skilled 
Jewish laborers who were transferred by Military Industrial Com- 
mittee from Baltic provinces to capital. — January 7. Moscow: 
Government refuses to permit Jewish female delegates without 
right of domicile to attend conference convened by workers in aid 
of the war sufferers. — February. Moscow: Produce Exchange sur- 
rounded by police who arrest merchants of Jewish appearance, 
close EiXchange, force way into hotels and private houses, and ar- 
rest eighteen hundred Jews charged with illegal residence; about 
three hundred and eighteen released by evening, about sixty ex- 
pelled. House searches take place daily ; Jews blamed for increase 
in prices of provisions. — Odessa and Kiev: Similar arrests take 
place. — 11. Petrograd : Police inspector expels daughter of Jewish 
hereditary honorary citizen, M. Lurie, and orders her to report to 
police at her place of registration, Wilna, occupied by the enemy. — 
13. Kiev: Chief of military district permits first semester Jewish 
students of Dental School to reside here, but without their families. 
— Chiefs of provinces of Tersk, Kuban, Zakaspyisk and chief of Don 
Cossacks petitioned by Council of Imperial Russian Theatrical So- 
ciety for permission for Jewish artists of the Drokuli Opera Com- 
pany to remain in the cities of these provinces during their engage- 
ment. The Kuban province gives permission for short stay; others 
reject the petition. — Petrograd : Minister of Interior, petitioned by 
Jews for permission to remain until end of war, grants greater 
number of these petitions. All refugees may remain provided 
they reside with their relatives. — 18. Ekaterinoslav: Authorities 
cancel order expelling Jews working in mines, following petition 
of Military Industrial Committee. — 20. Senate rules that a Jew 
who served in a field hospital during Japanese war has unrestricted 
right of residence only if the division including the hospital 
actually participated in battle. — Senate rules that police have 
right to deprive Jew, residing outside Pale, of the life passport 
issued to him by police of his city. — 25. Moscow: At Com Ex- 
change, thirty Jews ordered to police station on question of right 
of domicile. Subsequently freed. — 27. Kiev: Police receive 
orders that Jewish merchants of both guilds are to be permitted 
to attend winter and summer fairs, and to live in Kiev during 
that time. — March 3. Petrograd: Mayor, prince Obolensky, fines 
fourteen Jews one hundred roubles ($50) each for coming, to the 
capital without permission. — 6. Perm: Governor announces that 
Jews may not settle in villages of the Ural mill district, nor in 
places where there are mines or pits. — 17. Senate annuls circular 
of a Governor permitting only Jews possessing higher educational 
oertiflcates to stay in summer resorts. Police to decide each in- 
dividual application on its merits, irrespective of privileges of the 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 157 

petitioner. — 27. Council of Congress of Mine Operators in south 
of Russia petitioned by representatives of Jews employed in 
mines of the Association of South Russian Coal Industry to assist 
in obtaining permission for them to remain despite demand of 
provincial administration that they be discharged for lack of 
right of residence. — Apbil 13. Senate reverses decision of authori- 
ties who annulled purchase of estate by Jew in name of Christian 
friend on ground that Jew and not Christian is the owner; Senate 
declares purchase valid. — 16. Shero (Yeniseisk): Ministry of 
Interior permits Jews permanently residing in Siberia to remain 
at this resort for two months of the summer. At same time Minis- 
try requests authorities to report regarding granting of permission 
to Jews to reside in health resorts in Cossack territories in the 
Caucasus. — May 26. Kazan: Crown rabbi placed under arrest for 
one month for visiting the capital without first obtaining right of 
domicile. 

iNDUSTItlAL AND PBOFESSIONAL RESTRICTIONS 

June 1. In response to petition of sugar refining companies of 
Khrenovetz and Yendichansk for permission to acquire land for 
their plantations in provinces of Podolia and Bessarabia, Council 
of Ministers rules: (1) That persons of Jewish faith be not elected 
on board of directors; (2) that foreigners and persons of Jewish 
faith be not appointed director-manager, manager, or superin- 
tendent of the real estate of the company. — August 6. Moscow: 
Tcheglovitov, Minister of Justice, resigns, after rejecting petition 
of the Council of Advocates to promote four Jewish lawyers to 
rank. of advocate. — 13. Kharkov: Government assures Pharma- 
ceutical Society that Jewish dentists, apothecaries, and medical 
assistants residing outside the Pale would continue to possess 
right to trade there. — September 24. Minister of Justice appoints 
commission to consider advisability of facilitating promotion 
of Jewish lawyers to advocates. — November 11. Kiev: Petition 
of Council of Barristers to Minister Khvostov, to allow Jewish 
lawyers full freedom of practice, refused. — 19. Cabinet grants to 
Ministry of Commerce right to allow Jewish joint stock companies, 
which had been removed from the war zone to the interior prov- 
inces, to acquire as much real estate as they needed. — 26. In re- 
sponse to appeals of Christian lawyers to Ministry from Petrograd, 
Moscow, Kiev, Odessa and Kharkov, to abolish restrictions for 
Jews in legal profession, the Government set up a commission to 
consider the problem. — December 3. Pravitelstvenni Viestnick, 
official Government organ, publishes communication from Min- 
isters of Interior and Finance and State Controller, informing 
Senate of their decision to permit Jews to trade without restriction 
Jn all non-Pale towns thrown open to them by prince Shcherbatov. 



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168 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Minister of Interior in additional statement makes it clear that 
no further restrictions against Jews are contemplated. — ^Minis- 
terial Conference considers question of admission of Jewish law- 
yers to the bar without restriction, but decides only to extend 
percentage norm to fifteen per cent in the Pale, and to ten per cent 
outside the Pale, and that all Jewish lawyers recommended for 
admission be permitted to practice at once, but no new ones should 
be admitted until the percentage norm becomes regulated. Demon- 
strations of protest against this decision are made by barristers' 
associations in various places. — 24. Ministry of Interior does 
not consider favorably petition of Military Commercial Confer- 
ence praying for complete emancipation of the Jews. While 
disinclined to allow Jewish factory owners from the war zone to 
transfer their factories to villages in the interior, a circular will 
be issued permitting certain categories of Jewish refugees to set- 
tle at Petrograd and Moscow; difficulties for Jews in coal mines in 
south of Russia to be removed. — January 7. Count Ignatiev 
orders that Russo-Jewish medical students who had studied abroad 
could sit for the final Russian University examination without 
matriculating or obtaining the sanction of the Ministry in each 
case. — Senate decides that Jews are not eligible for appointment 
as rural judges, that Jewish doctors may settle and practice un- 
hindered in Siberia, and that Jewish colonists may sell or lease 
their land. — February 4. Cabinet publishes new regulations with 
regard to promotion of Jewish lawyers. In Warsaw, Vilna and 
Odessa the number must not exceed fifteen per cent of the total ; in 
Petrograd and Kiev, ten per cent, and in remaining districts, five 
per cent. In addition, about one hundred qualified assistant advo- 
cates are to receive rank of advocate, irrespective of the norm. 
New regulations disapproved of by Liberal Advocates' Councils 
and the pro-Jewish press. — 18. Revel: Governor removes restric- 
tions on trade, formerly in force, which his subordinates declined 
to revise after publication of Ministerial order permitting Jews to 
trade in cities outside Pale. — 25. Twenty-nine Jewish advocates 
admitted to bar by Ministry of Justice out of one hundred and eight 
Jews recommended by Council of Lawyers. — Nikolaiev: Ministry 
of Interior orders prefect to withdraw all trade restrictions against 
Jews in the city. — ^May 12. Czar sanctions proposal of Government 
to permit Jewish Joint stock companies, removed from invaded 
territories, to acquire a limited area of land in interior provinces. 

Suppression of Zionist Propaganda 

June 10. Volhynia: Twenty-two Jews imprisoned for being 
members of a Zionist society. — ^July 9. Petrograd: Razsviet, the 
local Zionist organ, suspended, and documents on file confiscated. — 
January 14. Vitebsk: Authorities search residences of number 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 159 

of leading Zionists; sixteen arrested; one, M. Solovei, released on 
forty thousand roubles ($20,000) bail. — Apbbl 14. Krasnoyarsk: 
Pour Jews acquitted after trial on charge of belonging to the 
Zionist movement 

Educational Restrictions 

June 8. Minister of Commerce orders that percentage norm be 
strictly observed at all technical schools. — Count Ignatiev, Min- 
ister of Eiducation, permits Jews, admitted to a University, to 
study in any faculty they please without regard to number of 
Jews already there; order abolishing ballot system in Kiev ex- 
tended to all secondary schools. — 10. Special commission on 
petitions to the Czar refers those of Jews asking for admission 
of their children to secondary schools to Minister of EJducation; 
he favors granting of requests, but declares that, as the order of 
1887, excluding Jews from these schools, was part of the code of 
law, it was necessary to obtain the Czar's approval to abrogate 
these disabilities. — ^Petrograd: Authorities raise question of per- 
centage ncmn in case of Jewish University student returned from 
war because of illness. Faculty compelled to make special plea to 
Minister of Education for permission for student to re-enter Uni- 
versity. — Minister ot Educaticm permits pupils of preparatory 
schools to be admitted to the regular classes of gymnasia without 
being subjected to balloting, provided that sons of men at the front 
be first considered. — In registering pupils for the preparatory 
classes the percentage limit is to be abandoned, and merit is to 
decide admission. — Minsk: Minister of Education grants right to 
Jewish Technical School to issue certificates to its graduates en- 
titling them to practice their craft. — 11. Kharkov: Conference of 
educational authorities resolves that no Jews shall 'be admitted 
during the year to the private secondary schools for males.— July 
23. Minister of Education declines to confirm existing regulations 
for admitting Jews to Universities, and is particularly dissatisfied 
with the ballot sjnstem. Majority of rectors agree with him. — 23. 
Liberals demand more rational regulations for Jewish students, 
in face ol refusal of Petrograd Commercial Institute to re-admit 
Jewish students who returned home invalided from the front. — 24. 
Circular to Curators of districts by Minister of Education pre- 
scribes following rules regarding admission of Jews to higher 
institutions of learning: (1) Jews are to be admitted to vacancies 
in universities who have themselves participated in the war, or 
whose fathers have been called to the colors or volunteered; Jews, 
members of whose families, on whom they were dependent, are 
serving in the war and have received the military order, or were 
killed, or wounded in action; Jews mentioned previously who have 
not yet received their military order and whose life and health 

6 



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160 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



were not impaired in military service. (2) This order extends to 
students of pharmaceutical courses, and assistants of pharmacists 
who do not belong to groups mentioned are admitted to remaining 
vacancies according to superiority of their pharmaceutical stage. 
(3) Admission of persons of Jewish faith to other higher institu- 
tions are to take place in the same order. — August 6. Ekaterino- 
slav: One hundred matriculated Jewish students petition presi- 
dent of the Duma for legislation enabling them to acquire a 
technical education with a view to assisting the country in the 
war. — Petrograd: Ministry of Education informs Psycho-Neuro- 
logical Institute that, by introducing percentage norm, it may 
receive status of a governmental college. — 10. Council of Minis- 
ters decide: (1) To admit into all schools children of persons 
in active service in the army and of those discharged on account 
of wounds and sickness, irrespective of their nationality and 
creed, of competitive examinations, and of all other existing 
restrictions, even though number exceeds vacancies. (2) To ad- 
mit Jewish students whose parents are in service of the department 
of public education, irrespective of the percentage norm. — 13. 
Count Ignatiev issues circular to all Curators, providing for 
abolition of the ballot system of admission of Jews and Jewesses 
to Universities and higher educational institutions. — ^Baku: Vice- 
roy of Caucasus permits opening of Jewish high school with 
instruction in Jewish language, history, and religion, — ^Ministerial 
Commission prepares a bill providing for opening of new type 
of gymnasium for all citizens without distinction of religion, but 
according to the authorities the right to petition the Government 
to introduce religious restrictions into each institution. — Ministry 
decides it is inopportune to proceed with the opening of specifically 
Jewish gymnasia, granting matriculation certificates without re- 
strictions.— 'Jewish students at foreign Universities, whose appeals 
to former minister Kasso were rejected, petition Count Ignatiev 
to enable them to enter Russian Universities; prominent members 
of the Duma are working in interest of petitioners.— Odessa: Meet- 
ing of Jewish communal workers and merchants resolves to raise 
again the question of founding a Jewish University in Russia. — 
Kishinev: School of Commerce opened to all Jews who studied 
in similar Institutions which have closed on account of the war. — 
19. Kiev: University publishes warning that at the fall term the 
percentage norm will be rigidly enforced.— Count Ignatiev re- 
fuses petition of a hundred Jewish students to be admitted to 
technical institutes, and action is confirmed by a convention of 
university presidents who unanimously favor retaining existing 
restrictions. — 20. Odessa: One hundred and eight Jews admitted 
in all departments of the University; sixty-six in excess of pre- 
scribed percentage. — 26. Minister of Education drafts measures 
calculated to fill shortage of physicians in the country. In addition 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 161 



to Jews who are admissible according to percentage norm, others 
are to be admitted as special students, with privilege of taking 
final examinations on par with all others. — Septembeb 2. Confer- 
ence of Council of the Petrograd University grants only 686 of 
1160 applications for admission for the year. Seventeen Jews in 
excess of percentage were admitted. Of forty-nine vacancies for 
Jews, twenty-two given to students with gold and seventeen to 
those with silver medals. Remaining ten reserved for others who 
have taken part in the war. — 3. Petrograd: Curator Kultchitzky 
expresses himself in favor of abolition of percentage norm in the 
secondary schools. — ^Ministry allows Jewish students of the Uni- 
versities of Warsaw and Yuriev to enter Petrograd University re- 
gardless of percentage norm. — 8. Jews, whose relatives partici- 
pated in war, and who applied for admission to Forest Institute, 
in accordance with new regulation of Council of Ministers, refused, 
because circular of Minister of Agriculture, bearing on applica- 
tions, contained no reference to new regulation. — 2*. Several 
agricultural schools, closed to Jews, now permitted to admit rela- 
tives of Jewish soldiers. Count Ignatiev definitely expresses him- 
self in favor of gradual abolition of all educational restrictions. — 
OcTOBEB 1. Petrograd: Sixty-eight Jews admitted to University, 
within limits of the percentage norm, and 504 gained admission 
above the norm. — Odessa: Three hundred Jews admitted to Uni- 
versity. — Count Ignatiev issues circular ordering Curators to 
provide room in the schools for children of refugees, without dis- 
tinction of race or creed. — 15. Odessa: Minister of Education 
orders University to admit above the norm two hundred Jews, 
relatives of soldiers, and to reinstate Dr. Hochman as lecturer at 
the University, who, after leave on account of illness, had been 
informed that he could not return to his post. — ^Kiev: Ministry 
abolishes percentage norm for Jews in two Schools of Commerce. 
— 29. Final figures of number of students admitted to the Uni- 
versity of Odessa show that fifty-five Jews were enrolled within 
the i>ercentage norm and four hundred and forty-four above 
the norm; five hundred and fifty Christians were admitted. — 
November 19. Riga Polytechnic, transferred to Moscow, admits 
seven hundred Jews in total of twelve hundred newly enrolled 
students. — Count Ignatiev permits University authorities to trans- 
fer Jews from other departments to the medical faculty irrespec- 
tive of the norm, and promises deputation of the Moscow Pharma- 
ceutical Society to consider favorably the petition to admit Jews 
above the norm to the pharmaceutical faculties. — 26. Nikolaiev 
and Nizhni-Novgorod: Norm for Jews in the Schools of Com- 
merce substantially increased. — ^Yusovka: Scheme for reducing 
number of Jews at the School of Commerce abandoned. — Minis- 
terial Commission on Elementary Education decides to recom- 
mend that primary schools be open to all children, without dis- 



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162 * AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



tinction of creed; that where non-Orthodox children predominate, 
teachers of other nationalities should be eligible for appointment, 
and that all religious sects should be represented on educational 
councils. — Dgcembeb 10. Count Ignatiev submits report to Cabi- 
net generally unfavorable to the introduction of a percentage 
norm in the Psycho-Neurological Institute, Petrograd, and par- 
ticularly objecting to any new restrictions which would harass 
the students already attending. — Count Ignatiev issues special 
order directing his subordinates to abandon the practice of refus- 
ing to admit children of Jewish refugees without domicile certi- 
fiscates to schools, because verification of right of residence of 
applicants was not part of their business. — Petrograd: Curator 
declines to establish scholarships oftered by the Metallurgical 
Society, because it refused to limit Its benefits to non-Jews. — ^Minis- 
try of Education permits opening of Chedarim throughout the 
Empire. — 24. Odessa: Conference of merchants offers to erect a 
School of* Commerce for females, on condi'tion that admission of 
Jewesses shall be unrestricted. Conference requests Ministry to 
raise norm of Jews in local male School of Commerce to fifty 
per cent. — 31. Commission of Ministry of Education approves 
scheme of new type of gymnasia, admission to which would be 
unrestricted, unless the founders of the schools demand introduc- 
tion of a percentage norm for the applicants of a particular creed 
or nationality. — ^Rashkov (Podolia): Ecclesiastical authorities 
permit admission of sixteen Jewish children to church school. — 
February 18. Saratov: Authorities declare that no restrictions 
will be imposed on Jewesses seeking admission to the higher 
courses. — Odessa: Governor refuses permission to Jewish hospital 
to open a private medical institute in order to increase present 
number of physicians, which is far below the demand. — March 25. 
Duma deputy Voronkov inquires of Minister of Public Education 
as to provision for support of teachers in Jewish elementary and 
public schools in places occupied by the enemy. Minister replies 
that those in elementary schools must be given material relief 
from military fund. As regards teachers in public schools, the 
ministry will make representations to Cabinet. — ^April 14. In 
Cabinet discussion count Ignatiev opposes restrictions on Jews in 
private higher educational institutions, on ground that at out- 
break of war, eight thousand five hundred Jewish students were 
attending foreign Universities under non-Russian atmosph^*e. 
If Jewish students had a bad influence on their colleagues, so did 
Jews who adopted Christianity and thereby entered the University. 
M. Krizhanovsky, Secretary of State, supported him, but Ministers 
of Interior, Justice, and Commerce were in favor of extending the 
anti-Jewish educational restrictions to private high schools. — 28. 
Cabinet returns to count Ignatiev the bill providing for con- 
version of the Psycho-Neurological Institute of Petrograd into a 



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EVENTS IN 567e— RUSSIA 163 

Government institution, on ground that Minister of Education 
had omitted to state definitely what restrictions for Jews would 
be enforced in the Institute under the new regime. — May 12. 
Senate annuls circular of former Minister of Education abolishing 
privilege granted by Czar in 1905 to descendants of Jewish Cri- 
mean veterans to enter the University regardless of the norm. — 
19. Baku: Grand Duke Nicholas, Viceroy of the Caucasus, per- 
mits Jews to open a gymnasium where the Hebrew language, 
Jewish history, and religion will be taught — 26. Kiev: Count 
Ignatiev, Minister of Education, inspects educational institutions, 
and orders authorities to allow also Jewish pupils to pass from 
preparatory classes into upper parts of schools without examina- 
tions and without recourse to ballot 

Other Fobms of Repbession 

June 4. Authorities decline to receive resolution favoring 
abolition of anti-Jewish restrictions adopted at the Siberian Munic- 
ipal Conference. — Government stops inquiry instituted by the 
Ldberal Russian writers, Andreiev, Gorki, and Sologub, on the 
participation of Jews in the war and on the attitude of the Chris- 
tian population. — 11. Odessa: Authorities suppress Hashiloach, 
Hebrew monthly. — July 13. Governor-general of the Pri-Amur 
Province notifies military governor of Amur Province that, accord- 
ing to the regulations ef Ministry of Interior, Jewish religious 
communities have no right to possess real estate; Minister there- 
fore points out necessity for liquidating property of the Khaba- 
rovsk Jewish community. — Blagov^stschensk : Jewish community 
having real estate, governor-general instructs military governor 
to order community to liquidate its property within three months 
and to transfer synagogue to private-rented quarters. — 20. Dele- 
gation of Jews appeal to Minister of Interior against suppression 
of Yiddish press. Minister asks them to submit written memorial 
which he promises to transmit to military authorities, who, he 
claims, are responsible. — 25. Warsaw and Vilna: Military author- 
ities stop publication of all Jewish papers. — 30. Amur: Governor 
of the district, acting on ministerial instructions, announces that 
he will no logger permit the local Jewish cpmmunities to possess 
real estate; community at Khabarovsk requested to liquidate all 
its property. — August 19. Khvostov, Minister of Justice, declares 
that Jewish restrictions are necessary and are demanded by the 
country.— October 8. Saratov and Taganrog: Authorities suppress 
, efforts of local municipalities to raise their voice on behalf of 
Jews. Taganrog, under the authority of the military, wished to 
apply for permission for all Jews to live there. — 22. Yiddish 
journalists assured that the ban on the publication of Yiddish news- 
papers in Russia will be removed. — Novembeb26. Kishinev: Depu- 



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164 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



tation of Jewish community rebuffed by new governor, M. Vorono- 
vitch, who declined to listen to their greetings, accused Jews of an 
inclination to evade the law, and threatened to expel them. — 
December 10. Ministry directs governors not to permit publication 
of speeches supposed to have been delivered at Washington by 
representatives of the American Jewish Committee, who dealt 
therein with the future of the Jews in Russia. — Tog and Petro- 
grader Tagblatt suspended again after issuing a few numbers. — 
13. Smolensk: Publisher of the Smolenski Telegraph fined three 
thousand roubles ($1500) for publishing pro-Jewish resolution 
of peasants in Government of Smolensk, and editor sentenced to 
three months' imprisonment. — 16. Ministry of Interior forbids 
appearance of Yiddish newspapers and correspondence in that 
language. Four Jews sentenced to four months' imprisonment 
each or fine of two hundred roubles ($100) for speaking Yiddish 
on streets of the capital. — 24. Ministry forwards to highest mili- 
tary authorities report of the censor, praising loyalty of Yiddish 
organs and dwelling on their utility; military authorities refuse 
to sanction the removal of the ban against these publications dur- 
ing the war. — January 3. Director of Russian Press Department, 
prince Urusov, declares there is no valid ground for prohibition 
of Yiddish newspapers, and forwards petition of Jewish editors to 
Czar's headquarters. — 28. Perm: Petition of Zemstvo to allow 
Jews to settle in villages of the province rejected. — February 4. 
M. Bramson, member of first Duma, arrested; home searched, and 
documents and correspondence seized; released for lack of in- 
criminating evidence. — ^Minister of Interior refuses to grant peti- 
tion of Military Commercial Committee to permit Jews to reside in 
industrial villages. — 18. Kiev: Books and newspapers written 
in Hebrew and Yiddish prohibited. — ^Minsk: Governor refuses to 
permit publication of a Yiddish newspaper, despite earnest peti- 
tion. — 24. Novo Tcherkask: Jews complain to Senate against 
persecution by the police, which, they assert, is more intense than 
ever. — March 27. Perm: Zemstvo petitions Minister of Interior 
to permit Jews to reside in mill settlements outside city limits, 
without presenting trade certificates endorsed by police. Minister 
Khvostov replies that he sees no reason for granting petition. 

II 

GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JfiWS 

Growth of Pro-Jewish Sentiment 

June 8. Petrograd: Stock Exchange Conference protests 
against commercial restrictions imposed on Jews, and expresses 
wish that commercial travelers have right to travel beyond the 
Pale, that Jews be not restricted in right to found limited com- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 165 



panies, and that technical schools be open to them. — 10. Saratov: 
Resolution introduced and adopted by board of aldermen that all 
disabilities imposed on Jews be abrogated. — 11. Saratov: Deputy 
Bfaslennikov visits Ministry of Interior, and protests against regu- 
lations excluding Jews in his district from summer resorts. — 18. 
Russian Imperial Technical Society submits memorial to Cabinet, 
to members of both Houses of Parliament, and to heads of all com- 
mercial and trade organizations, dealing with requirements of 
Russian commerce, and containing a strong recommendation that 
the Empire must adopt as its fundamental policy the principle of 
securing for all citizens, irrespective of race and creed, the full 
right to develop the resources of the country by means of their 
capital and labor. — 25. Petrograd: Ninth conference of Trade 
and Commerce favors abolition of Jewish restrictions. — 26. 
Odessa: Mayor in interview in Ruskoe Slovo says: ** As far as the 
Jewish question is concerned, we are trying to meet all demands 
and interests of local Jews whose loyalty and patriotism we do 
not doubt; the local Jewish population is an example of readiness 
to sacrifice everything for the army." — July 16. Moscow: Split 
in Archangel Michael Union. M. Purishkevitch recommends 
policy favoring the Poles as against the Jews; others urge neces- 
sity of uniting all nationalities. The pro-Jewish leaders of the 
opposition, as well as the editor of the Moskovskia Viedomosti, 
secede, and form the Fatherland Union, willing to admit Jews as 
members. — 19. Moscow Merchants' Association for Combatting 
German Influence in Commerce and Industry addresses commercial 
and manufacturing interests, pointing out that main cause of 
economic backwardness of Russian industry is the restriction 
against Jews, abolition of which is first step toward emancipation 
of Russian commerce and Industry from influence of foreign 
capital.— 23. Orlov, organizer of the Fatherland Union, in out- 
lining policy says: " This is no time for attacks on Jews. They 
have no territory of their own, and they must be allowed to 
breathe wherever they reside. It is absurd to suggest that the 
Jews side with Germany against England and France where they 
have complete freedom, and therefore the Jews cannot be anti- 
Russian. In fact they are not dangerous at all, and they are not 
revolutionaries." — 30. Moscow: In reply to questionnaire of Mer- 
chants' Organization many expert bodies and individuals empha- 
size necessity of abolishing the Pale, because the Jews are 
specially qualified to compete with the Germans and to develop 
commerce of Russia. — August 6. Grand Duke Nicholas issues 
proclamation condemning pogrom movement and the spreading 
of false rumors, sowing discord among various nationalities. — 10. 
Petrograd: Conference of Russian Military Industrial Commit- 
tees favors permitting Jewish factory owners to move from vicinity 
of the war zone to the interior provinces outside the Pale and to ac- 



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166 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



quire land anywhere. Prof. Yuboshev points out that Jews are 
fighting for a fatherland which treats them like stepchildren, and 
proposes that Conference express itself in favor of abolition of all 
anti-Jewish restrictions. Conference adopts resolution to that 
effect — 13. Moscow: Merchants' Organization petitions Govern- 
ment to abolish the Pale and the anti-Jewish restrictions in joint 
stock companies. — Teberdi: Leading non-Jews petition Ministry 
of Interior to permit Jewish consumptives to visit the local resort, 
pointing out that disease knows no distinction of race or creed. — 
20. Timiriazev and Kobilinsky, members of Upper House, favor a 
few immediate concessions to Jews in view of burden borne by 
them in present struggle. — 27. Siberia: Bishop Nikon in mes- 
sage to press states it is time to unite all nationalities completely. 
— Mayor of Petrograd and prominent members of municipalities 
of non-Pale cities favor abolition of restrictions. — Petrograd: 
Christian Society in aid of Jewish exiles formed under leadership 
of count I. Tolstoi, deputies Shingarev and Roditchev, Maxim 
Gorki, and others. — Septembeb 10. Yaroslavl: Conference of 
twenty Zemstvos adopts resolution sympathizing with Jews in 
their sufferings, recognizing that they are heavily affected by in- 
vasion, and hoping that they will be compensated after the war. 
Conference also telegraphs to president of Duma, expressing hope 
that Duma will emancipate all nationalities. — Penza: Non-Jews 
prepare petition that Jewish exiles be permitted to live in local 
villages. — Kiev: Influential petitions to Government to cancel ex- 
pulsion of one hundred and eighty Jewish families from a suburb 
of Kiev (regarded as a village). — 17. Samara: Municipality 
adopts resolution in favor of abolition of Pale. — ^Ekaterinoslav: 
Zemstvo decides to ask Government to permit all Jewish refugees 
to live in the villages. — 17. Orthodox archbishop of Warsaw 
declares that existence of the Pale is contrary to Christianity and 
that he hopes that present concession will mark beginning of new 
era. — Russo-American Chamber of Commerce sends deputation to 
Ministers of Finance and Education. Prof. Ozerov and M. Proto- 
popov point out advantages of a commercial and financial under- 
standing with America, and urges that such rapprochement neces- 
sitates revision of anti-Jewish laws, especially the residential and 
educational restrictions. — 24. Rostov (on the Don) : Non-Jews 
petition Government to permit all Jews to live there; Cabinet con- 
sents. — ^Khabarovsk: Municipality petitions Duma to emancipate 
the Jews. — Military Industrial Committees ask Government to 
permit Jews to work in Ural mining industries and in Jewish 
factories to be removed to the capitals. — October 1. The Military 
Technical Organization, the Advocates' Council of Saratov, and 
the Co-(^erative Conference at Smolensk endorse the part of the 
program of Progressive Bloc^ dealing with concessions to Jews 
and demanding their ccmiplete and immediate emancipation. — 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 167 

8. Poltava: Conference of Christian tradesmen expresses itself 
as exposed to anti-Jewish restrictions. — Nikolaiev and Kiev: Mer- 
chants petition Government to increase norm for Jews in educa- 
tional institutions. — Progressive Bloc receives support through the 
influx of pro-Jewish petitions. — 15. Petrograd : Influential society 
of Christian politicians and authors formed to assist Russian Jews 
in their struggle for emancipation, to make the struggle the gen- 
eral concern of progressive Russia, and to induce Government to 
abolish restrictions. — November 12. North- Western and Perm Mili- 
tary-Industrial Committees appeal to Ministry to grant Jewish fac- 
tory owners and workmen facilities to settle outside the Pale, even 
in the villages. — 19. Kiev: Conference of Administrators, Nobles, 
and Zemstvos and Municipal Workers, to consider improving condi- 
tion of the refugees. Representatives of Zemstvo of Eikaterinoslav 
propose resolution calling attention of Government to fact that 
towns are congested and to the desirability of opening villages to 
Jews. Conference shows that fears of Government that peasants 
would oppose settlement of Jews were groundless, as they were 
favorably disposed not only to the Russian Jews but to the Galician 
Jews brought to Russia. — Decembeb 10. Mayor of Petrograd, count 
Tolstoi, deputy Friedman, and advocate Sliosberg receive satisfac- 
tory reports on the relations of Jews and peasants outside the 
Pale; in some cases peasants invite Jews to settle in their midst. — 
17. Central Military Industrial Committee addresses appeal to 
Government to allow all Jewish workmen to settle in villages in 
which there are factories and large businesses. Gutchkov, mem- 
ber of Upper House, and two colleagues from Rostov petition 
Ministry not to expel wives of Jewish military physicians. — 31. 
Petrograd: Christian Council of the Metallic Industry in south of 
Russia sends special delegate to defend right of Jews to work in 
local mines. — January 7. Deputy Purishkevitch declines to partici- 
pate in Real Russian gatherings, and censures their activity as 
criminal provocation. He promises to convene a Real Russian con- 
ference after the war to initiate a policy of peace among all nation- 
alities. — 14. In interview accorded representatives of leading local 
newspapers. Minister of Interior opposes demands of progressive 
Bloc, He favors granting to Jews outside the Pale right to trade, 
work, and erect factories in towns recently opened to them. — 
Moscow: Orlov, founder of Real Russian Fatherland Union, in 
memorial to Premier, advises him not to create dissatisfaction 
among the Jews, but to gain their friendship for Russia, as their 
support is valuable. — 21. Minister of Interior states his desire 
to Jewish deputation that Jewish shopkeepers be permitted to live 
outside Pale, as they are a guarantee for low prices of food. — Arch- 
angel: Christians petition Minister of Interior to withdraw order 
for expulsion of all Jews who arrived in city after Nov. 1. — Petro- 
grad: Maxim Gorki outiines work of Christian Society for Study 
of Jewish Life. Intention is to open branches throughout Empire, 



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168 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



particularly in new Jewish centers outside the Pale; to collect 
material with regard to Jewish question; to organize lectures, 
concerts, and exhibitions dealing with Jewish life; to establish a 
Press Bureau and publish books and pamphlets. Anonymous 
contribution of ten thousand roubles made toward publication of 
a book on the Jews. — Mabch 30. Association of Technical So- 
cieties appeals to Government to open all technical institutions, 
especially the civil engineering and architectural courses, to the 
Jews. — 31. Petrograd: All-Russian Military Industrial Confer- 
ence expresses itself in favor of emancipation of Jews, and adopts 
resolution repudiating with contempt all charges made in certain 
circulars accusing Jews of "creating artificial disturbances in 
economic world for benefit of the eternal foe." — ^Apbil 7. Central 
Military Industrial Committee, at request of deputy Friedman, 
petitions Government to allow Jews, employed in undertakings 
that are of benefit to the defence of the country, to reside through- 
out Russia. — 21. Labor section of Central Military Industrial 
Committee sends protest to president of Duma against conduct of 
progressive Bloc in allowing anti-Jewish demonstrations in the 
House. — Moscow: Conference of Municipalities of all Russia 
adopts resolution in favor of equality to all citizens, without dis- 
tinction of race or creed, and condemns the anti-Jewish pogrom 
agitation. — ^May 19. Petrograd: Pirogov Medical Conference, act- 
ing on report that Jewish physicians are held in suspicion, and that 
circulars prohibiting their despatch to the front were sent to the 
authorities, adopts resolution condemning the anti-Jewish libels 
as attempts to sow hatred against Jews at a time when they are 
showing their love for Russia despite all restrictions; expresses 
hope that time is near when Jews would receive their full rights, 
extends to Jewish physicians its deepest sympathy, and calls upon 
all Russian organizations to counteract the anti-Jewish libels. — 
26. Petrograd: All-Russian Conference of Lawyers adopts 
resolution condemning anti-Jewish restrictions. — Conference of Ex- 
change Committees adopts resolution condemning recent ohlavas 
(raids) at Moscow Stock Exchange, declaring the domicile restric- 
tions in force for Jewish merchants to be one of the causes of the 
rise of prices, and demanding the abolition of anti-Jewish restric- 
tions. — Conference of Siberian Municipalities adopts resolution 
protesting against anti-Jewish libels, the sowing of hatred against 
subject nationalities, and expresses the view that blame for hard- 
ships resulting from war cannot be attached to any nationality. — 
Government receives petitions of various non-Jewish bodies that 
Jews be permitted to reside in villages in view of congestion in 
towns. Government decides it cannot open villages to Jews with- 
out restrictions, but promises to consider favorably applications 
for permission to settle in a particular village, whether made by 
an individual Jew or by a group, provided suflftcieint ground were 
given for relaxing the regulations. 



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EVENTS IN 5676--RUSSIA 169 

Duma Discussions and Legislation 

July 19. Deputies Kerensky and Friedman report that, upon 
visit to Kuzhi and investigation into story of treachery of its Jew- 
ish population, they found no evidence to support charge. — 
August 2. Premier Goremykin, in course of speech in Duma, 
.says: "At present, the Emperor has deigned to empower me to 
inform you that his Majesty has ordered the Council of Minis- 
ters to work out law projects on granting to Poland, at end of 
this war, right of free development of its natural, cultural, and 
economic life on the principles of autonomy, under powerful 
sceptre of Russian emperors, and by preserving unity of the 
Empire. But as the Poles are not the only ones who have shown 
their loyalty to Russia, our internal policy must be permeated by 
the principle of impartial and benevolent attention to interests of 
all loyal citizens of Russia, without distinction of nationality, 
language, and religion." — 7. Duma by vote of 191 to 162 rejects 
resolution to grant equal rights to all nationalities in the Russian 
Empire. — 16. Petrograd: Speeches delivered in Duma on the 
Jewish sufferings by Socialist leader Tchkheidze and Labor leader 
Dziubinsky supplement speech of Friedman. The former charges 
Government with attempt to make Jews scapegoat of their own 
defeats. — 19. Interpellation of extreme left of the Duma to the 
Prime Minister Goremykin concerning position of Jews. — 20. 
Kerensky, Labor Party leader, states that Government is attempt- 
ing to shield its own representatives who have committed faults 
by throwing blame on the Jews, and that his personal investiga- 
tions in the Pale convince him that accusations of disloyalty made 
against the Jews were falsehoods invented by corrupt ofllcials. 
Prof. Miliukov protests against the wholesale expulsion of Jews. — 
27. Octobrists reconsider their original plan, and decide to insert 
in their bill for the removal of restrictions against all nationalities 
" with the exception of the Jews." — Polish deputies, on invitation 
of Russian Premier, draft Polish Autonomy Bill, which provides 
that Jewish question should be left to the discretion of the future 
Polish Diet. — iM. E. Skobelev, social-democrat, states that question 
of Jewish Pale was brought up in Council of Ministers only 
when wave of Jewish refugees, forcibly removed from their homes, 
had swept away this medieval dam. — September 4. Baron Rosen, 
in a speech in Council of the Empire, urges removal of all restric- 
tions against Jews. — 6. M. K. Bomash, Jewish deputy, in speech 
in Duma, proves unfairness of military censorship toward Jewish 
press. — Labor Party deputies propose that Duma confirm following 
principles: (1) Immediate abolition of all existing laws limiting 
rights of any Russian citizen on account of religion or nationality. 
(2) Immediate revocation of all administrative orders issued so 
far, particularly those referring to freedom of movement, educa- 



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170 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



tion, use of native language in schools, free press, right of assem- 
bly, etc. (3) Persons violating this principle of equality of citizens 
should at once be prosecuted according to the Criminal Code. — 9. 
Conference between representatives of Progressive Bloc and 
Cabinet, which displays vigorous opposition to consideration of 
Jewish question. — 17. Committee on Interpellations reports in- 
terpellation condemning methods of expelling Jews, the taking of 
hostages from among them, the spreading of accusations of 
espionage and treachery. — Program of the Progressive Bloc in 
the Duma and in the Council of the Empire includes the complete 
cessation of religious persecution and the removal of restrictions 
on Jews.— 19. Minister of Interior finishes draft of decree to be 
presented to Cabinet proposing following changes in laws regard- 
ing Jews: To abolish requirement of a license for engaging in 
commerce; to change article 1071 of Penal Code punishing Jews 
for unlawful commerce by expelling them from city and con- 
fiscating their property; to drop all prosecutions started by 
virtue of this article; to grant right to acquire real estate in cities 
n^w open to Jews; to abolish restrictions in connection with 
registry of Jews by artisan and trade guilds; to admit Jews to 
educational institutions of the Ministry of the Interior, such as 
nurses' schools and schools for midwifery, both within the Pale and 
beyond it, to extent of fifteen per cent; civil restrictions are, how- 
ever, to be continued in force. — 24. Deputies Skobelev and Milyu- 
kov, in debate on censorship, severely criticize suspension of Jew- 
ish press, prohibition of transmission of Yiddish letters by post, 
and difficulties placed by censor in way of publication of accounts 
of acts of heroism by Jews and of high tributes to Jews by officials, 
whereas anti-Jewish libels and pogrom literature are freely dis- 
seminated. — OcTOBEB 1. In reply to memorandum presented by 
the liberal deputies. Cabinet states that under present regime it is 
impossible to make changes in the laws affecting Jews. — Repre- 
sentatives of the Bloc submit program to Ministers of the Interior, 
Commerce, and Justice, and the State Controller. Cabinet con- 
siders that enough is being done already to extend rights of Jews. 
— Minister of Justice admits that policy of withholding from 
Jewish lawyers promotion to rank of advocate was unjust, and 
promises amendment. Minister of Commerce points out that a 
committee was considering advisability of removing the restric- 
tions against Jews in joint stock companies. — 18. Octobrists and 
Nationalists declare they have abandoned their former principles, 
and that Jewish question must wait until after the war. — Novem- 
ber 26. Committee fails to persuade the Cabinet that in view of 
opening of non-Pale towns to Jews the percentage norm for latter 
in schools ought to be increased; the ministerial representative 
states that the non-Pale regulations are only temporary. — Decem- 
ber 24. Progressives of the Imperial Council and the Duma issue 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 171 

declaration demanding the creation of a coalition Cabinet of per- 
sons enjoying confidence of the country and in accord with legisla- 
tive bodies, with regard to execution of a definite program at the 
earliest date and decisive change of method of administration, in 
particular: (a) strict observance of the law; (6) abrogation of 
dual authority, military and civil, in questions that have no direct 
relation to the conduct of military operations; (c) restoration of 
local administration; (d) a wise and continuous policy directed to 
the preservation of domestic peace and removal of discord between 
nationalities and classes. The declaration is signed by count V. A. 
Bobrinsky, for the Progressive group of Nationalists; V. Lvov, for 
the Centre; I. I. Dmitriukov, for the Octobrists; S. Shidlovsky, 
for the group of the Union of October 17th; I. Yefremov, for the 
Progressives; P. Mlliukov, for the party of People's Freedom; 
D. D. Grimm, for the Academic group of the Imperial Council, and 
V. Meller-Zakomelsky, for the group of the Centre. — ^January 7. 
In Duma committee the Liberal deputies protest against expul- 
sion of Jews from the spas and against maintenance Gt restrictions 
against Jews in legal profession. — 21. Progressive Bloc utilizes 
discussion of estimates of Ministry of Interior in Budget Com- 
mittee to challenge Government's internal policy. Ministry asked 
to explain benevolent attitude toward recent Real Russian con- 
ferences in contradistinction to refusal to permit Liberal gather- 
ings. Professor Miliukov complains of withdrawal of circular 
permitting Jewish refugees to stay in the two capitals for a short 
time and failure to carry out many of the plans of prince 
Shcherbatov; Yiddish press is not allowed to reappear, and 
censor creates difficulties even in case of Hebrew quotations from 
the Bible. Minister of Interior in reply denies hostility to Jews, 
and assures deputies he is interpreting the circular of prince 
Shcherbatov in widest possible sense. — Februaby 24. Deputy 
Markov attacks deputy Shulgin for siding with the Jews and 
leaving the Nationalist party; demands that the State Bank cease 
to assist Jewish banks, and asserts that former commandant of 
Kovno, general Grlgoriev, was a converted Jew, and that the 
ZemstvoB were influenced by the Jews. — 27. Labor party and 
Social Democrats introduce Bill into Duma demanding abolition 
of all national and religious disabilities. — March 3. Left of the 
Duma resolves to interpellate the Government on the prohibition 
of the publication of Hebrew and Yiddish newspapers. It demands 
introduction of a bill during session for purpose of removing 
all restrictions against various nationalities, including the Jews. 
— 17. Purishkevtich, notorious anti-Semite, declares In Duma 
that while he still "hates" the Jews, he would disappoint 
deputy Friedman and all others who expect him to uphold the 
charge that the Jews were responsible for Russian defeats; that 
people who think so are wrong. The assertion that all evil 



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172 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



arises from Jews is incorrect. — Mohammedan deputies demand 
abolition of restrictions against all nationalities. Original plan 
of the representatives of all nationalities for a joint declara- 
tion in the Duma fails through refusal of co-operation by the Poles. 
— 24. Deputy Godnev demands that circular relating to opening 
of non-Pale towns to Jews be legalized by a bill in the Duma, to 
deprive governors of excuses for disregarding it. — Deputy Bomash 
speaks on suspension of Jewish press and of correspondence in 
Yiddish. He demonstrates that the Jewish press was loyal, and 
describes hardships imposed on Jews who were not able to read or 
correspond in any language but Hebrew or Yiddish. — Conference 
of Constitutional Democrats adopts resolution to demand emanci- 
pation of all nationalities, even at the present juncture. — 31. Dur- 
ing discussion of estimates of Ministry of Interior, deputy Bomash 
criticises non-fulfilment of prince Shcherbatov's domicile circular 
at Kiev, the Caucasus, Amur, and Vladimir, and expulsion of Jews 
from the provincial cities near Petrograd. — ^April 7. Duma de- 
cides to add to Censorship Bill clause to effect that language in 
which a newspaper is published cannot serve as reason for its 
suspension. — Oflacial statement made that new Government Munic- 
ipal Bill provides for direct Jewish representation on municipali- 
ties, limiting them to a fifth of the Assembly, except in the Cau- 
casus, where one-half may consist of non-Christians. Jews pro- 
hibited from being elected as mayors. — 21. Premier informs 
Cabinet that he regards Labor Party Bill, providing for imme- 
diate emancipation of all nationalities, as measure which would 
revolutionize the present system, and that he could not accept it. 
Premier also declines to approve of the Bill abolishing restric- 
tions on formation of joint stock companies, fearing that adoption 
of such a measure would lead to loss of all control by the Govern- 
ment of ownership of land by Jewish companies. — In Duma com- 
mittee on bill removing civil disabilities of rural population. 
Liberals propose an amendment admitting Jews residing in the 
villages to the civil service. Octobrists vote with the anti-Semites, 
and amendment is rejected. — Markov and Levashev attack count 
Ignatiev, Minister of Education, for "crowding the educational 
institutions with Jews." Deputy Gurevitch shows that no 
Christian was refused admission on account of suspension of 
percentage norm, and that some institutions still ignore the 
circulars of count Ignatiev. — 28. Cabinet discusses Labor Party's 
Bill providing for immediate emancipation of all nationalities, 
and adopts recommendation of the Premier that it be rejected. 
—Number of leading Jews, headed by ex-deputies Prenkel and 
Jacobson and by Dr. E. Chlenow, publish appeal to Jewish depu- 
ties to withdraw from Bloc, Large section of infiuential Jews 
oppose action. — Bloc carries in Duma an amendment providing 
for admission of Jews to the Land Institute. — Deputies of Left, 



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EVENTS IK 5676— RUSSIA l^a 

who independently of Bloc made stand for Jews, receive numerous 
messages of congratulations from Jews and non-Jews. — ^May 5. 
Poltava: Meeting of South Russia Relief Committee adopts reso- 
lution calling upon Jewish deputies to leave the Liberal coalition 
and to protest against the withdrawal of the interpellation from 
the Duma. M. Weinstein, member of Imperial Council, disap- 
proves such a step. — 12. Bill in hands of Ministry of Interior 
provides for the abolition of the dual system of crown and com- 
munal rabbis, by making the secular examination required for 
post of crown rabbi accessible to communal rabbis who possess 
only a slight knowledge of secular subjects. The passing mark of 
examinations will be higher for rabbis who seek to occupy posts 
in larger towns, and still higher for those desiring appointments in 
the capital cities of provinces, who will be styled chief rabbis, and 
will control the rabbinical aftairs of the entire province. — ^Jewish 
candle tax to be abolished, but meat tax will be maintained. — 19. 
At meeting of Bureau of Progressive Bloc, Maklakov suggests 
that at coming discussion of the Bill providing for the abolition 
of restrictions upon peasants, all questions regarding restrictions 
upon aliens, particularly Jews, be excluded, so that only those 
parts of tha Bill may be passed immediately which would not 
cause any dissension among the factions constituting the Bloc, 
Maklakov's suggestion is approved, and it is decided to devote 
a special session of the Bloc to the Jewish question. 

Poush-Jewish Relations 

May 16, 1915. Warsaw: Jewish Teachers' Society submits to 
prince Lubomirsky a memorandum in which are set forth the 
views of the society concerning the necessity of a separate national 
management of the schools. — ^June 4. Leonid Andreiev, famous 
author, appeals to Polish people in behalf of Jews, warning them 
that unless they change their attitude the Russian cultured classes 
will not support their claim for autonomy. He demands a promise 
that when autonomy is granted them, all nationalities, including 
the Jews, will be given complete freedom and equality. — Warsaw: 
Prominent Jews and Poles meet and discuss formation of a society 
and publication of an organ and pamphlets which should aim at a 
permanent peace between the two peoples. — 25. Polish Literary 
Society, in reply to articles by Georg Brandes on anti-Semitism, 
denies that Poles had participated in pogroms, and complains of 
the influx of Russian Jews into Poland and of the attacks on Poles 
in Jewish and Russian Liberal press.— Warsaw: Polish anti- Jew- 
ish agitators clamor for prohibition of Shechitah. — July 2. War- 
saw: Representatives of various parties among the Poles and 
Jews, except Nationalists, consider Polish-Jewish relations, and 
decide to issue a joint declaration in favor of peace between the 



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174 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



two nationalities. — 5. Warsaw: Shops established by the Citi- 
zens' Committee, with orders to serve all customers without dis- 
tinction of religion or nationality, boycott Jewish women. Similar 
boycott applies to labor. — 23. Yadov (Poland) : Jews, who form 
nine per cent of population, protest to governor against Polish 
Sanitary Committee which threatened them with exile unless they 
undertook to keep the whole townlet clean, instead of only their 
own quarter. — August 22. Polish anti-Jewish press agitates for 
suppression of Yiddish, styling it a "German" language. The 
Gazetta Varshavska demands annulment of all contracts written 
in Yiddish or in any language employing Hebrew characters. — 23. 
Warsaw: Protest meeting appoints commission to establish Jew- 
ish national schools, and to devise means for getting Polish author- 
ities to subvention them when established. — Septbmbes 24. 
Homel: Polish charge that the three hundred thousand refugees, 
mostly Jewish, have hidden most of the copper coins, causes panic 
Police promise to protect Jews; they stop anti-Jewish agitation 
in the hospitals by prohibiting importation of anti-Jewish litera- 
ture. — October 15. Polish Citizens' Committee decides to intro- 
duce first in Warsaw and vicinity, and later throughout Poland, 
compulsory attendance at Polish schools. It is optional for Jews 
to make use of Polish schools, but Polish instruction must be in- 
troduced into the Chedarim " in order that there should be no 
illiterates among the Jews." Jews of Warsaw demand that a pro- 
portionate part of school budget, largely contributed to by the 
Jews, should be allowed for the upkeep of Jewish schools, under 
the control of a special Jewish Education Commission. — ^Warsaw: 
Flour section of Jewish Merchants' Union issues report enumerat- 
ing the lawless acts committed by the militia against Jewish popu- 
lation. — ^NovEMBBaa 25. Warsaw: Polish circles agitate about 
Jewish student question in connection with University of Warsaw; 
anti-Jewish agitators demand introduction of percentage norm. — 
December 17. Warsaw: Jewish workmen meet and decide to 
demand exclusion of notorious anti-Jewish agitators from the 
Factory Committee and appointment of factory inspectors able 
to speak Yiddish. — 24, Warsaw: Citizens' Committee presented 
with petition, signed by three hundred thousand Polish Jews, 
demanding opening of Jewish schools, with Yiddish as language 
of instruction. — ^January 7. Warsaw: Liberal Poles in large 
number protest against demand of anti-Jewish workers to intro- 
duce percentage norm for Jews into higher educational institu- 
tions. — Warsaw: Authorities prohibit members of militia from 
searching Jewish shops without permission of police, because 
searches were frequently carried out from dishonest motives. — 
26. Jewish students at Warsaw tJniversity separated from non- 
Jewish in special classes formed for those desirous of learning 
Latin. — 28. Warsaw: Polish Teachers' Association at conference 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA I75 

decides to continue boycott against Jews and to endeavor especially 
to keep Jews out of teaching profession. — Mabch 31. Parisian 
paper L'Humanit^, in article on Polish intrigues against Jews, 
criticizes attempt of Poles to make Allies believe that Jews are 
pro-German, whereas to Central Powers they complain of pro- 
Russian influence of Jews in Poland. 

Finland 

OcTOBSB 1. Petrograd: It is reported that large numbers of 
Jews expelled from grand-duchy of Finland, with three days' 
notice. — 29. Domicile regulations affecting Jews are applied with 
increased severity. — ^November 16. Authorities refuse to allow 
Jews to remain there de^ite Shcherbatov circular. — ^Vibwg, 
Helsingfors, and Abo: Jews with right of residence must renew 
permit every six months. Passport may be withdrawn at any 
moment EiVery Jew must leave the country on reaching a certain 
age, and anybody who marries a Jewess without right of residence 
is to be immediately expelled. — ^January 10. Systematic perse- 
cution of Jews. Police expel women and children, including those 
whose bread-winners are in the war. 

Miscellaneous 

JuNs 18. Fire destroys three hundred Jewish houses in Polotzk 
(Vitebsk), two-thirds of Derevno (Vilna), and large parts of 
Luban (Minsk) and Alexandria (Kovno). — ^Tokmak and Tcherni- 
govka (Taurida) : Severe damage from floods. — 26. Warsaw: 
"Wo^waga," New Jewish monthly in Polish, appears. — Slutzk: 
One hundred and thirty buildings and the Great Synagogue de- 
stroyed by fire. — Stolbzi: Almost entirely burned down. — ^July 2. 
Petrograd: Death of anti-Jewish agitator, M. Lutostansky. — Sen- 
ate rules that petitions of Jews for conversion of minor children, 
when petitioners themselves remain Jews, cannot be granted. — 
Mneow: Yevreiskaya Nedelya, a new Jewish-Russian weekly, re- 
places Novi Voschod. — 23. Berezina: Fire destroys six hundred 
houses, shops, and other structures, as well as some synagogues. 
Damage amounts to half a million roubles ($250,000). — ^Kaznitza 
(Grodno), Rudna (Vitebsk), large portions of Ponevezh (Kovno), 
Leipun (Poland), Berezina (Minsk), and Timkovitch (Minsk) 
destroyed by fire. — Moscow: Communal building, housing most of 
the Jewish institutions, and two libraries burned down. — Fire 
destroys three hundred houses in Komai (Vilna) and one hundred 
'and forty-five houses in Kopatkevitch (Minsk). — Sbptembeb 3. 
Warsaw: New Municipal Council consists of twelve Germans, 
twelve Poles and six Jews, the latter representing interests of 
Polish. Jews remaining in the city, the Russian Jews who had 
resided there, as well as those who had connections with Russia, 



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176 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

having left before arrival of the invaders. — 10. Caucasus: Native 
Jews are allowed to hold municipal oflElces. — 17. Vitebsk: Plan 
of Chief of Police, to place local synagogues occupied by the exiles 
at disposal of military authorities, abandoned by the Governor, 
upon appeal of Jews. — 24. Lodz: Jewish workingmen demand 
that German authorities provide means for teaching Yiddish to 
Jewish children in the public schools, recently established in that 
city. — Petrograd: Jewish Conference adopts resolution affirming 
demands of Progressive Russia for a coalition Government, and 
declares that the opening of the non-Pale towns to Jews could not 
entirely satisfy Jews. Abolition of all restrictions was necessary 
to remedy injury done to Jews during the war. — ^November 1. 
Warsaw: Society founded to secure use of Yiddish as language of 
instruction in Jewish elementary schools. — Lodz: Mass meeting 
resolves that Yiddish be introduced as medium of instruction in 
Jewish schools, and repudiates action of "Poles of the Mosaic 
confession " who collected signatures for a manifesto favoring 
introduction of Polish language. — Petrikov: Austrian authorities 
open number of elementary schools with Polish as the medium 
of instruction; attendance of Jewish children compulsory. — Decem- 
ber 17. Warsaw: Governor-general forbids subordinates to pre- 
vent Jews from observing Sabbath. — 24. Lublin: German au- 
thorities forbid Jews wearing long Eastern coats to enter parks. — 
Poland: German Government cancels order prohibiting Jewish 
workmen from Poland to enter Germany. — Janxjaey 7. Warsaw: 
Yiddish interpreters appointed at factories. — ^Zionist movement 
legalized. — ^Warsaw: Prohibition to hold conference of Jewish 
communal leaders of Poland on educational and charitable ques- 
tions revoked, but only concession obtained for Jewish schools is 
permission to use Yiddish as language of instruction until children 
understand Polish. — 14. Lomzha: German Government permits 
Dr. Gold wet to open gymnasium for Jews. — 20. Warsaw: Special 
commission appointed to draft a new and more democratic con- 
stitution for the Jewish community. Draft proposes that suffrage 
be based on minimum contribution of fifteen roubles ($7.50) a 
year. — 28. Vilna: Three Jews appointed members of municipal 
council. — February 1,1. Warsaw: Yiddish papers agitate for 
status as nationality in the public census about to be taken. — Lodz: 
In census, all Jews, with exception of 2107, gave nationality as 
Jewish. — 18. Lublin: Gymnasium opened with Yiddish as 
medium of instruction. — ^Warsaw: In reply to petition of Jewish 
Community to the German Civil Board of Education, police presi- 
dent states that German is the only language in which instruction 
should be given in Jewish schools. Authorities allow continued 
use of Polish language in those Jewish schools in Warsaw which, 
prior to issue of order, already used Polish language, and are re- 
garded as Polish schools. Education Administration promises 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 177 

that Town Council will open a greater number of Jewish schools 
where Yiddish will be common language. Polish will also be 
^taught in schools using Yiddish. — March 3. Last official qalnquen- 
nial report on political crimes in Russia emphasizes steady de- 
crease of crime among Jews, despite severe laws in force against 
them. Average of eight per cent of political crimes committed by 
Jews, and only eight per cent of offenses against person of the Czar 
are accountable to Jews. — 10. Cabinet resolves to permit syna- 
gogues to sell wine but no spirits for Passover. Sale will be subject 
to control of the authorities, and in districts where martial law is 
in force, subject to control of military commanders. — 17. Siberia: 
Group of Jews petitions Government for an agricultural colony, 
pointing out that Jewish population of Siberia has increased con- 
siderably since prince Shcherbatov's domicile circular. — 24. War- 
saw: Governor-general permits importation into Poland of wheat 
and corn flour for manufacture of matzos. Jewish ecclesiastical 
authorities permit use of corn flour for matzos in view of excep- 
tional circumstances. — ^Apbil 7. M. Margolin gives twenty-flve 
thousand roubles ($12,500) to the Russian Council of the Jewish 
Territorial Organization, to be applied to the Mandelstamm Colony. 
— 28. Jews mourn death of Prof. Kovalevsky of Upper House. 

Ill 
JEWISH COMMUNAL LIFE 

Decembeb 10. Nizhni-Novgorod: Zemstvo votes monthly grants 
toward maintenance of the Chedarim. — 13. Moscow: Committee 
of Friends of the Hebrew Language create special fund for restora- 
tion of Yeshiboth and for investigation into present whereabouts 
of Yeshiboth evacuated out of Lithuania and Poland. — 24. Poland : 
Austrian Government contemplates measure of Jewish communal 
organization in parts of Poland occupied by it. — ^January 4. 
Suwalkl: Citizens' Committee introduces compulsory attendance 
at school for all children. Jewish community provides room and 
school materials for nine hundred children. Jewish Council 
elected, which collects communal dues from butchers, and pays 
salaries of rabbis and shochetim. — 7. Ministry of Interior is 
framing a circular permitting Jews to found synagogues and 
schools in towns recently opened to them outside the Pale. — 14. 
Moscow: Jewish leaders decide to open a rabbinical college. — 26. 
Warsaw: Jewish Authors' Society formed. — ^Workingman's Home 
established upon initiative of local Poale Zlon. — Seminary for 
training of Jewish religious teachers for intermediate schools 
established.— Council of Jewish community asks permission of city 
authorities to collect debts of one hundred roubles ($50) and more 
with aid of city militia, a measure usually adopted in such cases. — 



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178 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

31, Slobodka (Kovno), now called Wilhelmpol: Great Yeshibah re- 
opened. — ^Pkbruaby 22. Warsaw: Union of about fifty representa- 
tives of synagogues form General Synagogue Association to facili- 
tate the relief measures for the community. — 25. Senate decides 
that synagogues like churches are exempt from paying tax on 
bequests. — May 12. Warsaw: Binyan Haneherosoth (Rebuilding 
of the Devastated) Society organized for rebuilding of synagogues, 
yeshiboth, schools, etc., and to subvention rabbis, chazamln, 
shochetim, and mohelim. Only orthodox persons eligible for mem- 
bership. 

IV 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Bolter, , Singapore, receives from Czar gold medal, Dec., 

1915. 

DicKSTEiN, Samuel, Petrograd, appointed professor of mathe- 
matics at University, Jan., 1916. 

EiSENSTADT, SiMEON, Pctrograd, created Councillor of State, by 
imperial order, July 9, 1915. 

Fleishitz, , Jewess, obtains degree of Master of Roman Law, 

Apl., 1916. 

Fbiedbebg, Salomon, named as mayor of Petrikov, Dec. 24, 1915. 

Gordon, Noah, appointed by Czar Commercial Councillor, Jan. 
14, 1916. 

Gurevitch, , deputy, elected secretary of the Duma Com- 
mittee on National Health, Mch., 1916. 

Handelsman, Mabcell, Petrograd, appointed professor of history 
at University, Jan., 1916. 

ISRAELSKY, David, Singapore, awarded medal of St. George, Dec, 
1915. 

Lazebson, , appointed lecturer at Psycho-Neurological Insti- 

ture, Apl., 1916. 

Lurie, , appointed mayor of Pinsk, Oct. 12, 1915. 

Manitz, Joseph, Sieradz (Province of Warsaw), appointed by 
German civil authorities inspector of district, Feb., 1916. 

MiNTz, , Dr. appointed lecturer at University of Saratov, 

Apl., 1916. 

Shapiro, Jacob, appointed by Czar Commercial Councillor, Jan. 
14, 1916. 

SziBMONTSKY, , appointed lecturer on West European litera- 
ture at Petrograd University, Dec, 1915. 

Wabschaueb, Adolph, appointed director of the archives oi War- 
saw, Nov., 1915. 

Weinstein, M., Odessa, elected member of Council of Empire, 
Oct., 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 179 



NECROLOGY 

Chanbxes, , crown rabbi, Minsk, Feb., 1916. 

Chazanowitz, Joseph, organizer of the Abarbanel Library in 
Jerusalem, Bielistok, aged 70, June, 1915. 

Epstein, Joseph, rabbi, Jusefov, June, 1915. 

Feinberg, David, director of the Jewish Colonization Association, 
Petrograd, aged 76, Apl., 1916. 

GoLDENWEiSER, ALEXANDER, legal authority, Kiev, June, 1915. 

Granatstein, , rabbi, Novobrudno, June, 1915. 

GuBEViTCH, Bebman, notary, Odessa, Jan., 1916. 

HocHMAN, Hayyim, mathematician, Odessa, a^ed 65, Feb., 1916. 

Ilion, Isaac, rabbi, Riga, June, 1915. 

Kahana, David, scholar and writer, Odessa, aged 76, Aug. 24, 
1915. 

LiNETZKi, Isaac Joel, rabbi, Odessa, aged 76, Oct. 6, 1915. 

Reines, Isaac Jacob, rabbi, Llda (Vilna), aged 76, Sept. 22, 1915. 

Sacks, , philanthropist, Kiev, Oct., 1915. 

Slonimsky, Stanislaus, physician, scientist, and author, War- 
saw, May, 1916. 

Soloveitchik, M., State Councillor and director of Siberian bank, 
Petrograd, Feb., 1916. 

Zam, Hebzl, captain, Tomsk, aged 80, Mch., 1916. 

VI 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Places Destroyed 

May 26. Slonim, Grodno: Town in ruins, half of houses 
burned down. Only 13,000 inhabitants of 30,000 remain.— June 4. 
Schipenitz: One hundred and thirty-two houses burned. — 11. 
Krasno: Houses burned; some Jews taken as hostages, and 
others forced to clean streets even on Sabbath. — ^July 2. Eivagola, 
Vekshni, Shadovo, Grozdi, and Yanishki (Kovno) : Almost en- 
tirely destroyed during battles. — 9. Telzhi, Ludvinov, and Polan- 
gen suffer severely from the battles in their vicinity. — August 13. 
-Stavishki, Leipolinga, and Popelani burned by Germans. — Septem- 
ber 17. Malkin destroyed by artillery; population of Jews take 
refuge in capital. — October 21. Sochachzev, Hasidic center in 
Russian Poland, ruined. — Shavli, having twenty thousand Jew- 
ish inhabitants, completely destroyed. — 29. Dokshitz (Minsk) : 
Town plundered; Jewish quarter suffers heavily from fire of Ger- 
man troops. — November 5. Kreva and Lubtcha (Minsk) : Totally 
destroyed. Inhabitants transferred to Minsk. — 5. Baranovitchi : 



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180 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Totally destroyed in course of battles. — Smorgon burned. — Decem- 
ber 10. Pinsk: Jewish quarters in townlets burned. — 17. Charto- 
risk, almost totally burned, but inhabitants, mostly Jews, escape. 

Accusations of Treachery 

Mat. Order issued by Russian Military Headquarters that watch 
should be kept on Jewish soldiers, to see whether they did not 
voluntarily allow themselves to be captured and how they de- 
meaned themselves in general. — 18. Kuzhi: Government organ, 
Pravitelstvenni Viestnik, publishes report which is widely re- 
printed that Jews harbored German spies in cellars, and at night 
fired the town and annihilated garrison including Commander 
Col. Vavilov. Report ends with following statement: "This sad 
incident again demonstrates the need of keeping constant guard, 
particularly over all Jewish towns which have at any time been 
held by the enemy." — June 4. Satanoy: Seventy Jews in province 
of Podolia arrested and removed to Austria because of charge that 
Jews of town fired on Austrian troops when they occupied Satanov. 
— Petrograd: House of Warshavsky, president of Jewish com- 
munity, searched by order of military commander; the presence 
of electro-technical apparatus creates suspicion that Jews were 
in communication with the enemy. — 11. Copciovo (Poland) : Jews 
denounced for assisting Germans. Twenty-six arrested and held 
for court-martial, but set free on evidence of the Obshtchina 
(Peasants' Council). — 18. Nemnovo: Three Jews executed on 
similar denunciation of alleged treachery. — M. Menshikov, writing 
of Polish libels in Novoe Vremya, declares that all Jews are to a cer- 
tain extent responsible for acts of treachery and that the culprits 
ought to be expelled. — July 8. Brigadier-general Shdanovitch in 
Order No. 7383 to subordinate commanders declares that the Jews 
either dodge military service, or, when entering the army, betray 
their country. The Commanders should enlighten all Russian 
soldiers, so that they tell this at home, to prevent any movement 
leading towards emancipation, which the Jews are expected to be- 
gin after the declaration of peace. Such a notification is a patriotic 
duty, else popular indignation will find another solution of the Jew- 
ish question. — 12, According to Berne Tagwacht, organ of the 
Social-Democratic Party in Switzerland, paid agitators visit Rus; 
sian hospitals, and distribute to the wounded leaflets accusing Jews 
of treachery and demanding vengeance. Order issued to the army 
warns soldiers against intercourse with Jewish physicians and in- 
tellectuals. — 19. Official investigation by Social-Democratic Party 
shows Kuzhi story (May 18) of Jewish treachery was deliberate 
fabrication, that only six Jewish families had lived there; only 
one house had cellar, nine by seven feet and too low for a man to 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 181 

stand iu; that colonel VaylloY was not killed in Kuzhi, and 
that Jews had left town with permission of authorities on day 
before alleged attack. — Commander-in-Chief of the Army issues 
order prohibiting postal and telegraph communications, within 
the district occupied by the army, in the Jewish, German and 
Hungarian languages. — 23. Poltava: Crown rabbi refuses to 
accept a Zemstvo grant of two thousand roubles ($1000) for 
Jewish exiles, until the Chief of Police and the chairman of the 
ZemstYo publicly repudiate the insinuation that the exiles were 
traitors. — ^August 11. Lomzha: Two officials of Reconaissance 
Department sentenced to imprisonment for six years each for 
falsely accusing Eisenbiegel, a Jew, of espionage; another official 
released upon confession. — Septembeb 3. Poltava: Head of 
PirogoY medical corps announces that investigations undertaken 
by him and few other officials show that ninety per cent of 
trials of Jews charged with treason resulted in acquittal. — 
October 21. Copenhagen reports increase of anti-Semitism in 
Russia. Incendiary newspapers, long discontinued, revived with 
official support; in Petrograd the Zemtschina founded which de- 
pends entirely on Real Russians. Daily incitements to pogroms 
published in issues distributed gratis, declare Jews to be spies 
in German pay, who alone are responsible for Russia's misfor- 
tunes. As result hundreds of Jews are crucified during march 
of the Russians. — November 5. Serious complaints reach Petro- 
grad from Minsk to effect that the governor and some of the 
rural officials of the province are aiding the anti-Jewish agitators 
to expose alleged Jewish disloyalty. — 8. Deputy Friedman receives 
telegram from Z. Strieltsin, Gadiach (Poltava), stating that he was 
condemned to two months' imprisonment for having pronounced 
false the newspaper reports about treachery of Jews in Kuzhi. 
Friedman writes to Minister of Interior that falsity of report was 
demonstrated in Duma by many deputies, that proofs are in pos- 
session of Ministry, and requests repeal of order of Poltava 
governor. — December 31. Christian nurse from Lodz, who returned 
to Russia, asserts that statement that Jews welcomed Grormans 
on their entry into Lodz was an invention of the Germans. — 
B^EBRUARY 11. Brezin: Libel originated by Letopis Voini (Annals 
of the War), to effect that Jews had betrayed a force, disproved by 
publication of letters from officers of Russian garrison thanking 
Jews for their excellent behavior and loyalty. — 25. Moscow: 
Government Commissioner investigating local food prices suggests 
expulsion of Jews from Corn Exchange as remedy against high 
charges; but Exchange authorities assert that Jews tend to lower 
and not to increase prices. — April 22. Moscow: Major-general 
Shebeko issues notice that spreading of false rumors is punishable 
with imprisonment up to three months or a fine up to three 
thousand roubles ($1500). 



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182 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Expulsions 

May 14. Order of Middle Section of 18th Army Corps that the 
Jews be driven back toward the enemy; none must be allowed to 
remain in the war district. — 24. Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaie- 
Yitch, commander-in-chief of the Russian army, issues order that 
regarding particular localities to which Jews shall be banished, 
the authorities of the Minsk military district have to apply to the 
Minister of Interior. Telegram to commander-in-chief of Minsk 
military district pronounces attitude of Jewish population of 
Poland, Galicia, and Bukowina as hostile, and holds them respon- 
sible for cruel measures adopted by enemy against non-Jewish 
population; to protect latter from treachery practiced by Jews all 
along the front, it is necessary to banish the Jews upon retreat of 
enemy, and to take hostages; these are to be warned that they will 
be held responsible for every severe measure adopted by the 
enemy toward the loyal population. — 25. Radom and Kielce, 
Poland: Governors increase pressure on Jews, and compel them to 
leave provinces; only a few permitted to carry away property. — 
June 4. Druskeniki: Jews expelled. — Courland: All Jews ordered 
to leave province, and the district of the Ust-Dvinsk fortress. The 
Jews in latter place given five days to liquidate their aftairs. — 
Kovno: Orders issued to expel all Jews from city and district; 
also from districts of Ponevezh, Vilkomir and Shavli, and from 
Druskeniki. District near Reval closed to Jews, and further 
restrictions against residence of Jews are enforced at Pavlovsk 
and other places near Petrograd. Later order permits Kovno 
Jews to return. — Kiev: Two thousand Jews expelled from Galicia, 
and treated as prisoners of war because count Bobrinsky, Rus- 
sian military governor of Galicia, suspected them of disloyalty to 
Russia. — Courland: Government exiles all Jews for alleged help 
to Germans, except in Alukst, Jacobstadt, and Friedrichstadt. 
Twenty-five thousand Jews expelled. — ^Estimated that twenty-five 
thousand Jews are being transported from Courland to more re- 
mote provinces of Pale as result of libel that Jews guided invaders 
in the region of Shavli. — 8. Warsaw: Twenty-five thousand Jews 
expelled and forbidden to settle in Kovno, Grodno, and Vilna. One 
hundred and forty Jews sent to Siberia. Novoe Vremya puts 
number of expelled from Kovno at twenty thousand. — 11. Rus- 
sian merchants petition Government to provide for the ninety 
thousand Jews expelled from Courland and Kovno, and to arrange 
that their property be not ruined during their enforced absence. 
Merchants allege that trade has become paralyzed through these 
wholesale expulsions. Government orders Jews of several places 
in Courland to return home, and suspends threatened expulsions 
from Kovno. — Petrograd: Jewish Committee sends appeal to Jews 
of Odessa to provide shelter for Jews expelled from Lomzha and 
Vilna. — ^Authorities cancel order of expulsion of thirty thousand 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 183 

Jews from parts of provinces of Vilna and Grodno, dose to war 
zone. — Vilna: Fifty rabbis, expelled from various towns, arrive 
in destitute condition. — ^Tanovo (Kovno) : Jews, ordered to leave 
town or to give ten hostages, are unable to comply with latter re- 
quest, as prominent Jews have fled. — 18. Knishin and Goniondz 
(near Bielistok) : Exp^led Jews permitted to return home. — 
Loiblin: Fifteen thousand Jews, expelled from Radom and Kielce, 
permitted to settle here. — Strong representations made to Cabinet 
by Jewish communal leaders and by United Russian Council of 
Trade and Commerce on damaging ^ect on both Jews and Chris- 
tians in the places whence the entire Jewish communities were 
expelled. Cabinet requested to safeguard property left behind by 
Jews. Minister of Commerce declares himself not competent to 
deal with the matter which is controlled by military authorities; 
Cabinet resolves to draw attention of the latter to the fact that 
wholesale expulsion of Jews caused economic distress in districts 
affected and overburdened the charitable instituticms in the places 
designated to receive the exiles. — Deputy Gurevitch, rabbi Nurok 
(Mitau), and M. Warshavsky, president of Petrograd community, 
call upon Premier and Maklakov, Minister of Interior, in connec- 
tion with expulsion of Jews from Courland. Premier declines to 
interfere, but M. Maklakov promises to ccnnmunicate with military 
authorities. — Lipsk (Suwalki): During a battle one thousand 
inhabitants. Including two hundred Jews, imprisoned in the church 
for ten days. Jews subsequently expelled. — July. Ulasszkowce, 
Jezierzany, Jagielnica, Tluste and Czortkow: One thousand Jews, 
expelled frcmi Zaleszczyki and Skla, die of cholera. — 2. Kovel, 
Roons, Dubno, Brody, Prosku, Novoselitza and 2Ihmerinka: Jews 
forbidden to stay without special permit from military authorities. 
— Kovno: Two hundred and fifty Jews, expelled from province, 
allowed to return for three days to liquidate their affaira — Twelve 
hundred and forty refugees arriving in Vilna transported to south 
Russia. — Homel: Two hundred and fourteen families from prov- 
ince of Grodno given shelter. — Molnitza (Warsaw): Five thou- 
sand expelled Jews compelled to remain in the fields for three days 
without shelter or food. Deputy Friedman intercedes, and receives 
permission for them to remain in Atvatzk. — Petrograd: Con- 
ference of Merchants adopts resolution protesting against Jew- 
ish expulsions from Kovno, which are characterized as inhuman 
and as undermining Russian commerce and industry. — ^Kovno: 
Exiles not permitted to return to immediate neighborhood of the 
fortress. — Ekaterinoslav: Three thousand families of Jewish 
exiles dispersed throughout the province; deputation to governor 
fails to secure for them p^*mit to remain in the city. — Kovno, 
Grodno, Warsaw, Brest Lltovsk, Siedlece, Lublin, and Khelm 
practically closed to new settlers; even persons who are not 
permanent residents must obtain permits to remain. — ^Mogilnitza: 



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184 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Jews ordered to leave. — Makov, Goniondz, and Knishin; expul- 
sions cancelled. — ^Vitebsk: Jews receive official assurance that 
they would not be exiled. — ^Warsaw: Jews forbidden to travel in 
the direction of Radom and Ivangorod. — 9. Kovno: Council of 
the Trade and Commerce Conference and several of the Exchanges 
approach Ministry of Interior on behalf of Jews not yet permitted 
to return to province. — Kovno: In answer to question on status 
of Jewish exiles, governor states that it has been resolved to 
allow Jewish exiles to return only east of the line Riga-Bausk- 
Ponevezh-Vilcomir-Kovno, subject to their finding sureties. — ^Rozan 
(Lomzha) : One hundred and fifty Jewish families expelled. — 
Grodno and neighborhood: Three hundred and fifty Jewish fami- 
lies transported to South Russia. — 9. Mitau (Courland) : Seven 
thousand Jews driven out. — 16. Grodno: New expulsions in 
progress in Sokol district — 23. Satanov, Tarnorud, Gusatin, and 
Szvanetz (districts of Proskurov and Kamenetz) : All Jews 
ordered to leave in three days. — Minsk: Jewish community ap- 
peals to Ministry of Interior to allow Jewish exiles to remain 
in province notwithstanding order of the governor. — 30. Kovno: 
Governor allows all exiles to remove their property from the 
towns and townlets outside immediate fortress area, provided that 
not more than ten arrive daily in each town and no more than 
two in each townlet. — August 6. Vilna: Telegram denies report 
in Petrograd papers concerning alleged rescission of order for ex- 
pulsion of Jews from Kordman and Kovno. — ^Riga: Coast cleared 
of all Jews. — Grodno: Families containing minor children sent to 
Voronezh; free transportation off ered. — 13. Zhosli (Vilna): Deputy 
Friedman persuades Ministry to allow expelled Jews to remain; 
also at neighboring townlets. — Grodno and Sokol: Jews notified 
by governor to be ready for expulsion on short notice. — 19. Cour- 
land: Two hundred thousand Jews expelled. — ^Riga: Seven thou- 
sand Jews expelled. — 20. Ponevezh: Deputy Friedman expelled 
with other Jews. — 27. Minister of Interior informs deputation of 
Jewish journalists that expulsion of Jews and suspension of Jew- 
ish press were carried out without knowledge of the Ministry. — 
Slonim, Vilkovisk, and Albertin (Grodno) : Expulsion of Jews 
cancelled. — October 8. Vilna: Male inhabitants of military age 
transported into the interior. — 15. Moscow: Conference of the 
Union of Towns and Zemstvos, and commission of statesmen, 
deputies, and officials, convened by Government to discuss subject 
of refugees, express themselves strongly against expulsion from 
war zone. — 22. Khotin (Bessarabia) : All Jewish males of military 
age ordered inland. — Oshmiany: Jewish population expelled; 
thirty thousand Jews homeless. — Novembeb 5. Smorgon: After 
capture of town Germans seize twenty Jews as hostages, who were 
released upon retreat of invaders. On re-entry of Russians, popu- 
lation ordered to leave. Townlet burned, and Jewish community 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 185 



goes to Minsk. — 12. Bessarabia: Remoyal of inhabitants of the 
northern districts suspended. — 16. Kiev: Military governor de- 
crees that Jewish inhabitants who left temporarily should not be 
allowed to return after the 18th. — Januaby 14. Mlinov (Volhy- 
nia) : All Jews transported in course of two hours, and no permits 
issued to save their property. — E'ebruaby 8. Kiev: In reply to 
petition of hostages and exiles from Galicia, commander-in-chief 
orders that (1) Jewish hostages and exiles be deported to Siberia;' 
(2) Christians may settle anywhere outside war region upon per- 
mission of authorities. — 11. Siberia: Expulsion of Jewish 
hostages from Galicia indefinitely postponed as result of petition 
of count Ignatiev. — May 26. Podolia: Governor instructed by 
Commander of South Western Armies to guard property of Jews 
expelled from the townlets, and authorized to call for military 
assistance, if necessary. 

EiXTENSION OF PALE 

August 17. Cabinet adopts following minute: "It has been 
observed of late, in connection with the military situation, that 
Jews are migrating en masse from the theatre of war, and are 
gathering in certain interior governments of the Empire. This is 
explained, on the one hand, by the endeavor, on the part of the 
Jewish population, to depart in good time from the localities 
threatened by the enemy, and, on the other hand, by the order 
issued by our military authorities to clear certain localities in 
the line of the enemy's advance. The further concentration of 
these refugees, whose number has been growing ever greater, in 
the limited area now available to them, is causing unrest among 
the local native population, and may lead to alarming consequences 
in the form of wholesale disorders. This excessive accumulation 
of Jewish refugees also impedes the Government seriously in its 
efforts to provide food, work, and medical attention for them. 
Under these circumstances, deeming it urgently necessary to take 
prompt measures to avert undesirable possibilities, the Acting 
Minister of the Interior has made a representation with respect 
to this matter before the Council of Ministers. Taking up this 
inunediate subject for deliberation, without touching upon the 
question of the general revision of laws now in force concerning 
Jews, the Council of Ministers has found that the most advisable 
way out of the situation created would be to grant the Jews the 
right of residence in cities and towns beyond the Pale of Settle- 
ment This privilege, established because of the exigencies of the 
military situation, must not, however, affect the capital cities 
(Petrograd and Moscow) and the localties under the jurisdiction 
of the Ministries of the Imperial Court and of War. — 27. Im- 
perial sanction given to this decision. — 28. Minister of Interior 



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186 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

issues circular calling attention of governors, mayors, and other 
officials to decision of Cabinet. — 28. Voronezh: Government pro- 
hibits Jewish refugees to go from one town to another, or even to 
change dwellings in same town. Minister of Interior telegraphs 
supplementing telegram No. 753 : " I inform you that Jewish 
refugees, Russian subjects, have the right to live and move about 
in your Government and in all places beyond the Pale, except in 
the theatre of war or sections under martial law." — September 3. 
Riga: Petition of one thousand Jews to transfer their business to 
Petrograd granted. — 3-6. Petrograd: Jewish War Relief Com- 
mittee adopts resolution that right of domicile in the towns be- 
yond Pale of Settlement is incapable of satisfying the acute de- 
mands, of the day, and leaves untouched the foundation of Jewish 
legal disability. Conference expresses its deep indignation at 
persecutions of and slanders against Jewish population, and 
declares that only by the legal abolition of all restrictions will the 
State discharge its duty toward the Jewish people and make the 
repetition of such persecutions impossible. Resolution also 
adopted protesting against suppression of the Jewish press. — 10. 
Bielistok: Five hundred Jewish manufacturers receive permis- 
sion from Minister of Interior to settle in interior provinces. — 
Petrograd, Moscow, Yalta, Tsarskoe Selo, Peterhof, Gatchina, the 
Cossack districts, Turkestan, and the villages: Jews still re- 
stricted in matter of domicile. But in special cases Cabinet em- 
powered to grant privilege to Jews. — 11. Moscow: City chief, 
general Ek. Klimovitch, orders police chiefs to deal with petitions 
of Jewish exiles concerning permits to live in Moscow till end 
of war as follows: Only those petitioners, who may present to 
police chiefs indisputable proof that they have really arrived 
from localities situated in the war zone, and those who have in 
Moscow near relatives, whose material support is not needed 
by them, shall be considered by office of city chief for further pro- 
cedure. — 17. Cabinet issues statement that in the non-Pale towns 
open to Jews they will have right to trade and buy real estate. — 
Tomsk: Orders to expel wives of Jewish exiles and to transport 
from Gadiatch (near Poltava) to Siberia exiles who reside there 
withdrawn as result of influential petitions. — Expected that Jewish 
factory owners and their employes from the Polish villages, where 
they had right of domicile, will be permitted to settle in the non- 
Pale villages. — 24. Ekaterinoslav: Jewish factory workers al- 
lowed to reside in villages of the province where factories are 
situated. — October 1. Government gives negative reply to request 
of mayor of Petrograd, count Tolstoi, and Senator Ivanov who 
favor allowing Jews to reside at Petrograd. — 8. M. Ippolit, 
director of the police department of Ministry of Interior, Assist- 
ant Minister of Interior, and the Governor of Volhynia resign 
because of disapproval of extension of the Pale. — Minister of In- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 187 

tericw urges Cabinet to remove restriction on right of trading by 
non-privileged Jews in places outside the Pale, to permit Jews 
freely to ent^* artisans' guilds and to increase the norm in all medi- 
cal schools to fifteen per cent. — Kiev: Commander of the Forces 
directs local authorities not to carry out for the present the Minis- 
terial Order permitting all Jews to reside in non-Pale cities. — 15. 
Czar grants petitions of Zemstvos and municipalities in Don dis- 
tricts, and permits Jewish medical assistants to remain in the prov- 
ince during the war fcnr purpose ci combating epidemics. — Arch- 
angel and Baku: Local governors refuse to comply with new 
regulations permitting Jews to reside in all towns, and also en- 
deavor permanently to exclude these cities from the new Pale. — 22. 
Czar cancels all actions instituted against Jews for trading in the 
non-Pale cities without adequate rights of domicile. Order affords 
relief to many thousands of families. — Count Ignatiev requests 
Ministry of Interior to grant right of domicile to Jewish students 
admitted to the Petrograd Psycho-Neurological Institute and to thle 
Moscow Judicial Institute. — Ministry informs deputy Friedman 
that it could not interfere with the military authorities, who set up 
restrictions against settlement of Jews at Baku and Taganrog, 
despite Government circular permitting Jews to reside there. — 29. 
Vladivostok: Governor announces that the old restrictions for 
Jews would remain in force in his province. — Kiev: Military 
authorities prohibit even privileged Jews from settling in the city. 
Tiflis: Police pretend ignorance of existence of new regulations. 
— Prince Shcherbatov, before his resignation from the Ministry, 
prevents, by his interference, the governor of Moscow from carry- 
ing out his desire that his province be excluded from the new Pale 
regulations and be allowed to maintain the old laws. — In provinces 
of Kharkov, Kazan, Nizhni-Novgorod, Yaroslav, Saratov, and 
Smolensk and at Rostov Jews are allowed to settle, but are pro- 
hibited from trading and buying real estate. — ^Novembeu 1. Kiev: 
Ministerial Circular concerning abolition of Pale of Settlement not 
regarded as valid by authorities. Jews recently arrived, as well 
as Jewish inhabitants of the city, subjected to house searches, 
especially at night. — Imperial Ukase orders immediate withdrawal 
of all legal actions taken against Jews because of illegally residing 
and trading beyond Pale of Settlement. — 4. Reported that circu- 
lar of Minister of Interior which opened all of Russia to the Jews 
is disregarded by provincial governors; that new interpretations 
are constantly given ; that new restrictions have been promulgated 
in Vladivostok; that in Finland conditions are worse than ever 
before. — 5. Kiev: Influential circles protest against regulations 
prohibiting entry of Jews. Acting mayor points out to military 
authorities that trade of city suffers heavily as result of restric- 
tion. Military authorities summon conference which decides that 
privileged Jews be permitted to settle in Kiev in accordance with 



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188 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



the regulations in force before non-Pale towns were opened to the 
Jews. — Ministry of Interior issues circular making it mandatory 
for governors to allow Jews to settle in the non-Pale towns. — Kiev: 
Jewish contractors for army supplies permitted to remain tem- 
porarily. — 6. Military Industrial Committee, organized to mo- 
bilize Russian commerce for war purposes, petitions Govemment 
to permit Jews to settle in villages. — 12. Amur district: Gover- 
nor, who declined to enforce the circular permitting Jews to live 
in all towns, receives special order to grant the concession to the 
Jews without delay. — Jewish refugees allowed to settle in the 
Jewish colonies in South Russia. — ^Nizhni-Novgorod: Governor's 
Council decides to allow Jews to settle permanently in six of the 
larger villages. Jews to be permitted to open special schools In the 
entire province. — Caspian district: Ministry of War rejects peti- 
tion of deputy Friedman to allow Jewish refugees to settle there. — 
19. Turkestan, Akmolin@k, and Tomsk: Governors, influenced 
by agitation of Real Russians, petition Government to suspend 
operation in Siberia of circular opening all towns to Jews, alleging 
dissatisfaction among local inhabitants, and that cities are already 
overcrowded. — ^Narim district: Residence of the families of twelve 
hundred Jewish exiles, who wish to live together with their heads, 
permitted, despite action of local police who began to expel 
them. — Turkestan: Cabinet orders governor-general to stop re- 
turning refugee Jews to Pale, and to allow them to remain until 
end of the war. — 21. Dlrector-in-chief of Committee on Refugees 
on the Caucasus front informs Stavropol governor that the Viceroy 
did not object to settlement of Jews in Stavropol. — 24. Russian 
Jews permitted by edict of the Cabinet to live in towns outside 
the Pale, but have not expressly been accorded right to engage in 
trade in these towns, on account of which new Jewish arrivals in 
various towns encounter difficulties. — 26. Government authori- 
ties resolve to permit Jewish stock companies to acquire real 
estate outside the Pale, provided that no more is purchased than is 
necessary to conduct their . business. — December 3. Blogove- 
stchensk: Rabbi wires to Siberian deputies informing them that 
despite all Ministerial Orders the governor of the Amur district 
persisted in ignoring circular opening all towns to Jews. Deputies 
request Ministry to make execution of orders binding on all author- 
ities. — Saratov: Governor takes liberal view that all Jews may 
reside there, and that they require no domicile documents from 
police. Authorities, however, decline to give trading permits to 
Jews who do not present domicile documents, while police refuse 
to issue latter. Jews therefore are unable to trade there as here- 
tofore. — 13. Decree permitting Jews to dwell outside Pale of 
Settlement carried out without restriction in towns of Govern- 
ment of Kharkov, Rostov-on-the-Don, Saratov, Smolensk, Nizhni- 
Novgorod, Ufa, Vologda, Kazan, Samara, Tomsk, and Orenburg. — 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 189 

Ro8tOY-on-the-Don: Special decree of Czar permits all Jewish 
physicians and surgecms to live in the Don district for period of 
the war in order to cure population of infectious diseases raging 
there. — Archangel and Kiev: Rietsch reports expulsion of all 
Jewish war victims despite abolition of Pale. — Petrograd: Gov- 
ernment permits wounded and discharged Jewish soldiers from 
invaded part of Pale to reside there until expulsion of Austro- 
Grerman forces from Russia. — Kolpino: Jews, recently settled in 
accordance with prince Shcherbatov's circular, ordered to leave 
town. — Sotchi: Jews, coming for a cure, ordered to leave. — Cau- 
casus: Viceroy, in reply to repeated petitions, permits all Jewish 
refugees from Baltic provinces and aged parents of persons, per- 
manently residing in provinces under his control, to remain. — 18. 
Petrograd and Moscow: Minister of Interior repeals order ot his 
predecessor which permitted Jews to remain there one week. — 24. 
Petrograd: Jewish merchants, in compliance with representations, 
allowed to visit the Caucasus. — January 3. Petrograd: Gov- 
ernor orders three hundred students of Psycho-Neurological Insti- 
tute living at Kolpino, an hour's journey form Petrograd, to leave 
within two days. — 10. Petrograd: Black Hundred conference 
adopts resolution against abolition of Pale and against any 
change in position of Jews, ** as it has been shown that the whole 
of Jewry, in union with Germany, is carrying on war against 
Russia." — 13. Nizhni-Novgorod: Congress of Real Russians 
adopts resolutions that after the war Jews should be returned to 
Pale, that estates in Kherson and EHtaterinoslav should be con- 
fiscated, in order that Russians damaged by the war should be 
settled on them, and that Jews should be excluded from the Uni- 
versities to which a small percentage of them have been admitted. 
— 14. Ministers of Interior and Justice decide to recommend 
Cabinet to modify decision in regard to Shcherbatov's circular, and 
to prohibit Jews from acquiring real estate in the towns outside the 
Pale. Ministry refuses to allow Jews to reside in Ural district 
where shortage of labor gravely afTects trade. — ^Jewish merchants 
from the Pale allowed to join the guilds in towns outside Pale, and 
governor of Vladivostok yields to Ministerial Order, and enforces 
prince Shcherbatov's circular, making exception only for exiles 
from war zone. — 20. Minister of Interior takes under advisement 
right of Jews to build synagogues in cities newly opened to them, 
there being no mention of this in Ministerial Order of Aug. 13. — 28. 
Viceroy of Caucasus issues order forbidding any more Jewish 
refugees to settle in that province; any Jew arriving after Dec. 1 
sent back. — Febbuaby 4. Minister of Interior Khvostov recom- 
mends to Cabinet need of modifying circular of Shcherbatov, 
former Minister of Interior, by which Jews were permitted to re- 
side outside Pale, so as to prohibit their acquiring real estate in 
towns outside Pale. — 11. Minister of Interior facilitates issue of 



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190 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



registration books to Jewisli merchants from war zone enabling 
them to travel in places where Jews are not permitted to reside. — 
Moscow: Conference of merchants demands that Goyemment 
facilitate settling of Jews in the district in order to stimulate de- 
velopment of local fuel production. — 25. Novotcherkask: Munici- 
pality petitions (Government to permit Jews to reside in Don dis- 
trict. — Ministry of Interior announces that in last four months it 
had to deal with eighteen thousand petitions from Jews concerning 
right of domicile. Latter have not diminished since publication of 
circular allowing Jews to reside in non-Pale cities. — ^Mabch 3. 
Government announces that prohibition of arrival of new Jewish 
settlers In towns in the Caucasus effective only for duration of the 
war. — Territory of Caucasus closed to Jews. — 17. Kislovodsk: 
Ohlavcts (raids) carried out, and even privileged Jews ordered to 
leave the city. Expulsion order relating to a few withdrawn in in- 
dividual cases where strong protest is made. — 27. Military gover- 
nor of the Primorskaya province issues circular forbidding Jews, 
under threat of expulsion, from coming within the limits of the 
province, without obtaining permission. — 31. Kiev: Authorities 
issue circular permitting all Jewish residents to live in any part c^ 
the city. — April 14. Question of status in Russia of Jewish com- 
panies of Allied countries confronts Government In connection 
with schemes of the Allies for economic co-operation. Premier 
concludes that, however desirable the old restrictions were, he 
preferred to consult the Ministry of Commerce in view of neces- 
sity of developing commerce of Empire. Cabinet resolves to per- 
mit Russo-Jewish companies producing articles useful for defence 
to acquire small tracts of land in provinces east of Moscow and in 
Siberia, with exception of Amur. — 21. Archangel: Governor re- 
fuses to allow Jewish refugees to remain. 

