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THE 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



OF 



SCIENCE AND ARTS. 



CONDUCTKO BT 

PROFESSORS B. SILLIMAN, B. SILLIMAN, Jr., 

AMD 



JAMES D. DANA, 



IN CONNECTION WITH 



PROF. ASA GRAY, op CAMBRIDGE, 
PROF. LOUIS AGASSIZ, op CAMBRIDGE, 
DR. WOLCOTT GIBBS, of NEW YORK. 






SECOVD SEBIES. 



VOL. XXV, MAY. -1858. 



WITH THRKB PLATES. 



NEW HAVEN: EDITORS. 

■. HATB8, PHIMTBB. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV. 



NUMBER LXXIII. 

Page. 
Ait. I. Od the Idea of Physical and Metaphysical Infinity ; by 

Lieut. E. B. Hunt, '- 1 

n. On the Characters, Principles of Division, and Primary Groups 

of the Class Mammalia ; by Professor Owen, F.R.S., F.L.S., 7 
III. On the Rational Constitution of certain Organic Compounds ; 

by Prof. WoLcoTT Gibbs, M.D., - - - - - 18 
rV. The Estimation of the Weights of very small portions of 

Matter ; by Prof. Alfred McMater, .... 39 

V. On the Behavior of the Carbonates of Lime and of Baryta 

in presence of various Saline Solutions. With remarks 
on the Determination of Carbonic Acid in Mineral Waters ; 
by Frank H. Storer, 41 

VI. On the Heights of the Tides of the Atlantic Coast of the 
United States, from observations in the Coast Survey ; by 

A. D. Bache, Superintendent. — With a Plate, - • • 47 

VII. On the Winds of the Western Coast of the United States, 
from observations in connection with the U. S. Coast Survey ; 

by A. D. Bache, Superintendent. — With a Plate, • • - 52 

VIII. Notes on the Measurement of a Base for the primary trian- 
gulation of the Eastern Section of the Coast of the United 
States, on Epping Plains, Maine ; by A. D. Bache, Superin- 
tendent U. S. Coast Survey. — With a Plate, • • • 58 

IX. On the Influence of Musical Sounds on the Flame of a Jet 

of Coal-gas; by Prof. John LeConte, M.D., - - - 62 

X. On the Motion of the Gyroscope as modified by the retarding 
forces of friction and the resistance of the air : with a brief 
analysis of the "Top;" by Mnj. J. G. Barnard, A.M., • 67 

XL Review of the Operations and Results of the United States 

Coast Survey, 75 



IV COMTSNTS. 

Page. 

XII. The Open North Polar Sea ; by R. W. Haskins, A.M., - 84 

XIII. Correspondence of M. Jeromb NicklAs. — Obituary of 
Cauchy, 91. — Anesthesis by means of Amylene : Anesthesis 
by "Projection," 95. — Compressed air : Cultivation of Mad- 
der: Toxicology, Researches on Arsenic, 96. — Aquari- 
um, 97. 

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

Chemistry and PAyncf.— Electrolytic investigations, 96.— On the influence which metals 
exert npon radiant heat, 99. — On an optical test for Didyraium : On the employment 
of the salts of alumina in the analysis of plants, 100. — On some derivatives of gallic 
acid: On the combinations of tartaric arid with saccharine matters, 10]. — On the 
action of light upon oxalate of peroxyd of iron : On the Chemistry of the Primeval 
Earth, by T. Stbsrt Hont, 102.— On the Amount and Frequency of the Magnetic 
Disturbances and of the Aurora at Point Barrow, on the Shores of the Polar Sea ; by 
Major General Sabink, 103.— On the Direction of Gravity at the Eanh*s Surface ; by 
Prof. HKifffEssT, 106. 



Mineralogy and G€o2o^.— Bructte at Wood's Mine, Chester Co., 107. — ^Descriptions of ^ 
New Species of Paleozoic Fossils, by Jambs Hall : Cosmogony, or the Mysteries of ;^ 
Creation, by Thos. A. Davjks, lOS. — On the existence of Forces capable of changing 
the Sea level during different Geological Epochs, by Prof. Henncsst, 109. ^ 



V 



Ir 



Botany and Zoology. — Monographic de la Faroille des Urtic^es, par H. A. Wrddkll, 109. 
— Miquel's Flora van Nederlandsch Indict, or Flora IndisB BaiavsB, til. — Walpers : An- 
nales Botanicos SystematicsB : Jahrbiicher flir WissenscliaAliche Botanik, herausg, 
von Dr. N. Pringshkim : Radlko.'*er, On the Process of Fecundation in tlie Vegetable 
Kin^om, and its relation to that in the Animal Kingdom, 112. — Natural History of the 
SpongiadsB, 114. — Seeman*s Botany of the Voyage of the Herald, parts IX, and X : Dr. 
J. D. Hooker, On the Structure and Affinities of Balanophoree, 116.— Boussingoult, Re- 
searches upon the influence which assimilable nitrogen in manures exerts upon the 
production of vegetable matter, etc , 120. — Action of foreign pollen upon the Fruit, 12'2. 
—Structure and development of the Flower and Fruit of the Pear, by J. Dbcaisnb. 123. 
'— Narurhistoriske Bidrag til en Belkrivelle of Grotilond, af J. Kkinua»ot, etc 124. — 
Contributions to The Natural History of the United States of America, by Louia 
Agassiz, 126. , 

Aktronomy. — New Asteroids : New Comets, 128.— New Double Stars discovered by Mr. 
Alvan Clark, Boston, U. S. ; with appended Remarks, by the Rev. W. R. Dawks, 129. 

MUceUaneoue Scientific Intelligence. — Prof. Richard Owen of Nashville, Tennessee, on the 
Outlines of the Continents, 130. — On the Supposed Meteorite from Mnrblehead. by A. A. 
Hayes, 135.— On the Volcano of Kilauea, Hawaii, by ilie Rev. Titus Coan : E^irih- 
quokes, 136. — ^Tables of the Division of Monkind into Roces, Branches, Families ond 
Nations, whh an opproximaie statement of the Population ; by M. d'Omalius d'Hal- 
LOT, 137.— Artesian Wells in Sahara, 140.— Ascent of Chimborazo, 141. — New Electro- 
type Processes : On a new method of Refining Sugor, by Dr. Daubcny, 144. — Report 
on the Development of Heat in Agitated Water, by Mr. G. Rcnme, 145— FoshIs of ^ 
South Corulina, by M. Tuomkt and F. S. Holmes: On the Direction and Velocity of 
the Earthquake in California, January 9, 1857, by Dr. John B. Tsasx, 146.— Action 
of Light, 14S.— General View of the Animal Kingdom, by A. M. KssriKXJ) t ReporU ^' 



COKTBIITS. V 

of EzT>lonitiont uid Sorreyt for a Itailrood fVom Ihe Mifftivt ippi River to Ibe Farifie 
Omn, 149 —Report of the Geuloginil Surveyor ilie Siaie uf Vrimunt, by Euward 
Hitchcock, 150.— Flora from tbe AppolQihinn Coal-field, by Jameu 1*. Kimball: On 
the Determination of Altitude*, from Obtervuikine taken with the Roroneier, atr.^ 
by LieuL Himbt L. Abbot: Uber neue Ecliinodemien dea Irlifeler Knikep, vihi Joh. 
MuLi.KR: Topographical and Geological Report of Cbo^ler Co., FennfryhMuia, by 
W. D. Habtman, M.D. : Kobell's Determinative Mineralogy, tronnloted by G. J. 
Bei7bh and 8. W. Joumsom : Volcano of Hawaii : Organic ltforpholQgy» ]51.— Kew 
PnfalicatiooB, 152. 

NUMBER LXXIV. 

Pftge. 
Abt. XIV. An Address in Commemoration of Professor J. VV. 
Bailst, late President of the Americun Associaiion for the 
Advancement of Science ; by Dr. A. A. Goulo, • • 153 

XV. On some remains of Batrachian Reptiles discovered in tho 
Coal Formation of Ohio, by Dr. J. S. Newj}erry and Mr. 
C. M. VVheailey; by Jeffbies VVyman, M.D., of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 159 

XVI. Fichteliie, a fossil carbo-hydrogen found in the " Fich- 
telgebirge" of North Bavaria ; by T. Edwards Clark, Ph.D., 164 

XVH. On the Characters, Principles of Division, and Primary 
Groups of the Class Mammalia ; by Professor Owen, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., etc., 177 

XVin. On Chalcodite ; by George J. Brush, • - • 198 

XIX. Agassiz^s Contributions to the Natural History of the Uni- 
ted Slates ; J. D. Dana, 202 

IX. Contributions to the History of Ophiolites. Part I; by 

T. Sterry Hunt, 217 

XXI. The Chalchihuiil of the ancient Mexicans: its locality and * 
association, ond its identity with Turquois; by VV. P. Hlake, 227 

XXII. On a method of Preparing and Mounting Hard Tissues 

for the Microscope ; by Christopher Johnsto.n, M.D., 232 

XXUI. Bludget's Climatology of the United Slates and of tho 

Temperate Latitudes of the North Americun Continent, - 235 

XXIV. Prciiminary notice of a new base containing Osmium 
and the elements of Ammonia ; by VVolcott Giubs and 

F. A. GtNTH, 248 

XXV. Review of the Operations and Results of the Uuited States 
Const Survey, . 249 

XXVI. Description of New Carboniferous Fossils from the 
Appalachian, Illinois and Michigan Coal-fields; by R. P. 
Stevens, 258 



Vi C01ITS2CT8. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



CkewuMtry md Af «m».— RetMrebM on indicet of refrmcrion, 865.— On the density of the 
▼■por of eertain bodien, 266. — Memoir on the equivalents of the elementii, 267. — On 
new eompoands of Silicon, 270. — New rescarchet on Boron, 271. — On the Magnetic In- 
doetioD of Cryiula, by Profeaaor Julius Plucker, 272. 

Geofajfy.— Quarterly Joomal of the Geological Society, 274.— Annnal Report of the 
Geological Surrey of the State of Wisconsin, by £dwakd Daniels : On the Newer 
Pliocene aod Post*pliocene deposits of the vicinity of Montreal, by J. W. Dawson, LL.D, 
275.— Crinoids of New York, 277.— On the Cervus euryceros, by Prof. De Moelot, 
879w — Former connection of Australia, New Guinea and the Am Islands: EUirtbquake 
in Italy, 280.— Grenelle Artesian well : Chemische und Chemikcli-Tcchnisclie Unter- 
suchung der Steinkohien Sachens, von Prof. W. Stein : Tooth of the American Ele> 
pbant: Second Report on the Geological Survey of Kentucky, by David Dale Owen, 
fioBEiT Peter and Sidney S. Lton, 283. — New Species of Fossil Plants from the 
Coal-fields of Pennsylvania, by Leo Lefqueeeux : Illinois Geological Survey, by 
J. G. Norwood, M.D., 286.— Denkschrillen der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften Alathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Clatse : On the part which the Silicates 
of the Alkalies may play in the Metamorphism of Rocks, by T. Sterry Hunt, 287. — 
On the Extinct Volcanoes of Victoria, Australia, by R. Brough Smyth, Ek) , 289. — 
On tlie occurrence of Marine Animal Forms in Fre»li-water : WoIIaston Medal, 290. 

Botany and Zoolt^. — DeCondo11e*8 Prodromus, 290. — Dr. Hooker's Flora of Tarroania : 
Journal of the Proceedings of the Linncan Society, 292. — Planin IndrsB BatavisB Ori- 
talis, quas . . . exploravit Gasp. G. C. Reinwardt : Botsnical Necrology for 1857, 293. 
—Notice of the occurrence of Green-gilled Oysters, by W. J. Taylor : Humming Bird 
•f the U. States, 294.— Leptosiagon, 295. 

AMtronomy. — Note on the Periodicity in the Sun's Spots, by O. Reichenbach, 295. 

MiaceOaneous Scientific Inidbgenct. — Tolestereoscope, 297.— Inquiries into the Quantity 
of Air inspired throughout the Day and Night, etc., by Edward Smith, M.D., 298. — 
Fluorescence : A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe, 300. — 
Lectures on Roman Husbandry : Medical Lexicon ; A Dictionary of Medical Sci- 
ence, dec, by Robert Dunglison, M.D., LL.D. : Co>mo«i, 302 — Graham's Chemistry : 
Life of Dr. £. K. Ksne, by Dr. Wm. Elder : Next Meeting of the American Associa- 
Cwo for the AdTancement of Science, 303. — ^New Publications, 304. 



N UMB £ R LXX V. 

Pttge. 

Art. XXVIT. Geographical Notices. No. 1, • • • • 305 
XXVin. Agassiz's Contributions to the Natural History of the 

United States ; J. D. Dana, 321 

XXIX. Recapitulation of the '^ Embryology of the Turtle,^' as 
given in Professor Agassiz^s ^* Contributions to the Natural 
History of the United States of North America ;*' by 
H. Jambs Clark, 342 



CONTBITTS. ¥11 

XXX. Abstract of a Meteorological Journal, kept at Marietta, 
Ohio ; by S. P. Hildreth, M.D., 357 

XXXI. Oq the Extraction of Salts from Sea* water ; by T. Stekrt 
Hunt, of the Geol. Commission of Canada, ... 361 

XXXII. Contributions to Analytical Chemistry ; by Hbnrt WuRTZ, 371 

XXXIII. The Passage to the North Pole ; by Dr. I. I. Hayes, 384 

XXXIV. A Chemical Examination of the Commercial Varieties of 
Brown Sugar ; by John H. Alexander and Campbell Morfit, 393 

XXXV. Fifth Supplement to Dana^s Mineralogy ; by the Author, 396 

XXXVI. On the eflects of Initial Gyratory Velocities, and of Re* 
tarding Forces, on the Motions of the Gyroscope ; by Major 

J. G. Barnard, A.M., • • 417 

XXXVII. Supplement to an Eumeration of North American 
Lichenes : Part first, containing brief diagnoses of New Spe- 
cies ; by Edward Tuckerman, A.M, 422 

Correspondence. — Correspondence of J. Nickli^s: Biograph- 
ical notice of Thenard : Death of Peclet, 430. — Submarine 
railroad between France and England, 431. — Perforation of 
lead by insects, 432. — Academy of Sciences — ^Distribution 
of Prizes, 433. — Prize in Chemistry : Prize in Physics, 434 
Prize in Geology, 485. — Correspondence of T. Sterrt 
Hunt : On the origin of Feldspars and on some points of 
Chemical Lithology, 435.— On Euphotide and Saussurite, 437. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCB. 

Cktmushy and Phytic*, — On the equivalents of certain Metala : On the preparation of 
pore compoundi of Cerium, 438. 

Gfo2f^y. — FoesiU of Nebnuka, by F. B. Mkkk and F. V. Hatdkx, 439 ; and by Dr. J. 
LciDT, 441. — Permian of Kanraa and New Mexico : Remains of Domestic Animals 
among Post-pliocene Fossils in South Carolina, by Feancis S. Holmes, 442. — On the 
slow rise of the shores of the Baltic : Mean Density of the Earth : Cretaceous Fossils 
from Vancouver Island : Temperature of the Earth at great depths, 443.~GeoIogical 
Survey of Canada, by Sir W. £ Logan, 444.— Iowa Geological Survey : The Chem- 
istry and Metallurgy of Copper, including a description of the principal Copper Minea 
of the I.^nitcd States and other countries, etc., by A. Snowdbn Piogot, M.D. t llie 
Wheatley Collections : Third Report of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, made 
during the years 1856 ond 1857, by David Dale Owen, etc., 446.— DescriptJona of 
New Fossils from the Coal Measures of Missouri and Kansas, by B. F. SuuMiJtD and 
G. C. Swallow, 447. 



• •• 



▼111 e0 2VT£NTS. 

AsfroRomy.— Two new Planeti : First Comet of 185^ 447 — Second Comet of 1858, 448. 

Mitedliineow Scientific Intelligence. — ^The Annanl Vnrintianii of Atmovpheric PreMure in 
the Giilfof ^t. Lnwrenre, by William Kklly, M.D., K. N., 44a— Tlie Hand-Book of 
Pranical Receipts uf every d.iy use, by I'iiomas F. Branson, 449.— Report of the Sn- 
peririteniient of the U. S. Coast Surrey far 1S36 : Reports of Eiploroiions nnd Surveys 
fur B Railroad from the Missiniippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 450. — ObUuoryi — S. O. 
Deeth : Carl Freidrich Pluttner, 450. — Discovery of the Permian in Kansas : Bibliogra- 
phy, by J. Nicklds, 451. 

Index, 453. 



i 



ERRATA. 

Page 875 (note), lino 19 from top, after "water,** add "or metallic ozjd. 
•• " •* "18 from bottom, after *' the " insert " gaseous.** 
** 422, dele la^t paragrapli of note. 
** 437, dele 5th and 6th lines from bottom. 

Vol. XXIV, p. 314, 21 1. from bottom, for pnponlion$ read propcrliont. 



« < » • . > .• 



THE 



AMERICAN 



JOURXAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS. 



[SECOND 8 E K I E S.] 



Abt. I. — On the Idea of Phy.ncal and ifetaphysicnl Jvfimly ; by 
Lieut. E. B. Hunt, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

Few subjects of reflection have engaged the meditative ener- 
gies of so large a portion of the leading intellects of all agts as 
that^reat idea which under a vast diversity of forms and inani- 
fatations is expressed by the word infinity. So true is this, that 
the charge of rash confidence wouhl naturally arise against who- 
ever should now profess to contribute any great additional light 
where so much tiiinking has already been expended. In spite 
of this presumption, I shall venture some suggestions towards a 
precise definition of the idea of infinity, which have served to 
wake clearer to my own mind what before was vague and in- 
definite. 

It has seemed to me a correct criticism on the usual modes of 
considering the subject of infinity, that they regard it too exclu- 
clusively under its metaphysical or speculative aspects, and too 
little in its physical or actualized forms. By at once pushing 
the idea of infinity into its abstract phases we bjinish it from our 
positive cognizance and relinquish the aids which nature affords 
in interpreting it to our finite comprehension. That such a hasty 
transfer from the concrete to the abstract form of contemplation 
involves a fault, mny be appreciated at once by a simj.de consid- 
eration in which all healthful minds will doubtless agree. The 
rii»a of infinity must dwell in the divine creative mind in its 
greatest supposable perfection ; consequently its natural embodi- 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. — JAN.. 186B. 



• •*••• ••»•• • ••!•.• ••/• «* • .• 

• • ••• • • •. - ••• • • • • •^ !••••••• • 

• ■••■« ••••• • •••^•* ••,•••• • ■ • 

• ••• ••• ••■••• •••••* •• •• • • «• 

2 E. B. Hunt on Phyxical and Metaphysical Infinity. 

ments must possess a wholesome and intellectual truth far ex- 
ceeding what could originate I'rom tlie abstract s(>ecuIation8 of 
human mind. Therefore, whatever hints towards a due appre- 
ciation of iiifinitj can be gleaned from the eontimplation of ac- 
tual created nature, will rest on a more solid basis than any un- 
guided speculations can claim. 

Wliatever is intrinsically measurable may by continuous 
quantitative expansion or diminution, grow to such an incompre- 
hensible magnitude tl)at infinity beconu^s predicable of its value. 
Thus time, disUmce, space, number, force, or any quality of 
matter or mind, as hardness, temperature, light producing power, 
sensational perceptive capacity, intellectual comprehension, force 
of will, benevolence, veneration, or indeed any species of actu- 
ality which can be regarded quantitatively, may be supposed so 
great or so small that the human mind will call it infinitely 
great or infinitely small. No such predicate would ever be used 
in speaking of what was not intrinsically measurable. Intrinsic 
measurability is therefore a fundamental preliminary to any con- 
crete infinity. In other words, whatever is infinite must have a 
unit of measure, and its infinitude consists in the relation be- 
tween its aggregate quantity and its unit of quantity. Physical 
infinities thus fundamentally involve homogeneous physical 
units of measure as standards of reference. Therefore the ap- 
prehension of infinity involves an apprehension of unity as its 
initial point, and this is equally true whether the magnitude 
cjilled infinitely great or small is physical and actual, or meta- 
physical and only abstractly conceivable. Hence our first neces- 
sary stej) is to analyze the idea of a unit of measure. 

When we speak of a foot, a cubic yard, a pound, an hour, a 
thermometer degree, &c., the ideas expressed are among the 
clearest which the human mind can entertain. Our mental and 
moral qualities, though intrinsically capable of equally exact 
units of measure, being actually witliout well defined units, their 
quantitative comparisons become vague and wanting in precisit)n. 
Yet we are quite as prone to speak of infinite intelligence or in- 
finite love as infinite distance or infinite time. This mode of 
speech rests on precisely as real a unit of measure as in the 
strictly physical cases, although it is less accurately defined to 
our own minds. If then we take a single instance of a unit of 
measure for close analysis, the general results of such a discus- 
sion will reach to all tne analogous cases. 

Taking the unit of lineal measure as this instance, we find 
that the original standards among all nations whence other units 
of length are derived, have a pretty close general agreement 
The foot, the yard, the meter, the toise, &c. are all evident dcriv 
atives from the human body, and stand in close relations to cer 
tain convenient modes of measurement by reference to this g^ 
ometry of the bod v. 



I' 






:e 



E. B. Hunt on Physical and Metaphysical Infinity. 3 

Oar optical perception of perspective distances involves an 
habitual process of reference of all dimensions seen, first to those 
distances near at hand which are readily comprehended, and in 
torn the reference of these to the actual lineal distance between 
the optical centres of the two eyes. This interocular distance, or 
slereoeioopic base line, bears the same relation to exterior visible 
distances that the base line in a geodetic triangulation does to the 
entire network of the angles. Thus when we guage the per- 
q)ective of a landscape, there is a dirt»ct visual perception or 
sensational measurement of external distances. Still we are so 
habituated to this stereosctjpic function of the interocular base 
line that we do not make it an object of conscious contempla- 
tion, in our references of external distances to this base as a 
unit of measure. Such a reference however really enters as a 
vital part of every perspective perception, hence we are con- 
stantly applying unawares a standard measure, essentially con- 
stant for each individual during his whole life, to all external 
objects of our earthly surroundings. In like manner the length 
of our habitual step enters largely as a basis in our estimation of 
distances because we are constantly measuring distances seen, 
by our habitual mechanism of Icx^omotion. Thus all our means 
rf knowing external distances are found at last to rest solely on 
tbe actual ilimensions of the human body to which as a standard 
they are referred. 

Taking into account all the elements of our perception of lin- 
eal magnitudes, it will be found without doubt that the average 
lineal unit is very nearly that length which is most readily cog- 
nizable by a man of avenige person and capacities. High multi- 
ples and low submultijiles of the standard of length are diffi- 
Goltof appr«:ciati(m ; thus a mile or a line arc much less clearly 
apprehended units than a ibot. If a thousand miles or a thou- 
fl!iT)dth of s Vne is submitted to our consciousnej^s, our notion be- 
comes .:.. finely inadequate, and if it be a millvn or a millionth 
we f il iilmo^t. entirely to conceive the fact. When it is a question 
of billions or trillions of miles our ai>prehension is so totally at 
&alt that we give over all attemj)ts to comprehend the fact, and 
80 the distance becomes infinite for us, as referred to the mile as 
a unit Our real idea then is when we speak of an itifinite or 
infinitesimal distimce, that when it is compared with our famil- 
iar standard of length, our perc<'ptive powers utterly fail to ap- 
pivciite the relation with any approach to accuracy. 

If in |ilac«* of the unity and infinity of distance, we consider 
those of time, space or torce, we shall find a like genesis of prac- 
tical stindard unit** for each, based on the actual dimensions or 
8cnsalional cjipacities of the human organism. Along the grad- 
ated line of connection between those values which by their 
Bunateneas utterly elude our perception and those vast values 



4 E. B. Hunt on Physiccd and Metaphysical Infinity. 

which in their entirety wholly transcend our comprehension, 
there is in each case a particular value which is apprehended 
with the maximum precision and facility by each individual 
mind. The natural unit of measure for each subject of measure 
is that particular value which is best appreciated by an average 
man. The same rule holds in the more transcendental subjects 
of measurement Thus a man of average intellectual power and 
capacity becomes a natural unit of mentality, and a man of aver- 
age morality becomes a unit of morality. If a particular moral 
quality, as benevolence, for instance, be quantitatively consid- 
ered, we refer all to the man of average benevolence. When 
we speak of Divine Benevolence as infinite, we mean that it is 
so exnaustless and all prevailing, that when we compare it with 
the benevolence of an average man our limited human powers 
utterly feil to take in its relative immensity. From these con- 
siderations we may conclude that whenever we predicate infinity 
of any particular existence, attribute or quality of the external 
world, man's capacity to appreciate the various values of the 
subject matter considered, enters directly as the standard of com- 
parison. Thus to say that space is infinite is simply to say that 
the extreme exercise of human power to perceive space as an 
existence is transcended by the actuality of nature. If we speak 
of infinite time we but declare that the' brief periods of duration 
of which man in his earthly life is conscious are relatively so 
small that we can by no means conceive the number expressing 
the trud ratio of man's hour or lifetime to the infinite auration 
referred to. 

Whatever physical infinity engages our consideration, an anal- 
ogous limitation of the special powers of the human organism 
is defined. We might almost say that for us, the grand sphere 
of physical infinity is the circunLscribing sphere drawn around 
the aggregate perceptive faculties of man. It is not at all the 
absolute cosmos or circumscribing sphere which contains all the 
actualities of nature. We may well believe that this true cos- 
mic sphere in which all created existence is contained is itself an 
intinity as compared with that specific infinity which is as it 
were the defining or tangent surface around the faculties of 
man. 

It is entirely supposable that among the actual organic exist- 
ences of nature, there may be numerous successive grades of f>er- 
ceptive capacity which stand in the relation of coterminous or 
successive infinities as compared with each other. A monad may 
have a direct perception of man's infinitely small, and our sensi- 
ble distance must be to it an infinitely great magnitude. There 
may be intelligences such that the radius of an ultimate atom of 
matter would be to them what the radius of the earth is to us, 
as there may be intelligences to which the earth is but an atom 



t 



JE. B, Hunt on Physical and Metaphysical Infinity. 5 

and to which our entire sphere of visible stars makes but a sen- 
sible muss of matter. Throughout tlie entire range of organic 
existence there will be in fact for each species a speciiic infinity, 
and we cannot say but in the treasure house of the actual uni- 
verse, there may be an infinite series of organic percSptive powers 
which bear to each other the relation of the successive orders of 
differences in difterential calculus. Whatever may be the fact 
as to actual nature, such an infinite series of successive infinities 
is uietaphysically conceivable. The clear apprehension of the 
idea of infinity which may be gleaned from physical grounds 
gives a basis for indefinite metaphysical fabrications without 
in the least departing from the true inductive idea of inKnity. 
But science has not to deal with the supjwsable except as it is 
involved in the actual, and it belongs not to this place or to true 
philosophy to go beyond the foundations of fact. 

The views now presented have a bearing on the mathematical 
idea of infinity which is not without importance. The mathe- 
matical symbol of infinity stands for an entirely abstract idea. 
From it all the definite standards of unity which have been dis- 
cussed are entirely eliminated, all specific intelligences are in it 
ignored, and even the Divine Intelligence may be supposed in 
some way concretes in conditions too specific to be truly stated in 
respect to limits, by tlie abstract infinity of pure analysis. The 
very passibility of positive definition as applied to any being 
Lo\vevi»r exalted, excludes the abstract symbol of infinitv from 
entering a correct exegesis of its nature. For what then does the 
abjitract symbol of infinity stand ? It at least stands as a formula 
fur all specific infinities which by the interpolation of the proper 
constants expre^sscs the quantitive relations in any actunl case of 
inthiity. The abstract symbol is a grouping of specific cases: 
whether it is more than this may not be for man to say. 

One inference from these views of infinity is that the ordinary 
definition of the asymptotic curve needs correction. The niatli- 
tinaiical formula of incessant and incessantly diminishing ap- 
proach between a straight line and a curve or between two curved 
lilies, t>r the same relative to plane and curved surfaces is not 
consistent with the other idea of tangency at an infinite distance. 
Suppose an intellect of the proper or difterential grade to be duly 
c»)guizant of asymptotic lines at an infinite distance; it would 
I find no actual contact, but the same law of approach expressed 
in the analytical formula would still go on until an intellect of 
the s«?cond differential order would have to be called in {l< the 
cognizant power: this in turn must give place to a third difier- 
eatial intellect, and so on to infinity. The order of porccj>tions 
required to appreciate the second, third, &c. ditterentials of the 
function woula be progressively higher than that demanded for 
the differentials of the variable. Here then there is no true tan- 



6 E, B. Hunt on Physical and Metaphysical Infinity. 

gency but a perpetually decreasing approximation. Hence the 
definition of asymptotes should give the idea of a perpetually 
diminishing and never ending approximation instead of involv- 
ing the false notion of tangency anywhere. The geometrical , 
method of eJlhaustions escapes any such criticism and ia the | 
purest manner embodies the true conception of infinity. \ 

As might be expected, the infinitesimal calculus expresses l 
the notion of infinity in its most precise and purified form. The ^ 
fundamental idea on which its processes and algorithm rest^ is j 
one of relation between quantities cognizable by two orders of : 
perception, so remote that the finite quantity of the one is the { 
infinitely great or small of the other. By the hypothecation of 
three, four or more coterminous orders oi perceptive faculty the 
second, third, &c. orders of diflFerences are philosophically orig- 
inated. The relations of differential calculus if inversely stated , 
become those of integral calculus, and fall under the same gene- ; 
ralizations relative to orders of perceptive capacity. I will ven- 
ture the suggestion that the reason why some eminent mathe- , 
maticians have contended that a difiTerential is absolutely zero, is j 
simply because of their not having reganled, as they clearly , 
are liound to do, the element of limited perceptive faculties | 
which infinity involves and the consequently supposable series | 
of cognitions precisely conforming with first, second, third, &a < 
diiferentifids. it is the same fault of conception which inviJi- I 
dates the definition of asymptotes based on tangency at an infi- 
nite distance. i 

In conclusion, we may lay down the general proposition that 
the idea of infinity involves in all cases as an essential factor in 
its composition, a specific actual or hypothetical limitation of j 
perceptive power in the intelliffence of whose cognitions infinity 
is predicated. In the phvsic«u infinities which chiefly interest 
us, the limitations involved axe for tis^ altogether those which en- 
compass the mind of man. We can by hypothesis suppose ^ 
other limits conformed to other grades of organisms, and we can ^ 
even suppose such an exalted spiritual organism as that the ab- [ 
solute and entire cosmos shall be the true limit of its perceptive :] 
powers. Before the divine mind this cosmos must stand in that ^ 
clear finite relation necessarily sup^x^ed between a creator and 1 
the thing created. Beyond the actual cosmos there may be an i 
immensity of possibility where the divine mind may n*alize ^ 
analogous limitations to those which hedge in sill created minds, j 
In the mathematical or purely abstract idea of infinity there * 
seems a suggestion of such a possibility, and when we consider | 
that a mathematical formula is the nearest possible approach to 
a literally divine thought, we shall bow with reverence before 
the suggestion shadowed forth by the sublime symbol of infinity 
after all created limitations are eliminated from its significanct. 



■ 

1 



Pr^. Oaotm o» ike Clou Mamnudia, 7 

Tins mnbol aflards bo basis far the oommonly leoeived idea 
tikit infinity means an ahsolate unboundedness, a quantity abso- 
Ivlrity witbrai end, a quality or natuie transcending all oound- 
sneL Such an ictea has no rigbt in the mind of man, for the 
fiasitatiuns of human perception forbid our attainment of any 
knowledjge either of the extent of the absolute cosmos or of the 
hoQiidaneB around what is abstractly possible. The formula of 
mlinity, so fiur from stating an araolute boundlessness, end- 
kssness or inimitable magnitude, states simply the limitations 
ef finite peioeptiye power. It is the expression, not of the 
immeasiirableiieas of nature or of the Deity, but of the finite 
limitations of the human mind. It stands for a ne^tive and 
aoiibra positiye: it symbolizes not knowledge but ignorance. 
If we ffioup iufinite attributes under a divine name, we have not 
definad l>eity but we have defined the limits of our own concep- 
tioDSL The limits of our knowledge lie near at hand : the limits 
ef oar jgnocanoe are known oidy to the All-knowing. 



Abt. n. — On the Characters^ Prinetpks of Division, and Primary 
Groiips of tfie Class Mammalia ; by rrofessor Owen, F.RS., 
FX.Sm Superintendent of the Natural History Departments in 
the British Museum.* 

The class Mammalia, the most highly organized of the animal 
kingdom and that to which we ourselves belong, appears to have 
been the class of animals last introduced on this planet, and not 
to have attained plenary development until the tertiary division 
of geological time. 

Mammals are distinguished, outwardly, by an entire or partial 
covering of hair, and (with two exceptions) by teats or mammsd 
— ^whence the name of the cJass.f All Nfammals possess mam- 
mtjy glands, and suckle their young: the embryo or foetus is 
developed in the womb. Their leading anatomical character is 
to have lungs, composed of a highly vascular and minutely cel- 
lular structure throughout, and suspended freely in a thoracic 
cavity separated by a muscular and tendinous septum or dia- 
phragm m>m the abdomen. 

Mammals, like birds, have a heart composed of two ventricles 
and two auricles, and have warm blood : they breathe quickly ; 
bat inspiration is performed chiefly by the agency of the dia- 
phragm ; and the inspired air acts only on the capillaries of the 
pulmonary circulation. 

* This pAper it cited from the Jofunal of the Proceediogi of the Linoean Society 
el Lrmloii. HcmI Felmwry nth and April 21i»t. 1867. 
t Frum fliMfMPia,_a pup. The Platypus and Echidna are the only known ezcep- 

Ma ' 



to this rnle. The llare is an apparent one, from the pudendal position of the 
flipplea. The festal Cetacea show tons of hair on the muxsle. 



8 Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia, 

The blood-discs are smaller than in Reptiles, and, save.in the 
camel-tribe, are circular. The right auriculo-veiitricular valve is 
membranous, at least never entirely fleshy ; and the aorta bends 
over the left, never over the right, bronchial tube. The primary 
branches of the aorta are given off not immediately after, but at 
a little distance from, its origin, and there is less constancy in the 
order of their origin than in Birds : the phrenic artenes, the 
cceliac axis, and the superior mesenteric artery are always 
branches of the abdominal aorta, which terminates b^ dividing 
beyond the kidneys into the iliac arteries, from which spring 
both the femoral and ischiadic branches : the caudal or sacro- 
median artery, which in some long-tailed Mammals assumes the 
character of the continued trunk of the aorta, never distributes 
arteries to the kidneys or the legs, as in Birds. The kidneys are 
nourished, and derive the material of their secretion, exclusively 
from the arterial system. Their veins are simple, commencing 
by minute capillaries in the parenchyma and terminating gener- 
ally by a single trunk on each side in the abdominal vena cava: 
thev never anastomose with the mesenteric veins. 

The kidneys are relatively smaller and present a more com- 
pact figure than in the other vertebrate classes; their parenchyma 
IS divided into a cortical and medullary portion, and the secreting 
tubuli terminate in a dilatation of the excretory duct, called the 
pelvis. 

The liver is generally divided into a greater number of lobes 
than in Birds. The portal system is formed by veins derived 
exclusively from the spleen and chylopoietic viscera. The cystic 
duct, when it exists, always joins the hepatic, and does not enter 
the duodenum separately. The pancreatic duct is commonly 
single. 

The mouth is closed by soft flexible muscular lips : the upper 
jaw is composed of palatine, maxillary and premaxillary bones, 
and is fixed; the lower jaw consists of two rami, which are sim- 
ple or formed bv one bony piece, and arc articulated by a con- 
vex or flat conayle to the base of the zygomatic process, and 
not to the tympanic element of the temporal bone; the base of 
the coronoid process generally extends along the space between 
the condyloid and the alveolar processes. The jaws of Mammals, 
with few exceptions, are provided with teeth, which are arranged 
in a single row; they are always lodged in sockets, and never 
anchylosed with the substance of the jaw. The tongue is fleshy, 
well-developed, with the apex more or less free. I'he posterior 
nares are protected by a soft palate, and the larynx by an epi- 
glottis: the rings of the trachea are generally cartilaginous and 
incomplete behind: there is no inferior larynx. The oesophagus 
is continued without partial dilatations to the stomach, which 
varies in its structure according to the nature of the food, or the 
quantity of nutriment to be extracted therefrom. 



Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia, 9 

The trvte vertebrae of Mammalia have their bodies ossified 
from three centres, and present for a longer or shorter period of 
life a discoid epipliysis at ench extremity. They are articnlnted 
by concentric ligaments with interposed glairy fluid forming 
what are called the intervertebral suKstiinces ; the articulating 
sur&oes are generally flattened, but sometimes, as in the neck of 
certain Buminants, they are concave beliind and convex in front: 
such a vertebra, however, may be distiiiguislied from a vertebra 
of a Keptile, with a similar ball-and socket structure of the artic- 
ular surfaces, even when found in a fo^<sil state, and when the 
test of the articulating medium cannot be applied, by tlie com- 
plete anchylosis or confluence of the annuhir with tlie central 
part or body, and by the large relative size of the canal for the 
spinal chord. The cervical vertebrae, with one or two excep- 
tions, are seven in number, neither more nor less : the Mono- 
tremes, which are the instances commonly onjwsed to other gen- 
eralizations, form no exception to this rule. The lumbar vertebrae 
are more constant and usually more numerous than in other 
classes of vertebrate animals. The atl.ns is articulated bv c<m- 
cave articular processes to two convex condyles, which are 
develo|>ed from the ex-occipital elements of the last cranial ver- 
tebra. The typtmic element of the temporal bone is restricted 
in function to the service of the orgnn of hearing, and never 
enters into the articulation of the lower jaw. The olfactory 
Derves escape from the cranial cavity through numerous foramina 
of a cribriibrm plate. The optic foramina are always distinct 
from one another. 

The scapula is generally an expanded plate of bone; the 
coracoid, with two (monotrematous) exceptions, nppears as a 
small process of the scapuln. The sternum consists of a narrow 
and usually simple series of bones : the sternal portions of tlie 
ribs are generally ctirtilaginous and fixed to the vertebral por- 
tions without the interix)sition of a distinct articulation : there 
are no gristly or bony abdominal ribs or abdominal sternum. 
The pubic and ischial arches are generall}^ complete, and united 
together by bony confluence on the sternal aspect, so tliat the 
interspace of the two jx*lvic arches is converted into two holes^ 
^^\\^ foramina obturatoria or thyroidia. Tlie sclerotic coat of the 
eve is a fibrous niembranc, and never contains bony plates. In 
tt^e quantity of aqueous humor and the convexity of the lens 
Mammals are generally intermediate between Birds and Fishes, 
The organ of hearing is characterized by the fall development 
of the c<x;hlea with a lamina spiralis: there are three distinct 
ussicles in the tympanum; the mend)rana tynijw'tni is prenerally 
concave extenialiy ; the meatus anditori us externns often com- 
mences with a complicated external ear, having a distinct cartil- 
aginous basis. The external apertures of tUc organ of smell 

SECOND S£R1£S, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. — JAN., 1850. 



10 T^TOJ. Owen on the Clots Mammalia, 

are proyided with movable cartilages and muscles, and the ex* 
tent of the internal or^n is increased by accessory cavities or 
sinuses which commnmcate with the passages including the tur* 
binated bones. 

There are few characters of the osseous system common, and 
at the sameiime peculiar, to the class Mammalia. The following 
may be cited : 

1. Each half or ramu3 of the mandible consists of one bony 
piece developed from a single centre : the condyle is convex or 
nat, never concave. This has proved a valuable character in the 
determination of fossils. 

2. The second or distal bone, called " squamosal," in the bar 
continued backwards from the maxillary arch, is not only ex- 
panded, but is applied to the side* wall of the cranium, and 
develops the articular surface of the mandible, which sur&ce is 
either concave or flat.* 

3. The presphenoid is developed from a centre distinct from 
that of the basisphenoid. 

In no other class of vertebrate animals are these osteological 
characters present 

The cancellous texture of mammalian bone is of a finer and 
more delicate structure than in Reptiles, and forms a closer net- 
work than in Birds. The microscopic radiating cells are rela- 
tively smaller and approach more nearly to the spheroid form ; 
but both these histological characters are liable to mislead, if 
unsupported by more obvious and constant ones, in the inter- 
pretation of a lossil. 

Dental characters. — ^The Mammalia, like Bepiilia and Pisces^ 
include a few genera and species that are devoid of teeth ; the 
true ant-eaters {ifyrmecophaga)^ the scaly ant-eaters or pangolins 
{AfanisY and the spiny monotrematous ant-eater {Echidna\ are 
examples of strictly edentulous Mammds. The Omithorhynchus 
has horny teeth, and the whales {Baloena and Balcenapiera) have : 
transitory embryonic calcified teeth, succeeded by whalebone - 
substitutes in the upper jaw. The female Narwhal seems to be 
edentulous, but has the germs of two tusks in the substance of 
the upper jaw-bones; one of these becomes developed into a 
large and conspicuous weapon in the male Narwhal, whence the _ 
name of its genus Monodon. 

The examples of excessive number of teeth are presented, in 
the order Brvia^ by the priodont Armadillo, which has ninety- 
eight teeth : and in the Cetaceous order by the Cachalot, which . 
has upwards of sixty teeth, though most of them are confined ■ 
to the lower jaw; by the common Porpoise, which has between 
eighty and ninety teeth; by the Gangetic Dolphin, which has t 
one hundred and twenty teeth; and by the true Dolphins {Dd" 

* Tbt Wombat is, perhaps the lole exception to this rule. 



I 



Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia, 1 1 

p&tViua), which have from one* hundred to one hundred and 
ninety teeth, yielding the maximum number in the class Mam- 
malia. 

When the teeth are in excessive number, as in the Armadillos 
and Dolphins above cited^ they are small, equal, or sub-equal, 
and usually of a simple conical form. 

In most other mammals particular teeth have special forms for 
special uses ; thus, the front teeth, from being commonly adap- 
ted to efifect the first coarse division of the food, have been 
called cutters or incisors; and the back teeth, which complete its 
comminution, grinders or molars; large conical pointed teeth 
situated behind the incisors, and adapted, by being nearer the in- 
sertion of the biting muscles, to act with greater force, are called 
holders, tearers, laniaries, or more commonly canines^ from being 
well developed in the Dog and other Camivora. 

It is peculiar to the class Mammalia to have teeth implanted in 
sockets by two or more fangs ; but this can only happen to teeth 
of limitea growth, and generally characterizes the molars and 

E re-molars: perpetually growing teeth require the base to be 
ept simple ana widely excavated for the persistent pulp. In 
no mammiferous animal does anchylosis oi the tooth with the 
jaw constitute a normal mode of attachment. Each tooth has 
its peculiar socket, to which it firmly adheres by the close co- 
adaptation of their opposed surfaces, and by the firm adhesion of 
the alveolar periosteum to the organized cement which invests 
the fang or fangs of the tooth. 

True teeth implanted in sockets are confined, in the Mamma- 
lian class, to the maxillary, premaxillary, and mandibular or 
lower maxillary bones, ana form a single row in each. They 
may project only from the premaxillary bones, as in the Nar- 
whal ; or only from the lower maxillary bone, as in Ziphiits ; 
or be limited to the superior and inferior maxillaries and not 
present in the premaxillaries, as in the true Raminantia and 
most Bruta (Sloths, Armadillos, Orycteropes). In most Mam- 
mals, teeth are situated in all the bones above mentioned. 

The teeth of the Mammalia usually consist of hard un vascular 
dentine, defended at the crown by an investment of enamel, and 
everywhere surrounded by a coat of cement. 

The coronal cement is of extreme tenuity in Man, Quadru- 
mana and the terrestrial Camivora; it is thicker in the Herbiv- 
ora, especially in the complex grinders of the Elephant. 

Vertical folds of enamel and cement penetrate the crown of 
the tooth in the ruminating and many other Ungulata, and in 
most Rodents, characterizing by their various forms the genera 
of those orders. 

No Mammal has more than two sets of teeth. In some spe- 
cies the tooth-matrix does not develop the germ of a second 



12 FroJ. Owen an the Class Mammalia. 

tooth, destined to succeed one 'into which the matrix has been 
converted ; such a tooth, therefore, when completed and worn 
down, is not replaced. The Sperm Wliales, Dolphins, and Por- 
poises are limited to this simple provision of teeth. In the 
Armadillos and Sloths, the want of generative power, as it may 
be CJilled, in the matrix is compensated by the persistence of the 
matrix, and by the uninterrupted growth of the teeth. 

In most other Mammalia, the matrix of the firtit-developed 
tooih gives origin to the germ of a second tooth, which some- 
times displaces the first, sometimes takes its place by the side of 
the tooth, from which it has originated. 

All those teeth which are displaced by their progeny are 
called * temporary,' deciduous, or milk-teeth ; the mode and di- 
rection in which they are displaced and succeeded, viz. from 
above downwards in the upper, from below upwards in the 
lower, jaw, in both jaws vertically — are the same as in the Croc- 
odile; but the process is never repeated more than once in any 
mammalian aninml. A considerable proportion of the dental 
series is thus changed ; the second or * permanent' teeth having 
a size and form as suitable to the jaws of the adult, as. the ^tem- 
porary' teeth were adapted to those of the young animal. 

Those permanent teeth, which assume places not previously 
occupied by deciduous ones, are always the ma^t posterior in 
their position, and generally the most complex in their fornu 
The term * molar' or * true molar' is restricted to these teeth. 
The teeth between them and the canines are called * premolars;' 
they push out the milk-teeth that precede them, and are usually 
of smaller size and simpler form tnan the true molars. 

I'hus the class Mammalia, in regnrd to the times of formation 
and the succession of the teeth, may be divided into two grou|)S, 
moftophyodotits* or those that generate a single set of teeth ; and 
the drpli!/odohts;\ or those that generate two sets of teeth. But 
this dental character is not so associated with other organic char* 
acters as to indicate natural or equivalent sulxslasses. 

In the Mammalian orders with two sets of teeth, these organs 
acquire fixed individual characters, receive special denomina- 
tions, and can be determined from species to species. This indi- 
vidualization of the teeth is eminently signiticative of the high 
grade of organization of the animals manifesting it 

Originally, indeed, the names * incisors,' * canines,' and 'mo- 
lars,' were given to the teeth, in Man and certain Mammals, as 
in Reptiles and Pishes, in reference merely to the shape and 
offices indicated by these names; but they are now used as arbi- 
trary signs, in a more fixed and determinate sense. In some 

* ft6¥o;, once ; <p(w, I generate ; dSo^i, tooth. 

f dl;, twice ; ff6w aud 6dovS. Se«» ** Philosophical TraoaactioDs,"* 1850, p. 49S, 



Pro/1 Owen on the Class Mammalia. 18 

ra, €. ^. the &out-teeth have broad tuberculate Bummits, 
for nipping and bruising, while the principal back-teeth 
»€d for cutting, and worlc upon each other hke the blades 
>rs. The front-teeth in the Elephant project from the 
.w, in the form, size and direction of long pointed horns. 
^ shape and size are the least constant of dental charac- 
he Mammalia; and the homologous teeth are determined, 
er parts, by their relative position, by their connexions, 
their development 

) teeth which are implanted in the premaxillnry bones, 
be corresponding part of the lower jaw, are called * inci- 
batever be their snape or size. The tooth in the maxillary 
lich is situated at or near to the suture with the premax- 
the ^canine,' as is also that tooth in the lower jaw, 
in opposing it, passes in front of the upper one's crown 
le mouth is closed. The other teeth of the first set are 
tciduous molars;' the teeth which displace and succeed 
jrtically are the * premolars;' the more posterior teeth, 
re not displaced by vertical successors, are the ' molars* 
Y so called. 

e been led, chiefly by the state of the dentition in most 
early forms of both carnivorous and herbivorous Mam- 
which flourished during the eocene tertiary periods, to 
3 incisors, 1 canine, and 7 succeeding teeth, on each side 
jaws, as the type formula of diphyodont dentition. 
3 of the seven teeth may be * premolars,' and four may 
' molars ;' of there mav be four premolars, and three true 
This diflference as I have elsewhere shown, forms a 
sr of a secondarv group or order in the mammalian class.* 
ential nature of the distinction is as follows : true molars 
backward continuation of the firet series of teeth ; they 
'^eloped in the same primary groove of the foetal gum ; 
e ' permanent' because they are not pushed out by sue- 
il teeth — the * premolars,' called * dents de remplacement' 
ier. Seven teeth developed in the primary groove is, 
re, the typical number of first teeth, beyond the canines, 
in Diddphys^ the anterior three develop tooth-germs, 
some to perfection in a * secondary groove,' there are then 
uous teeth, 8 premolars, and 4 true molars: if, as in 
irci, the anterior four of the * primary' teeth develop 
erms, which grow in a secondary groove, there are then 
luous teeth, 4 premolars, and 8 true molars. The first 
olar of the marsupial is thus seen to be the homologue of 
t milk-molar of the placental. 

Gyranure, the Mole, and the Hog are among the few ex- 
}aadrupeds which retain the typical number and kinds of 

lines of a ClaasificatioD of the Mammalia, Traos. ZooL Soc toL ii, p. 880 



\ 



14 Prof. Owen an the Class Mammalia. 

teeth. In a young Hog of ten months, the first premolar, p. 1, 
and the first molar, m. 1, are in place and use together with the 
three deciduous molars, d, 2, d, 8, and d. 4 ; the second molar, 
m. 2, has just begun to cut the gum; p, 2, p. 8, and o. 4, to- 
gether with m. 8, are more or less incomplete, and will oe found 
concealed in their closed alveoli.* 

The last deciduous molar, d. 4, has the same relative superi- 
ority of size to d. S and d. 2, which m, 8 bears to m. 2 and m. 1; 
and the crowns of p. 8 and p, 4 are of a more simple form than 
those of the milk-teeth, which they are destinea to succeed. 
When the milk-teeth are shed, and the permanent ones are all in 
place, their kinds are indicated, in the genus iSus, by the follow- 
ing formula : — 

which signifies that there are on each side of both upper and j 
lower jaws 8 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars, and 8 molaii^ \ 
making in all 44 teeth, each tooth being distinguished by ill 
appropriate symbol, e. g., p, Ito p. 4, m. 1 to m. 8. This num- 
ber of teeth is never surpassed in the placental Diphyod<Hil j 
series. 

When the premolars and the molars are below this typical 
number, the aosent teeth are missing from the fore part or the 
premolar series, and from the back part of the molar series. Tbo 
most constant teeth are the fourth premolar and the first troi 
molar ; and these being known by tneir order and mode of de- 
velopment, the homologies of the remaining molars and premo* 
lars are determined by counting the molars from before baxucwards^ 
e. g. * one,' 'two/ * three,' and the premolars ^m behind forwards^ 
'four,' * three,' *two,' *one.' The incisors are counted from tli# j 
median line, commonly the foremost part, of both upper and 
lower jaws, outwards and backwards. The first incisor of the 
right side is the homotype, tranversely, of the contiguous inciaof 
of the lefi; side in the same jaw, and vertically of its opposing 
tooth in the opposite jaw ; and so with regard to the canineiL 
premolars, and molars ; just as the right arm is the homotype of 
the left arm in its own segment, and also of the right leg of a \ 
succeeding segment It suffices, therefore, to reckon and naiM !. 
the teeth of one side of either jaw in a species with the typical 
number and kinds of teeth, e. g. the first, second, and third inci* j 
sors, — the first, second, third, and fourth premolars, — ^the^firati 
second, and third molars ; and of one side of both jaws in any 
case. 

* I recommend this easily acquired ' subject* to the young xoologifda for a dMh 
onstration of the most instructive peculiarities of the mammalian dentition. Hi' 
will see that the premolars must displace deciduous molars in order to riae inll' j _ 
place : the molars haye no such relations. { 



Frof. Oioen on the CUaz Mammalia. 15 

[ have been indaced to dwell thus long on the dental charac- 
« of the class Mammalta, because they have not been clearly 
accurately defined in any systematic or elementary work on 
ology, although an accurate formula and notation of the teeth 
8 ofmore use and value in characterizing genera in this than 
any other class of animals. 

I next proceed to review briefly the principal primary divi- 
>QS of the Mammalia hitherto proposed. The best authorities 
Natural History have adopted different characters, drawn firom 
fferent systems of organs, for the primary groups or divisions 
' the class Mammalia. 

Aristotle chose the locomotive system, and divided his Zo- 
roKA — the equivalent of the Linnean Mammalia — into three 
ctions : 1st, Dipoda, or bipeds ; 2nd, Tetrapoda, or quadru- 
ids; and 8d; Apoda, or impeds. The preponderating second 
x)up, which includes all the class save the Human-kind and 
« Whale-tribe, is subdivided into those with claws, and those 
ith hoo&. The unguiculate quadrupeds are again subdivided 
wording to the nature of their teeth ; the ungulate quadrupeds, 
xx>rding to the divisions of their hoofs, as e. g. into Polyscnidcd, 
* multungulates, DischidcBj or bisulcates, and Aschidoe, or solid- 
igulates. I need scarcely remark that this, in most respects 
Imirable, system, would have commanded greater attention, 
id been ^ow recognized as more manifestly the basis of later 
rstems, had its immortal author more technically expressed his 
>preciation of the law of the subordination of characters ; but 
& applies to each of his groups, whatever their value, the same 
soouiination, viz. genosj or genus. 

Bay, with a less philosophical appreciation of the extent and 
atare of the class Zootoka or Mammalia, arranges his equivalent 
roup of " Viviparous Four-footed animals" chiefly on the Aris- 
)telian characters; the primary division being into Ungulate 
ad Unguiculate, and the subdivisions being based on locomo- 
ve and dental characters. 

linnsBus, restoring the class Mammalia to its Aristotelian in- 
jgritv, •primarily subdivides it into Unguiculata, Ungulata, 
Dd Mutica, the latter being the * Apoda' of Aristotle: the 
MXNidary groups or orders are founded chiefly on modifications 
f the dental system. 

Cuvier, adopting the same threefold primary division of the 
lass, subdivides it into better and more naturally defined orders, 
ooording to various characters derived from the dental, the 
neous, generative, and the locomotive systems. 
lUiger, in primarily dividing the Mammalia into those with 
iee, and those with fettered limbs — the * pedes exserti distincti,' 
sontrasted with the * pedes retracti obvoluti,' — made a more 
ii&equal and leas natural partition than the threefold one of Aris- 



IG Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia, 

totle ; the Seals and the Whales balance all the rest of the class 
in the Illigerian system. The subdivisions, also of these primaiy 
groups, based exclusively on characters of locomotion, have met 
with little acceptance beyond some of the scho<jls of Germany. 

De Blainville appears'first, 1816, to have adopted a character 
from the reproductive system for the primary division of the 
Mammalia, viz. into the ' Monodelphes,' ' Didelphes,' and ' Omi- 
thodelphes.' His orders are in the main a return to the Linnean 
system and nomenclature, with some peculiar views, as e. 47. of 
tne quadrumanous or primatial affinity of the Sloths, which 
have never gained acceptance. But his system indicates a clearer 
appreciation or stronger conviction of the value of the character 
of parity and imparity in the number of toes of the UnguhUa^ 
first suggested by Cuvier,^ than was subsequently entertained 
by the originator of the idea. 

The position of the marsupial and monotreraatous quadrupeds 
at the oottom of the class A/ammalia, and the higher value as- 
signed to the ffroup which they constituted, than that in the 
* B(^gne Animar of Cuvier, were ideas also in closer conformity 
with nature. They were, however, but surmises, unsustained 
by anatomical knowledge: and, as such, failed to carry convio* 
tion, or gain acceptance. Nor was it until comparative anatomy 
had shown that tne Marsupials and Monotremes agreed in differ- 
ing from all other mammaJs in the absence of a placenta, and of J 
the great commissure of the brain, in certain bira-like charaoten 
of the heart,f and from all other diphyodont Mammals in a leas 
number of premolars, and a greater number of true molars, — 
depending essentially on the retention of a milk-tooth (m. 4)^ 
which is displaced and changed in the placental diphyodonts, — 
that the true affinities of the didelphid and ornithoaelphid mam- 
mals to each other, and their true position in the class AtammcUb^ 
were finally recognized. 

In the *Systema Vertebratorum,' communicated in 1840 to 
the Linnean Society by that accomplished and indefatigable 
zoologist Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte, the primary subdivi- 
sion of the Mammalia according to developmental and generative j 
characters is adopted ; and the first division or series Placeidalia \ 
is subdivided, agreeably with M. Jourdan's distribution of Mam- \ 
malia in the Leyden Museum, into the two subclasses Educabilia ; 
and Inedv/xtbilia^ the latter including the orders Bruta^ Clteirop' I 
tera^ Insectivora and Rodmtia^ with the common character of • 
'cerebrum unilobum.' This I regard as the most important im- 

(irovement in the classification of the Mammalia, which has 
)een proposed since the establishment of the natural character 
of the implacental or ovo- viviparous division. 

* Oraeroens Fossiles. 4to, ed. 1812, p. 9 ; torn. Hi, ed. 1822, p. 72. 
f On the Classification of the Martufialia, Zoological Tranaactions, voL ii, & 
315 (1889). 



Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia. 17 

er had early noticed the relation of the Australian mam- 

I a small collateral series, to the unguiculate mammals of 

of the world, "some," he writes, "corresponding with 

naria^ some with the Hodentia, and others again with the 

jidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in his * Classification parallel- 
s MammifSres,* published in 1845, raises the Marsuptalia^ 
-ank of a distinct class, and literally exemplifies the idea 
er by placing its subdivisions, as orders, in parallel equiv- 
vith the orders of the Piacerttalia. 

es not appear, however, that Cuvier meant to do more 
dicate certain relations of analogy ; just as the relation of 
limanous and frugivorous Marsupials to the pedimanous 
imana of S. America, that of the marsupial Hyaena (7!4y- 
I to the Wolf, of the Flying Petaurist to the Flying 
il, of the Wombat to the Beaver, of the Kangaroo to the 
mt, of the Koala to the phytiphagous Sunbear, of the 
ms to the Shrews, and of the Echidna to the Anteater, 
d been pointed out by myself. My esteemed friend and 
ue Mr. Waierhouse, whilst admitting the justness of some 
e comparisons, appended a timely warning, in a valuable 
I his comprehensive and excellent history of the Marsu- 
• s^ainst the mistake to which the young zoologist might 
le, of concluding the analogical groups of the laarsiipialia 
acentalia thus indicated to be of equal rank and value. I 
ways participated in this conviction of the lower value 
Tmplacentalia as compared with the Placentalia; and have 
lose terms merely as useful collective or general signs of 
modifications of structure, which are associated with the 
3ment and non-development of the placenta, 
ke manner, when indicating the highest generalization to 
I had arrived after comparisons of the dentition of the 
alia by the terms 'monophyodont' and * diphyodont,'f 
ing respectively the single and double set of teeth devel- 
n different groups of the class, I have been careful to 
myself from being misunderstood, as supposing that the 
hyoddnt Monotremata^ Bruta, and Cttacea, formed an 
lent group with the diphyodont bulk of the Mammalia, 
the binary groups, defined by this single dental character, 
atural ones. 

Tie Animal, ed. 1829, vol.i, p. 174. 

ural History uf the Mammalia, 8vo, 1845, parti, p. 14. I must remark, 
. that in stnting^ " by Prof. Owen and some otner naturalists, the present sec* 
rxupiata) is rankefJ as a subclaHs," the reader, from the peculiarly extended 
ion iciven to the term ' M;irsupiata,' mi(<ht be misled. The Marxupialia 
! (if the order!> of my subclass Implacentalia. See the articles * Marsupialia* 
mitremata,* in the "Cyclopaedia of Anatomy," vol. iii, 1841. 
lopffidia of Anatomy, part xxxvii, 1849. Phil. Trans. 1860, p. 498. 

ND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. JAN., 1868. 

3 



18 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds, 

Nothing more than a passing allusion seems needed to the 
system of chissifying the Mammalia on the modifications of the 
placenta, originally proposed by Sir Everard Home,* and since 
reproduced and modified by a few other naturalists. The group, 
c. y. associated by the character of the discoid placenta, is as 
little natural as that which would be composed on the basis of 
the diphyodont dentition, or the unguiculate feet. The associa- 
tion of the Rodentia^ and Insectivora, with the Quadritmayiay as 
in the latest modification of the pljicentarv system,f is not likely 
to command acceptance. The diffused placenta, as in the Mare, 
Porpoise, Peccan, Rhinoceros, and Camel, would lead to an 
equally heterogeneous assemblage. In two well-defined minor 
groups, e. g, the true Carnivora and the true Bumiftautia^ there 
exist characteristic modifications of the placenta, viz. the zonular 
and cotyledimal respectively; but though the zonular type is 
common to the Carnivoni^ it is not peculiar to them ; it is that of 
the placenta in the Hyrax and the Elephant, amongst the Ungur 
lain. So likewise the cotyledonal type characterizes the placenta 
of the Sloth among the jBruta. 

{2h be eontinued.) 



Aet. III. — On the Rational ConsUtution cf oerlain Organic Com' 
pounds ; by Wolcott Gibbs, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and 
Physics in the Free Academy in New York. 

In the following memoir T shall endeavor to establish the ra- 
tional constitution of several important organic bodies by refer- 
ring thein to the type of one or more equivalents of water, ia 
which hydrogen is wholly or partially replaced by compound 
radicals. The premises are as follows. 

1. The electro-negative or chlorous hydrocarbons, formyl, 
CaH, acetyl, C4H3, and their homologues, may replace hydrugea 
equivalent for equivalent, but by such replacement diminish the 
electro-positive or zincous character of the primitive. These 
facts are well exhibited in the acetyl-ammonia of Katanson, the 
formula of which is 

( C4H3 ) 

"Is }■ 

2. The radicals formoxyl, C2HO9, acetoxyl, CiHsOs, and 
their homologues and analogues, similarly replace hydrogen, 
and yield more electro-negative or chlorous derivatives. Thus 
acetamin has the formula 

( CiHiOi 

"is • 

* Lectures on CompRrative Anatomy, vol. iii, 4 to, p. 446. 

f Qkavais, Zoologie et Pai6ontologie Fran^aise, 4to, 1858, p. 194. 



TV. Gibbs on the Constitution cf Organic Compounds, 19 

le acetic acid is referable to the type of two equivalents of 
sr, and has the formula 

. One equivalent of any ammonium may replace one equiva* 
of hydrogen. Thus the formula of the hydrate of the 
d of the primitive ammonium, NH4O + HO, is also referable 
be tvpe of two equivalents of water, and we have for it the 
res^oo 

, Certain radicals, whether divisible or indivisible, are binary 
ernary in character, and replace two or three equivalents of 
rogen. Thus the radicals UaOa, C4O4, and S3O4 are binary 
le nitrogen, phosphorus, &c. are ternary. These premises^ 
very c^iemist knows, are not new. I formulate them fop 
renience of reference, and to save repetition, 
propose now to apply these principles to certain bodies to 
ch tuey have not hitherto been extended, and will consider 
compounds in question sei'iutim. 

UycocoU or glycann. — The empirical formula of glycosin was 
t definitely established by Horsford* in an elaborate memoir 
which I shall frequently have occasion to refer. Of its ra- 
lal constitution no satisfactory theory has been proposed. I 
T it to the type of hydrate of oxyd of ammonium, and con- 
iT it to have tne formula 

fC«H08^ 
^" )-0+H0=C4HsN04. 
"J 

is view of course (3) ultimately reduces glycosin to the type 
two equivalents of water, ^ lo?. Glycosin, as is well known, 

nbines with acids, bases, and salts. Its feebly acid character 
ixplained, upon my view, by the presence of the two chlorous 
icils; its b:iaic properties, by the existence of two equivalents 
hydrogen in the ammonium molecule; while its neutral char- 
er— which resembles that of water — may be explained by 
)po6ing that the chemical sum of the chlorous and zincous 
nities in the ammonium approaches the character of an equiv- 
nt of hydrogen, so that we have the functional equation {nearly 

fCjHOO 



"{■ 



* Add. der Chesu* imd Plmnnacie, Ix, 1. 



20 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

The formulas of the principal salts of glycosin upon this theory- 
are as follows. 

Chlorhydrate, N(C2HOs . OtH . H2)C1+ 2H0. 
Nitrate. N(CiHOi.CaH.H«) ) OaH-2Ha 

SnlphEte, Na(C«H09.CaH.H2)2 } O4+2HO. 

Potash-sulphate, N8(CaHO»^.OsH.HK)9 ) q^ /|x 
Potash-nitrate, N(CaHOa . CsH . HK) ) q^ . ^^ 
Glycosin-lead, N(CaH0a.C2H.H.Pb.) ) Qj+HO. 
Qlycosin-copper, N(0«H09 . CaH . H . Cu) ) ^ . ^q 

The platinum salt of glycosin contains, according to Horsford's 
analysis, 88*2 per cent of platinum, and he consiaers it^to be 

C4H4NO3.PCI8, 

which requires that percentage. But Cahours* assigns to this 
salt the formula 

OiHjNOi.HCI+PCU, 

which, upon the view which I have proposed, becomes 



N 



^*5 lci+PtCJb+2H0. 



H I 
H J 



The Other salts of glycosin are easily formulated upon the am- 
monium theory, and do not require special notice. The combi- 
nations which glycosin forms with metallic oxyds are however 
of no small interest from the point of view suggested. Thus 
Boussingault found for the compound with oxyd of silver the 
formula 

CUHiNOa.AgO. 

I believe that in this body silver simply replaces hydrogen, the 
true formula being 

n\^^ lo+HO. 

and that the analogous bodies containing zinc, copper, lead, &c 
have a similar constitution. This theory gives the smiplest expla- 
nation of the formation and constitution of hippuric acid, and of 
the analogous acids which Cahours and other chemists have re- 
cently produced. Thus hippuric acid, as Dessaignes first showed, 
may be formed by the action of chlorid of benzoxyl.upon glyco- 
sin-zinc, the reaction being explained by the equation 

* Comptes Rendus, xlir, 569. 



W. Oibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds, 21 



1 






CUH30. [o+HO+Zna. 



^ VO+HO+Oi4H30a.Cl=N 

Sippuric acid is cjonsequently also the hydrate of an ammonium 
)x\ d, a view which I shall develop more fully in another part 
rf this paper. The curainuric, anisuric and salicuric acids, 
irhich Cahours* has described, are formed in a similar manner, 
ind mast therefore have a similar constitution. By the action 
:>{ the chlorids of acetoxyl C4H30a.Cl, butyroxyl C8H7O2.CI, 
Sec, upon glycosin-zinc, similar acids must be produced, while it 
ippears, to say the least, extremely probable, that the ethyl 
raaicals, C4HS, &c. may also be made to replace an equivalent 
of hydrogen in glycosm, yielding bodies of an analogous acid 
and basic character. Thus by the action of iodid of ethyl upon 
glycosin-silver we should have 

rCaHOsI 



N 



^*" VO+HO, 



C4Hs 
H J 

and it is of course possible that the last equivalent of hydrogen 
may be also replaced by an equivalent of a chlorous or zincous 
radical, as in the case of Hofmann's tetrammoniums. 

Tbe products of the decomposition of glycosin strongly sup- 
port the view that this body contains the radicals formyl and 
ibrmoxyl, as above assumed. Thus when fused with caustic 
potash, ammonia and hydrogen are evolved, while the fused 
mass contains cyanid of potassium and oxalate of potash. It is 

however well established that formic acid, * H* [ ^*» under 

the same circumstances yields oxalic acid, and the facility with 
which formyl, CaH, in contact with nitrogen or ammonia yields 
cyanogen, is also familiar to chemists With oxydizing agents 
glycosin yields carbonic and cyanhydric acids ana water. This 
my is in exact accordance with the theory. 

By the action of nitrous acid upon glycosin Socoloff and 
Strecker obtained a new acid which they termed glycolic acid, 
and which is homologous with lactic acid. The formula of this 
acid is G4H4 0e, and its formation is usually represented by the 
equation 

C4H-,N04+N03 = 2N+C4H40S+H0. 

If we compare ammonia, NHs, with three equivalents of water, 
we find that from the equation 

NH3=03H3, 

<»ie equivalent of nitrogen may be considered as formally though 
liot functionally replacing three equivalents of oxygen. Hence 

♦ 0. R, xliv, 567. 



22 W. CHbbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

in the action of NO a upon oxvd of ammonium we may suppose 
that a species of substitution takes place, 30 replacing N, wnile, 
as in ordinary cases of substitution, a double molecule NN is 
separated. Thus the action of NO 3 upon oxyd of ammonium, 
considered for the sake of simplicity as anhydrous, may be rep- 
resented by the equation 



0+N03=03 i^\ a-|-2N= ° V 04+2N. 





When the oxyd of the ammonium is & monohydrate an equiva- 
lent of water is usually set free. This mode of considering the 
action of NO 3 upon ammonium molecules possesses advantages 
sufficient, as I think, to justify its employment. The formation 
of glycolic acid from glycosin may then be represented by the 

equation 

IC2HO2 \ / CiHOa ) 

^^ (. 0+HO+N03=03 } ^ V 0+2N+Ha 

Glycolic acid has therefore the rational formula 

CsHOs) 

and is referable to the type of four equivalents of water, though 
with the atomic weight here assigned to it, it contains but one 
equivalent of hydrogen replaceable by a metal. From this it 
appears that in the action 01 NOs upon an ammonium, the four 
raaical molecules of the ammonium pass unchanged into the 
acid, and that an equivalent of water is separated as such when 
NO 3 acts upon the hydrate of an ammonium-oxyd. It must be 
observed however that, in most cases at least, it is only the last 
molecule of hydrogen which is replaceable in the new acid by a . 
metal, this bemg the hydrogen molecule originally containeti in 
the atom of water which united with the ammonia to form oxyd 
of ammonium, according to the equation 




Strecker has shown that the action of NOs upon hippuric acid 
produces a new acid which he terms benzoglycolic acid. The 
rational constitution of this acid must be represented by the 
formula 

fC2H08 \ 



W. GU}b9 tm the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 523 

• 

and I shall endeavor to show, farther on, that there are other 
reasons for taking this view. Strecker's elaborate study of the 
bile has shown that cholic and hyocholic acid may each, like 
hippuric acid, be split into glycosin and a new acid. I apitly to 
botli these acids the theory which I have above developea, and 
coD:sider them rationally represented as follows, 

IC8HO2 ) 
SJaaQj f 0+H0=CiiH43N0i2. 

ICaHOa \ 
S0H41O3 f 0+HO=C34H4sNOn. 

That there are homologous compound molecules having the 
formulas C4 tHsoOt andCs «H4 lOs, is shown by the existence 
of cholalic and hyocholalic acids, the empirical formulas of which 
areC4tIl4«0it and C* 0H4 »0 1 0, and which when reduced to 
the type of two equivalents of water become 

^H*^' I Oa and ^^^"^^ | 0^, 

I may here remark that by the action of NO 3 upon cholic and 
bvocholic acids we ought to obtain two new acids having the 
formulas 

IC«HO« ) rc«HO« \ 

C«H»0 [ Oi=C«H«Oh. and j ^^^^^^^ t 0i=C5.H«0u. 

I may farther remark, in this connection, that we ought to be 
able to regenerate cholic and hyocholic acids from glycosin and 
cliolalic and hyocholalic acids, by processes exactly analogous to 
that employea by Dessaignes in preparing hippuric acid. Thus 
cholalic acid by distillation with perchlorid of phosphorus should 
give chlorhydric acid and chlorid of cholalyl, according to the 
equation 

0«H»OiH-PCl:=C48H3603 . C[+ P0iCl3+ HCl, 

and chlorid of cholalyl with glycosin-silver should yield cholic 
acid and chlorid of silver. As cholalic and hyocholalic acids 
are homologous and have very high equivalents, it is almost cer- 
tain that they are among the upper members of a complete se- 
ries. Of this series chinovic acid, CstHaoOio, is probably a 
member. 

Hipjauric acid, — The formation of this acid by the action of 
cMoria of benzoxyl upon glycosin-zinc has already been ex- 
plained upon the ammonium theory as a simple substitution of 
Ae radical Ci 4HsOa for an equivalent of hydrogen. It remains 
to show upon the same theory that the sej^iration of hippuric 
^id into glycosin and benzoic acid may be equally well ac- 



24 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Chmpounds. 

counted for. The following equation appears to contain a si 
pie solution of the question, since we have 

ICtROa ) rC«H02j 

CuU.O. [ 0+2H0=N j ^^ I 0+OMHC04, 

the glycosin-ammonium of course uniting at the moment of 
formation with an equivalent of water. By this view of t 
constitution of hippuric and other similar acids, we explain 
once its formation, its decomposition by boiling with acids, a 
its unibasic character, since its molecule contains only one equ 
alent of, hydrogen replaceable by a metal. But the products 
the decomposition of the acid by other agents also confirm t 
view here taken. 

By boiling with peroxyd of lead, hippuric acid yields ben: 
mid and carbonic acid, while with peroxyd of manganese a 
sulphuric acid, benzoic acid, carbonic acid, and sulnhate of a 
monia are formed. These reactions are expressed by the eqi 
tions 

IOHOa \ 
C^HaOs f 0+HO+60+S03.HO=NH40.S03f C14H602+4C 

In both these cases the easily oxydized radicals, formyl a 
formoxyl, are destroyed, yielding carbonic acid and water, wh 
in both the radical Ci4H40a is found unchanged among t 
products of decomposition. 

As glycosin by the action of NO 3 yields gly colic acid, so h 
puric acid under the same circumstances yields benzoglyco 
acid, thus we have for the derived acids 

ICsHGj \ / CiHOi \ 

jj* V 04, Benzoglycolic acid < CuHsQi 1 ^*' 
H ) (H ) 

By boiling an aqueous solution of benzoglycolic acid, it is : 
fiolved into glycolic and benzoic acids, the reaction being 

Now this decomposition is precisely analogous to the resoluti 
of hippuric acid into glycosin and benzoic acid, explained 
the equation 

IC4HO2 ) (CaH02) 



W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 25 

I bring forward these two parallel cases I believe for the j&rst 
time. They are types of a great number of similar decomposi- 
tioDS, and as I think, justify my two assumptions; first, that (me 
equivalent of nitrogen ^brmoKy replaces three equivalents of oxy- 
g^ or what is the same thing that K0=04, and second, that far 
every ammcnium-oocyd^ or its hydrate, there is an acid or anhydrid 
corresponding to four equivalents of water, and in which the four 
radicals which replace the four equivalents of hydrogen are the same 
as ihcfimr in the original ammonium. I believe that this princi- 
ple will prove extremely fertile both in explanations and m new 
Bicts. I shall endeavor to develop this view more fully when 
speaking of other compound ammoniums. 

In a note to the article Hippuric acid in the 3d volume of his 
Tndt^ de Chimie Organique, p. 241, Gerhardt has suggested that 
hippuric acid, as weU as glycosin, may be referred to the type of 
a hydruret of ammonium, 

NH4J H) 

HJ—Hr 

Upon this view, which is thrown out merely as a suggestion, 
Gerhardt represents glycosin as 

NHa»(CsH0a)8) 

and hippuric acid as 

NH.<OiH02)9CMH509 I , 

HS 

Strecker considers glycosin as possibly an ammonia having the 
fomiula 

( CiHsOi ) 

"11 } 

To this theory it may be objected that it does not explain the 
formation of alanin and other bodies of the same class, or the 
products of their decomposition. 

I^urent looked upon glycosin either as amido-acetic acid — a 
Tiew also recently taken by Cahours — or as the acid amid of 
glycohc acid. But Dessaignes has actually prepared glycolamid, 
and has shown that it is only isomeric and not identical with 
glycosin. 

Alanin. — This body was obtained by Strecker by evaporating 
a mixture of aldehyd-ammonia and cyanhydric acid with 'chlor- 
hydric acid, and its empirical formula is C0H7NO4, so that it is 
komologous with glycosin. Its mode of formation appears to 
ine to show in the clearest manner its molecular structure, and I 
conaider it to have the rational formula 




0+HO. 



8BCOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 78. — JAN., 1859. 

4 



26 W, Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

K this view be correct we ought to find the radical C4E 
among the products of the decomposition of alanin. In ] 
of fact, when heated with peroxyd of lead it yields aldehyd, 
monia and carbonic acid, the carbon of the radical formyl 
alone being oxydized. With nitrous acid alanin yields 1 
acid, the formula of which is thus found to be 

C4H30a -^ 

H ("*• 

H ) 

Now lactic acid, when heated with sulphuric acid and pen 
of manganese, yields carbonic acid and an abundance of aide 
as Stadeler has shown. Both the mode of formation and 
products of decomposition of alanin support the view tak« 
Its composition. But we may I think go farther. There a 
least three bodies having the empirical formula C«H7N04 ; 
are alanin, sarkosin, and lactamid. As sarkosin perfectly 
sembles alanin and glycosin in properties it must belong U 
same series of bodies. I suggest that its rational formula im 

r C2HO2 ^ 
N I ^^' i O+HO. 

' H ; 

In this case it should give with nitrous acid a species of I 
acid isomeric with that derived from alanin and having 
formula 

CaHOa "\ 
C4HS f 

H ("*• 

H ) 

There are however, as is well known, tvx) lactic acids, the fo 
derived from alanin by the action of nitrous acid, as well as 
sugar by the lactic fermentation ; while the other exists ii 
juice of flesh with sarkosin itself. It is proper to remark 
one of the two equivalents of hydrogen in the above fom 
appears, so far at least as our knowledge goes, not to be rep 
able by a metal, so that lactic acid, like glycolic acid, is m 
basic. On the other hand, as in the case of benzogly 
acid, we have an acid in which this equivalent of hydrog 
replaced .by an equivalent of benzoxyl. The primitive of 
acid must be an acid hydrate of ammonium-oxyd homolo 
with hippuric acid. Thus we have, uniting the formulas in 
gle lines to save space, 

N \ 04HK)«.0»H..Ci4H^.H \ | ^ AUnin-hippuric acid 
C«Ht0s.QiH.CuHf0t.H|04 Branokctic add. 



W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 27 

is clear that alanin, sarcosin and their homologues will yield 
I indefinitely great number of new acids, of which one series 
ill contain nitrogen, the other not. 

The almost perfect analogy between alanin and glycosin justi- 
» the inference that the internal molecular structure of these 
ro bodies is the same. The formula of alanin which is assumed 
)ove is deduced fix)m its mode of formation, and that of glyco- 
1 is based upon the assumption that this body may be formed 
a similar manner, namely, by digesting together the aldehyd- 
amonia of formic acid, CaHOa.NHs, and cyanhydric acid, 
[lis theory cannot at present be put to the test of experiment 
»ause the formic aldehyd, C2HO3.H, has not yet been ob- 
ined. Another difficulty however arises. The formula of 
anin assimied above supposes that formyl, CaH, and acetoxyl, 
iHsOa, enter into the ammonium as such^ each radical replac- 
ig an equivalent of hydrogen. It is however possible that 
lese two radicals are in alanin so fused together as to constitute 
single di-atomic radical, C«H403, homologous with the glycolic 
idical, CtHsOa. In this case the formulas of glycosin and 
lanin will be 

GlycoaD, N | ^*^ 1 0+HO. 

AkniB, N|^^']gj|o+HO. 

Jpon this view the rational formulas of glycolic and lactic adds 



)ecome 



^^04 and ^^'^,\0i. 



Hs 

[Tie decision of the question obviously turns upon the molecular 
tnicture of the radical C 4 Ha a . Is this diatomic and indivisible, 
T is it a conjugate radical CaH.CaHOa ? On the other hand 
t appears possible that there may be two species of glycosin, of 
trhicn the one contains formyl and formoxyl, the other the radi- 
al C4HaOa. The rational formulas which I have assi^ed to 
[Ivcosin and alanin appear, in the present state of our knowl- 
age, most consistent with observed facts. 
Jjeudn. — The formula of leucin upon my view becomes 

CioUsOa 




CaH 



VO+HO, 



md the products of its decomposition bear out the theoir com- 
pletely, limpricht* has prepared leucin from valeric aldehyd 
3y a process exactly similar to that employed by Strecker in the 
fonnation of alanin. From this it follows that leucin is consti- 
nited, so far as the character of the radicals is concerned, like 

* Ann. der Chemie uod Pharmacie, xcir, 248. « 



JX-l 



0+HO. 



28 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

alanin and not like sarcosin. It appears, however, probable ihti 
there exists another species of leucin haying the formula^ 

'^OsHOal 

OioH* 

H 

H 

But the high equivalent of leucin points out to us the possible 
existence of three other bodies of a perfectly analogous structure 
and isomeric with ordinary leucin. Thus we have 

g^' [o+HO, N^g^' [o+HO, andN^g^' V O+HO. 

Each one of these five species of leucin must yield a homologae 
of lactic acid, the only one yet discovered being the leucic add 
of Strecker, which belongs to the series of the lactic acid of fer- 
mented sugar, and is derived from leucin by the action of nitrous 
acid. 

It is easy to see that the homologues of glycosin, as we ascend 
in the series, for the same empirical constitution in the case of 
each one, must become more and numerous, and the same is con- 
sequently true for the homologues of glycolic acid. 

2)/rosin. — The empirical formula of tyrosin, according to the 
analyses of Hinterberger, is CisHnNOc As the properties 
of this body are perfectly analogous to iJiose of the members of 
the glycosin series, it may also be reduced to the same type, in 
which case its rational constition may perhaps be representea by 
the formula, 

In nitrotyrosin we may suppose one of the two equivalents of 
hydrogen in the compound ammonium to be replaced by NO 4. 
The products of the decomposition of tyrosin have not however 
been studied sufficiently to enable us to assim its rational form- 
ula with any degree of certainty, and it is clear that the ammo- 
nium molecule assumed may w constituted in several different 
ways, so as to give the same empirical formula. Thus Wicke* 
suggests that tyrosin may be formed from anisic aldehyd and 
cyanhydric acid, as alanin is formed fh)m acetic aldehyd. In this 
case the rational formula would be 



»i 



OuHsOi ] 
. CaH J. 0+HO. 
(H. J 



it being remembered that Ci eHs04 has the value of two equiv- 
lents of hydrogen. Farther researches are required to settle this 
question. 

* Ann. der Chemie und Pharmade, d, 814. 



i 



W. Qibbs on the CtmstUution of Organic Compounds. 20 

Anikramlic add, — ^Kubel* has reoently shown that anthranilic 
acid plays the part of a weak base with acids, yielding well de- 
fined salts with nitriC) sulphoric and oxalic acids. The products 
of its decomposition by heat, viz., anilin and carbonic acid, are 
similar to those of leucin, which, according to Limpricht,t under 
the same circamstances yields amylamin and carbonic acid, the 
equations being 

OuHitN04 = Oi04+OioHi8ir, 
OmHtNO* = C«04+Ci2H7N. 

It is therefore probable that anthranilic acid belongs to the same 
type as leudn. Schwariert J adopts this view, and considering 
anthranilic acid as carbanilic acid, regards leucin as amyl*carba- 
mic acid, a view which explains only one of the modes of decom- 
position of that body, ana which is irreconcilable with all the 
rest I surest that- anthranilic acid may contain the salicyl 
radical, Ci 4H«0s, and that its rational formula is 

( Ol4H«03 ) 

irJH VO+HO. 

In Ihe decomposition of anthranilic acid by heat, all the oxygen 
nnites with two equivalents of the carbon of the salisoxyl, 
C14H4OS, while all the hydrogen remains imited with the other 
twdve equivalents of carron and one of nitrogen to form anilin. 
The radical G14H4OS is of course to be regarded as diatomic. 
That anthranilic acid actually contains the radical Ci 4H40a ap- 
peals most clearly from the &ct that with nitrous acid it yielos 
salicylic acid, by the process of replacement already explained. 
Thiw we have 

( O14H1OS ) ( CiiHiOs ] 

In I N0+H0+K08= j H \ 04+2N+HO. 

Hmm. — This substance may be readily reduced to the type 
of Wdrate of oxyd of ammonium, if we remark that the raoi- 
cal Sj04 replaces two equivalents of hydrogen. We have then 
for taurin the formxda 

( S8O4 ) 

N^04H8^0+HO. 

I Bj fbfiion with caustic potash taurin yields acetate and sulphite 
j w potash, a result which is easily explained upon the supposi- 
I tion that the ammonium molecule conteins ethyl. By the action 
! «f nitrous acid taurin should yield an acid having the formula 
; C4HeSaO^, siucc wc should have the equation 
( S2O4 ) ( S2O4 ) 

N } QiBM \ 0+H0+N08= \ C4Hs \ 04+2N+HO. 

* Am. der Chemie und Fharmacie, cii, 286. f The same, ci, 295. 

\ Aim. det Chemie nnd Pharmade, cu, 221. 



30 W. Gihhs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

The experiment has not to my knowledge been tried,* 
Streckers discovery that isethionate of ammonium by loi 
two equivalents of water is converted into taurin leaves 1 
doubt that taurin is the ammonium of isethionic acid, and 
the latter acid is to be referred to the type of four equivalent 
water. Strecker's reaction is indicated oy the rational equa 

( S2O4 ) ( SaOi ) 

\ C4H5 }. 04-2HO=^ C4H5 VNO+HO. 

(NH4J (h ) 

Choleic acid may be regarded as taurin in which an equiva 

of hydrogen in the ammonium is replaced by an equivalen 

the radical of cholalic acid. Its formula upon this view is 

( 8s04 ) 
N \ C4H5 \ 0-f HO, 

( C48H3608 ) 

It must be remarked however that this formula contains 
equi^ent of water less than that deduced by Strecker from 
analyses. Assuming it to be correct, it shows that there ex 
the same relation between taurin and choleic acid as betw 
glycosin and cholic acid. It would be interesting, from a pi 
loiogical as well as from a chemical point of view, to detern 
by experiment whether cholalic acid taken into the stom 
would be found in the urine in the form of cholic acid, a re 
which might be expected from well known facts in relatioi 
the conversion of benzoic into hippuric acid under the same 
cumstances. Should this result be obtained it would show 1 
the kidneys are capable of producing under certain circumstai 
a true biliary secretion. 

Asparagin. — The formula of this body may be reduced to 
type of two equivalents of oxyd of ammonium, but the data 
determining the particular cnaracter of the radicals replac 
hydrogen are not at present sufficient. I shall therefore com 
myself with suggesting that asparagin may have the formula 



-1 



CsHO2.CsH.Hfi 

; : OS, 

OsHOs.CsH.Hs 



in which case its relations to glycosin are obvious. It may i 
be referred to the same type by supposing that it contains | 
oxal, the formula being then 

N^C4HsOs.H8l ) 
NjC4H90s.Hsl \ 

These views will be discussed more fully in speaking of m 
acid. 

* Since the above was written, I have made the experiment in question and 
complete success, obtaining isethionate of potash by tne action of nitrite of pc 
upon taurin dissolved in dilute nitric acid. — w. o. 



W. CHbbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 31 

In concluding the first sect||n of this paper, which embraces 
only nitrogenous compounds performing at the same time the 
fanctions of acids and bases, I shall venture to suggest that the 
nitrogenous animal and vegetable substances, known as proteine 
bodies, belong to the same class as glycosin, leucin, &c. As the 
equivalents of these bodies are high, and as they contain more 
than one equivalent of nitrogen, they may perhaps be referred 
to the type of two or four equivalents of oxyd of ammonium 
or its hydrate. Another view which may be taken is that they 

ocmtain, as substitutes for hydrogen, amids of the type N ] g^ > , 

each such amid replacing a single equivalent of hydrogen. In 
this manner they may possibly be reduced to the type of one 
equivalent of oxyd of ammonium. Thus a body containing 
four equivalents of nitrogen may be represented by the formula 

It is well known that the so-called proteine bodies are generally 
soluble both in acids and alkalies. By the action of oxydizing 
agents they yield, as first products of their decomposition, vari- 
ous nitriles, valeronitril, benzonitril, &c., in this respect exactly 
resembling glycosin, leucin, &c. Setting out firom this view i 
have examined the action of nitrous acid upon gelatin, casein, 
and albumin, and have found that this agent exerts a more or 
kas powerful action upon each of these bodies. A solution of 
gdatin, for example, is decomposed by a current of NO 3 with 
strong effervescence, while an acid liquid remains, the examina- 
tion of which is not yet complete. In the present imperfect 
state of our knowledge of the products of the oxvdation of ge- 
latin and the proteine bodies, it appears almost nopeless to at- 
tempt to represent them by formulas, even if we neglect the 
small quantities of sulphur and phosphorus which they always 
contain. To illustrate my suggestion as to their constitution, 
however, I will give a formula for albumen which will represent 
tolerably well the products of its decomposition and serve to 
exhibit the type to which it perhaps belongs. The analyses of 
albumen of wnite of eggs are nearly represented by the empiri- 
cal formula* 

C3SH24N40lO. 



Theory. 
* Scbeerer found Carbon, 54*8 54*6 

Hydrogen, 7-1 68 

Nitrogen, 16-7 16-9 

Oxjgen, — 22-7 



100-00 



32 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

Upon the view above taken thtfb albumen is reducible to the 
type of hydrate of oxyd of ammonium in which hydrogen if 
partially replaced by certain amids, we may aesign to It the 
formula 

IK.H.OhHsOs ) 
OaHOa ) 

I again observe that I bring forward this formula simply as an 
illustration of a particular view, and not as a definite expression 
for the constitution of albumen. Speculations of this kind aro 
not without value, since it is, to say the least, possible that all 
the crystalline nitrogenous vegetable and animal products are re- 
ducible to the same general type of two or more equivalents of , 
water in which hjdrogen is more or less completely replaced by 
complex ammomum molecules. I will even venture to hazard 
the suggestion that the entire vegetable or animal or^nism may 
be reduced to the water type, since resins, essential oils^ and . 
other bodies belonging to the type of hydrogen, are either secre- 
tions or excretions, and do not form a part or. the organism itsel£ 
One of the problems of physiology must then be to reduce all 
parts of the organism to the least possible number of water 
types, and to show how each constituent may be derived fiom 
water by perfectly definite and uniform processes of substitution. 
In considering the action of nitrous acid upon the ammoniontf 
or their hydrates, I have endeavored to show that the action maj 
be regarded as a regular process of substitution in which one 
equivalent of nitrogen replaces three equivalents of oxygen. 
The cases which I have mentioned are by no means the onlj 
ones which illustrate this species of replacement, since it may 
be used to explain the action of ammonia upon a great numb^ 
of organic compounds. Thus hydrobenzamid results firom the 
action of ammonia upon oil of bitter almonds according to the 
equation, 

80uH«Os4-2NH8=048Hi«N«+6HO. 

We may here suppose Oa to be simply replaced by Na, siDca j 
we have a binary substituting molecule, namelv, Ns jHf, acting •-; 
upon the six equivalents of oxygen, one-half of the binary rnQte* 
cule taking the place of the oxygen displaced. If we admit tihat 
oxygen and nitrogen replace eadi other in the manner supposed, 
we may reduce a great number of nitrogenous compounos di- 
rectly to the same type without the intervention of any ^pedoi 
theory whatever. Thus C4aHitNa and C4aHi80e would be- 
long to the same type. Substitutions of oxygen for nitrogea 
sometimes occur, as in the conversion of acetonitril into aora> 
Acid, since we have 

OiHsN+8HO=04H808+NHi. 



p 

j 



1 



. 1 

t. 



W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 38 

§2. 

lie views above developed have led me to the consideration of 
rational constitution oi certain organic acids, some of which 
e been already mentioned. In endeavoring to establish the 
nulas of these acids I set out from the principle that the type 
the acid is to be deduced from its mode of formation, and 
n the products of its decomposition, and not merely from the 
Qber of equivalents of replaceable hydrogen which it con- 
IS. Thus the empirical formula of lactic acid is CeHeOa, and 
he acid with this formula is monobasic, it is usually reduced 
he type of two equivalents of water, 

compound OaHsOi being considered as having the value 
>ne equivalent of hydrogen. 

have endeavored to show that, inasmuch as lactic acid is de- 
jd from alanin by the replacement of 3 by N, and separa- 
1 of an equivalent of water, the true type is that oi /our 
dvalents of water, the rational formula being 

CiHsOa) 

I upon this view I have endeavored to explain the difference 
ween the lactic acid derived from flesh and that formed in the 
Qientation of sugar, this difference being explained not by the 
amption of two isomeric radicals, C6H5O4, but by an actual 
Terence in the structure of the acid. I have suggested also 
X there may be a species of glycosin having the formula 

NJ^S^[o+HO. 

this case there must also be a body isomeric with alanin, and 
sdng the formula 

NJ^H*^|0+H0, 

pposing of course that the two radicals which I have assumed 
danin, namely, C4H3OJ and C2H, are not ftised together to 
m C6H4O3, but exist separately. Such a body would give a 
Jtic acid having the rational formula 

C'H^o^ } 0+no. 

In what precedes I have assumed that lactic acid is monobasic, 
liile it is more usual to double its formula and consider it as 
basic. It must however be remembered that, according to 
recker's observations, the density of the vapor of lactate of 
hyl corresponds to four volumes only upon the supposition 
at the acid is monobasic. The rational formula above pro- 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. U. — JAN., 185«. 

5 



S4 W. Gibbs on the ConstUuHon of Organic Compounds. 

posed contains tioo equivalents of free hydrogen, and it would 
therefore appear that lactic acid, even upon my view, should be 
bibasic. I have already stated that — as an empirical result — 
when an acid belonging to the type ot four equivalents of water 
is derived from an ammonium or its nydrated oxyd, it is only 
the last equivalent of hydrogen which is replaceable by another 
radical to form a salt There must be a reason for this, and per- 
haps either or both of the following may be satisfectoiy. 

in the first place it appears prooable that in all the salts of 
ammonium the^wr^ equivalent of hydrogen is diflferently com- 
bined from the other three, and if this view be correct it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that this peculiarity will exist also in the 
acids which are derived from ammoniums. Again it may be 
that in glycosin, aJanin, &c., and therefore in the acids denved 
from them, the two molecules constituting the aldehyds fit)m 
which these bodies are derived, enter in connection and not sepa- 
rately, as I have all along represented them in the present paper. 

Thus alanin may be 

(C4H8O2.H] 

N j CoH V 0+HO. 

In which case the lactic acid derived from it will be 

CiHiOf.H) 

C»H 5. 04. 

H) 

and it is easy to see from this formula that there will be but one 
equivalent of replaceable hydrogen in the acid. This latt» 
view is perhaps supported by the mode of formation of aoetonio 
acid which Stiideler obtained by digesting acetone with cyanhy- 
dric and chlorhydric acids, and which has the empirical formula 
CsHsOe. Its rational formula upon the above view will be 

CiHaOa.CsHa) 

CsH yo4. 

My reason for not adopting in the outset the slight modification 
of the rational formulas just proposed is to be found in the fiact 
that in glycosin, alanin and their congeners one equivalent of 
hydrogen — the last but one — is replaceable by an equivalent of 
silver or another metal. If now we suppose that tnese bodies 
contain aldehyds, we must admit that it is in each case the hy- 
droeen molecule of the aldehyd which is replaced by the metal, 
or that there are compounds like C4H3OJ. Ag, which is not sup- 
ported by any experimental evidence. The point is after all of 
out little importance, and does not affect the theory in any essen- 
tial particular. The so-called anhydrous lactic acid which has 
the empirical formula CeHsOs may be reduced — after doubUnff 
its equivalent — to the type of six equivalents of water, and win 
then nave the rational formula 



W. CHhbt on the CtmsHtution of Organic Compounds. 35 

C4H8O2.H f "•• 
CaH) 

Lactkii CtH4 04, may be reduced to the type of two equivalents 
of water, and is rationally 

04H80«)q^ 

Lactamid which is isomeric with alanin appears to belong to the 
type of two eauivalents of water since it yields lactic acid and 
ammonia by taking up two equivalents of water. It is however 
difficult in the present state of our knowledge to assign a ra^ 
tional formula for bodies of this class. The same remark applies 
to lactamic add. 

MaHc acidL — Some idea of Ihe rational constitution of malic 
add may be obtained from an attentive consideration of the pro- 
ducts of its decomposition. Caustic potash at a high tempera- 
ture oonverts the add into oxalic ana acetic acids, two equiva- 
lents of o^gen being required for the oxydation, since we have 
the equation 

O»H«Ol0+2O»04H4O4-(-G4H2O8. 

Bromine decomposes the add with formation of bromoform. 
According to Vauquelin, nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid. 
Sahphuric add gently heated with the add vields carbonic oxyd 
and, according to Liebig, acetic add. Finally, a mixture of sul- 
phuric add and bichromate of potash converts all the carbon 
mto carboinic add I refer malic acid to the type of six equiva- 
lents of water, and consider it to contain either formyl and feam^ 
m\ or glyoxal and ftmnyl, so that its rational formula will be 
eitae^ 

CiHsOi ) GsHOa) 

Hs) GsH 

H2J 

If we admit that two equivalents of formoxyl, CaHO*, may be 
» fosed together as to form one equivalent of glyoxal, we may 
alio suppose that two of formyl, CaH, may unite to form one 
equivalent of a diatomic radical having the formula C4Hs. In 
ffiia case the rational formula of malic acid, still referred to the 
type of six equivalents of water, wUl be 

(8.) C^Ha V 0». 
IlaJ 

In his memoir on glyoxal and its derivatives, Debus has sug- 
gested that a relationship between glycolic, malic, citric, gly- 
oxyUc and tartaric acids, may be traced by means of glyoxal, 
without however attempting in this way to express the rational 



36 W. Oibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

constitution of these acids, or in fact anything more than their 
formation and modes of decomposition. Kepresenting glyoxal 
CtHaOt by the symbol gly, we have for the acids in question 
the following scheme. 

Glyoolic Acid, gly.HaOs. Glyozylic add, glj.OflL 

Malic acid, gly s.HsOs. Anfajd. tartaric acid, gly s.CK 

Citric acid, gly a.HaOs. 

Debus shows further how citric, malic and glycolic acids by 
losing two equivalents of water form aconitic and maleic acids, 
and glyoxal. I am disposed to go much farther and represent 
the rational constitution of a number of organic acids by sup- 

{)osinff them to contain glyoxal or diformoxyi, and formyl or m- 
brmyl. It appears to me that it may reasonably be doubted 
whetner the glycolic acid obtained by the action of nitrous acid 
upon glycosin is identical with that which Debus obtained by 
boiling glyoxal with milk of lime. I mean of course here to 
assume that ordin^ glycosin may be formed by digesting formic 
aldehyd, CaHOa.B^ with cyanhydric and cblorhydric acids, so 
that its structure is similar to that of alanin. There may be 
more than one species of glycosin, one being for instance 

N.C8H03.CaH.H8)Q^^ 

while another is 

But bearing these distinctions in mind, I shall endeavor to give 
rational formulas for certain orgyiic acids involving as few as- 
sumptions as possible, and connecting those which are not ho- 
mologous. The formula (1.) which I have given for malic acid 
explains sufficiently well the products of its decomposition, since 
glyoxal by taking up two ecjuivalents of hydrogen becomes 
acetic acid, while the oxydation of CiHaOt or of C4HS will 
account for the formation of oxalic and carbonic acids. Maleio 
and fumaric acids have the formula CtHaOs. If we suppose 
that the action of heat simply splits the equivalent of glyoxal 
in malic acid into two equivalents of formoxyl, CaHOs, and 
that one eq. of formoxyl loses two eq. of oxygen, the formula 
common to the two pyrogenic acids becomes 

CaHOa 



Call 
C2H 
CaH 
Ua 



06=C8H60s. i 



This Ibrniula gives no explanation of the difference between the j 
two acids. It may be that, in one of these, two molecules of j 
ibrmyl, CaH, are united to form a molecule of diformyl, C4Ha, 
but further researches are necessary before any satisfactory ex- 
planation can be proposed. 



TFl GibbS'On the Constitution of Organic Compounds. 37 

The formulas wliicli I have given for malic acid lead to the 
conclusion that asparagin, CsHsNaOfl, is referable to the type 
of two equivalents of oxyd of ammonium, and it may have tne 
rational fcrmula r C4HSO4 ) 

By the action of nitrous add asparagin becomes 

C4lls04^ 



which immediately splits into one equivalent of malic acid and 
two of water. Ajs^artic acid may also be reduced to the type 
of six eooivalents of water, i^ as is certainly admissible, we 
suppose NIL2 to replace H, so that we have as the rational 
formula 



C4Hs04l 
OsH 
OsH 
NH« 
H 



0«. 



c ■ 



On the other hand this view does not account for the basic prop- 
erties of aspartic acid which, as is well known, forms defimte 
compounds with the stronger acids. We meet here with the 
same difficulty which occurs in formulating benzamic acid and 
many other similar bodies. 

Tartaric acid, — The researches of Dessaignes have shown that 
glyoxal is a product of the oxydation of tartaric by nitric acid, 
and the &cility with which oxydizing agents convert tartaric 
add into formic and carbonic acids has long been known. By 
fusion with catistic potash tartaric acid yields acetic, oxalic, for- 
mic and carbonic acids as I have myself observed, while at the 
same time an inflammable gas burning with a yellow flame is 
given off: this gas appears to be only an impure hydrogen. If 
we r^ard tartaric acid as bibasic 1 suggest that its rational 

formula may be 

C4H8O4 ) 

CaHOaf f^ 
OsH f ^» 
Ha) 

which places its relation to malic acid in the clearest light, and 
at the same time accounts for the facility with which it is dec-om- 
poeed, and for the products of its decomposition. Our knowl- 
edge of the modes of decomposition of pyrouvic and pyrotartaric 
^ids is not sufficiently complete to permit us to fonn any idea 
tf their rational constitution. 

CAric acid. — ^The combinations of citric acid with ethyl and 
Methyl conclusively show that this acid is tribasic and that its 



38 W. Gibbs on the Constitution of Organic Compounds, 

formula is CiaHeOi4. Those cliemists who have endeavored 
to reduce it to the tvpe of water refer it to six equivalents and 
represent it by the fcrmula 

CisH«08 ) ^ 

I suggest that it may be referred to the type of eight equivalents 
of water and that its rational jformula is 

C404 

CsH VOs, 
OsH 
HaJ 

SO that it contains the radicals of acetic and oxalic acids together 
with two equivalents of formyl. The view here taken of the 
rational constitution of citric acid appears to be supported hf 
the character of the products of its oxydation. Thus, aooord' 
ing to Gay-Lussac, citric acid fused with caustic potash yields a 
mixture of acetate and oxalate of potash. Concentrated sol- 
phuric acid disengages pure carbonic oxvd almost without tbe 
aid of heat Peroxyd of manganese and sulphuric acid traofl- 
form citric into formic and carbonic acids. Finally, concentrated 
nitric acid oxydizes citric acid to a mixture of oxalic and aoetio 
acids, while carbonic acid is evolved. All these reactions aie 
easily and simplj explained upon the hypothesis that citric adi 
contains within its molecule the radicals above mentioned. Tim 
products of the decomposition of the acids derived £rom citadio 
acid by heat have not yet been studied, and it is therefore useles 
to endeavor to assign to these acids rational formulas. It seemi 
moreover probable that there is no connection between the radi- 
cals in the primitive acid and in its pyrogenic derivatives, since 
the action of heat may be reasonably supposed to break up the 
radicals of the primitives and unite meir constituents in entirdf 
different proportions. The same remark applies to poweifm 
agents, like chlorine and bromine, which generate at the aama 
time products of oxydation and of substitution. 

Many other organic acids may be formulated upon the primo'. 
pies which I have here laid down, and I venture to thinx that 
these principles will hereafter be found of extensive application. 
I have endeavored, and I believe with success, to reduce tliS 
formulas of the class of bodies known as glucosids to the lyptf 
of multiples of water, but the recent publication of special re- 
searches of Berthelot has anticipated the principal results whioli 
I had obtained. I conclude with the expression of my convio' 
tion that every complex organic molecule is built up, not direodj 
of the elements which it contains, but of simpler organic moto-.^ 
cules, which are more or less perfectly fused together but whidi ■ 
may yet in the majority be distmctly traced in the complex whole^ 

New York, Oct. 27th, 1867. 



A. McMayer an Weights of ^mall Portions of Matter. B9 



Abt. rV. — Uie Estimation of the Weights of very smaU portions of 
Matter; by Alfred McMayer, Professor of Physics and 
Chemistry in the Univeraily of Maryland. 

The chemist, in the course of his analytical investigations, 
often meets witii what are called traces of substances ; by which 
IB generally understood, quantities of matter too minute to have 
any appreciable weight in the analytical balance. Now it some- 
times happens that these traces are of as much importance con- 
sidered scientifically and conmierdally as the iugreaients present 
in appreciable quantities ; and in order to estimate these small 
portions of matter he is often obliged to go over his work, usin^ 
very considerable weights of sub^nces, whereby his time and 
care are nearly doubled. It was this inconvenience that fii^t in- 
duced me to try to determine in one operation the components 
present in large and in very minute quantities ; and although I 
have succeeded beyond my expectations, I am confident that the 
process is susoeptible of improvement, both as regards sensibility 
and accural. 

After making many investigations on the sensibility of the 
most delicate levers as to small weights, this method was found 
hi too rough. It then occurred to me that if instead of using 
the opposing force of gravity through the intervention of a lever, 
we could oppose to the gravitating effect of the matter the force 
of perfect elasticity as manifested in filaments of glass, we might 
socoeed in obtaining the weights of extremely small parts of 
matter. For that purpose I tried the elasticities both of torsion 
and flexure, and found the latter only to answer the purpose. 

The following is a description of the construction of my appa- 
iBtofl with which I have succeeded in estimating portions of 
matter equal in weight to the thousandth part of a milligram. 
Heating a rod of soft glass in one spot to bright redness, I drew 
it out quickly, and thereby obtained a filament uniformly cylin- 
drical, of about the diameter of fine human hair. Taking from 
the middle of this fine glass thread a piece of such a length 
(about three inches) that its weight would barely reduce it from 
the horizontal, one end of it was fastened by means of good 
sealing wax to the edge of a mahogany block, and the other end 
Bliffhtiy hooked by approaching quiclay a small spirit flame. In 
Older to obtain a pan in which to place the substance whose 
Wright I would estimate, I cut with the common microscopic 
tection-cutter some disks of elder pith from -001 to '002 inch in 
ftiickness ; and drawing out a still finer filament, the end was 
likewise hooked, and the other extremity being passed through 
a pith disk, a small knob of glass was made on this end by the 
spirit flame, just of sufficient size to prevent this disk slipping 



40 A. McMayer on Weights of Small Portions of Matter. 

off the suspending rod. The filament with attached disk wa 
now hooked on the end of the rod fixed to the block, and wa 
then ready for graduation. 

Not being able at the time to procure silver wire of sufficicD 
fineness, I substituted some very fine and long hair, taken fror 
the head of a child ; and having brought the centre of gravit; 
and centre of motion of a very sensitive analytical balanc 
almost to coincide, I obtained a piece of the middle of a hai 
weighing exactly one-half milligram. This being divided int 
five equal parts (each about one inch long) gave ns tenths c 
a milligram. One of these tenths being placed on the piti 
pan, the glass filament was deflected a certain quantity, whic 
was marked on an arc formed of bristol board, and so as to h 
almost touched by the deflected rod in its revolution about th 
edge of the block. Another tenth was added and another divii 
ion obtained : and so on, until all five divisions were markec 
The length of the divisions being about one-fourth of an incl 
they were very readily subdivided into ten equal parts whic 
gave me immediately j^ipths of a milligram. The weight of an 
quantity of matter less than one-half milligram may be noi 
estimated to tH^^ o^ a milligram by placing it on the pan an 
observing the deflection. 

For the thousandths, still more care and patience is requirec 
tlie filament being much finer and somewhat shorter, and the pit 
disk smaller and as thin as possible. In order to obtain th 

Erimary graduations of hundredths, one of the above pieces c 
air equal to ^^\h milligram is divided into ten equal parts 
which gives us weights of j^^ih. milligram. The deflection 
caused by these weights, divided into ten equal parts, give yi^^ 
of a milligram. 

As the least breath of air interferes with the graduations an' 
weighing, the whole instrument is protected by a glass case, ft 
end of the case next the graduated arc being on a hinge. 

In elastic rods of square section, the deflection is proportioni 
to the weight ; in those of circular section this law is slightl 
departed fi'om ; but by the above method of ascertaining direcfl 
the value of each division, the error is avoided. 

Those who may have the necessity to construct this apparatc 
should arm themselves beforehand with scrupulous care and ui 
bounded patience. 

From the great simplicity of the above arrangement, it seem 
very strange that some person did not long ago invent it ; bu' 
to my knowledge, it has never been attempted. 

Baltimore, Md, Oct 26th, 1867. 



F. IL Storer an the Carbonates of Lime and Baryta, 41 

r, V. — On the Behavior of the Carbonates of Lime and of 
hryta in presence of various Saline Solutions, With remarks 
\ the Determination of Carbonic Acid in Mineral Waters; by 

RANK H. StOBEB. 

"he object of the following article is to call attention to the 
r ^neral influence which aqueous solutions of the alkaline 
ij including those of ammonia, exert in preventing the pre* 
tation of the carbonates of lime and of baryta. It will more* 
r be shown that solutions of the hydrates ot baryta and of 
^ when diluted with water, or with dilute solutions of the 
ttic alkalies, are no longer precipitated by carbonic acid gas. 
conyenience the latter subject will be first treated of. 
. current of carbonic acid gas passed through baryta water, 
ted with two or three times its volume of water, until it was 
pletely saturated, afforded no precipitate at any moment 
ing the process, nor was any produced when the excess of 
ionic acia was driven off by long continued ebullition. The 
lion even regained its strong alkaline reaction and a precipi* 
was at once formed in it, on addition of a solution of an 
dine oarbonata If a dilute solution of caustic soda, potash, 
Donia or of lime be added to the baryta water, &om which 
excess of carbonic add has been driven by boiling, and the 
Ltion a^ain boiled, a precipitate of carbonate of baryta is pro« 
ed; this precipitate aoes not form, however, if a sufficiently 
ite solution of the caustic alkali has been used, unless the so- 
^n be heated, while liiat formed on addition of a solution of 
alkaline carbonate falls even in the cold. There is also a 
It where less dilute solutions of the caustic alkalies produce 
npitates in the ocAd when added to a solution which has^ 
raed no precipitate on boiling. 

t. should DC mentioned that the foregoing refers to a solution 
lydrate of baryta of constant strength, since at different de* 
» of concentration very different reactions may occur. Thus, 
oncentrated solutions a current of carbonic acid gas produces 
recipitate at once ; in a solution slightly diluted it produces a 
sipitate only when heated ; in a solution still more diluted no 
dpitate is produced even on continued ebullition. 
'rom these experiments the two following conclusions may be 
wn. (1.) That baryta water when diluted loses, ia great 
t, its power of absorbing carbonic acid gaa (2.) That a 
dl portion of carbonic acid remains, in solution^ in the baryta 
>er even in spite of long continued ebullition. 
•Vhen diluted with several times its volume of water, lime 
•er also ceases to afford an immediate precipitate when car- 
lie acid gaa is pa^ed through it. A precipitate generally 

tRCOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 7t.— JAN., IMS. 
6 



42 F, H, Storer on the Carbonates of Lime and Baryta. 

forms on boiling, but if the lime water be much diluted no pre* 
cipitate will occur even on actual ebullition, although solutioDS 
01 the alkaline carbonates produce at once precipitates. 

If to the lime water in which carbonic acid gas has produced 
no precipitate even after boiling, a dilute solution of caustio 
soda, ammonia or lime be added and the mixture heated, a pre- 
cipitate of carbonate of lime will be formed. This shows that a 
small portion of carbonic acid is retained by the lime water even 
after long continued ebullition as it was by baryta water. "Ey&k 
saturated lime water is capable of retaining a portion of carbonic 
acid in solution for a considerable time if the solution is not 
heated. This is easily proved by passing carbonic acid into ; 
lime water until it is partially saturated, when on filtering and \ 
boiling the clear filtrate an abundant precipitate of carbonate of [ 
lime is formed. This precipitate dissolves with effervescence in , 
dilute acids and presents the characteristic needles of aragonite J 
when examined under the microscope. I have noticed that lime j 
water which has been exposed to the air, as when kept in bottles i 
with loosely fitting stoppers, affords an abundant precipitate of I 
carbonate of lime on ooiling, but if that which has been thus z 
exposed be afterwards placed in a securely closed bottle it will J 
deposit after a few days all the carbonate of lime which it had | 
previously retained in solution and will no longer afford any | 

Erecipitate of it, on boiling. The well known mcrustation rf | 
ydrate of lime is always deposited when lime water is boiled, ^ 
but this for the most part becomes firmly fixed to the sides d > 
the vessel, presenting, even to the naked eye, a very dissimiltf . ; 
appearance firom the precipitate of carbonate of lime and on ex- ^ 
amination with the microscope the crvstals of hydrate of lime ^ 
have the appearance of rectangular plates, while those of osp ^ 
bonate of Imie (produced by ebullition) are acicular. 

These remarkable reactions, namely, the nonformation of a pre* : ' 
cipitate when carbonic acid gas is passed into dilute baryta or ' 
lime water, must, I think, depend upon the affinity which ths J 
great mass of water present exerts for the baryta or lime, or, : 
upon the inertia of the dissolved alkaline earth, in other wordi^ 
its indisposition to separate from the water. Moreover, since 
the carbonates of the alkaline earths are somewhat soluble in 
water their tendency to form a precipitate must be, under the 
circumstances, comparatively slight Baryta or lime and ca^ 
bonic acid are thus capable of existing simultaneouslv in seda- 
tions in a quantity of water which would not redissolve a frac- 
tion of the amount of carbonate of baryta or lime which th^ 
would produce if once precipitated. j 

The actions of carbonic acid gas on solutions of caustio lime 
or baryta when mixed with dilute solutions of the caustic alkir 
lies may be mentioned here as it seems to be connected with 
that where water idona is present 



pass 
he al 



F. H. SHorer on the CarhonaUs of Lime and Baryta, 43 

lime water mixed with a dilvie solution of caustic soda, pot- 
or ammonia gives no immediate precipitate when carbonic 
. gas is passed into it, unless the solution is boiled. Baryta 
BT yields analogous results. If with the latter, instead of 
solution of soda, an equal bulk of water is used there will 
lo precipitate even on boiling. This shows that when water 
le IS present, the carbonic acid, at first dissolved, is driven 
on the application of heat before it can react on the hydrate 
>aryta, while if soda is used this alkali retains the carbonic 
[ which, on heating, reacts upon the baryta. 

next to consider the influence which aqueous solutions 

e alkaline salts exert in preventing the precipitation of the 
x>nat68 of lime and of baryta. 

^t solutions of many of the ammoniacal salts exert a solvent 
rer upon the carbonates of lime and of baryta, especially 
;n recently precipitated, has been noticed by several observ- 
(A. Vogel, J.pr, Chem., vii, 453 ; Wittstein, BeporLf. Pharm,, 
, 18 ; Wackenroder, Ann, Pharm., xli, 315 ; Brett, London 
f JSith. Phil Mag, and Journal of Science^ x, 95). Solutions 
:he salts of potash have also oeen noticed to possess the 
le power, thoueh to a less degree, and I find that the 
8 of soda stand midway in this respect between those of 
nonia and of potash, and that even chlorid of calcium exerts 
ertain solvent power upon recently precipitated carbonate 
time. 

[liis solvent action may be seen by treating the recently pre- 
itated carbonate with a great excess of a solution of aJmost 

alkaline salt, but is observed more distinctly in the great 

iency of the alkaline salts to prevent the precipitation of the 

bonates of the alkaline earths. Thus, if lime water be mixed 

h an aqueous solution of chlorid of ammonium, chlorid of 

ium or chlorid of potassium, and a current of carbonic acid 

be passed into the mixture no precipitate is produced, even 

boihnff, if the alkaline chlorid be present in sufficient c^uan- 

If less of the alkaline chlorid has been used there will be 

recipitate formed on boiling although none has occurred in 

cold. Chlorid of calcium exerts an action entirely analogous 

that of the alkaline chlorids, though, so &r as I have observed, 

recipitate always forms on boiling. 

Sl solution of sulphate of ammonia or of sulphate of soda, 
en mixed with lime water exerts an influence almost pre- 
jly like that of the alkaline chlorids, carbonate of lime not 
ng precipitated even on boiling if they are present in suffi- 
ni quantity. 

A. solution of sulphate or of nitrate of potash behaves much 
6 that of sulphate of soda, but its influence is less strongly 
u-ked. 



44 F. SL Storer on the CarbtmaUs of lAme and Baryta. 

From the extreme fSetcility with which water alone preventB 
the precipitation of baryta water by carbonic acid, it is difficult 
to jud^ of the influence which salts in solution in it may exert 
Chlorid of ammonium, however, retards in a marked manner the 
precipitation of carbonate of baryta from baryta water, a por- 
tion remaining in solution even after boiling with carbonate of 
soda. Chlorid of sodium and of potassium also retard in a 
measure the precipitation of carbonate of baryta, but their ac- 
tion is not well marked. 

The solvent influence of the alkaline salts can be obaerved 
with equal facility by mixing their solution with that of an alka- 
line carbonate and adding a solution of a lime or baryta salt to 
the mixture. A few examples will illustrate this point. 

(1.) A solution of chlorid of calcium produces no predpitate, 
except on boiling, when added to a mixed solution of carbonate 
of soda and sulphate of soda excepting when the carbonate is 
in excess. In this experiment the sulphate of soda may be re* 
placed by any of the alkaline sulphates or chlorids. 

(2.) A solution of chlorid of barium produces no precipitate^ 
except on boiling, when added to a mixed solution or carbonate 
of soda and chlorid of ammonium and if the latter be preaent 
in considerable quantity there will be no precipitate even on 
boiling. When the chlorid of ammonium is present in smialler 
quantity there is a point where the addition oi a drop of carbon- 
ate of soda produces a cloudiness which clears up on heating. 

(3^ If in the last experiment chlorid of sodium be suDsti- 
tuted for chlorid of ammonium a similar action may be ob* 
served although it is much less in degree. In one experiment 
in which an excess of carbonate of soaa was used and a partial 

Srecipitate produced in the cold, the liquid was left in repoaa 
uring twenty-four hours, but on being filtered and the clear 
filtrate boiled, an additional amount of carbonate of baryta sep- 
arated. 

(4.) When a mixed solution of carbonate of soda and nitrate 
of potash is quickly added, in large excess, to a small quantity 
of a solution of clilorid of barium or of hydrate of bi^ta, no 
immediate precipitate is produced except on boiling. 

The most remarkable solvent action which I have noticed is 
seen in the inability of the alkaline carbonates to precipitate 
baryta, and especially lime, from their solutions, when added in 
great excess. That sueh solvent power exists may be proved 
by precipitating a small quantity of a salt of lime with carbon* 
ate of ammonia and then redissolving the precipitate in a very 
great excess of the precipitant. But a much more satisfactoiy 
proof may be obtained by adding quickly a large excess of the 
solution of the alkaline carbonate to a small portion of a dilute 
flojution of a lime or baryta salt ; so quickly tnat the precipitate 



F. H. Storer on the Carbonates of Lime and Baryta. 45 

T not faaye a sufficient time to form. This is readily accom- 
jhed by swinging rapidly the vessel containing the solution of 
I lime or baryta salt and suddenly turning into it the solution 
the alkaline carbonate. If the solutions have been used in 
>per proportion no trace of a precipitate will appear, owing to 
\ complete mixture obtained by this method of experimentmg, 
bough a £ractional amount of the lime salt used would have 
xiuoed a persistent precipitate had it been slowly added. By 
ng the same portion of the solution of the alkaline carbonate 
ya successive small portions of that of the lime salt no incon- 
erable amoxmt of the latter may be finally obtained in solu- 
Q. As a rule this solution is precipitated at once on boiling, 
t if it be diluted with a large quantity of water, ebullition no 
iger produces any precipitate. In one instance such a solution 
t in repose during twentjr-four hours afforded no precipitate, 
hough oxalate of ammonia when added to it proauced a co- 
>ua precipitate of oxalate of lime. 

[ have detailed but a few of the many cases where the pres- 
3e of alkaline salts exerts an influence to retain lime or ba- 
ka in solution simultaneously with carbonic acid, but enough 
I been said to show that this power is quite general and that 
) salts of potash and of soda act in. this respect like those of 
imonia. 

That the power of the alkaline salts to retain the carbonates 
lime and oaryta in solution may be referred to affinities anaJ- 
yuSj in kind, to those which cause them to form double salts 
^h the compounds of zinc, lead and magnesia, is, I think, evi- 
it It is true that the affinities here are much weaker and in- 
Kcient to produce stable crystalline compounds. As in many 
ler cases of double elective affinity, some shock, such as agita- 
a or the application of heat, is required to call a desired play- 
affinities into action, — so here the affinity of the alkaline salt 

the carbonates of the alkaline earths is sufficient to retain the 
ter in solution until heat is applied. 

Ihe well known fact that a current of carbonic acid gas pro- 
oes no immediate precipitate in a solution of a salt of lime or 
baryta neutralizea by ammonia seems to depend on a mixed 
ion : in part, like that previously alluded to, which prevents 
5 precipitation of carbonate of baryta when a current of car- 
nic acid cas is passed through dilute baryta water, and also 

the tendency of the carbonates of lime and baryta to form 
npounds with the salts of ammonia. 

I find that a weak solution of caustic soda, potash or even 
ne may be substituted for caustic ammonia in the above 
ixture with like result, no precipitate appearing until after 
e lapse of considerable time unless the solution be heated. 
be action of the fixed alkali being, to all appearance, en- 



46 F, H. Storer on i/ie Carbonates of Lime and Baryta. 

tirelj analogous, in kind, to that of ammonia, althougli less in 
degree.* 

To demonstrate this it is only necessary to employ sufficiently 
dilute solutions of the caustic alkalies and to pass through the 
mixture a stream of carbonic acid gas diluted with air, — air ex- 
pired from lungs, for example, — when no immediate precipitate 
will be produced unless the solution be heated. Even if tne so- 
lution of caustic alkali be used in so concentrated a fonn (not 
sufficiently so however to precipitate a hydrate of the alkaline 
earth) that a precipitate of carbonate of lime is produced, in the 
cold, by a current of carbonic acid, it can readily be proved that 
a portion of the carbonic acid has not been precipitated, by fil- 
tering and boiling the clear filtrate, when a copious precipitate 
of carbonate of lime will be produced at once. This behavior 
is more marked with lime salts than with those of baryta, and 
soda evidently exerts a greater influence than potash. 

K a solution of chlorid of sodium, of chlorid of potassium, or 
of chlorid of ammonium be added to the mixed solution before 

Eassing carbonic acid gas the precipitation of the carbonate of 
me or baryta is attended with still greater difficulty. 
Attention has been called by several observers (among othen 
Bant, J. pr. Chem,^ ii, 440 ; Vogel, i6id., vii, 453) to erron 
which may arise in the course of analysis if the solvent action 
of chlorid of ammonium upon the carbonates of lime and of 
baryta be not kept in view. The remark applies with similar 
force to most of the soluble alkaline salts. This is of special 
importance in the determination of carbonic acid by means of % 
solution of chlorid of calcium neutralized with caustic ammonia. 
As a remedy it has been suggested (Kolbe, foe. cit ; Mohr, 21* 
tnrhvjckf i, 110 and 113) that the solution should be boil^ in 
order to throw down all of the carbonate of lime. This would, 
it is true, in most cases cause the entire precipitation of the car 
bonate. But it is possible, especially in the analysis of some 
mineral waters, that alkaline salts mav be present in sufficitet 
quantity to prevent the precipitation of a portion of the carbon- 
ate of lime even on ebullition. 

* Kolbe {Handwoerterbtteh der Chem,, I Sapplem., S, 167,) expUuns the beihaTior \ 
of the eolation of chlorid of calcium or barium neutralized with ammonia, bj n^ | 

posing that an organic compound carbamate of ammonia, NH4O, C I a (irvw ^ ^ 

formed, capable of existing for some time in cold aqueous solution but not of sup- , 
porting heat, on application of which it is transformed into ordinary carbonate of i 
ammonia which reacts at once on the lime or baryta salt present The insuffideocf ; 
of this Tiew to explain aU the facts in the case is evident : (1.) In presence of ■■ { 
excess of chlorid of ammonium, carbonic acid produces no precipitate in the miasd 
solution of chlorid of calcium and ammonia even when it is boiled. (2.) Wheo a '. 
large excess of any alkaline carbonate irf added to a small amount of a Kdotion tf .; 
a salt of lime or of baryta, no immediate precipitate is produced unless the adotifla [ 
be heated. (8.) A current of carbonic acid fas produces no immediate predpitali ■ 
in a solution of chlorid of calcium or chlorid of barium which has been neatnlind ' 
with a dilute aolution of caustic toda or potash instead of ammonia. 



On ike HeighU of the Tides of the Atlantic Coast. 47 

Bearing on this subject is the fact noticed by Denham Smith 
LoncL and Edvn. Phil. Mag, and Joum. of Science^ ix, 542), that 
be carbonates of lime and of baryta are rapidly decomposed 
rhen boiled with solutions of the ammoniacal salts, carbonate 
f ammonia being evolved. This appears to have been over- 
ooked by the a^ve cited observers, but the fact can be easily 
proved by adapting an abduction tube to a flask containing a 
olution of chlorid of ammonium and some carbonate of lime, 
wiling the mixture and passing the vapor generated into lime 
rater, when a copious precipitate of carbonate of lime is at once 
)roduced, and this in spite of the retarding influence of the am- 
iK)nia present. As carbonate of baryta appears to be affected 
m mucn less degree than carbonate or lime oy the solvent action 
of the alkaline salts, and to be capable of separating entirely in 
tlie cold &om such solution after sufficient time, the use of chlo- 
rid of barium in determiniug carbonic acid would seem to yield 
more accurate results than that of chlorid of calcium. 



Art. VL— Oi» the Heights of the Tides of the Atlantic Coast of the 
United StcUeSj from observations in the Coast Survey ; by A. D. 
Bache, Superintendent — ^With a Plate. 

[Oommnninited by authority of the Treasurj Department to the American AModa- 

Uon for the Advancement of Science.] 

It is well known that when a bay or indentation of the coast 
presents its opening favorably to the tide wave, and decreases in 
nidth from the entrance towards its head, that the tides rise 
b^hcr and higher from the mouth upwards. The Rev. Mr. 
Wnewell has stated that in a general way the same £Eict is de- 
iuoed fix>m the observations on the coast of Great Britain and 
Ireland, discussed by him. 

The Coast Survey observations of the tides of the Atlantic 
x)ast, the results of which, from time to time, I have brought be- 
bre the Association, furnish the means of a complete discussion 
>f heights as well as of times, and very simple generalizations 
result from their examination. Through the kindness of Cap- 
ain Shortland, R. N., and of Admiral Bayfield, R. N., I have 
Deen enabled to extend these results to the coasts of New Bruns- 
irick, Nova Scotia, and to part of Newfoundland. 

I beff leave to make my best acknowledgements to these dis- 
dn^isned hydrographers for the prompt and liberal communi- 
»tion of the results of their observations. 

The Coast Survey observations have been worked up in the 
tidal division under the direction of Assistant L. F. Pourtales, 
and I am indebted to him for giving the results the shape desired 
tod for the diagrams representing them. 



48 On the Beigklt of the Tidet of the Atlantic CooMt. 

The following table of stations on or near the exterior coast- 
line of the United States, ia taken from the more extended tables 
of the Coast Sarvey, omitting stations which are up rivers ot 
bays, except in special cases the object of inserting which will 
be obvious. 

Table A contains a number for reference, the locality of the 
tidal station, the state to which it belongs, the latitude, the longi- 
tude, and the mean height of the tide in feet and tenths. 



MagkU ef Ttdu > 



TABLE Jl. 
rt (A« AtUm^ Coattt^the Uidltd & 



1 Portlimd 

2 Portamoutb... 

} NBwburjport, 
I'Olouceater, . . 



JjBoStOD, .. 

I Plymoutb. 
ilProviuceUi 
} Qeurge's Slile.f 






I Sinscansett, . 
.! Weeweeder, 
.SSmiCb'sPolDt,. 

4|WaM|ue, ... 
.fijMenemahii, . 
.ftlPointJudiOi, 



llBlocIt lalnnd,. 
)!MrjnUuk PoLnt, 
) Sloain^tun, . . 



SB 70 

MiTO 
W!0 
37170 
3ll70; 

as"Ji' 

67'70'<0 
03,701 
40 67!« 
39 60 39 
iBiTO'OO 
16170 06 

I770ia -s-i 
ai;7030 1-7 

20,70 4i5 2-7 

22|71JZ8 3'1 

2BI7ll20 3'B 

lOlllS* 

MTier i-B 



i Fire Islutd, . 

i,Suid'» Point, 
243aQdy Hook, 
2e'0old Spring Met, 

ZSGapeUa; 

27!01dPtConiri>rt, 
28 Hattcras Inlet, . 

2e|Beuifort, 

30 0npeFe>r, .... 
l3l|WinyaliB«j,... 

SS Cbarleaton, 

33'N'th£dislDltiTer, 

Sljport Rovttl, 

3S SniannnJi Entr. . 

SeSapelo 

37jSt. Simons, 

SSlSt. Msrj's RiTer,. 
SBStJoha'a Hirer, . 
40'St Augustine, . . 
4 1 ' Itiiiiun River Inlet. 
J-taCnpeFlnridll..... 






38|7S13 

32,7343 

28741)0 

6t!7446 

'74!6J 

007(1 

78*8 

:7fl40 

e2,78jOU 

I4I7B " 

46 7s 

33 SO 13 



7 80 



The following table of tides of localities on the coast of Cn» 
Breton, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, is from the observt- 
tions of Admiral Bayfield and Gaptaia Shortland. The authon- 
ties are given in the colamn of remarks, which also contain tlis 
remarks of Admiral Bayfield on the tidal results communicated 
by him. I have taken from his table the heights which were de- 
rived from the greatest number of observations. The column of 
means is the average of the heights of spring and neap tides iB 
feet and tenths. The localities are arranged fr^m tne nortk 
southward on the outer coast ; and in the Bay of Pundy frwn 
the entrance up the bay. 

From the table of Captain Shortland I have selected only* 
few localities as specimens, having no wish to anticipate, through 
his generosity, the use which he will doubtless make of his own 



■ Mt^or Oraham, U. S. A. 



tO«ptWilkeitU.&ir. 



Ok the Btigkt* of the Tides of the Atlantie Coast. 49 




i!li I mi tJ I 



^■s-gj; .1 I" IS 1 1'. 



s-l I i 8 E = i- 



it 



SI .1" ,*|5 
|i Plfll 

■a" as-sga^z 

%U a.-3 ^ -f -s .! 3 I ^ _ 

ill e1| lt|g |i 






i* 



;^: J s s 

'.i 






t| 1 






Ill -il 



B 3:^ KJajE iT ^ 



S|»-|_ ^-fi 11 |||| 









■|^ 15' 



Hill Hi 









lECOHD 8BKIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 71. — JAK., IU». 



50 On the Heights of the Tides of the Atlantic Coast. 

These numbers maybe extended beyond the turn of Cape Eace, 
where the coast trends to the west of north, by further results 
of Admiral Bayfield, though the remarks which he makes show 
them to be only approximate. Thus two stations on the coast 
of Labrador, St. Lewis Bay in latitude 62° 19' and longitude 
55° 37', and Henley Island in latitude 52° 00' and longitude 
55° 53', give each for the mean of the height of spring and neap 
tides 2'3 feet. St. John^ Newfoundland, gives 5*0 feet. Tre- 
passey harbor, south of it, 5 8 feet 

Beginning with the southern end of table A and following 
the results northward and eastward, we find from Cape Floridi 
to Savannah and Port Royal a gradual increase of the tides, and 
then a gradual decrease to Cape Hatteras, with a single contradic- 
tion easily explained. Next, following the stations on the coast, 
and omitting those in the bays and sounds, we have a less regu- 
lar increase to Sandy Hook, and a decrease to Weeweeder on 
Nantucket Island. Next is a less regular regimen requiring a 
more detailed examination. 

By developing the curyed line of the coast into a straight line 
and marking upon it the tide stations, which will be thus at 
nearly their proper distances 'from each other, and by erecting 
ordinates at each of the station points and setting off on a suita- 
ble vertical scale the heights of the tides at those points, and 
connecting the extremities of the several ordinates, we have the 
broken line shown in diagram A. In drawing this line the sta- 
tions of the coast only are joined, and the irregularities are cut 
off by the curve. 

This curve shows distinctly the physical division of th6 coast 
between Cape Florida and Cape Sable into three great bays. 
The great southern from Cape Florida to Cape Hatteras, the 
great middle from Cape Hatteras to Siasconsett, the great eastern 
from Siasconsett to Cape Sable. Perhaps this latter may be con- 
sidered as only a portion of a great bay from Siasconsett to Cape 
Eace ; but this generalization is at present hardly safe, and I 
confine myself therefore to the more limited view. The tide 
wave setting into the southern bay, rises as the bay contracts, 
and the heights of the tides along the shores increase as the 
places are more distant from the chord spanning the entrance. 

If we suppose the lines of equal height to be straight lines 
and draw them upon the diagram, transferring them to a map of 
the coast, we shall find that they are more crowded on the more 
curved side and more open on the less curved. The curve indi- 
cates Cape Hatteras, and not the inlet, which was the tidal station, 
as the point of least height. The physical cause of this phenome- 
non is well understood if it has not yet been reduced to measure. 

The next curve shows us plainly the middle bay, having Hat- 
teras for its southwestern cape, and Smith's Point or Weeweeder 



On the Heights of the Tides of the Atlantic Const. 51 

for its northeastern entrance. The form of the shore is less fa- 
vorable to regularity, but the result is nevertheless well marked. 
The interference of tidal waves, which takes place off Nantucket, 
tends also in a degree to confuse the results. The chart shows 
how simple the svstem of cotidal lines is in the three bays run- 
ning nearly parallel to the shores. 

The eastern bay lies between the eastern part of Nantucket 
(Siasconsett) and Cape Sable, Massachusetts bay being subsidiary 
to this. The tide wave entering the eastern bay follows the 
deep water, and thus the cotidal lines take generally the direc- 
tions of the shores until the tide wave enters the Bay of Fundy. 
The most probable form of the cotidal lines from xi to XV hours 
inclusive is shown upon the chart, which is merely an extension 
of the chart of cotidal lines of the United States coast formerly 
presented to the Association. The heights increase rapidly from 
Nantucket to Cape Cod, being 2 feet at Siasconsett and 9*2 feet 
at Provincetown. At Cape Ann they are nearly of this same 
height and increase in passing up and into the bay to lO'O feet 
at Boston and 101 feet at Plymouth. 

The height at Newburyport is probably local, depending upon 
the position of the tide-gauge. There is but little change from 
Portsmouth to Portland, and from Cape Sable to Ellcnwood's 
Island. 

Shall we look to the greater bay between the Nantucket and 
Newfoundland shoals for the cause of the eight feet rise at Cape 
Sable, and of the heights from Admiral Ba\^old's table. We 
find the heights along the coast of Nova Scotia to vary from 
seven to six feet, not with regularity however. At Cape Breton 
Island they vary from 6*4 to 4*6 feet, decreasing thus in going 
northward and eastward. Are these heights due to the crowd- 
ing of the waters into this greater bay ? If so, why are not the 
heights of Cape Breton greater than those of Nova Scotia? 
We require results on the south shores of Newfoundland and on 
the Great Bank to give us clear ideas on these points, and I hesi- 
tate to extend the generalization to this tempting field. 

The shoals from Nantucket and broken ground near George's 
Bank and the comparatively shoal water in their vicinity on the 
one side, and the Great Bank of Newfoundland on the other, 
look as if full of meaning of this sort. Further results may 
however show that this is not the interj^retation of the phenom- 
ena. The tides of Labrador are but 2'3 feet, bringing us back 
to the standard of Hatteras and of Montauk Point, and what 
probably would be that of Nantucket but for interferences. 

Soon afler passing Mt. Desert on the west side and Ellen wood's 
Island on the east side, the tide wave has turned into the Bay of 
Fandv, and the rise increases with extraordinary rapidity. The 
complicated character of the cotidal lines in this immediate 



62 On the Winds of the Western Coast of the U. StaUis. 

vicinity is indicated by the chart, the lines firom xii to xv boms 
being crowded into the very small space of a few miles on the 
south side of Nantucket 

To return to the more limited scale within which our induc- 
tions are safe, Delaware bay, New York bay. Lone Island sound, 
Narragansett and Buzzaras bays, Nantucxet and the Yineyard 
sounds, present on a smaller scale the same phenomena of in- 
crease in the height of the tide in ascending. On the contrary, 
in Ghe8ar>eake b^, which widens and changes direction at » 
right angle immediately from the entrance, the tides diminish in 
height as a general rule in going up the bay. 

The results of the heights of tiaes along the coast are very 
satisfactorily shown upon a model which i^ now before the A^- 
sociation, for superintending the execution of which I am in- 
debted to Mr. Pourtales. The basis is a map of the Atlantic 
coast from Cape Florida to Cape Bace, upon which the cotidal 
lines of the U nited States are traced. The tidal stations are 
marked upon this, and rods cut to length and proportionate to 
the rise and fall of the tides at the several stations, are inserted 
in holes drilled at the station points. The steel rods refer to the 
heights at exterior stations and the brass rods to interior ones. 
Paper cut to the form of the general curve of heights, which 
has already been explained, and placed behind these rods, serves 
to show the generalizations with great distinctness. 

I propose to call the bay between Cape Florida and Cape Hat- 
teras the Southern bay, that between Cape Hatteras and Nan- 
tucket the Middle bay, and that between Nantucket and Cape 
Sable the Eastern bay of the coast of the United States. 

The general figure of the coast line has of course heretofore 
attracted the attention of geographers. The connection with tike 
heights of the tides could only satisfactorily be made out by such a 
series of tidal observations as those embraced in the Coast Survey. 



Akt. VIL— On the Winds of the Western Coast of the United 
States^ from observations in connection with the U. & Coast Sur- 
^^ ) ^J -^ ^' Bache, Superintendent — ^With a Plate. 

[Communicated \rj authority of the Treasuiy Department to the American Asio* 

dation for the Advancement of Science.] 

The observations, of which I propose at present to communi- 
cate the results, were made in the year 1855, in connection with 
the tidal observations on the Pacific coast, at three permanent 
stations, Astoria, Sail Francisco, and San Diego. The approxi- 
mate latitude and longitude of each of the stations is as foOows: 

Astoria, Oregon, lat, 46^ 11' N., long. 123° 49' W. 

San Francisco, California, " 87 48 " 122 28 

San Diego, " " 32 40 '' 117 12 



Or the Winds of the Western Coast of the U. States. 5S 

The mode of observing was that described in m^ paper on the 
winds at Cat Island, read before the Association m 1860. The 
observers were posted and practiaed together by Lieut, W. P. 
Trowbridge of tne U. S. Corps of Engineers, under whose sa- 
pervision the observations were made. 

The directions of the wind were noted in points, and the force 
in ^e conventional scale before referred to. These nnmbers 
were redaced to velocity in tnilea per hour by the tables given 
in my fonper paper, and the quantity of wind Wowing from any 
quarter daring a given period was thence readily found. The 
tablee and diagrams are thus of the same kind as those which I 
hive before presented to the Asaociation. They were made un- 
der the direction of Assistant L. F. Pourtales of the U. S. Coast 
Survey, to whose care, assiduity and knowledge I am indebted 
for the opportunity of presenting them. The computations and 
the diagnuns were made by Miss Mary Thomas. 

The observations were taken three times each day, at 6 A. k. 
and p. H. and at noon, except on Monday of each week when 
bonrly observations took the place of the regular daily ones. 
From these latter results the reference of the three daily obser- 
ntioQs to the mean of the day has been made. The quantities 
(f wind for each hour and for each direction were computed and 
grouped by months and then plotted. The eye readily takes in 
the cbaractehstics of the winds at different periods of the day 
and year and for the various directions. To apply these to the 
lednction of the daily observations, tabl^ were formed of the 
iversge time during which each wind blowing would give from 
observations at the three houts already named the result for the 
day. For example, the W. wind at San Francisco gave for the 
quantity ia twenty-four hours by the daily observations 606, 
ue mean hourly quantity at 6 A. M. being 6, at 12 H. 27, and 6 
P.M. 31. These quantities respectively being supposed continued 
ibr nine hours, five hours, ana ten hours, which agrees with the 
diagram, would give 499, a number differing but little from the 
total found for the day. 

TatU far dedveittffjram the thrte daily oburvatmu the mean tf the day. 



ASTOBli. 


BAS fHANCISCO. 


SAN DIBOO. 


Wind. 




i 




WiaJ. 


* 


ii 


■ 


wind. 


* 


>i 


8 




■^ 


"fib 


^ 






"fih 
















«» 


Bl 




fib 


(111 


nh 










E. 






-t 




H 


n 


ji 








BJt,B.»a.W. 


9 


e 


D 






B 


fl 


u. 








w. 










IH 


fl 


* 


t. 


































■!* 


fl 


i 




IA 


7 


n 


'7' 




I 





















54 On the Winds of the Western Coast of the V. I^ates. 



In this way the above table was found, which was applied to 
the reductions of the daily observations. 

From the tables of velocities in miles per hour deduced from 
the observations by the method just explained, the following 
table of quantities of wind firom different directions for each 



QUA]S^TITIES OF WIND. 
ASTORIA 



Moatli. 


N. 

6 
188 


N.S. 


s. 


B.E. 


s. 


s.w. 


W. 


N.W. 




January 

February, 

March, 


795 
282 


987 

1628 

1258 

305 

105 

88 

18 

12 

.... 

294 

182 

456 


150 
295 
509 
282 
186 

• • • • 

• • • • 

60 

102 

• • • % 

899 

698 


824 
8079 

983 
1218 

536 

9 

.... 

30 

872 
1245 
2252 
2849 


2719 
225 
585 
969 

1437 
258 
683 
279 

.... 
291 

2927 
138 


1589 
850 
428 

1651 
876 

2104 
700 
180 
246 
123 
848 
105 


. • . . 

.... 

• . • • 

1801 

1398 

2760 

4221 

2548 

481 

361 

447 

91 


6620 
6492 
8708 
6430 
4635 
5224 
6722 
8110 
1706 
8068 
7188 
6867 


April, 

May 


24 


180 

102 

60 

150 

6 

54 

754 

588 

1585 


June, ......... 




July. 




AufiTUSt. ....... 




September, .... 
October, 




NoTember, .... 
December, 






168 




4501 


6268 


2676 


18847 


10461 


9150 


14048 











SAN 


FRANCISCO. 










Month. 


N. 

2802 

618 

218 

80 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


8. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 




January 

February, 

March, 

ApriL 


875 

180 

60 

72 


147 
45 

28 

"is 


177 
558 
639 
168 
348 

231 
652 


21 

147 

470 

812 

24 

18 

9 

.... 

54 

68 

232 

489 


1471 

992 

1934 

2992 

1578 

8338 

8725 

2608 

2588 

136 

508 

1290 


264 
860 
2447 
4845 
4928 
3428 
2020 
8908 
4219 
4396 
2056 
1576 


1161 
806 
426 
209 

2580 

362 
2168 
500 
96 
222 
284 


6918 
8706 
6222 
8628 
9408 
11784 
11116 
8684 
7861 
4697 
4181 
5528 


May 


June, 






July. 

August, 

September, .... 
October, 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


'6 
252 
850 


November, . ... 
December, 


630 
414 

4212 




1795 


238 


2773 


1839 


83160 


34947 


8214 





SAN DIEGO. 



Month. 

January 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July» 

August, 

September, . . . . 

October, 

Norember 

December, 



N. 

91 


N.E. 


B. 


8.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 




147 


45 


431 


813 


384 


643 


987 


8541 


204 


48 


207 


1291 


777 


688 


278 


2461 


5954 


284 


114 


114 


1095 


726 


912 


1124 


3219 


7588 


186 


180 


86 


900 


1019 


798 


810 


2505 


6484 


156 


24 


57 


396 


884 


1296 


930 


2296 


5989 


72 


48 


66 


1100 


827 


882 


892 


2145 


6032 


89 


192 


16 


285 


1320 


607 


120 


4066 


6645 


48 


79 


24 


104 


93 


595 


690 


8823 


6456 


48 


186 


89 


64 


265 


338 


426 


2418 


8774 


72 


156 


21 


36 


182 


186 


254 


2411 


8268 




108 


98 


240 


281 


642 


198 


1226 


2688 


114 
1814 




24 


162 


M5 


686 


528 


754 


2618 


1282 


742 


6094 


7382 


7914 


6893 


28811 





On the Winds of the Western Coast of the V. StaUs. 65 

month is found. The rhumbs are written at the top of the ta- 
ble, the months at the side, and at the meeting point of a verti- 
cal and horizontal line from the head and side titles are found 
the quantities. The last column at the side of the table gives 
the total Quantities for the several months, and below is found 
the totals for each direction for the year. 

From this table the diagrams representing the quantities for 
each month from each direction (figs. Nos. 1 to 12) are taken, 
and also those showing the total annual quantities of wind from 
each direction, and the total quantity of wind from all directions 
for each month (figs. Nos. 16 and 17). 

It seems to me altogether probable from the study of the fig- 
ures of these tables, that the scale adopted by the observer at 
San Francisco is greater than that at the two other points. The 
total quantities at Astoria, San Francisco and San jDiego are as 
59, 87, and 60, and it is hardly probable that there is so large 
an excess of quantity at San Francisco. I have also the same 
lemark to make as on the observations at Cat Island, on the ab- 
aence of observations upon the intermediate points between the 
cardinal ones, showing the tendency to designate the winds only 
by the cardinal points. 

From these diagrams we see at once the simple general regi- 
men of the winds on this coast. 

1. The great prevalence of westerly winds, representing a 
flow of the air at the surface from the ocean in upon the lani 

2. The general absence of easterly winds, showing the absence 
of a return current at the surface. 

The proportion of westerly to easterly winds is as 8 to 1. 
S. The increase of westerly winds in the summer and their 
decrease in the winter. 

4. That when easterly winds blow at all, it is as a rule during 
the winter. 

5. The N., N.E., and E. winds blow more frequently in the 
morning than in the afternoon hours. 

6. The S.E., S., and S.W. winds are in general pretty equally 
distributed over the morning and evening hours. 

7. The N.W. is the prevailing direction of the ordinary sea 
breeze at Astoria and San Diego, and the W. at San Francisco. 

Sometimes the W. wind has that character at the first named 
stations and sometimes the S.W. wind at the last named. 

A closer inspection of the same diagrams will lead to other 
interesting resulth. 

Considering the qualities of wind at the three places for the 
whole year (fig. No. 13) San Diego and Astoria present remark- 
able similarities. There is more N.E., E., and S. winds at 
Astoria, and more N.W. wind at San Diego. The axis dividing 
the area symmetrically is in the same direction. On the contrary 



56 On the Winds of the Western Coast of the V. States. 

at San Francisco the W. and S.W. winds give the character to 
the rose and the axis makes an angle of some sixty-seven de- 
grees with that of the other spaces. All show the same defi 
ciency of easterly winds, and San Francisco is deficient also in 
southerly ones. 

The monthly curves grouped in two pjeriods, from November 
to March, both included, and from April to October (figs. Nos. 
14 and 15) show that the annual curve has the summer type im- 
pressed upon it The summer is in fitct the windy part of the 
year. The N.W. wind prevails in August at Astona and San 
Diego, and the W. and S.W. at San Francisco. 

The scale of diagram No. 14 is less than that of 15 in the 
proportion of 10 to 14. There is scarcely any wind fit)m points 
oetween North, around by East and South. The form of the 
rose is exceedingly simple and the generalization very obvious. 

The winter system is less simple. The axes of the spaces for 
Astoria and San Diego make angles of more than 110^ with each 
other. The N.E., E., S., and S.W. winds are considerable at 
Astoria, and the N.W. wind is deficient. At San Francisco the 
W. winds give the prominent feature to the rose curve. 

As the winter is not the windj season, so the months of March 
and September are not the wmdy months. On the contrary, 
July is one of the windiest months of the year. 

San Fkancisco. 

At San Francisco the great current of air flowing fi^m the 
sea to the land comes generally from the W. or S.W., rarely 
from the N.W. 

In the period from November to March inclusive, (diagram 
No. 14,) tne W. is th e p revailing wind, exceeding in quanti^ 
both the others, the S. W . wind exceeding in quantity the N. W. 
In the period from April to October (diagram No. 15) the W. 
and S. W . winds are nearly equal, and each exceeds the N.W. 

The W. wind has in general the features attributed to the sea 
breeze, beginning after the rising of the sun, increasing \m1il 
after the hottest part of the day, and dying out or much dimin- 
ishing at nightfidl. 

The W. and S.W. winds give the prominent features to the 
wind rose at San Francisco. 

The S.W. is the prevailing wind in June and July, S.W. and 
W. winds blowing nearly the whole of those months, not suc- 
ceeded by an easterly land breeze — but rising and falling. The 
rose curves for May and August resemble each other, the N.W. 
and S.W. winds being nearly equal in quantity, and each less 
than the W. wind. So the curves for April and September, 
when the N.W. wind has nearly died out The W. wind di- 
minishes in quantity through March and February, and throu^ 



On the Winds of ike Western Coast of the U. States. 57 

ober, November, and December to January. The N.W. 
id increases again from April towards December, and is very 
dl in October and NovemW. The S.W. wind disappears in 
tober, changing the form of the rose curve, but reuupearing 
November and December and increasing towards January, 
e W. wind has a maximum in April and May and another 
September and October, the minima being July and Jatiuary. 
The N. wind in December, January and February, reaching a 
ximum in Januarv, is the only other point to be noticed lor 
1 Francisco, partaking with the other places in the general ab- 
ce of easterly winda The tables show a little in the winter, 
sie is also but little S. wind there. 

ASTOBIA AND SaK DiEGO. 

n general the winds at these two places resemble each other 
re than those at San Francisco do either. The rose curves 
April, May, June, July and August (Nos. 4 to 8) have the 
ae general character. The mean curve for the year (No. 18J 
i for the sunmier period (No. 16) have also the same general 
iracter. 

The N.W. wind is the summer wind and has the characteris- 
5 of the sea breeze, but there is no return land breeze. The 
Vf. wind reaches a maximum in July and a mininum in De« 
nber. It is the great prevailing wind of the year (diagram 
. 13) at San Diego. As it decreases it is generally replaced 
W. and S.W. winds of less quantity. In December the 
mtities of the three winds are nearly equal. 
The resemblance of these winds at San Diego and Astoria is 
larkable, the remarks just made applying generally to both 
oca There is, however, much less N.W. wind at Astoria 
n at San Diego. Except in June, July and August there is 
le S. wind each month at Astoria, and especially from Sep- 
iber through October, November, December and February, it 
senta a marked feature of the rose. At San Diego this is 
I marked, the two agreeing most nearly in quantity in March, 
ril and May. 

rhe S.E. wmd is a distinct feature in both places in February 
1 March, and at San Diego in April and June. 
Phe E. wind is prominent at Astoria in January, February 
I March, and the N.E. from October to Januarv inclusive. 
lUtoria has the most easterly wind, the N.E. beginning in Oc- 
er and blowing until February, and being replaced by the E. 
id in March. 

ECOND SERIES, VOL. XZ7, NO. 7S. — JAN., 186t. 
8 



68 On the Measurement of a Base on Epping Plains. 



Art. VIIL — Notes on the Measurement of a Base for Ae primary 
trtangulaiion of the Eastern &ction of the Coast of the UnM 
&ates^ on Epping Plaine^ Maine ; by A. D. Bachs, Supmn- 
tendent U. S. Coast Survey. — ^With a Plate. 

[CommuDicated by authority of the TrcAsury Department to the Americui AmooMr 

tion for the AdTHOcement of Sdeoce.] 

The reconnoissance for a base of verification at the eastern 
extremity of the primary triangalation in Section I of the cotst 
was commenced by Charles O. Boutelle, Esq., and Major Henry 
Prince, U. S. A., Assistants in the Coast Survey, in 1858 and 
continued through 1864 and 1855. The absence of long and 
straight sea beaches on this coast rendered it absolutely necessary 
to look for an interior site. 

The reconnoissance resulted in the selection of Epping Plains, 
Washington Co., Maine, as the most suitable site for the purpose 
considering the character of the ground itself and the facility of 
connecting the ends of the base with the primary triangulation. 

In this selection and the examination of the plains, these 
officers were much assisted by the local knowledge and the kind 
offices of J. A. Milliken, Esq., now of Cherryfield, to whom I 
beg leave here to return the thanks of the Coast Survey. 

Major Prince being relieved from the survey, the final minute 
examination of the site and the determination of the best line 
which could be obtained on the plain, devolved upon Assistant 
Boutelle, who was assisted at difterent times by Sub-Assistant J. 
A. Sullivan, Lieut. J. C. Clark, U. S. A., and Mr. F. P. Webber. 

Epping Plains, or " Barrens," as they are called, lie between 
the Narraguagus and Pleasant rivers. They present a mode- 
rately rolling surface of sand, generally destitute of trees, except 
in the lower and swampy parts, and are traversed by sand rid^ 
of different elevations, resembling very much the surface which 
the sounding line develop, in such regions as the Nantucket 
shoals, at present below the surface of the water. 

The plain is quite elevated and falls suddenly from an iire^- 
larly curved margin, by a steep slope to a lower plain or wide 
valley. 

Portions of the plain are strewed with boulders of varions 
sizes, some of them containing not less than 4000 cubic feet, and 
of various granitic materials. Schoodiac Hill was found to limit 
the position of the base, so that the p*oblem became to draw the 
longest line through a point at the base of that hill, the ends of 
which would be easily visible from the secondary and primary 
Btations. 

Before the final selection of the line a topographical survey j 
vas made under the direction of Assistant C. O. Boutelle, by I 

I 

\ 

I 



i 



Om the MeoMmrement of a Base on Epping Plains. 59 

Sub-assistant J. A. Sallivan and Mr. Webber, and the profile 
was studied upon a sketch of the plain made by Lieut Clark. 

In 1866 I examined the site, and took steps to obtain the 
neoessarj estimates of the cost of preparing it for measurement^ 
The profile of the line as graded gives a good general idea of 
the ground as it varied but little from the natural profile. (See 
sketch.) 

The whole length of the line is about 8719 meters or 5*4 
miles. Its general direction is E. 16° S. {true bearing.) 

From the eastern end for about four miles the plain is quite 
lerel, rising in the first mile pretty regularly about fifteen feet, 
descending nearly as much in the next to rise by the same quan- 
tiw in the third mile. It then runs along an elevated level for 
I KHirth of a mile and descends gradually to the rougher part of 
the base which is included between the 3f miles from tne east 
eod and the western end of the base. 

This line was skillfully graded by Mr. Boutelle, so as to follow 
the natural surface when the grade did not run above three de^ 
grees, and to give as long slopes as possible of the same grade 
far the convenience of measuring. (See sketch.) 

As it was found more economical to make the temporary 
embankments than to excavate,, a profile giving a considerable 
excess of embankment was selected. 

This was executed in the cheapest way which would give sta-^ 
Ittlity for the time during which it was required to stand. The 
least width was twelve feet,, of which nine feet was on the south 
md three feet on the north side of the line to be measured. The 
base was very carefully aligned. High signals were placed over 
the termini which are inter* visible. On the Schoodinc a signal 
rf moderate elevation is visible from both, and the distances be^ 
tveen this point and the termini were gradually subdivided,. 
uitQ the smallest limits the distance easily reached by a small 
transit, was obtained. 

The verifioation of the alignment at different points of the 
measurement when the seeing was good was complete. 

In all these preliminary operations Mr. Boutelle was assisted* 
by Sub-assistant J. A. Sullivan and Mr. Webber. 

His grading partly consisted of the farmers and lumbermen of 
the district who served with great cheerfulness and skill in the 
use of the heavy implements for rough grading. One of the 
greatest diflOoulties was the removnl of suoh boulders as were in 
the linCy many of them being of such size ns to require blasting 
to break them up, and some being actually removed to the re*- 
quired distance irom the line by heavy blasts. 

The signals erected at the two ends are very substantial, each' 
fcrU-three feet in height to the top of the tripod and fifty-thre^- 
to the cone whioh surmounts them.. 



60 On the Measurement of a Base on 

The base apparatus already described before tbe Association, 
and described and figured in my report for 1854 by Lieut E. B* 
Hunt of the Corps of Engineers, was used in this measurement, 
preliminary trials being inade in the office to test its steadiness 
under the greatest indination to which it would be subjected, 
and the accuracy of the surface upon which the measuring stem 
traverses and which determines the length of the apparatus. 

I was assisted in the measurements by Assistant G-. W. Dean, 
Prof. Fairman Sogers, who volunteered for the purpose, Sub- 
assistants Goodfellow, Stephen Harris and Sullivan, and Mr. 
Thomas McDonnell, among whom tbe different operations were 
divided. 

The usual comparisons of the apparatus with the standard six 
metre bar, were made before and auer the measurement to ascer- 
tain that no change had taken place in the length from damage 
by transportation, and to add to the results of former comparisons. 

The measurement was begun at the west end of the line on 
Saturday the 18th of July, but the next week proved so rainy 
that it was only resumed in earnest on Monday the 27tb. 

The work or the first Saturday (24 tubes) was remeasured on 
the following Monday with precisely the same result as to length, 
the end of tne second measurement fidling on the marks which 
had been placed as terminating the first, and which were fine dots 
upon the head of a copper nail, placed in a stake some eighteen 
inches in length driven into the ground until its head just pro- 
jected above the surface. The position of the mark was deter- 
mined and verified, as all others of the sort in our measurements, 
by using a transit placed at right angles to the line and at a 
moderate distance rrom it This was on a descending slope of 
the strongest grade adopted and there was a difierenoe of tem- 
perature of some five degrees in the two measurements. 

On Tuesday a length of eighteen tubes, which had been meas- 
ured on Monoay was remeasured with an identical result This 
was on an ascending slope. On Monday the work was in part 
interrupted by the arran^ments for photographing the apparatus, 
on Tuesday by a fog, and on Wednesday by snowers in the ban- 
ning of the day : we made however half a mile on both days. 

On Wednesday began a series of four unbroken days, during 
the first of which we measured about seven-eighths of a mile, 
and on the three others a mile, or more than a mile, each day, 
reaching the east end of the base on Monday evening. Thus 
counting in the broken days, 54 miles were measured in eight 
days. 

'this time included the marking of five permanent points near 
to the ends of the successive miles, where stone posts have since 
been placed. The ends of the base will be marked by regular 
monuments. The base of the monument at the west end is cut 
Irom the ledge of rocks upon which the signal standa 



On fAt Measurement of a Base on Epping Plains. 61 



By the kindness of Prof. Fairman Rogers I have been enabled 
to collect approximately some of the statistics of the measure- 
ment in a taoiilar form (No. I). A second table contains the 
comparison with the other five Coast Survey bases which I have 
measoied. 

SPPING BASE. — TABLE I. 

Whole length of base in tubes, ... 
u u u u u metres, 

1*4245 added at east base making 

or 28,607 feet, or about 5*4 miles. 
Diffl of level between highest and lowest points, 
Mean level of Base above mean tide, 
Approz. corr. for reduction to the level of the sea, 

or 4 inches nearly. 

No. of tubes inclined, 

« «* ** level, 

Ratio of tubes inclined to whole number, 

*••••* level u u u 
Correction for versed sine for whole base, 

or 9'2 ft. to be subtracted. 

8^14' 
8° and ovei 



1458 

8718m 

87l0n4245 

104 ft. nearly. 
257 ft. or 78'»43 
Ora-10714422 

643 

810 

0*442 nearly. 

0-550 

2°>-8038437 



Ifaximum inclination. 
Number of tubes inclined, 



u 
u 
u 



u 
u 



u 
u 



u 



u 



2 
2 
1 
1 




80' 



80 



80 



ti 



u 
u 



«( 
ti 
i« 
it 



it 





\ Ratio to whole 
} number inclined. 




81 


0-048 


234 


0-364 


79 


0123 


120 


0186 


110 


0171 


21 


0032 


48 


0074 


643 





Greatest day's work 281 tubes 1*05 mile in 11^ 10°^ working time. 

Arera^ng I tube in 2°> 27". 

Greatest number in one hour 37, or 1°^ 37" for each tube. 



TABLE II. 



Cmpaniiwe 7\Me qf (he Measunmenis ofnxU.S, Coast Survey Bases. 



WlidU Na of tabes meamred 

* " days employed, 
« bouFB " 

I ' <* tubes level, 
' • « * incUned, 

Ave'ge length of working day, 

" Ume of one tube, 
\ * Na of tnlies per day, 
I * No. of tabes pr. d'y of iih, 

I •< « M .« a [jQu,^ 

* plos inclination, 

* minas ** 

* of greatest plos indin. 

* " - mmos « 
temperatare Fahr. 



naaphine 


Bndief 


Edifto 


Key 


Itlaod. 


ffeliiod. 


Itland. 


fiiwayne 


1777 


1807 


1787 


966 


17 


10 


n 


9 


148 17 


SUOS" 


97 28 


66*31" 


961 


1496 


862 


478 


816 


811 


926 


492 


8a26"»7 


8a O?" 


7a 80 


7*23'" 


6«82 


2'«64* 


Hm 22' 


4'n20' 


1046 


180-7 


1^7 6 


107-2 


1080 


197-9 j 166 9 


130 


n-86 


21-981 18-0 


14-40 


17 '-6 


16'1 


24'-5 


81'0 


16' 6 


19 '-6 


23 '-O 


26 '0 


40'-8 


23 '-7 


66'-4 68'0 


42'-6 


29'-5 


48'-4 


64' 


84«>6 


620 


69° 6 


82^9 



Cape 


Eppinf 


Sable. 


PldiM. 


1072 


1468 


8 


8 


46a 26'" 


69 43'' 


994 


810 


78 


648 


6A48'«18* 


IOa 07* 


2«6l* 


2'" 68* 


184 


1816 


2000 


187-2 


2->-47 


20 8 


12'-0 


10 63' 


lO'O 


1°64' 


14'-0 


2° 62' 


ir-0 


2^46' 


87° 9 


70© 0' 



62 Influefice of Musical Sounds on a Jet of Coal^rms, 

The photographs of the apparatus and operations which I Ba1> 
mit to the Association, were taken by Mr. Black, of the firm of 
Whipple and Black, Boston, who exerted himself especially in 
the matter and succeeded, under many disadvantages, from va* 
riable weather and the roughness of field arrangements for pho- 
tography, in making satisfactory representations. 

The views of the apparatus and operations (see Plate) in- 
clude the placing of the apparatus over a mark, the aligning, 
the setting of the trestles m advance of the jneasurementi the 
transfer of the measuring tube and the making of contact 

The comparing apparatus and tent are also shown (see Plate 
lettered No. 1, Plans, Sections and Profile). One of the sketches 
shows the topographical features of the ground, and another 
gives the profile of the base as graded for measurement 



Art. IX. — On the Influence ofMtisical Sounds on the Flame of a 
Jet o/" Coal-gas ; by John LeConte, M.D., Professor of Nata- 
ral Philosophy in the South Carolina College. 

A SHORT time after reading Prof. John Tyndall's excellent ar- 
ticle " On the Sounds produced by the Combustion of G^ses in 
Tubes,"* I happened to be one of a party of eight persons as- 
sembled after tea for the purpose of enjoymg a private musical 
entertainment. Three instruments were employed in the per- 
formance of several of the grand trios of Beethoven, namely, 
the piano, violin, and violoncello. Two "^A-toi7" gas-burners 

Erojected from the brick wall near the piano. Both of them 
urnt with remarkable steadiness, the winaows being closed and 
the air of the room being very calm. Nevertheless it was evi- 
dent, that one of them was under a pressure nearly sufficient to 
make ii Jlarc. 

Soon afl«r the music commenced, I observed that the flame of 
the last-mentioned burner exhibited pulsations in height, which 
were exactly synchronous with the audible beats. This phenome- 
non was very striking to every one in the room, and especially 
so when the strong notes of the violoncello came in. It was ex- 
ceedingly interesting to observe how perfectly even the triUa of 
this instrument were reflected on the sheet of flame. A deaf 
man might have seen the harmony. As the evening advanced, and 
the diminished consumption of gas in the city increased the pres- 
sure^ the phenomenon became more conspicuous. The juTnpwy 
of the flame gradually increased — became somewhat irregular — 
and finally it began to flare continuously, emitting the character- 
istic sound indicating the escape of a greater amount of gas than 

* Vide Philosophical Magaxioe, 4th Series, toL ziii, p. 478, 1867. 



Influence of Musical Sounds on a Jet of Coal-gas. 68 

onld be properly consumed. I then ascertained by experiment, 
bat the phenomenon did not take place unless the discharge of 
;itt was so regulated that the flame approximated the condition 
{flaring. 1 likewise detennined by experiment, that the eifects 
vere not produced by jarring or shaking the floor and walls of 
he room by means of repeated concussions. Hence it is obvi- 
ma, that the pulsations of the flame were not owing to indirect 
ribimtioDS propagated through the medium of the walls of the 
tx>m to the burning apparatus, but must have been produced by 
he direct influence of the sdiisl sonorous pulses on the bum- 
ngjet 

In the experiments of M. Schaffgotsch and Prof. J. Tyndall, 
it is evident that " the shaking of the singing flame within the 
;la9B tube," produced by the voice or the syrene, was a phenom- 
enon perfectly analogous to what took place under my observa- 
tion without the tnten?ention of a tube. In my case, the discharge 
>f ffas was so regulated that there was a tendency in the flame 
to flare, or to emit a '^singing sound" Under these circumstan- 
ces, strong aerial pulsations occurring at regular intervals^ were 
ioffident to develop synchronous fluctuations in the height of 
;he flame. It is probable that the effects would be more striking 
irben the tones of the musical instrument are nearly in unison 
prith the sounds which would be produced by the flame under 
he slight increase in the rapidity of discharge of gas required 
o manifest the phenomenon of flaring. This point might be 
mbmitted to an experimental test. 

As in Prof. Tyndall's experiments on the jet of gas burning 
rithin a tube, clapping of the hands, shouting, etc. were ineflec- 
oal in converting the "silent" into the "singing flame," — so, in 
he case under consideration, irregular sounds did not produce 
ny perceptible influence. It seems to be necessary that the im- 
luJses should accumulate in order to exercise an appreciable 
ffect 

With regard to the mode in which the sounds are produced 
y the combustion of gases in tubes, it is universally admitted, 
bat the explanation given by Prof. Faraday in 1818 is essentially 
orrect It is well known that he referred these sounds to the 
nooeflsive explosions produced by the periodic combination of 
he atmospheric oxygen with the issuing jet of gas. While 
eadin^ Prof J. Plateau's admirable researches (third series) on 
he " Theory of the modifications experienced by Jets of Liquid 
ssuing from circular orifices when exposed to the influence of 
i^ibratory Motions,"* the idea flashed across my mind that the 
henomenon which had fallen under my observation, was nothing 
lore than a particular case of the effects of sounds on all kinds 

* Philosophical Magazine, 4th series, vol. xiv, p. 1 et seq., Julv, 1867. 



64 Influence of Musical Sounds an a Jet of CodUgoM. 

of fluid jets. Subsequent reflection has only served to fortify 
this first impression. 

The beautiful investigations of Felix Savart on the influence 
of sounds on jets of water, aftbrd results presenting so many 
points of analogy with their eflects on the jet of biiming gas, 
that it may be well to inquire whether both of them may be re- 
ferred to a common cause. In order to place this in a striking 
light, I shall subjoin some of the results of Savart's experiments. 
Vertically descending jets of water receive the following modifi- 
cations under the influence of vibrations : — 

1. The continuous portions become shortened; the vein re- 
solves itself into separate drops nearer the orifice, than when not 
under the influence of vibrations. 

2. Each of the masses, as they detach themselves from the ex- 
tremity of the continuous part, becomes flattened alternately in 
a vertical and horizontal direction, presenting to the eye, under 
the influence of their translatory motion, regularly disposed 
series of maxima and minima of thickness, or ventral segments 
and nodes. 

8. The foregoing modifications become much more developed 
and regular, when a note, in unison with that which would be 
produced by the shock of the discontinuous part of the jet 
against a stretched membrane, is sounded in its neighborhood. 
The continuous part becomes considerably shortened, and the 
ventral segments are enlarged. 

4. When the note of the instrument is almost in unison, the 
continuous part of the jet is alternately lengthened and short- 
ened, and the beats which coincide with mese variations in 
length can be recognized by i/ie ear. 

5. Other tones act with less energy on the jet, and some pro- 
duce no sensible eflfect. 

When a jet is made to ascend obliquely, so that the discontinu- 
ous part appears scattered into a kind of sheaf in the same ver 
tical plane, M. Savart found : — 

a. That under the influence of vibrations of a determinate 
period, this sheaf may form itself into two distinct jets, each pos- 
sessing regularly disposed ventral segments and nodes; some- 
times, with a dinerent note, the sheaf becomes replaced by three 
jets. 

b. The note which produces the greatest shortening of the con- 
tinuous part, always reduces the whole to a single iet, presenting 
a perfectly regular system of ventral segments ana nodes. 

In the last memoir of M. Savart — a posthumous one — ^pre- 
sented to the Academy of Sciences of Paris by M. Arago in 
1853,* several remarkable acoustic phenomena are noticed in 

* Comptes BenduB for August 1808. Also PhiL Hag., 4th teriM, tqL tU, p. 186, 
1864. 



Influence of Musical Sounds on a Jet of Coal-gas. 06 

ation to the musical tones produced by the efflux of liquids 
rough short tubes. When certain precautions and conditions 
5 observed (which are minutely detailed by this able experi- 
sntalist), the discharge of the liquid gives rise to a succession 
musical tones of great intensity and ox a peculiar quality, some- 
lat analogous to that of the human voice. That these notes 
are not produced by the descending drops of the liquid vein, 
18 proved by permitting it to discharge itself into a vessel of 
ater, while the orifice was below the surface of the latter. In 
is case, the jet of liquid must have been continuous, but never- 
eless the notes were produced. These unexpected results have 
Jen entirely confirmed by the more recent experiments of Prof. 
yndalL* 

According to the researches of M. Plateau, all of the phe- 
Dmena of the influence of vibrations on jets of liquid, are re- 
rable to the conflict between the vibrations and the forces of 
jure {^^ forces figuratrices"). If the physical fact is admitted, — 
id it seems to be indisputable, — that a liquid cylinder attains a 
mU of stability when tne proportion between its length and its 
iameter is in the ratio oi twenty-two to seven, it is almost a 
hysical necessity that the jet should assume the constitution indi- 
ited by the observations of Savart. It likewise seems highly 
robable that a liquid jet, while in a transition stage to discon- 
Quous drops, should be exceedingly sensitive to the influence 

• all kinds of vibrations. It must be confessed, however, that 
lateau's beautiful and coherent theory does not appear to em- 
race Savart's last experiment, in which the musical tones were 
x)duced by a jet of water issuing under the surface of the same 
juid. It is rather difficult to imagine what agency the " forces 

• figure" could have, under such circumstances, in the pro- 
iction of the phenomenon. This curious experiment tends to 
>rroborate Savart's original idea, that the vibrations which 
"oduce the sounds must take place in the glass reservoir itself, 
id that the cause must be inherent in the phenomenon of the 
>w. 

To apply the principles of Plateau's theory to gaseous jets, we 
e compelled to abandon the idea of the non-existence of molecu- 
r cohesion in gases. But is there not abundant evidence to 
low that cohesion does exist among the particles of gaseous 
aases? Does not the deviation from rigorous accuracy both in 
le law of Mariotte and of Gay-Lussac, — especially in the case 

* condensable gases, as shown by the admirable experiments 

* M. Regnault, — clearly prove, that the hypothesis ot the non- 
tistence of cohesion in aeriform bodies is fallacious? Do not 
e expanding rings which ascend when a bubble of phosphu- 

* Philosophical Magazine, 4ih series, vol viii, p. 74, 1854. 
SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 1%. — JAN., 1808. 

9 



66 Influence of Musical Sounds on a Jet of Coal-gas. 

retted hydrogen takes fire in the air, indicate the existence of 
some cohesive force in the gaseous product of combustion (aque- 
ous vapor), whose outlines are marKed by the opake phosphoric 
acid? In short, does not the very form of the name of a "fish- 
tail" burner demonstrate that cohesion mitst exist among the par- 
ticles of the issuing ^as? It is well known that, in this burner, 
the single jet which issues is formed by the union of iux) oblique 
jets immediately before the gas is emitted. The result is a per- 
pendicular aheet of flame. How is such a result produced by the 
mutual action of two jets, Unless the force of cohesion is brought 
into play ? Is it not obvious, that such a fan-like fiame must be 
produced by the same causes as those varied and beautiful forms 
of aqueous sheets developed by the mutual action of jets of 
water, so strikingly exhibited in the experiments of Savart and 
of Magnus? 

If it be granted that gases possess molecular cohesion, it seems 
to be physically certain, that jets of gas must be subject to the 
same laws as those of liquid. Vibratory movements excited in 
the neighborhood, ought, therefore, to produce modifications in 
them analogous to those recorded by M. Savart in relation to jets 
of water. Flame or incandescent gas presents gaseous matter in 
a visible form, admirably adapted for experimental investigation ; 
and when produced by a jet, should be amenable to the principles 
of Plateau's theory. According to this view, the pulsations or 
beats which I observed in the gas-flame when under the influence 
of musical sounds, are produced by the conflict between the 
aerial vibrations and the " forces of figure " (as Plateau calls 
them), giving origin to periodical fluctuations of intensity, de- 
pending on the sonorous pulses. 

If this view is correct, will it not be necessarv for us to modify 
our ideas in relation to the agency of tubes in aeveloping musical 
sounds by means of burning jets of gas? Must we not look 
upon all burning jets, — as in the case of water-jets, — as mtisicaUy 
inclined; and that the use of tubes merely places them in a con- 
dition favorable for developing the tones? It is well known, that 
burning jets frequently emit a singing sound when they are per- 
fectly yree. Are these sounds produced by successive explosions 
analogous to those which take place in glass tubes? It is very 
certain, that under the influence of molecular forces, any cause 
which tends to elongate the flame, without affecting the velocity 
of discharge, must tend to render it discontinuous, and thus 
bring about that mixture of gas and air which is essential to the 
production of the explosions. The influence of tubes as well as 
of aerial vibrations in establishing this condition of things is suf- 
ficiently obvious. Was not the "beaded line" with its succes- 
sion of' " luminous stars," wlSich Prof. Tyndall observed when a 
flame of defiant gas burning in a tube, was examined by means 



J^ O, Barnard on the Motion of the Gyroscope, 67 

of a moving mirror, an indication that the flame became discon- 
tinuous^ precisely as the continuous part of a jet of water becomes 
AorteneOj and resolved into isolated drops, under the infiuence of 
sonorous pulsations? But I forbear enlarging on this very in- 
teresting subject, inasmuch as the accomplished physicist last 
named, has promised to examine it at a future period. In the 
hands of so sagacious a philosopher, we may anticipate a most 
searching investigation or the phenomena in all their relations. 
In the mean time, I wish to call the attention of men of science 
to the view presented in this article, in so far as it groups to- 
gether several classes of phenomena under one head, and may 
be considered a partial generalization. 

Cdambia, Soath Carolina, Oct, 185*7. 



Abt. X. — On the Motion of the Gh/roscope as modified by the 
rektrding forces of friction and the resistance of Vie air: with a 
brief analmis of tlie " Topf^ by Maj. J. G. Barnard, A. M.^ 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

In a previous paper (see article in this Journal for July, 
1857, to which this paper is intended to be supplementary,) 
I have investigated the "Self-sustaining power of the Gyro- 
scope" in the light of analysis. From the general equations 
of "Rotary motion" I have deduced the laws of motion for 
the particular case of a solid of revolution moving about a fixed 
point in its axis of figure, (or the prolongation thereof). I 
nave shown that such a body, having its axis placed in any 
degree of inclination to the vertical, and having a high rotary 
motion about that axis, will not, under the influence of grav- 
ity, sensibly Jail; but that any point in the axis will describe 
"an undulating curve whose superior culminations are ciisps 
lying in the same horizontal plane ;" that this curve approaches 
more and more nearly to the cycloid, as the velocity of axial 
rotation is greater; that when this velocity is very great the 
undulations become very minute and "the axis of figure per- 
forming undulations too rapid and too minute to be perceived, 
moves slowly about its point of support." I have shown how 
the direction and velocity of this gyration are determined by the 
direction and velocity of axial rotation and the distance of the 
center of gravity of the figure from the point of support, and 
that the remarkable phenomenon exhibited bj' the gyroscope is 
but 2k particular case aue to a very high velocity of axial rotation, 
of the general laws of nwtion of such a body as described, 
which embrace the motion of the pendulum in one extreme and 
that of the gyroscope in the other, and that intermediate between 



68 /. O. Barnard on the Motion of the Oyroicope. 

these two extreme cases (for moderate rotary velocities) the un- 
dulations of the axis, will be large and sensible. 

I have likewise shown that whenever, to the axis of a rotating 
solid, an angular velocity is imparted, a force which I have 
called " the deflecting force" acting perpendicular to the plane of 
motion of that axis, is developed, whose intensity is proportional 
to this angular velocitjr, and likewise to the rotary velocity of 
the body; and that it is this deflecting force which is the imme- 
diate sustaining agent^ in the gyroscope. 

In the above deductions of analysis is found the full and com- 
plete solution of the "self-sustaining power of the gyroscope." 

To make the character of the motion indicated by analysis, 
sensible to the eye, it is only necessary to attach to the ordinary 
gyroscope, in the prolongation of the axis, an arm of five or six 
inches in length, and having an universal joint at its extremity, 
and to swing the instrument as a pendulum ; or, the extremity 
of an arm of such a length may be rested in the usual way, 
upon the point of the standard, when, with the centre of gyra- 
tion removed at so great a distance from the point of support, 
the undulatory motion becomes very evident. 

But it cannot fail to be observed that the motion preserves 
this peculiar feature but for a very short period. The undula- 
tions speedily disappear ; instead of periodical moments of rM 
(which the theory requires at each cusp) the gyratory velocity 
becomes continuous, and nearly uniform and horizontal ; and it 
increases as the axis (owing to the retarding influences of friction 
and the resistance of the air) slowly falls. In short, the axis 
soon seems to move upon a descending spiral described about a 
vertical through the point of support 

The experimental gyroscope, m its simplest form consists of 
two distinct masses, the rotating disk, and the mounting (or ring 
in which the disk turns). The point of support in the latter, 
though it gives free motion about a vertical axis, constrains 
more or less, the motion of the combined mass about any other. 
The rotating disk turns at the extremities of its axle, upon 
points or surfaces in the mass of the mounting, with friction; it 
is rare, too, that the point of support, of the mounting, is ad- 
justed in the exact prolongation of the axis of the disk. 

Without attempting to subject to analysis causes so difficult 
to grasp as these, I shall first attempt to show, by general con- 
siderations, what would be the immediate influence of the re- 
tarding forces of friction and the resistance of the air upon our 
theoretical solid ; and then point out the further effect due to the 
discrepancies of figure, above indicated. Leaving out of con- 
sideration the minute effect of friction at the point of support, 
these forces exert their influence, mainly in retarding the rotary 
velocity of the disk. Friction — at the extremities of the axle of 



J. G. Barnard on the Motion of the Gyroscope. 69 



sky and the resistance of the air, at its surface, are power- 
ough to destroy entirely in a very few minutes, the high 
ty originally given to it It is in this way, mainly, that 
nodify the motion indicated by analysis. 
iie rotary velocity remained constant while 
cis made one of the little cycloidal curves 
(fig. 1) the deflecting force would be just 
ent, as I have shown (p. 68 of the article 

to lift the axis back to its original ele- 
i a', and to destrov, entirely, the velocity 
[ acquired through its fall cb. If, at a', 
)tary velocity n underwent an instanta- 
diminution, and remained constant 
gh another undulation, a curve, of larger 
tude and sagitta a'b'a" would be ae- 
d, and the axis would again rise to its 
id elevation a", and again be brought to 

We might then, on casual considera- 
>f the subject, expect to see the undula- 
become more ana more sensible as the 
^ velocity decreased. The reverse, how- 
is the case, as I have already stated. In 
he above supposition would require the 
r velocity n to be a discontinuoits decreas- 
mction of the time ; whereas it is, really 
imums decreasing function. It is under- 

a gradual diminution between a and a', 
ie/Ucting force, which is constantly pro- 
•nal to it, is therefore insufficient to keep 
cis up to the theoretical curve aba', but 
r curve ab^a^ is described; and when 
dmination a, is reached, it is below the 
lal elevation a'. 

I the 2d of our general equations for the 
cope (4), [afterwards put under the sim- 

)rm (eq. (/)) r, * = — A] which is inde- 
nt of n, shows that the angular velocity 
I axis will always be that due to its actual 
below the initial elevation. On reaching 
ilmination a, therefore, the axis will not 
to rest, but will have a horizontal veloc- 
le to the fall a'a^ and the curve will not 
a cusp but an inflexion at a,, 
e axis will commence its second descent, 
fore, with an initial horizontal velocity, 
[1 not descend as much as it would have 




'dO J. 6. Barnard on the Motion of the Gyroscope, 

done had it started from restwiXh its diminished value ofn; 
and, for the same reason as before, will not be able to rise 
again as high as its starting point a, but to a somewhat lower 
point a, and with an increased horizontal velocity. These in^ 
crements of horizontal velocity will constantly ensue as the cul- 
minations become lower and lower, while on the other hand, the 
undulations become less and less marked, as indicated by the 
figure. 

I have stated in my former paper (p. 71) that a certain initial 
horizontal angular velocity such as would '^ make its correspond- 
ing deflecting force equal to the component of gravity, g sin 6^ 
would cause a horizontal motion without unaulation." This 
horizontal velocity is rapidly attained through the agencies just 
described : or, at least, nearly approximated to, and the axis, as 
observation shows, soon acquires a continuous and uniform hori- 
zontal motion. 

On the other hand, this sustaining power being directly pro- 
portional to the rotary velocity of the disk, as well as to the an- 
gular velocity of the axis, diminishes with the former, and as it 
diminishes, the axis must descend, acquiring angular velocity 
due to the height of fall : hence the rapid gyration and the de- 
scending spiriu motion which accompanies the loss of rotary 
velocity. 

A more curious and puzzling effect of the friction of the axle 
is presented, when we come to take into consideration, instead 
of our theoretical solid, the discrepancies of figure presented by 
the actual gyroscope. If, with a high initial rotation, the com- 
mon gyroscope be placed on its point of support with its axis 
somewnat inclined above a horizontal position, it will soon be 
observed to rise. In my analytical examination (p. 55) I have 
stated as a deduction from the second equation (4), that " the 
axis of figure can never rise above its initial angle of elevation*" 
That equation supposes that the rotary velocity n remains unimr 
paired^ and is the expression of a fundamental principle of dy- 
namics — that of "living forces" (so-called), whicn requires that 
the living force generated by gravity be directly proportional to 
the height of fail, and involves as a corollary that tnrough the 
agency of its own gravity alone, the centre of gravity of a body 
can never rise above its initial height.* The anomaly observeo, 
therefore, either requires the action of some foreign foroe; or, 
that the living force lost by the rotating disk, shall, through 
some hidden agency, be expended in performing this work of 
lifting the mass. 

* The first of these equations (as I have remarked in a note to p. 69) is tlie ex- 
pression of another fundamental principle — more usually called the ** principle of 



areas." 



J^ O. Barnard on the Motion of the Gyroscope. 71 

e discrepancy here exhibited between the motion proper to 
heoretical solid of revolution and the experimental gyro- 
is due to the division of the latter into two distinct masses^ 
f which rotates, with friction, upon points or surfaces in the 
; and to the £act that at the pomt of support (in the latter) 
is not perfecUv free motion in all directions. 
e friction at the extremities of the axle of the disk, tends 
press on the mass which constitutes the " mounting," a ro- 
I in the same direction. Were the motion of the latter 
its fixed point of support perfectly free^ the mounting and 
would soon acquire a common rotatory velocity about the 
of the disk. But the mounting is perfectly free to turn 
t the vertical axis through the point of support, though not 
any other. K we decompose, therefore, the rotation which 
i be impressed upon the mounting into two components, 
bout this vertical, and the other about a horizontal axis — 
rst takes full effect^ and the latter is destroyed at the point 
pport. If the axis of the instrument is above the honzon- 
his component of rotation is in the same direction as the 
ion due to gravity, and adds to it; if the axis is hehw the 
ontal^ the component is the reverse of the natural gyration, 
Uminishes it 

i I have shown that the axis soon acquires, independent of 
^use, a gyration whose deflecting or sustaining force is just 
ralent to the downward component of gravity. The addt- 
o this gyratory velocity caused by friction when the axis is 
led upwards puts the deflecting force in excess^ and the axis 
sed ; it is raised, as in all other cases in which work is done 
igh acquired velocity — viz., by an expenditure of living 
: but in this instance, through a most curious and compU- 
series of agencies. 

le phenomenon may be best illustrated in the following man- 
Let the outer extremity of the common gyroscope, having 
cis incUned above the horizontal, be supported by a threaa 
bed to some fixed point vertically above the point of support, 
at gyration shall oe free. Here gravity is eliminatea, and 
xis of our theoretical solid of revolution would remain per- 
T motionless ; but the gyroscope starts off, of itself, to gy- 
in the same direction that it would were its extremity ^ce. 
gyration increases (if the rotary velocity is great) until the 
cting force due to it, lifts the outer extremity from its sup- 
on the thread, and it continues indefinitely to rise. Try 
same experiment with the axis hehw the horizontal. The 
tion will commence spontaneously as before, but in the 
se direction : it will increase until the inner extremity is lifted 
the point of support^ (the action of the deflecting force being 
reversed,) the instrument supporting itself on the thread 



72 J. O. Barnard on the Motion of the QyroMcope. 

alone. If the experiment is tried with the axis perfectly hori- 
zontal, no gyration takes place, for the component of rotation, 
due to friction, is, in this position, zero. 

The foregoing reasoning accounts, I believe, for all the ob- 
served phenomena of the experimental gyroscope, and shows 
how, from the theory of our imaginary solid of revolntion, a 
consideration of the effects of the discrepancies of form, and of 
the actual disturbing forces, leads to their satisfactory explanation. 

The great similarity between the phenomena of the top and 
gyroscope, renders it not uninteresting to compare the laws of 
motion of the two. If we conceive a solid of revolution ter- 
minated at its lower extremity by sl point (the ordinary form of 
the top), resting upon a honzontal plane without friction, and 
having a rotary motion about its axis of figure^ such a body will 
be subject to the action of two forces; its weighty acting at the 
centre of gravity, and the resistance of t/ie plane^ acting at the 
point vertically upwards. 

According to the fundamental principles of dynamics, the 
centre of gravity will move as if the mass and forces were con- 
centrated at that point, while the mass will turn about this cen- 
tre as if it were fixed. Calling R the resistance of the plane, 
if the mass, and Mg the weight of the top, and z the height of 
the centre of gravity above the plane, we shall have for the 
equation of motion of the centre of gravity* 

M^^;=R-M<, (1.) 

As the angular motion of the body is the same as if the centre 
of gravity was fixed, and as i? is the only force which operates 
to produce rotation about that centre, if we call C the moment 
of mertia of the top about its axis of figure, and A its mcxnent 
with reference to a perpendicular axis through the centre of 
gravity, and y the distance, G^iT (fig. 2) of the point of support 
from that centre ; the equations of rotary motion will become 
identical with equations (3) (p. 53),t substituting B for ifg 

Cdv^=0 \ 

Advy^{C^A)vgV:cdt=iYaRdi > (2.) 
Advs+lC-^A)vyVzdtz=^YbRdt ) 

The first of equations (2) gives ns v, as for the gyroscope, 
equal a constant n. 

Multiplying the 2d and 8d of equations (2) by Vy and v, i^ 
spectively, and adding and making the same reauction as on p. 
53, we shall get 

A[vydvy'\-Vxdvx)=^RYd.coiO, | 

* As there are no horizontal forces in action, there can h% no horiioiital 
of the centre of gravity except from initial impulse, which I here ezdude. 



J^ The references throughout this paper are to my paper on the gyroscope in the 
y ' - .w , 



niunber of this Journal 



k*-) 



/. G. Barnard on the Motion of the Gyroscope. 78 

But z (the height of the centre of gravity above the fixed plane) 
= — I'cosd; hence yrf.cos<? =— rfz; ana equation (1) gives 

-T-j +g\. Substituting these values of 5 and y d . cos d in 

the preceding equation, and integrating, we have 

A{v^^ + v,2)^M{^ + 2gz)^=h (3.) 

From the 2d and 3d of equations (2) the equation (c) (of the 
gyroscope, p. 54) is deduced by an identical process. 