Condition of Refugees 

May. Warsaw: Exiles received amount to 140,000. — ^Mogilnica: 
5000 exiled. — Kovno: 20,000 exiled. — ^Vilna received 200,000 Jews 
from Kovno and Courland. — Riga: 30,000 Jews camp in the streets. 
— June 11. Government arranges an inter-departmental conference 
on problem of settlement of exiles heretofore permitted to reside 
in Pale. — ^July 2. Makov, Prosnitz, and Ostrolenka Jews, who fled 
to Minsk, are expelled from there. — 9. Anti-Tuberculosis League, 
the Vilna branch of the Municipal Union, and the Municipality of 
Poltava petition Government to permit Jewish exiles to settle out- 
side the Pale, in order to prevent overcrowding and epidemics. — 
Minsk: Governor orders Jewish refugees to remove inland. — 30. 
Tambov, Voronezh and Penza, thrown open to Jewish exiles. — 
August 6. Kiev: Kievlianin announces intention of Government 
to repatriate Galician exiles transported to Russia. — 19. Naval com- 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 191 

mander of the Reval district issues order that Jews who fled from 
the theater of war he not permitted to come to this district — 
Volhynia: Two hundred and fifty thonsand refugees located here. 
Feeding stations established. Concentration camps organized, 
and refugees distributed on lands vacated by German colonists 
who are being expelled. — Moscow: Jewish Relief Society in- 
formed that Jewish refugees who come from Moghilev have been 
expelled from there and sent to Penza. — ^Moscow: In last few days 
three hundred Jewish refugees have been given quarters by the 
City Board. — 23. Vilna: Small towns in vicinity so overcrowded 
with refugees that many had to live in barns, stables, and in open. 
Near Zhosll many lived in woods, and local population called them 
" Waldmenschen." — Ufa Committee of Union of Cities decides 
to complain to governor against Evashenko, a police official, for 
not permitting Jewish Relief Committee to feed refugees who 
stopped at station en route to destination. — Petrograd: Convention 
of delegates of Jewish Relief Committees for War Sufferers. Com- 
mission appointed to consider details of co-operation with Jewish 
Relief Committee of Petrograd. Penza delegates report that twelve 
thousand Jewish refugees gathered, and that six thousand will 
have to be removed soon. — Director of Police Department orders 
that Jewish refugees who were working in factories in province 
of Ekaterinoslav are not to be disturbed by local authorities. Dep- 
uty A. M. Alexandrov receives telegram stating that Metlenko, 
local chief of police, has issued order that Jewish refugees be not 
accepted in factories, especially the Bryansk pipe works. — 27. 
Petrograd, Moscow, and Vilna: Jewish committees appeal to Minis- 
try to assign new centers for acconmiodation of Jewish refugees. 
Minsk and Pinsk officially declared overcrowded. Moscow commit- 
tee suggests the provinces ot Orel and Smolensk be opened to Jews, 
and mayor of Petrograd asks Ministry to permit Jewish war refu- 
gees to settle in the capital. — Czar confirms decision of Ministry not 
to entrust feeding and settlement of Jewish exiles to private organ- 
izations only. Two official departments guided by prince Urusov 
and M. Zubtchaninov, of Upper House, entrusted with the task. — 
Minister of Interior decides to invite a Jew to act as adviser to 
new department to deal with settlement of exiles. Government 
allocates large funds to the department and Duma proposes to vote 
twenty-five million roubles ($12,500,000) for benefit of refugees. — 
At meeting of Duma Committee, deputy Friedman protests to 
Minister of Interior against restrictions of residence imposed on 
exiles. Minister replies that he is anxious to avoid raising Jewish 
question at present Juncture, and that to allow the Jewish exiles 
to settle anywhere might result in persecution in some localities. — 
Order issued that all Jewish refugees from northwestern war zone, 
who fied to Kiev military district, be sent to Penza and Tambov. 
Kiev Jewish Relief Committee telegraphs petitions to have this 



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192 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



decree, affecting ten thousand Jewish refugees in Tchemigov 
alone, revoked. — Ministry instructs governors of provinces near 
war zone to ask all Jews to hold themselves in readiness to 
evacuate their homes on short notice. — 31. Kiev: Minister of 
Interior orders expulsion of all Jews who previously lived in 
Galicia and are Austrian subjects; these Jews are to be turned 
over to custody of governor of Tarnopol. — September 1. Elizabeth- 
grad: Nine hundred and eighty-five persons sent here by Vilna 
Jewish Committee. — Merechi: Refugees forced to leave* within 
twenty-four hours; about eight hundred persons distributed in sur- 
rounding villages. — ^Mariupol: Jewish refugees sent on to Tambov. 
2. Prince Urusov notifies railroads that refugees, Jews not ex- 
cepted, should be transported gratis, provided they present certifi- 
cates from local administration or from district committees. — 
Transportation of Jews by freight papers (bills of lading) abol- 
ished. — Prince Urusov, envoy of Red Cross in charge of distribution 
of refugees, telegraphs Governor of Kherson that, as Jews have 
been permitted to reside beyond Pale, it is now necessary to direct 
district committees to send Jews to places where they were unable 
to settle before. — Petition of Provincial Committee for Refugees 
that exiles be permitted to occupy empty wine shops refused by 
chief of Internal Revenue "in view of accumulation of large 
quantities of spirits in wine depdts." — ^Provincial Committee for 
Refugees of opinion it would be possible to place in Kherson six 
hundred and fifty thousand refugees, counting only one refugee on 
each peasant holding. — Minsk: City Council decides to rid town 
of the twenty thousand refugees, most of them Jews. — ^Penza: 
Nine thousand five hundred refugees reported living in most un- 
satisfactory state. — 3. Petrograd: One thousand Jewish refugees 
from Riga given permission to settle and remain during the war. — 
Kiev: Conference of Committees of all nationalities asks Govern- 
ment to admit children of Jewish refugees to schools without 
restrictions, and to allow some forests to be cut down for the 
purpose of erecting barracks to accommodate the Jews who are now 
shelterless. — Irkutsk (Siberia): Jews of Bielistok expelled in 
large numbers. — 6. Petrograd: Mayor petitions Assistant Min- 
ister of Interior to remove restrictions on residence of Jewish 
refugees. Assistant Minister declines to do more than to permit 
refugees to stay for short period while in transit to other cities. — 
17. Ufa and Troitzk: Jews protest against the authorities, who 
did not permit them to feed the Jewish exiles at the local stations. 
— 24. Authorities place passenger trains at disposal of Jews flee- 
ing inland. — October 1. Vilna: Many Jews leave. Only fifteen of 
eighty Jewish physicians and only one of eleven Jewish municipal 
workers remain in the city. — Moscow: Jewish Community receives 
news from Dvinsk (Diinaburg) that twenty-eight thousand Jewish 
fugitives are on way to Moscow. — 7. Reported that up to August 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 193 

1, town of Vitebsk received forty thousand Jewish fugitives from 
Vilna, Dvinsk (Dunaburg), Riga, Jacobstadt, and other evacuated 
towns in the war zone.— Blelistok: Jews transported to Irkutsk.— 
Smolensk: Twelve thousand Jews homeless. — 8. Baranovltchi : 
Communities of Jewish townlets in vicinity, flee eastward for 
safety. — Dvinsk: Twenty-eight thousand Jewish refugees moved 
to interior provinces. — Zhitomir: Large groups of Jewish refugees 
arrive from districts of Rovno, Dubno, Kremenetz, and Novgorod- 
vohlynsk. — 14. Poltava: Governor orders twelve thousand Jew- 
ish refugees to leave government. — Tambov: Jewish refugees 
compelled to leave. — 15. Kiev: Governor issues instructions 
not to expel from the city any Jewish refugees who settled there 
previous to publication of order prohibiting non-privileged Jews 
to remain. — Moscow: Cabinet, in reply to petition of Jewish 
community, permits Jewish refugees to remain in province. — 
22. Tambov: Jews ordered to leave. — ^Poltava: Jewish refugees 
ordered to leave in five days.— 29. Setzinsk: Central Jewish 
Relief Committee informed that railway authorities destroyed food 
brought by local Jews to refugees at station. — ^Minsk: Jewish 
refugees arrive in large numbers from Volozin, Mir, Nesviz, 
Lebedevo, Korelitz and Novogrudok. — November 1. Conference 
of Jewish War Relief Committee adopts resolution that the work 
of transplanting fugitives must be carried out in accordance with 
economic as well as with national cultural requirements of the 
Jews. — ^Moscow: Police ordered to expel all Jewish refugees who 
are dentists, druggists, and midwives, and who are unable to 
secure regular occupation within two weeks. — ^Rostov-on-the-Don : 
Fugitives of this category permitted to remain, although Don 
district has been excluded from the general extension of right of 
domicile of Jews. — 5. Baku: Jews appeal to new Viceroy to allow 
refugees to settle there. — 12. Minsk: Authorities resolve to trans- 
port eighteen thousand Jewish refugees to interior provinces. — 
Belotzerkov (near Kiev) : Notice given to large number of Jewish 
refugees to prepare to move to the central provinces. — 26. Kiev: 
Conference of municipal representatives in South Russia decides 
to recommend to Government that Jewish fugitives be permitted to 
reside in villages. — December 3. Poltava: Order to transfer Jew- 
ish refugees into interior cancelled. — Moscow: American Consul 
appeals to Governor of Kazan to accommodate there the Galician 
Jewish hostages excluded from Nizhni-Novgorod, though they were 
sent there by the authorities of Kiev. — 10. Berditchev: Jewish 
refugees settled here transported to Orel. — 17. Ministry orders 
Governors to discontinue practice of transporting to other 
provinces refugees settled in their districts. — Nizhni-Novgorod: 
Jewish committees and Zemstvos appeal to Ministry to accommo- 
date Jews recently transported from Minsk at Tula and Razan on 
account of congestion in Nizhni-Novgorod. — Tchelabinsk (Siberia) : 



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194 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Arrival of hundreds of carriages with refugees. — 24. Warsaw: 
Return of Jewish refugees to neighboring townlets is proceeding 
satisfactorily. Refugees receive small subsidy to help them to 
re-settle. Eight thousand Jewish families must remain tempor- 
arily in Warsaw. — ^Jewish refugees in Narva» Yamburg, Lutsk 
and Gdovsk districts (near Petrograd) ordered to leave. — ^Januabt 
14. Moscow: Orders issued not to permit more Jewish refugees 
to remain there unless possessing right of residence. — BSniseisk and 
Narim (Siberia) : Jewish refugees suffer from cold and starvation, 
though assisted for a time by peasants. — 20. Telegram of Staff of 
30th Army Corps Commander orders annulment of forcible re- 
moval of inhabitants before the retreat; fugitives who voluntarily 
come from Galicia and frontier inhabitants shall be deported to 
eastern districts of Grovernments of Volhynia and Podolia, but 
Galician Jews are not permitted in these domains, and those al- 
ready there must be expelled. — ^Jewish Relief Committee in Russia 
reports that up to Nov., 1915, there were 65,624 registered Jewish 
fugitives settled in one hundred and forty-eight towns. These 
include Penza, 6500; Nizhni-Novgorod, 4300; Kharkov, 2117; 
Samara, 2000; Tambov, 1997; Astrakhan, 1518; Taritzin, 1500; 
Voronezh, 1400; Perm, 1250; Borisoglebsk, 1093; Yaroslav, 1030. — 
28. Minsk: Government suspends order for expulsion of Jewish 
refugees. One hundred and twenty-five of them receive permits to 
remain at Petrograd for six months. — ^Perm and Lutsk: Peti- 
tion of the Zemstvo, to allow Jews to settle in villages of the 
province, rejected. — Authorities reject petition of Galician Jewish 
hostages and exiles who asked to be repatriated, and resolve to 
deport them to Siberia. — ^Tamopol: Governor appeals for urgent 
help to maintain two thousand three hundred and thirty-seven 
utterly destitute Jewish exiles in city. — Pebbuaby 2. Reported 
that seven hundred Galician Jews are transported in sealed cars 
from Kiev to Siberia. Arrived at Moscow, train is sent back to 
Kiev, where new order is issued for Siberia. — 22. Vladivostok: 
Military Governor orders inunediate expulsion of Jews recently 
arrived in the city. — 28. Moscow: Jewish Society for Relief of 
Victims of War submits report showing it had located and 
registered two hundred and ninety-eight thousand two hundred 
Jewish refugees. — 29. Minsk: Transportation of fugitives begins. 
Two thousand to be distributed over Bobrinsk, Borissov and 
Retschiza. — Mabgh 5. Volhynia: Reported that two thousand 
three hundred Jews are being sent to Kursk. Moscow Jewish 
Committee submits petition praying that this be discontinued. — 
Moscow: Jewish Committee petitions that Jews be not sent from 
Murom, Government of Vladimir, as there is a Jewish community 
there. — 12. Dvinsk: Transportation of Jewish refugees, number- 
ing 5500 persons, announced by administration. The Special 
Committee on refugees at suggestion of M. Sliosberg petitions for 



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EVENTS IN 6676— RUSSIA 195 



postponement — 17. Volhynia: Twenty^ree thousand Jewish 
refugees transplanted to province of Kursk. — 24. Moscow Jewish 
community appeals to Govemment not to transport two thousand 
three hundred Jewish refugees from Volhsmia to Kursk, and not to 
transfer all Jewish refugees at Murom (Vladimir) to another place. 
— 31. Upon request of Jewish Community of Kiev, transportation 
of one hundred and fifty Jewish families of Volhynian refugees 
is cancelled. — Attempt of leaders of Right to oust representatives 
of non-Russian nationalities from State Commission dealing with 
the refugees fails. — Afbil 7. Satanov» Podolia: Military author- 
ities permit all Jews transported last year to return home. — 
Volhynia: Following upon petitions of Jews» all expulsion orders 
issued to Jewish refugees are cancelled. — 14. Petrograd: Jewish 
Committee appeals to Government to postpone the transportation 
of Jews from the Volozin district, as well as five thousand five 
hundred Jewish refugees from Dvinsk. — ^Berditchev: Fifty ex- 
pelled Jews permitted to return. 

Relief Work 

June 4. Satanov: Russian authorities permit Jews to ap- 
propriate three thousand roubles ($1500) from the meat tax which 
Austrian authorities promise to distribute among prisoners 
interned in Tyrol. — Warsaw: Representatives of the All-Russian 
Union of Towns, after inquiry into pitiful condition of the Jewish 
refugees, resolve to open a number of free restaurants for their 
benefit — 10. Vilna: Committee receives twenty thousand roubles 
($10,000). — ^Warsaw: Monthly appropriation increased to fifty-five 
thousand roubles ($27,600). — Grand duchess Tatiana, daughter of 
Czar, leads relief committee in three day collection. Jewish com- 
munal leaders issue appeal to all Jews to contribute freely to this 
committee which has always shown willingness not to discriminate 
against Jews. — 26. Cabinet grants 600,000 roubles ($260,000) to 
Petrograd Committee in aid of Jewish war sufferers. — ^July 2. 
Warsaw: Jews impose tax on themselves for upkeep of 140,000 
Jewish refugees, as Petrograd Relief Committee must devote its 
resources to new sufferers of Kovno and Courland.-^Petrograd and 
Moscow: Russian notables secure co-operation of many deputies, 
professors, and authors for purpose of equipping and maintaining 
medical centers in Pale. Jewish conmiittees resolve to invite 
all Jews to contribute five per cent of their incomes to relief 
fund. — 9. Meeting of Society for Helping Poor Jewish Sufferers 
from the War. It proposes to send supplies to places of greatest 
congestion and to open branches of the Society to consolidate local 
workers for organization of various kinds of aid to Jewish exiles. — 
23. Kiev: M. Halpem gives one hundred and fifty thousand 
roubles ($76,000), and promises ten thousand roubles ($6000) a 



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196 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



month for upkeep of new section of Red Cross Society. — 30. Mog- 
hilev: Exiles receive maintenance allowance from the State in 
accordance with ministerial instructions. — August 13. Goyem- 
ment permits use of proceeds of meat tax for assistance of Jewish 
fugitiyes. — Lodz: Jews subscribe forty per cent of five million 
municipal loan in aid of local sufferers, and only receive ten per 
cent of the free bread tickets, despite fact that Jews number more 
than one-third of the population. — ^Kiev: M. Brodsky gives one 
million roubles (|500,000) to Committee for Mobilization of Com- 
merce and Trade. — 22. Committee of Russians (non-Jews) for 
Relief of Jewish Sufferers from the War meets with sympathy of 
all classes. Russian Bank of Foreign Commerce donates one 
thousand roubles (|500), Commercial Bank of Petrograd donates 
five hundred roubles (|250). — Orlov: Governor informs Moscow 
Jewish Relief Society that he cannot grant its request that 
druggist Karabovsky be permitted to collect things and money in 
Sevsk because frequent collections are being made for local needs 
and for the aid of sick and wounded soldiers, and the families of 
those in army. — Septembeb. Warsaw: Account of Central 
Citizens* Committee at time of dissolution by German Government 
shows that of eleven million roubles (15,500,000) distributed, Jews, 
who form a sixth of population of Poland, were allowed scarcely 
one hundred thousand roubles (|50,000). In Bisposing of balance 
of one million two hundred and ninety thousand roubles ($645,- 
000), the Liquidation Commission allotted six million roubles 
($3,000,000) to the Catholic archbishop of Warsaw, three hun- 
dred thousand roubles ($150,000) to Polish schools, and rest for 
other Polish purposes; the three hundred thousand Jews of War- 
saw received nothing, though in desperate need. — 3. Special relief 
department established to assist refugees and exiles; two Jews 
appointed members. — 3-6. Petrograd: Jewish War Relief Com- 
mittee adopts resolution that as Jewish philanthropic and social 
institutions are not in position to give adequate help to the Jewish 
fugitives and exiles, this duty must devolve upon the Government. 
The monies collected by the Jewish relief committees should be 
devoted to satisfying the national and cultural needs of the 
fugitives. — 6. Minsk: Jewish Committee secures work for two 
hundred and fifty-one of five hundred refugees from Vilna. Store 
clerks and trades-people Impose on themselves tax of five per cent 
of their earnings for benefit of refugees. Merchants refuse to tax 
themselves or to attend meetings. — Moscow: Of twenty-three 
thousand six hundred and forty-four roubles ($11,822) collected 
in two days, Jews receive ten per cent instead of nothing, as at 
first intended. — 10. Cabinet for benefit of Jews supplements gift 
by five hundred thousand roubles ($250,000). — 17. Cabinet votes 
one million roubles ($500,000) in aid of Jewish war sufferers. 
Fund of the grand duchess Tatiana grants one hundred thousand 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 197 

roubles ($50,000). — 24. Petrograd: Conference of Jewish com- 
munities, participated in by one hundred and seventy delegates, to 
devise ways of assisting the refugees, announces that two and one- 
half million roubles ($1,250,000) reached Petrograd for Russo- 
Polish Jews. ^ Conference expresses view that all Russian Jews 
must impose a tax on themselves in aid of the sufferers, and that 
the State must come to the assistance of Jewish refugees. — 
November 5. Warsaw: Jewish community and press protest 
against manner in which one million two hundred and ninety 
thousand roubles ($645,000) were disposed of by the Central 
Polish Relief Committee. Germans recently dissolved the Com- 
mittee, which placed its funds at disposal of Catholic organizations 
only, despite great need among the Jews. — December 31. Petro- 
grad: Government grants for clothes and boots for refugees, one 
million roubles ($500,000) instead of 1,300,000 roubles requested by 
Central Jewish Committee. — January 4. Swiss Relief Committee 
forwards ten thousand roubles ($5000) for Jewish victims of war in 
Poland. — 7. Moscow: Council of the Moscow Jewish Committee 
for the Relief of the War Victims adopts resolution that in view of 
the fact that it has been proved that members of English Mission- 
ary Societies are pursuing missionary aims under the guise of dis- 
tribution of help, the Council regards it as imperative not to receive 
any further donations from them, and to return to them all gifts 
that have been accepted. — 13. Warsaw: Conference of American 
Section of Jewish Relief Committee and Communities Commission 
for purpose of concerting measures of relief and alloting grants; 
Americans at Conference, Messrs. E. W. Lewin-Epstein and Hersh- 
fleld. — Society for Relief of War-Distressed Jews requests Public 
Worh;s Section of Warsaw Citizens' Committee to employ war- 
distressed Jews in agriculture to a greater extent than before. 
Commission for Cultivation of New Land requested to engage un- 
employed Jews. Society to purchase land in vicinity of Warsaw. — 
14. Tambov: Jewish refugees receive weekly stipend from Gov- 
ernment treasury. — 21. Tambov: Ministry orders authorities to 
provide all needy Jewish refugees with same State allowance as 
given to Christian refugees. — Fund of grand duchess Tatiana 
votes another fifty-five thousand roubles ($27,500) in aid of dis- 
tressed Jews. — 28. Warsaw: Archbishop hands to Lodz Jewish 
committee ten thousand roubles ($5000) as part of funds originally 
held by Warsaw Citizens' Relief Committee. — Penza: Government 
officials establish asylum for children of Jewish refugees.— 
Moscow: Jewish Committee informed that Jewish refugees are 
permitted to settle in many villages of Nizhni-Novgorod; that 
Christian population provides clothes, food, and shelter; and thai 
committees, headed by priests and teachers, are to give them 
regular assistance. — Ekaterinoslav: All nationalities join provld 
ing for refugees, without distinction of race or creed. Jews 



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198 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



relieved of anxiety caused by governor's threat to expel all Jewish 
refugees for whom no provision is made. — Febbuabt 8. Petrograd: 
At second meeting of Central Committee of Jewish War Relief 
Organization, Sliosberg reports that Government will grant 
Relief Organization fifteen roubles (17.60) per head for sixty 
per cent of needy fugitives in its care for clothing. Wants of 
remaining forty per cent must be met by Jewish Relief Organiza- 
tion. Central Committee recommends that all district and local 
committees keep accurate list of Jews in need of clothing, and 
collect, buy, or manufacture necessary articles. — 15. Vronsk, 
Kursk, Voronezh, Rasan, Kozlov, Vladimir, and Tambov: Jewish 
Loan Societies organized by the Jewish Relief Organization. Petro- 
grad to create central institute to organize and finance these loan 
societies, now subsidized by private persons and by the Central 
Committee of the ICA. — Minsk: Conference of Jewish War Relief 
Committees, under presidency of O. Lunz, reports that there are 
in Minsk about fifteen thousand refugees; collection raised by local 
committee realizes eighty-six thousand roubles ($43,000). Resolu- 
tions adopted: (1) The Relief Committee, which must be elected 
by the broad masses of the people, shall take in hand all Jewish 
national affairs; (2) in the near future a Congress of the Jews of 
the entire Russian Empire shall be convened upon a democratic 
basis to elect a legal representative council of the Jewish people in 
Russia, which shall, at this grave moment, undertake the leader- 
ship of Jewish national life in Russia. — ^25. Government an- 
nounces that Galician Jews who have been transported to Russia 
are entitled only to State allowance made to prisoners of war, 
and cannot receive support from Jewish aid committees. — ^Mabch 
24. Skieriewice, Sochaczev, Lowicz, Lodz, and Kalish: Commis- 
sion for Relief of War-Distressed Jews opens bureaus of com- 
munication between Jews of these places and their relatives in 
America, upon the model of the Bureau in Warsaw. — 27. Tambov: 
Governor receives telegram from Plehve, Assistant Minister of In- 
terior, stating that in view of question raised by the Borisoglebsk 
Committee for Relief of Refugees, Jewish refugees must be given 
Government relief on equal terms with the needy refugees of other 
nationalities. — April 7. Cabinet approves Bill for State assistance 
to refugees, which recognizes Central Jewish Committee in Aid of 
the War Sufferers as a fit agency for administering relief to the 
Jewish refugees. — Odessa: Nearly fourteen thousand Jewish 
families appeal to communal authorities for urgent help in con- 
nection with the Passover. — 21. Petrograd: Ministerial Commis- 
sion votes two million roubles ($1,000,000) for Jewish refugees. 

Miscellaneous 

May 25. Protest sent to Minister of War against attempt to 
create ritual murder agitation by sending to troops in Poland 
Easter eggs adorned with a caricature and a Polish inscription 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 199 

inciting the soldiers to violence. — 31. Warsaw: Notice signed by 
station master, posted in station, states that by order of military 
authorities Jews are forbidden to travel from the right bank of the 
Vistula through Ivangorod, or from other provinces beyond the 
Vistula, toward Radom. Sale of tickets to Jews stopped. — June 4. 
Petrograd: Bourse Gazette prints statement about Jewish soldier 
Ginzburg, who despite torture by the Germans, which totally 
disabled him, refused to give them information, and later escaped 
to Russian lines. — Snekshni: Germans desecrate synagogue by 
slaughter of swine. Atrocities committeed on Jewesses. — Gold- 
ingen: Jews publicly flogged by German invaders for concealing 
their goods. — 11. Weiselberg, former mayor of Czernowitz, and 

Lazarus, noted attorney, after several months' detention 

in Kiev, pending negotiations for exchange of prisoners, are sent 
to Siberia, for refusing to give names of prominent men. — 18. 
Military authorities receive special order to send Jewish military 
physicians to such places where there can be no danger of their 
spreading revolutionary ideas. — ^Jacobstadt (Courland) : Au- 
thorities stop anti-Jewish agitation. — Ministry permits wounded 
Jewish soldiers discharged from military hospitals to stay for a 
period not exceeding two months in the Jewish convalescent home 
at Petrograd, if, in opinion of medical authorities, further treat- 
ment is necessary. — Yusefov: Five Jews, who volunteered to save 
the Sefarim during the battle, perished in the attempt. — July 2. 
Warsaw: German governor informs rabbis of town that Jews, 
who came to town from districts now occupied by the Germans, 
will be permitted to remain, but fugitives from other districts may 
be compelled to leave city. — Romanov Committee decides that 
children of Jewish soldiers killed or wounded in war may be 
admitted to agricultural colonies. — 19. Moscow: Society for 
Mutual Aid of Jewish Pharmacists, newly formed, offers its aid to 
chairman of Military Industrial Committee. — 23. Slavianoserbsk 
district: Prince of Oldenburg asks authorities not to send a Jew ex- 
pelled from war zone there on ground that it is already overcrowded 
with Jews. — 25. Bishop Nikon states that the only way to make 
the war popular is to stop insulting non-Russian nationalities of 
Russia. — 30. Moscow: During anti-German riots mob demands 
that Jews with German names prove their Russian nationality; on 
presentation of proof rioters leave Jews unmolested. — August 6. 
Libau: Invaders confiscate huge timber stock worth one million 
roubles ($500,000) belonging to firm of Katzenelsohn. — Germans 
search Jewish cemeteries for copper articles. — German authorities 
close synagogues because crown rabbi refused to direct community 
to eliminate prayers for the Czar and the Russian imperial 
family. Rabbi and some notables arrested, but subsequently 
released. — Odessa: Jewish exiles from Kovno and Courland per- 
mitted to work in the fields, provided they remain four miles from 



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200 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

the sea. — 10. Council of Ministers issues order, approved by Czar, 
admitting to all institutions of learning, without distincticm of 
nationality or religion, without competition, and without regard 
to other existing limitations, the children of persons serving in the 
army, and of those who were discharged from the army on account 
of wounds or sickness. — 16. Deputy Friedman petitions Prince 
Shcherbatov, Minister of Interior, to grant unrestricted right of 
residence to wounded soldier, Emanuel Aaronsberg, who is in Riga 
Military Hospital, and who had come from America, where he had 
all rights, to enter the army. — 20. The Bund issues appeal to 
friends in neutral lands and in countries of the Allies detailing in- 
dictment of corruption and incompetence of the Russian bureau- 
cracy; gives details of connivance of police and military authorities 
against the Jews. — ^Windau (Courland) : Germans appoint a Jew as 
police inspector. — 22. Count A. Bobrinsky, Conservative member of 
Imperial Council, declares that the necessities of war must lead 
us to sanction future concessions to the Jews whenever the need 
thereof will be recognized by the (Government, in order to be able 
to place a (Government loan in America. — Septembeb 2. Children 
of Jewish pharmacists, serving in connection with war, permitted 
to enter educational institutions regardless of percentage norm. — 
3. Minsk: Jews decide to work on the Sabbath in (Government 
ammunition factories, regarding work of vital importance to wel- 
fare of land. — Moscow: M. Giinzburg publicly denies at conference 
the assertion of anti-Semites that there is any ill-feeling among 
Russian Jews against their country, and appeals to all to help 
the Jews to gain their freedom. — Czar confirms Cabinet's decision 
to admit to the Universities above the percentage norm all Jewish 
students who took part in the war and children of Jews at the 
front, and extends the privilege to all secondary schools. In addi- 
tion, children of Jews serving under Ministry of Education (e, (jr., 
teachers and medical oflQcers attached to (Government schools) will 
be admitted above the norm to educational institutions. — Lida, 
Telzhi, and Lomzha: Yeshiboth closed on account of war. — 5. 
Russian hostages from Galicia and other Austrian districts trans- 
ported from Kiev to Siberia and Turkestan, particularly to city 
of Samarkand. — 6. Warsaw: (Germans reopen court, and appoint 
Jews as well as Poles judges from local jury. — (German au- 
thorities permit use of Polish, German, and Yiddish on all in- 
scriptions placed in streets or private schools, and signs of law- 
yers, physicians, dentists, and midwives. — 10. (Government re- 
leases most of four hundred Jewish hostages taken during earlier 
part of campaign in Poland. — Lodz: German military governor 
issues proclamation forbidding use of other languages than 
(German, Polish, and Yiddish. — 13. Reval: Jews prefer to leave 
the town rather than give hostages. Agitation due to report that 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 201 



Jews hid money In the synagogues. — 17. Warsaw: Germans 
arrest several leading Jews for manifesting pro-Russian sympa- 
thies. — 22. In Warsaw and other Polish cities Jews are ill-treated 
by civilian militia. Jewish bakers deprived of bread, which is 
given to Polish bakeries and sold in Polish shops, while Polish shop- 
keepers openly refuse to sell Jews anything. — 24. Vilna: Five 
hundred Jews, headed by eight Jewish sub-inspectors, enlist in 
militia. — October 1. Petrograd: Jews under arrest released, in 
order that they might participate in the festival services. — 8. 
Minsk: In view of great distress, rabbis give permission to 
bakers and tradesmen to bake bread and sell food on the Sabbath 
and holy days. — 16. Warsaw: General Beseler, German governor- 
general, in conversation with Polish leader, prince Lubomirsky, 
declares that Germany could easily come to terms with the Poles, 
but that its real enemies are the Russians and the Jews. Jews 
subject to the same restrictions as Russians with regard to leaving 
Poland. — 22. Petrikov, Kielce, and Lublin (Russian Poland under 
Austrian occupation) : Jews badly treated; compelled to work at 
construction of trenches and as scavengers; not permitted to ob- 
serve Sabbath and holy days. Earlier restrictions imposed on 
Jews maintained with great severity. Tobacco monopoly intro- 
duced, depriving thousands of Jews of means of livelihood. War 
taxes levied on Jews in places occupied by Austria to amount of 
three thousand crowns per head. Polish civil officials announce 
that even after war everything will remain unchanged as far as 
Jews are concerned. — Minsk: Governor grants petition and ex- 
empts Jewish ecclesiastical authorities from military field work. 
— Deputy Friedman receives reports of release of Jewish hostages 
at Chernigov, Kherson, and Rovno. — 29. Deputies Friedman and 
Bomash appeal to Ministry of Education to admit Jewish students 
called to active service to enter the Officers' Training Corps. 
Ministry of War states that, inasmuch as Jewish students could 
not become officers, and as there is no necessity for them to join 
as privates, they would not be called to the colors (Dec. 3). — 
November 5. School board appointed in Russian Poland now 
under German Rule, consisting of two Catholics, two Jews, and one 
Protestant. — ^Zhitomir: Governor declares that military authori- 
ties must employ Jews in erection of earthworks. — Vilna: Ger- 
mans compel Jews to trade on the Sabbath. — Government appoints 
a commission to consider advisability of releasing hostages taken 
at Lemberg, also to consider petitions of about one thousand 
Galician Jews transported to Nizhni-Novgorod and Perm, praying 
for release and repatriation. — Ministry of War requests Holy 
Synod for opinion on question of promotion of Jews to commis- 
sioned officers. Missionary Council informs Ministry that such 
promotion was undesirable, as Jews would not be able to partici- 



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202 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

pate in church parades. — 12. Lodz: Jewish community object to 
order to use German as the vernacular in Jewish schools, while 
Poles are permitted to use Polish. — Government announces that it 
cannot undertake at present to repatriate the Galician Jewish 
hostages in Russia. — 16. Commission of the Warsaw Jewish 
Community reports decrease In population at Sosnowice, 17,000 to 
13,000; Bendin 30,000 to 18,000; Petrikov Jews total 15,000.— 
Radom, twenty towns wiped out of existence. — 18. Pinsk and 
Vengrovo: German administration appoints Jews as mayors. — 
Leading representatives of German commercial interests, the 
Handelsvertragsverein, the Exportverein, and the Hansabund, in 
memoir to the Chancellor, recommend that in peace treaty the full 
equality of foreign Jews in Russia must be guaranteed. — 25. Mos- 
cow: Jewish community petitions Government to allow Galician 
Jewish hostages to earn a livelihood, so that they may not become 
a burden upon the poor communities. — 26. Warsaw: German 
governor revokes decree compelling the Jews to keep places of 
business open on the Sabbath. — December 3. Government releases 
Russo-Jewish hostages still in prison, as well as Jews exiled from 
the war zone to Siberia. — Pour hundred and twelve Jewish mili- 
tary nurses in the service. — Warsaw: German governor-general 
prohibits Polish Jews from holding conference on charitable and 
educational matters; forbids delivery of Yiddish lectures and 
opening of Jewish courses; orders Yiddish press to refrain from 
severe criticism of attitude of Poles. — 10. Moscow: American Con- 
sul appeals to Governor of Kaluga to release thirty Galician Jewish 
hostages imprisoned there. — ^Warsaw: Leiba Samerfeld, a Jew, 
executed by German authorities on charge of rendering assistance 
to Russian Army. — Petrograd: Christian students of University 
criticize Government action in refusing to admit Jewish students to 
the OflQcers' Training Corps. It is stated that " high spheres " 
object to the Ministerial Commission's decision not to summon 
Jewish students at all. Their opinion is that Jewish students 
should serve as privates. — Jews transferred by Germans from 
Korelitz to Novogrudok, and forced to work for the invaders. — 11. 
Ministry of War decides that Jews may not be admitted to the 
medical and artillery departments of war colleges. It also denies 
them admittance to schools of Empress Mary. — 17. Kherson: Czar 
receives deputation of Jews, who present him with five thousand 
roubles ($2500) for war purposes. — 31. Sukov (Siedlece): As 
result of representations made by leaders of citizens' militia, 
German authorities dismiss anti-Jewish agitators from the force, 
and Jews are appointed to patrol Jewish quarter. — Januaby 7. 
Warsaw: German military administration legalizes establish- 
ment of Zionist organizations in Polish provinces, and permits 
convening of Conference of Jews of Polish provinces to discuss 
improvement of their economic and cultural conditions. — 13. 



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EVENTS IN 6676— RUSSIA 203 

Praga (suburb of Warsaw) : German authorities permit resump- 
tion of activities of Jewish Literary Society suppressed by Rus- 
sians. — 14. Jewish students protest against decision of Ministry of 
War not to call them to the colors in view of fact they are ineligible 
for appointment as officers. — 20. Russian Consuls abroad inform 
Jewish medical students who have graduated at foreign Universi- 
ties as physicians, that upon return to Russia they will be 
admitted to medical posts in army. This proves false, as physi- 
sians who qualified abroad have been sent to the front as ordinary 
soldiers. Only Jews who presented themselves for examination 
in Russia can act as army physicians. — 21. Petrikov: Solomon 
Friedberg appointed by German commander, general Schneider, to 
be mayor. — 26. Kiev: Jews accused of hiding small coin; rabbi 
summoned before military authorities. — ^Februaby 2. Moscow: 
American consul addresses request to Russian governor-general 
of Galicia demanding release of men deported in November from 
Galicia and imprisoned. — Chief in command of provision and 
transport affairs of the southwestern front, in order to suppress 
criminal propaganda in military hospitals, prohibits admission 
of Jewish physicians and nurses in hospital trains and institutions 
connected therewith. — 8. Petrograd: Jewish community peti- 
tions Government to exempt Jewish rabbis from military service 
at the front. — ^Warsaw: German civil Government opens classes 
in Yiddish and Hebrew language for Jewish elementary school 
teachers. — 18. Eight Jews and two Jewesses tried for alleged 
attack on Polish militia. Seven sentenced to from four years 
to a few months* imprisonment; three acquitted. — 22. Minsk: 
Commander-in-chief of Russian Army issues special order for- 
bidding publication of Yiddish newspapers. — 25. Bielistok: 
German authorities issue an official gazette in Yiddish. — 27. All- 
Russian Union of Cities, which delayed execution of order to dis- 
miss all Jews from service at front, receives another order, and 
is compelled to comply. — ^Moscow: Bureau of United Technical 
Organizations sends to committee of the Zemstvo and City Unions 
memorandum to effect that report of engineer Pertzov states that 
admission of Jews to the engineering detachment is forbidden. 
The Council of the Members of the Bureau votes for the abolition 
of this restriction, and asks the chief committee to take necessary 
measures. This committee finds it necessary to petition the mili- 
tary authorities for maintenance of the former condition. — March 
5. German authorities of Warsaw governmental district, i. e., 
Lomzha, Plotzk, Kalish, Warsaw, parts of Siedlece and Petrikov, 
permit residents to communicate with relatives in America 
through Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of 
America. Letters may only contain the addresses and signatures 
and words: "We are all well, but in immediate need of money 
and aid. Please help us. We send hearty greetings," and the 



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204 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

notice of death of any member of the family. — 10. Vilna: Jewish 
population sends representatives to German governor to support 
general protest against imposition of a war tax. — Pinsk: Over 
ten thousand of the inhabitants transported by German authorities 
into interior of Poland on account of lack of food in the city. — 
Warsaw: German authorities invite three orthodox Jews in 
Berlin to reorganize the chedarim in Poland. — 17. Census shows 
Jewish population of Chenstokhovo 27,000 (formerly 12,000); 
Bendin, 49,000; Lodz, 220,000 (formerly 150,000).— 31. Czar ex- 
empts rabbis from military service; those already enlisted to be 
drafted into non-fighting units. — Apbil 21. Warsaw: €terman 
Government recognizes demand of nationalist Jews and forbids 
use of Polish in Jewish schools, where Yiddish only may be used. — 
Archduke Frederick receives deputation of Central Committee for 
Rights for Jews in Poland, which urges need for amelioration of 
cultural and political position of Polish Jews. The Archduke 
states that despite some protests the Austrians deviated from 
Hague Convention, and granted Jews equal rights, although they 
were bound to administer the Russian laws in the occupied 
territory. — ^Warsaw: Jewish Conference attended by advocates 
Bodenheimer and Friedman, and Prof. Sobernheim on behalf of 
German Jews, decides to demand for Jews in Poland cultural 
autonomy only, and to reject idea of a separate curia for Jews in 
the elections. All sections of conference except nationalists 
approve of program. — May 12. Moscow: At meeting of Union of 
Russian Cities prefect accuses Union of having employed a num- 
ber of Jews in order to enable them to evade military duty. — 19. 
General Shuvaiev, Minister of War, receives deputation pleading 
for confirmation of opinion of Ministry of Interior that spiritual 
rabbis (like crown rabbis) be exempted from military service. — 
21. M. Protopopov, vice-president of Duma, on visit to London, 
assures English press that after the war Jews will be granted equal 
rights in Russia, and that a commercial treaty between Russia 
and the United States will soon be negotiated. 

Decorations 

Order of St Ann: Leo Benyash, senior physician, field hospital; 
Abraham Chaskin, physician, field hospital ; Goda Edelman, senior 

regimental physician; S. M. B^umkin, senior physician; 

Levin; W. A. Munster; Dr. Shapira. — Order of St. Stanislaus: 

Abraham Chaskin, physician, field hospital; Moses Hyman Kreiz, 
senior regimental physician; David Tzivkin, junior regimental 
physician; Goda Edelman, senior regimental physician; G. S. 
Varshaver, physician; E. Shainman. — St. George Cross: Jacob 
Aisenberg; Laiba Akados; David Auerbach; Yefum Baran; Hersh 
Barbus; Aaron Barfeld; Ari Barovsky; Jacob Basielevitch ; Maisel 



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EVENTS IN 5676— RUSSIA 205 

Beryuk; Jacob Blyakher; Chanan Bc^atch; David Botch; Jona 
Bradsky; Yelizar Bradstein; Joseph Brilianshtchisk; L. Dubo- 
vitzky; Chain Fedarovitch; ZSalman Feibisovitch; Leva Feingar; 
Abram Fogel; Hirsh Fraindel; Aaron Freedman; Isaac Frenkel; 
Mendel Golubchik; Abram Gorodovsky; Isaac Gordinky; Jacob 
Garovitch; Jacob Garovsky; Chaim Geisman; Meyer Gildin; Mardko 
Gilshtein; Laizer Girshovitz; Moses Mendel Glickman; Hersh Go- 
lander; Abram Goldberg; Joseph €k)ldin; David Goldshmidt; Abram 
Goldstein; Laizer Gershovitz; Abram Graitel; Lazar Greenberg; 
Samuel Greenberg; Hersh Greenblat; Leo Gusenberg; Ruvin 
Guzeferitch; Avisa Elias Jakobson; Joseph Kagan, volunteer; 
Nachman Kagan; Boris Kaganovitch; Leo Kagarlitzky; Aaron 
Kalika; Michael Kan; Aaron Kanter; Grigor Kazhdan; Si- 
mon Khaderov; Joseph Khvashnyansky; Hyman Kon; Srul 
Korabko; Israel Kroshkin; Nuchim Kuralapark; Laibus Kurtz; 
Jacob Leederman; Hersh Leizerovitch ; Boris Lev; Laizer 
Levender; Chaim Leokovitz; Laivik Levitzky; Samuel Levy; 
Joseph Liberman; Abram Libner; Israel Linden; Samuel Lip- 
shitz, sub-officer; Israel Lipnlk; Rubin Lyasberg; Jacob Mogil- 
evsky; Isaac Maltwissky; Zion Mandel; Isaac Mestman; Carl 
Mikhel; Leo Milberg; Laibka Misser; Isaac Moigen; Zakhar Mor- 
genstern; Mayer Moshkovsky; Carl Mukhel; Wolf Narkin; Zal- 
man Novitzky; David Pabyak; Leo Palman; Vladimir Pasternak, 
sub-officer; Jacob Pomerantzer; Samuel Presnim; Isaac Rabino- 
vitch; Isaac Raichbaum; Isaac Moses Reznikov; Gadel Rosen; 
Isaac Rosenfeld; Yuda Rubin; David Rubinstein; Laiba RUdy; 
Elias Ryeznik, senior sub-officer; Jacob Sabovsky; Feivel Sandel; 
Nachman Sandler; Yosel Senderov; Abram'Shapiro; Aaron Shein- 
gart; Abram Shneider; Jacob Shpilberg; Isaac Shpirelman; 
Joseph Shpolyansky; Binim Shriber; Isaac Silin; Hyman Sklyar, 

senior sub-officer; Moisei Skudnitzky; Smuklyar; Baruch 

Snitko; Jacob Sukhonitzky; Pinas Svyatochevsky; Kalman Tafish; 
Alter Tenenbaum; Selig Teterevsky; Zelmon Tetzberg; Samuel 
Toffre; Abram Ulengaik; Solomon Valatzinsky; Solomon Van- 
yarsk; Eli Verbitzky; Semen Vilgelm; Movsha Vilken; Isaac Vol- 
yansky; David Vurtzel; Solomon Weismann; Salomon Yevzero- 
vitch; Jacob Zagoshtchinsky; Laiba Zhelyazo. — Cross: Benzion 
Eli Aksenfeldt; Moses Baradavsdz; Samuel Chasan; Germa Gaupt- 
man; Michel Kark; M. Levit; Isaiah Izrielevitch Riabakov; Boris 
Zingerman, senior sub-officer. In addition to the above decorations, 
the following honors, too numerous to mention by name of recip- 
ients, were received. The names are on file in the bureau of 
Statistics. Medals, 65; St. George medals, 74; silver medals on 
Stanislaus ribbon, 5; medals on St. George ribbon, 11; miscellan- 
eous, 7. 



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206 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Promotions 

Promoted sub-officer: M. I. Bloch; L. Dubovitzky; Michael 
Izretz; Boris Kaganovitch; Jacob Sabuvsky; Joseph Shpolyansky; 
Pinas Svyatochevsky. — Promoted corporal: Philip Bass; Valko 
Drin; Shulim Gutelischer; Isaiah Izrielevitch Riabakov; Kalman 
Kavensky; Samuel Kertzman; Froim Shterngamer; Movsha Zel- 
manov. 

SERVIA 
EUROPEAN WAR 

June 1. Belgrade: Publication of memorandum on distress of 
Serbian Jews. Communities on the Danube, Save, and Drina de- 
stroyed; thousands of Jews ruined and compelled to leave their 
hotoei^. — October 15. Belgrade: During bombardment, hundreds 
of Je^s juried under ruins of synagogue. — January 28. Belgrade: 
Nol^ a, hotfse in Jewish quarter remains. Large numbers of Jews 
c^irtgi^ate to. Greece. 

?';,; ,:,;;;';. •'; , spain 

A APPOINTMENT 

/^AH^DA, Abraham Shalom, Madrid, appointed ordinary profes- 
sor C'Catedratico numerario") of rabbinical literature in philo- 
sophical faculty pf th,e Central University, Dec. 7, 1915. 

■■■''■ ;. ^ ^ "•■-.'; '; '' ^SWEDEN 

< ^Af.lB4 Stoc^Jaolm: Ijeiague of representatives of non-Russian 
nattipnalities who are subjects of the Osar sends cablegram to 
P;reside^t Wilson a^ppealing tas asaiatanoe of American people in 
sifUiftg^e f^HT !5i^istei^ce» , -^ , i ,. -- . 

' ;■ '- ■-■: '- ■"" -N'EGROIiOaY "; ■/ ' ; 

Jj^jpziQE^ Habold, author, StockhoW, a^ 50, Jan,^!, 1916. 

••.•■;;''----"• SWITZEBLAND- ^^ •[/■' \\' =:\^^ 

.Sbftehbeb.3. Bemer Jevrtskstudets^ if roinir^ Russia, Roumttaitav 
and, pthpr parts of Bast JEttiroiwi,' iform org&nizB/tloh Jot' stiidy^ 6t 
.fe>yish history a,iid lit<8rat*ire, ^Jid for the advancement/ oi^tlse 
Zionist p^)vement.^jA?fT7ARy 21.. Russian studeM^. boycott. tH36i- 
fes^pr at Geneva ^nlversiity ,bQcause. he referred to i their J^wiah 
compatriots as traitors. : .m ; -, 



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EVENTS IN 5676— TUNIS 207 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Mamelok, Abthub, appointed chief magistrate of Zurich, Mch., 
1916. 

Reichenbach, M., St Gall, elected president of the Town Coun- 
cil, Dec, 1915. 

NECROLOGY 

Roth, M., professor of pathologic anatomy and history of medi- 
cine. University of Basle, June, 1915. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Masch 3. Geneva: Formation of Committee for relief of Jewish 
prisoners of war, under auspices of Jewish community, to render 
assistance to Jewish prisoners of war interned in Germany and 
Austria. — ^May 12. Pro Causa Judaica formed to take action in this 
and other neutral States in interest of Jews affected by the war. 

TRIPOLI 

September 13. Governor lieutenant-general Ameglio tells Fed- 
erico Ortono that he has affairs of Jewish community at heart, and 
that Jews would soon be accorded definite and dignified status. — 
October 15. Seventy thousand dollars bequeathed for benefit of 
poor Jews by late Eugenie J. Arbib of London. 



TUNIS 

October 1. Large Jewish emigration to Algeria, Morocco, and 
France is in progress. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Attia, Guiseppe, created Commander of Crown of Italy, Feb., 
1916. 

Cardoso, M., created Knight of Crown of Italy, Feb., 1916. 

Carl6, S., merchant, created Knight of Crown of Italy, Feb., 
1916. 

LuMBROso, EuQENio, Created Knight of Crown of Italy, Feb., 1916. 

MoRPUBOo, , president of Tunis section of Italian Red Cross, 

created Knight of Crown of Italy, Feb., 1916. 

NECROLOGY 
LuMBBOso, Giuseppe, linguist, aged 44, Jan., 1916. 



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308 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

TUEKEY 
I 

TURKEY (EXCEPT PALESTINE) 
GENERAL 

NovEMBEB 1. Organization of Ottoman Jewish Union to foster 
friendly relations between Jews of different countries and the 
Ottomans, and closer association of the Ottoman Jews with the 
other nationalities in Turkey. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Junk 18. Report from London, that Government has decided to 
prohibit Zionist activity. — July 9. Non-Mohammedan population 
expelled from several townlets near Constantinople. Property 
seized by the authorities. Police compel Jews to remove Hebrew 
sign boards at Constantinople. — ^November 19. Turkish Embassy 
in United States publishes announcement setting forth advantages 
offered to Jews, now refugees within its territory, who become 
Ottoman subjects: Access to Ottoman soil, acquisition of Ottoman 
nationality, and immunity, for a certain period, from payment of 
taxes and from military service. — ^Febbuabt 11. Bassorah (Persian 
Gulf) : English military governor obtains from chief rabbi a list 
of important Jewish holidays, and directs that Government offices 
be closed on these days. 

PALESTINE AND SYRIA 

GENERAL EVENTS AFFECTING JEWS 

JxjLY 2. Jerusalem: Dr. Bogratcheff, Director of the Jaffa 
Gymnasium, arrested for allowing a pupil to detain an Arab boy 
who had beaten a Jewish child. — December 24. London corre- 
spondent of New York Morning Journal reports that eight mem- 
bers of British Cabinet favor establishment of strong Jewish set- 
tlement in Palestine after the war. — 31. New railway line opened 
between Merhawiah and Beer-Sheba crosses the Jaifa-Jerusalem 
line at Lida, and passes Kastlnleh and Rechamah in South Judea, 
and Ben Shamen. — ^Januaey 10. Jerusalem: Nuri Bey, president 
of police, announces that the Committee for Charity and Labor 
(Vaad li-zedaka u-melacha), founded by the chief rabbi, has been 
given necessary authority by local Government to suppress mendi- 
cancy. Committee is to provide work for physically able and to 
give relief to those unable to work. — ^February 4. Petach Tikvah 
colony sells eucalyptus-trees to amount of twelve thousand francs 



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EVENTS IN 5676— PALESTINE AND SYRIA 209 

(12400), and the society " Pardes " sells 7000 trees for forty thou- 
sand and sixty francs (|8012) to railway company. — Apbil 7. 

• Wilbuschewitz assigned important military construction 

work in Damascus, by Djemal Pasha. — Mat 19. Jaffa: New 
Jewish hospital to be named after late Hermann MoscoTitz. 

EUROPEAN WAR 

June 11. Djemal Pasha examines reports of various Zionist 
congresses and other Zionist literature, and warns Jewish colon- 
ists that despite their success in the past the Government would 
in future make establishment of c<^onies more difficult — 14. 
Jewish families associated with Tel Abib, Mercaz Hamorim (the 
teachers' union), and other Zionist institutions, to be expelled, in 
spite of being Ottoman subjects. — 18. Odessa Choveve Zion Com- 
mittee issues appeal in behalf of Jewish colonists, intimating that 
relations between Turkish Government and Jews are not as good as 
before the war, and that colonists are in great distress. — Authori- 
ties decide that 55 per cent of food supplies sent from United 
States on the Vulcan be allowed to the Jews, remainder to Moham- 
medan and Christian population. — Djemal Pasha prohibits Jews to 
pray at the Wailing Wall, because their prayers include plea for 
the re-establishment of Jewish State. — July 4. Jerusalem: Evelina 
de Rothschild School controlled by local authorities during en- 
forced absence of Miss Landau, at Alexandria, on her refusal to 
become an Ottoman subject — 16. Application for naturalization 
of forty leading Jewish colonists rejected, with threat of deporta- 
tion if they do not emigrate voluntarily. — August 13. Djemal 
Pasha announces that the Government has become con- 
vinced of the necessity of destroying the entire Jewish 
colonization work in order that the colonies should not 
become a danger to the integrity of Turkey. — 20. Turkish 
authorities object to transfer of money from Alexandria 
to Palestinian Jews through medium of the American Cruiser, 
because in this manner Jews have advantage over Arabs; Ambas- 
sador Morgenthau succeeds in arranging matter favorably. — Sep- 
tember 3. Through efforts of officers of the Jewish Colonization 
Association, Paris Central Relief Committee is established for 
Jews of Palestine — November 2. Jaffa Hebrew weekly, Hapoel 
Hazair, reports that Djemal Pasha, commander of Turkish Army, 
orders barricade to be placed across approach to Wailing Wall, 
thus preventing Jews from visiting it Order said to be based on 
sanitary grounds. — March 3. Djemal Pasha offers to give Jews 
free access to Wailing Wall for from eighty thousand to one hun- 
dred thousand francs. — ^Jaffa: Dr. Thon takes over direction 
of Palestine Zionist Bureau and chairmanship of Amer'can Relief 
B\md, in place of Dr. Ruppin who is not an Ottoman subject. — 31. 
Drs. Ruppin, Bohm, and Thon and MM. Feldman and Ulitzky, 
accused of promoting sale of stamps of National Fund, acquitted.— 



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210 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

April 7. Djemal Pasha, military governor of Palestine, appoints 
Arthur Ruppin supervisor and controller of the commissary de- 
partment of the army in Jaffa. — May 22. Reported by Henry Mor- 
genthau, late American ambassador to Turkey, that he broached 
to Turkish Ministry subject of sale of Palestine to the Zionists 
after the war, and that Turkish Ministers heartily approved the 
project. 

APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Cohen, Mo^isE, appointed professor of finance at Ottoman Uni- 
versity, Constantinople, Dec. 10, 1915. 

MoBOENTHAU, Henbt, American ambassador, receives honorary 
degree of L*L. D. from University of Constantinople, June 11, 1915. 

ScHONMANN, Leo, Constantinople, appointed professor of public 
law at Ottoman University, Feb., 1916. 

NECROLOGY 

MoscoviTZ, Hermann, physician, member of Zionist first Actions 
Comity, Rechobot, aged 46, May, 1916. 

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS, AND ELECTIONS 

Alexander, Mobbis, Cape Town, re-elected member of South 
African Parliament, Oct, 1915. 

Bbndeb, A. P., rabbi. Cape Town, re-elected to School Board, Oct., 
1916. 

Bowman, Mascus, elected mayor of Koffyfontein, Orange Free 
State Province, May, 1916. 

GsAUMANN, Hakey, Johannesburg, elected member of South 
African Parliament, Oct., 1915; appointed Minister of Finance, Dec. 
24, 1915. 

Harris, Sir David, Kimberley, elected member of South African 
Parliament, Oct., 1915. 

Kentridge, Maurice, Durban, elected member of South African 
Parliament, Oct., 1915. 

Nathan, Emile, Johannesburg, elected member of South African 
Parliament, Oct., 1915. 

Robinson, C. P., Durban, elected member of South African Parlia- 
ment, Oct., 1915. 

Stodel, H., Cape Town, elected member of City Council, Oct., 
1915. 

NECROLOGY 

Solomon, A. M., lecturer on Jewish subjects. Cape Town, Jan., 
1916. 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED KINGDOM 211 



EUROPEAN WAR 

May 12. Johannesburg: Zionist Congress adopts resolutions to 
demand equal rights for Jews at time of peace negotiations, and a 
Jewish homeland in Palestine. Resolution also expresses loyalty 
and devotion of Jews to the British Empire. 



UNITED KINGDOM 



JEWISH COMMUNAL LIFE 

June 6. Manchester: United Synagogue adopts resolution that 
the final solution of the Jewish question will he facilitated by the 
formation of a Jewish political and spiritual center, preferably in 
Palestine, under the protection of the British flag. — Bradford: 
Thirty-eighth annual meeting of branch of the Anglo-Jewish Asso- 
ciation adopts resolutions: (1) that the situation of the Jews in 
belligerent countries is being carefully watched; (2) that adequate 
steps will be taken in conjunction with the Board of Deputies to 
endeavor at the proper time to secure for Jews in all countries 
equal rights with their fellow citizens; and (3) that they will 
consider any scheme of co-operation with other Jewish bodies on 
questions in which such bodies are specially interested. — ^Jult 23. 
Leopold de Rothschild elected president of London United Syna- 
gogue. — 30. Russo-Jewish Committee dissolves, and transfers 
funds to Board of Guardians. — ^August 20. Rev. Dr. Hockman re- 
signs as minister of the New West End Synagogue. — September 7. 
London : Committee composed of the Anglo-Jewish Association and 
the Board of Deputies takes steps to help Jews of Russia. — 17. Bris- 
tol: Trades' Union Congress adopts resolution presented by Amal- 
gamated Jewish Tailors, etc.. Union of Leeds: That this congress 
fervently hopes that civil and political rights will be granted to 
the Jews of those countries where these common rights are at 
present denied to them, in recognition of the great sacrifices the 
best manhood of Jewry is making on the sides of the Allies in our 
common fight for the liberties of the world, and that the Parlia- 
mentary Committee shall petition the British Government to use 
its good offices in that direction when the opportunity will arise. — 
OcTOBEB 29. Glasgow: Board of Shechitah formed for all the 
synagogues. — December 10. London: Jewish Bureau of Social 
Service organized by B'nai B'rith. — 24. Dublin: Shechitah Board 
established with approval of London Beth Din. — ^January 1. Lon- 
don: Conference of eighty delegates, consisting of rabbis, presi- 
dents of synagogues, and representatives of Trade Unions and 



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212 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Friendly societies adopt resolution expressing sympathy with 
aims of Zionist movement, and pledge themselves to endeavor to 
secure support of the organizations which they represent. — 19. 
Cardift: Hebrew school in memory of Isaac Samuel, J. P. dedi- 
cated. — 20. London: Society for Hebraic Studies organized. — 21. 
London: At conference of delegates of congregations motion de- 
feated by majority of five to amend the constitution of United 
Synagogue so as to allow congregations who have hitherto refused 
to recognize the authority of the chief rabbi to become members 
of the United Synagogue. — 28. London: Organization of National 
Union for Jewish Rights to protect Jewish rights in all lands, to 
secure equal rights for Jews where now oppressed, and to obtain 
privilege to establish colonies in Palestine with complete political 
and municipal rights. — London: Council for Jewish Eiducation 
organized. — February 5. London: Zionists, rabbis, and syna- 
gogue representatives hold second conference, and resolve that' 
rabbis and officers of the synagogues endeavor to induce their 
congregants to subscribe to Zionist declaration and to pay a shekel 
as part of the contribution to the synagogue. — March 6. Sub-com- 
mittee of Liverpool Old Hebrew Congregation dismisses Rev. John 
Harris on account of his appearing before recruiting tribunals 
to assist Jewish conscientious objectors. — 26. Jewish Board of 
Deputies adopts resolution empowering the Conjoint Foreign 
Committee, upon similar authorization by Anglo-Jewish Associa- 
tion, to appoint six additional members of the Conjoint Committee 
to serve until six months after the close of the war. — 28. Liverpool : 
Members of Old Hebrew Congregation resolve to present resolu- 
tion asking for re-instatement of Rev. John Harris. — April 8. 
Edinburgh, Scotland : Central Synagogue consecrated. — 10. Coun- 
cil of Zionist Federation decides that Zionist Societies associated 
with the Council should inform Union for Jewish Rights that, 
while they are in full accord with the first two paragraphs of its 
program (see Jan. 28), they request the Union either to amend the 
third paragraph relative to Palestine, so that the Union should 
express its adherence to the Basle program, or withdraw the whole 
paragraph. — 14. Liverpool: Management of Princess Road Syna- 
gogue re-instates Rev. John Harris. But unable to accept condi- 
tions imposed on him, Mr. Harris is compelled to resign once more. 
— 22-23. London: Conference of Jewish Workingmen's Union for 
Rights of Jews adopts resolutions demanding complete citizen 
rights where Jews fulfil citizen duties, complete national and 
political rights where they form a substantial majority of the popu- 
lation; free immigration to, and colonization of, Palestine. Con- 
ference also resolves to participate in an International Jewish 
Workers Congress regarding Jewish rights. — May 19. Leeds: 
Association Shomeri Shabbos formed for agitating for a stricter 
observance of the Sabbath. — 28. Manchester: Jewish National 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED KINGDOM 213 

and Communal Council formed: (a) to represent and protect 
all Jewish interests within and without the Jewish community, 
and to interest itself in all Jewish institutions in Manchester; 
(b) to defend Jewish national interests wherever and whenever 
they are endangered or assailed; (c) to demand political emanci- 
pation and religious liberty for Jews wherever such are denied; 
(d) to work and co-operate with other Jewish bodies that strive 
for the same objects. 



II 
APPOINTMENTS, HONORS. AND ELECTIONS 

Abbahams, SmNEY S., London, appointed magistrate at Zanzibar, 
June, 1915. 

Fbiend, Sybil, awarded Order of League of Mercy by Princess 
Alexandra of Teck on behalf of the King, Dec. 21, ldl5. 

FuBST, Isaac, Edinburgh, appointed justice of the peace, Dec, 
1915. 

Habbis, Percy A., Harborough, elected to Parliament for Har- 
borough Division of Leicestershire, Mch., 1916. 

HowABD, John, Brighton, knighted, Jan., 1916. 

Isaacs, Sib Rutus Daniel, Lord Reading, K. C. V. O., appointed 
by the King an additional member of the Civil Division of the 
First Class Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honorable Order of 
the Bath, June, 1915. 

Kaufmann, Amelia, awarded Order of League of Mercy by 
Princess Alexandra of Teck on behalf of the King, Dec. 21, 1915. 

Levy, Hyman, M. A., B. Sc., elected Fellow of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, Apl., 1916. 

Montagu, EJdwin, appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster, with seat in Cabinet, Jan., 1916. 

Samuel, Hebbebt, appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancas- 
ter, with seat in Cabinet, Dec, 1915; appointed Home Secretary, 
Jan., 1916. 

Sandleb, Louis J., Mardyke, Cork, appointed by Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland to Commission of the Peace, Aug., 1915. 

Stungo, S. S., Edinburgh, appointed justice of the peace, Oct., 
1915. 

Ill 
NECROLOGY 

Behbens, Oscab Henby, West Hampstead, member of Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce, aged 68, June 20, 1915. 



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214 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOQK 



BusNHAM, Lord (Edward Levy), journalist, London Daily Tele- 
graph, London, aged 83, Jan. 9, 1916. 

Caplan, Isbael David, Hebrew scholar, Manchester, Oct., 1915. 

CJoHEN, Philip, communal worker, Newcastle, aged 61, Oct. 17, 
1915. 

Emanuel, Walter L., author and publisher, London, aged 46, 
Aug. 4, 1915. 

Ephbaimson, Juuus, communal worker, Bradford, aged 76, Nov. 
3, 1915. 

Fbankau, Mbs. Juua (Frank Danby), author, London, aged 52, 
Mch. 17, 1916. 

Grgenbebo, Israel, rabbi, London, Jan. 15, 1916. 

Haes, Frank, photographer. North Kensington, aged 84, Jan. 7, 
1916. 

Hallsii^e, James, communal worker, Glasgow, aged 38, Nov., 
1915. 

Levi, Samuel M., communal leader, Birmingham, Oct 24, 1915. 

LiPMAN, Caleb, communal worker, Leeds, Oct., 1915. 

Maccobt, Chatim Z., preacher and scholar, London, aged 56, 
ApL 4, 1916. 

Meldola, Raphael, F. R. S., professor of chemistry, London, 
aged 68, Nov. 16, 1915. 

Mebton, Zachabt, communal worker, London, aged 72, Dec, 1915. 

MosEs, David, member of London County Council, London, Nov. 
8, 1915. 

MosES, Victor (Mansell), editor, London, Oct. 12, 1915. 

Myer, Horatio, member of London County Council and Liberal 
member of Parliament for North Lambeth, 1906, Henley-on-Thames, 
aged 65, Jan. 1, 1916. 

Nathan, Sir Nathaniel, magistrate at Jamaica, 1888, acting 
judge of Supreme Court, Kingston, 1891, senior Puisne judge, 
Trinidad, 1898, attorney-general, Trinidad, 1898, London, aged 76, 
Feb. 18, 1916. 

Perlman, S. M., author and scholar, London, Jan. 31, 1916. 

Retentovitz, Menachem Munish, rabbi, Manchester, aged 79, 
June, 1915. 

Rosenberg, Moses, communal worker, Manchester, aged 64, Dec. 
21, 1915. 

Solomon, Joseph M., lawyer, London, aged 76, Feb. 26, 1916. 

Stone, Isaac, Yiddish journalist, London, aged 61, May, 1916. 

Trenner, Samuel, communal worker, London, aged 90, Oct 10, 
1915. ■ 

Victor, Joseph, communal worker, London, aged 55, May 12, 1916. 

Waller, Lewis, actor, London, aged 50, Nov., 1915. 



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EVENTS IN 6676— UNITED KINGDOM 215 

IV 

EUROPEAN WAR 

Gbnebal 

June 4. The Jewish Times, a London Yiddish daily, suspended 
for a week for having, contrary to Press Bureau's warning, printed 
statements dealing with places attacked by aircraft — 13. London : 
Board of Deputies reports that Law and Parliamentary Committee 
is of opinion that question of internment or repatriation of aliens 
is not a specifically Jewish question, and that it is not within the 
province of the Board's activity to assist Jewish aliens, since such 
duties can safely be relegated to Committee of the Achei Brith 
which is being formed. — 27. Birmingham: Council of Jewish 
Friendly Societies adopts resolution expressing profound sympathy 
with suffering endured by Jews of Poland, Palestine, and Serbia 
through war, and pledges itself to come to their assistance to the ut- 
most of its power. — ^July. Hull: Meeting at Working Men's 
Social Institute to consider action to be taken, in view of as- 
saults on members of the community. — 2. Committee of the Inde- 
pendent Order of B'nai B'rith formed to assist applicants for ex- 
emption from internment or repatriation. — 23. Glasgow: Scottish 
Office authorizes the Representative Council to deal with Jewish 
cases of " alien enemies." Lord Dewar expresses satisfaction with 
work of the Council in this regard. — 27. Russian vice-consul states 
with regard to person born in Berlin, of Russian parents, who 
lived in England since age of two: " The man is a Russian and I 
will give him a certificate enabling him to return to Russia, but I 
will not give him a certificate certifying him of Russian nation- 
ality." — ^August 4. Chief rabbi directs holding of special service 
at the Great Synagogue on anniversary of declaration of war. 
Special rubric introduced into morning service to be followed by 
the provincial congregations. — 6. London: Resolution adopted 
that Order of Ancient Maccabeans affirms its adherence to the 
Zionist program and its conviction that the present world-crisis 
has made more than ever urgent the energetic prosecution of the 
movement. — 24. AngloJewish Association asks permission of 
Foreign Office to continue its grants to the Evelina de Rothschild 
School, now conducted by the Ottoman Government — September 
28. London: Meeting to consider measures to be taken for rais- 
ing a fund for the relief of the Jewish victims of the war in 
Russia adopts resolution that such a fund be raised, that the 
appeal presented to the meeting be issued and circulated, and that 
the clergy be invited to co-operate. — October 22. North Hackney 
Liberal and Radical Association resolves that in view of the 
Premier's declaration that this is a war for liberty and freedom 
and for the rights of small nationalities, this association greatly 



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216 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



deplores the continued serious persecution of the Jews in Russia, 
400»000 of whom are fighting their countries battles; and having 
regard also to the unfavorable impression this is making in neutral 
countries, urges the Government to use its influence to alleviate 
the sufterings of these people. — 31. London: Mass meeting pre- 
sided over by Leopold de Rothschild, C. V. O., adopts resolution 
that the appalling condition of the Jewish war victims in Russia 
calls for urgent help, and demands the greatest sacrifices from all 
who are able to assist — November 12. Lord Robert Cecil, Under 
Secretary of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, in interview with 
editor of Russian paper Gazett Kopeika, states that English 
Government, though sympathizing with the Russian Jews, is un- 
able to do anything in their behalf. — ^Leeds: Lord Derby urged 
to rule that Russian-born Jews who received their education in 
England are eligible for enlistment in the British Army. — 26. 
Sir Ernest Cassel and Sir Edgar Speyer, accused of pro^^terman 
sympathies, re-instated by House of Lords. — BtoEUAEY 5. At 
meeting under auspices of Belgian Young Jews' Committee Israel 
Zangwill expresses regret at attitude of Central Committee in 
severing its connection with the Committee of the Edinburgh 
Fund, established to collect money for relief of the Jews in Russia, 
because of its missionary character. — 6. EMlnburgh: Jewish 
Socialist Labor Party, Poale Zion, adopt resolution congratulat- 
ing the London Central Relief Committee for withdrawing from 
the Polish Missionary Relief Committee, and appealing to Edin- 
burgh Representative Council to follow that example. — ^11. Jew- 
ish Relief Committee severs connection with Edinburgh Fund 
which is managed by a missionary society. Lord Swaythling, 
Leopold de Rothschild, and Claude G. Montefiore withdraw their 
patronage from the latter, and refuse to accept any aid from it — 25. 
Edinburgh: Jewish Representative Council decides to sever con- 
nections with Edinburgh Fund, and withdraws its delegates. — 
March 3. London: Education Committee of County Council de- 
cides to name school in Whitechapel the Robert Montefiore School 
in memory of late Sebag-Montefiore. — 10. Chief rabbi obtains 
from War Office exemption from military service for students of 
Jew's college, the London Yeshibah, and the Manchester Yeshibah, 
as theologicjd students. — 12. Manchester: National Jewish Com- 
munal Council established. — 14. London: At City Tribunal, 
major de Rothschild, M. P., announces that in view of claims for 
exemption made by Cohanim, he had consulted the chief rabbi 
who stated that " when the safety of the country is at stake, no 
exemption from military service can be justly claimed by any 
person on the ground that he is a Cohen." — 24. London: Organi- 
zation of Jewish Naval and Military Association to befriend Jew- 
ish sailors and soldiers passing through the city. — April 7. Lon- 
don County Council passes resolution that all students of Russian 



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EVENTS IN 5676--UNITBD KINGDOM 217 

nationality, enrolled in London colleges, must either prove that 
they are excused from military service by the Russian authorities, 
or leave the institutions. — 9. National Union for Jewish Rights 
sends memorial to the Government asking for release of Jews 
interned as alien enemies. — May 12. London County Council de- 
cides not to expel Russo-Jewish students in London colleges who 
are to be graduated within one year. — London: Government 
grants petition of Jewish Board of Deputies not to molest Russian 
Jews who reside in districts where foreigners are not permitted, 
even if they cannot establish their Russian aflBliations through 
documentary evidence. — 14. Manchester: Annual meeting of Old 
Hebrew Congregation adopts resolution expressing loyalty and 
devotion to Empire, confidence in cause of the Allies, and hope 
that British government will emerge victorious; and trusting that 
end of war will see creation of a Jewish political and intellectual 
centre in Palestine, the ancient Jewish home, preferably as a part 
of the British Empire. — 28. Newcastle-on-Tyne: Annual meeting 
of Old Hebrew Congregation adopts resolution requesting Jewish 
Board of Deputies that in efforts to secure liberty and equality for 
Jews in all countries prominence should be given to demand for the 
restoration of Palestine to the Jewish people. 

Decobations 

Victoria Cross awarded to Leonard Keysor; Israel Schmulovitch. 
— Distinguished Conduct Medal awarded to F. Ableson ; I. E. Bala- 
ban; H. D. Cohen; V. C. Cohen; J. Cowen; S. Diamond; H. Epstein; 

Jacobs; W. C. Meyestein; E. Michael; E. Michaels; Jack 

Ovitch. — Distinguished Service Order awarded to C. J. Elkan, cap- 
tain; Reginald Hubert Joseph, major; A. R. Kino, captain; Freder- 
ick H. Kisch, captain; Sidney J. Lowe, major. — Military Cross 
awarded to Bernard Russell Abinger, second lieutenant; Albert 
Baswith, lieutenant; B. R. Durlacher, lieutenant; L. Harris, cap- 
tain; David Henry Hartog, lieutenant; Hyman Lightstone, captain; 
Victor H. Simon, captain; H. J. Solomon, major. — French Military 
Medal awarded to Edward Leopold Bamberger, troop-sergeant- 
major; J. Kemper, sergeant-major. — ^Mentioned in Despatches: 
O. Baswitz, lieutenant; B. H. L. Beddington, captain; A. F. Beh- 
rend; F. H. Benporath; M. Cohen; Maurice Cohen; M. Coplans, 
captain; J. de Meza; F. Depres; Anthony G. de Rothschild, lieu- 
tenant; B. D. Durlacher, lieutenant; H. Edelstein; Meyer Eishco- 
vitz; H. R. Friedlander, captain; L. G. R. Harris; A. C. Hart, 
captain; C. L. Hart; D. H. Hartog; P. A. Henriques, captain; H. F. 
H. Hertzberg, lieutenant; F. Hirschfeld; Alan Edward Aflalo 
Jacobs, second lieutenant; S. H. Jacob; V. V. Jacob; H. Jacobs, 
captain; M. Jacobs, sergeant-major; F. Jacobson; R. H. Joseph, 
major; F. H. Kisch, captain; A. Ladenburg, lieutenant; G. R. 



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218 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



F. Leverson, captain; Keith Bi. Levi, captain; Monash, 

brigadier-general; J. Monash; A. N. Richardson; Nissel Rosen- 
berg; F. D. Samuel; H. S. Seligman, lieutenant-colonel; V. H. 
Simon; H. J. Solomon, major. — ^Territorial Decoration awarded to 
Charles D. Enoch. — Medal for services at Ypres awarded to H. 
Epstein. — Order of St. George, 4th class, awarded to Israel Schmul- 
ovitch (Corporal Issy Smith) ; David Wolfe, No. 5 Field Ambu- 
lance, R. A. M. C. — Iron Cross, 2d class, on black and white ribbon 

to Alfred Berliner. — Military Medal received by Dahan. — 

Golden Cross of Merit awarded to Samuel Lemberger, military 
chaplain. — War Cross Medal awarded to Dahan and Haim Elie 
(Smyrna). 

Pbomotions 

Appointed colonels: Stanley G. Cohen; B. J. Friend. — Promoted 
lieutenant-colonels: Stanley G. Cohen; Chas. S. Myers; Henri S. 
Samuel; H. S. Seligman. — Promoted majors: I. M. Heilbron; L. B. 
Isaacs; E. M. Levy; W. H. Levy, A. S. C; Reginald I. Marians; 
Edward S. Marks; Nathaniel Marks; W. M. MichoUs; Charles 
Moss; Harry L. Nathan; A. C. Oppenheim; Herbert H. Raphael; 
William Schonfleld; Mark H. Schversee. — ^Promoted captains: 
Adolphe Abrahams; Montague Abrahams; Reginald Abrahams; 
John A. Benjamin; Julius Bernstein; Eric P. Blashki; Edward 
Bromet; Harry Caplan; Basil W. Cohen; Cedric K. Cohen; 
Lionel L. Cohen; M. Cohen; A. Sefton Cohen; Walter S. Cohen; 
A. Maurice Davis; Jacob de Meza; Ernest Duveen; Ellis A. 
Franklin; Isidore Gluckstein; I. M. Goldberg; S. C. Croldman; 
Osmond & D^Avigdon Goldsmid; Stuart M. Green; I. H. Green- 
wood; Malcolm Gross; Cecil L. Hart; Arthur Cecil Jacobs; C!yril 
Jacobs; G. L. Jacobs; A. Jacobson; Sidney Jennings; H. C. Joel; 
Herbert V. Landsberg Geoffrey H. Langdon ; Wilfred M. Langdon ; 
Louis Lazarus; Alfred G. Levy; W. H. Levy; L. Loewe; ; W. A. 

Lowy; Lorie; Harry N. Marks; S. B. Mendl; L. C. Mandleberg; 

Manfred Moritz; S. Myer; Leo M. Myers; David Nathan; Sidney H. 
Nathan; Basil J. Phillips; Jacob E. Rothband; Percy L. Rothband; 
Bertram B. Samuel; Edward Samuel; Julian H. Samuel; F. Sas- 
soon; C. E. Simon; Charles Singer; Julius Sinson; David C. Solo- 
mon; J. B. Solomon; Norman W. Steinberg; Benjamin Strump; A. 
Waley; B. G. S. Waley; Arthur B. Waring; A. S. Wilks; Maurice 
Wilks; E. S. Woolf; Harry Zeffertt. — Promoted lieutenants: I. 
Abrahamson; Sidney Michael Adler; H. T. Bamberger; Benjamin 
Bamett; A. F. Benjamin; Lawrence A. Benjamin; Philip B. Ber- 
liner; Raphael A. Besso; C. A. M. Bingen; Geoffrey Blanckensee; 
Henry Bloom; J. H. Cansino; Donald H. Cohen; E. V. Cohen; 
Edgar Cohen; Maurice D. Cohn; Edward H. de Groot; Harry 
Emanuel; Oliver Emanuel; Harris Fineberg; Ellis A. Franklin; 



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EVENTS IN 5676— UNITED KINGDOM 219 



S. C. Goldman; Frederick Gosschalk; Cyril M. Green; Stuart M. 
Green; G. R. S. Greenberg; I. Herbert Greenwood; E. E. Grossman; 
Lionel W. Hart; R. G. Hoffnimg-Goldsmid; G. Hyams; George 
Hyman; Henry Isaac; Gerald R. Isaacs; Ben Jacobs; Harry J. 
Jacobs; L. H. Jacobson; Aaron Joseph; Ernest R. Kisch; G. H. 
Langdon; L. L. Levene; Leon E. Leyy; Maitland B. Leyy; Roland 
Levy; P. J. Linden; Geoffrey M. Lindo; Abraham Lion; Leonhard 
H. Lion; Alfred C. Lotinger; Walter A. Lowy; J. Marsden; R. M. 
Meyers; Charles D. Mocatta; Aaron J. Mosely; M. A. Myers; 
Harold L. Nathan; Julian Nathan; L. M. Nathan; Frederick 
L. Norden; R. Stanley Novis; Albert I. Polack; Lionel L. 
Price; R. A. Raphael; Henry S. Rosen; Julius Rosenfeld; Her- 
mann H. Roskin; George E. Samuels; Paul Sherek; Gerald H. A. 
Sington; Jack Solomon; Gerald S. Soman; Herbert Soman; 
Claude M. SpieUnan; Theodore Stern; Arthur Stiebel; Nathan 
Strump; Cecil W. Tabbush; Leslie B. Tobias; W. V. Tobias; J. H. 
Vanden Bergh; Frank R. Waley; Harold E. Weiss; N. J. Wigram; 
Harold Woolf; Victor A. V. Zacharias. — Promoted second lieu- 
tenants: Robert B. Abrahams; Herbert M. Adler; Albert M. Afriat; 
Samuel A. Alexander; I. Amschewitz; Victor Aronson; Lewis 
Earned; Harold L. Benjamin; Philip B. Berliner; Maurice Besso; 
Alfred M. Blaiberg; Howard Boas; Harold Levi Bromet; Henry 
W. Cohen; Moss Cohen; Norman H. Cohen; Abraham Da Costa; 
Algernon Da Costa; M. Richard Da Costa; Lionel L. Falck; Sidney 
Freedman; Morris Friend; Nathan Goldberg; Joseph W. Goldman; 
Louis P. B. Goldsmith; Leslie Goldstein; Victor Gollancz; Wilfred 
M. Guttman; Sidney Harris; Arthur M. Hart; H. R. Hart; Basil 
L. Q. Henriques; W. H. Hurstbourne; Arthur H. Jacobs; Ivan A. 
Jacobs; John H. Jacobs; Simon R. Jacobs; Trevor Jacobs; Jack 
B. Joseph; M. G. Klean, H. A. C; Edward J. Leon; Albert M. 
Levy; Selig W. Levy; Harris Lewis; Arthur H. Lewy; Saul E. 

Lyons; David M. Mann; J. Marsden; Cyril Meyers; Morris; 

Hector E. Moss; Max Murock; Charles G. Myer; A. P. Myers; 
George Nathan; Neville Newman; Lehmann J. Oppenheimer; 
Isaac G. E. Phillips; Ivan B. Phillipowsky; Joseph Platnauer; 
Philipp Ernest Posener; Henry Robinson; Lawrence B. Rosen- 
baum; Cyril M. Rosenberg; A. Rothfield; Randolph B. Samuel; 
Marcus Segal; Walter F. Solomon; Claude D. Soman; Sydney L. 
Stein; Saul Stem; Edward Vandyk; Henry Wolf; Victor M. 
WoUrauch. — ^Appointed chaplains: Arthur Barnett; A. A. Green; 
Vivian G. Simmons. — ^Miscellaneous appointments: E. Y. C. Chap- 
man, lieutenant, railway transport officer on Headquarters Ad- 
ministrative Staft: C. J. Elkan, captain, quartermaster general; 
B. J. Friend, captain, assistant commandant of the 0. T. C. at 
Felixstowe; ordnance officer in charge of the White City; P. L. 
Linden, quartermaster with honorary rank of lieutenant; Henry 



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220 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Lyon, recruiting officer in the Midlands; George Nathan, second 
lieutenant, musketry officer and assistant adjutant; A. Pulverness, 
chief gunner; Joseph Sanders, sergeant-major and gunnery in- 
structor; Sir Phillip A. G. D. Sassoon, second aide-de-camp on 
personal staff of Sir John French; private Siccretary on personal 
staff of General Sir Douglas Haig; William Schonfeld, major, 
signaling officer; Harold J. Solomon, major, deputy assistant 
quartermaster. 

Necrology on Account of War 

June. P. B. Henriques, second lieutenant, aged 20; N. A. Krohn, 
second lieutenant; Walter Alfred Leland, lieutenant, aged 22; 
Joseph Miller, captain; Leonard N. Walford, lieutenant. — ^July. 
Herbert W. Bamett, captain; Robert P. Behrens, lieutenant; 
Harold Cohen, second lieutenant, aged 19; Edward Hearsch, 
lieutenant; J. C. Routh, captain; Ph. H. Weinberg, lieutenant — 
August. Leo E. Davis, lieutenant, aged 20; Chas. M. Harris, 
R. A. M. C, lieutenant; Keith M. Levi, A. I. F. captain, aged 25; 
E. C. Simon, captain; Harold L. I. Spielmann, captain, aged 23. — 
September. Victor B. Bamett, lieutenant, aged 29; Oliver 
Emanuel, second lieutenant; Andr6 Felix, flight lieutenant, aged 
25; Cyril Charles Henry, lieutenant, aged 23; Philip M. Marks, 
lieutenant, aged 26; Grant M. Michaelis, lieutenant, aged 20; 
Walter Richard M. Woolf, second lieutenant. — October. Bernard 
Russell Abinger, second lieutenant, aged 21; Braham A. Franks, 
second lieutenant, aged 22; Victor Jacob, lieutenant; Cecil H. 
Marks, captain; Ellis J. A. Paiba, lieutenant, aged 36; D. Regin- 
ald Salomons, captain; J. Wallace, second lieutenant. — November, 
Gerald Bamett, second lieutenant, aged 29; Hamo Sassoon, second 
lieutenant; Robert M. Sebag-Montefiore, captain, aged 33; K. M. 
H. Solomon, lieutenant. — December. Owen S. Welhado, second 
lieutenant. — ^February. C. A. M. Bingen, lieutenant, aged 20; 
Arthur G. Lezard, captain; Euston Salaman, R. F. A., lieutenant, 
aged 44; Edgar Barnett Samuel, lieutenant. — March. J. T. Leon, 
physician military hospital. — April. B. J. Polack, second lieu- 
tenant, aged 25. — May. Harry G. Byng, second lieutenant; Ernest 
Henry Lifetree, second lieutenant, aged 22; B. P. Steinman, 
captain. 



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"11 



AMERICAN JB5WISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 221 



JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

An asterisk (*) indicates that complete information was not procurable. 



ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVBRSELLE 

Org. May, 1860. Office : 150 Nassau, New York City 
Branches: Maryland: Baltimore. — Massachusetts: Boston (2), Wor- 
cester. — New Jersey : Hoboken, Jersey City. — New York : Elmlra, New 
York City. — Pennsylyania : Philadelphia. 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF THE JEWISH TERRITORIAL 
ORGANIZATION 

(ITO) 
Org. Apl., 1906. Office : New York City 
Executive Committee : Chairman, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, 516 West 
End At. ; Solomon Soils Cohen, Phila., Pa. ; Daniel Guggenheim, Herman 
Rosenthal, N. Y. C. ; Mayer Sulzberger, Phlla., Pa. 

Branches : Maryland : Baltimore. — New York : New York City. — Penn- 
sylyania : Philadelphia. 

AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 

Org. Nov. 11, 1906; inc. Mch. 16, 1911. Office: 356 Second Av., 

New York City 

For report, see pp. 288-410. 



AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Org. 1892. Office : 38 Park Bow, New York City 

Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting, Feb. 20-21, 1916, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Members, 880. 

Has issued twenty-three volumes of Publications and an Index to Publica- 
tions 1-20. Maintains a collection of Books, Manuscripts, and Historical 
Objects In Its Room In the Building of the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
631 W. 123d, N. Y. C. 

Officebs : Pres^ Cyrus Adler. Phila., Pa. ; Vice-Pres., Simon W. Rosen- 
dale, Albany, N. Y. ; David Phlllpson, Cincinnati, O. ; Julian W. Mack, 
Chicago. 111. ; Richard J. H. Gottheil ; Treas., N. Taylor Phillips : Curator, 
Leon HUhner; Cor. Sec^ Albert M. Friedenberg, 38 Park Row; Bee. Sec, 
Samuel Oppenheim, N. Y. C. 

Executive Council : The OflBcers, and Chas. J. Cohen, Phila., Pa. ; Henry 
Cohen, Galveston, Tex. ; Herbert Friedenwald, Denver, Colo. ; Lee M. Fried- 
man, Boston, Mass. ; Jacob H. Hollander, Baltimore, Md. ; Max J. Kohler, 
N. Y. C. ; L. Napoleon Levy, N. Y. C. : Max L. Margplls. Phila., Pa.; 
Alexander Marx, N. Y. C. : A. S. W. Rosenbach. Mayer Sulzberger, Phlla., 
Pa. ; Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C. ; Oscar S. Straus, N. Y. C, ex-offlcio, as 
past President of the Society. 



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222 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

• AMERICAN JEWISH PRESS ASSOCIATION 
Org. Jan. 25, 1914. Office : 210 OUye, St Louis, Mo. 



ARBBITER RING 

(THE WORKMEN'S CIRCLE) 

Org. Sept. 4. 1900. Office : 175 B. Broadway. New York City 



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CANTORS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 223 



Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, New York City, Newburgh, Niagara Falls, 
Oswego, Patchogue, Port Chester, Poughkeepsie, Rochester, Rockaway, 
Schenectady, S. Fnllsberg, Staten Island, Syracuse. Tarry town, Troy, Utlca, 
Yonkers. — North Dakota : Devils Lake, Fargo. — Ohio : Akron, Canton, Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, East Liverpool, Toledo, Youngstown. 
— Oregon : Portland. — Pennsylvania : AUentown, Altoona, Carbondale, Con- 
nellBvllle, East Pittsburgh, Easton, Erie, Harrisburg, Johnstown, Lancas- 
ter, Monessen, New Kensington, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Reading, Scran- 
ton. Shamokln, South Bethlehem, Wllkes-Barre. — Rhode Island: Central 
Falls, Newport, Providence, Woonsocket. — Tennessee: Chattanooga, Mem- 
phis, Nashville. — Texas: Dallas, Fort Worth, Galveston, Houston, San 
Antonio, Waco. — Utah : Salt Lake City. — Virginia : Newport News, Nor- 
folk, Portsmouth, Richmond. — Washington: Seattle.— West Virginia: 
Wheeling. — ^Wisconsin : Kenosha, Madison, Milwaukee, Racine, Sheboygan. 
— Canada : Calgary, Hamilton, London, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Van- 
couver, Winnipeg. 



BARON DE HIRSCH FUND 

Org. Feb. 9, 1891 ; Inc. 1891. Office : 80 Maiden Lane, New York City 
Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting, Feb. 6, 1916, New York City. 
The activities of the Fund fall under the following heads : 

I. Baron de Hirsch Aqbicultural School, Woodbine, N. J., offer- 
ing to Jewish young men a course In Agriculture. 
II. Baron de Hirsch Trade School, 222 E. 64th, N. Y. C. ; offering 
to Jewish young men Instruction In dav classes in the following 
trades : Machinist, Plumbing, Electrical, House, Fresco, and Sign 
Painting, Printing, Sheet Metal Work, Woodworking and Car- 
pentry, and Operating Engineering. 
III. Woodbine Land and Improvement Company. 
IV. English Education to Immigrants. Day and Evening Classes 

and 
V. Relief Work. Through subsidized societies in Maryland : Balti- 
more. — ^Massachusetts : Boston. — New York : Brooklyn, New 
York City. — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia. 
Officers : Pres.. Eugene S. Benjamin, 104 E. 25th ; Vlce-Pres., Jacob H. 
Schiflf : Treas., Herbert H. Lehman ; Hon. Sec, Max J. Kohler, 52 William, 
N. Y. C. 

Trustees : The Officers, and Charles L. Bernhelmer, Nathan Bljur, 
Abrnm I. Elkus, Alfred .Taretzkl, S. G. Rosenbaum, N. Y. C. ; Simon F. 
Rothschild, Bklyn., N. Y. ; Mayer Sulzberger, William B. Hackenburg, S. S. 
Flelsher, Phlla., Pa. 

General Agent : B. A. Palltz. 



CANTORS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 

(SUCCESSOR TO SOCIETY OF AMERICAN CANTORS) 
Org. June 1, 1908. Oppice : New York City 

Fifth Annual Meeting, May 26, 1914, New York City. 

Members, 250. 

Oppicers : Pres., Solomon Baum ; Vlce-Pres., Sol. Grafman, M. Schechter ; 
Sec.. Isidore Frank, 327 Central Park West; Treas., Ed. Kartschmaroff, 
1125 Lexington A v., N. Y. C. 

Directors : M. Amoff, A. Frachtenberg, J. Mandelberg, R. Mlnsky, D. 
Plotkln, M. Rablnovltz, S. Sanersteln. A. Singer, M. I. Wolfliersr. 

Branches : Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, San E^anclsco. 

8 



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224 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

CENTRAL CONFERENCE OF AMERICAN RABBIS 

Org. July 9, 1889. Office : 10311 Lake Shore Bouleyard, Cleyeland, O. 

Twenty-Seventh Annual Convention, June 30-July 7, 1916, Wildwood, 
N.J. 

Members, 207. 

Has issued twenty-two volomes of its Year Book ; and besides, the Union 
Prayer Book ; the Union Hymnal ; the Union Haggadah ; Prayers for Pri- 
vate Devotion, and various other publications. 

Officers 1915-1916 : Hon. Pres., Eaufmann Kohler, Cincinnati, O. ; 
Pres., William Rosenau, Baltimore, Md. ; Vice-Pres., Louis Grossman, Cin- 
cinnati, O. ; Treas., Abram Simon, Washington, D. C. ; Rec. Sec., Max 
Merritt, Evanston, 111. ; Cor. Sec., Isaac Landman, 4841 Pulaski Av^ Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Executive Committee, 1915-1916 : G. Deutsch, Cincinnati, O. ; K M. 
Franklin, Detroit, Mich. : Moses J. Gries, Cleveland, 0.: Max Heller, New 
Orleans, La. ; J. Kornfeld, Columbus. O. ; Maurice Lefkovits, Duluth, Minn. ; 
J. Leonard Levy, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; iJavid Phillpson, Cincinnati, O. ; Samuel 
Schulman, N. Y. C. ; Joseph Stolz, Chicago, 111. ; Martin Zielonka, El Paso, 
Tex. 



COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 

Org. Sept., 1893. Office : 3437 Paseo, Kansas City, Mo. 

Seventh Triennial Convention Dec, 1914, New Orleans, La. 

Sections, 73 ; Junior Auxiliaries, 20. 

The work of the Council is conducted under the following Committees : 
Religion, Religious Schools, Philanthropy, Junior Auxiliaries, Reciprocity, 
Peace and Arbitration, Education, Purity of the Press, and a National 
Department of Immigrant Aid with office in New York City. 

The National body supports a Department of Immigrant Aid, and the 
Sections engage in religious, philanthropic, and educational work. 

Officers: Pres., Janet Simons Harris (Mrs. Nath.), 114 South Av., 
Bradford, Pa. ; First Vice-Pres., Mrs. Eli Hertzberg, San Antonio, Texas ; 
Second Vice-Pres^ Rose Brenner, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Treasurer, Jenny K. 
Herz (Mrs. Leo H.), New Haven, Conn.; Rec Sec, Mrs. Harry Glicksman, 
New Haven, Conn. ; Executive Secretary, Mrs. Ernestine B. Dreyfus, 8487 
Paseo, Kansas City, Mo. 