A{bvy'\-aVx)-\' Cn co& 6=1, 

and a substitution in the two foregoing equations of the values 
of the cosines a and J, and of the angular velocities v, and Vy, 
in terms of the angles % and y^ (see pp. 52, 58), and for z and 

J- their values,— y COS ^, and ysin^-r-, and a determination of the 

constants, on the supposition of an initial inclination of the axis 
«, and of initial velocity of axial rotation n, will give us for the 
equations of motion of the top : 

dtff Cn 
sin *^ -^7= —r- (cos ^— cos a) 
at A 

sin2^^ + — j+Jfy2sin2<9_=:2ilf^r(cos^-cosa) 

from which the an^lar motions of the top can be determined. 
The first is identical with the first equation (4) for the gyroscope. 
The second differs from the second gyroscopic equation only in 

dO^ 
containing in its first member the term Jfy* sin*^-7-^, or its 

dz^ 
equivalent -l^jja > c^cpressing the living force of vertical transla- 

Hon of the whole mass. 

The second member (as in the corresponding equation for the 
gyroscope) expresses the work of gravity, and the first term of 
the first member expresses the living force due to the angular 
motion of the axis. Instead therefore of the work of gravity 
being expended (as in the gyroscope) wholly in producing angu- 
lar motion, part of it is expended in vertical translation of the 
centre of gravity. The angular motion takes place not (as in 
the gyroscope) about the point of support (which in this case is 
tioi fired), but about the centre of gravity (to which the moments 
of inertia A and B refer) ; and that centre, motionless horizon- 
tally, moves vertically up and down, coincident with the small 
angular undulations of the axis through a space which will be 
more and more minute as the rotary velocity n is greater. 

S£COND SERIES, VOL. XZV, NO. 7S. — ^JAN., 18M. 

10 



74 /. Q. Barnard on tht Motion of the Gyroacope. 

An elimination of -j-- between the two equ&tions (4) and a 

study of the reaulting equation, would lead us to the same gen- 
eral results, as the similar process, p. 56, for the gyroscope. 

The vertical angular motion, expressed by the variation which 
the angle 6 undergoes, becomes exceedingly minute (the maxi- 
mum and raiuimuin values of * approximating each other) when 



1 is great, and the axis gyrates with slow undulatory s 
about a vertical through the centre of gravity. It would be 
easy, likewise, to show by substituting for another variably 
«=o— fi, always {in case of high values of n) extremely small, 
and whose higher powers may therefore be neglected, that the 
co-ordinates of angular motion, u and v, approximate more and 
more nearly to the relation expressed by the equation of the 
cycloid as n increases; though the approximation is not ao rapid 
as in the gyroscope. All the results and conclusions flowmg 
from the similar process for the gyroscope (see pp. 57, 58, 69, 
60) would be deduced. As, however, the centre of gravity, to 
which these angular motions are referred, is aoi & fixed point, 
but is itself constantly rising and falling as 6 increases or di- 
minishes, the actual motion of the axis is of a more complicated 
character. 

If OK" (see fig. 2) is the s. 

initial position of the axis of 
the top, the motion of the cen- 
tre of gravity will consist in 
a vertical falling and rising 
through the distance Q Q'= 
GK"{co5z^a'G"~cosz,6Q") 
=^/(ao3fl,— coso) (in which fl, 
is the minimum value of ^, 
while the extremity of the axis 
or point, K, describes on the 
supporting surface and about 
the projection Q" of the cen- 
tre of gravity, an undulating 
curve o, b, a', b', a", &c., hav- 
ing citsps a, a', &c., iothecircle 'iCjw '• 
described about G" with the 

radius G"^'=}'6ino, and tangent, externally, to the circle de- 
scribed with a rndiua 0" K'=j&in9,. But as in the case of the 
gyroscope, these little undulations speedily disappear through 
tiie retarding influence of friction and resistance or the air, and 
the point of the top describes a circle, more or less perfect, 
about 6". 

The rationale of the self-sustaining power of the top is identi- 
cal with that of the gyroscope; the deflecting force due to the 




Review of the Results of the U, S. Coast Survey. 75 

angular motion of the axis plays the same part as the sustaining 
agent, and has the same analytical expression. Owing to friction, 
the top likewise rises, and soon attains a vertical position ; but 
the agency by which this eifect is produced is not exactly the 
same as for the gyroscope^ 

If the extremity of the top is rounded, or is not a perfect 
mathematical point, it will roll^ by friction, on the supporting 
sor&ce along the circular track just described. This rolling 
speedily imparts an angular motion to the axis greater than the 
horizontal gyration due to gravity, and the deflecting force be- 
comes in excess, (as explained in the case of the gyroscope,) and 
the axis rises until the top assumes a vertical position. Even 
though the extremity of the top is a very perfect ©oint, yet if it 
happens to be slightly out of the axis of figure (and rotation) the 
same result will, in a less degree, ensue : for the point, instead 
of resting permanently on the surface, will strike it^ at each revo- 
latioD, and in so doing, propel the extremity along. The condi- 
tions of a perfisct point, perfectly centered m the axis of figure, 
we rarely combined, or rather are practically impossible; but it is 
ewy to ascertain by experiment that the more nearly they are 
folfilledf and the harder and more highly polished the support- 
ing surface, the less tendency to rise is exhibited ; while the 
great stiffness (or tendency to assume a vertical position) of tops 
with rounded points, is a fact well known and made use of m 
the construction of these toys. 

CORRECTION. 

In the No. for July, 1857, vol. xxiv. No. 70, p. 65, 8th line of note, for 
''vertical," read "horizontal," and for "horizontal," read "vertical.'^ 
10th line, for "the first," read **the second.'^ 



Art. XI- — Review of the Operations and Results of the United 

States Chast Survey. 

Though the annual reports of the United States Coast Sur- 
vey have been frequently noticed in this Journal^ no general 
or connected view of the progress of our greatest national sci- 
entific work has yet been given. The voluminous reports them- 
selves, appearing as they do each year, filled with elaborate de- 
tails ana copiously illustrated by diagrams and charts, convey 
no adequate idea of the real magnitude and importance of the 
Survey. We are apt in the attentive and well repaying study 
of the details to lose sight of the unity of the whole. So many 
sciences are here pressed into service, and so many special results 
of absorbing interest are obtained, that the materials almost 
make us forget the size and the beauty of the edifice. 



76 Review of the Results of the V. S. Const Survey. 

An organized bein^, said Kant, is that of which all the parts 
are mutually ends ana means. We are forcibly reminded of the 
definition in studying the operations and results of the Ck>ast 
Survey. All the results, in geography, in physics, in geology, 
in short in every branch of science, are at once means and ends: 
means, as they form necessary and integral parts of a great and 
symmetrical whole ; ends, as they all possess a fixed and definite 
value in the sciences to which they belong. This remark, if true 
as applied to the Survey considered simply from a scientific point 
of view, is far more forcibly illustrated by the practical bearings 
of the work, every one of whose details nas an immediate prac- 
tical value, while the enduring, far-reaching utility of the whole 
is second to that of no other human undertaking. 

It is our purpose in the following pages to oflTer a concise view 
of the operations and results of the Coast Survey, regretting 
only that the necessary limits of a scientific review will scarcely 
permit us to give more than an outline sketch. 

The survey of a coast so extensive as that of the United States 
is even in its general features a work of immense extent. That 
coast stretches from New Brunswick to Mexico, and from the 
Straits of Fuca to Old California ; upon the Atlantic and Ghilf 
fi:om the 24th to the 44th parallel ; upon the Pacific firom the 
42d to the 50th. Within that range of more than 5000 miles it 
embraces every geographical peculiarity. Innumerable islands, 
bays, capes and headlands, line the long reach of shore. Sand- 
banks hundreds of miles in length, enclosing shallow half-inland 
sounds, and bays stretching far into the interior like Norwegian 
fiords, are among its most striking features. The Coast Survey 
must accurately locate every prominent point, map out the bot- 
tom of every bay and harbor, fix the bearings of every reef and 
shoal, trace the course of every current, deduce from long con- 
tinued observations the laws of the tides, and in short, observe 
and measure every peculiarity in the physical geography of the 
coast which the most refined science, the most delicate methods 
of observation and the most perfect instrumental means can 
measure or detect. 

After a preliminary reconnoissance, the Survey begins with 
the measurement of a base, that is to say, with the accurate de- 
termination of the length of a line upon the earth's surface, the 
two extremities of which shall serve as starting points. Setting 
out from these two initial points, the survey proceeds by great 
steps of thirty or forty miles till the whole coast is covered with 
a network of large triangles, constituting what is termed the 
primary triangulation. The angles only of these triangles are 
measured, the sides being successively calculated by the aid of 
the angles and base. The accurate measurement of this line in- 
volves the most delicate instrumental methods. The expansions, 



p 

Ic 



Review of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 77 

ndinations, and flexures of the measuring bars, and the con- 
acts of their extremities must be observed with exquisite nicety. 
Eere at the very first step in the work, the science of physics 
is called upon for its indispensable aid, and the reflecting pyro- 
neter measures the expansions of the bars with an accuracy 
n^hich is almost without limit. Delicate levels give the correc- 
tions for the inclinations and flexures, while the contact level de- 
termines the contacts of the successive bars. To such a degree 
of perfection have the measurements been brought that the 
robable error in determining the length of a base five miles in 
ength does not under favorable circumstances exceed a few 
tenths of an inch. The base line being measured, the triangula- 
tion begins. Signals at distances of ten to twenty miles from 
either end of the base are observed in succession, and their an- 
gular distances determined with all the precision which modem 
mechanism has given the theodolite. The sides of the great 
triangles thus obtained being calculated, the signals form them- 
selves fixed points for new angular measurements, and so 
the triangulation stretches firom hill to hill till the prominent 
points of the entire coast are determined. The signals them- 
selves are of no small interest. Bright tin cones mounted upon 
poles are often used, and reflect to a distance a brilliant line 
of solar light. But of all signals, the heliotrope — a mova- 
ble mirror placed so as to be directed by a telescope — ^is the 
most perfect With this instrument, the sun's rays have been 
reflected so as to be distinctly seen with a telescope at the dis- 
tance of more than one hundred thousand yards. It is easy to 
see that, as the tiiangulation extends, the small errors inseparable 
from every physical measurement may accumulate so tnat the 
positions of the stations most remote from the base line may be 
mcorrectly determined. Two methods are adopted to guard 
against errors of this kind. A subsidiary base line may be 
measured near the terminal signals of the primary triangulation, 
and from the extremities of this we may work backwards, so as 
to check the results of the first series of observations and calcu- 
lations of distances. The geographical positions of the principal 
stations may themselves be determined oy accurate astronomical 
observations, assigning their exact latitudes and longitudes, to 
check the calculated positions. Both these methods have been 
brought almost to perfection, but the latter has been especially 
fertile in new and beautiful results. 

It is easy to see that while the bases and triangles give dis- 
tances, the observations of latitude and the azimuths give differ- 
ences of longitude by the aid of spheroidal formulas, a central 
longitude having been once determined. The differences of lon- 
gitude are in their turn checked by the telegraph operations to 
which we shall presently allude. 



78 Review of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 

The base wbicli serves as the commencement of the primary 
triangulation for the eastern and middle states lies within the 
state of Massachusetts, a little to the north of Bhode Island. 
Its length is over ten miles and its direction nearly northeast 
and southwest: it was measured in 1846. Surveys for a verifi- 
cation base have been made in the northeastern part of the state 
of Maine, on Epping Plains. Since the commencement of the 
survey not less than nine primary and thirty-five secondary 
bases have been measured, making a total length of about ISd 
miles. 

As the dilSerent stations of the primary triangulation are at 
different heights, it is necessary to measure vertical as well as 
horizontal angles, and finally, in consequence of the spheroidal 
figure of the earth, to reduce the plane triangles, whicn are the 
direct results of the measurements, to spheroiaal triangles, at the 
level of the sea. In this manner after immense labor, both of 
observation and of calculation, the positions of the primary sta- 
tions are at length fixed, and these now serve as starting points 
for the secondary triangulation which determines the general 
outline of the coast in detail, and the positions of rocksi ree&, 
and islands. The triangles observed are now smaller but very 
much more numerous, and the labor of observation and reduo 
tion even greater than before. Then comes the topography of 
the coast, the work at every successive step running more and 
more into detail. The coast line is now traced and laid down in 
charts of elaborate minuteness and finish. Harbors are surveyed 
and mapped out by innumerable soundings; the exact character 
and value of each being determined. The nature of the bottom 
with reference to anchorage, the depth and direction of channels, 
currents, tides and prevalent winds, the proper position of ligh^ 
houses, buoys and fog-bells, all form subjects of special and mi- 
nute attention. In this manner the entire coast from Mt Desert 
island to Cape Fear has been almost completely surveyed, and 
that portion of the sea-coast may be regarded as nearly finished. 
But beside the bays, harbors, and sounds of the coast, the rivers 
receive their share of attention, small triangulations being car- 
ried up to the head of tide waters, based upon one of the sides 
of the larger work. In this manner the nver shores are accu- 
rately mapped, while careful soundings determine the bars and 
channels. The mouths of the larger rivers offer special subjects 
of examination of the highest interest and importance. We 
refer to the changes in the depth and position of the channels 
produced by the effects of currents. Tne characteristics of the 
delta of the Mississippi, and the enormous quantities of matter 
annually brought down by the current are too familiar to require 
notice in this place, but the changes in the entrance to the har- 
bor of New York have not until very recently attracted attention 
to the same degree. 



Review of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 79 

[lie extension of docks and piers into the North and East 
era, and the amount of new made land, excited such serious 
rm in the mercantile community that a Board of Harbor 
nmissioners was appointed in the year 1855 to consider the 
ole subject and oevise means for averting the impending 
iger. To the action of that Board the assistance of the 
ist Survey was cheerfully and gratuitously rendered, and the 
ults of the survey and of a careful and accurate examination 
the eflfects of wharves and piers upon harbor currents, have 
m of the greatest importance to the commercial prosperity of 
J city. Another very important observation has been made 
the existence of a slowly moving northwardly current on 
th sides of Sandy Hook, tending by deposits of sand to nar- 
7 the main ship channel. For the action of this current the 
rvey provides a remedy which can be applied as soon as it 
dl become necessary. 

We have already stated that the assistance of astronomical 
nervations is needed in the operations of the primary trian- 
lation. The special objects of the Survey ana the peculiar 
iracter of the v(OTk done by it, have in their turn exercised a 
aarkable influence upon astronomy itself, considered at least 
a science of observation. New methods for the determination 
latitudes and longitude have had their origin in the necessi* 
J of the Coast Survey alone, while the methods already 
own and practised have been developed and perfected. Spe- 
1 series of observations have been undertaken at the two 
lervatories of Cambridge, Mass., and at numerous minor 
tions, to obtain the astronomical data requisite for the deter- 
lation of differences of longitude, while the genius of the 
St eminent mathematician whom our country has produced, 
! been devoted to the perfecting of the methods of reduction 
I calculation. 

rhe determination of differences of longitude by means of the 
:tric telegraph — a method which doubtless suggested itself to 
•usands, when the telegraph passed from an idea to a reality — 
3 first carried out properly by the Coast Survey. This method 
J not merely yielded results of great value to the survey 
jI^ but the particular mode of applying it has been general- 
d into the American method of recording astronomical obser- 
ions, and of measuring minute intervals of time. This 
thod has been adopted in several European observatories : — 
all but one with an honorable acknowledgment of its origin, 
rhe experiments of Mr. Wheatstone made in 1834 with 
paratus devised and executed by Mr. Saxton, gave the first 
termination of the velocity of electricity in a metallic con- 
ctor. This velocity was estimated at about 288,000 miles per 
ond, and until within a recent period, in spite of all analogy 



80 Review of the Results of the U. S. CocLSt Survey. 

and even of experience, Wheatstone's determination was sup- 
posed to hold good, at least approximately, for galvanic currents 
as well as for electricity of high tension, and for bad as well as 
good conductors. The telegraph operations of the Coast Survey 
demonstrated at the very outset the inaccuracy of received ideas 
upon this subject: they shewed that the galvanic current moves 
very much less rapidly than electricity of tension, varying ac- 
cording to Dr. Gould's discussion of the observations, fix)m 
12,000 to 18,000 miles per second, and though not yet ftilly re- 
duced, they have rendered it, to say the least, probable that the 
velocity also diminishes as the resistance to conduction in- 
creases. Special investigations directed to all these points have 
been undertaken, and a volume of records and results is now 
preparing. 

To determine the difference of longitude between Cambridge, 
Mass., and Liverpool, four distinct chronometric expeditions 
have been sent out, namely : in 1849, 1850, 1851, and 1855. In 
the last expedition the number of voyages made was six, and 
the number of chronometers sent out fifty-two. The first 
three chronometric expeditions gave results which could not 
be considered as satisfactory, in consequence of the remark- 
able influence exerted upon the chronometers by differences of 
temperature, though the instruments were compensated in the 
usual manner. In the expedition of 1855 an uncompensated 
chronometer was employed with the others. Great care was 
taken to observe the temperatures of the chronometers them- 
selves during the voyage by means of thermometers, and the 
results of the compensated instruments were carefully compared 
with those of the single one without compensation. The chro- 
nometers employed were moreover carefully investigated before 
the expedition, by exposing them to different degrees of heat 
and noting the effect upon the rate. The observations of this 
last expedition, after careful discussion, have given a difference of 
longitude between Cambridge and Greenwicn of 4** 44™ 81**89, 
with a probable error of about 0'2 of a second. The successful 
laying of the telegraph wire between Europe and America is 
anxiously looked forward to as presenting an opportunity for 
determinations of longitude by the most perfect method which 
human ingenuity has yet devised. The importance of this sin- 
gle determination can scarcely be over-estimated, since it fixes 
the geographical relations of the old and new worlds. 

In connection with its astronomical and geodetical observa- 
tions, the Coast Survey has been enabled at a trifling expense to 
carry out an extensive series of determinations of the three 
magnetic elements at very numerous stations. These elements 
it will be remembered are the declination, inclination, and hori- 
zontal intensity. So great has been the amount of material ac- 



Eeview of the Results of the U. 8. Coast Survey. 81 

lated^ ttat the report for 1856, now in process of publica- 
contaics for the lirst time, magnetic charts of the North 
ican continent sufSciently complete to enable us to compare 
the larse scale for our own country, the results of observa- 
nd of theory. In these charts the lines of equal variation, 
id intensity are traced, and a comparison of the two former 
ihose deduced from the general theory of Gauss exhibits a 
xstory agreement in form. Further observations, especially 
interior, are wanting to enable us to make this comparison 
itatively, as well as qualitatively. The determinations of 
^lination and variation at points actually upon the coast, 
' great service in navigation. The report of 1856 contains 
erv valuable and elaborate discussions of the secular varia- 
of magnetic declination and inclination, both upon the 
n and western coasts, reference being had to the earliest 
led observations. Empirical formulas are also given for a 
er of stations, which enable us to determine with a satis- 
y approximation, the two angular magnetic elements at 
jquired epoch. 

the progress of the hydrography of the Coast Survey, very 
rous oteervations of "the tides have been made for the pur- 
)f correcting soundings, and of determining the establish- 
; of the different ports. The necessity of both these classes 
ervations is sufficiently obvious, but the superintendent has 
cted with them observations of a more permanent charac^ 
I order to ascertain the laws of the tides m particular local- 
and to trace the progress of the tide wave along the coast 
illy, as well as in bays and rivers. For these observations 
secies of gauge have been used ; the self-registering and 
>mmon staflF gauge. The former possesses the advantage 
airing little or no attention, and of furnishing a permanent 
liable record in the form of a curve of which tne abcissas 
ent the times and the. ordinates the corresponding heights 
ter. The number of principal stations for tidal observa- 
was 73, of which numoer 45 were on the Atlantic Coast^ 
the Gulf, and 10 on the Pacific. 

ce the commencement of the survey there have been in all 
dal stations, of which however a comparatively small num- 
ive been furnished with self-registering gauges. The results 
led have been of great practical importance, giving as they 
r the first time accurate information with respect to the 
of the Gulf and of the Pacific coasts, and leading to the 
'uction of accurate and reliable tide tables, 
s not saying too much to assert that no single series of 
observations yet made possesses so high a scientific value as 
of the Coast Survey. Not only is the range of coast 
d greater, but the character of the tides themselves is in a 

)NO SEEIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 7S. — JAN., 18M. 
11 



82 Review of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 

great measure sufficiently free from the effects of local causes to 
enable us to obtain from them results of definite value for the 
general theory. On the other hand the Gulf of Mexico and 
particular portions of the Atlantic Coast exhibit peculiarities of 
much interest, as yet imperfectly investigated, but seeming to 
show the importance of a careful study. W hile the tidal obser- 
vations hitherto discussed have been for the most part isolated, 
made at different points upon the earth's surface by individuals, 
during a period of about 200 years, those of the Coast Survey 
have i>een made systematically, at numerous carefully selected 
stations, upon the coasts of a continent lying between two great 
oceans, and under the direction of a single person. 

An elaborate discussion of these observations has led to the 
construction of maps of the cotidal lines of the Atlantic, Gulf 
and Pacific coasts, which are of especial interest not merely from 
their connection with our own shores, but from the fact that they 
are the only series of cotidal lines yet deduced Irom an exten- 
sive and connected series of observations. The term "cotidal 
line" it will be remembered was first introduced by Mr. Whewell 
to denote a line passing through all those points which have 
high water at the same hour of the day. it is convenient to 
assume twenty-four 8uc|j lines, and they may obviously be re- 
garded as forming the crests of successive advancing tide waves. 
Their shape, velocity, and direction of motion, will depend upon 
the configuration of the coast, the depth of the ocean and the 
various local causes which disturb the uniformity of their pro- 
gress and cause divisions and interferences of divided waves. 
Were no disturbing causes present, the cotidal lines would cor- 
respond with the meridians, each line at a certain distance be- 
hind the meridian of the moon at its culmination. It is easy to 
see too that the cotidal lines must differ upon the eastern and 
western shores of a continent like that of North America, since 
the tide wave moves from east to west and is therefore upon the 
eastern coast an incident and upon the western a receding wave, 
the character of which is determined by the flow of water and 
its pressure from north, south and west. The cotidal lines of the 
Atlantic coast follow the general outline of the coast itself in a 
remarkable manner, the velocities measured in a direction per 
pendicular to the front of the waves varying from 24 to 40 miles 
er half hour. The tides on the Atlantic coast are of the regu- 
ar semi-diurnal class; the diurnal inequality is not large and 
generally difficult to trace, though easily recognized at particular 
periods. On the Gulf coast, on the contrary, the tides are small, 
the semi-diurnal being masked by the diurnal waves. The tides 
of the Pacific coast are remarkably regular, both in the diurnal 
and semi-diurnal waves, and moreover rise to such heights as to 
render observation easy* Throughout the extent of coast exam- 






Ranew of the Rendu of the U, 8, Coaei Survey. 88 

ined, tbe ootidal lines for the Pacific are either sensibly parallel 
to or make but a small angle with the coast. 

Tide tables for the principal sea ports of the United States 
have been published by the Superintendent of the Coast Survey 
hj authority of the treasury department ; they are based exclu- 
sively upon the observations of the survey, and will be extended 
and corrected as the survey advances. Meantime their value to 
navigators places them among the important results of the Coast 
Survey. 

Tbe tidal observations of the Pacific coast have casually led 
to a determination of great scientific interest, that of the average 
depth of the Pacific Ocean between the coasts of Japan and 
Caiifomia. On the 2Sd of December 1854, an earthquake oc« 
curred in Japan by which the town of Simoda in the island of 
Niphon was destroyed. From the imperfect accounts which 
have reached us it appears that at 9 A. m. on that day the severe 
shock of an earthquake was felt on board the Russian frigate 
Diana, then lying in the harbor of Simoda. Half an hour later 
the sea came into the bay in an immense wave thirty feet in 
height, overwhelming the town and then receding. This advance 
and reoession occurr^ five times, and by 2*80 p. m. all was again 
quiet The depth of the sea during these changes varied fi'om 
kss than eii^ht to more than forty feet. Upon the same day 
an extraordinary rise and fall of water was observed at Peel s 
Island, one of the Bonin Islands, and the tide continued to rise 
and fidl during the day at intervals of 15 minutes, gradually 
lessening until evening. 

The self-registering gauges at San Diego and San Francisco, 
exhibited on the 28a and 25th of December, remarkable irreg* 
ularities of the tidal curves. Each gauge exhibits three sets of 
waves at short intervals, and there can be no doubt that these 
waves were produced by the same cause which determined the 
rise and fall of the ocean at Japan and the Bonin Islands. No 
record of the occurrence of an earthquake in Japan on the 25th 
of December has yet reached us, but the waters rose on the 
evening of that day at PeeVs Island to the height of 12 feet. 
The distance of Simoda from San Francisco is 4.527 nautical 
miles, and from the same port to San Diego 4,917 miles. From 
these data and the times at which the disturbances occurred 
upon the two coasts, the waves from Simoda to California would 
move at about the rate of 860 miles per hour or 6 miles per 
minute, and would have a length of about 200 miles. Thi^ 
would give for the average depth of the Pacific al>out 2.200 
Bsithoms or rather more than two miles. The publication of the 
official report of Admiral Pontiatine who commanded the Dinna 
will probably permit more accurate determinations and explaia 
the origin of tne disturbance upon the 25th of December. 

(To be concluded.) 



84 KW. Haskins on the Open North Polar Sea. 



Art. XIL—The Open North Polar /Sfea; by R W. Haskins, A.SL 

The physical condition of our globe, thougb intimately con- 
nected with the daily walk and welfare of man, is a subject 
which never has occupied more than a very slight share of the 
popular attention. There are features, however, of this condi- 
tion, which occasionally force themselves upon the attention of 
all men ; though seldom for more than a bnef period, and then 
only as an element of alann or of idle curiosity, rather than as 
one of investigation, and as forming the basis of knowledge. 
Such are earthauakes, sudden eruptions of volcanoes, and the like. 
The more fixed and stable forms of surrounding nature, as they 
lack the stimulant of unusual and violent change, can excite, in 
the public mind, none other than the most feeble attention, and 
that only under circumstances of specific incentives. Among 
the direct consequences of this state of things is a constant pro- 
pensity to generalize, and to base ultimate conclusions upon 
appearances only, and with none other than a superficial ele- 
vation of these. It is to such a propensity, and to the apathy it 
so naturally produces, that we may, perhaps, most safely ascribe 
the present condition of the popular mind, in regard to the im- 
mediate object of this notice. 

That to recede from the equator towards the poles, upon the 
surface of the earth, is to encounter increased cold, is a general 
feet, well known to all ; and it was easy for even the most 
drowsy quietude to infer, from this, that the law thus known is 
a constant one admitting of no exception, and that, consequently, 
the geographical pole must be the coldest point of our globe. 
How far the votaries of science may have concurred in this senti- 
ment, and even contributed to its establishment, it is, of course, 
quite impossible to determine. It is however a fact, that all the 
later meteorological charts place the regions of greatest cold on 
the continents, and 7iot within the polar sea. 

This being the state of the public mind — a state wholly un- 
disturbed by any efficient teachings — ^the announcement, by the 
late Dr. Kane, on his return from his northern explorings, in 
1855, that there existed, and that some of his people had Been, 
an open sea or ocean in north latitude 82® 80', was very gen- 
erally received with astonishment; and it very widely pro- 
duced that species of undefined amazement, which might well 
l)elong to assumed phenomena in nature, that had hitherto been 
deemed physically impossible. However little creditable the 
fact just stated may be deemed to the mass of those whose 
standard of intelligence, upon the physical condition of our 
globe near the North Pole, is measured and fixed by it^ yet 
most certainly those who had made the physical conditian of 



IL W. Haskins on the Open North Polar Sea. 65 

the earth's sar&ce a reasonably successful study, bad ample 
cause for real astonishment at the great extent to which all the 
teachings of the past, in regard to this open northern polar sea, 
IumI been either overlooked or forgotten. 

^oe the oocasion in question has fixed so much attention 
upon this open sea as a new thing to us all, and is still employ- 
ing so many pens upon it as such, it seems a fitting time to 
place the more general public in possession of the past knowl- 
edge of this sea, in a collected form, by way of giving profitable 
direction to the laudable public zeal which is just now so ear- 
nestly manifested in the case. 

This unfirozen polar sea, then, has been long known and often 
navigated, at different periods, and by difierent nations and ves- 
sels. The earliest no less than the most persevering navigators 
of high northern latitudes, were the Hollanders or Dutch and 
the Greenlanders. These people did not resort to these lati- 
tudes year after year for the purpose of scientific discoveries of 
any kind. Their purpose was whale and seal catching, and 
to whatever regions they penetrated, thev were led solely by the 
pursuit of these creatures. Now it is from these early naviga- 
tors thus employed, and chiefly from the log-books of their 
ships, that we have derived almost all we know of a constantly 
open sea about the north pole of the earth. Nor is the pecu- 
liarly reliable nature of this testimony to be overlooked. It 
comes, as we have said, from men who had no theory to sustain 
or combat, and no end to serve or aim to accomplish, by falsify- 
ing or perverting the record. Again, this record of the log is 
not one of an afterthought that may be made to conform to 
events that have transpired after its date, but it is one that is 
written out daily and at the period of its date — thus constituting 
a daily and even hourly record of events as they transpire on 
board. Of the great mass of this species of evidence that has 
doubtless been brought home by the ships from the polar re- 
gions, we may well suppose we possess but a very small propor- 
tion, since all we have owes its preservation either to accident or 
the individual eflForts of devoted men. In proceeding to cite the 
evidences we possess in this matter, we may premise that a large 

S»rtion of them were collected from their various sources by the 
on. D. Barrington, and by him published at London in 1776. 
As the citations we are about to make are numerous, and also 
cover a very considerable range of time, we have thought to add 
to their more clear understanding by arranging them in their 
natural or chronological order, so far as it has been possible to 
ascertain this. 

Davis, an English navigator, who was sent north with two 
ships in 1585, to discover a northwest passage, and who did 
discover the straits that bear his name, is, by modern authors, 



86 R. W. Haskins on the Open North Polar Sea. 

credited with having reached only 66** 40' north latitude, while 
Camden, in his annals of Elizabeth, asserts that Davis attained 
to83^ 

Moxon's account of a Dutch ship that sailed to the pole, and 
even beyond, is this : Being, says he, about 22 years ago, in 
Amsterdam, I went into a drinking house to drink a cup of beer 
for my thirst, and sitting by a public fire among several people, 
there happened a seaman to come in, who seeing a friend of his 
there who he knew went in the Greenland voyage, wondered to 
see him, for it was not yet time for the Greenland fleet to come 
home, and asked what accident had brought him home so soon ? 
His friend (who was the steerman [mate] aforesaid in a Green- 
land ship that summer) told him that their ship went not out to 
fish that summer, but only to take in the lading of the whole 
fleet, to bring it to an early market But, said ne, before the 
fleet had caught fish enough to lade us, we, by order of the 
Greenland company, sailed unto the north pole, and came back 
again. Whereupon (his relation being novel to me^ I entered 
into discourse with him, and seemed to question tne truth of 
what he said, but he did insure me that it was true, and that the 
ship was then in Amsterdam, and many of the seamen belong- 
ing to her, to justify the truth of it ; and told me, moreover, that 
they had sailed two degrees beyond the pole. I asked him if 
tliey found no land nor islands about the pole? He told me no, 
there was a free and open sea. I asked hmi if they did not meet 
witli a great deal of ice? He told me no, they saw no ice. I 
asked him what weather they had there ? and he told me fine, 
warm weather. 

This conversation, &c. at Amsterdam was about the year 1624, 
at which time the vessel had lately returned. Moxon, who rela- 
ted this statement, was not an obscure nor an illiterate individaal, 
since in the title to his published statement he calls himself Fel- 
low of the Royal Society, and Barrington states that he was Hy- 
drographer to Charles tfie Second, and author of several scientific 
papers. It was probably his professional calling, therefore, that 
fixed his attention upon this subject, and thus caused his inqui- 
ries at Amsterdam. A map was early published by the Acad- 
emy of Sciences at Berlin, which places a ship at the pole, as 
having arrived there, according to the Dutch accounts. We are 
not aware that the date of this map is preserved, but it seems 
probable that one of the authorities for that ship's position is the 
account of Moxon, cited above. 

Wood sailed on the discovery of a northeast passage to Japan, 
in 1676; and in his account of his voyage, which he suose- 
quently sent to the press, he says he was chiefly induced to the 
undertaking by the account given by Capt. Goulden, of a Dutch 
ship, who had made some thirty voyages to Greenland. This 



R W. Haskins oh the Open North Polar Sea. 87 

in's statement was, that being in company with two other 
id ships to the eastward of Edge's Island, in pursuit of 
?, and these not appearing there, the two Hollanders re- 
l to go farther north. They did so, and at the end of two 
returned again and said they had sailed to latitude 89^ ; 
hen Capt. Goulden doubted this, they produced out of the 
lips four journals or log-books, which confirmed the state- 
and did not differ from each other in all but four minutes 
legree. In this run to the north they encountered no ice, 
id a free and open sea. This occurrence is stated by Capt. 
len to have taken place some twenty years before its narra- 
:> Wood, which places it somewhere about the year 1650. 
1662 Mr. Oldenburgh, Secretary of the Eoyal Society, 
^n, was ordered to register a paper entitled "Inquiries con- 
ig Greenland, answered by Mr. Grey, who had visited 
parts." To the question " How near hath any one been 
Q to approach the pole ?" Mr. Grey answered, 
once met [date not given, but of course prior to 1662] 
the coast of Greenland, a Hollander that swore he had 
but half a degree from the pole, showing me his log-book, 
1 was also tested by his mate ; where they had seen no ice 
d, but all water." 

Campbell, who compiled Harris's Travels, states therein 
" By the Dutch journals they get into north latitude 88° 
md the sea open. On being asked his authority for this 
lent, Dr. Campbell answered thit he received it from Hol- 
as being an extract from the journals produced to the 
; General, in 1665. 

rtin, in his voyages, says, " in 1671 we sailed to the eighty- 

legree, and no ships ventured farther that yeary 

Dallie, a native of Holland, who resided in Bacquet Court, 

Street, as a practising physician, about the year 1745, 

to Dr. Campbell, who is mentioned above, that when he 

oung he sailed in a Dutch man-of-war that was sent north 

►tect the whale fishery, and that the ship, on that occasion, 

3d latitude 88** nortfi, where the weatner was warm and 

Ba wholly free from ice. The date of this voyage may 

been about 1685. 

ob Schol, who resided at the Helder, in 1700 sailed to 84° 
in pursuit of whales, and had open sea there without ob- 
ion. 

drew Fisher, an English captain, who had made twenty- 
voyages to the Greenland seas, testifies that, in the year 
in the ship Ann Elizabeth, from London, he sailed to 82® 
)rth, where he met a loose pack of ice. He fished there, 
ent no higher north, but had no doubt he might have done 
rough all the ice there was, had he been so minded. 



88 IL W. Haskins on the Open North Polar Sea. 

In 1751 Capt. MacCallam, in the ship Campbeltows, in the 
Greenland whale fisherj', sailed to latitude 88** 80' north, where 
the sea was not only wholly open at the north, but where he 
had not seen a particle of ice for Vie last three degrees, and the 
weather warm and pleasant. In this case, to make certain of 
their position, careful observations were made, both with Davia' 
and with Hadley's quadrants, and by no less than three diflFerent 

Eersons. The captain feared to go farther, lest he should be 
lamed for neglecting his fishing, which was his onlj reason, as 
there was no obstruction. 

In the year 1752, Mr. John Phillips was mate of the ship 
Loyal Club, in which ship he reached 81^ ; and he stated that it 
was very common to sees whales in such latitudes. 

The year 1754 was more fruitful than anv prior one in re- 
corded visits to this open polar sea, since we have records of no 
less than three such visits during this single year. Capt James 
Wilson, of the whale ship Sea Nymph, made his way through 
all the ice, the last of which was seen below 81^, sailed thence 
north to 82° 15', where the sea was perfectlv clear as far as oould 
be seen with the ship's glasses. Here the ship's officers discussed 
the proceeding directly to the pole, but the sailors fearing to do 
so, tne proposition was abandoned. In the same year the whal- 
ing ship Unicorn, Capt Guy, reached 88° 8', determined by 
careful observations ; and here, from the mast head, they saw 
the sea as free of ice as the Atlantic, on every side, and nothing 
in the way of sailing direStly to the pole. The third instance 
of this year is that of Mr. Stephens, who, in company with an- 
other, a Dutch ship, was driven off Spitzbergen by a south- 
southeast wind to latitude 84° 30'. This was within 5** 80' of 
the pole ; and he met with little ice, and the less the farther he 
went north. 

In 1756 Capt Montgomery, of the ship Providence, pursued 
whales to latitude 83°, in the month of June, with open sea up- 
on the north. 

In 1759 Capt H. Ford, in the ship Dolphin, went as fer north 
as 81° 30', ana he states that he has since that been several times 
as high as 81°. 

James Bisbrown, in the ship Prince Frederick, in 1765, rearhed 
latitude 83° 40' north, where he was beset with ice for three 
weeks, to the southward, but saw, during this time, open sea to 
the north. 

The year 1766 has furnished us two instances of high north- 
ern navigation. Jonathan Wheatley, not finding whales sooner, 
sailed to 81° 30' north, in which latitude he could see no ice 
whatsoever in any direction from the mast head, though there 
was a very heavy sea from the northeast Capt Thoma&Bob* 
inson, in the ship Beading, was this same year in latitude 82^ SC, 
with an open sea. 



R. W. Baskim on (ike Opn Nifrth Polar Sm. 99 

1767 Samuel Standidge sailed from Hull, England, on 
the ship British Queen, of which he was owner but not 
r, for the north seas. On the sixth of May this ship 
»d latitude 80°, "which," says the narrator, "is near what 
asters call a fishing latitude;" and he adds, "I found the 
r north the less quantity of ice." 

' the year 1770 we have two instances to cite. James Mar- 
as mate on the ship Royal Exchange of Newcastle, wa4 
'ear in latitude 82 80' north. Capt Brown, of the ship 
)ve, states that he was in latitude 82°, this same year, and 
be sea was then all clear. 

3 year 1771 seems to have been a favorable one for high 
3rn penetration by water. Capt. Jan Klass Castricum, in 
lip Jonge Jan, fished with success in latitude 81° 40', in 
my with a ship from Hamburgh. There were, also, two 
^h ships fishing there ; and these went still farther north, 
they were out of sight from the mast head. They were 
thus between two and three days, and when they returned 
captains came on board Castricum's ship, and assured him 
hey had been as far as 88°. 

17*73 Gapt John Clarke, of the Sea Horse, went to 81° 30' 
^ he had an open sea to the north, and a heavy swell from 
ortheast, witri a fresh wind. Capt Bateson, of the ship 
e, on June 14th of this year, was in north latitude 82° 16', 
■suit of whales, an^ with no complaint of ice. 
5 Journal des iigavans for the month of October, 1774, states 
Q officer in the English service had then in his keeping the 
ils of a Greenland ship wherein it stands recorded that 
;hip, in the month of May — ^the year not given, but sup- 
to be then recent — had been in latitude 82 20' north, and 
he sea was open. 

s mass of testimony, it is seen, has been chiefly gathered 
Foreign languages, and been furnished by other than Eng- 
avigators. The reason of this is that the English were not 
irly navigators of these high latitudes. Those hardy ad- 
rers were Hollanders and Greenlanders, who, jointly, long 
polized the whale fishery in the Arctic seas. No generfu 
e or ambition, then, has existed in England to preserve 
romulge the details of the voyages made by these people; 
ence we know not what proportion of such material as the 
may be still unknown to us by having been lost. Certain 
lat many instances of such are found, scattered here and 
which are not so fully authenticated as to seem deserving 
>lace here, and they have therefore been excluded. 
ce the concluding date of the foregoing list of proofe of an 
sea at the north pole, we have no evidence that ships have 
rated that sea as they formerly did. Modern explorerS| 

)ND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. — JAN., 1858. 

12 



M H W. Haskins on the Open North Polar Sea. 

which, within the last forty years have been namerbns, hav( 
done so, having invariably been stopped by ice, and usual 
mach lower latitudes than where this open sea has ever 
known to extend. But, although these modern explorers 
not reached that sea, and sailed their ships upon it as their 
decessors did, still some of them have brought us as denior 
tive proof of the existence of that open sea as if they had 
ally floated thereon. One of these is Capt. Parry, who wim 
at Melville Island* in latitude 74® 45' north. He tells us 
there a norUi wind, in the long winter of that Irossen re, 
modified the cold, and if continued, produced a thaw, 
this single fact, if well established — and. we take this one to 
without one particle more of evidence, would establish be; 
all doubt or controversy, the existence of an open sea, ii 
direction whence that wmd came. Such an effect from a 
is wholly incompatible with the assumption that it has p 
only over a frozen surface. This statement of Capt. Par 
fully confirmed by other proofs— or rather those other pi 
being of prior date, are confirmed by it Barentz, whei 
ship was frozen in Nova Zembla, heard the ice broken, w 
most frightful noise, by an impetuous sea, from the north ; ^ 
the Samoides and Tartars, who live beyond the Waygat, a' 
lieve, and we must suppose from like reasons, that the 6 
open, on the north of Nova Zembla, all the year. The 
mony of persons who have passed th^ winter at Kola, in 
land, coincides perfectly with this, namely, that, in the 
severe weather, whenever a northerly wind blows, the 
promptly diminishes, and that, if the wind continues, it al 
orings on a thaw, as long as it lasts. 

If we ask why these more recent navigators could not j 
the high latitudes their predecessors did, the only and the 
cient answer is, that the icy barriers which always exist on ik 
to this open sea and south of it, vary greatly in solidity and > 
in different years. These barriers have always been p 
through by those who have entered the open polar sea, and 
have often proved too broad and solid to be penetrated a 
The fact of these wide differences in the extent and strenfi 
the ice in the northern seas in different years, is attested \ 
we know of the regions in question, whether by land oi 
All the history of Greenland attests it, and the fact is nc 
constantly proved by the experience of northern whalers, 
cite a single case in illustration, and that a recent one, we 
mention that of Capt. Parry. This navigator, during his 
voyage in 1824, found the icy barrier in Baffin's Bay one hu 
and fifty milee broader than when he passed it in 1819. 
differences, then^ that exist in these icy barriers, in lati 
iouUi of the open polar ocean, and in tlie most &vorable se 



Obiiuary. ^-^CoMchy. 91 

iSerent jeara, sufficientlj account for both the successes and 
fiulures of navigators in reaching that open sea ; while the 
^y ocean swell, and the warm winter wind, both of which 
t)ach this icj barrier upon the north ^ and that, too, during 
fiercest frosts of the northern sunless winters, appear to 
^e that the ocean towards the north pole is, even then, still 
I, and that it warms and tempers those winds which pass 
' it, and which so constantly drive its waves against that 
*ampart by which the frost king has fixed and defined its 
hem shore* 



". XUL — Correspondence of M. Jerome Nichlis^ dated Paris^ 

August, 1857. 

iituary. — Oauchy, — ^In my last communication I gave some 
raphical details respecting the great mathematician Cauchy. 
recent publication of a notice by Biot, one of his cotempo- 
» and friends, leads me to return to the subject. 
iiuchy was born on the 2l8t of August, 17b9. At an early 
he was distinguished by great versatility of talents. His 
sical education, commenced by his father, was continued un- 
able professors at the "Ecole Centrale" of the Pantheon. 
left the school at the age of fifteen, after two years of literary 
lea, taking the second prize in Latin composition, the first 
rreek, ana the first in Latin verse. On account of this so 
^ersal success, the Institute decreed to him the highest honor 
rved for the student of the central schools most distinguished 
[assical literature. 

fter two years at the Polytechnic School, he left it to become 
ngineer in the Department of Roads and Bridges. On the 
of May, 1811, at the age of twenty-two, l>e presented to the 
itote a memoir of remarkable character, on geometric |x>ly« 
x>ns, in which he generalized a theorem of Euler and com- 
5d the theory of a new species of regular jiolyhedrons dis- 
jred by Poinsot. M. Legendre, tl>e most severe of our gco- 
'icians, regarded the memoir " as the production of an adept 
se ability promised the hiuhost succt»ss.'^ He en<»aged the 
1J2: author to pursue this line of research, and to endeavor to 
t)lish a theorem ecjually applicable to certain polyhedrons 
raced in the definitions of Euclid for which no demonstra* 
had yet been made out. Cauchy accomplished this in 181^. 
\\s report thereon to the Academy, Legendre exprtssed bis 
'obation with an earnestness quite unusual for him. 
hese two earliest memoirs seenF>ed to show a S|>ecial aptitude 
>roblems purely geometrical. But it was soon evident tliat 
capacity was far wider. In the years 1813 and 1814y Oauohy 



02 Corft$p&ndenc€ of /. Ificklis. 

produced two remarkable memoirs in transcendental analysis ; 
in 1815, he published his memoir on the theory of numbers, in 
the course of which he demonstrated in full a theorem an- 
nounced by Fermat, a theorem which had hitherto been demon- 
strated only in some of its particulars by mathematicians most 
skilled in these departments, as Gtiuss and L^endre. The 
Academy proposed this year, as a subject for the great mathe- 
matical prize, — To establish the theory of the propagation of 
waves on the surface of a heavy fluid, and of indennite depth. 
Cauchy resolved the question completely. His memoir was 
crowned in 1816, and bore this epigram from Virgil, "Noese 
quot lonii veniant ad littora fluctus, (Georgics II,) a very happy 
selection, as the line contains a complete and altogether exact 
announcement of the proposed problem. 

Successes so rapid ana fertile for a young man of 27 years, 
assured him the tirst place that should become vacant m the 
Mathematical Section of the Institute. A circumstance which 
is an occasion of regret to science and himself, introduced him 
officially into that Dody. On the return of the Bourbons, a 
royal ordinance of the 21st of March, 1816, reestablished the 
Academies under their primitive designations, of AcadiSmie Fran- 
9aise des Sciences, des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, des Beaux- 
Arts; and carried out the new organization. In the Academy 
of Science, two celebrated names, those of Camot and Monge, 
were replaced by two new names, those of Breguet and Cauchy. 

Towards the end of 1818, Cauchy was named Adjunct Pro- 
fessor of Analysis at the Polytechnic School. He became full 
Professor in 1816. He was eminently a man of duty. Called 
to instruct, he turned all his thoughts to instruction. From 
1816 to 1826, he published his course of Algebraic analvsis, 
Differential Calculus, and Application of Infinitesimal Analysis 
to the theory of Curves, — three excellent works, well arranged, 
proceeding with demonstrations that are both rigorous and rich 
in new details. In this period he also published a memoir oa 
the Integrals taken between imaginary limits — a subject that 
has given rise to several important works among our young 
geometers. 

In 1826, he undertook the publication and authorship of a 
periodical review, styled " Exercises Mathematiques," in which 
all departments of mathematics, elementary as well as transcen- 
dental, were treated with so much generality, fertility and in- 
ventive power, that Abel, one of the profoundest analysts of 
our times, after reading one of these publications, wrote to a 
friend, "Cauchy is the geometer who best understands how 
mathematics should be studied." In fact the inventions of new 
methods and devices scattered through these " Exercises," have 
been not only for the author, but also for many other geometers, 



tlie fertile uiitialiYas of nnmerooB brilliant works, Canch j con- 
tinued the pi^ofttion of this Bevieir until his death. 

The reTolation of 1880 interrupted his quiet life. At this 
time he was maitied and the father of two oaughters. Besides 
his profeasoiahip in the Poljrtechnic School, he had a chair in 
the Faculty of Ssienoes at Paris, and was suppljingthe course of 
mathematical physics in the College of France. The new gov- 
emment imposed an oath of allegiance on all its officers, even 
those engaged in teaching physics and mathematics. Cauchy 

Sttitted ma place and went to Switzerland. The king of Sar- 
inia, informed of his voluntary exile, created for him in the 
Universi^ of Turin, a special chair of mathematics, which he 
filled with distinction, stiu continuiuK his other labors. In 1882 
he left this chair, having been called to Prague by the ex-kin^, 
Charles the Tenth, for the education of the doxmi de Chambord. 
His wife and daughters ioined him there, and with him followed 
tiie PrinosB to Gorita ; during six jears at this place he prepared 
a lai^ number of valuable memoirs, which are now spread over 
GOTOumy. Towards the end of 1888, his duties as preceptor 
terminated, and he separated from his scholar and returned to 
France, where he took his place among the members of the In- 
stitute. From this time, without distractions from professional 
duties, and diverted only by labors of beneficence or of a moral 
nature, he gave full freedom to the activities of bis mathematical 
genius. During the last nineteen years of his life, he published 
in the volumes of the Academy and the Comptes Bendus over 
500 memoirs, besides numerous Beports on memoirs presented 
by others. In this mass of work, so rapidly produced, many por- 
tions have their great value wrought out complete, while others 
present the initiatives of ideas which have either already proved 
fertile in results, or will yet do so. They treat of the highest 
subjects in mathematics : — the perfecting and extension of pure 
anaJysis, — ^the direct determination of the planetarv motions and 
their most complex inequalities, — the undulatory theory of lights 
considered in its entire generality. Unhappily, his precipitation 
in producinff did not leave^him time to bring his results to full 
maturity. Each new path opened to him excited the deepest 
passion, and into it he plunged, neglecting what he had been 
exploring, even without taking the time to recognize where his 
methods were conducting him. To work with greater rapidity, 
he employed a notation full of unusual abbreviations, which ren- 
der Ins manuscript calculations unintelligible to any one but 
himsel£ The exuberance of his genius needed, to bring out its 
greatest results, to be engaged in some special line of duty ; and 
a chance was soon offered nim. 

In 1840, the death of Poisson left vacant a place in the Bureau 
of Longitudes; and Cauchy was nominated unanimously by the 



94 Correspondence ef /. Nick&s. 

board. But it was evident to all that Caachj would not and 
could not take the oath, and so his nomination was not ratified 
by the government It was to the loss of science ; for with astro- 
nomical labors thus made his duty, he would have carried into 
them his usual anlor, and the ^^M^canique Celeste" would prob- 
ably have been advanced by new discoveries, for which we shall 
now have long to wait 

It was his fidelity to a sense of duty, which was afterwards 
the occasion and cause of his rendering a great service to ajstron- 
omy, in furnishing it wiih the means of estimating, directly, by 
analytical formulas universal and certain in their application, the 
secular inequalities of planetary movements, which inequalities 
render any tables of these movements more and more faulty. 
In 1848, Cauchy was charged by the Academy with verifying 
the determination of an inequality of this kind which M. Le- 
Verrier announced he had discovered in the motion of the planet 
Pallas, the period of which embraced 795 years. It was highly 
important to know it, for its maximum effect on the longitude of 
the planet exceeded fifteen minutes of a d^ree, aocordinff to the 
valuation of Le Verrier. A direct analytic process being imprac- 
ticable he secured the desired result by a very bold numerical 
interpolation, which required immense caleulations. To relieve 
himself from the labor of verifying such an array of numbers, 
Cauchy invented an analytic method by which errors of this 
sort are determined directly, in all cases and with a precision in 
proportion as they belong to a higher order. He thus repro- 
duced the results of Le Verrier ; and henceforth in problems of 
this nature, the power of abstract science will supersede individ- 
ual labor. 

After the revolution of 1848, the Republic, more tolerant than 
the preceding Monarchy had been, restored to Cauchy the roath- 
ematic;\l chair in the I^ acuity of Sciences of Paris, tne only one 
of the ancient professorships which had remained vacant finm 
1880. Justice to him requires that it should be told that he gave 
to the poor the emoluments of the place. 

M. !Biot concludes his sketch >v1th the following remark: 
"The view which I have given of the external circumstances of 
the life of Cauchy, shows us not only what he was, but also 
what he mi^ht have been as a mathematician. Had he been 
able, like Enter and Ln grange to spend his life, without disturb- 
ance, in quiet study, he would have been one of the grandest 
lights of jnathematical science. By reason of the irregularity 
and disorder which external events impressed on his genius, his 
influence on this science will not be fully appreciated until time 
shall have developed all their consequences." 

Note. — The preceding is derived from the article by Biot We 
add to it the following. 



Anesihesit.^^Amykne. 85 

tn 1861, after the fall of the Eepublic, Cauchy was again 
der tlie necessity of suspending bis duties at the Faculty of 
ience, since lie would not take the oath of allegiance. !l9[ap- 
y, this suspension was of short duration. On the proposition 
the minister of Public Instruction, M. Fortoul, the oath in 
\ case was dispense<l with, and consequently he resumed his 
ice and held it till his death. What is not stated by Biot, we 
iy say — ^that it was at Biot's demand that this act of justice 
IS brought about M. Fortoul, who was then candidate lor the 
iailemy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, of which Biot was 
e of the most influential members, having called on Biot with 
Terence to his appointment, the latter profited by the occasion 
inform the Minister how happy it would be for science, if 
lentific instruction were not sacrificed to political considera- 
»ns, so far at least that the great men of science should not be 
quired to take an oath against their consciences ; and among 
ese last, Biot mentioned Cauchy. Three days afterward, 
luchy was excused from the oath, and thus justice was done. 
Anesthesis. — Amylene — The use of amylene in anesthesis has 
et with a serious ch6ck in the death from the use of it of 
young man of 24 years, while in robitst health. Dr. Snow put 
m to sleep in oraer to remove an epithelial tumor from his 
ick. The surgical operation was just begun, when the patient 
Bs seized with a fit of laughing which continued nearly a min- 
e. When quieted, a little more amylene was administered. At 
.6 close of the operation, his respiration became embarrassed, 
8 pulse feeble, and on trying to wake him, it proved to be too 
te; the asphyxia was complete. It was naturally inferred 
at the patient had breathed too much amylene. According to 
r. Snow, the air which a patient respires ought not to contain 
ore than 15 p. c. of amylene, just as it should not contain over 
p. c. of chloroform ; and he holds that with a measured quan- 
;y there would have been no accident The recently invented 
)paratus of Dr. Heurteloup meet? precisely this case, and offers 
new method of operation. 

AnesUfesis by " Projection J^ — To avoid the accidents due to ex- 
asive inhalation of the anesthetic agent, and especially to insure 
lat the material should be mixed with the requisite amount of 
r, Dr. Heurteloup, known in surgery for the invention of Lith- 
:rip8y, has contnved an apparatus lor this end, (having in his 
cperiments made use of cutoroform). The apparatus is like a 
ninge with a small bellows for throwing in air in place of the 
iston, and having a gauze partition on which the chloroform is 
oured. The working of the bellows throws a stream out of the 
nail end in a jet, which contains more or less chloroform, ac- 
)rding as the discharging tube is brought more or less near to 
le bellows. The jet is established only on working the bellows^ 
id there is no waste of chloroform during the operation. 



96 Correspondence of J. Nicklis. 

Compressed air. — It is well known that in the constrnction of 
the F)*anco-Itnlian railroad it is necessary to tunnel Mount Cenis 
through a distance of several kilometers in length. To supply 
the air needed for the workmen for respiration, it has been pro- 
posed to use powerful pressure. But no means of accomplishing 
this result have been devised, and the project of the tunnel is 
suspended. It is found that an increase in the length of a tube 
connected with a blowing machine diminishes, at a rapid rate, 
the intensity of the movement. This c:ills to mind the ex- 
periment of Wilkinson, who established the fact of the resist- 
ance exerted by the walls of a pipe on the velocity of the com- 
pressed air. M. Daru, engineer on the Northern railroad, has 
added the following facts meriting consideration. A wheel 
which made thirty revolutions a minute in driving a blast 
through straight pipes one meter long, made only twelve when 
the pipes were four meters long and were bent twice at an angle, 
one of them right and the other very obtuse. When, on taking 
the air from close at hand the effect produced was great, it was 
very feeble when it came through pipes ten meters long with a 
right angled bend. 

In the experiments by Wilkinson, the compressed air ceased 
to be transmitted at 280 meters; and it is not 280 meters, but a 
length of.several kilometers, which must be met at the tunnel of 
Mount Cenia The question therefore is far from being resolved. 

Artificial meadows ; Cultivation of Madder. — In speaking in a 
former communication of the products of Algeria, we alluded 
to the value of the Madder (Rubia tinctorum) cultivated in that 
country. It has been found there that a plantation of madder 
may be used as pasturage for cattle for several years, without 
the roots, at the end of this time, losing any of their tinctorial 
qualities. 

In March, 1851, M. Peyre, a farmer of Oran, sowed a quantity 
of madder in a field well prepared, the soil of which was strong 
and argillaceous. It was left without care and ader the first 
year, through the years 1852, 1853, 1854, it was free to cattle, 
who found there abundant pasturage during the season of great 
heat At the end of this time, the roots were pulled up and 
submitted to the examination of competent men; and they 
proved to be of excellent quality, even rivaling the best of 
French madder. 

From these observations it results, that we may make, without 
great expense, artificial meadows on land deprived of any means 
of irrigation, and derive a crop of madder having all its coloring 
principle preserved. 

loxicohgy, — Researdies on Arsenic, — Dr. Blondlot of ISwacj 
has just observed a fact which explains the contradictions en- 
countered by inexperienced chemists in attempts to detect arsenic 
in connection with organic matters. It is this : — that when sub- 



Aquarium^ 97 

ices poisoned have been left to putrefy, some sulphuret of 
tnic is formed at the expense of the sulphuretted hydrogen, 
this, as is well known, escapes detection by Marsh's appara- 
Sulphuret of arsenic also Ibrms when the suspected matters 
carbonized by the action of sulphuric acid after the process of 
ndin and Danger. The sulphuret of arsenic may be extracted 
washing the carbonized mass with ammonia ; this dissolves 
sulphuret; then convert the arsenic into arsenic acid (AsO*) 
means of boiling nitric acid, so as to obtain a second solution ; 
I, added to the first, may then be tested in Marsh's apparatus. 
iquarium, — The aquanum has already become a common 
rce of amusement and instruction. The cultivation of water 
nts, as the Victoria regia, and experiments in pisciculture 
-e contributed to this result ; and also, the researches of Mr. 
irrington, on what is called the organic equilibrium for waters, 
that the water in a globe, by a proper selection of kinds of 
mals and plants, may be kept pure and wholesome for the 
cies without changing it. 

Che first idea of such aquatic reservoirs is attributed in the 
5mos to Mrs. Power, a lady of French descent but English by 
rriage, known to naturalists for her important researches on 
Hoses. 

Ji 1832, Mrs. Power took up her residence on the coast of 
ily in order to study the molluscs and other marine animals. 
3 remained there ten years and made two aquaria, one for 
lluscs without shells and the other for those with shells. The 
torn of the aquaria was covered with sand, stones with sea- 
sds attached, branches of corals, star fish, different crustaceans 
I some small fishes, while her principal object of study was 
Argonauta Argo. Situated on the coast she could readily 
>nge the water of the aquaria ; the plan since developed by 
. Warrington was not then understood. 
klrs. Power also used marine cages, called in Italy " Gabiole 
I Power," in England ** Power cages," which she had con- 
icted in the lazaretto of Messina. Stones with Algae, and 
als with adhering shells were introduced, and then, the Ar- 
lauta. Echini, fishes, etc. The feeding of the animals was 
mded to twice a day. A staging was erected just above the 
ter's surface, where the cage could be raised near the sur- 
3, and the animals conveniently examined; and there Mrs. 
wer sat during the long hours carrying on her observations, 
nessing the Polypus or Cephalopod of the Argonaut mending 
shell, and studying the habits of many other species. 
4rs. Power also constructed a portable aquarium for study- 
small molluscs. Her researches were continued through fif- 
1 years, and many important results were contributed by her 
he progress of science. 

ECOKD SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 7t. JAN., 1868. 

13 



98 Scientific Intettigence. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

I. CHEMISTBY AND PHYSICS. 

1. EUctrolytie investigations, — ^Under this title Magnus baa publialied 
an elaborate and important memoir reviewing the results of previous in- 
vestigations and containing many new and important (acts. We shall 
here give only the author^ summary, referring for the details to the 
original memoir. 

n.) To explain the so-called double decomposition observed by Daniell 
and Miller, it is not necessary to assume an oxysulphion, oxynitrion, kc 
This assumption is refuted by the fact that compounds like S-|-40, N-j-60 
are never separated at the positive electrode. It is true that at this elec- 
trode a full equivalent of oxygen, corresponding to the metal separated, is 
found, but of the acid there is only a portion, frequently onlv 60 per cent 
By employing a porous diaphragm the remainder of the acid is found in 
the negative cell. 

(2.) When several salts are present in the same solution, the current 
at a certain intensity decomposes only one of them. In like manner 
when a salt dissolved in water is used as an electrolyte, with a certain 
force of the current only the salt, and not the water, is decomposed. There 
is therefore for every compound electrolyte a limit of intensity, at which 
only one of its constituents is decomposed. 

(3.) When currents are employed the intensity of which is less than the 
limit, the whole quantity of electricity passes over to the substance is 
which this intensity relates. This substance alone is decomposed. Tha 
limit itself therefore corresponds to the maximum of electrici^ whick 
can pass to this substance, or to the maximum of the substance which 
can be decomposed iu a given time with unchanged electrolytes and an* 
changed electrodes. 

(4.) This limit depends upon the size of the electrodes; on the decom- 
posability of the diflorent constituents of the electrolyte; and on the reU- 
tive Quantity in which they exist in it 

(5.) Since, in the application of the same intensity, the electrodes may 
be nearer to or farther from each other, the maximum of the better con- 
ducting substance which is decomposed by the same current and the 
same electrodes is the same, whether the electrodes are nearer to or fitf- 
ther from each other. 

(6.) The limit of tlie intensity is proportional to the magnitude of the 
electrodes, provided that this section of the electrolyte is the aarae as the 
size of the electrodes. This proportionality holds good however only sa 
long as the constitution of the electrolytes remains unchanged. 

(7.) The conduction of electricity through an electrolyte, and the de- 
composition which takes place thereby, may be referred to tbe case of the 
induction of electricity upon insulated conductors. 

^8.) In this manner the difficulty of the so-called double decompotiUon 
raised by Daniell may be overcome. 

(9.) It requires the same force to separate a simple substance from s 
binary combination which is necessary to separate it from a more complex 
saline compound. 



Chemistry and Physics, M 

(10.) The flune force is requisite to separate the same quantity of chlo- 
riDe from the protochlorids as from the perchlorids of tin and copper. 
But we obtain m this way from the protochlorids twice as much metal 
with the SAme current as from the perchlorids. 

^ (11.) The same force is also necessary to obtain eqtml quantities of 
osygen from a solution of iodic acid and from dilute sulphuric acid which 
are decomposed in separate vessels. In this case however only one-fifth 
of ao eqntvalent of iodine is obtained for one equivalent of hydrogen 
iqMmitea from the sulphuric acid. 

(12.) FaradayV law is applicable in its fullest extent inasmuch as 
equivalent quantities are always separated from complex saline com- 
pounds. But the galvanic are not the same as the chemical equivalents. 
(18.) Saline particles change their position in eletrolytes partly by con- 
tinnal decompositions and recombinations, partly by diffusion. The den- 
■ty of the solution exerts a sensible influence upon the diffusion, which 
ii however different in different saline solutions. — Ann. der Pkytik und 
aktmie^ cii, 62. 

2. Oh the influence which metals exert upon radiant heat. — Knoblauch 
las communicated a memoir upon this subject the most important results 
of which in the author's own words are as follows. 

(I.) Metals like gold, silver, and platinum in thin plates are to be re- 
fuded as diathermanous bodies, which allow a portion of the rays of 
heat to pass through, which portion diminishes more and nx)re with in- 
onsing thickness of the metal. 

In this transmission certain metals, for example gold and silver, exert 
a elective absorption upon the rays of heat analogous to that of trans- 
parent colored bodies upon rays of light ; while others, Hke platinum, 
ly absorb and partly transmit all kinds of rays of heat in an equal 
as is the case with transparent colorless bodies with respect to 
It 

Rays oi heat, according to the foregoing statement, exhibit., after their 
ptMage through the metals of the first class, different relations, with re- 
neet for instance to their passage through diathermanous bodies, from 
trae which they show before their entrance into these, and this peculiar- 
ity is expressed more distinctly in proportion as the metallic layer passed 
through is thicker. In metals like platinum this thickness exerts no in- 
flnence on the quality of transmitted heat. 

These last would behave like gray substances with respect to the rays 
of heat as well as toward the visible rays^ Substances which can be 
eorapared with those whieh are transparent and white with respect to 
^hta, appear not to exist for radiant beat. 

(2.) Ill the case also of diffuse reflection, certain mretal^, as for instance 
ffold, silver, mercury, copper and brass, like opaque colored bodies with 
nspect to light, exhibit an electric absorption with regard to radiant heal, 
in consequence of which this becomes changed in its properties. Others 
en the contrary, platinum, iron, tin, zinc, lead, alloys of lead and tin> 
and german silver, reflect all kinds of rays of heat iu equal proportion, 
fuctly as colorless opaque bodies reflect lights. 

The last gray metals behave similarly with respect to heating and visi- 
Ue rays. No bodies are known which act upon radiant heat as opaqus 




100 Scientific InUUigence. 

white bodies act upon light. The peculiarities which difltiDgDish rays of 
heat reflected from metals from those which are not reflected, wiUi re- 
spect for instance to their capacity to pass through diathermanoos bodies, 
depend upon the nature of the source of heat to such a degree that dif- 
ferences which are strikingly marked in the case of the sun's heat, are di- 
minished in the rays of a Locatelli lamp, and disappear completely with 
the heat of a dark heated metallic cylinder. 

The quality of the metallic surface according as it determines a diflfuse 
or a regular reflection has such an influence as either to permit the dif- 
ferences mentioned to be exhibited to their lull extent, or ag^n to disap- 
pear to such a degree that the rays are not to be distinguished from each 
other before and after reflection. 

The same is true of a change in the angle of incidence. As this grad- 
ually permits the diflfuse reflection of a rough metallic plate to pass into 
regular reflection, under a constantly increasing intensity, as the rays be- 
come more and more obliquely incident, so it also diminishes the difier- 
ences between the reflected and non-reflected heat, till both at last exhibit 
a perfectly similar quality. — Ann, der Phynk und Ckemie, ci, 212. 

3. On an opticcU test for Didymium — Gladstone - has discorered in 
the spectrum produced by solutions of didymium two well marked black 
lines ; one in the yellow directly following the bright space immediately 
beyond the fixed line D^ the other in the green midway between E and 6. 
The extreme blackness of the first of these lines even in thin strata of 
liquid renders its existence a very delicate and valuable indication of the 
presence of didymium. The salts of lanthanum and cerium produce no 
similar effects. One part of sulphate of didymium dissolved in 1000 
parts of water showed the line in the yellow as a distinct darkening, 
when half an inch of the solution was looked through. The presence of 
other bodies does not interfere with the application of the test, so fiw at 
least as other metallic solutions have been studied. — Quarterly Journal 
of tlie Chemical Society j No. xxxix, 219. 

4. On the employment of the salts of alumina in the analyiis ofplantL 
— RocHLRDER has pointed out the superiority of alumina over hydrats 
of oxyd of lead for the separation of the proximate constitoenta of plants. 
The author iu the first place remarks that organic substances may be di- 
vided into two classes with reference to their behavior toward alumina. 
Many coloring matters, as well as other substances, are precipitated bj 
alumina from their solutions, while others on the contrary are not aflfected. 
Alumina therefore gives us a method of separating the one claas from the 
other. The precipitates are less gelatinous than idumina and more easily 
washed out. In many cases a solution of alum may be added directly to 
the extract of the plant and the alumina then precipitated in combinatioQ 
with the organic matter by means of ammonia. As an example of the 
method, an aqueous decoction of horse-chestnut bark, treated with a so- 
lution of alum and then with ammonia, gives a fawn-colored precipitate. 
The filtered solution is wine-yellow. The solution neutralized with acetic 
acid and evaporated to dryness in a water-bath gives a mass containing 
the sulphates of potash and ammonium, a little acetate of ammonia and au 
the sesculin. This may be separated by boiling with a little strong alco- 
hol and filtering. The sesculin crystallizes on evaporation and after a 



Chemutry and Pkynck. ' ' ' 101 

dn^e recrjBtallization is perfectly pure. The tannic acid is easily sepa- 
ntod from the fawn-colored precipitate by solution in water containing 
toetic add, filtration, precipitation with a salt of lead, and decomposition 
of the lead salt with sulphydric acid. In conclusion the author suggests 
that the employment of the hydrate of alumina will permit us to prepare 
many subatiinees at a cheap rate which have hitherto found no applica- 
tion in oonaequence of their high price. — Sitzunga beriehte der k, k. Acad. 
» WUHj zxii, quoted in Journal fdr prakt, Chemie, 71, p. 414. 

5. On some derivatives of gallic acid, — Nachbaur has instituted at the 
Miggestion of Prof. Hlasiwetz and under his direction, a series of experi- 
ments to determine whether ternary radicals can be introduced into the 
molecule of gallic acid. The process employed consisted in heating gallic 
idd with the chlorids of the radicals, acetyl, butyryl, <fec. The author 
describes four substituted adds, the names and formulas of which are as 
follows: — 

Tetracetyl-gaUic acid, Cu j (^»^)* I Oio, 

Triacetyl-gaUic acid, Cu | C^'^*)* i Oio, 

Dibutyiyl-gallic acid, Cu j (^^^)* 1 Oio, 

Dibenzoyl-gallio acid, Cu j {^'^'^> i Oio. 



Central Blatt, No. 47, p. 740. 
6. On the cambinationi of tartaric acid with saccharine matters. — In 
panaiog his investigations into the compounds formed by saccharine 
matters, Berthelot has been led to produce acid compounds of a peculiar 
tttrne with mannite, dulcine, and glucose. These compounds establish 
tbe eooatitutioQ of a great number of natural compounds analogous to 
tuinin, and capable, by taking up water, of splitting into glucose and a 
corresponding acid. In the present communication the author points 
out the combinations of tartaric acid with glucose, milk sugar, cane 
■gir, sorbine, pinite, quercite, and erythroglucine, as well as a compound 
of gincose and citric acid. All these bodies may be prepared and puri- 
fied by the following process. Equal weights of tartaric acid and saccha- 
line matter are mixed intimately and heated for a day or two in an open 
▼easel to a temperature of 120^ C. The cooled mass is rubbed with a 
little water and carbonate of lime and filtered. The filtrate contains the 
lime salt of the new acid, mixed with the excess of saccharine matter ; 
it b precipitated by twice its volume of common alcohol, and the precipi- 
tate washed with alcohol and diluted with an equal volume of water. 
The lime salt is again dissolved in water and a^in precipitated as before,. 
and these operations several times repeated. From the purified salt the 
add may be separated by oxalic acid. The author represents the reac- 
tioDS which result in the formation of the new acids by the simplest pos- 
tible formulas representing the ratio of the bodies concerned. These 
fcrmulas show that, as in the case of alcohol in the sulphovinates, the 
•aeeharine body minus a certain quantity of water, replaces in the acid a 
portion of the base necessary to saturate this acid in the isolated state. 
U la probable that, as in the case of the compounds of glycerine, the 



* • , • • • 

'. • • • • 

• • • • 






102- •■••*• '' ScienHjlc' inUl)igmui. 

same sugar maj form many oompounds with tartaric add. The author 
describes odIj those which he has obtained. For the formulas we must 
refer to the original paper. — Comptet Bendut^ xly, 268. 

[N'ote, — From the above it will be seen that we owe to Berthelot the 
discovery of the true constitution of three entire series of oi^anic bodies, 
viz., the glycerids or fatty bodies; the sugars and their congeners; and 
the glucosids or acid and neutral bodies which split into sugar and other 
acid or neutral bodies by boiling with acids, alkalies or water.] 

1. On the action of light upon oxalate of peroxyd of iron, — Draper 
has communicated a paper on the measurement of the chemical action of 
light which, togetlier with many interesting remarks and suggestions, 
contains a notice of the action of light upon the oxalate of peroxyd of 
iron. The ffolden yellow solution of this salt undergoes no change when 
kept in total darkness, but on exposure to a lamp or to daylight is de- 
composed with evolution of carbonic acid and precipitation of oxalate of 
the protoxyd as a lemon-yellow powder. In sunlight it effervesces vio- 
lently. The indigo ray is especially active in producing this effect and 
undergoes absorption in doing so, since a sunbeam which has passed 
through one layer of solution is incapable of affecting another. The 
author points out several methods of employing this salt in photometry, 
the most advantageous of which is to collect and measure the quantity 
of carbonic acid absorbed in a given time. The solution is sufficiently 
sensitive for all ordinary purposes. When great sensitiveness is required 
the author recommends the use of the tithonometer invented by him in 
1843 and since employed in a modified form by Bunsen and Ronoo& — 
L. and E. Phil. Mag,^ Sept. 1847, No. 92, p. 161. w. o. 

8. On the Chemistry of the Primeval Earth ; by T. Stbrrt Huirr. 
(Extract of a letter to Prof. J. D. Dana, dated Montreal, Nov. 25, 1 857.) 
— The primitive rocks which filled so large a place in the geolAgical* sys- 
tems of the last century are now being forgotten. We have learned that 
the oldest visible portions of the earth's crust are made up of sediments, 
the ruins of still older rocks, which were as varied in their characters as 
are their derivatives. The primeval substratum has thus constantly re- 
ceded before advancing science, and we are led to the conclusion that 
mechanical and chemical conditions similar to those of the present epoch 
presided over the formation of the most ancient rocks known. 

But although the materia prima of the sedimentary rocks has long 
since been buried beneath its own ruins, its nature offers an iDteresting 
subject of consideration to the chemical geologist. If we admit the ig- 
neous theory of the earth, we may obtain a conception of the nature of 
the once liquid ^lobe and of its atmosphere, by supposing the now exist- 
ing matters of the earth^s crust and the surrounding fluids to be made to 
react upon one another under the influence of an intense heat. The 
quartz would decompose the carbonate of lime with the production of a 
silicate and the liberation of carbonic acid, whose volume would be ia^ 
ther augmented by the combustion of all the mineral carbon at the ex- 
pense of the atmospheric oxygen. The reaction between quartx and the 
chlorids of the sea, in the presence of aqueous vapor, would result in the 
formation of silicates and hydrochloric acid, while the sulphur would 
likewise be liberated as a volatile acid. 



Chemistry and Physics. lt)8 

From tbese reactions there would result on the one hand a more or 
less homogeneous mass of silicates of alumina and alkalies, with silicates 
of lime, magnesia and iroo, a mixture probably resembling dolerite, while 
the atmosphere would be made up of watery vapor, nitrogen, a probable 
excess of oxygen, with carbonic, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids repre- 
senting all the carbon, sulphur and chlorine of the globe. 

When the cooling of the globe had so Ur advan^ as to allow of the 
precipitation of water from this dense atmosphere it would descend as an 
■cid rain, which attacking, at an elevated temperature, the silicates, would 
give rise to chlorids of calcium, magnesium and sodium, mingled with 
sulphates of these bases. The liberated silica would probably separate 
during the cooling of the heated waters in the form of quartz. 

The subsequent decomposition of the exposed portion of the primeval 
cnut would result in the conversion of its feldspar into kaolin, and a sol- 
uble alkaline silicate, which decomposed by excess of carbonic acid would 
be carried to the sea as a bicarbonate, where decomposing the lime salt, 
it would give rise to chlorid of sodium and bicarbonate of lime, which 
wonld be partly precipitated in a crystalline form and partly secreted by 
marine animals. The carbonates of lime and magnesia set free during 
the alow decomposition of the primitive rock would also go to augment 
the proportion of carbonates in the ocean, and help to fix in mineral 
masses the carbonic acid of the atmosphere. 

At length we reach the Carboniferous period of the earth's history, 
when a luxuriant vegetation completed tlie work of purifying the atmos- 
phere, by transforming, as Brongniart long since suggested, the remaining 
excess of carbonic acid into carlion and oxygen gas, thus preparing the 
ur for the support of warm-blooded animals. 

By this hypothesis I think we get a clear conception of the generation 
from a primeval homogeneous mass of the quartzose, argillaceous and 
calcareous materials which make up the great bulk of the stratified rocks, 
and we obtain at the same time a notion of the origin of the saline con- 
ftitnents of the sea. llie chemistry of the ocean, the formation from its 
waters of gypsum, rock-salt and magnesian rocks, and the modes by 
vhich potash has been eliminated from it by marine vegetation, and ap- 
parently by the formation of glauconite, suggest many important subjects 
of inquiry which I reserve for another occasion. 

The history of our globe, especially during the time when chemical 
foices were yet in the ascendant, and were preparing it for the reign of 
organic life, ofifers considerations of great interest which I hope soon to 
be able to develop at greater length than I have done in these few lines. 

9. On the Amount and Frequency of the Magnetic Disturbances and 
ff the Aurora at Point Barrow, on tlie Shores of the Polar Sea ; by 
Major General Sabine (Proc. Brit. Assoc., Athen., No. 1569). — Point 
Barrow is the most northern cape of that paK of the American continent 
which^ies between Beh ring's Strait and the Makenzie River. It was the 
station of H. M. S. Plover from the summer of 1852 to the summer of 
1854, and to the Captain, Maguirc, now in the Section, and officers of 
that ship, they were indebted for the very valuable series of observations 
which ho was now about to lay before the Section, and in part discuss. 
They wero furnished with supplies of provisions, <S?c. for Sir John Frank- 



104 Scientific IntelKgence. 

lin^s ships, had they snoceeded in makiDg their way through the land- 
locked and ice-encumbered channel, through which they sought to effect 
a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific In this most dreary and 
otlierwise uninteresting abode, Capt Maguire and his officers happily 
found occupation during seventeen months, unremittingly, in observing 
and recording every hour the variations of the magnetic and concomitant 
natural phenomena, in a locality perhaps one of the most important on 
the globe for such investigations. Their observatory, placed on the sand 
of the shore, which for a long tract nowhere rose much over five feet 
above the .sea, was constructed of slabs of ice, and lined throughout 
with seal-skins. The instruments had been supplied by the Woolwich es- 
tablishment, with the requisite instructions for their use ; and the obser- 
vations were made and recorded precisely in the same manner as those of 
the Colonial magnetic observatories. These were sent by Capt. Maffuire 
to the Admiralty, and were in due course transmitted to General Sabine, 
by whom they were subjected to the same processes of reduction as those 
made in the Colonial observatories. 

The author then exhibited to the Section six long rolls, oontaininff the 
results of this discussion, giving the reduced observations at each oi the 
hours of the twenty-four. A sufficient body of the larger disturbances 
having been separated from the rest, it was found at I^oint Barrow as 
elsewhere, wherever similar investigations had been made, that in regard 
to the frequency of their occurrence, and the average amounts of easterly 
and westerly deflections, the disturbances followed systematic laws de- 
pending on the hours of solar time. The laws of the easterly and west- 
erly were also found at Point Barrow, as elsewhere, to be distinct and 
dissimilar. The author explained how these observations, which mani- 
festly related to those arising from what were called ** storm," were sepa- 
rated from the rest ; and when that separation was effected, the law of 
the true solar variation was shown distinctly to be observed. But upon 
instituting a comparison between the disturbance laws at Point Barrow 
and Toronto, it was found that the laws of the deflections of the same 
name at the two stations did not correspond ; but, on the other hand, 
there existed a very striking and remarkable correspondence between the 
law observed by the easterly at Point Barrow and the westerly at Toronto, 
and between tne law of the westerly at Point Barrow and easterly at 
Toronto ; and this correspondence was shown to exist not in . slight or oc- 
casional particulars only, but throughout all the hours in well-marked 
characteristics of both classes of phenomena ; and it follows from the 
correspondence in the hours at which opposite disturbance deflections pre- 
vail, that the portion of the diurnal variation which depends upon the 
disturbances, has opposite, or nearly opposite, characteristics at the two 
stations. The importance of eliminating, these disturbances from the 
regular march of the solar variation was then pointed out in both : for 
when the diurnal variation is derived from the whole body of oCaerva- 
tions at Point Barrow, retaining the disturbances, the westerly extreme of 
the diurnal excursion, which, as is well known, occurs generally in the 
^extra-tropical part of the northern hemisphere a little after I p. ic, is 
found to take place at 1 1 p. m. ; but when these larger disturbances are 
omitted, the westerly extreme falls at the same time as elsewhere— riSi, 



Chemistry and Phyncs. 105 

.v.; and tho author suggested the probability that the anoroah'es 
ch have sometimes been supposed to exist in tliQ turning hours of the 
r diurnal variation iu higli latitudes may be susceptible of a similar 
lanation. It appears, then, by a comparison of the Point Barrow and 
onto observations, that in the regular solar diurnal variation the pro- 
«ion at the two stations is similar, the easterly and westerly extremes 
ig each reached nearly at the same hours, whilst in the disturbance 
nal variation tliis progression is reversed. Another distinction exists 
heir magnitudes, which is found in the solar diurnal variation to be 
early as may he in the inverse ratio of the values of the horizontal 

at the two stations, (which is the antiigonistic force opposing all 
rnetic variations,) whilst on the other hand the inrrease in the range 
he disturbance variation is many time4 greater than it would be ac- 
ting to the same proportion. It would appear, therefore, that the 
>lute disturbing force must be greater at Poiut Barrow that at Toronto, 
he author then proceeded to point out the concomitant occurrences 
le auroral manifestations. The observers noted at each hour whether 
lot there was an auroral display : from 11 a. m. to 3 p. m. no auroral 
\ajs were ever observed; but the number of them was found progres- 
ly to increase from 3 p. m. to 1 a. m., and then again in regular pro- 
sion to decrease to 0, at 11 a.m. The frequency of the occurrence 
he aurora may be judged of, when it is said that during six months, 
December, January and February of 1852-53, and the same of 
3-54, — the aurora was seen six days out of every seven. The hour 
he day at which no auroral display is ever observed corresponds with 

minimum of westerly disturbance, while the maximum of both is 
id at the same hour of westerly disturbance — viz., 1 a. m. The fre- 
ncy of the aurora, also, and the amount of westerly deflection of the 
^et also accord ; whilst on the other hand the auroral hours appear 
lave little or nothing in common with the turuing hours or the pro- 
«ion of the easterly deflection. 

^'hen Sir John Franklin was going out on the expedition which de- 
red his country of the invaluable services of himself and his brave 
ipanions, he had been furnished by the Admiralty both with inj^tru- 
ita carefully adjusted and compared with standards, and with full in- 
ictions for tlieir use, and for the making and recording hourly observa- 
is of the utmost importance in the several stations he might occupy in 
se seas; and in tho last letter which had ever been received from him, 
had expressed his determination to put up those instruments at the 
?ral stations at which he should winter. Now when his ardor in these 
suits and that of Capt. Crozier, the second in command, and the other 
?ers, were taken into account, there could remain no doubt that such 
ervations had been made and recorded, and that these records still ex- 
d in some of the places he had last been in. When he (General 
line) was with Capt. Parry, in 1818, they had made observations with 
pondulum for determining the figure of the earth, and others of great 
ntific importance, on their way towards Behring's Straits. They had 

1 expose<J to considerable risk of the ships being lost, and were about 
ake to tho boats and proceed overland, and in preparation for this 
•ely prepared to carry with them abstracts of the observations, leaving 

ECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. JAN., 1868. 

14 



106 Scientific Intelligence. 

the original full records safely deposited in secure cases in the cabins of 
the ships, to he found by those wno doubtless would be sent out to look 
for them. He had, therefore, no doubt that if the ships of Sir John 
Franklin were still in existence, in their cabins were to be found those 
scientific treasures ; and this was one of the reasons why men of science 
were so anxious to have the ships carefully looked for, and it was a sacred 
duty even to the memories of those who had sacrificed their lives in pro- 
curing such results to do them the justice and honor of having them re- 
covered if possible. 

At the conclusion of General Sabine's address, the President requested 
Gapt. Maguirs to favor the Section with a portion of what he had ob- 
served in these most inhospitable, but, to the scientific inquirer, deeply in- 
teresting regions. Capt Maguire, with that modesty so characteristic of 
the British sailor, disclaimed for himself much merit, and assigned all the 
praise of making and recording these hourly observations, through such 
a very lengthened period, to his brother officers, he himself only occa- 
sionally helping, particularly when he was out with exploring parties. 
He said he much wished he could convey to the Section any vivid im- 
pression of the beauty and brilliancy of the auroral displays in thoee re- 
gions. It was never seen during the hours of daylight, or those hoon 
which corresponded to mid-day, but towards evening its displays began, 
at first towards the nortli ; it then extended in splendid arches spanniDg 
the enti.*'e sky, and seeming to end in beautiful coronse towards the xe- 
nith ; these were occasionally of the most brilliant and varied tints and 
colors. It spread gradually more south, and at length died away towards 
the morning hours in the south. Such were the beauty and interest o 
these dij^plays, that men and officers constantly, with the thermometer at 
and below 40^ below zero, stood out for hours witnessing the glorioiM 
scene. During these auroral displays he could not say that he had ever 
witnessed those violent agitations of the needle that others had described, 
but the easterly disturbance of the variation seemed to be simultaneous 
with its northerly display, and the westerly to its influence when it bad 
passed to the south. At some distance from the ships, say about five 
miles, the water shoaled, and the ice had been driven up into beautiful 
rocky pinnacles ; beyond this, again, the water was always free of ice, 
and its temperature was frequently found to be 28^ above zero, when that 
of the air above Avas even 40^ below zero ; the consequence was, that it 
had all the appearance of a boiling sea, so great was the quantity of va- 
por thrown up from it. 

Admiral Fitz-Roy, Mr. Gassiot, and other members of the SectioD, 
spoke of the most important interest which these inquiries had in a scien- 
tific point of view, and could not help thinking that if the Admiralty 
had been more strongly pressed upon the subject, they would not have 
persevered in declining to aid in the expedition which had gone out this 
year. 

10. On the Direction of Gravity at the EarlKs Surface ; by Pro£ Hbu- 
NESSY (Proc. Brit. Assoc., AtLen., No. lolJQ). — If the earth's sur&ce he 
considered to coincide with that of the liquid which covers three-fouithi 
of the entire spheroid, gravity should be considered as perpendicular to it 
at every point If, however, the earth were stripped of all its seas and 



Mineralogy and Chology, 107 

ooetos, the sm&oe would present considerable inequalities. From what 
is* now known regarding the depth of the ocean, the continents would 
appear as plateaus elevated above tlie oceanic depressions to an amount 
which, although small compared to the earth's radius, would be consider- 
able when compared to its outswelling at the equator, and its flattening 
towards the poles. The surface thus presented would be the true surface 
of the earth, and would not be perpendicular to gravity. K a kind of 
mean surface be conceived intersecting this, so as to leave equal volumes 
abore of elevations, and of depressions below it, it is not allowable to 
a»iime that such a surface is perpendicular to gravity. The mean sur- 
fiue of the solid crust of the earth would not be perpendicular to gravity, 
iC after the process of solidification had commenced, any extensive changes 
in the distribution of matter in the earth's interior could take place. If 
the fluid matter in solidifying underwent no change of volume, the forms 
of the strata of equal density within the earth would be the same at 
every stage of its solidification. But if, as observation indicates, such 
fnaed matter, on passing to the solid crystalline state, should diminish in 
Tolume, the pressure on the remaining strata of the fluid would be re- 
lieved, and they would tend to assume a greater ellipticity than they had 
when existing under a greater pressure. The general result of this action 
would nianifestly be to produce a change in the direction of the attractive 
fiweea at the outer surface of the solid crust. The direction of a plumb- 
Kiie would be slightly altered so as slightly to increase the apparent lati- 
tudes of places over a zone intermediate between the equator and poles. 

M. D*Abbadib stated several cases which he had met with, where mon- 
uments existed which showed that the direction of gravity at some former 
period must have been very difierent in relation to these particular por- 
tions of the earth from what it now was. Other members also noticed 
deviations of the plumb-line from its normal position, and some of them 
which seemed to depend on the season of the year. 

The President, Dr. Robinson, stated that he was the first to direct at- 
tention to those changes of level which depended on the season of the 
year. This he was led to observe from the fact, that the entire mass of 
lock and hill on which the Armagh Observatory was erected was found 
to be slightly, but to an astronomer quite perceptibly, tilted or canted at 
ooe season to the east, at another to the west. This he had at first at- 
tributed to the varying power of the sun's radiation to heat and expand 
the rock throughout the year; but he since has had reason to attribute it 
rather to the infiltration of water to the parts where the clayslate and 
limestone rocks meet. The varying quantity of this through the year he 
DOW believed exercised a powerful hydrostatic energy, by which the posi- 
tion of the rock was slightly varied. 

IL MINERALOGY AXD GEOLOGY. 

1, Brucite at WoocTs Afine, Chester Co^ Pennsylvania, — In a Tetter 
from Dr. W. D. Hartmann of Westchester, Pa., he states that Brucite 
occurs at Wood's Mine in seams in serpentine from one to four inches in 
width. The mineral is broad foliatecl, folia several inches square being 
easily obtained, and either opaque silvery white or translucent to trans- 
parent Occasionally it has a fine rose tint The vein has an- outer layer 
of a greenish chlorite-like mineral. 



108 Scientific Intelligence. 

2. Descriptions of New Species of Palaozoic Fossils from ike Lower 
Helderberg^ Oriskany Sandstone^ Upper Helderherg^ Hamilton and Che- 
mung Groups ; by James Ball. 14C pp. with wood-cuts. Extracted 
from the Report of tlie Regents of the University. Albany, 1857. — ^This 
pamphlet is issued by the State in advance of the third and fourth 
quarto vohimes on the Palseontologjy by Prof. Hall, of which the third is 
MOW nearly ready. It contains a large number of new species, though 
but a part of what those volumes will embrace. Prof. Hall here adopts 
Suess's genus Meganteris, and the Atri/pa elovgata of Conrad character- 
istic of the Oriskany Sandstone [Terehratula ovoides of Eaton in his Geol. 
Text-book, 1832), is named the Meganteris ovoides ; and the Pentamerus 
elongatus of Conrad from the Onondaga limestone, is the Meganteris 
elongatus. 

The pamphlet closes with a short paper by Mr. Hall on his genu** Tel- 
linomya (see Pal. N. Y., vol. i). The paper was published originally in 
the ** Canadian Naturalist and Geologist." From recently discovered 
specimens, he has found that the teeth of the hinge have a close relation 
to those of the genus Nucula, and he is enabled to give the following 
corrected description : — 

Tellinomya. — Shell cquivalve, equilateral or subequilateral, closed, 
smooth or marked by lines of growth, ligament external ; hinge-line 
cur\'ed, sometimes subangular, with a continuous series of small curved 
transverse teeth, which diminish from the extremities to tho beak, be- 
neath which, they are much smaller. Muscular impressions double, two 
anterior and two posterior, one large and strongly impressed, the other 
smaller, lying above and between tho larger one and the hinge-line; 
pallial impression simple. 

He refers to it, Ctenodonia of Salter. 

3. Cosmogony^ or the Mysteries of Creation; by Thos. A. Daytes. 
416 pp., 8vo. New York. — There is quite an extensive show of science 
through this largo volume, but by one ludicrously ignorant of its first 
principles and correspondingly presumptuous. The following are some 
of the sage conclusions argued out from the author's scientific materials: 
That the theory that boulders or rounded stones are water- worn rocks "is 
entirely untenable;'' — tliat all "vegetable mould was made undoubtedly 
in connection with the vegetable kingdom in the primitive creation," and 
that we may as well say milk comes from granite as ingredients that im- 
prove or make soils; — that fossil bones and shells, ancient sea beaches 
and ripple marks, etc., are primitive creations, spoken into existence as 
they are, as types of future existences ; — that the coal of all coal lieds 
"must be the slow but mysterious carbonization of the clay slates T' 
Similar views (the last excepted) in the biblical scholar not claiming any 
knowledge of science should have respectful consideration ; but not so, 
when the product of scientific pretense. 

AVe have quoted a few of the surface ideas only of the work. Its phi- 
losopliy makes profound plunges; and one of the jewels of knowMge 
gathered from the mud, to which a page of capitals is wholly devoted, is 
the order in Avhich the laws of matter were established in the course of 
the first four da5's of creation : — namely, Attraction of Gravitation after 
Form, Color, Electric Attraction, Cohesive Attraction, Eudosmosis and 



Botany and Zoology. 109 

Exosroosis; Electric attraction, etc. after Chemical affinity; Chemical 
affinity a/ier Aggregatetl Existence; and Motion and Equilibrium last. 

The author is to be commended for his desire to sustain sacred truth ; 
but he has made a stupid book that will damage tlie cause. 

4. On the Existence of Forces capable of ckantjing the Sea level during 
different Geological Epochs; by Prof. Uexnessy (Proc. Brit. Assoc, 
Atben., No. 1559). — If, in assuming its present state from an anteiior 
condition of entire fluidity, the matter composing the crust of the earth 
underwent no change of volume, the direction of gravity at the earth's 
surface would remain unchanged, and consequently the general figure of 
the liquid coating of our planet. If, on the contrary, as we have reason 
to believe, a cban^ of volume should accompany the change of state of 
the materials of the earth from fluidity to solidity, the mean depth of the 
ocean would undergo gradual though small changes over its entire extent 
at successive geological epochs. This result is easily deduced from the 
general views contained in other writings of the author, whence it Ap- 
pears, that if the surface stratum of the internal fluid nucleus of the 
eartii should contract when passing to the solid state, a tendency would 
exist to increase the ellipticity of the liquid covering of the outer surface 
of the crust. A very small change of ellipticity would suffice to lay 
bare or submerge extensive tracts of the globe. If, for example, the 
mean ellipticity of the ocean increased from -^xy ^^ ^iv^ ^^^^ ^^^'^^ ^^ ^^^ 
sea would be raised at the equator by about 228 feet, while under the 

Erallel of 52° it would be depressed by 196 feet. Shallow seas and 
nks in the latitudes of the British isles, and between them and the 
pole, would thus be converted into dry land, while low-lying plains and 
t&lands near the equator would be submerged. If similar phenomena oc- 
curred during early periods of geological history, they would manifestly 
influence tlie distribution of land and water during these periods, and 
»ith such a direction of the forces as that referred to, they would tend to 
Qcreaae the proportion of land in the polar and temperate regions of the 
^nh, as compared with the equatorial regions during successive geologi- 
ial epochs. Such maps as those published by Sir Charles Lyell on the 
listribution of land and water in Europe during the tertiary period, and 
hose of M. Elie de Beaumont, contained in Beudant's * Geology,' would, 
f sufficiently extended, assist in verifying or disproving these views. 

III. BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 

1. Jfonofiraphie de la Famille des Urticees ; par H. A. Weddell (Ar- 
bifres du Museum, torn. ix,livr. 1-4), 4to, 1856-7. — Dr. Weddell's pre- 
iminary studies upon the proper Urlicacece were published a few years 
go in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Since then, botanists, 
Ware from this and his other Avorks that the subject was in most able 
ttnds, have been anxiously waiting for his full monograph. This, we 
mderstand, is now completed, although the last fasciculus has not yet 
eached this country. The greater part is before us, and an admirable 
Ponograph it is, worthy of a place in the Archives which contain that 
oodel one on the Malpighiacece of his lamented botanical master. It 
lustrates in detail about 470 speciea, under 40 genera, and is accompa- 
ied hj 20 well-filled plates, drawn by the author. It opens with a Con- 



1 1 Scientific Intelligence. 

fipectus of the members of the great group to which the true Urtteaeea 
belong (which the author inclines to receive rather as the orders of a 
class than as suborders of an extensive order, fully admitting, however, 
their close affinity inter ««), followed by a brief indication of the principal 
investigators of these plants, and of the resources at his own command. 
A general account of the organs of vegetation and reproduction, of the 
affinities, of the geographical distribution of the plants of the group, and 
of their properties and uses, conclude the preliminary matter. The body 
of the work is occupied by their systematic arrangement and description. 

Apetalce being viewed as degenerations of PolypetalcBj our author 
searches among the latter orders for the nearest relatives of the great 
Urticaceous order or alliance, and finds them in the TUiacecg^ that is, in 
the group of orders of which the Malvacece are the highest development 
According to WeddelFs happy illustration, Malvacem crown the summit 
of a three sided pyramid, with SterculiacecBj Byttneriacem, and THiiacea 
just below them, one upon each face ; under the Byttneriacem he ranln 
the EupkorbiacecB with the Aniideamece^ and under these, at the very base 
of the pyramid, the Scepaceas, the lowest degradation in this direction of 
the Malvaeeoiu type. On the adjacent face, under the Tiliacen, and on 
the same level with the Euphorbiaceae he inscribes the Vrtieaeem, with 
the Cupuli/erof perhaps underneath them. Upon this ingenious plan of 
representation, the apetalous orders throughout may be meat conveniently 
and instructively ranked under their superior types ; — bearing in mind 
that some types degrade as much within an order (e. g. JBupkorbiaeea, 
OnagracecB inclusive of JfcUoragece^ Caryopkyllacece including Illeeebna) 
as others do through a series of two or three orders, or even as the same 
group does (e. g. CaryophyllacecB) through a series of orders on the other 
sides of the pyramid. 

The reason why this mode of representation will exhibit botanical 
affinities so well is, that (as we have elsewhere remarked) the vegetable 
kingdom does not culminate, — as the animal kingdom does, — and there- 
fore offers no foundation whatever in nature for a lineal arrangement even 
of its great groups. But it would appear that the DicotyUdonoue orders 
might be arranged under a considerable number of short series, in ffroaps 
converging upon the most fully developed or representative order (n each 
type, so as to exhibit what we now know of the system of nature much 
better than in any other way. 

We think that Dr. Weddell's idea of the affinity of Urticaeem is a good 
one. The floral and seminal characters, the true criteria of affinity are 
not abhorrent, but present some strong points of relationship, as do the 
organs of vegetation. These, once established, allow us to feel the force 
of the striking coincidence in the bast-tissue of the bark, so remarkable 
in all this alliance for the length, fineness, and toughness of the fibres, 
their union end to end, and their lateral independence, admirably adM)tr 
ing them for their use as textile materials, in which Urtieaam vie with 
MalvaeecB and Tilidcece, 

As to geographical distribution, £urope is very poor in Uriicea^ poorer 
even than would at first view be supposed, as the author remarks. For 
as nettles like an enriched soil, the &ve or six European species of Vrtka 
and Parietaria so abound around habitations that they make np in the 



Botany and Zoology. Ill 

multitude of individuals for the paucity of species, and perLaps cover 
nearly as much ground as the great number of intertropical species ; two 
or three excepted, which also are weeds in the tropics. Temperate North 
America is not much richer in species than Europe. The greater part ' 
are found in the torrid zone, and in islands rather tlian continents ; the 
Malay r^on, India, Mexico, and the West Indies together possess almost 
two-Uiirds of the known species. 

Our remaining remarks shall be restricted to one well-known plant de- 
•cribed in the work, and to another, of recent discovery, which unfortu- 
nately was not communicated in season to find a place in it 

The first is our common Pilea puinila. Dr. Weddell has overlooked 
the fact that Rafinesque had founded a genus (Adice or Adike) upon it, 
although the name is mentioned in the work, cited by him, where the 
plant was first published as a Pilea^ and although Dr. Torrey had adopted 
Rafinesque^s ffenus, and figured the species, in an earlier and more con- 
■derable work (Flora of the State of New York), which, having unfor- 
tunately been published by the State, and in a large edition, has in 
consequence remained almost unknown to science. Considering that the 
three sepals of the fertile flower in this species are nearly equal and not 
gibbous, it may be doubted whether the single species of Blume*s genus 
AchudctniOj dffering only in having five sepals, should not rather be 
appended to Pilea. We dare say that Dr. Weddell would have so ar- 
ranged it, if Blume had not published the genus. 

Since the appearance of the third part of WeddcIFs monograph, but 
before it had reached this country, Dr. Torrey has published, in the Re- 
port on Dr. Bigelow*s fine California collection made in Lieut. Whipple's 
Kailroad Survey to the Pacific, a new Nettle, allied to Boehmeria but with 
the penicillate stigma of Urtica, viz. his He^perocnide tenella (Pacific 
R. R. Reports, 4, p. 139). This little plant, it now appears, comes near- 
crt to Wight's monotypic genus Chartujthairm of India, of which better 
details than Wight's as to the female flowers and fruit are figured in the 
present monograph. The stigma is intermediate in character between 
that ot Chatnabaina and that of Urtica ; and, moreover, as the sepals of 
the male flower want the pointed gibbous tips of the former, the stipules 
are inconspicuous, and the cotyledons are not only reniform but (which 
ii unnoticed in the published description^ pretty strongly emarginate at 
the summit also, the genus will probably be retained. 

Great thanks are due to Dr. Weddell for his labors upon this family, 
which he found in a most unsatisfactory and difficult state, and has left in 
inch condition that Nettles and their allies are easy and inviting objects 
of study. Meanwhile, his other undertakings are carried on with spirit. 
Of his Chlorie Aruiina, a flora of the higher Andes, three fasciculi have 
reached us since our former notice of the work, and we understand that 
the first volume is completed. In this work the author handles the 
CompositcB with marked ability. a. o. 

2. MiquePs Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, or Flora India! BatavcB, — 
for it has both Dutch and Latin title-pages, has made no small progress 
unce our former notice of the work. Five parts (864 pages) have ap- 
peared of the first volume, which is devoted to the Dicotyledonee Poly- 
petalce and Apetala conjoined ; and one more fasciculus will apparently 



112 Scientific Intelligence. 

complete tins volume. The second, devoted to the Afonopetala has ex- 
tended to the tliird fasciculus. Thus Ur it is mainly occupied with the 
CompoisitcB, RabiacecB, ApocynecB and Aaclepiadca, Meanwhile the inde- 
f;iti<THl)le author has-issued two parts of lli« third volume, devoted to the 
Afonocotf/ledf/nes, The work appears to be faithfully elaborated, and 
must be highly useful to systematic botanists and creditable to the author. 

^ A. O. 

3. Walpers : Annales Botanices Systematicce, — The second fasciculus 
of Dr. MuellerV continuation of this work has come to hand. It extends 
only from the NymphccaceoB to the Sterculiacece, — at which rate a series 
of volumes will be required to bring up the arrears of scattered species 
published since the year 1850. A. o. 

4. Jahrb'ucher fur WissenschafUicIie Botanik : herau9g, von Dr. N. 
Pringsueim. Berlin. Vol. I, part 1, 1857, large 8vo, pp. 138, with 10 
plates. — This new w^ork is to l>e devoted to original articles upon scientific 
botany in the strictest sense, and especially to the departments in which 
its editor is so distinguished, viz. Vegetable Anatomy and Morphology. 
The first article is by I)r. Pringsheim himself, one of a series of contribu- 
tions to the Morphology and Classification of Algce. It is a complete in- 
vestigation of the raorphol»)gy and development of the (Edogtmieat {CEdo- 
goniam and Bulbochasle) illustrated by six colored plates. The very im- 
portant and curious results of Pringsheim's investigations upon the devel- 
opment and fructification of the lower Algre, need to be presented in 
connexion with the contemporary ones of Cohn and Braun, which to- 
gether have thrown new light upon this part of vegetable physiology, 
demonstrating that their reprofluction is as truly sexual as that of higher 
plants and more directly comparable with that of animals. 

The remainder of this fasciculus is occupied by New Researches wpon 
the formation of the Embryo of Phanerogamous Plants, by Ilofmcister, 
of Lcipsic, with four plates :^-one of them illustrating the impregnation 
and development of the embryo of a Balanophoraceous plant, Cynomnh 
rium. Uu thinks that in some cases traces of a cell-wall may be detected 
upon the germinal vesicle anterior to their fecundation by the pollen. 

A. G. 

5. Radlkofer ; on The Process of Fecundation in the VegetAihle King- 
dom^ and its relation to that in the Animal Kingdom (Leipsic, 1857, 8vo). 
Translated by Arthur IIenfrey, F.R.S., <fec., and jmblished in the Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History for October and November, 1857. — 
This gives in English, and in an accessible form, a systematic and histori- 
cal survey of the whole subject of vegetable fecundation, including the 
recent discoveries of Pringsheim, Cohn, Braun, and Bary, referred to in 
our previous article. 

As to Fungi and Lichenes, — thanks to the observations of Itzigsohn 
upon the latter, and the most careful and persevering investigations of 
Tulasne upon both families, — the analogues of male organs in all proba- 
bility are discovered, and thoir general presence recoguized; but the feet 
of fecundation is not made out. 

In the lower or green Algce, fecundation was first demonstrated by 
Pringsheim. The *' horns" of Vaucheria which Vaucher half a century 
ago observed and conjectured to be male organs, Pringsheim proved to 



Botany and Zoology. 118 

laving seen tbem open at the summit and emit a great number of 
ring corpuscles (sperm atozoids), many of which found their way 
: now open orifice of the protuberance which contains the forming 
nd were seen crowding against it, after which a membrane of cel- 
ppears over the surface of the mass of protoplasm and completes 
re. Whether one or more of the spermatozoids actually pene- 
le protoplasm and so is included within the cell-membrane is un- 
; but Pringsheim thought it was the case, from having detected a 
s corpuscle like one of the spermatozoids inside of the membrane. 
*ringsheim demonstrated a similar fecundation in (Edogtmium, 
lilts, briefly published in the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 
nee translated into French and English, are now given in detail in 
; part of his Jahrbucker, noticed above. (Edogonium consists of 
f cylindrical cells. Some of these cells, usually shorter than the 
jcorae tumid, and, without conjugation, have their whole green 
5 transformed into a large spore, rringsheim has ascertained that 
?lls of the same individual plant have their green contents trans- 

into a multitude of active corpuscles or zoospores, which, from 
bsequent evolution and oflSce, he names androspores : these escape 
opening of the mother cell, moving about freely by the vibration 
>wn of cilia attached near the smaller end. One or more of these 
K>res fix themselves by the smaller end upon the surface of the 

which a large ordinary spore is forming, or in the vicinity, and 
ate there, growing longer and narrower at the point of attachment, 
lear the free end a cross partition forms, and sometimes another, 
; one or two small cells; this is the true antheridium ; for in it a 
>f spermatozoids are formed, also endowed with motivity by means 
atile cilia. Now the top of the antheridium falls off as a lid, the 
tozoids escape ; the spore-cell at this time opens at the top ; one 
spermatozoids enters tlie opening, its pointed end foremost ; this 
s stationary upon or slightly penetrates the surface of the young 
Dto which its contents are doubtless transferred, and a coat of cel- 
3 then, but not till then, deposited upon it, completing its organi- 
IS a spore, which in due time germinates, and grows directly into 

like the parent, 
in Bulbockoete^ and especially in Spharoplea^ so beautifully inves- 

by Cohn (see Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, vol. 5), the spore does not 

devel<»p into the normal or fruit- bearing plant. Instead of this, 
ilternation of generations (to adopt that well-understood phrase), 
re proceeds to convert its contents by successive division into a large 
• of zoospores, different from the androspores, viz. small, oval or 
bodies, furnished with two long cilia on a short beak at one end, 

a time moving actively about by their vibration. Coming to rest 
)ospores germinate, by elongation and the formation of transverse 
ns, into adult thread like plants, consisting of a row of cells. In 
yplea the whole contents of the cells of some adult individuals con- 
nto large green spores, as yet without a coat; while those of dif- 
ndividuals give rise to myriads of slender spermatozoids, moving 
ns of a pair of cilia fixed at the narrow end. The latter escape 
e parent cell through a small perforation which now appears, 

ND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 78. — JAN., 1856. 

15 



1 14 Scientific InteUigenee. 

enter the »pore-bearing cells of the fertile plant through a similar perfora* 
tioii iu them, piny around the spores, and at length one or more of them 
drives its pointed extremity into their naked surface; after ivhich^ fertili- 
zation being accomplished, a thick coM of cellulose is deposited to com- 
plete the 8(x>re. ^* Cohn does not consider that observations justify his 
assuming a direct penetration of the spermatozoids into the primordial 
spore-ceil. It rather reeroed to him as if they attached themselves on 
the outside of the spore, and were finally converted into mucilaginous 
globules." 

Reproduction by conjugation of course had long been ftimiliarly known 
in the lower Alga, But it was questioned whether this was really analo- 
gous to sexual reproduction, since what appeared to be similar spores are 
often formed of the contents of a single ceil without conjugation. Ares- 
chou^ shows that these are abortive spores, incapable of germination ; 
while those which result from actual cx>njugatiou will grow into new 
plants, without further metamor])hosi8, Vaucher^s old observadonB to this 
eftcH'.t having been confirmed by Braun and Pringsheim. 

That in the Fucacece or olive-green AlgtB^ the large spores are fecunda- 
ted by spermatozoids, produced in aniheridia, was demonstrated by 
Thuret in the year 1850. And in more recent memoirs he bat shown 
that the fertilization takes place through direct contact of the spermato- 
zoids with the naked surface of the unimpregnated sporo, then having . 
only a protoplasmic coating; and that these spores will not develop nor 
hardly acquire a cell-wall unless so fertilized. His experiments upon 
dioecious species are perfectly decisive upon these points. He observed 
the lively spermatozoids playing over the surface of tlie still-naked qx>re, 
fix themselves to it by the ciliated end, apparently by one of the cilia, 
aud at length come to rest in contact with it ; but he could not detect 
any material penetration of them into the body of the spore. Pring- 
sheim, confirming all Thuret's observations, also thinks that the sperma- 
tozoids actually penetrate the spore-mass; but there is no direct proof of 
it. Indeed Thuret, in a very recent article (in Aim. Sci. Nat, ser. 4, vol. 
7, 1857,) indicates the grounds of Pringsheim*s probable mistake. The 
most interesting point in this l&st article by Thuret relates to the sudden- 
ness with which the cell-membrane is formed on the spore of ^neut after 
the access of the spermatozoids and the accomplishment of tlie act ci 
fecundation. In six or eight minutes traces of the formation of the mem- 
brane are recognizable upon a considerable number of the sporea. In 
ten minutes the presence of a membrane, may be clearly made mauifcrt 
by the application of chlorid of zinc. In an hour the membrane has ac- 
quired considerable firmness and thickness, and the presence of cellulose 
is revealed by the action of sulphuric acid and iodine: an hour later and 
the blue coloration under the test is decided. 

In the higher Cnjptogamia and in the Pkanerogamia^ Radlkofer't 
treatise, though interesting for the history, offers nothing new to our 
readers. In fact its date precluded it from containing much of what is 
referred to in the preceding paragraphs. But tlie subject is still to bo 
continued. A. o. 

6. Natural History of the Spongiada, — J. S. Bowbrbakk, Esq., of 
Highbury Grove, London, — eminent iu this and related departments of 



Bdicmy and Zoology. 1 16 

Tpical rttearebf — ^is preparing a general Work upon the Sponges, 
ery desirous of obtaining specimens from this country. The foi« 
instructions for their collection and transportation sre extracted 
nrcular issued by Mr. Bowerbank : — 

nges are exceedingly Tarions fn their external form and appear- 
hey are either massive^ branching, fan-shaped, cup-shaped, or 
other sulistances, and are frequently parasitical on homy zoo- 
)r sea-weeds. In substance they are light and elastic, rigid, gela- 
fleshy, and sometimes hard and stony, and are frequently very 
x>lored ; and they vary in size from the tenth of an inch in 
or diameter, to several feet They are procured by dredging in 
o or three to several hundred fathoms deep; and they are found 
derable quantities attached to rocks or sea-weeds, 4ec., between 
(I low Walter marks, and in the line of sea-weeds and other mat- 
>wn up by the sea at high water mark In every case the more 
itain of their fleshy or gelatinous matter the more valuable they 
iey should never be washed in either salt or fresh water, and 
y not in the latter, as it makes them bard and brittle. They 
>e dried as speedily as possible, either in a shaded, breezy place or 
:k oven, after havinir been well drained of salt water ; and if at- 
o small stones or other substances they should be preserved in the 
[ state. They may be packed in boxes from one to three feet 
or, if longer, a partition may be put in ; and the best packing is 
ed sea-weeds that have not been washed in fresh water. The 
onges should be placed in the cups or hollows of the larger ones, 
very small or delicate, in chip or card boxes, or a screw of stout 
Sawdust or cotton should never be used. The box sliould bo 

> and closely packed, but without cruBlnng. In selecting from 
;ted matter at high-tide mnrk, plenty of homy zoophytes shoukl 
0, and especially those which are full of parasitical matters, as 
ve frequently growing on them the most minute and curious 
of the s{)onge tribe, and also nnmerous minute and beautiful 
If a large stone be appended to the sponge it i^ best to secure k 
ner of tb^ box, by boring two or more gimlet hoies near the 
>ass a string round the stone and through the holes, amd drawing 
; from without, plug the holes and string firmly with wooden 
d cut off close to the box. 

writer would also be particularly obliged by specimens of Spon- 
fresh-water sponges, as he is engaged on a Monograph of that 
They are fooiKl'in rivers, lakes or tanks, and |k>o1s, attached fo- 
od, rocks or stones, and are occasionally found surrounding' tlie 

> of trees, dipping into the water during periodical floods; and if 
tain their granular, seed-like bodies they are the more valnaWe. 
n just as tliey come from the water. If it be deeniinl neei^ssary 
ve parts or tl>e whole of delicate specimens of either marine- or 
«r spongtfs in fluid, the best material is strong spirit, or water 
msideralAe excess of UTidissdved salt in it, but never alum. Jaiir 

> and fruit bottles, well corked and scaled, or tied over with 
are the best vessels for the purpose.**^ 



116 Scientific InUUigenee. 

The Editora of ibis Journal, or Prof. Gray of Cambridge, will gladly 
receive collections of Sponges and Spongillas made in this coun^, and 
forward them to Mr. Bowerbank. There are indications of two or more 
species of Spongilla in our lakes and streams, different from the two Euro- 
pean species, and as yet undescribed ; and the present opportunity for 
their thorough investigation should by all means be improved. a. o. 

7. Seeman'a Botany of the Voyage of the Herald ; parts IX, and X. — 
The latter just issued, complete this creditable botanical work. It ex- 
tends to 483 pages, and to 100 plates, all well chosen and well executed. 
The 9th fasciculus finishes the collections in North Western Mexico, and 
give a general introduction to the Flora of Hong Kong: the 10th com- 
prises what purports to be a synopsis of the known plants of this island, 
778 in number, a full index to the volume, and 14 pages reprinted to 
correct errors and give additional information. In oner of them is cor- 
rected a mistake by which a Tephrosia was taken for so peculiar a plant 
as our Oalactia marginalia^ Benth. The Hong Kong Composite are 
elaborated by Dr. Steetz, with his usual conscientious care and good 
judgment ; the Orchidaceas by the younger Reichenbach ; the Cyperacem 
and Graminea by Col. Munro; and the Ferns by Mr. John SmHh. In 
a neat preface Dr. Seeman takes just credit to himself for having pro- 
posed only a very limited number of new genera and species, considering 
the extent of his collections and the number of little-known countries 
visited.* He attributes this in a good degree to his having had ^ the 
advantage of free access to the largest herbarium in the world, that which 
the liberality of Sir W. J. Hooker has thrown open to the scientific pub- 
lic ; an advantage enabling roe to identify most of my plants with already 
described ones, and preserving botanical literature from a series of syno- 
nyms with which under less favorable circumstances, it must and would 
have been hampered. * * Hence what at first would appear an un&vor- 
able feature, will on second consideration prove perhaps one of the best 
recommendations of this work.'' We may add that this advantage would 
have been of small account, except for the untiring industry of the author 
and the great knowledge of those who helped him. 

Dr. Seeman, — now personally known to the naturalists of the United 
States, which he has recently visited as the representative of the Linnsan 
Society to the Montreal meeting of the American Association, — is the 
editor of the Bonplandia, a Botanical Journal, now in the fifth year of 
its existence, published at Hanover, in monthly numbers, of small folio 
size. This, we learn is to be enlarged this year, and to contain some 
fioricultural matter. In its new form we trust it will find additional sub- 
scribers in this country. The only drawback is the language, of which 
tlie German is the staple ; but most of the teclmical matter relating to 
systematic botany is in Latin ; and articles are admitted either in French 
or in English. a. g. 

8. Dr. J. D, Hooker : On the Stimcture and Ajffinities of Balanopho- 
rece (separately issued from the Transactions of the Linncean Society of 

* To help on a little this laudable diminution of nominal species, we may remark 
that the only tipecies Tvhich Dr. Seeman has proposed as new in the Flora of West- 
em E^uimaux-land (and admirably figured,) viz.: his Artemma andronMea, is 
doabtlets A. Senjavinentif, of Besser, from the opposite coast a. a 



Botany and Zoology. 117 

vol. xxii). pp. 68, 4to, 16 plates. — Although read before the 
Society nearly three years ago, this fine memoir was published 
summer. The delay has probably been owing, in great part, to 
requisite for the engraving of the very beautiful and elaborate 
lich illustrate the memoir. It is a clear, patient, and philosophi- 
lation of an extremely anomalous group of plants, and a succinct 
Q of the principal lessons to be learned from their study, both 
aphically and systematically ; and it bears the impress through- 
e spirit, freshness, and independence which so distinguish ibis 
nd make all his writings so attractive and instructive. While 
8 subject is developed in proper order, the divisions are not quite 
arked out in the essay. The first sectional heading is *' 1. Paro- 
d Structure of the RhizomeP But there is no section 2 answer- 
le first, which, moreover continues, without a break, to treat of 
*al anatomy, organography, and morphology of these plants, the 
of the flowers, ovules, and seeds, and of the diverse doctrines 
ve been propounded respecting them. The Affinities of Balan- 
are then considered, under a special heading ; their CUissiJicatian 
the subject of a few general remarks; also their Oeographical 
lion and Variation, Then a Synoptical Table of the genera is 
nd the 14 genera with their known species (28 in all) are finally 
. and illustrated. 

the structure and affinities of Balanophorece^ and the curious 
. that have arisen about their place in the natural system. Dr. 
in the first place, affirms them to be truly phaenogamous. It now 
ange that this should ever have been doubted. The arguments 
ntrary, says our author, *^ all appear to have originated, on the 
, in mistaking feeble analogies between the forms of organs that 
jomologous, tor affinities ; and, on the other, in overlooking a 
8 of positive characters. These arguments may be summed up 
An erroneous view of the nature of the seeds, by Endlicher, 
Blume, and others, who descril)e them as a sporuliferous mass, — 
hich, even if it were applicable, has no meaning. 2. An erro* 
$w of their origin being in a diseased state of the plants they 
)n, adopted by Junghuhn and Trattiniok. 3. A supposed simi- 
appearance to Fungi, and an erroneous idea that tneir appear- 
Qeteoric and their growth rapid ; — a theory advanced by End- 
lio says of the horizontal rhizome of Helosia and Langsdorffi^iy 
> Fungorum quam maxime analogum." 4. The resemblance be- 
e articulated filaments on the capitula of the Jlelosideas and the 
es of Miisci ; and between the pistils of Balanophoreas and the 
, of Mosses ; strongly advocated by Griffith and Lindley. 5. The 
nee of the cellular and vascular tissues in some of their charac- 
jme of those of Fiiices, as indicated by Unger and Gceppert 
y peculiar view of the nature and relations of the parts of the 
>wer entertained by Weddell ; who hence considers Balanopko- 
ether witli Rafflesiacece) to approach nearer to Gymnosperms 
any other group of plants." Instead of discussing at length 
which " bad the authors who advocate them been sufficiently 
with specimens and facts they would never have entertained," 



118 Scientific Intelligmiee. 

Dr. Hooker met^ly recalls attention to the Essential facts that these plants 
exhibit true flowers with stamens and pistils, genuine ovules, and even em* 
bryo, and so accord in no one particular with Cryptogams. He shows 
moreover that the embryo is dicotyledonous in the few cases where it is 
sufficiently developed to manifest the character, and that the stem is con- 
structed upon the exogenous plan. Even with these facts before him 
Liiidley has retained his Rhizoffens^ as ^logically a class;" as an interme- 
diate form of organization between Endopens and Thallogeni, and char- 
acterized by vegetation rather than fructification. But there is little or 
nothing really peculiar in their vegetation ; and, as Lindley himself re- 
duces the differences to questions of degree, it suffices to say that classes 
are not founded upon degradation of type, but upon change of typo. 

Viewing Balanophoreit, then, as degraded members of the Dicotyledo- 
nous class, Dr. Hooker follows Brown and Griffith in regarding jKaJh' 
HacecB as near to Aristolochiacea, and in denying all affinity between these 
and Balanopkorea. In searching for the affinities of the latter, Dr. 
Hooker is guided by the sound rule of disregarding ^ the negative char- 
acters, as those may be termed which are founded on the imperfeGtion of 
organs ;** and he takes the most perfectly developed species as the best 
exponents of the typical structure of any group, — a pnnciple laid down, 
we believe, by Mr. Brown. This gpves a substantial scientific hasis for 
the estimation of affinity. Agreement in plan of itructure tH ju^ what 
constitutes affinity ; agreement in grade of evolution may indicate only 
distant analogy, can indicate only collateral relationship,— not to be neg- 
lected, indeed, but in itself of no account in assignine a fiimily to its tms 
position in the system. The principle as applied in the present case leads 
Dr. Hooker to the conclusion that the nearest relatives of Balanophorem 
are the Haloragea, a group itself " consisting for the most part of leduced 
forms of Onagrariea^ or more strictly speakiug, that the link which 
connects these plants with the higher forms of vegetation is furnished hj 
Gunnera. The qualifying phrase above is appropriate ; for it is hard to 
conceive of Ounnera with its minute embryo as a reduced Onograeetf^ 
while it is impossible to sever the chain of evidence which binds the genus 
to Lottdonia and Haloragie, Be this as it may. Dr. Hooker has sorely 
made a happy hit, in seizing upon Ounnera as the key to the tnie affini- 
ties of Balanophjorea. Of all the objections that may be urged against 
this approximation not the strongest, but rather the least ralid, in our 
opinion (so long as the question is one of alliance and not of co-ordina- 
tion), is that to be derived from the habit and the imperfection of the 
foliar organs. Any type is liable to have its parasitic phase, and this is 
generally a degraded one in these respects ; tue Gesneriaceous has it in 
Orobanckea, which it might with the greatest propriety include; the 
Scrophulariaccous graduates insensibly into similar parasitic forms ; the 
Ericaceous has them in Monotropea ; and the Oornaoeous or Olacaceous 
degrades through SantalaceiB into Loranthacea, 

It is quite probable that our author would deny the degradation in the 
latter case, judging from some points which he makes when considering 
whether the group of BalanophorecBj " putting aside any consideraticm of 
its relationship with other orders, and regarding it per <e, . . . . shonld 
abstractedly be considered as ranking high, or Uie contrary.'' This is an 



Botany and Zoology. 119 

of which we are hardly capable, — that of determining the 
I order per se. Still our author^s ideas are clear and clearly 

the comparison is really between the^e plants and the ideal 

And what is wanting to make the comparison practical is a 

I as to what constitutes tlie highest style of plant, and what is 

i importance of deviations from it ; — questions too large to be 

on here, if indeed the science is yet ready for their discussion, 

underlie the most important inquiries which good systematic 
ire everywhere tentatively prosecuting. " Assuming that the 
lal definition of perfection in use among zoologists is applicable 
stable kingdom, and which argues that a high degree of speci* 

organs and moq>hological diflerentiation of them for the per- 
of the highest functions, indicate a high rank, Dr. Ilooker 
y argues that ^ Balanopkorea may in some respects be consid- 
Id a very high one ;" and the points are presented under seven 
ow we will not deny that tlie principles are logically applied 
.sent case, nor that considerations of the kind are perhaps as 

to the vegetable as to the animal kingdom. But we should 
xpect that principles of fundamental importance in the latter 
3 no sound application to the former ; that even such as relate 
IS common to the two, or to structures analogous, would require 
id each upon its own ground. As to morphology, and as to 
ititutes perfection of type, we should look to the fundamental 
\ rather than to the resemblance of the two for our starting 

for obvious reasons, are constructed on the principle of extension 
Concentration or consolidation, wherever it occurs in the veg- 
igdom, is a special provision against some peculiar danger, 
on the contrary, are fonned on the principle of restriction of 
As if to withdraw them as much as practicable from the direct 
the external world, their shape is compact, their extent as indi- 
-ictly limited, the external organs by which they take their sus- 
>mparatively few and small, while the most essential organs are 
Itered within. Consolidation of organs and even their restriction 
% accordingly are not likely to be indications of high rank in 
ible kingdom. Not the latter, because the object of the plant 
ion is attained by the indefinite repetition of the same organs; 
mier, for the type of the plant is realized only in the distinct 
>n of leaves from the axis. A Melon-Cactus, and a Cuscuta are 

of plants as to vegetation. As it is a fundamental character 
that their organs of reproduction are only specialized organs of 
I ; as the higher great divisions of plants are those in which the 
s most apparent throughout ; as the perfect accomplishment of 
I view, — the production, protection, and nourishment of the em- 

of the highest or most developed kind, — does not require the 
i of homogeneous parts, why should such confluence be regarded 
ing higher rank, merely because the type is more disguised in 
5? We see no sufficient ground for ranking a monopetalous 
her than a polypetalous one on that account; and still less for 
' a Loranthus or a Viscnm as the highest style of plant. On 



120 Scientific Intelligence, 

the contrary, we incline to look upon the consolidation of hetorogeneom 
parts in the blossom not as high specialization at all, but as want of de- 
velopment, i. e. imp<frfect elimination ; and in this light those who main- 
tain an inferior ovary to be one immersed in a receptacle, must needs re- 
gard it. 

Again suppression or abortion of. organs which belone to the type of 
the blossom cannot be considered as other than an imperfection, although 
the loss of the corolla is no great matter, and tlie abortion of one of the 
sexes little more. Still hermaphroditism is plainly in the type of the 
highest style of plant ; while the opposite is the case in the animal king- 
dom. But we cannot here enter further into the discussion of this class 
of questions. No one feels more deeply than our author the want of 
fixed and philosophical priuci]>les for the subordination of characters and 
the study of affiniti<?s in plants ; and no botanist of his age is more com- 
petent, or so well placed and furnished for the investigation of tliis prob- 
lem, to which we invite him, as to a task worthy of his powers. 

As to the rank of Balam^korea, if our author has demonstrated any- 
thing, it is that they l>elong U\ the highest class of plants, but that they 
are probably the most degraded members of it a. o. 

9. Bousainpault : Researches upon the influence which assimilable ni- 
troffcn in manures exerts upon the production of vegetable matter, and (2.) 
Upon the quantiti/ of nitrates contained in the soil and in water of various 
kinds (Ann. Sci. Naturelles, ser. 4, vol. 7, No. 1, 1857). — Several years 
ago Boussingault demonstrated, in the clearest way, that plants are inca- 
pable of assimilating the free nitrogen of the atmosphere. Two years 
ago, in a paper communicated to the French Academy of Sciences, he 
showed that nitrates eminently favor vegetation. He now shows, by de- 
cisive experiments, 

(1.) That the amount even of ternary vegetable matter produced by a 
plant depends absolutely upon the supply of assimilable nitrogen (ammo- 
nia aud nitrates). A plant, such as a sunflower, with a rather large seed, 
may grow in a soil of recently calcined brick, watered with pure water, 
so far as even to complete itself by a blossom ; but it will only have 
trebled or quadrupled the amount of vegetable matter it had to bfgin 
with in the seed. In the experiments, the seeds weighing 0*107 grammes, 
in three months of vegetation formed plants which when dried weighed 
only 0*392 grammes, — a little more than trebling their weight. The 
carbon they had acquired from the decomposition of carbonic acid of the 
air was only 0*114 grammes; the nitrogen they had assimilated from the 
air in three months was only 0*0025 grammes. 

(2.) Phosphate of lime, alkaline salts and earthy matters indispensable 
to the constitution of plants exert no appreciable action upon vegetation, 
except when accompanied by matters capable of furnishing assimilable 
nitrogen. Two plants of the same kind, grown under the same condi- 
tions as above, but with the perfectly sterile soil adequately supplied with 
phosphate of lime, alkali in the form of bicarbonate of potash, and silex 
from the ashes of grasses, resulted in only 0*498 grammes of dried vege^ 
table matter, from seeds weighing 0-107 grammes; and had acquired 
only 0002 7 grammes of nitrogen beyond what was in the seeds. 



Baiany and Zoology. 121 

(3.) But nitrate of potash furnishing assimilable nitrogen, associated 
with phosphate of lime and silicate of jx^tash, forms a complete manure, 
ind suffices for the full development of vegetation. Parallel experiments 
with nitrate in place of bicarbonate of potash, resulted in the vigorous 
growth of the sunflower plants, and the formation of 21*248 grams 
of organic matter, from seeds weighing as before only 0*107. This 
SI'Hl grams of new vegetable matter, produced in three months of 
Tegetation, contained 8*444 of carbon derived from the carboTiic acid 
of the air, and 0*1666 grams of nitrogen. The 1*4 grams of nitrate 
of potash supplied to the soil contained, 0*1969 grams of nitrogen, leav- 
ing a balance of 0*0303, nearly all of which was found unappropriated 
in the soil. 

Finally Boussingault made a neat series of comparative experiments, 
introducing into calcined sand the same amount of phosphate of lime and 
carbonate of potash, but different proportions of nitrate of soda, or in 
other words of assimilable nitrogen, and watering with water free fiom 
ammonia but containing a quarter of its volume of carbonic acid. The 
toil divided among four pots, each having two seeds of sunflower, {If, 
mr^t^yllwB was the species used in all the experiments) ; the pot 

No. 1 received of nitrate of soda, 0*00 grams. 

«i 2 tt »t Q.Q2 « 

« 8 it u 0-04 «* 

"4 •* u 016 " 

^Biit results of fifty days vegetation are given in the rate of growth, size 
and number of the leaves, weight of the product, <fec. : 

No. 1 made of new vegetable matter 0*397 grams, 

tt 2 " 0*7*20 " 

** 3 «* 1*130 ** 

« 4 ** 3*280 " 

In No. 2 so little as three milligrams of assimilable nitrogen introduced 
i«to the soil enabled the plant to double the amount of organic matter. 
The proportion of the weight of the seeds to that of the plant formed 
%asin 

No. 1, as 1 : 4*6 gr. 
" 2, " 1 : 7*6 
" 3, " 1 : 11-3 
" 4, " 1 : 30-8. 

In no case did the nitrogen acquired by the plant exceed that of the 
Kiitrate added to the soil. 

In the experinoents where no nitrate was added to the soil, the two 
9r three milligrams of nitrogen acquired by the plants during three 
Hioothfl of vegetation, came in all probability from ammoniacal vapors and 
nitrates exis^ting or formed in the atmosphere. To establish their pres- 
ence, Boiisi^ingault arranged an apparatus which detected the production 
>f some nitrates. And, in ex|>using to the air 500 grains of calcined 
MumJ, which had 10 grams of oxalic acid mixed with it, in a glass vessel 
iHih an open surfece equal to that of one of the flower-pot« usfd in the 
^bove experiments, the sand took 0*0013 grams of nitrogen from the air, 
of which a part was certainly ammonia. 

SSC05D SERIES, VOl<. XXV, KG. 73. — JAIT., 1928. 
16 



123 Scientific Intelligence. 

The object of the researches of which a sumniary is given in the second 
paper was, to deterraine the quantity of nitrates contained, at a given 
moment, in one hectare of cultivated ground, one of meadow, one of the 
forest-soil, and in one metre of river or spring water. The qnantitj in 
the soil was of course found to vary extremely with the estremes of wet 
or dry weather. Garden soil, highly mauured every autumn, contained 
on the 9th of August, 1856, after fourteen dry and warm days 816*5 
graras of nitre in a cubic litre of soil. On the 20th of the month, after 
twenty rainy days, the same quantity of the same soil contained only 18 
erams of nitre. The greater part had been dissolved out of the super- 
ficial soil. 

Some specimens of forest-soil, in a state of nature, furnished no indica- 
tion of nitrates: others gave 0*7 and 3*27 grams of nitre to the cubic 
metre. 

The soil of meadows and pastures afforded from 1 to 11 grams of 
nitre to the cubic metre. Nineteen specimens of good cultivated land 
gave, four of them none; others from 0*8 to 1*83; the richer ones from 
10*4 to 14*4, and one fallow, of exceptional richness, as much as 108 
grams of nitre to the cubic metre. To the latter much calcareous matter 
had been added. 

The soil of a conservatory, from which the nitrates would not be 
washed away by rains, contained 89, or 161, and some rather deep soil 
185 graras of nitre in the cubic metre. 

The sources of the nitre are not difficult to understand when we reflect 
that a manured soil, especially a calcareous one, is just in the condition of 
an artificial nitre-bed. The ultimate result of the decomposition of ordi- 
nary Tnanure is a residuum of alkaline and earthy salts, phosphates, and 
nitrates, the latter, with the ammonia furnishing the assimilable nitrogen, 
all-essential to productive vegetation. In incorporating with the soil un- 
decomposed manure, instead of the ultimate results of the decomposition, 
less loss is suffered from prolonged rains washing out the formed nitrates. 

The soluble matters washed out of the soil are to be sought in the 
water. River and spring waters therefore act as manure by the silez and 
alkali, the organic matter, and the nitrates which they hold. The spring 
waters poorest in nitre of those examined contained from 0*08 to 0*14 
milligrams of nitre to the litre ; the richer ones from 11 to 14 grams 
in the cubic metre. 

As to river-water; the Vesle in Champagne held 12 grams, the Sdne 
at Paris 9 grams the cubic metre. These were the richest. The Seioe 
at Paris carries on to the sea, in times of low water 58,000 kilogranis, 
in times of high water 194,000 kilograms, of nitre every twenty-foor 
hours. What enormous amounts of nitre must be carried^into the sea 
by the Mississippi, the Amazon, and by every great continental river; and 
how active, beyond all ordinary conception, must the process of nitrifica- 
tion bo over all the land ; and how vast the supply of assimilable nitrogen 
for the use of the vegetation ! A. o. 

10. Action of foreign Pollen upon the Fruit.—ln the last number of this 
Journal, p. 443, some facts were referred to which led to the supposition 
that pollen applied to the stigma may exert some specific action upon the 
ovary itself, independent of its action upon the ovules determining the 



Batamy and Zoology. 188 

^ the embryo. This was mentioned at fiirniihing the moit 
e to the explanation of the reputed fact that sqnathea are 
is the quality and appearance 6f the fruit altered) by pump- 
^ in their vicinity, and vice verta ; and even that mcloQa are 
luashes; and this notwithstanding the fact, ascertained br 
. distinct species of Oucurbitaeea refuse to hybridise, althoogh 
aces of the same species cross with the greatest facility. It k 
reed that the alteration of the character of the flruit is imme- 
iiat it affects the ovary itself which has been contaminated 
)olIen. It might then equally affect the fruit whether the 
ny of them fertilized or not ; and in Nandin's experiments 
ion of pollen apparently caused the fruit to set, even when 
ire fertilized. 

nilar case of direct action of alien pollen upon the frnit, or 
s in Indian Com, and is fiiroiliar to every fiurmer in the 
the form of grains of different varieties on the same ear. A 
luce is before us in a small ear of Sweet Com, grown in the 
patch of the common hard yellow variety ; in consequence 
> six grains in every row have become yellow com, while the 
lie characteristic api>earance of the sweet variety. It is not 
several sorts of maize are cultivated together, to find nearly 
eparately represented upon one ear. This must be the result* 
es-fertilization of the previous year showing itself, not in a 
the characters of the fruit of the prc^peny, but in a complete 
ito the constituent sorts in Uie fruit resulting from one*seed« 
[ be a wonderful anomaly, but no impossibility ; or else, of an 
ction of the pollen the present year, as is reputed of squashet 
But the occurrence of three sorts of com upon one ear 
ftfds excluding the first supposition, since there can have been 
lediate parents to one embryo. a. o. 

ture and development of the Flower and Fruit nf th$ Fear; 
)NB. From a communication made to that active association^ 
il Society of Franco, — of which an abstract is published in 
?r's Chronicle of Nov. 14th, we leara that Decaisne has 
irect observation of the development, the correctness of that 
;ing the structure of the pomaceous fruit which we have 
tained on general morphological grounds. The pips are the 
they are f^^parate and free at their first appearance: a little 
th from the receptacle forms an open cup around them, ends 
ly investing them, and becomes the flesh of the core. In the 
base of the at first sessile flower-bud elongates into a pedun- 
er part of this thickens with the bud itself and forms the 
far part of the pear, which therefore, below the carpels, is 
10 stalk, as absolutely as in Anacardium or Hovenia, From 
ations and others upou Afelaetomacea, <fec, Decaisne con- 
he orthodox view of the structure of the flower, ^ as explained 
nous m'lsters, K, Brown, DeCandolle, and Jussieu" is demon- 
ct ; that '* it is not necessary to call into account that axis 
the present day so often and so willingly appealed to for ex- 
structure of flowers and fruits ;" that ^ it is not impossible to 



124 Scientific Intelligence. 

bring under the common law of organization the ovaries with a free central 
plni-.cntn, whose differences from ordinary ovaries are more apparent than 
real ;" that most probably placentation always, in spite of appearances, 
belongs lo the ovarian leaves. We arc pleased to nud that Uie experi- 
ence of this eminent botanist has brought liim into agreement, as regards 
the conception of species, with the views of those whom we must regard 
as the soundest workers and writers of the present day, and those on 
whom the hopc»s of the science rest. He states that if he had the Plan- 
taginea to elaborate anew, lie should not hesitate to reduce considerably 
the number of species, **and perhaps to refer some entire sections to a 
single sjvecific tyj>e." Perliaps even the greater part of two sections, we 
may add ; for of two sections in the Prodromus, one is founded upon 
Bubsterile and the other u|>on truly fertile forms of the same species, or 
set of species : and in another part of tlje genus one wide-spread Ameri- 
can species figures under at least a dozen names. See notes on Reports 
of Pacific Railroad Explorations^ vol. 4, p. 11 7.* A. o. 

12. Naturliistoriske Bidrag til en Belkrivelle af Gronland ; af J. Rein- 

HARDT, J. C. SCHIUDTE, O. A. L. MoRCH, C. F. LUTKBN, J. LaKOE, H. RiKK. 

8vo, pamph., pp. 172, with map. Copenhagen, 1857. — ^Thia work con- 
tains a complete catalogue of the fauna and flora of Greenland as £ur as 
known, together with some account of the geology and meteorology. It 
is a work of great imi)ortanee to North American naturalists, relatincr as 
it does to our northern Fauna and Flora, and containing many valuable 
remarks upon the genera and species, particularly in regard to their 
synonymy. The zoological portion only will be notie^ here. The Mam- 
malia, of which there are 27 species, Hirds, 111 species, Fishes, 69 species, 
Crustacea, 138 species, and Annelirla, 87 species, — are elaborated by Rein- 
hard t; the Insects by Scliio<Uo ; the Mollusca, 211 species, and Acalepbae, 
33 species, by Morch ; tiio Echiuodemiata, 29 species, and Polypi, 7 spe- 
cies, bv Liitken. 

In the catalogue of testaceous molluscs, our conchologists will not be 
surprised to see many of our familiar species appearing under strange 
names. In this department of zoology, the names, particularly those of 
the genera, seem to undergo a periodical change. Of Pulmonates there 
are eleven species, seven land and four freshwater. Vitrina angelica 
hardly differs from V. pellucida ; if distinct it is probably identical with 
V. Itmpida, Gould. Tiie various divisions of Helix^ as Ckmulut, Helicella 
and Helicogena^ are adopted as genera. 

Our Bulla triticea is regarded as the same as the European Cglichna 
alba, B. Meinbardi, Moll., is catalogued as " Cgl. insculpta^ Totten," 
which however is onlv a svuonvm of Bulla Boliiatia, Sav. Dendronotut 
Jieynoldsii^ Couth., is considered a distinct species from the European ar- 
horesniis, to which it is generally referred by our naturalists. Four species 
of Vilutina are mentioned, V.flexilis^ lanigera, kaliotoidee and zonata. 
The classification adopted is singular in some respects; for example 
it is somewhat startling to see Litiorina introduced between Velutina 
and Natica ; while Rissoa and its allies are placed between Natica and 
Cerithium, Natica is divided into four genera, Natica, Lunatia^ Gray, 

* These volumes some of them contutn much iotercsting botanical matter. Wi 
may call attcotiun to them wheu the remaiuing volumes are published. 



Botany and Zoology. 185 

Jfirmmo, Klein, «nd Amauropsis, nov. gen. Oar Natica cUnua k N, affi- 
nia (Nmta) Groel. N, yronlandica^ Beck., is a Lunatia, N, immacnlaia^ 
Totten, is luiid to be the young of JV. (Afamma) boncUis, Gmj, 1839 ; if 
io, Totten'ft name has priority. Natica helicotden, Johnst, is called Amau- 
rop9i$ ishndiea [Nerita)j Gmel. AdeorbU costuhUa is placed in Cyelos- 
irema^ Marryat Mangelia turrieula of our coast is regarded as distinct 
from the European Fu9ua turricvlus and styled Defranda scalaris^ Moll. 
The name Tritonium is adopted for Buecinum^ including B, glaciate j 
iHmovani, undatum^ ffrdnlandicum, Hancockii, tenuCj unduiatum^ Hum- 
pkreynanum^ and ciliatum ; while the name Fusus is retained for F. dt- 
$peciu9j tomatuM^ itlandicus^ norvegicus^ etc. The lules of nomenclature 
would however seem to require that Buccinum should be retained, being 
the older name, whether Jritonium be preferred to Fusus or not Fu$u9 
clatkratHi is placed imder Murtx. Spinalis Oouldii^ Stimpson, is cor* 
recUy referred to Limaeina halea ; but we cannot see why tlie name Hi- 
UrtifuMu% of Fleming, founded on an error, should lie preferred to the 
more euphonic one of 8ouleyet. Margarita undulaia is M. gr&nlandiea^ 
Chemn^ 1781. The names Jl£, cinerea and argmtata of our naturalists 
are acknowledged over European synonyms. 

Patella eandida is regarded as identical with F. ectca and arranged in 
Zapeta^ Gray (Cryptobranchia, Midd.). Cemoria^ Leac^h, is retained orer 
Diadora^ Gray. Only two Chitons, C. mamwreus and C, albrn, are cata- 
logued, and the subgenera of Gray are adopted. Eight species of Cepha- 
lopoda are found in the list, which seems a Inrge number in view of the 
fact that only three are known to occur on the eastern coast of the United 
Statef). The Greenland Teredo is set down as " T. denticulata. Gray, 
1830," witli T. cfi7tfto/a, Stimpson, as synonym; an error of date, the 
latter name^having been published, with description, in Oct. 1851 ; Gray's 
name in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist for Nov. 1851, with no description. 
Cgrtodaria of J^audin is retained for Glyci/tneris, Lamk. Tellina prox- 
ima is T. {Maconui) sabulosa^ Spengler, according to Morch. We are 
not aware however of its having been called Psammobia eordida either 
by Couthouy or Gould. Tellina fueca (gronlandica^ Beck) occurs under 
the name of T. tenera, Letichy in Rozet^s Journal, 1818. Should this 
name hold, our common species T, tenera. Say, 1821, must receive a new 
designation, and might be called T, agilis in view of its quick and 
sprightly movements. SerripeSy Beck, is preferred to Aphrodiia, Lea ; 
which latter name however has priority, and should stand unless rejected 
on account of its occurrence in other dcpailments of the animal kingdom. 
Nuculana, Link, is retained over Leda^ Schura. 

Several of our New England raollusks, whose limits were not before 
known to extend so far noith, are mentioned in the catalogue : as Bulla 
iwfculpfa, EoUh Bostottieneis^ E, salmonacea^ Bissoa ebumeoy Tkracia 
truncaia^ Montacuta devata and KelUa planvlata. Many other points of 
interest to our malacologists may l>e found in the catalogue, but our 
space will not permit of further notice of them here. 

Wo will add a few brief remarks upon Liitken's catalogue of the Echi- 
nodermata. Of this class we find Holothuridsc, 1 Echinus, 8 Asteriadse, 
and 1 1 Ophiuridae. Cucumaria is retained instead of Pentacta, Goldfuss, 
notwithstanding the latter has priority, C. Koreni, Ltk., nov. sp., is 



126 Scientific Intelligence. 

Pentacta ealngera^ St., Bost Proa, 1851. Cuvieria » tmited to PmoIvs 
and with good reason. The new genus Evpyrgue seems related to PmoIhs; 
MyriotrochuB of Steenstrup to Chirodota. Asteracanthitm grbnlandieuM^ 
Sip., scarcely differs from A, littoraliSj Stimpeon, Synopsis In?, of Grand 
Manan, p. 14, while A.problema, nov. sp., is identical with A, albultut^ 
St., loc. cit Opkiura Sarsii^ Ltk., n. s., is common on our coast and 
hero considered a variety of 0. ciliata. 0. squamoaa, LtL, nov. sp^ is 
common at Grand Manan, and is 0. robuita of the Synopsis. O. rolmita 
of Ay res seems to include both 0, squamosa and nodosa of Lfttken. It is 
proper to state that the above identifications are established upon actual 
comparisons of specimens. w, s. 

1 3. Contributions to The Natural History of the United States of 
America ; by Louis Aoassiz. First Monograph in three parts : I. Essay 
on Classification; II. North American Testudinata; III. Embryolo^ of 
the Turtle. In two volumes 4to of 640 pages, with thirty-four plates. 
1857. Boston: Little, Brown <fe Company. London: Trtkbner & Co. 
Subscription price, per volume, $12. 

These two quarto volumes on American Zoology are the first of a series 
of ten volumes, which Prof. Agassiz has in course of preparation. It is 
most honorable to the country and a high tribute to the author, that this 
great work is appearing under so liberal auspices. 

Eleven years ago Prof. Agassiz landed in America : since then his la- 
bors have been incessant, and as a consequence, a large amount of draw- 
ings and manuscripts connected with American zoology had accumulated 
on his hands. The seashores here opened to him a field in zoology he 
had not hitherto enjoyed, the rivers and lakes were full of life that had 
new revelations for him, the whole land in every direction tempted a mind 
in love with all forms of nature, and nearly every department of zoology 
had therefore been the subject of special researches. Encouraged and aided 
by a distinguished friend, Mr. Francis C. Gray of Boston — since deceased 
— the plan of publication by subscription was set on foot. Prof. Agassiz 
alluding to his benefactor and the subscription, says, in his Pre&ce: 

** He took the whole direction himself, awakening attention to it by 
personal application to his friends and acquaintances, by his own liberal 
subscription, by letters, by articles in the journals, and by every means 
which the warmest friendship and the most genuine interest in science 
could suggest He was rewarded beyond his utmost hope or mine, by 
the generous response of the public to whom he appealed. We had 
fixed upon five hundred subscribers as the number necessary, to enter 
upon the publication with safety ; and we had hoped that the list might 
perhaps be increased to seven or eight hundred. At this moment it stands 
at twenty-five hundred : a support such as was never before offered to 
any scientific man for purely scientific ends, without any reference to gov- 
ernment objects or direct practical aims, — although I believe no scientific 
investigations, however abstruse, are without practical results. My gene- 
rous friend did not live to witness the completion of the first volume of 
the series, which without his assistance could not have appeared, but he 
followed with the deepest interest every step in its progress, to the day of 
his death ; — he did live, however, to hear the echo which answered his 
appeal to the nation, in whose love of culture and liberality towards all 



Botany and Zoology. 127 

intelleetaal objects he had felt so much confideTice. From all the princi- 
pal cities, and from towns and villages in the West, which a few years 
BDce did not exist; from California, from every corner of the United 
States,— came not only names, but proffers of assistance in the way of 
collections, and information respecting the distribution and habits of ani- 
mals, which have been of the utmost assistance in the progress of the work." 

Prof. Agaasiz, from his first arrival, has identified himself with Ameri- 
can science. He left Europe behind him, and cared not even to seek 
European channels for his publications, although they have the advan- 
tage of wider circulation and repute. He has often spoken with strong 
disapprobation of that petty ambition sometimes seen on this side of the 
waters, to contribute to a foreign periodical, rather than those of the land. 
His lot and mission were here ; and the response he has met with from 
the country is testimony, not simply to his science, but to the noble feel- 
ings of the man. On certain of his views men may differ ; but as to 
honest purpose in research, thoroughness of investigation, breadth of phi- 
losophical ideas, and beauty of actual results, there can be but one opinion. 

The work as projected, was to consist of ten volumes of about 300 
quarto pages and twenty plates each. The subject intended for the firet 
volume expanded under the hands of the author through the extension 
of his researches, and also still more from the introduction of a series of 
chapters on the philosophy of classification and a kindred topic of general 
interest growing out of it — Creation the work not of physical agencies, 
bat of a personal Creator. The text was thus enlarged to the size of two 
volumes and the plates also were increased in number to nearly double 
that projected. The publishers have therefore issued the whole in two 
rolnnies. Prof. Agassiz states in his Preface that in the third volume, 
which is already far advanced, the deficiency in the number of plates 
will be fully made up, the subject requiring very numerous illustrations. 

Prof. Agaasiz, besides his many acknowledgements of aid received in 
the way of specimens and information, mentions Mr. James £. Mills and 
Mr. H. James Clark as valuable assistants in his scientific researches, the 
latter especially in microscopic dissections and drawings. He gives high 
eommendation to Mr. A. Sonrel, the artist, whose labors as draftsman 
have contributed to his works now for twenty years. The beauty and 
finish of the plates fully justify the remark respecting Mr. Sonrel in the 
prefiice — ** The mastery he has attained in this department, and the ele- 
^noe and accuracy of his lithographic representations, are unsurpassed, 
if they are anywhere equalled.^' 

As we shall return to these volumes again, we here give only a list of 
the topics of which they treat. 

Vol. I, Part I. Essay on Classification, 

Chapter I. The fundamental relations of animals to one another and 
to the world in which they live, as the basis of the natural system of ani- 
mals : under which head, the author treats of — the actual foundation in 
nature of the true zoological system or classitication, — the unity of plan 
throughout the diversified types — the distribution of the same types over 
widely diverse geographical regions, and as widely diverse geological 
^ea, — the permanency of types and the immutability of species, — the 
Ydationa between plants and animals and the surrounding world,— em- 



126 Scientific Intelligence. 

bryology a basis for detemiin^ng the rank of species — raccesBion in geo- 
lo<riciil time a basis for deciding approximately upon rank; — all of which 
topics, besides others not here enumerated, are so handled as to bear di- 
rectly on the question of creation by physical agencies, giving it a de- 
cided negative reply. 

Chaptcir II. Leading groups of the existing systems of animals — ^a 
philosophical disquisition on the true significance of the grades of subdi- 
visions in the kingdoms of life, the nature of species, genera, families, 
orders and classes. 

Chapter HI. Notice of the principal systems of zoology, including ob- 
servations on the systems of Aristotle and Linnseus; the anatomical sys- 
tems of Cuvier, Lamarck, Ehrenberg, Burmeister, Owen, von Siebold and 
others; i\iQ physio philosophical systems of Oken and McLeay; and the 
emhryological systems of Dol linger, von Baer, Vogt, etc. 

Part II. North American Teatudinata, 

Chapter I. The Order of Testudinata, its rank, classification, general 
characters, anatomical structure, geographical distribution, geological his- 
tory, etc. 

Chapter IT. The Families of Testudinata, 

Chapter III. North American genera and species of Testudinata — their 
characters, distribution, etc., for the several families. 

Part III. Embryology of the Turtle. 

Chapter I. Development of the egg from its first appearance to the 
formation of the embryo. 

Chapter II. Development of the embryo from the time the egg leaves 
the ovary to that of the hatching of the young, including the laying 
of the eggs, — the deposition of the albumen and formation of the ^elT, 
— the absorption of albumen into the yolk sac, — ^the transformations of 
the yolk in the fecundated egg^ — segmentation of the yolk, — the whole 
egg is the embryo, — foldings of the embryonic disc and successive stages 
of growth of the Turtle, — formation and development of the organs, — 
histology, — chronology of the development of the embryo. 

The young of various species and the several succ(*ssive phases in em- 
hryological development are illustrated with details in the plates, all of 
which are crowded full of figures. 

In another number, we propose to give an abstract of some of the views 
brought forward in these volumes. 

IV. ASTRONOMY. 

1. New Asteroids, — The number of small planets already discovered 
between Mars and Jupiter is ffty. 

The 46th was discovered by Mr. Norman Pogson, Oxford, Eng.« Aug, 

14, 1857 ;— the 47ih (of llth magnitude,) by Dr. R. Luther, Bilk, Sept. 

15, 1857;— the 48lh (llth magn.) and 49th (lOth magn.) by Mr, H. 
Goldschuiidt, Paris, Sept. 19 and 22, 1857;— the 60th (Virginia,) of llth 
magnitude, by Mr. James Ferguson, Washington, D. C, Out 4, 1857, 

2. New Cornels. — The Fifth comet of 1867 was discovered by Mr. 
Kiinkeifues, Gottingen, Aug. 20, 1857. In September this comet became 
visible to the naked eye, and had a tail about 3° in length. 

The Sixth comet of 1S57 was discovered by Mr. Robert Van Arsdale, 
Newark, N. J., Nov. 10, 1857, It appeared like a &int nebola. 



Astronomy, 



199 



hie Stars discovered by Mr. Alvan Clark, Boston, U. S. ; 
Remarks, by the Rev. W. R. Dawes. (From the Proceed- 
ral Astronomical Society of London, Vol. xvii, No. 9). 



lation. 


R. A. 


N. P. D. 


s 


Ii m 
18-6 

8 10-7 
6 4-3 
6 42 2 

9 451 
12 03 
17 40 6 
17 47 4 
17 48-7 


' 

57 49 
91 29 
94 88 

104 59 
97 24 

109 32 
62 n 
60 17 
60 9 




>el, vi, 109.. 
iel, vi, 1291. 




1. <t C 






18 16-4110 37 



Mag. 



sel, xviii, 391 18 17 2; 91 39 
sel. xix. 1273 19 50-6' 92 88 



7.7 
5i 10 
6d. 9 

6,9 

6,61 

6 
lOi. 11 

8f 

10, lOi 

5, 8 

7.7i 
7i,8 I 



Approjc. 
Di8t. 


Tel. of 
DiHcov- 




ery. 


i> 


Inch. 


0-4 


n 


0-8 


74 


11 


71 


10 


4f 


0-6 


4| 




4f 


1-8 


7f 


0-8 


7* 


11 


7* 


25 




0-5 


7i 


09 


H 



l).itc of 
Discovery. 



Oct. 1856. 
20 Dec. 1858. 

6 Feb. 1864. 

17 Feb. 1862. 

7 April, 1862. 
19 May. 1862. 

July, 1866. 
July, 1866. 
July, 1856. 

80 July, 1864. 

18 July, 1854. 



of these difficult objects have beeil from time to time 

to me in letters from their discoverer, who has adopted 
:ing the efficiency of his object-glasses when completed by 
no double stars of the last degree of difficulty, rather than 
ation of objects whose character was previously known. 

the impression that every such object in the northern 
ible with telescopes of moderate aperture must already 
led up and registered during the careful examinations of 

the heavens by the Struves with the Dorpat refractor of 
ture, and with the Poulkova of 15, Mr. Clark confined his 
southern hemisphere ; and his diligence and skill were 
e discovery of several interesting objects, wliich, it might 
ould hardly have escaped the Dorpat telescope if they had 
dly double in 1826 as they are now. Latterly, however, 
J to extend his researches northward, he has made some 
z\\ are almost startling (especially the duplicity of the very 
lion of .w Herculis)^ and are sufficient to show that there is 
ay be achieved by a diligent use of instruments of mode- 
st provided they are also of extreme perfection. A few 
of the most interesting of these objects may not, perhaps, 

r has a good altitude at Poulkova, and its magnitude en- 
lace in Otto Struve's catalogue. Its omission there may 

to a suspicion that it has a binary character, and has of 
e out from a state of apparent singularity. I have ob- 
^oximate measure of this st;\r, but have not examined it 
ly favorable circumstances. 

^eti I have repeatedly obtained measures; but it is a deli- 
d from its moderate altitude here requires fine circura- 
small companion, which has a purplish tint, is faint and 

therefore, have easily escaped detection at Dorpat. 
standi nor the moderate meridional altitude of 8 Sextantii 
ut 24°), it may reasonably be doubted whether its duplicity 

ES, VOL. XXV, NO. 78. — JAN., 18*8. 

17 



180 MisceUaneaus Intelligence. 

would hftre been left to be discovered with a 4}-incli objeot-gimvy how- 
ever perfeitt, if no change had occurred in its appearance ainoe Strave't 
scrutiny of that part of the heavens. 

*' 7. The position and distance of the small star witli respect to /« ffer- 
cults were observed by Stnive at Dorpat on one night in 1829, on two 
nighto in 1832, and on tliree in 183G ; and also on one night at Poulko- 
va with the 15inch refractor in 1851. Vet no suspicion was recordtid on 
any occasion of the companion being double. It is, therefore truly aston- 
ishing that Mr. Alvan Clark should have detected its unsuspected duplic- 
ity with an object-glass whose aperture is only 7|-inches ! I have suc- 
ceeded in measuring it pretty well in position, but only approximately in 
distance ; the faintness of the com|x>iients almost forbidding the slightest 
illumination, though they l>ear a high power on Clark^s S-inch ohject- 
glass,^-about 700 suiting them best My results are P=:68***97 ; D= 
l"-85±» It has been shown by Struve {Po8, Mtdia:^ p. ccxvii,) that^ 
and its companion have a common proper motion ; so that in this respect 
they are similar to f*^ and (i^ Buotitt ; and as the companion of ft Htretilu 
has now been discovered to be double^ it only remains that it should prove 
to be binary to render the resemblance complete. It is, therefore, eamcttly 
commended to the attention of those oliservers who po s s c s a telescopes 
competent to deal with it. As the small star precedes the large one, the 
former is properly ju^, and the latter, /u^, if that nomenclature be adopted. 

*' 8. This star is about as difficult as the closest of the Poulkova cata- 
logue ; and though on a fine night elongated with the 8-inch object-gla« 
I now have in use, would requite the full power of a 15-iuch refractor 
fairly to <livide it. That it attracted Mr. Clark^s attention as a doubU 
star is sufficient to prove that his eye as well as his telescope must possess 
extraordinary power of definition. 

** 0. This double star forms a good introduction to the small one of /x 
Herculis ; its components bein^; brfghter by about half a magnitude of 
my scale. With mv 8-inch object-glass and power 697, 1 have obtained, 
Pz=229°-48; D=l*"-119. 

** 1 1. A very difficult object, though decidedly elongated with a 7^incli 
aperture. My measures in 1854 gave, P=:178*®-10 ; D=:0"-426, the lat- 
ter a mean of two estimations. 

*M2. A neat and not very difficult object; it ought certainly to have 
been seen at Dorpat if it were as separate then as it is now. My raets- 
urements with Clark's 7^inch object-glass gave in 1854, P=383®-4d; 
D=0"-863." 

**HadJeuham, Thame, July 9, 1867." 

V. MISCELLANEOUS SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

1. Prof. Richard Owen of Nashville, Tennessee, on the OviHnei (fiht 
Continents, — In noticing in our last number the communication of Prof. 
Peiice on the tangency of the great circles in which the coast lines lie 
with tlM3 Arctic and Antarctic circles, we stated the fact that tlie same 
view had been brought out in a work published by Prof. Owen, but by 
mistake made the publication of Prof. Owen's work subsequent in date 
to the first aimounceraent of Prof. Peirce's views. A communication 
from Prof. Owen makes it clear that his publication has the priority, by 



MiiceBanetms IntdHgnoe^ ISI 



> or three montlis. Hia aocotint ie explicit As eovne ffenenil intttreet 
ittudied to theee viewis wliatever tlieir bearing or geologieal import- 
«> we cite a few pMngniphe from Prof. Owea^e work. Aiming to 
DC out the ** fixed miee" in the earth^s structure he saya; p. 86-^ 
* The first step, in accordance with the above plan, it to eolleot the 
ta r^rdinff the Direetion of the CoatU^ in their great outlines ; also 
the mcointam ranges, rivers, etc 

' Here wo at once perceive, if we elevate die north poie of the globe 
\^ above the horizon, that, when we revolve the globe, we bring many 
the ^reat continental coasts, as well as shorter ffulf and island coasts, 
cessively to the horizon, proving their parallelism : for instance^ the 
\t of North America, (California,) part of the western coast of South- 
I Africa, (coast of Guinea), west coast of Arabia, India, Binnah, Malaja, 
tnatra, Gorea, Australia, and Borneo. 

*' Now depress tlie north pole 23^® below the horaon, and Toa brinff 
I eattem ooai»t of North America, (Atlantic seaboard of the United 
ites,) the east coast of Southern Africa, and tlie eeneral trend of the 
tern Asiatic coast, (between Behring*s Straits and the Oulf of Siani,) 
iceasivelj parallel to the horizon. 

** A third set of coasts will be found parallel to the boriion, when we 
vato the equator 23^^ ; in which case the west coast of Central Amer- 
, the Northern coa^t of South America, the general direction of the 
<iirerranean coasts running from east to west, will be included in the 
mber, and will be observed to be chiefly intertropical ; while those pre- 
•usly pointed out are, for the most part, between the equator and tho 
'tie circle or the eqiiHtor and antarctic circle.'* 

The origin of this system of lines is attributed to *^ solar influence in 
ne of its modifications." 

Prof. Owen also brings in 23-}-^ as a distance, making what appears to 
a fanciful or unmeaning use of it. Ue obser^'e^ p. 44, 
^' Not to weary the render with similar details, which he can multiply 
lefinitely at \m pleasure, it will suffice to enumerate a few prominent 
tances spanned by 23^°, and several smaller measurements which seem 
be the eighth part of 06^% or nearly 8^^ ; near enough at least for 
ictical purposes. 

"* The former of the two measurements, viz., 23^®, will be found to be 
i distance from the Alps to Pales line, as well as, in a due south direc- 
n. to the Tropic of Cancer; also from the Alps successively to the 
ideira Islands, to Mount Hecla in Iceland, to near the Malstrj^m, to 
ke Onega, and to the eastern sliore of the Black Sea. 
^' It also measures from Palestine to the Baltic, to the Sea of Aral, to 
i south coast of Arabia, ami to the Gulf of Genoa, and indicates the 
ttance from Africa to the nearest point in South America. 
'' The smaller measure (nl>oiit 8^^) will be found to reach fron the 
rth of Scotland to the British Channel ; from the west of Ireland to 
inders ; from tho west of Scotland to iXnmark ; from the Malstrdm to 
3 Baltic; from the Baltic to the Adriatic; from Calais to Genoa; from 
est to Marseilles ; from Capo Finisterre to Oa])e St. Martin in &pain ; 
•m Genoa to fkna ; from Tunis (ancient Carthage) to Barca ; and tnm 
5 Alps to the Gulf of Tarento,** etc 



182 Miscellaneous Intelligence, 

As we hare expressed our dissent from the general principles of the 
work, we cite furtner a few paragraphs in order to give more definitenesa 
to our objection, and at the same time to show those who may be inter- 
ested, the nature of some of the discussions in the volume. 

The subjects of the chapters of the work are — 1. Physical, Statical or 
Geographical Geology ; 2. Dynamical ; 8. Anatomical ; 4. Botanical ; 
5. Zoological ; 6. Anthropological and Ethnological ; 7. Pathological and 
Therapeutical ; and last (8.) Ethical Geology. 

Almost immediately following the last citation, in the 2nd chapter, he 
states, and afterwards discusses this announcement, p. 45 : 

" The different successive geological periods will be found more reeentj 
arid lens dense in structure^ as they leave the north pole and approach the 
equator. Although certain layers prol»ably invest the globe, in a suocea- 
siori never inverted, yet, where upheaved, the edges or vertical sections of 
these formations appear to have been brought to the surface along con- 
centric (or subconcentric) lines, which are parts of great circles, inter- 
secting each other in such a manner as to form equilateral spherical 
trinngies on the earth's surface : each angle of intersection being equidis- 
tant from our present north pole ; also in such a manner as to cause 
hypozoic outcroppings in the smaller triangles, palaeozoic iin the next, and 
cainozoic in the larger." 

On tlie next page occurs the following strange paragraph : 

** By carefully laying down, on accurate maps, all the prominent points 
at which the Hypogene rocks are found in close proximity to Secondary 
rocks, and the latter again to Teiliary rocks, rejecting a few anomalies 
which occur chiefly at or near the above described longitudinal lines of 
upheaval ; by carefully noting the chief localities in which coal and the 
ordinary metals have been found, there seems no doubt that these geo- 
logicHJ lines of junction and of greatest metalliferous surface-wealth, form 
as already stated, equilateral spherical triangles, the three sides of each of 
which are formed by the intersection of great circles, and the apex of 
which is to be found very nearly if not quite at the terrestrial North 
Polo ; it is consequently probably the apex of a nucleiform sphericsl 
tetrahedron, on the curveil faces of which there appear to have accumula- 
ted successive layers of deposition. However, whatever the theory may 
be, the practical result is, that by following the lines indicated on the map 
we connect nearly all the points at which mineral wealth has thus (ar been 
found, and in which, ranges therefore we may most reasonably expect 
again to' find it, at intermediate points or on extensions of those lines." 

Chapter III. is devoted to " Anatomical and Physiological or Strsti- 
grapliical Geology — an attempt to demonstrate the analogy between or- 
ganic structures and geological strata ;" and after discussing the general 
nature of organic structures, the author draws out the analogy in the 
following geological extravaganza (pp. 84-88) : — 

" Our planet, perhaps, typifies an ovule from the solar matrix : in its 
earlier igneous, chaotic state, it bore analogy to the yet undeveloped 
amorphous structure of vegetable ovules and the animal ovum. Like 
them it had at an early period a nucleus, on which, after a time, air and 
moisture deposited additional materials, derived from the matrix. At a 
yet later period, a part r>f tho«e same materials were carried in mechaoi- 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 133 

miztare, partly in chemical solution, to promote the development of 
r fonnationa, fonning new continents, etc.; just as a portion of the 
1 (the albumen) and the food-yolk of the egg go to nourish the ex- 
ding germ. 

The separation of continents typifies the propagation by off-shoots, 
irtificially by cuttings, in plants ; and seems to resemble the fissiparous 
ie of reproduction observed among the lowest animals. In some of 
earli^ cataclysms, we have the type of the ruptured Graafian vesicles, 
lie at a final convulsive deluge, the period when the Western Conti- 
t and Australia were detached, and when possibly the moon, as a ter- 
rial ovule, was thrown into space, we readily recognize the type of 
tured pericarpal dissemination of seed, in the vegetable world, of com- 
:ed incubation and parturition in the animal kingdom. 
' But the analogy may be carried much farther : the earth, like man, 
its mountain masses giving stability to the length and sometimes the 
ndth of the land, just as the skeleton forms the framework of attach- 
Dt for muscles, etc. The materials solidified at the earliest periods are 
stalline, depositing materials around central points, as the earliest 
tea, thoee ot the head, commence their ossification by the arrangement 
cdla around a centre, or as the earliest animals partake of the radial 
e. At a later period the same materials (the serous layer of the serm- 
k in the animal, the detritus of igneous materials in the mmeral 
rid) furnish an ample deposit, which, in the long bones of the limbs, 
nur and humerus,) in the muscles, etc., now partake of a lamellar ap- 
irance, the result of cells arranged in layers, viewed in their vertical 
tions. On the earth's crust, these deposits are carried by aqueous ac- 
1 from the high and hard mountains, and are afterwards consolidated, 
beat, pressure, and electrical forces, into the sedimentary rocks of the 
ions later periods. 

'When an abundant supply of carbon has been furnished for the 
mih and subsequent decay of vegetation on the earth's surface, we 
n have the type of an extra-uterine nourishment. 

* We have the coal period forming its vast layers of carbonaceous de- 
lits, which, by slow chemical action under a portion of the earth's 
st, the evolution of various gases, and the formation of new compounds, 

in keeping up the temperature of the internal earth. The water, 
Uing through the earth's pores, dissolving and carrying many saline 
1 other ingredients to the ocean, is the type of the early lacteal pro- 
mts in the animal mingling with the venous blood, to be carried to the 
at centre of circulation, the heart, as the small streams unite into 
j;e, and carry the dissolved materials to the great deltas, and finally 
3 the ocean gulfe. 

^Turning our attention first to the Western Continent, we find, as just 
ted, the smaller streams anastomosing, (as the veins do to form the 
la cava,) and at last discharging the chief waters of North America, 
the Mississippi, into the Gulf of Mexico ; while the Orinoco, Amazon, 
I Rio de la Plata send the inosculated waters of South America also 
^ard the same gulf, through the currents tending to the Caribbean Sea. 

* Here we have the type of that venous or vitiated blood, which is now 
own into the great central heart, and thence propelled, in the Gulf- 



194 Miscellaneous IiUelKgence. 

Stream, chiefly north and east, toward those regions where the ocean u 
less salt, as tbe Baltic; entering also the Mediterranean, and learing 
there large saline deposits, tlie water of the ocean is evaporated by tlie 
heat of die sun, increaseil in intensity by reflection from Africans aandy 
Sahara ; and, tlnis purified, the aqueous vapor mingles with the atmos- 
phere, to bo carried along by its currents, until the accumulated humid 
contents of a cloud (typifying arterial circulation) descend, when its tem- 
perature has been depressed to the dew-point, as a pure deposition of 
aerated water, upon the thirsty earth, and filter througn the looee soil, to 
carry nourishment to that earth, its plants and animals, and agpiin per- 
form the same circulating course of evaporation, purification, and con- 
densation. 

*^ The atmosphere, then, besides forming Uie type of aerial coromnnica- 
tion between parent and oti^pring, as indicated in tho tabular view, is the 
type too of the great aerating organ, the lung, (whether under the form 
of external branchial tufts or internal parenchymatous structure, forming 
pulmonic sacs.) 

'' If the above lie true, I would ask the scientific man not to sneer, 
when I hesitatingly inquire, whether it is possible that in the Western 
Continent we have the male type, of greater length with less breadth, 
even the type of the air-breathing animal, with its vast central air-caverns; 
and V hether, at a former period, it foreshadowed the usual foeta) curva- 
ture in utero, before extension ; whether in the Eastern Continent we 
have the maternal type, the cretaceous period corresponding to that of 
lactation, the greatest pelvic width typified in the highest Himalayas, 
and the water-breathing type witli its central intercommunicating whirl- 
pools? 

^ Well aware of the ridicule to which I expose myself, and feeling 
keenly the criticism of those competent to decide, I yet am impelled by 
a sense of duty to ask thes«e questions, not as mere matters of speculative 
interest, but as queries, the answers to which may lead to important pmc- 
tical hygienic results, such as it will be attempted more especially to de- 
velop in some of the remaining chapters. 

"Should the probability of any of the above analogies be admitted, 
Australia at once establishes its claim to the placental type, as well as on 
account of its former position, and the great evidences that the upper 
layers have be<fn torn away, leaving an arid country around the Dead 
Sea some thirteen hundred feet below the level of the Mediterranean; as 
also by the marked peculiarities of its flora, (for instance, its leafless aca- 
cias, the petioles of which retain the nourishment that they should trans- 
mit to the leaves,) and of its noted fauna, among which so many belong 
to the order Marsiipialia, exhibiting a tendency to an extra-uterine poacb 
or enormous development of the nipple integument, while other animab 
of that anomalous continent, and its detached New Zealand, form the 
link between the oviparous bird and viviparous mammalia, the Mono- 
tremata. 

^ In the attraction exerted by the moon cfver the tides, we have the 
type of the periodicity, to be enlarged upon more in the Chapter on 
Pathological variations ; and it may sufiice now to ask again, whether 
we have not, in the periodical flux and reflux, the type of normal and ab- 



Miscellaneous Intelligence, 185 

normal, reffnlarlj recurring exacerbations, as in intermittent and remittent 
fevers, in the periodical excretions, alvine, urinary, etc., in the catameniaf 
and even in tbe arrival and departure of epidemic agency ? 

"' To recapitulate, in a more connected form, this comparison of inor- 
ganic with organic phenomena, we observe that the older rocks (the Ily- 
pogene, crystalline, non-fossil iferous) arc chiefly found in the arctic and 
intarctic regions, (although, also, more or less accompanying every pe- 
nod ;) next to tliose come the Secondary, (Palaeozoic and Mesoxoic rocks,) 
diieflj in the north temperate xone; while nearer the tropics are chiefly 
(bveloped the Tertiary and newer formations. The Ilypogene rocks, 
being of all Bge% and forming the hardest and highest mountain ranges, 
as well as in other particulars to be pointed out below, resemble the 
serous layer, which forms the great framework and consolidates at differ- 
ent periods of life. The Secondary formation resembles the vascular 
layer ; and the Tertiary is the analogue of the mucous layer, altliongh in 
the animal it is more frequently an internal than an external layer/' 

Remarks on these passages are unnecessary. 

2. On the Supposed Meteorite from Marhiehead ; by A. A. IIayks. — 
A.part of the mass of this substance, which was first descnl>ed in a Salem 

Cper a few days since, having been sent to me for chemical analysis, it 
8 proved to bo an artificial product of tlie arts. 

The piece examined was externally black ; its surface was channeled 
owing to numerous semicylindrical elevations, produced by the flow of 
jeti of fluid mineral matter. Internally the color was blackisli grey, the 
eompact parts being crystalline; while numerous elongated and spherical 
bubble cavities rendered other parts porous and uneven. Much of tho 
recent as well as the exposed part of the fracture exhibited a peudo-me- 
tallic lustre of the color of cop]>er, which also appeared in the cavities. 
A part of the exposed surface was coated by a light yellow ochry cover- 
ing, easily removed from the black glazed suifaco below. When frac- 
tured, the ghized surfaces of the small streams of once-fluid matter were 
SMind in every part of the specimen, showing that the structure was made 
up by the niaterial being successively added on previously cooled parts 
ID jets or small streams. 

When subjected to chemical tests, iron in a metallic state was fonnd ; 
its composition was that of cast iron containing carbon, without any 
trace of nickel. The other constituents were in an oxydized state, ex- 
cepting a minute portiou of sulphur compound, while traces of copper 
were found in every part of the substance. 

It was composed of silica, proto-pcroxyd of iron, lime, alumina, magnesia, 
lolphur, copfier, which are the bodies present in the slags of copper fur- 
naces. Like tliose slags, the s])ecimcn examined was readily decomposed 
by acids, in which the bases dissolve with a ]>ortion of silicic acid ; no 
natural mineraU remain. The composition of this compound, the pres- 
ence of crude iron with its carbon constituent, and its mechanical struc- 
ture, oflfer positive evidence of its being of artificial origin. 

lu the absence of nickeliferous or chromiferous iron, simple minerals of 
tiic magnesian class, and a natural internal structure, we have the nega- 
tive evidence. lk>th leave no doubt that this body is a furnace product 
fcrmed in smelting copper ores, or iron ores containing copper. 



136 Miscellaneous InteUigence. 

8. On the Volcano of Kiktuea^ Havoaii; by the Rev. Titus Coav. 
(From a letter to J. D. Dana, dated Hilo, Sept 1, 1867.) — ^I was at 
Kilauea with the younger Binghams and others in June last. Pele was 
rather quiet. The latest change is the subsidence of the vast dome, some 
800 feet high and two miles in circuit, which covered the area of the 
ancient fire-lake, Haleroaumau. All that area is now a deep basin, en- 
circled by a rim consi^^ting, in some places, of a bold perpendicular preci- 
pice, and in others of an inclined plane of unequal angles, rent into 
numerous yawning fissures and strewed with immense masses of debris. 
The bottom of this basin is rent and smoking, and studded with a few 
cones. Near the centre, and enclosed by a jaggexl rim from 20 to 50 feet 
high, is the lake of fire, which has burnt from time immemorial. It is 
about 100 feet below the rim and some 500 feet in diameter. When our 

Earty approached it, there was very little action ; but in about half an 
our, mother Pele, as if to give us a special benefit, began to fire up in 
earnest ; the great cauldron boiling furiously on the southern side ; the 
glaring fusion rolled in a fiery wave over the black and hardened crust 
which covered the lake like ice, breaking it down by sections, and tilting 
it at an angle of 30°, carried it under the burning flood, until the whole 
surface of the lake was aglare and all boiling together with vehement 
heat This whole process did not occupy more than tliree minutes. Not 
a square inch of hardened crust remained. All was glaring fusion ; and 
so intense was the radiating heat, that our whole party were driven pre- 
cipitately back from our point of observation on the windward or north- 
eastern bank, and more than 100 feet above the lake. No person could 
have approached the southern bank. After a little season, all was quiet 
again and the surface of the lake blackened and cnisted over ; Pele had 
dropped her curtain. These scenes were repeated in the night, as we 
could see from the great brilliancy occasionally displayed. 

Mr. Coan, in the same letter, states it as his opinion based on his sur- 
vey of the region, that the lavas of the last summit eruption of Mount 
Loa, which began in 1855, and continued on for fifty miles, all flowed 
from a single opening, — that of the first great outbreak. 

4. Earthquakes, — About four o'clock on the morning of October 8, a 
shock of an earthquake at St Louis, Missouri, **made the more substantial 
buildings tremble." Seven minutes later there was another shock. These 
shocks were felt at Springfield, Illinois, and elsewhere. At Centralia, Illi- 
nois, there were three distinct shocks at intervals of five minutes, at about 
the same hour in the morning, the first of the three being powerful 
enough to throw down chimneys. 

On the 23d of October, soon after three o'clock in the afternoon, an 
earthquake shock was felt at Bufialo, N. Y. It was also perceived to the 
westward in Ohio, at Dayton, Forestville, etc. 

Another shock occurred at Charleston, S. Carolina, on the morning of 
the 19th of December, about nine o'clock. 

It is much to be desired that some person in the region of these earth- 
quakes should collect all the information respecting them, especially with 
reference to the time and intensities of the shocks at dififereut places, — 
these times accurately determined, being the data necessary for deducing 
the direction from which the earthquake came, its course, breadth, and 
progress, and the intensities, giving the point of greatest action. 



Miscellaneoiis InteUigenee. 1S7 

5. Tobies of the Division of Mankind into Races, Branches, Families 
md Nations, with an approximative statement of the Population ; by M. 
dX))ialiu8 d'Hallot, (Bull, de TAcacl. Roy. Belgique, tome xxiii, 1856, 
p. 812.) 

L Dieision into Races and Branchen, 

Wwxn Rags. — ^European branch, 289,586.000 

Aramean ** 60,890,000 

Scjthian " 80,747,000 = 870,728,000 

Tnxow lUciL-Hyperborean branch ] 60,000 

Mongulbm " 7.000,000 

Sinic « 838,300,000 = 846,460,000 

Btowai Ragb. — Hindoo branch. 171,100,000 

Ethiopian •* 8.300,000 

Malay " 26.600.000 == 206,000,000 

Rd Rack. Soutiiern ** 9,200,000 

Northern •* 410,000= 9,600,000 

Black Race.— W«ttem " 66,000,000 

Eastern " 1,000,000= 67,000,000 

Htbuos, Mulattos, ZamboA, Ac 1 2,2 1 7,000 

Total, 1,000,000,000 

IL Subdivin^n of the White Race into Faanilies and Nation*. 

1. European Branch, 
Tmono Fantlt. 

Oerraana, indnding the Dutch, 64,000,000 

Samdioaviana.— Swedes, 8.684,000 

Norwegians, ] .663,000 

Danea 1 .709.000 

Englbb, induding the Scotch, 88.014,000 = 98,920,000 

Cnrio Familt. 

Cymry.— WeWi, 660.000 

Bretons, l.OOO.OoO 

Gaels.— Iritfh. 9.600.000 

Higbiaiiders, 600,000 = 1 1,760,000 

Laid FAicrLT. 

Frencli, 89,900.000 

Spaniarda, including the Portuguese, 22.866.000 

Italiams 26.1 6(i.000 

Wallacks, 7,096.000 = 96.020,000 

ten Family. 

OrHek^ 2,990.000 

Albanians, 1,480.000= 4,470,000 

&ATIO Family. 

Ru!is4an9, including the Rueniaks and Cossacks, . . . 49.874.000 

Bulgarians, 8,387,000 

Servinnst. 5,600.000 

SloYeiiinns, 1,806 000 

Wen<ls, 142.000 

Cbechs. — Bohemians, 3,144.000 

Moravian.** 1,000,000 

Hanaks, 280.000 

Slovaks 2,400.000 

Poles. 9.304.000 

Lithuanians. — Litliunnians, propi*rly 1,217.000 

Lettish 872,000 = 78.426,000 

Total, 289,686,000 

ttCOMD SEBISS, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. — ^JAN., 1868. 

18 



138 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

8. Aramtan Branch. 
B.%SQUB Faxilt. 

BaiK)uu9, 775,000 

LTDIA!! KaMILV. 

Berbera.— Amflzin^h?, i.'iOO.OOO 

Kaby lea, 1 ,6( lO.OOO 

TimricA, 800,000 

Egyptians.— Copt!» 160.000 

Fellahs, 1,600.000= 8,160,000 

Semitic Family. 

Aml»8 14.660.000 

Jewii 4,074.000 

Syrian-* 600,000 

M ii I tci.e 1 06,000 = 1 9,880,000 

PffiSiAX Family. 

Tajik*, 8.776.000 

Af^lmns. — Afgh«n«, pniperly, 8.600,000 

Belouchi*, 1,600.000 

Patnns 6.000,000 

Kurds, including the Lures, 1 ,600,000 

Armenians 1,228,000 

O'Wtians, 82,000 

Ocorgittus, including the Mingrelians and Lazians, . . 600,000 = 22,1X6.000 

Total, 60,890,000 

8. Scythian Branch. 

CiaCASSIATT FAMILY. 

Cherkew^inns, 800.000 

Chutchcnt* 200,000 

Lesghinns, 600,000 = 1,500,000 

M\OTAIl FAMILY. 

Magym :». 5,000,000 

Tiasisn family. 

O^ninnli 9,600.000 

TuroMnan^ 1.600.000 

Tarekainehs. 1,000.000 

Nogai 1,470.000 

Kir>ri>« 1,000,000 

Usiieks 6,500.000 

Alatys 80,000 = 20,000,000 

Fisynn family. 

FiuuH of Siberia. 

Teleoutf*. 1 .000 

Sagaii) ; Kachintfi, etc. 20.000 

TV(»gii|p, 12.000 

O.Htiaks, 108,000 = 186,000 

Finn« of Ea.Htern Russia. 

IWhkirs 892.000 

Ttptiair:* 104.(00 

Metcheriaks, 80,000 

Cli( iivjisehs 480,000 

Clieruniisses, 1 66.000 

^lorduini*. 480,000 

IVrmiaks 62,000 

Sirijanes 7 l.OOO 

Votiak*. 191,000 1.965,000 

Finn< of the Bidtic. 

Livoniaiis. 2,000 

Epthonians 664,000 

Kyrials ; Ymcs ; Quaines 1,490,000 2,146,000 = 4.247.000 

Total, 80,747,000 



Misc^laneous IntelHgenee. 



189 



IIL Subdinntm of (h§ Yellow Race into hraneha, femUif mnd noHont, 



PEEBOKRAX BRANCH. 

Lnpponic fatnilj, 

Samoyedie ** 

YeiiiM*! ** 

Tukasir " 

KoriiiE ** Kormks, 

Chutcliiii, 

Ejimtscfaatkau family 

Esquimaux ** NamoIkM, 

Chugamcs, 

Ku»kovintzef, 

Al«H>uts, 

Esquimaux 

Greenlaniltfra, 

Earilian family.— Aiiioa, 40,000^ 160,000 

XGOLIAX BaANCir. 

Yakut family.— YakotK, 

Munguliau family. — Kalmiickt, 

Mon^iliaus, 3^60.000 

Uunitti.*li 1 iO,000 

Tungusian family. — Tuiigui<ian8, 60.iX)0 

Mantcliuriaus. 4,0U0,U00 = 7,000,000 

10 BRAXm. 

Chinese family, 282.000,000 



0.000 
10,100 
88,000 

8.000 

8.0U0 

?,«00 

6,U00 

2,000 

8.000 

7.01)0 

^.000 
S0,0U0 

6,100 
40,000 = 

00.000 
1711,000 



Coreiiii 

Japanef^e 

Aiianiitic 

Siamese 

Peguan 

l-iirinan 

Thibetan 



*4 

u 
tl 
II 

M 
U 
M 



6.000.000 
26.0OO.o00 
l-i.OOd.OOO 

4.300.000 
fit 10,000 

2.600.000 

6,000.000=138.800.000 



Tot.il 845.460,000 

IV. Subdivition of the BaowN I^ace into branche*, familiet and nation$. 



CDOO BRANCir. 



Hindoo family. \ ^"''^^ <'""'™'»-' Mfl'.mttn.; > „, ;oo.000 

60,000,00C=:171,100,000 



ITeliiigas; Carnation ; TaiiiiU ; ) 
f Sin^lese ; t (IuiiJa ; t BhilU ; v 
~ " is, etc. .. ) 



( !Paliuri:i8; ?Kachuris. 



EIIOPIAX OaAXCO. 



A 1 r --M i Bnmbras; Tibboos; Abyssm- ) 

Abyssinian family. •{ ^. .^ /i«r.. ♦« f 

^ ' \ mans ; Uahas, etc ) 

FcUan family. — Fellalis ; Ovas, etc 

.LAY BaANCO. 

i Malays; Battas; Javanese; Macas- 

Malay family. •( snr;»; Bug^s; Turajas; Diiyaks; 

( Bissayis ; Tngalis, etc 



4,800.000 

4,000.000 s: 8,800,000 

24,600,000 



Polynesia! 
family. 



' N. Zealandors ; Tongas; Bougainyilli- "> 
ans ; Cook's I:«lan'Jers ; TahitianH ; i 
"*° * Paumotuans; Marquesans ; Sandwh V 1,000,000 = 26.600,000 



rquesans 
Islanders; Caroline Islandern; Mul 
^ graviaos, 



Total, . 206,000.000 



140 Miscettaneotis Intelligence. 

V. 8Mbdivui<m of the Rkd Rack inio brmneka and famUiM. 

SoOTHmN BBANCH. 

Aztec family, 4,485,000 

Maya " SOO.lKH) 

Quichua" 2,620.000 

An tisian " 1 00.000 

Araucanian family, 840,000 

Panipean «* 260.000 

Chiquitean « 20,000 

Moxean " 80,000 

Guaraniao " 1,106.000= «,200 

NOKTHKRX BKANCn. 

Floritliaii family 'TO.OOO * 

Iroquois ** 6.000 

Lennpe " 40.000 

Athabascan " 40,000 

Sioux " 86.000 

Pawnees " 80,000 

Kolushfn *• 50.000 

Waka^h « 20,000 

Californian « 60.000= 40C 

Total, %^ 



y L Suhdivinon of the Black Race into braneket, familut and natumt 
Western branch. 

Hottentot **^ j A large number of nations, of whom the most I ^qq^ 
Negro " ( areunknowu,. * '^ ' 

EaSTERX BRAXCe. 

Pgpy^lv^^My jFeejeeans; New Caledonians ; New Hebride- 



'^1 M;C 

C AndniTuinH nf thn AnrlnniAn Tsl.. IndrvChinn. r ^i 
Qian ) 



{ aiis; Salomon Islanders ; Pspuas.. 



An^a • ( Andamans of the Anrlnman Isl, Indo-China, 
Andamnnian } j^^^ Guinea. New Holland, Van Diemens 
^^'^y* 1 Land 



Total 57,00< 

C. Artesian Wells in Sahara, (Athen^ No. 1662). — The Moniteiti 
girien brings an interesting report on the newly-bored Artesian we 
the Sahara Desert, in the [>rovince of Constantine. The first well 
bored in the Oasis of Oued-Rir, near Tainerna, by a detachment o1 
Foreign Legion, conducted by the engineer, M. Jus. The works 
begun in May, 1856, and, on the 19th of June, a quantity of wat 
4,010 litres per minute, and of a temperature of 21° K^anmur, m 
forth from the bowels of the earth. The joy of the natives was 
bounded ; the news of the event s])read towards the South with une 
pled rapidity. IVoj>lo came from long distances in order to sec 
miracle ; the Marabouts, with great solemnity, consecrated tiie m 
created well, and gave it the name of "the well of peace." The se 
well, in Temakin, yielded 35 litres, of 21° temperature, per minute, 
from a depth of 85 metres; this well was called "the well of bliss.' 
third experiment, not far from the scene of the second, in the Oaj 
Tamelhat, was crowned with the result of 120 litres of water per mil 
The Marabouts, after having thanked the soldiers in the presence oi 
whole population, gave them a banquet, and escorted them in sol 



Miscellaneous hUeOigencs. 141 

proeetRon to the, frontier of the Oasis. In another Oasis, that of 8idi- 
i^ached, which had been completely niined by the drought, the digging 
of **the well of gratitude*^ was accompanied by touching scenes. As 
soon as the rejoicmg outcries of the soldiers had announced the rushing 
forth of the water, Die natives drew near in crowds, plunsed themselves 
into the blessed waves, and the mothers bathed their children' therein. 
The old Emir could not master his feelings ; tears in his eyes, he fell 
down upon his knees, and lifted his trembling hands, in order to thank 
God and the French. This well yields not less than 4,300 litres per 
minute, from a depth of 54 metres. A fifth well has been dug at Oum 
Thior, yielding 108 litres per minute. Here a part of the tribea of the 
neighborhood commenced at once the establishment of a village, planting 
at the same time hundreds of date-palms, and thus giving up their former 
nomadic life. The last well is that of Shegga, where soon an important 
agricultural centre will spring up. There is no doubt but that these 
wells will work in these parts a great social revolution. The tribes 
which, after the primeval custom of Uieir ancestors, kept wandering from 
one place to another, will gather round these fertilizing uprines, will ex- 
change the herdsman's staff for the plough of the farmer, and thus take 
the first steps towards a civilization, which, no doubt, will make rapid 
progress in r^orthern Africa. 