Directors: (1911-1917) Mrs. S. M. Blumauer, Portland, Ore.; Mrs. 
Nathan Glauber, N. Y. C. ; Mrs. Otto Kempner, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mrs. Paul 
Kessel, Kansas City, Mo.; Mrs. Max Thalheimer, Syracuse, N. Y. : (1914- 
1920) Mrs. Richard J), Bakrow, Louisville, Ky. ; Mrs. D. B. Levy, Norfolk, 
Va. ; Mrs. Max Margolis^hiladelphia, Pa. ; Mrs. Bernard B. Pollak, Cin- 
cinnati, O. ; Mrs. A. Leo Weil, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sections : Alabama : Birmingham, Mobile, Montgomery, Selma. — ^Ar- 
kansas : Hot Springs, Little Rock. — (jalifornia : Los Angeles, San Fran- 
cisco. — Colorado : Denver. — Connecticut : Bridgeport, Hartford. New 
Haven, Stamford. — District of Columbia : Washington. — Geoi«ia : Atlanta, 
Savannah. — Illinois : Chicago — Indiana : Indianapolis, Larayette, Terre 
Haute. — Kentucky : Louisville. — Louisiana : New Orleans. — Maryland : 
Baltimore. — Massachusetts : Boston, New Bedford, Worcester. — Minnesota : 
Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri : Kansas City. — New Jersey : Newark. — 
New York : Albany, Brooklyn, Elmira. New York City, Rochester, Sche- 
nectady, Syracuse, Utica, Yonkers. — Ohio: Cincinnati, Dayton, Marion, 
Toledo, Youngstown. — Oklahoma : Tulsa. — Oregon : Portland. — Pennsyl- 
vania: Bradford, Easton, Farrell, Hazleton, Oil City,- Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, Pottsville, Sharon, Wilkes-Barre. — Rhode Island : Pawtucket, Provi- 
dence. — South Carolina : Charleston. — Tennessee : Chattanooga. Nashville. 
— Texas : Dallas, Fort Worth, Galveston, Houston, San Antonio, Waco. — 
Virginia: Alexandria, Norfolk, Richmond. — ^Washington: Seattle. — West 
Virginia : Charleston. — Wisconsin : Milwaukee. — Canada : Toronto. 



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YOUNG MEN'S HEBREW ASSOCIATIONS 225 

Junior Auxiliabibs : California : San Francisco. — Connecticut : Stam- 
ford. — Indiana : Indianapolis, Lafayette. Terre Haute. — Iowa : Des Moines. 
— Kentucky : Louisville. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Missouri : Kansas City. 
— ^New York: Brooklyn, Blmira. — Ohio; Cincinnati. — South Carolina: 
Charleston. — Virginia: Norfolk, Richmond. — Canada: Toronto. 



COUNCIL OF YOUNG MEN'S HEBREW AND KINDRED 
ASSOCIATIONS 

Orgr. Nov., 1918. Office : 356 Second Av., New York City 

First Annual Convention, Nov. 8, 1914, New York City. 

Pubposb: To promote the religious. Intellectual, physical, and social 
well-being and development of Jewish young men and women, and to that 
end to stimulate the organization, in the several States and Territories of the 
United States and In the Dominion of Canada, of Young Men*8 Hebrew 
Associations, to assist, advise, and encourage such associations when 
formed ; to further the correlation of their activities and the mutual inter- 
change of the advantages which they afford, and to co-operate with other 
corporations or associations conducted under Jewish auspices. 

Officers : Pres., Julian W. Mack, Chicago, III. ; Treas., I. Lehman ; Sec, 
Felix M. Warburg, 52 William, N. Y. C. 

Board of Trustees : Cyrus Adler, Phlla., Pa. ; Adolph Lewisohn, 
N. Y. C. ; Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 111. ; Jacob H. Schlff, and Herbert N. 
Straus, N. Y. C. 

Board of Managers : I. W. Bernhelm, Louisville, Ky. ; Alfred M. Cohen, 
Cincinnati, O. ; David A. Ellis, Boston, Mass. ; Harry FischeL Samuel 
Greenbaum, N. Y. C. ; Isaac Hassler, Phlla., Pa. ; Irving Lehman, N. Y. C. ; 
Jacob M. Loeb, Chicago, 111. ; Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 111. ; Louis Marshall, 
N. Y. C. ; Jacob Newman, New Orleans, La. ; Max C. Sloss, San Francisco, 
Cal. : Mrs. Israel Unterberg, Felix M. Warburg, N. Y. C. ; A. Leo Weil, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

The Council is in communication with the following Younq Men's 
Hebrew and Kindred Associations : Alabama : Birmingham, Montgomery. 
— Arkansas : Little Rock. — California : San Francisco. — Connecticut : 
Bridgeport, Danbury, Derby and Ansonia, Hartford, New Haven, Norwich, 
South Norwalk, Stamford. — Delaware : Wilmington. — District of Columbia : 
Washington. — Florida : Jacksonville. — Georgia : Savannah. — Illinois : Chi- 
cago (2), Rock Island. — Indiana: EJvansvIlle, Indianapolis. — Iowa: Des 
Moines. — Kentucky : Louisville, Newport. — Louisiana : New Orleans. — 
Maine : Lewiston, Portland. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Massachusetts : At- 
tleboro, Beverley, Boston (4), Brockton, Cambridge, Chelsea, Dorchester, 
Everett, Fall River, Fitchburg, Haverhill, Lawrence, L#owell, Lynn, Maiden, 
Marlboro, New Bedford, North Adams, Peabody, Plymouth, Quincy, Revere, 
Salem, Somerville, South Framlngham, Springfield, Taunton, Worcester. — 
Michigan : Detroit. — Missouri : Kansas City (2), St. Louis (2). — Nebraska : 
Liincoln, Omaha. — New Hampshire : Manchester, Nashua, Portsmouth. — 
New Jersey: Asbury Park, Atlantic City (2), Bayonne, Bergen County, 
Camden, Elizabeth, Hudson City, Hudson Coupty, Jersey City, Long Branch. 
Morris County, Newark, New Brunswick, North Hudson, Orange, Passaic, 
Paterson, Perth Amboy, Pla infield, Roselle, Somerville, Trenton. — New 
York: Albany (2), Binghamton, Brooklyn (9), Buffalo (2), Ellenville, 
Elmlra, Gloversville, Hudson. Kingston, Long Island City, Mount Vernon, 
New Rochelle, New York (7), Newburgh, Port Chester, Poughkeepsie, 
Rochester, Schenectady, Staten Island, Syracuse, Troy, Utlca, White I'lains. 
Yonkers. — North Carolina: Ashevllle, Wilmington. — Ohio: Cincinnati, 
Columbus, Dayton, Toledo. — Oregon : Portland. — Pennsylvania : Allen- 
town, Altoona, Butler, Carbondale, Coatesville, Easton. Harrlsburg, Hazle- 
ton, Johnstown, Latrobe, McKeesport, Mahanoy City, New Castle, New 
Kensington, Norrlstown, Oil Citv, Olyphant, Philadelphia (2), Phoenlxvllle, 
Pittsburgh, Pottstown, Pottsville, Reading, Scranton, Sharon, Shenandoah, 



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226 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

South Bethlehem, Steelton, Wllkes-Barre, York. — Rhode Island: Bristol, 
Newport, Providence, Woonsocket. — ^Tennessee : Chattanooga, Knoxrille, 
Memphis, Nashville. — ^Texas: Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Galveston. 
Houston, San Antonio. — Virginia : Norfolk, Portsmouth, Richmond, 
Roanoke. — Washington : Seattle. — West Virginia : Wheeling. — Canada : 
Calgary, Hamilton, Ontario, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg. 

XOUNQ Women's Hebrew Associations : Arkansas : little Rock. — Con- 
necticut: Hartford, New London. — Delaware: Wilmington. — District of 
Columbia : Washington. — Louisiana : New Orleans. — Maine : Bangor, 
Lewlston, Portland. — Massachusetts: Attleboro, Boston (3), Cambridge, 
Chelsea, Dorchester, Everett, Pall River, Fltchburg, Haverhill, Lawrence, 
Lowell, Lynn, Maiden, New Bedford, Revere, Salem, South Framlngham, 
Worcester. — Missouri : Kansas City. — New Hampshire : Manchester. — 
New Jersey : Asbury, Bayonne, Camden, Hudson City, Hudson County, Long 
Branch, New Brunswick, Newark, North Hudson, Orange, Passaic, Paterson, 
Perth Amboy, Plalnfleld, Trenton. — New York : Bath Beach, Brooklyn, Long 
Island City, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, New York City, Port Chester, 
Poughkeepsle, Troy. — Ohio : Cincinnati. — Pennsylvania : Carbondale, 
Easton, Mahanoy City, New Castle, Pittsburgh, Pottsvllle, Reading, Scran- 
ton, Shenandoah, South Bethlehem, Wllkes-Barre, York. — Rhode Island: 
Bristol, Newport, Providence, Woonsocket. — Canada : Montreal. 



DROPSIE COLLEGE FOR HEBREW AND COGNATE 

LEARNING 

Inc. May 20, 1907. Broad and York, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers : Pres., Cyrus Adler : Vlce-Pres., Mayer Sulzberger ; Treas., 
Oscar B. Teller ; Sec, Ephralm Lederer, Phlla., Pa. 

Board op Governors : The Officers, and Harry Frledenwald, Baltimore, 
Md. : Louis Gerstley. William B. Hackenburg, Phlla., Pa. ; Louis Marshall, 
N. Y. C. : Simon Miller, Phlla., Pa. ; Horace Stern, Phlla., Pa. ; Oscar S. 
Straus, N. Y. C. ; Edwin Wolf, Phlla., Pa. 

Faculty: Pres., Cyrus Adler (M. A.. Pennsylvania; Ph. D., Johns Hop- 
kins) ; Professor in charge of the Biblical Department, Max L. Margolls 
(M. A., Ph. D., Columbia) ; Professor In charge of the Rabbinical Depart- 
ment, Henry Malter (Ph. D., Heidelberg) ; Instructor Department of 
Cognate Languages, Jacob Hoschander (Ph. D., Marburg ; Instructor 
Historical Department, Abraham A. Neuman (M. A., Columbia; H. L. D., 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America) ; Instructor Biblical Department 
and Assistant Librarian, Joseph Reider (B. A., College of the City of New 
York ; Ph. D., Dropsle College) ; Instructor Talmud and Arabic, B. Halper 
(M. A., London ; Ph. D., Dropsle College) ; Resident Lecturer Ih Jewish 
Jurisprudence nnd Institutes of Government, Hon. Mayer Sulzberger 
( LL. D., Jefferson, Temple ; H. L. D., Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America). 

EASTERN COUNCIL OF REFORM RABBIS 

Org. Apl. 22, 1912. Office: 530 McDonough, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ninth Semi-annual Assembly, Apl. 30-May 2, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 46. 

Purpose : To offer a reaffirmation of the members' faith In tlie per- 
manent character and value to Israel and to the world of Liberal or 
Reform Judaism. 

Officers : Pres., Joseph Silverman : Vloe-Pres., J. Leonard Levy and 
Rudolph Grossman ; Treas., Joseph Gorflnkel ; Sec, Max Raisin, 530 
McDonough, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee : Sidney B. Goldstein, Maurice H. Harris, Nathan 
Krass, Alexander Lyons, F. de Sola Mendes, Isaac S. Moses. Max Reichler, 
Stephen S. Wise, all of Greater New York ; Charles Rubenstein, Baltimore, 
Md. 



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FEDERATION OF AME5RICAN ZIONISTS 227 

E3DUCATI0NAL LEAGUE FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION 
OF ORPHANS 

Org. 1896. Office : Jewish Orphan Asylum, Cleyeland, O. 

Nineteenth Annual Meeting, July 4, 1915, Cleveland, O. 

Members, 1474. 

Officebs : Pres., Martin A. Marks, Cleyeland, O. ; Vice-Pres., Bmll 
Nathan, Memphis, Tenn. ; Hon. Vice-Pres., Nathan Cohn, Tenn. ; Harry 
Cutler, R. I. ; Jacob Purth, Mo. ; Adolph Freund, Mich. ; Milton R. Hart. 111. ; 
Sol. S. Kiser, Ind. ; Louis S. Levi, Southern Ohio ; Mrs. B. Beitman Otten- 
helmer, Ky. ; Max S. Schayer, Colo. ; Simon Wolf, District of Columbia ; 
Treas., S. Wolfenstein, Cleveland, O. ; Sec. Eugene B. Wolf, Engineer's Bldg., 
Cleyeland, O. 

GovBRNORS : Adolf Krnus, Pres. I. O. B. B. ; A. B. Seelenfreund, Sec. 
I. O. B. B. ; and as ex-officio members of the Board, the officers and members 
of the Executive Committee of the I. O. B. B. ; Myrtle W. Baer, Mllwaulcee, 
Wis. ; Alfred A. Benesch, Cleveland. O. ; Mrs. S. R. Peil, Omaha, Neb. ; 
EQdna Goldsmith, Cleveland, O. ; Moses J. Gries, Cleveland, O. : Grace Gross- 
man, Youngstown, O. ; Edgar A. Hahn, Cleveland. O. ; Mrs. Michael Heller, 
Cleveland, O. ; D. Huebsch, Cleveland, O. ; Mrs. Sigmund Joseph, Cleveland, 
O. ; Samuel J. Kornhauser, Cleveland, O. ; Fred Lazarus, Jr., Columbus, O. ; 
Meyer Lovitch, Scranton, Pa. ; Joseph A. Magnus, Cincinnati, O. ; M. J. 
Mandelbaum, Cleveland, O. ; Gerald J. May, Detroit, Mich. ; Mrs. Jacob 
Ottenheimer Cincinnati, O. ; A. Peslcind, Cleveland, O. : Sidney E. Pritz, 
Cincinnati, 0. ; Anna C. Roth, Toledo, O.-; Joseph Schonthal. Columbus. O. ; 
pansy Schlossman, Chicago, 111. ; E. A. Schwarzenberg, Cleveland, O. ; Harry 
Simon, St. Louis, Mo. ; I. S. Stern, Madison^ Ind. ; David Sternberg, Memphis, 
Tenn. ; A. Weinstein, Port Wayne, Ind. ; Eugene P. Westhelmer, St. Joseph, 
Mo. 

The members are distributed as follows : Alabama : Mobile, Mont- 

gomery. — Arkansas : Little Rock. — California : Los Angeles. — Colorado : 
►enver. — Plorida : Jacksonville. — Georgia : Atlanta. — Illinois : Champaign, 
Chicago, Danville, Glencoe, Madison, Peoria. — Indiana : Fort Wayne, In- 
dianapolis, Kendallville, Lebanod, Ligonier, Madison, Munde, Terre Haute. 
— Iowa : Albla, Carroll, Davenport, Des Moines, Lake City, Sioux City. — 
Kentucky : Covington, Louisville, Newport. — Louisiana : Baton Rouge, New 
Orleans. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Michigan : Calumet, Detroit, Houghton, 
Jackson, Kalamazoo. — Minnesota : Duluth, Moorhead, Renville, St. Paul, 
Winona. — Mississippi : Natchez. — Missouri : Joplin, Kansas City, Louisiana 
City, St. Joseph. St. Louis, Webster Groves, Windom. — Nebraska : Beatrice, 
Grand Island, Omaha. — New Jersey : East Orange, Newark. — New York : 
Brooklyn. Buffalo, New Rochelle, New York City, Rochester. — North Caro- 
lina : Asneville. — North Dakota : Pargo. — Ohio : Akron, Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Columbus, Elmwood Place, Premont, Ottawa, Youngstown. — Pennsyl- 
vania : Aitoona, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh. — South Carolina : Sumter. — 
Tennessee : Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis. — Texas : Dallas, San 
Antonio. — Washington : Spokane. — Wisconsin : Appleton, Milwaukee. 



FEDERATION OF AMERICAN ZIONISTS 
Org. 1897. Office : 44 B. 23d, New York City 

Nineteenth Annual Convention, July 2-5, 1916, Philadelphia, Pa. 
• Number of Shekel-payers, 50,000. 

Societies, 156 ; Camps of Order Sons of Zion, 87 ; Gates of Order Knights 
of Zion, 72; Hadassah Chapters, 25. 

The Pederation issues leaflets, painphlets, etc. Also the Maccabiean. 
a monthly, in English ; Dos Ylddishe Polk, a weekly, in Yiddish ; and the 
Young Judean. 

Officebs : Pres., Harry Prledenwald, Baltimore, Md. ; Chairman of 
Executive Committee, Louis Lipsky ; Treas., Louis Robison ; Hon. Sec, 
Bernard A. Rosenblatt, N. Y. C. 



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228 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



EzECuTiYB Committbb: S. Abel, J. Barondesi, Sophia Berger, Charles 
A. Cowen, Abr. Goldberg, Mrs. J. C. Ougfenheimer, 8. Melamed, Benj. 
Perlstein, David de Sola Pool, Max Raisin, B. O. Richards, M. Rottenberg, 
Joshua Sprayregen, Lawrence Stelnhardt. 

SociBTiBs: Alabama: Birmingham. — California: Los Angeles (2), Oak- 
land, San Francisco. — Colorado: Denver (2). — Connecticut: Hartford (3), 
New Haven (2), New London. — District of Columbia: Washington (2). — 
Georgia: Athens. Atlanta (2), Savannah. — Illinois: Chicago. — Kentucky: 
Louisville (2), Newport. — Louisiana: New Orleans. — Maine: Portland. — 
Maryland: Baltimore (5). — Massachusetts: Boston (2), Brockton, Chelsea, 
Dorchester, East Boston, Fitchberg, Haverhill, Holyoke. Lawrence, Lowell, 
Lynn, New Bedford, Newburyport, North Adams, Salem, South Bridge, 
Springfield (2), Worcester (3). — Michigan: Detroit (3).— Minnesota : St. 
Paul. — Mississippi: Hattiesburg. — Missouri: Kansas City. — New Hamp- 
shire: Manchester, Nashua. Portsmouth. — New Jersey: Bavonne, Hoboken, 
Jersey City, New Brunswick, Newark (5), Orange, Perth Amboy. — New 
York: Albany, Brooklyn (3). Buffalo. Elmira (2), Glens Falls (2), New 
Rochelle, New York City (16), Rochester (3), Rome, Schenectady (2), 
Syracuse (3), Troy. — North Carolina: Durham. — Ohio: Akron, Canton, 
Cincinnati (2), Cleveland (4), Columbus, Dayton, Youngstown. — Oklahoma : 
Oklahoma City. — Oregon : Portland. — Pennsylvania : Beaver Falls, Greens- 
burg, Hazleton, Johnstown, Philadelphia (6), Pittsburgh (4), Punxsntaw- 
nev, Reading, Washington, Wilkes-Barre. — Rhode Island: Providence (2). 
— South Carolina: Charleston, Columbia. — Tennessee: Chattanooga, Mem- 
phis, Nashville. — Texas: Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston (2), San Antonio, 
Terrell, Wharton. — Vermont : Burlington. — Virginia : Lynchburg, Newport 
News, Norfolk (2), Petersburg, Portsmouth, Richmond (2), Roanoke. — 
Washington: Seattle (2). — West Virginia: Charleston. 

FEDERATION OF JEW^ISH FARMERS OF AMERICA 

Org. Jan. 20, 1909. Office : 174 Second Av., New York City 

Seventh Annual Convention, Dec 5-8, 1915, New York City. 

Members, 1178. 

Societies, 63. 

PuEPOSB : To advance the interests of Jewish farmers. 

Officers : Pres., A. M. Kuntz, Iselin, N. J. ; Vice-Pres., I. D. Wolf, 
Centerville Station, N. Y. : Sec, J. W. Pincus, 174 Second Av. ; Treas., P. 
Abelson, 200 Fifth Av., N. Y. C. 

Executive Committee : Wm. A. Belkin. Cranburv, N. J. ; J. H. Cohen, 
Woodbine, N. J. ; Nathan Cohen, N. Y. C. ; Harry Goldberg, Kiamesha, N. Y. ; 
Ely Greenblatt, Botsford, Conn. ; Solomon Grudin, Perrineville, N. J. ; 
Samuel Hein, N. Y. C. : Abraham Kaufman, Colchester, Conn. ; Sam Krouner, 
Nassau, N. Y. ; Chas. Levine, RockviUe, Conn. ; Julius Llchtman, Livingston 
Manor, N. Y. ; Simon Rosano, Norwich, Conn. ; S. Shindler, Hurleyville, 
N. Y. ; Isaac Teplenko, Taunton, Mass. ; Adolf Tiger, Ferndale, N. Y. ; 
Jacob Weiner, Blfenville, N. Y. 

Constituent Societies : Connecticut : Colchester Jewish Farmers Assn., 
Sec, David S. Lemer ; Connecticut Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, C. Levine, 
Rockville ; Cornwall Bridge Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, S. Osofsky, R. F. D. 
3, Sharon ; Hartford Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, M. Becker ; Independent 
Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Chesterfield, Sec, N. Traistman ; The Jewish 
Farmers Assn. of Vernon, Sec. Benj. Kanter, R. F. D. 1. Rockville; The 
Jewish Farmers Assn. of Willlmantic, Sec, Gerson Woolfson, Columbia; 
Jewish Farmers Assn. of Fairfield County, Sec, BenJ. Rose, Route 14, 
Stepney ; Ladles Auxiliary of Branch No. 6, Sec, Anna Snow, Long Hill ; 
Lebanon Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, Nathan Glotzerman, Leonards Bridge ; 
New Haven Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, B. Sinoway, North Haven ; North 
Canton Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec^ Max Kavaler, Collinsville ; Norwich 
Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, Simon Rosano, R. F. D. 6 ; Rocky Hill Jewish 
Farmers Assn., Sec, Jacob Appelbauin, Wethersfield : Tumerville Jewish 
Farmers Assn., Sec, J. H. Aronowits, Hebron ; UncasviUe Jewish Farmers 



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FEDERATION OF ORIENTAL JEWS 229 



ABsn., Sec, Louis Ratner, Box 1, Oakdale : Tantic Jewish Farmers Assn., 
Sec., L. Weber, R. P. D. 1. — Delaware: First Jewish Farmers Assn. of 
Dover. — Massichusetts : Becliet Center Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, J. Rod ; 
Bristol County Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec., Charles Fine, Attleboro. — New 
Jersey : Cape May County Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, J. H. Cohen, Wood- 
bine ; Carmel County Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, M. Norovlansky ; First 
United Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Hlghtstown, Sec, S. Grudin, Perrineville ; 
Flemlngton Jewish Farmers Circle, Sec, A. Kaufman, Croton ; Irylngton 
Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, Marcus Levin, Union ; Jewish Farmers Assn. of 
Middlesex County, SeC;^ A. M. Kuntz, Iselin ; Kinkora Jewish Farmers Assn., 
Sec, Hyman Selzer, Columbus; Middlesex County Jewish Farmers Assn.. 
Sec, M!. a. Halprin, R. F. D. 4, New Brunswick ; Norma and Alliance 
Farmers Assn., Sec, J. C. Reis, R. F. D. 6, Vineland ; Perrineville Jewish 
Farmers Assn., Sec, M. Wolf ; Plnebrook Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec^ Louis 
Waxberg. — New York : E*lelshmann's Station Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, M. 
Dlasnow ; Glenwlld Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, L. Rosenblatt ; Hebrew Aid 
Society of Brlggs Street, Sec, A. Hoffman, R. F. D. Box 124, Ellenville; 
Hebrew Benevolent Farmers Assn. of Rensselaer County, Sec, A. Smith, 
Nassau ; Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Centerville. Sec, Wolf Shapiro, Center- 
vllle Station ; Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Fallsburg, Sec, Charles Volpin, 
South Fallsburg ; Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Femdale and Stevensville, Sec, 
A. Tiger. Femdale ; Hebrew Farmers Assn. of Hurleyvllle, Sec, Simon Kove, 
Hurleyville; Jewish Farmers Assn. of Kerhonkson and Accord, Sec, A. 
Kazazkof, Kerhonkson ; Jewish Farmers Assn. of Manllus, Sec, M. Roth- 
man, R. F. D. 3. ; Livingston Manor Farmers Assn., Sec, J. Llchtman ; Long 
Island Dairymen's Assn., Sec, Harry Sacks, 426 Hegeman, Bklyn. ; 
Maplewood Jewish Farmers Assn.. Sec, Philip Goldstein : Mountaindale 
Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, Maurice Levy; New Lots Dairymen's Assn., 
Sec, B. Z. M. Gordon, Bklyn. ; Orange County Jewish Farmers Assn., 
Sec, Abraham Mlshulow, Godeffroy ; Parksvllle Farmers Assn., Sec^ Harry 
Fiddle ; Ulster Heights Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, S. Tenenbium. R. F. D.. 
Ellenville; Woodbourne Jewish Farmers Assn., Sec, Harry Weintraub, 
Hasbrouck.— Ohio : Jewish Farmers Assn. of North Eastern Ohio, Sec, 
J. Golumb, R. 4. Geneva. — Pennsylvania : Eastern Pennsylvania Jewish 
Farmers Assn., Sec, M. Moskowitz, Neshaminy ; Frenchtown and Uhlers- 
town Jewish Farmers Assn.. Sec, B. Zeltlin, Sundale. — Washington : Jew- 
ish Farmers Assn. of the State of Washington, Sec, B. Alt, R. R. 1, Lnke 
Bay. — Wyoming : Jewish Farmers Assn. of Goshen County, Sec, M. J. Wind, 
Allen. 



FEDERATION OF ORIENTAL JEWS OF AMERICA 

Org. 1912. Office : 866 Second Av., New York City 

Third Annual Meeting, June 11, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 1000. 

PuBPOSE : Americanization and betterment of condition of Oriental Jews. 

Officebs : Pres., Joseph Gedalecia ; Vice-Pres., Joseph Hakim, Sabatai 
Menachem, Jacques Varon ; Treas., David Carasso ; Sec, Albert J. Amateau. 

Advisoby Boabd : Cyrus Adler, Phila., Pa. ; Sadie American, Mrs. David 
J. Benoliel, Mrs. Victor Brenner, Abram I. Elkus, Chicago, 111. : Leon 
Sander, Max Senior, Leo Sulzberger, Edward Valensl, Jacques Valensl, 
Stephen S. Wise. N. Y. C. 

Societies : Alabama : Montgomery, Es Achaim. — Georgia : Atlanta, 
Ahavat Shalom. — New York : New York City, Ahava Ve-Ahva Janina, Achi 
Ezer Damascus, Agudath Achlm of Rhodes, Agudath Talmud Torah Mlz- 
rahi. Ah vat Shalom Monastlr, Chaim Va-Chessed Galllpoli, Chesed Ve- 
Emeth Castoria, Ez Achaim Society, Ezrat Achlm Society, Keneseth Israel 
Janina, Keter Zion Angora, Mekor Chaim of Dardanelles, Oriental Aid 
Society. Oriental Hebrew Association, Oriental Jewish Community of New 
York, Oriental Jewish Education Society, Oriental Jewish Maccabal of 
America, Oriental Jewish Social Club, Oriental Ozar Dalim, Oriental 



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230 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Progresslye Society, Rodfe Zedek of Aleppo, Seror Achaim Society, Shearith 
Israel Miturkla, Society of Zionist Sepharedim, Tchorlou Society. Tikva 
Tova ; Rochester, Or Israel Monastlr. — Oregon : Portland, Chesed Israel 
Anshe Rhodes. — Washington : Seattle, Anshe Rhodes, Ahayat Shalom 
Marmora. 



FEDERATION OF ROUMANIAN JEWS OF AMERICA 

Org. Mch. 8, 1008. Office : 42 7th, New York City 

Seventh Annual Conyentlon, June 6, 1916. New York City. 

Members, 40.000. 

Branches, 50. 

Purpose : To aid Roumanian Jews here and in Roumania. 

Officers : Hon. Pres., P. A. Siegelstein, 220 E. 12th : Pres., Charles I. 
Fleck; Vlce-Pres., Morltz Graubaro, Max Rubinger, and Herman Speler; 
Treas., B. Carneol j Sec, J. E. Braunstein, N. Y. C. 

Trustees : L. Eckstein, L. Nussinoff and Wm. Schreiber. 

Directors : H. Altbach, Mrs. S. Berkovitz, H. Blmbaum, H. Bookstaber, 
I. Braunstein. L. Eckstein, P. Ferester, Mrs. M. Fichman, Zlg. Fichman, 
Chas. I. Fleck, M. B. Friedman, Mrs. C. Glassberg, M. Glassberg, I. M. 
Glickmnn, C. Golden thai, William Goodman, Harry Greenberg, Ph. Jaeger, 
A. Kindler, R. Koerner, E. Koffler, Joseph Kolner, S. Kramer, Mrs. E. 
Kramer, Max Marcus, M. Markowitz, B. Sfilberg, L. Nussinoft, J. Pocker, 
Mrs. S. Rosenthal. N. Kosenzweig, Chas. Rubinger, Max Rubinger, A. Schaft- 
ner, M. Schoenfeld, Sam Schwartz, Slgmund Schwartz, B. E. Siegelstein, 
Leonard A. Snitkin, S. Solomonldl, H. Speler, B. Stein, N. Vladinger, J. 
Weitzner. 

Branches : Illinois : Chicago, Pres., J. Gartensteln, 12th and Ashland 
Av. — Michigan: Detroit, Sec., Sam Weinberg, 210 Elizabeth. — Ohio: 
Cleveland, Chairman, O. J. Kohn, 2348 E. 28th.— Pennsylvania : Pitts- 
burgh, Sec, J. Greenfield, 1127 Centre Ay. 



FEDERATION OF ROUMANIAN JEWS OF AMERICA 

Org. Mch. 8, 1908. Office : 185 Forsyth, New York City 

Ninth Annual Convention, May 27-28, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 20.000. 

Branches, 40. 

Purpose : To aid Roumanian Jews In Roumania ; local charity activities, 
and to participate in all movements of Jewish National Character. 

Maintains Home for Convalescents, Solomon Schechter Memorial Jewish 
Home for Convalescents at Grand View, N. Y. 

Officers : Pres., Julius Weiss ; Vlce-Pres., Nathan Siegel, Betty Weiss, 
Philip Yeger ; Treas., Ph. L. Bereano ; Sec, S, Dlnmant. 

Trustees : Isaac Aberman, Jacob Aranowltz, Herman Braunstein, Morris 
Caesar. Philip Goldstein, I. Korman, Joseph Landes, M. Lazarus, Max 
Ornsteln. 

Advisory Board: Joseph Bnrondess, D. M. Hermalin, Albert Kruger, 
Albert Lucas, H. Masllansky, Leon Sanders. 



HADASSAH 

THE WOMEN'S ZIONIST ORGANIZATION 
Org. 1912. Office : 44 E. 23d, New York City 
Third Annual Convention, July 2-4, 1916, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chapters, 24, Subchapter, 1. 

Purpose : In America, to foster Jewish ideals and make Zionist propa- 
ganda ; in Palestine, to establish a system of District Visiting Nursing. 



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HEBREW SHELTERING SOCIETY 231 



Affiliated with the Federation of American Zionists. 

Central Committee: Sophia Berger, Mrs. Richard Gotthell, Rose A. 
Henog, Lotta Levensohn, Mrs. B. A. Rosenblatt, Jessie B. Lampter, Alice 
L. Seligsberg, Nellie Straus, Henrietta Szold, 2 Pinehurst Av., N. Y. C. 

Chapters : Colorado : Denver. — Connecticut : New London, Norwich. — 
Illinois : Chicago. — Maine : Portland. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Massa- 
chusetts : Boston, Worcester. — Minnesota : St. Paul. — Missouri : Kansas 
City. — New Jersey : Newark, Perth Amboy. — New York : New Rochelle, 
New York City, Rochester, Schenectady, Syracuse. — Ohio : Cleveland. 
Youngstown. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia, Reading. — Rhode Island 
Providence. — Tennessee : Chattanooga. — ^Virginia : Norfolk-Portsmouth. 

Subchapter : Florida : Jacksonville. 



HAI RESH FRATERNITY 

Org. July, 1907. Opfice : St. Joseph, Mo. 

Eighth Annual Conclave, Dec. 26-30, 1915, Denver, Colo. 

Members, 265. 

Officers : Council Chief, Maurice W. Goldsmith, St. Louis, Mo. ; Council 
Prophet, Melvin Schlesinger, Lincoln, Nebr. ; Council Scribe, Rudolf W. 
Loeb, Atlanta, Ga. ; Council Regent, Edgar C. Haas, Atlanta, Ga. ; Chairman 
of the Installation Committee, Alan L. Littman, Cleveland, O. ; Editor-iur 
Chief, Morris W. Hirsh, Memphis, Tenn. ; Fraternity Historian, Leon S. 
Schembeck, St. .Toseph, Mo. 

Chapters : Ilm Chapter, St. Joseph, Mo. ; MaJ Chapter, Kansas City, 
Mo. ; Sar Chapter, St. Louis, Mo. ; Hav Chapter, Llncoln^^Nebr. ; Rem 
Chapter, Denver, Colo. : Gan Chapter, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Wen Chapter, 
Memphis, Tenn. ; Yes Chapter, Omaha, Nebr. ; Jem Chapter, Fort Wayne, 
Ind. ; Beb Chapter. Twin Cities, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn. ; Fil 
Chapter, Pueblo, Colo. ; Vil Chapter, Louisville, Ky. ; Tae Chapter, Okla- 
homa City, Okia. ; Nic Chapter, New Orleans, Ta. ; Epf Chapter, Little 
Rock, Ark. ; Lam Chapter, Des Moines, la. ; Lesh Cha^r, Atlanta* Ga. ; 
Mur Chapter, Cleveland, O. ; Blar Chapter, Dayton, O. ; Wal Chapter, Port- 
land, Ore. ; Hew Chapter, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



HEBREW SHELTERING AND IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY 
OP AMERICA 

Office : 229-231 Bast Broadway, New York City 

An amalgamation of the Hebrew Sheltering House Association organized 
Nov., 1888, and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society organized 1901. 

Twenty-seventh Annual Convention, Feb. 27, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 52.052. 

Purpose: To facilitate the lawful entry of Jewish immigrants at the 
various ports in the United States, to provide them with temporary as- 
sistance, to prevent them from becoming public charges, to discourage their 
settling in congested cities, to encourage them to follow agricultural pur- 
suits, to prevent ineligibles from emigrating to the United States, to foster 
American ideals, and to instill in them a Knowledge of American history 
and institutions, and to make better known the advantages of desirable 
immigration. 

Officers : Hon. Pres., Nathan Hutkoff ; Pres., Leon Sanders, N. Y. C. ; 
Vice-Pres^ . Isaac Heller, Boston, Mass. : Leon Kamaiky, N. Y. C. ; Louis 
Edward Levy, Philadelphia. Pa. ; Max Meyerson, Newark, N. J. ; Leo S. 
Schwabacher, Seattle, Wasn. ; Israel Silberstein, Baltimore, Md. ; Harry 
K. Wolff, San Francisco, Cal. : Treas., Harry Fischel, N. Y. C. ; Hon. Sec, 
John L. Bernstein ; General Manager, I. Irving Lipsitch, N. Y. C. 



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232 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



V 

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For Baltimore, Md.: Louis Cohen, Adolph Kres, M. E. Selenkow. 

For Boston, Mass.: M. Alman, Samuel Kabatchnik, Harris Poorm. 

For Philadelphia, Pa.: Jacob Ginsburg, Andrew Knas, Howard S. Levy. 

For San Francisco, CaL: I. J. Ascheim, Martin A. Meyer, M. Spiegelman. 

For Seattle, Wash.: Nathan Eckstein, Julius C. Lang, Henry C. Pickard. 

Affiliated Societies : California : San Francisco, Hebrew Immigrant 
Aid Society, 149 Eddy. — -Maryland : Baltimore, Hebrew Immigrant Aid 
Society. 1212-1220 E. Baltimore. — Massachusetts: Boston, Hebrew Immi- 
grant Aid Society, 104 Salem. — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, Association 
for the Protection of Jewish Immigrants, 275 S. 4th. — Washington : Seattle, 
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, 811 Yesler Way. 



HEBREW UNION COLLEGE 
(See p. 256.) 



INDEPENDENT HEBREWS OF AMERICA 

Org. July 15, 1914. Office: 18 Boylston, Boston, Mass. 

Second Annual Convention, Jan. 80, 1916, Boston, Mass. 

Members, 8028. 

Officers : Grand Master, Manashe Krantcman ; First Deputy Grand 
Master, Joseph Leondar ; Second Deputy Grand Master, Solomon Gotthardt ; 
Third Deputy Grand Master, Harry Leich ; Grand Treas.. Isaac Shapiro ; 
Grand Sec, Tiouis Davis. 18 Boylston ; Grand Guide, Isaac Rosenfleld ; 
Grand Inner Watch, Louis Barker; Grand Outer Watch, Max Berkowits. 

Executive Committee: J. H. Danzig, H. Gitlin, Harry Gradetsky, Louis 
Lemon, Morris Lichtensteln, J. S. Sibulkin, Louis Wolensky. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF BTiAI BHITH 

Org. Nov. 1, 1843. Office: 1228 Tribune Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Tenth Quinquennial Convention, May 2, 1915, San Francisco, Cal. 

Members. 40,083. 

Lodges, 442 (in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa). 

Districts, 11 (7 in the United States). 

Institutions founded by the Order in the United States: Hebrew Or- 
phan's Home, Atlanta, Ga. ; B'nai B*rith Cemetery, Chicago, 111. ; Free 
Employment Bureau, Chicago, 111. ; Jewish Widows* and Orphans* 
Home, New Orleans, La.; Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, La. ; Home 
for Aged and Infirm, Yonkers, N. Y. ; Cleveland Jewish Obphan 



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INDEPENDENT ORDER OP B'NAI B'RITH 233 



Asylum, Cleyeland, O. ; B'nai B*bith Free Em plotmbnt Bureau, Pitts- 
bargh. Fa. ; Belief Committee, Hot Springs, Ark. ; B'nai B'bith Club, 
San Francisco, Cal. ; Home for Jewish Orphans, Los Angeles, Cal. ; Im- 
M IGBANT Schools, at Kalamazoo, Mich.; and Memphis, Tenn. ; Sabbath 
Schools, at Houghton, Mich.; Trenton, N. J.; Sharon, Pa., and Madison, 
Wis. ; B'NAI B'bith Obphanaqe, at Brie, Pa. ; Leo N. Levi Hospital, Hot 
Springs, Ark. 

Officebs : PreSy^ Adolf Kraus, Chicago, 111. ; First Vice-Pres., Lucius 
U Solomons, San Francisco, Cal. ; Second Vice-Pres., Archibald A. Marx, 
New Orleans, La. : Treas., Jacob Furth, St. Louis, Mo. ; Sec, Alex. B. Seelen- 
freund, Chicago, 111. 

Executive Committee : Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C. ; Charles Hart- 
nnan. N. T. C. ; E. N. Calisch, Richmond, Va. ; Philip Stein, Chicago, 111. ; 
Berthold Timendorfer, Berlin, Germany; Adolphe Stem, Bucharest, Rou- 
mania ; Sol. Ehrmann, Vienna, Austria : J. Niego, Constantinople, Turkey. 

Distbicts : I. Org. 1851. Lodges, 48. Territory : Connecticut, Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 
Sec, Rejrinald Zunder, 1784 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

II. Org. 1852. Lodges. 39. Territory: Colorado, Indiana, Kansas. 
Kentucky, Missouri, New Orleans, and Ohio. Sec, Victor Abraham, 504 
St. Paul Bldg., Cincinnati, O. 

III. Org. 1860. Lodges, 45. Territory: Delaware, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylyanla, and West Virginia. Sec, Louis Suizbacher, 421 Mills Av., Brad- 
dock, Pa. 



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234 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Butte, Helena. — Nebraska: Lincoln, Omaha (2). — Nevada: Reno. — New 
Jersey: Atlantic City, Jersey City, Newark (3), New Brunswick, Paterson, 
Trenton. — New York: Albany, Amsterdam, Brooklyn (3), Buffalo, Elmira, 
New York City (20), Plattsburg, Rochester, Rondout, Syracuse, Yonkers. — 
New Mexico : Albuquerque, Las Vegas. — North Carolina : Asheville, Char- 
lotte, Goldsboro, Greensboro, Raleigh, Wilmington. — North Dakota: Fargo, 
Grand Forks. — Ohio : Akron, Bellaire, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, 
Dayton, Lima, Toledo, Youngstown, Zanesville. — Oklahoma : Ardmore, Mus- 
kogee, Oklahoma City, Tulsa. — Oregon: Portland (2). — ^Pennsylvania: Al- 
lentown, Altoona, Beaver Falls, Braddock, Bradford, Butler, Corry, Danville, 
Duquesne, Easton, Ellwood, Erie. Harrisburg, Hazleton, Homestead, Johns- 
town, Kittanning, Lancaster, McKeesport, MeadviUe, Monessen, New Castle, 
New Kensington, Philadelphia (4). Pittsburgh (4), Pottsvllle, Reading, 
Scranton, Sharon, Uniontown, Wasnington, Wilkes-Barre. — Rhode Island : 
Providence. — South Carolina : Charleston, Columbia, Darlington, Sumter. — 
Tennessee: Bristol, Brownsville, Chattanooga, Columbia, Jackson, Knox- 
ville, Memphis, Nashville. — Texas : Austin. Beaumont, Bryan, Calvert, 
Corpus Christi, Corsicana, Dallas (2), El Paso, Fort Worth, Gainesville, 
Galveston, Houston (3). Marshall, Orange, Palestine, San Antonio (2), 
Texarkana, Tyler, Victoria, Waco. Wichita Falls. — Utah : Salt Lake City. — 
Virginia : Danville, Newport News, Norfolk, Richmond. — Washington : 
Aberdeen, Bellingham, Everett, Seattle (2), Spokane, Ta coma.-— West 
Virginia : Charleston, Clarksburg, Fairmont, Huntington, Morgantown, 
Parkersburg, Wheeling. — Wisconsin : Appleton, Bau Claire, Green Bay, 
Madison, Milwaukee (2), Racine, Stevens Pointi_Wausau. — Canada: Van- 
couver, B. C, Victoria, B. C, Calgarv, Alta., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Fort 
William, Ontario, Edmonton, Alta., Saskatoon, Alta., Montreal, Quebec. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH ABRAHAM 

Org. Feb. 7, 1887. Office : 37 7th, New York City 
Thirtieth Annual Convention, May 21, 1916, New York City. 
Members, 203,378. 
Lodges, 767. 

Officers : Grand Master. Leon Sanders, 220 Broadway ; First Deputy 
Grand Master, Gustave Hartman, N. Y. C. : Second Deputy Grand Master, 
Abr. Roosov, Boston, Mass. : Grand Sec, M. L. Hollander, 37 7th ; Grand 
Treas., David Goldberg, N. Y. C. ; Endowment Treas., Max Verschleisser ; 
Counsel to the Order, Adolph Stern. 

LoDOBS : Alabama: Birmingham. — Colorado: Denver (2). — Connecticut: 
Ansonia, Hartford (3), Meriden, New Haven (4), Norwich, Torrlngton, 
Waterbury. — Delaware : Wilmington. — District of Columbia : Washington 
(2). — Georgia: Atlanta (2). — Illinois: Chicago (18), Kankakee. — Indiana: 
Indiana Harbor, Indianapolis. — Iowa : Davenport. — Kentucky : Louisville. 
— Maine: Portland (4). — -Maryland: Baltimore (7). — Massachusetts: Attle- 
boro, Boston (39), Brockton (2), Cambridge (2), Chelsea (11), Colllnsville, 
Dorchester, Fall River (5), Gloucester. Haverhill (2), Holyoke, Lawrence 

' ' '" "' "* ^' Bedford, North Adams, North- 

ingfleld (2), Taunton, Worces- 
(2). — Missouri: Kansas City 
hire: Concord, Manchester (2). 
, Carmel, Carteret, Elizabeth, 
n, Newark (7), Newburyport, 
lelle, Rosenhayn, Trenton, West 
), Auburn, Bath Beach. Bing- 
, Elmira, Glens Falls, Glovers- 
Brighton, New Rochelle. New 
(2), Poughkeepsie, Rochester 
, Troy (2), Utica (2), Yonkers. 
Lio: Cincinnati (3),. Cleveland 



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INDEPENDENT ORDER FREE SONS OF ISRAEL 235 



(5), CotumbuB, Lorain, Younestown; — Oregon: Portland. — Pennsylvania: 
Allen tow& (2), Altoona, Braddock, Conshohocken, Harrisburf, Homestead, 
PliUadelphia (36), Pittsburgh (3), Pittston, Pottstown, Reading, Scranton 
(4), South Bethlehem, Wilkes-Barre (2). York. — Rhode Island: Newport, 
Paivtucket, Providence (9), Woonsocket. — South Carolina: Columbia. — 
Tennessee : Nashville. — Virginia : Berkley, Newport News, Norfolk, Peters- 
burg, Portsmouth. — Wisconsin: Milwaukee (3). 



INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH SHOLOM 
Org. Feb. 25, 1905. Office : 512 S. 5th, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Twelfth Convention, June 11, 1916, Scranton, Pa. 

Members, 49,860. 

Lodges, 356. 

Officers : Past Grand Master, Solomon C. Kraus ; Grand Master, Louis 
S. Rubinsohn, Phila^ Pa. ; First Deputy Grand Master, S. R. Schultz. N. Y. 
C. ; Second Deputy Grand Master. A. S. Kanengieser, Newark, N. J. ; Third 
Deputy Grand Master, Morris Robinson, Providence, R. I. ; Grand Sec, 
Martin O. Levy ; Assistant Sec, Adolph Rosenblum ; Grand Treas., I. Rosen- 
baum ; Endowment Treas., H. Braslavsky ; Counsellor of the Order, Joseph 
U Kun, Phila., Pa. 

Lodges : Alabama : Birmingham. — Colorado : Colorado Springs, Denver 
(4). — Connecticut: Bridgeport, Derby^, Hartford (4), Middletown, New 
Britain, New Haven, New London (2), Waterbury. — Delaware : Wilmington. 
— District of Columbia: Washington (3). — Georgia: Atlanta. — Illinois: 
Chicago (8). — Kentucky: Louisville. — Louisiana: New Orleans (2). — 
Maryland: Baltimore (13). — Missouri: St. Joseph, St. Louis (4). — New 
Jersey: Atlantic City, Bayonne (2), Bridgeton, Burlington, Camden, Car- 



Elmira, Glens Falls, Gloversville, New York City (53), Port Chester, Roches- 
ter, Sag Harbor. Schenectady, Syracuse (2), Troy, Utica. — North Carolina: 
Charlotte, Durham. — Ohio: Akron, Canton, Cincinnati, Cleveland (2), 
Columbus, East Liverpool, Youngstown. — Pennsylvania : Allentown, Al- 
toona, Chester, Coatesville, Duryea, Easton, Greensburg, Harrisburg (2), 
Hazleton, Johnstown, Mahanoy City, McKeesport, New Castle, Norristown, 
Philadelphia (94), Phllipsburg, Phoenixville, Pittsburgh (2), Pottstown, 
Pottsville, Reading, Scranton (o), Shamokin, Shenandoah, South Bethlehem, 
South Sharon, Weissport, West Chester, Wilkes-Barre (2), York. — Rhode 
Island: Newport, Pawtucket, Providence (9), Woonsocket. — Utah: Salt 
Lake City.— Virginia : Lynchburg, Newport News, Norfolk, Richmond. — 
Wisconsin: Milwaukee (3). 



INDEPENDENT ORDER FREE SONS OF ISRAEL 

Org. Jan. 18, 1849. Office : 21 W. 124th, New York City 

Ninth Quinquennial Convention, Mny 12, 1912, Rochester, N. Y. 

Triennial Convention, May 23, 1915, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Members (Jan. 1, 1916), 7842. 

Lodges, 82. 

Districts, 2. 

Officebs: Grand Master, Emil Tausig; i'irst Deputy Grand Master,- 
Solon J. Liebeskind ; Second Deputy Grand Master, Henry Jacobs, N. Y. C. ; 
Third Deputy Grand Master, Adolph Pike, Chicago, 111. ; Grand Sec, 
Abraham Harer, 21 W. 124th; Grand Treas., BenJ. Blumenthal; Counsel 
to the Order, M. B. Blumenthal, N. Y. C. ; Chairman Committee on Death 
Benefit Claims, Samuel Sturtz. 



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236 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



BxECUTiVB Committkb: M. Angelo Bllas. Joseph I. Hartenstein, Loaia 
Hess, Jacob A. Hirschman, Henry Lipsky, Benjamin Nagelschmldt, Mayer 
D. Rosenbach, Henry V. Rothschild, Edward Schulhot Henry B. Stem, 
Herman Stiefel, Benjamin H. Wasserman, Morris A. Weinberg. 

DisTBiCTS : 1. Territory : Connecticut, Massachusetts^ New Jersey, New 
York, and Rhode Island. II. Territory: Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Missouri, and Wisconsin. 

Lodges : California : San Francisco. — Connecticut : Hartford, New 
Haven. — Georgia: Atlanta. — Illinois: Chicago (10). — Kansas: Leaven- 
worth. — Kentucky : Louisville. — Louisiana : New Orleans. — Massachusetts : 
Boston (2).— Michigan: Detijoit.— Mississippi : Vicksburg.— Missouri : St. 
Louis. — New Jersey: Newark (2). — New York: Albany, Brooklyn (4). 
Buffalo, New York City (87), Rochester, Rondout, Syracuse, Troy. — Ohio : 
Cincinnati (2), Cleveland. — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia (2). Pittsburgh. — 
Rhode Island : Providence. — Tennessee : Memphis, Nashville. — Virginia : 
Norfolk. — Wisconsin : Milwaukee. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER FREE SONS OF JUDAH 

Org. Feb. 12, 1890. Office : 78 Second Av., New York City 

Twenty-sixth Annual Convention, Apl. 2, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 23,500. 

Lodges, 200. 

Officers : Grand Master, Sam Goldstein, 955 Prospect Av., N. T. C. : 
First Deputy Grand Master, Max Gottsegen, N. Y. C. ; Second Deputy Grand 
Master, Theodor Seideman, Baltimore, Md. ; Grand Sec, Sigmund Fodor, 78 
Second Av.: Grand Treas., S. Heyman ; Endowment Treas., Morris Barush, 
Brooklyn, ii. Y. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER SONS OP BENJAMIN 

Org. Dec. 23, 1877. Office : 953 Third Av., New York City 

Twenty-fifth Annual Convention. Jan. 25, 1916, New York City. 

Members, 742. Underwritten by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 

Lodges, 18. 

Officers : Grand Master, Julius Gumpert : First Deputy Grand Master, 
Myer L. Seixas, N. Y. C. ; Second Deputy Grand Master, Jacob Hyman, 
Boston, Mass. ; Grand Sec, Louis B. Franklin ; Grand Treas., Theodore 
Katz, N. Y. C. ; Chairman on Finance, Abraham Frankel ; Chairman on 
Mortuary Fund, Joseph Marmorstein ; Chairman on Appeals, Leopold 
Fuchs ; Counsel to the Order, M. Angelo Ellas, N. Y. C. 

Lodges: Connecticut (1) : Illinois (3) ; Massachusetts (1) ; New York 
(20) ; Ohio (2) ; Pennsylvania (2). 



♦ INDEPENDENT ORDER SONS OP ISRAEL 

Org. May 29, 1913. Office : 15 Court Sq., Boston, Mass. 

Third Annual Convention, June 17-18, 1916, Boston, Mass. 

Members. 4000. 

Lodges, 40. 

Purpose : Fraternity and Disability Benefits. 

Officers : Grand Master, Henry H. Levenson, Boston, Mass. : First 
Deputy Grand Master, Hsrman J. Danzig, Roxbury, Mass. ; Second Deputy 
Grand Master, L. Goldstein; Third Deputy Grand Master, H. L4ppie: 
Fourth Deputy Grand Master, Hyman Orenberg; Fifth Deputy Grand 
Master, Abr. Stahl ; Grand Treas., Joseph Kirshon ; Grand Sec., Robt. 
Silverman, Boston, Mass. 

Directors : I. H. Fox. Nathan Rosenberg, Nathan Stemscher, Ph. Swarts, 
Henry Tocman, M. Trock. 



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INDUSTRIAL REMOVAL OFFICE 23? 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF TRUE SISTERS 

(UNABHANGIGEB ORDBN TREUE SCHWESTEBN) 

Org. Apl. 21, 1846. Office : 817 W. 139th, New York City 

One hundred and twenty-fifth Semi-Annual, or 66th Annual Session of 
the Grand Lodge, May 23, 1916, New York City. 

Members. 5722. 

Lodges, 22. 

Publishes a monthly. Ordens Echo. Editor. Bianca B. Robitscher. 

Officers (for May, 1916, to May, 1917) : Grand Monitress, Mrs. Hulda 
Lissner ; Grand Pres^ Mrs. flora U. Fischlowitz ; Grand Vlce-Pres., Emma 
Schlesinger ; Grand Sec, Mrs. Bianca B. Robitscher, 317 W. 139th ; Grand 
Treas., Mrs. Rosalie A. Eisner; Grand Mentor, Leopoldine Schwarzkopf; 
Grand Warden, Funny M. Marx. 

Lodges: Connecticut: New Haven. — Illinois: Chicago (8). — Massa- 
chusetts: Boston. — Missouri: St. Louis. — New Jersey: Newark. — New 
York: Albany, Brooklyn (2), New York City (8).— Ohio: Cincinnati.— 
Pennsylvania : Philadelphia. — Tennessee : Memphis. 



INDEPENDENT WESTERN STAR ORDER 

Org. Feb. 13, 1894. Office : 1127 Blue Island Av., Chicago, 111. 
Fourth Biennial Convention, Aug. 20, 1916, Buffalo, N. Y. 



INDUSTRIAL REMOVAL OFFICE 

Org. 1900. Office : 174 Second Av., New York City 

Fifteenth Annual Meeting, Mch. 6, 1916. New York City. 

Officebs and Board of Directors : Chairman, Reuben Arkush ; Vice- 
Chairman, Alfred Jaretzki : Sec, Nathan Bijur ; Eugene S. Benjamin, 
N. Y. C. ; Jacob Furth, St. Louis, Mo. ; Max Senior, Cincinnati, O. ; Lucius 
L. Solomons, San Francisco, Cal. : Cyrus L. Sulzberger, N. Y. C. 

General Manager : David M. Bressler. 

Agencies : Alabama : Bessemer, Birmingham, Demopolis, Mobile, Mont- 
gomery, Selma. — Arizona : Phoenix, Prescott, Tucson. — Arkansas : Forest 



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238 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



City. Fort Smith, Hot Springs, Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Tezarkana. — 
California : Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, 
San Francisco, Stockton. — Colorado : Boulder, Colorado Springs, Cripple 
Creek, Denver, Greeley, Pueblo, Rocky Ford, Salida, Trinidad. — Connecticut : 
Bridgeport, Hartford, New Britain, New Haven. — Delaware : Wilmington. — 
District of Columbia: Washington. — Florida: Jacksonville, Key West, 
Pensacola, Tampa, Ybor City. — Georgia : Atlanta, Augusta, Brunswick, 
Columbus, Macon, Savannah. — Idaho : Bolsfi City. — Illinois : Aurora, Belle- 
ville, Bloomington, Cairo, Champaign, Chicago, Danville, Decatur, Elgin, 
Mount Vernon, Peoria, Quincy, Rock Island. Rockford, Springfield, Strea- 
tor, Waukegan. — Indiana: Anderson, Bluffton, Evansville, Port Wayne, 
Gary, Indianapolis, Lafayette, Logansport, Muncie, Richmond, South Bend, 
Terre Haute. — Iowa : Burlington, Cedar Rapids, Centerville, Council 
Bluffs, Davenport, Des Moines, Dubuque, Keokuk, Mason City, Muscatine, 
Oskaloosa, Ottumwa, Sioux City, Waterloo. — Kansas: Fort Scott, Law- 
rence, Leavenworth, Pittsburg, Topeka, Wichita. — Kentucky : Ashland 
Louisville, Paducah. — Louisiana : Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Lake Charles, 
Monroe, New Orleans, Shreveport. — Maine : Portland. — ^Maryland : Balti- 
more. — Massachusetts : Boston, Fall River, Worcester.— Michigan : Bay 
City, Detroit, Flint, Grand Rapids, Iron M.ountain, Jackson, Kalamazoo, 
Lansing. — Minnesota : Duluth, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Virginia, Winona. — 
Mississippi : Meridian, Natchez, Vicksburg. — Missouri : Carrollton, Han- 
nibal, Joplin, Kansas City, Lexingt6n, Springfield, St. Joseph, St. Louis. — 
Montana : Butte, Helena. — Nebraska : Grand Island, Hastings, Lincoln, 
Omaha. — New Jersey : Carmel, Elizabeth, Jersey City, Newark, Paterson, 
Woodbine. — New York : Albany, Buffalo, Elmira, Ogdensburg. Rochester, 
Syracuse. — North Carolina : Charlotte, Greensboro, Raleigh, Wilmington. — 
North Dakota : Fargo, Grand Forks. — Ohio : Akron, Alliance, Ashland, Ash- 
tabula, Bellaire, Bucyrus, Canton, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Con- 
neaut, Dayton, East Liverpool, Elyrla, Fremont, Gallon, Hamilton, Lima, 
Lorain, Mansfield, Marietta, Marion, Newark, Portsmouth, Sandusky, Spring- 
field, Toledo, Youngstown, Zanesville. — ^Oklahoma : Oklahoma City .-^—Ore- 
gon : Portland. — Pennsylvania : Allentown, Altoona, Braddock, Erie, Har- 
risburg, Lancaster, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Pottstown, Reading, Scranton, 
Warren, Wilkes-Barre, Williamsport. — Rhode Island : Providence. — South 
Carolina : Charleston, Columbia. — South Dakota : Sioux Falls. — Tennessee : 
Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, Nashville. — Texas : Austin, Beaumont, 
Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Galveston, Houston, San Antonio, Tyler, Waco. 
— Utah : Salt Lake City. — ^Virginia : Lynchburg, Newport News, Norfolk, 
Portsmouth, Richmond. — Washington : Seattle, Spokane. Tacoma. — West 
Virginia : Charleston, Huntington, Parkersburg, Wheeling.— ^Wisconsin : 
Beloit, Janesville, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Racine, Sheboygan, 
Superior. — Wyoming : Cheyenne. 



INTERCOLLEGIATE MENORAH ASSOCIATtON 

Org. Jan. 2, 1913. Office : 600 Madison Av., New York City 

Fourth Annual Convention, Dec. 27-30, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mcimbers, 4000. 

Societies, 51. 

PuBPOSE : The study and advancement of Jewish culture and ideals 
among college men and women. 

Oeficubs : Chancellor, Henry Hurwitz, 600 Madison Av., N. Y. C. ; Pres., 
I. Leo Sharfman, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Vice-Pres., Benjamin Levinson, New 
Haven, Conn. ; Harry W. Davis, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Rosalind Magnes, 
N. Y. C. ; Treas., Bernard J. Reis, N..Y. C. ; Sec, Samuel Sussman, N. Y. C. 

Administrative Council : The Officers and M. Agronsky, Sarah Berenson, 
Aaron Bodansky, Abraham J. Burt, Maurice H. Cohen, Samuel Lasker 
Bhrman, Jacob Ellman, Charles Epstein. Karl Epstein, Charles K. Feinberg, 



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INTERCOLLEGIATE ZIONIST ASSOCIATION 339 



INTERCOLLEGIATE ZIONIST ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA 

Org. June 24, 1915. Office: Cambridge, Mass. 

First Annual Convention, June 24, 1915, Cambridge, Mass. 

PuRPO&B : To study and to promote tlie Zionist movement, especially in 
American Colleges and Universities. 

Officbbs : Pres., Isadore Levin, Cambridge, Mass. ; Vice-Pres., Stanley 
Arndt. Berkeley, Cal. ; Liouis H. Nachamofsky, New Haven, Conn. ; Treas., 
Max Roseman, Madison, Wis. ; Sec, Philip Barnet, Cambridge, Mass. 

Governing Council: The Officers, and Felix Frankfurter, Cambridge, 
Mass. ; Max Heller, New Orleans, La. ; Horace M. Kallen, Madison, Wis. ; 
Julian W. Mack, Chicago. 111. 

Societies : California : Berkeley, California Kadimah. — Connecticut : 
New Haven, Yale University Zionist Society. — Illinois: Chicago, Chicago 
Kent School of Law Zionist Society. — Maryland : Baltimore, Collegiate 
Zionist Society. — Massachusetts: Cambridge, Harvard Zionist Society.— 
Michigan : Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Zionist Society. — New York : 
New York, College of City of New York Zionist Society. — Ohio : Columbus, 
Ohio State University Zionist Society. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Zionist Society. — Wisconsin : Madison, University 
of Wisconsin Zionist Society. — Canada : Manitoba, BrAndon, Brandon 
College Zionist Society; Montreal, McGill University Zionist Society. 



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;jj40 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

JEWISH AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL AID SOCIETY 

Org. Jan. 28, 1900. Office : 174 Second Av., New York City 

Sixteenth Annual Meeting, Feb. 15, 1016, New York City. 

PuBPOSB : The encouragement of farming among Jewlkh immigrants In 
the United States. 

Activities: Maintains agricultural bureau of information and advice: 
assists Jewish immigrants to become farmers by helping them to find 
suitable farms and by loans on favorable terms; loans money to Jewish 
farmers who require financial assistance; maintains Farm Labor Bureau 
for the placing out of Jewish young men as farm laborers. 

Publishes the Jewish Farmer, a monthly agricultural paper, in Yid- 
dish ; maintains itinerant agricultural instructors to lecture to farmers 
on agricultural topics, conduct demonstrations on their own farms, and 
organize the farmers into associations for their material, educational, social, 
and religious advancement ; grants free scholarships at agricultural col- 
leges to children of Jewish farmers. 

WORK Done since Obganization : Farm loans, 3714, to 3151 farmers, 
amounting to $2,100,263.80; organized 10 credit unions, the first co- 
operative agricultural credit banks on American soil; was instrumental 
in the organization of the Federation of Jewish Farmers of America with 
63 constituent farmers* associations and a total membership of about 
1500; assisted in organizing a Co-operative Fire Insurance Company and< 
other co-operative enterprises among Jewish farmers. 

WOBK IN 1015: Farm loans, 306. to 467 farmers, amounting to |100»- 
036.21; farm loans outstanding (Dec. 31, 1015), $080,830.06; loans to 
credit unions, 10, amounting to $18,000; farm labor positions secured, 
1201 ; scholarships granted, 13. 

Officbbs : Pres., Alfred Jaretzki ; Vice-Pres., Percy S. Straus ; Treas., 
Solomon G. Rosenbaum ; Sec, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, N. i. C. 

DiBBCTOBS : The Officers, and Eugene S. Benjamin and Francis D. Pol- 
lak, N, Y. C. ; Jacob G. Lipman, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Gbnebal Manaqeb : Leonard G. Robinson ; Asst. Manageb : Gabriel 
Davidson. 

JEWISH AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

Org. Mch. 20, 1010. Ofpice: 356 Second Av., New York City 
Officbbs : ^ Pres^ Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 111. ; Yice-Pres., LouIb 
Marshall ; Treas., Samson Lachman ; Hon. Sec, Henrietta Szold, 2 Pine- 
hurst Av., N. Y. C. 

Tbustees : Cyrus Adler, Samuel S. Fels, Phila.. Pa. ; Samson Lachman, 
N. Y. C. ; Julian W. Mack, Chicago, III. ; J. L. Magnes, Louis Marshall, 
N. Y. C. : Milton J. Rosenau, Boston, Mass. ; Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 
111. ; Nathan Straus, N. Y. C. 
MANAGING Dibectob I Asrou Aarousohu, Haifa, Palestine. 



♦JEWISH AGRICULTURISTS' AID SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

Org. Oct. 28, 1888; inc. Jan. 24, 1000. Officb: 507 S. Marshfleld Av., 

Chicago, 111. 

Acts as Advisory Board to Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid 
Society. 

Officebs: Pres., Morris Weil; Vice-Pres., Maurice W. Kozminski; 
Treas., Edward Rose; Sec, Hugo Pam, The Rookery; Cor. Sec., A. R. 
Levy, 213 E. 48th, Chicago, 111. 

Dibbctobs: Israel Cowen, Emil G. Hirsch, Jacob L. Kesner, Maurice 
W. Kozminski, A. R. Levy, Leo A. Loeb, Hugo Pam, David M. Pfaelser, 



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JEWISH CONSUMPTIVES' RELIEF SOCIETY 341 

J. RappapcM, Edward Rose, Julius Rosenwald, Emanuel F. SelB, Leo 
Straus, Simeon Straus, Morris WelL Chicago, 111. 

Gbnbral Manageb : Nathan D. Kaplan, 1105 Ashland Blk., Chicago, 111. 



JEWISH CHAUTAUQUA SOCIETY 

Org. Apl. 29, 1898. Offick : 604 Horner Bldg., 925 Chestnut, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Twenty-Fourth Annual Assembly, Dec. 24-31, 1915, St. Louis, Mo. 

Members, 8000. 

OffiCbbs : Chancellor, Henry Berkowltz, Phlla., Pa. ; Vice-chancellor, 
Wm. Rosenaii, Baltimore, Md. ; Pres., Abraham I. Blkus, N. Y. C. ; Vice- 
Pres«, Oscar Loeb ; Treas., Emll Selig, Phlla., Pa. ; Sec, Jeannette Miriam 
Goldberg, JeflTerson, Tex. 

BOABD OF Trustees : Corinne B. Arnold, Phlla., Pa. ; Israel Cowen, 
Chicago, IlL : Wm. Flneschrelber, Memphis, Tenn. : Arthur A. Flelaher, 
Walter Fox, Phlla., Pa.; Lee K. Frankel, N. Y. C. ; Ferry Prarikel, Phlla., 
Pa. : Jacob Goldbaum, Phlla., Pa. ; Julius M. Goldenberg, Baltimore, Md. ; 
Frederick Lazarus, Columbus, O. ; Adolph Lewlsohn, N. Y. C. : Mrs. Max Im 
Margolis, Phila., Pa. ; Emil Mayer, St. Louis, Mo. j Martin A. Meyer, San 
Francisco, Cal. jTobias Schlinfarber, Chicago, 111. ; Jacob H. Schiff, N. Y. C. ; 
Abram Simon, washlngtoxi, D. C. : Horace Stern, Phlla., Pa. 

Honorary members : Jacob Glmbel, Wm. B. Hackenberg, Phila., Pa. ; 
Mrs. Chas. Heldelberger, Atlantic City, N. J. ; George W. Ochs, Phlla., Pa. ; 
Simon Wolf. Washington, D. C. 

Correspondence School Faculty: Wm. Rosenau, Dean. Baltimore, 
Md. ; Henry Berkowitz, Phila., Pa.; Edward N. Calisch, Richmond, Va. ; 
Julius H. Greenstone^ Ella Jacobs, Isaac Landman, Phila., Pa. ; Eugene H. 
Lehman, N. Y. C. ; Martin A. Meyer, San Francisco, Cal. ; Abram Simon, 
Washington, D. C. ; David E. Weglein, Baltimore, Md. 

Circles and Students : Arkansas : Little Rock, Pine Bluff. — California : 
Fresno, Los Angeles, Oakland. San Francisco. — Illinois : Bloomlngton, 
Chicago, Danyllle, Lincoln, Peoria. — Indiana : Indianapolis. — Kansas : Kan- 
sas City. — Louisiana : Alexandria. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Massachusetts : 
Boston, Cambridge, Dorchestei^ Maiden, Mattapan, Medford, Revere Ros- 
lindale, Roxbury, Somervllle. — Minnesota: Minneapolis. — Missouri: Kansas 
City, St. Joe, St. Louis. — ^Nebraska : Omaha. — New Jersey : Alliance, 
Atlantic City, Bridgeton. Carmel, Hoboken, MiUvllle. Newark, Norma, 
Rosenhayn, Trenton, Vineland. — New York : Albany, Blnghamton, Buffalo, 
Elmira, New York City, Pleasantville. — Ohio: Akron. Cleveland, Bast 
Liverpool. — Pennsylvania: Altoona, Erie, McKees Rocks, Philadelphia, 
Pittsbui^. — Tennessee : Memphis. — ^Texas : Beaumont. — Virginia : Rich- 
mond. — ^Washington: Seattle. — ^West Virginia: Wheeling. — Wisconsin: 
Milwaukee. 



JEWISH CONSUMPTIVES' RELIEF SOCIETY 

Org. Jan. 2, 1904 ; inc. June 25, 1904. Officb : 412-415 Wyoming Bldg., 

Denver, Colo. 

Twelfth Annual Meeting, Apl. 23, 1916, Denver, Colo. 

Contributors, 50,000. Income, 1915, $100,111.50. Capacity, 150 beds. 

Publishes the Sanatorium. 

Officers : Pres., Philip Hlllkowltz, 802 Metropolitan Bldg. ; Vice-Pres., 
David Gross, A. Zederbaum, Mrs. I. J. Kolinsky; Treas., Nathan Striker; 
Sec, C. D. Spivak, 412-415 Wyoming Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Trustees : Sol. Bloomgarden, S. L. Bresler, S. F. Dlsraelly, I. Finesllver, 
Morris Friedman, H. H. Prumess, Ed. Grimes, David Gross, Philip Hlllko- 
wits. C. H. Kauvar. Goodman Levin. Max D. Neusteter, Louis Robinson, I. 



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24rZ AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOlt 

Rude, O. M. Shere, C. D. Splvak, B. Steinberg, Nathan Stri&er, Adolpb 
Zederbaum, Denver, Colo. ; Mrs. L. Bloch, N. Y. C, representing New York 
Ladies' Auxiliary ; Mrs. Harry Crown, St. Louis, Mo., representing St. Louis 
Ladies* Auxiliary ; Mrs. I. Kolinsky, Denver, Colo., representing Denver 
Ladies' Auxiliary; Samuel Dorf, N. Y. C, representing Order Brith Abra- 
ham : and Leon Sanders, N. Y. C, representing Independent Order Brith 
Abraham. 

AuxiLiABT SociBTiKS I Colorado : Denver. — Connecticut : Waterbury. — 
Georgia : Savannah. — Massachusetts : Holyoke, Springfield. — Missouri : 
Kansas City, St. Joseph, St. Louis. — New York : New York City. — Ohio : 
Cincinnati, Cleveland. 

Has support of Federated Charities in : Alabama : Birmingham, Mobile, 
Montgomery. — Arkansas : Fort Smith, Little Rock. — Georgia : Atlanta. 
-^Illinois : Chicago. — Indiana : Fort Wayne, Indianapolis. — ^^lowa : Des 
Moines. — Kentucky : Louisville. — Louisiana : New Orleans, Shreveport. — 
Michigan : Detroit. — Minnesota : Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri : Kan- 
sas City, St. Joseph. — Nebraska : Omaha. — New York : Brooklyn. — North 
Dakota : Fargo. — Ohio : Akron, Dayton, Toledo, Youngstown. — Pennsyl- 
vania : Pittsburgh, Scranton.- — Tennessee : Memphis, NashviUe.^Texas : 
El Paso, Houston. — Wisconsin : Milw&ukee. 



JEWISH NATIONAL WORKERS ALLIANCE OF AMERICA 

. Org. 1912. Office : 89 Delancey, New York City 

Third Annual Convention, July 4-7, 1915, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Members, 5000. 
' Branches, 95. 

PtTRPOS«: Fraternal, Social, and Educational Order. 

Officers : Jos. Fcldman ; Vice-Pres., Samuel Goldstein ; Treas., Samuel 
Ellsburg ; Sec, Meyer L. Brown, 83 Delancey, N. Y. C. 

Executive Committee : The Officers and Abraham Babitch, Samuel 
Boncheck, Miles M. Dawson, Kretchmar Isreeli, Robert Merlis, Samuel 
Shapiro. 



JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

Org. June 3, 1888. Office : Girard Av. and Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
For the Report of the Twenty-Eighth Year of The Jewish Publication 
Society of America, see p. 411 et seq. 



JEWISH SOCIALIST FEDERATION OF AMERICA (S. P.) 

Org. Aug. 2, 1912. Office : 175 East Broadway, New York City 
Second Annual Convention, June 1, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Members, 5000. 

Pdrposb: Socialist and Political agitation and organization of the 
Jewish Working Class. 

Branches, 84. w 

Officers : (xeneral Secretary, Max E. Lulow, 175 E. Bway. ; Treas.; J. B. 
Salutsky, 175 E. Bway, N. Y. C. 

Branches : California : Los Angeles. — Colorado : Denver. — Connecticut : 
Ansonia, Bridgeport, Hartford, Meriden, New Britain, New Haven, New 
London. Stamford, Waterbury. — Delaware : Wilmington. — District of 
Columbia: Washington. — Georgia: Atlanta. — Illinois: Chicago (3), Engle- 
wood. Rock Island. — Indiana : Indianapolis. — Iowa : Sioux City. — Maine : 



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SOCIALIST-TERRITORIALIST LABOR PARTY 243 



Portland. — ^Maryland : Baltimore. — Massachusetts : Boston, Brockton, 
Chelsea, Fall River, Lynn, New Bedford, Peabody, Springfield, Worcester. — 
Michigan : Detroit. — Minnesota : Dulutn, Minneapolis. St Paul. — Missouri : 
Kansas City, St. Louis. — New Jersey : Bayonne, Elizabeth, Jersey City, 
Newark (2), Passaic, Paterson, Trenton, W. Hoboken. — New York: Albany, 
Buffalo, New York City (11), Newburgh, Rochester. Schenectady, Syracuse, 
Utica, Yonkers. — Ohio: Cincinnati, Cleveland (2), Columbus, Toledo, 
Youngstown. — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia (3), Pittsburgh. — Rhode Island: 
Providence (2). — Virginia: Richmond. — Wisconsin: Milwaukee, Sheboygan. 



JEWISH SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY POALE ZION 

Org. Dec, 1905. Office : 89 Delancey, New York City 

Tenth Annual Convention, Sept. 25, 1915, Cleveland O. 

Members, 3500 

Branches, 72. 

Pubposb: Organize and agitate socialist-Zionist principles. 

Officbbs : Treas., M. Schwartz ; Sec, II. Ehrenreich, 89 Delancey, 
N. Y. C. 

Executive Committee : J. Applebaum, Meyer L. Brown, Joel Entin, A. 
Krechmar, David Pinsky, N. Sirkin, I. Zar, B. Zuckerman. 

Bbanches : California : Lios Angeles. — Connecticut : Bridgeport, Hart- 
ford, New Haven. Waterbury. — District of Columbia : Washington. — Illi- 
nois : Chicago (4), May wood. — Indiana: South Bend. — Maryland: Balti- 
more (3). — Massachusetts: Boston (2). Brockton, Chelsea, Haverhill, 
Lvnn, Maiden. Springfield, Worcester. — -Michigan : Detroit. — Minnesota : 
Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri : Kansas City. — Nebraska : Omaha. — 
New Jersey: Jersey City, Newark (2), Paterson. — New York: Albany, 
Brooklyn (3), Buffalo (2), New York (9), Rochester (2). — Ohio: Canton, 
Cincinnati, Cleveland (2), Columbus, Dayton, East Liverpool, Toledo, 
loungstown. — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia (2), Pittsburgh. — Rhode Is- 
land : Providence. — Tennessee : Nashville. — ^Texas : Galveston, San Antonio. 
— Wisconsin : Madison, Milwaukee. — Canada : Hamilton, Montreal, Toronto, 
Winnipeg. 



JEWISH SOCIALIST-TERRITORIALIST LABOR PARTY OP 
AMERICA 

Org. Feb. 8, 1906. Office : 276 E. Broadway, New York City 

Fifth Party Convention, Sept., 1914, New York. 

Third Party Council, Nov. 18-22, 1913, Toronto, Ont., Canada. 

Members, 3000. 

Branches and Groups, 43. 

Publishes " Unser wort " monthly, Chicago, 111. 

Central Committee : R. Awerbach, J. M. Budlsh, Mrs. Ch. Cohen, M. 
Epstein, A. Glanz, M. Kaz, N. Y. C. : L. Talmi, Chicago, 111. 

Secbktaby : J. M. Budlsh, 1440 Crotona Park E. 

Branches and Groups : California : Los Angeles. — Colorado : Denver. — 
Connecticut: Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven, Waterbury. — Illinois: 
Chicago (4). — Iowa: Sioux City. — Maryland: Baltimore. — Massachusetts: 
Boston, Chelsea, Fall River, Lynn, Maiden, New Bedford. — Michigan : 
Detroit. — Minnesota : Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri : Kansas City, St. 
Louis. — Nebraska : Lincoln, Omaha. — New Jersey : Newark, Paterson. — 
New York: Buffalo, New York City (6), Rochester, Syracuse. — Ohio: Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland, Toledo. — Pennsylvania : I'hlladelphla, Pittsburgh. — 
Texas : Dallas, Galveston. — Virginia : Richmond. — Wisconsin : Milwaukee. — 
Canada : Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg. 



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244 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OP AMERICA 

Org. 1886. Office : 531 W. 123d, New York City 

Thirteenth Biennial Meetlni?. March 24, 1912. 

Twenty-third Commencement, June 11, 1916. 

Graduates, Rabbinical Course, in 1916, 7. 

Whole number of graduates, Rabbinical Course, 100. 

Whole number of graduates, Teachers* Course, 105. 

Officers : Acting President. Cyrus Adler ; Chairman Board of Directors. 
Louis Marshall; Hon. Sec., Sol. M. Stroock; Treas., Daniel Guggenheim, 
N. Y. C. 

Directors : (for life) Daniel Guggenheim, Adolph Lewisohn, LquIs 
Marshall. Jacob H. Schiif, Felix M. Warburg, N. Y. C. ; Philip S. Henry. 
Asheville, N. C. ; Cyrus Adler, Phlla., Pa. ; Mayer Sulzberger, Phila., Pa. ; 
(term expiring 1918) Samuel Greenbnum, N. Y. C. : Chas. I. Hoffman, New- 
ark, N. J. ; Irving Lehman, Simon M. Roeder, Sol. M. Stroock, N. Y. C. ; 
William Gerstley, Phila.. Pa.; Harry Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md., and 
David S. Ellis, Boston, Mass. 

Executive Committee: Chairman, Louis Marshall; Cyrus Adler, Daniel 
Guggenheim, Simon M. Roeder, Jacob H. Schiff, Mayer Sulzberger. 

Faculty : Acting President, Cyrus Adler, Ph. D., (Johns Hopkins) ; 
Sabato Morals Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, Israel Fried- 
laender, Ph. D. (Strassburg) ; Professor of Talmud, Louis Ginzberg, Ph. D. 
(Heidelberg) ; Professor or History, Alexander Marx, Ph. D. (EOnursberg) ; 
Professor of Homiletics, Mordecai M. Kaplan, M. A. (Columbia) ; Professor 
of Medieval Hebrew tdterature, Israel Davidson, Ph. D. (Columbia) ; 
Professor of Codes, Moses Hyamson, B. A., LL. D. (university of London) ; 
Instructor in the Talmud, Joshua A. Joff6; Hasan and Instructor in 
Hazanut, Rev. Simon Jacobson ; Instructor in Public Speaking, Walter H. 
Robinson. 

Library Staff : Librarian, Alexander Marx ; Cataloguer, Israel Shapira ; 
Assistant in Library, Phillip Abrahams. 

Registrar : Israel Davidson. 

Secretary : Joseph B. Abrahams. 

Branches : Colorado : Denver. — Kentucky : Louisville. — Maryland : Bal- 
timore. — Massachusetts : Boston. — Michigan : Detroit. — New Jersey : New- 
ark. — New York : New York City. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia. — Canada : 
Montreal. 

Teachers* Institute, 34 Stuyvesant Place. Principal, Mordecai M. 
Kaplan,. 120 E. 93d. Instructors: Israel Frledlaender, History ; Ellas L. 
Solomon, Hebrew ; Assistant Instructor : Hyman Goldin. Special Commit- 
tee : Samuel Greenbaum, Chairman ; Mordecai M. Kaplan, Irving Lehman, 
J. L. Magnes, Felix M. Warburg. 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
OF AMERICA 

Org. July 4, 1901 

Fifteenth Annual Meeting, July 10, 1916, Far Rockaway, N. Y. 

Members, 90. 

Officers : Pres., Max D. Klein, Phila., Pa. ; Vice-Pres., Ellas L. Solomon, 
N. Y. Cj Rec. Sec., Benj. A. Lichter, Far Rockaway, N. Y. ; Cor. Sec., 
Reuben Kaufman, N. Y. C. ; Treas., Israel Goldfarb, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee : A. Hershman, Detroit, Mich. ; Charles I. Hoff- 
man, Newark, N. J. ; Phineas Israeli, Boston, Mass. ; M. M. Kaplan, N. Y. C. ; 
Jacob Kohn, N. Y. C. ; A. Newman, Phila., Pa. 



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THE MIZRAHI OP AMERICA 245 

JUDAIC UNION 

Org. May 31, 1880. Office: S. B. Cor. Broad and Carpenter, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thirty-sixth Annual Convention, Feb. 13, 1916, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Members, 822. 

Lodges, 4. 

Officers : Grand Master, I. N. Weinstock, Phlla., Pa. ; Vice-Grand Mas- 
ter, Sam*l D. Oberfleld ; Grand Sec, Louis Sulka, Phlla., Pa. ; Grand Treas., 
Raphael Goldbacher. 

ExECUTiTE Committee : The Officers, and Harry Cohen, Charles Horn, 
Samuel Lam, Isaac Sadler. 

Lodges: Pennsylvania : Philadelphia (4). 



KNIGHTS OF ZION 

(WESTERN FEDERATION OF ZIONISTS) 
Org. Oct. 25, 1898. Office: 1613 Ashland Blk., Chicago, 111. 

Nineteenth Annual Convention, Dec. 31, 1915-Jan. 9, 1916. Chicago, 111. 

Gates, 55. 

Affiliated with the Federation of American Zionists. 

Officers : Hon. Pres.. Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 111. ; Hon. Vice-Pres., 
H. M. Kalleh, I. Shelnfeld, Max G. Baron ; Pres., Max Shulman ; Ylce-Pres., 
Hugo Pam, Jacob M. Loeb; Treas., B. Horwich; Sec, Benjamin H. Bern- 
stefii, 1613 Ashland Blk., Chicago, 111. 

Gates : Illinois : Chicago, Chicago Heights, Elgin. Rock Island, Sterling, 
— Indiana : Gary, Hammond, Terre Haute. — Iowa : Des Moines, Sioux City. 
— Kansas : Wichita. — Michigan : Crystal Falls, Grand Rapids. — ^Minnesota : 
Duluth, Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri: Kansas City, St. Louis. — Ne- 
braska : Lincoln, Omaha. — North Dakota : Fargo, Grand Forks. — Wisconsin : 
Appleton, Fondulac. Green Bay, Hurley, Kenosha, Madison, Marinette, Mil- 
waukee, Oshkosh, Sheboygan, Stevens Point, Superior. 



THE MIZRAHI OF AMERICA 

Org. June 5, 1912. Central Bureau: 1721 Carr, St. Louis, Mo. 

Third Annual Convention, May 26-30, 1916, Chicago, 111. 

Bureaus, 4. 

Organizations, 100. 

Members, 10,000. 

Purpose : Following the Zionist movement, based on the Basle program. 
Fundamental principles : The land of Israel, for the people of Israel, guided 
by the law of Israel. 

Officers : Chairman, B. Abramowitz, St. Louis. Mo. ; Treas., Sol. Rosen- 
bloom, Pittsburgh, I*a. ; Sec, L. Gellman, St. Louis, Mo. 

Executive Committee : B. Abramowitz, St. Louis, Mo. ; A. M. Ashln- 
sky, Pittsburgh, Pa.; I. L. I^evln. Detroit, Mich.; M. Z. Margollcs, New 
York City ; S. Schaffer, Baltimore, Md. 

Bureaus : Central Bureau, 1721 Carr, St. Louis, Mo. ; Bureau for the 
Eastern States, 121 Canal, N. Y. C. ; Bureau for the Western States, 1721 
Carr, St. Louis, Mo. ; Colonial Fund and Tachkemonl Bureau, 121 Canal, 
N. Y. C. 



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246 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OP JEWISH SOCIAL WORKEXRS 

Org. 1908. . Officb : 356 Second Av., New York City 

Eighth Annual Convention, May 9, 1916, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Members, 400. 

PuRPOSB : Exchange of ideas and better personal understanding of 
workers. 

Officers : Pres., Jacob Billikopf, Kansas City, Mo. ; Vice-Pres., Julia I. 
Felsenthal, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Sec.-Trens., Monroe M. Goldstein, N. Y. C. 

BxBCDTiVB Committee: Garfield A. Berlinsky, Denver, Colo. ; Chas. S. 
Bemheimer, Bklyn, N. Y. ; David M. Bressler. N. Y. C. ; Ernestine Heller. 
Chicago, 111. ; Maurice Hezter, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Samuel B. Kaufman, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. ; Julia Schonfeld, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Ralph A. Sonn, Atlanta, 
Ga. ; Morris D. Waldman, N. Y. C. 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE OP JEWISH CHARITIES IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

Org. 1899. Office : 411 W. Fayette, Baltimore, Md. 

Ninth Biennial Convention, May 7-10, 1916, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Members, 138 Societies. 

Officers : Pres., Aaron Cohen, Pittsburgh, Pa. : Vice-Pres^ Jacob Billi- 
kopf, Kansas City, Mo.; Fred N. Butzel, Detroit, Mich.; J. K, Hexter, 
Dallas, Tex. ; Sec. Louis H. Levin, 411 W. Fayette, Baltimore, Md. ; Treas., 
Bernard Greensfelder, St. Louis, Mo. 

ExEcuTiVB Committee: Nathan BUur, N. Y. C. ; Julia Felsenthal, 
Minneapolis, Minn. ; Morris M. Feuerficht, Indianapolis, Ind, ; Lee K. 
Frnnkel, N. Y. C. : Julius Goldman, New Orleans, La.; Bernard Greens- 
felder, St. Louis, Mo. ; I. W. Hellman. San Francisco, Cal. ; Max Herzherg. 
Philadelphia, Pa. : Jacob H. Hollander, Baltimore, Md. ; Minnie F. I-k)w, 
Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 111. ; Max Senior, Cincinnati, O. ; Cyrus L. Sulz- 
berger, N. Y. C. 

Constituent Societies : Alabama : Mobile, United Hebrew Charities ; 
Montgomery, United Hebrew Charities. — Arkansas : Little Rock, Federation 
of Jewish Charities ; Pine BlufT, Hel)rew Relief Association. — California : 
Los Angeles, Hebrew Benevolent Society, Jewish Consumptive Relief Asso- 
ciation ; San Francisco, Board of Relief. — Colorado : Denver, Jewish Con- 
sumptives Relief Society, Jewish Social Service Federation, National Con- 
sumptives Hospital. — Connecticut : ,New Haven, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 
Hebrew Charity Society. — Delaware : Wilmington, Hebrew Charity Associa- 
tion. — District of Columbia : Washington, United Hebrew Charities. — 
Georgia: Atlanta, Federation of Jewish Charities, Hebrew Orphans Home. 
— Illinois : Chicago, Associated Jewish Charities, Bureau of Personal 
Service, Chicago Women's Aid, Chicago Women's Loan Association, Jewish 
Consumptives' Relief Society ; Peoria, Hebrew Relief Association. — Indiana : 
Evansville, Hebrew Benevolent Society ; Indianapolis, The Jewish Federa- 
tion ; South Bend, Temple Beth El. — Iowa : Des Moines. Federated Jewish 
Charities ; Sioux City, United Hebrew Charity Association, — Kentucky : 
Louisville, Federation of Jewish Charities ; Paducah, Congregation Temple 
Israel. — Louisiana : Baton Rouge, Organized Charities ; New Orleans. Asso- 
ciation Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans, Jewish Charitable and 
Educational Federation ; Shreveport, Charitable Free Loan Society. — ^Mary- 
land : Baltimore, Federated Jewish Charities, Hebrew Benevolent Society, 
United Hebrew Charities.^ — Massachusetts : Boston, Hebrew Women's Sew- 
ing Society, Section Council Jewish Women, United Hebrew Benevolent 
Society. — Michigan: Detroit, Jewish Widows Aid Society, United Jewish 
Charities; Kalamazoo, Congregation B'nai Israel. — ^Minnesota: Daluth, 
Temple Aid Society ; Minneapolis, Associated Jewish Charities, Hebrew 
Ladles Benevolent Society; St. Paul, Jewish Charities, Jewish Relief 



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NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL 247 



Society. — Mississippi : Meridinn, Meridian Jewish Relief Society: Vicks- 
burg, Associated Jewish Charities. — Missouri : Kansas City, United Jewish 
Charities; St. Joseph, Federated Jewish Charities; St. Louis, Jewish 
Charitable and Educational Union. — Nebraska : Omaha, Associated Jewish 
Charities. — New Jersey : Newark, Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Benevolent 
Society; Trenton, Trenton City Ix)dge, No. 39, I. O. B. S. — New York: 
Albany. Hebrew Benevolent Society, Jewish Home Society ; Brooklyn, 
Federation of Jewish Charities; Buffalo, Federated Jewish Charities; 
New York City, Baron de Hirsch Fund, Council Jewish Women, Educa- 
tional Alliance, Emanuel Sisterhood Personal Service, E*ree Synagogue, 
Hebrew Free Loan Association, Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Hebrew Sheltering 
and Immiflfrant Aid Society, Hebrew Technical Institute, Home of Daughters 
of Jacob, Industrial Removal Office, Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid 
Society, Jewish Protectory, Ladles Fuel and Aid Society, Lena Invalid Aid 
Society, Miriam Gottlieb Aid Society, Montefiore Home, Roumanian Aid 
Society, Roumanian Hebrew Aid Association, Sanitarium for Hebrew Chil- 
dren, Shaaray Tefilla Sisterhood. Society for Welfare of Jewish Deaf, Temple 
Beth El, United Hebrew Charities, Widowed Mothers Fund, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association, Young Women's Hebrew Association ; Niagara Falls, 
Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society ; Rochester, Jewish Orphan Asylum 
Association of Western New York, United Jewish Charities ; Syracuse. 
United Jewish Charities; Tompkinsville, Hebrew Benevolent Society of 
Staten Island. — North Dakota : Fargo, Associated Jewish Charities. — Ohio : 
Akron, Federation Jewish Charities; Cincinnati, United Jewish Charities; 
Federation of Jewish Charities, Jewish Orphan Asylum: Columbus, 
Jewish Charities; Dayton, Federation of Jewish Charities; Toledo, 
Federation Jewish Charities ; Youngstown, Federated Jewish Charities.^ — 
Oregon : Portland, First Hebrew Benevolent Association, Jewish Women's 
Benevolent Society. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia, Federation of Jewish 
Charities, Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum, Jewish Hospital. 
Juvenile Aid Society, National Farm School, Orphans Guardians, United 
Hebrew Charities, Young Women's Union ; Pittsburgh, Federation of 
Jewish Philanthropies, United Hebrew Relief Association; Scranton, 
Jewish Ladies Relief Society ; Wilkes-Bar re. Ladies Auxiliary, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association. — South Carolina : Charleston, Hebrew Benevolent 
Society. — Tennessee : Memphis, Federated Jewish Charities ; Nashville, He- 
brew Relief Society. — Texas : Dallas, Federated Jewish Charities ; El Paso, 
Jewish Relief Society; Fort Worth. Hebrew Relief Society; Gainesville, 
United Hebrew Congregation ; Galveston, Hebrew Benevolent Society ; 
Houston, United Jewish Charities; San Antonio. Montefiore Benevolent 
Society. — Utah: Salt Lake City, Jewish Relief Society.— Virginia : Alex- 
andria, Hebrew Benevolent Society ; Norfolk, Ladies Hebrew Benevolent 
Society ; Richmond, Congregation Beth Ahaba of Richmond, Hebrew Home 
for Aged and Infirm, Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society. — Washington : 
Seattle, Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society. — West Virginia : Wheeling, 
Eoff St. Temple. — Wisconsin : Milwaukee, Federated Jewish Charities, Mt. 
Sinai Hospital. — Canada : Montreal, Baron de Hirsch Institute. 



NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL 

Inc. Apl. 10, 1896. School and Farms : Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa. 
Office : 407 Mutual Life Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eighteenth Annual Meeting, Sept. 26, 1915, Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Fifteenth Annual Graduation. Mch. 1, 1916. 

Number of Graduates, 1916, 29. 

Whole number of graduates, 203. 

Members, 2350. 

Officers : Pres., Joseph Krauskopf, 4715 Pulaski Av., Germantown, Pa. ; 
Vice-Pres., Harry B. Hlrsh ; Treas., Isaac H. Silverman ; Exec. Sec, Abraham 
H. Fromenson, 407 Mutual Life Bldg., Phila., Pa. 

DiBECTOR : J. H. Washburn, Farm School, Pa. 



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248 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Executive Board: Herbert D. Allman, A. J. Bamberger, Hart Blumen- 
thal, Henry Bronner, Adolph Eichholz. H. Felix, Morris Fleishman, Simon 
Friedberger, Daniel Gimbel, S. Grabielder, Horace Hano, H. B. Hirsh, 
Abraham Israel, M. A. Kaufmann, Alfred M. Klein, Bernard Kohn, Isaac 
Landman, Howard A. Loeb, Leon Merz, Louis Nusbaum, Barney Selig, J. N. 
Snellenburg, Eugene M. Stern, George Wheeler, John Zimmerman, Phila., 
Pa. 

National Auxiliary Board : Louis I. Aaron, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Max A. 
Adler, Rochester, N. Y. ; Daniel Alexander, Salt Lake City, U. ; Mrs. Julias 
Andrews, Boston, Mass. ; Henry Beer, New Orleans, La. ; I. W. Bernheim, 
Louisville, Ky. ; Nathan Eckstein. Seattle, Wash. ; Henry Frank, Natchez, 
Miss. ; M. J. Freiberg, Cincinnati, O. ; Bernard Ginsburg, Detroit, Mich. ; 
Milton D. Greenbnum, Baltimore, Md. ; A. Hirshheimer, La Crosse, Wis. ; 
Adolph Lewisohn, N. Y. C. ; Jacob M. Loeb, Chicago. 111. ; Louis Newberger, 
Indianapolis, Ind. ; J. E. Oppenheimer, Butte, Mont. ; E. Raab, Richmond, 
Va. ; Edward E. Richard, Mobile, Ala. ; Mrs. Morris Ripley, Denver. Colo. ; 
Alex. Sanger, Dallas, Tex. ; Louis Schlesinger, Newark, N. J. ; David Stern- 
berg, Memphis, Tenn. ; Isaac M. Ullman, New Haven, Conn. ; Eugene War- 
ner, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Morris Weil, Lincoln, Nebr. ; Harris Weinstock, San 
Francisco, Cal. ; Maurice Wertheim, N. Y. C. 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OP TEMPLE SISTERHOODS 

Org. Jan. 22, 1913. Office : 107 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati, O. 

Second Biennial Meeting, Jan. 19-21, 1915, Chicago, 111. 

Societies. 107. 

Purpose : Closer co-operation between the various Sisterhoods. 

Officers : Pres., Mrs. Abram Simon, Washington, D. C. ; Vice-Pres., 
Mrs. J. Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati. O. ; Treas., Mrs. Israel Cowen, Chicago, 
111. ; Sec, Mrs. Ben Loewenstein, Cincinnati, O. 

Executive Committee: The Officers, and Mmes. Max J. Brandenburger, 
Bklyn, N. Y. ; Dan Frank, Boston, Mass. ; Paul L. Godchaux, New Orleans, 
I^. ; Leon Goodman, Louisville, Ky. ; Moses J. Gries, Cleveland, O. ; Kauf- 
mann Kohler, Cincinnati, O. ; Joseph Krauskopf, Phila., Pa. ; Fred Lasarus. 
Columbus, 0. ; David Leikowitz, Dayton, O. ; Louis S. Levi, Cincinnati, O. ; 
J. Leonard Levy, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; H. H. Mayer, Kansas City, Mo. ; Sol. 
Moses, Cleveland, O. ; David Philipson, CincinnatL O. ; Joseph Rosenfield, 
Memphis Tenn. ; T. Schanfarber, Chicago, Hi J, Harry Sternberger, Cin- 
cinnati. O. ; Joseph Stolz, Chicago, 111. ; Joseph wiesenfeld, Baltimore, Md. ; 
James Witkowsky, Chicogo, 111. ; Leo Wolf, Wheeling, W. Va. ; Louis Wolsey, 
Cleveland, O. 

Affiliated Sisterhoods : Alabama : Anniston, Henrietta Sterne Sister- 
hood ; Birmingham, Temple Emanu El Chapter : Mobile, Temple Sisterhood. 
— Arkansas: Fort Smith, The Temple Aid Society; Pine Bluif. Ladies 
Temple Society. — California : Los Angeles, Sisterhood of Temple B'nai 
B'rith ; Oakland, The Sisterhood of Temple Sinai ; Sacramento, Woman's 
Auxiliary Society of B'nai Israel. — Colorado : Denver, Emanuel Sister- 
hood. — Connecticut : Hartford, Woman's Auxiliary Congregation Beth 
Israel ; New Haven, Mishkan Israel Temple Sisterhood. — District of 
Columbia : Washington, Sisterhood of the Washington Hebrew Congrega- 
tion. — Florida : Jacksonville, Jewish Women's League. — Georgia : Atlanta, 
Temple Sisterhood ; Columbus, Jewish Ladies' Aid Society ; Macon, The 
Temple Guild ; Savannah, Temple Guild. — Illinois : Bloomlngton, Hebrew 
Ladies Aid Society ; Cairo, Monteflore Temple Sisterhood ; Champaign, 
Jewish Ladies Social Circle; Chicago, Ladies of Beth El, Chicago Sinai 
Temple Sisterhood, Temple Emanuel Sisterhood, Isaiah WomaiTs Club, 
K. A. M. Auxiliary, Ladies' Auxiliary of Temple Sholom, Sisterhood or 
Bnai Sholom Temple Israel, Temple Judea Woman's Club; Peoria, Anshe 
Emeth Sisterhood ; Springfield, Sisterhood of Brith Sholem Congregation. — 
Indiana: Anderson, The Anderson Sisterhood of Rodof Sholom Congrega- 



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FEDERATION OP TEMPLE SISTERHOODS 249 



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350 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

NATIONAL JEWISH HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTIVES 

Org. Dec. 10, 1899. Office : 3800 E. Colfax Av., Denver, Colo. 

Sixteenth Annual Meeting, June 18, 1916, Denver, Colo. 

Members, 20,000. 

Patients treated, 2961. 

Officebs: Pres., Samuel Grnbfelder, Guarantee Trust Bldg., Atlantic 
City, N. J. ; Vlce-Pres., J. Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati, O. ; Wm. S. Fried- 
man, Denver, Colo., David May. St. Louis, Mo., Harmon August, N. Y. C. ; 
Treas., Ben. Altheimer, St. Louis, Mo. ; Sec, Mrs. S. Pisko, 3800 E. Colfax 
Av» Denver, Colo. 

Executive Committee: The officers, and B. Flesher, Denver, Colo.; 
Sol. S. Kiser, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Adolf Kraus, Chicago, 111. ; J. Leonard 
Levy, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Martin A. Marks, Cleveland, O. ; Louis D. Sboen- 
berg, New York, N. Y. 

NATIONAL JEWISH IMMIGRATION COUNCIL 

Org. Mch. 5, 1911. Office : 80 Maiden Lane, New York City 

Delegates and members at large, 18. 

Constituent societies, 10. 

Purpose : General supervision of nil work for Jewish immigrants at 
the seaports of the United States. 

Officers : Chairman, Abr. I. Elkus, 111 Broadway, N. Y. C. ; Vice- 
Chairman, Max Mitchell, 76 Devonshire, Boston, Mass. 

Executive Committee : Chairman, Leon Sanders, Sec, D. M. Bressler, 
Abr. I. Elkus, Max J. Kohler, N. Y. C. ; Louis H. Levin, Baltimore, Md. ; 
Louis E. Levy, Phila., Pa. 

Members at Large : Nathan Bijur, Oscar S. Straus, N. Y. C. ; Simon 
Wolf» Washington, D. C. 

Constituent Societies : Maryland : Baltimore, Federated Charities, 
Hebrew Immigrants Protective Association. — Massachusetts : Boston, Fed- 
erated Charities. — New York : New York City, American Jewish Committee, 
Board of Delegates of Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Committee 
on Immigrant Aid of National Council of Jewish Women, Executive Com- 
mittee of Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations, Jewish Immigration 
Committee. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia, Association for the Protection 
of Jewish Immigrants. 

NATIONAL UNION OP JEWISH SHELTERING SOCIETIES 

Org. July 30, 1911. Office : 229-231 E. Broadway, New York City 

Members, 36 communities. 

Purpose : To help worthy wayfarers ; put a check on habitual wan- 
derers, and prevent wife-deserters from using the Hachnoses Orchim as 
a means of escape from family responsibilities. 

Officers : Pres., Leon Sanders, N. Y. C. ; Vice-Pres., S. H. Brodsky, 
Newark. N. J. ; Mrs. H. Finkelpearl, Pittsburgh. Pa. ; A. Kress, Baltimore, 
Md. ; M. Meyerowitz, Chicago, 111. : Mendel Silber, Albuquerque, N. M. ; 
Treas., Max Meverson ; Hon. Sec, I, Hershfleld, N. Y. C. 

Executive Board : M. J. S. Abels, Altoona, Pa. ; M. Blechshlager, Cin- 
cinnati, O.; Mrs. S. Bloch, Indianapolis, Ind. ; M. J. Braude, Syracuse, 
N. Y. ; S. H. Brodsky, Newark, N. J. ; Henry J. Cohn, Richmond, Va. ; 
A. Coll, Spokane, Wash. ; A. Concors, N. Y. C. ; Mrs. H. FinkelpearL Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. ; I. Hershfleld, N. Y. C. ; Mrs. W. Klebansky, Phila^ Pa. ; A. 
Kress, Baltimore, Md. ; Rev. H. Masliansky, Jacob Massel, N. Y. C. ; M. 
Meyerowitz, Chicago, 111. ; Max Meycrson, N. Y. C. ; L. Poliakoff, Newark, 

N. J. ; Rissman, Chicago, 111. ; Leon Sanders, N. Y. C. ; A. L. SchiUer. 

Scranton. Pa. ; M. B. Schlom, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. : A. J. Shon, Fall River, 
Mass. ; Mendel Silber, Albuquerque, N. M. ; I. Warsaw, Waco, Tex. ; W. 
Wittenstein, Bridgeport, Conn. 



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ORDER KESHER SHEL BARZEL 251 



Communities : California : Los Angeles, San Francisco. — Connecticut : 
Bridgeport, Norwich. — Delaware : Wilmington. — District of Colambla : 
Washington. — Georgia : Atlanta. — Illinois : Chicago. — Indiana : Indianapo- 
lis. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Massachusetts : Fall River. — New Jersey : 
Bayonnc, Elizabeth, Newark, Paterson, West Hoboken. — New York : Glov- 
ersville, Rochester, Schenectady, Syracuse, Watertown. — Ohio: Cincinnati, 
Zanesville. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Wilkes- 
Barre. — South Carolina : Charleston. — Texas : Fort Worth, Waco. — Vir- 
ginia : Norfolk, Portsmouth, Richmond. — Washington : Spokane, Tacoma. — 
Canada : Montreal. 



ORDER BRITH ABRAHAM 

Org. June 12, 1859. Office : 266 Grand, New York City 

Forty-Third Convention, May 9-14, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Members, 71,642. 

Liodges, 385. 

Officbbs : Grand Master, Samuel Dorf ; First Deputy Grand Master, 
Abraham Heller, N. Y. C. ; Second Deputy Grand Master. Isaac Weiner, 
Phila., Pa. ; Third Deputy Grand Master, E. Mantel, Indianapolis, Ind. ; 
Grand Treas., Bamet Friedman ; Grand Sec, Geo. W. Leisersohn, 266 
Grand ; Counsel to the Order, H. M. Goldfogle, N. Y. C. 

LfODOES : Alabama : Birmingham. — California : Los Angeles, San Fran- 
cisco (5). — Colorado: Denver (2), Pueblo. — Connecticut: Bridgeport, Hart- 
ford (2), New Britain, New Haven, New London. Norwich. Sonth Norwalk, 
Waterbury (2). — District of Columbia: Washington. — Georgia: Atlanta 
(2), Macon. — Illinois: Chicago (29), La Salle, Peoria. — Indiana: Indian- 
apolis (3), Lafnyette (2), Terre Haute. — Iowa: Centerville, Des Moines. — 
Kentucky: Louisville (2). — Louisiana: New Orleans, Shreveport. — Maine: 
Bangor, Biddeford, Lewlston, Portland. — Maryland: Baltimore (5). — 
Mnssnchusetts : Boston (27), Chelsea, East Boston, Fall River (3), Haver- 
hill, Holyoke, Lawrence (2), Maiden, New Bedford (2), Salem (2), South 
Framingham (2), Springfield, Worcester (2). — Michigan: Detroit (2). — 
Minnesota: Duluth (2), Minneapolis (5), St. Paul. — Missouri: Kansas 
City (2), St. Joseph, St. Louis (9). — Montana: Butte. — Nebraska: Omaha. 
— New Hampshire: Manchester. — New Jersey: Atlantic City, Newark (7), 
Paterson (3), Vineland. — New York: Albnny, Binghamton, Buffalo (2), 
Elmira, Hudson, New York City (142), Peekskill, Rochester (3), Syracuse 
(4), Troy, Utica (2). — Ohio: Cincinnati, Cleveland (6), Lorain, Toledo (2), 
Youngstown. — Pennsylvania : Chester, Hazleton, Johnstown, New Castle, 
Philadelphia (8), Pittsburgh (4), Scranton, Wilkes-Barre (2). — Rhode 
Island: Providence (7), Woonsocket. — Texas: Dallas (2), Houston, San 
Antonio, Waco. — Vermont : Burlington. — Virginia : Newport News, Norfolk, 
Richmond. — Washington : Bellingham, Seattle. — Wisconsin : La Crosse, Mil- 
waukee (2), West Superior. 



ORDER KESHER SHEL BARZEL 

Org. 1860. Office: 342 E. 50th, New York City 
Biennial Convention of District Grand Lodge, No. 1, Feb. 28, 1915, New 
York City. 
Members. 295. 

Officers:* Pres., Jacob Ankel ; Sec, Moses Greenbaum, 342 E. 50th 
N. Y. C. 

ExEcnTivE Committee : L. Bauman, H. Beck, Wm. Bernard, S. Coleman, 

Lodges : Connecticut : Hartford, New Haven. — Massachusetts : Boston. — 
New Jersey: Jersey City, Newark (2).— New York: Albany, Brooklyn (2), 
Buffalo, Elmira, Kingston, New York City (18), Ogdensburg, Pough- 
keepsie, Rochester, Syracuse, Troy. 



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ORDER KNIGHTS OF JOSEPH 

Org. Feb. 14, 1896. Office : 311-312 Society for Savings Bldg., 
Cleveland, O. 

Twentieth Convention, Feb. 27, 1916, Chicago, IlL 

Members. 16,000. 

Lodges, 85. 

Officers : Supreme Commander, Isadore Liederman, Chicago, III. ; First 
Supreme Vice-Commnnder, J. J. Taxman, Rock Island, 111. ; Second Supreme 
Vice-Commander, A. Feld, Cincinnati, O. ; Third Supreme Vice-Commander, 
M. Taylor, Columbus, O. ; Supreme Sec, D. J. Zinner, Cleveland* O. ; Su- 
preme Treas., Jos. C. Bloch, Cleveland, O. ; Endowment Treas., A. Jacobs. 

Lodges: Connecticut: Kew Haven. — Illinois: Chicago (20), Bock 
Island, Waukegan. — Indiana : Indianapolis. — Kentucky : Louisville. — Michi- 
an : Detroit. — Missouri: St. Louis (7). — New Jersey: Camden, Newark 
2), Paterson (2). — New York: Buffalo (8), Rochester (2), Syracuse. — 
Ohio: Cincinnati (5), Qeveland (8), Columbus (2), Toledo. — ^Pennsyl- 
vania: Philadelphia (22), Pittsburgh (6).— Tennessee: Nashville. — Wis- 
consin: Milwaukee. 



ORDER SONS OF ZION 
Org. Apl. 10, 1908. Office : 44 B. 28d, New York City 
Eighth Annual Convention, June 18-10, 1016, Baltimore, Md. 
Members, 4000. 
Camps, 87. 

Purpose : Fraternal and Zionistic. 

Officers : Nasi, Joseph Barondess ; Segan Bishon, Jacob Strahl ; Segan 
Sheni, Joshua Sprayregen ; Gisbor, H. fi. Isaacson ; Maskir, Jacob Ish 
Kishor. 



ORDER UNITED HEBREV^S OF AMERICA, Inc. 
Headquarters : Boston, Mass. 
Twelfth Annual Convention, May 22. 1916. 

Officers : Pres., Moses Lewin ; Vice-Pres., Joseph Leondar ; Treas., Jacob 
Barger ; Sec, Louis Davis. 

Bxecutive Committee: Hyman J. Danzig, Leon Gailzaid, Harry Gltlin 
Harry Gradetzky, Manashe Krantzman, Louis Needel. ' 



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SIGMA ALPHA MU FRATERNITY 253 

PI TAU PI FRATERNITY 

Org. Jan., 1908. Office : St. Loaii, Mo. 

Fifth Annual Conclave, Dec. 26-30, 1916, Kansas City, Mo. 

Members, 200. 

Purpose: To bring into closer relation and promote sociability among 
the Jewish yonng men of the country and to aid the less fortunate. 

Officers : Pres., Max Friedman, Cincinnati, O. ; Vice-Pres., Alvin B. 
Weil, Montgomery. Ala. ; Treas., Harold Oppenheimer, Kansas City, Mo. ; 
Sec., Alexander Friend, St. Louis, Mo. ; Editor-in-Chief, Alvin A. Silberman, 
39 S. Gay, Balto., Md. 

Chapters : Alabama : Birmingham, Mobile, Montgomery. — District of 
Colombia : Washington. — Illinois : Chicago. — Indiana : EvansvUle. — Louisi- 
ana : New Orleans. — Maryland : Baltimore. — Missouri : Kansas City, St. 
Louis. — Ohio : Cincinnati. — Pennsylvania : Philadelphia. — Tennessee : Mem- 
phis. — Texas : San Antonio. — ^Virginia ; Richmond. 



PROGRESSIVE ORDER OF THE WEST 

Org. Feb. 13, 1696. Office : 11th and Franklin Av., St. Louis, Mo. 

Nineteenth Annual Convention, Jan. 30-Feb. 1, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Members. 19,615. 

Lodges, 117. 

Officers : Grand Master, Jacob Goldberg, Chicago, 111. ; First Vice- 
Grand Master, Louis Rosenberg, Chicago, 111. ; Second vice-Grand Master, 
Samuel Kransberg, St. Louis, Mo.; Third Vice-Grand Master, Benj. 
Barrish. Philadelphia, Pa. ; Fourth Vice-Grand Master, M. Drolich, Kansas 
City, Mo. ; Fifth Vice-Grand Master, Samuel B. Llnd, Detroit, Mich. ; 
Sixth Vice-Grand Master, M. Blumenthal, Cleveland, O. : Seventh Vice- 
Grand Master, M. Schwartz, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Grand Sec, Morris Shapiro ; 
Grand Treas^ Frank Dubinsky ; Endowment Treas., Samuel Bierman, St. 
Louis, Mo. ; Grand Counselor, Samuel Micon, Chicago, 111. 

Lodges: District of Columbia: Washington. — Illinois: Chicago (36;, 
Maywood, Quincy, Peoria. — Indiana : Indianapolis. — Kansas : Kansas City. 
— Kentucky: Louisville, Newport. — Maryland, Baltimore (6). — Michigan: 
Detroit (2). — Minnesota: Minneapolis, St. Paul. — Missouri: Kansas City 
(3), St. Louis (16). — New Jersey: Camden, West Hoboken, Wilmington, 
Woodbine. — New York: Albany, Syracuse (2). — Ohio: Cincinnati (3), 
Cleveland (4). — Pennsylvania: Philadelphia (19). Pittsburgh (2). — ^Texas : 
Beaumont, Dallas, Fort Worth (2), Houston. — West Virginia: Charleston. 
— Wisconsin: Milwaukee (3). 



SIGMA ALPHA MU FRATERNITY 

Org. Nov. 26, 1909. Office: care of Hyman I Jacobson, 146 W. 123d, 

N. Y. C. 

Sixth Annual Convention, Dec. 30, 1915-Jan. 2, 1916, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Members, 453. 

Chapters : Undergraduate, 12 ; Alumni, 3. 

Purpose : Greek Letter College Fraternity for Jewish Students. 

Officers : Pres., Isidore E. Finkelstein ; Treas., Joel Kom ; Sec., Josef 
Henstein, N. Y. C. ^^ ^ t. _.^ r^ r . 

DisECTOBS : The Officers, and Samuel Ginsburg, David D. Levinson, 
N. T. C. : Louis Lichtenstein, S. Ingram MuUer, Bklyn., N. Y. ; Nathaniel 
I. 8. Goldman, Phila., Pa. 

Chapters: Alpha, College of the City of New York; Beta, Cornell 
Dniversity, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Gamma, Columbia University, N. Y. CJ. ; Delta. 



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254 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Long Island College Hospital, Bklyn., N. Y. ; Bpsilon, College of Physicians 
nnd^urgeons, N. Y. C. ; Zeta, Cornell University Medical College, N. Y. C. ; 
Eta, Syracuse University, ^racuse, N. Y. ; Theta, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Phila., Pa.; Iota. State University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. ; 
Kappa, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Lambda, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. ; Nu, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Alumni Chaptbbs : The Simia Alpha Mu Club of New York ; The Sigma 
Alpha Mu Club of Rochester ; The Sigma Alpha Mu Club of Syracuse. 



SIGMA THETA PI SORORITY 

Org. 1909. Office : 800 N. 6th, Lafayette, Ind. 

Seventh Annual Conclave, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Members, 110. 

PuBPOSB : Philanthropic and social work. 

Officbbs : Pres.. Adele Mlller^klahoma City, Okla. ; Vice-Pres., Helen 
Strouse, St. Paul, Minn. ; Alice Wessel, Lincoln, Nebr. ; Sec., Cora Faust, 
800 N. 6th, Lafayette, Ind. ; Treas., Lillian Heilbrun, Kansas City, Mo. 

Chapters : Zeta, St Joseph, Mo. ; Beta, Kansas City, Mo. ; Lambda, 
Lincoln, Nebr. ; Tau, Louisville, Ky. ; Iota, Omaha, Nebr^; Alpha, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. ; Upsilon, St. Paul, and Minneapolis, Minn. ; ^ta, Pueblo, Colo. ; 
Gamma, Lafayette, Ind. ; Theta, Dayton, O. 



SOCIALIST ORGANIZATION YOUNG POALE-ZION OP 
AMERICA 

Org. Apl., 1915. Office : 89 Delancey, New York City 

First Annual Convention, Sept. 25, 1915, Cleveland, O. 

Members, 800. 

Branches, 19. 

Pttbposb : To educate the Jewish youth in a Jewish social spirit. 

Officers : Pres., J. Entin : Sec, B. Ostrowsky. 

Executive Committee : S. Boncheck, P. Cruzo, J. Entin, H. Liberman, 
B. Ostrowsky. 

Branches : Illinois : Chicago. — ^Maryland : Baltimore. — Massachusetts : 
Boston, Chelsea, Maiden. — Minnesota : Minneapolis, St. Paul. — New Jersey : 
Newark. — New York: New York (4). — Ohio: Cleveland (2). — Pennsyl: 
vania: Philadelphia. — Wisconsin: Milwaukee. — Canada: Montreal (2), 
Toronto. 



UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS 

Org. 1873. Office : Cincinnati, O. 

Twenty-fourth Council, Jan. 19, 1915. Chicago, 111. 

Twenty-fifth Council will meet Jan. 16, 1917, Baltimore, Md. 

Members, 191 Congregations. 

Four Departments : I. Executive and Financial, Pres., J. Walter 
Freiberg, Cincinnnti. O. II. Hebrew Union College, Pres. Board of Govern- 
ors, Edward L. Helnsheimer, Cincinnati, O. III. Board of Delegates on 
Civil Rights, Ghnirman, Simon Wolf, Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
IV. Board of Managers of Synagogues and School Extension, Chairman, 
Charles Shohl ; Director, George Zepin, Cincinnati, O. 

Executive Board for 1916: Pres., J. Walter Freiberg; Vice-Pres., 
Chas. Shohl ; Treas., Slgmund Rheinstrom ; Sec, Lipmnn Levy, Fourth Natl. 
Bk. Bldg., Cincinnati, O ; N. Henry Beckman. Cincinnati, O. ; Isaac W. 
Bernheim, Louisville, Ky. ; Josinh Cohen, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Harry Cutler, 
Providence, R. I. ; Gustave A. Efroymson, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Edw. L. 



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UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS 255 



Cowen, Chicago, IlL ; Harry Cutler, Providence, R. I. ; Gustav A. Bfroymson, 
Indianapolis, Ind. ; J. Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati, O. ; Frederick L. Gug- 
genheimer, N. Y. C. ; Chas. Jacoby, N. Y. C. ; David Leventritt, N. Y. C. ; 
Nathaniel H. Levi, N. Y. C. ; J. Leonard Levy, Pittsburgh, Pa.: Martin A. 
Marks, Cleveland, O. ; Max B. May, William Omstein, Sigmund Rheinstrom. 
Cincinnati, O. ; Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 111. ; Max L. Shalleck, N. Y. C. ; 
Joseph Schonthal, Columbus, O. ; Alfred Selligman, Louisville, Ky. ; Chas. 



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256 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Shohl, Cincinnati. O. ; Chai. A. Stlz. St. Louis, Mo.; Samuel Straus, 
C ' ■' ^ • " ■ * , Pittsburgh, Pa.; liudwig Vogelstein, 

] . Y. 

ulty: Pres., Kaufmann Kohler, Ph. D. 

tics, Theology, and Hellenistic Lttera- 
1 (Vienna), Professor of Jewish History 

I D. D. (H. U. C), Professor of Ethics 

) Ph. D. (Berlin), Professor of Jewish 

Ph. D. (OOttingen), Professor of Tal- 
] D. (Heidelberg), Professor of Biblical 

(Browji), Professor of Biblical Exegesis 
j :en8tern. Ph. D. (Heidelberg), Professor 

I Solomon B. Freehof, B. A., Instructor in 

Bogen, Ph. D. (New York University), 
1 Philanthropy; David Philipson, D. D. 
the Reform Movement and the Activities 

Corresponding Members of the Faculty: Aaron Hahn (1887) ; David 
Davidson (1802) ; Emil G. Hirsch (1901) ; Israel Abrahams (1012). 

Library Staff: Adolph S. Oko, Librarian ; Numa Kochman, Attendant ; 
Sarah B. Grad, Ida Schnefer, Assistants. 

CoNGBBGATiONS : Alabama : Anniston, Beth El ; Birmingham, Emanuel ; 
'Mobile, Shaare Shamayim ; Montgomery, Kehal Montgomery ; Selma, Mish- 
kan Israel. — Arkansas: Fort Smith, tfnited Hebrew: Helena, Beth El; 
Little Rock, Bene Israel ; Pine Bluff, Anshe Emetii. — California : Los 
Angeles, Bene Berith ; Sacramento, Bene Israel, San Francisco, Emanuel ; 
Stockton, Ryhim Aboovim. — Colorado : Denver, Emnnuel.— Connecticut : 
Bridgeport, Bnni Israel; Hartford, Beth Israel; New Haven, Mishkan 
Israel; Waterbury, Temple Israel. — ^District of Columbia: Washington, 
Washington Hebrew. — Florida : Jacksonville, Ahavath Chesed.— Georgia : 
Albany, Bene Israel ; Atlanta, Hebrew Benevolent ; Columbus, Bene Israel ; 
Savannah^ Mickva Israel. — Illinois : Bloomington, Moses Montefiore ; 
Cairo, Montefiore; Champaign, Sinai; Chicago, Anshe Maarab, Bene 
Sholom Temple Israel, Chicago Sinai, Emanuel, Isaiah Temple, North 
Chicago Hebrew. Zlon of West Chicago; Danville, Reform; Lincoln, Beth 
El ; Peoria, Anshe Emeth : Rockford, Beth El ; Springfield, Brith Sholom ; 
Urbana, Sinai. — Indiana : Anderson, Rodef Sholem : EvansvlUe, Bene Israel ; 
Fort Wayne, Achduth Veshalom ; Gary, Temple Israel; Indianapolis, In- 
dianapolis Hebrew ; Kokomo, Shaare Shamayim ; Lafayette, Ahabatn Achim ; 
Ligonier, Ahabath Shalom ; Madison, Adath Israel ; Mount Vernon, Anshe 
Israel ; Muncie, Beth El ; South Bend, Beth El ; Terre Haute, Temple 
Israel ; Wabash, Rodef Shalom. — Iowa : Davenport, Bene Israel ; Des 
Moines, Bene Jeshurun ; Sioux City, Mt. Sinai. — Kansas : Wichita, Emanuel. 
— Kentucky: Henderson, Adath Israel; Lexington, Adath Israel; Louis- 
ville, Adath Israel; Owensboro, Adath Israel; Paducah, Temple Israel. — 
Louisiana : Alexandria, Gemillas Hassadim ; Baton Rouge, Bene Israel ; 
Monroe, Bene Israel ; New Orleans, Gates of Mercy, Dispersed of Judah, 
Temple Sinai, Gates of Prayer; Shreveport, Hebrew Zion. — ^Maryland: 
Baltimore, Baltimore Hebrew, Har Sinai, Oheb Shalom ; Cumberland, 
Bair Chavim. — Massachusetts: Boston, Adath Israel; Chelsea, Emanu 
El. — Michigan : Bay City, Anshe Chesed ; Detroit, Beth El ; Grand Rapids, 
Emanuel ; Kalamazoo, Bene Israel ; Saginaw, Beth El. — Minnesota : Duluth, 
Temple Emanuel ; St. Paul, Mount Zion Hebrew. — Mississippi : Green- 
ville, Hebrew Union ; Jackson, Beth Israel ; Meridian, Beth Israel ; Natchea, 
Bene Israel ; Port Gibson, Gemiluth Chasadim ; Vicksburg, Anshe Chesed. — 
Missouri: Kansas City. Bene Jehudah; St. Joseph, Adath Joseph; St. 
Louis, Shaare Emeth, Temple Israel. — Nebraska : Lincoln, Bene Jeshurun ; 
Omaha, Israel. — New Jersey: Atlantic City, Beth Israel; Newark. Bene 
Jeshurun; Paterson, Bene Jeshurun. — New York: Albany, Beth Emeth; 
Amsterdam, Temple of Israel; Binghamton, Hebrew Keform Society; 
Brooklyn, Ahavath Sholom, Beth Blohim, Temple Beth Elohim, Temple 



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UNION OP ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS 257 



Israel ; Buffalo, Temple Beth Zion ; Far Rockaway^ Temple of Israel ; New 
York City, Ahavath Chesed Shaare Hashomayim, Beth El, Free Synagogue, 
Rodef Shalom, Temple Emanuel, Temple Israel of Harlem: Niagara Falls, 
Temple Beth Kl ; Rochester, Berith Kodesh ; Syracuse, Society of Concord. 
— North Carolina : Asheville, Beth-ha-Tephila ; Goldsboro, Oheb Shalom ; 
Statesville, Emanuel. — Ohio : Akron, Akron Hebrew ; Bellalre, Sons of 
Israel; Canton, Canton Hebrew; Cincinnati, Bene Israel, Bene Jeshurun, 
She'erith Israel Ahabath Achim ; Cleveland, Anshe Chesed, Tifereth Israel ; 
Coltimbus, Bene Israel ; Dayton, Bene Jeshurun ; East Liverpool, Bene 
Israel ; Btamllton, Bene Israel : Lima, Beth Israel ; Piqua, Anshe Emeth ; 
Portsmouth, Bene Abraham ; Sandusky, Oheb Shalom : Springfield, Oheb 
Zedakah ; Toledo, Shomer Emunlm ; Toungstown, Rodef Shalom ; ZanesviUe, 
Keneseth Israel. — Oklahoma : Ardmore, Emeth ; Enid, Emanuel ; Muskogee, 
Beth Ahaba ; Tulsa, Temple Israel. — Oregon : Portland, Temple Beth 
Israel. — Pennsylvania : Allentown, Keneseth Israel ; Altoona, Hebrew Re- 
formed ; Bradford, Temple Beth Zion ; Easton, B'rith Sholem ; Erie, Anshe 
Chesed ; Harrisburg, Oheb Shalom ; Hazleton, Beth Israel ; Honesdale, Beth 
Israel ; Lancaster, Shaare Shamaylm ; Meadville, Meadville Hebrew Society ; 
Philadelphia, Keneseth Israel, Rodef Shalom: Pittsburgh, Rodef Shalom; 
Reading, Oheb Sholom ; Scranton, Anshe Chesed ; Wilkes-Barre, Bene Berith ; 
York, Beth Israel. — Rhode Island : Providence, Sons of Israel and David. — 
South Carolina : Charleston, Beth Elohim ; Columbia, Tree of Life. — Tennes- 
see : Chattanooga, Mizpah ; KnoxViUe, Beth El ; Memphis, Children of Israel ; 
Nashville, Ohabe Shalom. — Texas : Corsicana, Beth El ; Dallas, Emanuel ; 
El Paso, Mt. Sinai; Fort Worth, Beth El; Gainesville. United Hebrew; 
Galveston, Bene Israel ; Houston, Beth Israel ; San Antonio, Beth El ; Waco, 
Rodef Shalom. — Utah : Salt Lake City, Bene Israel. — ^Virginia : Alexandria, 
Beth El ; Norfolk, Oheb Shalom ; Petersburg, Rodef Sholom ; Richmond, 
Beth Ahaba ; Washington : Seattle, Temple de Hirsch ; Tacoma, Beth 
Israel. — West Virginia : Charleston, Hebrew Educational Society ; Clarks- 
burg, Temple Emanuel ; Huntington, Oheb Shalom ; Wheeling, Leshem 
Shamayim. — Wisconsin : La Crosse, Anshe Chesed ; Milwaukee, B*ne Jeshu- 
run, Emanuel; Wausaw, Mount Sinai. 

♦ ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF THE HEBREW UNION COLLEGE 
Org. 1906. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. 

Members, 142. 

Purpose : To promote welfare of the Hebrew Union College and to 
strengthen fraternal feeling among graduates of the college. 

Officers : Pres., Edward N. Callsch, Richmond, Va. ; vlce-Pres.. Wm. 
S. Friedman, Denver, Colo. : Treas., George Zepin, Cincinnati, O. ; Historian, 
George Solomon, Savannah, Ga. ; Sec., Julian H. Miller, 615 Douglas, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

ExBCunvB Committee : Moses P. Jacobson, David Marx, Horace J. Wolf. 



UNION OP ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF 

AMERICA 

Org. June 8, 1898. Office : 99 Central Pk. W., New York City 
Eighth Convention, May 30-31, 1915, New YoriJ City. ^ „ ^ _ „. 
Oo'iCEHS: Pres., Bernard Drachman. 128 W. 121st, N. Y. C. ; Vice 
Pres., Moses Hyamson, Samuel I. Hyman, M. Z. Margolies^ Simon M. 
Boeder, N. Y. C. ; Meldola de Sola, Montreal, Can. ; Trees., Jacob Hecht, 
N. Y. C. ; Sec., Isidore Hershfleld, M. Engelman, Albert Lucas, B6 W. 105th, 
NYC 

'Bxbcdtivb Committee : A. M. Ashlnsky, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Louis Bor- 
genicht, Bklyn« N. Y. ; I. M. Davidson, Younestown, p. ; Jullup J. ,?«kas, 
C. J. Bpsteln. Efarry Flwhel, Henry Glass, S. H. Glick, Herbert S. Goldstein, 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



M. Gottennan, Jacob M. Guedalia, N. Y. C. : S. Halpern. Uoboken, N. J. ; 
Philip Jaches, N. Y. C. : J. D. Jurman, Boaton, Mass. ; Philip Klein, Abr. 
Knimbein, M. Boas Lande, N. Y. C. ; J. Leyinson, Albany, N. Y. ; B. L. Levin- 
thai. Phila., Pa. ; H. Mandelbanm, H. Perelra Mendes, N. Y. C. ; Henry S. 
Morals. Bensonhurst, L. I. : J. Neulander, Yonkers, N. Y. ; David de Sola 
Pool, Nathan Rosenzweig, N. Y. C. ; O. 8. Roth. Bklyn.^. Y. ; Abraham E. 
Rothstein, N. Y. C. ; S. Schaifer, Baltimore, Ud.; W. Wlttenstein. BHdge- 
port, Conn. 

♦UNITED ORTHODOX RABBIS OF AMERICA 

Org. Tammuz 24, 6662 (1902) 
Fourteenth Annual Convention, May 15, 1916, New York City. 
Members, 120. 

Officers : Hon. Pres., Bernard L. Levinthal, 716 Pine, Philaj, Pa. ; 
Pres., S. B. Jaffe, 211 Henry, N. Y. C. ; Hon. Vice-Pres., S. Wise, Bklyn., 
N. Y. ; Vice-Pres., A. Alpersteln, N. Y. C. ; J. Grossman, Phila.. Pa.; I. 
Isaacson, Bklyn., N. Y. ; Treas., D. Ginzberg, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. : Chair- 
man of Committee to organize Jewish Congregations in the United States, 
Bernard L. Levinthal. 



UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA 

Org. Feb. 23, 1913. Office : 531 W. 123d, New York City 

Fourth Annual Convention, July 9-10, 1916, Far Rockaway, N. Y. 

Purpose : The promotion of traditional Judaism in America. 

Founder : Solomon Schechter. 

Officers : Pres., Cyrus Adler, Phila., Pa. ; Vice-Pres., Louis Ginzberg. 
N. Y. C. ; Charles H. Kauvar, Denver, Colo. ; Elias L. Solomon, Mordecai 
M. Kaplan : Rec. Sec, Jacob Kohn, N. Y. C. ; Cor. Sec, Chas. I. Hoffman, 
45 Elizabeth Av., Newark, N. J. ; Treas., Meyer Goodfriend, N. Y. C. 

Executive Council : Herman H. Abramowitz, Montreal, Can. ; Cyras 
Adler, S. Soils Cohen, Phila., Pa.; Louis Ginzberg, Meyer Goodfriend, N. 
Y. C. ; Julius H. Greenstone, Phila., Pa. ; A. M. Hershmnn, Detroit, Mich. ; 
Chas. I. Hoffman, Newark, N. J. ; Mordecai M. Kaplan, N. Y. C. ; Chas. H. 
Kauvar, Denver, Colo. ; Max D. Klein, Phila., Pa. ; Jacob Kohn, Samuel C. 
Lamport, N. Y. C. ; William Levy, Baltimore, Md. ; Alexander Marx. 
N. Y. C. ; N. Pinansky. Herman H. Rubenowltz, Boston, Mass. ; Michael 
Salit, Bklyn., N. Y. ; Efllas Solomon, Samuel Wacht, N. Y. C. 



YOUNG JUDAEA 

Org. 1908. Office : 44 B. 23d, New York City 

Eighth Annual Convention, July 8-10, 1916, Long Branch, N. J. 

Number of Circles, 341. 

Purpose: Popularization of Jewish education and spread of Zionism 
among the Jewish youth. 

Officers : Pres., David de Sola Pool ; Vice-Pres., Chas. A. Cowen ; Treas., 
Isaac Alpern ; Sec, David Schneeberg, 44 B. 23d, N. Y. C. ; Chairman Pub- 
lication Board, Joshua H. Neumann; Chairman Organization Committee, 
Samuel J. Borowsky ; Chairman of Young Judaean, S. M. Feinberg : Chair- 
man of Finance, Lawrence Steinhardt; Members-at-Large, Sundel Doniger, 
Tamar Hirschensohn, Sylvan Kohn. 

Advisory Board: Joseph Barondess. Mayer Berlin, Louis D. Brandeis, 
Sarah Kussy, Louis Lipsky, Mrs. N. Taylor Phillips, Jessie B. Sampter, 
Max Shulman, Nathan Straus. 



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Z. B. T. FRATERNITY 259 



Z. B. T. FRATERNITY 



Org. 1898; Inc. 1907. Office: (Supreme Council) 616 W. 114th., 
New York City 
Seventeenth Annual Convention, Dec. 26-28, 1916, New York City. 
Members, 1600. 
Also known as Zeta Beta Tau. ranking as an Intercollegiate Greek-letter 



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260 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



NEW JEWISH LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

The following list supplements the Disectory of Jewish Loca-L Ob- 
GANiZATiONS IN THE UNITED STATES published In the Ambbican Jbwish 
Ybab Book 5668 and the additions in those of 5669. 6670, 5671, 5672, 5673, 
5674, 5675, and 5676. It enumerates the organizations that have come Into 
existence between June 1, 1915, and May 31, 1916, and it includes also a 
few organizations inadvertently omitted from the other lists. Juvenile 
organizations, because of their ephemeral character, have been omitted. 

The followine abbreviations are employed: Cbm. = Cemetery ; Chb.== 
Charity; CL. = Club; Com. = Community ; Co. = Congregation; EDnc.=Bda- 
cational; M. B.= Mutual Benefit; Zion.= Zionist. 

ALABAMA 

AKNISTOK 
Chb. Henrietta Sterne Sisterhood, Org. Apl. 27, 191^. Sec, Mrs. I. P. 
Levi, 1329 Quintard Av. Formerly Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent 
Society. 

ATHENS 
Co. Athens Hebrew Congregation. • Sec, B. P. Jaffe. Sunday SchooL , 

BntlONGHAlC 
Chb. Federation of Jewish Charities. Org. Feb. 14. 1916. Sec, D. T. 
Feidelson, 114 N. 18th. AffiUated Societies: Temple Bmanu Bl 
Relief ; Daughters of Israel ; Birmingham Hebrew Relief 4 Hebrew 
Shelter and Free Loan Association; Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent 
Society. 

CALIFORNIA 

BERKELEY 
Educ. Bemeiohlm of Berkeley, 2130 Center. Sec, Herbert Goldman, 1826 
Hearst Av. 

LOS ANGELES 
Chb. Jewish Kothers' Alliance of the United States. Sec, Mrs. Lena 

Kornsweet, 300 N. Fremont Av. 
ZioN. Nathan Straus Palestine Advancement Society. Org. Mch. 22, 1914. 

Sec, Harry Fram, 412 S. Main. 

SAN FRANCISCO 
Chb. Ezra Society, 1071 McAllister. Sec, F. Yanishevsky, 732 Fulton. 

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, Pacific Coast Branch. Sec, I. J. 
Aschheim, 149 Eddy. 
Co. Keneseth Israel. Formerly Wm. Wolf Congregation. 936 Webster. 
Org. 1902. Sec, Jacob Label, 1435 Octavia. Ladies' Talmud 
Torah Auxiliary. 
Educ. Young Women's Hebrew Assooiation, 1554 Ellis. Org. May 5, 1914. 
Sec. Bertha Musin, 106 Ord. 



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tlUnotoJ LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 261 



COLOBADO 

DEWEB 
Chb. Jewlgh Aid Society of DonTor, 1212 16th. Sec., Nathan BothichUd, 
1602 Adams. 

CONNECTICUT 

DEBBT 
Co. Soni of Inrael. Sec, Henry Spero, 200 Main. Ladiei' Auxiliary. 

^ HARTFORD 

Educ. Tonnir Women'i Hehrew Auooiation, care of Henry Barnard School, 

High St. Sec, Eva G. Goldstein, 29 Canton. 
ZiON. Sons and Daughters of Hersl, 18 Pleasant. Pres., A. Neyelstein, 0^ 
Morgan. 

HEW EAYEV 
Chb. Jewish Home for the Af ed Society. Formerly Zion Charity Society. 
160 Davenport At. Sec, Mrs. Deborah Gladstone, 86 Broad. 

DELAWAEE 

WILKINGTOK 
Cub. Kount Sinai Dispensary, 706 French. Sec, Nathan Barsky, 701 
French. 

DISTEICT OF COLUMBIA 

WASHIHGTOK 
Chb. Perpetual Hebrew Association, Room 837, Southern Bldg. Sec, 

DaYld Rosenfeld, 1131 10th, N. W. 
Educ. Young Hen's Hebrew Association, Army and Navy Branch, Fort 

Myer. Sec, J. Dancer. 

GEOKGIA 

BRUNSWICK 
CO. Sunday School Beth Teilllah. Sec, Miriam Abrams, Union St. Ladies* 
Temple Guild. 

ILLINOIS 

CHICAGO 
Chb. Social Service League of Jewish Women. Sec, Mrs. L. L. Rosenthal, 

4621 Ellis Av. 
Cu Northwest Fellowship Club. Org. Apl., 1914. Sec, Harry Feder, 
1650 N. Robey. 
Pyramid Social and Benevolent Association, 3420 W. 12th. Org. Aug., 
1909. Re-org. Mch. 2. 1916. Sec, Harry Jacobs. 638 S. Hermitage 

Com. Big Sister Movement of Chicago. Sec, Anna Preaskll, 3611 Douglas 
Blvd. 



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262 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK [Biaine 



Co. KehllUth Jacob, Douglas Blvd. and Hamlin Av. Org. 1889 as KehU- 

lath Jacob Anshe Dorhitsher. Re-org. 1915. Sec, A. Brande, 755 

Independence Blvd. Rabbi, Samuel Schach, 1226 S. Springfield 

Av. Talmud Torah. 
Sons of Joseph, 911 S. Oakley Blvd. Org. May. 1914. Sec., S. E. 

Newberger, 734 S. Oakley Blvd. Rabbi, E. R. Muskin. Hebrew 

School. 
Educ. Lawndale Civic Center. Org. 1915. Sec, N. J. Kaplan, 3339 

Douglas Blvd. 
Young Men's Hebrew Association, 3435 Ogden Av. Sec, Samuel 

Levin, 1306 W. 12th. 

EVANSTON 
Cl. Evanston Jewish Social Club, 620 Davis. Sec, Max Croat, 1006 
Emerson. 

INDIANA 

^GABY 

Educ. Jewish Literary Club, 8th and Connecticut. Sec, Ralph Kaplan, 
1128 Washington. 

IKDIANAPOLIS 
Educ. Kabbi Veustadt TXnited Hebrew School. Branch No. 3, P. S. No. 32. 
Sec, Henry Rosner, 543 S. Illinois. 

IOWA 

BTrBLIN0TON 
Co. Anshe Ischak, Division St. Org. July 30, 1902. Sec, Sam Zeldes, 
209 Jefferson. Rabbi, B. Weinstein, 615 S. 12th. Ladies* Aid 
Society. 

KENTUCKY 

ASHLAND 
EDUC. Sabbath School. Pres., Simon Harris. 

LOUISIANA 

NEW OBLEANS 
Chs. Julius Weis Home for Aged and Infirm, Coliseum and Fonder. Org. 

1899. Sec, Scott E. Beer. Hekernia Bank Bldg. 
Educ. Jewish Social Centre for Girls, Thalia St. Org. Aug., 1912. Sec, 

Mrs. Herbert Pallet, 1609 S. Rampart. Auspices of Council of 

Jewish Women. 

MAINE 

AUBURN 
Co. Tiferes Israel Anshe Sfard, 4 Mill. Sec, S. Swilkin, 11 Polseer. 
Rabbi, Moses Tarau, 10 Mill. 

BATH 

Cl. Naomi Club. Sec, Lena Mikelsky, 209 Water. 



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Massachusetts] LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 263 



LEWISTON 
ZioN. Lewiston and Auburn Zionist Association. Sec, A. A. Glick, P. O. 
Box 182. 

OLD TOWN 
Co. Sons of Israel. Sec, I. Cutler, 43 Oak. Ladies* Aid Society. Rabbi. 
David Homstein. 

POBTLAZm 
Cg. Temple Israel. Sec, M. L. Pinansky, 17 Quincy. Ladies' Aid Society. 

MAEYLAND 

BALTIMORE 
Chb. Lewis Baer Foundation, Inc., 107 W. Baltimore. Sec, Julius Mints, 

Equitable Bldj:. 
Com. Federation of Jewish T 

Eutaw Place. Sec, M 
Jewish Biir Brother Lea 

411 W. Fayette. A/Tll 

Sinai Temple; Madiso 

Emunah ; Etz Chaim ; ! 

Menorab Lodge, I. O, 

Hebrew Young Men's 

Alliance ; Independent 
Co. Emanu El, 1725 E. Bal 

Sisterhood. 
Mishkan Israel (Orthodox). Org. 1911. Sec, L. Levinssohn, 2310 

Madison Av. Ladies* Junior Auxiliary. Pres., Mrs. S. Samuels, 

2550 McCulloh. 
Educ. Board of Jewish Education, School I., 106 Jackson Place. Sec, B. N. 

Rabinowitz, 125 Aisquith. 
South West End Talmud Torah, 2031 Christian. Sec, Maurice Lesnay, 

2017 Ashton. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

BOSTON 
Chb. Foundation for Promotion of Jewish Philanthropy in Boston. Sec, A. 
Ehrlich. 
Frauen Yerein, Convalescent Home for Jewish Women, 17 Everett Av., 

Dorchester, Sec, Mrs. Hattie Osgood, 33 Alaska, Roxbury. 
ITnited Hebrew Trades. Sec, Hyman Kantrovitz, 7 Leverett. 
Educ. Boston Jewish Sabbath Assooiation, Blue Hill Av. Synagogue. Sec, 
Chas. Hahn, 34 Stanwood, Roxbury. 

CAMBRIDGE 
ZiON. Massada, Harvard University. Sec, Louis Schneider, Matthews Hall. 
Affiliated with Harvard Zionist Society. 

EVERETT 
Educ. Young Women's Hebrew Association. Sec, . Dora E. Perlstein, 51 
Adams Av. Girls' Club. 

FITCHBURO 
Educ. Young Men's Hebrew Assooiation, Sabbath School, 75 Main. Sec, 
Ida Winthrop, Bontelle St. Supt, Joseph Pine. 



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264 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK IMlwonrl 

Jijr ^ 

1913. Sec. Gertrude Brams, 86 Lane. 



LOWELL 
Educ. Toimr Women's Heteew AifooUtion, 231 CentraL Org. Feb. 23, 



PLTMOXTTH 

_ tibrtw Ai 

67 PleafMint. 



Educ. Tonng Xen'i Heteew Anoclailon, Dayis Bldg. Sec., S. P. Steinberg, 
-7P1< 



aiTINOY 

Chb. Qnlncy Hebrew Ladlei' Aid AMOoUtlon, School St. Synagogue. Sec., 
Mrs. Henrietta Herman, 64 James. 

SOXERYILLE 

Cg. B'nai B'ritb of Somerrille, Citizens' Hall, Gilman Sq. Sec, Levi 

Pennamacoor, 106 Heath. School. Sisterhood. 
Educ. Tonng Women's Hebrew Association. Citizen's Hall. Sec, Fannie 

M. Lipshires, 61 Walnut Park, Roxbury. 

SPRIKaFIELD 

Educ. Talmud Torah Sunday School, 131 10th. Sec, Rose Rapaport, 63 
Greenwood. 

MICHIGAIT 

DETROIT 
Educ. Jewish Collegiate Olub. Sec, A. Lapin Cohn, 72 Medbury. 

SAGINAW 
Educ. Toung Peoples' Hebrew Society. Sec, S. Ruth Thai, 010 S. Park. 



MINNESOTA 

HIKKEAFOLIS 

Cl. Atlas Athletic Olub, 711 6th Ay. Org. Nov. 1, 1908. Sec, Harry H. 

Board, 1808 2nd. 
Cg. Sharei Zedeck, 706 Bryant Ay. N. Org. Aug., 1006. Sec, H. Feder, 

1147 Bryant Av. N. Rabbi, L. Strelzer, 903 Bryant Ay. N. 
Educ. Talmud Torah of Minneapolis, 8th Ay. N. and Fremont. Sec, M. M. 

Isaacs, 610-12 Flour Exchange. 

VIRaiKIA 
Cg. Benai Abraham. Org. 1906. Sec, Sam MUowitz. Ladies' Aid Society. 



MISSOURI 

OOLVXBIA 

Cg. Jewish Students' Congregation. Sec, Minnie Rosenthal, Read Hall, 
UniY. of Missouri. 

JOPLIK 
Cg. Adath Israel. Org. May, 1916. Sec, L. Walkow, 207 Main. 



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New Jersey] LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 265 



KANSAS OITT 

Co. Beth Sholoin (Orthodox). 81st and Charlotte. Sec., B. M. Achten- 
berg, 916 Commerce aidg. Rabbi, Samuel M. Cohen, 2326 Troost 
Av. Sisterhood ; Dramatic Circle ; Study Circle. 

Educ. Tounf Women's Hebrew Association. Sec, Sadie Berger, 439 Benton 
Blvd. 

ST. JOSEPH 

Educ. Junior Assembly. Org. Feb. 14, 1916. Sec, Rebecca Ladensohn, 615 
N. 17th. 
South St. Joseph Religious School. Sec, Elizabeth Ellis, King Hill 
and Missouri Av. Under direction of the Junior Assembly. 

ST. LOTnS 

Chb. Federation of Jewish Charities of St. Louis. Org. 1901 as Jewish 
Charities. Sec, Bernard Greensfelder, 416 Locust. Oonstituent 
Societies: Jewish Educational and Charitable Association ; Jewish 
Hospital; Jewish Hospital Dispensary; Jewish Day Nursery; 
Jewish Shelter Home for Children ; Home for Aged and Infirm 
Israelites; Jewish Home for Chronic Invalids; Miriam Conva- 
lescent Home (all of St. Louis, Mo.) ; Cleveland Jewish Orphan 
Asylum, Cleveland, O. ; National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, 
Denver, Colo. 

NEW JEBSEY 

HIGHLANDS 

ISO 

cock). Sec, H. Spitz. 

LOKaPORT 

_ rer Seashore I 

1913. Sec, Mrs. S. Belle Cohn, 732 Arch.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

XONBOEYILLE 



Educ. Young Men's Hebrew Association (Army and Navy Branch, Fort Han- 
)ck) " ~ *■ 



Chr. Xaz and Sarah Bamberger Seashore Home, Idaho A v. Inc. July 3, 



Co. Crown of Israel. Org. Oct. 17, 1914. Sec. Joseph Bolnick, P. O. 
Box 103, Elmer, N. J. Rabbi, I. Novitz, Monroevllle, N. J. 

NEWARK 

Cg. Adas Israel and Xishnaes, 32 Prince. Org. Jan., 1912. Sec, Simon 
Schwarzman. 3 16th Av. Rabbi, Jacob Mendelson, 195 13th Av. 

ZioN. Federated Zionists of Newark. Sec, Samuel Leopold, 147 Bloomfleld 
Av. AMUated Societies: Theodor Herzl Zlon Club ; Zion Associa- 
tion; Hadassah ; Erster Newarker Camp; Young Folk's Menorah- 
League ; Emma Lazarus Zlon Society ; Young Judaea Council. 

OBANaE 

Educ. Hebrew Institute of the OrangeSi 253 Main. Sec, Etta Senlu, 387 
S. Jefferson. 

PATERSON 

BDUCToung Hen's Hebrew Association, 120 Market. Org. ApL 17, 1910. 
Sec, S. y. D. Levine, 885 Ellison. 



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266 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK [New Tom 



NEW YORK 
ALBAinr 

»brew Ail 
40 Lancaster. 



Educ. Toung Xen'i Hebrew AnooUtlon, 60 Franklin. Sec, J. 8. Kallet, 
"OLan 



BUFFALO 

Educ. Ladles of Loyalty, Community Hall, Jefferson St. Sec, Mrs. O. h. 
Engel, 84 Walnut. 

CENTKAL VALLEY 
Chr. Ida R. Straus Summer Home, Central Valley, Orange Co., N. Y. 
Sec, Mrs. H. A. Guinsburg, 116 W. 86th, N. Y. C. 

niLTON 
Co. Tifereth Israel, Pratts Blk., Ist St. Sec, David Kat». 261 S. 4th. 

NEW YOBK CITY 
Brooklyn, Queens ANb Richmond 
Cur. Ladies' Welfare League (Bath Beach). Sec, Mrs. J. Segerman, 129 
Bay 22d, Bensonhurst. 
Zion Hospital, Inc., 1550 52d. Sec, I. Ehrman, 665 Neptune A v.. 
Coney Island. Ladles' Society ; Young Folk's League. 
Co. Beth Sholom, 157 Marcy Av. Org. 1912. Sec, David Hochberg. 246 

S. 4th. Rabbi, Samuel Rabinowitz, 159 Marcy. 
Educ. Young Ken's Hebrew Association (Army and Navy Branch, Fort Hani- 

ilton). Secj- Isquith. 

Young Ken's Hebrew Association (Army and Navy Branch, Fort 

Totten, Whitestone). Sec, M. Gold. 
Young Ken's Hebrew Association (Army and Navy Branch, Fort Wads- 
worth, Rosebank, Sta. Isl.). Sec, J. Hendler. 
Young Women's Hebrew Association of Brooklyn, 374 7th. Sec, 

Molly Silversteln, 310 12th. 
Young Women's Hebrew Association (Brownsville), 461 Rockaway 
Av. Org. Oct., 1914. Sec, Pauline Canton 862 Sackman. Y. M. 
H. A. ; Y. W. H. A. Junior League. 

Manhattan and the Bronx 
Chb. Bureau of Philanthropic Research. Sec, M. D. Waldman, 356 2d Av. 
Hannah Lavanburg Home, 819 E. 17th. Sec, Carrie Wise, 146 Central 

Park West. 
Home for Hebrew Infants of the City of New York, 100 W. Kings- 
bridge Rd. Org. 1892, as Hebrew Infant Asylum. Sec, Joseph L. 
Relling, 260 4th Av. Young Folk's League ; Ladies' Sewing Circle. 
Solomon Schechter Xemorial, Jewish Home for Convalescents, Grand 
View, N. Y. Sec, Solomon Dlamant, 185 Forsyth. 
Com. Jewish Centre, Inc. Sec, Henry Boyer, 150 W. 95th. 
Cg. Central Jewish Institute, 125 E. 85th. Sec, Edw. Epstein. 1469 
Lexington Av. Rabbi, H. S. Goldstein, 1186 Madison Av. org. as 
Yorkville Jewish Institute. 
New Synagogue, 43 W. 86th. Sec, J. L. Frankel, 95 5th A v. Rabbi. 
Ephraim Prlsch, 43 W. 86th. Sisterhood. Sec, Mrs. Minnie F. 
Rosenberger. Young People's League. 
Temple Israel of Washington Heists, 523 W. 173. Sec, Robt. 
Meyer, 605 W. 176th. Rabbi, Emanuel Schreiber, 470 W. 166th. 
Ladies' Auxiliary ; Young People's League ; Sunday School. 
Temple of Peace (Reform), 542 W. 162d. Sec, Robert Peck, 133 W. 
143d. Rabbi, William Loewenberg. Sisterhood; Young People's 
League. 



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Ohio] LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 267 



Bduc. Hitntf Point Tahnud Torah, 1019 Garrison Av. Sec., Samuel Brill, 

916 S. Blvd. 
Immigrant Pnblieation Society, Inc. Org. June 30, 1914. Director, 

John Foster Carr, 241 5th Av. 
Babhinical College. Org. 1897. Sec, L. Lipnik, 9-11 Montgomery. 

Consolidation of Etz Chaim Talmuaical Academy and Rabbi Isaac 

Elchanan Theological Seminary. 
School for Jewish Communal Work. Sec^ Julius Drachsler, 366 2d Av. 
SocUl Welfare Circle, 125 E. 85th. Org. Dec. 11, 1912. Sec, P. 

Joshua Berman, 16 E. 97th. Amalgamation of Social Circle of 

Cg. Kehillath Jeshurun and the Orach Chaim League. 

KIAGABA FALLS 
Educ. Jewish Young Xen's Association, 12-14 Crick Block. Sec, Edward 
Leifer, 435 7th. 

POVGHKEEPSIE 
Educ. Young Xen's Hebrew Association. Sec, H. H. Jacobs, 211 Mill. 
AffiUated Societies: Y . W. H. A. ; Y. M. H. A. Jrs. ; Y. W. H. A. Jrs. 
Young Women's Hebrew Association, 211 Mill. Sec, Sadie Shertz, 
Washington St. 

BIYZRHEAD 
Cg. Agudas Achim of Riverhead. Org. Sept. 13, 1911. Sec, N. J. Ritt. 

Rabbi. I. Rudovsky, Box 562. 
Educ. Hatchiya. Sec, I. Rudovsky. 

ROCHESTER 
Co. Beth £1 (Conservative), 310 Oxford. Sec, Jacob H. Goldstein, 125 
State. Sisterhood. 

SACKETT HARBOR 
EDua Young Xen's Hebrew Association. Army and Navy Branch. Madison 
Bks., Sackett Harbor. Sec, H. Schoenblum. 

SCHENECTADY 
Co. Adath Israel, 832 Albany. Sec, Harry Polikoff, 918 Strong. Rabbi, 
Solomon M. Hinden, 685 Hamilton. 

Y0NKER8 
Chr. Yonkers Hebrew Relief Association, 196 Ashburton Av. Org. Jan. 
10, 1915. Sec, A. M. Kurzmann, 69 Hamilton Av. 

OHIO 

GINCINHATI 

Cu Young Xmi's Hebrew Association, 415 Clinton. Org. 1913. Sec, Bmil 
Bogen, 255 Lorain Av. 

Cq. Temple Israel. Org. 1906. Sec, Maurice Lifshitz, 78 Pike. 

ZiON. Central Committee of Zionist Organisation of Greater Cincinnati) 
128 Elder. Org. Jan., 1915. Sec, Rose Gindy, 930 Richmond. 
Affiliated: Ohavey Zion Society ; Cincinnati Zionist Society ; Deb- 
orah Circle ; Cincinnati Misrachi Society ; Daughters of Misrachl ; 
Herzl Camp Order Sons of Zion ; Junior Deborah. 



CLEVELAND 

, ent SocJ 

2421 B. 6ist. 



M. B. Grodno Independent Society, 5311 Woodward Av. Sec, Isidor Astor, 
^.«- « 81sr 



SANDITSKY 
Cg. Oheb Shalom. Sec, Wm. Beresin, care of People's Store. 



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268 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK [Penngylvanla 



OBEGOIT 

POBTLAVD 
Cl. ToaUtin Country Olnb. Sec. I. S. White, Sellinsr Bldg. 
Co. Llnnai K&iedek, 2d and Mead. Org. 1914. Sec., M. Weinateiii 

713 2d. 
Bduc. Agndath Aohieyer. Sec, K. A. Press, Neighborhood House. 

B'nai B'rlth Toung Xen^s Hebrew Association, B*nai B'rith Building. 
Sec, E. N. Weinbanm, 997 B. 16th N. 
ZiON. Portland Zionist Society, B'nai B'rith Bldg. Org. 1910. Sec, B. N. 
Weinbaum, 997 E. 16th. N. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Bduc. Pennsylvania State Organisation of Toung Judaea. Sec, 8. H. 
Schwartz, 827 Adams Ay., Scran ton. AMUated: Old Forge, Youths 
of Zion ; Olyphant, Young Judaea ; Pittston, Junior Young Men's 
Hebrew Association; Scranton, Hadassah Club, Hebrew Speaking, 
Young Judaea, Young Judaea : Shamokin, Dr. Hersl Zion Club : 
Wilkes-Barre, Young Judaea, Young Maccabeans. 

OHABLEBOI 
Cg. Beth Jacob. Sec. H. Wasserman. 

DV B0I8 
Cg. B'nia Israel. Org. Oct. 16. 1911. Sec, A. Zisser. Ladies' Aid 
Society. Rabbi, Samuel Shubin. 

EAST LIBERTY 

Co. B'nai Israel (Orthodox), 209 CoUins Ay. E. B. Org. Aug., 1900. 
Sec. Saul Scheln, 1510 Berger Bldg. Rabbi, S. Iff. Neches, 738 
Mellon, E. E., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ERIE 
Educ. Jewish Young Men's Association, 14 W. 8th. Sec, D. I. Rubin, 1110 
German. 

FABRELL 
Co. Bnay Zion, 1011 Greenfield Ay. Org. Apl., 1904. Sec, S. H. Weiss, 
209 Idaho. Rabbi, M. Brown, 914 N. Lee Ay. Daughters of Israel ; 
Ladies' Aid Society. 

HARRISBima 
Educ. Young Men's Hebrew Association, 1321 N. 6th. Sec, Louis Schiffman. 

KAKTIOOKE 
Educ. Hebrew Sunday SchooL Sec, Sol. Gordon. 

NEWCASTLE 
Educ. Young Men's Hebrew Association, 19-21 Washington. Re-org. Sec, 
Samuel Edelstein, 141 Boyle Av. Y. W. H. A. 

OLYPHANT 
Educ. Young Men's Hebrew Association, Lynch Bldg. Org. Sept. i2, 1912. 
Sec, Joseph Baker. Willow St. 



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Tenneasee] LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 269 



PHILADELPHIA 
Com. Blr Sliten. Formerly Uplift. Sec.. Mrs. Rita L. Haas, 2112 Diamond. 
Co. Adath Xoiet-Xonteflore Oongrentlon, 2911 N. 8th. Re-org. June, 

1915. Sec, S. Z. Rosenfeld. Rabbi, David B. Swiren,*8034 N. 6th. 

Monteflorians. 
Independent Oongreffation Sons of Iirael, 1709 N. 22d. Org. Nov. 9, 

1907. Sec, I. Friedman, 1838 N. 20th. School. Supt. I. E. 

Finestine. 
M. B. Jewish Progressive Order of Philadelphia. Org. June 18, 1915. Sec, 

J. B. Hoffman, 504 Pine. 

PITTSBintGH 
ZiON. Society for the Advancement of Zionism, 1940 5th Av., care of 
Y. M. H. A. Sec, A. L. Wolf, 5501 Hays, B. B. 

BTEELTOH 
Educ. Toung Hen's Hebrew Association. 49 N. Front. Sec, li. C. Margolii, 
274 Frederick. Ladies' Auxiliary. 

SOUTH CAEOLINA 

OAHDEH 

Co. Oamden Hebrew Congregation. Sec, liarion H. Heyman. Rabbi, H. 

A. Merfeld, Columbia, S. C. School. Ladies' Aid Society. 

FLORENCE 
Co. Beth Elohim, Sec, H. I. PascaL Rabbi, Jacob S. Raisin, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

OBAHaEBTTBa 
Co. Orangeburg Hebrew Congregation. Org. 1914. Sec, ^ Sol. Kohn. 
Rabbi, H. A. Merfeld, Columbia, S. C. School. Ladies* Aid Society. 

BPABTAHBTTBa 
Co. B'nai IsraeL Sec, Harry Price. 

TENNESSEE 



Cu Philo Club. Org. Jan. 1914. Sec, A. L. Lee, 231 Market Av. 

HASHYILLE 
Chb. OemiUth Chasodim Association, 610 Gay. General Manager. Israel 

Blf enbein. 607 5th Av. N. Amalgamation of Free Loan Society; 

Chevrah Kaddishah and Hachnosas Orchim. 
Com. Central Conference of Jewish Organisations. Sec, Annie Garflnkle, 

509 6th Av., M. 

TEXAS 

aALYESTOK 
Educ. Toung Men's Hebrew Association. Sec, M. H. Jacobs, 2801 A v. I. 

HOVSTOK 
Educ. Toung Men's Hebrew Association. Formerly Club De Luxe. 310^ 
Main. Sec, Gus Rolnick, 1820 Moore. 



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270 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK I Wisconsin 

* 

WACO 
EduO. Waoo Tounf Men's Hebrew Aifooiation. Sec, A. Levy, 9th and 
Columbus. 

VIRGINIA 

KOBFOLK 
Eouc. Young Ken's Hebrew Association (Fortress Monroe). Sec.» H. EUen- 
steln. 

PORTSXOVTH 
Chb. Ladies' Hebrew Aid Society, 312 County. Org. Mch. 1, 1906. Sec., 
Mrs. H. H. Fischer, 808 Park Av. 

RICHMOND 
Educ. Middle. Atlantic States Federation of Younf Men's Hebrew and Kin- 
dred Associations. Sec, Bertha Clepatch, care of Young Women's 
Hebrew Association, Washington, D. C. Affiliated Organizations: 
Young Men's Hebrew Association, Virginia : Richmond, Norfolk, 
Fortress Monroe ; District of Columbia : Washington ; Young 
Women's Hebrew Association, Virginia : Norfolk : District or 
Columbia : Washington ; Virginia : Richmond, Ladies^ Auxiliary of 
Y. M. H* A. 

WASHINGTON 

SEATTLE 
Chb. Seattle Branch of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, 
618 18th. Sec, Samuel Koch, 916 20th Av., No. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

OHABLESTOK 
Eouc. Toung Men's Hebrew Association of Charleston. Davidson Bldg. 
Sec, Edward Hess, care of Citizens' National Bank. 

WISCONSIN 

MADISON 
Chb. Jewish Central Committee of Madison. Sec, S. B. Schein. Affiliated: 
Cong. Agudns Achim ; King David Lodge 64 R. O. D. B. ; Monona 
I^dge, O. B. A.: Madison Lodge, I. O. B. A. ; Arbeiter Bing ; 
Paole Zion ; Madison Zionist Society. 



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NEW JEWISH PERIODICALS 271 



BLEW JEWISH PERIODICALS IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

1915-1916 

[The following list supplements the list of Jewish Periodicals 
published in the American Jewish Yeab Book 5675 and 5676.] 

American Jewish Chbonicle. English. Weekly. New York City. 
First issue May, 1916. 

American Jewish Reuef Committee. Bulletin. English. Monthly. 
New York City. First issue June, 1915. 

American Jewish World. English. Weekly. Minneapolis, Minn. 
First issue July 30, 1915. 
Est. as " The Jewish Weekly." 

Beth El Scroll. English. Three issues a year. New York City. 
First issue Dec., 1915. 
Organ of Temple Beth El Sunday School. 

La Bos del Pueblo. Judeo-Spanish. Weekly (in two editions, Fri- 
day and Sunday). New York City. Mrst issue Oct. 3, 1915. 

The Bulletin. English. Quarterly. New York City. First issue 
Oct., 1915. 
Organ of the Council of Jewish Women. 

Denter Jewish News. English. Weekly. Denver, Colo. First issue 
Feb. 27, 1915. 
Published by Central Jewish Council of Denver. 

Distribution. English. Monthly. New York City. First issue 

July, 1914. 
, Organ of Industrial Removal Office. 

Haibri. Hebrew. Weekly. New York City. First issue Jan. 7, 1916. 

Hatoren. Hebrew. Weekly. New York City. First issue as 
monthly May, 1913. Re-est. as weekly. First issue Mch. 3, 1916. 

Hebrew Tabernacle Forum. English. Bi-monthly. New York 
City. First issue Feb., 1916. 

HoAM. Hebrew. Weekly. New York City. First issue Dec. 31, 
1916. 



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272 AMERICAN JEWISH TEAR BOOK 



Jeshubun. English and Hebrew. Monthly. New York. First 
issue Sept., 1915. 
Organ for the furtherance of Jewish Orthodoxy. 

Jewish Bulletin. English. Weekly. Omaha, Nebr. First issue 
Mch. 1, 1916. 

Jewish Chbonicle. English. Weekly. Detroit, Mich. First issue 
Mch. 3, 1916. 

Jewish Community Bulletin. English. Monthly. Wheeling, W. 
Va. Bnrst issue Feb., 1916. 

Jewish Pbovision Dealeb. Yiddish-English. Weekly. Chicago, 111. 
First issue Nov. 12, 1915. 

The Jewish Teaches. English. Semi-annuaL New York City. 
First issue Jan., 1916. 

The Jewish Voice. English. Weekly. Seattle, Wash. First issue 
Oct. 1, 1916. 

Judaic Union Bulletin. English. Quarterly. Philadelphia, Pa. 
First issue Mch., 1910. 
Organ of Judaic Union. 

The Leader's Bulletin. English. Monthly. New York City. 
First issue Feb., 1916. 
Organ of National Leaders' Association of Toung Judaea. 

The Messenger. English. Monthly. Brooklyn, N. Y. First issue 
Oct., 1915. 
Organ of Temple Israel Sunday SchooL 

RoDEPH Shalom Bulletin. English. Monthly. New York City. 
First issue Nov., 1915. 
Organ of Temple Rodeph Shalom. 

The Scroll. English. Monthly. Savannah, Ga. First issue Jan., 
1916. 
Organ of Council of the Jewish Educational AlUance. 

The Shofar. English. Monthly. Baltimore, Md. First issue Jan., 
1916. 
Organ of the Temple Juniors of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation. 

The Temple Tattler. English. Monthly. Brooklyn, N. Y. First 
issue Feb. 10, 1916. 
Organ of Temple Ahavath Sholom. 

Temple Israel Bulletin. English. Weekly. St. Louis, Mo. First 
issue Oct, 1915. 



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NEW JEWISH PERIODICALS 27S 



The Toledo Israelite. English. Weekly. Toledo, O. First issne 
July 16, 1915. 

Unseb Wort. Yiddish. Monthly. Chicago, 111. First issue Sept., 
1915. 
Organ of Jewish Socialist-Territorialist Labor Party of America. 

The Voice OF THE Girls (Kol Alamoth). English. Quarterly. New 
York City. First issue June, 1915. 
Organ of Young Women's Hebrew Association. 

Yiddish Art Companion. Monthly. Chicago, 111. First issue Jan. 
7, 1916. Est as weekly. 

ZiON Messenger. English. Monthly. Chicago, 111. First issue Sept., 
1915. 
Official Organ Knights of Zion, during 19th Annual Convention. 



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274 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



JEWISH MEMBERS OP THE CONGRESS OP THE 

UNITED STATES 

PAST 

Benjamin, Judah Philip, 1812-1884. Sen. from La., 1853-1861. 
Cantob, Jacob A., 1854- . Rep. from N. Y., 1913-1915. 
Einstein, Edwin, 1842-1906. Rep. from N. Y., 1879-1881. 
Emebich, Mabwn, 1847- . Rep. from 111., 1903-1907. 
Fischer, Isbael P., 1858- . Rep. from N. Y., 1895-1899. 
Frank, Nathan, 1852- . Rep. from Ma, 1889-1891. 
GoLDFOGLE, Henby M., 1856- . Rep. from N. Y., 1901-1915. 
GoLDZiEB, Julius, 1854- . Rep. from 111., 1893-1895. 
Guggenheim, Simon, 1867- . Sen. from Colo., 1907-1913. 
Habt, Emanuel B., 1809-1897. Rep. from N. Y., 1851-1853. 
Houseman, Julius, 1832-1891. Rep. frcMn Mich., 1883-1885. 
Jonas, Benjamin Fbanklin, 1834-1911. Sen. from La., 1879-1885. 
Lessleb, Montague, 1869- . Rep. from N. Y., 1902-1903. 
Levin, Lewis Chables, 1808-1860. Rep. from Pa., 1845-1851. 
Levy, DAvro. See Yulee, David Levy.. 

Levy, Jeffebson Monboe, Rep. from N. Y., 1899-1901, 1911-1915. 
Littauer, Lucius Nathan, 1859- . Rep. from N. Y., 1897-1907. 
May, Mitchell, 1871- . Rep. from N. Y., 1899-1901. 
Meyer, Adolph, 1842-1908. Rep. from La., 1891-1908. 
Morse, Leopold, 1831-1892. Rep. from Mass., 1877-1885, 1887-1889. 
Phillips, Henry Myeb, 1811-1884. Rep. from Pa., 1857-1859. 
Phillips, Philip, 1807-1884. Rep. from Ala., 1853-1855. 
Pulttzeb, Joseph, 1847-1911. Rep. from N. Y., 1885-1886. 
Rayneb, Isidob, 1850-1912. Rep. from Md., 1887-1895; Sen. from 

Md., 1905-1912. 
Simon, Joseph, 1851- . Sen. from Ore., 1898-1903. 
Stbaus, Isidob, 1845-1912. Rep. from N. Y., 1894-1895. 
Stbousb, Myeb, 1825-1878. Rep. from Pa., 1863-1867. 
Wolf, Habby B., 1880- . Rep. from Md., 1907-1909. 
Yulee, David Levy, 1811-1886. Del. from Fla., 1841-1845; Sen. 

from Fla., 1845-1851, 1855-1861. 

PRESENT 

(Members of the Sixty-Foubth Congbess) 

Baohbach, Isaac, Republican, Representative, Atlantic City, 1915- 
Kahn, Julius, Republican, Representative, San Francisco, 1889- 

1902, 1905- 
London, Meyeb, Socialist, Representative, New York City, 1916- 
Sabath, Adolph J., Democrat, Representative, Chicago^ 1907- 
Sibqel, Isaac, Republican, Representative, New York City, 1915- 



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STATISTICS OF JEWS 



*Z7b 



STATISTICS OF JEWS 



A. Jewish Population of the World 

The table of last year with regard to the general statistics of 
Jews of the world is repeated. 

The figures for the United States are those for the census year 
of 1910, as determined in the memoir on Jewish Population of the 
United States given in the American* Jewish Yeab Book for 5675, 
pp. 339-378. 

According to the revised figures, the total number of Jews of 
the world in the census years 1910-1911 was 13,277,542, divided 
among continents as follows: 

Europe 9,988,197 

America 2,500,054 

Asia 356,617 

Africa 413,259 

Australia 19,415 



13,277,542 
Number of Jews and Per Cent of Total Population by Countries 



Ck>untrie8 



Year 



Total 
Population 



Jewish 
Population 



Per 
ct. of 
total 



EUROPI 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Hungary 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Crete 

Dennuurk 

France 

Germany 

Greece , 

Italy 

Luxemburg 

Netherlands 

- Norway , 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russian Empire 

Serria 

Spain 

Sweden , 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 

Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta. 



1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1907 
1911 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1900 
1900 
1906 
1910 
1910 
1900 
1910 
1904 
1911 
1911 



2,258,262 

1,313,687 

932,406 

12,160 

16,000 

37,666 

487 

5,146 

100,000 

615,021 

6,127 

43,929 

1,270 

106,309 

1,046 

481 

269,015 

6,060,416 

5,729 

4,000 

8,912 

19,023 

188,900 

246,000 

1,470 



4.42 

4.64 

4.46 

.64 

.20 

.87 

.14 

.19 

.26 

.96 

.23 

.12 

.49 

1.79 

.04 

.W 

4.62 

8.77 

.20 

.02 

.06 

.61 

2.38 

.66 

.24 



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276 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



NuMBEB or Jbwb and Peb Cent of Total Population by OouirrBiKS 

(continued) 



Countriei 



Year 



Total 
Population 



Jewish 
Population 



Per 
ct. of 
total 



NORTH AMERICA 

Canada 

Cuba 

Jamaica '..., 

Mexico 

United SUtes 

SOUTH AMIRICA 

Argentine Republic 

Braril 

Dutch Guiana (Surinam) , 

Oirac<u> 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Uruguay 

ASIA 

Aden 

Afghanistan , 

Dutdi East Indies (Java, Maduro, etc.) 

Hong Kong 

India 

Persia , 

Palestine 

Turkey in Asia (other than Palestine) . . . 

AFRICA 

Abyssinia 

Algeria 

Egypt 

Morocco 

TripoU 

Tunis 

East African Protectorate 

Rhodesia 

Union of South Africa 

AUSTRALASIA 

Australia 

New Zealand 



19U 
1910 
1911 
1911 
1910 



1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1806 
1894 
1910 



1911 

1906 
1911 
1911 
1904 
1904 
1904 



1900 
1907 
1904 
1904 
1904 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 



7,204,888 

2,220,278 

831,883 

16,063,2(y7 

91,972,266 



7,171,910 
17,818,656 



64,469 
4,609,999 
2,743,841 
1,177,560 



46,166 

6,900,000 

88,000,000 

366,146 

316,182,637 

9,600,000 

850,000 

20,660,000 



6,231,860 
11,287,369 

6,000,000 
630,000 

1,923,217 
424,000 
568,678 

6,978,894 



4,466,006 
1,008,468 



76,681 

4,000 

984 

8,972 

2,849,764 



66,000 
8,000 
933 
670 
499 
411 
160 



8,747 

18,186 

8,606 

160 

20,960 

49,600 

78,000 

177,600 



26,000 

64,646 

88,636 

110,000 

18,660 

106,000 

60 

1,600 

46,769 



17,287 
2,128 



1.06 
.18 
.12 
.06 

2.60 



.76 
.02 
1.08 
1.23 
.01 
.01 
.01 



8.12 
.81 
.02 
.04 
.01 
.62 
22.29 
.86 



1.24 
.84 

2.20 

8.62 

6.62 

.01 

.96 

.78 



.89 
.21 



Jews in Russia 

(Census, 1905) 

European Russia. . 4,406,063 Siberia 40,443 

Poland 1,533,716 Central Asia 14,305 

Caucasus 65,888 

Total 6,060,415 



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STATISTICS OP JEWS 277 

Jews in Bbitish Emfibe 
(Census, 1911) 
Total, 416,474 

EUBOPB ASIA 

Great Britain Aden 3,747 

(Estimate) 240,000 India 20,980 

Ireland 5,148 Hong Kong and 

Cyprus, Gibraltar, Straits Settlement.. 680 

Malta 1,470 



AKEBICA AFRICA 

Canada 75,681 Union of South Africa. 46,769 

Jamaica 984 Rhodesia 1,500 

Trinidad and Barba- East African Protecto- 

does 50 rate 50 



AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

Australia 17,287 

New Zealand 2,128 



Jews in Canada 

Province 1891 

Alberta 12 

BriUsh Columbia .... 277 

Manitoba 743 

New Brunswick 73 

Nova Scotia 31 

Ontario 2,501 

Prince Edward Island. 1 

Quebec 2,703 

Saskatchewan 73 

Yukon 

Northwest Territories 

Totals 6,414 16,131 76.681 



1901 


1911 


17 


1,486 


543 


1,265 


1,614 


10,741 


395 


1,021 


449 


1,360 


5,337 


27,015 


17 


38 


7,607 


30,648 


198 


2,066 


54 


41 


.... 


.... 



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278 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES 
Cities Having More Than Onk Thousand Jewish Inhabitants 



Oitiei 



1906 



1907 



19101 



19U 



Akron, 

Albtaxy, N. Y 

Altoona, Pa 

AtUnta, Gft 

Atlantic City. N. J. 

Baltimore, Md 

Bayonne, N. J 

BinghamtoB, N. Y.. 
Birmingham, Ala ... 

Boston, Man 

Bridgeport, Oonn . . . 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Canton, O 

Charleston, S. C 

Charlestown, W. Va 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, O 

Cleveland, O 

Columbus, O 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, O 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa... 

Detroit, Ifich 

Duluth, Minn 

Easton, Pa 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Elmira. N. Y 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass.... 

Galveston, Tex ...... 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

HaflTisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverhill, Mass 

Hoboken, N. J 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind.... 

Jackson, Mich 

Jacbonville, Fla.... 
Jersey City, N. J.... 

JoUet, ni 

Kansas City.- Mo. . . . 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark 

Los Angeles, Cal . . . . 

Louisvifle, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Ifess 

Memphis, Tfenn 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn... 

Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala . . . 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Bedford, Mass. 



1,000 


1,600 


.... 


1,200 


4,000 


8,600 


8,274 


18,600 


1,200 


.... 


.... 


.... 


2,000 


8,600 


2,118 


10.000 


800 


1,260 




8,600 


25,000 


40,000 


27,142 


60,000 


1,200 


2,600 


.... 


10,000 




600 


.... 


1,600 


1,400 


1,600 


880 


1,000 


45,000 


00,000 


67,072 


80,000 


.... 


8,600 




6,000 


7.000 


10,000 


6,647 


20,000 


eoo 


.... 


.... 


1.000 


800 


1,606 


.... 


2.000 


142 


190 


.... 


8,000 


2,000 


8,000 


. ... 


8.000 


80,000 


100,000 


111,098 


200.000 


17,500 


26,000 


7,737 


28,000 


26,000 


40,000 


28,109 


00,000 


1,600 


4.000 


1.834 


6,000 


1,200 


4,000 




6,000 


1,200 


2,600 


i.O06 


4.600 


4.000 


6,000 


7,181 


16,000 


600 


8.000 


.... 


6,500 


8,000 


10.000 


10,188 


26,000 


1,000 


2,000 


.... 


2,000 


.... 


200 


.... 


1.500 


1,200 


2,000 


.... 


2,600 


1,600 


1.800 


.... 


1.600 


800 


760 


.... 


1,000 


1,600 


7,000 


8.172 


7,600 


1,000 


1,000 


...* 


1,000 


2 


460 


.... 


1,600 


660 


1.260 


• • .. 


6,000 


2,000 


6,000 


.... 


2,500 


200 


900 


..•• 


2,600 


1,000 


2.000 


..*• 


2.500 


2,600 


2.600 


.... 


5,000 


2,300 


6.600 


2,177 


6.000 
1,600 


81*2 


i.odo 


.... 


2.000 


6,000 


10,000 


6.714 


10.000 


100 


.... 




1.000 


5,500 


8,000 


8,849 


8.000 


116 


1,000 


1.000 


1.400 


226 


800 


.... 


1.200 


1,000 


1,800 


.... 


1.200 


2,700 


7,000 


6.796 


10.000 


7.000 


8,000 


8,300 


10,000 


800 


1,200 


.... 


1,000 




1,500 


.... 


6,000 


2,600 


4,000 


1.180 


8.000 


8,000 


10,000 


7,757 


16,000 


6,000 


6,000 


8,174 


16.000 


.... 


1,000 




1.400 


1,000 


1,600 


• .... 


1.600 


1,085 


4,000 


.... 


8.700 


1,000 


.... 


.... 


.... 




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^e 



STATISTICS OF JEWS 



279 . 



Cities Having Mobs Than One Thousand Jewish Inhabitants 

(continued) 



Cities 



1905 



1907 



19101 



191S 



New Britain, Conn..., 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn... 

New Orleans, La , 

New RodieUe, N. T... 

New York, N. Y 

Newark. N. J 

Norfolk, Va 

Norwich, Conn 

Oakland, Oal 

Omaha, Nebr 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J , 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J... 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Portland, Ore 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y.. 

Proyidence, R. I 

Quincy, Mass 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louu, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake CAty, Utah 
San Antonio, Tex.... 
San Francisco, Cal... 

Savannah, Qa 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Toledo, 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Washington, D. O... 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

Wilmington, N^ 0... 

Woodbine, N. J 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, 



200 


500 


.... 


2,500 


6.500 


8,000 


10,660 


20,000 


400 


250 


.... 


2,600 


5,000 


8,000 


1,287 


7,600 


.... 


250 




8,000 


672,000 


S60,000 


861,980 


976,000 


20,000 


80,000 


83,887 


86,000 


1,200 


2,000 


.... 


1.000 


126 


600 


.... 


2.000 


227 


2,000 


.... 


8,000 


3,800 


6,000 


2,964 


12,000 


2,000 


3,000 






6,000 


5,000 


6,'666 


7.600 


2,000 


2,000 


.... 


1,000 


.... 


1,000 


.... 


3,000 


75,000 


100,000 


120,124 


160.000 


16,000 


25,000 


20,836 


86,000 


.... 


1,600 


.... 


2.000 


4.000 


6,000 


2,041 


7,000 




700 


.... 


2,100 


75 


200 


.... 


1,000 


* . . • 


10,000 


...• 


18,000 


.... 


850 


. ..• 


1.000 


800 


.... 


.... 


1,600 


2,500 


3,000 


801 


8,000 


5,000 


10,000 


9,608 


12.000 


1,200 


2,000 


.... 


8,000 


40,000 


40,000 


18,870 


40,000 


S,600 


8,500 


6,909 


6,000 


.... 


750 




6,000 


800 


1.800 


.... 


3,000 


17,000 


80,000 


6,264 


26,000 


6,000 


8,000 


.... 


8,000 


6,000 


8,161 


7,000 




4,000 


2,499 


4,600 
2,000 


700 


1,260 


.... 


1,250 


420 


1,025 


.... 


1,400 


.... 


600 


.... 


1,200 


.... 


800 


290 


1,009 


300 


1,500 


.... 


8,500 


5,000 


10,000 


4.285 


.... 


.... 


8,000 


2,450 


5,000 


1,500 


4,000 


.... 


2,000 


3,000 


1,800 


.... 


4,000 


.... 


600 




1,000 


.... 


5,000 


4,046 


6,000 


1,800 


2,000 


.... 


8,000 


1,500 


200 


.... 


2,000 


2,000 


2,100 




8,000 


1,000 


8,000 


6,578 


8.000 




8,000 




4,600 


.... 


2,000 


.... 


4,600 



1 EVom the Census Report of 1910 showing number of persons claiming Yiddiah as 
their mother tongue together with their children. Tlie r^naining figures are estimates 
of the Jewish Encyclopedia in 1905, the Amxkioan Jiwish Year Booi in 1907, and the 
Industrial Removal Office in 1912. 



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280 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



B. Jewish Immigration into the United States 

The following tables give the main figures relating to the Jewish 
immigration to the United States from the year 1881 to June 30, 
1916. For the earlier years, from 1881 to 1900, the results are 
only for the ports of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore; 
from 1899 onwards, the figures are from the results of the Ccnn- 
missioner-General of Immigration. In some instances the figures 
refer only to the years 1914-1916, continuing those of the Ybab 
Book for 5674, pp. 431-436. 

Jbwish Immigbation, 1881-1900, through the Pobts of Nbiw York, 

PHn.AD1CT.PHIA, AND BaLTIMOBB 

Year Number Year Number 

Admitted Admitted 

1881-84 74,310 1893 32,943 

1885 19,611 1894 22,108 

1886 29,658 1895 32,077 

1887 27,468 . 1896 28,118 

1888 31,363 1897 20.684 

1889 23,962 1898 27,409 

1890 34,303 1899 * 16,021 

1891 69,139 1900 » 49,816 

1892 60,325 

Total 599,315 

The complete statistics of immigration to the United States, as 
shown by the Commissioner-Generars reports, are given below 
for the period 1899-1916. It will be seen that for this period of 
eighteen years Jewish immigration has been approximately 
1,525,000, amounting to 10 per cent of the total immigration. 

^ To July. Includes, for Philadelphia, the figures to Nov. 1. 



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STATISTICS OP JEWS 



281 



NuMBEB or Jewish Immigrants and Total Numbeb or Immiqbants 
Admitted to the United States, 1899-1915 



Year* 


Jewish Immi- 


All Immi- 


Yeari 


Jewish Immi- 


All Immi- 


grants 


grants 


grants 


grants 


1899 


87,415 


811,715 




103,887 


782.870 


1900 


60,764 


448,672 


1909 


67,561 


761.786 


1901 


68,098 


487,918 


1910 


84,260 


1, on, 570 


1902 


57,688 


648,743 


1911 


91,228 


878,587 


1908 


76.203 


867,046 


1912 


80,696 


888,172 


1904 


106.286 


812,870 


1918 


101.880 


1,197,892 


1906 


129,910 


1,026,499 


1914 


138,061 


1,218,480 


1900 


158,748 


1,100,735 


1915 


26,497 


326,700 


1907 


149,182 


1,285,849 


1916 

Total.. 


15,108 
1,527,246 


298,826 




14,314,880 



1 Yetfr ending June 80. 

Since 1908, the number of aliens leaving the United States is 
given as well as the number admitted. It will be observed that for 
the nine years the total number of Jews returning is 48,600. 
Approximately 8 per cent of the Jews admitted left the United 
States. This figure contrasts strikingly with the number of immi- 
grants of other nationalities that leave the United States, over 30 
per cent. 

INCBBASE THBOUGH IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 1908-1916 



Yeari 


Number Admitted 


Number Departed 


Net Increase 


Jews 


Total 


Jews 


Total 

895,078 
226.802 
202,436 
295,666 
838,262 
808,190 
303.338 
204,074 
129,766 


Jews 

96,685 
61,446 
78,671 
84,822 
78,177 
94.638 
131,225 
24,978 
14,900 


Total 


1908 


103,887 
57,551 
84,260 
91,228 
80,605 
101,330 
138,061 
26,497 
16,108 


70 
86 
70 
87 
72 
92 
80 
OO 
26 


7,702 
6,105 
5,689 
6.401 
7,418 
6.697 
6.826 
1.524 
199 


887,797 
526,984 
889,184 


1909 


1910 


1911 


682,921 
604,910 
889,702 
916,142 


1912 


1918 


1914 


1915 


122,626 
169,061 


1916 






Total 1908-1916. 


698,002 


7.334,883 


48.661 


2,897,606 


649,441 


4,987,277 



1 Year ending June 80. 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



The Jewish immigration since 1881 is approximately 1,866,000. 
On the basis of the per cent leaving the United States since 1908, 
the total number departed during this period would be 160,000, 
leaving a net increase through immigration of 1,716,000. 

Of interest in connection with the number of immigrants ad- 
mitted are the data for those rejected on application for admission 
and those returned from the United States after admission. The 
figures are shown in the table below. 

Immigbants Debarred and Deported 



Year^ 


Number Debarred 


Number Deported 




Jews 


Total 


Jews 


Total 


1899-1910 


10,786 
1,999 
1,064 
1,224 
2,606 
1,898 
949 


116,266 
22.849 
16,067 
19,988 
88,041 
24,111 
18,867 


' 1,808 
209 
191 
258 
817 
68 
79 


12,177 


1911 


2,788 
2,466 
8,461 
4,187 
2,670 
2 906 


1912 


1918 


1914 


1916 .... i 


1916 






Total, 1899-1916 


19,926 


' 260,618 


' 2,420 


80,696 





1 Year ending June 80. 

During a period of eighteen years, the number of Jews rejected 
on application for landing was 19,926, or approximately 8 per 
cent of the total number of immigrants debarred. This is con- 
siderably less than the proportion which Jews form of the total 
immigration for the same period — 10 per cent. 