7. Ascent of Chimborazo, (Ed. N. Phil. J^ vi, 370).— The JEcho du Pa- 
djique of the 3d January, gives the following account of an ascent of 
Chiml>orazo, made on the 3d November, 1856, by a French traveller, M. 
Jules Remy, accompanied by M. Brenchley, an English traveller. 

^*0n the 23d of June, 1802, the illustrious Humboldt, accompanied 
by his friend Bonpland, made the first attempt to ascend Chimborazo. 
On account of a pointed rock, which presented an insurmountable barrier, 
they were unable to ascend above 5900 metres of the mountain, then re- 
garded as the highest in the world, and which still occupies a principal 
place among the colossi of America. 

"Thirty years later, on the 16th of December, 1831, M. Boussingault, 
after a long and skillful examination of the Cordillera of the equator, en- 
deavored to accomplish the ascent in which his predecessor liad failed. 
He reached the enormous height of 6004 metres, that is to say, 95 me- 
tres higher than the others ; but he was arrested by rocks as they had 
been, and could not get beyond this limit, which was then the most ele- 
vated point ever attained by man on mountains. 

*^Tlie accounts of these famous travellers had deprived us of all hope 
of readiing a height so considerable; but, after having obserx'ed the snowy 
and rounded summit of Chimborazo from Guayaquil, we could not help 
thinking that it was accessible from some point or other. M. Brenchley 
and myself were thus led to form the design of attempting a third ascent. 

"On the 21st of July, 1856, as we crossed the plateau of the Andes 
on our way to Quito, we halted at the foot of this stupendous mountain. 
We employed two days in studying its outlines from a distance, with the 
view of discovering any peculiar places on the surface of its gigantic 
dome which might afford us a passage. 

**Tlie route followed by MM. Humboldt and Boussingault, seemed to 
OB At fint to be greatly the most easy and desirable on account of its 



142 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

regular declivity ; but the barrier of rocks, whicb we readily distingiiisbcd, 
presented no outlet to the eye. When wo had made nearly ibe entire 
circuit of this mighty mountain, and without success, we resumed our 
journey towanis Quito, reserving the execution of our plan till wo should 
be better fortified against the rigorous climate of the higher Cordilleras. 

" After visiting Pichincha, Cotopaxi, and other giants of the Andes^ we 
again found ourselves, on the 2d of November, at the foot of Chimborazo. 
We pitched our camp at a height of 4700 metres, a little below the line 
of perpetual snow, in a valley l)etween Arenal and the point where tlie 
Riobamba route separates from that of Quito. We intended to spend 
the following day in collecting plants and hunting deer and birds, en- 
deavoring, at the same time, to determine beforehand the places which 
might aftbrd us the most easy access to the summit 

** We took up our quarters under a huge inclined rock, which afforded 
us sufficient protection against the northwest wind, but gave us no shelter 
in the event of rain. Rain had fallen in the afternoon. The weather 
cleared at night-fall, the sky became sprinkled with myriads of stars, and 
Chimborazo was delineated, in all its splendor, on the azuro and spark- 
ling vault of the firmament. 

*' On the morning of the 3d of November, at &ve o'clock, when day 
had not yet dawned in the equinoctial regions, wo left our camp in charge 
of our ]>eople, and departed on our exploring exjiedition, carrying with 
us a cotfee-pot, two thermometers, a compass, matches, and tobacco. A 
steep hill, sandy and rough with pebbles, which separated us from tbo 
perpetual snow, occasioned us so much fatigue at our outset, that two of 
the natives who accompanied us became discouraged and* turned back. 

^* When we had surmounted this hill, we dc*scended on some soft sand 
to the bottom of a valley, which we followed, and from the extremity of 
which, we distinguished very clearly the summit of the mountain, entirely 
free from snow. 

" After walking half an hour on the snow, vegetation suddenly ceased, 
and we saw no other living thing but two large partridges, and on the 
rocks a few lichens of the families Idiothalamus and llymenothalanius. 
At this point of our ascent we collected some dry branches of chuquira- 
gua, and made a bundle of them which we tied to our backs. We had 
still ta scale an immense rock of trachyte, from the top of which the 
summit of Chimborazo appeared to us so near, that we thought wo could 
reach it in half an hour. 

" Our ascent was so rapid, that we were soon obliged, from fatigue, to 
make frequent stoppages to recover our breath. Thirst also began to be 
severely felt, and in order to moderate it^ we almost always kept snow in 
our mouths. But we felt no symptoms of illness or any morbid affection, 
such as is spoken of by the majority of travellers who have ascended 
high mountains. 

" After halting a few seconds, without even seating ourselves, we again 
started not only with renewed ardor, but even a kind of furious deter- 
mination inspired by so near a view of the summit. It appeared endent 
to us, by this new instance confirming so many previous ones, that at 
these heights the atmospheric column is still sufficient to prevent any im- 
pediment to respiration, and that the shortness of breath and organic 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 143 

ections which are so generally complained of at considerable elevations, 
1st l>e ascribed to some other cause. 

** Always rapidly ascending, we now began to overlook the peaks of 
J Cordilleras, and to discover a ^stance furnished with immense valleys, 
len some light vapors, which at first appeared only like spiders webs 

the sides of the mountains, soon began to detach themselves in the 
ra of white flakes, stretching nearer and nearer to each other, till they 
last arranged themselves like a girdle along the horizon. 
" All of a sudden, about eight o^clock, this curtain enlarged itself, and 
proachcd Ohimborazo ; then in a few minutes, it mounted to ns, thin 
first, but becoming perceptibly more dense. We no longer could per- 
vc the summit, we continued, however, to mount upwards, enticed 

the hope of attaining our object much more easily than we had sup- 
sed oo leaving our encampment. 

" The fog continued to increase ; we could not see twenty paces from 
. At half-past nine, it bad become so thick that it was almost as dark 
night at the distance of a few meters. Confident of finding our foot- 
•ps again to guide our descent, we travelled on with additional stub- 
rnness; but we had eveiy moment to examine the compass, in order to 
oid a precipice which we had left on our right before reaching the ter- 
inal depression by which we resolved to gain tlie summit 
** It seemed to us that the declivity became less steep, we breathed more 
3ely, and walked with less efibrt. Some dull detonations began at in- 
rvals to be heard in the distance. At first we ascribed them to the ex- 
osions of Cotopaxi ; but soon reverberating peals, such as are heard 
ily in the vicinity of the equator, convinced us that thunder was rolling 

the lower regions. A terrible storm was in preparation. 

** In the fear that the hail or snow would efface the marks of our feet, 
ad thereby expose us to the risk of losing ourselves in the descent, we 
etermined, witli regret, to halt for a while. We hastened to kindle our 
luquiragua wood, in order to melt the snow in our coffee-pot. At ten 
clock, the thermometer which, at five feet above the snow, indicated 1*7, 
as plunged in boiling water where the mercury stood at 77*5. 

^ At five minutes past ten, our observations terminated, and we began 
) descend with giant strides in order to regain our encampment as 
peedily as possible. We arrived there in the midst of the thick fog 
bout an hour after noon. The thunder rolled almost without interrup- 
on, the flashes of lightning describing dazzling zigzags around us, never 
ien elsewhere so distinctly defined except in pictures. 

** About three o'clock, a fearful tempest of rain, hail, and wind assailed 
s under our rock. It continued throughout a part of the night with a 
iry which seemed as if it could never bo allayed. We were literally 
ring in water. On the morrow, at day break, our eyes rested every- 
here on a vast field of hail. 

"Certain indications of another tempest made us abandon the idea of 
ying again the ascent of Cliimborazo, which we henceforth regarded as 
iiite impracticable. We made all haste to break up our camp and make 
►r Guaranda, where we arrived about three o'clock, travelling through 
cold and dense fog, which prevented us for that day admiring one of 
ie most beautiful views in the world. 



144 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

'* When we calculated our observations, we were not a little surprised 
to find that wo had reached the summit of Chimborazo without being 
aware of it According to personal researches, made at first in the Ar- 
chipelago of Hawaii, and afterwards repeated among the Cordilleras of 
the equator, the co-efficient of the sum of degrees or fractions of a de- 
gree in the centigrade thermometer, reckoning between the point to which 
the mercury rises when the instrument is immersed in boiling water, and 
the boiling point of water at the level of the sea, is found to be 290*6 ; 
that is to say, each degree below 100 indicates a difference of level equal 
to 290'8 meters, or about 29 meters for the tenth of a degree, hence the 
formula 

ar =( 100 -B) (290-8) 

which gives us 0543 meters for the absolute vertical height we bad reached 
on Chimborazo. This figure places us quite on the summit, the altitude 
of which, above the sea level, according to Humboldt*s triangulations, is 
6544 metres. But whatever degree of confidence may be conceded to 
our calculations, tli^ unquestionable fact resulting from our ascent is, that 
the summit of CWmborazo is accessible." 

8. New Electrotype Processes, (Proc. Brit Assoc., in Edin. N. Phil. 
Jour., Vol. vi, No. 2, p. 306). — M. L^Abbe Moiqno read a paper upon 
Three New Electrotype Processes, and exhibited specimens of considerable 
interest The first of these improved processes consists in the employ- 
ment of platina wires instead of copper, and of making a skeleton figure 
resembling roughly the outline of the cast sought to be obtained, by 
means of which, according to M. Lenoir's process, busts, statue^ and 
groups can be produced in full relief by a single operation. The second 
of these ox)nsi8ts iu M. Oudrey's process for galvanizing or coppering iron 
and cast-iron to any thickness required without the cyanid bath. Ho 
added remarks upon its employment in comraCTce and in the navy. The 
process was not fully communicated, as it ft?%ommercially desirable to 
Keep it a secret, but sufficient was communicalSed to show that the cyanid 
bath, which is not only expensive but dangerous, can be dispensed with, 
and that the present system, according to which there is a great waste of 
material, is avoided, although the sul^tance that is placed upon the iron 
to induce the deposit of the copper is not stated. The last branch of the 
paper treated of Messrs. Christofe and Bouillet's process for strengthening 
electrotypes, the principle of which is to leave an opening in the back of 
the thin electrotype obtained by precipitating, and to put into it various 
little pieces of brass, which, on being melted with an oxyhydrogen blast, 
become diffused all over the interior surface of the copper without injur- 
ing it in any way, and thereby impart to it the strength of cast-iron. 

9. On a nexo method of Refining Sugar ; by Dr. Daubknv, (Proc 
Brit. Assoc, from Edin. N. Phil. Mag., vi, 304). — Dr. Daubeny gave ao 
account of a new method of refining sugar, conducted at Plymouth by 
Mr. Oxland, and known by his name. It consists in the adoption of the 
superphosphate of alumina in conjunction with animal charcoal, as a sub- 
stitute for the albumen usually employed for that purpose. In both cases 
the object is to separate and carry down the various impurities which 
color and adulterate the pure saccharine principle present in the syrup 
expressed from the cane or other vegetable which supplies it Ab, now- 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 145 

>u1]ock'8 blood is the material usually procured for the purpose of 
ing the albumen, a portion of uncoagulated matter, together with 
1 salts, is left in the juice in the ordinary process of refining, which 
•8 its purity and promotes its fermentation — thus occasioning a cer- 
Me of saccharine matter to result. Nothing of the kind happens 
the superphof>phate is substitutetl, and so much more perfect a pu- 
on of the feculent matters, under such circumstances, takes place, 
everal varieties of native sugar, which, fi-om being very highly 
id with feculent matters, are rejected in the ordinary process of re- 
are readily purified by this method. The employment of super- 
liate of alumina also gets rid of so much larger a portion of the 
ities present in the sugar, that much less animal charcoal is subse- 
y required for eflfecting its complete clarification than when bul- 
blood has been resorted to. The quantity of superphosphate neces- 
►r effecting the object is, for ordinary sugars, not less than twelve 
i to the ton ; whereas, for the same quantity, as much as from one 

• gallons of bullock's blood is found to be required. Dr. Daubeny 
ited that this reagent might be advantageously resorted to not only 
parification of sugar, but also in other processes of the laboratory, 
the removal of foreign matters, intimately mixed with the solution 
efinite component, becomes a necessary preliminary in its further 
lation. 

Report on the Development of Heat in Agitated Water ; by Mr. 
WNiB, (Proc. Brit Assoc., A then.. No. 1650). — Mr. Rennie, in allud- 
his former papers on the subject, read before the Section last year, 
iltenhnm, stated that the subject of the mechanical or dynamio 
quired to raise a given quantity of water one degree of Fahren- 
ad long been the object of the research of philosophers, ever since 
Rumford, in his celebrated experiments on the evolution of heat in 

• guns when surroundMby ice or water, proved the power required to 
»ne pound of water one degree, and which he valued at the dynamic 
lent of 1,034 lbs. M. Moya was the first who announced that heat 
volved from agitated water. The second was Mr. Joule, who an- 
ed that heat was evolved by water passing tlirough narrow tubes, 
jT this method each degree of heat required for its evolution a me- 
al force of 770 lbs. Subsequently in 1845 and 1 847 he arrived at a 
lical equivalent of 772 lbs. These experiments have since been con- 
. by otner philosophers on the Continent In the present paper 
ennie stated that liis attention was called to the subject by observ- 
e evolution of heat by the sea in a storm, by the heat from water 
ig in sluices. He, therefore, prepared an apparatus similar to a 
, chum, somewhat similar to that adopted l»y Mr. Joule, but on a 
scale. In the first case he experimented on fifty gallons, or 500 lbs. 
ter, inclosed in a cubical box, and driven by a steam engine instead 
reight falling from a given height, as in Mr. Joule's experiment; 
lly, on a smaller scale, by 10 lbs. of water inclosed in a l>ox. The 
machine or churn was driven at a slow velocity of eighty-eight 
tions per minute, and the smaller machine at the rate of 232 revo- 
p per minute, so that the heat given off by the water in the large 
as only at the rate of three and a half degrees per hour, including 

OND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 73. — JAN., 1868. 
19 



146 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

the beat lost by radiation ; wberean tbe beat evolved by tbe teo gallons 
of water contained in tbe small box agitated at 232 revolutions was fifty- 
six degrees Fabrenbeit per bour. Tbus tbe temperature of the water in 
tbe large box was rai^vvd from 60 degrees to 144 degrees, and the tem- 
perature of tbe water in tbe small box to boiling point As an iUnstra- 
tion, an egg was boiled bard in six minutes. Tbe mechanical eauivalcnt 
in tbe first case was found to approximate nearly to that of Mr. Joule, 
but in tbe latter case it was considerably above bis equivalent, arising, very 
probably, from tbe difficulty of measuring accurately tbe retarding forces. 

11. Fossils of South Carolina ; by M. Tuomey and F. S. Holmes. — 
Along with Nos. 13, 14, 15 of this fine work, — ^the most beautiful in style 
of any work on American Palaeontology, — we have received the follow- 
ing circular from Professor Holmes, and have tbe pleasure of adding that 
tbe Legislature has authorized its continuation. There will be two more 
volumes issued, one on tbe Eocene and one on tbe Post-pleiocene. The 
volume just closed contains figures and descriptions of 203 species; 42 
per cent, are still living. 

Circular, — We have great satisfaction in announcing to the suLocnbers 
tbe publication of our fifteenth and lai^t number. This completes one en- 
tire volume, devoted to tbe Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina. 

In the accomplishment of this cherished design, we have labored assid- 
uously for more than five years, and expended a large sum of money. 
Tbe receipts will apparently do no more than defray actual expenses; but 
we do not repine, being recompensed for our toils by tbe success of pub- 
lishing a scientific work at home, in the best style of art. To the accom- 
plislnncnt of this object, all our endeavors have been directed. 

Should tlie Legislature continue tbe subscription in this State, it is pro- 

Siosed to proceed with tbe work and publish one volume on tbe Post- 
^leiocene, and one on the Eocene P'ossils. Should this be the final de- 
terminatiou, due notice of our purpose will be given in a prospectus; and 
we shall hope to receive a continuation of the patronage so liberally 
given to the first volume. 

1 2. On the Direction and Velocity of the Earthquake in Cali/omia of 
January 9, 1857; by Dr. John B. Trask. — The earthquake which oc- 
curred in various parts of this State on the morning of tlie 9tb of Janu- 
ary last, excited at tbe time considerable attention. This arose from two 
causes ; first, from tbe varied reports that appeared on the following day 
through the press of this city, detailing its occurrence in remote mountain 
towns, and for which there was no foundation ; secondly, from tbe great 
extent over which tbe commotion was felt, as was subsequently proved. 

Immediately following the occurrence of the phenomenon, letters were 
addressed to all the principal towns between Mariposa and DownieviUa, 
east of the valleys, for the purpose of learning how far tlie shocks may 
have extended eiistward of this city. These lettei*s were forwarded bv 
tbe Pacific Express Company to their agents, and through them answers 
were returned in every case but two through the same source. From 
the facts thus obtained, it was found that in no locality east of the foot- 
bills, was any shock felt whatei^er on that day or niyht. 

Another report, equally unfounded, reached us on tbe arrival of the 
8teamer from the southern coast, to the efiect tliat several houses hsd 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 



147 



>Hshed in San Diego from its violence, while the facts in tho 
hat the steamer left tliat port twenty-four hours before the shock 
\ere. 

•thquake, or more properly speaking, the series of shocks that 
the night of the 8th in this city, and which continued in the 
t of the State during tho following day and night of the 9th, 
bly the most extensive of any on record on this portion of tho 
ist, excepting, perhaps, that of the wave of the Simoda earth- 
December, 1854. The linear distance over which we are able 
\ course, amounts to six hundred and two miles, and its breadth, 
now ascertained, is two hundred and ninety miles. It has all 
ranee of having been tho terminal movement of some moro 
Ti motion at a distance from our coast 

le best evidence attainable at present, it seems to have had its 
he west and travelled in an easterly direction. This is conciu- 
red from the fact that it was felt earlier at San Francisco, than 
her locality east of this city within the State. We have no 
ret of its occurrence along the coast of Mexico or Oregon. 
)cen able to determine, with considerable accuracy, the period of 
hicli the shock between eight and nine o'clock on the morning 

took place, at four localities east of the city of San Francisco, 
ite ; the shock at that hour seems to have been more gene- 
(kJ than those which either preceded or followed it, here or else- 
•ugh at this city, it was much less marked than the shocks at 
' lo'", and T**, these three latter occurring at those hours of 
ig when most persons are sleeping. The shock at 7^ produced 
motion in the pendulum, the diameter of wliich was about five 
'he oscillations of the pendulum in all the others were in an 
id westerly direction. 

cise period of time at which the shock took place at San Fran- 
een eight and nine o'clock, is determined by the stopping of a 
belonging to J. W. Tucker, whose rate of error was three sec- 

The time at San Diego was furnished by Mr. Cassidy of tho 
that of the Tejon Reserve is by persons at that post. To pri- 
?men at Sacramento and Stockton we are indebted for the time 
aces. The accompanying table of latitudes and longitudes, of 
lamed, gives the hour at which the shock took place at each ; 
ice or elapsed time, from which the velocity was deduced, are 
times corrected for the places named, the time as given above 
n as the standard at San Francisco. 

•opcr here to state that three minutes four seconds was the 
ror in time found, and the least was twenty- two seconds: — 



iCO, 



Lat. 



o / 

37 48 

' 38 32 

,! 37 62 

i 35 00 

; 32 42 



Lun. 



o / 

122 25 ; 
121 23 ; 
121 34 I 
118 46 1 
117 13 



Tiint 


!0f 


sliock. 


A. 


in. 


8. 


8 


13 


30 


8 


20 


00 



8 23 00 
8 46 00 
8 60 00 



Cliipsed time. 


Velocity. 


m. f. 


milt9. 


00 


00 


7 30 


66 


9 80 


65 


82 SO 


60 


86 80 


70 



146 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

The velocity h given in miles per minute ; and by dividing the sum of 
tLc same by their number, it v/Wl bo found that the movement of the 
wave at that time averages a fraction over 6*2 miles per minute. 

The results obtained from the above data approximate closely to the 
deductions of Prof. Bache on the wave which reached our shores resulting 
from the earthquake at Simoda on the 23d of December, 1854, and 
which will be found in a paper read by that gentleman at the meeting of 
the American Association fur the Advancement of Science, daring the 
early part of last year. 

From the facts before us, there can be little doubt of the direction 
of the commotion, and that it proceeded from the west, or a little south 
of that ]>oint. The motion of the earth, as described at the different 
localities at which it was felt, with the motion of the pendulum — which 
was slightly south of a west line — leads to the latter conclusion. Time 
is an important element in aiding us to form correct conclusions regard- 
ing their phenomena, and it is to be hoped that our friends in different 
parts of the State, in reporting the same, will be precise in this particular. 
Of the incidents attending the shocks, many and varied reports have 
reached us; and it seems to have acted with greater violence in the vicin- 
ity of the Tejon Reserve and upper Tulare county than at any other 
places. It is most remarkable that so small an amount of intensity wbk 
manifested when the area over which it extended is taken into con- 
sideration. 

The effects were felt in San Francisco several hours before they are re- 
ported to have been observed at any other place north or south. They 
began here at twenty minutes past eleven, on the night of the 8th, and 
continued till thirteen minutes past eight the following mominff — ^six 
shocks occurring in the interim ; while to the south, the first shoi^ that 
was noticed at the Tejon was at 6 hours 30 minutes, on tlie 0th. In Los 
Angeles they continued at long intervals through the day until 23 boors 
30 minutes of the same date. I have learned from persons who were 
present in Los Angeles at this time, and also at the shock of the 14th of 
July, 1855, that the severity of the latter exceeded that of the fth of 
January last. 

13. Action of Light, — Nikpce de St. Victor, distinguished in photo- 
graphy, has recently made some farther discoveries with regard to the 
action of light The question which he has aimed to answer, is this, — 
Does a body, which has been exposed to light, preserve any of the effect 
when carried to a dark place ? Phosphorescence and fluorescence are 
well known examples of such an effect; but these are not aU. On ex- 
posing to the sun's rays an engraving which had been for some days in 
the dark, one-half covered with an opaque shade, and then applying this 
engraving to very sensitive photographic paper for twenty-four hours in 
the dark, the white parts of the portion not covered are reproduced in 
black; while the same engraving treated thus, without exposure to the 
light, produces no effect. Pictures on all kinds of paper, wood, ivory, 
parchment, produce the same result, through in different degrees, but not 
when on metals. An interposed plate of glass, mica, quartz crystal, or 
yellow glass colored with oxyd of uranium, prevent the action, as they also 
do, as recently proved, the phosphorescent property. A coat of collodion 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 149 

>t interfere with the result, though comnion varnish does. Tlio 
ikes place if the sensitive paper is not in contact with the engrav- 
i design traced on white p^per with a fluorescent liquid, as sulphate 
ine, exposed to the sun and then applied to the sensitive paper 
ices itself much more rapidly and strongly than the white paper ; 
rst exposed to the sun there is no effect. Luminous lines of phoa- 
act without exposure to the sun, but not if glass be interposed. 
General View of the Animal Kingdom ; by A. M. REnriBLD. A 
leasuring 6 feet by 4<J-. New York City and Hartford, Cl : £. B. & 
!ellogg. — This handsome engraved chart is an exhibition of the 
ation of the Animal Kingdom, by an arrangement of branching 
iivided off according to the classes, orders, families, etc The four 
of the Radiates, Mollusks, Articulates, Vertebrates, with their suc- 
subdi visions sweep gracefully over the chart, without any fanciful 
\ out of a tree ; and in addition to the lettering of the branches, 
s quite detailed, there are well engraved figures of species in large 
-s, making an exhibition of the Animal Kingdom of real value \ot 
struction. The figures among the Mammals include half a dozen 
of Monkeys, fifteen or twenty of Camivora, nearly as many of 
ta or hooted Quadrupeds, and so on through all the groups in 

the Sub-kingdoms. The plan is excellent, and it is well carried 
its accomplished authoress. We could wish some small changes 
1 the classification. But the chart as it is, will be found of great 
ce to the teacher, and should be in all the academies and higher 
of the land. It speaks to tlie eye, and more impressively than a 

of text. 
Reports of Explorations and Surveys to ascertain the most practica- 

economical route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the 

Ocean^ made under the direction of the Secretary of War m 
, according to acts of Congress of March 3, 1853. May 81, 1854^ 
gust 5, 1854. 4to. Vols. 2, 3, 4. Washington, 1855, 1856. — 
-veys for the railroad to the Pacific have already been briefly no- 
I this Journal. The Reports, before published in brief, are here 
b out with full details, and include a large amount of natural sci- 
i well as general ge(^raphical information. The collections we 
and have been great, and now constitute part of the very large 

of American Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. The 
)g are the contents of the volumes here announced. 
II. 1. Report of Explorations near the 38th and 39th parallels of 
atitude made by Capt. J. W. Gunnison, Topog. Eng., made by 
i. G. Beckwith, Third Artillery. 128 pp. with plates. — Capt. Gun- 
t will be remembered, died at the hands of the Indians while car- 
brward his surveys. Page 94 to 112 are occupied with tables of 
^logical observations. 

eport on the line of the 41st parallel, by Lieut E. G. Beckwith. 
. with plates : Meteorological observations occupy pages 71 to 96 ; 
)gical Report by James Schiel, M.D., Geologist of the Expedition, 
>6-l 1 1, and a letter on Infusorial Fossils by Prof. J. W. Bailey, on 
11, 112. The paper by Dr. Schiel is illustrated by four lithographio 
containing figures of some Carboniferous and Cretaceous foauls. 



150 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

3. A Report on the Botany of the two Expeditions by John Torrey and 
Asa Gmy, covering pages 119 to 132 and illustrated by ten plates. 

4. Synopsis of a Report of the Reconnaissance on the route from Puget 
Sound via South Pass to the Mississippi river, by Fred. W. Lander, Civil 
Engineer. 44 pages. 

5. Report of Exploration on the route near the d2nd parallel from the 
Red River to the Rio Grande, by Brevet Captain John Poi>e, Corps Topog. 
Eng. 150 pages. It concludes with a Report on the Botany of the Expe- 
dition by John Torrey and Asa Gray, pp. 157-178, with ten plates. 

6. Report on the Geology of the route near the 82nd parallel, by Wm. 
P. Blake. 50 pages, with n map, and a section across tlie mountains. 

7. Report of Explorations near the 32nd parallel between Dofia Ana 
on the Rio Grande and Pi mas Villages on the Gila, by Lieut. John G. 
Parke. 28 pages. 

8. Extract from a Report of a Military Reconnaissance made in 1846, 
1847, by Lieut. Col. W. 11. Emory. 22 pages. 

Vol. III. Report of Lieut. A. W. Whipple, Topog. Eng., on the route 
near the 35th parallel. 36, 136, and 77 pages, with plates. 

2. Report upon the Indian Tribes, by Lieut A. W. Whipple, Thomas 
Ewbank, Esq., and Prof. Wm. W. Turner. 127 pages, with plates of 
Indian relies, vocabularies of the language*, etc. 

3. Report on the Geology of the route by Wm. P. Blake, 176 pages, 
including, with Mr. Blake's account, the Report of Jules Marcou, and de- 
scriptions of the Fossils by James Hall, and illustrated by maps, sections, 
and plates of fossils. 

Vol. IV. 1. Report on the Botany of the Expedition under Lieut 
Whipple. Embracing — 1. General descriptions of the Botanical character 
of the country, by J. M. Bigelow, M.D. ; 2. Description of Forest Trees, 
with a map illustrating Geographical Distribution, by J. M. Bigelow, M.D.; 
3. Description of the Cactaceje, with 24 plates, by G. Engelmann, M.D., 
of St Louis and J. M. Bigelow, M.D. ; 4. Descriptions of the General 
Botanical Collections, with 25 plates, by John Torrey ; 6. Description of 
the Mosses and Liverworts, with 10 plates, by W. S. Sullivant 

2. Zoology of the Expedition. Field notes and explanations, by C. B. 
R. Kennerly, M.D. (17 pages). — The remainder of the Zoological Report 
is deferred to another volume; and we doubt not that the volume will be 
one of great scientific value. 

3. Appendices to the volume, including astronomical, magnetic, and 
climatolomcal observations. 

We rejoice that the General Government has carried forward so libe^ 
ally publications like the above, illustrating tlie geography, history and 
natural productions of the country. And we trust the work may go on 
under the same auspices, and on a scale no less liberal, until the land is 
thoroughly searched out, and a series of volumes covering fully the great 
subjects shall be in all its prominent libraries. 

16, Report of the Geological Survey of the State of Vermont; by 
Edward Hitchcock, State Geologist. 12 pp., 8vo. Montpelier: 1857. 
— The Vermont geological survey has been in progress during the past 
year under the direction of Prof. Hitchcock. This Report is a brief 
statement with respect to the funds and means necessary for the continu- 
ation of the survey. 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. 151 

17. Flora from the Appalachian Coalfield ; by James P. Kimball of 
Sdem, Mass. An Inaugural Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy, addressed to the Philosophical Faculty of the University of 
Gottingen. 32 pp., 8vo, with 3 lithographic plates. — A number of species 
of fossil plants from Pennsylvania are described and figured in this pam- 
phlet, pertaining to the genera Neuropteris, Alethopteris, llemitelites, 
Sigillaria, Syringodendron and Lepidodendron. 

18. On the Jjeiermination of Altitudes, from Observations taken with 
the Barometer ; being Chapter VI and Appendix E of the Report of 
Lieut. Hekrt L. Abbot, Corps of Topog. Eng., upon Explorations for a 
Railroad Route from the Sacramento Valley to the Columbia River, made 
by Lieut R. S. Williamson, Topog. Eng., assisted by Lieut. Henry L. 
Abbot, Topog. Eng., in 1855. 

19. Uber neu£ Echinodermen des Eifder Kalkes ; von Joh. MOller. 
30 pp., 4to, with 4 plates. Berlin. From the Transactions of the Ko- 
nigl. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1856. — Prof. M tiller has described in 
this paper several of the Crinoids from the Eifel (Devonian) limestone. 
The species are of the genera Taxocrinus, Hexacrinus, Trichocrinus 
(Muller), Nanjocrinus (Afuller) and Poteriocrinus. Besides these, Lepido- 
xntrus Ei/elianus (Miiller) is an Echiniform species from the Eifel. 

20. Topographical and Geological Report of Chester Co., Pennsylva- 
nia ; by W. D. Hartmak, M.D. 12 pp., 8vo, with a colored geological 
map. Philadelphia, 1857. Extracted from the Transactions of the 
Pennsylvania State Medical Society. — Chester County, Pennsylvania, has 
great interest to the mineralogist, on account of the large number of fine 
minerals it affords in connection mostly with its serpentine and limestone 
and lead and copper veins. This paper, though mainly medico-topo- 
graphical, contains valuable mineralogical and geological observations; 
uid a geological map gives it special value. 

21. Determinative Mineralogy : Tables for the determination of mine- 
mis by help of simple chemical experiments ; by Franz von Kobell, 
Prof of Mineralogy in the University of Munich. Translated from the 
W German edition and the Author^s manuscript notes, and prefaced by a 
complete treatise on the Use of the Blowpipe, by Professors G. J. Brush 
ind S. W. JouNSON of the Yale Scientific School. — This work — one much 
needed in the country — we understand will soon be published. 

22. Volcano of Hawaii, — In the article on page 136 respecting the 
volcano, Mauna Loa, it is stated that the Rev. Mr. Coan regards the lavas 
of the late eruption as hai^ng flowed from a single opening. It should 
be added that he supposes this opening may have been a fissure or series 
of fissures extending ten or fifteen miles from the highest point; but that 
for the lower forty miles there were no openings supplying the flow of 
lava. 

23. Organic Morphology. — The work on Organic Morphology noticed 
in our last volume at page 443, was by John Warner. 

24. Ctumistry. — An accomplished student in Science, who has spent 
several years in the laboratories of Professors Liebig and Agassiz, is desirous 
of obtaining a situation as Professor of Chemistry, or of this and Natural 
History combined. Reference may be made to Professors Agassiz or 
Gray of Cambridge, or to the Editors of this Journal. — Eds. 



152 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

J. M. Safford and Richakd Owkw, M.D. : Report of the Mineral and Afrnenltiind 
Resources of the lands owned by the Hfipkins Mastodon Coal and Iron Mining and 
Manufuctaring Company. 52 pp. 8vo, with a map. 

The Parish Will Caie, before the Surroaate of the City of New TorJc: Medical 
Opinions on the mental competency of lir. Parish, liy Drs. John Watson, D. T. 
Brown, M. H. Ranney, Pliny Earle, Luther V. Bell, L Ray, Sir Henry Holland, Bart 
674 pp. 8vo. New York, 1867. 

J. / OaiFFix : The Radical Theory in Chemistry. Crown 8vo. London, 1867. 

R. RuMSKN : Gasometry ; comprising the leading Physical and Chemical Proper- 
ties of Gases, together ;7ith the methods of gas analysis. Translated by H. K Ros- 
ooe. 8vo, with 68 illustrations. London. 1867. 

Prof. Allman : Briti:«h Freshwater Zoophytes. 4to, with 11 colored plates. Pub- 
lished by the Ray Society, London. 

The Ray Society will also publish A Monograph on the Oceanic Hydroaoa (Jell^- 
Fishes) by Prof. Huxley ; A Monograph of the British Foraminifera, by Prof. Wil- 
liamson ; A General History of the Foraminifera, by Dr. Carpenter ; A Monograph 
of the British Sponges, by J. S. Bowerbank. 

Adam White: A Popular History of British Crustacea. 12mo. London, 1867. 

Chablbs PiCKRaiNo : The Geographical Distribution of Plants and Animals. 4to, 
(▼ol. XV, of the U. S. Exploring Expedition under Capt Wilkes). Boston, Little, 
Brown <b Co. In cloth |8.00. 

Julius Vicroa Cabus : Icones Zootomicte, — a general and systematic work on the 
Anatomy of Animals. Ist part, devoted to the Inyertebrata, each gronp bemg 
illustrated by very numerous figures on 28 folio plates. The remaining part will 
contain the vertebrata. Received too late for a further notice in this number. 

Fbank Buckland (son of the late Dean Buckland) : Curioaities of Natural Hlstoiy. 
8yo. London, 1857. Bentley. 

O. G. Costa : Fauna del Regno di Napoli, etc. Fasc 96 to 99 have appeared. 
162 pp. 4to, with 16 colored plates. Naples^ 1867. 

G. r. Dkshates : Description des Animauz sans vertdbres, d^couTerta dans le 
bassin de Paris, — a Su[>plement to Deshayes's former work on the Fossils of the 
Paris Basin, and comprising a general review of all the known species, p. 161 to 
240, 4to, with 10 platM. Paris, 1867. 

E. Deror : Synopsis des Echinides Fossiles. livr. 1-4, 4to. 240 pp. 80 plates. 
Paris. 1857. 

Faune Fran9aise, ou Histoire Nnturelle, G6n6rale et Particuli^re des Animauz qui 
vivent en France : par Cuarlrs Lucikx Boicapabtk et Vicroa MKUNiRa. A Prospec- 
tus of this *' French Fauna" has just been issued. As projected, the work will ex- 
tend to 24 volumes 8vo, one to be issued every three months, the first, in Jan. 1868. 
It will contain very numerous wood-cuts, and colored engravings, and will be the 
most complete and elegant work of the kind that has ever been published. Sub- 
scriptions are solicited. 

Tu. Lacordaibk : Histoire Naturelle des Insects — Genera des Col^ptdres. Tome 
IV, 688 pp. 8vo. Paris, 1867. 

A. Machado : Catalogos de los Peces, etc. : Fishes of Cadiz and Huelva and of 
the river Guadalquiver. 80 pp. 4to. Seville, 1867. 

Pbockedings Bostox Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol VI. p. 268, Corrosion of living shtlk. 
p. 260, Astrsea decactis, a new species of coral; T. Lipnan.—ip, 264, Vibrations at 
the dam at Hadley Falls; C. Stodder.—p. 269, Peculiar mode of gestation in the 
Aspredos or Trompcttis, etc; /. Wyman. — p. 274, On a new genus and species of 
Coral, Syndepas Gouldii; T. Lyman.— p. 279, Note on Native Iron of Liberia; A. 
A. Hayes. — p. 281, Larva of a Musca or (Estrus found in the skin of the scalp, fcce, 
neck and back of a child ; B. S. Show. — p. 282, On the Fungus, Glseosporium Cro- 
cosporum ; C. J. Spra^. — p. 283, On the copper of Lake Superior; Dr. Knedand, 
— p. 284, Note on a siliceous calculus tiiken from the Urethra of an Ox; Baeon.-^ 
p. 287, On a new species of Coral, Oculina glomerata ; T. Lyman, 

PaocEEDiNOM OF THE CALIFORNIA A CAD. Nat. Sci. — p. 96, A ncw spccies of Qoer 
cus; Br. A'e//ogr<7.— Telluret of Silver in California; W. P, Blake.---^. 98, On tht 
Earthquake of Jan. 9, 1857; J. B. Trask. — p. 99, On some new microscopic oifan- 
isms, with a plate ; also on 8onie Sertularidw and Bryozoa ; Dr. IVask, with two 
plates. — p. 102, New marine shells of the Sandwich Islands (spades of MureZi Pur- 
pura, Turbo, Trochus, Pleurotoma, Kissoa,) ; Garrait. 



TBB 



AMERICAN 



JOURML OF SCIENCE AND ARTS. 



[8 S C N D 8 £ B I £ 8.] 



-Art. XIV. — An Address in Commemoration of Professor J. W. 
Bailey^ late President of the American Association /or the Ad- 
vancement of Science; by Dr. A. A. GouLD. 

[Delivered before the Association, August 19, 1857.) 

ifr. President and Oentlemen of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science — We nre called upon, at tliis time, 
to advert to an event such as has not before occurred in the 
iistory of this Association during the seventeen years sin.'e 
its inception. He who was elected at our last session to preside 
at this meeting, has in the mean time been taken from us. Uc, 
^hom we all delighted to honor, though he sought not public 
honors from men, and who required no higher stimulus to his 
ambition nor reward of his toil than the satisfaction derived 
from the discovery and elucidation of the works and laws of 
Nature's God, has left this arena of trial and doubt to meet that 
God ; and in his presence, where faith is turned to sight, we may 
Well believe that he is unfolding with deliglit, unmingled with 
doubt, those wonderful works and perfectly harmonious laws 
which so engaged and delighted him on earth. 

It is becoming thnt we should bestow a few moments in com- 
niemoration of his life and labors. There are othere, who knew 
liim much better, and were more conversant with his special 
studies tlian myself, to whom this office properly belonged; but 
as in another connection I had gathered some of the items of his 
history, and had noted the results of his scientific investigations, 
I have been requested to present them on this occasion. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, 1«M. 

20 



151 An Address in Commemoration of J. W. Bailey. 

Jacob Whitman Bailey was born April 29, 1811, in the 
old town of Ward, Mass. (now Auburn), at the residence of his 

frandfather, Rev. Isaac Bailey, the first minister of that town, 
n infancy lie was removetl to Providence, and there received his 
early cduciition in the ordinary scliools of that day. The lim- 
ited resources of his family rendered it necessary that he should 
early engage in some employ nient; and, at the age of twelve 
years he was i)laced at a Circulating Library, where he attracted 
the attention of visitors by his studious devotion to books. At 
this time also he began a collection of shells and insect^. During 
a visit of the West Point cadets at Providence, he became ae- 
qnaintetl with some of the officers, and then decided to seek 
admittance to the Military Academ3^ lie received an appoint- 
ment as cadet in July, 1828, and graduated July, 1832. He 
was apj:)ointed second lieutenant in the Artillery, April, 1833, 
and wjis promoted to first lieutenant^ Febrilary, 1837. During 
this time he was stationed at Old Point Comfort, Bellona Arse- 
nal, and Fort Moultrie. But with the development of his 
scientific tastes, military life hjid few attractions for him; and 
in 1889 he received the more congenial appointment of Professor 
of Chemistrj', Mineralogy and Geology in the United States 
Military Academy, which appointment lie held, first as assistant^ 
and soon afterwards as principal, until his death. Ho was mar 
ried in 1885, and, with his wife and only daughter, then seven- 
teen years of age, was on board the steamer Henry Clay which 
took fire on the Hudson river, July 28, 1852. After having 
lowered them sncccsfully to the water, and received from them 
the assurance of their safety, he proceeded to folio a-, when sud- 
denly a volume of smoke and flame veiled them from his view, 
and they were lost. He had previously been subject to & 
bronchial affection and occasional spitting of blood, for which 
he had resorted to Florida the previous winter with decided ben- 
efit. But the exertion and exposure on this occasion, together 
with the iutensity of his bereavement, gave him a shock, from 
which he never rallied. With the exception of an occasional 
resort to the sea-shore during vacations, he was afterwards 
obliged to exclude himself almost entirely from society. His 
health steadily declined; and, feeling the certainty of the iffloe, 
he em|)loyed his leisure in arranging his papers, his microecop 
ical collections, and his Alga3. so that they might be practicallj 
available to his successors. He died on the 27th of Februarj 
last, at the age of forty -six. 

As a man, he was remarkably unobtrusive and modest, gentle 
in his manners, truthful in his character, cordially beloved by all 
who had the good fortune to enjoy his acquaintance. 

But it is more with his scientific position that we are con- 
cerned. His taste for science was very early developed. B^' 



In Address in Commemoration of J. W. Bailey. 155 

h botany and mineralogy, and passing from theso to 

chemistry, and microscopy, lie traversed a large poition 
eld of natural science. In the departments more cspc- 
ating to his position at West Point, he held a high rank, 

publications show that he introduced many improve- 

chemical manipulation. His correspondence, too, shows 
vas extensively consulted by men of science cm some of 
. difficult points of analysis and general physics. His 
ions were always of the most careful and accurate char- 
nd he early began the important j)ractice of making 
them, accompanied by delineations, leaving nothing to 
ion or mere indefinite statements; thus having always 
permanent data for his subsequent papers. The vol- 
itaining these, which he denominated "Microscopic 
," is, of itself, a surprising evidence of his industry and 
here are four hundred and fifty sheets, continuing about 
)usand sketches. By his great skill with the pencil he 

himself independent of artists, on accomplishment, for 
of which, many of the best observers lose their labors, 
•a wings date back as far as 1838. twenty years agn, and 
IS to trace out the course of his studies, as well as his 
igs ; for wherever he went, his microscoj>e or his cx)lk»ct- 
les went with him. At first, wc have mostly sketches 
able and animal tissues, and occasionally an entire ani- 
lant. In January, 1839, while examining some aquatic 
e perceived a curious object, aGoniphonema as it.subse- 
proved, which he did not understand. This excited his 

in that direction, and soon we find many otiiers of tlie 
nmon Diatoms delineated. In March. 1839, he sketched 
le, to which Ehrenberg gave the- cotnplimrr.tiiry name 
ma Bui ley i ; and finally he devoted himst»lf with jrreat 
le varied objects incliicled under the central term Infu- 
id also to a department almost equally clcm:mding his 

microscopist, namely, the Algop. So far as the Infusoria 
cerned, he stated, in 1843, that no one else in this conn- 
ftudicd them; and that it was almost impossible to pro 

works relating to them. Ehrenl)er>i*s work he had not 
>ugh he modestly utters the thonghr that Kh!*enl>erg 
mt-tiraesee and correct hispnper. Ho, however, ;:ra«lu- 
essed himself of all the importiint works on thost^ snb- 
nl became the active corre8|>on(lent of EhrrnWrg, 

Agardh, Qnekett, Ralfs Harvey. Gn^ville, De Brcbih- 
[]tagne, and very many others. Fossil il«*j>osit'<, nnid, 
lo, were collected from evorv quarUT for investigati«Mi. 
[)us exploring expeditions were laid under eontribut on: 
3 recently, the objects brought up on the sounding h'jid 
>ast Survey, and by Lieut Berryman's line of sounding* 



156 An Address in Commemoration of J. W. Baiky. 

across the Atlantic, made in reference to the laying of the tele- 
grapliic cable, occupied his attention. In pursuing these exam* 
inations, he found the relics from the bottom so well characterized 
in certain localities and at certain depths, that he suggested the 
possibility of being able, in some instances at least, todetermine 
the safety or otherwise of a vessel, by an examination of the 
organisms brought up on the sounding lead, when prevented by 
darkness, snows or fogs, from deciding by orainary ohset- 
vations. 

Not a little of the obligation of microscopists to Prof. Bailey 
is due for his labors to improve the microscope. At any rate, 
few among us have ventured upon the purchase of a valuable 
instrument, without iirst consulting him in reference to it, and 
perhaps taxing him with unwelcome negotiations; and his letters 
show that numerous applications of this kind must have been a 
most serious tax upon his time. It is said that his own early 
observations were made with globules of glass blown by himself 
After he became possessed of a proper instrument^ many modi- 
fications in the construction of the stage and its movementa; 
and in other appendajres, were made by him ; and it is to bis 
experience and scientific deductions, coupled with the eenina 
and incomparable optical skill of Spencer, that we are indebted 
for the most powerful microscopes that have yet been made. 
His masterly and triumphant defense of them against the de- 
tractions of transatlantic pens, also exhibits his complete masteiy 
of the subject. One of his last ess«nys was to construct an Indi- 
cator, by means of which the place of any object on a slide 
might readily and certainly be found. No one, in looking at the 
card, would credit the lalior and thought which he, in conjunc- 
tion with his friends, Judge Johnson and Mr. Gavitt, bestowed 
upon it. Many futile efforts were made, and many quires were 
used in corresf>ondence, before the accuracy of its measuremeDts, 
and a method for the unerring application of it, were satisfacto- 
rily accomplished. 

At a very early date, Prof. Bailey began to publish the results 
of his observations, — a duty too often neglected by scientific 
men. His published papers are very numerous, — more than 
fifty, — extending as far back as 1837, and up to his very last 
hours. Tbey were, for the most part^ very brief, free from os- 
tentation, aiming to communicate facts in the simplest and most 
direct manner. In the words of his friend. Prof. Gray, "tbey 
are all clear, explicit, and unpretending as they are thoroagb; 
and every one of them embodies some direct and positive con- 
tribution to science." Most of them were terminated by a con- 
densed statement of the general fiicts elicited, so as to show, at a 
glance, the subject and result arrived at. They are mostly to 
be found in Silliman^s Journal of Science, or in the Smithsonian 



An Address in CammBmaration of J. W. Baiky, 157 

Gontributions to Knowledge, except one in the first volume of 
the Trausactions of the .^^ociation of G-eoIogists and Natural* 
ists, which embodied bis f>revious papers on the Infusoria of the 
United States, with additions, and which gave him at once a 
high position as a scientific naturalist 

His Microscopical Collection will constitute his most splendid 
monument The slides, of which there are five hundred and 
fifty, are arranged in boxes in the form of octavos, of which 
there are twentj-four volumes. More than three thousand ob- 
jects, fixed upon slides, are catalogued and noted vrith reference 
to Bailey's Indicator, thus enabling any one readily to find witir 
certainty the identical specimens described by him. There are 
also very many other slides not included in the re^lar collec* 
tion. Being objects either described by himself or given to him 
by other describers, this collection must always possess the high- 
est authority, and must be our ultimate reference in all cases of 
doubt 

The collection of Alg» is equally complete and authentia It 
consists of thirty-two portfolios, containing about 4,500 speci- 
mens ; and it may safely be said that few collection^ in the world 
are superior to it 

It is probably well known that Prof. Bailey bequeathed his 
Microscopical Collection, his Collection of Algae, his books on 
Botany and Microscopy, his Memoranda and bis Scientific Cor- 
respondence, to the Boston Society of Natural History. While 
the Society intends to keep this bequest sacredly, it means also 
to make it as extensively useful as possible. I hesitate not, in 
behalf of the Society, to invite all who are pursuing similar re- 
searches to consult these collections, whenever convenient, — ^and 
to give assurance also, that any questions which may be solved 
by it may be freely addressed to the Society. A large collection 
of rough material for microscopic researcn, from many of the 
most interesting localities, is also in the possession of the Society, 
and will be distributed to micros jopists and societies. 

Such are some of the principal events in the history of our 
distinguished associate and President and such are some of the 
accumulated fruits of his scientific labors, — ^labors which were 
performed in addition to the full duties of a professorship, exe- 
cuted with military precision and punctuality. He has won for 
himself a place by the side of the most eminent microscopists 
and algologists of the old world, and may well be styled the 
Ehrenberg of America. He will always stand, in this country, 
as the father of those branches of Natural History which relate 
to the world of atoms, and must for ever remain the standard 
reference here in relation to them. Let no man think lightly of 
them because they relate to little things, too small to be dis- 
cerned by the unassisted eye. Are they not equally the handi- 



158 /. Wyman on Batrachian Reptiles from Ohio. 

work of him who made and sped the spheres, and formed man 
in Ills own image? And if he, by the microscope, demonstrated 
the vegetable structure of coal, ilhistrated the lowest habitable 
depths of the ocean, settled the nature of some of the important 
geological strata, and of the vast deserts otherwise deficient in 
geological indications,-— questions of practical importance in our 
investigations of the crust of the earth, — let him receive a corre- 
sponding rank with him who points the telescope to the mighty 
orbs above, determines their magnitudes and movements by sci- 
entific induction, and thereby enables us to determine our place 
•upon that crust. 

I cannot refrain from quoting, in conclusion, the words of an 
intimate friend in a letter to him, on learning of his appoint- 
ment as President for this meeting. He says, ** I am sure every 
one acquainted with what you have done for the advancement of 
science, American science, and American scientific character, will 
say, that no appointment, at the present time, could be more ap- 
propriate or just I hope the great Disposer of events, whose 
minute works }'ou have done so much to place before our eyes 
in all their exquisite beauty of form, of workmanship, and of 
adaptation, will give you yet many years to enjoy the honors 
you have so honestly acquired, and to add many more discover- 
ies to those you have already secured." And may I not respond 
for you all, Would that this desire had been granted 1 



Art. XV. — On some remains of Batrachian Reptiles discovered in 
the Coal Formation of Ohio^ by Dr, J. S. Newljem/ and Mr. C, M, 
Wheailey;* by JEFFRIES Wyman, M.D., of Cambridge, Mass. 

One of the most interesting subjects presented to the paloeon- 
tologist for investigation, is that relating to the determination of 
the period when the Creator gave forms to organized beings, and 
placed them in definite rehitions with the earth and its atmos- 
phere, and made them living things. But the history of geology 
shows, that generalizations as to the time nnd circumstances of 
the creation of given animal forms have approached precision 
only, as the depths of the ancient lakes and oceans have been 
faithfully explored, and the shores and dry lands which coexisted 
with them have been accurately explored. 

It was during the deposition of the Oolite that reptilian life 
reached its culminating point; below this, the deeper explora- 
tions are carried, the less numerous are the remains of reptiles 
found to be, and it has been assumed within a few years even, 

* A fihort rerhni account of these fowilfi was given tn the Am. Amoc^ fur tbo 
Ad\*aDcement of Sdenoe at their meeting in Albany, in 1S66. 



/• Wyman on Batraekian RepiiU$fixm Okio» ISO 

that their creation took place during the triassic period. The 
coal fonnations had been largely examined, thousands of fishes 
and still lower animals had been discovered, before the first 
traces of reptiles came to light in the remains of Apateon and 
Archegosaurua After these, there were found the footprints 
and other remains of other reptilefi, discovered or described by 
GoIdfuBs,* Burmeister,t Dr. Kmg,:|: Sir Charles Lyell,§ Mr. Lea,| 
Herman Von Mever,T[ Profe. Dawson,** Owen,tt H. D. Rogers:)^ 
and E. Hitchcock.§§ The Telerpeton, discovered by Dr. Man- 
tell, was obtained from the upper layers of the Elgin sandstones: 
and these some of the leading English geologists have refSsrred 
to the Old-red. Doubts have recently arisen as to their real age, 
so that, in the present state of knowledge we cannot refer reptile 
life to a period older tl^ux tlie Goal. However, in view of our as 
yet impmect knowleo^^f the 01d«red fauna, the question 
may still be raised whenWr we have even now reached the 
period of primoidal reptiles. 

The remains described in this paper are important additions 
to the proofs of the presence of reptilian life during the Gurbon- 
iferous epoch, showing the existence of at least three species and 

* Beitriige sur vorwelUicben Fauna dee Stein-kohleugcbirge. Bonn, 1847, 4to. 
Klfo in Lt^rtilmrd ami Bronn Jarlibnch, 1847, p. 400. 

-f Die LubyrintlMKionten aut d«m soarbruckcr Stein-koblengebirge, Pi III, 
Arcliegciraiinis, Berlin, J 850. 

I De9cnptit>n of fiWKil footmarks (of Thetu»ropu» Jieterodaefylum) found in the 
Carbonifemufi series, in Wt^Htmoreliind C<i^ IVnii., bj Alfrvtl T. King, M.D., Aw. 
Journal of Science, vol. xlviii. p. 843, and in vol. i, new series, p. 268. 

§ On the evidence of fossil fiHitniarks of a quadruped allied to Cheirotherium 
in the Cual strata (if Pennsylvania, by Charles Lyell, Esq., F.ICS., dec, Am. Journal 
of Science, vol ii, new S4'ne8j p. 25. 

AUo on the remains of a reptile, (Dendrerpeton Aeadianum, Wyman and Owen,) 
and of a land shell di:4Covered in the interior of an erect fossil tree, in the coal 
measurert of Nova Scotia, by Sir Charles J^yell, F.RS.. Ac and J. W. Dawson, Esq. 
QuArterlv Joum. of tlio Geol Soc,, London, May 1863. vol. ix, p. 68. 

I On hei»tilian footmarks in the gorge of the Sharp Mountain near Pottsville, 
PentL, by Isaac Lea, Ei^q. Proceedings of the Am. Phil. Soc, 1849, p. VI ; also in 
the Am. Jouni. of Science, vol ix, new series, 1860, p. 124. And Trans. Am. PhiU 
Bociety, vol x. Art xxi, p. 308 ; and in his splendid niongraph, grand folio, 1855. 

^ il. de Von Meyer. Padseontogrnphica I, p. 112. 1'he reptilian nature of 
Archcgosaurus has been di<>puted, but the investigations of Von Meyer based upon 
an examination of the remains of a great number of individuals belonging to two 
species, have sliown that in addition to double occifatal condyles, this animal pos- 
sessed well developed arms and legs, wliich are sufficient to establi^ih its reptilian 
nature. 

•* Notice of a Reptilian in the Coal of Pictou, by J. W. Dawson, Esq., F.G.S., 
Journal of Oeol Soc , London, vol. xi. p. 8. Nov. 1 864. 

f f Notice of a Batnichoid fossil, {Parabatrachtu Colei) in British Coal shale, by 
Pr<if. Owen, F.R.8m Ac., Quart Joum. of GeoL Soc., London, vol. x, p, 207, Dec., 
1863. This was first recognised by Prof McCoy in Uie Museum of the Earl Ennis- 
killer, also, 

BapheUn planicepn, a fossil imbedded in a mass of Pictou Conl from Nova Scotia, 
by Pn»f. Owen, F.H..S.. Ac, Quart Journ. GeoL Soc, of London, vol. x,p. 2o7, 1863. 

1% Reports on the Gei>l Survey, Penney Ivaiiia, not vet published. 

II Memoirs of Am. AcaJ. of Arts and Sciences, vol iii, new serioa, p. 129. 



160 J. Wyman on Batrachian Reptileifram Ohio. 






two genera, not hitherto noticed. Two of the species were dis- 
covered by Dr. J. S. Newberry of Ohio, and a third by Mr. C. 
M. Wlieatiey of New York, who have entrusted them to me for 
description. 

liantceps LyeUii — ^This was found by Dr. Newberry in com- 
pany with many other remains, for the most part of fishes, and 
was regarded by him as Batrachian. He gives the following de- 
scription of their geological position. "The locality which 
furnishes the fossil fishes nnd reptiles is at Linton, Jefferson Co., 
Ohio, on the property of the Ohio Diamond Coal Co., at the mouth 
of Yellow Creek. This point is about fifty miles distant from the 
northwest margin of the Alleghany coal-field, and therefore 
about as near the centre of the basin as any part of Ohio. The 
hills bordering the Ohio at the mouth of the Yellow Creek, con- 
tain six workable beds of coal, while there are at least two 
others which lie beneath the bed of the river. Of those exposed, 
the fourth in the ascending series contains the fishes and reptiles; 
it is known on Yellow Creek as the "big run" being nearly 
eight feet in thickness. Of this thickness, tne lower four inches 
is of Cannel coal, and this forms the nidus of our fossils. The 
** big run" I have traced over several hundred scjuare miles, and 
there can be no doubt of its position. The animal remains of 
this deposit lie in immediate proximity to the most characteristic 
carboniferous plants and shells." Dr. Newberry also gives a 
section of the different strata, which lie in the following order 
from above downwards. 1. Shale and sandstone; 2. coal; 3. 
shale and fire-clay; 4. sandstone and shale; 5. coal; 6. shale 
and clay; 7. sand-rock; 8. shale; 9. coal with reptilian and 
fiah remains; below this, ten additional strata are mentioned, in- 
cluding three of coal. "Geographically, as well as stratigraphic- 
allv, these fossils come from near the centra of the basin." 

The skeleton (fig. 1,) was exposed on splitting o})en two lam- 
inae of matrix, and in the act of separation, the tail (if it had 
one), some of the dorsal vertebras, and a portion of the pelvis 
were destroyed. As is usually the case with fossils from the 
coal, all the bones were very much obscured by compression and 
by their intimate union with the substance in which they are 
imbedded. They are seen from the undersidb and measure 
about four and one-half inches in length. 

The Batrachian characters are strongly marked, and were re- 
cognized by Dr. Newberry; yet they do not strictly conform with 
either one of the two great groups, but rather combine the 
features of the Urodel and Anourous types; the first predomina- 
tinoj in the trunk and extremities, and the latter in the head. 

The general form of the head resembles that of frogs; it is tri- 
angular, and its greatest breadth nearly equals ils length. Exist- 
ing Urodels are characterised by having the lower jaws either 



/. Wywtm on Batnukian Rtpdlnjrtm Ohio. 



Ifll 

flhorter than the craniam, so that the tympanic bouea to whioh 
theM are articulated are directed obliquely forwards ; eras in 
Menopoma where the jaws axe longer, ihey ate directed out- 
warda ; in toads, , 

the jawa are as 
long astheora- 
nium, butinthe 
San idse are deci- 
ded 1y Ion ger and 
projeot back- 
wards beyond 
the occipat, as 
is also tfie case 
with tbe foeul. 
In both toads 
and frogs, the 
angles of the 
jawa are slightly 
ooDcave on their 
outer sur&ce, 
but in the foesil 
no such curve 
exists, the whole 
outer border of 
the jaw being 
convex as 
Urodels general- 
ly. The ptery- 
goid bones are 
less expanded 
than in Urodels 
butmoresotiian 
inAnoura. The 
denter bone ap- 

rrstobecloae- 
united with 
tte one behind 
it, as in Urodela 
generally and in 
Fipa among An- 
oura. The po- 
sitionof thejaw 
prevents the al- 
veolar margin from being seen ; therefore it is impoa^ble to de- 
termine either the presence or absence of teeth. 

The upper jawa are but imperfectly uncovered, especially on 
the right side ; the two are slightly separated from eacli otJier 

BBOOMO BBKIX8, VOL. IIV, NO. U. — MARCH, ItU. 




Banicepi LycIliL 



102 /. Wyman on Batrachian RepHletfrom Ohio. 

and are provided with small single pointed teeth. That on the 
left side is sufficiently exposed to show that it is biftircated 
towards the median line, as in Anoura. 

The palatine bones could not be traced. The atlas is in close 
apposition with the occiput so that the articulating surfaces are 
not visible. The expansion of the atlas indicates however, that 
two condyles probably exist. No portions of the hyoid bone or 
of brancl'iial arches were recognized. 

The vertebrae are very imperfectly preserved, and are remark- 
ably small in proportion to the size of the animal, and tkough 
several of them are destroyed, it is estimated that about twenty 
existed between the occiput and the pelvis. The transverse pro- 
cesses, if any exist are not visible, nor is there evidence of ribs. 
The Anoura are destitute of ribs, but these are replaced by very 
largely developed transverse processes. 

A slightly raised outline appears to be the only thing to indi- 
cate a scapular arch, but there are no details of structure. The 
arm is better preserved, the humerus is much contracted in the 
middle as in Batrachians generally ; the radius and ulna are sep- 
arate as in Urodels, and not united as in Anoura. In conse- 
quence of the displacement or concealment of some of the 
phalanges the number of fingers could not be ascertained with 
precision. There were certainly four, but a fifth is doubtful. It 
would be of great importance it a fossil should be detected with 
five fingers, since no existing Batrachians have more than four, 
while many of the supposed Batrachian footprints of the coal 
formations have five. The pelvis was destroyed, but traces of 
the right and left femur and of the right tibia remain. 

From the above description it appears that this, one of the 
earliest created reptiles, combines in the same individual some 
of the characters of both of the two principal groups of Batra- 
chians, viz : Urodels and Anoura. It agrees with the latter in 
the shape of the head, the length of the lower jaws, and in the 
absence of ribs; and with the former in the regular convex 
outer border of the lower jaw, and in the separation of the bones 
of the fore arm. 

If the anatomical characters of the species iust described are 
in any way remarkable, those of the two closely allied ones 
which remain to be noticed deviate still farther from known 
forms. One of them was discovered by Mr. Wheatley and the 
other by Dr. Newberry, in the same locality as the fossil already 
mentioned in the preceding pages. In both instances about 
twelve or fifteen dorsal vertebrie and the corresponding ribs are 
the only parts of the skeleton which are preserved ; but as there 
are only very slight differences in the successive vertebras and 
ribs in each specimen, it is probable that several additional ones 
were necessary to complete the series, and this would indicate 




/• Wymmn on Bairaekian ReptUei frmn Ohio. 168 

t the animal had a very long and slender body. There are 

traces whatever of limbs, heid or tail^ in either case. 

The specimen, of which a small portion is represented in the 

ompanying figure (fig. 2, seen from 

>ve) is aTOUt two and a half inches 

g. There are in all thirteen or foar« 

n vertebras with their ribs, these last 

ng but very slightly displaced. The 

bes of all but three of the vertebra 

broken. The entire vertebra has a 
idningular form, is a little broader 
lind than in front, is surmounted by a 
nous process forming a longitudinal 
ge, on each side of wnich posteriorly, 

two rather large lobes forming the 
iculating processes which overlap the succeeding bone. The 
nsverse processes are well preserved throughout nearly the 
ole length of the specimen, and are situated near the anterior 
remity of each vertebra, just exterior to the posterior border 
the articulating processes. 

The ribs, well developed throughout, are remarkably well pre- 
ved ; each has a short head, and behind this, a well marKed 
>ercle, showing two points of articulation, and consequently 
rranting the inference that the transverse processes had like- 
le two articular facets, though these are not apparent in the 
sil. The shaft of the rib is very much curved, flattened and 
tressed with a deep groove along its whole length near the 
ivex border. The sternal portion of the rib is broader than 

centre, as if for the attachment of a cartilage. 
The general form of the vertebreB presents closer resemblances 
those of Batrachians than of any other vertebrates, but the 
11 developed ribs differ very materially from those of any 
3wn Batrachians, viz: in their great length, and the curva- 
e, — in which respect they resemble those of scaly reptiles, 
e very existence of ribs separates them from the Anoura. and 
ir length from Urodels; for the first have no ribs and the 
end only very short, and for the most part pointed ones. 
[f further investigation should prove them to be the remains 
Batrachians, with which they have some afiinities^ then we 
ill have a lype of which there is no living representative. It 
jy belong to a group higher in the series, ttiey bec-omo still 
re interesting, and give evidence of the existence in the Coal 
rmation of animals hitherto referred to later periods. 
The third specimen consists of a portion of the skeleton of 
>ther reptile discovered by Dr. Newberry, closely allied to the 
leading but much larger, and with vertebrae presenting the 
ne Batrjichian features in the ridge-like spinous processes and 
t broad lobes of the articulating processed, out having also com. 



164 T. E. Clark on FichUliU of North Bawria. 

bined with them largely and similarly developed ribs. In this 
case, the transverse processes if any existed, are not visible, as 
the vertebral column is turned a little to one side, and thereby 
one half of them is concealed in the matrix, while, on the other 
side, the parts are so much broken or covered up by the loose 
ribs as to prevent examination. 

I have given no names to these last two reptiles, notwithstand- 
ing their great interest, as their remains were not sufficiently 
complete to enable me to determine with anything like accuracy 
their specific or generic characters. To add names to parts of 
animals, unless the remains are very characteristic, can only 
serve, as the history of science shows, to impede its progress and 
encumber it with useless synonyms. 



Abt. XVI. — Fichtelile, a fossil carho-hydrogen found in the ^^Fich- 
Ulgebirgt^^ of North Bavaria ; by T. Edwards Clabk, Ph.D* 

The rare fossil resin, which is the occasion of this paper and 
which I obtained for analysis through the kindness of Professor 
Liebig, was collected by Mr. Schmidt, apothecary in WunsiedeL 
Near the neighboring town of Redwitz are beds of turf several 
feet in thickness, which contain large quantities of wood — ^sterns 
and branches — in various stages of preservation. 

The greater portion of this is pine wood, which is so little 
changeaafter lying in these turf beds for certainly hundreds of 
years, that, to all appearance, except that it has oecome quite 
dark in color, it does not differ from well dried wood of the same 
species which is still growing in the vicinity. It cuts and splits 
tne same, burns about as well, and is little inferior in toughness. 

Professor Unger,t who has made a microscopicf examination 
of this wood, says that it evidently belongs to the still living 
species Pinus sylvestris; that it is very well preserved, but that 
in certain parts of the larffer vessels a peculiar change has taken 
place, which has caused the walls of these vessels to lose their 
coherence and texture. 

The other woods found in these turf beds are in a much worse 
state of preservation. The remains of birches (Betula alba), 
alders (Alnus glutinosa), and hazlenut (Corylus avellana), are 
quite numerous. The same species exist at present in the neigh- 
borhood. It is in this pine wood, which is still growing so plen- 
tifully as to give a name to the mountains of North Bavaria 
(Fichtelgebirge), that this fossil resin is found. It occurs princi- 
pally in the form of shining scales between the annual rings, 

* A portion of this paper first appeared in tho ** Annalcn der dmnM nnd Pfaar- 
macie'' of August. 1867. 
t Aonalen d. Pbjaik u. Chemie, Tol liz, p. 65. 



71 E. Clark m FickuKiefram North Bavaria. 166 

lich have separated from one another. The method of ex- 
cting it^ and its orystalline form we will consider &rther on. 
[n 1887, Tromrosdorff * received from Mr. Fikentscher a fossil 
iiHi which was found, under exactly the same circumstances, 

the well preserved stems of buned pines. The analysis, 
lich he caused to be made, shows, however, that it is the same 
^stance which was found some years later in a brown coal bed 
ir Utznach in Switzerland, and that it difibrs both in its com- 
sition and in its melting point, 107^ C, from the resin which 

have analyzed. « 

[n 1841, Bromeisf examined a fossil resin, which was also re- 
ved from Mr. Fikentscher, and which was found, like the pre- 
»ua, in the light brown colored pine stems, between the annual 
gs, often in the form of flat prismatic crystals, colorless and 
thout taste or smell It proved however 'to be quite distinct 
>m that analyzed by Trommsdorff, both in its composition 
i in its melting pomt, 46^ C. Bromeis proposed the name 
^htelite for this. « 

En 184S, Schrotter j: became possessed of a fossil resin also 
•m Bedwitz. This was extracted from the wood by ether, 
d allowed to crystallize, when it was found to be composed of 

substaDces, one of which could not be crystallized, but went 
wn as an oil. This he considered to be identical in composi* 
n with Fichtelite ; but erroneously, for he overlooked the fiict 
it in the analysis by Bromeis the old atomic weight of carbon 
a used. The crystalline portion of the resin received by 
lirotter contained oxygen as well as carbon and hydrogen. 
From this we see that at least three or four different carbo- 
drogen fossil resins have been obtained from the turf beds of 
dwitz ; and all have been found in the well preserved stems of 
s one species of pine tree. But the same has been remarked 
other places where similar fossil resins have been found. 

[n the neighborhood of Utznach in Switzerland is a bed of 
>wn coal from two to three feet in thickness, which contains 
merous remains of pines, firs, birches and other trees, in va- 
ns stages of preservation. The pine stems are almost un- 
Einged. This bed of coal has long been considered to belong 
the Tertiary formation, and is so spoken of by those who have 
ticed the fossil resins found in it The remarkable state of 
jservation of the pine wood, and the occurrence of fossil resins 
it, identical with or very similar to those discovered in the 
\e stems of the turf beds of Bedwitz, have led me to investi- 
te more closely the age of this bed of brown coal. 

1 found that an examination of the plants contained in it has 
jently been made by Professor Heer,§ who has published a 

Annalen d. Phiir^ toI. xxi, p. 126. f AoDalen d. Phar^ rol xxxrii, p. 804. 
Annalen d. Phys. u. Chem., toI. llx, p. 55. 
I Neaefl Jahrbudi fUr MineriL o. OeoL t. Leonhard u. Brona, 1846, p. 218. 



i 



166 T. E. Clark on FichteliU from North Bavaria. 

fine work on the " Tertiary Flora of Switzerland." He remarks 
that '^ the pine which Ooppert describes as Pintles st/lvestris, is 
evidently tne same which we have in our brown coal at Utznacb, 
and which is in every respect not to be distinguished irom oar 
living pines. The same is true of the birches and firs. We 
have found very few animal remains, but these appear to belong 
to species which still exist with us." Thus showmg, as I antici- 
pated, that this brown coal is of the same age as the torf beds 
of Redwitz. 

Stromeyer* was the first to call attention to the existence of a 
fossil resin found in the wood preserved in this coal bed. To 
this he gave the name Scheererite. 

Later in 1828, K6nlein,t who had charge of the working of 
this bed of coal, described a resin which he had discovered as 
early as 1822 in the stems of pines occurring in the brown coal. 
For this, not knowing that Stromeycr had already described a 
fossil resm from the same bed under the name of Scheererite, 
he proposed the name of "Naphtaline resineuse prismatique," 
from its resemblance to naphtaline. Neither Stromever nor 
Konlein gave an analysis of the resin which they describe 

In 1829, Macaire Princep$ analyzed a resin which he, like 
Stromeyer, had received from Colonel Scheerer, as coming from 
the brown coal bed of Utznach. Its melting point was found to 
be but 2 degrees lower than that of Fichtelite. Macaire Prinoep 
accepted the name scheererite which Stromeyer had proposed. 

Further, in 1888, Krauss§ analyzed a substance wnich he had 
obtained from the same locality. This resin in appearance re- 
sembled scheererite, but the analysis showed it to be different in 
composition. In this as well as in the melting point, it does not 
diifer materially from the substance analyzed oy TrommsdorJ^ 
which was found in the turf beds of Redwitz. Schrotter, who 
considers the two identical, proposes the name Kcinlite for them. 
While scheererite distills undecomposed, kdnlite yields a sub- 
stance which melts by the warmth of the hand, and has a com- 
position perhaps identical with that of tekoretin, which we have 
yet to notice. Krauss proposed the name pyro-scheererite for 
this latter. 

Later, Haidinger|| in an article comparing the crystalline form 
of hartite with that of what he supposed to be scheererite, and 
which he had received from Utznach, remarks that the latter 
melts at 46° C, 

Steenstrup,^ who has written considerably on the marshes 
and coal beds of Denmark, discovered in the stems of the pine 
trees, which are found in these in an almost perfect state of pres- 

♦ KAstner*f« Archiv.. vol ix, p. 113. f Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem., vol xii, p. 8 

{Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem., xv, p. 294. § Ann. d. Pliya. u. CheoL, zliii, p. 141. 
Ann. d. Pliyn, u. Chem.. vol. II v, p. 261. 
^ Videntkab. Sekkabe naturvid. og Math. Afbandliiig«r. 9 DeeL, 1848. 



T. Ei, Clark ra FichuKtefnm North Bavaria. 167 

Tvation in the neighborhood of Holtegard, a fossil resin which 
vas supposed to be scheererite. The other woods ocenrriDg 
inth this pine (P. sjlvestris) are the same as those of Bedwitz 
ind Utznach. The resin found by Steenstnip was shown by the 
maJyeis of Forchhammer to be composed of two carbo-hydro- 
^ns, and both quite distinct from scheererite. They were sepa- 
-ated by dissolving in boiling alcohol and allowing to crystalhze. 
Fekoretin, being less soluble than phylloretin, crystallized first 
The former melts at 46'' C, the latter at ST" C. 

From this cursory view of the different carbo-hydrogens dis- 
K>yered in the three localities which have been mentioned, we 
Dcrceive, that in each place a fossil resin occurs which melts at 
15° or 46® C. — viz., Ficbtelite described by Bromeis from Bed- 
¥itz, scheererite (?) by Haidinger from Utznach, and tekoretin 
3y Forchhammer fix>m Holtegard. The relation which they 
)ear to one another, through their actual composition, is noticed 
3eyond. 

We have still another locality to mention where a fossil resin 
s found, fh>m the fact that this fossil, which was analyzed by 
Schrotter,* was considered by him to be very similar to scheer- 
erite and to have the same composition as tekoretin. 

In 1841, Haidingerf discovered a fossil resin resembling 
jcheererite in the brown coal beds of Oberhart not far from 
V^ienna. One part of these beds contains numerous stems of a 
K)rt of pine tree, which are preserved either as bituminous, or 
IS petrified wood, i. e., quartz in the form of wood. In the dif- 
erent layers and cross breakings of these stems the resin which 
s called hartite is found. These coal beds have at present an 
nelination of 70°, and are considered to belong to the tertiary 
brmation. The pine wood in which the resin occurs was exam- 
ned by linger :j: and pronounced to belong to the species Pence 
tcerosa, Ug., which is very common in the brown coal formation, 
iartite, which was analyzed by Schrdtter, melts at 74° C. This 
s the only carbo-hydrogen fossil found in the coal beds of Ober- 
lart, while at Redwitz tliere are at least two ; at Utznach three 
lave been described, including one derived from the distillation 
)f konlite; and from Holtegard two have been analyzed by 
forchhammer. 

We have thus briefly alluded to the various fossil resins found 
n the four diflferent localities mentioned, because it will be neces- 
ary to speak of the relation which they bear to one another 
md to the substance which we have analyzed. As to the actual 
imposition of several of these fossils much doubt exists, for 
nost of the analyses were made at a time when the atomic 

♦ Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem., yoL lix, p. 87. 
f Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem., vol. liv, p. 261. 
X Add. d. Pbyt. u. CheoL, toI. lix, p. 41. 



168 T. E. Clark on Fichtelite from North Bavaria. 

weight of carbon was considered to be 6*126, and the method of 
analysis was much less perfect than at present. 

We shall now proceed to notice ipore specially the substance 
which we have received for analysis. It is found principally 
between the annual rings of the wood, which have separated or 
are still loosely joined to one another. Here it forms layers, 
often one-tenth of an inch in thickness, of shining transparent 
scales, having more or less of a yellowish tinge, and lapping 
one over the other. In some parts of the wood are what ap- 
pear to be minute granules of this resin mixed with woody mat- 
ter, bat when examined under the microscope they prove to be 
small crystals, with their faces obliquely inclmed to one another. 
I did not succeed in finding any that were large and regular 
enough for determining the crystalline form. 

But this substance is not confined to the annual layers; for if 
the wood is split in any direction whatever, numerous shining 

Joints appear, showing that it is completely saturated witlf it 
n order to obtain this from the wood, the latter is finely cut up 
with a turning lathe, or by any other convenient means, and 
then boiled in ether for several hours. The extract is then 
poured off, fresh ether is added, and again submitted to two or 
three hours boiling. The two extracts are now poured together 
and considerably concentrated by distilling on a part of the 
ether. Strong rJcohol is added to this till all remains dissolved. 

From this it was found impo»*ible to obtain crystals, although 
exposed to a temperature below 0° C. ; a reddish oil went down 
instead. So in order to separate the resin from other organic 
bodies, which were presumed to be present, and which were sup- 
posed to prevent the forming of crystals, the acetate of lead was 
added. The large and heavy precipitate, which went down, 
was thrown on a filter, and the filtrate, after being freed from 
the excess of acetate of lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, and 
boiled with the precipitate for a time to decolorize it, was ex- 
posed to a cold of a few degrees below 0® C, when long prism- 
shaped crystals were formed. 

Any foreign substance, or a crystal of this resin thrown into 
the alcoholic solution, assists the first forming of crystals very 
materially. 

Before cutting up the wood, it is best to scrape off as much 
resin as possible, for this portion, dissolved in alcohol and ether, 
crystallizes quite easily. 

The precipitate occasioned by the acetate of lead, which is 
not soluole in ether, was mixed with alcohol and decomposed 
by a current of sulphuretted hydrogen. In the filtrate of thii 
new precipitate, crystals were formed when exposed to a tem- 
perature below 0° C. These we have not yet examined. 






T. B. Clark an FidHdiUfr&m North Bawuia. 109 

The dystals of this resin thus artificially formed are oblique 
rhombic prisms with orthodiaflonal &oe8. Sometimes an oblique 
end fiice is present behind- In the prevailing form the angles 
of the side faces m: m= 97^ and ^58^: the end face p to the or* 
thodiagonal face o=sl27^: the second oblique end fistce behind 
f : o=r 128** ; and ;> : t = 105^. The ortho- 
diagonal face cats off the acute side angle 
of the prism m. The crystals are length- 
ened in the direction o^ the orthodiago- 
nal : tn in most very short K the face 
p is adjusted in the stauroscope with the 
Bides a a, the cross stands normal ; a proof 
that the crystallization is not triclinia 
The measurements could be made only by 
the reflection of candle light with the use 
of the lens. 

The melting point is 46^ C. ; but the temperature at which 
this substance solidifies again is much lower, viz. 8b^ C, making 
a difference of ten degrees between the meltine and freezing 
points. These observations were carefully m de by experiment- 
ing on several different portions of the resin. This somewhat 
strange behavior has already been observed in other l)odij8, e. g. 
oleic acid when melted does not solidifv till cooled to 4** C. : 
its melting point is 14° C. : doeglinic acid, which melts at 16^ C, 
congeals a lew degrees above C. 

1o determine the boiling point of this substance, about five 
grams were put into a small retort holding a thermometer run- 
ning up to 820° C. The latter was lowered almost to tlie sur- 
face of the melted resin, and the heat gradually increased till 
the mercury reached 810°, when the thermometer "was takjn out, 
and the retort more strongly heated. Soon, oil drops bigan to 
collect in the neck of the latter, which on cooling assumed more 
or less of a crystalline structure. The distilled portici when 
dissolved in alcohol and ether crystallized like the original sub- 
stance, and possessed the same melting and freezing points; 
showing that it suffered no change by distillation. We may 
safely say that the boiling point is aboye 820° C, for the ther- 
mometer was rapidly rising when it was tnken out. A peculiar 
but agreeable odor was given out during the distillation, and a 
small part of the resin was decomposed, accompanied by the 
separation of coal. 

Anhydrous sulphuric acid produces a total decomposition of 
the substance. A small portion was put into a test tube, and to 
this the sulphuric acid was added, when, although cold, a violent 
reactio n took place, fumes of sulphurous acid were given out, 
and the whole tube was blackened with coal. 

8SC0KD SERIES, VOL. XXV, MO. 74.— MARCH, IMS. 

23 



170 T. E. Clark on FichUlite from North Bavaria. 

To another portion Nordhausen acid was udded, and then 
heated in the water-bath. Sulphurous acid was alowlj ffiven 
out, and the solution became deep red. In order to see ii any 
combination with sulphuric acid had taken place, water was 
added and the whole heated with carbonate of baryta. The 
l^recipitate was separated, but the filtrate, which was greatly 
concentrated by evaporation, yielded no crystals of any soluble 
salt of baryta. 

This experiment was often made in different ways, but with- 
out obtaining any combination with sulphuric acid. 

To another portion of this resin fuming nitric acid was added, 
and heated carefully in the water*bath. Soon a violent reaction 
took place, red fumes of nitrous acid were given out in large 
quantity. After the action of the nitric acid was finished, the 
whole was evnporated to one-third its volume, and water added, 
causing a white precipitate. This was thrown on a filter, 
washed out, and dissolved in alcohol and ether. The reddish 
solution was boiled with animal carbon to decolorize it, and then 
exposed to a temperature several degrees below 0® C. But in- 
stead of crystals being formed, an oily substance, which proba- 
bly holds nitrous acid, was sent down as the ether evaporated. 
The filtrate of the precipitate caused by the action of water on 
the nitric acid solution, was evaporated to dryness over the 
wnter-bath ; the residue was found to contain oxalic acid. 

If this resin is thrown into cold fuming nitric acid and allowed 
to stand for two or three days, it dissolves entirely; but when 
preci|)itated from this solution by water, and dissolved in alcohol 
and ether, it behaves like the last, going down as a reddish oil 
A mixture of fuming nitric and sulpnuric acids seems to act like 
nitric acid alone. 

Although we have not succeeded in obtaining combinations 
with nitrous acid, which we know to be such, yet wo do not 
doubt but that they are formed, from the fact that they have 
been obtained from other substances which are very similar to 
this. 

Chlorine gas in contact with this resin in a melted state com- 
bines with it. The experiment is best made by putting a few 
grams in a small Liebig's drying apparatus, the lower part of 
which runs horizontally. This is placed in a water-batl), the 
temperature of which must be kept above 46° C. With this 
bent tube a retort, in which chlorine gas is generated, is con- 
nected. A higher or lower compound of chlorine is formed, ia 
accordance with the length of time that the gas is pasBed over 
the melted substance; or two or three compounds may bft 
formed at the same time. Fumes of bydrochlorie acid appear 
at the open end of the tube. 



9! B. Clmrk m FichUliU frwn North Bavmrig. 171 

The action of bromine is of course similar to that of chlorine. 
Hydrobroraic acid is given out, and higher or lower compounds 
are formed, as the Quantity of bromine used is greater or less. 
The substance should be melted in a flask and the bromiuo 
added from time to time. 

This resin was obtained pure for analysis by several re crystal- 
lizations from its solution in alcohol and ether. The combu3- 
tions were made with chromate of lead, and with rolls of fine 
oxydizsed copper wire in the front part of the tube. Tliree out 
of several analyses are here given. 

L 0*88*24 grm. of substance gave 
1*0591 ** carbonic Acid and 
08819 " water. 

VL 04814 " of substance gavf 
}*876l " carbonic acid apd 
0*4960 ** water. 

Ill 0*4008 ** of substance gavf 
1*2809 ** carbcmic acid and 
0*4689 ** water. 

These give the following percentages : 

I. II. n;, 

Carbon, 86*89 07 00 $7^ 

Hydrogen, 12 86 12*88 12 99 

The average of the three and the corresponding formu'fi are 
as follows, 

Average. CdknlHt^il. 

Carbon, 87*18 Cs 87 27 

Hydrogen, 12 86 H? 12 73 

This gives as the empirical formula for this resin CsHt. The 
other analyses confirm this result. 

We will now proceed to compare this formula with those ob 
tained by others for several of the fossil resins already men- 
tioned, viz., with Fichtelite analyzed by Bromeis, with hartite 
analyzed by Schrotter, and with tekoretin and phylloretin anal- 
yzed by Forcli hammer. But first, we must allude to a matter 
which has given us no little trouble. 

All the above mentioned resin.«, with the exception of hartite, 
were analyzed when the atomic weiglit of carbon wns held to 
be 6'125, hence too much carbon was almost always obtained in 
an analysis. Now in books on organic chemistry, and in chem- 
ical journals when these fossils are alluded to, this fact seems 
generally to have been overlooked. We will give two or three 
instances out of the very many wiiicli we have noticed. 

Schrotter,* who analyzed hnrtite, compares hi« results with 
those obtained by Forchhammer for tekoretin, and remarks that 
the two substances are very probably identical in composition, 
and only differ in their melting points. We give the results as 
obtained by each : 

♦ Ann. d. Plijs u. Chem., toI llx, p. 44. 



172 T. E. Clark on PichUlite from North Bavaria. 



Bftilite. 


Tekorctin. 


8747 


8719 


12 04 


14-81 



Carbon, • 
Hydrogen, 

Now if wc overlook the fact that in the analysis of hartite 
the atomic weight of carbon was taken as 6, but in the analysis 
of tekoretin as 6'12o, then Schr6tter*s remark seems to be cor- 
rect. The actual difference in composition will be seen if we in 
both cases take the atomic weight of carbon as 6. 



Ilanite. 


TekoKtin. 


87-47 


85-89 


1204 


1281 



Again Gerhardt* commits the same error, but in a different 
way. On noticing scheererite (konlite) he gives the composition 
in one hundred parts ns obtained by Krauss, who took the atomic 
weight of carbon as 6*125, but affixes to this a formula ia which 
it is taken as 6 : e. g. 



nK* H 



Carbon, 02*45 92* 8 

Hydrogen, 742 7* 7 

Tekoretin, phylloretin, and other resins are noticed in the 
same way by Gerhardt. Lowig in his " Organic Chemistry" lias 
many similar errors. The same oversight is also common in 
works on mineralogy. 

Let us now compare the result which we have obtained with 
the composition of several similar fossil resins. Those analyses 
which were made when the atomic weight of carbon was held 
to be 6*125 we have recalculated. The four sul)stances which 
bear perhaps the nearest relation to that which we have analyzed, 
are Fichtclite, hartite, tekoretin, and phylloretin. Their compo- 
sition in one hundred parts is 





Fichtelite. 


Hartite. 


Tekoretin. 


Phylloretin. 


c 


87 95 


87-47 


8589 


8888 


H 


10-70 


12-04 


1281 


9-22 



They require probably the following formulas : Fichtelite 
C«H4,"hartite CflH*, tekoretin CH, phylloretin CaHs. Though 
the numbers obtained from the analysis of Fichtelite by Bromeis 
indicate a different formula, yet we are dis|X)sed to consider it 
identical with the substance which we have analyzed ; for they 
both occur under the same circumstances and iu the same peat 
beds; and moreover they have a common melting point. Fich- 
telite also distills without being decomposed, and benaves toward 
alcohol and ether as does this resin. 

The difference in composition, indicated by the analyses, may 
perhaps be accounted for by the fact that Bromeis analyzed 
Fichtelite just as it was obtained from the wood, without re- 

* Traits de Chemie Organique, Tome quatri^me, p. 898. 



T. E. Clark on FichteliU from North Bavaria. 178 

crystallizing it, and hence it was necessarily impure. Rather 
than increase the confusion already existing in the nomenclature 
of these and allied substances, we shall adopt the name given 
by Bromeis. 

We should not forget to notice that Trommsdorff has also 
analyzed a fossil resin coming from Bedwitz, and found under 
the same circumstances, ip the stems of Pinus sylvesln's^ and hav- 
ing the same outward appearance as Fichtelite; but in its melting 
point, 107° C, ^d in its composition, it diflFers greatly : viz. 

K6'ii1ite (7) 

Carbon, 9105 

Hydrogen, 7*67 

The formula obtained for hartite stands nearer that of the fos* 
sil resin which we have analyzed ; its crystals are also mono- 
clinic; towards alcohol, ether, and sulphuric acid it behaves the 
same ; and during distillation but a small portion is decomposed ; 
but its melting point is much higher, 74° C, besides it occurs in 
another fossil pine, Peuce acerosa, Ug., and in another geological 
formation, being as to its origin much older. 

Tekoretin resembles this resin in every particular except in 
composition. Its melting point is 45° C. ; it distills at nearly 
836 , possesses the same solubility in alcohol and ether; the 
effect of nitric acid and chlorine gas is the same, forming two 
compounds with the latter, which Forchhammer did not succeed 
in separating; and it is also found in the buried stems of P, syl- 
vestri.H ; but the formula required by its analysis obliges us for 
the present to consider it as another resin. 

Pliylloretin, which like the latter is found in the pine stems 
in the marshes of Holtegard, thoufj;h distilling at a high tempe- 
rature and forming com|jounds with chlorine, diflFers not only in 
composition, but in its melting point, 87° C, from the fossil resin 
which we have described. 

We have still another carbo- hydrogen resin to notice, which 
was the first described of all these in 1827. This was called 
scheererite. It melts at 44° C. and distills, without being de- 
composed, at 90° C. 

Some confusion exists with regard to this fossil, from the fact 
that Krauss* has given the analysis of a substance under the 
name of scheererite, which had, it is true, been obtained from the 
coal beds of Utznach, like that described by Stromeyer find 
Macaire Princep, but which melts at 107° C. ; is decomposed by 
distillation, and has a composition quite dilterent from scheerer- 
ite as given by Macaire Princep: 

Scheererite. 

Carbon. 7191 

Hydrogen, 2400 

* Ann. d. Pbys. u. Chem., vol. xllii, p. 141. 



174 r. E. Clark on FichteKtefrom North Banaria. 



The inexactness of the analysis leaves much doubt as to its 
true composition. The substance was yerj volatile, and only 
one analysis was made. Macaire Princep himself was not satis- 
fied with the result. Since he made the analysis, no aubfitance 
has been found in the coal beds of Utznach wnich melts at 44^ 
C. and distills at 90^ C. 

We ^ive here a tible of those fossil resins to which we have 
referred, together with their melting and boiling points, and also 
the effect of chlorine, nitric and sulphuric acids on them. We 
have thought the percentage of carbon and hydro^n found 
would give a better idea of the relation of these fossils to one 
another, than their formula, for many of the latter, deduced from 
the amount of carbon and hydrogen obtained, are doabtfuL 



Piehulhe by Broaeto, 

Ficktelite hf Clhrk, 

Tekoretin, 

Sch«erorit« by Haidinfer, 
Scheererite by Priocep, 
lUrtiU, 

Phyllortiin, 

KuoIiU (7) by Trommtdorff; 

Konlittf by Krtau, 



Cftrbon* 



8M3 

86-89 

ankoown 

71-91 

87-47 

88-88 
91 -OS 
9112 



Ilydr*- 

geo. 



10 70 

12-86 

1281 

onkfiowa 

24-00 

12i)4 

922 
7-57 
7-42) 



point "***""« P***"*- .Chloriiit. 



kUnki»awa,o^ 1^^ 
f decompMwL "^ ■ 



46* C. 

46* C. Above 320*0. 

46*C.!orqaiekBilvOT. 
46* C. unknowD. noknowB 
44* r. 90* C. da 

74* C. Very high. do. 

ST C. Of qoieksiWer. combiaM 



OrmtrieAeM. 



;orni|iki 

I ricKML 



I NO4 oonbiMtkaC?) *'^" * 
do OBknevi 

UokoowA. I do. 

dow bWckea^ 

4a da 

5 Onlic oeld, ud 

{MQ4ca«MaoiioB(?) 

bhckn^ 
da 



Mo 
DiiMHoiit. 



The rational formula for any one of the fossils which we have 
mentioned has not yet been determined. We only know the 
empirical formula. None of the products resulting from their 
combination with chlorine, bromine, sulphuric or nitric acids 
have been analyzed. For this purpose we have formed and 
analyzed several chlorine and bromine combinations of Fich- 
telitc. Chlorine gas was passed over a few grains of it as already 
described, for the space of one-half hour. It was then dissolveii 
in alcohol and ether, and stood in the cold to crystallize. After 
standing several days, all the undecomposed resin crystallized 
out. 

From the mother liquor two combinations with chlorine were 
obtained, neither of which could be crystallized, though exposed 
to a cold several degrees below 0° C. The first of these combi- 
nations is a clear colorless transparent oil; the other, which is 
of a yellowish color, we did not obtain in sufficient quanty &x 
analysis. 

Over another portion of Fichtelite a stream of chlorine gas 
was piissed for two hours. This was then dissolved in alcohol 
and ether as the last. Two oils were obtained, neither of which 
could be crystallized. The one which was first precipitated was 



r. E. Clark on FkhteliUfrom North Bavaria. 176 

of a deep yellow color and perfectly clear; the other was of a 
dark red color. There was too little of the latter for analysis. 

For determining the amount of chlorine and bromine con- 
tained in the oils obtained, the combustions were made with 
caustic lime. For determining the amount of carbon and hy- 
drogen simply chromate of lead was used, having the combus- 
tion tube longer than usual. 

Before giving the results obtained, I must remark that it is 
greatlj to oe regretted that I did not succeed in obtaining these 
combinations in a crystalline form ; for then there could be no 
doubt as to their purity. As it is, a small portion of Fichtelite 
may have been held m solution by the oils, and so of course 
have aflFected the results obtained. I therefore present the fol- 
lowing analyses with the hope that some one may hereafter be 
more 'fortunate than I have been in forming crystalline combi- 
nations of this resin with chlorine and bromine. 

First chlorine combination. 

t 04192 grm. of •ubBtanoe gave 
1*1 S6S ** carboDic acid and 
04216 •* water. 



Hence 



n. 0*6903 "* of Bubetance gave 
0S166 "" cblorid of gilTer. 





Calculated. 


Fotind. 


C30 = 


77-655 


77-218 


Ha = 


10-987 


11-178 


ClJ = 


11-458 


11-804 



Hence 



Second chlorine combination. 

L 8933 grm. of nubstanoa gave 
10013 ** carbonic acid and 
03448 « water. 

IL 0-5411 « of substance gave 
0-4432 " chluridof BU\6r. 

Calculated. Found. 

Cso S3 69 783 69-433 

H«J «« 9-595 9-726 

CU = 2U-62I 20-250 



In order to obtain bromine combinations, the resin was acted 
upon by bromine as previously described, and dissolved in alco- 
hol ana ether. Aft«r standing several days in the cold most of 
the time below 0° C. the undecomposed substance had entirely 
crystallized out. By treating the mother liquor as in the case of 
the chlorine compounds, two oils were obtained : one of a light 
red color and penectly clear, the other dark red and much more 
consistent 



176 r. E. Clark an FHchUliUfrom North Bmaria, 

First bromine combination, 

L 0*4169 grm. of tubstmice give 



Hence 





11646 " 
0-4161 « 


carl)onic add and 
water. 


IL 


8909 ** 
10886 ** 
0-8867 " 


of subctance gaye 
carbonic acid and 
water. 




Caleo luted. 




Foood. 




I. U. 


C-e = 

Hf — 
Br = 


76-815 
10 970 
12-716 




76186 75 95 
11068 li'-99 
12751 18-05 



Hence 



Second bromine combination. 

0*4828 grm. of eub^tiince gave 
0*257 ** bromid of vlver. 



Colculnted. Foond. 