For the same period, the number of Jews returned after landing 
was 2,420, or 8 per cent of the total number deported. This, 
again, is lower than the proportion of Jews in the total immi- 
gration. 

Immigration 1913-1916 

During the year ending June 30, 1916, there were admitted 
15,108 Jews. The number departing was 199. The net increase 
through migration was thus 14,909. The net increase for 1914- 
1915 was 24,973. The figures for 1914-1915 and 1915-1916 betray 
the influence of the European war on Jewish as on general immi- 
gration. 



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STATISTICS OF JEWS 



283 



Below are shown the number of Jewish immigrants for the lead- 
ing ports, according to the data supplied by the National Jewish 
Immigration Council. They are not the complete figures for the 
United States, and should not be compared in detail with the 
Government figures. 

Jewish Immigration at Leading Ports 
Ybak Enmno Juni 30, 1916 



Ports 


Number of 
Immigrants 


New York 


18,068 


Philadelnhia 


2,119 


Baltimore 


1,014 
1.018 


Boston 


Galveston 


426 








Total, five ports 


22,626 







Jewish Immigration at Leading Ports by Country of Origin 
Ybar Ending Juni 80, 1916 



Countries 


Port of 
New York 


Total, five 
ports 


Russia 


18,082 

2,607 

414 

> 2,000 


17,804 

2,760 

466 


Austria- Hungary '. 


Roumania 


Other 


2,092 






Total 


18,068 


22,622 


1 



iPor New York, the other countries of origin given by a considerable number of 
immigrants are: United Kingdom, 610 ; Germaay, 184 ; Turkey in Asia, 268 ; Turkey 
in Europe, 150 ; jother Balkan countries (Bulgaria, 20 ; Greece, 248 ; Servia, 62), 820: 
France, 86 ; South Anjerica, 68 ; Union of South Africa, 26 ; and Belgium, 80. 

Complete data for the 1915-1916 Immigration are not yet avail- 
able. The significant facts descriptive of the immigrants, the 
countries of origin, and their distribution in the United States, are 
here reproduced for 1914-1915. 



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284 



AMBRICAN JEWISH TEAR BOOK 



IMMIQBANTS ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES AND DePABTING 

Thebetbom, bt Countbibb, 1915* 



Gountries 
Origin or Destination 



Austria 

Hungary 

Belgium 

Bulgaria, Servia and Monte 

negro 

Denmark 

France, inc. Corsica 

German Empire 

Greece 

Roumania 

Russian Empire 

Turkey in Europe 

United Kingdom 

Other Europe* 

Total Europe 

Turkey in Asia 

Other Asia , 

Total Asia 

Africa 

Australia^ Tasmania and 

New Zealand 

British North America . . . 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 

West Indies 

Other Countries 

Grand Total 



Number Admitted 



Jews 



1,806 
718 



72 

59 

918 

282 

208 

821 

14,496 

156 

2,129 

»2(J7 



21,759 



824 
855 



379 

319 

84 
3,404 
37 
18 
476 
69 
2 



26,497 



Alllmmi. 
grants 



9,215 
9,296 
2,899 

1,408 
8,812 

4,811 

7,799 

12,592 

481 

26,187 

1,008 

41,422 

«77,994 



Numb'br Departed 



Jews 



189 
86 
6 



26 
6 
4 

82 
873 
4 
151 
•11 



197,919 

8,543 
•11,668 



15,211 
984 

1,282 
82,215 

1,252 
12,840 

8,801 

11,598 

148 



326,700 



1,336 



m 



40 



1,524 



All Immi 
grants 



6,776 
5,059 



1,964 

412 

5,751 

1,419 

9,775 

244 

18.297 

164 

11,949 

« 105. 811 



167,954 

598 
8,244 



8,837 

85 

608 

28,226 

486 

651 

6,243 

47 



204,074 



Net Increase 



Jews 



1,617 
682 
827 

72 



276 
264 
289 
18,628 
162 
1.978 
196 



20,428 



296 
48 



889 

811 

80 
8,888 
86 
16 
422 
56 
2 



24,978 



All Immi- 
grants 



2,489 
4.237 
2,066 

561 
2.900« 

940 • 
6,880 
2.817 

287 
7,890 

844 
29,478 
27,817« 



29,966 

2.950 
8,424 



11,874 



674 

58,990 

816 

11,680 

2,818 

5,855 

101 



122,626 



• Year ended June 80. 

I Italy. 21 ; Netherlands, 53 ; Norway, 17; Portugal, 5; Spain, 2; Sweden, 54; 
Switzerland, 55. 

• Countries specified in Note 1. 

• Netherlands, 10 ; Switzerland, 1. 

« Italy, 96,903; Netherlands, 612; Norway, 1,211 ; Portugal, 2,661; Spain, 8,042; 
Sweden, 958 ; Switzerland, 849 ; Other Europe, 80. 
•China, 85 ; Japan, 1 ; India, 11 ; Other Asia, 8. 

• Countries specified in Note 5. 
f China, 10 ; Japan 2. 

• Net decrease. 



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STATISTICS OP JEWS 



285 



IMMIOBANTS AdMHTED TO THE UNITID StATES AND DePABTINQ 
ThEBEFBOM, BT STA1S8, 1915 



states 
Defftinatiou or Departure 



Number Admitted 



Jews 



Alllmmi 
ffrants 



Number Departed 



Jews 



All Immi- 
grants 



Net Inertase 



Jews 



Alllmmi- 
grants 



Alabama 

Oalifornia 

Colorado # 

Connecticut 

District of Columbia 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Washingrton 

Wisconsin 

Other States and not specified 

Total 



58 



409 
82 
49 
2,017 
79 
97 
28 
86 
46 

484 
1,520 

780 

867 

881 
84 

965 
14,478 

792 
84 
2,455 
88 
58 

255 
40 

148 

195 
1246 



480 

20,116 

1,889 

6,620 

1.087 

856 

19,062 

2,146 

8,407 

268 

1,451 

4,401 

1,888 

27,482 

17,488 

9,115 

2,748 

1,888 

11,248 

95,028 

9,841 

2,629 

24,696 

8,621 

806 

9,447 

856 

18,093 

8,850 

81,954 



106 

4 



4 

12 
28 
26 
14 
16 

'*80 

1,044 

21 

'm 

6 
1 
2 

1 

1 

.6 

«76 



176 

7,068 

607 

4,995 

269 

89 

11,682 

1,881 

755 

99 

869 

666 

999 

14,612 

6,624 

1,604 

1,426 

280 

7,108 

67,016 

7,640 

688 

27,499 

2,566 

60 

871 

288 

1,491 

1,824 

86,289 



68 

279 
28 

402 
82 
49 
1.912 
76 
97 
28 
86 
41 

422 
1,608 

706 
• 868 

866 
84 

986 
18,429 

771 

84 

2,847 

82 

67 

268 
89 

147 

189 

170 



266 

18,068 

782 
1,626 

818 

267 
7»880 

816 
2,662 

168 
1,062 
8,786 

884 
12,870 
11,914 
7,611 
1,817 
1,108 
4.140 
28,012 
1.701 
2,046 
2,908* 
1,066 

246 
9,076 

622 
11,602 
2,026 
8,285* 



26,497 



826,700 



1,624 



204,074 



24,978 



122,626 



1 Alaska, 12 ; Arkansas, 18 ; Del., 5 ; Fla., 17 ; Idaho, I ; Kans., 26 ; Mont., 16 ; 
N. H., 86 ; N. Mex., 2 ; N. 0., 4 ; N. Dak., 28 ; Okla., 12 ; P. R., 9 ; S. C. 18 ; S. Dak., 
7 ; Utah, 6 ; Vt., 25 ; W. Va., 18. 

• Ariz., 1; Ark., 2; Fla., 2 ; Miss.. 1 ; N. H.,1; N. Mex.,2; S. 0., 1 ; Not speci- 
fied, 66. 

*Net decrease. 

Other significant details respecting the immigrants admitted are 
shown below. 

Sex of Immiqbants Admitted, 1915 
Sex Jews All 

Male 13,756 187,021 

Female 12,741 139,679 

Total 26,497 326,700 



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AMERICAN JEWISH TEAR BOOK 



Age of Immigbants ADMrmED, 1915 

Jews All 

Under 14 6,794 52,982 

14-44 17.607 244,472 

45 and over 2,096 29,246 

Total 26,497 326,700 

The larger percentage of women and children among Jewish 
immigrants is indicatiye of the permanent and family character of 
this immigration, an aspect which is emphasized further by the 
low percentage of Jewish immigrants departing from the United 
States. 

0. Jewish Immigration into Canada 

For a period of fifteen years beginning July 1, 1900, the Jewish 
immigration to Canada was 75,743. The Immigration during the 
past fiscal year, ending March 31, 1915, was 3,107. 

Below are shown the yearly figures. It will be observed that 
during this period the Jewish immigration has amounted to ap- 
proximately 10 per cent of the immigration from all countries ex- 
clusive of the United States and the United Kingdom, but less than 
3 per cent of the total immigration. 

Number of Jewish Immigrants and Total Number of Immigrants 
Admitted to Canada 



Year* 



1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907« 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

Total 



Jewish Immi- 
grants 



765 
015 
,066 
,727 
,715 
,127 
,584 
,712 
,636 
,182 
,146 
,822 
,887 
,262 
,107 



75,748 



Total Conti- 
nental Immi- 
grants, etc.« 



All Immigrants 



19,352 
28,782 
37,099 
84,786 
87,864 
44.472 
34,217 
88,975 
34,175 
45,206 
66,620 
82,406 
112.881 
134.726 
41,734 



832,745 



49.149 
67,379 
128,864 
130,331 
146,266 
189,064 
124,667"; 
262,409 
146.908 
208,794 
311.084 
854,287 
402,432 
384.878 
144.789 



3.050.811 



1 Fiscal year ended June 30 for 1900-1906 ; thereafter March 31. 

* Excluding immigration from the United States and the United Kingdom. 

• Nine months ended March 31. 



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STATISTICS OF JEWS 287 



For the twelve months corresponding to the United States fiscal 
year, July 1, 1913, to June 30, 1914, the total immigration to Canada 
was 264,829. The immigrants from countries other than the 
United States and the United Kingdom numbered 85,791. Included 
among these immigrants are 10,749 Jews, approximately 11 per 
cent of the immigration from Continental Europe, etc., but less 
than 4 per cent of the total immigration. 



10 



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288 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



NINTH ANNUAL EEPORT OF THE AMEEICAN 
JEWISH COMMITTEE 



OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

OFFIOERS 
Prbsident, LOUIS MARSHALL. 
^ _ r JULIAN W. MACK. 

\ JACOB H. HOLLANDER. 
Tbeasureb, ISAAC W. BERNHEIM. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

CYRUS ADLER (1919), Chairman Philadelphia, Pa. 

ISAAC W. BERNHEIM (1918) Lousiville, Ky. 

HARRY CUTLER (1917) Providence, R. I. 

SAMUEL DORF (1918) New York, N. Y. 

JACOB H. HOLLANDER (1917) Baltimore, Md. 

JUEIAN W. MACK (1919) Chicago, 111. 

J. L. MAGNES (1919) New York. N. Y. 

LOUIS MARSHALL (1917) New York, N. Y. 

JULIUS ROSENWALD (1918) Chicago, 111. 

JACOB H. SCHIFF 11919) New York, N. Y. 

ISADOR SOBEL (1917) Erie, Pa. 

OSCAR S. STRAUS (1918) New York, N. Y. 

CYRUS L. SULZBERGER (1918) New York, N. Y. 

MAYER SULZBERGER (1918) Philadelphia, Pa. 

A. LEO WEIL (1919) Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
Habby Schneidebman, 356 Second Ave., New York City. 

Telephone, 2124 Gramercy. 

Cable Address. " WISHCOM, New York." 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 289 



MEMBERS AND DISTRICTS 

Dlst I: Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina. 4 
members: Leonard Haas, Atlanta, Ga. (1917); Ceasar Cone, 
Greensboro, N. C. (1916); Montague Triest, Charleston, S. C. 
(1918). 

Dist. II: Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee. 3 members: Otto 
Marx, Birmingham, Ala. (1918) ; Levi Rothenberg, Meridian, Miss. 
(1920); Nathan Cohn, Nashville, Tenn. (1918). 

Diet III: Arizona, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, 
5 members: Leon M. Jacobs, Phoenix, Ariz. (1917); Maurice 
Stern, New Orleans, La. (1919); J. H. Stolper, Muskogee, Okla. 
(1917); Isaac H. Kempner, Galveston, Tex. (1916). 

Dist IV: Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri. 5 members: 
Morris M. Cohn, Little Rock, Ark. (1919); C. D. Spivak, Denver, 
Colo. (1918); Jacob Billlkopf, Kansas City, Mo. (1920). 

Dist. V: California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington. 
7 members: Max C. Sloss, San Francisco, Cal. (1916); Harris 
Weinstock, San Francisco, Cal. (1917) ; Ben Selling, Portland, Ore. 
(1917). 

Dist. VI: Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 9 members: 
Henry M. Butzel, Detroit, Mich. (1919); Emanuel Cohen, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. (19^0); Victor Rosewater, Omaha, Neb. (1919); 
Max Landauer, Milwaukee, Wis. (1917). 

Dist VII. Illinois. 8 members: A. G. Becker (1918); James 
Davis (1919); M. E. Greenebaum (1918); B. Horwich (1917); 
Julian W. Mack (1918); Julius Rosen wald (1920); Joseph Stolz 
(1919), all of CJhicago, 111.; W. B. Woolner, Peoria, 111. (1916). 

Dist VIII: Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia. 6 mem- 
bers; Samuel E. Rauh, Indianapolis, Ind. (1920); Isaac W. Bern- 
heim, Louisville, Ky. (1917); J. Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati, O. 
(1916) ; David Philipson, Cincinnati, O. (1919) ; Edward M. Baker, 
Cleveland, O. (1918) ; Louis Horkheimer, Wheeling, W. Va. (1920). 

Dist. IX: City of Philadelphia. 6 members: Cyrus Adler 
(1918); Ephraim Lederer (1917); B. L. Levinthal (1920); Louis 
E. Levy (1919); M. Rosenbaum (1920); Mayer Sulzberger (1918). 

Dist. X: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia. 
5 members: Charles Van Leer, Seaford, Del. (1919); Fulton 
Brylawski, Washington, D. C. (1920); Harry Friedenwald, Bal- 
timore, Md. (1920); Jacob H. Hollander, Baltimore, Md. (1920); 
Henry S. Hutzler, Richmond, Va. (1917). 

Dist. XI: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island, Vermont 6 members: Isaac M. UUman, New 
Haven, Conn. (1916); Lee M. Friedman, Boston, Mass. (1917); 
Harry Cutler, Providence, R. I. (1916). 



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290 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

DIst XII: New York City. 25 members: Isaac Allen (1917) ; 
Joseph Barondess (1916); Louis Borgenicht (1916); Samuel Dorf 
(1916) ; Julius J. Dukas (1916) ; Mrs. Wm. Einstein (1918) ; Abra- 
ham Brlanger (1917); Harry Fischel (1917); William Fischman 
(1917); Israel Frledlaender (1916); Henry M, Goldfogle (1918); 
Samuel I. Hyman (1918); Lecm Kamaiky (1917); Jacob Kohn 
(1917; David Kornblueh (1917); Herbert H. Lehman (1918); 
Adolph Lewisohn (1918) ; William Lieberman (1916) ; J. L. Magnes 
(1918); Louis Marshall (1917); H. Masliansky (1918); Jacob 
Massel (1918) ; H. Pereira Mendes (1918) ; Leon Sanders (1917) ; 
Jacob H. Schiff (1916); Victor Schwarz (1916); Bernard Semel 
(1916) ; Joseph Silverman (1917) ; I. M. Stettenheim (1917) ; S. M, 
Stroock (1916); Cyrus L. Sulzberger (1917); Israel Unterberg 
(1916) ; J. M. Wachman (1916) ; Felix M. Warburg (1918). 

Dist. XIII: New York (exclusive of the City). 3 members: 
Simon Fleischmann, Buffalo (1920); Benjamin M. Marcus, Olean 
(1916); Abram J. Katz, Rochester (1918). 

Dist XIV: New Jersey and Pennsylvania (exclusive of Phila- 
delphia). 4 members: Joseph Goetz, Newark, N. J. (1919) ; Isaac 
W. Frank, Pittsburgh, Pa. (1917) ; Isador Sobel, Erie, Pa. (1916) ; 
A. Leo Weil, Pittsburgh, Pa. (1919). 

Members at Large: Herman Bernstein (1916); Nathan Bijur 
(1916) ; Lee K. Frankel (1916) ; Samuel C. Lamport (1916), Oscar 
S. Straus (1916), all of New York City; Moses R. Walter, Balti- 
more, Md. (1916); Albert D. Lasker, Chicago, 111. (1916); Felix 
Frankfurter, Cambridge, Mass. (1916); S. Marcus Fechheimer, 
Cincinnati, 0. (1916); Herbert Friedenwald, Denver, Colo. (1916). 



NINTH ANNUAL MEETING 

November 14, 1915 

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee was held at the Hotel Astor, New York City, on 
Sunday, November 14, 1915. Louis Marshall, Esq., presided, 
and the following members were present : Cyrus Adier, Isaac 
Allen, Isaac W. Bemheim, Herman Bernstein, Nathan Bijur, 
Pulton Brylawski, Nathan Cohn, Ceasar Cone, Harry Cutler, 
Samuel Dorf, Julius J. Dukas, Abraham Erlanger, Harry 
Fischel, Simon Fleischmann, Lee K. Frankel, Harry Frieden- 
wald, Israel Friedlaender, Lee M. Friedman, Henry M. Gold- 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 291 

fogle, Samuel I. Hyman, Jacob H. Hollander, B. Horwich, 
Abram J. Katz, Jacob Kohn, David Kornblueh, Herbert H. 
Lehman, Louis E. Levy, William Lieberman, Julian W. Mack, 
J. K Magnes, Louis Marshall, Jacob Massel, Julius Eosenwald, 
Leon Sanders, Jacob H. Schiff, Victor Schwarz, Bernard 
Semel, Joseph Silverman, I. M. Stettenheim, Joseph Stolz, 
Oscar S. Straus, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Mayer Sulzberger, Isaac 
M. UUman, Israel Unterberg, Charles Van Leer, J. M. Wach- 
man, Moses E. Walter, and A. Leo Weil. 

Eegrets at their inability to attend were received from: 
Henry M. Butzel, Emanuel Cohen, Morris M. Cohn, Felix 
Frankfurter, J. Walter Freiberg, Herbert Friedenwald, Joseph 
Goetz, M. E. Greenebaum, Leonard Haas, Henry S. Hutzler, 
Isaac H. Kempner, Max Landauer, Ephraim Lederer, B. L. 
Levinthal, H. Masliansky, David Philipson, Samuel E. Rauh, 
Victor ^osewater, Ben Selling, Max C. Sloss, Isador Sobel, J. 
H. Stolper, Montague Triest, A. W. Weil, and W. B. Woolner. 

The President appointed the following Committee on Nomi- 
nations : Nathan Bijur, Julius J. Dukas and Abram J. Katz ; 
and the following Committee on Auditing the Accounts of the 
Treasurer : Fulton Brylawski and Harry Fischel. 

The Executive Committee presented the following report: 

TO THE MEMBEBS OF THE AMERIOAN JEWISH COMMITTEE : 

In accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws your 
Executive Committee renders herewith a report of its pro- 
ceedings during the past year. 

Meetings 

Meetings have been held on the following dates : November 
8, 1914 ; March 7, May 9, June 20, June 30, July 13, July 21, 



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292 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

July 28, August 11, September 20, October 10, November 13, 
1915. 

Deaths and Eesignations 

Your Committee reports with great sorrow the death during 
the past year of David S. Lehman, a member from Denver, 
Colorado, and Edwin G. Foreman, a member from Chicago, 
Illinois. 

The following resolutions were adopted as expressive of the 
esteem in which these two members were held by the Com- 
mittee : 

The Committee haa learned with deep sorrow of the 
death on April 22, 1915, of David S. Lehman, who was a 
member of the Committee since its organization, and who 
always gave his best endeavors to its work. His death is 
a great loss to Jewish philanthropic and civic forces in 
America. 

Edwin G. Foreman, a member of the American Jewish 
Committee, passed away at the early age of 53 on August 
26, 1915. He was a member of the Committee since its 
organization, and showed a sympathetic interest in its 
work. He took a prominent part in the philanthropic life 
of the Jews of Chicago, and he was a man of unblemished, 
kindly and benevolent character. The Executive Com- 
mittee of the American Jewish Committee has directed 
that this minute be spread upon its records and that a 
copy thereof be communicated to the family of Mr. Pore- 
man, with an expression of profound sympathy. 

During the past year your Committee was compelled to 
accept with regret the resignation of Louis Newburger, Esq., of 
Indianapolis, Ind., whose health did not permit him to remain 
an active member of the Committee. The various Jewish 
organizations of Indianapolis, were requested to confer for 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 293 

the purpose of selecting his successor, and upon their recom- 
mendation the Committee elected Samuel E. Eauh, Esq., to 
complete the unexpired term of Mr. Newburger. 

The Central Jewish Council of Denver, Colorado, has been 
requested to nominate a successor to the late Mr. Lehman. 

Vacancies, etc. 

There are still vacancies to be filled in the following dis- 
tricts : 

District I. Florida. 

District III. New Mexico. 

District IV. Kansas. 

District V. Idaho, Nevada and Utah. 

District VI. Iowa, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota 

and Wyoming. 
District XI. New Hampshire and Vermont. 

Successors to the following members whose terms expire are 
also to be chosen : 

District II. Julius Lemkowitz, Natchez. 
District VI. Emanuel Cohen, Minneapolis. 
District VII. Edwin G. Foreman (deceased), Julius Rosen- 

wald, Chicago. 
District VIII. Louis Horkheimer, Wheeling. 
District IX. B. L. Levinthal, M. Eosenbaum, Philadelphia. 
District X. Fulton Brylawski, Washington; Harry Frie- 

denwald and Jacob H. Hollander, Baltimore. 
District XIII. Simon Fleischmann, Buffalo. 

Successors are also to be chosen at this meeting to the fol- 
lowing members of the Executive Committee whose terms 
expire on January 1, 1916 : 



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294 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Cyrus Adler, Julian W. Mack, 

J. L. Magnes, Jacob H. Schiflf, 

A. Leo Weil. 

In District XII the Jewish Community (Kehillah) of New 
York City, at its Annual Convention in April, 1915, increased 
the membership of its Executive Committee from twenty-five 
to thirty>six, and the question of defining the status of the 
eleven additional members should be acted upon by the whole 
Committee, since it involves an amendment to the By-Laws. 

Your Committee recommends the following for election as 
members at large: Herman Bernstein, Nathan Bijur, and 
Oscar S. Straus of New York City; Moses E. Walter of Balti- 
more; S. Marcus Fechheimer of Cincinnati; Albert D. Lasker 
of Chicago; and Alfred W. Weil and Herbert Friedenwald of 
Denver. 

Chaikman op thb Executive Committee 

In view of the increasing number of matters brought to the 
Committee for consideration, it was decided to lighten the 
labors of the President by the creation of the oflSce of Chairman 
of the Executive Committee, to which Dr. Adler was elected. 

Finances 

The contributions to the general fimd of the Committee 
have been encouraging this year, and would have been amply 
sufficient for the expenses of the Committee had it not been 
deemed necessary to undertake a thorough investigation of 
the condition of the Jews in belligerent coimtries, especially 
Russia. In order to defray the expenses of this work contri- 
butions to a special fund were requested and resulted in the 
collection of $3,760.00. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 295 

A statement of the amounts collected in the various dis- 
tricts for both the general and special funds is given below. 



OBNEBAL FUND 

District SunainiSg ^^^k""?^ 

Members Members 

1 110.00 125.60 

II 25.00 41.00 

III 60.00 ' 38.05 

IV 83.00 

V 100.00 83.00 

VI 115.00 107.00 

VII 1,265.00 115.00 

VIII 105.00 120.10 

IX 900.00 184.00 

X 145.00 73.00 

XI 500.00 81.00 

XII 5,175.00 243.00 

XIII 25.00 44.00 

XIV 310.00 125.10 



18,735.00 



11,362.85 





SPECIAL 




FUND 


Total 




135.60 


1100.00 


66.00 




98.05 


100.00 


83.00 




183.00 




222.00 


75.00 


1,380.00 


1,165.00 


225.10 


25.00 


1,084.00 


100.00 


218.00 


35.00 


581.00 


50.00 


5,418.00 


2,035.00 


69.00 


75.00 


435.10 




110,097.85 


13,760.00 



A statement of the receipts and expenditures, as of Novem- 
ber 1, 1916, follows. 

INCOME AND BXPBNDITUBE TO NOVEMBER 1, 1915 

Income 

Balance on hand November 1, 1914 1107.87 

Membership Dues 7,208.34 

Contributing Members 1,571.85 

Contributions to Special Fund 3,760.00 

112,648.06 



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296 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Disburaementa 
New York Office: 

Salaries |2,665.00 

Books and Periodicals 38.13 

Postage 230.73 

Telephone and Telegraph 287.53 

Press Clipping Service 100.00 

Rent 300.00 

Stationery and Printing: 

Eighth Annual Report. $172.00 
Senator Reed's Speech 

on Immigration . . 68.30 

Miscellaneous 298.92 

639.22 

Sundries 540.13 

4,700.74 

Bureau of Statistics 2,000.00 

American Jewish Year Book: 

Contributed Article f 100.00 

Balance of Subvention for 1914.. 500.00 

600.00 

Eighth Annual Meeting 169.75 

Special Meeting, June 20, 1915 181.15 

Travelling Expenses of Members 48.76 

Information Bureau on Jews and the War 1,295.86 

Deficit, November 1, 1914 19.68 



Total Expenditures $9,015.94 

Balance on Hand, November i, 1915 3,632.12 



$12,648.06 

Immigration 

When the Committee met last year there was pending in 
the United States Senate a bill (H. E. 6060) containing a 
literacy test for immigrants. This bill had already passed tlie 
House of Representatives by a vote of 252 to 126. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 297 

Your Committee co-operated actively with other organiza- 
tions in opposing the passage of this bill, and endeavored to 
mitigate the harshness of the literacy test and to safeguard the 
rights of Jewish immigrants who are refugees from persecution, 
by proposing an amendment to the bill which sought to exempt 
from the operation of the test such aliens as were seeking 
admission to the United States in order to avoid religious or 
political persecution, whether such persecution be evidenced by 
overt acts or by discriminatory laws or regulations. 

Despite all the efforts of the opponents of immigration 
restriction, the United States Senate, on January 1, 1915, also 
passed this measure, by a vote of 50 to 7. 

Before taking final action on this bill President Wilson gave 
a hearing to representatives of those in favor of and those 
opposed to its passage. At this hearing your Committee was 
represented by its President. 

On January 28, 1915, President Wilson returned the bill to 
the House of Representatives, where it originated, accompanied 
by the following veto message which will take its place with 
those of Presidents Cleveland and Taf t as an expression of the 
highest ideals of American patriotism and humanity : 

It is with unaffected regret that I find myself constrained 
by clear conviction to return this bill (H. R. 6060, an act to 
regulate the immigration of aliens to and the residence of 
aliens in the United States) without my signature. 

Not only do I feel it to be a serious matter to exercise the 
power of veto in any case, because it involves opposing the 
single judgment of the President to the judgment of a 
majority of both houses of the Congress, a step which no man 
who realizes his own liability to error can take without great 
hesitation, but also because this particular bill is in so many 
important respects admirable, well conceived, and desirable. 



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298 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Its enactment into law would undoubtedly enhance the effi- 
ciency and improve the methods of handling the important 
branch of the public service to which it relates, but candor 
and a sense of duty with regard to the responsibility so 
clearly imposed upon me by the Constitution in matters of 
legislation leave me no choice but to dissent 

In two particulars of vital consequence this bill embodies 
a radical departure from the traditional and long-established 
policy of this country, a policy in which our people have con- 
ceived the very character of their Government to be ex- 
pressed, the very mission and spirit of the nation in respect 
of its relations to the peoples of the world outside their 
borders. It seeks to all but close entirely the gates of 
asylum, which have always been open to those who could 
find nowhere else the right and opportunity of constitutional 
agitation for what they conceived to be the natural and in- 
alienable rights of men, and it excludes those to whom the 
opportunities of elementary education have been denied 
without regard to their character, their purposes, or their 
natural capacity. 

Restrictions like these adopted earlier in our history as a 
nation would very materially have altered the course and 
cooled the humane ardors of our politics. The right of 
political asylum has brought to this country many a man of 
noble character and elevated purpose who was marked as an 
outlaw in his own less fortunate land and who has yet 
become an ornament to our citizenship and to our public 
councils. 

The children and the compatriots of these Illustrious 
Americans must stand amazed to see the representatives of 
their nation now resolved, in the fullness of our national 
strength and at the maturity of our great institutions, to 
risk turning such men back from our shores without test of 
quality or of purpose. It is difficult for me to believe that 
the full effect of this feature of the bill was realized when it 
was framed and adopted, and it is impossible for me to 
assent to it in the form in which it is here cast. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 299 

The literacy test and the tests and restrictions which 
accompany it constitute an even more radical change in the 
policy of the nation. Hitherto we have generously kept our 
doors open to all who were not unfitted by reason of disease 
or incapacity for self-support or such personal records and 
antecedents as were likely to make them a menace to our 
peace and order or to the wholesome and essential relation- 
ships of life. In this bill it is proposed to turn away from 
tests of character and of quality and to impose tests which 
exclude and restrict; for the new tests here embodied are 
not tests of quality or of character or of personal fitness, but 
tests of opportunity. Those who come seeking opportunity 
are not to be admitted unless they have already had one of 
the chief of the opportunities they seek — ^the opportunity of 
education. The object of such provision is restriction, not 
selection. 

If the people of this country have made up their minds to 
limit the number of immigrants by arbitrary tests and so 
reverse the policy of all the generations of Americans that 
have gone before them, it is their right to do so. I am their 
servant, and have no license to stand in their way. But I 
do not believe that they have. I respectfully submit that no 
one can quote their mandate to that effect. Has any political 
party ever avowed a policy of restriction in this funda- 
mental matter, gone to the country on it, and been com- 
missioned to control its legislation? Does this bill rest upon 
the conscious and universal assent and desire of the Ameri- 
can people? I doubt it. It is because I doubt it that I make 
bold to dissent from it I am willing to abide by the verdict, 
but not until it has been rendered. Let the platforms of 
parties speak out upon this policy and the people pronounce 
their wish. The matter is too fundamental to be settled 
otherwise. 

I have no pride ot opinion on this question. I am not 
foolish enough to profess to know the wishes and ideals of 
America better than the body of her chosen representatives 
know them. I only want instruction direct from those 
whose fortunes with ours and all men's are involved. 



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300 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Despite this unqualified disapproval, the proponents of the 
measure made strong efforts to have it passed by the House of 
Representatives, the President's veto notwithstanding. But 
these efforts failed, and on February 4, 1915, the House 
decided to uphold the action of President Wilson. 

The Passpokt Question 

In February, 1915, reports appeared in the press that a 
number of banks which are members of the Federal Reserve 
System were arranging for the extension of a credit of twenty- 
five million dollars to the Russian Government. On January 
14 the President of the Committee sent the following telegram 
to President Wilson : 

Today's newspapers announce that a number of banks in 
the Federal Reserve System have arranged for the extension 
of a credit of twenty-five million dollars to the Russian 
Government. On behalf of the American Jewish Committee, 
I respectfully suggest that this action tends to ignore the 
resolution adopted by Congress three years ago terminating 
the commercial treaty between our Government and Russia 
because of discrimination practised against our citizens. 
There has been no recession by Russia from the attitude 
which compelled the termination of the treaty. In the 
absence of binding assurances from the Russian Govern- 
ment accepting the conditions expressed in the platforms of 
the three great political parties as the sine qua non of any 
treaty relations with other Governments, the proposed loan 
even if not a breach of neutrality would, if permitted, prove 
most unfortunate, since it would virtually nullify the effect 
of our solemn declaration of principle and tend to create an 
interest adverse thereto in this country. 

The President replied that he was referring the telegram 
to the Federal Reserve Board, and on January 18, 1916, the 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 30I 

Secretary of the Treasury sent the following reply to our 

protest: 

I have your telegram of the 14th Instant, in reference to 
" the extension of a twenty -five million dollar credit to the 
Russian Government," which you say it is announced that 
various banks In the Federal Reserve System have arranged. 
I do not know anything about the matter and shall be glad 
to bring it to the attention of the Federal Reserve Board. 
I doubt, however, if under the powers of the Board it has 
any right of interference with the action of member banks 
in the system in matters of this sort. 

We are all deeply concerned here in the observance of the 
strictest neutrality on the part of our Government as well 
as of our people toward all the belligerents in Europe. 

There have also appeared from time to time reports that 
steps Avere being taken to discuss the negotiations for a new 
treaty of commerce with Russia. As a result of the present 
war it is very likely that conditions will be favorable for direct 
commercial relations on a very large scale between the United 
States and Russia. Your Committee feels that this state of 
affairs will hasten the negotiation of a new treaty. In view of 
the firm stand taken by our Government, it is altogether 
improbable that such a treaty will be concluded unless the 
Bussian Government will give adequate guarantees for equality 
of treatment for all American citizens without discrimination. 
Your Committee will, however, continue to keep a close watch 
over this subject. 

The Falashas 

In March, 1915, the Committee was appealed to by Dr. 
Jacques Faitlovitch, the representative of the International 
Pro-Falasha Committee, to come to the aid of the Falashas of 
Abyssinia. Due to disease and civil war these Jews were in a 



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302 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

pitiable condition, and on account of the outbreak of the 
European War the educational work which had begun was in 
danger of abandonment. The Committee decided that this 
was a case calling for its co-operation, and appropriated 
$5000 for the relief of the Falashas. This contribution has 
been duly acknowledged by the International Pro-Falasha 
Committee, which, at the request of the American Jewish 
Committee, co-opted Dr. Cyrus Adler and Dr. J. L. Magnes as 
members. 

Dr. Faitlovitch, the representative of the International Pro- 
Falasha Committee, left for Italy en route to Abyssinia in 
August, 1915, and at his request the American Jewish Com- 
mittee has taken over supervision of the pro-Falasha aflfairs 
in America. 

Pending the war the Committee will keep in direct relations 
with Dr. Faitlovitch, as correspondence between the head- 
quarters at Frankfort and Eritrea is impossible. 

Jewish Orphan Asylum, Sofia 

The first installment of $500 of the appropriation of $2500 
voted by your Committee last year to assist in the establish- 
ment of an asylum in Sofia, Bulgaria, for the orphans of Jews 
killed during the Balkan War, has been transmitted. The fol- 
lowing letter of acknowledgment has been received : 

[Translation] 
Jewish Obphanaoe of Bulgaria 

Sofia, June 9, 1915 

TO THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, 

356 Second Avenue, New York, IJ. S. A. 
Gentlemen : 

We have the honor to acknowledge receipt of the sum of 
five hundred dollars ($500) or twenty-four hundred and 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 303 

twenty (2420) marks remitted for your account through the 
agency of Messrs. M. M. Warburg of Hamburg as your sub- 
vention to the Work for Jewish Orphans of the Balkan War. 

We wish to express to you our thanks for the valuable 
support which you have given our work and for the interest 
which your members are taking in it. 

The few items which follow will make you conversant 
with our activities up to the present time. 

By a common agreement among all the important Jewish 
institutions of Bulgaria, a Central Committee was organ- 
ized to occupy itself with the work for the Jewish orphans 
of the war. It was engaged up to the present in organizing 
this work in the form of a philanthropic society with by-laws 
approved by the Government, and supported by the Jewish 
Committee of the Kingdom. 

We have carefully gathered all details concerning the 
soldiers killed during the war, their families and the 
orphans whom they left. There are in the country about 
250 orphans left by 150 Jewish soldiers who were killed or 
who disappeared; most of these orphans are indigent and 
needy. 

The difficulty which we met in assuring ourselves of the 
funds necessary for the maintenance of an orphanage, and 
the time which we need to prepare and furnish such a place, 
have forced us to postpone until next autumn the opening 
of the asylum. In the beginning, we will be able to admit 
from 50 to 60 children, ranging in age from 6 to 10 years, and 
gradually during the following years we will receive the 
other orphans who will have arrived at this age. We will 
also open two or three workshops in order to teach some 
manual trade to the boys and girls, who will receive the 
same elementary education. 

Pending the completion of preparations, and the time of 
the actual opening of the asylum, we are giving pensions 
to those families of orphans which are largest and poorest, 
in Sofia and in the country. These pensions aggregate about 



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304 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

800 francs a month, and they will be given for such a time 
and in such sums as the means of the work will permit 

We hope that with the generous cooperation of all our 
coreligionists of this country and abroad*, among whom we 
are fortunate to count you as such an important help, we 
will be able to realize very soon the foundation of the pro- 
jected asylum, and in this way save the future of a number 
of families which have remained under our care. 

Encouraged by this help, we beg you, gentlemen, to accept 
with our sincere thanks the assurance of our profound con- 
sideration. 

(Signed) Abraham David Levy, President. 
Sabath Abiel, Secretary, 

The European War 

All the calamities which have been visited upon the Jewish 
people are insignificant when compared with the disaster which 
has come upon our coreligionists in the war zones as a result 
of the titanic struggle now convulsing more than one-third of 
the habitable globe. Previous misfortunes — even the Spanish 
expulsion or the Bussian massacres — ^involved comparatively 
few victims, were definitely localized, and were of short dura- 
tion. The imagination fails when it is called upon to conceive 
of hundreds of thousands of sufferers in a territory equal in 
area to that section of the United States east of the Mississippi 
River. And these multitudes of unfortunates are doomed to 
suffer for an indefinite future. Whatever opinion may be 
entertained as to the duration of the war, and even if the 
struggle should end to-morrow, the wrongs that have been 
inflicted upon the Jewish people are almost irreparable, the 
loss they have suffered in substance and in blood would take 
decades to supply. 



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-REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 305 

RUSSIA 

When the war broke out the Jews of Russia showed great 
willingness to forget the past and begin life anew in a united 
and regenerated Bussia. They gave themselves completely to 
Russia. Thousands of Jewish young men who had been forced 
to leave Russia in order to get the education which their own 
country denied them, returned volimtarily to the colors, even 
though they believed that all hope of preferment and promo- 
tion was closed to them. On the field of battle the Jewish 
soldiers displayed a strength and courage which endeared them 
to their fighting comrades, and won for himdreds of them the 
much desired cross of St. George for distinguished valor. It 
appeared at first as though the long desired union with the 
Russian people was about to be realized. But it soon developed 
that the chains which tied the Jews of Russia to their past 
could not be broken. Forces which they could not possibly 
control doomed them to the greatest tragedy in their history. 
The Pale in which they lived was Polish in origin and popu- 
lation. Poles and Jews were fellow victims of the Russian 
oppressor; but instead of being united by the common bond of 
suffering, they were separated by religious and racial differ- 
ences, ivhich for the past five years had assumed their bitterest 
form in an unrelenting boycott of the Jews by the Poles. 

When the war broke out the political status of the Poles 
changed overnight. The dream of a free Poland revived. Both 
the Russian and the German armies found it politic to cultivate 
the good-will of the Polish population, whilst they made a 
scape-goat of the Jew8. The Russian military organization 
met with disastrous defeats. In order to exonerate themselves 
in the eyes of their own people the military camarilla unloaded 



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306 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

the burden of Russian defeats npon the hapless shoulders of 
the Jew. They executed men, women, even children, without 
the shadow of evidence or the formality of a trial. Stories of 
Jewish treachery, circulated by the Poles, were accepted as 
the truth, and published widely through the Bussian press and 
on the bulletin boards; but when official investigation proved 
these stories false in every particular, the publication of the 
refutation was forbidden by the censorship. 

The authorities gave the troops a free hand to loot and 
ravage, even encouraging them by the publication of orders 
officially denouncing Jews as spies and traitors. The result 
of this was a series of outrages unprecedented even in Russia. 
More than a half million Jews were driven from their homes, 
and reduced to abject destitution. 

All the liberal elements of Russia protested against this cam- 
paign of extermination, but were powerless in the face of the 
military Government. Hundreds of municipal bodies, trade 
and professional organizations, writers, publicists, even priests, 
petitioned the civil government to admit the Jews to human 
equality, or at.least to halt its persecution policy. These me- 
morials, together with the speeches delivered in the Duma, 
constitute a body of evidence from non-Jewish sources which 
condemned the Russian Government in the eyes of the whole 
world. But when the movement of protest gained such head- 
way as to threaten a world-wide exposure of the fundamental 
causes of the Russian breakdown, the Duma was prorogued, 
and the censorship became more rigorous than ever before. 
At the present time the people of RusSia are rapidly learning 
the truth, yet no one may utter it fully. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 307 

' GALICIA 

During the ten months of the Russian occupation of Galicia 
the Jews of that section suffered even more deeply than the 
Jews of the Russian Pale. For here the Jews were the subjects 
of Austria, an enemy of the invader, and no pretext was 
needed to maltreat them, and the weight of the Russian inva- 
sion fell upon them mercilessly. Synagogues were desecrated, 
Jewish women outraged, and innocent and helpless civilians 
massacred. 

PALBSTINB 

The outbreak of the war found about 100,000 Jews in 
Palestine, most of whom had been dependent upon relatives 
and the pious Jews of Europe for their subsistence. This aid 
was abruptly cut off. The small but intrepid group of idealists 
who had emigrated to Palestine in order to again make it " a 
land flowing with milk and honey** were suddenly deprived 
of the markets for their products. 

When Turkey entered the war, she gave the choice to the 
Jews in Palestine who were nationals of the enemy countries 
to become Ottoman subjects or leave; about 600 Jews were 
expelled, and an additional 7000 volimtarily departed. 

The plight of the Jewish population was further aggravated 
by the Government requisition of grain, petroleum, vehicles 
and beasts of burden, and by the visitation of a plague of 
locusts. 

THE AMERICAN JEWISH RELIEF COMMITTEE 

The Committee realized that in addition to being compelled 
to face the need for relief on a large scale of our coreligionists 
in the war zones, a war of such magnitude might present to the 



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308 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Jews of neutral countries, and especially to the Jews of the 
United States, opportunities for influencing changes in the 
political status of the Jews who reside in countries where they 
do not enjoy equal rights. Both aspects of the situation were 
closely studied. 

In regard to the question of relief, the Committee appre- 
ciated that nothing less than the co-operation of all the Jews in 
America could meet the incalculable needs of our brethren in 
Europe and in Asia, and that an appeal for funds by one 
organization would not obviate the issuance of appeals by other 
organizations and thus jeopardize the success of relief work. 
The Committee therefore called a Conference of representa- 
tives of Jewish national organizations, which met on October 
24, 1914, and undertook to organize a joint relief committee. 
This has now been in existence for over one year and is known 
as the American Jewish Belief Committee. The committee of 
five which selected the Committee of One Hundred consisted 
of Messrs. Oscar S. Straus, Julian W. Mack, Louis D. Brandeis, 
Harry Pischel and Meyer London. 

The Executive Committee elected by the Committee of One 
Hundred consists of the following: Louis Marshall, Chair- 
man; Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Secretary; Felix M. Warburg, 
Treasurer; David M. Bressler, Asst. Secretary; Cyrus Adler, 
Philadelphia; Isaac Adler, Rochester; Louis D. Brandeis, 
Boston; Ceasar Cone, Greensboro; Harry Cutler, Providence; 
Samuel Dorf , New York ; Harry Pischel, New York ; J. Walter 
Freiberg, Cincinnati; Harry Friedenwald, Baltimore; Moses 
J. Cries, Cleveland; Mrs. Janet S. Harris, Bradford, Pa.; 
Emil G. Hirsch, Chicago ; Louis E. Kirstein, Boston ; E. W. 
Lewin-Epstein, New York ; Meyer London, New York; Julian 
W. Mack, Chicago ; J. L. Magnes, New York ; M. Z. Margolies, 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 309 

New York ; Samuel Phillipson, Chicago ; Leon Sanders, New 
York; Moses Shoenberg, St. Louis; Jacob H. Schiff, New 
York ; Mrs. Abram Simon, Washington ; Oscar S. Straus, New 
York ; Mayer Sulzberger, Philadelphia ; Isaac M. Ullman, New 
Haven; A. Leo Weil, Pittsburgh; Harris Weinstock, San 
Francisco. 

The joint committee on distribution follows : 

Representing the American Jewish Relief Committee. — 
Felix M. Warburg, Julian W. Mack, J. Walter Freiberg, E. W. 
Ijewin-Epstein, Cyrus Adler, Louis D. Brandeis, Leon 
Sanders, Louis Marshall, Harry Fischel, and J. L. Magues. 

Representing the Central Relief Committee, — M. Engelman, 
Albert Lucas, M. Z. Margolies, and Peter Wiernick. 

Representing the People's Relief Committee, — Sholom Asch, 
Paul Kaplan, and Morris Rothenberg. 

The attempt to secure united action through the Conference 
of organizations held on October 24, 1914, and through the 
subsequent appointment of the Committee of One Himdred, 
consisting of representatives of various national organizations, 
has not been entirely successful. In addition to the American 
Jewish Relief Committee, collections were undertaken by the 
Independent Order B'nai BMth, the Zionist organization, the 
Central Relief Committee, and, more recently, by the People's 
Relief Committee. This lack of complete co-operation also 
resulted in numerous local collections and forms of distribu- 
tion. Recently an arrangement has been effected whereby the 
Central Committee and the People's Committee are working in 
co-operation with the American Jewish Relief Committee, and 
we have reason to hope that the Zionist organization, too, may 
see its way to co-operate more fully with these bodies. 



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310 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

It should be clearly stated, however, that since the Confer- 
ence of October 24, 1914, your Committee has had no direct 
relationship with, or control over, the relief work, although 
some of its individual members are members of the American 
Jewish Relief Committee. 

RELIEF FOR FORMER RESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

A number of cases in which former Jewish residents of the 
United States were unable to leave belligerent countries 
at the outbreak of the war, were brought to the attention 
of the Committee. In every case proper representations were 
made to the Department of State and the departure from 
Europe of such persons was facilitated. 

The Committee wishes to take this occasion to acknowledge 
the uniform courtesy and the sympathetic attention with 
which all matters brought to the attention of the Department 
of State were considered and acted upon. 

THE POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE WAR 

From its first meeting after the outbreak of the war, the 
Committee gave close study to the political aspects of the con- 
flict in so far as the Jews of Europe were concerned. It will be 
recalled that during the first weeks of the struggle, the belief 
was widespread that the war would last only a few months, 
and that at its termination there would be a conference of the 
representatives of the belligerent Powers which would take 
up the various questions which the war had raised. 

This belief that the war might end quickly, and that the 
Jews of America should take some action at once in order to 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 311 

prepare for bringing the Jewish question prominently to the 
attention of the Powers, gave rise to the suggestion that the 
Jews of America should meet in a Congress which should 
formulate their requests and decide the manner in which these 
should be presented to a future Peace Conference. This sug- 
gestion was made the occasion of widespread agitation in the 
press and on the platform and gained many adherents. Your 
Committee discussed the proposal earnestly and at length, 
and concluded that on general principles it was unwise and 
that at this particular juncture it would also be futile and 
dangerous to hold such a Congress. The Committee appre- 
ciated, however, that in dealing with the political aspects of 
the situation, as with the question of relief, the co-operation of 
all Jews was desirable. It therefore decided to call a con- 
ference of the representatives of national organizations — each 
to be represented by its president and another member — ^f or the 
purpose of consultation with a view to devising a program, 
insofar as a program could be laid out at a time when the 
situation was changing constantly. 

In the meanwhile the Jewish Community (KehiUah) of 
New York City, a constituency of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee, held its Annual Convention on April 25, 1915. At this 
Convention the President of the Committee, Mr. Marshall, 
presented a report of the work of the Committee for the pre- 
vious year, and the views of the Executive Committee of the 
American Jewish Committee with regard to the inadvisability 
of a Congress. ^Nevertheless a resolution was introduced at 
the Convention setting forth the desirability of a Congress and 
recommending that the Committee take steps to assemble such 
a gathering. The Convention finally decided to adjourn for 
one month. 



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312 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

During the following month conferences were held between 
representatives of the American Jewish Committee and repre- 
sentatives of those elements which favored a Congress. As a 
result of these discussions, the following resolution was 
adopted at the adjourned Convention of the Kehillah held on 
May 23, 1915: 

Whebeas, This Convention of the Jewish Community 
(Kehillah) of New York City favors the idea of holding a 
conference of delegates from Jewish societies throughout the 
country, chosen by their membership, for the sole purpose of 
considering the Jewish question as it aifects our brethren 
in belligerent lands, and in view of the fact that the Ameri- 
can Jewish Committee has heretofore decided to hold a Con- 
ference to which the heads of the leading Jewish organiza- 
tions of the country are to be invited for the purpose o£ 
considering the same subject, be it 

Resolved, That the Jewish Community (Kehillah) of New 
York City, as a constituent part of the American Jewish 
Committee, recommend to the latter that it hold a special 
meeting of its members with all convenient dispatch to con- 
sider the advisability of calling a Conference of the char- 
acter favored by this Convention, in lieu of the Conference 
which the American Jewish Committee has heretofore 
planned. 

In accordance with the recommendation contained in the 
foregoing resolution, a special meeting of the General Com- 
mittee was held on June 20, 1915, at which the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That a Conference be held of delegates from 
Jewish national societies throughout the country, for the 
sole purpose of considering the Jewish question as it affects 
our brethren in belligerent lands; 

That the number of delegates to this Conference shall not 
exceed one hundred and fifty; 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 313 

That each organization shall choose its delegates in such 
manner as it may deem advisable; but it is recommended 
that in the selection of delegates the members of the organi- 
zations or their governing bodies be enabled to express pref- 
erence for delegates; 

That a special committee of seven be appointed to desig- 
nate the organizations to be invited to participate in the 
Conference, and to work out a basis of representation for the 
various organizations to be invited; 

That the Conference shall take place at Washington, D. C, 
as nearly as possible to October 24, 1915, and that the several 
organizations which are to participate be requested to select 
their delegates not later than October 10, 1915; 

That the Executive Committee be empowered to defer the 
convening of the Conference if circumstances shall arise to 
render such action advisable; 

That the President of the Committee be authorized and 
instructed to learn from representative leaders of our co- 
religionists in belligerent and neutral lands how best the 
Jews of this country at this time and pending war may 
promote the best interests of their brethren in belligerent 
lands, and aid in securing for them equal rights; that until 
this information is obtained a Conference shall not be held. 

In accordance with the terms of these resolutions, the fol- 
lowing committee was appointed to name the organizations to 
be invited to the Conference and to allot the delegates among 
the organizations selected: Cyrus Adler, Chairman; Harry 
Cutler, Samuel Dorf, Julian W. Mack, J. L. Magnes, Bernard 
Semel, and Isaac M. Ullman. 

This committee of seven met, and taking as a basis the 
national organizations which were listed in the American 
Jewish Year Book, selected all the national organizations in 
that volume, except junior and auxiliary societies, or such as 
were by the terms of their charter limited in their operations 



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314 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

to a single state. Taking into consideration the diversified 
interests of the Jews of America, the number of members in 
each organization, and the geographical distribution of the ' 
Jewish population in the United States, it apportioned the 
number of delegates among the organizations as follows : 

Number 
Name of Organisation of Delegates 

American Jewish Ck>mmittee. 7 

American Jewish Historical Society 1 

Arheiter Ring 6 

Central Conference of American Rabhis 4 

Council of Jewish Women 2 

Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations 3 

Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning 1 

Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis 2 

Federation of American Zionists 7 

Federation of Galician and Bukowinean Jews 5 

Federation of Jewish Farmers. 1 

Federation of Oriental Jews 2 

Federation of Roumanian Jews 1 

Federation of Roumanian Jews ♦ 1 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society 4 

Hebrew Union College 1 

Independent Order B'nai B'rith 7 

Independent Order B'rith Abraham 7 

Independent Order B'rith Sholom 5 

Independent Order Free Sons of Israel 4 

Independent Order Free Sons of Judah 3 

Independent Order of True Sisters 2 

Independent Western Star Order 3 

Intercollegiate Menorah Association 2 

Jewish Chautauqua Society 2 

Jewish Consumptives Relief Society 1 

♦ There are two organizations of the same name. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 315 

. . Number 

Name of Organization of Delegates 

Jewish National Workers Alliance 2 

Jewish Publication Society 2 

Jewish Socialist Federation 2 

Jewish Socialist-Territorialist Labor Party of America 2 

Jewish Socialist Labor Party Poale Zion 2 

Jewish Theological Seminary 1 

Mizrahi of America 2 

National Association of Jewish Social Workers 1 

National Conference of Jewish Charities 2 

National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods 2 

National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives 1 

Order B'rith Abraham 7 

Order Knights of Joseph 2 

Order Sons of Zion 2 

Progressive Order of the West 2 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations 7 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations. 3 

United Orthodox Rabbis 2 

United Synagogue of America 3 

In view of the fact that the Federation of American 
Zionists was to hold its Annual Convention on June 27-30, 
the following invitation was sent to that organization : 

June 24, 1916. 
Dear Sir: 

I have the honor to enclose herewith the text of the resolutions 
adopted by the American Jewish Committee at a special meeting 
held on Sunday, June 20, with a view to convening a Conference 
of represenatives of national Jewish organizations, to consider the 
Jewish question as it affects our brethren in belligerent lands. I 
beg to request that you lay these resolutions before the Conven- 
tion of your body, and ask it to elect or appoint seven delegates to 
this Conference. 



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316 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Trusting that your organization will see its way to accept this 
invitation, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Gyrus Adleb, 

Chairman, Executive Committee. 

Louis Lipsky, Esq., 

Chairman, Executive Committee, 
Federation of American Zionists, 
Boston, Mass. 

The ConventioD of the Federation of American Zionists 
referred this invitation for action to the Provisional Execu- 
tive Committee for General Zionist Affairs with the recom- 
mendation that that Committee take steps to call a Congress. 

As the Provisional Committee desired to confer with the 
American Jewish Committee with regard to the entire ques- 
tion, a conference was arranged between Louis D. Brandeis, 
Esq., Chairman of the former body, and Dr. Cyrus Adler, 
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the American 
Jewish Committee. Prof. Felix Frankfurter, who is a mem- 
ber of both the American Jewish Committee and the Pro- 
visional Committee, was also present. The following minute 
of this conference was drawn up by Prof. Frankfurter : 

Dr. Adler explained the basis of selection of the various Jewish 
organizations throughout the United States, which the Jewish 
Committee tentatively had in mind to invite to a proposed Con- 
ference (throughout the discussion Dr. Adler used the term " Con- 
ference " and Mr. Brandeis spoke of a " Congress "), and the num- 
ber of votes to be allocated to each of these organizations in such a 
Conference, the total not to exceed a membership of one hundred 
and fifty representatives. Mr. Brandeis stated that the number of 
delegates, the size of the Congress, did not appear to him a matter 
of vital moment, but the basis of the inception of such a Congress, 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 317 

the manner of the selection of its delegates, was a vital matter. 
Mr. Brandeis, therefore, suggested that Dr. Adler and he select, 
from the tentative list of organizations which Dr. Adler submitted, 
a nucleus of from twelve to twenty-four organizations, repre- 
sentatives of which should be invited to a preliminary conference, 
whose purpose it should be, in turn, to invite all appropriate Jew- 
ish organizations of the United States to meet in a national Con- 
gress, to formulate the basis of membership in such a Congress, 
the number and method of selecting the delegates to such a Con- 
gress, and questions of like nature. 

As a result of the discussion following this suggestion, a modi- 
fied proposal was made that there be called a preliminary confer- 
ence. Just as Mr. Brandeis thought that no one organization or 
two can or should assume the responsibility or authority of invit- 
ing the rest of the country in Congress, so Dr. Adler suggested 
that a larger preliminary selecting committee be called as a pre- 
preliminary committee to invite representatives of other organi- 
zations for a preliminary conference to formulate all the questions 
for final Conference or Congress. He suggested that such a pre- 
preliminary body consist of the organizations to whom, in the list 
of organizations submitted to Mr. Brandeis, he had allotted seven 
and five votes, respectively. Mr. Brandeis suggested that he desired 
to consider with his associates the list submitted by Dr. Adler for 
the pre-preliminary committee, and subsequently meet Dr. Adler 
for further consideration of the matter. Dr. Adler suggested that 
his Executive Committee would meet to-morrow, Tuesday, and that 
it would be desirable to submit to his Committee the results of the 
interview, as well as have Mr. Brandeis consider the results of the 
interview with his associates. To this end a minute of the meeting 
was to be prepared, which Prof. Frankfurter was asked to draw up. 

(Signed) Felix Fbankfubteb. 

This minute was submitted for the consideration of the 
Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee. 
That Committee decided that in view of the fact that the reso- 
lutions adopted by the General Committee at its meeting on 



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318 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

June 20, 1915, directed the Executive Committee to call a 
Conference for the discussion of a specific question, and limited 
the number of delegates, the Executive Committee was not 
authorized to change the plan, purpose, and scope of this Con- 
ference, and could not acquiesce in the suggestion made at 
the conference between Dr. Adler and Mr. Brandeis that the 
discussion regarding the plan, purpose, and scope of such a^ 
Conference should be reopened. This decision was communi- 
cated to Mr. Brandeis. 

A correspondence resulted which has already been sent to all 
the members of the Committee, and has been generally pub- 
lished. 

The Executive Committee proceeded to issue the other 
invitations to the Conference. 

The following organizations have accepted the Committee's 
invitation and have designated the delegates named: 

Organization Delegates 

Central Conference of American 

Rabbis Dr. Wm. Rosenau, 

Dr. Moses J. Gries, 
Dr. David Philipson, 
Dr. Samuel Schulman. 

Council of Jewish Women 

Dropsie College for Hebrew and 

Cognate Learning Dr. Cyrus Adler. 

Federation of Jewish Farmers Dr. Paul Abelson. 

Federation of Oriental Jews Joseph Gedalecia, 

A. J. Amateau. 

Federation of Roumanian Jews.... P. A. Siegelstein. 

Hebrew Union College 

Independent Order Free Sons of 
Israel 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 319 

Organization Delegates 

Jewish Theological Seminary.. Dr. Solomon Schechter. 

National Association of Jewish 

Social Workers David M. Bressler. 

National Jewish Hospital for Con- 
sumptives Dr. Wm. S. Friedman. 

National Federation of Temple Sis- 
terhoods 

Order B'rith Abraham 

Order Knights of Joseph D. J. Zinner» 

Isadore Liederman. 

Union of American Hebrew Congre- 
gations 

United Synagogue of America Dr. M. M. Kaplan, 

Dr. Jacob Kohn, 

Dr. Solomon S. Cohen. 

The following organizations have declined the Committee's 
invitation : 

Federation of American Zionists. 
Federation of Roumanian Jews. 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith. 
Independent Order B'rith Sholom. 
Order Sons of Zion. 

The following organizations have replied as indicated : 

Federation of Galician and Bukowinean Jews: Will not take action 
until Committee harmonizes with Jewish Congress Organi- 
zation. 

Hebrew Immigrant and Aid Society: Action delayed until meeting 
of Board of Directors on October 5, 1915. 

Independent Order B'rith Abraham : Committed to a Congress. 

Intercollegiate Menorah Association: Referred to Governing 
Board. 

Jewish Chautauqua Society: Referred to Board of Directors. 
11 



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320 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Jewish Consumptives' Relief Society: Referred to Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Jewish Socialist Federation of America— Constituent of National 
Jewish Workmen's Convention for Jewish Rights. 

National Conference of Jewish Charities: Referred to officers and 
directors. 

Progressive Order of the West: Will not send delegates until Com- 
mittee and Zionists agree. 

The following organizations have not been heard from : 

Arbeiter Ring. 

Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations. 

Independent Order Free Sons of Judah. 

Independent Western Star Order. 

Independent Order of True Sisters. 

Jewish National Workers Alliance of America. 

Jewish Publication Society of America. 

Jewish-Socialist-Territorialist Labor Party of America. 

Jewish Socialist Labor Party (Poale Zion). 

Mizrahi. 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations. 

United Orthodox Rabbis of America. 

On September 4, 6 and 6, a Conference was held in New 
York City of representatives of Jews who belong to labor 
organizations. This Convention formed the National Work- 
men's Committee for Jewish Rights, and appointed a com- 
mittee of seven to confer with the American Jewish Committee 
and with the Congress Organization Committee for the pur- 
pose of bringing about united action. At the request of this 
committee of seven, the Executive Committee of the Ameri- 
can Jewish Conunittee appointed a committee to meet repre- 
sentatives of the National Workmen's Committee for Jewish 
Rights. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 321 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Independ- 
ent Order B'nai B'rith, the invitation of the American Jewish 
Committee to participate in a Conference, was considered. In 
accordance with the decisions of the Executive Committee of 
the Independent Order B'nai B'rith, its President, Mr. Adolph 
Kraus, called a conference of the presidents of about twenty- 
four national Jewish organizations, which issued the fol- 
lowing statement with regard to its proceedings : 

The meeting called by Adolph Kraus, President of the 
B'nai B'rith, was held at the Hotel Astor at 10.30 A. M.» and 
was in practically continuous session until 7 P. M. The 
meeting was devoted to a frank and friendly discussion of 
the relative advantages and disadvantages, respectively, of a 
Congress or Conference or of holding neither. 

All who spoke at the meeting were of the opinion that at 
the appointed time the Jews of this country should, through 
concerted action, place before the proper authorities, na- 
tional or international as may be deemed best, their basic 
demands that the Jews be accorded equal civil, political and 
religious rights in countries where they are now oppressed. 

It was the general opinion of those present that they 
should confer further with one another informally. When 
the meeting closed, it was voted that the meeting adjourn 
subject to call of chair. 

Those present at the conference were: Adolph Kraus and 
A. B. Seelenfreund, Independent Order B'nai B'rith; Dr. 
CjTMB Adler, United Synagogue; Dr. William Rosenau, Cen- 
tral Conference of American Rabbis; Samuel Dorf, Order 
B'rith Abraham; J. Walter Freiberg, Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations; Simon Miller, Jewish Publication 
Society; Oscar S. Straus, American Jewish Historical 
Society; Dr. Solomon Schechter, Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America; Emil Tausig, Independent Order Free Sons 
of Israel; A. D. Hatch er. Federation of Galician and Buko- 



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322 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

winean Jews; Leon Sanders, Independent Order B*rlth 
Abraham; Louis Marshall, American Jewish Committee; Dr. 
Louis S. Rubinsohn, Independent Order B'rith Sholom; Dr. 
Harry Friedenwald, Federation of American Zionists; Dr. 
Solomon Diamant, Federation of Roumanian Jews ; Rev. Dr. 
Bernard Drachman, Union of Orthodox Congregations; Dr. 
I. J. Bluestone, Mlzrahi; M. Z. Margolies, Union of Ortho- 
dox Rabbis; Dr. Frank Rosenblatt, Arbeiter Ring; Judge 
Julian W. Mack, National Council of Young Men's Hebrew 
Associations; Louis D. Brandeis, Zionist Provisional Com- 
mittee; Jacob Karlinger, Federation of Russian-Polish 
Hebrews of America. 

Various other conferences have been held with individuals 
and committees, all with a view to securing a united program 
and united action on the part of the Jews of America, but 
these did not have an entirely successful issue. 

In view of the disagreement that existed and of the fact 
that there was no particular urgency for the holding of the 
Conference planned for October 24, 1915, and of the various 
negotiations which were going on in order to secure imity of 
action, your Executive Committee, in accordance with the dis- 
cretion given to it by the General Committee at its meeting on 
June 20, decided to postpone the Conference pending the 
annual meeting of the American Jewish Committee. 

In accordance with the resolution adopted by you at the 
special meeting on June 20, 1916, steps were taken to learn 
the views of our European brethren as to how best to help the 
Jews of belligerent lands to secure equal rights either now or 
when the war shall have come to an end. Letters were sent 
to about fifty individuals and organizations in almost every 
country of Europe. Many helpful replies have been received. 
The consensus of opinion of those who have thus far replied 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 323 

is that the Jews of all countries should agree on a formulation 
of what they wish to ask of a future Peace Conference ; that 
this formula shall contain nothing to which all Jews, no mat- 
ter what opinions they hold, cannot subscribe, so that there will 
be no internal dissension, and a united Jewry will indorse the 
request. We are of the opinion that such a formula should be 
in substance as follows : 

Pull bights for the jews in all lands, and the 
abrogation of all laws discriminating against them. 

It is suggested that through the good ofl5ces of the United 
States Government, or by international co-operation or other- 
wise, there be secured guarantees in treaties that these rights 
shall be observed; and that in the event of the violation of 
such guarantees, any nation signatory to such treaties shall 
have the right to protest against any such violation and to 
appeal to the Hague Tribunal if such violation does not cease. 

The Executive Committee has been engaged in this country, 
and by correspondence with numerous organizations and per- 
sons abroad, in arriving at a clear understanding of the exist- 
ing position of the Jews in the various countries, and at such 
time as is deemed opportune will present the result of this 
study to the proper authorities in connection with the fore- 
going formulation. 

The Committee has also been informed by the various com- 
mittees organized in Europe as to their plans of bringing to 
the attention of an eventual Peace Conference the inequalities 
which the Jews are suffering in various belligerent countries. 



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324 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

REVIEW OF HISTORY OP COMMITTEE 

In view of the criticism and misrepresentation of the organi- 
zation and methods of the American Jewish Committee, your 
Committee considers it timely to review at this crisis the 
events which led up to the formation of the Committee, the 
manner in which it was organized, and the activities in which 
it has engaged during the past nine years. 

In the year 1903 there began in the Russian Empire a series 
of uprisings against the Jewish population which lasted, with 
occasional interruption, until 1905. These pogroms aroused 
the indignation and sympathy of the entire civilized world. 
The Jews of America, who had greatly increased in number 
during the preceding twenty years, a large proportion of the 
increase having come from Russia, were deeply stirred by these 
outrages against their downtrodden and persecuted brethren. 
The feeling was universal among them that united action was 
imperatively needed, and that this action must have two objects 
in view : First, to take steps to the end that these barbarities 
might cease and never recur; second, that material aid be 
promptly extended to those who had suffered. 

The Jews of America had been organized into numerous 
associations for various specific purposes, religious, educa- 
tional, fraternal, mutual benefit, and economic; but there was 
no recognized institution which could call upon all of them to 
contribute material aid for the relief of these sufferers from 
Russian massacres, nor was there any special organization 
established for the definite purpose of acting as a vigilance 
committee to watch events and to do everything in its power to 
prevent injustice to or persecution of Jews in other lands. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 325 

The immediate need for a central organization to collect a 
relief fund was met by the establishment of a National Com- 
mittee for the Eelief of Sufferers by Eussian Massacres. This 
was purely a voluntary organization and immediately set about 
to establish a central firnd for the relief of the stricken Jews 
in those cities in the Pale where massacres had taken place. 
That this Committee did its work with great efficiency was 
proven by the outcome — the collection of more than a million 
and a quarter dollars. 

But this organization necessarily disbanded as soon as the 
conditions which had brought it into being no longer obtained, 
and the Jews of America remained without any central body 
which could call upon them to cope with future emergencies of 
this character or to alleviate suffering resulting from persecu- 
tion, disaster, or calamity. 

The need for such an organization had become very pro- 
nounced within the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The 
passage of the inhuman May laws in Eussia in 1882 had inten- 
sified the misery of the Jewish people in that country, and they 
were seeking refuge in America in large nimibers. 

In Eoumania, too, an anti-Semitic oligarchy was denying to 
the Jews their status as citizens without leaving to them any 
rights as aliens, and this in cynical defiance of the terms of a 
solemn treaty signed by all the great Powers of Europe and 
agreed to by Eoumania. As a result of the anomalous position 
which the Eoumanian Jews occupied, they were leaving that 
country in large numbers to seek equality of opportunity in the 
United States. 

In Galicia the Jews had become the victims of economic 
difficulties which were productive of almost unbelievable 



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326 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

poverty, and they, also, were looking to this country for sal- 
vation. 

As a result of these dire conditions the Jewish population 
of the United States, which was about two hundred and fifty 
thousand in 1876, reached over a million and a half in 1905. 

With the rapid increase in the Jewish population of the 
United States new problems were presented in addition to 
tiiose which the earlier Jewish immigrants from Central 
Europe had met and solved. The Russian massacres merely 
served to crystallize the feeling that an organization of the 
Jews of this country capable of coping with these problems 
was essential to the proper and beneficial development of the 
Jewish people in the United States. In other coimtries where 
the Jews had equal rights with other citizens such organiza- 
tions existed. In Great Britain there was the Anglo-Jewish 
Association; in France, the Alliance Israelite Universelle; in 
Germany, the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden and the Ver- 
band der deutschen Juden; Austria and Italy also had such 
central committees. It was during the Russian massacres that 
a general desire was expressed for the creation in the United 
States of a similar organization to deal with Jewish questions 
at large; but the basis on which such a body shoiild be con- 
stituted was a disputed question. 

It was to discuss this question with a view to arriving at a 
consensus of opinion that Messrs. Nathan Bijur, Judge Samuel 
Greenbaum, Joseph Jacobs, Louis Marshall and Cyrus L. Sulz- 
berger called together some fifty-eight persons representative 
of the various sections of the country. A Conference was held 
on the 3d and 4th of February, 1906. After a thorough can- 
vass of the situation the conferees agreed that " it is advisable 
and feasible to establish a General Jewish Committee in the 
United States.'^ 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 327 

When, however, it came to the question of method, various 
proposals were made. One was that there should be a national 
Convention or Congress to be elected by the Jews of the United 
States affiliated with congregations, and that this Convention 
should be repeated quinquennially ; the overwhelming ma- 
jority of the conferees were opposed to any such Convention 
or Congress. The plan of election proposed was exceedingly 
complicated and it was feared impracticable. It was also sug- 
gested that, unless such an organization consisted of the most 
prudent and discreet elements, the standing of the Jews might 
be seriously affected for the worse ; and according to the plan 
of election proposed, it was probable that the organization 
would not be so constituted. Besides, the organization when 
formed would not be in position to prevent those who had 
remained outside from challenging its right to speak for them 
or from forming rival organizations. 

Another suggestion was that there be established a com- 
mittee of representatives of existing national Jewish organiza- 
tions. It ^as made clear, however, that several of the most 
important organizations would not co-operate in the formation 
of such a committee. An attempt by the Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations to form such a union of organizations 
had failed. In January, 1903, the Council of that organiza- 
tion adopted a resolution instructing its Executive Board to 
invite ^^ various religious, educational, and philanthropic 
organizations of a national character to appoint delegates to an 
American Jewish Congress." Invitations were issued to 
various organizations, but after a conference with those which 
accepted, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations con- 
cluded that there was at that time no general desire for a 
Congress, and decided to abandon the project. 



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328 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

A third suggestion which was made was that a small com- 
mittee be formed of persons who, while representative of 
American Jewry, need not necessarily be formally accredited 
representatives of any organization. 

This suggestion also met with opposition, but it was the only 
one upon which a majority of the conferees could agree. 
Finally, at an adjourned meeting of the conferees held on 
May 19, 1906, it was resolved that an Executive Committee of 
Fifteen be appointed by the conferees with power to increase 
its number to fifty for the purpose of co-operating with the 
various national Jewish bodies in this country and abroad on 
questions of national and international moment to the Jewish 
people, and on November 11, 1906, the first general meeting 
of this Committee of Fifty, since named the American Jewish 
Committee, was held. 

Organization 

The Committee realized that in order to do its work most 
effectively it needed the co-operation and the support of all the 
Jews of the United States. 

The organizing Committee of Fifteen had invited the adhe- 
sion of Jews who were representative of the varied interests 
and the varied points of view of the Jewish people in America. 
Eepresentatives of the most important existing Jewish organi- 
zations were elected to membership and included in its Execu- 
tive body. Later, the Committee provided in its by-laws for 
the representation of various national organizations as such. 
The Committee also officially announced its readiness to co- 
operate with all other agencies having similar objects, and that 
it neither claimed nor sought the monopoly "in the accom- 
plishment of Israel's work in America.'' It was the expressed 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 329 

purpose of the Committee to promote co-operation in American 
Jewry " by means of an organization which ignored geographi- 
cal origins, useless controversies and polemics, accidental 
groups, artificial formulas, and social stratifications, and 
which recognized no tests except those which its name implies 
— ^those of Americanism and Judaism." 

Advisory Councils 

Immediately after the formation of the Committee, an 
elaborate plan for the organization of advisory councils in the 
various sections of the coxmtry was formulated and was par- 
tially put into effect. It was believed that by means of this 
plan a skeleton organization, similar to the Eed Cross, coidd 
be effected. In this way the Committee, which would in nor- 
mal times be a small body quickly and easily assembled for 
consultation, would in times of emergency be able to call upon 
a much more considerable number of individuals for help in 
its work. 

The Kehillah Movement 

The realization that the various Jewish communities had 
local problems of a character comparable to the national and 
international Jewish problems suggested to a number of per- 
sons interested in Jewish affairs the advantages of a federation 
of local Jewish organizations in each community to deal with 
these problems. These federations, moreover, would be the 
logical constituencies of the American Jewish Committee. An 
attempt at the formation of such a federation or Kehillah was 
made upon the initiative of several Jewish leaders in New York 
City in October, 1908. As a result of conferences between the 
initiators of the movement for the formation of the Kehillah 



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330 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

and the New York members of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee, a constituent convention of the Jewish Community 
(Kehillah) of New York City was held on February 27, 1909. 
In the constitution which was adopted by this convention, it 
was stipulated that the Executive Committee of Twenty-five, 
to be elected annually by the General Convention of the 
Kehillah, were to be the New York representatives in the 
American Jewish Committee. At the present time the Jewish 
Community of New York City represents seven hundred 
organizations, which are in turn represented by their Execu- 
tive Committee in the American Jewish Committee. 

Similar action was taken in Philadelphia in November, 
1911, and the Jewish Community of that city, representing 
one hundred and twenty organizations, elects six representa- 
tives in the American Jewish Committee. The city of Denver 
also organized a Central Jewish Council representing all the 
local Jewish societies and electing two representatives in the 
American Jewish Committee. The Committee stands ready 
to affiliate itself with any other Jewish communities which 
organize themselves along similar lines. The value of such 
organizations can no longer be questioned. The New York 
Kehillah, during its as yet brief existence of five years, has 
had an undisputed influence for good upon the orderly and 
beneficent development of Jewish life in the largest Jewish 
community in the world. 

The Objects of the Committee 

The task which this Committee set itself in the first con- 
stitution was twofold : (1) To prevent the infringement of the 
civil and religious rights of Jews and (2) to alleviate the con- 
sequences of persecution. The preamble of the constitution 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH CX)MMITTEE 33I 

also clearly stated that before the Committee took any action 
it was to consult with persons and organizations familiar with 
the situation, and that the Committee was to act only when its 
aid was invoked. 

The Committee realized that in order to be able to accom- 
plish these objects effectively, three things were essential : (1) 
Accurate information as to the condition of the Jewish people 
of the world; (2) the co-operation of kindred organizations in 
the United States and abroad ; (3) funds. 

INFORMATION AND STATISTICS 

Charge of Criminality Against Jews 

The necessity for accurate information was brought home to 
the Committee in September, 1908, when, in an article pub- 
lished in the North American Review, the then Police Com- 
missioner Bingham of New York City charged in substance 
that the Jews of IN'ew York committed fifty per cent of the 
crimes in that locality, although they constituted but twenty- 
five per cent of the population. Great excitement was aroused 
by this statement which was widely circulated. Fortunately, 
the Committee had at its disposal data which completely dis- 
proved General Bingham's accusation, and after a conference 
between him and representatives of the Committee, he pub- 
lished in the same periodical an unqualified retraction of his 
charges and an admission that they were not based on any 
facts or statistics whatsoever. 

Bureau of Statistics 

In order to know the facts regarding Jewish life and activi- 
ties and to have information at hand to refute attacks of this 



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332 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

character, the Committee established a Bureau for the col- 
lection of information relating to the Jewish people, and co- 
operated with the Jewish Publication Society of America in 
the publication of the American Jewish Year Book. 

This Bureau was considerably enlarged in 1913 with the 
co-operation of the New York Foundation. A report of its 
work during the past year will be rendered by the Chairman 
of the sub-committee in charge. 

The Associated Press 

It was in the interests of securing correct information of the 
situation of the Jews in various countries that the Committee 
attempted on several occasions to bring to the attention of the 
Associated Press the inadequacy of the news respecting Rus- 
sian affairs appearing in the columns of the daily newspapers. 
Important occurrences, especially affecting the Jews of Bussia, 
were often ignored, or if reported at aU, salient facts were 
omitted. The Committee endeavored from time to time to 
effect a change in this condition of affairs, and as a result of 
these efforts a slight improvement in the Russian service has 
been noticed. 

RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 

The Committee also appreciated the importance of co-oper- 
ation with kindred associations in Europe, and shortly after 
its organization established relations of a cordial character 
with the Alliance Israelite Universelle, the Jewish Coloniza- 
tion Association, the Russo-Jewish Committee, the London 
Board of Deputies of British Jews, the Jewish Territorial 
Organization, the Anglo-Jewish Association, the Hilfsverein 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 333 

der deutschen Juden, the Israelitische AUianz of Vienna, the 
Central Zionist Bureau, and with a number of national 
societies in this country. 

THE EMERGENCY TRUST FUND 

Inasmuch as the Committee had set itself the task of reliev- 
ing Jews from the consequences of persecution or disaster, it 
was desirable that it should have at its disposal a large fimd 
so that in an emergency it could quickly come to the assistance 
of those in distress, and not be compelled to make frequent 
demands upon the generosity of the Jewish population of 
America. There was a considerable unexpended balance in 
the hands of the National Committee for the Relief of Suf- 
ferers by Russian Massacres. In December, 1912, by a decree 
of the Supreme Court of the State of New York, the Com- 
mittee was adjudged to be entitled to this balance pursuant to 
the laws of the State of New York. When this fund, which 
amounted to about $190,000, was awarded to the Committee, 
regulations were carefully drafted to prevent the use of any 
part of the capital or of the income of the fund for any purpose 
not akin to that for which the fund was originally gathered. 
The fund was to be devoted exclusively " to the alleviation of 
the consequences of persecution of Jews in any part of the 
world, to rendering them all lawful assistance in the event of 
the threatened or actual invasion or restriction of their rights, 
and to afford relief from calamities affecting the Jews 
wherever they may occur." 

At the request of the American Jewish Committee the trus- 
tees of the fund had made use of small amoxmts for these 
purposes prior to the transfer of the fund to the Committee. 
Thus, in March, 1907, $10,000 was appropriated for the 



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334 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Jews of Boumania who had suffered from attacks. In August, 
1907, $1000 was forwarded for the relief of the Jews at Casa- 
blanca, Morocco, who had suffered on account of attacks by the 
Kabyles. 

In April, 1912, $12,000 was contributed for the relief of 
the Jews of Fez, Morocco, after an attack by Arabs upon the 
Jewish quarter. In December, 1912, $5000 was contributed 
for the relief of the Jews who suffered by the Balkan wars. 
Since the transfer of the fund, $2600 has been appropriated for 
a Jewish Orphan Asylum in Sofia, Bulgaria; $5000 for the 
Falashas ; and at the outbreak of the war, $5000 for the Jews 
of Antwerp, $25,000 for the Jews of Palestine, and $100,000 
to form the nucleus of the fund being raised by the American 
Jewish Relief Committee. 

INCORPORATION OF THE COMMITTEE 

In 1911 the Committee was granted a charter of incorpo- 
ration by the legislature of the State of New York in which its 
objects were outlined as follows : 

*^ (1) To prevent the infraction of the civil and religious 
rights of Jews in any part of the world; (2) to render all law- 
ful assistance and to take appropriate remedial action in the 
event of threatened or actual invasion or restriction of such 
rights or of unfavorable discrimination with respect thereto; 
(3) to secure for Jews equality of economic, social and educa- 
tional opportunities ; (4) to alleviate the consequences of per- 
secution and to afford relief from calamities affecting Jews 
wherever they may occur .^' 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 335 

PREVENTION OF INFRACTION OF CIVIL AND 
RELIGIOUS RIGHTS 

The founders of the American Jewish Committee consid- 
ered that one of its most important functions was to act as a 
vigilance committee to keep a watch for any threatened 
invasion of the civil or religious rights of Jews or any dis- 
crimination against them. They also appreciated that occa- 
sions might arise when action would be proposed or taken 
which, while having no direct bearing on rights of the Jewish 
people, could indirectly affect them. 

The Cbnsus Bill 

Thus in January, 1909, a bill providing for the taking of 
the decennial census in the United States included the provi- 
sion that the census enumerators should ascertain, in addition 
to other particulars, the races of all inhabitants of the United 
States. Inasmuch as the classification by races used by the 
United States Iiuniigration Commission had already caused 
many invidious comparisons, and had led to inaccurate con- 
clusions often unjustly prejudicial to one or another race, the 
Committee felt that the danger which might be anticipated 
from the collection of such data far outweighed its usefulness. 
The Committee felt also that the Jews of America must 
always insist upon the principle that to our government 
American citizens are either natural-born or naturalized, and 
that nc further distinctions must be recognized. The Com- 
mittee therefore protested against this innovation in the census, 
and succeeded in having the census bill amended in this regard. 



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336 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Natubalization Laws 

Another instance in which action was proposed to be taken 
that was not consciously directed against the rights of the 
Jews of America, but which might have had important conse- 
quences for them, was a decision of the Bureau of Naturaliza- 
tion of the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1909. The 
Bureau then adopted a ruling depriving all " Asiatics '^ of the 
privilege of naturalization on the groxmd that they were not 
included among the **free white persons'^ contemplated in 
Section 2169 of the Revised Statutes of the United States. It 
is conceivable that in the absence of a definite delimitation of 
the category of ^^ Asiatics," Palestinian, Syrian, Arabian, 
Indian and Persian Jews might have been considered as 
" Asiatics." 

This ruling of the Bureau of Naturalization was contested 
in the courts in several cities and the Government's contention 
was almost everywhere rejected. A case involving this ruling 
was argued before the Circuit Court of Appeals by a member 
of the Committee on behalf of certain Syrian interveners, and 
his arguments against the contention of the Government were 
sustained by a imanimous decision of that Court. 

While the decision in this case was pending, several bills 
were introduced in Congress looking to the legalization of this 
ruling of the Bureau of Naturalization by excluding from the 
privilege of naturalization all aliens who were not *' white per- 
sons of the Caucasian race." The most objectionable of these 
bills was one which sought to amend Section 2169 of the 
Revised Statutes (which accords the right of naturalization to 
" free white persons and Africans ") by providing that that 
section shall not be so construed as to prevent " Asiatics who 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 337 

are Armenians, Syrians or Jews from becoming naturalized 
citizens." This bill passed the House of Representatives 
within a few days after its introduction. It had the vice that 
it attempted a definition of ^^ white persons " wholly unknown 
to the constitutional laws of this country, and by inference 
classified the Jews among those who were not *' free white per- 
sons.** The Committee protested against this bill, which failed 
of passage in the Senate. 

Shechitah 

The Committee also noted that there was a well-organized 
propaganda both in England and in several of the states of 
the Union against the practice of Shechitah. It was claimed 
that the slaughter of animals according to the Jewish ritual 
was inhuman and cruel and contrary to law. The Committee 
therefore combated this movement which threatened to inter- 
fere with one of the most cherished traditions of the Jewish 
people. 

EXTKADITION OF POUBEN AND RUDOVITZ 

Another event which, though not involving Jews might have 
had serious consequences for a large section of the Jewish 
people, was the attempt in 1909 by the Russian Government to 
have extradited two political refugees, Poujen and Rudovitz, 
who had fled to this country. They were charged with arson 
and murder, offences extraditable under the treaty existing 
between the United States and Russia. There existed, how- 
ever, overwhelming evidence that these acts of violence had 
been committed as part of revolutionary uprisings which were 
widespread in the Russian Empire in 1905. The Committee 
appreciated the bearing of the cases of Pouren and Rudovitz 



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338 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

upon a large number of Jews who had taken part in the 
Russian revolution, and had sought or would be likely to seek 
an asylum in this country. The Committee therefore actively 
co-operated with public-spirited individuals and organizations 
which were endeavoring to prevent the extradition, which they 
were convinced would be a gross injustice to the persons 
involved and therefore a violation of a cherished principle that 
the United States is a refuge for fugitives from punishment 
for political offences. Fortunately, the request of the Russian 
Government for the extradition of Pouren and Rudovitz was 
not granted by our Government. 

The Beilis Case 

Similar service was rendered by the Committee in 1912 when 
an obscure Jew in the city of Kiev, Russia, was accused of 
having committed murder for ritual purposes. All the Jews of 
the world appreciated that this was more than the trial of an 
individual, that it was indeed the entire Jewish people that 
was before the bar. The Committee believed that in order to 
uncover the infamous character of the charge against Mendel 
Beilis it was necessary to give the matter the widest publicity. 
It therefore circulated extensively in the American press 
authentic information with regard to this case. 

The Jews of the Balka.ns 

At the conclusion of the Balkan wars in August, 1913, a 
considerable region formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire 
passed into the hands of the Balkan allies, who, with the 
exception of Roumania, had previously had no considerable 
Jewish population. Consequent upon the war, Greece, which 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 339 

had formerly had only 7000 Jews in a total population of over 
two and a half million, acquired sovereignty over more than 
85,000 Jews, including those of Salonica ; Servia, which had 
had 7000 Jews in a population of almost three millions, became 
the master of an additional 17,000 ; Bulgaria, which had had 
45,000 in a total of four million, added 76,000 to its Jewish 
population ; and Roumania acquired 16,000 new Jewish sub- 
jects as a result of the cession of Silistria. 

The Committee was apprehensive that the transfer of this 
considerable Jewish population from the rule of the Ottoman 
Empire, under whose tolerant sway the Jews had lived peace- 
fully for several centuries, to that of other governments might 
be productive of hardship and forced emigration. The Com- 
mittee therefore approached our Government with the request 
that it employ its good oflSces with a view to securing in the 
treaty of peace between the Balkan allies and Turkey adequate 
guarantees for the protection of the affected population. 

Although our country was not to be a party to the Peace Con- 
ference, and was supposed to have no standing in the negoti- 
ations, the Committee urged that there were two grounds upon 
which the United States was justified in making known its 
views to the states directly interested: First, in view of the 
likelihood of discriminatory treatment resulting in mass emi- 
gration, the doctrine enunciated by President Harrison in a 
message to Congress on December 9, 1891, that "the banish- 
ment, whether by direct decree or by not less certain indirect 
methods of so large a number of men and women is not a local 
question ; " and second, that such action was in keeping with 
the policy which the United States has pursued for more than 
seventy years of acting in the name and at the behest of 
humanity whether American interests are involved or not. 



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340 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Our Qovemment acquiesced in these views, and instructed 
the American Ambassador at London to inform the British 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who was president of 
the Peace Conference, that the United States would regard with 
satisfaction the inclusion in the treaty of a provision assuring 
the full enjoyment of civil and religious liberty to the inhabi- 
tants of the conquered territory, without distinction of race 
or creed. The American Ministers accredited to the Balkan 
States were instructed to make similar representations to those 
Governments. The Peace Conference, however, decided that 
it would be superfluous to include a special provision of this 
nature, inasmuch as the constitutions of all the interested 
states guarantee civil and religious equality, and in accordance 
with the principles of international law citizens of annexed 
territories, without distinction, become citizens of the annex- 
ing state. 

EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY 

The danger that agitators, by the enactment of repressive 
immigration legislation, might deprive the persecuted Jews 
of Russia and Eoumania and the Jews of Qalicia of the 
opportunity of reconstructing their lives in this country has 
caused the Committee the greatest anxiety, and occupied much 
of its attention. 

The Committee at the inception of its work was confronted 
with the necessity of dealing with the threatened enactment of 
restrictive immigration laws in our own country. Through 
the efforts of those favoring the liberal immigration policy, the 
harshness of the laws proposed at the opening session of Con- 
gress in 1906 was mitigated and the Act of February, 1907, 
was passed and is still operative. Its most notable provision 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 341 

is that providing for the appointment of an Immigration 
Commission. In order that that Commission might secure 
authentic information on the various phases of Jewish immi- 
gration, the Committee offered to put at the disposal of the 
Immigration Commission data that might be of use in the 
endeavor to reach a just and unbiased conclusion. As the 
Commission intended to visit the various European countries 
which were the main sources of immigration to the United 
States, the Committee notified the Jewish Colonization Asso- 
ciation of Eussia of the intention of the Immigration Com- 
mission, so that the Association could prepare a memorandum 
on the causes of Jewish emigration from Eussia, to be pre- 
sented to the Commission on its arrival in that country. 

Upon the invitation of the Commission also, the Committee 
in co-operation with other Jewish organizations submitted 
recommendations respecting the revision of the immigration 
laws and regulations with a view to putting an end to various 
injustices and abuses. 

After three years of study the Commission presented a 
report to Congress which evidenced but slight desire on its 
part to adhere to the time-honored tradition that has made 
this country a refuge for the oppressed of all lands. It was 
contended that on economic grounds the increase of our 
population by immigration was too rapid and that some method 
of restriction was necessary. The reading and writing test 
was recommended as the most equitable method of bringing 
about restriction. 

The report of the Commission was a signal for the intro- 
duction of various restrictive measures, each one more drastic 
than the other. Two of these bills were actually passed by Con- 
gress, but both were vetoed, one by President Taft, and the 



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342 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

other by President Wilson. In both instances the President 
of the Committee presented arguments to the President of the 
United States urging that he take action to prevent these 
bills from being placed on the statute books. 

At the same time the Committee endeavored by the publica- 
tion and issuance of educational literature on the subject to 
point out the fallacies in the arguments of the restrictionists, 
and the injustice that would result from the operation of an 
arbitrary literacy test. 

ACTION TO REMEDY RESTRICTION OP RIGHTS 

In the charter of incorporation granted to the American 
Jewish Committee by the legislature of the state of New York 
the rendering of lawful assistance and the taking of appro- 
priate remedial action in the event of threatened or actual 
invasion or restriction of the civil and religious rights of 
Jews was stated to be the second object of the organization. 

At the time of the institution of the Committee there 
already existed a number of cases in which the religious and 
civil rights of Jews were being infringed upon or wholly denied 
to them. Even in the United States, despite the provision of 
the Constitution which guarantees to citizens, whether natural- 
bom or naturalized, an equal standing before the law, citizens 
of the Jewish faith were being ignominiously discriminated 
against — ^not by any authorities of the Government of the 
United States but by the representatives of a foreign Govern- 
ment on the soil of this country. This discrimination gave 
rise to what has since become known as the passport question. 
The Committee considered that it was one of its most impor- 
tant functions to bend every effort toward the solution of this 
question, with a view to ending the flagrant disregard by Kussia 
of the American passport. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 343 

In addition to this problem at home, the Jews of this country 
cherished the most profound desire for the betterment of the 
civil and political status of the Jews of Eussia and Eoumania. 
From its very inception the Committee watched the course of 
events in both coimtries, and whenever the occasion offered 
took such steps to assist our brethren as were deemed oppor- 
tune. 

The Passport Question 

The passport* question arose out of the violation by Eussia 
of a treaty between that country and the United States made 
in the year 1832. This was a treaty of commerce and obligated 
both coimtries to accord to all the citizens of the other, without 
distinction, the liberty to sojourn and reside in all parts of a 
territory, and to guarantee to them security and protection. 
There was no exception expressed or implied in the Treaty of 
1832. Its terms covered not some but all of the citizens of 
the respective countries. But for more than forty years the 
Eussian Government persisted in violating the solemn terms 
of this treaty. It refused to recognize the American passport 
in the hands of American citizens of the Jewish faith. The 
initial step in this discrimination took place upon American 
soil. The laws of Eussia require that persons intending to enter 
that country must, before seeking admission, have their pass- 
ports vised or countersigned by a diplomatic or consular repre- 
sentative of the Eussian Empire. American Jews who desired 
to enter Eussia were therefore compelled to apply to Eussian 
Consulates in this country to have their passports vised. The 
Eussian Government required its consuls within the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States to interrogate American citizens as 
to their race and religious faith and upon ascertainment 



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344 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

thereof to deny the Jews the authentication of passports for 
use in Russia. This practice involved not only such American 
citizens of the Jewish faith as had been former subjects of 
Russia, but all Jews no matter what their antecedents. 

Since 1880 Russia violated the Treaty of 1832. The world 
is familiar with the efforts made by all of our Secretaries 
of State to induce Russia to comply with the terms of the 
treaty. But to earnest and persistent remonstrance Russia 
always replied by diplomatic evasions and postponements 
amounting to Ibl cynical denial of redress or even of respectful 
consideration of the question. As a result of these ineffectual 
efforts on the part of our Government, this situation existed for 
nearly thirty-five years. 