Cm = 67*801 

H<3 = 9 605 

Bri s 22 692 22*678 



We have thus obtained the four following formulas for the 
chlorine and bromine compounds: 

CsoIIeoBri, CsoUesBra, CsoHesCls, CsoUsaCU. 
Hence the rational formula for Fichtelite would seem to be 





Calculated. 


Found. 


Cm = 


87*278 


87*18 


H70 = 


12727 


12 86 



This is of course quite an unexpected result, although the ra- 
tional formula for none of these fossil resins has previously been 
determined. Other carbo-hydrogen substances have however 
been described with very high formulas, e. g., ifelene and Cerene, 
The formula for the former is CtfoHao, and for the latter Cs4 
lis 4. Moreover both of the substances, like that which we have 
analyzed, have many of the properties of paraffine, and form 
compounds with clilorine. 

There are two objections to reducing this formula to Ci cHsi. 
The first is that it gives an uneven number of hydrogen atoms, 
and secondly that in the first bromine compound it requires one- 
half an atom (Bri) of bromine. Laurent and others Iiave how- 
ever expressed half atoms in various formulas. 



Prcf, Owen on the Class Mammalia. 177 



&.RT. XVll. — On the Characters, Principles of Division^ and Pri- 
mary Groups of the Class Mammalia; by Professor OwEN, 
F.RS., F.L.S., Superintendent of the Natural History Depart* 
ments in the British Museum.* 

(Concluded from page 18.) 

Primary Divisions of the Mammalia. — The question or prob- 
lem of the truly natural and equivalent primary groups of the 
class Mammalia has occupied much of my consideration, and 
has ever been present to my mind when gathering any new facts 
in the anatomy of the Mammalia, during dissections of the rarer 
forms which have died at the Zoological Gardens, or on other 
opportunities. 

The peculiar value of the leading modifications of the mam- 
malian brain, in regard to their association with concurrent modi- 
fications in other important systems of organs, was illustrated 
in detail in the Hunterian course of lectures on the Comparative 
Anatomy of the Nervous System, delivered by me at the Royal 
College of Surgeons in 1842. The ideas which were "broached 
or suggested during the delivery of that course, I have tested 
bj every subseauent acquisition of anatomical knowledge, and 
now feel myself justified in submitting to the judgment of the 
Linnean Society, with a view to publication, the following four- 
fold primary division of the mammalian class, based upon the 
four leading modifications of cerebral structure in that class. 

The brain is that part of the organization which, by its supe- 
rior development, distinguishes the Mammalia from all the in- 
ferior classes of Vebtebrata ; and it is that organ which I now 
propose to show to be the one that by its modifications marks 
the oest and most natural primary divisions of the class. 

In some mammals the cerebral hemispheres are but feebly and 
partially connected together by the * fornix' and * anterior com- 
missure:* in the rest of the class a part called * corpus callosum' 
is added, which completes the connecting or * commissural' ap- 
paratus. 

With the absence of this great superadded conrniissuref is 
associated a remarkable modification of the mode of develop- 
ment of the offspring, which involves many other modifications; 
amon^t which are tne presence of the bones called * marsupial,* 
lUid the non-development of the deciduous body concerned in 
the nourishment of the progeny before birth, called 'placenta;' 

* lliis paper is cited from the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 
of London. Head February 17th and April 21 ft, 1857. 
t "On the Structure of the Brain in Marsupial Animals," Philos. Trani., 1S8Y, 

p. 87. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XIV, NO. 74. — MARCH, 18M. 
23 



178 Pref. Owen m tlu Class MamMialuL 

the young in all this ' implacental' division being broiigbt forth 
prematurely, as comparea with the rest of the clasa. 

This first and lowest primary group, or subclass, of Mammilia 
may be termed, from its cerebral chiuracter, LtbsgSPBALA,*— 
signifying the comparatively loose or disconnected state of tbe 
cerebral hemispheres. The size of these hemispheres (Gg. 1, a) 
ia such that they leave exposed tbe olfactory ganglions (a), tbe 
cerebellum (c), and more or less of tbe optic lobes (b) ; thor 
lur&oe is generally smooth ; aafractuosities, when present, ore 
few and airnpl*. 

t.— Bnic of Bmw. 
li^-Bnin of OpMnm. 





The next well-marked stage in tbe development of Hie 
is where the corpus callosum (indicated in fig. 2 by the dotltd 
lines d, d) is present, but connects cerebral hemispheres as link 
advanced in bulk or outward character as in the precediog sob- . 
class ; the cerebrum (a) leaving both the olfactory lobta («) and ( 
cerebellum (c) exposed, and being commonly smooth, or witk i 
few and simple convolutions in a very small proportion, ooni- i 
posed of the lai^st members of the group. The mammals n 
characterized constitute the subclnss LiasEHCEPSALA^ (fig. !> 

In this subclass the testes are either permanently or tempon- 
rily concealed in the abdomen; there is a common external gf 
nitO;urinary aperture in most; two precaval veins ('Buperior'or 
'anterior venae cavte') temiionte in tbe right auricle. Thesqiu- 
mosal in most, and the tympanic in many, retain their pTimitir* 

* liio, to 1oo«e, uid Ifttiifaloi, brain. 



Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia. 170 

separation as distinct bones. The orbits have not an entire rim 
of bone. Besides these more general characters by which the 
Lissencephala, in common with the Ljencephala, resemble Birds 
and Reptiles, there are many other remarkable indications of 
their amnitv to the Oviparous Vertebrata in particular orders or 
genera of the subclass. Such, e. g.^ are the cloaca, convolut«l 
trachea, supernumerary cervical vertebrae and their floating ribs, 
in the three-toed Sloth; the irritability of the muscular fibre, 
and persistence of contractile power in the Sloths and some other 
Bruta ; the long, slender, bealc-like edentulous jaws and gizzard 
of the Anteaters; the imbricated scales of the equally edentu- 
lous Pangolins, which have both gizzard and gastric glands like 
the proventricular ones in binls ; the dermal bony armor of the 
Armadillos like that of loricated Saurians; the quills of the 
Porcupine and Hedgehog; the proventriculus of the Dormouse 
and Beaver; the prevalence of disproportionate development of 
the hind-limbs in the Eodentia ; coupled, in the Jerboa, with 
confluenoe of the three chief metatarsals into one bone, as in 
birds; the keeled sternum and wings of the Bats; the aptitude 
of the Oieirapteraj Insectivora, and certain Bodentia to fall, like 
Reptiles, into a state of true torpidity, associated with a corres- 
ponding fiwolty of the heart to circulate carbonized or black 
wood: — ^these, and the like indications of co-affinity with the 
Lyencephala to the oviparous air-breathing Vertebrata, have 
zaainly prevailed with me against an acquiescence in the eleva- 
tion of different groups of the Lissencephala to a higher place 
in the Mammalian series, and in their respective association, 
through some single character, with better-brained orders, ac- 
cording to mammalogical systems which, at different times, have 
been proposed by zoologists of deserved reputation. Such, e.g.. 
as the association of the long-clawed Bruta with the Ungiilataf* 
and of the shorter-clawed Shrews, Moles and Hedgehogs, as well 
as the Bats, with the Carntvora ,-{ of the Sloths with the Quad- 
rumana ;X of the Bats of the same high order ;§ and of the In- 
stcUvora and Bodentia in immediate sequence after the Linnean 
'Primates,' as in the latest published * System of Mammalogy,' 
from a distinguished French author.] 

* Ifncleaj, Linn. Trnns., vol xvi (1888) ; Gmy, Dr. J. K, Mammftlin in the British 
Mottuni. 12nio, 1843, p. zii. 

t Cuvier, R^e Animal, 1829, p. 110. 

X De Blainville, Ost^o^raplue, 4to, faec 1, p. 47 (1889). 

8 Linnieua, S^stema Natural. 

I Prof. Gcrvaw, Zoohigie et Pal^ntolo^e Fran^aise, 4to, 1852. p. 194. This 
sdienie is avowedly an adoption of that profjosed by Professor Milne- Edwards, in 
the first volume of the SnI series of the * Annates des Sciences Naturelle< 1844. in 
a paper entitled * Considerations sur quelques Principe? relatifit i la Chissification 
Xaturelle des Animauz,' itc; in referring to which, M. Oervais states hi^i conviction 
that Milne-Eil wards, "a mis hors de doutc les rapport** des Rongeurs avec les pre* 
miers Mammiferes.** — Aunalet det Bdencea Naturelles, B«r. iii, vol. i, p. 2&1. Th« 



ISO Pf'of. Owen on ike CUut Mammalia. 

The third leading modification of the MammaliBn cerebram ia 
Biich aa increase in its relative size, that it extends over more or 
less of the cerebellum ; and geaerally more or leas over the olfac- 
tory lobes. Save in veryfev exceptional cases of the smaller 
and inferior forms of Quadrumana (fig, 8), the superficies is folded 
into more or leas numeroiia gyri or convolutions, — whence the 
same Qyresgbphala* which I propose for the third sabclass 
of Mammalia (fig. 4). 




In this subclass we shall look in vfun for those marks of afBn> 
ity to the Ooipara, which have been instanced in the preceding 
subclasses. The testes are, indeed, concealed, and tbrongh aa 

high and juatljr-aimed rrpuUtJon of both iheve naturalinti renden it incambetit no 
me to Btale tha doubts vitb respect to the utuKl (Snity of the Rodentia to (he 
Quadrunuink vhich remnineil on my mind after an kttentiTe prniml of the ergs- 
ments ur^d by Milne- Ed wards, lie first of these arguments U faased apoa an 
alleged reaembbnce of placental Btructum. expresaed by the term 'i placenta di^ 
coide." applied bs a chnrnctcr to tiie Bimana, Quadrumaoa, ChelropterK, lueOinna 
and KodeiitlH. collectiTcIy. 

The degree of resemblance in outTard form, between (he placenta of tba Rat or 
Hare, on the one hand, and tlie Mt/etlf and Maeaaa on the uther, arema to tne to 
be marc than counterbnlunccd by the difference of structure. The pedunculate and 
cotyloid pincenta of the Rat consists of fcptal parts eirlusively ; the mnternal areo- 
lar portion is as distinct from it aa it ia in the cotvlediin of the Ruminiuit, and Is I 
CEnuslent structure of the uterus. The discuid placmla of the Monhej inc1u<le< a 
rge proportion of maternal cellular atrurture, which comes sway viih the fixlal 
portion. The difference in tlie organic interhlendine of the circulTtnrT otpiDs of 
mother and offspring, betveen the Jindtnlia and Quadrunuinii, a at much more real 
importnnce than (he degree of superficial similarity. Still more signiOcant. in re- 
pnrd to genetic jfrounds of affinity, is the great difference in the de*i>lapment sod 
function of the riteilide or umbihonl eac in (he fretnl membranes of tlie two ordcn. 
But, MS regnnh oulward form, tlie cotyloid placenta of the Marida diffen rDur* 
from the thin, expanded and aubdivided placenta of the Hare, than it does from 
that of the Marmoset Monkey : then, it signifies something in the mrpuMot dnn 
* ]'u^, to beud or wind, and IfxiifoXos, brain. 



Prof. Owen cm ike Class Ma$»maKa. 181 

rious adaptive priDciple, in the Cetacea ; bat in the reafr of the 
(clasSy with the exception of the Elephants, thej pass out of 
abdomen, and the Oyrencephalous quadrupeds, as a general 
e, have a scrotum. The vulva is externally distinct £^m the 
IS. With the exception, again, of the Elephants, the blood 
en the head and anterior limbs is returned to the right auricle 
a single precaval trunk. The mammalian modification of the 
rtebrate type attains its highest physical perfections in the 
rencejJuda, as manifested bv the bulk of some, b^ the destruc- 
3 mastery of others, by the address and agility of a third 
er. And, through the superior psychologic iaculties — an 

3 siiiiikirity of fDrm, that Uitre are two dittinct diseoi^ plaoeata in CtUiiihrU as 
'^erfopUkeemt, Macmeiu and Bmim/opUhuu» ; whilst in Myctimt as in TrogMlffim^ 
o is Dot one such placenta. 

he stn ic iof e of the discoid pUosnia in the PUroptu, like that of the Rati more 
mbles thai of the festal portion of the cotyledon in the Ouw than that of the 
lio-nuKolar spongy placenta of the Quadrumama; and this dlfl^rence, with the 
e im po tt ant one or the larger nmbilical sac, appears to me to grsatly ootweigli 
degree of rssembbnce in mere ootward form of the placenta, Any aigoment 
iTor of the affinity of the ChdropUra to the QuairHmaML, hased on that degree 
eefmhisnee, must he affected hy the prsTalence of the double discoid placenta 
le QmadnimaiMU Since Hunter first made known that modification* in a species 
\facacu9, which, firom a comparison of the foetus now prsserred in tlie Museum 
iie Royal College of Sui^geons, I believe to be the * Wrinkled Baboon' of Shaw 
ictMcuM rhetUM, Desm.), Professor Rretcbet has described and figured the two rop- 
;e discoid placeuts in the small South American Squirrel-monkey (Ca/ZtVAnx 
retu, Kuht). in the Oreen Monkey ( Cereopithecut somsim, Desm.), and in the 
g-nnsed Monkey (SemnopUkerus n<iaieits). Tet this well-marked modification of 
cellulo-rascular placenta is not constant in the Qtmdrumana^ or even in the pri- 
7 groups of the order. lu the PUtyrhines. e.ff, the Howler {Afyeeteti MenieuluM, 
il) has a single placenta; and amongst the CSatarfaines, I have ascertained that, in 
Chimpanzee {TroglodifteM niger) the placenta '» single, as in the Human subject, 
lie five fiat placental lobes, yirtuaUy ns distinct as if they were separate pja- 
Ue, in the Hare, resemble more the subdivided placeuUs of the Sloth tlian the 
:le hemisphen»id pedunculate placenta of the Rat, or tlie flattened circular pla- 
la of the Howler Monkey. In short, the observed differences of form in the pla- 
ne of the RodentiOn IftMciivara, Cheimptera and Quadrumana by no meana justify 
use of one general term as applicablu to the wbule.f 

he second argument for the association of the ImtectivwrOj Cheiroptera and Roden- 
with the Quadrumana is taken from alleged couforniity of oerebrnl structure. 
Le ccrveau d'un Rongeur diffi^re d peine de celui d*un Insectivore ; il eziste aussi 
resemblance extreme entre Tencepliale d'un Insectivore et celui de certains 
idnimanes ;" whence it is meant to be inferred, that there is the same extreme 
tmblance between tlie brain in Rndmtia and certain Quadrumana, In my paper 
he * BfHins of the Marsupialia,' (Phil Trans., 1837,) I have described and figured 
v, p. 93) the brain of a leaver (see tg. 2, p. 178) and that of a small Monkey 
dam rufmanua^ fig. 8, p 180), shftwing the absence of cerebral convolutions in 
fi. As the cerebral hemispheres have since been shown to be equally smooth in 
er Napaiidce of Isodore Oeoffroy, in the Potto Lemur| {PerodtcHcutt, Bennett), 
[fieroc€lnu%^ and with few and feeble traces of convolutions in Stenopn lardigro' 
(Vrolik, a Anatomic compar6e sur le genre 8tenop9^ in N. Verhand. der Iste 
sse KonmkL Nederl Inst Amsterdam, Oct. 1843), there is, to that extent, in 
Quadrumanous onlcr, a superficial resemblnnce to the non-convoluted brains of 
Rodenlia and Inteetivora ; but it is Jittended by that more important diffierence 

' Animal Economy, 4to, 1780. f Annales des Sciences Nat, tom. rit., p. 96. 

liijdrage tot de Kennis van den Potto van Bosman, 4to, 1851, V.der Hoeven. 
Comptes Rendus de TAcad. dss Sciences, Janiver 19, 1852. 



183 Prof. Owen on the Chut Mammalia. 

adaptive intelligence predomina^nij oyer blind instinct — ^whioh 
are associated with the higher development of the bnun, the 
Oyrencephala afford 

those species which (,— Negro, 

have ever formed the 
most cherished com- 
panions and servitors, 
and the most valuable 
sources of wealth and 
power, to mankind. 

In Uan the brain 
presents an ascensive 
step iu development, 
hi^er and more 
strongly marked than 
that by which the pre- 
ceding subclass was 
distinguished from the 
one below it. Not 
only do the cerebral 
hemispheres (figs. 6 
and 6, a) overlap the 
olfactory lobes and 
cerebellum, but they 
extend in advance of 
the one, and farther 
back than the other 
(fig. 6, c). Their pos- 
terior development is 
so marked, that anato- 
mists have assigned to 
that part the charac- 
ter of a third lobe; it 
is peculiar to the ge- 
nus Homo, and equally peculiar is the 'posterior horn of the 
lateral ventricle,' and the 'liippocampua minor,' which charac- 

ID the rorm uiil proportion) of the cerebml hemispheres, of vliich T ezpreM mj ei- 
timnte by the RjBteni of CliL-'<»ific»tion proposed in the preMnt paper. 

The uniooth liemispberes iif (he brniu of the Midai (fig. 3. A) " extend, u in moat 
of tlie Qitadrunuma, over the greater pnrt of the rerebelliim (C),' (Pliil. Tnis, 
1637. p. S3) ; it reaembleis in short, the brain of <be Humsn embryo before tbe oe- 
rebrnl lurfiioe begins to be foldeil ; whereai in the InKctitara, in tbe BeaTcr, and 
even in the Capyban, in which there nre a fev shallow aofractuosities, the c«nbn1 
heniispherea li^ave the ciTtbrllum quite exposed. 

With re){OTj to the nile^ed eontrasl between the brmns of tbe Fodntia wid C*t- 
nivoTO. in Uie breadth of tlia anterior aai middle part of the cerebral heroispfierei, 
a compnrison of the bruins of the Beaver and ConlirnunJi. and of the Porcupne 
and the Ciret Cat, lenrea me entirely unable to appreciate the force of tin romark. 

The third anrument fur the high position of the RainUia, CktiToplera and /smc- 
tivora in the MamnuUlan scale, is deducud from some particulan of tliur oatoologj, 




Pref. Otoen on the Class MamntiMa. 188 

erize tbe hind lobe of eacli bemisphere. The saperficial grey 
natter of the cerebrum, through the number and depth of the 
involutions, attains its maximum of extent in Man. 

Peculiar mental powers are associated with this highest form 
>f braiu, and their consequences wonderfully illustrate the value 
>f the cerebral character; according to my estimate of which, I 
im led to regard the genus Bomo, as not merely a representative 
»f a distinct order, but of a distinct subclass ot the Mammalia,* 
or which I propose the name of ^Arohbnobphala 'f (fig. 6). 

With this preliminary definition of the organic characters, 
?^hich appear to guide to a conception of the most natural pri- 
nary groups of the class Jfammo/to, I next proceed to define 
he groups of secondary importance, or the subdivisions of the 
bregoing subclasses. 

In the Lyencephalous Mammalia some have the 'optic lobes ' 
imple, others partly subdivided, or complicated by accessory 
^nglions, whence they are called 'bigeminal bodies? The Ly- 
sncephala with simple optic lobes are 'edentulous' or without 
alcified teeth, are devoid of external ears, scrotum, nipples, and 
narsupial pouch: they are the true 'testiconda;' they have a 
loracoid bone extending from the scapula to the sternum, and 
lIso an epicoracoid and episternum, as in Lizards ; they are un- 
^uiculate and pentadactyle, with a supplementary tarsal bone 
iupporting a perforated spur in the male. The oraer so charac* 

.nd prindpaUj from the common presence of the dayicle in them, as contrasted 
rith its constant absence in the Camivora and Unffulata. The clavicle is present 
Q all QHothumema, hot it is not a peculiar characteristic of the higher forms of the 
lammalian class. It is much more constant in the class of Birds and Reptiles : it 
I present in the Monoirenus, in Manupials, and in most Bruia, An affinity of the 
'nmeiipora and of the claviculate Rodentia vith a lower vertebrate type, might 
herefore he inferred from the clavicle, at least with as mud) reason, as with Apes 
nd Man. As to the shape of the articular cavity for the mandible, the Rodentia 
liffi^ more from the Quadnanana in this particular than the Camivora do ; whilst, 
1 respect of the size, form, and persistent individuality of the tympanic bone, the 
'iodentia plainly show their more essential relations to the oviparous type ; the 
7amivora resembling the Quadrumnna in the early coalescence of the petro-tym- 
lanic with the squamosal elements of the temporal bone. 

Such are some of the considerations which have induced me to set a different 
'slue than M. Oervais does, on the arguments adduced by Prof. Milne-Edwards in 
avor of the association of the RodnUia with the Quadmmana, in a highly placed 
>riniary group of the Alammalian class. 

* Not being able to appreciate, or conceive of the dbtinction between the pcych- 
nd phenomena of a Chimpanzee and of a Boschisman, or of an Aztec with arrested 
jraingrowth, as being of a nature so essential as to preclude a comparison between 
hem. or as being other than a difference of degree, I cannot shut my eyes to the 
igni6cance of that all-p«'rvading similitude of structure— every tooth, every bone» 
triclly iiomologoup, — which makes the determination of the difference between 
!?cmio and Pithtcu$ the anatomist's difficulty. And, therefore, with every respect 
or the author of the ''Records of Creation,^ (8vo, 1816, pp. lS-21,) I follow Lin- 
i«us and Cuvier in regarding man as a legitimate subject of zoological eomperisoD 
md classification. 

j HqX^^ to oyermle, and iynid^aXoq^ brain. 



184 IPtof, Owen an the Chus MammaKa. 

terized is called * Monotremata/ in reference to the single ex- 
cretory and generative outlet, which, however, is by no means 
peculiar to them among Mammalia. The Monotremes are insec- 
tivorous, and are strictly limited to Australia and Tasmania. 

The Maksupialia are Mammals distinguished by a pecuUar 
pouch or duplicature of the abdominal integument, which in the 
males is everted, forming a pendulous bag containing the testes; 
and in the females is inverted, forming a hidden pouch contain- 
in*^ the nipples and usually sheltering the young for a certain 
period after their birth : they have the marsupial bones in com- 
mon with the Monotremes; a much-varied dentition, especially 
as regards the number of incisors, but usually including 4 true 
molars ; and never more than 3 premolars :* the angle of the 
lower jaw is more or less inverted.7 

With the exception of one genus, Didelphys, which is Ameri- 
can, and another genus, Cuscus^ which is Malayan, all the known 
existing Marsupials belong to Australia, Tasmania, and New 
Guinea. The grazing and browsing Kangaroos are rarely seen 
abroad in full daylight, save in dark rainy weather. Most of 
the Marsupial ia are nocturnal. Zoological wanderers in Austra- 
lia, viewing its plains and scanning its scrubs by broad daylight, 
are struck by the seeming absence of mammalian life ; but dur- 
ing the brief twilight and dawn, or by the light of the moon, 
numerous forms are seen to emerge from their hiding-places and 
illustrate the variety of marsupial life with which many parts of 
the continent abound. We may associate with their low position 
in the mammalian scale the prevalent habit amongst the Marsu- 
pialia of limiting the exercise of the faculties of active life to 
the period when they are shielded by the obscurity of night 

Trie Lissenccphala or smooth-brained Placentals form a group 
which I consider as equivalent to the Lyencephala or Implacen- 
tals; and which includes the following ordeva Rodentia^ Insecii- 
vora, Cheiroptera and Bruia. The RoDENTiA are characterized 
by two large and long curved incisors in each jaw, separated by 
a wide interval from the molars; and these teeth are so con- 
structed, and the jaw is so articulated, as to serve in the reduc- 
tion of the food to small particles by acts of rapid and continued 
gnawing, whence the name of the order. The orbits are not 
separated from the temporal fossae. The testes pass periodically 
from the abdomen into a temporary scrotum, and are associated 
with prostatic and vesicular glands. The placenta is commonly 
discoid, but it is sometimes a circular mass (Caw), or flattens! 
and divided into three or more lobes (Lepus). l\e Beaver and 

* '* Outlines of a Classification of the Marsupialia,** Trans. Z00I. Soc^ toI. il, 18S9. 

f For other Oateolosrical and Dental characteristics of the Marsu^alm, sec the 
paper above cited, and that ** On the Osteology of the Martupialia, Tniia. ZooL 
Soc^ ToL ii, p. 879 (1888). 



Pri^. Omen €m ihe ClatM Mammalia. 185 

Capybara are now the giants of the order, which chiefly consists 
of smalli numerous, prolific and diversified unguiculate genera, 
sabsisting wholly or in part on vegetable food. Some Bodents, 
e. g. the Learnings, perrorm remarkable migrations, the impulse 
to which, unchecked by danger or any surmountable obstacles, 
seems to be mechanical. Many Bodents build very artificial 
nests, and a few manifest their constructive instinct m associa* 
tion. In all these inferior psychical manifestations we are re- 
minded of Birds. Many Bodents hibernate like Beptiles. They 
are distributed over all continents. 

The transition from the Marsupials to the Bodents is made by 
the Wombats; and the transition from the Marsupials is made, 
by an equally easjr step, through the smaller Opossums to the 
Insecttvora. This term is given to the fu-der of small smooti^- 
brained Mammals, the molar teeth of which are bristled with 
cusps, and are associated with canines and indsors: they are 
unguiculate. plantigrade, and pentadactyle, and they have com- . 
plete clavicles. The testes pass periodically from tne abdomen 
mto a temporary scrotum, and are associated with kurge prostatic 
and vesicular glands : like most other Lisaenoephalay the Insecti- 
vora have a £scoid or cup-shaped placenta. Their place and 
office in South America and Australia are fulfilled by Marsupi- 
alia ; but true Insectivora exist in all the other continents. 

The order Cheiboftera, with the exception of the modifica- 
tion of their digits for supporting the large webs that serve as 
wings, repeat the chief characters of the Insectivora; but a few 
of the larger species are frugivorous, and have correqx>nding 
modifications of the teeth and stomach. The mamms^ are pecto- 
ral in position, and the penis is pendulous in all Cheiroptera. 
The most remarkable examples oi periodically torpid Mammals 
are to be found in the terrestrial and volant Insectivora. The 
firugivorous Bats differ much in dentition from the true Cheirop- 
tera, and would seem to conduct through the Colugos or Flying 
Lemurs, directly to the Quadrumanous order. The Cheiroptera 
are cosmopolitan. 

The order Bbuta, called Edentata by Cuvier, includes two 
genera which are devoid of teeth ; the rest possess those organs, 
which, however, have no true enamel, are never displaced by a 
second series, and are very rarely implanted in the premaxillary 
bones. All the species have very long and strong claws. The 
ischium as well as the ilium imites with the sacrum ; the orbit is 
not divided from the temporal fossa. I have already adverted to 
the illustration of afiinity to the oviparous Vertebrata which the 
Three-toed Sloths afford by the supernumerary cervical vertebrae 
supporting false ribs and by the convolution of the windpipe in 
the thorax; and I may add that the unusual number — three and 

SECOND SEB)£S, VOL. XXV, MO. 74.— UAXCH., ISM* 

24 



186 Prof, Owen on the Class Mammalia. 

twenty pairs— of ribs, forming a very lon^ dorsal, with a short 
lumbar, region of the spine in the Two-toea Sloth, recalls a laoer- 
tine structure. The same tendency to an inferior type is shown 
by the abdominal testes, the single cloacal outlet, tne low cere- 
bral development, the absence of medullary canals in the long 
bones in the Sloths, and by the ^reat tenacity of life and long- 
enduring irritability of the muscular fibre, in both the Sloths and 
Ant-eaters.* 

The order Bruta is but scantily represented at the present 
period. One genus Mania or Pangolin, is common to Asia and 
Africa; the Orycteropus is peculiar to South Africa; the rest of 
the order, consisting of the genera Jfyrmecopkaga^ or true An^ 
eaters, Dasypus or Armadillos, and Brodypva or Sloths, are con- 
fined to South America. 

Having defined the orders or subdivisions of the two foregoing 
subclasses, I may remark that the Lyencephala cannot be r^ard- 
ed as equivalent merely to one of the orders, say BodenJ&a^ of 
the Lisseiicephala, without undervaluing the anatomical charac- 
ters which are so remarkable and distinct in the marsupial and 
monotrematous animals. The anatomical peculiarities of the 
edentulous Lvencephalaf appear to me to be, at least, of ordinal 
im|>ortauce. In these deiductions I hold the mean between those 
who, with Geofiroy St. Hilaire, would make of the M<mx3^Ttfmaia 
a distinct class of animals, or with De Blainville, a distinct sub- 
class {OmittiodelpJies) of Mammals,:|: and those who, with Cuvier, 
would make the Monotremes a mere fiEunilv of the EdenUita^ or, 
with Mr. Waterhouse, a &mily of the ifarsupuUa.^ In like 
manner, whilst I regard the Lyencephala (Afaraupiata of Water 
house) as forming a group of higher rank than an order, I do 
not consider it as forming an equivalent primary group to that 
formed by all the placental Mammalia. 

It appears to me that the true value of the Lyencephala or 
Implacentalia is that of one of four primary divisions or sub- 
classes of the Mammalia ; that its true equivalency is with the 
Lisscncephala, and that all its analogical relations are to be found 
more truly in that smooth-brained subclass than in the Placenta- 
lia at large. 

* This latter vital character attracted the notice of the earliest oboenren of these 
animals. Thus Marcgraye and Piso narrate of the Sloth : — * Cor motum saom valid- 
issimd retinebat, postquam exemptum erat e corpore per seinihoriQin :— emnpCo 
corde cieteris visceribus, multo post se movebat et peoes lentd coDtrahebttt sunt 
dormituriens solet' Buffon, vrho quotes the above from the * Historia Natnralis 
Brasilife/ p. 322, well remarks, ** Par ces rapports, ce quadmpdde se rapproche noo 
sculemcnt de la tortue, dont il a la lenteur, mais encore des autre* reptiles et de 
tons ceux qui n'ont pas un centre du sentiment unique et bien distinct.** — ^Hist Xat- 
urelle, 4to, tom. ziii, p. 46. 

f See mj article Monotretnata^ in the Cydopiedia of Anatomj, pari zzvi, 1841. 

1 Ost^oeraphie, fascicule premier, 4to, 18S9, p. 47. 

§ Nat Hist, of Mammalia, part i, 1846. p. 18. 



Fnf^ Omwh on tiiB CIa$$ MqmmaHa. 



187 



The following talde exemplifies the coneBpondence of the 
groups in the Lyenoephalous and Liasenoephalous series : — 



Ltsvosfhala. 




PekLurui 
PhakmgMdiB 

PhoBookaretOM 

Perameks and JfymecMut 




IHdeljphya and I^aaoogak 
Dasyurida 
JEchidna « 

OmUhorhyneus 



LiSSSKOXPHALA. 

Burrowing .fioden^ 

Dypodicke and Lq^oridm. 

P&romvs, 

&iuriaoB and nrehensile-tailed 

arboreal Bodents. 
Bradyptig. 
Erinaceidm. 
MacroaceUs. 
SoriddtB. 

Omteiea^ Oymnura. 
Mania. 
OrjfcieropuB. 



The elassifioation proposed by M. Gervais, already cited (p. 
I79)y in which the Ilodmtia, Cheiroptera^ and Insectivara are asso- 
dated in the same hi^h primary group with the Quadrumana 
and Bimana^ is avowe£y adopted from that previously proposed 
by Prof. Milne Edwards.t 

In next proceeding to consider the subdivisions of the Gyren- 
oephala, we seem at first to descend in the scale in meeting with 
a group of animals in that subclass, having the form of fishes ; 
but a high grade of mammalian organization is masked beneath 
this form. The Gyrencephala are primarily subdivided, accord- 
ing to modifications of the locomotive organs, into three series, 
for which the Linnean terms may well be retained; viz. Mutilata^ 
Ungulaia and UhguicuUUaj the maimed, the hoofed, and the 
clawed series. 

These characters can only bo applied to the Gyrencephalous 
subclass ; i e. they do not indicate natural groups, save in that 
section of the Mammalia. To associate the Lyencephala and 
Lissencephala with the unguiculate Gyrencephala into one great 
primary group, as in the Mammalian systems of Ray, Linnaeus 
and Cuvier, is a misapplication of a solitary character akin to 
that which would have rounded a prima^ division on the discoid 
placenta or the diphyodont dentition. No one has proposed to 
associate the unguiculate Bird or Lizard with the unguiculate 
Ape, and it is but a little less violation of natural affinities to 
associate the Monotremcs with the Qaudrumanes in the same 
primary (unguiculate) division of the Mammalian class. 

* Sec the " Classification of the Marsopialia," in the Zoological Transactions, Tol. 
ilp. 232. 

f See note at p. 179. 



188 Prof' Owen on the CloMS Mammalia. 

The three primary divisions of the Gy renoephala are of higher 
value than the ordinal divisions of the Li8Benoq)hala; just as 
those orders are of higher value than the representative £Euniliei 
of the Marsupials. 

The Mutilata, or the maimed Mammals with folded brftios, are 
so called because their hind-limbs seem, as it were, to have been 
amputated ; they possess only the pectoral pair of limbs, and 
these in the form of fins : the hind end of the trunk expands 
into a broad, horizontally flattened, caudal fin. They have large 
brains with manv and deep convolutions, and are naked, and 
have neither neck, scrotum, nor external ears. 

The first order, called Cetacea, in this division are either 
edentulous or monophyodont, and with teeth of one kind and 
usually of simple form. They are testicond and have no *ve- 
siculae seminales.' The mammsB are pudendal ; the placenta is 
diffused ; the external nostrils — single or double — ^are on the top 
of the head, and called spiracles or " blow-holes." They are 
marine, and, for the most part, range the unfathomable ooean ; 
though with certain geographical limits as respects species. 
They feed on fishes or marine animals. 

The second order, called Sirenia, have teeth of different 
kinds, incisors which are preceded by milk-teeth, and molars 
with flattened or ridged crowns, adapted for vegetable food. 
The nostrils are two, situated at the upper part of the snout ; 
the lips are beset with stiff bristles; the mamm® are pectoral: 
the testes are abdominal, as in the Cetacea, but are assodatea 
with vesiculsa scminales. The Sirenia exist near coasts or ascend 
large rivers, browsing on l^ci, water plants or the grass of the 
shore. There is much in the organization of this omer that in- 
dicates its affinity to members of the succeeding division. 

In the Ungulata the four limbs are present, but that portion of 
the toe which touches the ground is incased in a hoo^ which 
blunts its sensibility and deprives the foot of prehensile power. 
With the limbs restricted to support and locomotion, the Ungu- 
lata have no clavicles : the fore-leg remains constantly in tiie 
state of pronation, and they feed on vegetables. 

A particular order, or suborder, of tnis group is indicated by 
certain South American genera, e. g. Toxodan and Nesodon* with 
long, curved, rootless teeth, having a partial investment of 
enamel, and with certain peculiarities of cranial structure : the 
name Toxodontia is proposed for this order, all the representa- 
tives of which are extinct. 

A second remarkable order, most of the members of which 
have, also, passed away, is characterized by two incisors in the 
form of long tusks; in one genus {DiJiotherium) projecting fix)m 

* PhUowphical Tranflactions, 18ft8, p. 291. 



Prqf. Oiom on the Class MamnuUia. 180 

\ «nder jaw, in another genns (ElBphcui) from the upper jaw, 
1 in some of the species of a thira genus {Mastodon), from 
^ jaws. There are no canines ; the molars are few, large and 
nsveiselj ridged; the ridges sometimes few and mammillate, 
sn numerous and with ever^ intermediate gradation. The 
16 is prolonged into a cylindrical trunk, flexible in all direc- 
ns, highly sensitive, ana terminated by a prehensile append- 
3 like a finger: on this orsan is founded the name Phobos- 
^lA giyen to the order. The feet are pentadactjle, but are 
licated only by divisions of the hoof; the testes are abdominal ; 
i placenta is annular ;* the mammss are pectoral. 
Both the present and preceding orders of UngtdoUa may be 
led aberrant: the dentition of tne Toxodon, and several par- 
ilars of the organization of the Elephant indicate an affinity 
the Bodentia ; the cranium of the Toxodon, like that of the 
QOthere, resembles that of the Sirenia in its remarkable modi- 
itions. 

rhe typical Ungulate quadrupeds are divided, according to 
! odd or even number of the toes, into Psbissodactyla and 
iTiODACTYLA.t In the perissodactyle or odd-toed Ungulata — 
i-toed at least in regard to the hind-foot, — ^the dorso-lumbar 
rtebrsd differ in numoer in different species, but are never 
irer than twenty- two ; the femur has a third trochanter ; and 
i medullary artery does not penetrate the fore-part of its shaft, 
e fore-part of the astragalus is divided into two very unequal 
eta The os magnum and the digitus medius which it sup- 
rts are large, in some disproportionately so, and the digit is 
nmetrical: the same applies to the ectocuneiform and the 
[it which it supports m the hind-foot If the species be 
rned, the horn is single ; or, if there be two, they are placed 
the median line of the head, one behind the other, each being 
is an odd horn. The nasals expand posteriorly. There is a 
Il-developed post-tympanic process wnich is separated by the 
A mastoid from the paroccipital in the Horse, but unites with 
) lower part of the paroccipital in the Tapir, and seems to 
ce the place of the mastoia in the Bhinoceros and Hyrax. 
e hinder half, or a larger proportion, of the palatines enters 
o the formation of the posterior nares, the oblique aperture of 
lich commences in advance either of the last molar, or, as in 
»st, of the penultimate one. The pterygoid process has a broad 
i thick base, and is perforated lengthwise by the ectocarotid. 
le crown of from one to tliree of the hinder premolars is as 

Besides the aomilar placenta there is a subdrcular tiUous patch at each pole of 
chorionic bag, by which it derived additional attachment to the nterusy in the 

phant 
From neQKTGoduxtvlog, qui digitoe habet impares numero ; and d^iog, ptr 

•Tvlog^ digitus. 



190 Prof. Owen on the Class Mammalia. 

complex as those of the molars:'^ that of the last lower milk- 
molar is commonly bilobed. To these osteological and dental 
characters may \>e added some important modificatioDB of in- 
ternal structure, as, e. g. the simple form of the stomaoh and the 
capacious and sacculated caecum, which equally evince the 
mutual affinities of the odd-toed or perissodactyle hoofed quad- 
rupeds, and their claims to be regarded as a natural group of the 
Ungniata. The placenta is replaced by a diffiised vascular yil* 
losity of the chorion in all the recent genera of this order, ex- 
ceptmg the little Hyrax, in which there is a localised annular 
placenta, as in the Elephant. But the dififiised placenta occurs 
in some genera of the next group, showing the inapplicability of 
that character to exact classification. Many extinct genera, e, g, 
Cbryphodon, Plwlophus, Lophiodonj Tapirotherium^ PaUBOtherium, 
Ancitherium, Hipparion^ Acerotheriumy Elcumotheriumj &c., have 
been discovereo, which once linked together the now broken 
series of Perissodactyles, represented by the existing genera 
Bhinoceros, Hyrax, Tapirus^ and Eauus. 

In the even-toed or * artiodactyle' Ungulates, the number of 
the dorso-lumbar vertebrae is the same, as a general rule, in all the 
species, being nineteen. The recognition of this important char- 
acter appears to have been imped^ by the variable nxunber of 
moveable ribs in diflferent species of the Artiodactyles, the dor- 
sal vertebrae, which those ribs characterize, being fifteen in the 
Hippopotamus and twelve in the Camel. And the value of this 
distinction has been exaggerated owing to the common concep- 
tion of the ribs as specisd bones distinct fix>m the vertebrae, and 
their non-recognition as parts of a vertebra equivalent to the 
neurapophyses and other autogenous elements. The vertebral 
formuJoB of the Artiodactyle skeletons show that the differenoe 
in the number of the so-called dorsal and lumbar vertebrae does 
not aflfect the number of the entire dorso-lumbar series : thus, 
the Indian Wild Boar has rf. 13, l 6=19 ; the Domestic Hog and 
the Peccari have d, 14, t 5=19 ; the Hippopotamus has d. 16, 1 
4=19 ; the Gnu and Aurochs have d, 14, I. 5=19; the Ox and 
mast of the true Euminants have d. 18, I. 6=19 ; the aberrant 
Euminants have d, 12, I. 7=19. The natural character and true 
affinities of the Artiodactyle group are further illustrated by the 
iibsence of the third trochanter in the femur, and by the place 
of perforation of the medullary artery at the fore and tipper part 
of the shaft, as in the Hippopotamus, the Hog, and most of the 
Ruminants. The fore part of the astragalus is divided into two 
equal or sub-equal facets : the os magnum does not exceed, or is 
less than, the unciforme in size, in the carpus ; and the ectocu- 
neiform is less, or not larger, than the cuboid, in the tarsus. 

* The extiDct LophiodoDts form the sole known exception to this rule. 



Prof. Owen an the Class Mammalia. 191 

rhe digit answering to the third in the pentadactyle foot is un- 
symmetrical, and forms, with that answering to the fourth, a 
tymmetrical pair. If the species be homed, me horns form one 
sair or two pain ; ihej are never developed singly, of symmetri- 
cal form, from the median line. The poet-tympanic does not 
project downward distinctly from the mastoid, nor surpersede it 
in any Artiodactjrle ; and the paroocipital always exceeds both 
those processes m length. The bony palate extends &rther 
>ack tnan in the Peri^odactyles ; the hinder aperture of the 
oasal passages is more vertical and commences posterior to the 
last molar tooth. The base of the pterygoid process is not per- 
Torated by the ectocarotid artery. The crowns of the premolars 
ire smaller and less complex tlum those of the tme molars, nsa- 
ill V representing half of such crown. The last nodlk-molar is 
!riiobecL 

To these osteological and dental characters may be added some 
important modifications of internal stmctore, as, e. g. the com- 
plex form of the stomach in the Hippopotamus, Peccari, and 
Bnminants; the comparatively small and simple ceecum and the 
spirally folded colon m all Artiodactyles, which equally indicate 
tne mutual affinities of the even-toed hoofed quadrupeds, and 
their claims to be regarded as a natural group of the Ungulata. 
The placenta is diffii^ed in the Camel-tribe and non-ruminants ; 
is cotyledonal in the true Buminants. Many extinct genera, e. g. 
Charopotamus^ Anthracotherium, Hyopotamus^ Entelodon^ DichO' 
ion, Merycopotamus, Xypfiodon, XHchobune, AnoplotJieriumj Micro- 
(heriuTrij &c., have been discovered, which once linked together 
the now broken series of Artiodactyles, represented by the exist- 
ing genera, Hippopotarmis. SuSj iHcotyles, Camelus, Aixhenia, 
MosmuSf Camelopardalisy Ckrvus, Antilope^ Ovts, and JBos. 

A well-marked, and at the present dajr, very extensive subor- 
dinate group of the Artiodactyles, is called Euminantia, in refer- 
ence to the second mastication to which the food is subject after 
having been swallowed ; the act of rumination requiring a pecu- 
liarly complicated form of stomach. The Buminants nave the 
'cloven foot,' t. e. two-hoofed digits on each foot forming a sym- 
metrical pair, as by the cleavage of a single hoof; in most spe- 
cies two small supplefnentary hoofed toes are added. The meta- 
carpals of the two functional toes coalesce to form a single 
* cannon-bone,' as do the corresponding metatarsals. The Camel- 
tribe have the upper incisors reduced to a single pair ; in the rest 
of the Buminants the upper incisors are replaced by a callous 
pad. The lower canines are contiguous, and, save, in the Camel- 
tribe, similar to the six lower incisors, forming part of the same 
terminal series of eight teeth, between which and the molar 
series there is a wide interval. The true molars have their 
grinding surface marked by two double crescents, the conve2dty 



192 Prof. Owen on the Cl(us Mammalia. 

of which is turned inwards in the upper and outwards in the 
under jaw. 

Many fossil Artiodactyles, with similar molars, appear to have 
differed from the Kuminants chiefly by retaining structures which 
are transitory and embryonic in most existing Buminants, as, 
e. g,j upper incisors and canines,"^ first premolars, and separate 
metacarpal and metatarsal bones ; these are among the lost links 
that once connected more intimately the Buminants with the 
Hog and Hippopotamus. 

The Pachyderms in the Cuvierian system included all the non- 
ruminant hoofed beasts ; they were divided by the great French 
anatomist into the Probo9ciaia, Solidunauloj and Padiydermata 
ordinaria, the latter again being subdivided according to Ae odd 
or even number of the hoo& I have on another oocasionf ad- 
duced evidence to show that the right progression of the affini- 
ties of the Uhguhta was broken by the interpoation of the 
Horse and other Perissodactyles between the non-ruminant or 
omnivorous and ruminant Artiodactyles; and that too high a 
value had been assigned to the Buminantia by fnA-Ving £em 
equivalent to all the other Ungulates collectively4 

The third division of the Oyrencephala enjoy a higher degree 
of the sense of touch through the greater number and mobuity 
of the digits, and the smaller extent to which they are oovered 

* In a new-bom Dromedair (Camelui JhomedariuMt "LX whidi peridMd m tbt 
birth at the London Zoological Gardens, the following was the state of the dentHkRi. 
In the upper jaw there were six depidaous incisors (8—8), which were calcified, and 
presented a larger proportional size than any rudiments of thoM teeth that baft 
oeen noticed in ordinary Kuminants, and thej leaTe conitpicuons alveoli m the pre* 
maziilaries : the deciduous canine and first functional milR-roolar {d. 2) were RuaD, 
the latter with a simple crown ; the second {d 8) and third (d. 4) molars were larger 
bilobed, and each lobe was bicrescentic. In the lower jaw the aiz ineiaon and two 
canines form a semicircular series of nearly equal teeth, with oTerlappiog leaf-shaped 
crown^ the deciduous canines more resembling the incieors than the permanent ooes 
do : the func|,ional molars are but two in number, on each side ; the first is Rmll, 
simple, conical, compressed, notched behind ; the second is Tery lai^ge and thrse- 
lobed, each lobe being bicrescentic, and the last the largest Only the •nmnuts of 
the crescents of the molar teeth had pierced the gum (CataL of Oateologj, Maa 
Roy. Coll. of Surgeons, vol. ii, p. 677, 4to, 1863). 

f Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, December, 1847. 

X Since the communication of my paper on the classification and affinities of the 
hoofud animals to the Geological Society, Nov. 8. 1847, in which the grounds forths 
division of the Ungvlata into two orders, acainling to the parity or imparity of tbe 
digits, as proposed in my ' OdontoCTaphy,' are given in detail, the idea has been v«h 
tiUited and more or less adopted by M. Pomel (Comptes Rendos de TAcad. del 
Sciences, June 19, 1848), and by M. Gervais (2^Iogie et Pal^ontologie Fran^aise, p^ 
42). The latter experienced nalseontologist, extending the term * Pachydermes' to 
include all the Ungulates, divided them into ' Pachydermes herbivores ' and ' Pftdqr* 
dermes omnivores,' respectively equivalent to my Periutodactyla and ArUodaeijfU^ 
whicli latter terms M. Pomel adopts. M. Gervais writes : ** Les pachydermes om* 
nivores se lient d*une mani^re si intime aux Ruminants par les Cheyrotains et Isi 
Chaineau)c, qu'il est devenu impossible de s^parer, comme onire diffi§rent de oehn 
des Ruminants Tensemble de ces Pschydennes, autrefois coofondus ayec let FftdiJ- 
dormet herbiyorea.'*— -Cjp. ct/., £xpL de Planche, xxxvi, p. 6, 4to, 18ft4. 



Prof. Owen on the Class MammaKa. IM 

rny matter. This substance fonns a single plate, in the 
of a daw or nail, which is applied to only one of the sur- 
of the extremity of the digit, leaving the other, nsoally 
wer, sur&ce possessed of its tactile fiiculty ; whence the 
Unguiculataj applied to this group, which, however, is 
restricted and natural than the group to which LinnsBus 
led the term. All the species are ' cuphjodont,' and the 
bave a simple investment of enamel. 
) first order, Carntvora, includes the beasts of prey, prop- 
D called. With the exception of a few Seals, the incisors 

:5 in number; the canines j5ii always longer than the' 
teeth, and usually exhibiting a full and perfect develop- 
as lethal weapons ; the molars graduate from a trenchant 
^uberculate form, in proportion as the diet deviates firom 
rictly of flesh to one of a more miscellaneous kind. The 
le is rudimental or absent ; the innermost digit is often ru- 
tal or absent; they have no vesiculaB seminales: the teats 
dominal ; the placenta is zonular. The Gamivora are di- 
according to modifications of the limbs, into 'Finnigrades,' 
tigrades,' and * Digitigrades.' In the Pinnigrades (Walrus, 
ribe^ both fore and hind feet are shorty and expanded into 
weobed paddles for swimming, the hinder ones being fet- 
by continuation of integument to the tail. In the Planti- 
j (Bear-tribe) the whole or nearly the whole of the hind 
)rms a sole, and rests on the ground. In the Digitiffrades 
ribe, Dog-tribe, &c.) only the toes touch the groimd, the 
•eing much raised. 

las been usual to place the Plantigrades at the head of the 
rora, apparently because the higher order, Quadrumana, is 
^ade ; but the affinities of the Bear, as evidenced by in- 
structure, e. g., tlic renal and genital organs, are closer to 
?al-tribe ;* the broader and flatter pentadactyle foot of the 
grade is nearer in form to the flipper of the §eal than is 
ore perfect digitigrade, retractile-clawed, long and narrow 
bot of the feline quadruped, which is the highest and most 
.1 of tlie Gamivora. 

5 next perfection which is superinduced upon the imguicu- 
mb is such a modification in the size, shape, position, and 
ion of the innermost digit, that it can be opposed, as a 
), to the other digits, thus constituting A'hat is properly 
i a *haiid.' Those Unguiculates which have both fore 

atalogue of the Physiological Series/ Mua. R. ColL of Surgeons, 4to, toL ii, 
.127. Mr. Waterbouse, lo Dotidng the projecting process on the under side 
amus, a little in advance of the angle of the lower jaw in the Urnda, re- 
— *' The same character is also found in many Seals {PhocicUe)^ which in seve- 
r respects appear to approach the bears."— Proc ZooL Soc^ Sept 1889. 

)yD SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MABCH, 1868. 

25 



194 Prof. Owen on the Class MammaKa. 

and hind limbs so modified, or at least the hind limbs, form the 

order Quadbuicana. They have ^ incisors,* and ^ broad 

tubercTilate molars ;t perfect clavicles, pectoral mammiB, vesicii- 
lar and prostatic glanos, a simple or shghtly bifid uteroa. and a 
discoid, sometimes doable, placenta.^ The Quadramana have a 
well-marked threefold geographical as well as stmctuial divisioa. 
The Strepsirhines are those with curved or twisted terminal 

nostrils, with much modified incisors, commonly ^ ; premolan 



^ or ^ in number, and molars with sharp tubercleB ; the sec- 
ond digit of the hind limb has a claw. This group indudes the 
Gala^os, Pottos, Aye- Ayes, Loris, Indris, and the true Lemurs; 
^e three latter being restricted to Madagascar, whence the group 
diverges in one direction to the continent of A£ric& in the other 
to the Indian Archipelago. The Platyrhines are thoee with the 

nostrils subterminal and wide apart; premolars ^ in number, 

the molars with blunt tubercles ; the thumbs of the fore-hands 
not opposable or wanting; the tail in most prehensile; they are 
peculiar to South America. The Catarhines have the nostrilB 
oblique and approximated below, and opening above and behind 

the muzzle : the premolars are 2=2 ^^ number ; the thumb of the 
fore-hand is opposable. They are restricted to the Old World, 
and, save a single species on the rock of Qibraltar, to Afiica 
and Asia. The highest organized family of Catarhines is tail- 
less, and offers in the Orang and Chimpanzee the nearest ap- 
proach to the human type. 

The structural modincations in the genus J9bmo, — ^the sole rep- 
resentative of the Archencepfiala^ — ^more especially of the lower 
limb, by which the erect stature and bipedal gait are maintained, 
are such as to claim for Man ordinal distinction on merely ex- 
ternal zoological characters. But as I have already argu^ his 
psychological powers, in association with his extraordinarily de- 
veloped brain, entitle the group which he represents to equiva- 
lent rank with the other primary divisions of tne class Mammalia 
founded on cerebral characters. In this primary group Man 
forms but one genus, Homo^ and that genus but one order, called 
BiMANA, on account of the opposable thumb being restricted to 
the upper pair of limbs. The testes are scrotal ; their serotu 
sac does not convnunicate with the abdomen ; they are associated 
with vesicular and prostatic glands. The penis is pendulous, 

* With few exceptions in the anomaloQs Lemuridm, 

f Reduced to ^^ in the MArmoseta {Hapale, Mydai). 

\ Among the Platyrhines, the placenta is single in IfyecteM, double in Callithrix: 
among the Catarhine^ the placenta is double in Macacui, Ctrccpiikteui, and 8m- 
nopitMtuM, tingle in TVoglodytn, 



Pr€f. Owtn m ike CUut Mammalia. 1 W 

9 prepaoe has a tnenxtm. The maminso are peetoraL 
loenU is a amgle, Buboircular, ceUolo-yaaeular, discoid 

has only a partial oovering of hair, which is not merely 
ve of the head, but is ornamental and distinctive of sex. 
itition of the genus Homo is reduced to thirty-two teeth 
mppression of the outer incisor and the first two premo- 
the typical series on each side of both jawsy the dental 
. being : — 

teeth are of equal length, and there is no break in the 
they are subservient in Man not only to alimentationi 
leauty and to speech. 

luman foot is oroad, plantigrade, with the sole, not in- 
as in QuadruTnanOj but applied flat to the ground \ the 
'8 vertically on the foot; the heel is expancfed beneath; 
I are short, but with the innermost longer and mnoh 
han the Test, forming a ^hallux' or great toe, which is 
>n the same Hne with, and cannot be opposed to, the 
)es; the pelvis is short, broad and wide, keeping well 
e thighs ; and the neck of the femur is lonpr, and forms 
angle with the shaft, increasing the basis of support for 
ik. The whole vertebral column, with its slight alter- 
*ves, and the well-poised, short, but capacious subglobu- 
1, are in like harmony with the requirements d the erect 
The widely-separated shoulders, with broad scapulas 
nplete clavicles, give a &yorable position to the upper 
ow liberated from the service of locomotion, with com- 
nts for rotary as well as flexile movements, and termin- 
a hand of matchless perfection of structure, the fit instm- 
r executing the behests of a rational inteUieence and a 
Hereby, though naked, Man can clothe himself, and 
[ native vestments in warmth and beau^ ; though de- 
3, Man can arm himself with every variety of weapon, 
Dme the most terribly destructive of animals. Thus he 
lis destiny as the supreme master of this earth, and of 
IT Creation. 

3se endeavors to comprehend how Nature has associated 
her mammalian forms, the weary student quits his task 
onviction that, afler all, he has been rewarded with but 
rfect view of such natiutil association. The mammalian 
3 existed, probably from the triassic, certainly from the 
olitic period ; ana has changed its generic and specific 
lore than once in the long lapse of ages, during which 
£ has been transacted on this planet by animals of that 



1 06 Prof. Owen on the Close MammaKa. • 

high grade of organization. Not any of the TnaniTnaliRTi genera 
of the secondary periods occur in the tertiary ones. No genos 
found in the older eocenes (plastic and septarial clays, &c.) has 
been discovered in the newer eocenes. Extremely few eocene 
genera occur in miocene strata, and none in the pliooene. Many 
miocene genera of Mammalia are peculiar to that division of the 
tertiary series. Species indistinguishable from existing ones be- 
gin to appear onlv in the newer pliocene beds. Wnilst some 
groups, as, e. g,^ the Perissodactyles and onmivorous Aitiodac- 
tvles, have been gradually dying out, other groups, as, c. ^., the 
true Buminants, have been augmenting in genera and species. 

In many existing genera of different oraers there is a more 
specialized structure, a greater deviation from the general type, 
than in the answering genera of the miocene and eocene perioas ; 
such later and less t3rpical Mammalia do more effective work by 
their more adaptively modified structures. The Buminants, e. g., 
more effectually digest and assimilate grass, and form out of it a 
more nutritive and sapid kind of meat, than did the antecedent 
more typical or less specialized non-ruminant Herbivora. 

The monodactyle Horse is a better and swifter beast of draught 
and burthen than ^ tridactyle predecessor the miocene Hippa- 
rion could have been. The nearer to a Tapir or a Bhinoceros in 
structure, the further will an equine animal be left fironx the goal 
in contending with a modern Bacer. The genera Fdie and Ma- 
cluBTodus^ with their curtailed and otherwise modified dentition 
and short strong jaws, become, thereby, more powerftiDy and 
effectively destructive than the eocene Hycenodon with its typical 
dentition and three camassial teeth on each side of its concomi- 
tantly prolonged jaws could have been. 

Much additional and much truer insight has, doubtless, been 
gained into the natural grouping of the Mammalia since palseon- 
tolo^ has expanded our survey of the class ; but our b€«t char- 
actenzed groups do but reflect certain mental conceptions, which 
must necessarily relate to incomplete knowledge, and that as ac- 
auired at a given period of time. Thus the order which Cuvier 
deemed the most natural one in the class Mammalia becomes 
the debris of a group, known at a subsequent period to be a 
more natural order. 

We cannot avoid recognizing, in the scheme which I now 
submit, the inequality which reigns amongst the groups, which 
our present anatomical knowledge leads us to place in one line 
or parallel series as orders. I do not mean mere inequality as 
respects the number and variety of the families, genera, and spe- 
cies of such orders, because the paucity or multitude of instances 
manifesting a given modification or grade of structure in no 
essential degree affects the value of such grade or modification. 



» Prof. Owen am the Class MammaKa, 197 

le order Ifonotremata is not the less ordinarily distinct from 
^larsupialui^ becaose it consists of but two genera^ than is 
•rder jBimana from that of Quadrumana^ because it includes 
a single genus. So likewise the anatomical peculiarities of 
Probascid%(ij Sbrenia^ and Toxodontia call, at least, for those 
ral terms, to admit of the convenient expression of general 
Dsitions respecting them ; and some of these general prope- 
ls are of a value as great as the organic characters of more 
nded orders. 

lere are residuary or aberrant forms in some of the orders^ 
b, to the systematist disagreeably, compel modijQcations of 
haracters that would &pp]y to the majori^ of such orders. 
Hying Lemurs {Ocikopimeci)^ the rodent Lemurs (Clheiromys)^ 
ilo^ Lemurs (Loris^ Otolicnus), forbid any generalization as 
3th or nails in the Qtiadrumanaj whilst they continue asso- 
1 with that order by the character of the hinder thumb; 
b, by the way, they possess in common with the pedimanous 
upiala The large, volant, frugivorous Bats {Ptercpiui) are 
lly opposed to the application of a conmion dental character 
3 Cheiroptera. They are associated with the insectivorous 
on account of the common external form arising out of the 
fication of their locomotive organs for flight, just as the 
>Dgs and Manatees are associated with the Cttacea on account 
eir resemblance to Fishes arising out of the same modiflca- 
of the locomotive system for an aquatic existence. The 
vorous Cetacea are now separated from the piscivorous Ce- 

as a distinct order ; and with almost as good reason we 
t separate the fiiigivorous from the insectivorous Cheircpte- 
he cases are very nearly parallel. 

iture, in short, is not so ngid a systematist as Man. There 
eculiar conditions of existence which she is pleased shall 
ijoved by peculiarly modified mammals ; these peculiarities 
: through the rules of structure which govern the majority 
ccies existing and subsisting under the more general condi- 

of existence, to which the larger groups of Mammalia are 
ctively adjusted. 

e class of organs seems to govern one order, another class 
ler order ; the dental system, which is so diversified in the 
upialia and BnUa, is as remarkable for its degree of con- 
y in the Bodentia and Insectivora. But, as a general rule, 
haracters from the dental, locomotive and placental systems 
lore closely correlated in the Gyrencephalous orders than in 

in the inferior subclasses of the Mammalia. 
the subjoined tabular view of the classification of the Mam- 
i, the groups below the ranks of orders are inserted merely 
ustrations of those orders, not as equivalent subdivisions, 

the most natural subdivisions of those orders, into which 
> not been the aim of the present paper to enter. 



108 



G. J. Bruih an Chateoiiie. 



TatU of the Bubdamm mud (Mkn •/ tkt JUmmdUL 



Clam. 



MAMMALIA 



SUBULASt. 

ArokeaoqpludA* Bimaha 



f QHZAPBinUVA . . . 



( 



Jzbift^ 



'XJngtknlMU' 



ICUmnTOAA.... 



DigUimtda. 



t < 



Uttgiilttta.. 



FlOBOSaiBU . . 4 'S?*?^. 



Mntilita. • • 



ITozodoria . . . i Sf?i^ 
(SiEnoA 



Obcacma 



fAETiooAorrfcA . • 

I PEUMOBACrTLA i T?7**VT* 



Jffl 




Ltitene«p]udii| 



BlUTA 



iPdhiifaya. 

J^VffmWOTMm 



ITalnidm. 
ImonvoEA . . i JBnnmeeiicL 
ISarietdoi, 

Romnu .... cUmk^dmUi. 



'MAASUnALIA ..' 



LyeaiMphala g 



MOHOTBBMAtA . 







Abt. XVm. — On ChalcodiU; by Oeobgs J. Brush. 

The name Chalcodite was proposed | in 1851 by Pro£ C. U. 
Shepard, for a mineral which occurs at Sterling, rT. Y., which 
had previously been referred to Cacoxene by BecK.l[ Prof. Shep- 
ard's analysis showed the mineral to be a hydrous silicate of iron 
and magnesia. More recently, Prof. Shepard has published** an 
analysis made by Dr. Mallet which gave the composition : 

Bi 89-77. J'e 40-84, Jin tr^ Xl 862, (^i 6-98, % 1*97, fl 6-61 = lOf-69, 

part of the lime was supposed to be as carbonate and probably 

* &qx^^ to OYer-rule, lynitfaXog^ the bniiL * 

f ^v^(ku, to wind about, iyxiqMkog, , 

t Uuahg^ smooth, iyKiqxikog, 8 l6»^ to loote, iyMiifttlog, 

f Report Proc 6th meetinfir Am. Assoc. Ad. Sci., p. 282. 

•J Beck's Mineralogy of New York, p. 402. 

** Shepard's Mix^ yd edition, p. iiL 



G, /. Brush m CkakodUe. 199 

a small peniiovi of the iron existed as seflquiozjrd. Dr. Mallet 
also oommtmicated his results to Pro£ Dana* with the remark 
that he had too little of the mineral for a Batis&ctory examina- 
tion, and that the results of his analysis could hardly oe depend- 
ed upon for even a prolmble formula. 

During the pest summer I have had an opportunity of exam- 
ining this mineral at its locality in Sterling, and from the speci- 
mens there collected I have obtained the flowing physical and 
chemical characters : — 

The mineral generally occurs as a thin ydvely coating on 
specular iron ; oooasionaUy it is diaseininated through calcite, and 
not unfre(|uently it is implanted on quartz in smaU radiated 
hemispherical massea Its structure is sometimes radiated but 
usually the coatings are made up of an aggregate of minute 
scales; the sur&ce of the coatings often presents crystalline 
plates, not however, sufficiently well marked to determine the 
crystalline form. The scales are translucent Cleavage veiy 
distinct in one direction, eminently mioaceoua 

lliere are t#o varieties «f the mineral, one has a green color 
inclining to bronze, while the other has more of a yellow color, 
and stron^v resembles aurum musivum. Streak olive-green to 
yellow. The lustre of both varieties is submetallic. ^jEurdness 
=1. Sp. CT. =2-76 (at 16° C). 

Before the blowpipe in the closed tube, gives off water ; the 
green variety is ch^ged to a brown or yellow color; the color of 
the yellow variety darkens on heating and yields the same pro- 
duct as the green. In the foroeps it fuses readily in both the ox- 
ydizing and reducing flames to a black glass ; on charcoal fuses 
to a mametic bead ; dissolves in borax giving an iron reaction ; 
with soda and nitre shows a trace of manganese ; with salt of 
phosphorus ^ves reactions for both iron and silica. 

I was unable to get enough of the lighter colored varietv for 
an analysis in the wet way, but of the green variety I was tortu- 
nate in obtaining through the kindness of Dr. George N. Hub- 
bard of Natural^ridge, N. Y., a specimen in which the Chalco- 
dite formed rectangular crystals of more than half an inch in 
len^h, by a quarter of an inch in breadth, and about half a line 
in tnickness. These crystals are evidently pseudomorphs, but 
the angles are so rounded that it is hardly possible to determine 
to what species they belong. The mineral forming these crys- 
tals is perfectly fresh and unaltered, the exterior of the crystals 
appears drusy, while interiorly they seem to be made up of mi- 
nute and irregularly disposed scales. The pulverized mineral is 
decomposed by hydrochloric acid without gelatinizing ; a qualita- 
tive analysis showed the presence of silica, alumina, protoxyd 

* This Journal, toL Tdf, p. 118 



200 



G. /. Brush on Chakoditt, 



and sesquioxyd of iron and magnesia, with traces of manganese 
and lime. 

In the quantitative examination in No. 1, the minera] was 
decomposed by hydrochloric acid, the iron and alumina weighed 
together and subsequently separated by potash. In No. 2 tlie 
water was determined directly by i^tion in a stream of dry air 
and collecting the vapor in a chlorid of calcium tube. The ieni- 
tod mass was found to be no longer decomposable by hydro- 
chloric acid, and was accordingly fused with carbonate of soda. 
The iron j^nd alumina were weighed together and the iron after- 
wards determined volumetrically, by means of permanganate of 
potash. For the determination of tne protoxyd and sesquioxyd 
of iron as given in Nos. 8 and 4, portions oi the minend were 
dissolved in pure hydrochloric acid in a stream of carbonic acid 
gas, and the amount of protoxyd determined volumetrically as 
in No. 2. The whole of the iron was then reduced to the state 
of protoxyd by sulphuretted hydrogen gas, the solution boiled 
to expel the sulphuretted hydrogen, allowed to cool firee from 
access of air and the whole amount 6f iron determined, the dif- 
ference between which and the amount of protoxyd first obtained 
gives the amount existing as sesquioxyd. 

The results of the analyses are as follows : — 









1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


uantity taken in mUligr'rM^ 


435 


691 


888 


S17 


SUica, 






46K)6 


46*61 


• . • • 


• • • • 


Alumina, 






8-56 


8*68 


• . • . 


• • • • 


Sesquioxyd of iron, 
Protoxyd of iron, 


88-86 

. . • • 


88-61 
• • . • 


20-92 
16-04 


S(H)S 
16-91 


** of xDADganese, 


trace. 


trace. 


• • • • 




Lime, 




% 


trace. 


0-28 


• • • • 




Magnesia, 






4-65 


4-6'7 


. .5 . 




Potash and Soda, 




trace. 


• • • • 


• • • • 




Water, 






• a • • 


9-22 


• • • • 




The mean 


of these 


analyses 


gives : — 














Oxjgen. 




RaUo. 


Si 




46-29 




23-68 


28-68 


S 


%l 




S-62 




1-69 ) 
6-14 J 






9e 




20-4'7 




7-88 


1 


l^e 




16-47 




8-66 \ 






i&xi 




trace. 




• • • • I 






U 




028 




•08 f 


6-66 


i 


fig 




4-66 




1-82; 






^aX 




trace. 




• « • • 


. • • • 




fi 




9-22 




8-18 


8-18 


1 



99-91 



This ratio gives a formula which may be expressed by 

2llSi+fiSi + 8£L 



O. J. Brush on ChalcodUe. 801 

This oompodtion approaches that eiren by Bammelsberff,* 
(analyses 1, 2, 8, and %) and Siegert,t (analysis 6,) for Stup- 
nomelane: 

i.Sr» ft 

"" Si^n )FromObeTgrmid,iiMr 
" " tJoit Zuckmanidl in Ant- 

0'76 ?-72 ) *^ 8»1-^ 





Si 


M 


9« 


»• 


ftg 


Ca 


1. 


48-19 


8-16 


• • • • 


87-06 


884 


119 


s. 


46-50 


7-19 


• • • • 


88-89 


1-89 


0-20 


s. 


46-43 


6-88 


• • • • 


86-88 


1-68 


0-18 


4. 


4617 


6-88 


• • • • 


86*88 


f-67 


• • • • 


6. 


42-07 


4-03 


41-98 


• • • • 


0-94 


1-67 



• ■ • • 



a,Atr I "^rom WeQbarg in 



Siegert assnmcs the iron to exist as sesquioxyd while Bam- 
melsberg gives it as protoxyd, with the remark that if it be cal- 
culated as f^ 9e, the analyses will give an excess, and therefore 
perhajps it only exists as protoxyd in the mineral. 

It IS evident from the results <^* analyses 1 to 4 that the stilp- 
nomelane analyzed was not entirely firee firom foreign substancesi 
and Bammelsl>erg mentions that it may possibly have been mixea 
with some chlorite, and that this is the reason for the difference 
in the results. 

Analyses 8 and 4 correspond very closely with the analysis of 
chalcodite, and it is possible that if a special examination were 
made to determine the proportionate, amounts of protoxyd and 
sesquioxyd of iron in stilpnomelane, the two minerals might be 
found even more nearly related. 

The fact that stilpnomelane is but imperfectly decomposed by 
acids, while chalcodite is entirely decomposed, may be due to the 
extreme delicacy of the scales in the latter ; the same cause will 
account for the difference in hardness. The specific gravity is 
80 — 3'4 Glocker, or according to a more recent determination 
by Breithaupt, 2-769. Chalcodite has a density of 2-76. Stilp- 
nomelane occurs both foliated and compact ; its color is blackish- 
green, streak olive-green to greenish-gray ; it has a pearly lustre 
and a perfect cleavage in one direction. A specimen from the 
Weilburg locality which I have in my cabinet bears a very strong 
resemblance to the green variety of chalcodite in its external 
appearance. 

The marked similarity in chemical, as well as in many of the 
physical characters of these two minerals renders it not improba- 
ole that a reexamination of pure stilpnomelane would remove 
those discrepancies which at present prevent their being united 
under one species. 

Yale ADalytical Laboratory, Dec. 15, 1857. 

* Pfiggend. Ann., zliii, 127. 

f Kammelbberg, Mineralogie, Fifth SoppL, 20S. 

8EC05D SERIES, VOL. XX^, NO. 74. — MABCH, IMS. 

26 



302 Agassix's Contr%lnUiom$ to the 



Abt. XIX. — Agaasiz^s Qminbuthns to the NoUural Hutory c^ Ai 

United States. 

m 

The publication of the first two volomes of the " Contribu- 
tions to the Natural History of the United States" by Professor 
Agassiz was announced in our last number, and a statement, in 
bnef) made of their contents. The philosophical merits of the 
work, as well as its national 'character, entitle it to a more de- 
tailed notice. 

While the special subject in American zoology selected for 
the volumes is the Embryology^ of Turtles, the first of the two 
is mainly occupied with gener^ considerations on the system in 
the kingdoms of life — a topic^of wide import to science, making 
an appropriate introduction to the great work. 

These opening chapters have also a peculiar interest for the 
sketch they indirectly give of the author. Deep topics in science 
occupy his thoughts. But through all, appears that love of 
truth, which is the living force of a philosopher ; that fidth in 
nature as God's work, which gives to science its highest dignity; 
that desire to read the minutest tracings in the great volume, 
which the knowledge that all the grandeur of creation" is brought 
out through infinitesimals, naturdly inspires ; that sensitiveness 
of mental orc^anization which perceives the fidntest voices of 
nature, and thrills to the profound harmonies in which those 
voices combine to utter the deep thoughts of creation. These 
qualities all shine forth from the pages as they could not from 
any portrait or biography. 

A successful searching out of nature's laws requires faith in 
the fullness of the revelation, and in finite mind as the interpre- 
ter. This faith, moreover, should be coupled with a profound 
sense of nature's oneness in law, purpose and Author. The 
mind should also be open to the slightest breath of truth from 
whatever source, cjuick in its perceptions of parallelisms and 
analogies, and just m balancing fact against fact, relation against 
relation, so that all shall take their true position, and evolve^ from 
their mutual action, the thought of which nature, not the mind, is 
the author. It is true that complete perfection of action is not 
human : for minds almost necessarily run in channels that limit 
their thoughts and vision ; they are apt to be drawn aside by 
the delight of special views, and too oflen seek novelty and 
self-exaltation in place of truth: and all systems of philosophy 
suffer more or less from these sources of eviL He is the true 
student of nature, although thus imperfect, who seeks that nature 
should speak through hira, and strives to express the sentiments 
that come forth at her dictation. And far profounder is his appre- 
hension of truth when he realizes, in all its significance, that an 



Natmrat SRsUny cf the United States. 5HMI 

Infinite Spirit — ^infinitely good, just and wise — speaks through 
nature to man's heart as well as mind. Only a short-sighted 
naturalist fidls to perceive that the affections and moral senti- 
mentS| in their perfection, are among the creations, and that pre- 
teiinently they manifest the character of the Creator. 

In striking contrast with the searching philosopher is the one 
who stands aside and doubts research, while he dictates self* 
wrought thoughta Professor Agassiz, in several of his chap- 
teiB, points his forcible argument against sueh a one — a ffistin- 
goished physicist of Oxford, England. Neither ffeology nor 
zoology has discovered a foundation for the principle that spe* 
cies pass into other species by gradual change: but fie BAjsper* 
haps they do in the course ot a great len^h of time. Geology 
has not detected the smallest fact to sustain the so-called devel- 
opment theory : but he savs, perhaps it is still true. And then 
he goes on to propound nis views, building up his theories on 
the basis of Kperhaps^ itself baseless, in direct opposition to the 
inductive system of philosophy which he would sustain.* So we 
find others, instead of taking the facts as they are known, and 
deriving from them the impression they are calculated to make 
and the laws they dictate, saying, j>erAap9 geology in the end will 
find the past very much like the jn^esent, with no system of pro- 
gress in the life of the globe; — ^while they cannot go from case, 
to case in a cabinet illustrating this life according to the ages, 
without seeing the progression at every step. The mind becomes 
smothered under a perhaps, and rests in darkness and doubt, in- 
stead of coming out to the light and using it. Such men have 
their place, for they are checks on hasty theorizing; while the 
mere theorist that defies or disregards nature, is only following 
his own torch-lif^ht to error. As all our knowledge of nature^ 
laws rests upon mductive reasoning, a mind that will doubt the 

* There was doubt io many minds when the ''Yestigee of CraaUon" waa first 
poblifthed, whether sach a deyelopment theory might not be true. Bst the facta 
esaetlj interpreted were soon found to be a^mst it, and eTerr year baa added to 
the ibroe of the demonstration. The sweeping destroetions of ^Mcies in geolegj 
have shown that there was a Creatine Power tuit could reinstate the life of a eon- 
tinent without going back to the Monad. The K. American oontioeBt giTos a strikiiv 
example of sn(£ a destruction in the catastrophe which swept off Paleozoic life, ana 
was followed here by not a single old species or peculiarly Palcoaoic genus, but bj 
the reptiles and birds of the Triassic or Jurassic. These facts and the actual inde- 
pendence of snedes, according to both geolosy and loology, so stand before tke 
scientific world at the present time, that the inductiTe f^loeoi^MF nrast wait for new 
revelations fipom science, before be can, in the spirit of his philosophy, propound aaj 
such development theory. Let him study out bets respecting Tariations of spedea 
and find a basis to stand upon, and then he may mardi saf<*ly to his ooodmion ; 
and this is a great subject for study. But to push forward the view in advance of 
the facts, and againtt the present array of facts, is indulging in deluding speculatioB. 
Ja^ him bring out his law, as a result of study, and tell us, wlmt spedes of ox or 
other Ungulate was developed into a mastodon, or bow the mastodon was developed 
into an elepbant, and his theory then will merit a hearing. We cite beyond otaci 
views from Professor Agassix which bear upon this subject 



204 Agassiz'M Contributions to the 

firmest conclusions on the ground that the contrary may still be 
right, is hopelessly impregnable to truth. The two modifications 
of skepticism above alluded to, the speculative and the matter 
of-fact, have each their remedy, in a principle which will prove 
effectual if received and appreciated: the /tr^t in the truth that 
nature is the onlv source of knowledge about nature, — ^whence 
to attempt to lead off, instead of follow, is presumptuous: — ^the 
second^ tnat the universe, however complex to common view, is, 
as above observed, an expression of unity of law, both in plan 
and historv, and that a grand purpose of mcts is to illustrate this 
unity. Tnese two principles are united in Prof. Agassiz, and in 
counection with his habit of exact and untiring research, make 
him what he is in science. 

The first volume of the Natural History of the United States 
is devoted mainly to classification taken m its most comprehen- 
sive sense, including whatever illustrates those relations of spe- 
cies upon which classification depends, as well as the nature of 
classification itself. 

The author declares, in the outset, his views of tlie world of 
existences, which science aims to comprehend. With much ear- 
nestness, he discourses upon nature as a divine system; on 
thought as Ho property of matter, and God as not nature. He 
pronounces the study of natural science the study of the thoughts 
or ideas which the Creator has embodied in ms works, and a 
true classification of objects in nature as an exhibition of the 
plan ordained by Him in his omniscience and wisdom. On page 
10 we read : — 

** I disclaim every intention of introducing in this work any evidence 
irrelevant to my subject, or of supporting any conclusions not immedi- 
ately flowing from it ; but I cannot overlook nor disregard here the dose 
connection there is between the &ct8 ascertained by scientific investiga- 
tions, and the discussions now carried on respecting the origin of oigan- 
ized beings. And though I know those, who hold it to be very unsden- 
tifio to believe that thinking is not something inherent in matter, and that 
there is an essential difference between inorganic and living and thinking 
beings, I shall not be prevented by any such pretensions of a false philos- 
ophy from expressing my conviction, that, as long as it cannot be shown 
that matter or physical forces do actually reason, the manifestation of 
thought is evidence of the existence of a thinking being as the author of 
such thought, and I shall look upon an intelligent and intelligible con- 
nection between the facts of nature as direct proof of the existence of a 
thinking God, as certainly as man exhibits the power of thinking when 
he recognizes their natural rdations." 

Through the discussions which follow, the question of crea- 
tion by means of physical forces or agencies is considered* On 
page 13 he says : — 



Natural History of the United States. 205 

^ It is the object of the followiDg paragraphs to show that there are 
neither agents nor laws in nature known to physicists under the influence, 
and by the action, of which, these beings could have originated ; that, on 
the contrary, the very nature of these beings and their relations to one 
another and to the world in which they live, exhibit thought, and can 
therefore be referred only to the immediate action of a thinking being, 
even though the manner in which they were called into existence remains 
for the present a mystery." 

The arguments bearing on this topic, which are numerous and 
variously illustrated, are recapitulated in brief on pages 132 to 
136. 

" In recapitulating the preceding statements, we may present the fol- 
lowing conclusions : — 

"" 1. The connection of all these known features of nature into one sys- 
tem exhibits thought, the most comprehensive thought, in limits trans- 
cending the highest wonted powers oi man. 

**• 2. The simultaneous existence of the most diversified types under 
identical circumstances exhibits thought, the ability to adapt a great va- 
riety of structures to the most uniform conditions. 

" 3. The repetition of similar types, under the most diversified circum- 
stances, shows an immaterial connection between them; it exhibits 
thought, proving directly how completely the Creative Mind is indepen- 
dent of the influence of a material world. 

'* 4. The unity of plan in otherwise highly diversified types of ani- 
mals, exhibits thought ; it exhibits more immediately premeditation, for 
no plan could embrace such a diversity of beings, called into existence at 
such long intervals of time, unless it had been framed in the beginning 
with immediate reference to the end. 

" 5. The correspondence, now generally known as special homologies, 
in the details of structure in animals otherwise entirely disconnected, 
down to the most minute peculiarities, exhibits thought, and more imme- 
diately the power of expressing a general proposition in an indefinite 
number of ways, equally complete in themselves, though differing in all 
their details. 

•* 6. The various degrees and different kinds of relationship among 
animals which can have no genealogical connection, exhibit thought, the 
power of combining diflferent categories into a permanent, harmonious 
whole, even though the material basis of this harmony be ever changing. 

** 7. The simultaneous existence, in the earliest geological periods in 
which animals existed at all, of representatives of all the great types of 
the animal kingdom, exhibits most especially thought, considerate thought^ 
combining power, premeditation, prescience, omniscience. 

" 8. The gradation based upon complications of structure which may 
be traced among animals built upon the same plan, Exhibits thought, and 
especially the power of distributing harmoniously unequal gifts. 

** 9. The distribution of some types over the most extensive range of 
the surface of the globe, while others are limited to particular geographi- 
cal areas, and the various combinations of these types into zoological 
provinces of unequal extent, exhibit thought, a close control in the distri- 
bution of the earth's surface among its inhabitants. 



206 Agaisiz'i ContribuHonM to the 

^10. The ideDtity of structure of these types, notwithstandiDg their 
wide geographical distributioD, exhibits thought, that deep thought which, 
the more it is scrutinized, seems the less capable of being exhausted, 
though its meaning at the surfietce appears at once plain and intelligible 
to every one. 

^11. The community of structure in certain respects of animals othe^ 
wise entirely different, but living within the same geographical area, ex- 
hibits thought, and more particularly the power of adapting most diTcrsi- 
fied types with peculiar structures to either identical or to different condi- 
tions of existence. 

^ 12. The connection, by series, of special structures observed in ani- 
mals widely scattered over the surface of the globe, exhibits thought, 
unlimited comprehension, and more directly omnipresence of mind, and 
also prescience, as far as such series extend through a sucoeBUon of geo- 
logical ages. 

** 13. The relation there is between the size of animals and their stro^- 
ture and form, exhibits thought : it shows that in nature the qnantitatire 
differences arc as fixedly determined as the qualitative onea. 

*' 14. The independence in the size of animals of the mediums in which 
they live, exhibits thought, in establishing such close connection between 
elements so influential in themselves and organized beings so little affected 
by the nature of these elements. 

** 15. The permanence of specific peculiarities under every variety of 
external infiuences, during: cacV geological period, and under the present 
state of things upon earth,' exhibits thought : it shows, also, that limita- 
tion in time is an essential element of all finite beings, while eternity is 
an attribute of the Deity only. 

** 16. The defiAit^'jeiations in which animals stand to the surrounding 
world, exhibit thought ; for all animals living together stand respectivdy, 
on account of their very differences, in different relations to identical con- 
ditions of existence, in a manner which implies a considerate adi^ptation 
of their varied organization to these uniform conditions. 

** 17. The relations in which individuals of the same spe&es stand to 
one another, exhibit thought, and go far to prove the existence in all liv- 
ing beings of an immaterial, imperishable principle, similar to that which 
is generally conceded to man only. 

'' 18. The limitation of the range of changes which animals undergo 
during their growth, exhibits thought ; it shows most strikingly the inde- 
pendence of these changes of external influences, and the necessity that 
they should be determined by a power superior to those influences. 

*^ 19. The unequal limitation in the average duration of the life of in- 
dividuals in different species of animals, exhibits thought ; for, however 
uniform or however diversified the conditions of existence may be under 
which animals live together, the average duration of life, in different spe- 
cies, is unequally limited. It points, therefore, at a knowledge of time 
and space, and of the value of time, since the phases of life of different 
animals are apportioned according to the part they have to perform open 
the stage of the world. 

" 20. The return to a definite norm of animals which multiply in vari- 
ous ways, exhibits thought. It shows how wide a cycle of modulations 



Natural HUtory of the United States. 207 

may be included in the same conception^ without yet departing from a 
norm expressed more directly in other combinations. 

^ 21. The order of succession of the different types of animals and 
plants characteristic of the different geological epochs, exhibits thought 
It shows, that while the material world is identical in itself in all ages, 
eyer different types of organized beings are called into existence in suc- 
cessive periods. 

^ 22. The localization of some types of animals upon the same points 
of the surface of the globe, during several successive geological periods, 
exhibits thought, consecutive thought : the operations of a mind acting 
in conformity with a plan laid out beforehand and sustained for a long 
period. 

" 23. The limitation <tf doeely allied species to different geological 
periods, exhibits thought ; it exhibits the power of sustaining nice dia- 
tinctions, notwithstanding the interposition of great disturbances by phys- 
ical revolutions. 

^ 24. The parallelism between the order of succession of animals and 
plants in geological times, and the gradation among their living represen- 
tatives, exhibit thought ; consecutive thou^t, superintending the whole 
development of nature from beginning to end, and disclosing throughout 
a gradual progress, ending wiu the introduction of man at the head of 
the animal creation. 

** 25. The parallelism between the order of succession of animals in 
ffeological times and the changes their living representatives undergo 
auring their embryological growth, exhibits Uiought ; the repetition of 
the same train of thoughts in the phases of growth of living animals and 
the successive appearance of their representatives in past ages. 

^26. The combination, in many extinct types, of characters which, in 
later ages, appear disconnected in different types, exhibits thought, pro- 
phetic thought, foresight ; combinations of thought preceding their man- 
ifestation in living forms. 

** 27. The parallelism between the gradation among animals and the 
changes they undergo during their growth, exhibits thought, as it dis- 
closes everywhere the most intimate connection between essential features 
of animals which have no necessary physical relation, and can, therefore, 
not be understood otherwise than as established by a thinking being. 

"28. The relations existing between these different series and the geo- 
graphical distribution of animals, exhibit thought ; they show the omni- 
presence of the Creator. 

" 29. The mutual dependence of the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
for their maintenance, exhibits thought; it displays the care with which 
all conditions of existence, necessary to the maintenance of organized 
beings, have been balanced. 

" 30. The dependence of some animals upon others or upon plants for 
their existence, exhibits thought; it shows to what degree the most com- 
plicated combinations of structure and adaptation can be rendered inde- 
pendent of the physical conditions which surround them. 

^* We may sum up the results of this discussion, up to this point, in 
still fewer words: — • 



208 Agassiz'i Contributions to tlu 

^ All oi^nized beings exhibit in themselves all those cat^ffories of stroo- 
ture and of existence upon which a natural system may be founded, in 
such a manner that, in tracing it, the human mind is only transladng into 
human language the Divine thoughts expressed in nature m living reidities. 

^ All these beings do not exist in oonsequenoe of the continued agencr 
of physical causes, but have made their successive appearance upon earth 
by the immediate intervention of the Creator. As proof^ I maj sam op 
my argument in the following manner : 

** The products of what are commonly called physical agents are every- 
where the same, (that is, upon the whole surface of the ^obe,) and hare 
always been the same (that is, during all geological periods) ; while o^ 
ffanized beings are everywhere different and have differed in all ages. 
Setween two such series of phenomena there can be no cauaal or genetic 
connection. 

"81. The combination in time and space of all these thoughtful con- 
ceptions exhibits not only thought, it shows also premeditation, power, 
wisdom, greatness, prescience, omniscience, providence. In one word, tU 
these &cts in their natural connection proclaim aloud the One God, whom 
man may know, adore, and love ; and Natural History must, in good 
time, become the analysis of the thoughts of the Creator of the Univene, 
as manifested in the animal and plant [and crystal] kingdoms.^ 

If after all, we hear it said still, — thht perhaps creations may 
have been due to physical forces — ^we would repeat, that the 
notion comes not through science or true inductive philosophy; 
in all the search thus far, no authority for such an inference has 
been found. Electricity and its associates we know, but nothing 
about life-creating force ; the daily progress of science is defining, 
with increasing clearness, the physical agencies of nature, and at 
the same time stripping them of their old fabulous virtues. The 
method of creation of a living species appears now, more than 
ever before, to be a subject beyond the pale of human research— 
the limit in which man seemingly comes to the precincts of the 
Infinite. We may look for knowledge ; but untd nature opens 
to us a new avenue, this perhaps should be set down among 
man's presumptuous dreamings. 

Another topic introduced in connection with the discussions 
on classification, is that of the relations of the grand system of 
life and also individual history in species to geological progress. 
Although the subject is but briefly and collaterally brought in, 
it is of too much general interest to be passed by without a 
mention of the views sustained by the author. We arrange the 
points with reference to their geological bearing. 

Professor Agassiz argues with truth that the oldest fossils rep- 
resent the beginning of animal life on the globe, so far at least 
as to give a correct exhibition of the earliest types. For the 
series has its initial point in the same kinds of species on all the 
continents, reaching down, on each, to salt-water Articolatea, 



NtUmxU HiMUny of the United States. 209 

MoUnsQB and Badiates, if not also to salt-water Vertebrates 
(Fishes^ The great Branches of the animal kingdom thus begin 
in the inferior or salt-water species; and any obliterated records 
below, if snch there be, ooula only extend onward this idea, or 
modify it by limitinff somewhat more the range of types. 

The author also ooserves, that the series, thus begun, reached 
its end in man, and that it admits of proof on anatomical evi- 
dence that man is the last term in the series; that upon the 
earth, no material progress beyond is possible in the plan upon 
which the animal kin^om is constructed, , except in man's own 
intellectual and moral deyelopment This conclusion follows in 
fact from the simple progression of form among Vertebrates from 
the fish onward ; — ^for there is first the horizontal or prone posi- 
tion of the nervous cord with which the series begins, — ^then the 
gradual elevation of the cephalic extremity with the new types 
introduced, and at last the vertical position in man — a neqfiaaary 
limit to the series. 

The actuaUtv. of the progress of life is touched upon and 
shown to be illustrated through the whole range of geological 
history. A descending or ascending series of numbers, part of 
which series is understood, may be easily followed bv the mind 
towards its limits. Of this nature are the facts in geology. The 
discovery of a type of form at a lower level in the series of strata 
than be^re known occasionally takes place ; but in no case has 
the new &ct tended to alter essentially the law of the ascending 
series. 

Seaweeds: Ferns and ConifercB: Angiosperms and Palms; — 
such is a brief statement of the series in the plant kingdom. 

Entomostraca : TetradecapodOj Anomaura^ Macroura: Lower 
Brachyura: Higher Brachyura; — is the series in Crustacea. 

Ftshes: Beptiles: Qiiadrupeds : Man; — is the series among 
Vertebrates. 

The same general idea is illustrated nmong all the great groups. 

Now and then a fact appears that startles the timid, as if na- 
ture were not going to prove true to herself. There has been 
recently discovered a number of new mammalian fossils in the 
Oolite of Stonesfield, England. But though of great interest, 
they were but the following out of a discovery made in the 
same beds thirty-five years ago ; and during the interval, mam- 
malian remains have been traced only into the Trias, the beds 
of the next earlier period. In all,' fourteen species have been 
found in a layer — once evidently a dirt-bed — which is only five 
inches thick, and from an area only 500 square yards in extent 
The facts, instead of favoring the idea of discovering related 
fossils in the Carboniferous, renders its probability almost infi- 
nitely small. For if such a bed, five inches thick, affords so 
large a number, then strata like the Coal Measures, aboimding 

BECOITD SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. MARCH, 1858. 

27 



?l 



210 Agas$iz*$ Contributions to the 

in dirtrbeGLs, thick and thin, and with numerons great beds of 
land vefi;etation also, through a series of strata five to fiiieen 
thousand feet thick, a large part of which strata are not marine, 
ought to afford fossil mammals without limit It is easy to work 
out the proportion ; and in doiug so, it should be remembered 
that no beds of rock have been more explored, man's cupidity 
iving great activity and thoroughness to the investigation. 

he answer to the simple problem woidd be, some hundreds if 
not thousands ; and yet, notwithstanding all the chances, and all 
the labor thus far bestowed, not a specimen has been found. 

There being some system of progress, the great question is, 
What is that system ? 

Is it a law of uniform progjress for the Animal Kingdom as a 
whole ? No : — for each of the four Branches, as Professor Agassiz 
observes, are wholly independent of each other in their whole 
systorn of structure and progress. 

Is it a law of uniform progress for each of these Branches? or 
for each of the Classes they contain, as for the .class of fishes, or 
of birds, or of mammals, etc. ? The same argument which is 
used above for the Branches, holds in fact against any such kind 
of progress for the Classes, Orders, Families and Genera of the 
Animal Kingdom. For the groups, of either grade, have usu- 
ally a degree of independence similar to the Branches — a princi- 
ple which Agassiz insists upon as universal for all natural groups, 
and which certainly holds as a general truth. We should there- 
fore no more look for lineal progression between different Orders 
in a Class, or different Classes in a Branch, than between dif- 
ferent systems in the heavens. 

In addition to this, a class has not generally been first intro- 
duced through the creation of its very simplest species. 

On this point. Professor Agassiz says : " ITie earliest repre- 
sentatives of these classes do not always seem to be the lowest. 
Yet through all the intricate relations, there runs an evident ten- 
dency towards the production of higher and higher types, until, 
at last, man crowns the series." And he closes this paragrapli 
with the sentiment which seems to be ever dwelling in his mind: 
"Who can look upon such series, and not read in them the suc- 
cessive manifestations of a thought expressed at different times, 
in ever new forms, and yet tending to the same end, onwards to 
the coming of man, whose advent is already prophesied in the 
first appearance of the earlrest fishes?" 

This general truth, that the progress is not always, we should 
say, not commonly, even for small groups, a lineal one, is often 
misunderstood, and made the basis for reproaches against any 
idea of progress. Every growing embryo has its superior and 
also inferior developments; and something analogous is obvi- 
ously true in zoological history. Each type has usually been 



Natural HUtory of the United States. 21 1 

introduced by creations of species that belong to one of its infe- 
rior groups, but yet, when so, these earliest forms were not gen- 
erally the very lowest ; and as the expansion of the type after- 
ward took place through new creations, there were downward 
steps as well as upward, though the upward were eminently the 
most marked. 

Prof. Agassiz appears at times to insist upon an inyariably 
upward progress; out in the above citation, he recognizes the 
want of generality in the law. If our announcement of the prin- 
ciple is a modification of his view, it appears to us to be one 
involved in his own statements. As examples of it, the Trilo- 
bites were not the lowest of Crustaceans ; nor the old Ganoids, 
the lowest of fishes ; nor the Acrogens of the Coal Period, the 
lowest of land Cryptogams, Mosses and perhaps other orders 
coming in much later ; so also snakes were of later creation than 
saurians. Quadrupeds, according to the fossils thus &r discov- 
ered, first appearea in the Marsupials (implacentals), the lower 
order of Mammalia, and perhaps also in Insectivores, one of the 
inferior types of placental mammals. But Edentates, the lower 
of the placentals, and but a single grade above Marsupials appear 
to have been introduced after Carnivores and Ungulates, and 
had their time of fullest expansion in the Post-tertiary period. 
Further discoveries may modify our knowledge respecting this 
particular case. But the principle is too generally. Drought out 
to view, to be set aside, that, through the successive creations, 
the expansion was to lower as well as higher forms, while mainly 
to the higher ; in all cases, it brought out a purer development 
of the type and a fuller exhibition of its various capacities. 

The fact of progress is none the less true under such a system. 
Its actual law is daily receiving new illustrations from geological 
discoveries and becoming gradually intelligible to us in its va- 
rious details. A hope, which some seem to have, that new facts 
will throw despite on all general views, is of shallow growth. 
None need fear that nature will ever prove her own lawlessness. 

The important principles connected with this system of pro- 
gress, brought out by Prof Agassiz, are as follows : — 

First, "J. parallelism hetioeen the geological succession of animals 
and the embryonic growth of their living representatives^ The 
young Oomatula, Prof A. observes, has first the form of a Oys- 
tidean ; next that of the Platycrinoid of the Carboniferous; next 
that of the Pentacrinus of the Lias and Oolite with their whorls 
of cirrhi ; and finally, there is the free Comatula, the highest of 
the Crinoids. With regard to Asterioids and Echinoids, he ob- 
serves, p. 114: — 

" The investigations of Miiller upon the larvae of all the families of 
living Asterioidd and Echinoids enable us to extend these comparisons to 
the higher £chinodcrm9 also. The first point which atriket th« observer 



212 Aga8siz*s Contributions to ths 

in the facto ascertained by MQller, is the extraordinary similarity of so 
many larvae, of such different orders and difierent families as the Ophiu- 
roids and Asterioida, the Echinoids proper and the Spatangoids, and even 
the Holothurioids, all of which end, of course, in reproducing their typi- 
cal peculiarities. It is next very remarkable, that the more advan<^ 
larval state of Echinoids and Spatangoids i>hould continue to show such 
great similarity, that a young Amphidetus hardly ditfers from a young 
Echinus. Finally, not to extend these remarks too far, I would only add, 
that these young Echinoids (Spatangus as well as Echinus proper) have 
rather a general resemblance to Cidaris, on account of their large spines, 
than to Echinus proper. Now, these facts agree exactly with wnat is 
known of the successive appearance of Echinoids in past ages ; their ear- 
liest representatives belong to the genera Diadema and Cidaris, next come 
true Echinoids, later only Spatangoids. When the embryol<^ of the 
CIypeastroi<ls is known, it will, no doubt, afford other links to oonnact a 
larger number of the members of the series." 

The young Gtinoid of our lakes aiid rivers has the prolonged 
caudal vertebral column of the ancient Ganoid ; and ail the an- 
cient fishes have cartilaginous internal skeletons instead of bonj} 
being thus like the young of the later osseous fishes. Again, 
among Keptiles, the Uiiled Batrachians appear to have preceded 
tJie tail-less, as the tad-pole precedes the j&og in development at 
the present day. The crabs in their growth pass through a ma- 
croural and anomoural form, starting often from an Entomostra- 
can ; and the same i^^ the order of creations in geological history. 
The earlier quadru|>ed8, as well as other species, in many cases 

E resent peculiarities of structure which are now known as em- 
ryonic or only temporary conditions in the growth of existing 
species ; Professor Owen alludes to facts of this kind on x>Age 19^ 
of this volume. 

It is seen from the preceding and following remarks, that this 
Jaw, while true as a great principle, has its limitations. 

Second. A paralldisin betiveen the gtohgical succession ofanimak 
and relative rank among groups or species. This law is in fact in- 
volved in the preceding, in connection with another principle, 
first propounded by Pro£ Agassiii, that the series of successive 
forms in embrj^ological development affords a scale for ascertain- 
ing the grade of species in any given order. If the progress was 
on the whole from the lower to the higher, and if the grades are 
marked off in the stages of embryonic growth, then the geologi- 
cal progress should have a degree of j^arallelism with the succes- 
sions in embryo development. Agassiz hence finds criteria for 
ascertaining the rank oi groups or species in classification, both 
in the stages of embryonic growth, and in the stages or steps in 
the geological history of life. Relations of form or structure to 
the earlier steps in the former, or the earlier types in the latter, 
indicate inferiority of grade, and relations to* the later, superi- 



Natural History of tke United States. 218 

soording to a scale easO j apprehended. The worm-like 
lower stage of an insect, attests that worms and orns- 
are inferior in grade to insects. And in seneral, a molti- 
»f segments and laxity of parts are proora of inferiority : 
fse accordance, the Trilobites, the earliest of Crustaceans 
excessive multiplication of segments.* But to use the 
L of geological history with success, the principle already 
hat the order of progress is only m a general way fiom 
3r to the higher, tnat is, that the earliest are not always 
T lowest) must be borne in mind. 

principle or general truth in embryologj it bated upon another of a 1N>' 
1 therefore more fundaqaental character,— Kme whidi the writer has flrat- 
119 U. 8. Ezpl Bzp. Report on Crwtaoea (chapter oo daaaifieatioB, p. 189S, 
ramal, zzii, 14). It is this, that oephalie eUvatiott aa to quality or grade 
mt with — and we may say, that in mdiTidual growth it is potentiidlj ooo- 
;b— caudal or posterior abbreTiation ; and aUendiiig it, tnere is, also, a 
impacting of the body and often contraction b siae. It is coac en t ra tioB 
lisation, and hence progress. All doTelopment from the young upward ia 
degree this kind of oe|^lic progress^— an elevation in the sensorial cs- 
he anterior eztremit;^ of the body, as well aa a eompaetang of the stmo* 
19 it is in the insect m passing from the lanra to the imago; in the frog 
d fish in passing from the tadpole to the adolt; in the aSb, in chmgiog 
lacroural larre to the perfect animal, and so» ffenerallj|r, tl^ugh the Ani- 
iom. Comparing groups of species together, the principle comes out in a 
prehensive form. The tape-worm, a worm without a proper head, is in- 
length ; moreover each segment is equal to its ne^hbor aad capi^)le of 
ig by itself the complete animaL But in worma of hi^ier grade, having 
ere is a limit to the length, and this power of self-reprodn^ion does not 
the Crustacean there is a still smaller number of segments, and concen- 
the anterior part into a circumscribed cephalothoraz. In the Crab, the 
ustacean, the effect is carried to its extreme in the Orustaeean trpe^ the 
liaving become very small and lost its members in the extreme thotaeico- 
ioiL In the insect, the body is much shorter and every way fiur smaller 
e Crustaceun, and besides, there is a concentration of the anterior part in- 
ct head, separate from the thorax Again, the lisard haa fewer segments 
nake. The bibber quadruped has more vertebra coaleseed in the sacnaa 
>rc firmly compacted cranium than the inferior quadruped : that is, as io 
, the cephalothorax, viewing its whole length to the caudal extremity, is 
pacted and abbreviated as the g^rade rises. 

ncipie explained appears to be a general one. Bui the comparisoas be- 
'erent species or groups afford right conclusions only when made among 
the same typical series ; for when a type as a whob is ififerior in grade 
; wo cannot of course pass from one to the other in drawing so^ infereA- 
cover each type has its degradations ^that is, swedes representing degraded 
lerate fonud) ; and in this depauperation there is an abbreviation anuogoos 
ising from the opposite principle, cephalization. While the tape-worm is 
■i lowest of species, there are others still inferior which are httle better 
gle segment of tlie tape-worm. While, again, the Decapod Crustacean aa 
grade, has its abdomen shortened till it becomes memberless in the Cnb% 
lower end of the scale of Decapods (the Schixopodous gpnoup), there are 
e species which have a memberless abdomen. Ine principle is then, that 
type, a rising of grade is shown in concentration anteriorly, and abbre- 
•sieriorly ; and a degradation in a relaxation or multiplication of parts, 
loni^tion posteriorly ; a still farther enfeebling is manifested in an obeo- 
)osteriorly, and sometimes so anteriorly, as well as a general debility of 
d system. It is hardly necessary to add that no chaz^ of species into 
erior w here implied, but that actual species represent the conditions men- 



214 Agassiz's Contributiom to the 

Third. The freqtimt synthetic cfiaracter of the earUer types. The 
Ganoid fishes are a familiar illustration, being often called San- 
roid fishes, as they include certain reptilian characteristics in 
their structure. They are synthetic types. To the Ganoids (and 
in other cases when a future group is foreshadowed), the term 
prophetic type is applied by Agassiz. In after time, fishes come 
out purely fishes m the Ctenoids and Cycloids, and this is, in 
part, the kind of expansion or evolution the Fish type under- 
went The arborescent Acrogens of the Coal Period appear also 
to have been synthetic types, combining certain Coniferous char- 
acteristics with those of the Fern type. In this case the two 
component types, the fundamental one and the collateral, were 
of tne same geological age. The Cycadess, which prevailed es- 

EeciaJly in the Middle Reptilian Age, while properly Coniferous, 
ave features of both the Fern type and that of the Palms, the 
former of these from ancient time, the latter prophetic of the 
future. The Trilobites constitute, as appears to us, another syn- 
thetic type, being Entomostracan, with some peculiarities also of 
the Isopods (Tetradecapodan). In the Reptilian Age, the Anom- 
oura— a group made up of degraded Brachyura, in which there 
are many Macroural characteristics — precraed in general the 
most of the Macroural types as well as the Brachyura. Thus in 
the early Faunas and Floras the types coverea we may say a 
wider range in their characters ; as time moved on, the same 
space was occupied with analogous types restricted to narrower 
and deeper channels, that is with stronger, purer, and a more 
limited range of characteristics ; while others, both of superior 
and inferior grades (and many of them distinctly foreshadowed), 
were introduced to fill out the scheme. 

In the most comprehensive terms, the law is The general before 
the special, the great principle in embryological development, 
which, as Professor Agassiz observes, von Baer first stadi^ out 
and thoroughly elucidated.* It is not presented in geology in 
a manner to favor the notion of the creation of species from spe- 
cies, but rather as an exhibition of unity of idea between growth 
in the individual, grade of species in the system of nature, and 
progress in the geological history of life. 

A FOURTH law is that of the culmination and disappearance oj 
types in past time. The IVilobites, which begun and ended in the 
Palaeozoic ages ; the Ammonite group which commenced in the 
Palaeozoic and ended with the Reptilian age ; the Brachiopods 
and Ganoids which first appeared in the Pala30zoic and react on 
to the present era, though almost wholly extinct — are familiar 
examples. This is obviously parallel with the fiBUJt in embr3-o- 
logical development, that parts may fulfil their end and disappear 

* ThU subject h illii«trated in its geolo^cal beariii|^ at some length in Caq)eo* 
ter^s Comparatiye Pbysiulo|^v, 4tb editioa 



Naiural History of the United States. 215 

before the final adult stage is reached. Professor Agassiz, in his 
remarks on the succession of types, appears to argue that through- 
oat classes and orders in the Animal Kingdom there was a rising 
of grade among the species to the last ; that is, amon^ the species 
now existing as representatives of an order, the higher are of 
superior rank to those representing that <^er in any earlier time. 
But perhaps this point requires a farther survey of the &cts. It 
does not seem to be established that the Camivora of the present 
age are superior in grade to those of the Post-tertiary, or the 
(%phalopoas of our own seas to those of the Beptilian Age. 

After considering many of the laws of relation among animals 
and between the animal and plant kingdoms. Professor Agassiz 
introduces an illustration or still wider unity embracing the 
physical world at large, first suggested by his associate at Cam- 
Dridge, Professor Peirce. As the facts have not been published 
in this Journal, we cite a few paragraphs from the chapter. It 
is well known that the leaves of plants are arranged in spirals^ 
and that the intervals between two successive leaves in the spi- 
rals for different plants, varies between ^ and {A of the circum- 
ference ; the actually occurring numbers afford the mathematical 
series J, -J, f, |, /j, ,',-1 ih i»> ®^' » ^^ which the numerator and 
denominator of each term equals severally the sum of the nu- 
merators, and of the denominators, of the two terms next pre- 
ceding. 

" Now, upon comparing this arrangement of the leaves in plants with 
the revolutions of the members of our solar system, Peirce has discovered 
the most perfect identity between the fundamental laws which regulate 
both, as may be at once seen by the following diagram, in which the first 
column gives the names of the planets, the second column indicates the 
actual time of revolution of the successive planets, expressed in days, the 
third column the successive times of revolution of the planets, which are 
derived from the hypothesis that each time of revolution should have a 
ratio to those upon each side of it, which shall be one of the ratios of 
the law of phyllotazis ; and the fourth column, finally, gives the normal 
series of fractions eipressing the law of phyllotaxis. 

Neptune, 60,129 62,000 

Uranus, 80,687 31,000 i 

Saturn, 10,759 10,833 i 

Jupiter, 4,838 4,188 | 

Asteroids, 1,200 to 2,000 1,550 f 

Mars, 687 596 ^ 

Earth, 865 366 A) s 

Venus, 225 227 Mf" 

Mercury, 88 87 if 

" In this series the Earth forms a break ; but this apparent irregularity 
admits of an easy explanation. The fractions j-, i, f , f , ^^ -f^, ^, etc., 
as expressing the position of successive leaves upon an axis, by the short 



216 Agassiz's Contributions to the Natural History, ^. 

way of ascent along the spiral, are identical, as far aa their meaning is 
concerned, with the fractions expressing these same poaittons, by the long 
way, namely, J, J, ^, 4, A, if f^, etc 

** Let us, therefore, repeat our diiigram in another form, the third oolomn 
giving the theoretical time of revolution. 

60,129 



Neptune, 


i 


62,000 


t( 


i 


62,000 


Uranus^ 


i 


81,000 


ii 


i 


15,600 


Saturn, 


f 


10,833 


M 


f 


6,889 


Jupiter, 


f 


4,183 


i< 


i 


2,480 


Asteroids, 


t 


1,650 


ti 


f 


968 


Mars, 


A 


596 


Earth, 


A 


866 


Ventts, 


« 


227 


ct 


ii 


140 


Mercury, 


U 


87 



30,689 
10,759 



4,333 

1,200 

687 
365 
225 

88 

** It appears from this table, that two intervals usually elapse between 
two successive planets, so that th^ normal order of actual fractions is i, 
h f f f 1 V^f ^^'> ^^ ^^^ fractions by the short way in phyllotaxis, from 
which, however, the Earth is excluded, while it forms a member of the 
series by the long way. The explanation of this, suggested by Peirce, is 
that although the tendency to set off a planet is not sufficient at the end 
of a single interval, it becomes so strong near the end of the second in- 
terval, that the planet is found exterior to the limit of this second interval 
Thus, Uranus is rather too far from the Sun relatively to Neptune, Saturn 
relatively to Uranus, and Jupiter relatively to Saturn, and the planets 
thus formed engross too large a proportionate share of material, and this 
is especially the case wiUi Jupiter. Hence, when we come to the Aste- 
roids, the disposition is so strong at the end of a single interval, that the 
outer Asteroid is but just within this interval, and the whole material of 
the Asteroids is dispersed in separate masses over a wide apace, instead 
of being concentrated into a single planet. A consequence of this disr 
persion of the forming agents is, that a small proportionate material is 
absorbed into the Asteroids. Hence, Mara is ready for formation so far 
exterior to its true place, tliat when the next interval elapses the residual 
force becomes strong enough to form the Earth, after which the normal 
law is resumed without any further disturbance. Under this law, there 
can be no planet exterior to Neptune, but there may be one interior to 
Mercury."— pp. 128, 12D. 

The subjects to which we have thus far alluded in our notice 
of Professor Agassiz s work are, as before said, incidental to the 
author's main purpose, the illustration of the relations of species 
with reference to principles of classification and the fundamental 
ideas of system in nature. To this topic we now tum. 

(7b be continued.) 



T. 8. Hani en OpkioHtee. S17 



\XX.—0(mtnlmtum»ioiheH%$taryofO^^ Parti; by 
r. Sterby Hunt, of the Geological Survej of Canada. 

7 the publislied reports of the Qeoloffical Sonrej of Canada, 
W. E. Logan has already shown tnat the serpentines of 
Oreen Mountains occur in the form of beds, and that they 
ipy a constant position in the series of altered Lower Sila- 
strata which make up the principal part of the Green 
mtain chain. These metamorphio strata consist of feld* 
hie, micaceous, epidotic, chlontic» talcose and argiUaceouB 
sts, with quartzites, limestones, dolomites and magnesites; 
des varieties of euphotide and diorite, pyroxenite and dial- 
rocks, and others consisting essentially of a white lime- 
ciina garnet. Intercalated in this series occur the difEerent 
eties of serpentine rocks about to be described, 
p to the present time, geologists, with few exceptions, have 
red upon serpentine as a rock of igneous origin ; but this 
f is clearly inadmissible for the serpentines of the palaeozoic 
:s of Canada — whose magnesian strata are, as I have endeav- 
I to show, the result of the alteration of beds of silicioua 
^rnite and magnesite, which have been transformed into sili- 
3 under the influence of solutions of alkaline' carbonates, a 
jess which requires no very elevated temperature, and ena- 
us to explain the production of those silicates of lime, mag- 
a and iron which play such an important part in the mineral 
Dry of the crystalline stratified rocks.* 
-eserving for another occasion the discussion of their mode 
brmation, I propose at the present time to describe and give 
results of my examinations of some of the so-called serpen- ' 
-rocks of the Green Mountains. The following pages are 
ed from the receutly published Report of Progress of the 
logical Survey of Canada, for the years 1858-1857, pp. 482- 
The same volume contains the results of the chemical 
mineralogical examinations' of various diallages, diorites, 
let-rocks, talcs, chlorites, dolomites, magnesit^ etc., from 
formation just noticed. In addition to these, will be found 
description of an analogous series of rocks from the Lauren- 
system, where the serpentines, dolomites, euphotides, dio- 
5, etc., are repeated with certain differences, offering an in- 
ctive jiarallelism with the corresponding Silurian series, and 
lying that the chemical conditions dunng the deposition of 
oldest known sedimentary rocks were similar to those which 
railed during a portion of the Lower Silurian period, and 

Seo this Journal (2), yoL zxiil, p. 487, Proceedings of the Royal Sodetj for 
7, 1857, and the Report of the Geological Surrey, cited below, pi 477. 

;C0ND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74.— -XABCH, IBM. 

128 



218 T. SL Hum M OphioUieM. 

have since been repeated many times in the world's geologicid 
history. The materials of thifl report may famiah the subjeci 
of farther communications 

The mineral species serpentine is a hydrated silicate of mag- 
nesia, whose composition according to the received fbnnuhi is 
represented by silica 48*7, magnesia 43*8, water 180 = 100*0; 
a portion of protoxyd of iron, sometimes amounting to ten per 
cent, generally replaces an equivalent Quantity of magnesia. 

The rocks Known as serpentines are nowever variable in their 
constitution, being sometimes composed almost entirelj of the 
silicate just mentioned ; at other times this is mingled with other 
silicates, such as garnet, diallage or hornblende, with quartz, 
or with carbonate of lime, dolomite or carbonate of magnesia. 
Mineralogists have therefore distinguished these rocks By the 
general names of ophiolUe and op/ucaJce. Thus we have, besides 
a rock which is composed essentially of serpentine, and may be 
regarded as the common or normal ophioUte, varieties character- 
ize by admixtures of garnet, diallage, hornblende and chromic 
iron ore, which may be respectively designated as grenaUc or 
gameUferouSy diallagic, honibtendic and chromifsroua ophioUtes; to 
these we must add the qitartzose ophiolife of Brongniart, which is 
composed of nodules of quartz m a base of serpentine. The 
gabbro of the Italian geologists is a diallagic ophiolite. 

The name of ophicalce has been given by Brongniart to rocks 
composed essentially of carbonate of lime and serpentine or talc. 
Crystalline limestones which hold disseminated grains of serpen- 
tine, are designated by him as granular ophicalce, while under 
the name of reticulated ophicalce he has described an aggregate of 
rounded masses of carbobate of lime, cemented by a oase of tal- 
cose serpentine. In addition to these, the same author describes 
an aggregate of rounded masses of quartz, green jasper and sili- 
cious slate, cemented by serpentine, and several breccias, con- 
sisting of angular fra^ents of auartz, of serpentine, and of 
jasper, in a paste of serpentine. Ihese rocks be separates from 
the preceding species u^der the name of anagenites and breccias. 
But such aggregates, in which serpentine is sometimes the paste, 
and sometimes the imbedded mineral, cannot be separated from 
certain varieties of ophicalce. Again, in this last species, the 
calcareous matter isi* often replaced by dolomite, and even by 
"Crystalline carbonate of magnesia, forming varieties of rock jo 
which the^name of ophicalce is no longer appropriate. I there- 
fore propose to unite all these varieties under the general name 
of ophiolite, and to describe them as calcareous^ dolomitic and 
mag nesi^ ophioUtes, which may be granular, gneissoid, conglom- 
erate. Or brecciated in their structure. I have been thus par- 
ticular in distinguishing these diflferent varieties, because they 
have dbubtless a common origin, and because their study will 



T. S. Hunt on Ophiolites. 219 

aid U3 in getting an idea of the mode of forniation of serpentine 
rocks. 

The ophiolites of the Green Mountains often contain diallagSi 
and more rarely actinolite and garnet Calcareous, dolomitic 
and magnesitic varieties are common, and are granular, KQ^issoid, 
and sometimes conglomerate in their stractare. Smau^rtions 
of nickel and chrome are seldom or never wanting an these 
rocks, which often contain grains and even beds of chromic 
iron. Foliated and fibrous varieties of serpentine are also met 
with there, constituting the varieties whicn have been nam^ 
haUimorite^ picroUie and chrysotile, A fine collection of ophiolites 
firom the township of Orford, where these rocks are very exten- 
sively displayed, has furnished me with a large number of the 
specimens about to be described. 

The analysis of the serpentines was generally effected by 
treating the mineral in fine powder with sulphuric acid diluted 
with its own volume of water, and heating the mixture in a pla- 
tinum capsule until acid ftimes were evolved ; it was sometimes 
necessary to repeat this process with the undissolved residue. 

The purity of the separated silica was in all cases determined 
by dissolving it with the aid of heat, in a solution of carbonate 
of soda. The action of a boiling solution of nitrate of ammonia 
upon the mineral, either before or after ignition, was generally 
bid recourse to for the determination of any earthy oarboiiftes 
which might be preset 

1. Normal Ophioiite. — ^A very beautiful and homogeneous vi^ 
riety of serpentine rock from the tenth lot of the eighteenth 
ran^ of Orford, was found to have a density o^ 2*597. It was 
finely granular in texture, and had a scaly con(^K>idal fracture; 
oojor deep olive-green, with small bluish veins; it was sub-trans* 
lucent, and had a highly argillaceous odor. This serpentine 
holds in very small quantity, disseminated grains of magnetic 
and chromic iron ores, and contains a little nickel, but no cobalt 
When ignited and boiled with a solution of nitrate of ammoniai 
it gave a trace of magnesia, but no lime. Its analysis yielded >^ 

Silica, 40*80 

MagnesiA (by difference), . ' ' ' ' ^^'^^ 

Protoxyd of iron, - - • - - 70* 

Oxyd of nickel, ...... -20 

" •* chrome, - . - - - (traeea.) 

Water, by ignition, - * - - - - 1835 

100^ 

2. A fragment of pure s^jjgentine from a conglomerate dolo- 
mitic ophiolite about to be described, had a density of ^-((22, a 
blackish-green color, a conchoidal fracture, and was almost 
opaque. The pulverized and ignited mineral yielded to nitrate 
0^ ammonia, 0*40 of carbonate of lime and 0*27 of carbonate of 



220 T. 8. Hunt on OpkioKtes. 

magnesia. Tliis serpentme contains a small quantity of chromic 
iron. The oxyd of nickel, determined upon four grama of the 
mineral, gave no trace of cobalt before the blowpipe. Its analy- 
sis gave as follows : — 

SUica, 4«^ 

liigneoA, . . . • . . 86^8 

Protozyd of iron, .... - 7*47 

Oxyd of Dickel, - - - - - - -15 

Ghromic iroOt .... - -Sft 

Lof8 by ignition, ..... 1S'14 

100-19 

S. I may cite in this place the analysis of a serpentine given 
in my Beport for 1862, p. 99. It forms the rock in contact with 
the bed of chromic iron ore in Ham, has a hardness of 8*5, and 
a density of 2*646. It is n^iassive and compact, with a splintery 
fracture; color greenish-white, and translucent The analysis, 
which fialed to detect either chrome or lime, gave as follows :— 

Silica, 48-4 

Magnesia (by differenoeX .... 40*0 

Alomina and oxyd of iron, .... g-e 

Water, ....... is-O 

10(H) 

The associated chromic iron ore ^ve by analysis 0*22 per 
cent of oxyd of nickel, which, fused with borax berore the blow- 
pipe, affomed distinct evidence of the presence of cobalt 

4. A characteristic fibrous serpentine (jncroliie) from the sev- 
enth lot of the eighth range of Bolton, has a hardness of 4, and 
a density of 2*607. It breaks into ligneous masses several inches 
in length; very compact; fracture splintery; fibres stiff and 
elastic ; shows an oblique cleavage. Color celandine-green ; lus- 
tre vitreous, silky; tran^arent in small fragments; tough, and 
difficult to pulverize. The finely-sifted powder is completely 
decomposed by sulphuric acid, and the silica retains the form 
and lustre of the fibres ; the mineral contains apparently as 
much nickel as 1. Its analysis gave : — 

Silica, ...... 43.70 

Magneiua, ...... 4O68 

Protoxyd of iron, ..... 3-51 

Oxyd of nickel (undetermined). 

Water, 1245 

100-84 

5. Caicareous OphioUie, — The specimen of this variety which 
I have analyzed is fi*om the tenth lot of the sixteenth range of 
OrfonL It is fine grained and sub-crystalline, witici a scaly, 
somewhat conchoidal fracture. Color, mottled greeniah-grey, 



T. 8. Hunt on OphioliieM. Ml 

an occasional purplish tinge^ Tranalucent on the edges, 
resembles, except in color, many common limestones. In 
ler, the rock effervesces with acetic acid, even in the cold, 
by the aid of heat fifty-seven per cent of the mass were dia- 
^, consisting of carl)onate oi lime with a little magnesia 
a trace of iron. The residue effervesced in the cold with 
e nitric acid, whose action, aided by a gentle heat during 
an-hour, dissolved 10*76 per cent of carbonate of lime ana 
aesia, with a little iron, corresponding to a ferriferous dolo- 
The pale-green residue fix)m the action of the nitric acid, 
1 dried at 212'' F., equalled 82-00 per cent It was readily 
mposed by sulphuric acid, without any effervescence, and 
the characters of serpentine. Its analysis gave : — 

Silica, 41-20 

Magnetia, ...... 8S'16 

Protozyd of iron, ----- Hi6 

Lime, ------- -66 

Alomina, -.-.-. 2*6t 

Water, ---.--- 12-70 

100-64 

le portion soluble in acetic acid (I.) and that dissolved in 
c acid (II.) had the following composition for 100 parts : — 

"1. II. 

Carbonate of lime, 91-88 49*46 

** magneaia, - - . « - 8*67 48*68 

iroD, .... (traces) 6-87 

100^0 10000 

will be seen that the dilute acids attack but slightly the 
3ntine, and that the nitric acid dissolves an intermingled 
mite, which is but little acted upon by the acetic acid. I 
^ taken advantage of this reaction to separate the dolomite 
L the carbonate of lime in a crystalline magnesian limestone, 
se analysis is given in my Report for 1864. The proximate 
ysis of the rock in question shows it to be a mixture of car- 
ite of lime, dolomite and serpentine, and we have for 100 
3: — 

Soluble in acetic add, ..... 67-00 

" nitric acid, - - - - ' - 10*76 

Insoluble, serpentine, .... - 82-00 

99*76 

Dolomitic Ophiolite, — This granular variety is firom the 
e of Brompton Lake, in the seventh range of the thirteenth 
►f Orford. It is fine grained and greyish-green like the last, 
somewhat darker in color, and weathers reddish-brown. Its 
are is uneven and sub-conchoidal, presenting grains of a 



M 

U M 



222 T. S. Hunt on Ophiotites. 

crystalline spar. A fibrous coating is sometimes ^rpparent in tlie 
joints of the rock. Its hardness is about 4. When reduced to 
powder it did not effervesce with acetic acid like the last, but 
was readily attacked by dilute nitric acid, which remored carbo- 
nates of lime, mn^esia and iron, with effervescence, leaving a 
residue of serpentme. A proximate analysis gave SI'S parts of 
serpentine, and 48*1 of dolomite = lOOO. The nitric solution 
contained some manganese and nickel. 

The composition of the serpentine left by the nitric add 
was: — 

Silica, 48-20 

Magnesia (by difTerence), • • • • - 86*11 

Protoxyd of iron with nickel, • - - - 8 29 

Water, .-.--.- if-40 

ioooo 

The dolomite dissolved, gave for 100 parts : — 

Carbonate of lime, ...... 49iiB 

** ** magnesia, ..... 46-SS 

** ** iron with manganeee, .... 4*10 

7. Dolomitic Ophiolile. — ^This rock, also from Brorapton Lake, 
on the twelfth lot of the eighteenth range of Orforo, has fur- 
nished some fine blocks for ornamental purposes. It is a con- 
glomerate, made up of fragments of serpentme thickly dissemi- 
nated in a greenish-white dolomitic base. The masses of ser- 
pentine vary from a line to more than an inch in diameter, and 
although rounded, are more or less angular in form. Their 
colors are various shades of dark green, sometimes appearing 
nearly black when polished. The analvsis of one of these im- 
bedded masses has already been given (No. 2). This rock con- 
tains both nickel and chromic iron. 

An average specimen of the conglomerate was pulverized for 
examination. The powder effervesced even in tne cold, with 
acetic acid, which with the aid of heat, took up by prolonged 
digestion, twenty per cent of carbonates of lime and naagnesiSi 
and 0*2 of oxyd of iron. The soluble portion contained carbo- 
nate of lime 88'30, carbonate of magnesia 11'70. The residue 
from acetic acid effervesced slightly with warm dilute nitric acid, 
and the solution was found to contain a quantity of magnesia 
equivalent to 5'68 per cent of the original mass (11*70 per cent 
of magnesian carbonate), besides 1*86 of peroxyd of iron and 
0*60 of alumina, but no lime, the whole of that base having 
been removed by the acetic acid. The residue from the action 
of nitric acid, was decomposed by fusion with carbonate of soda, 
and gave : — 



7, & Hunt on OpkiolUeM. 328 

fffSm, « • • 4610 

MagiKwia, (by dMhreoct), .... &4*68 

Protozjd of iron, ...... $13 

AlaiDina» -•..... *80 

Vater, 1880 

100^0 

This residae when ignited, yielded but a trace of magnesia to 
a boiling solution of nitrate of ammonia, showing that it retained 
no carbonate ; but from the excess of silica it was evident that 
a partial decomposition of the serpentine had been effected by 
the nitric acid. In confirmation of tbi^, I found that a second 

Jortion of the pulverized rock, when submitted to a prolonged 
igestion with acetic acid, left 75*6 per cent of matter dried at 
212^ F. ; this residue gave a feeble effervescence with nitric acid, 
which by prolonged digestion, took up IS^O per cent of magne- 
sia, although when previously ignitea, the residue gave to a 
solution of nitrate or ammonia only a trace of lime, and but O'S 
per cent of magnesia. Its analysis by fusion with carbonate of 
soda gave : — 

Silica, 4810 

HagDesia, 85 53 

Protozyd of iron, ...... 8-82 

Water, 11^0 

99 84 

Another specimen of the conglomerate was now pulverized, 
and eight grams of it were digested for a long time with boil* 
ing acetic acid ; the insoluble residue, after levigation, was sub* 
jectcd a second time to the same treatment The matters thus 
dissolved for 100 parts of the mineral, were : — 

Carbooata of lime, ...... 7*86 

" •* magnesia, .... - 7-79 

" iron. 1-78 

16-85 

A portion of the residue from the acid was ignited and boiled 
with oitrate of ammonia, which dissolved a portion of lime 
equal to 0*3 per cent of carbonate, and of magnesia equal to 
8'26 of carbonate of magnesia; making a total of 10*98 of car- 
bonate of magnesia to 7*65 of carbonate of lime. The serpen- 
tine residue, still containing these 3*56 per cent of carbonates, 
gave by analysis with carbonate of soda, the following results :-*- 

Silica, (by diflerenoeX ..... 48*98 

Magnesia, ...... 85*64 

Protozyd of iron, ...... 7-88 

Lime, ...... (tmoet.) 

Lots bj ignition, - • • • - 12*60 

100*00 



324 T. S. Hunt on OphtoHtes. 

A portion of the powder of this last specimen of the con- 
glomerate was ignitea for ten minutes over a spirit-lamp, and 
then boiled with a solution of nitrate of ammonia, so long as a 
perceptible odor of ammonia was evolved ; there were dissolved 
Dj this means 6*50 per cent of carbonate of lime, and 7*65 of 
carbonate of magnesia. 

Veins of from four to six lines in breadth are often met with 
in this conglomerate. Their walls are covered with a thin layer 
of pale green serpentine, having a fibrous structure perpendicu- 
lar to the sides or the vein ; upon this is deposited a bluish-white 
fine grained dolomite, while in the middle a nearly pure cleava- 
ble calcite occurs. The analysis of a portion of this dolomite 
gave : — 

Carbonate of lime, ...... 69*8S 

** *' magnesia, ..... 34*15 

- iron, 4*88 

98-80 

8. ifagnesitic Ophiolite. — ^In the three preceding specimens we 
have examples of ophiolites which are mixtures of serpentine 
with carbonates of lime and magnesia ; in the first the lime is 
greatly in excess, in the second the two carbonates are united in 
the proportions required to form a dolomite, while in the third 
the magnesian carbonate predominates, but from the action of 
cold acetic acid, it would appear that a portion at least of the 
carbonate of lime in this specimen, is not in chemical combina- 
tion with the magnesian carbonate. The history of these rocks 
would however be incomplete without the description of another 
variety, in which the caroonate of lime is entirely wanting, and 
which consists wholly of silicates and carbonates of magnesia 
and iron. This remarkable rock has not yet been noticed in 
Canada, but is found in Vermont, in the southern prolongation 
of the Green Mountains, and constitutes the so-called serpentine 
marble of Roxbury in that state ; it has been examined by Dr. 
C. T. Jackson and Dr. A. A. Hayes of Boston. 

Dr. Jackson (this Journal, [2], vol. xxiii, p. 125,) succeeded 
in separating from the rock a mineral having the composition of 
serpentine, and describes veins composed of ferriferous carbonate 
of magnesia, and others of ferriferous dolomite, which traverse 
the mass. According to Dr. Hayes, (ibid, [2], vol. xxi, p. 382,) 
the rock is an aggregate of fibrous and compact asbestus, talc, 
chlorite and chromic iron, with angular fragments of talc-schist 
and argillite, the whole cemented by carbonate of magnesia, 
which forms according to him, on an Average, 38 p. c. of the 
mass. He has also shown that the ophiolites of Cavendish, and 
of Lynnfield in the same region, contain carbonate of magnesia, 
without any lime. Through the kindness of the above-namea 



T. 8. Otni en OphioKtea. SS5 

gentlemen, I have been fhrnished with a series of erpedmens, 
which have permitted me to make a carefhl examination of the 
Boxburj ophiolite. 

Some portions of the rock appear as a mottled granular mass, 
having a hardness of abont 4*0, with an uneven fracture, and pre- 
senting cleavable grains of magnesite; the colors varv from 
blackish-green to greenish-white, and the rock is susceptible of a 
high polish. Other specimens are white and crystalline, with 
numerous creenish-grej bands, the whole arranged in parallel 
layers, as if stratified, and resembling closely some varieties of 
gneiss. The rock cleaves with these layers, which contain ser- 
pentine and talc, intermingled with carbonate of magnesia. This 
mineral, as described by Drs. Jackson and Qayes, is nearlv pure 
in the white portions, and has a hardness of 4*0, and a density 
of 2-99— S'OO, according to my determinations. Dr. Hayes 
found for its composition, carbonic acid 48*80, magnesia 46*60. 
talc and a little silica 8*60, silicate of protoxyd of iron 1*96 
= 99-96. 

This result corresponds closely with my own. I obtained from 
100 parts, 2-76 of talc, and 1*82 of silica, besides 2*40 of per- 
oxyd of iron, corresponding to 3*48 of carbonate of iron, the 
rest being carbonic acid ana magnesia, with a little manganese. 
The greater portion of the iron exists here as carbonate, as is 
evident from the fact that it is dissolved by a boiling solution of 
nitrate of ammonia ; but there is also present a portion of silicate 
of iron and magnesia, decomposed bv acids. In my analysis the 

Eowdered magnesite was digested K>r a long time at a boiling 
eat with hydrochloric acid; the insoluble portion was then 
boiled with strong sulphuric acid, and from the residue the 
silica was removed by a solution of carbonate of soda, the talc 
remaining. 

The talc thus purified from ma^esite and serpentine by suc- 
cessive treatments with hydrochlonc and sulphuric acids and car- 
bonate of soda, was gently ignited, and tnen decomposed by 
fusion with carbonate of soda ; it gave : — 

Snica, 62-60 

Magnesia, ...... 81*80 

Alumina and ozjd of iron, ..... 4-05 

Water and loss, --...- 204 

10000 

In the analysis of Dr. Hayes just cited, the 48*80 parts of car- 
bonic acid are sufficient only for 44*86 parts of magnesia, 
leaving 1 24 of this base in the form of a suicate decomposable 
by sulphuric acid. In order to detennine the composition of 
this silicate, a dark-green portion of the rock was pulverized, 
and boiled for a long time with dilute nitric acid, whicn dissolved 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74.-*IlARCH., 18M. 

29 



S26 T. 8. Hunt an OphioKies. 

a large amount of ma^esia with disengagement of carbonic 
acid; the solution contained besides, maffnesia, iron, manganese^ 
and a trace of nickel, but no lime. The undissolved rendiie 
was then boiled with a solution of carbonate of soda, which 
took up a considerable amount of silica derived from Ihe silicate 
which nad been partially decomposed by the nitric acid, and left 
a dense granular matter, mingled with silvery scales of greenish 
talc, which were in great part removed by washing. The 
denser silicate was then dried at 250^ R, and submitted to analy* 
sis. By ignition it lost 11*40 per cent, and then gave to a boiling 
solution of nitrate of ammonia a c^uantity of magnesia equal to 
1*21 of carbonate. Another portion was decomposed by sul- 
phuric acid, and the silica separated fiom the insoluble talc by a 
solution of carbonate of soda. The results of the analyaia weie 
as follows: — 

Silica, 39^0 

Magneoa, ...... se*?! 

Protozyd of iroa, ...... erSf 

Oxyd of Bickel, (tnoMi) 

Tale. •«) 

Water, KHt 

Carbonic add, ...... -ff 

99-S8 

Deducting the talc, the carbonic acid, and the amount of mag- 
nesia required to form with it 1*21 of carbonate, we have fiur \m 
composition of this silicate dried at 260^ F. : — 

SUica, 4SM 

MagiMtia, ...... znS 

Protoxjrd of iron, ...... 5-sf 

Oxjrd of nickel, ..... (tracaa) 

Water, Il-t9 

lOOOO 

This is the composition of serpentine, and the ophioUte of 
Roxbury is thus shown to consist of serpentine and talc, inte^ 
mixed with a ferriferous carbonate of magnesia; the compact 
asbestus of Dr. Hayes is nothing more than serpentine. 

In the second part of this paper I propose to describe among 
others, some of the ophiolites of the Laurentian series. 



W.P.BlaiBmik$CkalckiMtl€flkeM€xieM$. WO 



Abt. XXL — The Chalchihuiil of the ancient Mexieana: iti beofiify 
and aaeodatum^ and ite identUy with Turquoie; by W. P. Blaki. 

Ths Navajo Indians in the northern and weatem portion of 
New Mexico wear small ornaments «nd trinkets, fiishioned out 
of a hard, gree% stone which they call ChakhihuUL^ It is 
orteemed among them as a ^m of very great value, holding a 
Tank equal to tnat of the diamond with us. It is more highly 
prized than gold, and is often need in trade among themselves, 
a string of fragments large enough for an ear-ring being worth 
as mucn as a mule. Few or none of these stones are obtained 

Satrangers, for they are never disposed to give for them what 
) Indians req[uire. 

The descriptions of this stone led me to regard it as Turquois^ 
and learning that it was yet procured in small quantity by the 
Indians from a mountainous district not over twenty miles fix>m 
Santa F^ I visited the locality and collected several specimens. 

The mountains form a group of conical peaks and are known 
as Lo8 CerriUM. They are southeast of Santa F^ and north <rf 
the Placer or Gold mountains, from which they are separated 
by the valley of GWisteo river. The rocks of which they are 
composed are yellow and gray quartzose sandstones, and por- 
phy ry in dykes. The sandstones are probably of the age of the 
Carboniferous, and are much upliftea and metamorphosed, so 
that their sedimentary character is in great part obliterated. 

On reaching the locality I was struck with astonishment at 
the extent of the excavation. It is an immense pit with precip* 
itouB sides of angular rock, projecting in crags, which sustain a 
growth of pines and shrubs in the fissures. On one side the 
rocks tower into a precipice and overhang so as to form a cave; 
at another place the side is low and formed of the broken rocks 
which were removed. From the top of the cliff, the excavation 
appears to be 200 feet in depth and 800 or more in width. The 
bottom is funnel-shaped and formed by the sloping banks of the 
debris or fragments of the sides. On this debris, at the bottom 
of the pit, pine trees over a hundred years old are now ^rowing, 
and the bank of refuse rock is similarly covered witn trees. 
This great excavation is made in the solid rock, and tens of 
thousands of tons of rock have been broken out. This is not 
the only opening ; there are several pits in the vicinity, more 
limited in extent, some of them being apparently much more 
recent. 

Traces of the Chalchihuiil were found among the broken rocks^ 
but almost every fragment of large size and good color had 

* Hub name b now pronounced chat-che-we'te by the Indians, Mid ehar- tAs weU 
bf KMOM of tha Kew Mexicansi. The Indian pronunciation is preferred. 



228 W. P. Blake on the ChalchihuUl of the Mexicans. 



been carefully collected. A recent heavy shower had, however, 
brought many small pieces of the mineral in view on the surface, 
and other specimens were procured by breaking open the rocks. 

The specimens present in color various shades of apple-green 
and pea-green, passing into bluish-green. Some fragments hav- 
ing a blue color were found, but these are not so dense and hard 
as the green. Some of the specimens very dos^y resemble cmsta 
or coatings of chrysocolla both in fracture ana color; differing, 
however, very essentially in the hardness. Some of the blui^ 
specimens are very soft and earthy, and appear to be the result 
of partial decomposition of the green portions by long exposure. 
One of the compact green fragments has been successfuUy cut 
by a lapidary ; it takes a fine polish, and has a pleasing color and 
lustre suitable for jewelry. The hardness is a little less than 
that of feldspar, and the specific gravity varies from 2*426 to 
2'651, the compact, green fragments giving the highest numbers. 

Before the blowpipe, it fuses with intumescence on the thin 
edges only ; in other respects, the reactions are similar to those 
of turquois. An analysis of it for me by J. M. Blake of the 
Yale Analytical Laboratorjr shows it to be nearly identical with 
turquois in composition, being a hydrous phosphate of alumina 
and iron, colored with oxyd of copper. 

The fragments which were picked up do not exceed three 
quarters of an inch in length and one quarter of an inch in 
tnickness. They appeared to have formed crusts upon the sur- 
faces of fissures or cavities in the rock, or to have extended 
through it in veins. It was so found in the rock, ramifying in 
various directions in seams from the thickness of a card to three 
tenths of an inch or more. It is not accompanied, so far as could 
be ascertained, by any minerals, except in some cases by per- 
oxyd of iron and a little quartz, the former being apparently 
the result of the decomposition of pyrites. The seams in the 
rock are compact and homogeneous, and the mineral adheres 
closely to the walls on each side. It is therefore difficult to 
break out fragments of large size. In some places the mineral 
does not form a continuous seam or crust, but is implanted in 
irregularly circular spots, or reniform masses along the walls of 
the fissures. At one of the openings most distant from the 
ancient excavation, it occurs in small, irregular nodules, in cav- 
ernous portions of the rock where there is much peroxyd of iron. 
It is occasionally seen isolated and completely enveloped in the 
body of the rocK, but near either a fissure or a cavity. In all 
cases it is compact and without any trace of crystalline structure, 
breaking with a smooth conchoidal fracture. Several of the 
specimens are nearly identical in appearance with the turquois 
from Steine in Silesia, for a fi-agment of which I am indebted to 
Prof. G. J. Brush. 



W. p. Blake an tke Ckakhihuia of the Mexicans. 229 

On breaking open one of the dark ^reen fragments a Bmall 
cavity was foand m the centre, like the interior of a geode, with 
the color gradually shading into white. The interior surface is 
smooth and finely mamillated, reminding one of the inner sur- 
fice of nodules of ohdoedony. There are not any distinct layers 
as in agate but the color gradually diminishes from the suriiace 
to the center. A variation in the amount of the coloring matter 
in different specimens according to the circumstances of forma- 
tion is thus indicated, and it is seen that the composition of the 
mineral cannot be regarded as constant This vanation of color, 
and the structure, indicate an origin, or formation, similar to 
that of chalcedony and agate, — a ^position in thin layers from 
either a vapor or liquid. 

There did not appear to be any principal vein or well defined 
deposit of the minend ; it is apparently distributed in thin seams 
through a great body of the rodL It is possible that there is a 
large vein or seam covered from view by the debri& The rock 
18 a granular porphyry, yellowish, gray and white, in color ; 
porous and earthy in texture. It decomposes rapidly by weath- 
ering, and very much resembles a sandstone, veins of copper 
pyrites associated with ^old, and veins of argentiferous leaa oc- 
cur in the same mountains, but there are no indications of ores 
at the locality. The sides of the pits were carefully examined 
to determine whether it was possiole that the excavation had 
been in pait made for ores or tne precious metals, but it was evi- 
dent that the chalchihuitl was the only mineral which had been 
sought for. 

The evident antiquity of this excavation, and its extent, ren- 
ders it peculiarly interesting. Little or nothing appears to be 
known of it in that region, and I am not aware that it has ever 
been visited except by the Indians and New Mexicans. It 
seems hardly possible that such an amount of rock could have 
been removed by men without the aid of powder and machinery. 
The €|ridences were, however, conclusiye that it was the work 
of the aborigines long before the conquest and settlement of 
the country by the Spaniards. It does not appear that anything 
has been done in the great pit for a long time. This is shown 
not only by the pine trees growing in it, but by the lichen-cov- 
ered sides, and by the piles of rock, gray with age, around the 
margin. Fragments of ancient Indian pottery can easily be 
found amon^ the rocks at all of the excavations. It is said that 
the Indians have a tradition that eight or nine of their tribe were 
once suddenly buried by a fidl of rocks from the side of the 
great pit Since that time they have been afraid to work in it 
This is probable, and it is indicated by the condition of the local- 
ity. The place is, however, occasionally visited by Indians from 
a distance, but their operations appear to be conmied to the sur- 



230 W. P. Blake on the Chakhihuiil cf the Mexicans. 

rounding openings, or to breaking up masses of rock wliich 
were formerly removed. The fragments which they procure are 
taken to one of the Indian pueblos on the Bio Grande, where 
the art of grinding and perforating them for beads is yet known. 
How this is accomplished, I could not ascertain. Two or three 
Indians, only, go to the locality at one time, and while there they 
live in the cave or recess in the fiioe of the cliff. At one side of 
this there was a litter of cedar boughs, and on the other, a great 
accumulation of ashes, the residue of camp-fires. A more pic- 
turesque abode can hardly be imagined. The entrance fronts 
upon, and overlooks, the ancient excavation, with its crags and 
forest of pines; the broad sloping plain or plateau of Santa F^ 
stretches out to the north, with the lofty peaks of the Eocky 
Mountain chain rising above it On the west and southwest the 
country is open towards the Rio Grande, the monotony of the 
broad plains being relieved by the Sandia or Albuquerque 
mountains. 

On my return from New Mexico I became eurioos to know 
whether any mention of the ancient excavation or of the chal- 
chihuitl was made by the early historians or travellerB in Mex- 
ico. I was much gratified to find that the mineral is mentioned 
by Bernal Diaz, the companion of Cortes, and others. Bemal 
Diaz states that, on the landing of Cortes at San Juan de Ulloa, 
the ambassador from Montezuma brought presents of richly 
worked mantles and trinkets of gold, in addition, /bur ekalchi" 
huitls intended for the Spanish Sovereign. These, the ambassa- 
dors said, were each worth more than a load of gold.* Diaz 
remarks that they were a species of green stone of uncommon 
value, which were held in higher estimation among the Indians 
than the smaragdus [emerald] with the Spaniards. 

Torquemada makes frequent mention of chalchihuiU and re- 
garded it as a species of emerald. He states that the Mexicans 
gave the name Chalchihuitl to Cortes, intending thus to show 
their respect for him as a captain of great valor, " for Chalchi- 
huitl is of the color of the emerald, and emeralds were held in 
great e8teem."f Offerings of this stone were made by the 
Indians in the temple of the goddess Matlalcueye,^ and it was 
their custom to place a fragment in the mouths of the distin* 
guished chiefs who died. Torquemada, in recording this fect^ 
says that these stones were emeralds but that they were called 
chalchihuitls by the Iudians.§ When Alvarado and Montezuma 
played together at games of chance, Alvarado paid, if he lost, 
m chalchihuitl stones, but received gold if he won.J The Indians 

* History of the Conquest of Mexico, bj Bemal Diai, Lockhajri'i traoiktioa, fol 
i, p. 98. 
f Torquemada, Monarchia Indiana, ii, p. 485. 
X Ibid, p. 288. § Ibid, p. 621. | Ibid, i, p. iOt. 



W. p. Blake m the Ckalehihuia of the Mexicans. SSI 

d that the art of cutting and polishing ohalchihnitl was 
ht them by the god Quetzalcohuatl. Sahagan considered 
stone to be a jasper of a very green color, or a common 
tigdas.* He remarks that they are green and opaque, and 
much worn by the chie& strung on a thread around their 
ts, being regarded as a badge of distinction.f 
i the year 1539 Friar Marco de Niga made a journey among 
Indians of New Mexico, and in his narrative frequently 
tions green and bluish stones which were worn as ornaments 
hem, pendant from the ears and nose. He also mentions 
ig many " turquxsee^ which there is little doubt he consid* 

the green stones to be. These turquoises were worn not 

in the ears and nose b^t as necklaces and girdles. They 
^ called Cacona by the Indians and were obtained from the 
;dom of Cevola. On arriving at this place De Nica observes 
'* the people have emeralds and other jewels, although they 
;m none so much as turqueses wherewith they adorn the 
s of the porches of their houses and their apparel and ves- 

and they use them instead of money through all the coun- 
: Coronado, who visited Cevola in 1540, denies De Niga's 
iment respecting the turquoises upon the porches of the 
;es, but he obtained turquois ear-rings and tablets set with 
>tones. 

be emeralds, turquoises, and chalchihuitl of the different 
ors were doubtless one and the same mineral — the chalchi* 
I. There is little reason to suppose that there was more than 

locality ; that which has been described was probably the 
ce of all the specimens. To supnly the great demand for 
1 among all the tribes of New ana Old ^xico, must have 
ired a vast amount of quarrying, fully equal to that at the 
lity. 
ames similar to chalchihuitl, or derived from it, were com- 

among the ancient Mexicans and the word is doubtless of 
jc origin. It is differently written by the early historians. 
}uemada gives Chalchihuitl as the Indian name but fre- 
itly writes it chalchihuite. Lockhart, the translator of the nar* 
'e by Bernal Diaz, writes c/ialchihuitbj but says that the 
es were called chalchuites by Diaz. It is singular that De 
I and Coronado do not mention this name ; it would appear 

it was not in use in the region they visited. The mention 
le fact that the stones were called cojcona by one of the tribes 
ndians renders this more probable. As the stone was recog- 

IiKtnria de la Cnnqnista de Melico. 

dUt de Nueva Efipafta, lib. ii, cap. 8. 

^e EztracU from the Journal of Friar Marco de Ni|^ published in tht Indian 

rt by Lieut A. W. Whipple, Pacific R. E. £xplorationa and Bnnreji^ toL iii, 

1-107. 



282 C. Johnston on Microscopical Preparations. 

nized as identical with turquois by these travellers, it is possible 
that they neglected to give the Mexican name. It is also possi- 
ble that this name originated in Mexico and not among the tribes 
near the locality, although it is now in use there. It is desirable 
that this ancient name should be retained and I suggest that this 
New Mexican variety of turquois may be appropriately known 
among mineralogists as cJialcJiihuitL 



Art. XXn. — On a method of Preparing and Mounting Hard 
Tissues for Hie Microscope ; by Chkistopher Johnston, M.D. 

Having for several years occupied my leisure moments with 
what are usually denominated *^ microscopical studies," I beg 
leave to offer, as the result of successful experience, a simple 
and certain method of preparing and mounting hard tissues^ such 
as bone, teeth, shells, fossilized wood, &c. 

I am aware that treatises upon the microscope give a few in- 
dications for making sections and embalming them in Canada 
balsam ; but they are unsatisfactory either by reason of their 
brevity or their want of precision. Specimens may be procured 
ready-made from the hands of Topping, Bourgogne and others, 
but while they are expensive, persons in remote situations are 
obliged to purchase by catalogue without the opportunity of se- 
lection. Besides, it is oftentimes difficult or else impossible to 
obtain series of particular objects ; so that the student must 
either limit his researches or "prepare" for himself: in the lat- 
ter case he may increase his number of objects indefinitelv, and 
supply himself with many such as are not attainable £rom abroad, 
and divided in any direction he may require. 

A microscopic section should be as thin as the structure of 
the object will allow, of uniform thickness, and polished on both 
sides, whether it be mounted in the dry way or in balsam. To 
meet these requirements I proceed as follows : — 

Being provided with 

1. A coarse and a fine 'Kansas hone, kept dressed flat with 
fine emery ; 

2. A long fine Stub's dentist's file ; 
S. A thin dividing file and fine saw ; 

4. Some Russian isinglass boiled, strained, and mixed with 
alcohol sufficient to form a iolerahly thick jelly when cold ; 

5. A small quantity of Canada baisam ; 

6. Slides ; 7. Cover glass ; 

8. One ounce of chloroform ; 9. One of F.F. aqua ammonia ; 
10. Some fragments of thick plate (mirror) glass 1 inch aquare 
or I by 2 inches ; and finally. 



C. /oAjuton on Microscapieal Pr^pBraiian9, SM 

1. An ounce of '' dentist's silez," and 

2. Thin French letter paper, of which 600 or more leaves are 
iiired to fill np the space of an inch : I examine the objeot 
. decide upon the plane of the proposed section. 

/oarse approximative sections may be obtained with the saw 
lividing file (excepting silioified substances), but these instru- 
its are not applicable to longitudinal sections of small human 
)ther teeth, small bones, &a Take now the object in the 
;ers if sufficientiv large, and grind it upon the coarse hone 
b water, to which add ^^silex" if necessary^ until the sur&oe 
icides with the intended plane. Wash carefully : finish upon 

finer hone ; and polish upon soft linen stretched upon a 
K)th block. 

f the object h^ too small to admit of immediate manipulation 
biould be fastened upon a piece of glass with isinglass — or 
it is better, upon thin paper well glued with the same sub* 
ice upon fflass ; and a piece of thick paper or visiting card, 
forated with a free aperture for the object, must be attachea 
he first paper. This is the guard, down to which the sped- 
1 must be ground with oil : and its thickness and the disposal 
;he object require the exercise of good judgment Hot water 
. release everything; and chloroform remove the ^ease from 
specimen, wnicli, like that ground with water, is ready for 
second part of the process. 

d. Carefully cover the surface of a piece of the plate glass 
1 thin French letter paper ; next apply a paper guard, as be- 
i stated, but not thicker, for teeth ana bone, tnan jj^^h inch ; 
1 trace a few lines with a lead pencil upon the first paper in 
little space left in the guard so that the increasing transpar- 
7 of a specimen being prepared may be appreciated ; and 
lly moisten the "space" with isinglass to the extent of the 
jct, which must be delicately brushed over on the ground 
iace and at the edges with tolerably thin isinglass before it is 
lented in its place. Gentle pressure should now be employed, 

maintained with a wire spring, or thread wound round about. 
Q two or three hours the second side may be ground in oil ; 
X may be employed at first, or even a file ; but these means 
$t not be persevered in, and the operation must be completed 
n the bare hone. When the second side shall have been 
ed with chloroform it may be polished with a bit of silk 
n the finger ; and after spontaneous separation from the paper 
hot water the specimen ought to be well washed on both 
a with a earners hair pencil and soap water, dropped into 
1 water, and thence extracted to dry. After immersion in 
)roform for a moment, and examination for the removal of 
?ibly adherent particles, the section may be declared suitable 
mounting. 

:COSD SEKIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. MARCH, 18M. 



884 C.^JohnHtm on Microscopical PrcparoHons. 

Before proceeding to this step, a few precautions are necessary 
al)out particular sections. Transverse sections of teeth or bone 
should be dried, after the preliminary washing, between glass, in 
order to avoid the disadvantage of warping. Very porous parts, 
such as cancellated bone, or fragile bodies, such as the poison &ng 
of serpents, require that the whole structure, or the canals, be 
saturated with glue and dried. Sections may now be cut with a 
saw, ground in oil, and cemented to the holdmg-glass subsequent 
to immersion in chloroform. 

Mounting. — Spread a sufficient quantity of old Canada balsam, 
or of that thickened by heat (not boiling), upon a slide, and, 
when cold, impose the section. Have ready a spatula bearing a 
quantity of equally inspissated balsam warmed until it flows, 
with which cover the specimen, and then immediately warm the 
slide, being careful to employ the least possible heat Now 
carefully depress the section and withdraw every air bubble 
with a stout needle set in a handle towards the ends of the slide : 
put on the cover glass, slightly warmed, not flat, but allowing 
one edge to touch the balsam first, press out superfluous balsam, 
and the specimen is safe. The slide may now oe cleaned with a 
warm knife, spirits of wine, and ammonia. 

This communication would be incomplete without some very 
important hints concerning ** cover glass." It is easy to clean 
small covers, but very thin glasses or large ones, one or two 
inches in length, are not so safely handled. All danger of 
breaking is, however, avoided by placing a cover upon a large 
clean slide, and wiping one side only with a bit of linen damp 
with aqua ammonia, and then with a dry piece. The other side 
may be cleaned after the mounting. 

In the next place, all preparers are aware of the difficulty at- 
tending the use and application of large covers. I beg leave to 
assure the inexpert that the following method will insure success. 
Having prepared the cover glass and superposed it, let it first be 
gently pressed downwards at many points with the flat end of a 
lead pencil : it will be found, however, almost impossible to flatten 
it without breaking, conseqiiently too much balsam will overlie 
and underlie the section. Let now a piece of thin paper be laid 
over the cover and upon this a thick slide ; if a inoaerate heat 
be applied to both the slides, over and beneath the specimen, 
direct pressure evenly exerted with the fingers (or spring clothes- 
pins) will force out all unnecessary balsam, and leave the seciion 
and the protecting cover perfectly flat and unbroken. 

The reader will not deem me too prolix when he attempts his 
first preparation, or when, after having followed the plans so 
scantily given in the books, he feels the need of something pre- 
cisely definite. It is certain that neither Canada balsam nor 
gum mastic will retain the first ground side of a specimen upon 



CUmoiohgif of ik€ UnUed auue9. SS5 

k slide lon^ enough to enable the preparer to reduce it to the 
equisite thinness, and with both these substances heat must be 
employed, which is objectionable because most objects are 
hereby warped or cracked ; and Airthermore the paper guards 
^hich I hola to be indispensable for limiting and equalizing the 
hinness of a section, is not mentioned in treatises, in which, if 
cnown to the author, such a measure should be noticed. But 
t is possible to fi»ten agate, fossil wood, &c. with hot Rum shel- 
ac, so that thej may he ground upon both sides wiw a water 
(tone ; but even in these instances mvidious cracks may endan- 
^r or destroy the beauty of a choice preparation. 

I am confident that my specimens are second to none in any 
"espect: and the highly ci^itable performances of friends, to 
vhom I have given the method forming the subject of this com- 
nunication, lead me to believe that with the facilities it affords 
he observers of our country will need no Topping for objects 
within their reach, and I beg leave to add that the profitable 
)leasure I have enjoyed induces me, through the American 
Foarnal of Science, to invite participation. 

Baltimore, Not. 16th, 1867. 



^BT. XXIII. — Bhdjeis Climatology of the Untied States and of 
t/ie 're/nperatc Latitudes of the North American Continent.* 

This work relates to a subject of great practical importance 
o the people of the United States, and one which hitherto has 
eceived but partial attention. In 1842 there was published a 
'olume on **tne Climate of the United States and its endemic 
nfliiences, by Samuel Forrv, iM.D." This was an octavo volume 
»f 380 pages, more than two-lhinis of which wore devoted to an 
pplication of the laws of climate to the elucidation of di^iease. 
? i.r i^eneral subject of the diniate of tl>e United States was 
liorofore treated in a very brief manner, and the inaterinLs f<;r 
xtending the investigation much beyond the Mississippi Valley 
/ere very imperfect. 

The work of Mr. Blodgot contains a summary of the statistics 
•f Meteorological Observations, furnishing the mean temperature 
•f each month at 230 sUitions scattered all over the United States, 

♦ Climatology of the United States and of the temprrnte IntituHe* of the North 
Ltnericaii Continent, enibrnring a full compnrHon of thexe with the Cliniatolngy of 
le teiniHTiite UttittKle;* <»f EiinipeMnd Asia, nod i*sp«>ciHUy in rejoird to Agriculture, 
anitary inve^tij^ation** and En;jrineerini(. with I*<uthennal and R^iin Charts for cAch 
?a.<on. the extreme monthj> nnd the year, including a .Summary of the Staiti^tic^ of 
leTfornloj^icai obt*ervations in the Unitcvl St»te<t, oomletii^d from recent twientiiib 
nd official puhlication^. Uy LoaiM Blodgct. 636 pp. large 8vo, with maps. 18$t« 
hiladelpliia, J. B. Lippiocott & Co. ; Loudon, Triibuer <fc Co. 



230 Climatohgy of the United States. 

and at 160 stations for other portions of the northern hemi- 
sphere ; also the average amount of rain for each month at 200 
stations in the United States, and more than 60 stations on the 
Eastern continent. It contains an outline of the Physical Geog- 
raphy of the United States ; it describes the general character of 
the climate of the Eastern United States ; as also that of the in- 
terior and of the Pacific coast ; it institutes a comparison between 
the arid and interior areas of the two continents ; between the 
Eastern United States and the West of Europe^ and also a com- 
parison between the basin of the Gulf of Mexico and that of the 
Mediterrapean sea. It describes the distribution of heat in the 
United States, for each month and for the four seasons, and a 
comprehensiye summary of the results is presented in a series of 
isothermal charts. It aescribes the distribution of rain, jEbr each 
of the four seasons, and also for the entire year, and the results 
are exhibited upon a series of rain charts. It notioes the winds 
and the winter storms, together with the hurricanes of the Uni- 
ted States. It discusses the relations of climate to vegetation, 
particularly to the grand staples of the United States, Indian 
corn, sugar cane, cotton, wheat, etc. It treats briefly of the de- 
pendence of dis^e upon climate ; and discusses the (j^uestion of 
the permanence of climate. It is seldom that we find introduced 
into a single volume such a variety of topics, calculated to inter- 
est the great mass of an intelligent community. The author 
moreover assures us that *'no part of this work is the result of 
hasty or superficial discussion^ and that all the steps of analytical 
investigation and detailed criticism required for such a puroose 
as that of constructing an approximate climatology have been 
taken in advance." We could not ask for stronger assurance 
than this, and we address ourselves to an examination of the 
work in the confident expectation of finding much new light 
shed upon many subjects which have been hitherto but imper- 
fectly understood. 

The distribution of temperature in the United States is shown 
to be extremely irregular, and the isothermal lines pay very little 
respect to parallels of latitude. Throughout the whole country 
east of the Mississippi, these irregularities are less remarkable, 
and the position of the lines of equal temperature is substantially 
the same as has been long since assigned them ; but between the 
Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean lies a territory which until re- 
cently was almost wholly unexplored. The publication of the 
Army Meteorological Register in 1866, furnished materials whidi 
indicated the most prominent features of the climate of this re- 
gion. We will mention briefly a few of the most important ftcts 
brought to light by the publication of the Army Meteorologicil 
Begister and the Climatology of Mr. Blodget. 



Climatology of the United Statei. 



287 

1. In latitude 33°, within 150 miles of the Pacific coast, is a. 
diatrict whose mean temperature during the three months of 
fiumoier is 90°, This is showo by the observations at Fort Yuma. 
Fort Yuma is situated on the west bank of the Great Colorado, 
eighty miles from the Gulf of California in latitude 32° 43', aad 
longitude 114° 36'. The locality ia a rocky bluff, 75 feet above 
the river, and 120 feet above the sea, with sand hills and rocky 
blufis bordering the wide valley, and connecting with an immense 
sand desert on the west. Tbe Ibllowing are the results of three 
years observations. 



"-"-p™-'"' 


M.»<>f 


Maiimnm 


;«<), 


88°65 e8°Tti 
94-1 J 9a- '6 
940S 90 6 J 
91-17 9059 


83°55 
8615 


'.^Jl'."'l""'P'""*- 


,85) Bt-w* 
.B53 ; 69-49 
1854 1 B5-4D 


87°9» 
919a 
90M 


n3 


Heui 1 87- »9 


B„5 





In order to appreciate the importance of this result, we oiiuit 
compare it with observations made in other parts of the world. 
From no other station on the American continent do ice find observa- 
tions indicating a mean temperature for summer so high by more than 
two degrees. Ou the Eastern continent a few instances of higher 
temperature are recorded. Professor Dove has furnished us the 
mean temperature of iieiirly lOOU Btatii>iis seiJttcreil all over the 
globe, and among these the following are the only instances 
which fomuh a mean sammer temperature as high as 90°. 





Uiknd.. 






■=•■ 


rto. dI 


t«|H«d* 


Jgna. 


JBly. 


K«V^ B.pt 


P«»dich«T 

Bagdui. 

Upper EgTpl. . . . 

M««l 


,.°5^. 
33 i> ». 

>6 OH. 

18. 5 H 
3ei9» 


79° 5=. 
44 31 
33 40 
5o 54 
43 10 


95% 

93-r>8 
90 5(1 
&9-78 
87- u, 


93V 
5374 


54' 10 8t35 
91 '06 86-56 
gi-MS 88-5J 
y..ij B.,-98 


531 3 

9J-OJ 
970. 

906c 





















At each of these stations the observations embrace only a 
period of one year, and it is not improbable that the results 
would be somewhat reduced by obaervationB continued for a 
longer period. In conclosioa we find that Fort Yuma is the 
hottest place at present known on tbe Western continent, and 
is exceraed by only a very small portion of the Eastern con- 
tinent 

2. The mean temperature of the coast of California during 
Bommer, ia about twenty degrees colder than at places 100 miles 
in the interior i^n the same parallel This will appear from 
the Ibllowing oompariBOn. 



338 



Climatology of the United States. 





Oo the Goeit. 


Somm«r 
tanp. 




InUrier. 


8amin*i 
tamp. 


Diffar- 

aa-6 
1 5-7 

369 
i8-8 


Lat 


Loof. 


Lat 


LoDf. 


Fort Humboldt. . . 
SanFranciico.... 

Monterey 

San Diego 


4o4^ 
37 48 
36 36 
3a 4a 


O 1 

ia4 9 
laa a6 
lai 5a 
11714 



57-4 
57-3 
58-6 
7i-a 


Fort Reading 
Sacramento . 
Fort Miller. . 
Fort Yuma. . 


4o3o 
38 34 
37 
3a 43 


laa 5 
lai 4o 
11940 
11436 


« 
80-0 

73*0 

85-5 

90^ 



3. Through about 20 degrees of latitude, the mean summer 
temperature of the Pacific coast is nearly constant, and indeed 
increases slightly in going from California to Oregon. This will 
appear from the following observations. 





Latitttd*. 


L.tnfltvda. 


Main 
Samniar 
temp're. 


Yean. 


Monterey 

San Franciaco . . . 
Fort Humboldt, . . 
Fort Orford ..... 
Aatoria 


36*^36' 
37 48 
4o 46 
4a 44 
46 II 
57 3 


rai 5a 
laa a6 
ia4 9 
ia4 a9 
173 48 
i35 18 


58^6 
57-3 
5t4 

54a 


5 
4 

li 

a 

I 

7 


Sitka 





4. The mean temperature of the California coast is nearly con- 
stant for six months of the year — from May to October, — and at 
some places the warmest month of the year is either May, Sep- 
tember or October. This will appear from the following ob- 
servations. 





May 


Jttia. 


July 


Aug. Sept. 


OcL 


Yaara. 


Monierey 

San Fr mciico . . . 
FortHuinbiildt... 



568 

55-3 

55-3 




57-8 
568 
58 6 


58'-5 
579 
567 



596 593 

57 a 58-3 

57 57 


58% 
579 
53 


5 
4 



At Monterey in 1847, and also in 1850, September was the 
warmest month of the year; and in 1849 May was the warmest 
month. At San Francisco in 1853 and also in 1854, October 
was the warmest month of the year. 

These remarkable anomalies respecting the temperature of the 
Pacific coast are at least in part explainea by the prevalent west- 
erly winds combined with the temperature of the neighboring 
ocean. The mean temperature of the ocean on the California 
coast in latitude 40^ during summer is 56°'5; which it will be 
observed is a little below the temperature of the coast stations 
given above. 

The distribution of rain on the Pacific coast presents anomalies 
quite as remarkable as the distribution of temperature, ^t some 
places not a drop of rain falls for three months or more in sac- 
cession, and the total full for the year does not exceed from 3 to 7 
inches; while other places are literally deluged with rain. This 
will appear from the following table, showing the fall of rain at 
sixteen stations near the PaciHc coast. 



Ctimatotogy of the United Statea. 





Ul 


Uhii. |Alf>|Hii 


lu. 


J.lT 


A»^B^ 


Ort-Bpr-i. 


Wi 


ABl-».|Win'. 


Vuj E 


roHYun.... 


3M3 


II436, iWo-oo 
..7W.ooJi-.4 


POO 


o-ib 


,..3U 


I.-I3 0-J7 


i'3o 


3r= 


3-15 a 


S«n Difgo . . . 


3M3 


0'i5 




0-39O-..3 


f05 a-74 




lo-rfS 5 


S.r,Ui»IUy. 


33 il 












3-48! 3?6 


69b . 


belChino-.- 


34 o 






009000 


acK,[ 4-59 




I 07 7-4> 


13-77 -^ 


FonTtioa..- 


35 3 


..848j447y6' 






o-oS 1-00 


u'o5; 5'97; o-oo 


i-6il .... 




HunlJy.... 


36 36 


uiSi 1400-53 


oi3 


008 




a 33; 4-43, o-Ji 


1-65, 5-91 




Fon Miltor... 


37 n 


C.940 4oj'i-3e 






^^^5 


«-.6| 9-57 o-o> 
fl63! 6-8i o-o3 


\in 


«-lS .1 


S>nFranci«» 


37 48 


iMrf! .5o<^4tf 






^0,0 .rj 


"-84 i 


Senina 


38 3 


iiiW So 0-01 
no iffl iSo 0-86 






nteooi 


0-69' 6-4o 0-01 


3-65; 7 56 


I&6} ; 


:$uniBenlo - . 


3833 




0-00 


0-00 0-™ 


o-aS; 7-oil o-oo 


66i|i3-ii 


j5 73 1 


CimpF.rW«i 


3? 7 






>,.ooa36 


006; 10 661 Q-oo 


3tS:2? 


19 S5 , 


Fmo Hunilx.1.11 


4o4fi 


114 9 So i-dS 


l-i5 


0-00 


D-ooo-65 


r.,.3-5t 1-18 


34 5f J 


B«lOrii,r<|... 


4>*i 


i»4>g! 5o5»4 
1)3 48. 5o 5-95 
151 ,i 3oo ifc6 


106 


0-16 


.■783-34r3r lyia 3-«. 
i-i5i-8767o'i6-43! 4-00 


;r?KS-S 


71 63 i 


AiLirio 


46 II 


i-ei 


<^oo 


i;6-3'j 1 






o34 


1 5,fifi-i4a3n-.9 3-85 


5B3 35-6I 


53 4s f 


8«ks )^- jlnSTS j„ '^5(;l3^9 


i 1' 


-Hm.-7'S-1 iB-3;,V-'> 


jji- 11 53.77 


''9 9'J : 



Thus it is seen that for a period of two years no rain feli at Del 
Cbino during the moDths of Jane, Jul^, September and October, 
and only y{j inch in August; that is, only yf, inch for £ve 
months. At San Luis Rey no rain fell durinR the months of 
July, August and Septeraber. During May and June the obser- 
vations are BUppoaed to have been suspended. At Sacramento 
no rain fell during July, August and September. Only yj j inch 
fell in May, and during June the observations appear to have 
been suspended. At Fort Tejon and Camp Far West no rain 
fell during the months of June, July and August. At eleven of 
the preceding stations, we find the aggregate fall of rain for five 
months of the vear was less than one inch, viz. atDelChinoO-09; 
San Luis Rey 0-21 ; S.icramento 0-21 ; Fort Miller 0-23; Camp 
Far'WestO-42; Monterey 0-55; San Francisco 0-58; BeQicia0'61; 
San Diego 0'63 ; Fort Tejon 0-68 j Fort Yuma 0*87. 

The large amount of rain at Sitka, Astoria, and Fort Orford 
is nearly as remarkable as the absence of rain at places farther 
south. On the Atlantic coast in latitude 45°, the average annual 
fall of r.iin is about 36 inches. 

All the facts with reference to the distribution of temperature 
and rain are palpably exhibited to the eye in a series of charts, 
for which Mr. Blodget deserves great credit. We cannot bow- 
ever avoid the impression that some of the anomalies which are 
indicated upon these charts will disappear when we obtain the 
mean of oraervations for a longer period of years. 

It would afford us sincere pleasure if we could dismiss this 
volume with no other language than that of commendation ; but 
a somewhat careful examination has convinced us that the exe- 
cutioD of the work is not equal to its pretensions. We have 
marked a pretty long list of faults more or less serious, and 
some of these we propose briefly to mention. It may seem a 
superfluous act of fault-finding to criticise the literary merits of 



240 Climatology of the United States. 

a work devoted wholly to science, but we cannot avoid express- 
ing our regrets that the literajpy character of this work should 
be such as seriously to impair the pleasure of a perusal. The 
style of composition is often harsh and even slovenly ; many 
words are used in an improper sense : and it is frequently no 
easy matter to discover the author's meaning. We will illustrate 
these remarks by a few examples. 

On page 89 Mr. Blodget speaks of "the Rocky Mountain 
plateau throwing out some exceptionaftfe districts." We suppose 
ne means exceptional districts. On page 487 he speaks of '* the 
rating of instruments," that is, thermometers. We have often 
heard of rating chronometers and verifying thermometers, but never 
before heard of rating thermometers. On page 92 he says " the 

f;reat plains of the Columbia River form a cUmntologicat basin,^^ 
t has puzzled us not a little to ascertain what is a climatological 
basin. We can only guess that it must be a basin having a cli- 
mate; but this does not remove the difficulty, for we are no less 
perplexed to determine what is a basin not having a climate. On 
page 845 he says, " As a pendant to the general notices of the 
quantity of water falling in the winter months, some distinctions 
snould be made," etc. Here again we were forced to consult 
Webster and found eight significations of the word "pendant;" 
but after a strenuous effort to determine in what sense Mr. 
Blodget designed the word to be understood, we abandoned the 
attempt as fi:Tiitless. On page 848, he says, "the contact of 
atmospheric volumes with those altitudes induces precipitation," 
etc. We are not sure that we fully understand the force of 
the words we have here italicised, and we cannot avoid think- 
ing that the phraseology is susceptible of improvement. Mr. 
Blodget makes very frequent use of the word * symmetrical' as 
applied to the distribution of rain and heat. Often the word 
occurs several times on a single page, and freauently in such a 
connection as fails to convey to our mind any aefinite idea. In 
some instances we fancied the word was used in the sense of 
uniform, but we have searched our dictionaries in vain for any 
authority for such a use. As examples of the kind alluded to, 
we will refer to pages 846 and 847. Mr. Blodget frequently uses 
the word * tone,' in a very peculiar manner. Thus on page 481 
he says, " The demonstration of the constancy of the sun's heat 
cannot be undertaken here, and though it has not yet been made 
in any direct manner, the possibility of such demonstration will 
be admitted by all who would follow that tone of proof J*^ If we 
could form any distinct idea of what *that tone of proof means, 
we might assent to the possibility of the demonstration referred 
to, but the meaning of the phrase could not be more effectually 
concealed if it were written m Chinese. 



CUmatohgy iff the UnUed Sialn. S41 

We win pass over a rariety of passages in which there is 
apparently some typographical error, as on pace 808 where the 
ward '' Obeenratories' should evidently read ' Observations ;' but 
there is a large number of passages of which we are unable to 
divine the meaning, and where if there is any typographical 
error, it is not obvious what the eiror is. 

On pa^ 20 we read of ''a record of meteorological observa* 
tions mamly for the interest its startling phenomena gave, is a 
sort of interest it will never &il to have, and in which though 
having a philosophical air, there can be no progress as positive 
seienee.^^ On page 162, we read that **the localization of all the 
features of the climate is, fh>m this point of comparison, the 
leading point of difference after that of the contrast in humidity." 
On pa^ 856 we are told that "in a fluid mass which is aeriform 
the agitations are extreme in comparison with its other condi- 
tions. On page 876 we are told that " the difference between 
the distances originating in the tropics as hurricanes, and the 
general rains 'originating inland, is merely one of d^ree." On 
page 619 we are told that '' the winter and summer would mark 
these extremes of accumulation of heat first, and refrigeration 
next, were not each retarded by the operation of laws inherent 
to the fluid or condition we designate as heatV We would respect- 
fully suggest to the author that in case a second edition or the 
climatology should be called for, it would be desirable to add a 
few notes explanatory of the above passages. 

Besides the class of passages already cited in which the mean- 
ing of the author is obscure, there is another class in which the 
meaning is apparently obvious, but which bear marks of having 
been written without due consideration. Thus on page 502 he 
says "the winter period is always less than that of summer;" 
but if we refer to tne table on page 600 we shall see that out of 
61 stations there mentioned, at 22 the winter is stated to be 
longer than the summer. On page 622, he says, "there must 
necessarily be much discrepancy in the modes of determining 
these points,'^ viz : the days of maximum and minimum tem- 
perature. We suspect that the discrepancies referred to do not 
arise from differences in the modes of determination, but rather 
irom the &ct that some of the results are derived from short 
periods and others from lonser periods of observation. On page 
257 he speaks of " the isothermal lines as being more definite 
than a numerical quantity," that is, more definite than degrees 
of the thermometer. We have always been accustomed to con- 
sider the temperature of melting ice to be quite definite, and are 
surprised to hear that isothermal lines are more definite. On 
page 292 he says "there are no sufficient data for comparison 
with similar latitudes in Europe," referring to the first appear* 
ance of frost in autumn. We presume Mr. Blodget did not 

8KC0ND SSRIS8, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, lt6«. 

31 



1M3 Climatology of the United 8iaU9. 

intend to question tho existence of such materialSi but simply to 
state that they are inaccessible to him. 

On page 166 he states that '* the difference between the wet 
bulb thermometer and the temperature of the air sometimes 
reaches 30^.'' We have searched the book with considerable 
care in the hope of finding some particulars of these observa- 
tions, but in vain. We do not intend to express any doubt of 
the accuracy of the above statement, but we think that a decree 
of dryness so remarkable is worthv of a more extended notice. 
On page 396 he says that **at Goldsborough, N. C, snow fell for 
an nour or nwre on the evening of Sunday, Aug. Slst, 1866." 
Among the many remarkable facts stated in the Climatology, 
this is one of the most remarkable, and we think Mr. Blodget 
should have been more careful to give his authority for vae 
statement On page 482 he says, '* It is certain that no changes 
of subsidence, elevation, or continental outlines are now in pro* 
^ress." We cannot help regarding this conclusion as the most 
unportant addition which has been made in modem times to 
the science of geology. Perhaps some would question iU 

On page 481, he says, '^Laplace has shown that the mean tem« 
perature of the mass of the earth cannot have changed in any 
appreciable measure within the entire period embraced hf aslronom* 
ical calcuUUion, and thai none can occur, while the planetary 
movements remain what they now are." And on page 484 he 
adds, ** Laplace has shown that the heat of the earth cannot have 
changed for the vast period over which astronomical calculation can 
reachJ^ In order to comprehend the full force of this statement 
we must know how vast are the periods over which astronomical 
calculation can reach. The period of time to which astronomical 
calculations can reach is not limited to ten thousand years, nor 
a hundred thousand or a million of years ; we can assign it no 
limit. If we enquire for the periods over which astronomical 
calculations hat^e actually extended, we shall find them suffi* 
ciently long. Leverrier has computed that the eccentricity of 
the earth^s orbit will continue to diminish during the period of 
23,980 years. See Connaissance des Temps, 1843. Laplace found 
that the eccentricity of Jupiter's orbit has a variation whose 
period is 35,000 years. Lagrange found that the secular inequal* 
ities in the mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn extended to the 
period of 70,414 years. The secular inequality in the moon^ 
mean motion has a much longer period than this. See Grant's 
History of Physical Astronomy, page 63. 

Now Laplace has shown that the mean heat of the earth ctn* 
not have changed sensibly in 2,000 years, and that is alL He has 
not shown that it may not have changed sensibly in 10,000 yean^ 
and geological phenomena unequivocally prove that the tempe^ 
ature has changed sensibly within a period which is not long whm 



tompa nitffSh ftg entire duraium tfiJie earA. Mr. Blodgef^ rtsle^ 
ment is here most serioosly in error. 

On page 856, it is staftra that Professor Dove has expressed 
Us dinent from the generally received theory of the trade 
winds, which theory requires a belt of prevalent westerly winds 
in the middle latitodes of the temperate sones. This statement 
has excited onr nnqaalified surprise. In a volume published by 
ProfesBor Dove in 1887 entitled '' Meteorologische Unterraoh- 
nnmn'' he has given a very foil account of the trade winds 
and of the prevalent westerly winds of the temperate zones, and 
endorses in unequivocal terms the common theory on that sub* 
ject which was first distinctly stated by Hadley. In his preBsee 
to that volume page v, Prof. Dove save, ''In the year 1780, Hed* 
ley established a theory of the traae winds founded upon the 
rotation of the earth and the unequal temperature of the differ* 
ent latitudes, whkh even in the details ef ihe phenomena hoe diown 
Oe^ io be ihe true thearyj^ (Welche sich selbst im Detail der 
Brscheinunffen als die ridhtwe bewlihrt hat) Those who are 
fiuniliar wiw the writings of Professor Dove do not need to be 
informed that the same general views of the trade winds are ex- 
pressed in aU his memoirs upon this subject since 1887. The 
passage which Mr. Blodget quotes from one of Dove's memoirs 
was never designed to convey the idea which Mr. Blodget has 
imputed to it Professor Dove merely insists that there may be 
local exceptions to the general law of prevalent westerly winds 
in the temperate latitudes, as there are local exceptions to the 

Sineral law of the trade winds in the torrid zone. We assure 
r. Blodget that be has misrepresented the views of Professor 
Dove quite as seriously as he has the labors of Laplace. 

We come now to notice a class of faults whicn affect more 
seriously the scientific character of the work. Mr. Blodget has 
treated somewhat briefly of tornadoes; of the winds; of the 
cause of rain, and of seasons of unusual cold ; as well as of the 
laws of -our winter stonns. 

On page 400, he mentions several cases of heavy weights 
being lifted up by the force of hurricanes in the West Indies. 
In one instance "a piece of l^ad 4000 pounds in weight was 
lifted and carried 1800 feet," and he adds, '* other agencies than 
simply the force of wind must account for these extraordinary 
cases of lifting weights, and the convective electric dvscharye is an 
obuioi/8 and adequate solution of the facts." If Mr. Blodget had 
closed this sentence with the word perhaps^ it would have seemed 
more appropriate than in some cases where so iniroduced. See 
pages 144, 808, etc. As he has not given the reason for his 
opinion we shall not enter into any argument on the subject, but 
content ourselves with recording our firm conviction that elec- 
tricity in any form does not afford an adequate solution of the facts. 



244 CUnuUology of the Untied States. 

On page 402, he aajs that "tornadoes are often evolnte, throfw- 
ing trees outtvardly from the centre, instead of inward." We 
wul not deny that the centre of a tornado often vibrates to and 
fro across the line of process, dying sometimes the appearance 
of trees throvm outward m>m the centre ; but that the K>rce of a 
tornado is ever reaUy exerted in a direction Jrom the centre^ we 
do not belieye, and we challenge Mr. Blodget to the proo£ On 
page 403 he says, " the permanence of a forest trace of a tornado 
could be relied upon for at least five hundred yeareP Mr. Blodget 
may haye eyidence on this subject of which we are ignorant, but 
we confess we are very skepticieJ. 

On page 355 Mr. Blodget expresses great contempt for the 
winds, and says "they deserve much less attention than )ias here- 
tofore been given them in observation, and in ^neral deductions 
they might even be omitted entirely." We thmk his indifferent 
success in studying the laws of storms, to which we shall pres- 
entiy refer, may be ascribed in some degree to his low estimate 
of the agency of winds. We find it difficult to recondle the 
views wmch he has expressed on the subject of winds on differ- 
ent pages of his book. On page 382 nesays "None of the 
winds [of the United States] from other than westerly points are 
winds of propulsion, or propagated from their apparent point of 
origin — they are all, including a portion from the west, winds of 
aspiration" Now as throughout nearly the whole of the United 
States, the prevalent winds are from the west, we should infer 
from the preceding statement that Mr. Blodget intended to pro- 
nounce at least one half of all our winds to be winds of propul- 
sion. But on page 372 he says, " there is UtUe evidence of the 
existence of any winds of propuUvon ;" and on page 361 be says 
" no such winds [as winds of propulsion] are now recognized any- 
where indeed." It would be interesting to know how these 
different statements are to be reconciled. 

Mr. Blodget^s views of the origin of rain are quite original. 
These views are not given in a very complete and systematic 
form, yet some general idea of them may be derived from the 
following extracts. On page 368 he says, '^ the higher strata of 
clouds come uniformly from some westerly point The lower 
clouds are from various points, two strata oi aifterent movement 
often lying beneath that from the west, yet the stratum from a 
westerly point usuuUy deposits the rain," On page 359 he says, 
'' the rains of the eastern United States fall mainly from the 
upper or westerly cloud, in all cases.'' On page 360, he says, 
'* the water must necessarily fall from the upper cloud. It is 
impossible that such a storm should receive its principal supply 
of water &om any other source than the mass of air moving m>m 
the west The prevalent westerly winds must therefore be 
largely charged with vapor, and must exhibit a nearly conatant 



predpitelion either *as oloiids or rain." On page 867 lie flays 
'^the M^ nin-bearing douds are borne on a westerly current 
for all seaaQna." It seems clear firom these extracts that Mr* 
Blodgot means to convey the idea that the moisture which is 
precipitated in the form of rain comes almost ezclnsiyely fiom 
that nigh stratnm of air which throughout New York and New 
Engla^ moves almost invariably from the west The cause a( 
this precipitation is hinted at on pa^ 891 and 2, where he savs 
''this class of storms [winter storms] originate in changes of the 
measures of heat ana moisture introduce fix)m exterior sources. 
The presence cf a rarefied and humid mass, from which ram 
will JaU pr^fiud^ by the natural Joes rf temperature which must 
ensue after a bnef presence in the temperate latitudes, will in- 
duce condensation mrst^ winds from adjacent areas next" 

Let us give this theory of ndn a moment's attention. This 
upper stratum of air whose westerly direction is not interrupted 
by the easterly winds which prevail at the earth's surfiace durinff 
a violent winter storm^ is the upper half of the atmosphere, ana 
its lower limit may be estimated at not less than three miles in 
elevation. The mean temperature of the surfieu^ of the earth in 
the month of January on tne parallel of 40^ is about 82^. The 
decrease of temperature as we ascend is about one degree of 
Fahrenheit for 800 feet; or 58 degrees for an elevation of three 
miles, making the mean temperature of January in lat 40^ at 
the height of three miles — 21 . In order however that we may 
not be suspected of exaggeration, we will assume the temperature 
to be that of zero. Now at zero of Fahrenheit, the elastic force 
of vapor of water is equal to yf t ii^ch of mercury, or less than 
one inch of water; that is, if air at the temperature of zero were 
saturated with vapor, and every particle of the vapor mere precipi- 
tcUedj it would cover the earth with less than one inch of water. 
Now it not unfrequently happens in one of our winter storms, 
that over a circle of 600 miles in diameter, the average fall of 
rain exceeds one inch. It is very evident then that the upper 
stratum does not furnish the rain which fiedls in our great storms, 
for the simple reason that more water &lls than was ever con- 
tained in that stratum ; and moreover it is highly probable that 
this upper stratum contains well nigh as macn moisture at the 
conclusion of a great storm, as it did at the commencement 

Mr. Blodget's views of the cause of seasons of extraordinarv 
cold are also peculiar, but his conclusions are not stated with 
very great clearness. On page 807 he says, " the ori^n of these 
non-periodic oscillations is exterior to the continent^ and they have 
no progressive movement In no case is it apparent that these 
cola extremes come fix>m the north, or are caused bv north 
winds, or an inflection of the polar atmosphere southward." Mr. 
Blodget is confident that the origin of seasons of unusual cold 



846 Ctimaiology •f ike UnUsd SMn. 

(as for example the winter of 1866,) is exterior to tlie contiiient 
<^that is, it 0009 rwi come firom the continent ; but we cumot find 
that he has any where intimated from what point it doee came. 
As Mr. Blodget appears to entertain some respect for ProfesMr 
Dove, we will extract a single sentence fixnn Dove's 'Essay on 
the Distribution of Heat over the snrfiEUse of the Globe,' rage 18. 
''The different degree of severity in the winters of diffierent 
years, depends so evidently in our latitudes on the prevailing 
direction of the wind in each case, that there can he no aoubt as to 
the more immediate or proximate cause of this diversity." 

Mr. Blodget regards the subject of winter storms as worthy of 
very little attention. On page vii. he says, " the surftoe dynam* 
ics are of very little importance." On page 894 he assigns a 
reason which if substantiated would entirely warrant the above 
oonclusion. He says, " Forcible as the evidences of dynamic 
agency appear in this class of storms it is believed that tiuy are 
not subject to such laws.^^ And again on page 891, "This class of 
storms originate in changes of the measures of heat and motstora 
introduced from exterioT sowrcesy and these changes are absolutely 
non-periodic and cannot heforeiiM. The ceaseless oscillations in 
the measure of heat and of aqueous vapor in the air of temper* 
ate latitudes from exterior causes, must render the computation 
of the elements of a perturbation so induced, utterly beyond etd^ 
cuiation; since the primary and indispensable elements of the 
change are beyond the possibility of being ibtoum." This is a 
gloomy picture of the prospects of meteorology. 

He however mentions some conclusions which we regard as 
of great importance with reference to the phenomena of storma 
On page 195 he says, '' On the Pacific coast^ rain always begins 
earlier at the northernmost stations than at the next southward; 
and on page 381, he says, " the general winter storms of the 
United States come from a point north of west at the Mississippi 
river." If Mr. Blodget means by these statements that in our 
ordinary winter storms on the Pacific coast and near the Missis- 
sippi river on the parallel of 40 degrees, the point of greatest 
barometric depression travels from northwest to southeast, we 
confess that this is something new to us, and invite him to name 
a case and produce his testimony. 

On page 887 Mr. Blodget states that about the 1st of Januaiy, 
1855, storms were experienced well nigh simultaneously on the 
PaciHc coast, throughout the Mississippi Valley, along" the At- 
lantic coast, in England, on the Baltic Sea, and even to the East 
Indies and the Sandwich Islands; and seems to intimate thou^ 
in a somewhat guarded manner, that all these constituted m 
effect but one great storm. If Mr. Blodget can identify a single 
storm, tracing its progress clearly from day to day over half ue 
distance here named, he will accomplish what no one hat hitb* 
erto succeeded in doing. 



ft 

On page 18S Mr. Blodget saya, *' The great winter atonxui are 
qpecaai proofii of the miiionmty of the fidfd over which the maaa 
«c our atmoaphere, and the elementa of heat, moisture, and per- 
haps mametiam which move it, pass through their succession of 
changea. ' If Mr. Blodget can show any necessary connexion 
between our winter atorma and the phenomena of terrestrial 
magnetianii he will make a positive addition to the science of 
Meteorology, and will have done something to show that storms 
are subject to laioa. 

On page 880 he says, " In the colder months the change of 
condition, both as remrds temperature and the quantity of 
aqueous vapor suspended, affects the whole mass in greater 
degree than when tne rain is deposited in showers. !M>r this 
reason the range of the barometer is greater, and this range is a 
very direct measure of the relivtive condition, so that the readingB 
may be taken as simple rwresentalivts of the quantttyof heat and 
motsluro present eomparea toith the averageJ'^ Mr. Blodget here 
seems to advance the doctrine that the oscillations of the barom- 
eter which are so common in winter are adequately explained by 
the changes in the temperature of the air and in the amount cf 
aqueous vapor. If this is Mr. Blodget's view, we differ from him 
totally. Changes in the temperature of tne air and in the 
amount of aqueous vapor, would doubtless cause changes in the 
height of the barometer; but these causes are inadequate to 
explain the actually observed oscillations of the barometer. In 
some parts of Ei^land the observed range of the barometer is 
8^ indies, indicating a variation of pressure to the amount of 
over one ninih part of the whole quantity. During tropical hur- 
ricanes the barometer has been observed to fall about two inches 
in three or/mr hours. It is easy to show by numerical computa- 
tion that no admissible supposition respecting variations of tem- 
perature or moisture will account for such extreme oscillations 
of the barometer. Moreover it is not uncommon in Europe for 
a fidl of die barometer to be accompanied by a fall of the ther- 
mometer; so that the barometer may even &11 in spite of an in- 
creased specific gravity of the air. 

In conclusion, we will sum up our iudgment of the Climatol- 
ogy in a single sentence. The field which Mr. Blodget has 
occupied is a new one, and portions of it have hitherto been 
wholly unexplored — Mr. Blodget has enjoyed unusual advanta- 
ges for this research from bis connection with the Smithsonian 
Institution, and the Surgeon General's office at Washington ; and 
we regard his isothermal and rain charts as constituting an im- 
portant addition to the science of Meteorology : but his book is 
loose in style and often obscure ; it contains many careless and 
sometimes erroneous statements: and the views which it em- 
bodies respecting the causes of the most common meteorolo^cal 
phenomena are radically erroneous. 2L 



348 On a new base containing Ofurfinii, etc. 



Abt. XXIV. — Preliminary notice of a new base containing Oemi' 
um and the elements of Ammonia; by WoLCOrr GiBBS and F. 
A. Genth. 