The American Jewish Committee gave to this subject its 
most earnest consideration almost from its first meeting. 
Assured that no results were to be obtained from further 
recourse to the ordinary channels of diplomacy, the Committee 
soon concluded that some other and more drastic methods 
would have to be devised to make the Russian Government 
appreciate that the protests of the United States were sincere 
and earnest and not mere formalities. After serious consider- 
ation of the question the American Jewish Committee deter- 
mined to recommend to the President the abrogation of the 
treaty with Russia. This course, it was considered, would be 
the most effectual method of impressing upon the Russian 
Government the earnestness of the demands of the United 
States that it observe the Treaty of 1832. Accordingly, on 
May 18, 1908, the Committee dispatched a letter to President 
Roosevelt which began the attempt on the part of the organi- 
zation to induce the Government to take some effective action 
to terminate the controversy. Correspondence with the same 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 345 

end in view was also had with President Taf t and was supple- 
mented by personal interviews with the President and with 
Secretaries of State Root and Knox. 

All these endeavors proving ineffectual, the Committee 
reluctantly reached the conclusion that our Government was 
not willing to adopt any other measure than diplomatic repre- 
sentation. This promised no better results than had already 
been obtained. The Committee therefore decided to lay our 
case before the citizens of the United States. An address 
delivered by Mr. Marshall at the 22d Council of the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations marked the opening of a 
campaign of publicity on the part of the Committee which 
finally resulted in the issuance by President Taft of a notice to 
the Russian Government of the intention of the Government 
of the United States to terminate the Treaty of 1832. This 
action was subsequently ratified by the Senate and the House 
of Representatives almost unanimously. On January 1, 1913, 
the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation of 1832 between Rus- 
sia and the United States was terminated. The effect of the 
termination of the treaty was that to future discrimination 
against American citizens of the Jewish faith the Govern- 
ment of the United States would no longer be a party. And 
as treaties are, according to the Constitution of this country, 
the supreme law of the land, there would no longer exist a law 
which violated the Constitution by permitting discrimination 
against American citizens on account of race or religion. , 

The agitation for the abrogation of the treaty evoked the 
sympathetic interest and co-operation of the entire American 
press and of thousands of individuals and organizations. It 
was xmiversally recognized that the passport question was an 



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346 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

American question, involving the sanctity of American citizen- 
ship and the inviolability of the Constitution. It was purely 
as an American question that the Committee, and the numer- 
ous Jewish organizations that gave the Committee their 
fullest co-operation, wished to have the controversy regarded. 
The action of President Taft and of Congress has been sub- 
sequently approved by all the great political parties of tiiis 
country, which in their platforms have placed themselves on 
record against the ratification of any new treaty with Russia 
which would not recognize the principle on account of the 
violation of which the Treaty of 1832 was terminated. The 
Committee has kept watch over the situation, and whenever 
any reports were current that such action on the part of our 
Government was likely, it took immediate steps to bring these 
reports to the attention of the President of the United States. 
In every case they were declared to be inaccurate. The 
Committee is certain that no treaty with Eussia which does 
not recognize the complete equality of all American citizens 
without distinction of race or creed will ever be concluded 
between the two countries. 

The Civil Eights Law 

Another example of the infringement of the civil rights of 
Jews was the practice of various hotel keepers of advertising 
in newspapers, circulars, railroad and steamboat folders that 
Jews are not acceptable as guests. In the summer of 1913 the 
Committee advocated the passage by the Legislature of the 
State of New York of an amendment to the civil rights law of 
the state explicitly prohibiting such discrimination and provid- 
ing penalties for its practice. 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 347 

This legislation was urged in the interest of the equality of 
all citizens before the law and for the purpose of placing upon 
the statute books of the state of New York a declaration as 
emphatic as could be made that these manifestations of preju- 
dice against law-abiding citizens would not be tolerated. 

Action similar to that taken in New York is contemplated in 
other states of the Union. 

ALLEVIATION OF THE CONSEQUENCES OP 
PERSECUTIONS AND DISASTER 

As already pointed out, the direct cause of the foimdation 
of the Committee was the need for some organization which, 
in a time of emergency such as that which faced the Jews in 
1903-5, could extend relief of a material nature. When the 
Committee was organized the Bussian massacres had come to 
an end, but other calamities involving Jews have occurred not 
infrequently since that time. 

Thb San Francisco Fire, 1906 

At the first meeting of the General Committee held in 
November, 1906, the needs of the Jewish religious and edu- 
cational institutions of San Francisco, by reason of the earth- 
quake and fire which had occurred there, were brought to the 
attention of the Committee. It was decided to raise a fund, 
and as a result of an appeal over $37,000 was collected and dis- 
tributed among several synagogues and the Jewish Educa- 
tional Society of San Francisco, enabling them to repair the 
losses suffered on account of the earthauake. 



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348 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Casablanca, Mokocoo, XJpbisings, 1907 

In August, 1907, as a result of an attack by the Kabyles at 
Casablanca, Morocco, a number of Jews lost their lives, many 
were wounded, and a large number of women and children were 
carried off. At the request of the Committee, the National 
Committee for the Belief of Sufferers by Russian Massacres 
forwarded 5000 francs to the Alliance Israelite TJniverselle, 
which was actively engaged in relieving the sufferers. 

Roumanian Outbreaks, 1907 

At the time of the outbreaks against the Jews of Roumania 
in March, 1907, the Committee co-operated with various Euro- 
pean organizations in coming to the relief of the sufferers. At 
the request of the Committee, the National Committee for the 
Relief of Sufferers by Russian Massacres appropriated $10,000 
for this purpose. 

Constantinople Fire, 1908 

In March, 1908, a fire destroyed a large section of the 
Jewish quarter of Constantinople, leaving 6000 Jews destitute. 
The Committee promptly raised $1000 for the relief of the 
sufferers for whom the Alliance Israelite TJniverselle had 
opened a fund. 

Expulsions from Finland, 1908 

In several instances the persecution was of such a nature 
that publicity was more necessary than financial assistance. 
Such was the situation when in the winter of 1908-9 a policy 
of repression and expulsion of the Jews was inaugurated by 
the Russified Government of Finland. This important in- 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 349 

dication of Russia's pogrom policy was not published in the 
daily papers served by the Associated Press until the Com- 
mittee called their attention to it, when they gave the matter 
wide publicity. At the same time the Conmiittee took occasion 
to bring to the notice of the officers of the Associated Press 
the remarkable paucity of Kussian and Russian Jewish news 
which reached this country. 

Bessarabia, Kiev, 1909 

On several occasions it was the Committee's duty to inform 
the public that reports of excesses against Jews were unfounded 
or exaggerated. 

Thus in July, 1909, when a Jewish massacre in Bessarabia 
was reported the Committee promptly secured through the 
Department of State from the American Consul at Odessa a 
statement that the rumor was without foimdation. In Sep- 
tember of the same year reports of a massacre in Kiev were 
found upon the Committee's investigation to have been based 
upon a slight disturbance which had been inmiediately quieted 
without serious results. 

Attack on Fez, Moboooo, 1912 

The disaster which befell the Jews of Fez, Morocco, in April, 
1912, was of a more serious character. In the course of dis- 
orders attending a revolt of the Arabs against the French 
Government, the Jewish quarter was pillaged and almost 
entirely destroyed. The co-operation of the Committee was 
asked by the Alliance Israelite TJniverselle. Twelve thousand 
dollars was appropriated by the National Committee for the 
Relief of Sufferers by Russian Massacres. With the sums 



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350 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

contributed throughout the world, the Jews made destitute 
were rehabilitated, and the Jewish quarter was gradually re- 
built on less congested and more sanitary plans. 

Jews of the Yemen, 1913 

Upon the request of the Federation of American Zionists 
and other organizations, the Committee in 1913 appropriated 
$5000 as a loan to the Jewish National Fund for the erection 
of houses for Jewish refugees from the Yemen, on the Arabian 
Peninsula. On account of the almost continuous state of 
anarchy which exists in that region, and as a result of which 
the Jews suffer from bitter persecution, they are migrating in 
large numbers to Palestine. 

The Balkan Wah, 1912-1913 

The wars in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913 were 
of momentous interest to the Jews. The suiferings of our 
brethren in Turkey were intense. Many lives were lost, many 
were wounded ; disease was widespread. Hundreds of refugees 
crowded the large cities. 

In December, 1912, the American Jewish Committee estab- 
lished a fund for the relief of the sufferers, resulting in the 
collection of over $8000, and the National Committee for the 
Relief of Sufferers by Russian Massacres appropriated $5000 
for immediate transmission. The Committee also joined a 
number of the largest European organizations in the forma- 
tion of a provisional body called' the Union des Associations 
Israelites, for the purpose of closer co-operation and avoiding 
duplication in the work of relief. The Union gathered and 
disbursed almost a quarter of a million dollars, and sent a 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 351 

committee to the scene of hostilities to organize the relief 
work on the spot. 

This incident served to show that co-operation between the 
various Jewish organizations of America and Europe could be 
quickly effected and that increased efficiency could result. 

In conclusion, your Committee deems it well to repeat the 
words of its President at the last Annual Convention of the 
Kehillah of New York City: 

The Committee does not now seek and has never sought 
power or authority- It has proceeded according to its own 
conceptions of duty and ohligation. It has had no purpose 
to subserve but that of furthering the welfare of the Jews, 
as such. It has had no ambitions to promote. Its members 
have sought no personal honors or emoluments. They have 
striven to subordinate their individuality to the cause which 
they represent .... Whatever betide, it (The American 
Jewish Committee) will continue to act in accordance with 
its lights and to do its duty and to meet its responsibilites as 
it understands them. 

Respectfully submitted, 

The Exbcutivb Committee. 

ACTION ON THE REPORT, ETC. 

Upon motion the report of the Executive Committee wa« 
received, and the President was authorized to prepare same 
for publication. 

Dr. Cyrus Adler, President of the Jewish Community of 
Philadelphia, stated that, in view of the fact that the annual 
meeting of the Community had not yet taken place, he was 
unable to render a report at this time, but that he would 
present such a report in time for publication as part of the 
annual report of the Committee. 
12 



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352 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Dr. J. L. Magnes, Chairman of the Executive Committee 
of the Jewish Community of New York City, stated that his 
report on behalf of that organization would also be prepared 
in time for publication. 

Report of Membership Committee 

Dr. J. L. Magnes, on behalf of the committee appointed to 
suggest a new plan for membership in accordance with a 
resolution adopted at a special meeting held on June 20, 1915, 
reported as follows: 

At the special meeting of the American Jewish Committee 
held on Jime 20, 1915, the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolvedf That a committee be appointed for the purpose 
of working out an equitable basis of representation in the 
American Jewish Committee with due regard to the char- 
acter of the American Jewish Committee as a national body, 
and to the fact that the Executive Committee of the New 
York Jewish Committee now consists of thirty-six (36) 
instead of twenty-five (25) members. 

In accordance with the provisions of this resolution a com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. J. L. Magnes, Chairman, and Messrs. 
Harry Cutler and Cyrus L. Sulzberger, was appointed. This 
committee recommends that the total membership of the 
American Jewish Committee should be increased from 96, the 
present number, to 125, and that the Executive Committee 
shall be empowered to allocate this membership to the various 
districts. 

Discussion on the report followed, and various suggestions 
were made, especially with regard to the representation in the 
Committee of other organizations. Upon motion, the entire 
subject was referred back to the sub-committee, with instruc- 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMIT PEE 353 

tions to draft suitable amendments to the by-laws and to sub- 
mit them for adoption at the next annual meeting, or at any 
special meeting of the Committee, should one be held. 

The report of the Treasurer was read and adopted. 

The annual report of the Director of the Statistical 
Bureau was read and adopted. 

CONFEKENOB OF NATIONAL JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 

Dr. J. L. Magnes, on behalf of a sub-committee of the 
Executive Committee, which had been appointed to confer 
with the Jewish Congress Organization Committee and the 
National Workmen's Committee for Jewish Rights, with a 
view to reaching an agreement with regard to the calling of a 
national Jewish Conference or Congress, reported that several 
conferences had taken place with the representatives of the 
two organizations named. At the last conference the following 
proposal was miie : 

That a Conference of national Jewish organizations be 
held for the purpose of considering the rights of Jews in 
belligerent countries and in Roumania, and that it call a 
Congress on a democratic basis at such time, in such place, 
and in such manner as it may deem best to secure such 
rights. 

Of the conferees on the part of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee, Dr. Magnes favored the agreement of the Committee 
to this proposal, but Messrs. Harry Cutler and Cyrus L. Sulz- 
berger, the other members of the conference committee, were 
opposed to this proposal because it contravened the resolution 
adopted by the Committee at its special meeting providing for 
the calling of a Conference in lieu of a Congress. 



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364 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Discussion of this report followed, and Dr. Magnes with- 
drew his recommendation, and agreed to the recommendation 
of the other two conferees that the proposal made at the con- 
ference between representatives of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee, the Congress Organization Committee, and the 
National Workmen^s Committee for Jewish Eights, be not 
accepted without modification. After further discussion the 
committee agreed to the adoption of the following resolution : 
That the American Jewish Committee Join with other 
national Jewish organizations in the calling of a Conference 
for the purpose of considering the rights of Jews in bel- 
ligerent lands and in Roumanla, and that it take steps to 
call a Congress on a democratic basis after the termination 
of hostilities and at such place and in such manner as it 
may seem best for the securing of these rights. 

It was further resolved that the conference committee be 
instructed to continue conferences with representatives of 
other bodies, with a view to the adoption of a uniform policy 
respecting the matter of a Jewish Congress, subject to the limi- 
tation set forth in the foregoing resolution. 

Elections 
The Committee on Nominations made the following report : 
For officers : 

For President: Louis Marshall. 

For Vice-Presidents: Julian W. Mack, Jacob H. Hol- 
lander. 
For Treasurer: Isaac W. Bemheim. 
For members of the Executive Committee to serve for three 
years from January 1, 1916 : 

Cyrus Adler, Jacob H. Schiff, 

Julian W. Mack, A. Leo Weil. 

J. L. Magnes, 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 355 



To fill expired terms : 

District II. Levi Eothenberg, Meridian, to succeed 
Julius Lemkowitz, Natchez, for term 
expiring 1920. 

District IV. Emanuel Cohen, Minneapolis, to be re- 
elected for term expiring 1920. 

District VII. James Davis, Chicago, to succeed Edwin 
6. Foreman, deceased, for term expir- 
ing 1919; Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 
to be re-elected for term expiring 1920. 

District VIII. Louis Horkheimer, Wheeling, to be re- 
elected for term expiring 1920. 

District X. Fulton Brylawski, Washington; Harry 
Friedenwald and Jacob H. Hollander, 
Baltimore, to be re-elected for term 
expiring 1920. 

District XIII. Simon Fleischmann, Buffalo, to be re- 
elected for term expiring 1920. 

At Large. Herman Bernstein, Nathan Bijur, New 
York; S. Marcus Fechheimer, Cincin- 
nati; Felix Frankfurter, Cambridge, 
Mass.; Herbert Friedenwald, Denver; 
Albert D. Lasker, Chicago; Oscar S. 
Straus, New York; Moses R. Walter, 
Baltimore; Alfred W. Weil, Denver. 
Dr. Cyrus Adler declined to stand for re-election as a mem- 
ber of the Executive Conmiittee, and it was agreed that the 
election of his successor be left to the discretion of the Execu- 
tive Committee. 
There being no other nominations, the Assistant Secretary 



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356 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

was requested to east one ballot for the nominees of the Com- 
mittee on Nominations, which he did, and announced the elec- 
tion of the several nominees. 
TTpon motion, the meeting adjourned. 

EEPOET OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY 
(KEHILLAH) OP NEW YOEK CITY 

Dr. J. L. Magnes, Chairman of the Jewish Community 
(Kehillah) of New York City, presented the following report: 

TO THE MEMBEKS OF THE AMEKIOAN JEWISH COMMITTEE: 

The Jewish Community (Kehillah) of New York City, the 
constituent of the American Jewish Committee in its twelfth 
district, has the honor to report the following summary of its 
activities for the period since the holding of the last annual 
meeting of the American Jewish Committee. 

At the last Convention of the Kehillah, it was decided to en- 
large the membership of the Executive Committee from 25 to 
36. The following members were elected : Isaac Allen, Julius 
J. Dukas, Mrs. William Einstein, Abraham Erlanger, H. M. 
Goldfogle, Julius Goldman, S. I. Hyman, Jacob Kohn, D. 
Komblueh, Herbert H. Lehman, Adolph Lewisohn,' William 
Lieberman, J. L. Magnes, H. Masliansky, Jacob Massel, H. 
Pereira Mendes, Victor Schwarz, I. M. Stettenheim, Oscar S. 
Straus, J. M. Wachman and Felix M. Warburg. 

At the sixth annual convention of the Kehillah, held April 
24 and 25, 1915, the question of calling a Conference of repre- 
sentatives of Jewish organizations to consider the Jewish prob- 
lem arising out of the war was thoroughly discussed. This 
question was taken up further at an adjourned session of the 
Convention on May 23, 1915, held in the Concert Hall of 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 357 

Madison Square Garden. The following resolution was 
adopted : 

Whebeas, This Convention of the Jewish Community 
(Kehillah) of New York City favors the idea of holding a 
Conference of delegates from Jewish societies throughout 
the country chosen by their membership, for the sole pur- 
pose of considering the Jewish question as it affects our 
brethren in belligerent lands; and in view of the fact that 
the American Jewish Committee has heretofore decided to 
hold a Conference to which the heads of the leading Jewish 
organizations of the country are to be invited for the pur- 
pose of considering the same subject; be it 

Resolved, That the Jewish Community (Kehillah) of 
New York City, as a constituent part of the American 
Jewish Committee, recommend to the latter that it hold a 
special meeting of its members with all convenient despatch 
to consider the advisability of calling a Conference of the 
character favored by this Convention in lieu of the Con- 
ference which the American Jewish Committee has here- 
tofore planned. 

Meeting of Delegates 

A meeting of the delegates of the Kehillah was held on 
November 28, 1915, at which the possible introduction of the 
Gary plan or of similar systems into the public schools of New 
York was discussed from the point of view of its relation to 
religious training. 

BuKBAu OF Education 

The Bureau of Education is engaged in the following ac- 
tivities : 

1. It conducts a Department of Information for out-of-town 
schools. It maintains a Department of Study and Appraisal 



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358 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

for the service of educational institutions. An Educational 
Kef erence Library has been collected^ and an extensive biblio- 
graphy on Jewish education compiled. 

2. It collects about $60,000 a year in tuition fees from 
parents on behalf of some of the larger Jewish religious schools 
of New York, at a cost of 10 per cent to the schools. The homes 
of 40,000 children have been canvassed prior to their admission 
to the schools. The Bureau gives especial attention to the 
problem of attendance, investigating every case of absence, and 

. has thus brought about a more regular and steady register 
than heretofore. 

3. It co-operates with Talmud Torahs, Simday schools, con- 
gregational schools, institutional schools and private schools. 

4. It is doing pioneer work in the education of Jewish girls, 
and conducts schools of various grades for imparting Jewish 
education to them : Elementary, intermediate and preparatory 
schools, and classes for girls and boys attending the New York 
high schools. 

6. It has worked out curricula for the various types of 
schools with which it co-operates. It has elaborated plans for 
a series of text books covering the whole range of Jewish edu- 
cation, and has already published 18 text books, which have 
been prepared by a special Board of Editors. 

6. It co-operates with the Teachers^ Institute of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary, under the direction of Prof. M. M. 
Kaplan. 

Summary: The Bureau of Education directs, supervises 
or co-operates with about 200 schools, about 600 teachers and 
about 36,000 pupils. 

The School for Jewish Communal Work was organized by 
the Jewish Community (Kehillah) of New York City, in 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 359 

April, 1916. It is at present administered under the joint 
auspices of the Jewish Community (Kehillah) of New York 
City and the National Association of Jewish Social Workers. 
The purpose of the school is to furnish training to all types of 
commimal workers in Jewish communities in America. A 
Board of Trustees of five is responsible for the general policy 
of the school, while a faculty of 16, consisting of heads of 
great Jewish communal agencies in New York City and other 
Jewish communities, has control of the technical administra- 
tion of the institution. An Administrative Committee of five 
has immediate charge of the affairs of the school. 

During the summer of 1915, an extension course was con- 
ducted for Jewish commimal workers at present in the field. ~ 

Bureau op Industry 

The Bureau of Industry has continued to conduct the Em- 
ployment Bureau for the Handicapped. It has established a 
Placement Clearing House for highly skilled and professional 
workers. 

Surveys are being prepared on the industrial situation and 
on vocational training and guidance. 

It has settled or averted strikes in the fur-dyeing, millinery, 
men^s clothing and women^s clothing industries. It has also 
acted as mediator in numerous local strikes, and is now 
oflBcially functioning as the administrator of collective agree- 
ments in the millinery, men^s clothing and fur industries, and 
in two allied minor branches of the fur industry — ^muff-beds 
and fur dyeing. In special instances, the Bureau has furnished 
arbitrators in industrial disputes at the joint requests of em- 
ployers and employes. 



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360 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

BuHBAu OF Philanthropic Eeseabch 

Upon the suggestion of the Kehillah, which drew up the 
preliminary plans, a Bureau of Philanthropic Eesearch has 
been established, and will shortly begin its work under the 
auspices of the Council of Communal Institutions. In accord- 
ance with the by-laws, the Board of Managers of nine is to 
consist of five representatives of the council and four represen- 
tatives of the Kehillah. The Bureau is to devote itself to mak- 
ing a study of Jewish philanthropic needs, with a view to 
co-ordination of existing activities and to determining what 
phases of the situation are not receiving adequate attention. 
The officers are: Mr. Leo Arnstein, President; Mr. Adolph 
Lewisohn, Vice-President; Mr. Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

The Emergency Loan Fund was created in April, 1915; its 
object was to grant loans to various benevolent and loan 
societies, whose funds were exhausted, and to self-respecting 
people who could not obtain loans at the various loan societies 
because they had no guarantors. 

Prom April to December, 1915, the Committee granted 
loans to 10 societies in a sum aggregating $15,200; it also 
granted loans in small sums to 12 individuals in an amount 
aggregating $1,295.00. 

The officers of the Fund are Mr. Mortimer L. Schiff, Chair- 
man; Dr. Julius Goldman, Treasurer; and Mr. Cyrus L. 
Sulzberger, Secretary. 

BuKEAu OF Social Morals 

Co-operation with all agencies in the city, both public and 
private, in the matter of the suppression of improper moral 
conditions wherever found, so far as they effect the Jew, has 
been continued as far as possible. This work has been done 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 361 

under the auspices of the Bureau of Morals quietly, and without 
publicity. 

Religious Organization 

1. A Committee of One Hundred Baale-Battim has been 
constituted to supervise and regulate the sale of Kosher meat 
in accordance with the Kosher Bill, and to organize a federa- 
tion of Orthodox congregations. 

2. Four provisional synagogues were conducted during the 
high holidays under the direction of Jewish young men^s 
societies. 

3. An association of owners of ritual baths (Mikvehs) has 
been formed to standardize the hygienic conditions of the 
baths. The Department of Health has publicly approved these 
efforts. 

4. A group of physicians and rabbis has been constituted a 
Board of Milah (circumcision). Mohelim are examined on 
their knowledge of hygiene and of ritual requirements, and 
certificates are issued to those who conform to the standards of 
the Board. A pamphlet has been issued for the guidance of the 
Mohelim, which has been endorsed by the Department of 
Health. 

6. A committee has been organized for the purpose of abol- 
ishing certain practices at Jewish cemeteries on Tisha b'Ab 
(Past of Ab). 

6. The customary efforts were made to secure leave of ab- 
sence for employes of City and Federal Departments during 
the high holidays, and to secure changes in examination dates 
on the Sabbath and holidays. 

Eespectf uUy submitted, 

J. L. Magnes, 
Chairman, Executive Committee. 



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362 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

BEPORT OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OP 
PHILADELPHIA 

TO THE MBMBBKS OP THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE : 

Gentlemen : 

The following is a summary of the work of the Jewish Com- 
munity of Philadelphia during the year 1914-1916: 

The Community is at present composed of 117 organizations. 
The fifth annual meeting was held on Sunday, November 21, 
1915, and a report of the work of the Council was presented, 
of which the following is an abstract: 

The Council provided the means for religious and moral 
instruction of persons of the Jewish faith in the Eastern 
Penitentiary. Forty-eight Jewish prisoners have assembled in 
a chapel every Sabbath morning where divine services are 
conducted. 

The Jewish Educational Board, of which Ephraim Lederer, 
Esq., is Chairman, took an interest in the promotion of Vaca- 
tion Schools, and through one of its members. Dr. Greenstone, 
an active part in the effort to federate the Talmud Torahs. 
This Board, if it is to do actual work in co-ordinating the 
Jewish educational system of Philadelphia, will require funds 
f OT the purpose, and ovdng to the prevailing distress in the city 
and the urgent need for collecting fimds for the sufferers in 
the war zone, the past year was not deemed an appropriate one 
for soliciting donations for this purpose. 

The Board for the Supervision of Kashrut has done nothing 
since the last meeting, as they have no funds at their disposal. 
The rabbinical authorities at present in command of the situ- 
ation are unwilling to do anything until they are guaranteed 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 363 

the continuance of emoluments not less than those now re- 
ceived. 

The Committee on Conciliation and Arbitration succeeded 
in effecting an agreement in connection with a controversy in 
the Downtown Hebrew Day Nursery, which had already gone 
to the courts. 

The Community joined with other bodies and persons in 
organizing the Philadelphia Branch of the American Jewish 
Relief Committee for Sufferers from the War. 

Improper discrimination in Pennsylvania on account of 
race or creed and advertisements to this effect were brought to 
the attention of the Governors of Pennsylvania in the hope 
that a law, which protects the civil rights of all of the citizens 
and inhabitants of Pennsylvania, irrespective of race, color or 
creed, be passed and receive executive sanction, a previous bill 
to this effect having been vetoed by the Governor upon techni- 
cal grounds. 

A protest was registered against "Hebrew Leagues*^ and 
"Organizations of Jewish Voters,^^ and claims that "Jews 
were entitled ^^ to a certain amount of representation, which 
were made during the recent political campaign and which are 
still being made. The Community is absolutely opposed to any 
such claims or to the recognition of any such societies or clubs, 
as it was felt that there is no ground upon which a man is 
entitled to the suffrage of his fellow-citizens except upon that 
of his fitness for the office for which he is a candidate and his 
capacity adequately to represent all the people in the city, the 
ward, or the division which he undertakes to represent. 

The quota of Philadelphia in the American Jewish Com- 
mittee was contributed through the Community. 



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364 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

The undersigned, owing to numerous other duties, declined 
re-election as President of the Community. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Cyrus Adler, 
President. 

EEPOBT OP THE 
BUEEAU OP STATISTICS AND EESEARCH 

TO THB OHAIBMAN OF THE BXEOUTIVB OOMMITTBB OF THK 
AMEBICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE : 

Dear Sir : 

I am directed by the Committee of the Bureau of Jewish 
Statistics to forward the Annual Report submitted to and 
approved by them. As a suggestion of Mr. Louis Marshall, 
there has been appended to this report copy of the Memoir on 
State Aid to Jewish Philanthropic Institutions of New York 
State, prepared for him, as Delegate-at-Large to the recent 
Constitutional Convention, by the Bureau. 
Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) Joseph Jacobs, 

Director. 

ANNUAL REPORT OP THE BUREAU OP JEWISH STATISTICS 
TO the committee of the BUEEAU I 

I beg to submit the report of the second year's work of the 
Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research of the American 
Jewish Committee. The work of the Bureau is now organized, 
and it has been fortunate enough during the past year to give 
proofs of its usefulness in various directions. Its work is, as 
previously pointed out, of a double character : to collect sta- 
tistical and other material relating to the Jews of America 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 365 

scattered in various publications, and to add to these materials 
by original research in definite directions. In both directions 
the Bureau has done good work in the past year. 

With regard to original research, the Bureau has been able 
to complete five different investigations, adding in their way to 
our knowledge of Jewish sociological conditions. The col- 
lection of materials relating to Jewish immigration for the 
past thirty-five years has now been completed, and we have in 
the office by far the fullest collection of statistics on this sub- 
ject ever brought together, supplementing the printed material 
of Hirsch, Kaplun-Kogan, Joseph and the Immigration Com- 
mission in various directions, while their figures have in every 
available case been brought up to date. 

The Bureau has also had an opportunity of investigating a 
type institution with gratifying results. At the request of the 
Executive Committee of the Jewish Big Brother Association, 
the workings of that body were subjected to a critical inquiry 
with a view to suggesting improvements as to working as well 
as to checking the work by proper statistical methods. A 
memoir was prepared by the Director making various sug- 
gestions which it is understood have been mostly adopted by 
the directors of the movement. In making this research much 
help was received from Mr. Kaminsky and Mr. Drachsler, 
officials connected with the institution, as well as from Mr. 
Roland C. Sheldon, the Secretary of the Protestant Big 
Brother Association. 

An opportunity was afforded the Bureau to test its capa- 
bilities of coping with a specific problem within a fixed time. 
It was understood that the question of refusing further State 
aid to charitable institutions was to be raised at the Consti- 
tutional Convention of New York State, and at the request 



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366 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

of Mr. Louis Marshall, one of the Delegates-at-Large to that 
Convention, the Bureau undertook to ascertain the relative 
share of supporting Jewish charitable institutions made by 
the State and by the Jewish public. Elaborate questionnaires 
were sent to three hundred and four Jewish institutions of the 
State, and within three weeks of the request being received at 
the office of the Bureau a preliminary report was placed in 
the hands of Mr. Marshall. Final form of the memoir on 
the subject is appended to the present report. Already the 
research has been utilized by gentlemen interested in the 
progress of Jewish philanthropy in New York City, and the 
Bureau staff prepared during the summer elaborate tables 
derived from it for the use of several gentlemen interested in 
Jewish philanthropy in New York. 

A similar investigation of a wider and, indeed, national 
scope was undertaken with regard to the spread of the feder- 
ation movement in American Jewish philanthropy, on which 
an elaborate memoir was prepared and printed in the Ameri- 
can Jewish Year Book for 6676, pages 169-198. In view of 
the wide spread of the movement a number of separate copies 
of this report have been printed for use by communities which 
may be thinking of adopting this method of increasing the 
efficiency of their philanthropic institutions. 

More recently the Bureau, at the request of various gentle- 
men interested in the possibility of federation of New, York 
Jewish charities, has been investigating the relative amounts 
given in donations and membership dues to the chief Jewish 
charitable institutions of Manhattan. 

Apart from these major investigations and memoirs, minor 
inquiries have been made into the number of Jews in the Army, 
Navy and National Guard, into Jewish burials and marriages 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 357 

in New York City during the past fifteen years, into the num- 
of Jews distinguished in the various lines of life, into the num- 
ber of Jews engaged in the present European war, and into 
the proportion of Jewish criminality. A fairly complete 
bibliography of the available materials for the study of Ameri- 
can Jewish statistics has been compiled, so that at a moments 
notice the information already in print can be rendered 
available. 

It has now become part of the duty of the Bureau to under- 
take the publication of the American Jewish Year Book, which 
appeared duly On time for the Jewish New Year 5676, and 
contains besides the usual information about the national 
organizations and events of the year, two memoirs, one by 
Miss Henrietta Szold on " Eecent Jewish Progress in Pales- 
tine,^' and the other the above-mentioned memoir by the 
Director on ^' The Federation Movement in American Jewish 
Philanthropy .'' 

As the Bureau has become better known, its services for indi- 
vidual inquiries are being utilized to an increasing extent. 

Considerable additions have been made to the library, a few 
by purchase, but mainly by presentation; it now includes 
362 books and 592 pamphlets. 

The experience of the past year has been sufficient to indicate 
that the Bureau of Jewish Statistics is now in a position to 
investigate the sociological problems of the Jews of the United 
States, for which purpose it was founded. • 
Eespectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Joseph Jacobs, 

Director. 

October 10, 1915. 



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368 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BQOK 

EEPOET OP THE 
BUREAU OP STATISTICS AND RESEARCH 

APPENDIX 

New York, May 1, 1915. 

LOUIS MARSHALL, ESQ., MEMBER OF CONSTITUTIONAL OONVEN- . 
TION, ALBANY, NEW YORK. 

Sir: 

In accordance with your request, the Bureau of Jewish 
Statistics has made an enqiute into the amount contributed by 
the Jews of New York State to their charitable institutions, 
and of the amount contributed to their support by New York 
State and by the several cities thereof. 

New York Charitable Institutions and State Aid 

The following is an estimate of the amount contributed by 
the Jews of New York State to their charitable institutions, 
and of the amounts contributed to their support by New York 
State and by the several cities of the State. The figures refer 
to the year 1914. The investigation dealt with the following 
classes of institutions : 

Institutions for the Sick. 
Institutions for Children. 
Institutions for Defectives and Delinquents. 
Educational and Social Institutions. 
Institutions for General Relief. 
Miscellaneous Institutions: 
Homes for the Aged. 
Free Burial Societies. 
Free Loan Societies. 
Immigrant Societies. 
Vacation Societies. 
Council of Jewish Women. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 369 

The list of institutions was compiled from the Communal 
Directory issued by the Jewish Community in 1912, with sup- 
plementary information from the American Jewish Year 
Books of the intervening years. Prom the last source, infor- 
mation was gained as to the up-state Jewish institutions, and in 
addition letters were sent to the mayors of the cities in the 
State having over 1,000 Jewish inhabitants. An elaborate ques- 
tionnaire, of which a copy is appended (Exhibit A), was issued 
to 304 institutions, a list of which is given in ^Exhibit B. 
Follow-up letters were sent to those institutions which failed 
to reply to the first inquiry, and in all answers were received 
from 114 institutions, besides 22 which could not be reached 
by post. 

It should be remarked that in a few instances, like the 
Baron de Hirsch Fund and the New York Foundation, the 
expenditures (outside of office expenses) have not been counted 
in the general summaries, inasmuch as these institutions 
mainly perform their functions by subventions to other insti- 
tutions, in whose budgets these sums naturally appeai;^ To 
have included the disbursements of the larger institutions 
would have been to reckon the subventions twice over. The 
sum of nearly $50,000 expended by the Industrial Removal 
Office is also not included, as this institution obtains its funds 
from the Jewish Colonization Association of Paris, outside 
of New York State. 

Summary of Inquiry 

It appears from the returns thus made that the 86 New York 
City institutions receive annually $3,969,719, divided as fol- 
lows: (It will be observed that New York City contributed 
$843,733 out of a total of $3,969,719, or 21%.) 



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370 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

ITEMIZED STATEMENT 
OP INCOME OF 86 NEW YORK CITY INSTITUTIONS 

Memberships 1920,678 

Donations and Bequests 668,304 

Building Funds 287,361 

Rents and Interest 189,506 

Auxiliary Societies 40,643 

Other Jewish Institutions 84,000 

Payments for Services 324,868 

Saturday and Sunday Hospital Association. . 122,412 

*Miscellaneous 688,314 

New York City and State 843,733 

Total Income 13,969,719 

The 28 up-state institutions have an income of $56,587, 
towards which the State contributed $3,666, or 6%. Letters 
were written to the mayors of all the up-state cities having 
more than 1,000 Jewish inhabitants inquiring into the munici- 
pal aid given by these cities to Jewish institutions, and these 
subventions so far as given have been included. 

These results, it should be observed, are derived from only 
114 institutions out of 304 to which questionnaires were sent. 
It is true that the institutions which have answered include all 
those of any consequence, and it is doubtful whether any insti- 
tutions have been omitted whose income is more than $5,000 
per annum. Yet the contributions of the large number from 
which no returns have been received must reach considerable 
dimensions, and would at least add half a million to the 6um 
total of the contributions of the Jews to their own charities in 
New York State. On the other hand, none of the institutions 

* Possibly including some loans contained in the Treasurer's 
income totals. 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 37I 

marked with an asterisk in Exhibit B receive State or munici- 
pal aid, since all such organizations are recorded in the annual 
report of the State Board of Charities, so that it is certain 
that no contributions of the State have been omitted. If we add 
this minimum of $500,000 to the previous results, we get as a 
rough estimate at least $3,678,907 contributed by Jews, as 
against $847,399 contributed by the State. 

Preyious Investigations 

Similar inquiries have been made on previous occasions, in 
connection with the Heinsheimer Foimdation, with a more re- 
stricted number of institutions, and it may be of interest to 
compare the returns of our investigation with those thus 
reached. Thus, in 1900, 22 Jewish institutions of New York 
City had an expenditure of $1,674,340 towards which the City 
contributed $211,577, or 12%. In 1908, 45 Jewish institu- 
tions spent $2,466,671 towards which the State contributed 
$501,559, or 20%. Taking the same institutions for the past 
year, it is of interest to observe how largely the private 
Jewish contributions have increased without any corresponding 
increase of State aid. The returns may be expressed in the 
form of the following table : 

COMPARATIVE INCOME AND STATE AID 

1900 1908 1914 

22 Institutions (1900) 

Income $1,000,000 $1,951,000 $2,744,727 

State Aid 211,572 398,750 572,634 

♦45 Institutions (1908) 2,192,000 3,205,826 

State Aid 501,579 678,378 

♦A few unimportant institutions have gone out of existence 
since 1908 or could not be reached, but their absence would affect 
the results but slightly. 



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372 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Of the 22, it will be observed that the income has increased 
between 1900 and 1914 by $1,744,727, or 174%, whereas the 
State aid only advanced $361,062, or 107%. The larger num- 
ber of 45 institutions in 1908 increased their income in 1914 
by $1,033,825, or 47%, whereas the State aid only increased 
$176,819, or 35%. 

Analysis op Institutions 

The contributions of City and State vary considerably 
according to the classes of institutions concerned. If we 
analyze those from which results were obtained, it will be seen 
that the State and municipalities after all contribute only to 
Hospitals and Institutions for the Sick, (b) Orphan Asyliuns, 
and (c) Institutions for Defectives and Delinquents. The 
following table gives the respective income and State aid for 

INCOME AND STATE AID CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO 
INSTITUTION 

1908 1914 
Income State Aid Income State Aid 
Institutions for Sick... |837,383 $134,619 $1,578,864 $253,866 
Institutions for Children 605,148 269,766 867,970 439,934 
Institutions for Defect- 
ives and Delinquents. 161,881 97,094 270,945 149,933 
All other 597,588 100 1,251,940 



Total $2,192,000 $501,579 $3,969,719 $843,733 

these different classes, for the year 1908 applying to 45, and 
for last year applying to 86 institutions. It will be observed 
that the State practically confines its aid to three classes, (a) 
the support of those institutions whose inmates are universally 
regarded as the natural wards of the State, viz., orphans, and 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 373 

those incapacitated by natural defects or by mental or physical 
illness. If all denominational aid were removed from these 
classes^ the State would be required to bear the entire burden 
of providing for those dependents. In these classes it is rather 
a case of the various denominations coming to the aid of the 
State than of the State coming to the aid of the denominations. 
It would have been useful to find the number of persons who 
in addition to carrying on these benevolent undertakings at the 
same time earn a living for themselves by such work, as their 
number probably reaches into the thousands. Besides these, a 
large number of persons give their services voluntarily towards 
this object, including 1,988 directors. So far as the State aids 
these institutions to continue their work, it helps towards call- 
ing into activity and continuing these gratuitous services on 
behalf of the citizens of New York State. 

Comparative Expenditure 

The Jews of New York State, it is probable, do their share in 
helpings the necessitous, diseased and deficient classes as much 
as their neighbors. It is diflBcult to make any comparison of 
this kind, as denominational statistics have not hitherto been 
encouraged, but the Associates of Private Charities have com- 
piled the following comparison on the cost of care and mainte- 
nance in the private hospitals of New York City for 1913 : 

Average per capita in all Hospitals $2.08 

Average per capita in Catholic Hospitals 1.16* 

Average per capita in Protestant Hospitals .... 2.34 
Average per capita in Jewish Hospitals 2.75 

From this it will be seen that in hospitals, at any rate, the 
Jews are as generous as their neighbors in the care of their 

* Cost of nursing by religions not included. 



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374 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

sick, who, it must be remembered, are of all creeds and colors. 
Some of the extra cost per head probably is due to the necessity 
of having meat specially prepared for Jewish patients. 

Additional Contributions 

It must be remembered that the above estimate of expendi- 
ture refers only to one year. Our list by no means mdicates the 
total spent by the Jewish population of New York for charit- 
able purposes. An attempt was made to get an estimate from 
the various institutions of the amount spent on their build- 
ings, plants, etc., but this would have involved so much and 
such long investigation that it was impossible to get any reli- 
able results. Some approximation, however, can be obtained 
by the valuations placed upon these institutions by the City 
when exempting them from taxation, as is done in most cases. 
These valuations, as applied to New York City, amount to 
$12,144,181, divided among various classes as follows: (The 
amount of reserve fund has also beeu added, since this likewise 
implies additional expenditure beyond that included- in the 
yearly outlay.) 

Institutions Valuation Reserve Fund 

Institutions for Sick $5,678,020 $1,526,250 

Institutions for Children... 3,083,299 846,390 
Institutions for Defectives 

and Delinquents 1,262,500 136,454 

Educational Institutions 1,407,262 1,455,336 

All other 713,100 809,027 

Total $12,144,181 $4,825,071 

It is, of course, impossible to determine from valuation and 
reserve fund how much on an average the Jews of New York 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 375 

have contributed annually in this way to their charities, in 
addition to the contributions already calculated, but it is obvi- 
ous that if these sums had not been contributed the donors 
would have been able to enjoy the interest, say at 5%. From 
this, therefore, it seems fair to add this percentage to the annual 
contributions, which would amoimt to $848,462, from which, 
however, should be subtracted $189,506 interest and rent 
already counted in, making the net addition $658,956, and 
thus raising the total amount to $5,318,181, towards which the 
State contributed $847,399, or 15%. 

To sum up, it is obvious from the above figures that it would 
cost New York State several additional millions of dollars if 
the Jewish inhabitants did not practically provide for their 
own poor and disburse at least 85% of the sums needed for 
this purpose. It is probable that if the State took over only 
those institutions which it already recognizes as within its 
proper sphere of activity, the beneficiaries would not be so well 
treated as at present. We have seen above that a larger expendi- 
ture is made per capita in the Jewish hospitals than in the State 
institutions. The same probably applies to the orphan asylums 
and institutions for defectives. Again, the assessed value of the 
plants of the various institutions of the State reaches over 
$12,000,000, a sum which would have been for the most part 
paid by the State if it had previously taken over these institu- 
tions. Quite apart from the material assistance thus rendered 
to the State, the willing and gratuitous services of the directors 
and associate workers could not be replaced by State adminis- 
tration, nor could any pecuniary expenditure by the State 
procure the same amount of zeal and experience. 

It remains only to give thanks to the various secretaries of 
the institutions who have taken much trouble in answering the 



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376 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

rather elaborate questionnaire sent to them, as well as to the 
Associates of Private Charities, Dr. Waldman of the United 
Hebrew Charities, the Directors of the N. Y. Foundation (for 
permission to use the Heinsheimer papers), and to Dr. H. G. 
Friedman for valuable criticism and corrections. 

Joseph Jacobs, 
Director. 

EXHIBIT A 
Jewish Chabities of New York State: Questionnaire 

1. Name of Institution 

2. Wlien founded 

3. Do you own the building in which the institution is admin- 

istered? 

4. Do you pay rent or interest on a mortgage or mortgages? If 

so, how much? 

Rent Interest 

6. What was the total income for the last financial year? 

$ 

Out of this how much was derived from 

a. Membership dues, | 

b. Donations and bequests, $ 

c. Building funds, | 

d. Rents and interest, $ 

e. Auxiliary Societies, $ 

f . Other Jewish inatltutions, $ 

g. Payments for services, $ 

h. Saturday and Sunday Hosp. Ass'n, $ 

1. New York City, $ 

j. New York State or County thereof, $ 

6. What was the total expenditure for the last financial year? 

$ 

Out of this, how much was expended for 
a. Buildings, repairs, improvements, insurance, etc., 
$ 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 377 

b. Administration (salaries and office expenses )» 

$ 

c. Maintenance, $. 

7. Give the number of beneficiaries of your institution during the 

last financial year, and classify them by sex 

Male Female Total 

8. How many persons are connected with your institution as 

a. Directors or Trustees 

b. Special Committees 

c. Auxiliary bodies 

♦9. Give the total expenditure made by your institution since 

foundation, $ .\ 

♦10. How much of this was expended for buildings, furniture and 

plant, generally? $ 

♦11. Give the total amount donated by the State of New York 

towards your institution, since foundation, $ 

♦12. Give the total amount donated by the City of New York since 

foundation, $ 

13. What is the total amount of the endowment or reserve fund 

of the institution at the present time? | 



♦ Note. — If, in answering these questions, you are unable to give 
the exact figures, please give an estimate as accurate and con- 
servative as practicable. 



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378 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



BUREAU OF JEWISH STATISTICS AND RESEARCH 

356 SECOND AVENUE 

NEW YORK CITY 



EXHIBIT B 

Jewish Charitable Institutions of New York State 
New York City 



INSTITUTIONS FOR SICK 
♦ — Unanswered. — Investigated in 1900. 8 — Investigated 



in 



1908. R — Information from Annual Report. S — Information from 
report of State Board of Charities, n — Not found. 



After Care Circle of Jewish Ma- 
ternity Hospital 
Beth David Hospital (♦) 
Beth Israel Hospital (0, 8) 
Bronx Hospital Dispensary (♦) 
Bronx Jewish Maternity Hos- 
pital (♦) 
Consumptive Jewish Aid Society 

(♦) 

East New York Dispensary 

Har Moriah Hospital (8) 

Hebrew Ladies Dispensary of Wil- 
liamsburg 

Hospital for Deformities (8) 

Jewish Committee for Prevention 
of Tuberculosis (♦) 

Jewish Consumptive Relief So- 
ciety of Denver (8) 

Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn (♦ R) 

Jewish Maternity Hospital (8) 

Joint Tuberculosis Committee 

Lebanon Hospital (0, 8) 

Montefiore Home (0, 8) 



464 Riverside Drive 

138 East 2d Street 
Monroe and Jefferson Streets 
1385 Fulton Avenue 
1525 Washington Avenue 

Garfield Place and 8th Avenue 

Pitkin Avenue, Brooklyn 
138 East 2d Street 
84 Cook Street 

1915 Madison Avenue 
69 Schermerhorn Street 

230 Grand Street 

Prospect Place, Brooklyn 
270 East Broadway 
356 2d Avenue 
Caldwell and Trinity Avenues 
Gun Hill Road and Bainbrldge 
Avenue 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 379 



Mt. Sinai Hospital (0, 8) 
National Jewish Hospital for Con- 
sumptives (8) 
Philanthropin Hospital (♦ S) 
Sanitarium for Hebrew Children 

(♦0, 8, S) 
Solomon and Betty Loeb Home 
Sydenham Hospital (*8, R) 
Washington Heights Hospital 

(8,R) 
Zion Hospital and Dispensary (n) 



5th Avenue and 100th Street 
356 2d Avenue 

2076 5th Avenue 
356 2d Avenue 

356 2d Avenue 

341 East 116th Street 

554 West 165th Street 

54 Graham Avenue 



INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN 



Austrian Orthodox Hebrew Orphan 

Asylum 
Brightside Day Nursery (0, 8) 
Bronx Federation of Jewish Chari- 
ties Day Nursery 
Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum 
Crippled Children's Driving 

Fund (♦S) 
East Side Day Nursery (♦8) 
Free Hebrew Day Nursery and 

Kindergarten (♦) 
Hebrew Day Nursery 
Hebrew Infant Asylum (♦0, 8, R) 
Hebrew Kindergarten and Day 

Nursery 
Hebrew Orphan Asylum (0, 8) 

Hebrew Sheltering Guardian (0,8) 

Jewish National Orphan Asy- 
lum (♦) 

Junior Sisterhood of Social Work- 
ers 

Ladies Hebrew Day Nursery of 
Brownsville (♦) 



65 Pitt Street 

89 Cannon Street 
942 Trinity Avenue 

373 Ralph Avenue, Brooklyn 
105 East 22d Street 

257 Henry Street 
356 South 3d Street 

262 Henry Street 

100 West Kingsbridge Road 

29 Montgomery Street 

Amsterdam Avenue and 137th 

Street 
150th Street and Broadway 
57 East 7th Street 

138 East 101st Street 

453 Hopkinson Avenue 



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380 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



GENERAL RELIEF 



Ahawath Chesed Sisterhood 
Amelia Relief Society 
American Hebrew Aid Society (♦) 
Association of Brownsville Activi- 
ties (♦) 
Baron de Hirsch Fund 
Baron de Hirsch Ladies Benevo- 
lent Society (♦) 
Beth El Sisterhood 
Beth Israel Sisterhood (*) 
B'nai Jeshurun Sisterhood 
Bronx Ladies Aid Society (*) 
Brooklyn Federation of Jewish 

Charities 
Ceres Sewing Circle (♦) 
Clara de Hirsch Home 
Council Home for Jewish Girls 

Council of Jewish Women, Brook- 
lyn (♦) 

Council of Jewish Women, New 
York Section (8) 

Deborah Benevolent Sewing So- 
ciety (♦) 

East Side Ladies Charity Asso- 
ciation (♦) 

Emanuel Sisterhood 

Fellowship House 

First Van Nest Hebrew Ladies 
Aid Society 

Friendly Relief Society of the 
Bronx 

Hebrew Relief Society 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immi- 
grant Aid (8) 



1246 Madison Avenue 
113 East 101st Street 
116 East 86th Street 
Hopkinson and Sutter Avenues 

43 Exchange Place 
115 East 86th Street 

329 East 62d Street 

72d and Lexington Avenue 

332 East 69th Street 

Boston Road and 169th Street 

732 Flushing Avenue 

1871 7th Avenue 
225 East 63d Street 
Rockaway Road and Davis 

Avenue 
53 Linden Street 

444 Central Park West 

62 East 90th Street 

207 2d Avenue 

318 East 82d Street 
32 West 115th Street 
1712 Garfield Avenue 

1119 Forest Avenue 

2 West 70th Street 
229 East Broadway 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 381 



Hebrew Sisters of Charity (♦) 
Industrial Removal Office 
Jewish Agricultural Aid 

Society (n) 
Jewish Aid Society 
Jewish Girls Welfare Society 
Jewish Uplift Society 
Jewish Working Girls Vacation 

Society (0, 8) 
Ladies Aid Society for the Needy 

of Brownsville (♦) 
Ladies Charity Society of New 

York (♦) 
Ladies Coal Aid Society (♦) 
Ladies Fuel and Aid Society (0,8) 
Ladies Hebrew Benevolent So- 
ciety of Greenpoint 
Ladies Lechem Anim Society of 

Brownsville (♦) 
Ladies Malbish Arumim Society 

of Harlem (♦) 
Ladies Montefiore Relief 

Society (n) 
Leah Benevolent Society (♦) 
Maskel El Dol Aid to the Poor 
Miriam Gottlieb Aid Society 

Oriental Benevolent Society (♦) 
Orthodox Jewish Kosher Kitchen, 

Williamsburg (♦) 
Passover Relief Association (n) 
Roumanian Central Relief Com- 
mittee (♦) 
Roumanian Hebrew Aid 

Society (♦) 
Sellg Bernstein Society for Honor- 
able Aid (•) 



310 Lenox Avenue 
174 2d Avenue 
174 2d Avenue , 

554 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn 
Hotel Astor 
99 Nassau Street 
Bellport, L. I. 

1556 St. Marks Avenue, Brook- 

l3rn 
214 East 2d Street 

183 East Broadway 
31 West 110th Street 
110 Noble Street 

1731 Pitkin Avenue 

27 West 115th Street 

126 Lenox Avenue 

10 West 114th Street 
225 East Broadway 
Lexington Avenue and 125th 

Street 
68 West 117th Street 
Williamsburg 

227 West 121st Street 
87 Forsyth Street 

97 Forsyth Street 

261 Rivington Street 



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382 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Shaare Tefllah Sisterhood 
Sisterhood Kehilath Jeshurun 
Sisterhood of the Agudath Jesho- 

rim (♦) ' 
Sisterhood of the Bohemian 
American Israelite Congrega- 
tion (♦) 
Sisterhood of Mt Zion Temple (♦) 
Sisterhood of the Spanish and 

Portuguese Temple 
Temple Israel Sisterhood (♦) 
Tremont Sisterhood 

United Hebrew Charities (0,8) 
United Jewish Aid Society (♦) 
Widowed Mothers' Fund Associa> 

tion 
Young Folks Charity Club (♦) 



156 West 82d Street 
171 East 85th Street 
115 East 86th Street 

310 East 72d Street 



37 West 119th Street 
361 East 5th Street 

311 East 116th Street 
180th Street and Concourse 

Avenue 
356 2d Avenue 
2 Sunmer Avenue, Brooklsrn 
190 Bowery 

109 East 116th Street 



INSTITUTIONS FOR DEFECTIVES AND DELINQUENTS 
Association for Improved Instruc- 904 Lexington Avenue 

tion of Deaf Mutes (0, 8) 
Jewish Big Brothers 
Jewish Protectory and Aid (8) 
Lakeview Home 
N. Y. Guild for the Jewish Blind 



356 2d Avenue 
366 2d Avenue 
Arrochar, Staten Island 
736 West End Avenue 



Society for Welfare of Jewish Deaf 356 2d Avenue 



SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

106 West 113th Street 
of Pitkin Avenue 



Albert Lucas Association (♦n) 
Arts and Science Institute 

Brownsville (♦n) 
Baron de Hirsch Trade School 
Bayside Y. M. H. A. (♦) 
Bedford Y. M. H. A. (♦) 
Borough Park Y. M. H. A. (n) 



222 East 64th Street 
Bayside, L. I. 
Bedford, L. I. 
Borough Park, Brooklyn 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 383 



Brownsville Y. M. H. A. (•) 
Columbia Religious and Industrial 

School (♦8) 
Crippled Children's East Side Free 

School (8) 
Down Town Talmud Torah 
Bast Side Hebrew School (♦) 
Educational Alliance (0, 8) 
Educational League (*) 
Emanuel Brotherhood Home 
Glory of Israel Hebrew Institute 

of East New York (♦) 
Greenpoint Y. M. H. A. 
Harlem Federation (♦8) 
Hebrew Educational Alliance (♦) 
Hebrew Educational Alliance of 

Greenpoint (•) 
Hebrew Educational Institute of 

South Brooklyn (♦) 
Hebrew Educational Society of 

Brookljm (♦) 
Hebrew Free Talmud Torah 

School (♦) 
Hebrew National School (♦) 
Hebrew National School of Brook- 
lyn (•) 
Hebrew School (n) 
Hebrew School of South Brook- 
lyn (•) 
Hebrew Technical Institute (0, 8) 
Hebrew Technical School (0, 8) 
Henry Meinhard Memorial Settle- 
ment (•) 
Jeshibath Tiphereth Bochurim (n) 
Jeshibath Torah Chaim d'Beth 
Hamedrosh. Hagodol 
d'Harlem (•) 
13 



Brownsville, Brooklyn 
316 East 5th Street 

157 Henry Street 

394 East Houston Street 
302 Madison Street 
197 East Broadway 
183 Madison Street 
309 East 6th Street 
363 Pennsylvania Avenue, 

Brooklyn 
Greenpoint, Brooklyn 
236 East 105th Street 
171 St. Nicholas Avenue 
953 Manhattan Avenue 

372 7th Avenue 

Pitkin Avenue and Watkins 

Street 
414 Stone Avenue 

181 McKibben Street 
59 Tomkins Avenue 

108 Noble, Brooklyn 
337 11th Street 

34 Stuyvesant Street 

2d Av^iue and 15th Street 

101st Street and Park Avenue 

V3 Chester Street 
62 East 104th Street 



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384 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Jewish Institute (n) 
Jewish Theological Seminary 
Judah Halevi Hehrew School (♦) 
Machzikei Jeshihath Etz Chalm 

Talmudical Ad Academy (*) 
Machzikei Talmud Torah of Bor- 
ough Park (♦) 
Machzikei Talmud Torah School 
Monteflore Hehrew Free School 
Mt. Sinai Training School (♦0, 8) 
National Hebrew School (♦) 
New Hebrew Free School of 

Brooklyn (♦) 
Ohel Torah Society (♦) 
Oriental Progressive Society (♦) 
Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological 

Seminary (♦) 
Rabbi Jacob Joseph School (♦) 
Recreation Rooms and Settle- 
ment (8) 
School of Biblical Instruction 
Talmud Torah (♦) 
Talmud Torah Beth Abraham (♦) 
Talmud Torah Rabbi Israel 

Salanter (♦) 
Talmud Torah Tipereth Jerusa- 
lem (♦) 
Talmudic Institute of Harlem (♦) 
Talmudical School of 

Brooklyn (♦) 
Teacheto Institute of the Jew- 
ish Theological Seminary of 
America (♦) 
Thomas Davidson Society 
Tremont Hebrew Free School (♦) 
Uptown Talmud Torah 
y. M. A. of Rockaway Beach (♦) 



108 2d Avenue 
531 West 123d Street 
1042 Morris Avenue 
85 Henry Street 

4019 13th Avenue 

68 East 7th Street 

40 Gouverneur Street 

100th Street and Fifth Avenue 

183 Madison Street 

202 Stockton Street 

802 East 6th Street 
356 2d Avenue 
156 Henry Street 

197 Henry Street 
188 Chrystie Street 

61 Meserole Street 
510 West 16l8t Street 
530 East 146th Street 
74 East 118th Street 

147 East Broadway 

56 West 114th Street 
76 Throop Avenue 

134 East 111th Street 



307 Henry Street 
484 East 173d Street 
132 East 111th Street 
Rockaway, L. I. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 385 



Y. M. H. A. (0, 8) 

Y.M.H.A. (Bronx) (♦) 

Y. M. H. A. of Brooklyn 

Y. M. H. A. of Williamsburg 

Y. M. H. A. (West Side) 

Y. W. H. A. (8) 

Zion Institute of the Bronx 



92d Street and Lexington 

Avenue 
1426 Crotona Avenue 
345 9th Street 
575 Bedford Avenue 
347 West 35th Street 
31 West 110th Street 
1426 Crotona Avenue 



FREE LOAN ASSOCIATIONS 



484 East 173d Street 



Bronx Ladies' f^ee Loan Associa- 
tion (♦) 

Brooklyn Hebrew Free Loan (♦) 

Hebrew Free Loan of Brownsville 

Hebrew Gemllath Chassodim 
(0,8) 

HOMES FOR THE AGED 



31 McKibben Street, Brooklyn 
88 Hinsdale Street, Brooklyn. 
108 2d Avenue 



Brooklyn Home for the Aged 

Home for Aged and Infirm He- 
brews (0, 8) 

Home of the Daughters of Israel 
of Harlem (♦) 

Home of the Daughters of 
Jacob (0, 8) 

Home of the Sons and Daughters 

* of Israel 

Progressive Women of the 
Bronx (♦) 



Howard and Dumond Avenue 
105th Street and Columbus 

Avenue 
32 East 119th Street 

301 East Broadway 

232 West 10th Street 

1340 Bronx Avenue 



FREE BURIAL SOCIETIES 



Agudath Achim Chesed Shel 
Emeth (0, 8) 

Austrian Hebrew Free Burial As- 
sociation (^8) 

Chesed Shel Emeth of Brownsville 

Hebrew Free Burial Society 



245 Grand Street 

65 Pitt Street 

353 Stone Avenue 
101 Varet Street 



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REPORT OP AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 397 

ACT OF INCOEPOEATION 

Laws of New York. — By Authority 

Chapter 16 

An Act to incorporate the American Jewish Committee 

Became a law March 16, 1911, with the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. Passed, three-fifths being present. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate 
and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1. Mayer Sulzberger, Julian W. Mack, Jacob 
H. Hollander, Julius Eosenwald, Cjrua Adler, Harry 
Cutler, Samuel Dorf, Judah L. Magnes, Jacob H. Schiff, 
Isador Sobel, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, A. Leo Weil, and Louis 
Marshall, and their associates and successors, are hereby 
constituted a body corporate, in perpetuity, under the 
name of the American JeVish Committee; and by that 
name shall possess all of the powers which by the general 
corporation law are conferred upon corporations, and 
shall be capable of taking, holding and acquiring, by deed, 
gift, purchase, bequest, devise, or by judicial order or 
decree, any estate, real or personal, in trust or otherwise, 
which shall be necessary or useful for the uses and pur- 
poses of the corporation, to the amount of three millions 
of dollars. 

Sec. 2. The objects of this corporation shall be, to pre- 
vent the infraction of the civil and religious rights of 
Jews, in any part of the world ; to render all lawful assist- 
ance and to take appropriate remedial action in the event 



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398 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

of threatened or actual invasion or restriction of such 
rights, or of unfavorable discrimination with respect 
thereto; to secure for Jews equality of economic, social 
and educational opportunity ; to alleviate the consequences 
of persecution and to afford relief from calamities affect- 
ing Jews, wherever they may occur ; and to compass these 
ends to administer any relief fund which shall come into 
its possession or which may be received by it, in trust or 
otherwise, for any of the aforesaid objects or for purposes 
comprehended therein. 

Sec. 3. The business and affairs of said corporation shall 
be conducted by a board of not less than thirteen or more 
than twenty-one, to be known as the executive committee, 
and the persons named in the first section of this act as 
incorporators, shall constitute the first executive com- 
mittee of said corporation. At the first meeting of said 
executive committee held after the passage of this act, the 
members thereof shall be divided into three classes, the 
first of which shall hold office imtil January first, nineteen 
hundred and twelve, the second for one year thereafter, 
and the third for two years thereafter, and such members 
of said executive committee as may be thereafter added to 
said committee shall in like manner be apportioned to said 
three classes. At the expiration of the term of any mem- 
ber of the executive committee his successor shall be 
elected for the term of three years. All vacancies which 
may occur in said committee shall be filled until the ensu- 
ing election by said committee. An annual election for 
the members of said executive committee shall be held at 
such time and in such manner as shall be fixed by the by- 
laws to be adopted by said executive committee. At all 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 399 

meetings of the executive committee one-third of said 
committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business, but no by-law shall be adopted, amended or re- 
pealed without the presence of a majority of the members 
of said committee for the time being; provided, however, 
that the by-laws with respect to membership in the cor- 
poration shall not be altered, revised or amended except 
as provided in section four of this act. 

Sec. 4. The members of said corporation shall consist 
of the persons who shall be designated and chosen for 
membership by such method or methods and by such 
organizations, societies and nominating bodies as shall be 
provided in by-laws to be adopted for that purpose by the 
executive committee, such by-laws being however, subject 
to alteration, revision or amendment at any regular meet- 
ing of the members of the corporation or at a meeting 
called for such purpose; provided that thirty days notice 
be given of the proposed change and that such alteration, 
revision or amendment shall be carried by a majority of at 
least twenty votes; and not otherwise. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect immediately. 

BY-LAWS 
I. District Beprbsbntation 

The members of the Corporation, who for purposes of con- 
venience shall be known as the General Committee, shall be 
chosen in the manner hereinafter provided from the several 
districts hereinafter enumerated and described as follows : 
District I. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida. 4 members. 



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400 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



District 
District 

District 

District 



II. Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi. 3 members. 

III. Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Okla- 
homa. 5 members. 

IV. Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado. 5 
members. 

V. California, Washington, Oregon, Utah, Idaho, 
Nevada. 7 members. 
District VI. Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Montana, Wyo- 
ming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Ne- 
braska, Michigan. 9 members. 
Illinois. 8 members. 

Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia. 6 
members. 
IX. City of Philadelphia. 6 members. 
X. ^Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, District of 
Columbia. 6 members. 
District XI. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Ehode Island. 6 mem- 
bers. 
District XII. New York City. 26 members. 
District XIII. New York, exclusive of the city. 3 members. 
District XIV. Pennsylvania, exclusive of Philadelphia, New 
Jersey. 4 members. 
Provided, however, that at least one member shall be chosen 
from every state of the United States. 



District VII, 
District VIII, 



District 
District 



II. Members of the Genebal Committee 

The General Committee, excepting members at large, shall 
be divided into five groups by lot, which groups shall hold 
oflSce for one, two, three, four and five years, respectively, their 
successors to serve five years. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 40I 

In District XII, the members of the Executive Committee of 
the Jewish Commimity of New York City, not more than 26 in 
number, shall constitute the members of the Committee from 
that District. In District IX, the members of the Committee, 
not more than six in number, shall be elected by the Executive 
Council of the Jewish Community of Philadelphia. 

Members whose terms expire shall be succeeded by residents 
of the same district, and shall be elected by the Advisory 
Councils of the respective districts, or by such method as may 
hereafter be adopted by the Committee. 

Elections by the Advisory Councils shall be held on or before 
October 1 of each year, and the Secretary of the Committee 
shall be notified of the results on or before October 16 of each 
year. 

At the annual meeting, upon nomination by the Executive 
Committee, members at large, not exceding twenty in number, 
may be elected, who shall serve for one year, provided that not 
more than five shall be elected from any one district. 

The Executive Committee is authorized to invite the 
National Jewish Fraternal Congress, representing thirteen 
Jewish fraternal orders, to elect three of its members to be 
members at large in the American Jewish Committee, and the 
following organizations to elect one representative each to be 
members at large in the American Jewish Committee : The 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith, the Board of Delegates of the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations, the Union of Orthodox Con- 
gregations, the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the 
Union of Orthodox Rabbis, the National Conference of Jewish 
Charities, Federation of American Zionists, and the United 
Synagogue of America. 



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402 AMERICAN JEWISH Y3B3AR BOOK 

III. Offioebs 

The officers of the General Committee shall be a President, 
two Vice-Presidents and a Treasurer, selected from among the 
members, and a Secretary who need not be a member of the 
General Committee, and who shall be elected by the Executive 
Committee, unless otherwise ordered. The officers shall serve 
for one year or until their successors are elected. 

IV. Executive Committee 

The General Committee shall elect not less than nine nor 
more than seventeen members who together with the four 
officers, to wit, the President, Vice-Presidents and Treasurer, 
shall constitute the Executive Committee, one-third of the 
membership of which shall constitute a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 

The Executive Committee shall, whenever it shall deem it 
advisable, report its proceedings or such part thereof as it shall 
determine to the members of the General Committee by mail, 
and shall render a complete report of all matters considered 
and acted upon, at the annual meeting of the committee. 
Special Committees may be designated by the Executive Com- 
mittee from the body of the General Committee, which Special 
Committees shall report to the Executive Committee from 
time to time. 

V. Meetings 

A stated meeting of the General Committee shall be held 
annually on the second Sunday in November at the City of 
New York, unless the Executive Committee in their discretion 
determine otherwise. Special meetings shall be called upon 
the written request of twenty-five members of the General 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 403 

Committee or may be called by the Executive Committee of its 
own motion. Twenty-one members shall constitute a quorum 
of the General Committee. 

Regular meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held 
at least once every three months. Special meetings of the 
Executive Committee may be held at the instance of the chair- 
man or at the request of three members of that committee. 

Notice of special meetings of the General Committee or of 
the Executive Committee shall be given by mail or telegraph 
to the members, stating as nearly as possible, within the dis- 
cretion of the Executive Committee, the purpose for which 
the meeting is called. 

VI. Vaoanoibs 

Vacancies caused by death, disability or resignation, shall 
be filled by the Advisory Council or other elective body of the 
district in which flie vacancy occurs. 

Upon the occurrence of a vacancy the Secretary shall notify 
the secretary of the district in which the vacancy exists, and 
an election shall be held by the Advisory Council or other 
elective body of such district, within one month from the time 
of receiving such notification, and the Secretary shall be 
promptly notified of the result. 

In default of action by the Advisory Councils, or other 
elective bodies, vacancies in the General Committee may be 
filled at the annual meeting. 

VII. Opfioes 

The principal oflBce of the General Committee shall be estab- 
lished in the City of New York, and other ofiices and agencies 



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404 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

may be established outside of New York as the General Com- 
mittee or the Executive Committee may from time to time 
deem necessary. 

VIII. Amendments 

These By-Laws, except as limited by the Charter, shall be 
subject to alteration, revision or amendment at any regular 
meeting of the General Committee or at a meeting thereof 
called for such purpose, provided that thirty days notice be 
given of the proposed change, and that the motion for amend- 
ment be carried by a majority of at least 20 votes. 



ADVISOEY COUNCIL 
I. General Powers 

1. There sliall be organized in each district, in the manner 
hereinafter provided, an Advisory Council for the following 
purposes : 

2. To take such action as shall from time to time be ex- 
pressly delegated to it by the General or Executive Committees. 

3. To report promptly to the General or Executive Com- 
mittees with respect to any subject that shall be referred to it 
for information or investigation. 

4. To consider such matters of Jewish interest as shall be 
brought to its attention through any agency, and to make such 
recommendations thereon to the General or Executive Com- 
mittees as shall be deemed advisable, but in no case to initiate, 
authorize or take any action except as specially thereunto dele- 
gated as hereinbefore provided. 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 405 

II. Membership 

1. On or before October 1, 1907, the members of the Gen- 
eral Committee from each district shall nominate to the Execu- 
tive Committee ten Jewish residents of such district for every 
member of the General Committee allotted to said district, and 
upon confirmation of such nominations by the Executive Com- 
mittee, the persons so approved, together with the members of 
the General Committee from said district, shall constitute the 
Advisory Council thereof. Should the Executive Committee 
reject any nominee, new nominations shall be submitted for 
approval until the membership of the Advisory Council shall 
be complete. The General Committee or the Executive Com- 
mittee may, by resolution adopted at any meeting, authorize an 
increase of the membership of the Advisory Council of any dis- 
trict, in which case the additional members shall be chosen in 
the manner hereinbefore provided, or their election or appoint- 
ment by such Advisory Council may be authorized. 

2. Upon receiving notice of their selection members of the 
Advisory Council of each district shall organize in the manner 
designated by the members of the General Committee of each 
district. Each Council shall elect a chairman and such other 
officers as shall be deemed necessary. The members of said 
council other than those who are members of the General Com- 
mittee shall be allotted by the Secretary into five groups, who 
shall hold office for one, two, three, four and five years, respect- 
ively, and thereafter elections shall be held annually by the 
members of the Council to choose successors to those whose 
terms shall have expired, for a term of five years. Meetings 
of each Council shall be held from time to time as it shall by 
rule provide. 



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406 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

3. All vacancies occurring in the membership of the Ad- 
visory Council subsequent to the formation of the original 
Advisory Council of each district, shall be filled by election by 
the Advisory Council of each district. 

III. Election of Membeks of General Committbe 

Vacancies in the General Committee shall be filled by the 
Advisory Councils of the respective districts. 

IV. Expenses 

The expenses of administration of each Advisory Council 
shall be borne by its district. 



SUSTAINING MEMBEES 

District I 

Caesar Cone,* Queensboro, N. C, $100; Montague Triest, 
Charleston, S. C, $10. 

District II 
Morris Adler, Birmingham, Ala., $26. 

District III 

Sam Brin, Brownwood, Texas, $10 ; Isaac Kempner, Galves- 
ton, Texas, $50 ; Maurice Stem,* New Orleans, La,, $100. 

District IV 

H. Appleman, Kansas City, $5; Alfred Benjamin, Kansas 
City, $5; David Benjamin, Kansas City, $5; G. Bemheimer 

♦ Contributions to " Special Fund." 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 407 

Bros., Kansas City, $S; L. G. Cohen, St. Louis, $10; Julius 
Davidson, Kansas City, $5 ; Albert H. Ehrlieh, St. Joseph, $5 ; 
H. A. Guettel, Kansas City, $5 ; A. Hess, Wichita, Kansas, $5 ; 
Frank Josephson, Kansas City, $5 ; H. W. Loeb, St. Louis, $5 ; 
J. L. Lorie, Kansas City, $5 ; J. C. Beifer, Kansas City, $10 ; 
A. Eeiger, Kansas City, $5 ; I. J. Eingolsky, Kansas City, $5 ; 
J. Eosenberger, Kansas City, $5 ; A. Eosenfield, Leavenworth, 
Kan., $5 ; G. I. Eosenzweig, Kansas City, $5 ; Al Eothenberg, 
Kansas City, $5; Nathan Schloss, Kansas City, $10; Sig. 
Stern, Kansas City, $10. 

District V 
Ben. Selling, Portland, Ore., $100. 

District VI 

Henry M. Butzel, Detroit, Mich., $50; Henry M. Butzel,* 
Detroit, Mich., $25 ; Jewish Charities, Omaha, Neb., $50 ; John 
Baum, Green Bay, Wis., $10; Simon Heller, Milwaukee, Wis., 
$5 ; Max Landauer,* Milwaukee, Wis., $50. 

Disteiot VII 

Alfred G. Becker,* Chicago, 111., $100; A. G. Becker, Chi- 
cago, 111., $50 ; Chicago Sinai Cong., Chicago, 111., $250 ; James 
Davis, Chicago, 111., $25 ; Louis Eisendrath, Chicago, 111., $25 ; 
M. E. Greenebaum, Chicago, 111., $50; Bernard Horwich, Chi- 
cago 111., $50 ; Bernard Horwich,* Chicago, 111., $40 ; Albert D. 
Ijasker, Chicago, 111., $100; Julian W. Mack,* Chicago, 111., 
$25 ; Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 111., $15 ; E. P. Meyer, Chicago, 
111., $50; Julius Rosenwald,* Chicago, 111., $1000; Julius 

♦ Contributions to ".Special Fund." 



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408 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Bosenwald, Chicago, 111., $500 ; Charles Shaflfner, Chicago, 111., 
$50; W. B. Woolner, Peoria, 111., $100. 

District VIII 

Oscar Berman, Cincinnati, 0., $5; Isaac W. Bemheim, 
Louisville, Ky., $100; Isaac W. Bemheim,* Louisville, Ky., 
$25. 

District IX 

Louis E. Levy,* Philadelphia, Pa., $60; Mayer Sulzberger,* 
Philadelphia, Pa., $50. Philadelphia Kehilla, $900 as follows : 
Cyrus Adler, $25; Louis Pleisher, $26; Simon Fleisher, $25; 
Louis Gerstley, $25 ; William Gerstley, $25; William B. Hack- 
enburg, $25 ; Andrew Kaas, $25 ; Samuel Keyser, $10 ; Simon 
Kirschbaum, $15 ; Simon I. Kohn, $25 ; Jacob L. Langsdorf, 
$25 ; Louis E. Levy, $25 ; Jacob D. Lit, $25 ; Samuel D. Lit, 
$25 ; Howard A. Loeb, $10; Simon Miller, $25 ; William Mor- 
ris, $25; J. G. Rosengarten, $100; M. Eosenbaum, $85; Wm. 
B. Eosskam, $15 ; Samuel Snellenburg, $25 ; Mayer Sulzberger, 
$85 ; Oscar B. Teller, $25 ; Joseph Wasserman, $25 ; Wessel & 
Aarons, $25 ; Albert Wolf, $25 ; Benjamin Wolf, $25 ; Clarence 
Wolf, $25; Edwin Wolf, $25; Louis Wolf, $25; Balance from 
previous collection, $5. 

District X 

Emil Berliner, Washington, D. C, $10; Abraham Eisenberg, 
Baltimore, Md., $10 ; Mrs. Jane Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md., 
$10; Julius Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md., $10; Isaac Ham- 
burger & Son, Baltimore, Md., $10; A. Ray Katz, Baltimore, 
Md., $10 ; Benno Kohn, Baltimore, Md., $15 ; Martha F. Lauer 

* Contributions ta " Special Fund." 



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REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 409 

(Mrs. Leon), Baltimore, Md., $10; William Levy, Baltimore, 
Md., $10; Henry Sonneborn, Baltimore, Md., $10; Siegmtmd 
B. Sonneborn, Baltimore, Md., $10 ; Charles Van Leer,* Sea- 
ford, Del., $35 ; Milton F. Westheimer, Baltimore, Md., $10. 

DiSTEIOT XI 

Harry Cutler, Providence, E. 1., $139.67; Lee M. Friedman, 
Boston, Mass., $139.67; Isaac M. TJllman, New Haven, Conn., 
$139.67; Isaac M. TJllman,* New Haven, Conn., $50. 

District XII (New York City) 

Alexander Alexander, $10; Eeuben Arkush, $10; Charles L. 
Bernheim, $5; Nathan Bijur, $100; Joseph L. Buttenweiser, 
$100; Samuel Dorf,* $100; William Fischman,* $15; Lee K. 
Frankel,* $25; Joseph B. Greenhut, $100; Daniel Guggen- 
heiin, $1000 ; Murray Guggenheim, $100 ; A. M. Heinsheimer, 
$200; Samuel I. Hyman,* $20; Adolph Lewisohn, $500; 
Adolph Lewisohn,* $25; Frederick Lewisohn, $100; J. L. 
Magnes,* $15; Louis Marshall, $500; Samuel Sachs, $150; 
William Saloman, $250 ; Leon Sanders, $10 ; Samuel Schaf er, 
$100; Mortimer L. Schiff, $250; Jacob H. Schiff,* $1500; 
Jacob H. Schiflf, $1000; Isaac N. Seligman, $150; Jefferson 
Seligman, $100; Bernard Semel,* $10; Leopold Stern, $100 ; 
Cyrus L. Sulzberger, $100; Cyrus L. Sulzberger,* $50; 
Israel Unterberg,* $25; Felix M. Warburg, $150; Felix M. 
Warburg,* $250; Paul M. Warburg, $100. 

DiSTBICT XIII 

Isaac Adler, Kochester, N. Y., $5; Simon Fleischmann,* 
Buffalo, N. Y., $5; Abram J. Katz,* Rochester, N. Y., $20; 

* Contributions to " Special Fund." 



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410 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Max Lowenthal, Bochester, N. Y., $60; Benj. M. Marcus,* 
Olean, N. Y., $50; Julius M. Wile, Rochester, N. Y., $10; Sol. 
Wile, Rochester, N. Y., $10. 

District XIV 

Samuel Averhaim, Bradford, Pa., $10; Isaac W. Frank, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., $85; Joseph Goetz, Newark, N. J., a/c of 
Cong. B'nai Jehurun, $110; D. C. Greenwald, Bradford, Pa., 
$5 ; Max Hertz, Newark, N. J,, $5 ; Joseph H. Rubin, McKJees- 
port. Pa., $10; A. Leo Weil, Pittsburgh, Pa., $85. 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



TWENTY-EIGHTH YEAR 



OF 



THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 
OF AMERICA 

191M916 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 413 



THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF 
AMERICA 



OFFICBSRS 



PBESIDENT 

SIMON MILLER, Philadelphia 

FIBST VICB>-PBESIDBKT 

DR. HENRY M. LEIPZIGER. New York 

SECOND VICE-PBESIDENT 

HORACE STERN, Philadelphia 

TBEASUBEB 

HENRY FERNBBRGER, Philadelphia 

SECRETABT 

BENJAMIN ALEXANDER, Philadelphia 

ASSISTANT SECRETABT 

I. GEORGE DOBSEVAGE, Philadelphia 

EDITOB 

DR. B. HALPER, Philadelphia 

TBUSTBES 

Db. Cybus Adleb * Philadelphia 

Habt Blumenthal » Philadelphia 

Chables Eisenman » Cleveland 

Henby Febnbeboeb * Philadelphia 

Daniel Guggenheim • New York 

Joseph Hagedobn * Philadelphia 

S. Chables Lampobt * ^ New York 

Ephbaim T^edrbeb * Philadelphia 

Db. Henby M. Leipzigeb * New York 

Simon Milleb • Philadelphia 

MoBBis Newbubgeb * New York 

Julius Rosenwald *" Chicago 

SiOMUND B. Sonnebobn » Baltimore 

* Term expires In 1917. » Term expires In 1918. » Term expires In 1919. 

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414 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Horace Stesn « Philadelphia 

Samuel Strauss • New York 

Hon. Seligman J. Strauss » Wllkes-Barre, Pa 

Cyrus L. Sulzberger* New York 

Hon. Mater Sulzberger ' Philadelphia 

A. Leo Weil* Pittsburgh 

Harris Weinstock » Sacramento 

Edwin Wolf* Philadelphia 

HONORARY VICE-PRESIDBNTB 

Isaac W. Bernheim • LouisYille 

Rev. Dr. Henry Cohen * Galveston 

Louis K. Gutman * Baltimore 

Rev. Dr. Max Heller ■ New Orleans 

Miss EjLla Jacobs * Philadelphia 

S. W. Jacobs * Montreal 

Louis B. Kirstein ' Boston 

Hon. Julian W. Mack ' Chicago 

Rev. Dr. Margin A. Meyer • San Francisco 

Hon. Simon W. Rosendale ■ Albany, N. Y. 

Murray Seasonqood * Cincinnati 

Hon. M. C. Sloss * San Francisco 

Rev. Dr. Joseph Stolz ■ Chicago 

Hon. Simon Wolf • Washington, D. C. 

publication committee 

Hon. Mayer Sulzberger, Chairman Philadelphia 

Dr. Cyrus Adler Philadelphia 

Rev. Dr. Henry Bebkowitz Philadelphia 

Dr. S. Sous Cohen Philadelphia 

Rev. Dr. Hyman G. Bnelow New York 

Dr. Herbert Friedenwald Denver 

Dr. Israel Friedlaendeb *. New York 

Felix N. Gerson Philadelphia 

Rev. Dr. Max Heller New Orleans 

Dr. Jacob H. Hollander Baltimore 

Rabbi Jacob Kohn New York 

Rev. Dr. J. L. Magnes New York 

Dr. Max L. Maroous — Philadelphia 

Dr. Alexander Marx New York 

Leon S. Moisseiff New York 

Rev. Dr. David Philipson .* Cincinnati 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Schulman New York 

*Term expires In 1917. »Term expires in 1918. ■Term expires In 1919. 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 415 

Hon. Oscab S. Straus New York 

Samuel Stbauss , New York 

Henrietta Szold New York 

JEWISH CLASSICS COMMITTEE * 

Dr. Cyrus Adler, Chairman Philadelphia 

Rev. Dr. H. G. Enelo^ New York 

Dr. Louis Ginzbero New York 

Dr. Jacob Z. Lauterbach Cincinnati 

Dr. Alexander Marx New York 

Rev. Dr. David Philipson Cincinnati 

Dr. Israel Friedlaendeb New York 

Rev. Dr. Kaufman Kohleb Cincinnati 

Db. Henry Malteb Philadelphia 

Rev. Db. F. De Sola Mendes New York 

Rev. Db. Samuel Schulman New York 

Hon. Mayeb Sulzberger Philadelphia 

BOABD OF EDITOBS OF THE BIBLE imNSLATION 

Db. Cybus Adleb, Chairman Philadelphia 

Db. Joseph Jacobs * New York 

Rev. Db. Kaufman Kohleb Cincinnati 

Db. Max L. Margolis Philadelphia 

Rev. Dr. David Philipson Cincinnati 

Dr. Solomon Schechter * New York 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Schulman New York 

The Board of Trustees meets in January, March, May, and 
October. 

The Publication Committee meets in the afternoon of the first 
Sunday in January, February, March, April, May, June, October, 
November, and December. ' 



MEETING OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH YEAR 

The annual meeting of The Jewish Publication Society of 
America was held Sunday evening. May 7, 1916, at The Dropsie 
College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Broad and York Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

In the absence of the President of the Society, Mr. Horace Stern, 
Vice-President of the Society, acted as Chairman. Mr. I. George 
Dobsevage, of Philadelphia, acted as Secretary of the meeting. 
Mr. Stern read the President's annual address. 

* Deceased. 

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416 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 
Ladies and Oentlemen: 

The Board of Trustees bids you welcome to the twenty-eighth annual 
meeting of the Society. 

The Report of the Trustees, which is before you, is not only a statement 
of the work done, but is an earnest of what is to be accomplished. 

Our membership is larger than ever before. We have enrolled over four 
thousand five hundred (4500) new members, more members having been 
secured this year than in any previous year. In fact, the total of new 
memberships secured practically equals the total membership of the Society 
about twelve years ago. We now have a membership of nearly fourteen 
thousand (14,000), a net increase of two thousand (2000) over last year. 

The Society has sold more books, and has taken in more money than in 
any previous year. 

Several days ago we sent out an appeal to all of our Annual Members, 
urging them to increase their subscriptions. A number have answered the 
appeal. The Society feels that Judaism can best be served by a very exten- 
sive distribution of its books, but to accomplish this, the Society must have 
money. The cost of paper, printing, binding, and distribution has risen 
considerably since the Society was organized, and a larger income is 
imperative if we are to do our work effectively. The Trustees feel that the 
nominal annual dues of three dollars ought not to be raised, because we 
want to be a popular society and enable the masses, who cannot afford to 
pay more, to remain members of the Society. Still, there must be thou- 
sands of our members who can and ought to pay more than three dollars a 
year, and, we hope, that as soon as we have made our position clear to 
them, they will respond. 

We have this year distributed about fifty thousand volumes. We have 
reprinted a number of our older publications. We have published three new 
books, and the fourth is about to be issued. " The Power of Purim and 
Other Plays," by Irma Kraft, consisting of plays suitable for presentation 
by Sabbath School children, was very favorably received in school circles 
and Jewish homes. 

The seventeenth issue of the American Jewish Year Book was published 
in September, 1915, and contained an exceptionally Important article on 
" Recent Jewish Progress in Palestine," which was really a book in Itself. 
Miss Henrietta Szold, the author of the article, has rendered Judaism a 
great service in presenting, at this time, such an important r6sum6 of the 
subject. The Year Book also contained, in addition to the usual features, 
a valuable article by the late Dr. Joseph Jacobs on the " Federation Move- 
ment in American Jewish Philanthropy." The third book of the year, 
" The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans," from the pen of Dr. Max 
Radin, proved to be a work of great merit and a distinct contribution to the 
subject. Dr. Radin went to first sources for his information, and, writing 
in a style that has been commented upon favorably, he traced the various 
phases of Jewish life and thought in the classical world. 

The next book, to appear shortly, is the first volume of the " His- 
tory of the Jews in Russia and Poland From the Earliest Times Until 
the Present Day," from the Russian of S. M. Dubnow, the author of the 
philosophic essay on Jewish History published by the Society some years 
ago. This work, written for the Society, will be a most valuable con- 
tribution to our knowledge of a subject of the utmost importance to us, 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 417 

both on account of the place the East European Jews hold In the history 
and literature of our people, and on account of their checkered fortunes in 
the immediate past and their sad plight at the present time. The Society 
was fortunate enough to secure for the work of translation the services of 
Professor Israel Friedlaender. The second volume of this history will 
appear during the fiscal year 1916-1917. 

Two other books are now passing through the press : a volume of poems 
by Mr. P. M. Raskin, and a book of stories by Dr. A. S. Isaacs, entitled 
•* Under the Sabbath Lamp : Stories of Our Time for Old and Young." 

Of the books that have passed beyond the initial stage of being projected, 
and have reached various stages of completion, three deserve special men- 
tion: 

Two of them, bearing on outlying sections of Jewry, whose histories were 
hitherto sealed books, will be related by Jewish travellers and investigators 
able to speak from first-hand knowledge. The French original of the book 
on the Jews of Northern Africa by Doctor Nahum Slousch, whose volume 
on the " Renascence of Hebrew Literature " will be recalled with pleasure, 
is in the hands of the translator, Miss Amy E. Schechter. Doctor Slousch 
has made several Journeys through Morocco, Libya, and Tunis, and pene- 
trated the edge of the great Sahara Desert. In the course of his travels he 
made valuable discoveries, adding vastly to our knowledge of^ the history 
and customs of a region which was once densely populated by active com- 
munities of Jews, and which is still the abode of no inconsiderable number 
of our race. Dr. Slouscb's book will be copiously illustrated by photographs 
taken by him on his wanderings. 

The other book of similar interest is that to be written for the Society 
by Doctor Jacques Faitlovitch, on the romantic history of the Falashas, 
the Jews of Abyssinia. Dr. Faitlovitch qualified himself to become the 
writer of this book by his several sojourns and numerous investigations in 
Abyssinia. 

The third work of especial interest is the volume to be entitled " Post- 
Biblical Hebrew Literature : An Anthology," selected from works written 
since the close of the biblical Canon, compiled by Doctor B. Halper, of the 
Dropsie College, who has also translated into English the texts that are to 
constitute the volume. The book should have great pedagogic value. It will 
be the first time the Society attempts the publication of Hebrew texts. The 
Society will endeavor to overcome the technical difficulties of having the 
Hebrew portion set up in attractive, readable type. 

The Publication Committee has given a large portion of Its time to the 
development of the various series that have been projected by the Society. 
Five such series are now under way : The Movement Series, the Biographical 
Series, the Historical Jewish Communities Series, and two new series, the 
Books about the Bible, and the Loeb Fund Series. 

Iij the Movement Series, in which Doctor Richard Gottheil's book on 
Zionism was the first to appear, a second volume is now nearly ready for 
the press, that on Hellenism, by Mr. Norman Bentwich. Of the other four 
volumes projected, Doctor Husik is at work on the one on Rationalism, the 
Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, Chief Rabbi of England, has undertaken to write 
the volume on Mysticism, and the Rev. Dr. S. Schulman is preparing the 
volume on Reform Judaism. 

Five writers are engaged upon the Biographical Series. If the blight of 
war had not fallen upon us, we might by this time have had in press Dr. 
Elbogen's book on •* Hillel and His House," as well as the illustrated 
volume on Jewish artists, by Dr. Herman Struck and Mr. Leo Mielziner. In 



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418 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

addition to those, we shall soon have a biography of Don Isaac Abarbanel, 
by Doctor Abraham A. Neuman, and that of Sir Moses Monteflore, by Paul 
Goodman. 

In the Historical Jewish Communities Series, four towns have been 
assigned to writers : Amsterdam to Mr. Siegmund Seeligman, of Amsterdam ; 
Cairo to Doctor S. Poznanski, of Warsaw ; Frankfort-on-the-Main, to Mr. A. 
Freiman, of Frankfort ; and Rome to Doctor Hermann Vogelstein, of Kdnigs- 
burg. Among the additional volumes projected, but not yet assigned to 
writers, are those on Cologne, Lemberg, Cracow, Wilna, and London. 

The new series of Books about the Bible is designed to give our readers 
an adequate notion of some of the multifarious aspects of the Book of Books. 
Thus far only one volume has been completely projected, that on the 
" Translations of the Bible," which will be treated by the able pen of Doctor 
Mlax L. Margolis. At any time a book on this subject, which carries with it 
a demonstration of the place the Bible occupies in the literature of all 
nations, would be of surpassing interests. At the present moment, when 
we expect very soon to have our own English translation of the Bible in 
completed form for distribution among our members, It has a peculiarly 
heightened timely interest. 

The other new series is the Loeb Fund Series, to be issued under the 
terms of the bequest made to the Society by the late Morris Loeb, which 
provides that the income derived from it " shall from time to time be 
utilized for and applied to the preparation and publication of a scholarly 
work devoted to the Interests of Judaism." Dr. Henry Malter's investiga- 
tions into the life and literary activity of Saadia, have produced a book 
which, in the opinion of those qualified to judge, says the last word on the 
numerous moot questions connected with the great Gaon. This has been 
designated as the first number of the Loeb Fund Series. 

In planning and developing the various series of books, the Publication 
Committee has succeeded in many instances in stimulating a considerable 
body of scholars and writers to devote themselves to the production of books 
which otherwise they might never have thought of undertaking. With a 
similar end In view, a prize of two hundred and fifty dollars was offered dur- 
ing the past year for the manuscript of the best story on American Jewish 
life. Nineteen manuscripts are entered in the competition. They are now 
in the hands of the judges, whose verdict cannot be anticipated or divined. 

In one other department of the Society's work the Committee has made 
a fruitful recommendation which was acted on favorably by the Board of 
Trustees. The Society considers it one of its legitimate functions to aid 
the publication of works by other agencies which for one reason or another 
it cannot undertake itself. It has accordingly made arrangements with the 
Macmillan Company to publish jointly Dr. Husik's book on Medieval Jewish 
Philosophy. 

Our joy In the knowledge that the Society Is bringing the best produc- 
tions of Jewish literature into the homes of the Jews Is on this occasion 
marred by the tragic fact that two of our greatest laborers in the field of 
Jewish literature have passed away from our midst, the Gaon, Professor 
Solomon Schechter, and the versatile literary genius, Doctor Joseph Jacobs. 
The Trustees and Publication Committee of the Society have adopted the 
following minutes, expressing their sense of grief In the loss we have sus- 
tained : 

" In common with all American Israel, The Jewish Publication Society 
of America, as represented by Its Trustees and by the Publication Committee 
of the Society, mourns the sudden and irreparable loss of 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 419 



SOLOMON SCHECHTER, 

some of whose works were published by the Society, and who gave invalua- 
ble service to its Publication Committee for a period of fourteen years. 

" The broad humanity of his outlook, his intense love for Jews and 
Judaism, his unique capacity for seeing the soul in the written page and 
for depicting it in his idiomatic and incisive English made the two volumes 
of hi» " Studies in Judaism " a striking contribution to the world's litera- 
ture and to the history of religion. His wide and intensive learning, his 
literary taste and accomplishments, his statesmanlike view of the educa- 
tional and spiritual requirements of the Jewish people in America gave to 
his co-operation on the Publication Committee an importance not to be esti- 
mated. Several projects now in hand were suggested by him, notably the 
series of Jewish commentaries on the separate books of the Bible — a book 
which he had much at heart. He was a member of the Bible Translation 
Committee which had just concluded its labors a fortnight before his death. 
He was chairman of the Committee on Jewish Classics. His advice and 
assistance were ever at the service of authors, and many publications of the 
Society have thus profited by his wise criticism and constructive suggestions. 
In these, among many ways, Solomon Schechter contributed to the advance- 
ment of Jewish learning and idealism in this country and his colleagues of 
the Publication Committee and the members of the Board of Trustees mourn 
the genial friend as well as the world-renowned scholar." 

"The Board of Trustees and the Publication Committee of The Jewish 
Publication Society of America have learned with profound sorrow of the 
death on January 31, 1916, of 

JOSEPH JACOBS, 

for twelve years a member of the Publication Committee of this Society and 
a member of the Board of Editors of the Bible Translation, and they here 
place upon record an expression of their sense of loss in the passing away 
of their distinguished colleague. 

** Doctor Jacobs made distinguished contributions to Jewish history, was 
the founder of the science of Jewish statistics, revising editor of the 
Jewish Encyclopedia, famed as an anthropologist, folk-lorist, critic and 
essayist His broadly cultivated mind and his energies were always at 
the disposal of this Society, and to its work he gave faithful and unremitting 
attention. He possessed a happy temperament, a generous nature and 
chivalrous soul, and his absence from our midst is a source of grief and a 
serious loss.'* 

The Trustees announce with regret the resignation of Miss Henrietta 
Szold as Secretary of the Publication Committee. Miss Szold's contribu- 
tions to the work of the Society are well known throughout Jewish literary 
circles. The Board has made certain that we will have the benefit of her 
co-operation, and have appointed her to membership on the Publication 
Committee. We have made two other noteworthy additions to our Publi- 
cation Committee — Professor Alexander Marx, of The Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, and Professor Max L. Margolis, of the Dropsie 
College. 

We are fortunate in having in our midst a scholar who is qualified to take 
up the work which Miss Szold hitherto performed. Doctor B. Halper, of 
Philadelphia, has, at the earnest solicitation of the officers of the Society, 

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420 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

agreed to assume the duties of editor of the Society's puhllcations. In this 
connection, a word of praise might fittingly be expressed in appreciation of 
the services of the distinguished gentlemen of the Publication Committee, 
and of its illustrious Chairman. Prom the reports presented, the books 
published, and the projects planned, you are all familiar with their work. 
The Committee, as it is constituted, consists not only of a body of scholars, 
but each one is an expert in his department. Questions of intricacies of 
Hebrew, Aramaic, or Arabic literature, Information regarding history, 
education, linguistic niceties, the subtle mysteries of statecraft, of things 
mechanical, scientific, and even commercial, biblical lore, folk-lore, codes, 
Jewish life and manners are regularly discussed by these volunteers coming 
from different parts of the country to the regular monthly meetings held 
at the ofllces of the Society. The Committee finds Its reward in the work 
it is doing; nevertheless, English-speaking Israel may well be grateful for 
their tireless efforts in behalf of Judaism and its literature. 

Optimism of a rare kind brought the Society into being and urged Its 
progress, and a similar optimism has led the Society into making forecasts 
as to the exact date when the Bible will appear. However, we are now 
in a position to state that by Rosh ha-Shanah, that is to say, in a few 
months, the New Translation of the Bible, the greatest enterprise yet con- 
ceived by the Society, will be in the hands of the public The Board of 
Editors of the Bible Translation met finally on October 27, 1915, in New 
York, to consider some two hundred and seventy-five_propositions which 
had been left in abeyance, out of a total of some four thousand new proposi- 
tions which had been made on the proofs by the editors, and which had 
previously been disposed of by votes taken by correspondence. This meet- 
ing was attended by all the members of the Board, and we had the good 
fortune of being able to preserve in photographic form a remembrance of the 
occasion. Thus, it was granted to us to have the entire Board as first con- 
stituted sit through all the sessions until the very completion of the work. 
On November 16, 1915, Professor Max L. MargoHs, Secretary of the Board 
of Bible Editors, announced finally that the Editors of the Bible .Translation 
have completed all the proof reading, and that the preface was being pre- 
pared by a special committee. 

In order to make certain that the work of the Board of Editors would be 
carefully and accurately published, the Board of Editors adopted the fol- 
lowing resolution which was concurred in by the Board of Trustees : 

" That the printer be asked to furnish a second galley-proof ; that galley- 
proof II be then collated with galley-proof I ; that first page-proof be com- 
pared with galley II, and then by two persons with the Hebrew ; that page- 
proof II be compared with page-proof I, and then read by a professional 
proof-reader ; that plate-proof be compared with page-proof II, then read by 
a professional proof-reader, then once more compared by two persons with 
the Hebrew." 

As an indication of how carefully the Society Is doing this work, we might 
add that, instead of one professional proof-reader, we are using three. Thus, 
the delay in issuing the volume will be more than compensated by a perfect 
production. 

The next great enterprise of the Society, the Jewish Classic Series, is 
assuming definite shape, so that the Publication Committee will be free to 
turn Its attention to the largest project of all, the Commentaries on the 
Bible, which has reached only the* preliminary state of discussion, but for 
which funds are already waiting. 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 42I 

The Jewish Classics Committee has held three sessions, the last one con- 
vening on April 26-27, 1916, in The Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, at which the full Committee was present. 

At tnis meeting the Chairman, Doctor Cyrus Adler, submitted the fol- 
lowing report of the books in the series which have been assigned to 
authors and accepted by them : 

Boole Editor and Translator 

(1) Apocrypha Professor Miax L. Margolis 

(2) Mishnah : (a) Mo'ed 

(b) Nezikin Professor Louis Glnzberg 

(3) Talmud: (a) Ta'anit (Babli) 

(b) Bikkurim (Yerushalmi) ... Professor Henry Malter 

(4) Mekilta Professor J. Z. Lauterbach 

(o) Pesikta Doctor B. Halper 

(6) Kalir's Liturgic Poems Professor Israel Davidson 

(7) Judah ha-Levi (Translation only) Mrs. Nina Salaman 

(8) Historical Texts Professor Alexander Marx 

(9) Shebet Yehudah Doctor Abraham A. Neuman 

(10) Codes Professor Moses Hyamson 

(11) Rokeah Rev. Morris Joseph 

(12) Crescas' Or Adonai Doctor Harrv A. Wolfson 

(13) (a) Abot d'R. Natan Rabbi Louis M. Epstein 

(b) Al-'Ammi's Iggert Musar Rev. Dr. Israel Bettan 

(c) Derek Eres Rabbi Jacob S. Minkin 

(d) Mesillat Yesharim Professor M. M. Kaplan 

(14) Ethical Wills Doctor Israel Abrahams 

(15) " Maase Buch *' . Rev. Dr. Moses Gaster 

• The Committee Is at work on a number of assignments for other volumes. 
There are at present, therefore, quite a number of writers at work on 
volumes for the Society, and as the contracts call for the delivery of the 
manuscripts within a few years, .you may look forward to the commence- 
ment of the publication of the Jewish Classics in the course of two or 
three years. 

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES FOR 1915-1916 

The Report of the Board of Trustees was as follows: 

The Jewish Publication Society of America has concluded its 
twenty-eighth year. 

The Board of Trustees elected the following officers: Treasurer, 
Henry Fernberger, of Philadelphia; Acting Treasurer, Joseph H. 
Hagedorn, of Philadelphia; Secretary, Benjamin Alexander, of 
Philadelphia; Assistant Secretary, I. George Dobsevage, of Phila- 
delphia; Secretary to the Publication Committee, Henrietta Szold, 
of New York. 

The following were chosen members of the Publication Com- 
mittee: Mayer Sulzberger, of Philadelphia: Cyrus Adler, of Phila- 
delphia; Henry Berkowitz, of Philadelphia; Solomon Soils Cohen, 
of Philadelphia; Hyman G. Enelow, of New York; Herbert Frieden- 
wald, of Denver; Israel Friedlaender, of New York; Felix N. 

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422 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

Gerson, of Philadelphia; Max Heller, of New Orleans; Jacob H. 
Hollander, of Baltimore; Joseph Jacobs, of New York; Jacob 
Kohn, of New York; J. L. Magnes, of New York; Leon S. Moisseiff, 
of New York; David Philipson, of Cincinnati; Solomon Schechter, 
of New York; Samuel Schulman, of New York; Oscar S. Straus, of 
New York; Samuel Strauss, of New York. Mayer Sulzberger was 
elected by the Committee as its Chairman. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The publications issued during 1915-1916 were as follows: 

1. The Power of Purim and Other Plays, by Irma Kraft. 

2. The American Jewish Year Book 5676. 

3. The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans, by Max Radin. 

4. History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, by S. M. Dubnow 
(Vol. I). 

The publications to be issued in 1916-1917 are as follows: 

1. The American Jewish Year Book 5677. 

2. The New Translation of the Bible. 

3. History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, by S. M. Dubnow 
(vol. II). 

4. Book of Poems, by P. S. Raskin. 

The Chairman appointed Mr. Isaac Haasler, Mr. Louis B. Levy, 
and Mr. David Bortin, of Philadelphia, a Committee on Nomination 
of Oflacers and Trustees. 

ELECTIONS 

The Committee on Nominations presented the following report: 

President (for one year) : Simon Miller, of Philadelphia. 

First Vice-President (for one year): Dr. Henry M. Leipsiger, 
of New York. 

Second Vice-President (for one year) : Horace Stem, of Phila- 
delphia. 

Trustees (for three years) : Hart Blumenthal, of Philadelphia; 
Charles Eisenman, of Cleveland; Daniel Guggenheim, of New York; 
Ephraim Lederer, of Philadelphia; Simon Miller, of Philadelphia; 
Sigmund B. Sonneborn, of Baltimore; Harris Weinstock, of Sacra- 
mento. 

Honorary Vice-Presidents (for three years): Rev. Dr. Max 
Heller, of New Orleans; Miss Ella Jacobs, of Philadelphia; Rev. Dr. 
Martin A. Meyer, of San Francisco; Hon. Simon W. Rosendale, of 
Albany; Rev. Dr. Joseph Stolz, of Chicago. 

The Secretary was instructed to cast a unanimous ballot of the 
meeting for the nominees, and the Chairman declared them duly 
elected. 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 423 

AMENDMENT TO BY-LAWS 

The following amendment to the By-Laws was presented and 
unanimously ad(H)ted: 

Amend Article II, Section I, of the By-Laws by Inserting the 
word " March " in place of " May," and the word " January " in 
place of " March." 

The Article as amended now reads: "The annual meeting of 
this Society shall be held in the month of March, the day of such 
meeting to be fixed by the Directorg at their meeting in the 
previous January." 

Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, of New York, was then introduced by the 
Chairman as the speaker of the evening, and delivered the follow- 
ing address: 

ADDRESS OF MR. JACOB H^ SCHIFF 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I thank you for your kind invitation at this time to appear before the 
members of the Jewish Publication Society, for i assure you It is one of the 
societies In which I am very deeply Interested. 

This, I believe, Is the city where, as It has been claimed recently, Jews 
have become degraded, because they have declined to flock to the banner of 
the agitators who are endeavoring to corral the Jews of the United States 
Into one compact political body, and who, under the plea that the leaders 
among the Jewish people must henceforth be named by a congress, elected 
upon a democratic basis, have evidently no other purpose than to grasp 
power and to bring Jewish destiny under the control of a handful of men 
whose interest In true Judaism is not very far-reaching, and who are Jews 
only for questionable nationalistic machinations. 

Well have you done, my friends of the Philadelphia Jewish community, 
not to have listened to the siren song by which it was sought to bring you 
down from the high plane that Philadelphia Jews have occupied ever since 
the American people became established as a nation. 

I need not go back to the days of Hyam Solomon, the Franks, the Gratzs, 
and of the many other illustrious Philadelphia Jews, whose names are 
recorded as no mean part of the history of the nation, as made in the 
glorious days of the War of Independence. I prefer to speak of the more 
modern times which have brought forth the men whom we are proud to call 
our contemporaries, and who have done so much to make Philadelphia the 
rock upon the foundation of which has been built American Jewish life, 
both in Its conservative and more liberal aspects, free from the cant and 
danser which in our days unfortunately tend to undermine true Judaism. 

It would be out of place if I spoke here of your many local Jewish 
altruistic institutions, though in many respects these have become a model 
for philanthropic work of our co-rellglonlsts throughout the country. I 
prefer to limit myself to-night, as I properly should, to make passing refer- 
ence to the important Jewish cultural institutions, more or •less national 
In their aspects, to which Philadelphia has given birth, the Hebrew 
Education Society, Gratz College, Dropsie College, and the Jewish Publica- 
tion Society, the annual meeting of the latter of which brings us here 
to-night. 

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424 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 

I well remember the days, more tban a quarter of a century ago, in the 
late eighties, when the Publication Soqiety was established. I remember 
the struggles of its founders and earlier directors to sufficiently stimulate 
the Interest of American Jews so as to enable the Society to carry out the 
purposes for which It had been called Into existence. I remember the days 
when, more than two decades ago, the first efforts were made to publish an 
English version of the Bible under the Society's auspices, which received 
such scant encouragement that the project, if not entirely abandoned, had 
to lay dormant for many years. You, energetic and good men of the 
Publication Society, maintained, however, your courage, and the great 
project, though dormant, was not permitted to die, until, in recent years, 
with the self-sacrificing co-operation of great Jewish scholars, whom you 
succeeded In uniting for the carrying out of the Bible translation, you have 
accomplished the great task you had undertaken, and are about to present 
to the world, and to the American people In particular, the Bible of the 
Jew in pure and modern English, by which earlier versions are to some ex- 
tent characterized. 

You have also made, In co-operation with great Jewish scholars, sub- 
stantial and considerable progress In the reproduction in modern English 
of the ** Jewish Classics," a series which I feel assured will upon its publi- 
cation become epoch-making, unlocking, as It Is destined to do, a treasure- 
house of knowledge and wisdom — the key to which has until now been 
possessed only by the select — to the multitude, both of our own people and 
the Gentile world. 

I shall not here endeavor to speak in detail of the other achievements of 
your Society in supplying, through its many publications, the American 
Jewish people with well-selected literature produced by our people, both in 
earlier and in modern times. Suffice it to say that if the Society had done 
no more than to produce and distribute Graetz's History of the Jews, the 
Bible about to be published, the " Jewish Classics," which will make their 
appearance before long, those who have earlier guided and those who are 
now guiding the destinies of the Jewish Publication Society would have 
deserved the lasting gratitude of this and coming Jewish generations, for 
they are the men through whose untiring labor the love of the Jew in 
America, at least of the English-speaking and reading Jew, for the history, 
folk-lore, and literature of his people has been reawakened, and is being 
kept alive. 

More than ever Is It important In these times that the Jewish Publica- 
tion Society be strengthened and maintained in undiminished activity, and 
that its managers be enabled not only to continue, but to extend and In- 
crease its work In many directions. 

Conditions In Eastern countries have brought to our shores during past 
decades great numbers of our co-religionists speaking a Jargon of their 
own to which they are tenaciously clinging. With the termination of the 
terrible conflict now raging In Europe, and which God give may come soon. 
It is not unlikely that very considerable numbers of our hard-driven co- 
religionists in the war zones will have to seek happier homes within our 
borders. The coming of these brethren Imposes the duty upon us, who call 
ourselves American Jews, to make every opportunity for these, our people, 
and In particular for their offspring, so that they may become acquainted 
with, and initiated into, the language and the ways of our country. Yid- 
dish is not a modern language, if a real language at all, and can have no 
future in America. It is true, the older generation of Immigrants have 

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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 425 



been brought up in it, and have spoken It in the countries they have 
emigrated from, but the childern of these immigrants, who are either born 
here or come here at a tender age, and who go to the public schools, will 
not find Yiddish sympathetic ; they will avoid speaking it and reading it, 
even if they hear it in their homes, and this second generation will adopt 
the language of the public schools and of their comrades. To this posterity 
of the immigrant from Eastern lands, the Jewish Publication Society need 
give its particular attention in the program its managers map out for it 
hereafter. Upon these younger people it must seek to get a hold through 
its publications, so that, notwithstanding the materialism which in this 
country so readily engulfs youths, these young people may have opportuni- 
ties to continue to study and read in modern garb the wonderful and 
grand literature which has been produced by Jewish sages and writers 
during all ages, and which has ever been, and should continue to be, the 
backbone of our people, if we are to maintain the proud and significant 
title the world has willingly given us, that of " The People of the Book." 
You men who are guiding the Jewish Publication Society with such 
thorough understanding, you men who are leaders in Israel, whom we seek 
and honor, I feel assured will be equal to the demands modern Israel will 
make upon your Society in the future, as you have so well understood to 
successfully perform it In the years that are behind us. God bless your 
work, and give you the strength you will need in its fulfillment. 

On motion of Mr. Eiphraim Liederer, of Philadelphia, the meet- 
ing unanimously expressed its sincere regret at Miss Henrietta ' 
Szold's resignation as Secretary to the Publication Committee, and 
at the same time the meeting placed on record its high appreciation 
of the great service Miss Szold has rendered to the Society since 
its formation. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

I. Geoboe Dobsevage, 

Secretary. 



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426 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
APRIL 30, 1916 

ASSETS 

Cash in Bank $406.73 

Cash on Hand 100.00 

$506.73 

Dues Receivable 10,218.34 

Sales Receivable 28,829.20 

Income Receivable from Investm'ts 1,447.09 

40,494.63 

Inventories 15,533.95 

Prepaid Insurance 36.67 

Advances to Authors 400.00 

• Advances to Salesmen 591.24 

16,561.86 

Fixed Assets ( Invested) 99,776.20 

Total Assets — $157,339.42 

LIABILITIES 

Accounts Payable $5,009.29 

Reserve for Book Deliveries 5,834.56 

Loeb Fund 10,483.33 

Life Membership Fund 8,325.00 

Bible Fund 33,745.79 

Classics Fund 53,537.27 

Capital 40,404.18 

Total Liabilities $157,339.42 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 427 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR 
YEAR ENDING APRIL 30. 1916 

Balance on Hand May 1, 1915 $556.99 

Receipts: 

Members' Dues $34,721.66 

Sales of Books 19,600.04 

Income from Investments 5,126.36 

Sale of Investment Securities 7,803.72 

Miscellaneous 1,970.00 

69,221.78 

$69,778.77 
Disbursements: 

Salesmen's Commission and Expenses.. $15,832.85 

Publications 29,847.23 

Donation Expenditures (Bible and 

Classics) 6,898.57 

Salaries 5,949.16 

General Expenditures 10,244.23 

Loeb Fund Series 500.00 

69,272.04 



Cash Balance in Bank April 30, 1916 $506.73 



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428 AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



INVESTMENTS AS AT APRIL 30, 1916 
Bonds and Notes Par value Cost value 
9 Electric and People's Traction Com- 
pany, 4 per cent $9,000.00 $8,972.50 

1 Lehigh Valley Cons. Mort. Loan, 

iV2 per cent 1,000.00 1,000.00 

1 Lehigh Valley Cons. Mort Loan, 

4% per cent 1,000.00 1,030.00 

30 City of Phila. Coupon, 4 per cent., 

due 1939 30,000.00 30,075.00 

2 City of Phila. Coupon, 4 per cent., 

due 1939 2,000.00 2,005.00 

2 City of Phila. Coupon, 4 per cent., 

due 1939 2,000.00 2,007.50 

1% City of Phila. Coupon, 4 per cent, 

due 1942 1,500.00 1,505.62 

15,000 Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 5 per cent, 

due 1918 15,000.00 15,018.75 

11,000 Long Island R. R. Refund, 4 per 

cent 11,000.00 9,971.20 

25,000 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 25,000.00 24,690.63 

Mortgages 

No. 2200 Woodstock Street, Philadelphia.... 2,200.00 2,200.00 

No. 2221 Carlisle Street Philadelphia 1,300.00 1.300.00 

Total $101,900.00 $99,776.20 

The cash and securities have been examined and found correct. 

Adolph Eichholz, 
Edwabd Loeb. 
Philadelphia, May 5, 1916. 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



429 



STATEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico , . , . 

New York 

North Carolina 



81 

23 
102 
257 

30 
363 

54 

65 

23 

112 

1 

861 

201 

92 

28. 
161 
151 

45 
431 
783 
318 
139 

82 

366 

4 

25 
1 

11 
786 

22 
3,182 

85 



North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma . . . 
Oregon 



16 

996 

48 

35 

Pennsylvania 2,315 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Alaska 

Australia 

Belgium 

British West Indies. . . 

Canada 

Cuba 

Egypt 

England 

France 

Germany 

Portugal 

Russia 

South Africa 



87 

85 

1 

162 

343 

17 

1 

138 

55 

55 

64 

1 

47 

1 

5 

334 

3 

2 

40 

2 

4 

1 

1 

78 



Life Members 

Patrons 

Library Members 
Special Members . 
Annual Members 



Total 13,822 

52 

27 

125 

693 

12,925 



Total 13,822 



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430 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Alabama 



MEMBERS 



ALABAMA 



Andaluila 



Berman, I. 



Birmingham 

Special Member 

Caheen, P. & S., 2705 Highland Av. 

Annual Members 
Abramson, H. 
Emanu EI Congr. Sunday School, 

2150 16th Ay. S. 
Friedman, J., 2126 16th Av. S. 
Goldstein. D. B., 1630 8th Av. N. 
Gross, BenJ. S., 1321 Av. I 
Gnisin, S. H., 1620 11th Av. N. 
Jacobs, Bertram 

Loeb, Leopold, 3053 Highland Av. 
Loveman, Jos. H., 12 Fairvlew Circle 
Newfleld, Rabbi M.. 2150 16th Av. S. 
Phillips, I., 2019 Quinlan 
Pizitz, Louis, 3425 Highland Av. 
Rich, David, 1222 S. 12th 
Saks, Herman, 2167 Highland A \ 
Shapiro, I., 421 Brown-Marx Isidg. 
Steiner. Leo K., 2173 Highland Av. 
Sterne, Roy M., 1916 Av. H 

Demopolit 
Folda, Louis 

Gadsden 
Zemurray, Isadore 

Huntiville 
Cohen, Leo P., Box 342 
Heymann, Dr. C. H. 
Levy, Saml. H. 
Marx, Gustave 
Metzger, A. , 
Wind, Isidore, 302 Franklin 

Mobile 
Special Member 
Hammel, Julius, Battle House 

Annual Members 
Bear, E. M., 106 S. Hamilton 
Bloch, Monroe D^ 261 N. Royal 
Brown, Leo M.. Box 764 
Cohen, H., Davis Av. 
Feibelman, H. U., 508 Van Antwerp 
Bldg. 



Hess, Henry, 19 S. Water 
Jacoby, M., 266 Bearogard 
Kahn, B., 250 Church 
Levy, A. Q,, Box 923 
Lubel, H., 5 N. Cedar 
Moses, Rabbi Alfred G., 407 Conti 
Schwartz, I., 614 Dauphine 
Schwarz, Leon, 507 Church 
Shaarai Shomayim Sabbath School 



Montgomery 



rry 



Montgomery Menorah Society 
Rice, Saml., 61 Sayre 
Simon, Herman, 21 Clayton 
Steinhart, B., 9 Wilkinson 
Stem. P. H., 545 S. McDonough 
Vickers, Thos., 523 Montgomery 
Weil, Bert. C, 720 S. Lawrence 
Weil, Harry, 401 S. Perry 
Weil, Leonard, 802 S. Perry 

Selma 
Kahn, A. G., 503 Selma Av. 
Meyer, M. J., 516 Dallas Av. 
Mishkan Israel Sabbath School 
Schuster, BenJ. J. 

Talladega 
Frenkel, S. H., Box 474 

Tuscaloosa 
Saks, Joseph 
Sterman, L. 
Wiesel, Mrs. Saml. 

Tuscumbia 
Kohn, Herman 
Perry, Harry 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



431 



Doufflai 
Aronwald, A., 801 G Av. 
Kline, Mose, Box 434 
Margosin, Philip, 825 G Av. 
Stolaroff, F. 



Phoenix 
Baewltz, Henry 

Curtis, Earl S., 53 W. Lynwood 
Diamond, I^ Boston Store 
Bdelman, Herman 
Friedman, N., 1720 N. Center 
Goldman, Leo 
Levy, Jos. M.. 1018 N. 1st Av. 



ABIZOKA Arizona 

Marks. Barnett B., 16 N. 10th Av. 
Michelson, S. J., 375 N. 1st Av. 
Talney, Dave, 841 B. Washington 
Wolfe, I. F., 1409 N. Center 

Tucson 

Bloom, D. W., 414 S. 3d Av. 
' Friedman, B., Box 224 
Goldschmidt, Leo, The Owls 
Goldtree, Isidor 
Jacobs, J. M., Box K 
Jacobs, Lionel M., 187 W. Alameda 
Levy, Leo L., Box 502 
Solomon, Chas. F. 
Steinfeld, Albert 



Argenta 
Riff, H. D. 

Brlnkley 
Lamm, Jacob 
Scholem, Isidor 
Wolf, Henry 

Camden 
Special Mbmbeks 
Berg, Leo, Stinson & Berg 
Felsenthal, D. 

Annual Member 
PhUlips, Frank 

Forrest City 
Barnett, Louis, Box 684 
Burd, Sam W. 
Levy, G. 

Fort Smith 
Cohen, Louis 
Cohn, Wm. N. 
Eisen, Leon 
Isaacson, I. 
Kaufman, H. 
Langfelder, L. 
Mincer, Hiram 
Ney, Rudolph 
Stein. Benno 
Wolf, Ben 

Helena 

Altman, G. G., 1202 Perry 
Fink, Jacob 

Mundt, Selig L., 1198 Perry 
Peiper, Rabbi Saml., 509 Beech 
Seelig, B., 802 Columbia 
Solomon, D., 727 Poplar 



ARKAKSA8 

Solomon, Jos. L. 
Solomon, L., Beech St. 
Weiner, M. 

Holly Grove 
Abramson, B. 
Geronin, S. 

Hot Springs 

Gartenberg, P., 806 Orange 

House of Israel Congr. Sabbath Sch*l 

Rhine, Rabbi A. B., 315 W. Grand 

Av. 
Roth, E. N. 
Strauss, Gus 

Jonesboro 
Berger, B. H., 1015 S. Main 
Grossman. Chas. 

Heineman, ^rs. J., 223 E. Wash- 
ington 
Hill, Martin J., 505 W. Washington 
Meyer, Max 
Rosenfield, S. 

Little Rook 

Special Mbmbebs 
Cohn, Morris M., 1001 W. 2d 
Frauenthal, Hon. Saml. 

Annual BiEMBBRS 

Abeles Chas. T., 1423 Louisiana 
Back, Wm., 201 B. 15th 
B*ne Israel Congr. Sabbath School 
Cohn, Hattie M., 921 W. Capital A v. 
Cohn, Mark H., Abeles Apt. 
Daniel, Dan, 909 Cumberland 
Frank, Aaron, 1009 W. 2d 
Frong, A., 516% W. 6th 
Gans, Sol, 1010 W. 3d 

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432 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Arkaniaa Helman, Max, c/o Guss Blass Co. 
Jacobson, Chas, 2101 Gains 
Lasker, Harry, 707 W. 5th 
Lasker, Henry, 201 Prospect Av. 
Lasker, Myron S., 813 W. 3d 
Lyons, Jos_y Mnrlon Hotel 
Narinsky, S., 515 Rock 
Sanders, Mrs. M. B., 21st & Gains 
Sanders, M. B.« 1222 Cumberland 
Stifft Mrs. Chas. S., 1302 Scott 
Storthz, Saml., 1022 W. 6th 
Strauss, Dr. A. W., 201 W. 14th 
Tenenbaum, A., 1409 Cumberland 
Thalheimer, Mrs. F., 1006 W. 6th 
Witt, Rabbi Louis, 1022 W. 6th 

Harianna 
Gilberg, H. 
Lesser, Morris 
Wagner, Ell G. 

Harvell 
Hanft, Morris 
Hirsch, Ludwig 
Krow, Ira 
Manheimer, I. 
Weintraub, A. E. 



McGehee 



Hyam, L. H. 



Faragould 
Bertig, Mrs. A. 
Bertig, Mrs. Sol, 514 W. Main 
Wolf, I. D., 210 Main 



Pine Bluff 
Anshe Emeth Sabbath School 
Bairn, S., 126 Main 
Bernath, Henry, 218 S. Laurel 
Bluthenthal, Adolph, 713 Wash 
Dryfus, Isaac, 510 Main 
Flnkelstein, N., 221 W. 14th 
Franklin, D. L., 420 Pine 
Frong, Louis, 224 Main 
Goldweber, A., 413 Main 
Gurdin, N., 300 Main 
Levine, Sam M., 1200 W. 2d 
Marks, Henry, 1020 Barrque 
Reinberger, Irving, 904 Main 
Rosenzweig, Mrs. Wm., 717% W. 2d 
Strauss. Alex, 709 W. 3d 
Weil, Chas., 112 W. Barrque 



Tezarkana 
Baron, A., 709 E. Broad 
Sandberger, M., 805 State Line Av. 
Scherer, Julius, 504 Beech 
Scherer, Marx, 622 Beech 



California CALIFORNIA 

Bakersfleld Olendale 

Cohn, Irving, 2406 G Goldstein, Saml. H., 717 W. 5th 

Eastern Drug Co., The, 1326 19th 

Farbstein, Jacob, 1304 19th Imperial 

Lichtensteln, Mrs. M. M.. 2715 20th Shpisman, C, Imperial Av. 



Berkeley 
., 2741 Dw^ 
Popper, Dr. Wm., 2326 Russel 



Marks, S. M., 2741 Dwight Way 



Burlingame 
Feldman, A., 1211 Bayswater Av. 



Colton 



King. Sadie 



Folsom 
Wahrhaftlg, P. S., Route 1 

Fresno 
Einstein, Louis. 1600 M 

Fruitvale 
Whlrlow, Mrs. H., 2437 Delmar Av. 



Lot Angeles 
Life Member 
Gross, David, 544 S. Hobart 

Special Members 
Aronson, S., 3325 Wilshire Blvd. 
Brown, Isidore, 1819 W. 11th 
Fink, Albert, 3461 2d Av. 
Hellman, Irving H., 674 Catalina 
Hellman, M. S., 2225 Harvard Blvd. 
Hillkowitz, S., 630 E. 9th 
Isaacs, L., 923 Lake 
Loewenthal, Max, 1833 S. Flower 
Raphael, I., 615 S. Bonnie Brae 
Raphael, R. H., 1353 Alvarado Ter. 

Annual Members 
Abel, Jacob. 114 S. Spring 
Bakerman, Dr. B., 234 Higgfns Bldg. 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



433 



Bearman, W. W., 1656 Rockwood 
Bekinstein, Morris, 1546 E. Adams 
Benioff, S., 745 S. JBway. 
Bernstein, B. B., 1007 S. Union Av. 
Blass, Dr. Leo, 527 W. Temple 
Breitstein, Morris, 224 S. Spring 
Cahn» Henry S., 629 S. Norton Av. 
Cohen, B., 430 S. Bway. 
Cole, Louis M., 3240 Wilsliire Blvd. 
Cushner, Chas. I., 229 N. Soto 
Dannis, Sam B., 901 California Bldg. 
David, Geo., 609 N. Jefferson 
Deutsch, Jacob, 236 N. Main 
Deutsch, M., 236 N. Main 
Edelman, Dr. D. W., 1018 Elden Av. 
Plnkelstein, Benj. L., 205 W. 1st 
Finkelstein, M. J., 312 California 

Bldg. 
Fishkin, S., 826 W. Slanson 
Pram, Harry, 1104 B. 22d 
Friedman, Wm., 124 W. Ist 
Gerecht, tSi. F., 418 Fay Bldg. 
Glassman. Benj., 901 W. 11th 
Goldschmldt, M., 2104 Harvard 

Blvd. 
Goldsten, M^1322 B. 143d 
Greenberg, Chas., 2097 W. 29th PI. 
Greene, Jos., 1018 S. Lake 
Groman, Lou, 532 S. Bway. 
Haber, P. R., 1742 Westmoreland 
Hackel, A. W., 1006 Overton 
Hecht, Rev. Dr. fi., 817 Beacon 
Hollzer, H. A., 2322 Juliet 
Hurwitz, P., 223 Hewett 
Immerman, A., 2616% N. Bway. 
Isenstein, Chas.. 416 S. Main 
Isenstein, P., 245 S. Thomas 
Jacobson, S., 315 S. Brond 
Jonas, Jos. L., 953 Arapahoe 
Kahn, P., 208 N. Granada 
Kingsbacker, B., 1617 S. Figueroa 
Komblum, M. S., 966 Westmoreland 
Lappin, M., 2226 Brooklyn Av. 
Lazard, Dr. E. M., 332 S. Kinsley 

Drive 
Levin, L., 936 Cottage PI. 
Lewinsohn, J. L., 6205 Berends Av. 
Liknaitz, Rev. D.. 12th & Valencia 
Lissner, Dr. H. H., 2156 S. Hobart 

Blvd. 
Los Angeles Lodge, No. 487, I. O. 

B. B., 711 W. 17th 
Los Angeles Public Library 
Lubork, Miss J., 1940 Brooklyn Av. 
Lyon, Raphael, 532 N. Temple 
Magnin. Edgar F., nth & Hope 
Malickson, Ben, 613 S. Olive 
Marcus, A., 2632 N. Bway. 
Marks, D. H., 118 W. 64th 
Marshutz, S. G., 227 W. 7th 
Medway, M., 1422 E. 17th 



Moses, Jos., 124 E. 1st California 

Moses, Marks, 1227 E. 25th 
Newmark, Marco R., 977 Arapahoe 
Newmark, S. M., 627 Kingsley Drive 
Norton, Isaac, 604 Title Ins. Bldg. 
Perluzcky, Jos. I., 424 W. 49th 
Pittler. I., 2525 Malbara 
Radowitz, H. L., 519 W. 9th 
Reich, Mrs. Jacob, 1616 Winfield 
Schireson, Sidney, 418% Victor 
Silverberg, Dr. H. M., 706 Haas 

Bldg. 
Sinai Sabbath Sch'l, 12th & Valencia 
Sklar, J. S., 940 Cottage PI. 
Weisbart, L., 2008 Brooklyn Av. 
Weisbaum, Harry L. ** Rex Arms ** 
Werne, Rev. Dr. I., 227 N. Olive 

Subscriber 
Lutkemeyer, Ed., 217 W. 59th PI. 



Cheim, H. 



MarysviUe 



Henlo Park 
Special Member 
Walter, Clarence P. 

Oakland 
Special Members 

Abrahamson, Henry, 1444 San Pablo 

Av. 
Kahn, Fred'k, 673 Walsworth Av. 
Lavenson, A. S., 657 Walsworth Av. 
Schneider, Morris N., 348 Grand Av. 

Annual Members 
Goldwater, M., 358 Grand Av. 
Jonas, Abraham, Hotel Oakland 
Oakland Lodge, No. 252, I. O. B. B. 
Rothenberg, Louis, 567 30th 
Samuels, Dr. H. J., Central Bk. Bldg. 
Schary, Edward, 834 16th 
Silverstein, Bernard, Dunsmur Apts. 
Smith, W., 425 Bellevue Av. 
Wollin, I., 170 10th 

Ocean Park 
Klingstein, Wm. 

Oroville 

Asher, S. 

Oxnard 
Cohn, David 
Lehmann, L 

Ked lands 
Saulson, Wm., 901 W. Olive Av. 



23 



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434 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



California Koil 

SIoss, Mrs. Max C. 

Sacramento 
Abramowitz, Wm., 1322 P 
Bloomberg Bros., 1021 2d 
BoDheim, Albert, 105 M 
Elkus, Albert, 9th & K 
Fried, Rev. Michael, 1905 O 
Garflnkle, Leo, 1024 J 
Lovich, I., 1416 11th 
Lubin, S. J., 1142 Cutter 
Ossry, D., 15th & J 
Wahrhanig, M. S., 1611 17th 

San Bernardino 
Cohn, C, Court & B 

San Diego 
Blnnard, Morris, 1902 Robinson Av. 
Blochman, L. A., 3260 1st 
Cohen, Rev. M. N. A^ Box 286 
Frank, Saul B., 522 21st 
Meyer, M. E., 5th & H 
Rosenthal, A., 5th & Grape 
Sobel Leopold, 1403 30th 
Weinberger, Dr. Jos., Hotel Barstow 
Wolf, Hyman S., 915 25th 

San Francisco 
Life Members 
Ehrman, M., 2618 Jackson 
Jacobs, Isidor, 2018 Webster 
Levi, Jr., c/o H. Levi Co. 
Lilienthal, E. R., Stanford Ct. Apts. 
Meyer, D., 212 Pine 
Neustadter, Mrs. J. H., Hotel St. 

Francis 
Rosenthal, I. L., 1964 Pacific Av. 
Scherline, S., 1431 Leavenworth 
Toklas, Ferdinand 
Weinstock, Harris, 19 Presidio Ter. 
WIel, Louis P. 
Wiell, Raphaei 

LiBRABY Members 
Goldstein, Alex.. 16 California 
Gordon, Raphael, 444 1st Ave. 

Special BIembebs 
Anspacher, Philip, Hotel EI Drlsco 
Anspacher. Simon, 2604 Pacific Av. 
Bleadon, C. L., 163 Douglas 
B'nai B'rith Library, 149 Eddy 
Koshland, M. S., 3800 Washington 
Levison. J. B., 2420 Pacific 
Levy, Miss Amelia, 2315 Webster 
Miller, L., 106 6th 
Newman, Juda, 1980 Jackson 



Sinsheimer, Henry, 110 Market 
Walter, Isaac N., 1803 Franklin 
Welsskopf, S., Union Trust Co. 



Annual Members 



I Av. 
iv. 



reck- 



Fleishhacker, Herbert, 1 Sansom 
Flournoy, Mrs. J.,, 2299 Sacramento 
Gabriel, Seymour, 349 14th Av. 
Goldman, Helm, 307 Mills Bldg. 
Goldtree, M. N., 253 16th Av. 
Gottlieb, Dr. A., 1198 O'Farrell 
Greenebaum, E., 3620 Clay 
Gruhn, J. M., 1916 Pine 
Harrison, Mrs. R. C, 1405 Vaness 

Av. 
Heinberg, J. A., 24 California 
Heller, E. S., Nevada Bank Bldg. 
Hepburn, Miss Daisy, 1125 Filbert 
Herzberg, Saml. A., 1713a Eddy 
Hyman, Jos., 1916 California 
Jacobi. J. J., 2856 Pacific Av. 
Kahn, Hon. Julius, 2712 Webster 
Katschinski, B., 611 Oak 
Kletz, Chas., 833 Market 
Kuhn, Saml., 2036 Hyde 
Langer, Saml., 600 Devisadero 
Lerer, Jos., 3167 23d 
Lesser, A. M., 877 Market 
Levison, Harry, 134 Presidio Av. 
Levitt, S., 406 30th 
Levy, Meyer H., 436 O'Farrell 
Lyons, H. J., 1155 Devisadero 
Martin, Mrs. Rabia A., 1508 Leaven- 
worth 
Meyer, Rev. Dr. M. A.. 2109 Baker 
Miner, Mrs. Rebecca, 1125 Filbert 
Morris, J., 167 Commonwealth Av. 



24 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



435 



Musin, E. H.p 106 Ord 
Ordenstein, Max, 2131 Devisadero 
Oser, M., 165 Post 
Peixotto, Edgar D., 3956 Wash, 
Rablnowitz, J^ 1714 Stelner 
Ramon, Miss Hazel, 1810 Eddy 
Bapken, M. A., 2443 Sutter 
Redllch, Henry, 1264 Page 
Kinder, Rev. R., 1809 Bway 
Ringolsky, G. C, 3d & Market 
Rosen wasser, Rev. Dr. H., Hotel 

Bristol 
Rothchild, J. M., St. Francis Hotel 
Sapiro, A. L., First Natl. Bk. Bldg. 
Savannah, M., Warrington Apts. 
Schloss, Ben., 226 16th Av. 
Schwabacher, L. A., Hotel St. 

Francis 



Santa Ana California 

Hurwitz, Sam!., 515 E. 2d 

Santa Rosa 
Rosenberg, Max, 511 B 
Trachman, Dr. H. J., 801 Humboldt 

Sierra Hadre 
Schlesinger, T. 

Stockton 
Arndt, S. M., 1581 N. San Joaquin 
Cohen, Albert E., The Sterling 
Davidson, H. B., 945 S. Center 
Gunzendorfer. F., 432 B. Main 
Katz, Dr. H. H., 105 E. Main 
Ryhim Ahoovim Congr. Sabbath 

School 
Stein, M. P. 



Visalia 
Levis, Leon 

W. Berkeley 
Subscriber 
McCourtney, Mrs. T. 

Yolo 
Borach, B. 



COLORADO 



Colorado 



Denver 
Anfenger, M. L, Symes Bldg. 
B. M. H. Teachers* Assn., 2211 High 
Bitterman. Simon, 951 Humboldt 
Bresler, Simon L, 1570 Pearl 
Drechsler, Dr. Wm., 535 Mack Bldg. 
Eisner, Dr. Jno., 1014 14th 
Fox, Michael, c/o Y. M. C. A., 16th 

& Lincoln 
Frankle, H., 1249 Humboldt 
Friedman, Rev. W. S., 733 E. 8th 

Av. 
Frumess, H. H., 1220 Clayton 
Friedenwald, Dr. H., 1032 Clarkson 
Halpern, N., 1215 Foster 
Harrison, J. H., Box 503 
Hillkowitz, Dr. P.. 1376 Madison 
Jaffa, Jos. S., 811 Continental Bldg. 
Kahn, Saml. E., 1255 Humboldt 
Kauvar, Rabbi C. H.. 2211 High 
Krohn, Dr. M. J., 2780 W. Colfax 

Av. 
Levy, Max M., 2011 Arapahoe 



Levy, Dr. Robt, 1528 Ogden 
Lovlns, J. A., 2301 Champa . 
Meyers, I. B., 2609 Humboldt 
Monash, Edward, Metropole Hotel 
Morris, Ernest, 811 Symes Bldg. 
National Jewish Hospital for Con- 
sumptives, 3800 B. Colfax Av. 
Shere, Dr. O. M., 1443 Adams 
Spivak, Dr. C. D., 1421 Court PI. 
Taussig, A. S., 305 Gilpin 
Trattner, Ernest, 2622 La Fayette 

Av. 
Zwetow, Saml. R., 1230 16th 

Edgewater 
Isidore Hnrwltz Library 
Marshak, Dr. M. I. 

Trinidad 
Katz. Hirsh J. 
Sanders, Leopold 
Strasburg, Max, 105 W. Main 



25 



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436 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Connecticut 



OONNEOTIGXrr 



Ansonia 
AaronsoD, A. S., 94 S. Cliff 
Bellin, H. G., 493 Main 
Yale, Rubin, 549 Main 

Bridgeport 
Bernstein, Saml., 643 E. Main 
Blume, Dr. Wm. J., 835 Colorado 

Av. 
Brody, Saml., 143 Parrott Av. 
Cohen, Frank S., 489 E. Main 
Cohen, Jacob, 153 Beach 
Feuer, David, 478 Water 
Pinicelstone, Lawrence S., 87 James 
Plamm, J., 1128 Fairfield Av. 
Greensteln. Dr. M. J., 88 Tremont 
Hart, Dr. B. I., 324 Hood Av. 
Hebrew Boys' Club, 153 Beach 
Hirsch, Marcus, 670 E. Main 
Horwitz, Dr. M. T.. 605 Union Av. 
Klein, J. B.. 223 Laurel Av. 
Kornblut, Louis A.. 54 Grove 
Kotler, Rev. H., 479 E. Main 
Lubin, I., 499 Water 
Mellitz, Saml.. 274 Spruce 
Moss, Isaac, 1309 Fairfield Av. 
O'Brien, Alfred S., 971 Wood Av. 
Reckel, H., 279 Sterling 
Schurr, Harry, 166 Pembroke 
Scott, Theresa, 1597 Park Av. 
Shapiro, Chas. H., 493 Fairfield Av. 
Slotnick, Saml., 1117 Kossuth 
Solomon, Joseph, 1310 Park A v. 
Steiber, Theodore S., 346 State 
Wainer, Ida Ruth, 1368 Pembroke 
Weis, Julius S., 83 Fairfield Av. 
Weiss, Leopold, 1438 Main 
Winter,. Wm., 1200 Kossuth 
Wittenstein, Rabbi Wm., 91 Barnum 

Av 

Colchester 
Blum, B., Box 17 
Cohen Bros., Box 194 
Cohen, H. 
Eleart, H. 
GeTlert, Saml. 

Jaffe, Abram, R. F. D. No. 1 
Kantrowitz, Rabbi A., Box 187 
Klingon, Moses 
Mintz, H. 
Stern, Saml. L. 

Danbury 
Benigson, H. B., 3 Tower PI. 
Cohen, Max, 55 Maple Av. 
Daitz, Henry I., Jr., 32 Hoyt 
Dick, Harry, 47 Balinforth Av. 
Dick, Henry, 7 Deloy 



Frohman, A., 69 Balinforth Av. 
Heyman, H. J., 63 Rose 
Jacobs, R. W., 90 Elm 
Krakow, R., 58 White 
Landsman, Nathan, 67 West 
Lewis, Hannah, 193 Main 
Pollack, J. G.. 45 Pleasant 
Sp^ro, Nathan 
Stone, Wm., Terrace PI. 
Susnitzky, A., 75 West 
Susnitzky, Harold, 16 Center 
Tasch, Saml. W., 99 Deer Hill 
Wengrow, Irving, 80 Spring 

Derby 
Bennett, L., 187 Main 
Cerowitz, M., 199 Elizabeth 
Cohen, Meyer, 138 Olivia 

Hartford 
Special Members 
Elmer, Solomon, 277 Windsor Av. 
Herrup, Solomon R., 100 Windsor 
Katz, Louis H., 6 Florence 
Lyon, B.. 140 Warrington Av. 
Wise, Isidore, 810 Prospect Av. 

Annual Members 
Abramson, Morris, 12 Magnolia 
Bashlow, S., 1162 Main 
Baumstein, Solomon, 67 Whitmore 
Beckanstein, E. I., 344 Albany Av. 
Berman, Saul, 70 Windsor Av. 
Bordon, A. S., 318 Conn. Mut. Bldg. 
Cantarow, Dr. D., 73 Windsor Av. 
Cohn, Elias, 32 Kennedy 
Dragat, Harris, 52 Wooster 
Epstein, Herman I., 289 Sargeant 
Ettelson, Rev. Harry W., 121 vine 
Falk, Morris S., 27 Pleasant 
Finesilver. Nathan H., 333 Capen 
Finkel, Saml. K., 58 Bellevue 
Finkelstein, A. A., Box 410 
Finkelstein, Frank, 178 State 
Fischer, Dr. A., 149 Windsor Av. 
Freedman, Jos. My, 1026 Main 
Gaberman, Louis Y., 50 State 
Glassman, Geo. M., 241 Franklin Av. 
Goldberg, I. B., 1109 Main 
Golden thai, M., 159 Affleck 
Goldstein. J., 207 Maple Av. 
Greenberg, Leon, 190 Trumbull 
Greenspun, Frank, 71 Portland 
Gross, Norman, 2d Winthrop 
Harris, Herman, 94 Hudson 
Hartman, Emanuel M., 211 CoUini 
Hartman, Saml^ 231 State 
Heilpern, Jos. S., 287 Sargeant 
Herrup, Saml. B., 44 Mahl Av. 



26 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



437 



Hoffenberg, Jos. A., 16 Village 
Hoffman, Abraham, 35 Brook 
Hoffsan, Philip, 177 Zion 
Hurwitz, Dr. H. M., 70 Windsor Av. 
JainchiU, J., 27 Morgan 
Joseph, Henry, 58 Elmer 
Katz, Abraham A., 80 Pleasant 
Katz, J., 21 Winthrop 
Kolodney, Ralph, 13 Hungerford 
Kopelman, Jos. I., 28 Winthrop 
Kopplemann, H. P., 83 Canton 
Lamlanslcy, Goodman, 150 Capen 
Levin, H., 33 Congress 
Levin, Dr. Herman, 362 Vine 
Levine. Dr. Sinclair S., 69 Windsor 
Levy, H. P., 96 Main 
Levy, Josiah W.. 904 Main 
Levy, S., 36 Grand 
Lewltt, Dr. Abr., 71 Windsor Av. 
Liftig, Dr. M. D.. 112 Windsor A v. 
MalsTer, Max. 378 Windsor Av. 
Meister, R., Box 810 
Melrose, Henry, 26 Kennedy 
Mitniek Bros., 9 John 
Older, Morris, 47 Mahl Av. 
Poriss, R., 128 Bellevue 
Porris, I., 322 Maple A v. 
Rabinoff, Geo. W., 9 Pleasant 
Rabinowitz, Frank, 17 Suffleld 
Rivkin, M. S., 50 Magnolia 
Rosenthal, Saml., 96 Windsor 
Schwolsky, Jacob, 91 Wooster 
Sears, Dr. D. M., 153 Windsor Av. 
Segal, Jos., 135 Bellevue 
Spalter, S., 5 Center 
Strauss, Alex, c/o Ceaser Misch 

Store 
Sudarsky, J. M.. 253 Market 
Sulsman Jacob I., 1026 Main 
Suisman, M., 141 Windsor 
Troub, Leonard M., 904 Main 
TuUn, Morris, 1026 Main 



Herlden 

Bush, Alexander. 268 N. Colony 
Derecktor, E., 39 Crown 
Gtoldsteln, A., 58 Lewis Av. 
Gross, O., 42 W. Main 
Mi^, Henry J., 72 Twiss 
Rosenblatt, B^ 28 Maple 
White, S., 47 veteran 
Zucker, S., 11 Randolph A v. 



Hlddletown 

Anenberg, Jacob, 542 Main 
Frank, Max, 49 College 
Mittelman, J., 510 Main 
Poliner, Jacob. 458 Main 
Shapiro, H., 51 Sunner 



New Britain 
Drazen, Edward, 66 Winthrop 
Fielberg, Maurice, 294 Main 
Finkelsteln, Morris, 18 Willow 
Garfinkel, Michael, 50 Whiting 
Goldstein, I. M.. 33 Dewey 
Grossman, H., 306 Main 
Kanrlch, Isaac, 329 Park 
LeWitt, George, 227 North 
LeWitt, M. C, 71 Russel 
Mag, N. E., 35 Seymour 
Pearson, P., 124 Glen 
Pinkus, Aaron, 306 Main 
Protass, Dr. B. L., 418 Hartford Av. 
Raphael, M., 222 E. Main 
Shurberg, S., 69 Franklin 
Volkenheimer, Dr. M., 458 Main 
Welinsky, S., 146 Hartford Av. 

New Haven 

Special Members 
Kraft, Herman, 87 Norton 
Rubin, J. H., 102 Aton 
Sagal, D. M., Hotel Taft 

Annual Members 
Adler, J 506 Winthrop Av. 
Adler, Max, 127 Greene 
Alderman, M. H., 171-3 Congress Av. 
Alpert, Saml., 174 Washington Av. 
Asher, Harry W., 674 Orange 
Avintin, Robert, 83 Winter 
Berman, Barnett, 33 Broad 
Bezner, Jacob H., 491 Chapel 
Bodek, Sol, 491 Oak 
Bogdanoff, Jacob, 42 Emerson 
Bogdanoff, L., 249 Dlxwell Av. 
Botwick, H. H., 87 Asylum 
Campner, Saml., 129 Church 
Caplan, Jacob, 42 Church 
Cohen, Chas., 141 Yale Station 
Cohon, Jacob, 159 George 
Espin, Saml., 26 Vernon 
Feldman, Chas., 154 Winthrop Av. 
Field, Saml. Z., 44 Crown 
Frankel, B. B., 346 George 
Freedman, Elias, 204 Chapel 
Friedman, A. M., 388 Whalley Av. 
Gam, Isidore, 45 White 
Gamm, Philip, 287 Congress Av. 
Glonskin, Elias L., 272 Dwight 
Goldberg, Geo., 37 Sylvan Av. 
Goldberg, Dr. S. J., 322 George 
Goldman, Dr. Geo., 1 Howe 
Gordon, Israel, 696 Elm 
Hoffman, Bernard E., 113 Church 
Horchow, Reuben, Yale Station 
Horwitz, Herman N., 185 Church 
Hyman, Robert B., 88 Brown 
Jacobs, Alexander, 7 Waverly 



Connecticut 



27 



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438 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Connecticut Junior Boys Club, 87 Asylum 
Kaufman, I., 107 Sherman At. 
Kleiner, Isaac L., 39 Howe 
Kleiner, Israel, 192 Lawrence 
Komroff, Saml., 524 Wlnthrop Av. 
Koskoff, I.. 27 Sylvan Av. 
Kraft, J. M., 170 Gilbert A v. 
Kronish, Wm. V., 66 Sherman Av. 
Land, Benj. D., 80 Stevens 
Lander, A., 865 Chapel 
Lax, Dr. Albert, 825 Grand Av. 
Lear. Dr. Maxwell. 33 Sylvan A v. 
Lenzer, H., 847 Grand Av. 
Lubinsky, B. B., 619 Congress Av. 
Lupatin, Israel T., 274 Hamilton 
Mann, Louis L., 262 Canner 
Marantz, Dr. B. C, 714 State 
Maretz, Julius, 144 Minor 
Merliss, Frederick. 20 Orchard 
* Moscovitz, Dr. I. S., George & 
Meadow 
Nathanson. S. J., 18 Howe 
Newman, Jacob J., 386 St. Roman 
Notklns, Dr. L. A., 704 Howard Av. 
Pearlin, Abraham, 619 Congress Av. 
Pearlin. Nathan, 843 Harvard Av. 
Podoloff, A., 367 Ellsworth Av. 
Press, J.. 47 Kensington 
Prince, L., 190 Ellsworth Av. 
Renik. Harry, 132 Davenport Av. 
Resnik, I. W., 37 Kensington 
Resnik, Jos., 813 Chapel 
Rosenbaum, S. B., 36 Park Av. 
Rosenfeld, Louis, 69 Congress Av. 
RosofP, Dr. A. B., 90 Park 
Sachs, M., 97 Oak 
Saltser, Isaac, 417 State 
Schlein, Saml. C, 42 Church 
Schneider, Chas., 325 Shelton Av. 
Sharp, Dr. J.. 462 Thomas 
Silverman, Saul, 36 Vernon 
Sinn, Saml., 128 Minor 
Skolnick, S., George & Meadow 
a».i^^«. T»» ** D Qtto Howard A v. 

cwell Av. 

Tman Av. 

e 

:hard 

Whitney Av. 
ull 
ylum 



New London 

Abramson, S., 27 Church 
Boyer, Max, 92 Bradley 
Cherkasky, Benj., 47 Summer 
Grann, E., 125 Bank 
Uenkle, E. A., 51 Federal 
Hollandersky, E. J., 247 Huntington 



Itzkowits, S., 308 Main 
Skalowsky, Jos., 30 Truman 
Soltz, Dr. Thos., 85 Stote 

Korwalk 

Dulberg, M., 24 High 
Finkler. Wm. K., 544 Main 
Gllckson, A.. 10 Main 
Jesen, M., 32 Chapel 
Stern, S., 31 Main 
Stull, M., Main & School 
Weinstein, A., 43 Chapel 

Korwioh 

Alofsen, Herman, 2d, 18 Sturtevant 

Av. 
Blumenthal, N.. 20 High 
Cramer, A., 66 School 
Gordon. David N., 259 W. Main 
Levin, M., 251 W. Main 
Rosenberg, J. N.. 255 W. Main 
Rubin, Ch.. 204 W. Main 
Smith. Elkln. 55 W. Main 
Stamm, Max 

South Korwalk 

Davis, J., 85 Washington 
Gans, Edward M. 
Golden. L., 68 Washington 
Land, Maurice, 17 S. Main 
Navasky, M., 57 Woodward 
Prensky, L., 14 Lincoln Drive 
Roodner, H.. 106 Cedar. 
Rosenthal, Dr. I„ 104 Main 
Simpson, .70S. H., 29 S. Main 

Stamford 

Adler, Jos., 558 Main 
Adler, Noah. 49 Hawthorn 
Bernstein, J. L., 29 Hawthorn 
Cohen, Jeanette L., 49 Brown 
Cramer, M., 46 Grayrock PI. 
Dlchter, Dr. C. L., 19 St. John's PI. 
Ellis, A. M., 49 Warren 
Frankel, H., 394 Summer 
Freedman, Julius, West Av. 
Greenstein, Saml., 29 Washington 
Karp, Max, 60 Hawthorn 
Millard, Morris, 27 St. Johns PI. 
Nemoitin, Dr. J., 96 Main 
Newstad, H.. 200 Atlantic 
Perlman, M., 85 Main 
Phillips, Albert, 55 Forest 
Sandhaus, M., 32 Pacific 
Spelke, A., 392 Summer 
Spelke, Morris, 53 Forest 
Stein, Mrs. Leo., Palmer Hill 
Troupen, Eli S.. 25 Hawthorn 
Wagner, S., 140 Atlantic 
Warshaw, Max, 120 Myrtle Av. 



28 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



439 



Weissman. Jacob, 13 Fairfield Ay. 
Wexler, Charles N.. 150 Elm 
Wolfsey, Abraham, 85 Pacific 
Zotkln, S., 737 Main 

Waterbnry 
Alexander, Julius, 278 N. Main 
Berman, Dr. M. D., 220 N. Main 



Bernstein, Philip N., 65 Banlc 
Borodkin, Simon, Hebr. Institute 
Herzenberg Bros., 215 Bank 
Herzenberg, John J., 227 Bank 
Sossin, Solomon, 59 Hawkins 
Traurig, Wm., 83 Abbot Av. 
Wellington, S. A., 34 Walnut Av. 
Wmestein, N., 148 N. Main 



Connecticut 



DELAWABE 



Middletown 
Berkman, Jas. 
Cohen, Nathan 
Fogel, Mrs. A. 



Delaware 



Odessa 



Sacks, BenJ. 



Seaford 
Special Member 
Van Leer, Chas. 

Annual Member 
Greenabaum, E. 

Wilmington 
Special Member 
Snellenburg, David, 218 W. 14th 

Annual Members 
Barsky, Nathan, 904 West 
Berman, J., 1200 Walnut 
Breuer, Chas. K., 724 Market 
Brenner, Max, 305 Market 
Brown, M., 207 W. 2d 
Cannon, Saml., 900 W. 2d 
Chaikin, Morris. 214 W. 4th 
Faber, Jacob, 724 King 
Felnberg, Saml., 806 King 
Finger, Aaron, 418 Du Pont Bldg. 
Frankfurt, S., 611 Shipley 
Freedman, H., 510 W. 3d 



Ginns, James N., 1910 Boulevard 
Gluckman, Barnet, 402 W. 3d 
Goldstein, Nathan, 301 King 
Greenbaum, S., 1216 Market 
Hirschman, Alexander, 406 Tatnall 
Kanofsky, H., 505 W. 9th 
Keil, Aaron. 2005 Boulevard 
Keil, Max, 300 B. 4th 
Kety, Harry, 7th & Spring 
Kreshtool, Dr. I. K., 835 Market 
Krichevsky, Isaac, 1200 Tatnall 
Laub, Daniel S.. 424 Market 
Levy, Morris, 223 Market 
Main, C^ 714 King 
Miller, Chas., 213 Market 
Miller, I., 122 Market 
Miller, Nathan, 213 Market 
Rabinowitz, Rev. S., Marquette Apts. 
Rosenblatt, Jacob, 312 W. 14th 
Rossman, Dr. D., 308 S. Heald 
Schagrin, Chas. W., 608 Market 
Scher, David N., 3d & King 
Shtofman, N., 612 King 
Slonsky, L., 6th & Lincoln 
Thompson, Jacob, 301 W. 7th 
Topkis, Chas., 20th & Boulevard 
Topkis, David U, 420 W. 22d 
Topkis, Harry, 413 W. 21st 
Topkis, Louis, 1910 Boulevard 
Topkis, Wm.. 408 W. 21st 
Weiss, S., 600 Union 
White, Raymond. 227 Delaware Av. 
Wilmington Institute Free Library 
Wolfman, Ben.1.. 503 Market 
Wolters, Mrs. R. W., 600 N. Broome 



DISTKIOT OF OOLTTMBIA 
Washington Annual Members 

Library Members 
Berliner, E., 1458 Columbia Rd. 
Brandeis, Justice Louis D. 
Hecht, Alex., 515 7th, N. W. 

Special Members 
Cohen, Louis J., 1400 4th, N. W. 
Hopefermaier, Lewis, 3401 N, N. W. 
Kann, Simon. 8th & Pa. Av., N. W. 
Sachs, Wm. M., 918 M, N. W. 
Sworzyn, Morris, 1219 G, N. W. 

29 



District of 
Columbia 



Adams, Mrs. M. O., 1225 15th, N. W. 



Av. 



Digitized by 



Google 



440 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



District of Freedman, J., 1021 Florida Av., 
Columbia N. E. 

Freudberg, A., 61 K, N. W. 
Glchner, Fred. S., 1214 D, N. W. 
Glushak, Dr. L., •* The St. James '* 
Gordon, Dr. Chas.. 704 M, N. W. 
Gottlieb. L. S.. 615 Irving 
Grossman, Ben. L., 435 Mass. Av., 

N. W. 
Hellprin, G. F., 2620 University PI. 
HiUman, Joel, 1831 Belmont Rd. 
Jacobson, M. L., 8430 Mt. Pleasant 
Kafka, Mrs. J., F & 10th 
Kaufman, Dr. H. M., Burlington 

Apts. 
Kur. H., 430 9th, N. W. 
Lvon, Simon, The Ontario 
Mendelsohn, A., 918 1st, N. W. 
Musher, N.. 2849 Conn. Av. 
Newhouse, Dr. BenJ., 1136 6th, N. W. 
Oppenheiraer, Mrs. G., 1316 Belmont 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. S^ 905 F 
Pelzman, Fred. M., Woodward Bldg. 
Peyser. J. I., 1940 Baltimore. N. W. 
Reamer, Edward, Coblentz Apts. 
Riback. David, 913 V, N. W. 
Rich, M. M., 1448 Harvard. N. W. 
Robbin, S., The Royalton Apts. 



Sacks, Saml. M.. 1000 N. N. W. 

Sandberg, Harry, 1310 L 

Schneider, Benj. B., 721 Wash. Loan 
& Trust Bldg. 

Schwartz. C 824 7th 

Schwartz, Nathan B.. 123 U. N. E. 

Scottish Rite, The, 16th & S 

Simon, Rev. A.. 2802 Cathedral A v. 

Small, Isador E., 724 5th, N. W. 

Solomon, Joseph. 3313 16th 

Stein, J. M., 523 13th 

Stein, Morris, 1533 0th, N. W. 

Stem, Rev. L., 1315 Columbia Rd. 

Strasburger, Milton. 319 John Mar- 
shall PI., N. W. 

Strausburger, Jos., The Kenesan 

Tobrlner, Leon, 317 John Marshall 

Washington Heb. Congr., I. L. Blout, 
Pres., 806 7th, N. W. 

Wilner, J. A., 144 Randolph PI. 
N. W. 

Wolf, Alexander, 2653 Woodley Rd. 

Wolf, David, The Ashley, Apt. 53 

Wolf, Simon, 63 Woodward Bldg. 

Wolpoff, Mrs. A., 3126 Dumberto 
Av. 

Y. M. H. A., 918 M St. 



Florida 



Arcadia 

Special Member 



Rosin, S. 



Jacktonvllle 
Special Membek 
Levison, A., 1307 Laura 

Annual Members 
Altmayer, Sam, Monroe Hotel 
Endel, Albert M., 1502 Lama 
Finkelstein, Gabriel, 717 W. Adams 
B'lnkelstein, Neal, 139 W. Ashley 
Hirschberg, Julius, 1417 Blvd. 
Kaufman, David 

Klipper, Dr. Laser, 701 W. Adams 
Myerheim, F., 345 E. Adam 
Novltzky, H. R., 1524 Laura 
Rosenberg. H., 1108 W. Monroe 



FLORIDA 

Rubin, Mrs. Max, 1706 E. Church 
Walter, Philip. Hotel Monroe 
Weinkle, M. J., 809 W. Duval 
Wllensky, Dr. J. T., 311 Jefferson 

Miami 
Blanck, P. G. 
Kobineau, Simon P. 



Pensacola 

Ackerman, Rabbi Wm., 503 N. Bar- 
celona 
Greenhut, A., 806 Belmont 
Llschkoff, A., 815 N. Spring 

Tampa 
Katz, Manuel, 719 Main 
Maas, Isaac, 223 Hyde Park Av. 
Steinberg. Ed H. 



Georgia 



Albany 
Special Member 
Farkas, Saml. 



GEORGIA 

Americas 
Glanz, Nathan 
Pearlman, I. 



Annual Members 
Landau, Rev. E. A., 511 Commerce 
Sterne, S. 



Athens 
Goldwasser, Mrs. B., 373 Hancock 
Av. 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



441 



Hlrsch, Rabbi F. K., 312 Dougherty 

Isseron, Saml. 

Michael, M. G., Box 22 

Morris, Lee 

University of Georgia, Library of 

Atlanta 
Special Member 
Silverman, Harry, Candler Bldg. 

Annual Members 
Abelman, Simon, 262 Capitol Av. 
Abelson, A., 605 S. Pryor 
Abelson, Harry, 216 Capitol Av. 
Baumrlnd, Max, 181 Rawson 
Boorsteln, S. A., Atlanta Natl. Bk. 

Bldg. 
Brodle, Benj, M.. 322 Woodward Av. 
Eplan, Leon, 306 Central Av. 
Frank, M^ 1009 Century Bldg. 
Frankel, I., 34 Decatur 
Herzberg, M., 22 Howell A v. 
Heyman, Arthur, 366 Washington 
Hlrsch, E., 136 Capitol Av. 
Hirsch, Harold, 70 Waverly Way 
Hirshberg, I. A., 218 Washington 
Hirsowltz, I. B., 136a Capitol Av. 
Kohn, G., 424 Washington 
Leavltt, J. H., 422 Grant Bldg. 
Uchtenstein, H., 300 Capitol Av. 
Llchtensteln. M.. 192 E. Fair 
Liebman, I., 311 Washington 
Marx, Rabbi David, 354 Washington 
Meyer, A. A., Atlanta Natl. Bk. Bldg. 
Oberdorfer, E., 1124 Piedmont Av. 
Rouglln, Dr. U C, 148 Capitol A v. 
Smullian, S., 139 E. Fair 
Solomon, Rabbi H., 295 S. Pryor 

Augusta 
Cohen, C. H. 
Levy, A., 316 Dyer Bldg. 
Reich, Dr. Leo, Leonard Bldg. 
Sawilowsky, J., 965 Broad 
Schneider. J., 233 Ellis 

Brunswick 
Borchardt, B. 
Gordon, A. J. 
Lessner, J. J. 
Mendes, A. de Sola 
Pfelffer, Fred 

Columbus 
Hirsch, Addle, 1124 4th Av. 
Rosenthal, Rabbi F. L, 1215 5th Av. 

Hacon 
Bloch, Mrs. M., 140 Appleton Av. 
Block, A., 810 Mulberry 



Goldgar, B., 403 Spring Georgia 

Hirsch, Jacob, 610 4tii 



Rome 
Esserman, Mrs. P., 10 5th A v. 
HalsQeld, M., 904 Broad 
Rome Lodge, No. 693, I. O. B. B. 

Savannah 
Special Member 
Rosenthal, E. W., 32 Bay, E. 

Annual Members 
Alexander, A. R., 118 Bryant, W. 
Apple, Mark, 306 Liberty, W. 
Bluestein, L, 312 E. Huntingdon 
Blumberg, I., 119 E. Liberty 
Blumenthal, M., 115 W. 36th 
Cohen, H., 516 W. York 
Davis, G., 219 W. Perry 
Dub, B., 3 Gordon, W. 
Ehrenrelch, H. S., 213 W. 38th 
Feldelson, C. N., 513 B. Broughton 
Friedman, S., 525 W. York 
Gardner, J., 209 Park Av. 
Gazan, Jacob, 122 E. 37th 
Gazan, Simon N., 1716 Barnard 
Harris, L, 117 W. 37th 
Hezog, Alva G., 101 W. 38th 
Hurowitz, H., 355 W. Broad 
Jewish Educ. Alliance 
Kadis, I., c/o Jewish Educ. Alliance 
Lehwald. S., Congress & Whitaker 
Levin, Miss Dena, 703 Barnard 
Lewin, Geo., 211 E. Jones 
Llchtensteln, Jos., 206 State, E. 
-'- '- " 120 W. Broughton 
., 517 W. 137th 
'ark Av. & Paulsen 

., 115 W. Broad 

J 304 W. 40th 

Gordon, W. 

Mrs. A., 351 W. Broad 

18 W. Park Av. 
xvau<.tu, o., o09 W. Hall 
Silver, A. J., 106 W. 38th 
Silver, I., 405 E. Huntington 
Small, A. L., 327 Whitaker 
Solomon, Rev. Dr. G., 19 E. 46th • 
Sutker, Alex., 305 W. York 
Sutker, Jacob, 324 Bryan, W. 
Sutker. L., 413 W. Jones 
Victor, Sydney S., 216 W. Hull 
Weltz, B., 18 W. 38th 

TalluUh Park 
Magld, Louis B. 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Georgia Thonutsville 

Feinberg, H., 131 B. Calhone 
Feinberg, W., 512 Crawford 
Wise, HT, Box 374 



Orovltz, M. 



Waycross 



Rosenthal, J., 12 Mary 
Rosenzwige, S. 
Welsser, H. J. 
Yermovsky, H. 

West Point 
Heyman, Mrs. B. 



Idaho 



IDAHO 



Illinoli 



Blackfoot 

Simon, Charles 



Alton 
Special Member 
Sissel, Henry, Plasa & 3d 

Annual Members 
Gould, Saml., 314 Plasa 
Osipe, Wm., 1022 E. 2d 
Rubensteln, J. J., 500 Belle 
Wlttels Mer. Co., N. S., 202 State 

Bellville 

Special Member 
Barr Bros., N. High 

Annual Members 
Borman, B. 
Weller, Abe, 223 N. Church 

Bloomington 
Livingston, Albert, 701% E. Wash. 
Livingston, Slg., Livingston BIdg. 
Ochs, Herman S., Greisheim Bldg. 

Cairo 
White, Saml., 612 Washington Av. 

Garmi 
Haas, U 
Shoemann, Albert 

Ghampaign 
Special Members 
Kuhn, Isaac, 304 W. Hill 
Wolff, C. A., 309 W. University A v. 

Annual Member 
Freudenstein, L., 704 W. University 
Av. 

Ghioago 
Life Members 
Fish, Mrs. Jos., 1811 Prairie A v. 
Rosenwald, Julius, 4901 Ellis Av. 

Library Members 
Feder. Harry. 2030 Humboldt Blvd. 
Kirshbaum, B., 3338 Douglas Blvd. 
Klee, Max, 1200 Milwaukee Av. 
Leopold, N. F., 40 N. Dearborn 



ILLINOIS 

Rosenfield Bros. & Co., 169 W. Ran- 
dolph 

Rosenwald, M. S., 4924 Woodlawn 
Av. 

Special Members 



Abraham, A., 3060 E. 92d 

Adler, Sydney, 10 S. LaSalle 

Alschuler, Leon S.. 4363 Greenwood 

Becker, A. G., 5132 East End Av. 

Bernstein, Fred., 6136 Eberhart Av. 

Binswanger, A., 1520 Ft. Dearborn 
Bldg. 

Callman, C. L., 4406 Grand Blvd. 

D'Ancona, A. C., Van Buren & San- 
gamon 

Davis, I. C, 6752 Evans Av. 

Davis, Jos., 1400 Milwaukee Av. 

Davis, M., 4919 Michigan Av. 

DeLee, Dr. J. B., 5028 Ellis Av. 

Diamond, Jacob, 5 N. LaSalle 

Eisendrath, H. J.. 4828 Champlaln 

Ettelson, S. A., 3315 Calumet Av. 
Flesh, Joel W. S., 154 E. Pearson 
Florsheim, S., Chicago Beach Hotel 
Frank, Herman, 4709 Ellis Av. 
Fridus, Dr. S. L., 1809 W. 47th 
Grollman, I., 1201 W. .Jackson Blvd. 
Grollman, Louis, 111 W. Monroe 
Harris, Jos. K., 1208 S. Homan Av. 
Horwlch, B., Independence Bldg. 
Jadwen, B., 1227 S. Avers Av. 
Kahn, H., 7850 Bond Av. 
Kahn, Louis, 9103 Commercial Av. 
Klafter, D. S., 64 W. Randolph 
Klafter, Jos. H., 3145 Lyndale 
Koenigsberg, S., 1002 Ashland Blk. 
Koenigsberg, S., 1232 N. Hoyne A v. 
Kreeger, M., 212 W. 63d 
Levinsoil, H. C, 918 E. 5lRt 
Lieberman, I. K., 432 B. 45th 
Lleberman, J. L., 5824 Michigan Av. 
Lieberman, M. M., 5216 Mich. Av. 
Lurie, H. J., 5153 Michigan Av. 
Norden, G. J., 5163 Michigan A v. 
Ottenhelmer, D. M., 4409 Prairie Av. 
Philllpson, S., 631 Sheridan Rd. 
Quasser, J. H., 2400 N. Kedzle Blvd. 



32 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



443 



Rossen, Meyer, 127 N. Dearborn 

Bubo vlts, Toby. 4439 Drexel Blvd. 

Sabath, Hon. A. J., 2006 S. Ashland 
Av. 

Schloss, L. L., 423 B. 48th 

Sinai. B. J., 611 People's Gas Bldg. 

Skibeisky, Dr. J. W., 9144 Commer- 
cial Av. 

Soboroff, Saml., 2900 Jackson Blvd. 

Stein, B., 4850 Klmbark Av. 

Stein, Hon. P., 4340 Grand Blvd. 

Treusch, I. M., 1631 Melrose 

Turner, A., 1444 S. Sangamon 

Ware, S. N.. 4537 Woodlawn Av. 

Wolpert, Dr. B. E., 8747 Commercial 
Av. 

Wormser, Leo F., 4737 Kingbark Av. 

Annual Members 
Aaron, Chas., 5745 Indiana Av. 
Aaron, H. J., 76 W. Monroe 
Aaron. Harry, 1106 W. 63d 
Abrahamson. B., 917 Bine Island Av. 
Abrahamson, B., 1457 W. 13th 
Abrahamson, Dr. S., 3612 W. 12th 
Abram, Harry, 924 S. Marshfleld Av. 
Abrams, M., 1351 N. Hoyne Av. 
Ackerman, B. L., 734 S. Ashland 

Blvd. 
Adelman, A. E., 3129 W. 15th 
Adelsdorf, S. L., 4716 Ellis Av. 
Adler, Miss C, 1219 E. 53d 
Adler, Mrs. D., 5131 Ingleside Av. 
Alban, Jos., 4104 W. Madison 
Alexander, D. T., 1413 S. Sawyer Av. 
Alexander, H. L, 1515 S. Central 

Pk. Av. 
Alexander, J., 1414 N. Hoyne Av. 
Alschuler, M.. 1320 S. Millard Av. 
Anis, Albert A., 2438 N. Albany Av. 
Ansher, A. D., 1570 N. Hoyne Av. 
Arbetman, Florence, 1122 Independ- 
ence Blvd. 
Aren, Dr. M. L., 789 W. 12th 
Arkln, I. C, 5306 S. Michigan Av. 
Arkin, Dr. M. L., 2701 Evergreen Av. 
Augustus, M., 5721 Prairie Av. 
Bach, Mrs. B.. 5043 Drexel 
Bach, Leopold, 237 E. 113th 
Bach, S. J.. 11209 Perry Av. 
Bach, Saml., 11322 Calumet Av. 
Bahr, H. A., 5924 Indiana Av. 
Balln, D., 3401 W. 16th 
Barnett, Dr. H., 1620 W. 12th 
Barnett, H. M., 2019 de Kalb 
Baskin. B. H., 1314 Ashland Blk. 
Bauer, T«8ter, 156 N. Clark 
Becker, Louis, 1238 W. 14th 
Beckman, I.. 106 W. Monroe 
Beilln, L., 2437 N. Albany Av. 
Bellack, B. H., 5720 Harper Av. 
Bendheim, Moritz, 1621 W. Division 



Benjamin, A., 1329 S. Millard lUinoia 

Bensinger, B. E., 623 S. Wabash Av. 
Berezniak, L. A., 441 Roslyn PI. 
Berger, H. A., 5233 Michigan Av. 
Berger, W. B., 854 N. Oakley Blvd. 
Berkson, E., 1256 Independence 
Berkson, J., 674 W. 63d 
Berkson. M., 1456 Fargo Av. 
Berkson, M., 1444 Blue Island Av. 
Berkson, Morris, 816 W. 64th 
Berman, A., 1918 W. Madison 

Bdependence 

Lberdeen 
V. 12th 
Calumet Av. 

flas Blvd. 
. Peoria 
Inslee 
rgyle 
nona Av. 
rlghtwood 
■ightwood 
L2th 

vergreen Av. 
lo Av. 

, , r. 12th 

Bloom, S., 1019 S. Halsted 
Blum, H. S., 105 W. Monroe 
Blumenthal, B., 1364 N. Sedgwick 
Bofman, Julius, 6035 S. Aberdeen 
Bolotin, H., 3416 Douglas Blvd. 
Boosel, Jos.. 1420 Ashland Blk. 
Bornsteln. M., 1217 E. 47th 
Borovik, .T., 3254 Pierce Av. 
Brandt, Eli, 543 Belmont Av. 
Brazen, Harry, 1607 Hamlin 
Bregstone, Hon. P. B., County Bidg. 
Briakin, Aaron. 1.*19 N. Clark 
Brody, A. R., 6728 Glenwood Av. 
Brown, B. J., 905 Ashland Blk. 
Brown, Harry. 1652 S. Homan Av. 
Brown, I., 1059 N. Ashland Av. 
Buchsbaum, H. J., 219 S. Dearborn 
Buchsbaum, S., 5430 Michigan Av. 
Burman, Leon, 2442 W. Taylor 
Burr, M., 1220 Independence Blvd. 
Callner I., 3126 W. 15th 
Callner, Jos. M., 3151 W. 15th 
Cardon. Rabbi A. I., 1210 S. Homan 

Av. 
Chones, Wm., 133 Washington 
Chulock, Dr. A. W., 2109 LeMoyne 
Coffee, Rabbi Rudolph I., 1228 Tri- 
bune Bldg. 
Cohen, A. E., 1611 S. Trumbull Av. 
Cohen, Archie H., 3829 Fillmore 
Cohen, B. B., 1106 S. Ashland Blvd. 
Cohen, C. B., 1812 S. Troy 
Cohen, Edw., 9206 Commercial Av. 
Cohen, Geo. B., 5417 Indiana Av. 



33 



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444 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Illinoii Cohen, Geo. B., 237 Madison 
Cohen, H.. 1008 Ashland Blvd. 
Cohen, H. A., 3913 Wentworth Av. 
Cohen, H. A., 1087 W. 13th 
Cohen, H. J. E., 1435 S. Lawndale 

Av. 
Cohen, I., 848 Junior Ter. 
Cohen, I., 3745 Douglns Blvd. 
Cohen, J., 8642 Douglas Blvd. 
Cohen, J. J., 123 W. Madison 
Cohen, J. J., 1351 S. State 
Cohen, Jacob, 1407 S. Hoisted 
Cohen, L., 1407 S. Halsted 
Cohen, L. S., 1422 S. Trumbull Av. 
Cohen, M., 3346 Douglas Blvd. 
Cohen, Minnie. 849 W. 12th 
Cohen, N. A., 919 S. Irving 
Cohen, S. J., 3228 Douglas Blvd. 
Cohn, A., 3127 Douglas Blvd. 
Cohn, C. H., 5948 Calumet 
Cohn, J. H., 545 E. 50th 
Cohn, Jos., 5400 S. Michigan Blvd. 
Cohn, S., 8415 W. Adams 
Cohns, Chas. L., 64 E. 50th 
Cohon, Rabbi S. S., 4100 Wash. Blvd. 
Coleman, C. U, 5100 Ellis Av. 
Comroe, Dr. Jos. I., 551 B. 47th 
Cone, Maurice, 3723 Greenstow 
Conheim, Max, 618 Medinah Bldg. 
Cooper, Saml., 5842 S. Park 
Com, Sam A., 4510 Calumet Av. 
Cowen, Israel, 437 E. 48th 
Cowen, Millie, 3218 S. Park Av. 
Cramer. J. R., 3206 W. 12th 
D'Ancona, E. N., 1038 Stock Exchg. 

Bldg. 
Daughters of Israel, 1231 S. Homan 

Av. 
David, Mrs. J. B., 4359 Grand Blvd. 
Davis, Abel, 5125 Ellis Av. 
Davis, Geo., 1602 S. St. Louis Av. 
Davis, Dr. H. I.. 5177 Michigan Av. 
Davis, Meyer, 1003 Milwaukee Av. 
Davis, Mrs. S. P., 3126 Washington 

Blvd. 
De Kofsky, A. S., 1324 S. Homan Av. 
De Koven, Dr. B., 3259 Douglas 

Blvd. 
De Koven, Jake, 3108 W. 16th 
Delson. Louis J., 105 W. Monroe 
Dentlebaum, Leopold, c/o Chicago 

Home for Jewish Orphans 
Dettelbach, D., 5433 Indiana Av. 
Deutsch, Saml., 4936 Ellis Av. 
Docter. A. M., 800 S. Sibley 
Dolnick, M., 1748 Taylor 
Donenberg, Benj., 3419 W. 16th 
Drach, J., 5310 Prairie Av. 
Drefkoff, M. M., 155 N. Clark 
Dressner, J., 918 Lakeside PI. 
Dulsky, L, 1246 S. Albany Av. 
Edelman, L., 510 Ashland Blk. 



Einstein, D. G., 5211 Indiana Av. 

Bisenberg, C. J., 3539 Douglas Blvd. 

Eisenberg D., 3147 Carlisle PL 

Eisendrath. B. D.. 220 W. Lake 

Eisenstaedt, I., 5204 Ingleside Av. 

Eisenstaedt, R., 431 E. 48th 

Eisler, Chas., 2222 Orchard 

Eliassof, H., 5256 Indiana Av. 

Elkan, H., 18 W. Austen 

Ellbogen, M., 4532 Woodlawn Av. 

Ellman, Rabbi A., 1255 S. Spring- 
field Av. 

Elman, H., 1355 W. 14th 

Emanuel Sabbath School, 561 Mel- 
rose 

Emdin, Rev. B.. 70 W. Hickory 

Emin, Isaac, 4942 Champlain Av. 

Epstein, Harry, 5047 Sheridan Rd. 

Ettelson, Julius, 1545 N. LaSaUe 

Parber, Dr. A. J., 3161 W. 12th 

Farber, Wm., 914 Ashland Blvd. 

Parrol, Mrs. B., 6512 Kenwood Av. 

Fass, I. W., 6028 Michigan 

Feldman, E., 1551 S. Kedzie Av. 

Feldman, Wm., 11 W. Monroe 

Feldsher, Dr. Noah Z.. 1219 W. 12th 

Feldstein, Sam., 508 N. Homan Av. 

Felsenthal, Eli B., 4608 Drexel Blvd. 

Ferson, Mrs. B., 3126 Wash. Blvd. 

Fienberg, J., 2541 Cottage Grove Av. 

Fischkin, Harris, 2038 Le Moyne 

Fisher, Leopold, 1215 Winona Av. 

Fisher, Hon. M., City Hall 

Fisher, Meyer, 1605 S. Homan Av. 

Flshman, M. M., 161 W. Randolph 

Flatau, Sol., 230 E. Garfield Blvd. 

Fleishman, Mrs. J., 1852 Blue Island 
Av. 

Flexner, Bernard, 72 W. Adams 

Foreman, Henry G., 40 N. Dearborn 

Foreman, Oscar G., 30 N. LaSalle 

Fox, Leon B., 3211 LeMoyne 

Fox, Moses, 442 E. 45th 

Fox, Dr. N. I., 3403 Douglas Blvd. 

Frank, Henry Ia, 1608 Prairie Av. 

Frank, Jacob, 1751 W. Madison 

Frankel, Dr. D. A., 957 N. Oakley 
Blvd. 

Frankel, Dr. H. L., 1579 Milwaukee 
Av. 

Frankenstein, W. B., 825 Bnena Av. 

Franklin, I. J.. 6328 Sangamon 

Frazin, A. L., 8915 Commercial Av. 

Freeman, D., 1504 N. Washtenaw 
Av. 

Freiler, Mrs. M. J„ 5135 Drexel Av. 

Freund, Gustav, 4749 Ellis A v. 

Fridsteln. S. H.. 5355 Calumet Av. 

FHed, Isidore, 1606 W. 12th 

Frledland, Morris N., 1709 City Hall 
Sq. Bldg. 

Friedlen, H. L., 1817 Millard 



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Friedman, Cecil, 1320 S. Homan Av. 

Friedman, Dr. S., 1101 S. Halsted 

Furth, J. B., 856 B. 85th 

Galantiere, D. A., 3344 W. Division 

Ganser, Dr. S. H., 4201 FuIIerton 
Av. 

Gardner, D. S., 4736 Michigan Av. 

Gartenstein, Dr. J., 1606 W. 12th 

Gassman, I., 8728 Commercial Av. 

Geliebter. D., 1459 N. Leavitt 

Gesas, Michael, 1132 W. Monroe 

GevirtB, Maurice, 836 N. Francisco 
Av. 

Ginsburg, Dr. J., 1342 Independence 
Blvd. 

Ginzberg, M. P.. 1214 S. Halsted 

Ginsburg, Dr. N., 1605 Milwaukee 
Av. 

Glick, A. G., 1263 N. Irving Av. 

Glick, L. G., 1003 S. Ashland Blvd. 

Glickson, O., 1410 S. Albany Av. 

Goldberg, A., 3437 Douglas Blvd. 

Goldberg, Anna, 823 S. Winchester 
Av. 

Goldberg, B., 1242 S. Albany Av. 

Goldberg, B., 1246 S. Avers Av. 

Goldberg, E. L., Ashland Blvd. & 
Madison St. 

Goldberg, H., 3351 Douglas Blvd. 

Goldberg, H. N., 1240 S. Avers 

Goldberg, J. A., 3602 Douglas Blvd. 

Goldberg, Dr. J. B., 3200 Douglas 
Blvd. 

Goldberg, Jacob, 3520 W. 12th 

Goldberg, Max, 9020 Commercial A v. 

Goldberg, S. B., 1636 S. Millard Av. 

Golden, Dr. I. J. K., 2238 North Av. 

Goldenson, Rabbi A., 920 S. Marsh- 
field 

Goldman, J. L., 1331 Independence 
Blvd. 

Goldman, Mrs. M., 3417 Adams 

Goldsmith, Dr. Alex. A., 5242 Indi- 
ana Av. 

Goldstein, A. H., 3212 Potoniac Av. 

Goldstein, D., 1138 Independence 
Blvd. 

Goldstein, I. O., 5425 Glenwood Av. 

Goldstein, Isadore, 2336 Iowa 

Goldstein, J., 1753 Milwaukee Av. 

Goldstein, Dr. P. H., 2307 Iowa 

Goodman, A. L., 1448 S. St. Louis 
Av. 

Goodman, I., 5629 Michigan Av. 

Goodman, Isaac, 520 E. 42d 

Gottstein, I. L., 1223 S. Halsted 

Gray, A., 1005 S. Ashland Blvd. 

Greenbaum, Ben. I., 1016 Fort Dear- 
bom Bldg. 

Greenbaum, E., 4510 Grand Blvd. 

Greenbaum, I. S., 1425 Solon PI. 



Greenbaum, J. C, 5603 Calumet Av. Illinois 
Greenberg, Dr. I. M., 2000 W. Divi- 
sion 
Greenberg, Louis, 1546 S. Albany 

Av. 
Greenberg, Saml., 11726 Parnell A v. 
Greengard, Ben, 1521 S. Millard Av. 
Grelver, Simon, 2648 N. Troy 
Grodson, S. G., 4660 State 
Gross, Louis J., 5440 Prairie Av. 
Gross, Max, 1418 S. Kedzie Av. 
Gross, P. A., 5300 S. Park Av. 
Grossberg, J. G., 72 W. Adams 
Grossman, B. J., 426 S. Halsted 
Grossman, H. A., 1659 S. Trumbull 

Av. 
Grossman, M. M., 1331 Independence 

Blvd. 
Guthman, Max, 5318 S. Park Av. 
Hackner, Blias, 330 S. Market 
Haffenberg, C. B., 4914 Ellis Av. 
Halpern, Dr. H., 2559 W. Division 
Halperin, Dr. R.. 1017 Ashland Blvd. 
Halperin, S., 15^7 W. Leavett 
Handelsman, J., 1250 Independence 

Blvd. 
Handmacher, M.. 4442 Sheridan Rd. 
Hankan, M., 23 E. 22d 
Harris, A., 3245 Douglas Blvd. 
Harris, J., 3420 Michigan Av. 
Hartman, A., 4527 Ellis Av. 
Hartman, J. S.. 4759 Forrestville 

Av. 
Hefter, M.. 4910 Vlncennes Av. 
Heldman, J. N., 108 S. LaSalle 
Herman, Dr. M. J., 1141 S. Whipple 
" — "'-non, 3152 W. 15th 

:. I., 1417 S. Millard 

,, 217 S. Central Park Av. 

. A., 2648 Evergreen Av. 

S., 5341 Hyde Park Blvd. 

Rabbi J., 640 Gary PI. 

I., 36 S. State 

. E., 1836 S. Spaulding Av. 

. F., 1223 S. Kedzie Av. 

rg. Rev. A., 2636 Lake View 

Hoffman, Elizabeth L.. 1437 S. 
Spaulding Av. 

Homer, Hon. H., 4801 Forrestville 
Av. 

Hornstein, G., 76 W. Van Buren 

Huttner. R. L., 3255 W. 16th 

Isaacs, L. J., 1335 S. California Av. 

Isacowitz, J. H., 3127 W. 12th 

Isaiah Sabbath School, 45th & Vln- 
cennes Av. 

Israelstam, H., 1417 S. Millard Av. 

Jacobson, A. I., 3611 Douglas Blvd. 

Jacobson, Isaac W., 1115 Troy 

Jacobson, L. F., 5456 Michigan A v. 

Jaffe, Ernst M., 1020 W. 36th 



35 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Illinois .Tnffe, Julius, 3339 Douglas Blvd. 

Jewish Educ. Alliance, 1243 W. 

Wood 
Jonesi, Wm. A., 1255 S. Lawndale 

Ay. 
Joseph, M., 1226 Independence Blvd. 
Josephson, Dr. V., 1339 Kedzie A v. 
Juron, S., 1724 W. 12th 
Kahn, Dr. H., 5246 S. Pnrk Av. 
Kahn, L. L., 1227 N. Maplewood Av. 
Kahn, Marcus, 7809 Bond Av. 
Kahn, Dr. M., 4627 S. Ashland Av. 
Kahn, M. T., 7640 Bond Av. 
Kahn, Max, 1426 S. Kedzie Av. 
Kalish, K., 3248 Douglas Blvd. 
Kalish, L. P., 155 N. Clark 
Kamln, Dr. Wm.. 1224 S. Albany Av. 
Kann, N. H., 1048 N. Ashland Av. 
Kanne, J., 8230 State 
Kantor, H. E., 6448 Greenview Av. 
Kantor, J. M., 3127 Douglas Bldg. 
Kaplan, M. P., 2036 Le Moyne 
Kaplan, Marks, 1543 Milwaukee Av. 
Kaplan, Morris, 3233 Eastwood Av. 
Kaplan, N. D., 5710 Michigan Av. 
Kaplan, N. J., 3339 Douglas Bldg. 
Karno, L., 814 W. 12th 
Karpen, A., 910 S. Michigan Av. 
Karpf, M. J., 205:i LeMoyne 
Katz, H.. 1520 E. 66th 
Katz, Saml. B., 1040 W. 12th 
Kavin, P., 512 Ellis A v. 
Khelas, Jacob, Boys* Club, D.ouglus 

Blvd. & Hamlin Av. 
King, Dr. M. B., 1501 S. Kedzie Av. 
Kirsheimer, J., 5212 S. Park Av. 
Kite, B., 2101 W. Division 
Klein, Rabbi Israel, 2339 W. Adams 
Klemperer, Otto, 4853 Kenmore Av. 
Koch. Philip E., 5616 Wabash Av. 
Koenigsberg, I)., 1410 Milwaukee Av. 
Kohn, Charles, 4145 Greenview Av. 
Kohn, Julius M., Tribune Bldg. 
Kolb, David, 1150 N. Kedzie Av. 
Komaiko, S. B., 1651 S. Clifton Park 

Av. 
Kompel, Morris, 102 S. Hamlin Av. 
Koolish M., 848 Ainslee 
Koretz, Leo, 79 W. Monroe 
Korshak, M. M., 1820 S. Kedzie Av. 
Kralner, Mrs. S., 3802 W. 15th 
Kramer, Jos., 719 W. 62d 
Kranz, H., 817 S. Marshfield Av. 
Kraus, Adoiph, 4518 Drexel Blvd. 
Krechevsky, J.. 1334 S. Kedzie Av. 
Krlmsky, H., 1632 S. Clifton Park 

Krulan, J., 410 Ashland Blk. 
Kurtzon, Geo. B., 1868 S. Millard 

Av. 
Kurtzon, M., 1430 S. Talman Av. 
Kurz, Adoiph, 79 W. Monroe 



LanskI, Dr. Jacob, 1021 W. 14th 
Lasker, I., 908 S. Ashland Blvd. 
Lazar, J. G., 1029 E. 53d 
Lazarus, Geo., 1130 S. Hermitage 
Lazer, S., 4005 Granshaw 
Leavitt, Dr. S. H., 2634 W. North 

Av. 
Lebensohn, Dr. M. H., 3928 Jackson 

Blvd. 



Levin, T., 919 W. 12th 
Levinkind, H., 3106 E. 92d 
Leviton, Aaron, 1514 Kedzie Av. 
Leviton, Benj., 1414 S. Albany Av. 
Leviton, M., 1837 Evergreen Av. 
Levy, Aaron H., 1215 N. Hoyne Av. 



T. 

Av. 



Av. 
mac 



Av. 



Lockritz, P. N., 1111 N. Hoyne Av. 
Loeb, I. A., 155 N. Clark, R. 322 
Loeb, J. M., 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 
Loeb, Sidney, 924 B. 50th 
Loebner, J. B.. 1127 Blue Islnnd Av. 
London, A., 817 S. Marshfield Av. 
Lorenz, J. M., 2926 Edgewood Av. 
Lowenberg, M. L., 3155 W. 12th 
Lowenthal, B. M., 4715 Ellis Av. 
Lubin, F., 3607 Douglas Blvd. 
Lurle, Mrs. I. H., 6106 S. State 
Lurya, I., 7714 Garrison Av. 
Luster, M., 1223 N. Hoyne A v. 
Lyons, Saml., 5200 Engleside Av. 
Lypskl, A. M^ 601 W. 12th 
Mack, Hon. J. W.. Post Office Bldg. 
Mack, Wm. J., 4634 Drexel Blvd. 



36 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETTY 



447 



Malkes, Jacob, 8658 Douglas Blvd. 
Malter, Max, 3586 Hastings 
MandeU Mrs. E., 3400 Michigan Av. 
Mann, L. P., 1258 Milwaukee 
Marcus, A., 5406 WInthrop Av. 
Marcus, Isidore, 2525 Drake Av. 
Margolis, A., 516 Aldine Av. 
Margolis, B., 1816 Millard Av. 
Margolls, H., 697 Milwaukee Av. 
Markowltz, Ph., 8422 W. Adams 
Marks Nathan Home, 1550 S. Albany 

Av. 
Markson, A. D^ 8439 Burley Av. 
Marshall, A. H., 5524 WInthrop Av. 
Mautner, S., 5258 S. Park Av. 
Mayer, B., 5420 Michigan Av. 
Mayer, Mrs. Levy, Blackstone Hotel 
Meltes, H. L, 2026 W. 12th 
Menkin, Edw., 1617 First Natl. Bk. 

Bldg. 
Mesirow, B. S., 2354 Thomas 
Mesirow, J. S., 2656 Illrsch Blvd. 
Messing, Dr. A. J., 508 Aldine Av. 
Metzenberg, L.. 5830 Greenwood Av. 
Mever, Mrs. A. E., 4481 Magnolia 

Meyer, S. B., 189 N. Clark 

Michelson, M., 1405 N. Fairfield Av. 

Micon, S., 901 W. 12th 

Micon, Wm. M., 1252 S. Lawndale 

Milkewitch, M. A., 1128 Indepen- 
dence Blvd. 

Miller, B. E., 1621 W. Division 

Miller, Mrs. H. H., 1520 S. Kedzie 
Av. 

MUler. S. A., 1011 Ashland BIk. 

Minchin, H., 2607 Milwaukee Av. 

Mlndlin, Dr. A., 8280 W. 12th 

Missner, M. I., 1927 N. Spaulding 
Av. 

Moment, H., 1525 S. Lawndale Av. 

Morris, B. I., 29 S. LaSalle 

Morris, H., 828 W. 12th 

Morris, L., 8243 Douglas Blvd. 

Morris, L. H., 440 Diversey Pkway. 

Morrison, T. S., 421 N. Lincoln Av. 

Moses, Mrs. A., 4130 Drexel Blvd. 

Mossier, M. L., 2646 W. North Av. 

Muskin, Rabbi E. R., 911 S. Oakley 
Blvd. 

Nahin, Robert S., 1377 Madison Pk. 

Nasatlr, BenJ., 1289 S. Turner Av. 

Nasatir, H. A., 1239 S. Turner Av. 

Nathan, B., 1235 Halsted 

Nathan, T., 1316 E. 63d 

Nechin, H., 3217 Greenshaw 

Nemiro, Dr. A. F., 1631 S. Ashland 
Blvd. 

Neuman, Maier, 745 First Natl. Bk. 
Bldg. 

Neustadt, M., 6021 S. Park Av. 

Newman, A. B., Standard Club 

15 87 



Niederman. M., 1417 Milwaukee Av. Illinois 
Nuta, Dr. M., 928 S. Halsted 
Okin, Harry, 4600 Calumet Av. 
Olenick, H., 1224 Independence 

Bldg. 
Olshan, Dr. A. G., 1900 W. Division 
Opppuheim, C, 41 S. Central Park 

Av. 
Ostrowsky, Arthur, 1255 S. Halsted 
Osherman, Miss M. B., 1080 S. San- 
gamon 
Paradise, M. A., 1552 HumbuU Av. 
Pedott, Dr. Jos., 4718 Michigan Av. 
Perel, Harry Z., 86 W. Randolph 
Perlman, I. B., 818 Independence 

Blvd. 
Perlstein, I.. 852 S. Hamline 
Perlstein. M., 924 S. Ashland Blvd. 
Pflaum, A. J.. Stock Exch. Bldg. 
Pick, G., no.'Sd Woodlawn Av. 
Pikowsky, J. E., 1119 S. Homan Av. 
Pincus, S. Z.. 4226 Indiana Av. 
Pines, Geo. S., Ill W. Monroe 
Piatt, B. N., 1414 8. Albany 
Piatt, S. P.. 327 W. Jackson Blvd. 
Pious, Saml., 1042 N. Oakley Blvd. 
Pollack, S. S., 720 Cornelia Av. 
Polonsky, Hyman, 79 W. Monroe 
Pomex, E., 2012 Halsted 
Price, J. S., 4958 Michigan Av. 
Price, Paul, 5751 Calumet Av. 
Priess, S. M., 8351 Douglas Blvd. 
Privulsky, I. S., 3710 Don^las Blvd. 
Rablnowitch, A., 1387 S. Central 

Pk. Av. 
Raclin, A. L., 648 Grace 
Rappaport, Rev. J., 2128 Crystal 
Ravitz, M., 2440 W. Madison 
Redner, A., 1441 Milwaukee Av. 
Regensteiner, T., 926 Hyde Park 

Blvd. 
Reinhart, Dr. M., 2952 W. 12th 
llcinscbreiber, II., 3225 Greenshaw 
Richmnn, Snml. S., 1402 Johnson 
Rlcbman, H., 1224 Independence 

Blvd. 
Richter, Simon, 4935 Michigan Av. 
RIghtman. Dr. S. M., 849 W. 12th 
Ringer, Jacob, 6611 Blackstone A v. 
Ringer, Wm., 146 W. Van Buren 
Riskind, J., 8824 Commercial 
Rissman, Paul, 1022 S. Ashland 
Rlttenberg, Wm.. 4723 S. State 
Robblns, S. M., 5007 VIncennes Av. 
Robenstein, Dr. H., 1618 W. 12th 

Blvd. 
Robins, Max, 3129 Fullerton Av. 
Rodenbeck, B. L, 5201 Woodlawn 

Av. 
Rogal, A., 750 Indepf^ndence Blvd. 
Ronde, A. M., 2087 Iowa 
Romberg. Mrs. E.. 2218 Calumet A v. 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



nUnois Rose, E. B.. 3446 S. Halsted 

Roseman, S.» 1237 Inclependen<:e 

Blvd. 
Rosen, B. H., 844 Milwaukee At. 
Rosen, Isidor. 638 N. Clark 
Rosen, Julius. 1248 S. Kedzie 
Rosenbaum, A. G., 818 Oakley Blvd. 
Rosenbaum, Jos., 57 Drexel Blvd. 
Rosenbaum, W., Postal Telegraph 

Bldg. 
Rosenberg, H. J., 859 E. 56th 
Rosenberg, Mrs. J., 3754 Michigan 

Ay. . 
Rosenberg, Jos., 875 N. Sacramento 

Blvd. 
Rosenberg, S. H., 1110 Ashland Blk. 
Rosenblatt, S. J., 3513 Douglas Blvd. 
Rosenblum, H. M., 5622 Prairie Ay. 
Rosenblutt. L., 5443 Prairie Av. 
Rosenfeld. Mrs. M., 4900 Ellis Av. 
Rosenfleld, L., 169 W. Randolph 
Rosengard. M. N., 1239 Indepen- 
dence Blvd. 
Rosenstein, Harrv, 632 W. 12th 
Rosenstein. J., 6326 S. Ashland Av. 
Rosenthal, James, 2049 Washburne 
Rosenthal, Jos., 4711 Drexel Blvd. 
Rosenthal, W. W., 414 E. 50th PI. 
Rosensweig, Dr. Geo. K., 12th & 

Loomis 
Rothblum, Nettie. 4442 Sheridan Rd. 
Rothenberg, P. W., 1632 S. Sawyer 

Av. 
Ruben, Chas.. 3022 Archer Av. 
Rubenstein, A., 3809 Grenshaw 
Rubinstein, Isaac, 1243 N. Wood 
Rubinstein. J. B.. 155 N. Clark 
Rubinzik, B., 3148 W. 15th 
Ruekberg, B. P., 1405 N. Fairfield 

Av. 
Snchs, L. A.. 3131 Lincoln Av. 
Suckheim, M., 1316 S. Lawndale Av. 
Sackheim, S., 1237 Turner 
Salklnd, B., 1250 S. Turner 
«iRltIel. r-.. P^«2 Winthrop Av. 
Salvat, H., 5425 Ellis Av. 
Samuels, Ben.. 6225 Drexel Av. 
Snndock. J. M., 5727 Calumet 
Satten, I. S., 1640 S. St. Louis Av. 
Sax, M., & Co., 3050 E. 92d 
Schaar, B. E., 6154 Ebcrhart Av. 
Schack, Jos., 1739 Milwaukee 
Schnffer, Isaac. 672 Sheridan Rd. 
Schaffer, M., 1935 W. Madison 
Schaffner, Daniel, 155 N. Clark 
Schanfarber, Rev. T., 5016 Grand 

Blvd. 
Scheftel, Ben., 3810 W. 13th 
Schenker, Helen R., 4931 Prairie Av. 
Schetnitz, Mrs. B.. 539 N. Cicero Av. 
Schiff, B. J., 614 Ashland Blvd. 
Schiff, Chas.. 423 W, 63d 



Schiff, S. B., 3516 Hasting 
Schlesinger, L^ 1744 W. Division 
Schloesinger, H. J., 1701 S. Clark 
Schoenbrod, N. S., 2503 Sacramento 

Av 



Schwartz, M. D., 4709 Sheridan Rd. 
Seckbach, A. M., 5838 S. Park 
Seelenfreund, A. B., Tribune Bldg. 
Seelenfreund, L. M., 706 Sheridan 

Rd. 
Segal, A., 607 Wells 
Segal, Henry, 5822 Prairie Av. 
Segal. S., 746 Wells 
Segali, Frank, 1424 Congress 
Segerman, B. M., 1801 W. Garfield 

Blvd. 
Selden, Frank, 1929 Fowler 
Seidner, J. D., 3359 Douglas Blvd. 
Seidner, Jos., 3209 W. 12th 
Selpp, Mrs. M., 2716 Evergreen Av. 
Selig, Louis, 1338 S. Turner Av. 
Sellg. Sidney H., 5645 Prairie Av. 
Sentinel Publishing Co., 14 W. 

Washington 
Shabad, H. M., 4412 Indiana Av. 
Shaeffer, S. J., 4459 Beacon 
Shaffer, S., 1419 S. Ashland Av. 
Shaffner, Chas., 1026 E. 49th 
Shapera, C. M., 849 W. 12th 
Shapera, J., 1409 S. Turner Av. 
Shapera, M. L., 1440 S. Clifton Pk. 

Av. 
Shapinsky, Dr. J. T., 572 W. 12th 
Shapiro, A. S., 1427 Carroll Av. 
Shaplr(\ I., 817 Ashland Blvd. 
Sheff, Harry, 1459 W. 47th 
Shellow, L., 3151 W. 15th 
Shlller, A., 4756 W. Lake 
ShlUer, Harry, 354 N. 48th Av. 
Shlutz, H., 1525 Hamlin Av. 
Shnaper, L. A., 1205 W. Chicago 

Av. 
Shulman, M., 1108 Ashland Blk. 
Bhutan. E.. 4942 Washington Pk. PL 
Sldeman, D., 3242 Douglas Blvd. 
Sideman, D. B., 1529 S. Turner Av. 
Sldeman, J., 3204 Douglas Blvd. 
SIder, Julius M.. 2916 S. State 
Siegel, Jacob, 2102 W. Division 
Slegel, Saml., 6444 Union Av. 
SIgel. Dr. A. S., 3540 Douglas Blvd. 
Sllber, RnbbI S.. 729 S. Ashland 
Silbert, M., 1J35 Independence Blvd. 



as 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



449 



Silverberg, A., 3617 Douglas Blvd. 
SilTerman, Anna, 1818 S. Albany 

Av. 
SllTerman, H., 1838 S. Central Pk. 

Av. 
Simon, A. M., 4436 Magnolia Av. 
Simon, Ben, 917 N. Washtenaw Av. 
Simon, Edw., 1335 Sloan 
Simon, Jos. M.. 925 S. Ashland 
Simon, S. J., 11338 Michigan A v. 
Singer, W. R., 1657 Monadnock 

Bldg. 
Sissman. Peter. 1202 Ashland Blk. 
Sitkin, S., 1922 W. Madison 
Slavitsky, S. T., 6008 Vincennes Av. 
Slept, Mrs. A., 3248 Douglas Blvd. 
Sloan, Bernard L., 3430 Douglas 

Blvd. 
Sloan, N.. 8612 W. Polk 
Smidt, Jos., 1250 S. St. Louis Av. 
Smollar, L, 1116 S. Francisco Av. 
Soble, Aaron, 2732 N. Kedzie Av. 
Soboroff, H., 1258 Independence 

Blvd. 
Soboroff, Dr. S. H., 1101 N. Western 

Av. 
Solinger, Leonard, 1255 S. Millard 
Solomon, Mrs. H. G., 4406 Michigan 

Av. 
Sonnenschein, E., 4621 Calumet A v. 
Sonnenschein, Dr. R., 4744 Prairie 

Av. 
Sopkin, B., 8644 Douglas Blvd. 
Sopkin, L., 3646 Douglas Blvd. 
Sosna, M. W., 1391 Milwaukee Av. 
Spare, C, 3614 Oreenshaw 
Spiesberger, H. T., 4816 Forrestville 

Av. 
Spinner, Isidore, 8127 Douglas 
Spira, S., 3119 N. Kedzie Av. 
Spitzer, Saml., 1410 S. Albany 
Stangle, Sam, 6410 Sangamon 
Stein, A., 720 S. Paulina 
Stein, Alvin E., 5040 Bway. 
Stein, Bella, 5221 Michigan Av. 
Stein, J. D., 1122 S. Whipple 
Stein, Saml., 901 S. Halsted 
Steinberg. P., 1248 Millard Av. 
Steiner, Sam, 326 S. Market 
Stenge, B.. 2154 N. Kedzie Blvd. 
Stern, Bert, 303 State Bldg. 
Stern, Chas. H.. 3258 Douglas Blvd. 
Stern, David, 1047 W. Madison 
Stern, H., 2237 Ballan 
Stern, H. B.. 5319 Michigan Blvd. 
Stern, Max, 18 W. Austin 
Stol, Dr. S., 1911 S. Spaulding Av. 
Stolz, Rev. Dr. J., 4827 Langley A v. 
Stone, Mrs. J., 4755 Lake Park Av. 
Stone, Phil, 2443 W. Adams 
Straus, Leo, Metropolitan Hotel 
Straus, M. M., 4343 Vincennes Av. 



Straus, Meyer L., 728 W. Madison Illinois 

Straus, Simeon, 951 Hyde Pk. Blvd. 

Stulman, S. J., 3544 W. 12th PI. 

Stumer, L M., 36 S. State 

Sucherman, Max, 2759 W. 12th 

Sultan, Dr. Geo., 8325 W. 12th 

Sultan, Philip, 747 Brompton Av. 

Sulzberger, S. L., 4404 Michigan Av. 

Sumner, S. J., 237 S. Market 

Switton, Dr. M., Albany St. & Ogden 
Av. 

Tabak, S., 1556 Spaulding 

Ticktin. C. 6448 Green 

Tint, Dr. L., 121 S. Ashland Blvd. 

Trotzkey, E., 1550 S. Albany A v. 

Unterman, Isaac, 1652 W. Taylor 

Uslander, Jessie, 1108 S. Hamilton 
Av. 

Van Gelder, M.. 2231 W. Madison 

Victor, Nate, 1902 S. Albany Av. 

Waiss, H., 739 W. 12th 

Wald, Benedict, 1445 E. 55th 

Walkosky, Harry. 738 Milwaukee 

Wallerstein, H., 1022 W. 12th 

Well, Emanuel, 5833 Calumet 

Weil, Morris, 5043 Drexel Blvd. 

Weil, Theo., 951 Hyde Park Blvd. 

Weinberg, A. B., 449 W. 87th 

Weinberg, Geo., 308 W. Division 

Weinberg, Isidore. 1210 S. Union Av. 

Weinberg, Sol., 3540 W. 12th PI. 

Weiner, Dr. S. H., 1431 S. Halsted 

Welnstein, A., 641 Buckingham PI. 

Weinsteln. .T., 1336 Blue Island A v. 

Wels, B., 1221 Blue Island Av 

Weisberg, A., 3319 Douglas Blvd. 

Welsenbach, J., Tribune Bldg. 

Weisz, A.. 2619 Leland A v. 

Wexler, H. I., 2958 N. 12th 

Wilk, Harry, 1129 S. Paulina 

Wilk, J. R., 1127 San Francisco Av. 

WItkowsky, D., 4865 I^ke Av. 

Woldenberg, M., c/o Hotel Metro- 
pole 

Wolf, B., 1302 S. Lawndale Av. 

Wolf, Dr. Benzlon, 1238 W. 12th 

Wolf, H. M., .Hni4 Ellis Av. 

Wolf, J. D., 1904 W. Madison 

Wolfsohn. J. M., 1920 Washburne 
Av. 

Zeitlin, A. Z., 1105 Ashland Blk. 

Zemans, D. M., 5008 Vincennes Av. 

Zevin, M., 910 S. Laflin 

Zlnkin, Rev. A. A., 608 S. Dearborn 

Ziv, L., 2525 N. Sacanenta 

Zoline, Dr. N. J., 3137 W. 12th 

Zolla, D. M., 370 E. 26th 

Zolla, E. N., 3507 Douglas Blvd. 

Zolotkoff, L., 1618 Ashland Blk. 

Zuckerman, M. U., 1617 W. Polk 



89 



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450 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



nilnois Ollnton 

Cypen. Max 

Henocne, H., Boston Store 
Shapiro, L., 214 B. Main 
Tick, Jacob 

OolUniWlU 
Hiken, Harry, 1126 W. Main 
Hiken, Sam 

Hirsch, M., 104 B. Clay 
Mann, Abe 
Mann, P. 

Schwartz, Ike, 109 B. Main 
Wolf, R., Vandalid St. 

Danville 
Annual Mbmbsrs 
Epstedn, Mrs. B. J., 408 W. Main 
Goldberg, Saml., 925 N. Vermilion 
Goldman, Louis M., 1100 Logan At. 
Renfman, I. M., 19 N. Walnut 
Silverman. M., 212 Larke 
Straus, Mrs. Jules, 440 N. Vermilion 

Peoatnr 
Friedlander, Abe., 843 W. Macon 

De Pne 
Lang, Seymour 

E. Dabnqne 
Simons, Louis 

East St. Louis 
Beck, Jacob, 606 St. Clair Av. 
Cohen, I., 92 St. Clair Av. 
Hurwitz, I. R., 202 Murphy BMr. 
Hurwitz. Meyer, 657 N. 10th 
Lleberstein, I., 3205 Forest PI. 
Rothschild, J., 8618 Waverly Av. 

Elgin 
Azoff, I., 68 Villa 
Brenner, I., 10 Douglas Av. 

Evanston 
Preedman, A., 1939 Jackson Av. 
Melsner, J., 1226 Sherman Av. 
Schachter, Dr. J., 1328 Greenleaf 

Oalesburg 
Special Members 
Gross, Jos. 
Halper, D. C, 530 Clark 

Annual Members 
Frolich, Sol. 
Nirdlinger, S. 



Granite City 
Annual Member 
Wiesman, J., 1828 D 

Spscial Mbmber 
Schaffner, R., Highland Park, 111. 

Homewood 
Bisenstaedt, Dr. M. 



Adelman, J., 864 S. Greenwood A v. 
Bauer, D. I., 410 S. Schuyler Av. 
Birk, M., 196 N. BJvergreen Av. 
Kleinhamer, S. B., 492 S. Wildwood 

Av. 
Lassers, H., 141 N. Schuyler Av. 
Perlman, L., 127 Greenwood A v. 
Reiches, Rev. Wm., 498 W. Station 
Rifkind. Wm.. 254 N. Harrison 
Roski, A., 448 S. Chicago Av. 



Kalish, H. 



La Orange 
406 Kensington Av. 



La Salle 
Spbcial Msmbbr 
Neustadt, Geo. 

Annual Members 
Brown, Arthur, 826 1st 
Bllistam. Herman B., 636 4th 
Goldsmith, M. N.. 614 7th 
Hirsh, Dr. S., 7th & Gooding 
Hodes, S., 965 2d 
Klawans, Julius L., 746 Ist 
Ramensofsky & Son, M. 
Venne, Max, 606 Ist 

Lincoln 
Special Member 
Grieshelm, M. 

Annual Members 
Leherberger, L. 
Simon, Dan, 208 Oglesby Av. 
Traub, Henry 

Madison 

Blumenfeld, M. 

Brody Bros., 407 Madison Av. 

Cohn, A.. 209 Mp'!ison Av. 

Friedman, W., 925 Madison 

Goldman. H., Box 1044 

Levy, A. M., 415 Madison Av. 

Levy, L., 416 Madison Av. 

Rosch, I. J., Manhattan Tailing Co. 



40 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



451 



Schenner, Herman. 12tli St Madison 
Schenner. Joe, 12tli & Madison 
Strauss, I., 6tb & Madison 

XaroA 

Riskind, A. I. 

Moline 

Dolkart. L., 614 10th 
Rosensteln. l*., 2410 7th Ay. 
SkloTSky, Max., 624 10th 

Mounds 
Galvin, Rev. J. P. 

Mount Vsmon 
Special Mbmbeb 
Feltensteln, Isaac, R. R. No. 

Oak Park 

Jacoby, H. S., 812 S. Scovllle Av. 
Specter, Jacob, 582 Clarence At. 

Ottawa 
Blumbersr, S. A., 1626 Chestnut 
Engel, Mrs. M., E. Pearl St. 
Kramer, E., c/o Givens Clock House 
Stiefel, Sidney, Chapel St. 

Peoria 
Special Mbmbbbs 
Strause, E. A., 132 Moss Av. 
Szold, Jacob, 515 George 
Woolner, Adolph, Jr., 489 Moss Av. 
Woolner, Saml., Jr., 640 Moss Ay. 
Woolner, W. B., Jefferson Hotel 

Annual Mbmbebs 
Bottigheimer, Rev. S. G., 205 Brad* 

ley Av, 
Cdben, Rabbi A, 509 S. 5th 
Frankel, Julius, 509 5th 
B^rledman, D. S., 1518 N. Monroe 
lIorwitB, Dr. 8., 401 Rowland 
Levinson, Isaac J., 010 N. Madison 
Levitin, Dr. E. Z., 516 Jefferson 

Bldg. 
PoUak, Saml.. 618 5th 
Schiff, AI., Peoria D. Gds. Co. 
Weiss, Nathan, 410 Knoxville Av. 
Wolfner, W. P., 205 Moss Av. 

Petersburg 
Katzenstein Bros. 
Lelienstein, Arthur W. 

Qninoy 
Cohn, Ralph, 651)4 Hampshire 
Halprin, Rabbi J. H. 



Kessell, Chas., 517 Hampshire Illinois 

Ohsman, M., 520 N. 6th 
Pocras, H., 317 Hampshire 
Procrass, Frank, 614 Hampshire ' 
Rosin, L. J., 918 Hampshire 
Schneidman, D., 31*\ S. 5th 
Schwartz, Jacob, 22S N. 5th 
Subeck, S., 918 Hampshire 
Vasen, B. G., 928 5th 

Rockford 
Pizer, D., 408 B. State 
Shannouse, Chas., 1035 Haskell Av. 

Sesser 

Jackson, A. G. 

Springfleld 
Eckesteln, M., 808 W. Washington 
Kellner, M. J., 505 N. 15th 
Lange, B. A., 710 S. 7th 
Meyers, J. M., Meyers Bldg. 
Myers, Albert, 811 S. 7th 
Salzenstein, A., 125^4 S. 5th 
Salzenstein, E., 1280 W. South G 

Av. 
Salzenstein, Mose, 1012 S. Walnut 
Samuels, L. J., 516 S. 8th 
Tedesche, Rabbi S., 452 W. South 

Grand Av. 

Spring Valley 
Bernstein. Saml. 
Rosenzweig, B., 222 St. Paul 
Rubinstein, Rev. N. 
Shere, Dr. J. A 
Steinberg, Isaac, St Paul St. 
Zand, H. J. 

Stannton 
Kotler, A. 
Sherman, Max 

Taylorville 
Broverman, Sol, 700 N. Main 
Marblestone, Sol 
Summer, Harry, 214 E. Vine 

Tfrbana 

Subscribers 
Baldwin, Prof. E. C, 1002 S. Lin- 
coln Av. 
University of Illinois, Library of 

Annual Member 
I^wenstein, M. A. 



41 



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452 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Illinoif 



▼irden 



Chapsky, A. 
Slegel, N. 



Waukeffan 
Spbcial Mbmbbr 
Schwartz, S., 838 N. Sheridan Rd. 



Annual Mbh&bbs 
Rubin, A. M., 685 N. County 
Rubin, M. H., 729 County 

Winfleld 
Root, Lawrence, Box 7 

Winnetka 
Spiegel, Mrs. J., 411 Sheridan Blvd. 



Idaho 



IDAHO 
Blaokfoot 

Simon, Charles 



Indiana 



Alexandria 



Wides, Joe 

Anderson 
Glaser, Geo. I. 
Glazes, Wm., 1601 Main 
Kursch, Alven, 2109 Noble 
Seligman, I. Louis 

Attica 
Levor, Mrs. Levi S. 
Schwartz, Harry 

Bluffton 
Sfbcial Mbmbbr 
Levenson, Ben. 

Annual Mbmbebs 
GItlin, Alex. 
Salinger, Ben, W. Market St. 

BrazU 
Goldberg, Julius, 529 N. Meridian 

Colnmbns 
Krools, Jos., 115 Jackson 
Polster, B., 433 Washington 
Tross, A., 227 Washington 

Connersville 
Drebin, M. 

Guttman, Harry, 417 Eastern Av. 
Joseph, Louis 

Orawfordvllla 
Joseph, C. 
Warner, Lee S., 704 B. Main 

East Ohicago 
Given, Albert, 602 Chicago A v. 



Roskind, H. 



Edinburgh 



nroiAVA 

EUwood 
Sfbcial Mbmbbb 
Levi, A. 

Annual Mbmbbb 
Wolf, T., 1121 S. Anderson 
EyaniYllla 
, Special Mbmbebs 
Bernstein, D. B., 1511 S. 2d 
Well, BmiL, 1100 Powell A v. 

Annual Mbmbebs 
Belgrade Bros.^ 425 Upper 8th 
Bitterman, Adolph, 204 Main 
Eichil, Leslie P., 827 Ist 
Puchs, Israel, 416 Upper 4th 
Horn, Ellas, 715 Cherry 
Lassen, Rabbi A. 
Levy, Henry, 916 Powell Av. 
Neustadt, M., 605 Upper 6th 
Raodin, Dr. M., 426 Grant 
Trockman, H., 1015 Lincoln Ay. 

Fort Wayne 
Frank, M., B*rank*8 Dry Goods Store 
Frankenstein, Solby K., 1321 Wells 
Friedman, Herman, 122 W. Main 
HelUgman, A. S., 1723 Lafayette 
Hurowitz, Rev. M., 1323 Monument 

Av. 
Lehman, A. J., 1423 Calhoun 
Levy, Abe, 524 B. Wayne 
Levy, Ben., 915 W. Berry 
Plost, Louis, 814 Shaaff Bldg. 
Wartell, B., 1217 Webster 
Wolf, Saml.. 323 W. Berry 
Young, C, 1019 Webater 

French Liok 
Special Mbmbbr 

Robinson, A. 

Library Mbmbbb 

Koltinsky, Max, 7th Av. & Bway. 

42 



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JEWISH tUfiLlCAttOK SOCIETY 



m 



0ary 

Annual Mbmbbbs 
Bloom, I., 7th & Mass. 
Glaser, Paul P., 425 Monroe 
Kan, Dr. Alex. M., 1740 Broadway 
Ueberman, Morris, 2144 Mass. 
Morris, Jos., 1709 Jefferson 
Senslbar, M., 1028 W. 6th Av. 
Stoli, Rev. Dr. J. H., 724 Jefferson 

Ooihen 
Salinger, N. 

Oreencastle 
Sudranskl, C. 
Sudranski, Sol. L. 

Hammond 
Silver, Saml., 177 E. State 

Hartford City 
Smilack, Mrs. E. 

Huntington 
Bronsteln, Peter, 239 E. Tipton 
Tort, Ben., 420 Wilkenson 

Indiana Harbor 
Marcowich. Wolf, 3714 Cedar 

Indianapolii 
Special Membebs 
Borlnsteln, L. J., 2227 N. Meridian 
Peibleman, Isidore, 2345 N. Penna. 
Kiser, Sol. S.. 2128 N. Penna. 
Rauh, Chas. S., 3024 N. Meridian 
Rosenthal, I. M., 1910 N. Meridian 

Annual Mbmbebs 
Aaronson, Leopold. 1136 Park At. 
Bamberger, M., 1829 N. Delaware 
Bamberger, R., 2937 Washington 
Berg, Ben, 36 Kolbe Flats 
Bernstein, N. M.. 820 Accidental 

Bldg. 
Bidden, Jos. C. 462 W. Waahlngton 
Bloch, J. M., 2S16 N. Delaware Av. 
Bloom, Mrs. H., 229 B. Washington 
Brill, Henry, 620 E. Market 
Brown, B., 1335 N. Alabama 
Cohen, S. T., 121 N. Maryland 
Davis, L. R., 808 Majestic Bldg. 
Dulberger, B. W., 629 Russell Av. 
Efroymson, G. A., 2036 N. Delaware 
Bfroymson, Meyer 2207 N. Penna. 
Ettlnger, Leo, 510 Indiana Av. 
Falender, Louis, 731 Lexington Av. 
Falender, Saml., 2215 Pennsylvania 
Farbler, Harry 2832 Central A v. 



Feuerlicht, Rev. M., 3034 Washing- Indiana 

ton Blvd. 
FIshbein, P. B., 1902 N. Meridian 

Av. 
Freiberg, Ben, 2902 Central 
Friedman, H., 927 S. Illinois 
Goldberg, Orie. 615 Russell Av. 
Gordon, Max. 446 E. Vermont 
Greenwald, Sam, 172S College 
Halpern, Isaac, 2347 N. New Jersey 
Hlrshovltz, P., 1001 Maple 
Horrowltz, S., 2201 N. Pennsylvania 
Hurwich, L., 17 The Vera Plats 
Ind. State Library, 47 State House 
Indianapolis Heb. Congr., 3308 N. 

Illinois 
Jewish Federation of Indianapolis, 

923 S. Meridian 
Kaminsky, L., 2408 N. Alabama 
Kirschbaum, Chas., 2330 N. Penn. 
Koor, Harry L., 1113 Maple 
Laplnska, Dr. T., 4305 N. Senate Av. 
Levin, Eph., 107 W. 33d 
Lewis, Isaac A., 2017 N. Meridian 
Lewin, Rabbi S. J., 717 S. Illinois 
Mantel, BmiL 205 W. Washington 
Medias, C, 721 N. Dalner 
Messing, Rev. M., 3258 N. New Jer- 
sey 
Nerenberg, Wm., 2859 Washington 

Blvd. 
Neustadt, Mrs. Minnie, 715 Union 
Newman, Herman, 302 Indiana Av. 
Nler, Isaac F., 828 N. Washington 
Rablnowitz, M. A., 1022 Union 



rare 
Av. 



Kokomo 

LiBBABT MEMBEB 

Levi, J. S. 

Annual Membebs 
Ilutner, H. 
Schnerwood, J., 412 N. Sycamore 

Lafayette 
Bercovltz, C. D., 644 Main 
Levy, Estelle, 716 N. 6th 
I'earlman, Dr. S., 112 7th 
Public Library 



43 



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454 



AMERICAN JEWISH TEAR BOOK 



Indiana 



Lawrencaburff 



Harris, S. B. 

LiflTonier 
Straus, Mrs. S. J. 
Straus, Simon J. 

Linton 
Bacli, Ben. 

Bacli, Charles B., 173 N. Main 
Cohen, J. 
Goldberg, Wm. M. 

Marion 
Special Membbrs 
Plost, Israel 
Rosenbaum, A. 

Michigan City 
Morltz, M., 602 Spring 
Stein, L. J., 118 B. Superior 

Mitdhall 
Effron, Jacob 
Sharashewsky, B. 

Mount Vernon 
Special Members 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. David 
Uosenbaum, Herman 

Annual Member 
.Tarodzski. Max 

Mnnola 
Roberts, G. D., 613 W. Jackson 
Schwartz, S., 914 E. Jackson 
Shonfleld, A. L., 503 W. Main 

New Castle 
Albert, Chas., 632 S. 14th 
Dallnsky, J., 1506 Broad 
Donn, Max 

Epstein, H. I., 903 Spring 
Outtman, Ralph, 423 N. 17th 

North Vernon 
Special Member 
Gumble & Son, Wolf 

Annual Member 
Bertman, Jacob 

Orleans 

Cohen, Bennett 
Cohen, Louis 

Peru 
Abel, M., 109 S. Broadway 



Baer, Barney, 11 Court 
Flax, S.. 219 B. Main 
GroflP, M., 16 W. 2d 
Groff, S. 

Frinoeton 
Special Membeb 
Schwarz, M. 

Annual Members 
Basan, M., 520 B. Oak 
Goldberg, Philip, 414 S. Prince 

Biohmond 
Special Member 
Harsh, A., 100 S. 3d 

Annual Members 
Fred, Saml., 132 S. 14th 
Vigran. Saml. S.. 451^ S. 11th 

BushviUe 
Schats, Hyman, 504 W. 3d 
Stern, Joseph 
Shuster, Israel, 215 W. 2d 

Scottsburg 
Gladstein, Meyer 
Shaklnsky, S. 

Seymour 
Simon, Ben 
Slung, G. 

Bhelbyvllle 
Library Mbmbbb 
Joseph, Julius 

Special Mbmbes 
Wolf, Mendel, 154 W. Franklin 

Annual Members 
Diamond, Otto, 112 S. Harrison 
Goodman, A. 
Kaufman, S., 224 W. Taylor 

South Bend 
Salinger, Mrs. Louis, W. Washing- 
ton St. 

Summitville 
Warner, L. 

Terra Haute 
Special Member 
Herz, A., 809 S. 6th 

Annual Members 
Bluml)erg, BenJ., 328 S. 5th 
Goldstine, S. J., 532 S. 4th 
Levi, Simon, 667 Mulberry 
Levin, Morris L., 227 Kent Av. 



44 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



455 



Temple Israel Sabbath School, 605 
S. 6th 

▼incannai 
Lyons, Saml., 505 Bway. 

Wabash 
Special Mbmbebs 
Cook, Mole, 679 N. Wabash 



Schwartz, Jos. 



Annual Members 
Salinger, Max B., 79 N. Cass 
Simon, Aaron 

West Baden 
Special Mbmbebs 
Edelstcin, M. 
Eliezer, Meyer 
Gottliebson. Geo. E. 



Indiana 



IOWA 



Barllngton 
Special Mbmbebs 
Gross, H. S., 913 N. 4th 
Hirsch, Bdw. L., 515 Arch 

Annual Mbmbebs 
Cohen, Max, 257 S. Central Av. 
Gross, Sol., 826 N. 8th 
Leipzlger, Dr. H. A., 4th & Jefferson 
Levy, Hyman, 204 Starr Av. 

Oedar Bapidi 
Smullkoff, H., 722 P Av., W. 

Centarvilla 
Frankel, J. J., 800 Drake Av. 

Oonnoil Bluffs 
Hochman, O., 918 6th Av. 
Rosenfeld, Julius, 222 S. 7th 

Davenport 
Spbcial Mbmbeb 
Adler, E. P., 629 B. 14th 

Annual Mbmbebs 
Beser, Nicholas 
Petersberger, Isaac, Suite 222 Lane 

Bldg. 
Silberstein, Max, 2525 Brady 

Decorah 
Bear, Ben. 

Des Moines 
Adelman, Chas., 323 E. 5th 
Alter, U L., 1534 8th 
Aronowitz, Saml., 843 4th 
Beechen, M., 211 W. 4th 
Blotcky, A., 733 B. Walnut 
Blum, J. A., 669 Polk Blvd. 
Bramson, A. A., 417 Walnut 
Brody, A., 312 Court A v. 
Brody, Harry, 1408 10th 



Brody, J. I., 924 Penn Av. 
Cohen, Gladys, 810 B. 6th 
Cohen. Herman M.. 933 W. 3d 
Cohen, L. H., 916 Penn Av. 
Cohen, Louis B., 1351 E. Walnut 
Cohen, M. H., 1119 Capitol Av. 
Cohen, O., 909 W. 4th 
Davidson, Jacob, 1419 W. 7th 
Davidson, Louis, 1934 Arlington A v. 
Engleman, S., 1618 12th 
Fleishman, Dr. A. 
Frankel, A., 41st & Grand Av. 
Frankel, Mrs. B., 219 37th 
Frankel, Mrs. Belle G., 220 W. 37th 
Friedman, M. M., 1405 W. 7th 
Goldman, M. D., 2843 Cottage Grovr 

Av. 
Gordon, M. M., 420 University 
Gordon, Saml., 1530 W. 31st 
Gottstein, J. A., 1130 W. 6th Av. 
Gutmann, Isaac, 221 3d 
Israly Bros., 419 B. Grand 
Jacobson, Ben. L., 1139 W. 8th 
Kllmonsky, L., 423 B. Grand Av. 
Lappen, Robert, 1400 Bluff 
Levft, Thos. I., 1245 6th 
Mannheimer, Rabbi B., Hotel Vic- 
toria 
Marks, Manford, c/o Marks Hat Co. 
Marks, Moses, 933 18th 
Marks, R., 1036 6th Av. 
Mendelsohn, B., 206 3d 
Mendelsohn, H. L., 1326 N. 5th 
Pallen, J. L, 224 B. 9th 
Press, Dr. H. P., 1309 Penn A v. 
Rabinowitz, I. L., 818 2d 
Robinson, S., 904 W. 18th 
Rosenfield, Mrs. M.. 207 W. 37th 
Rothschild, Am 1002 B. 9th 
Sherman, A. B., 1004 W. 3d 
Silver, Marcus, 320 Walnut 
Silverman, Chas.. 1012 Penn Av> 
Silverman, M., 502 Maple 
Silverman, Mose, 1136 14th 
Sorokin, Joe, 851 W. 4th 
Strauss, Mrs. Leon, 667 17th 
Strauss, Oscar, Crocker Bldg. 
Unger, Dr. D., 528 B. Locust 



Iowa 



45 



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456 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Iowa Zerchik, ReM)! H., 734 B. Walnut 
Zion, Sam]., 1016 4th 

Iowa 
Whitchook, S. W., 104 W. Burlington 

Keokuk 
Well. J. B., 628 Orleans Av. 

Marshalltown 
Bernstein, Mrs. C, 107 W. Church 

Muscatine 
Cohn, Mrs. Walter S., 608 W. 2d 

Sioux City 
Special Members 
Davidson, Abe, 806 10th 
Davidson, Dave, 1709 Nebraska 



Annual Members 



Urbach, J. L. 



Vinton 



Kansas 



Atchison 
Berkson, Harry, 606 N. 3d 
Deutsch, N., 912 Kansas Av. 
Katz, H., 717 Sante Pe 
Kohn, S., 1001 Atchison 
Levin, J. H., 511 Main 
Salinger, Jay M., 703 Commercial 
Seff, B., 620 Loralne 

Cawkar City 
Rothchild, Jacob 

Fort Scott 
Llepman, Cecil P., 13 S. Judson 

Kansas City 
Bielsker, Sam, 7 Central Av. 
Bloomgarten, Morris, 412 Nebraska 
Brenner, A., 715 Packard 
Glatt, Ben., 323 Washington Blvd. 
Glatt, Meyer S., 729 Parallel 
Hlrschl, G., 1032 Rowland Av. 



KAKSA8 



Lustig, U, 26 N. James 
Schuman, Isador, 49 Central A v. 
Shaw, M., 1606 Minnesota Av. 
Zuckerman, F. L., 622 Freeman A v. 

Leavenworth 

Special Mbmbeb 
Ettenson, Mrs. Henry, 514 Pott 

Annual Member 
Rosenfield, A. 

Liberal 
Ginns, H. L. 

Pittsburg 
Degen, Harry, 6 W. Euclid 

Wichita 
Bronston, E. 

Croney, S., 3424 B. Maple 
Kosenblum, Z^ 411 S. Lawrence Av. 
Wallenstein, H., 832 N. Topeka 



Kentucky 



Ashland 
Hammel, Alfred, c/o Edelson Bros. 
Lipsltz, Louis, 13th St. 
Strauss, Geo. 

Catlettsburg 

Special Member 
Gordon, H. 

Annual Members 
Freedman, Julius 
Josselson, Abe 



KENTUCKY 

Klrsh, B. 
Lefkowltch, L. 
Meyer, A. 
Plllemer, Jacob 



Covington 

Bloom, A., 45 Pike 

Cohen, L., 32 Pike 

Dine, Harry N. 

Gershuny, L., 8 th & Madison A v. 

Glass, P.. 52 Pike 



46 



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JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



457 



Jacobs, H., 112 Pike 
Lessure Bros., 431 Scott 
Slegel. M., 30 B. 5th 
Sunshein, M., 504 Scott 

CyntMana 
Goldberg, A. 
Gordon, M. 
Wolf, M. J. 

Danville- 
Baer, B. F., 117 Bway. 
Baer, J. 

Cronstein it Lovitch, Main St 
Lyons, S^ 3d St. 
Pushin, H. D. 
Pushin, H. 

Frankfort 
Special Member 
Davis, I. 

Annual Members 
Rosenstein, L 
Uosenstein, Max, St. Clair 
Rosenstein, R., 419 High 



Effron, D. 
Sommer, L 



Oeorgetown 
Harrodsburg 



Henderson 
Fuchs, Harry 
Levy, Leon, 110 Main 

Hopkinsvllle 
Cristll, Saml., Hupper Court 

Jackson 
Friedman, Mrs. Esther, Box 92 

Lexington 
Special Members 
Speyer, Jacob, 252 N. Broadway 
Wolf, Simon, 424 High 

Annual Members 
Adath Israel, c/o D. Fichman 
David, Dr. M. S., 608 Fayette Bk. 

Bldg. 
Kaufman, M^ 504 W. High 
Kohn, Sol., Georgetown 
Kravitz, S.. 305 W. Short 

Lonlsville 
Patron 
Bernheim, I. W.. Main St. 



Special Members Kentucky 

Bernheim, B., 648 Main 
Bloom, Dr. I. N., Atherton Bldg. 
Grossman, Louis, 1312 S. 2d 
Rothstein, A., 10 Belvedere Apts. 
Swltow, M., 1359 S. 2d 

Annual Members 

Adath Israel Congr., 834 3d 

Ades, D. B., 115 S. 6th 

Ades, Mrs. Jacob, 708 W. Market 

Ades, Moses W., 406 B. Chestnut 

Baron, S. S., 941 S. 1st 

Beaber, Isaac, 222 S. Jackson 

Bensinger, A. B., 711 Paul Jones 
Bldg. 

Berman, B., 130 S. 2d 

Blleden, I.. 628 W. Market 

Blitz, Saml. S.. 1381 S. Brook 

Blitz, W., 331 E. Walnut 

Bramson, L., 421 S. 4th 

Brlth Sholom Rellg. School, c/o Her- 
man Meyer, 111 W. Hill 

Bronner, Dr. H., Atherton Bldg. 

Brooks, Mrs. M., 116 W. Burnett Av. 

Brownsteln, L., 617 W. Walnut 

Brownstein, Dr. S., 331 E. Walnut 

Cohen, L., 507 B. Chestnut 

Cohen, Meyer, Auditorium Apt. 

Ehrman. Hllmar, Gait House 

Evans, J. S., 208 E. Market 

Plnkelstein, H., 639 S. 1st 

Freedman, M., 216 S. Preston 

Galanter, Dr. H., 232 W. Market 

Goldstein, Hattle. 027 S. 1st 

Goodman, Harry, 624 B. Market 

Greenstcin, Max I., 1400 2d 

Hoenig, Nat, 2022 S. 3d Av. 

Horvitz, M., 343 E. Jefferson 

Isaacs, Minnie D., 315 E. College 

Jacobstein, A. M., 803 W. Chestnut 

Katz, Aaron, 222 S. Jackson 

Klein, S., 117 B. Breckenridge 

Klein, S. E.. 212 W. Ormsby Av. 

Klevansky, Rabbi S., 222 E. Madison 

Kohn, Aaron, Commercial Bldg. 

Kupcr, E. A., 2d & Jacob 

Lazarus, .Tos., 417 Kensington Court 

Lerner, Alax, 402 S. 7th 

Levltan, Jeanette, 1034 W. Market 

Levy, S. J., 1617 Inter-Southern 
Bldg. 

Levy, S. J., 901 Intervale 

Liebschutz, N., 828 S. 1st 

Linker, Barnet, 255 B. Madison 

Louisville Free Public Library 

Marx, Gus, 2104 B. Main 

Meyer, Herman, 111 W. Hill 

Meyers, Dr. Sidney J., 1451 2d 

Mueller, Rev. Dr. Ign., 1116 Brook 

Passamaneck, H., 230 B. Madison 



47 



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458 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Kentucky Rauch, Rabbi J., Temple Adath Is- 
rael 
RosonborK, G. S., 1229 1st 
Rosenthal, L. A., 333 E. Walnut 
Schaflfner, Nathan, 735 Shelby 
Scbulman, M. W., 408 B. Walnut 
Selllgman, Alfred, Paul Jones Bldg. 
Selligman, Jos., Paul Jones Bldg. 
Shapinsky, Allan, 315 W. Hill 
Shapinsky, Simon, 1245 S. 4th At. 
Simons. L. L., 1317 Highland Av. 
Sloss, Stanley E., 421 Park Av. 
Stavitzky, S., 1369 2d 
Steinfeld, E., Inter-Southem Bldg. 
Strull, Chas., 1245 S. 4th 
Taustine, J.. 119 W. Market 
Turnhelm, S., 1703 S. Ist 
Washer, B. T., 1335 2d 
Wolkow, I. Leo, 303 E. Madison 
Y. M. H. A., 2d & Jacob 
Zarchy, Rabbi A. L., 330 E. Walnut 

Maysvilla 
Library Member 

Hechinger, D. 

Annual Members 

Alper, Simon, 128 Market 

Brogen. J. Ed.. Central Hotel 

Merz, A. L. 

Merz. Eugene 

Middleman, Saml. 

Rosenstein, Chas. 

Middelsboro . 
Ilorr, H. Wm., Cumberland Hotel 

Middlesbrough 
Ginsburg, Mrs. S. 

Mount Sterling 
Glick, Saml. 

Morris, Isaac, 44 S. Maysville 
Newmeyer, S. M. 

Newport 
Brown, L., 20 Alexander Pike 
Brownstein, I., 26 Alexander Pike 
Marx, M., 732 Maple Ay. 



Patlis, G. G., 639 Mammonth 
Siegel, BenJ. M., 717 Columbia 

KichoUsTlUe 
Moosnick, P., Box 4b4 
Schapiro, S. 
Schatan, I. 

Owsnsboro 
Library Member 
Rosenfeld, Silas, 512 Frederica 

Special Membeb 
Dahl, Philip 

Annual Members 
Barohn, H., 321 W. Main 
Levy, T. J. 
Salinger, B. 

Paducah 

Israel Temple Sabbath School 
Levinger, Rabbi L. J., 810 Jefferson 
Marks, M., 335 N. 7th 
SImm, Moses, 335% N. 7th 

Paris 
Elvove, J, 

Friedman, B., 825 Walker Av. 
Joseph, D. B. 

Josselson, J. H., 715 Main 
Margolen, H. 
Price, Ike L. 
Salshin, L., Pleasant St 

Bichmond 
Pearlman, J., 125 First 
Wides. M. 

Shelbyvills 
Atlas, S. 
Ruben, N. 
Salinger, J. 

Windheiter 

Baker, Morris 

Baker, Saml. 

Bloomfield, Vic 

Feld, M., 12 N. Main 

Rosen, Ben., 14 Lexington Av. 

Schklowsky, J. B. 



Louisiana 



LOUISIANA 



AbbevUle 
Special Member 

Sokoloski, L. 

Annual Members 

Immergluck, Jake 

Immergluck, Jos. 

Silverman, f). 

Weill, J. & Bro. 



Alexandria 
Bauer, Geo., 405 8d 
Broida, Sam, 816 St. Ann 
Gehr, Gus, 828 1st 
Gemiluth Chassodim Temple Reli- 
gious School 
Jackson, I., Sd & Elliott 
Jacobson, I., 407 Elliott 
Lisso, Roy M., 892 Flsk 



48 



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459 



Mann, Day. B. 

Manns, Harry 

Rosenthal, Jonas 

Rotbsteln. Rabbi L. J., 804 Murray 

Simeon, Simon 

Simon. A. E. 

WeU, Bertrand, 817 2d 

Baton Bouge 
Stemhelm, Rabbi E., 6 Wickliffe 
Apts. 

Berwick 
Bojorsky, E. H. 

Crowley 
Spbcial Mbmber 
Frankel, J. 

Annual Mbmbers 
Ginsbure, Isaac 
Meyer, B. 
Mitchell, Dave 

Donaldsonvllle 
Netter, Adolph 
Samuelson, S. J. 



Estherwood 



KoUlta, J. 



Franklin 



Bloch, Isaac 
Silverman, M. 



Jeanerette 



Wormson, C. 



Lafayette 

Abramson, H. 
Bendel, I. B. 

Lake Oharlei 
Gross, Dallas, 815 Ryan 
Kaufman, E. R., 711 Belbo 
I'ackman, Henry, 1127 Hodge 

Monroe 
Baer, J. 

Hirsch, M., 100 Corner Layton Av. 
Kaliski, J. L. 
Kaplan, Saml. 
Krauss, L. 

Meyer, Mrs. Alice, 217 2d 
Meyer. Mrs. Sol, 128 Satalper 
I*ollack, Rabbi Jacob 
Sugar, Barney J., 718 Jackson 



Morgan City Louisiana 

Goldman, Mrs. J. J., Box 92 
Roes, H. 

Natchez 
Kranson, A. & N. 

Natohitoohei 
Levy. Leopold 
Nelkin, Sam 
Phillips, I. J. 
Semmelman, Marshall 

New Iberia 
Dreyfus, Leon, Main St. 

New Orleans 
Life Member 
District Grand Lodge, I. O. B. B., 
2331 Magazine 

Library Member 
Beer, Bertrand, 4035 St. Charles A v. 

Special Members 
Godchaux, Mrs. P., 1237 Jackson Av. 
Julius Weis Home, Touro infirmary 
Weinberger, Chas., 708 Union 
Wolff, Solomon, 1522 Allns 

Annual Members 
Bonart, Saml., 1620 St. Charles Av. 
Bratman, H., 5015 Constance 
Bruenn, Bernard, 729 St. Mary 
Cahn, Edgar M., 320 St. Charles 
Cohen, Miriam, 436 Lowerllne 
Feibleman, E., 4706 St. Charles Av. 
Feingold, Dr. M., 4206 St. Charles 

Av. 
Feitel, Milton, 5228 Prytanla 
Feldman, Wm., 1748 Jackson Av. 
Flomacher, Lee, 1938 Berlin 
Ginsberg, Geo. J., 1420 Carondelet 
(iodchaux. A.. 4036 St. Charles Av. 
Godchaux, Albert, 4 Richmond PI. 
Goldberg, Rabbi M. H^ 1625 Baronne 
Greenblatt, Leon A., 1421 Canal 
Greenwald, Mrs. J. K., 2221 Cadiz 
Gumbel, Lester, 2320 Prytanla 
Heller, Rev. Dr. Max, 1828 Marengo 
Hess, Bernard, 1721 State 
Israel, Sam, 831 St. Charles Av. 
Jewish Orphan Home, St. Charles & 

Peters Avs. 
Kaufman, Percy S., 2134 Milan 
Keil, Mrs. H., 325 Royal 
Kohlman, Sig, 1544 State 
Kohlman, Dr. W., 1544 State 
Kohn, Jos., 18 Audubon PI. 
Korn, Marcus, 4721 Magazine 



49 



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460 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Tiouisiana Katten, Arthur A., 1807 Robert 

Ladles Guild of Temple Sinai, 4016 
Prytania 

Leipciger, Rev. Dr. Emil W., 4627 
Baronne 

Lemle, G., 8413 St. CharleB Av. 

Levy, Isidore, 309 Hennen Bldg. 

I-ievy, Jake, 1644 Palmer Av. 

Marx, Archibald A.. 2030 Octavia 

Mayer, Erhard, 1731 Milan 

New Orleans Pub. Lib. 

Newman, Mrs. H., 3512 St. Charles 
Av. 

Meverowitz, Rabbi B., 2029 Baronne 

Nelkln, Dr. A., 1638 Dufossat 

r.-4i^<.. wii--. inr/. '^--ondclet 

Charles Av. 

Am purl 

Baronne 

i S. Ramport 

on 

)auphlne 

Octarla 

Bldg. 

Tier 

, „.., , ., ^.. rles 

Weiss, Sol., 5105 Pitt 

Wolbretta, D.. 2323 Magazine 

Y. M. H. A., St. Charles Av. & Elm 
St. 

Opelousas 

Haas, Leon S. 

Lcadon, J. 

Plaquemlne 

Ephralm, Mrs. D. 

Levy, T. C, 106 Eden 



Bayne 

Kahn, Sol. 
Sommer, Sylvain 



Shreveport 

LiBBARY MBMBEB 

Herold. S. L., 554 Stoner Av. 

Annual Members 
Abramson, Dr. Louis, 722 Cotton 
Bath, M. L., 310 Stoner Av. 
Benson, L. G., 624 Travis 
Bernstein. Ernest R., 1239 Park PI. 
Goldstein, Ellas, Box 1038 
Goldstein, Nathan, 314 Stoner Av. 
Graeber, Jos., 1319 Sprague 
Heilprin, H. 

Herold, Dr. A. A., 1176 Louisiana 
Av. 



McNeil 



___^ __, ^ ., na Av. 

Phelps, E^ hox 412 

Roos, A. W., 1406 Louisiana Av. 

Samuel, David B., 1st Nat Bk. Bldg. 

Selber, Louis, 331 Texas 

Simon, J. C, c/o S. G. Dreyfus Co. 

Weil, H. M. 519 Fannin 



Maim 



MAIKE 



Augusta 
Levine, Ben., 67 Corry 
Miller, R., 197 Water 

Bangor 
Friedman, A. B., 119 Exchange 
Goldberg, Louis, 39 Webster Av. 

Biddeford 
Polakowltch, S.. 126 Main 

Gardiner 
Ross & Gross, High & Bridge 

Lewlston 
Rrownsteln, M., 308 Ubson 
.Mandelstam, M., 91 Main 
Mendelson, A.. 190 Pine 
Singer, A., 176 Pine 



Portland 



Altman, S., 595 Congress 
Brenner, J., 61 Lawrence 
Caplan. Dr. Ellas, 81 Momlnjr 
Davis, Dr. John L., 383 Congress 
Feldman. P., 119 Congress 
Filler, H. L.. 113 Middle 
Josselson, N., 75 Middle 
Lerner, Louis, 59^ Middle 
Levin, H. L., 157 Franklin 
Levine, Mark, 76 Beckett 
Markson, M., 119 Congress 
Melnick, Dr. J., 292 Congress 
rinansky, M. L., 114 V^ Exchange 
Press, B., 75 Federal 
Press, J., 499 Congress 
Robinson, A., 69 Federal 
Rosen, Maurice B., 85 Exchange 



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461 



Schwartz, Dayld. 75 Wilson 
Shulman, P., 100 Newbury 
Shur, Harry, 61 Hancock 
Silverman, N., 26 Hampshire 
SilTerman, Philip, 10 Centre 
Simonds, Max, 14 Alder 
Sockonoff, Morris, 160 Newbury 
Striar, M.. 108a Middle 
Sulkowitch, M. A., 11% Vine 
Taylor, Henry N., 85 EJxchange 

MARYLAND 
Arlington 
Special Member 
Suburban Club of Baltimore, Sta. B 

Annual Membeb 
Ivohn, L. B., Clark's Lane 

Baltimore 
Library Member 
Levy, Wm., 2352 Eutaw PI. 

Special Members 
Affelder, Harry, 1031 N. Gilmor 
Berny, Albert. 2245 Eutaw PI. 
Epstein, Jacob. 2532 Eutaw PI. 
Priedenwald, Jane, 2245 Eutaw PI. 
Goldenberg, Mrs. M., 1628 Bolton 
Outman, L. K., 112-122 N. Eutaw 
Hamburger, Mrs. H. I., 2245 Eutaw 

PI. 
Hamburger. S., Balto. & Hanover 
Hanline, Alex M., 2208 Linden Ay. 
Hochschild, M., 1922 Eutaw PI. 
Kohn, Benno, Mt Washington 
LevT, Julius, 105 Ridgewood Rd. 
Miller, M., Garrison & Belview 



Weisberg, Isaac, 155 Newbury 
Winstein, L., 247 Middle 

WaterviUe 
Barron, Jacob, 27 Temple 
Cohen. Jaraes, 12 Clinton Av. 
Jobovitz, Barnet, 16 B. Pine 
Shrlro, L H., 12 Bridge 
Wein, Saml., 137 Main 
WeisB, S., 22 Maple 



Maine 



Maryland 



Rayner, A. W., 8 E. Lexington 
Schwartzman, H.. 401 W. Lexington 
Silverstein, IsraeL 145 Jackson PL 
Sonneborn, Mrs. H., 1608 Eutaw PI. 
Sonneborn, S. B., 2420 Eutaw PI. 
Strouse, BenJ., 1704 Eutaw PI. 
Trupp, Ny 1232 Greenmount Av. 
Walter, M. R., 2801 N. Charles 
Walter, Mrs. M. R., 2801 N. Charles 
Weinberg, Abr. I., 2310 Eutaw i'i. 

Annual Members 
Aaronson, H., 355 N. Calvert 
Abrams, I. A., 1707 Fairmount Av. 
Abramson, C, Windsor Hill Rd. & 

Lyndhurst 
Adler, Chas., 1318 Eutaw PI. 
Appelefleld, Louis, 41 S. Liberty 
Applestein, Ben. S^ 2022 E. Pratt 
Aronson, I., 1216 B. Baltimore 
Ash, Fannie A., 1516 Madison Av. 



Park Av. 
Blaustein, S., 821 E. Baltimore 
Block, Wm.. 2111 E. Pratt 
Bloom, Julius, 1019 E. Baltimore 
Bloom, M. L., 8310 Auchentoroly 

Ter. 
Blum. Philip, 612 N. Bway. 
Blumberg, Ralph. 6 S. Liberty 
Bordensky, Dr. N. B., 2114 Wilkens 

Av. 
Brenner, Sol M., Esplanade Apts. 
Brenner. W. M.. 912 E. Balto. 
Brodie, I. B., 2005 Cheston Av. 
Brown. B., 328 S. Paca 
Brown, Jacob, 1406 Gough 
Buckner, Dr. H. E., 1440 B. Balto. 
Cahn, Frank B., 2401 Eutaw PI. 
Caplan, Meyer, 2208 E. Baltimore 
Caplan, Michael, 1321 E. Madison 
Caplan, Nathan, 1616 Appleton 
Caplan, Oscar, 9 N. High 
Carmel, Saml. M., 1808 B. Baltimore 
Castelle, Geo., 2015 Eutaw PL 
Chideckel, Dr. M., 216 N. High 
Chlzuk Emunah Congr., c/o B. 

Erkes. 1628 Callow 
Cline. Bernhard, 507 Law Bldg. 
Cohani, J., 2008 Eagle 
Cohen, A. E., 2009 Christian 
Cohen, Dr. Abraham, 1744 Park A v. 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Maryland Cohen, B.. 1709 Linden 

Cohen, Mrs. B. M., 2316 Chelsea Ter. 
Cohen. Bertha, 415 N. Charles 
Cohen, Hyman, 136 N. Broadway 
Cohen, L. J., 311 Union Tr. Bldg. 
Cohen, Louis, 4 N. Broadway 
Cohen, M., 817 Hollins 
Cohen, Max, 2116 E. Baltimore 
Cohen, Mendes, 325 N. Charles 
Collector, S.. 671 W. Balto. 
Cone, Mrs. Moses, 1800 Eutaw PI. 
Cone, Dr. S. M., 2326 Eutaw PI. 
Cooper, Florence, 2120 Brookfield 

Av. 
Cordlsh, L., 1708 Mondawmin Av. 
Crockin, Emil, 2124 Chelsea Ter. 
Dahne, E. G., 2030 E. Fairraount 

Av. 
Da Lavlez, Saml., 777 Columbia Av. 
Dalshelmer, S., Esplanade ADt. 
Danker. Dr. L, 244 Aisquith 
Davidson, I., 2301 Brookfield Av. 
Davidson, I. W., German & Eutaw 
Dealham, S., 1614 Madison Av. 
De Bois, A.. 822 N. Howard 
Debuskey, R. M., 24 N. Montford 
Dernberg, Lee, 220 Law Bldg. 
Drucker, Saul, 22 N. Broadway 
Dubois, Henry, 438 Equitable Bldg. 
lOilison, D., 1627 B. Madison 
lOmber, Aaron, Lawina Rd. 
Ember, Isaac, 1016 E. Baltimore 
Kphraim, R. L., 2121 Callow Av. 
ICrlanger Bros., 519 W. Pratt 
Evnin, N., 1137 E. Baltimore 
Fader, A., 210 E. Baltimore 
Fax, J., 836 E. Pratt 
Pederleicht, L., 411 W. Baltimore 
Feikin. B.. 124 N. Eutaw 
Fine, Louis, 411 W. Baltimore 
Fineman, S., 800 Newington 
Flam, Carl J.. 25 S. Broadway 
Fleischer, Milton, 2109 Linden Av. 
Fleischer, S. M., 1700 Eutaw PI. 
Fox, Michael J., 2329 Madison 
Frank, E. L., Marlborough Apts., 

Wilson & Eutaw Pi. 
Frank, Eli, 1504 Bolton 
Frank, Minnie, Esplanade Apt. 
Frank, Rebecca, 1829 Eutaw PI. 
Frank, Sol^ 1407 Eutaw 
Franklin, David, 122 W. Lee 
Freed, I., 1808 E. Palrmount Av. 
Freedman, H., Union Trust Bldg. 
Freedom, Dr. A. G., Edmondson Av. 

&14th 
Frenkll, G., 1706 Mondawmin Av. 
Frendenthal, C, 1917 Madison Av. 
Friedenwald, Mrs. B., 1616 Linden 

Av. 



Friedenwald, Dr. Harry, 1029 Madi- 
son Av. 

Friedenwald, Dr. J., 1013 N. Charles 

Friedenwald, M. S., Hotel Belvedere 

Friedman, B.. 109-11 W. Lombard 

Galoon, Sarah, 107 S. Exeter 

Ganse, Herman, 1641 N. Appleton 

(icare, M., 219 S. Bethel 

Ginsberg, A., 1506 Mondawmin Av. 

Ginsburg, A., 1829 E. Baltimore 

Ginsberg, S., 734 W. North Av. 

Gitomer, Louis J., 301 S. Caroline 

Goldberg, A., 807 Hollins 

Goldberg, Wm., 1024 Stirling 

Ooldbloom, L. S., 613 Balto. 

Goldburg. Julius, 1214 E. Lexington 

Goldenberg, J., Esplanade Apts. 

Goldhelm, Mrs. U A., 2218 Callow 
Av. 

Goldman, E.. 2206 Callow Av. 

tloldman, J 

Goldrich B 

Goldsmith, 

Goldsmith, 

Goldsmith, 

Goldstein, I 

Goldstone, : 

Gomborov, 
Bldg. 

Gordon, P., 2236 Mondawmin Av. 

Greenbaum, Danl., Esplanade Apt. 

Greenbaum, L. E., 1614 Eutaw PI. 

Greenbaum, M. D., 1007 Fidelity 
Bldg. 

Greenberg, Dr. J. A., 830 E. Balto. 

Greenfield, Pauline, 209 S. Eden 
Grinsfelder, Mrs. H.. 2020 Eutaw PI. 

Grollman, G. S., 2333 Madison Av. 
Guardian Club, 1504 Madison Av. 
Gundersheimer, Mrs. M. E., 30 Tal- 
bot Rdy Windsor Hills 
Gutman, J., 1714 Eutaw PI. 
Guttman, M., 130 W. Lee 
Halle, Isaac, 1904 Eutaw PI. 
Halle, M. L., 2222 Callow Av. 
Halperin, Dr. S., 1143 E. Baltimore 
Hamburger, L. P., 1207 Eutaw PL 
Hamburger, P., 948 Brook Lane 
Harris, H. O., 2040 E. Baltimore 
Harris, S. A., 2753 W. North Av. 
Harsh, G. M., Rogers Av., Mt Wash. 
Hartogensis, B. H., 1940 Linden Av. 
Hebrew Children Sheltering & Pro- 
tective Assn., 22 N. Broadway 
Hebrew Educ. Society, 125 Aisquith 
Hecht, Jennie F., 1916 Eutaw PL 
Heller, J., 509 N. Broadway 
Herman, S., c/o Tiefenbaum, O'Don- 

nel & Patuxent 
Hettleman, Jacob, 310 N. Bway. 
Hettlemnn, Joseph, 215 Courtland 



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Highken, Jos., 1607 E. Baltimore 
Hillman, N., 2639 McCulloh 
Hlmmel, 8., 2038 Butaw PI. 
Hirschbon, Sm 831 Aisauitb 
Hirschman, H., 2516 Madison Av. 
Hochbeimer. L., 1005 N. Charles 
Hoffman, Dr. S. B., 1523 E. Balto. 



id. 



Jacob, B^annie E., 1803 E. Baltimore 
Jacobs, Esten R., 2316 Chelsea Ter. 
Jacobs, J. H., 1726 N. Pay son 
Eahn, Jacob M., 1410 Madison 
Kanton, H. S., 1822 Buxton Av. 
Karlinskv, Dr. Leo, 1116 S. Ken- 
wood Av. 
Kartman, M. A, 2319 W. North Av. 
Katz, Chas.. 24 Hanover 
Katz, H., 2334 Madison Av. 
Katz, Jos., 2510 Madison Av. 
Katz, Meier, 2214 Linden Av. 
Katzenstein, Mrs. B., Esplanade 

Apts. 
Katzoff, Dr. C. S., 116 Aisquith 
Kaufman, Lawrence, 2002 McCulloh 
Kaufman, Louis, 601 N. Calhoun 
Keilis, Miss C, 1105 E. Madison 
Kellman, H. T., 1228 E. Baltimore 
Kemper, Armand, Esplanade Apts. 
Kirsner, Dave B., 1707 Linden Av. 
Kling, Morris, 2127 B. Pratt 
Kohn, Rabbi E., 2329 Madison Av. 
Kohn. M. J., Paca & German 
Kolker, Ben., 30 N. Chester 
Kotzen, Frank, 200 Aisquith 
Kramer, H., 113 E. Baltimore 
Kramer, M., 1818 Bentolou 
Kravitz, S., 127 Lloyd 
Kremer, N. D., 11 N. Caroline 
Kriegel, J., 1224^ E. Fayette 
Krieger, Dr. E., 109 S. Broadway 
Krupnick, Ellis G., 132 N. Ann 
Kurland, Israel, 2044 E. Baltimore 
Lasky, Jacob I., 1921 B. Baltimore 
Laucbheimer, C. H., 1524 Eutaw PI. 
Lauchheimer, J. M., 2122 Bolton 
I^ucbbeimer, S. H., Ill N. Charles 
I^uer, Mrs. L., Esplanade Apt. 3 A 
Ljiuer, M., 2001 Butaw PI. 
r^uer, Rosa, 1411 Madison Av. 
Lebowltch, li., Windsor Hill Apts. 
Lehmayer, M., 663 Calvert Bldg. 



Leibowltz. Wm. A., 1640 Rnzton Av. Maryland 

Leopold, Dr. E. I., 803 Park Av. 

Leopold, I., 2218 Eutaw PI. 

Lepnlck, J., 27 E. Hill 

Levenson, Reuben, 2038 E. Fayette 

Levin, Harry O., 2234 Mondawmln 

Levin, I. A., 1734 E. Fayette 

Levin, L. H., 2104 Chelsea Ter. 

Levin, Mignon, Windsor Hill Rd. & 
Lyndhurst 

Levin, P., 1532 McCulloh 

Levin, S., 1604 Mondawmln Av. 

Levine, Israel, 1129 E. Baltimore 

Levinson, M. A., 21 N. Broadway 

I^vinstein, I., 2341 Madison Av. 

Levitt, Aaron, 1640 Ruxton 

Levy, Barney, 1603 E. Baltimore 

Levy, Chas. S., 2913 O'Donnel 

Libaner, M.. 1830 Fairmount Av. 

Lichtenstein, William, 130 Jackson 
PI. 

Linden, Dr. H., 1714 Fairmount Av. 

Lipman, M. D. H.. 1626 Madison Av. 

Upnick, K., 131 S. Bway 

Lissenco, J. D., 2030 E. Lanvale 

Livingston, I. L., 1924 E. Baltimore 

London, H., 1421 E. Fayette 

Lutzky, Louis, 2011 McCulloh 

Maass & Kemper, 107 W. Baltimore 

Macht, Dr. D. I., 3218 Auchentoroly 
Ter. 

Maiowitz, S. R., 1801 Madison Av. 

Mandelburg, A. H., 1410 E. Fayette 

Mandelbaum, Mrs. S., Hotel Belve- 
dere 

Mansbach, Dr. I. T., 2304 Madison 
Av. 

Mark, Jerome, 731 Ensor 

Marks, A. M., 6 N. Chester 

Melnicore, S., 1640 Moreland Av. 

Mendels, Sol., 1316 Munsey Bldg. 

Mendelsohn, Dr. A. H.. 1016 E. 
Fayette 

Meyrowitz, T., 2501 Druid Hill Av. 

Michaelson, N. J., 1827 E. Balto. 

Michelson, Dr. R. A., 1420 E. Balto. 

Michelson, S., 2113 E. Baltimore 

Miller, Dr. C. E., 1605 E. Baltimore 

Miller, Max. 2111 Bolton 

MUler, S. S., 1407 E. Pratt 

Miller, Saml., 601 S. Wolfe 

Miller, Mrs. Wm., 1907 Eutaw PI. 

Millerman, J. H., 4 S. Exeter 

Millman. L.. 2008 Eagle 

Mindel, I., 918 Balto. 

Mlntz, Julius, 1902 W. North Av. 

Morris, Edw., Sr.L2229 Eutaw PI. 

Morris, L., 1618 W. Lanvale 

Moses, J. M., 2324 Eutaw PI. 

Moses, L. Wm., 2344 Eutaw PI. 

Myers, J., 2427 McCulloh 

Neuhausen, Simon A., 722 N. Wolfe 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Maryland Notkin, M., 2539 McCulloh 

Nyburg. S. L., 709 Union Tir. Bldg. 
Oneb Sbolom Congr. Sunday School 
Oppenheimer, H., 1411 Butaw PI. 
Ostrov, Nathan, 614 Hanover 
Ottenheimer, Amelia* 2072 Linden 

Av. 
Ottenheimer, B. M., 2028 Unden Av. 
Ottenheimer, R. M., 1634 Linden Av. 
Panitz, Gilbert H„ 2338 McCulloh 
Paulson, D., 2104 B. Falrmount Av. 
Paymer, Louis, 1904 N. Monroe 
Paymer, Morris, 1619 Appleton 
Pearlman, Isidore, 1613 Ruzton Ay. 
Pelovitz, A., Balto. & Frederick 
Pels, Dr. I. R., 922 W. North Av. 
Peregoff, M., 1413 B. Pratt 
Phoenix Club, 1513 Butaw PI. 
Pimes, M., 2204 Callow Av. 
Plrosh, Dr. S., 2202 W. North Av. 
Pleet, Jacob A., 1030 N. Bway. 
Pleet, Paul, 2233 B. Pratt 
Polan, J. U., 863 Hollins 
Poland, Ida, 120 S. Bden 
Potts, Isaac, 511 N. Kenwood Av. 
Proser, S., 2045 Pleet 
Putzel Memorial Library, 1029 B. 

Baltimore 
Pritzfelder Milton C, 37 Liberty 
Quitt, Dr. Sol., 1403 B. Baltimore 
Quitt, Dr. Wm., 2512 Madison Av. 
Rivkip. Rabbi R., 16 W. Hill 
Robinson, L. B., 2420 McCulloh 
Robinson, M., 1602 Ruxton Av. 
Robinson, M. R., 1603 Ruxton Av. 
Rodblatt, M., 1722 B. Balto. 
Rogers, S., 114 N. Pine 
Rolnlck, J. R., 1708 Appleton 
RomanoflP, Dr. M., 8 S. Chester 
Rome, M. A., 2226 Linden Av. 
Rovner, H., 1210 B. Baltimore 
Rose, A., 625 S. Charles 
Rosen, F., 2021 B. Baltimore 
Rosen, Dr. S., 1510 B. Baltimore 
Rosenau, Rev. Dr. W., 1515 Butaw 

PI. 
Rosenberg, D. B., 1529 Penna. Av. 
Rosenblatt, S., 1433 Mt. Royal Av. 
Rosenbloom, S., 831 Hollins 
Rosenblum, Wm., 1710 Madison Av. 
Rosenfeld, A., 114 N. Howard 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. G., 1720 Eutaw PI. 
Rosenthal, J. J., 1622 Linden Av. 
Rosenthal, S. W., 246 S. Bden 
Rotbbolz, Julius, 2108 Bolton 
Rothhola, S., 2218 W. North Av. 
Rubensteln, Rabbi C, 2313 Callow 

Av. 
Sachs, Isaiah, 716 Hanover 
Sachs, Philip, 2304 Ruskin Av. 
Sachs, Sarah, 2254 Madison Av. 
Sacks, D., 2008 B. Fayette 



Samuel, Oscar, Brooks Hall Apts. 
Samuels, L., 635 Bquitable Bldg. 
Sandler, J. S., 1800 B. Baltimore 
Sauber, N., 2777 W. North Av. 
Savage, Dr. M., 1729 Madison Av. 
Savage, N., 23 N. Chester 
Saxon, Wm., 1722 N. Carey 
Saxon, Wm. 

Schaffer, Rabbi S., 2566 McCulloh 
Schenthal, S., 857 W. North Av. 
Scher, J. W., 1127 B. Lexington 
Schloss, David, 518 8. Bway. 
Schioss, L. S., 2541 McCulloh 
Schloss, M., 11 Carroll Rd., Wind- 
sor Hills 
Schloss, Meyer, 2234 Linden At. 
Schloss. N., 2410 Butaw PI. 
Schulman, Jacob, 403 B. Pratt 
Schuman, Rev. J., 2415 Lakevlew 

Av. 
Schwab, Solomon A., Hotel Rennert 
Schwal, Wm. A., 930 W. North Av. 
Schwartz, H., 3214 Bvergreen Ter. 
Schwartz, Dr. H. B.. 2216 McCuUoh 
Schwartzman, A., 20 S. Chester 
Schwartzman, C. & J., 621 B. Balto. 
Schwartzman, I., 2026 McCulloh 
Schwartzman, M.. 1216 Whitelock 
Seff, Robt, 509 Aisquith 



PL 



Silver, Hyman, 318 Sharp 
Silver, L. M., 430 N. Broadway 
Silverman, S., 2428 Lakevlew Av. 
Simon, Aaron J., Ill N. Charles 
Sindler, Bessie, 1804 B. Baltimore 
Singer, S. BkL, 1933 McCulloh 
Sinsky, Dr. H. L., 1610 E. Baltimore 
SIskind, Abe, 4 W. Hill 
Small, P., 507 S. Broadway 
Smotritsky, J. B., 720 N. Eden ' 
Sobelman, Jos., 17 S. Gay 
Social Service Dept., c/o Henry Son- 

neborn & Co. 
Sondheim, W., 1621 Bolton 
Sonneborn, Mrs. L., 404 McMechen 
Speart, S., 2361 W. North Av. 
Stambler, L. G., 115 S. Hanover 



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S tatter, A- C. 1117 Watson 
Straus, A., 816 Equitable Bldg. 
Strauss, M., Esplanade Apts. 
Strauss, Mrs. Wm. L., 1628 Eutaw 
PI. 



Wlesenfeld, J^ 1712 Linden Av. 
Winner, Dr. J. L.. 30 S. Bway. 
Wolman, Dr. S., 2407 Madison Av. 
Wolpert, J., 428 Aisquith 
Woolf, D. H^ 700 Druid Hill Av. 
Wyman, J. H., 1530 McCuUob 
Wyman- M., 19 W. Lexington 
Yoken, Dr. N. P„ 129 S. Broadway 
Zinser, Max, 2429 McCuUoh 



Belair 



Getz, David 



Cumberland 
Special Mbmbbb 
Hotenbaum, S., 67 Washington 



Annual Members Maryland 

Baron, Rabbi M., 626 Green 
Hebrew Library Soc^ Be'er Chajim 

Congr., c/o Rabbi Baron 
Sbeffler, Saml., 28 S. George 

EUlcott City 
Rosenstock, H. J. 

Frederick 
Lowenstein, Mrs. David 
Rosenstock, J. 

Weinberg, Jeanette, 147 N. Market 
Weinberg, Leo, 211 N. Market 

Frostburg 
Stern, George 

HyattsviUe 
Ediavitch, Moses 

Laurel 
Block, Harry A. 

Biderwood 

Billsteln, A. M. 
Billstein, Nathan 

Bock Hall 
Blaustein, J, M. 

Salisbnry 

Special Member 
Benjamin, I., Box 182 



Levy, Paul S. 



St. George 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Allston 
Charak, Wm., 27 School 

Amesbury 
Silverberg, J., 21 Winter 

Attleboro 
Einstein, Mrs. S. W., 224 County 
Fin, K., 55 Pine 
Fleisher, M., 39 Hope 
Y. M. H. A. 

Beachmont 
Carro, Samuel, 693 Wlnthrop Av. 
Herman, Meyer J., 84 Dolphin A v. 



Boston 
Patron 
Kirsteln, L. E., c/o Filene & Co. 

Library Member 
Rutstein & Sons, B., Ill Fulton 

Special Members 
Amdur, Noah W., 166 Lincoln 
Bloom, Samuel, 8 Fowler 
Harrison. S. H.. 662 Washington 
Kaplan, J. J., 278 Humboldt Av. 
Mancovltz, M. A., 43 Tremont 
Saltz, Dr. S. M., 113 Chambers 
Wyzanski, Max E., 18 Tremont 



llaasa- 
chusettfl 



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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



Annual Members 
chuaetta Adelman, S., 153 MassachnsettB Av. 
Adelson, A. B., 36 Wash. 
AgooB, S. L., 146 South 
AlbertBtam, J. D., 909 Wash., R. 12 
Alexander, A., 84 Beck 
AUand, James, 112 Tremont 
Apple, Max, 69 Chauncey 
Arkin, Dr. L., 366 CommoQwealth 

Av. 
Askowltch, Dr. Chas., 110 Tremont 
Baer, D., 196 Columbia Rd 
Ballen, Jacob, 10 Tremont 
Bailen, Saml. L., 49 Holborn 
Banner, B., 9 Cambridee 
Baruch, Mrs. B. H., 137 Peterbbro 
Beal. Julius. 43 Tremont 
Bearson, BenJ., 59 Hollander 
Belin, Mrs. H., 7 Chambers 
Bendetson, David, 120 North 
Bergson, Harry, 18 Tremont 
Berkowltz, Jacques, 133 Putnam 
Berkowitz, N., 40 Court 
Berlin, Henry C, 303 School 
Herman, Abr. C, 179 Lexington 
Berma% Dr. M., 38 Poplar 
Black, Jos., 30 Leverett 
Bloomfleld, Meyer, 6 Beacon 
Bloomfield, S.. 373 Washington 
Bon. Josiah, 27 School 
Brettler, Jos., 78 Tremont 
Brilliant, Frank, 15a Albany 
Brilliant, S., 15 Albany 
Brin, Alex, 7 Water 
Brody, E. J., 74 Elm Hill Av. 
Brody, Hannah, 36 McLean 
Brown, Ilyman J., 75 Leverett 
Buckman, Sydney, 21 Temple 
Burroughs, Harrv B., 39 Chambers 
Butter, Samuel, 284 Franklin 
Byer, Louis E., 17 Beach 
Caplan, Moses, 35 Hancock 
Caro, M.. 161 Shurtleff 
Cashman, Frank, 51 Morris 
Casson, S. K., 18 Tremont 
Castleman. Dr. Philip. 43 Chambers 
Cauman, Rebecca, 190 Harvard 
Citron, Salmon I., 165 Chelsea 
Cohen & Son, B., 332 Harrison Av. 
Cohen, A. K., 645 Beacon 
Cohen, Abraham, 15 Nightingale 
Cohen, David, 316 Newbury 
Cohen, Emanuel, 27 School 
Cohen, Dr. H. E., 47 Tonawanda 
Cohen, H. L., 10 Castlegate Road 
Cohen, Jos., U., 39 Johnston Road 
Colby, H., 39 Broadway 
Collins, A. M» 50 Walnut Pk. 
Cubilevitch. Saml., 16 Mlnot 
Cushner, Dp. J. W., 12a Chambers 
Damon, A. L., 786 Washington 



Dana, Saml. S., 84 School 
Davidson, Saml., 170 Chelsea 
Davis, Isaac, 114 Bedford 
Dellheim, B., 18 Tremont 
Dubin, Benl, H., 67 Hanover 
Dubinsky, H. E>., 1128 Tremont Bldg. 
Edelstone, Harry E., 176 Federal 
Edelstone, Wm. W., 186 Federal 
Ehrlich, Harry B., 18 Tremont 
Ellis. David A., 12 Keswick 
Empire Grocery Co., 66 F*alton 
Epstein, A. J.. 1196 Blue Hill Ay. 
Epstein, Abr.- J., 73 Walnut Park 
Epstein. David A., 3 Elm Hill Park 
Eyges, Henry A., 18 Tremont 
Feder. .Jewish Charities, 43 Hawkins 
Feins, Raphael. 60 Summer 
Feldman, Dr. Jos., 324 Harrison Av. 
Finkelstein, Dr. H., 342 Hanover 
Flnkelstein, Dr. N. A., 83 Ruthven 
Forman, H., 57 Hancock 
Fox, Isidore 206 Barristers Hall 
Frank, D.. 81 Milk 
Frankel, Hyman M., 218 Chambers 
Freedman, Dr. S. M., 419 Boylston 
Freiman, M., 802 Washington 
Friedman, Lee M., 206 Bay State Rd. 
Frledson, S. B., 7 Lowell 
Garflnkle, B. L., 78 Devonshire 
Garflnkle, Dr. S. W., 26 Davis 
Garr, R. A.. 357 Meridian 
Gell, Elik, 6 Leverett 
Gcrstein, Carl, 18 Tremont 
Gerstein, Jacob S., 49 Greenwood 
Glnsburg, Paul M.. 60 Summer 
Ginzl)erg, A. A., 294 Washington 
Gladstone, E. Max, 24 Green 
Goldberg, Edw. B., 909 Pemberton 

Bldg. 
Goldberg, Jos., 112 Marlon 
Goldberg, L., 44 Fleet 
Goldberg, Louis, 249 Chambers 
Goldberg, S., 42 Washington 
Golden, H. B., 165 Blackstone 
Golden, Leo, 11 Wolcott 
Goldings, S. J., 36 Washington 
Goldkrand, H., 908 Pemberton Bldg. 
Goldstein, Jos., 41 Albany 
Golub, Dr. J. J., 36 Leverett 
Goodman, Mrs. S., 148 Townsend 
Goodman, S., 18 Ashland 
Gordon, IL, 79 Milk 
Gordon, M., 53 Waverly 
Green, Chas., 28 Havelock 
Greene, H., 55 Maverick Sq. 
Grosberg, Mrs. O., 572 Washington 
Guterman, H. N., 127 Devon 
Haas, Jacob de, 258 Washington 
Hailparn, Mrs. Rachel. 35 Winter 
Halperin, I., 57 Meridian 
Harris, Isaac, 6 Beacon 



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Harrison, S. H., 660 Washington 
Herman, A., 40 Central 
Herman, Mrs. J. M., 424 Marl- 
borough 
Hlrschberg, A. S., 373 Washington 
Holsberg, Maurice B., 43 Tremont 
Honigbflum, M., 345 Charles 
Hubbard, A., 1128 Tremont Bldg. 
Hurwltz, Dr. A. J., 34 Chambers 
Hurwitz, S., Pemberton Bldg. 
Hurwltz, Dr. Simon, 32 McLean 
Ind. Workmen's Circle of Amer., 9 

Cambridge 
Jacobowitz, L., 28 School 
Jacobs, Saml., 30 Harlem 
Jacobson, A. H., 12 McLean Court 
Jacobstein, Dr. BenJ., 5 Lowell 
Kahn, Henry, 3 Morse 
Kahn, J. A., 5 Chambers 
Kahn, Morris, 119 Hanover 
Kaplan, Barnet, 59 Leverett 
Klayman, Harry, 43 Tremont 
Koplon, Nathan, 77 Bedford 
Koplowitz, Saml.. 73 Poplar 
Krosin, Nathan A., 11 Revere 
Kuhn, B^698 Washington 
Kuskin, wm., 47 Devon 
Leavitt, M. J., 17 Homestead 
Leavitt, P. M., 99 Richmond 
Lebowich, I., 19 Eliot 
Lebowich, Jacob, 39 Moultrie 
Levenson, Abe, Pemberton Bldg. 
Levenson, H. H., 177 Blackstone 
Levenson, J.. 177 Blackstone 
Levenson, Max Ia, 294 Washington 
Levenson, N., 1 Washington 
Levin, S. L., 141 Milk 
Levine, Henry M., 125 Tremont 
Levins, Dr. N. N., 30 Chambers 
Levinton. E. D., 18 Tremont 
Levitt, M., 30 Salem 
licvowich, H. P., 294 Washington 
Levy, B. F., 28 Brainerd Rd. 
Levy, Ben. A., 73 Tremont 
Levy, Louis J.. 11 Kingston 
Lewenberi:. Solomon. Tremont Bldg. 
Lewis, Hyman, 82 Devon 
Liebman, Dr. Wm., 1069 Boylston 
Lipman, Max, 516 School 
Lipner, Sadie M^ 12 Holbom 
Liverman, Jos. H., 108 Union Pk. 
Lurie, A. C, 209 Washington 
Lurie, M. S., 209 Washington 
Malkiel, S., 18 Chambers 
Margulls, J., 87 Haverhill 
Massell, Dr. Jos. H., 47 Tonawanda 
Medalia, Dr. Leon S., 483 Beacon 
Meirick, S. H., 31 Poplar 
Mendelsohn, H. B., 53 Intervale 
Meyer, J., City Hall 
Meyers, A., 2343 Washington 
Meyers, Dr. S., 93 Lexington 



Morrison, A., 36 Portland 
Morrison, H., 103 Glenway 
Morrison, M., 64 Leverett 
Morse, M. M., 904 Beacon 
Moskin, Saml. A., 73 Tremont 
Moskowitz, .!., 25 Kingsbury 
Mydans, M. I., 73 Tremont 
Neuhoff, Simon, 125 Homestead 
Niditch, Isador, 10 Castlegate Rd. 
Olim, Eva H., 66 G 
Orkin, Harry, 373 Washington 
Oshry Bros., 12 Spring 
Padover, Simon, 29 Troy 
Pokat. Louis, 34 McLean 
Pokrolsky, L., 10 Sunderland 
Pollack, II. R., 45 Irving 



chuaetts 



Rubonowitz, Rev. H. H., 53 Copeland 
Rubonstein, Philip. 53 State 
Rubin, Jacob, 23 Washington 
Rubin. Dr. M. S.. 230 Meridian 
Rudnick, Carl, 226 Bay State Rd. 
Rudnick. J., 16 Gannett 
Sadofsky, M., 14 Fowler 
Sagall, Dr. B., 418 N. Russell 
Salow. Elvin, 413 Atlantic Av. 
Samuel, B., 77 Summer 
Saver, B., 317 Blue Hill Av. 
Sayvetz, Joel, 58 Myrtle 
Schmidt. S. M., 21 Chambers 
"-" "- "'., 10 Oswego 

I. L., 43 Hawkins 

I, 104 Chauncey 
7 Leverett 

., 105 Mountfort 

13 Phillips 

. J., 89 Nightingale 

25 Allen 

B. J., 907 Pemberton 

il., 119 North 

ilip, 136 Ehno 

X L., 7 Lowell 
siegei, m: O., 51 Chambers 
Silver, Dr. Louis, 69 Chambers 
Silverman, J. J., 43 Tremont 



57 



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Google 



468 



AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK 



liana- Simmons, L., 80 Kingston 
chusettfl Simons, Lonls, 41 Boudoin 
Singer, Charles, 101 Fulton 
Siskind, Henry, 43 State 
Slobodkln, Harris A., 40 Lowell 
Slutzki. Wm., 117 Crawford 
Small, Dr. S., 35 Alpha 
Smith, L. J., 75 Leverett 
Sollogub, A., 310 Harrison Ay. 
Solomon, Oscar H., 36 Salem 
Solomon, S., 101 Pulton 
Sondheim. P. J., Old South Bldg. 
Soybel, Geo., 10 Carman 
Stern, Harry, 218 Chambers 
Stone, Elihu D^ 27 School 
Stone, Mark. 43 Tremont 
Stoneman, David, Pemberton Bldg. 
Temple Mishkon Teflla, Moreland & 

Cope land 
Thumin, L. A., 53 State 
Titlebaum, Albert, 42 Washington 
Trachtenberg, Ph., 177 Woodrow Av. 
Trustman, Dr. Israel, 69 Chambers 
Turebsky^ David, 30 Moore 

337 Harrison Av. 
iney S., 77 Chambers 
. S., 12 Kent 
96 Waumbeck 
1., 97 Myrtle 
)4 Old South Bldg. 
b, 73 Tremont 
10 Tremont 
T.u<v^, jL^ukuctu I., 148 Hanover 
Wlgonsky, Jno., 42 Johnston Rd. 
Wiseman, J. L., 21 Homestead 
Wolf, Maurice, 10 Albion 
Wolfsdorf, Jos., 6 Leverett 
Wolfson, Lewis W., 109 Kingston 
WoUenberg, Edward, 27 School 
Wolper, I., 44 Canterbury 
Woronoff, Benj., 11 Lowell 
Wyner, Henry, 387 Washington 

Brockton 
Green, Jos., 201 Center 
Perkins, Louis, 28 Center 
Shachter, H., 18 Kingman 
Stein, Jos., 56 Bay 
Y. M. H. A., 138 Main 
Za