An investigation of the ammonia-cobalt bases, the results of 
which have appeared in this Journal, has led ns to direct cor at- 
tention to the production of similar compounds with other metala 
We have in particular studied the action of the mixed ozyds of 
nitrogen, NOs, NOs, and NO4, upon ammoniacal solutions, and 
have obtained results which will form the subject of a future 
communication. In the course of an extended study of the pla- 
tinum metals, for which we have enjoyed peculiar &cilities, we 
have remarked that osmium forms with ammonia a well charac- 
terized base, all the salts of which appear to be highly ciys- 
tallina 

The chlorid of this base is a yellow crystalline salt fin(t ob* 
tained by Fremy in 1844, and described in his memoir* on the 
metallic acids, under the name of osmiamid. To this body Fre- 
my attributes the formula NHiCl+OaOs.NHs, aooordm^ to 
wnich it is to be viewed as a compound of chlorid of ammomum 
with an amid of osmious acid. 

We have however found that the substance in question is a 
true chlorid which yields a beautiful salt with bichlorid of pla- 
tinum, and which by double decomposition with salts of silver 
enables us to form a well defined sulphate, nitrate, oxalate, &c. 
The best method of forming these salts however is precisely that 
which Fremy employed for the chlorid, and consists in adding a 
solution of osmite oi potash to a cold solution of an ammomsMsal 
salt, when the new salt, is immediately formed and crystallizefl 
from the solution. 

The salts of the new base have a very beautiful orange yellow 
color. They are nearly insoluble in cold water ; hot water dis- 
solves them more readily, but the solutions are easily decomposed 
with evolution of osmic acid. We are not as yet prepared to 
pronounce with certainty upon the constitution of these salts, 
the analyses being difficult and tedious. We may however re- 
mark that Fremy's analysis of the chlorid appears to be correct, 
and that we attribute to it the rational formula 

2NHrb80s, CI, 

according to which the base will be uniacid. The results of our 
complete investigation will form the subject of another commu- 
nication. Iridium and Rhodium form with ammonia and den* 
toxyd of nitrogen bases analogous to Xanthocobalt^ with the 
study of which we are also occupied. 

• AimalMdeChlmieetdeFhytiqM, ldieri68»ToLzii,pwML 



Review of ike Besults of th€ U. 8. Coast Survey. M8 



Abt. XXV. — JSeview of the Operations and Besults of the United 

States Coast Survey. 

[Concluded from p. 83.] 

The publication of maps and charts constitutes, as may be 
snpposeo, one of the main objects of the survey. Upon the 
preparation of these an immense amount of labor is bestowed, 
the value of the work consisting chiefly in the accuracy of the 
details. In fact the whole subject may be fairly consiaered as 
constituting a special branch of science, with a system of signs 
and a mode of expression peculiar to itself The most advan- 
tageous methods of presenting to the eye an easily intelligible 
view of the topography and hydrography of the coast have of 
course occupied a very large share oi attention. The general 
treatment of the subject, the arbitrary signs and other details 
being once settled, and the triangulation and plane-table work 
being finished, the maps are drawn and the work of the engraver 
begins. In order to render the results of the survey useful and 
accessible as soon as possible, and at the same time to exhibit 
the progress of the work, three classes of charts are engraved. 
These are termed sketches, preliminary charts, and finished 
charts. The sketches are of two kinds ; progress sketches show- 
ing from year to year the advance of the work, and sketches of 
parts of the coast whether connected or detached. These are 
generally engraved by apprentices in the office of the survey 
and serve as subjects for practice. They are added to, year by 

fear, and lithographic transfers published in the annual reports. 
n this manner it rarely happens that a year elapses between a 
survey and its publication in some useful shape. The prelim- 
inary charts serve nearly the same purpose as the sketches, but 
are larger and more finished. 

The finished charts are divided into three classes. The first 
are called inshore or coast charts, and are drawn to a scale of 
Tir,FoT* They embrace the shore line, the interior as far as the 
nearest main road, and the hydrography for about fourteen miles 
from the shore. The secona class embraces what are termed oflF- 
shore or general coast charts, drawn to a scale of ^oirlir^Tr? giving 
the shore line and the general topography of the coast, so that it 
may be recognized bv the navigator, but omitting minute details 
ana giving the souniings to the depth of at least 120 fathoms. 
The third class is composed of minutely detailed charts of har- 
bors, anchorage, &c., exhibiting the sounding, tides and currents, 
the outline of the shore, the topography of the adjacent country, 
in' short, presenting the complete results of the survey. These 
charts are drawn on scales varying from j^Vt ^ Tr,inrir« 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, 1868. 

32 



S50 Review of the Results of the U. 8. Coast Survey. 

The finished charts require the work of first class engravers. 
These are so difficult to procure that in spite of the urgent neces- 
sity of the case and the unceasing eflforts of the superintendent, 
there were but four first class engravers in the office at the be- 
ginning of the year 1856. Even these were only obtained by a 
special agent sent to Europe for the express purpose. With a 
wise liberality the charts are sold at the lowest possible rates, 
while the gratuitous distribution of the annual sports of the 
Coast Survey gives a still wider circulation to its graphical 
results. 

As the greater number of maps and charts are engraved upon 
copper, and as the softness of tnis metal renders it impossible to 
obtain more than a limited number of impi'essions fix>m a single 
plate, a method of reproducing the plates themselves becomes 
mdispensable. Such a method is found in the electrotype pro- 
cess, which is now applied in the office of the survey upon a 
very large scale, and which has there received a development 
and a perfection which leaves little to be desired. We believe 
that we hazard little in asserting that as regards the thickness 
and quality of the metal precipitated, the size of the plates, the 
prevention of adhesion between the original plate and that de- 
posited, and the absolute command of the whole process, the 
electrotype operations of the Coast Survey are unequalled in any 
country. 

It has very recently been found possible to print from thin 
electrotypes merely folded over the edges of a stout plate of 
metal which serves as a support or back. In this manner plates 
of the first quality can be furnished .for about one-third of the 
cost of those deposited of the usual thickness. Processes are 
also employed by which small plates can be pieced out in any 
direction and to any desirable size, no line of junction being 
visible between the original and the addition. 

The particular apparatus and arrangements employed in the 
electrotype department have nearly ail ori^ated m the depart- 
ment itself, and have been fully described m the annual reports 
of the survey and in this Journal. It cannot be doubted that 
they have exerted a positive influence upon the progress of this 
branch of art. 

It was just that an elaborate and complete survey of the phe- 
nomena of the Gulf Stream should be executed by a descenoant 
of Franklin, and it may well be conceived that the peculiarities 
of that magnificent current, alike interesting from tne practical 
and the scientiflc point of view, have engaged a special share of 
attention. In accordance with the direction of Congress that t 
map exhibiting the state of our knowledge of the Gulf Stream 
should accompany the report of 1863, the work of investigatioii 
was pushed forward during that year and results of great inte^ 



Review of the ResuUs of the U. 8. Coast Survey. 25} 

est obtained, and illustrated in two charts appended to the re- 
port. These results show that the Gulf Stream is not, as gen- 
erally supposed, a single broad current of warm water flowing 
in a northeasterly direction, but that it is in reality an aggre- 
^te of separate currents alternately cold and warm, and exhib- 
iting a certain degree of parallelism. The method of exam- 
ination employed was the very obvious and natural one of 
running numerous sections across the Stream and observing 
the depth of the water and the temperature at different depths. 
The number of positions observed m each section was made to 
depend upon the more or less rapid changes of temperature, and 
the temperatures were observed at the surface and at depths of 
five, ten, twenty, thirty, fifty, seventy, one hundred, one hundred 
and fifty, two hundred, three, four, five and six hundred fath- 
oms, so as. to reach into the cold polar currents lying beneath. 
In this manner ten sections were surveyed, the temperatures 
being determined for moderate depths with Six's self-registering 
thermometers, and for greater depths with Saxton's metallic ther- 
mometers. If we employ the term Gulf Stream in its broadest 
sense and understand by it the aggregate of all the warm cur- 
rents flowing from the Gulf of Mexico into the north Atlantic, 
a glance at tne Coast Survey map shows us at once the existence 
of at least four distinct warm currents separated from each other 
by cold bands, a fourth cold band separating the first or inner 
warm band from the shore. Each warm band is narrowest and 
warmest in its most southerly section — that of Cape Canaveral — 
and becomes broader and cooler in its progress northward and 
eastward, while its boundaries become less and less clearly de- 
fined. The most cursory observation shows that these bands are 
parallel to the outline of the coast, and that as we recede from 
the shore upon any section they become broader, cooler, and less 
sharply separated from the intervening cold masses. The Gulf 
Stream proper forms the second warm current in order from the 
shore. As might naturally be expected from its greater density 
the colder water tends to occupy the lowest position, but instead 
of forming a level plateau it follows the irregularities of the 
bottom. This again determines the vertical distribution of the 
warm currents, and we find accordingly that in each section, as 
far as examined, the curves which represent the depths corres- 
ponding to equal temperatures are sensibly parallel to the con- 
tour of the bottom. This fact is well illustrated on the Charles- 
ton section, where the bottom of the ocean exhibits remarkable 
irregularities. Thus the depth on this section gradually increases 
to a distance of fifty-three miles, when it suddenly descends to 
upward of six hundred fathoms. Ninety-six miles from the 
coast we find a range of hills, having a height of eighteen hun- 
dred feet and a base of about eleven miles on the seaward side. 



252 Review of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 

One hundred and thirty-six miles from the coast occurs another 
range of hills fifteen hundred feet high and twenty-eight miles 
base toward the shore, and six hundred feet high with a base of 
about seventeen miles on the outer side. Beyond this there is a 
more* gradual rise. Now the forms of the curves of equal tem- 
perature resulting from multiplied observations at diflferent depths 
along the section correspond exactly to the outline of the bottom. 

Perhaps the most remarkable peculiarity of the Gulf Stream 
is what has been appropriately termed the " cold wall," a mass 
of cold water lying between the warm water and the shore, and 
sharply defining the inner boundary of the great current. The 
change from the warm water of the stream to the cold body 
of water inside of it toward the shore, is particularly sudden and 
well marked in the northern sections, but may sJso be easily 
distinguished south of Cape Ilatteras. In the cold water in- 
shore from the Gulf Stream a current setting southward has 
been observed, as also in the cold band outside the axes. It is 
not yet certain however that these are permanent currents. 

Another remarkable fact is observed in comparing the temper- 
atures of the northern and southern portions of the Gulf Stream. 
Taking the maximum temperatures at twelve or fifteen fath- 
oms beneath the surface, there is, as a general rule, an increase of 
temperature in passing southward. But in successive years we 
find the highest temperature at twelve fathoms, on the Ca])e 
Henry section, higher than at Hatteras, while the temperature in 
the axis of the stream at Sandy Hook in July, 1846, was higher 
by five and one half degrees than at Charleston in June, 1858. 
The underlying polar currents are as distinctly marked in the 
southern as in the northern latitudes. Thus in latitude 37** 20' 
the temperature at a depth of four hundred fathoms below the 
warmest water of the Gulf Stream in August, 1846, was 49** 
Fahr., while in the same position in latitude 28° 20' it was 48^° 
Fahr. The fact that the side limits of the polar current recede 
from the shore as the depth increases is clearly marked on all the 
sections. 

It is hardly necessary to observe that much remains to be done 
to complete the survey of the Gulf Stream. But it may be 
justly asserted that the results obtained by the Coast Survey 
have placed the whole subject in an entirely new point of view 
and have contributed greatly to the solution of one of the grand- 
est problems in physical geography. It may be remarked in 
this place that the most recent observations fully confirm the 
theory of Franklin that the Gulf Stream makes a complete cir- 
cuit in the Atlantic, returning again to its source. A branch of 
the main current is however thrown out toward the coasts of 
Ireland and Norway, and is thence reflected toward the Arctic 
ocean. This brancn appears to offer the most feasible passage 



Review of the Results of the V. S. Coast Survey. 263 

to the open polar aea, to the discovery oi' which bo nmch atten- 
tjon has been recently- directed, and which appears to be in iact 
only a forgotten reality. 

We have adverted to the obscrvationa of latitude, aBimath 
and longitude as requiaite to determine the position on the earth'a 
surface of the stations, the relative situation of which as to dis- 
tance and direction is asctirtained by triangulation. They eerve 
thna incidentally to determine the^igrwreof that portion of the 
earth over which the work extends. While in other countries 
extensive operations have been executed for the special purpose 
of meaauring arcs of meridians and parallels, the Coast Survey 
fiimishes those important additions to one of the highest depart- 
ments of physical knowledge, without any expenditure not ab- 
eolntely necessary for the perfect attainment of its most direct 
and practical objecta. An individual arc of 3-J degrees from 
Nantucket to Mt. Blue in Maine — another of 2J degrees from 
the head to the capes of Chesapeake Bay, which may be ex- 
tended IJ degrees farther to Cape Hattera.«, and an arc of the 
parallel extending 4° from Nantucket to New York are among 
the results already obtained. They exhibit a general conformity 
to the elements of the eartli's figure deduced from all previous 
measurements, while they show marked local variations which 
have become the stibject of special study. 

These rariationa in the direction of the plumb-line are fonnd 
to be not only snch ta would result from want of unifonni^ in 
the geological sb^cture in the immediate vicinity of station^ 
but to extend like undulations over considerable regions. 

In order to obtain these "station errors" as free from residual 
instrumental errors as possible, the capabilities of various instm- 
mentB and methods ibr determining latitude have been aucoes- 
aively tried, large vertical circles, repeating circles, the prime 
vertKal transit, the zenith telescope (or equal altitude instru- 
ment), and Airy's zenith sector. The latter inatrument is the 
most perfect of ita kind, possessing many improvements on the 
nenith sector of the British Ordnance Survey, the only other of 
the kind in existence. * The accuracy of its results, however, ia 
rivalled by those of the zenith telescope, the application of which 
to observations of latitude by equal meridian altitudes of stars 
to the north and south of the zenith is of American origin and 
has been greatly perfected in the Coast Survey. Combining 
portability and bcitity of nse, with great accuracy, it has become 
the &vorit« instrument, and no oreerver, who has ever used it, 
is willing to return to others. 

In order to bring out the various elements of error, observa- 
tions have been made at the same stations with different kinds 
of instruments, with the same instrument by different observer^ 
and by the same observer with two different instruments of the 



254 Remew of the Results of the U. 8. Coast Survey. 

same class. By a consistent application of the method of least 
squares, the oDservations have been severely scrutinized, and 
their relative values determined without the admission of any- 
thing like arbitrary preference. 

LoK>king at the observations of azimuth we again find the 
Coast Survey testing the relative value of known methods and 
perfecting them or devising new ones, not only proving but tm- 
proving all. Abandoning the methods by observations of the 
sun at low latitudes and by transits of stars over the verticals of 
stations, as involving too largely the difficult element of time^ 
the observations of azimuth have been made principally on 
close circum polar stars, especially the pole-star. The reduction 
of observations made near the time of the starts greatest eastern 
or western elongation, has been greatly facilitated by the use of 
a simple formula. An elegant method has been introduced, of 
observing the star at corresponding equal times before and after 
either culmination, by which arrangement the labor of compu- 
tation is almost entirely saved, the mean of each pair of corres- 
ponding observations giving at once the meridian. The observ- 
ations of azimuth have shown irregularities to exist in the direc- 
tion of the plumb-line similar in kind and amount to those in- 
dicated by the latitude observations. 

One of the most important and striking features of the methods 
of the Coast Survey is the total absence of eclecticism, which in 
former times was an acknowledged principle with observers, and 
to which there is even now a strong leaning in some Quarters. 
The observer may indeed choose circumstances favorable to his 
purpose and may affix to the observations a statement of fisicts 
affecting their quality, but here the influence of his judgment or 
bias ceases. The observations are made to tell their own story, 
and by the searching test of the method of least squares their 
relative weight is ascertained, and rejections, if necessary, are 
made accordmg to Peirce's criterion. The step is taken or com- 
bination made ; but the reasons for it are such as to be neces- 
sarily arrived at by every one, according to the principles laid 
down. All observations are liable to mare or less uncertainty, 
and there are probably classes of errors which no number of 
observations or variety of methods can entirely eliminate ; it will 
always be necessarjr to discriminate, and to apply small correc- 
tions to the results in order to make them fulnl the theoretical 
relations existing between them. When this is done according 
to fixed mathematical rules all uncertainty vanishes, and truth 
must be the gainer, while on the other hand when it is allowed 
to be done according to personal judgment or bias, results must 
vary with different computers, and the door is opened to fidsifi* 
cation and fraud. 



Retiew of the Results of the U. S. Coast Survey. 855 

The Coast SurYcy is at present under tbe general control of 
the Treasury Department, which appoints its ofEcers and regu- 
lates their compensation. The Department furthermore author- 
iaes all expenditures, approves the plans and estimatea of the 
superintendent, and makes general regulations for the work un- 
der the law. The immediate agent of the Treasury Department 
is the superintendent, who arranges O'e plan of conducting the 
work, ailenda to its business details, issues instructions for its 
execution, and is responsible for the scientific accuracy of the 
whole. All persons aud parties employed report directly to the 
Superintendent, who in turn presents an annual report to the 
Department, offering a complete and detailed account of the 
work done during each year. The annual reports are amply 
illustrated by maps and charts, and are extensively and gratuit- 
ously distributed. The distribution is made by the assistant in 
charge of the office who has all the reports in his possession and 
who distribatea them accordiug to a prepared tiat. 

In addition to the laborious duties of the general direction of 
the survey, and inspection of the parties, the Superintendent 
himself personally assists in the execution of the work, taking 
the field and iiiakiiip obseTvntioiis as required. The different 
parts of the work are entrusted to asaistants who act aa directed 
by the Superintendent and are responsible to him, the office ot " 
tbe Burv^ being considered as a part^ with an assistant in 
charge. Each field party consisto oi a cniefl who may have one 
or more assistants, and of several hands. In the office, compat- 
ets, draughtsmen, engravers, printers, mechanics, clerks, Ik., are 
employed as occasion may require. 

la the organization of the survey three classes of persons are 
recognized by law. These are civilians, officers of the army, 
and officers en the navy. The civilians form the permanent nu- 
cleus of the survey.' Their salaries are under the control of the 
Department, and toeT are promoted or lowered according to their 
merit as measured by the results of their work. As they are 
not, save only in exceptional cases, subject to frequent changes, 
they form a constant!^ efficient and trained body and preserve 
uniformity in the business and methods of the survey. Such a 
nucleus is obviously indispensable as the whole work might 
otherwise be disorganized by calls for the professional services 
of officers of the army and navy. Thus on the breaking out of 
the Mexican war all the officers of the line of the army and part 
of those of the staff, serving on the Coast Survey, were detached 
for active military service. 

The officers of tbe army and navy are detailed by the heads 
of their respective departments on the application of the super- 
intendent tnrou^ the Treasury Department They receive no 
extra emolument from the Coast Survey and are of course liable 



250 Review of the Results of the 27. 8. Coast Survey. 

to be frequently changed. Their employment is, however, very 
advantageous boUi to the Survey and to themselves, since they 
furnish to the former active, intelligent, and zealous assistantBi 
while they of course profit by the peculiar scientific training 
offered in the service to which they are detailed. 

In &LCt it is easy to see that there is no part of the hydrogra- 
phy or of the topographical surveys which does not fximish 
advantageous practice to an oflicer in either branch of the 
service. The topographical engineer finds employment in his 
own department. The survey of harbors and the study of tides, 
currents, shoals, entrance channels, and all those peculiarities 
which distinguish the different seaports, are of the utmost import- 
ance in determining the proper sites for fortifications and perma- 
nent defenses. They furnish weapons of offense as well as de» 
iense. In the recent European war the success of several im- 
portant operations depended wholly upon the skill and prompt- 
ness with which surveys were executed by naval officers. But 
even in time of peace the advantages of having on board of 
every ship thoroughly trained hydrographers can hardly be 
overestimated, for commerce, and therefore civilization, profits 
by every new harbor surveyed, every channel sounded, every 
current whose course and velocity are traced. The law requires 
^that as many officers of the army and navy be employed as may 
be compatible with the successful prosecution of the work. 

The work of the Coast Survey is naturally divided into field 
and office work. The field work consists in the actual sur- 
veys and observations of various kinds and is either original or 
of verification. The methods of conducting the work are laid 
down in general instructions by the supenntendent who also 
directs what scientific processes and instruments are to be em- 
ployed. The assistants make monthly reports in prepated forma 
and keep daily journals which are placed on file in the office. 
A general report is also made to the superintendent on taking 
and leaving the field, and in the month of October of each year 
for the annual report. 

The office work consists of computing, drawing, engraving, 
printing, &c., and is for the most part under the care of the as- 
sistant having charge of the office. The publication and distri- 
bution of maps ana the care of the accounts and property are 
placed in the charge of the general disbursing agent who gives 
Dond to the Treasury Department. 

The minute attention required to secure accuracy in the com- 
putations of the Coast Survey is well exhibited in the system of 
checks employed. The field parties in the first place compute 
their own work and a second computation is then made inde- 
pendently by persons having no connection with the field work. 
The assistant in charge of the office then examines and com- 



Rgmew rfthe Resnhi of the U, S. Coast Survey. 267 

pares the two computations and reports any discrepancies to the 
superintendent for examination. The records of observations 
and calculations are put in form for publication by the assistant 
in charge of the office under the direction of the superintendent, 
but the records and results now publishing as a separate work 
are under the charge of a special officer. Drawings are first exe- 
cuted by the field parties and reductions of these to the scale of 
publication are then ii^ade by regular draughtsmen in the office, 
and these drawings are finally revised and verified. ' It is almost 
needless to mention that all the topographical signs, forms and 
sizes of letters, &c are prescribed oy rule so as to be uniform. 
This subject, as already mentioned, is one which required special 
study. Thus the scale of shade is made to express the degree 
of slope by the strength of the hachure lines and the distance 
between them. The engraving of the maps and charts is under 
the charge of an assistant who verifies all engraved maps ; from 
him they pass to the assistant in charge of the office who finally 
reports them to the superintendent 

TFhe prices of the maps and charts are fixed by the Treasury 
Department upon the general principle that the euaJe should pay 
for the cost of paper and printmg. The small maps are sold for 
fifteen and the larger for twenty to fifty cents. Besides the dis- 
tribution by sale many copies are forwarded to literary, scientific, 
and commercial institutions, as designated by the Treasury De- 
partment 

In all cases the original records of observations and field work 
are transmitted to the office after duplicates have been made by 
the field parties. These are deposited in a fire-proof building in 
charge of the general disbursing agent The instruments be- 
longing to the Survey, properly marked and numbered, are also 
deposited in a fire-proof building, the repairs being almost always 
executed in the office. 

The general estimates for the Survey are made by the super- 
intendent who controls the expenditures for field and ollice work. 
On receiving his instructions for work, which usually state the 
limit of expenditure, the assistant makes an estimate for the 
number of hands required and for the general expenses of his 
party. This estimate, after the approval of the superintendent, 
Ls the authority of the disbursing agent in settling the accounts. 
The rules of tne work require that a voucher in the form of a 
receipt be presented for all sums exceeding one dollar. 

The chief of iach party keeps an account of the party dis- 
bursements and transmits it to tne general disbursing agent who 
supplies funds, audits accounts, and is responsible to the Treas- 
ury Department 

Reside the very numerous duties of supervision and of per- 
sonal exertion which are discharged by the superintendent, there 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, 1858. 

03 



258 R. F. 8tet)ens on new Carboniferous Fos$il$. 

are many special subjects which are under his immediate direc- 
tion and in charge of a special assistant. Such are the researches 
upon the tides and the Gulf Stream ; th^ preparation of the recordB 
and results for publication ; the longitude work both astronomi- 
cal and telegraphic; experimental researches on various piactical 
subjects bearing directly upon the survey; the expansion of 
paper and the various modes of making and preparing it; the 
covering of copper plates with surfaces of indium; improve- 
ments in different kinds of engraving, and other matters too 
numerous too mention. 

The amount of labor, skill, and care required to maintain the 
harmonious action of the difierent parts of an organization like 
that of the Coast Survey may easily be imagined, and we may 
not unreasonably ask how many scientific men in our own, or in 
any other country, possess the extent and variety of knowledge 
combined with tlie tact and the executive capacity which such a 
work demands, and which it has called forth. 

The Coast Survey is a national, work of which we may well 
be proud. No other geodetic operations have ever \>een con- 
ducted upon so gigantic a scale, or have yielded such fruits of 
usefulness and honor. The work is worthy of the national spirit 
which originated it and which it illustrates. It is one of the 
great ideas which we have carried out Like every great work 
it has a permanent value, and if national in conception and in 
execution, is universal in its example and its utility. It is esti- 
mated that if the annual appropriations are continued upon the 
present scale, the survey can be completed in about twelve years. 
May we not hope that it will continue to command the sympathy 
and support of every patriot, and that it will be permitted glori- 
ously to complete that which has been so worthily begun. 



Art. XXVI. — Description of New Carhomferoiis Foseils frcm the 
Appalachian^ Illinois and Michigan Coal-fields; by R. P. Stevz^S. 

Bellerophon. — R globosGj n. s. Shell globose, symmetrical 
Ears extended and partially enrolled around a small umbilicus. 
Outer lip moderately inflated. 'Sinus wide. Pillar lip smooth, 
scarcely projecting into the mouth of the shell. Surface, exhib- 
iting ridi^ea, extending from one umbilicus to the other, slightly 
curved backwards on the dorsum. No carina. Width 0'7 of 
an inch, height 0'6 of an inch. 

Geological position. In the upper shales of the coal measures, 
associated with B. urii, B. percarinatus, Myalina subquadrata» 
Pleurotomaria virgillati, and other carboniferous fossiU. 

Locality : Lasalle, 111. 



/ 



R, p. StmiimM tni new CarhantfMreiHM JPoMsib. 9S0 

AcLis (Loven). — 1. A. mtnuta, n. n. Shell torreted, eloDn* 
ted, slender. Whorls 10, rounded, gradually diminishing to the 
apex and ornamented (on the body whorl) with 12 very minute 
longitudinal lines, which are stronger on the lower half of each 
whorl. Apex polished. Length 02 of an inch, width (body 
whorl) 0*05 of an inch. 

Position and locality : roof of the Danville, HI. coal seam, 
which is the third in tfie ascending series. 

2. A. robusttt^ n. s. Shell turreted, tapering. Whorls 7, body 
whorl more robust than the others, one-third as wide ns the total 
length of the shell. Ornamented with longitudinal lines, which 
are obsolete on the upper side of the apicial whorls. Pillar lip 
curving outwards to meet the labrum, which is thin and regular 
and united to the body whorl at right angles. 

Dimensions : len<>th 0*8 of an incn, width of body whorl nearly 
15 of an inch. 

Position and locality as the preceding. 

Chemnitzia (D'OrWgnyV — C. attentiata^ n. s. Shell turreted, 
elongated, slender. Whorls 12, flattened, regularly diminishing 
until lost in a smooth, minute apex. Whorls exhibiting numer- 
ous scooped indentations, which are continued to the upper edge 
of each volution, giving at the suture a nodulated ap|H*arance. 

Dimensions: length 3 of an inch: body whorl, width O'l of 
an inch. 

Position and locality as the preceding. 

LoxoNEMA (Phillips). — 1. L, NewUrryii^ n. s. Shell robust, 
elongated, spire tapering and acute. Whorls 8, slightly rounded 
and exhibiting, under the glass, minute oblique striae. Body 
whorl, scarcely inflated, once and a half as long as the spire. 
Apex minute, polished. Columella with two distinct folds, with 
a corresponding groove between them and gentlv prolonged to 
meet the outer lip at an acute angle. Labrum thui, not effuse. 

Dimensions : length 1*3 of an inch, width of body whorl 0*5 
an inch. 

Position and locality as the preceding. 

2. L. carinataj n. s. Shell robust, elongated, spire more rap- 
idly tapering than in the preceding species. Whorls 7, slightly 
rounded, and at their suture bearing a sharp carina extending 
from the upper angle of the mouth to the extremity of the spire. 
Mouth twice as long as wide. Columella with a distinct fold. 

Dimensions : length 1 inch, width of bc^dy whorl 0*4 of an inch. 

Position and locality as the preceding. 

S. L. DanvillensiSj n. s. Wnorls 7, rapidly diminishing, gen- 
tly rounded, ornamented with numerous oblique hair-like striae. 
Body whorl inflated equal to the spire. Apex minute polished* 
Pillar lip with a slight fold. Labrum thin and effuse. 



200 It P. SUtien* im nma Carhonifaroust FomsUs. 

Dimensions : length 0*45 of an inch, width of body whorl 0*20 
of an inch, width of mouth 0*10 of an inch. 

Position and locality as above. 

This shell is the shortest of the family which has come under 
my observation, and for some time it was classed under the Mac* 
rocheilus : but after examination of numerous spedmens it is 
placed among the Loxonema. 

4. L. polita, n, s. Shell slender, elongated. Whorls 6? ob- 
lique, slightly rounded, under the glass exhibiting numerous 
filliform striae, which converge at the sutures. Apex? (wanting 
in the specimen). Labium with a slight fold and slightljr re- 
flected. Labrum thin and not eflFuse. Mouth one-half the width 
of the body whorl. 

Dimensions: length 0'5? of an inch, width of body whorl 0*2 
of an inch, width of mouth 0*2 of an inch. 
Position and locality : roof of Danville coal. 

5. L. nodosOj n. s. Shell robust, elongated. Whork numer- 
ous, flattened, and exhibiting rudimentary nodes. Mouth and 
body whorl equal Pillar lip smooth. 

Dimensions: length 1*00 r inch, width of body whorl 0*40 of 
an inch. 

Position : in the unproductive shales between the upper and 
lower coal series of the Appalachian coal measures. 

Locality : Summit, Columbiana Co., Ohio. 

6. L, tenui'Carinata. Shell slender, elongated. Whorls 6? 
very slightly rounded, a hair-like carina at the sutures. Apex? 
(wanting). Body whorl not inflated. Pillar lip smooth. 

Dimensions : length 0'50 ? of an inch, width of body whorl -02 
of an inch. 

Position and locality as above. 

7. L. minuta, n. s. Shell small, slender. Whorls 6, smooth, 
gently rounded, body whorl more than one-half the total length 
of the shell, apex minute, suture well defined, columella smooth 
and gently curving outwards to meet the labrum. Mouth one- 
half the length of the body whorl. 

Dimensions : length 0*2 of an inch ; width of body whorl 0'05 
of an inch. 

Position and locality : in the roof of Danville coal and upper 
shales of Sangamon Co., HI. 

ACKOCULIA (Phillips). — 1. A. trigonalisj n. s. Shell galeated. 
Whorls scarcely two. Beak incurved, sinistrally inclined. Body 
whorl rapidly enlarging, inflated. Surface covered by rough 
imbricated lines of growth, which proceeding from the margin, 
curve first downwards and then upwards, crossing on the dor- 
sum and giving there almost the appearance of a carina. Mouth 
subtrigonal. 



JZ. p. AeMiu M new Carbonifaraus Foisib. 281 

Dimensions : heigHt 0^ of an inch, width of body whorl 0*6 
of an inch. 

Geological position : in a thin band of argillaceoas limestone 
twenty feet below the Danville coal seam. 

Ixxadity : Danville, HI. 

2. A. ovdUa^ n. s. Shell galeated. Volutions two and one- 
hal^ contigaons, the last whorl greatly inflated. Spire delicate, 
depressed. Siii^Gsu» smooth, mouth ovaL 

Height 010 of an inch, width of body whorl -16 of an incL 

In Archimedes beds of mountain limestone. 

Union Co., HI. 

Natica (Lamarck). — K Jfagister, n. s. Shell very robust, 
ventricose, short Whorls 8, the apicial small, body whorl rap- 
idlv increasing, inflated, extended below. The suture is w5l 
denned. The body whorl exhibits a strong prominent ridge, 
equflJ in width to one-fourth of the body whon. Surfiwse orna- 
mented witii coarse striea which gently curve upon the dorsum, 
and mounting over the rid^ converge at the suture. Pillar lip 
and umbilicus in the specimen covered with the matrix. La- 
brum thick. THe surface is of cinnamon color and polished. 

Height 1-00 inch, width of body whorl 1*20 of an inch. 

Locality and position as the pr^^eding. Near Macanda, III. 

Pecten (Muhler). — P. carboniferus^ n. s. Shell sub-orbicular, 
ninge-line straight, auricled. Anterior auricle equal to the ante- 
rior width of the shell. Posterior auricle wanting in the speci- 
men, what portion is left is rugose. Eight valve : beak acute, 
appressed to the hin^e-line, polished. Disk rounded, surface 
marked by 15 acute ribs, which are ornamented with three series 
of sharp and more than semicircular scollops, of which the first 
and more robust series are at the ventral marffin, the second is 
not fer removed, the distance of the third and lightest series is 
fix>m the second double that of the second from the first. Um- 
bone and apex smooth and polished. 

Length 0*45 of an inch, height 0*85 of an inch. 

Geological position : in the upper shales of the coal measures, 
at Crooked Creek, Marion Co., lU. 

Leda (Schumacker). — 1. L. bellistriata, n. s. Shell twice as 
long as wide, eauivalve, inflated at the umbones. Beaks ante- 
rior to the middle of the shell, sharp incurved, appressed, point- 
ing towards the posterior extremity. Margins smooth. Hinge- 
line curved, armed with twenty-five teeth, about five of them 
are clustered under the beak, and weaker than their fellows. 
Escutcheon long, deep and narrow. Surface marked by numer- 
ous sharp longitudinal striae, strong on the disk but fading before 
they reach the escutcheon and posterior extremity of the shell. 
Anterior extremity broadlv rounded. Posterior produced, at- 
tenuated and acutely rounded. 



S89 jR. P. Stevens an new Carboniferou$ FouiU, 

Lengtb 0*7 of an inch, height 0*4 of an inch. 
Geological positions : in tne roof of the Danville coal, and 
unproductive shales; Summit, Columbiana Co., Ohio. 

2. Z. dens-mamillataj n. s. Cast twice as long as wide. Beak 
nearly equal to the anterior of the shell, obtuse, does not touch 
the liinge-line, surrounded at its base with 7 distinct nodes with 
corresponding pits — impressions of the pedal muscles. Hinge 
ornamented with 25 mammillary teeth, slightly elevated and 
surrounded bj a faint ring. Teeth under the oeak are feeble, 
all are posterior. Anterior extremity slightly projecting beyond 
the beat and truncated. Posterior slightly produced, thin and 
rounded. Shell inflated at the umbones. 

Length 0*9 of an inch, height 0*6 of an inch. 

Locality : Battle Creek, Mich. 

Geological position : in ochreous shales belonging to the coal 
measures of Michigan, as is supposed, although found farther 
west than these are generally thought to extend. It is associated 
with an Orthoceras, Nautilus and Bellerophon Urii, which is 
evidently carboniferous, and the following fossils. 

3. L, i\vculceformi% n. s. Shell inflated at the umbones, nearly 
twice as long as wide. Beak at the anterior third appressed to 
the hinge-line. Anterior and posterior extremities nearly equally 
rounded. Posterior slightly produced and attenuated. Hinge- 
line curved, with 25 teeth posterior and 5 anterior. Under tbe 
beak the teeth are feeble and more robust proceeding backwards, 
the last 10 are large, sharp, and set obliquely to the hinge margin. 

Length 1*4 inch, height 0*6 of an inch. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

4. L. pandoroeformisj n. s. Shell (cast) flat but moderately in- 
flated at the umbones. Beaks near the middle of the shell, wide 
at the umbones. Anterior extremity broadly rounded. Poste- 
rior much produced, attenuated and ros^ated. In the cast a 
strong ridge is seen, descending from the beak and curving with 
the hinge-line, reaches the posterior extremity. Another strong 
ridge descends from the beak more abruptly to near the ventral 
margin and then proceeds parallel to the former ridge^ until lost 
in the rostrated extremity, leaving a wide deep fossa between 
them. Shell exhibits on the surface strong longitudinal lines of 
growth, arranged in triple series. Cast resembles the Pandora, 
and hence the specific name. Teeth scarcely visible, probably 
10 anterior, 20 posterior, long and slender. 

Battle Creek, Michigan. 

NucuLA (Lamarck). — N. Hotughtom^ n. s. Shell equivalve, 
longer than wide. Beaks obtuse, not incurved. Anterior ex- 
tremity truncate. Posterior acute. Surface smooth. The cast 
shows pedal muscular impressions at the base of the beak. Pos- 
terior adductor muscular impression strong, elevated, temicirca- 



Jt. p. Sieved an new Carbaniferaus Foisils, 2M 

laTi situate at tbe posterior extremity of the hinge-line. Ante* 
rior adductor scar fainter and smaller. Hinge-line armed with 
9 robust triangular teeth, hollowed at the base and strengthened 
b^ strong lateral ridges. Teeth pointing towards the beak, and 
nsing in an arched form from the hinge-line: the inner 8 being 
O"! of an inch high, while the outer are only 0*5 of an inch. 

Length 0*7 of an inch ; height 0*4 of an inch. 

BatUe Creek, Mich. 

Chonstss (Fischer). — C. MichiaanensiSj n. s. Shell small, in- 
equivalve. Cardinal area formed at the equal expense of both 
valves. Beceiving valve with the disk highly and regularlv 
arched. Hinge*line straight, not equal to the width of the shell. 
Ears rounded, thin. Yentral margin regularly rounded. Sur* 
£ice ornamented with numerous delicate ridges, which are alter- 
nately more robust, arising at the beak, increasing in number as 
they cross the didc, and on reaching the ventral margin amount- 
ing to 80-90, and minutely punctate. Seven slender spines are 
seen on each side of the beak, on the hinge-line, of which the 
inner 3 are grouped together and point towards the beak, the 
outer 8-4 stand* progressively farther apart and point more ob- 
liquely — the outer stands at right angles to the margin. The 
outer spine is only to be seen in mature specimens — spines more 
conspicuous on the casts. Interior of receiving valve is deeply 
hollowed. A strong septum extends from the beak to the ven- 
tral margin. The punctate strise are more distinct than on the 
exterior sur&ce. Two conspicuous lateral teeth on each side of 
the deltidium project inwards and downwards. One arises from 
the outer the other from the inner edge of the cardinal area. 

The cast of this valve exhibits a deep fissure caused by the 
septum, with the impression of the punctate striae strongly and 
regularly impressed upon the margin. Entering valve slightly 
concave. Hinge-line straight, not equal to the width of the 
shell. Beak slightly projecting, ornamented with numerous 
punctate striae, similar to the opposite valve. Interior exhibits 
a shallow sinus, beginning at tlie beak and increasing in width 
as it approaches the ventral margin, well defined by a sharp 
ridge on either side, and bearing within it 8-10 filiform punctate 
striae. Twenty rows of robust, short, tubular spines on either 
side, but do not reach the margin by the space of 0*05 of an 
inch, which space is marked by 80-90 fine, regular striae. Im- 
pressions of tubes and 8tria3 best seen on the cast. 

Length 0*5 of an inch ; height 04 of an inch. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

This is one of the most beautiful of the Chonetes family, and 
is easily distinguished from all other species by the rounded 
ears, the inward direction of the spines, and the mesial depres- 
sion to be seen only on the interior of the entering valve. 



', 



264 12. P. Stevens on new Carboniferous Fossils. 

Chiton (Linnaeus). — 1. C. carbonarivs, n. s. Anterior valve 
semicircular, broadly rounded in front, arched. Middle valve 
subquadrate, elevated into a well defined ridge on the dorsum 
ending posteriorly in an acute apex and overlapping the suc- 
ceeding valve, rosterior valve rounded behind, the margin 
strengthened by an elevated carina of a horse-shoe shape and 
extending in front two-thirds of the length of the valve. The 
dorsum is elevated, somewhat conical, a ridge extending from 
the anterior edge to the middle and ending in an aci^ ^^^ 
From tlie apex the valve slopes regularly to the margin. The 
last seven valves have on either side of the ridge and projecting 
anteriorly from the lateral areas an accessory plate, which when 
detached is smooth, thin posteriorly, wide and round in fix)nt, 
where it is attached to the preceding valve. The surface of all 
of the valves is ornamented with fine granulations arranged in 
rows parallel to the margin, causing the suspicion that the living 
animal was spinous or hispid. 

Plates, length 0*5 — 0*8 of an inch ; shell 4 — 6 inches. 

Modern Chitons, as is well known, have apophyses on the 
front, lateral margins which strengthen the attachment of the 
valves. The C, carbonarius has accessory plates which are firmly 
attached (anchylosed ?) to the posterior plates by their acute ex- 
tremities, but loosely attached by their rounded extremities to 
the anterior valves. 

In the roof of the Danville coal. 

2. C. parvus^ n. s. Anterior valve semicircular conical. Apx 
pointing posteriorly, sloping regularly to the margin. Middle 
valves acutely subrhoraboidal, scooped in front, sliarp behind, 
dorsum elevated, terminating posteriorly in an acute apex. Pos- 
terior valve semicircular behind, abrupt in front, rising into an 
acute ridge, extending to the middle of the valve, terminating in 
an acute apex, from which the valve slopes to the margin, which 
is thickened and turned up. Accessory plates more broadly 
rounded than in the preceding species. Surface under the glass, 
is minutely granulated. 

Length : plates, 0*1 of an inch : shell 1-2 inches. 

Archimides limestone, Bergen Hill, Ind. 

Appendix, 

AvicuLA (Klein). — 1. A, arbiculus, n. s. Shell circular, flat- 
tened, thin, attenuated at the margins. Hinge-line straight, one 
half the width of the shell. Auricles small, corrugated, beak 
small, scarcely prominent, surface smooth. 

Dimensions : height 0*75 of an inch. Width, ditto. 

Position: in the calcareous shales, between the upper and 
lower coal series of the Appalachian sj^stem, at Simimit, Colum- 
biana Co., Ohio. In the upper black shales at Springfield, HI. 



2. j1. fyipUBiriataf n. a. Shell smalli ineoiiulateTal, binge-lia^ 
;raiffht, and eloping posteriorly. Anterior auricle tiie largeat^ 
oroered by an elevated ridm, umbones moderate, beaka hidden, 
interior portion of the aumee ornamented with 80 crennlated 
ifiad for the most part arranged in triple series. The posterior 
ortion has 12 crennlated stnss, which are stronger than those 
f the anterior portion. 

Dimensions: neight 0*5 of an inch; width, ditto. 

Position and locmity : in calcareous shales at Summit StatioUi 
blumbiana Co., Ohio. 

PosiDONOMTA (Bronn). — P. siriataj n. s. Shell small, snbdis- 
>idal. Hinge-line straight^ nearly equal to the width of the 
lell. Beak r obscure, surface ornamented with 15 strong striiOy 
hich proceeding from the hin^-line, become dichotomons be- 
»re reaching the cardinal margin, and are crossed by numerous 
>noentrical lines parallel to the margin. 

Dimensions : height, 0*4 of an inch ; width, ditto. 

Position and lociuity same as the preceding. 

Gekvilla (Defrance). — G. Auricula^ n. s. Shell elongatedf 
iflated, almost cylindrical, apex appressed to the hinge-line, near 
le anterior extremity which is rounded and earless. Posterior 
Ltremity prolonged, curved, acute ; posterior ear winged, reach- 
ig one naif the width of the shell ; hinge*1ine straight. Surftce 
nooth, save at the anterior extremity, where a few incremental 
nes are visible. 

Dimensions : length, 0*75 of an inch ; height 0*20 ; length of 
inge-line with ear, 0'45 of an inch. 

Position and locality : in the roof of Danville coal, Danville, IlL 

North Egremont, Mass^ Dec 10, 1857. 

' I II I I m ■ "■> ■ I ■ U1M ■ n ■ F' mil < I I I ' II ! ■ I I iii H iii 

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

I. CHKMISTBT AXD PHYSICS. 

1. Researches on indices of refraction,'-^ kun has undertaken to de* 
rmine the refracting power of water when compressed or when reduced 
▼apor. The experiments were executed by means of the author's very 
autiful apparatus for interferences described in the 42d volume of the 
>inptes Rcndus. The water examined was enclosed in two parallel 
bes one of which was open while the other was subject to variable 
essure. At every chanc;e of pressure the fringes underwent a displace^ 
ent which was measured and from which the variations in the refracting 
wer of the liquid could be calculated. To avoid the error arising from 
e increase in the length of the compressed column, the two tubes were 
inged into a trough full of water, so that the interfering rays traversed 
e length of the tubes and the spaces separating their extremitiea from 
8S005P esRisa, vou xzv, vo. 74. — march, Wtk 
34 



266 Scientific Intelligenc$, 

the sides of the trough. If one of the tnhes changes its length 
small quantity, the external space diminishes hy the same quantity 
thus the effect of the dilatation is sensibly destroyed. The author 
that with this apparatus one millimetre of pressure, more or less, pro 
an interval of yj^^ of a fringe which is easily observed : for an euti 
mosphere there is a dif^placement of 28 fringes. The sensibility o 
apparatus could be still more increased by giving the tubes a gi 
length than that of one meter which was employed. The author 1 
that in all his experiments, the difference of path produced by pre 
was sensibly proportional to the pressure, so that if we calculate the 
pressibility of water from the optical experiments, we find the coeff 
to be 0-0000600 for common distilled water and 0-0000611 for 
deprived of air. According to the direct measures of Grassi this c 
cient is 0*0000604. Jamin has also measured with the same instru 
the index of refraction for the vapor of water. Two tubes were emp 
4 meters in length : one of these was filled with perfectly dry air 
other with air cnarged with a known proportion of the vapor of v 
The difference in the refractive powers could then be observed b; 
change produced in the fringes. There was generally a difference 
fringes between dry and saturated air. More than fifty measurei 
made under very different circumstances of temperature, pressure, 
hygrometric condition, agreed in assigning to the refractive pow 
vapor at 0® and 760«nm the value 0000621. The author finds h 
that the diminution in the index of refraction of air by saturation 
vapor would only affect the seventh decimal of the nunber 1*00029: 
found for that index, and that consequently in astronomical refractic 
is useless to trouble oneself about the vapor of water. — CompteM Re\ 
xlv, 892. 

2. On the density of the vapors of certain bodies. — Deville and Tb 
have communicated to the Academy of Sciences a memoir on the c 
ties of the vapors of certain chlorids which possesses great int 
The authors employed in their experiments a new and ingenious m« 
which appears in point of accuracy and convenience to leave little 
desired. The principle of this method consists in plunging the ba 
containing the substance into the vapor of some other substance v 
boils at a high temperature without decomposition. In this niann 
thermometer is necessary. The authors employ for this purpose su 
and mercury, the former boiling according to Dumas at 440° C, an 
latter at 360°. The apparatus used consists of a mercury bottle c 
near the neck so as to form a cylinder closed at the bottom. In the 
rior there are two diaphragms pierced with holes, which serve to hoi 
balloon at a height of or 8 centimetres above the bottom of the I 
To cut off the furnace heat from the vapor cylindrical laminse are p 
parallel to the sides of the bottle. The upper part is closed by mea 
a plate of cast-iron provided with two holes, thi-ough one of which j 
the narrow neck of the balloon, and through the other the stem « 
air thermometer which need not l>e graduated and which serves oe 
indicate the constancy of the temperature. The authors subseou 
omitted tlie thermometer as unnecessary. An iron tube is attacn< 
the upper part of the bottle to carry off the vapor of the mercury o 
phuifQt condensation; one kilogram of sulphur and one or two 



OkmmiMtry and Phftia. 98T 

mms of meitnry are wiully employed. In this manner Ae following 
densities were determined. Sesquichlorid of aluminum in the vapor of 
mercury 9*36 ; in the ^apor of sulphur 9*34 : the calculated density (A.ls 
Cls=2 vols.) IS 9'31. The density of sesquichlorid of iron was found to 
Ins 1 189 ; the calculated density (Fes Gla=i2 vols.) is 1 1*25. Protochlo- 
lid of mercury gave a density of 8*21=4 vols. : Mitscherlich found 8'36» 
The density of uie sesquichlorid of drconium was found to be 8*15 whidi 
leads to the formula Zr Gb=2 vols, for this chlorid. The authors propose 
to employ the vapor of sine instead of that of sulphur or of mercury, and 
to use porcehiin balloons whidi can be sealed up by the oxhydrogen blow- 
pipe. Chemists will anxiously await the result of these experiments which 
promi^ to be of great theoretic value. — Chmptu Bendut^ xlv, 821. 

8. Memoir on ike equivaleiUi of ih$ elemenU, — Dumas has presented 
to the Academy of Sciences a very interesting paper upon the equivalents 
of the elements which not merely contains several re-determinations of 
the equivalents themselves, but points out remarkable numerical relations 
between the atomio weights of bodies belonging to the same natural 
group. The author gives the following as the results of his numerical 
determinations : 

Silver, 108 Fluorine, 19 Tungsten, 92 

Chlorine, 35*5 Selenium, 40 Manganese, 26 

Bromine, 80 Tin, 59 Boron, 11 

Iodine, 127 Molybdenum, 48 Silicon, 21. 
Sulphur, 16 

The equivalent of silver was calculated from Marignac's analyses by tak- 
ing nitrogen .= 14 and oxygen =: 8. To determine the exact number for 
chlorine the author heated weighed quantities of silver in a current of 
chlorine sas, maintaining the temperature until the resulting chlorid was 
completely fused. This very beautiful method requires but three weigh- 
ings and leads precisely to the number 35*5. The equivalenU of bromine 
and iodine were determined by heating weighed quantities of bromid 
and iodid of silver in a current of chlorine and fusing the resulting chlo- 
rid. These numbers agree with those found by Mangnac. The equiva- 
lent of fluorine was determined by the analysis of a very pure native 
fluor spar as well as by that of crystallized fluorids of sodium and potas- 
sium. The number 16 for sulphur was verified by burning a known 
weight of silver in a current of the vapor of sulphur. Direct experi- 
ments on the formation of chlorid of selenium gave the number 40 for 
the equivalent of that element: the author thinks that the difference be- 
tween hiis result and that of Berzelius is due to the fact that he was able 
to employ a purer selenium. The equivalent of tin was found by the 
method of Berzelius, that is to say, by heating the bicblorid with nitric 
acid and igniting the resulting stannic acid. The acid ignited in a mat- 
trass of hard glass gave precisely tiie equivalent found by Berzelius, viz., 
58*8, but on ignition in a platinum crucible the oxyd loses traces of water, 
and after this correction the equivalent becomes 59. The equivalent of 
molybdenum was determined by igniting molybdic acid in a current of 
hydrogen and was found to be 48. [luis result diflers bj two entire 
units from that of Svanberg and Struve who found 45*02, and from that 
of Berlin who found 45*98. — w. g.] The equivalent of tungsten was 



S88 



Scientific Iniettigence, 



determined in ft similar manner. [The anthor's result in this case agrees 
with those of Schneider and Mardiand.] In the case of manganese the 
number 20 was found by igniting an artificial binoxyd in a current (^ 
hydrogen so as to reduce it to protoxyd. [Dumas'* equivalent for man- 
ganese differs so greatly from that of Berzelius, 27*6, as to make further 
researches desirable. — ^w. o.] The number 11 for boron is calculated 
from reeent analyses of the ehlorid by Derille : that of silicon was de- 
termined by analyses of the ehlorid and found to be between 21 and 
21*2. The author found it however impossible to remove from the ehlo- 
rid traces of chloroxycarbonic acid which it holds in solution, and the 
presence of which is easily shown by agitating the ehlorid wiUi water 
when carbonic acid m m disengaged. 

The author is stilfengaged with the subject of a revision of the equiv- 
alents and the publication of his results — which cannot be looked for till 
the close of the present year (1858) — ^will be awaited by chemists with 
special interest 

In order to exhibit the numerical relations between the eqnivalenti of 
the different elements the author, after referring to the previous investiga- 
tions of Prof. Cooke, takes up in the first place the examination of cer- 
tain groups and series presented by organic chemistry. If we consider 
the homologous series CaHs, C4H6, CsHi, drc, we remark at once that 
there is a common point of departure for and a common difference be- 
tween the equivalents of the successive terms. The formula a+nd rep- 
resents the generation of all these radicals, a being the equivalent of the 
first, and d the difference between the first and second term. The author 
remarks that if we did not know (he law of progression we might easily 
be led to think Uiat the ratio between the numbers 141 and 281, 127 
and 253, 113 and 225, is the simple ratio of 1 : 2, especially as chemis- 
try can hardly decide with absolute certainty whether an element has, 
for example, the equivalent 225 or 226. The formula deduced from the 
simple progression above mentioned would not account for the generation 
of the elements as Prot Cooke supposed. But the organic radicals are 
not always produced by addition but sometimes by substitution as we see 
in the compound ammoniums. We may have for instance the following 
ammoniums : 



a-f.4(2 
a-f3rf+if' 
a+2d+2d' 
a+d^Sd' 



a a4-<^ a+2d a-|-3(f 

a+d' a-j-rf+rf' a-f-2rf-H' 

a+2rf' a+<£+2<;' 

a+Sd' 
a+d+d'+d''+d"\ 

where a represents ammonia NH4, and d, d\ &c. represent the equivaleot 
of hydrocarbons of the series CnHn. 

In the next place there are certain radicals in organic chemistry whers 
the fundamental molecule itself changes as well as the bodies added to 
or substituted in it. Thus tin and ethyl form six molecular gjonps pot* 
sessing all the properties of organic radicals. If we represent tin by a 
and eUiyl by d' we have for the six species of stannethyl the fi^rmulas 

a^' 2a+d' 4a+d' 

^a+3dr 4a-4-dc/' 

4a- -5<r 



Ch&tnistry and Phyaica. S69 

jeiDg the general formula. With tLese premises the antbor 
< compare the equivalents of the eleineata. The elemeots F, 
o not form a single progression. The relation between their 
is however exhihit«d by the hdi^taa a,.a-\-d,a-\-2d-^d', 
d', at in numbers. 

Fluorine, ■ - - 19 
Chlorine, - - • - l9+lfl-5=95-5 
liromioe, - - - 16+33+28=80 
Iodine, ... - 38+33+56=127. 
ihosphorua, arsenic, antimony and bismuth form another natii- 



and for the! 

+2rf', and a+(i+4rf', 

Nitrogen, 

FboBplioruE^ 

Arsenio, 

Antimony, 



e the scheme, a, a+tf, a-{-d 

a numbers, 

14 

- 14+17=31 
14+17+44=73 

- 14+17+88=11» 
Bismuth,' ■ ■ ■ 14+17 + 176=207. 

r gives similar eeries for carbon, boron, eilieon, and EircoDium, 
!i>r tin, utanium and tantalum, ivhich we omiL For oxygen, 
enium, and tellurium we have either of the series a, 2a, So, 
+rf, o+4t/, a+7t/. Analogy points out the latter as prefera- 
: have in numbers, 

Oivgen, ... 8 

SnlpTiur, .... 8+8=lS 
Selenium, ■ ■ ■ 8+32=40 
Tellurium, ■ ■ - 8+66=64. 

] difference of 8 also connects Mg, Ca, Si, Ba, Pb; tliai w* 



Magnesium, ■ 
Calcium, - 
Strontium, 
Barium, 
Lead, 

ind potass! u 



I belong to e 



12+8=20 
12+32=44 
12+56=68 
24+8'J=:l04. 
nmilar series with a commoD 



)f 16. 

Lithium, ... 7 

Sixlium, .... 7+16=23 
Potaasium, . . ■ 7+32=3S. 
m, tungsten, chromium, and vanadinm fonn n similar series of 
common difference is 22, the progression being 26, 48, 70, 92. 
r considers his results as favorable to the idea of Dr. Pront, 
sed the equivalents of all the elements multiples by a whole 
ihst of hydrogen. In the case, however, of chlorine and per- 
110 other elements the unit of reference is less than the equiv- 
Jrogen and is probably 0-5. In all the series the first member 
tlie cliemical eliarseter of all the other terras. These consid- 
le author remarks, will have more weight when he prasenta 
A a natural family of which bydrc^D is tb* flirt tenn, «ul 



S70 ScierUiJic Intettigenee. 

exhibits the connection between the physical properties of the elements 
and the position which each occupies in the series of which it forms a 
member. — Comptes Bendus, xlv, 709, Nov^ 1857. 

4. On new compounds of filteon. — Buff and WdHLSR have continued 
their investigation of the compounds of silicon with chlorine, d^c, and 
have arrived at many interesting results. When crystalline silicon is 
heated below redness in a current of chlorhydrio acid, a volatile liquid is 
formed which appears to be a mixture of various compounds. On distil- 
lation this liquid usually begins to boil at 28^ or 30^ C. ; the temperature 
rises, however, rapidly to 40^-43^, when the greater portion of the liquid 
passes over. The boiling point finally rises to over 60^, and in one case 
even to 92°. 

The new chlorid is a colorless mobile liquid of a penetrating smell, 
fuming strongly in the air and covering everything around with a white 
deposit Its boiling point is 42° C. and its density 1*65 : these numbers 
however are only approximately accurate. The liquid is a non-oonductor 
of electricity ; its vapor is as inflammable as that of ether, and it burns 
with a ^ntly luminous greenish flame, giving off silica and chlorhydric 
acid. The vapor of the dilorid explodes with oxygen verv violently : the 
residual gas is fuming and consists of the ordinary ohlond and chlorhy- 
dric acid, so that half tne silicon is oxydized to silicic acid. When the 
vapor of the new chlorid is conducted through a narrow glass tube 
heated to redness, it is very easily decomposed, giving a brown film of 
amorphous silicon. Fused aluminum also decomposed the chlorid with 
great ease, hydrogen being set free, chlorid of aluminum formed and sili- 
con deposited. Water decomposes the chlorid immediately into muriatic 
acid and a white oxyd which differs greatly from silica in not being 
gelatinous. The author's analyses lead directly to the formula Si9CU4- 
2HC1, so that the new substance is not properly a .chlorid of silicon as 
at first supposed. 

A corresponding bromine compound may be prepared in a precisely 
similar manner, and is a colorless fuming liquid. The iodine compound 
Si3l3-|-2HI is a dark red brittle mass which fumes in the air, becoming 
at first cinnabar-red and finally snow-white. It melts easily and becomes 
crystalline on cooling; it may be distilled without decomposition. Bi- 
sulphid of carbon dissolves it in large quantity with a blood-red color; 
from this solution it crystallizes on concentration. 

The hydrated sesquioxyd Si30i4-2HO is a snow-white amorphous 
body : it is very light and voluminous and floats upon water. Alkalies 
and their carbonates, and even ammonia, dissolve it with strong efferves- 
cence of escaping hydrogen to silicates. Acids in general exert no action, 
but fluohydric acid dissolves it with evolution of hydrogen. The hydrate 
may be heated to 300° without losing its water or otherwise chaiigiDg. 
When more strongly heated, it ignites and glows with a phosphorescent 
light, while hydrogen is given off and burns with explosion. 

When heated in oxygen it burns brilliantly. When heated in a tube 
it gives off a gas which fumes in the air but does not inflame, and which 
appears to be a mixture of spontaneously inflammable siliciuret of hydro- 
gen and hydrogen. The hydrate is slightly soluble in water and is t 
powerful reducing agent, reducing selenious and tellurous aiid even anl- 



CkamMrff and PhygleB. 0)1 

hnrmis and hypermftiiffiiiiio acich. The aatboTB luiTe made sevetal ob- 
HTatioDs which reDdor it probable that there is a lower chlorid than that 
(ready described, and consequently also a lower oiyd. In one case an 
nrd was obtained which appeared to have the formula SisOi-f-SHO. 
vhen amorphous silicon is used instead of the crystalline in the prepa- 
ition of the chlorid scarcely any liquid chlorid is obtained, but only a 
as which on condensation in water gives an oxyd containing 53'76per 
snt of silicon, and which burned more brilliantly than any <^er. luia 
ercentaffe is nearly 2 p. c higher tlian that in the h^drated sesqnioxyd. 
be authors further remark^ in one case the existence of a chlorid 
inch when mixed with air exploded on gentle heating. Chemista will 
ait the final results of this important inyestigation with especial interest 
-Ann, der Chemie und Pharmaeie^ ciy, 94. 

5. New Be9earehiM on Bonm. — WdBLEB and DxynxB haye communi- 
sted to the Academy many additional facts of interest in relation to the 
liemical history of boron. To obtain amorphous boron the authors mix 
00 grams of fused and coarsely powdered boric add with 60 fframa of 
)dium and project the mixture mto a red-hot castriron crucible. The 
^hole is then covered with 40 or 60 grams of fused common salt and 
ie crucible dosed. After the reaction, the fused mass is stirred with an 
t>n rod, and the fused mass poured into water addulated with chlorhy- 
ric add and contained in a deep vessel. On filtering, the boron remaina 
n the filter and is to be washed first with addulated and then with pure 
'ater. The boron may now be dried upon a brick at ordinary tempera- 
jre, as it might otherwise take fire and bum rapidly. Amorphous boron 
lay be transformed into crystalline boron by lining a crucible with it 
ad putting in a piece of aluminum. At a hiffh temperature the alumi- 
urn becomes charged with boron from whii£ it is easily separated by 
cids. In this experiment the boron which has not undergone the trans- 
)nnation is found to have become white, and to have abM)rbed nitrogen 
^hich has passed through the walls of the crudble. Boron heated in a 
urrent of ammonia appeared to take fire, nitruret of boron being formed 
rhile hydrogen is set free. This nitruret when treated with caustic pot- 
sh disengages torrents of ammonia. Boron heated in a current of nitro- 
en forms the same white infusible compound, and a similar result is ob- 
lined when a mixture of charcoal and boric add is heated in a current 
f nitrogen or of ammonia. From all this it appears that it is imporaible 
> heat boron in ordinary crucibles or furnaces without the formation of a 
itruret. The only mode of overcoming the diflScnlty consists in sur- 
3iinding the crucible containing the boron with a mixture of rutile and 
arbou, in which ca»e the nitrogen is absorbed by the free titanium. 

At a red heat amorphous boron decomposes the vapor of water, boric 
cid and hydrogen being formed. Sulphid of hydrogen is also decom* 
osed by boron with disengagement of hydrogen and formation of a suU 
hid. Chlorhydric and bromhydric acids are decomposed under the same 
ircumstances. The chlorid thus formed is that already well known, but 
lis and the bromid are not gases, as heretofore supposed, but volatile 
quids, the chlorid boiling at 17® C, and the bromid at 90® 0. Their 
apor-dcnsities corre^^pond to 4 volumes. There is also an oxychlorid, an 
xy bromid, an oxyiodid and an oxyfiuorid, which however are not do- 
bribed in the notice before us. 



979 Bcientific InUlBgme^ 

Amorphous boron reduces the chlorids of merourj, letd, and silver, «t 
A high temperature with production of chlorid of boron. Galena is re- 
duced in a similar manner, metallic lead being set free and a snlphid of 
boron formed. In conclusion the authors direct attention to the fact that 
nitrogen, hitherto considered a passive and inert substance, may under cer- 
tain circumstances become an active agent They announce the discovery 
of a simple mode of preparing the nitruret of silicon which will form the 
subject of another memoir. — CofnpUt Bendu$^ xlv, 888. w. o. 

6. On the JIf acetic Induction of Crystals ; by Professor Juurs 
PlOckrr of Bonn, For. Memb. R. 8., Hon. M.R.I., k^. (Proc. Roy. Soc 
in Phil. Mag., vol. xiv, p. 477). — ^The author commences by referring to 
his discovery of the peculiar action of magnets on crystalline bodies, and 
to the researches to which he was thereby led. With reference to the 
form in which he enunciated the law regulating the action of a magnet 
on a uniaxal crystal — that the optic axis is attracted or repelled by the 
poles of the magnet — he disclaims any intention of assigning a physical 
cause to the phenomenon, or doing anything more than expressing the 
results of observation, which are as if such a force existed. In the case 
of crystals of a more complicated character, he was led, in the first in- 
stance, to assume the existence of two magnetic axes, possessing a similar 
character as to attraction and repulsion with the one axis of optically 
uniaxal crystals. But finding that the proposed law did not bold when 
the crystal was examined in all directions, and not solely along pecnliar 
axes, he abandoned, nearly two years ago, a hypothesis respecting which 
serious doubts had arisen long before. For the hypothesis of one or two 
axes acted upon by the magnet, he substituted another similar hypothesis. 
In the case of uniaxal crystals he now conceived an ellipeoid of revolu- 
tion, consisting of an amorphous paramagnetic or diamngnetic substance, 
and having within the crystal its principal axis coincident with the prin- 
cipal crystallograpliic axis. It is easy to verify that both crystal and 
ellipsoid, the poles of the magnet not being too near each other, will he 
directed between them in exactly the same way. In the generalizatioii, 
an ellipsoid with three unequal axes, having a determinate direction in 
the crystal, must be substituted for the ellipsoid of revolution. In thb 
hypothesis too, two ** magnetic axes" are met with, that is, according to 
the new definition, directions which possess, in common with the single 
crystal lographic axis of uniaxal crystals, the property that if the crystal 
be suspended so that either of these iixes is vertical, and the body is at 
liberty to turn freely round it, no extraordinary magnetic action* is ex- 
hibited, but the crystal behaves like an amorphous substance. 

According to observation, a crystal under favorable circumstances is 
directed in the same way as the smallest of its fragments. Hence, ac- 
cording to the new hypothesis, each of its particles may be regarded as 
acted on like an amorphous ellipsoid. But such an amorphous molecular 
ellipsoid, when influenced by a magnetic pole at a finite distance, will be 
directed like an ellipsoid of finite dimensions under the infiuenoe of an 
infinitely distant pole. Here Poisson's tlieory presented itself for the 
verification of the hypothetical conclusions and their eonseqnenees, to 
which the author had been led by considerations of a difierent kind. 
This verification had the most complete suoceie. Bui before jprooeediag 
Co ix^ it was found neceaaary to confina Poinoa^ ibaoiy kiw(ar mllMr 



Ckemiitry and Phyriet. S78 

16 resnlto following from it), with inspect to an ellipsoid of finite dimen- 
ons influenced by an infinitely distant pole. By means of a beanti(ut 
leorem lately published by Professor Beer, by which the results relating 
> the influenced ellipsoid are simply and el^ntly expressed by means 
r an auxiliary ellipsoid, the author was enabled to deduce immediately 
le analytical expressions. These were afterwards compared with ex« 
srimeAt, by obsenrations made on two carefully worked ellipsoids of soft 
on, executed by M. Fessel of Cologne. 

The results thus obtained from theofy, and Tcrified by experiment, 
ith reference to an amorphous ellipsoid, were compared with the results 
l)tained from the obsenration of crystals, and manifested a complete 
IP'eemenL According to this theory, the magnetic induction within a 
ystal is, like the elasticity of the luminiferuus ether, determined by 
leans of an auxiliary ellipsoid. As there are three rectangular axes of 
)tical elasticity, so there are three principal axes of magnetic induction, 
laracterized by the property that if a crystal be suspended along any 
le of them, the two others set, one axialiy, and the other equatorially. 
s there are two optic axes, situated in the plane of the axes of greatest 
id least elasticity, so there are two magnetic axes, characterized by the 
roperty already mentioned. 

Among crystals, the author selected for special examination red ferro- 
ranid of iron, sulphate of zinc, and formiate of copper. The first is 
iramagnetic, the second diamagnetic, and in both cases the principal 
ces of magnetic induction are determined by the planes of crystallme 
rametry. The setting of elongated prisms, as well as of long cylinders 
id short cylinders or circular plates, cut in various selected directions 
3m the crptals, is described in detail. The use of both cylinders and 
rcular plates, cut with their axes in the same direction, obviated any ob- 
ction which might be raised attributing the setting to the external form, 
Dce, so far as was due to mere form, a cylinder and a circular plate 
Duld set with their axes in rectangular directions. 
Formiate of copper differs from the former crystals in having but one 
ane of crystalline symmetry, and accordingly in having but one princi- 
il axis of magnetic induction determined by the crystalline form. The 
istence of three principal magnetic axes, having the property already 
entioned, was demonstrated experimentally, and the directions of those 
'o which were not determined by the crystalline form, were ascertained 
r experiment In this crystal the axes of neatest and least induction, 
id consequently the magnetic axes, lie in the plane of symmetry ; and 
e existence of two magnetic axes was demonstrated, and their positions 
>re determined. 

In conclusion, the author gives a list of crystals, classified according to 
eir paramagnetic or diamagnetic characters, and the order of magni- 
de of the magnetic inductions in the direction of their principal axes. 
3 also remarks that some crystals, of which instances are given, though 
longing according to their form to the biaxal class, have two of their 
incipal magnetic inductions so nearly equal that they cannot be distin- 
ished from magnetically uniaxal crystals ; while others, though not be- 
iging to the tesseral system, have all their principal inductions so nearly 
ual that they cannot be distinguished from amorphous substances. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, ISftS. 

35 



^4 Scientific Intelligence. 



II. GEOLOGY. 

1. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 52. — ^The moct 
important ineraoir in this number is one by Dr. Falconer on the Speeiet 
x/ Mastodon occurring fossil in Oreat Britain, which is to be followed bj 
another on the species of Elephant. The author reviews the generic dis- 
tinctions and nomenclature of the Proboscidea in general, and then enters 
upon the fossil Mastodon of Great Britain. The number of existing spe- 
cies of Proboscideans is but two, while of extinct species thirteen are 
enumerated. Dr. Falconer subdivides both the genera, Elephas and Mas- 
todon, according to the teeth, remarking, at the same time, that the two 
groups graduate into one anotlier in the forms of these parts. The two 
subgenera of Mastodon are Trilophodon and Tetralophodon, the first 
having three ridges to the intermediate molars, the latter /our. The sab- 
genera of Elephas are Stegodon (approaching the Mastodons most closelj), 
ZofiEoion and Euelephas. Of the extinct species, the Miocene has afforded 
Trilophodon tapiroides (Europe), T, angustidens (in *' immense abun- 
dance" in France, Germany, Switzerland), T, pyrenaicus (Europe); Tei- 
ralophodon longirostris (Europe), Tet, latidens (Southern ludia), Tet, Pe- 
rimensis (Southern and Western India), Tet, Sivalensis (India) ; Stegodon 
Cliftii (= Mastodon latidens of Clift. in part, Southern India, Ava), 5. 
homhifrons (India and Sewalik Hills), SJ Ganesa (ibid), S, ineignis (ibid); 
Loxodon phnifrons (ibid); Euelephas Hysudricus (ibid). In the Plio- 
cene have been found, the Trilophodon Borsoni (Europe, Southern India) ; 
Tetralophodon Arvemensis (England and Europe) ; Stegodon inigignis (iee 
above), Loxodon meridioiialis (England and Europe), L.priscus (England 
and Lombardy) ; Euelephas aniiquus (England and Europe), E, Nomad' 
icus (Central India). Probably of the Pliocene, are the Trilophodon 
Pandionis (Southern In«li«), and the Tetralophodon Andium, To tb« 
Postpliocene belong, Triloptiodon Ohioticus, Blurob. (=: Mastodon ^gan- 
teus, North America), Euelephas primigenius (Europe, As»ta and North 
America). The Trilophodon Humboldtii (South America), and Euelephas 
Columbi of Mexico, Georgia and Alabama, (to which E, Jacksoni, de- 
scribed ill Amer- J. Sci., 1838, xxxiv, 303, is referred with a query,) ar« 
regarded as probably Postpliocene. 

The British species of Ma^tollon is the Tetralophodon Arvemensis. It 
occurs in what is called the Older Pliocene " Red Crag," at Felixstow and 
Sutton in Suffolk, and in tlie Nower Pliocene '"Fluvio-marine" or **Mam- 
maliterous Crag" in various localities near Norwich in Suffolk, and is as- 
sociated with the remains of the Elephant, Loxodon meridionalii. Dr. 
Falconer discusses the age of these deposits and concludes that they ars 
alike pliocene, and agree with the great pliocene Fauna of Italy as ex- 
hibited along the valleys of the Po and Arno. The mixed contents of 
the Red Crag, including Mammalian remains of different strata from the 
Eocene period upwards (which have led to the suspicion of an earlier 
age) are inferred to have been deposited in the reconstructed strata, alio 
within tlie Pliocene period. *^ The Red Crag sea appears to have breached 
a previously established and populated Pliocene land, and to have buried 
the bones referable to various epochs in the same sea bottom.'' 



Ckology. S75 

This paper by Dr. Falconer is preceded by the able anniverMtry addran 
of the President Colonel J. E. PorUock — a review of varions geological' 
mpere published doring the year preceding, and occupying 128 pages. 
Following '% there is an article by rrof. T. H. Huzlejr, on a new Crusta- 
cean of the Lias bone-bed at Aust Passage, which is macroural or ano- 
moural, probably the latter, and is named Trepifer iavis. Also anothaf 
species from the Coal Measures at Medlock Park Bridge, named Pjfjio* 
eepkalus Oooperi, which he regards as related to the Squillidee. 

2. Annual Repmrt of the Geological Survey of the State of W^M/ofimn^ 
fer the year ending Dec. 81, 1857 ; by Edward Dantkls, Geologist 62 
pp., 8fo. Madison, 1858. — This Annual Report by Mr. Daniels, for 1857, 
treats briefly of some Iron Ores of Wisconsin. 1st The red argillaoeousi 
or **8eed ore" of Dodge County, which is believed to belong to the same 
age as the Clinton group, like the similar ofe of Central New York. The 
bed is generally ten to fifteen feet thick ; it lies between a massive grqr 
limestone above, equivalent to the Niagara and Clinton groups and a soft 
blue shale of the ace of the Hudson river group. An analjrsis of the 
ore by Dr. C. T. Jackson afforded peroxyd of iron 72*50, lime 0*56, oxyd 
of raangsnese 1*40, alumina 8*40, magnesia 0-64, silica 7-75, water 8*75 
= 100. The same kind of ore occurs also at Hartford, Washington Co., 
fourteen miles southeast of Iron Ridge, where the bed is six to seven feet 
thick ; and in the town of Dcpere, eighty miles north-northeast of Iron 
Ridge, six and a half feet thick. 

2nd. Magnetic and specular iron ore*), in Azoic or crystallized rocks^ 
They occur at Black River Falls, in chloritic and micaceous schists, over 
which in some parts of the region the Potsdam sandstone occurs, resting^ 
nearly or quite horizontally on the upturned edges of these schists. The 
ore is conformable to the lamination of the schists and is sometimes 
banded with quartz; the beds are six to forty feet wide, occurring in 
several alternations, and are inexhaustible. They are related in character 
to those of the Lake Superior region described by Foster and Whitney, 
and also to those of Northern New York. 

3d. Specular and titaniferous ores occur in Baraboo valley in quartzite 
which is the hardened Potsdam sandstone. It is laminated, slightly 
traving, and has a high luiitre ; it is slightly magnetic. The ore is not 
ibundant. 

4th. At Ironton, in the town of Marston, Sauk County, hydrated oxyd 
>f iron (limonite) occurs in the Potsdam sandstone. The bed averages 
ive feet in thickness. 

3. On the Newer Pliocene and Post-pliocene deposits of the vicinity of 
Montreal ; by J. W. Dawson, LL.D., Principal of McGill College, (Cana- 
lian Naturalist and Geologist, ii, 401.) — Mr. Dawson has added much by 
lis labors to our knowledge of the Post-pliocene deposits of the St Law- 
ence valley about Montreal. In his paper, he reviews the facts before 
mown and gives descriptions of some new fossils and their localities, 
ogether with general remarks on the region. We cite some of the 
tatemeots. 

The mountain back of Montreal has strongly marked sea-margins at 
eights of 470, 440, 386, and 220 feet above Lake St. Peter on the St 
^wrence (or 450, 420, 3G6, and 200 above the river at Bfontreal). The 
igbest contains sea shells of existing species. 



270 Scientific Intelligence* 

One hundred feet below the lowest spreads the plain of Lower Canada, 
containing abundant marine shells, all of them, with one or two excep- 
tions if any, recent It consists (1.) of a sand deposit, sometimes gravelly 
beneath, and containing marine shells iu its lower part; (2.) an unctuous 
calcareous clay, with some marine shells ; (8.) compact boulder clay, 
filled with stones of the crystalline rocks, usually partially round and 
often scratched and polished. 

The trap boulders derived from the Montreal mountain, as Dr. Bigsby 
early pointed out, were drifted southwest, and have been traced 270 miles 
to Uie south shore of Lake Ontario. But the terraces are most distinct 
on the northeast side. Under the boulder clay the surfaces are striated, 
and northeast of Montreal mountain, the directions observed were S. 70® 
W., to S. 60° W. 

The deposits of the plain appear to be in part at least of littoral or 
shallow water origin. This is indicated for the upper layer, near the Tan- 
neries, by the great numbers of Saxicava rugoio. But the clay below 
abounds in Nucula (Leda) Portlandica^ which probably lived in muddy 
bottoms 10 to 15 fathoms in depth. The same arran^ment is observed 
at other localities. Mr. Dawson names the upper layer the Saxkava 
9and, the lower the Leda clay. 

From tlie Leda clay near St. Denis, at the cutting of the Montreal and 
Ottawa railway, Sir W. E. Logan has obtained a number of caudal ver- 
tebrae of a Cetacean, part of the pelvis of a seal, and fragments of wood 
of the cedar ^Thuja occidentalis). At one locality, the following species 
were obtained from the upper layer : (we indicate below by an asterisk 
the species not before reported as Canadian :) Tellina GroenlandicOy Saxi- 
cava rugosa^ Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis, Astarle Laurentiana, Tellina 
calcarea, Trichotropis borealiSj Fusus horealis^ Fusus tomaitiSy* Bulla 
Oryza* Leda Porilandica. At another, near the house of James Logan, 
Esq., " an intermediate deposit," the above occur along with Balanus ere- 
natus (B, miser of some lists), Mya truncata, Spirorbis einistrorsa* (on 
stones and valves of Mya truncata), Natica clausa, Buccinum ciliatum^* 
B. undalum, Admete viridula* AcmcBa coca* Nucula minuta, Lacuna 
neritoides* Natica kelicoides.^* Fusus scalariformis* Serpula vermicu- 
laris* Margarita arctica^* Modiolaria discors^ Rissoa minuUi* Bulla de- 
bilis?* Trichotropis arctica* Cytheridea Mullei'i?* Velutina zonatat 
besides several species of Foraminifera,^ masses of siliceous spicula of a 
sponge (Tethsea*). From the associated shells it appears that the cele- 
brate locality of the Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Lump-sucker (Cy- 
clopterus Lumpus), at Green's Creek on the Ottowa belongs to this level, 
its elevation being 118 feet above Lake St Peter; it has afforded also 
small specimens of Leda pygmaa ; remains of probably an Ophiura-like 
Starfish ;* also of the plants Populus balsamifera* and Potentilla Nor^ 
vegica* with Algje.* Fusus karpularius, Menestho (Chemnitzia) albula, 
Amicula vestita (Chiton Emersonii of Gould), and Leda minutOj are 
other reported species of the Canada post- tertiary. 

The locality at Beauport near Quebec, described by Captain Bayfidd 
and Sir C. Lyell, belong to this same level, and has afforded, besides 
others already named, the following not enumerated above: Balanus 
ffamerif Nattca Groenlandica* Natica Heros^* Turritella erota* Seah- 



* Oeology. 277 

a Oroenlandkaj Liilorina pallitUOj Cardium Oroetdandieum^ Cktrdium 
dandicunij Pecten lalandieuSf RhynconeHapnttacea^ Echinus granuiatut* 

A locality at St Nicholas, fifteen miles above Quebec, on the soulh 
<le of the St Lawrence at an elevation of 180 feet« 400 yards from the 
ver, has afforded Tellina ealearea (most abundant and large), Balanut 
Tanuri (abundant), Mya truncates, Saxicava ruffotn, AstarU Xotirm- 
anoy Trichotropis borealis and Buecinum undatum. The bed — of hard« 
aed day — was probably formed in deep water. 

At the terraces of 220 and 386 feet on Montreal mountain no shells 
ave 'been found. But westward of Montreal, near Eeroptville, Sir W. 
L L<^;an has found littoral shells at 250 feet above Lake St Peter, 
jiother locality in Winchester is 800 feet ; another in Eenyon 270 feet ; 
wo others in Locheil 264 and 200 feet; at Hobbes Falls, Fitzroy, at 860 
iet ; at Dulham Mills on the De L'Isle, at 280 feet above the St Law* 
ince ; on the Portland and St Lawrence railroad, near Upton Station, at 
57 feet ; still farther east, on the river Goufire, near Murray Bay, at 180 
nd 860 feet above high tide. 

The terrace of 470 feet, the highest observed, consists of (1) 8 feet of 
Dgular stones and sand ; (2) fine gravel with shells principally Saxicava 
jgosa, 5^ feet; (8) 6 feet of stratified sand with few shells. On the 
atawa, in the 4th concession of Nepean, Logan has found a similar 
each at 410 feet '* On the west, the highest terrace observed by the U. 
. Geologists on the south side of Lake Ontario, appears to correspond 
ith this sea level, and the gravel and sands contaming elephantine re- 
tains near Hamilton, may have been washed into its western extremity 
t>m the neighboring laud." Marine shells have not yet been found west 
r Kingston. 

Among the shells, Leda Portlandica and AstarU Laurentiana belong 
) the Leda clay, and are suspected to be extinct, the first, if recent, is 
ated to be the L, truncata, and the other the A, sulcata. All the de- 
ofi\ts overlie the inferior or ^* unmodified drift" 

This valuable paper is accompanied by two plates, containing figurea 
f several of the species noticed. 

4. Crinoids of New York. — We have received some sheets of Pro£ 
ames Hall's forthcoming (third) volume on the Palaeontology of New 
^ork ; and learn that it is making rapid progress towards completion, 
'he volume will include the fossils of tlie Lower Helderberg Rocks or the 
pper part of the Upper Silurian, and the Oriskany Sandstone, generally 
sgarded as Devonian. The author remarks that Uie subdivisions of the 
lower Helderberg beds (into Upper Pentamerus limestone, Encrinal 
mestone, Deltliyris shaly limestone, Pentamerus limestone and Tentacu- 
te or water limestone) are distin^ishable only for a short distance, 
rhile the formation as a whole reaches widely from the northeast to the 
Duthwest The Oriskany Sandstone appears in some places to pass into 
be Helderberg rocks below, and in Maryland some of the fossils of the 
itter beds occur in it ; and they may yet prove to blend intimately. But 
ie separation of them in successive groups, ^Ms fully justified by their 
bysical condition in the State of New York." 

Li the southwest, the Oriskany sandstone contains many Crinoids simi- 
ir in genera to those of the Lower Helderberg limestones. Among the 



S78 Scientific Intelligence. 

peculiar forms in both, is tbe genus Edriocrinus (Hall) — "a crinoid wbicb 
18 sessile in its joun^ state and firmly attached to other bodies by the 
base of its cup, but becomes free as it advances and gradually loses all 
evidence of a cicatrix ; the base becoming rounded and smooth, or very 
rarely preserving a depression or pit near the centre, which marks the 
origiuaJ point of attachment 

The following is a list of the genera and number of species of Crinoidet 
and Cystidea in the Clinton and Niagara groups, and the Lower Helde^ 
berg and Oriskany Sandstone. 

1. Clinton ani Niagara groups, — Cloeterocrinus 1, Glyptocrinus ? 1, 
Homocrinus 2, Glyptaster 1, Thysanocrinus 4, Dendrocrinus 1, Ichthyo- 
crinus 1 (+ 1 ?), Lyriocrinus 1, Lecanocrinus 4, Saccocrinus 1, Macro- 
stylocrinus 1, Eucalyptocrinus 3, Stephanocrinus 2, Caryocrinus 1, Melo- 
cnnus 1 ; ileterocystites 1, Callocystites 1, Apiocystites 1, Hemicystites 
1 ; Palieaster 1 . 

2. Lower Helderberg Group and Oriskany Sandstone. — Homocrinns 
1, Mariacrinus 8, Platycrinus 4 (the first occurrence of this genus) ; 
Aspidocrinus 2, Edriocrinus 2, Brachiocrinus 1, Coronocrinus 1 ; Anomalo- 
cystites 1, Spherocystites 1, Apiocystites (= Lepadocrinus) 1; Pro- 
taster? 1. 

The new genera are : 

Mariacrinus, — the Astrocrinites of Conrad but not of other Authors. 
— ^Basal or pelvic plates four. Radial plates three in five series (3X5). 
Interradial plates three or more. Anal plates numerous. Brachial plates 
two resting on each third radial ; beyond this point the structure differs 
in different species. Surface of plates marked by elevated radiating 
striae or ridges which are more or less prominent, or by nodes or short 
spines. Arms varying in structure in different species. Resembles most 
Glyptocrinus. 

Brachiocrinus. — Body unknown or none. Arms composed of numer- 
ous articulations arranged in single consecutive series (or of pentagonal 
joints in double series ?). Base of arm rounded, without articulating sur- 
fBkce. Tentacula composed of thickened node-like joints. 

Edriocrinus. — ^Body subconical. Base solid, without division into 
plates : upper margin marked by six angles, with depressions between for 
msertion oi' radial plates. Radial plates five, inserted in the five larger 
depressions on the upper edge of tlie calyx. Anal plates two^ the lower 
one inserted in the smaller of the six impressions on the upper margin of 
the calyx ; tlie second anal plate placed on the upper edge of the first. 
Brachial plates numerous, consisting of thin plates in consecutive seriei 
resting upon the upper concave edges of the radial plates : pinnules sub- 
divided above. Tentacula unknown. Proboscis unknown. Column 
none. 

Aspidocrinus. — Base broadly circular, depressed hemispheric or sca- 
tclliform : upper margins plain or plicate exteriorly ; the articulating 
edges irregular. Radial plates and arms unknown. Point of attachnsent 
for column distinct, small. The specimens are broad scutelliform bases 
of Crinoida, sometimes near hemispherical. 



Geology. 879 

CoRONOCRiNUS. — ^Bodj very broad, hemispherical ? towards the tipper 
margins composed of numerous plates. Arms numerous, proceeding 
from the upper margin of the body : summit flat, composed of numerous 
tmall plates. Column and base unknown. 

SpHiEROCYSTiTSS. — Bodj sphcroidal, wider than high. Arms in two 
principal pairs, with numerous bifurcations. Brachial sulci obliquely 
lobed. Mouth longitudinal ? apicial : anus subapicial : ovarian opening 
upon the summit. Bastal plates four ; those of the series above not deter- 
mined. Base depressed. Column unknown. The species have the gen- 
eral aspect of Callocystites or Lepadocrinus. 

Anomaloctstites. — Body semielliptical or semiovoid : sides unequal ; 
the vertical outline oval or ovoid, planoconvex or concavo-convex ; the 
transverse outline semielliptical, the base of which is straight or more or 
less concave : the two sides composed of an unequal number of plates. 
Basal plates three on the convex side, two on the concave side : second 
series, two large plates at the angles, and four (or five ?) on the convex 
side ; third series, four on the convex side, one at each angle, and a large 
plate on the concave side ; a fourth, fifth, and sixth series of plates on the 
convex side, and a fourth series on the concave side. Base oblique, with 
the convex side longer, and a deep concavity for the insertion or the col- 
umn. Pectinated rhombs apparently none. Arms unknown. Column 
deeply inserted into the body, compused of Ifcrge joints above, becoming 
smaller below. 

Lepadocrinus, noticed in the Annual Report of Mr. Conrad for 1840, 
is the same as Apiocystites, and has the priority of this last name in time. 

5. On (he Cervus euryceroa ; by Prof. De Morlot, (Proceed. Imp. 
Geol. Instit. Vienna, June, 1857, in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xiii, p. 
35.) — M. de Morlot thus announces tlie discovery, by MM. Uhlmann and 
Jahn, of remains of the gigantic Elk (Cervus turyceros =. Megaceros hi" 
hernicus) in association with works of human industry. On partially 
draining, in 1856, a small lake near Moosseedorf (Canton of Berne), an 
area of about 70 feet in length and 50 feet broad along the bank of the 
lower extremity of this lake was found to be paved more or less closely 
with posts of oak, aspen, birch, and elm, driven through two beds of 
peat into the marly bottom of the lake. A peat-bed, 3 or 4 feet thick, 
of exclusively vegetable origin in its upper part, includes many relics of 
human industry and art in its lower portion. Dr. Uhlmann collected 
nearly a thousand specimens; viz., fragments of pottery, stone-chisela, 
stone-aiTowheads, pieces of cut bones, and perforated bear-teeth, without 
any traces of metallic objects. The lower ends of the posts have evi- 
dently been also worke<l into their pointed shape by means of stone-tools. 
The upper portion of the bed containing these remains exhibited traces 
of combustion and contained carbonized grains of barley. 

Together with the above-mentioned works of art were found many 
fragments of the bones both of domesticated and of wild animals; viz., 
horned cattle, horses, swine, dogs of various size, goats, sheep, cats, elks, 
stags, aurochs, bears, wild boars, foxes, beavers, tortoises, several birds, 
and other anin}als still undetermined. An atlas and jaw, however, sent 
by M. Trogon to Prof. Pictet, of Geneva, were ascertained by this emi- 



280 Scientific Intelligence. 

nent palaeontologist to belong to Cervus euryceros. The length of the 
atlas IS 0-265 metre, and its breadth 0*088 metre ; both differiog only by 
Yxfoji ^^^ ^he measurements stated by Cuvier. 

6. Former Connection of Auttralia, New Guinea and the Am Itlandt. 
— ^Mr. A. R. Wallace in a paper on the Am Islands, a group 150 miles 
South of Western New Guinea (Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist, xx, Jan. 1858, 
p. 473), shows that the zoology of the Islands is closely related to that of 
New Guinea and Australia ; and that shallow seas not only connect the 
two last, as others had before stated, but that they extend and include 
tlie Aru group. The depth of water over the whole to Australia is verj 
nearly uniform at about thirty to forty fathoms. Mr. Wallace says : — 

** But there is another circumstance still more strongly proving thh con- 
nexion : the great island of Aru, 80 miles in length from north to south, 
is traversed by three winding channels of such uniform width and depth, 
though passing through an irregular, undulating, rocky country, that 
they seem portions of true rivers, though now occupied by salt water, 
and open at each end to the entrance of the tides. The phenomenon is 
unique, and we can account for their formation in no other way than by 
supposing them to have been once true rivers, having their source in the 
mountains of New Guinea, and reduced to their present condition by 
the subsidence of the intervening land.^' 

Nearly one half of the Passerine birds of New Guinea hitherto de- 
scribed are contained in the author^s collections made in Aru, and a num- 
ber also of species in the other tribes. 

The author farther observes on the absence of the peculiar Blast Indian 
types. " In the Peninsula of Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the 
Philippine Islands, the following: families are abundant in species and in 
individuals. They are everywhere common birds. They are the Buct- 
rida, Picida, Bucconida, TrogonidcR^ Meropida, and Eurylaimida ; but 
not one species of all these families is found in Aru, nor, with two doubt- 
ful exceptions, in New Guinea. The whole are also absent from Austra- 
lia. To complete our view of the subject, it is necessary also to consider 
the Mammalia, which present peculiarities and deficiencies even yet more 
striking. Not one species found in the great islands westward inhabits 
Aru or New Guinea. With the exception only of pigs au'l bats, not a 
genus, not a family, not even an order of mammals is found in common. 
No Quadrumana, no Sciuridae, no Carnivora, Rodentia, or Ungulata in- 
habit these depopulated forests. With the two exceptions above men- 
tioned, all the mammalia are Marsupials; while in the great western 
islands there is not a single marsupial 1 A kangaroo inhabits Aru (and 
several New Guinea), and this, with three or four species of Cuecut, two 
or three little rat-like marsupials, a wild pig and several bats, are all the 
mammalia I have been able either to obtain or hear cf.*^ 

7. Earthquake in Italy ^ (Athen., No. 1577.) — The phenomena which 
preceded and have followed the disastrous earthquake which has struck 
such a panic throughout this kingdom, have a remarkable and a separate 
interest from that of the afflicting details of the suffering occasioned by 
it, as many things occurred to show that before the event there was great 
subterranean agitation going on. Similar indications of existing agita- 
tion now continually manifest themselves. That Yeauvius has been m a 



Otology. 8S1 

itate of chronic eruption for nearly two years, and the wells at Kesina 
for the last few months nearly dried up, I have already noted ; that the 
kingdom has been in this interval, in various parts, alarmed by minor 
ihocks of earthquake, may not be so generally known, but such is the 
fact, and to those signs of impending danger the Official Journal of the 
30th of December adds the following : '' The Syndic of Salandro (one of 
:he Communes which has suffered much from the recent scourge) reports 
Lhat for nearly a month at about two miles distance from the town a gas 
iias been observe^ to issue from a water-course ; the temperature of it 
W2A about that of the sun. A few days since, too, from another similar 
fosse, the same kind of gas issued. These exhalations were observed 
>n]y in the morning, however ; during the rest of the day they were not 
>erceptib]e. On the 22d of December, they ceased altogether, and there 
^as an expectation that hot mineral springs would burst forth from that 
•pot." The Official Journal of the t2d of January relates another remark- 
ibie fact In the territory of Bella, about two miles from the town, the 
earthquake on the night of the 16th of December levelled the neighboring 
lills, rolled the earth over and over, and formed deep valleys. Half an hour 
:)efore the shock, a light as bright as that of the moon was seen to hover 
)ver the whole country, and a fetid exhalation like sulphur was perceived. 
3n the morning following the shocks, which were accompanied by loud 
'umblings, a large piece of land, full 600 moggia (a moggia is something 
ess than an acre), and at about the same distance from the town, was 
bund encircled by a trench of from ten to twenty palms in depth, and 
he same in width. A letter from Vallo, now lying before me, and writ- 
en much in detail, speaks of " those two terrible shocks," and of the in- 
luraerable minor shocks which have continued from the 16th of Decem- 
)er up to the present time — the letter being written on the 29th of De- 
ember. " A few minutes before the first shock," adds the writer, " a 
lissiiig sound was heard in the river, as if vast masses of stones were 
►eing brou<rht down by a torrent. It is to be noted, too, that all the 
logs in the neighborhood howled immediately before the first awful 
hock." 

Let us visit some of the ruined places at the centre of the disaster; — 
nd I will speak in the words of a goutlemaii who has just returned : " I 
Dund the country seamed with fissures, which had at first been wide, but 
rhich gradually closed. The ground was heaving during the whole time 
f my visit to Polla. Once a beautifully situated township, with 7,000 
ouls, it is now half in ruins, and the survivors were sitting or walking 
bout, telling us of their misery, and lamenting more that there were no 
ands to take out the dead or rescue the living. Two country people 
rere groping amongst the stones of a building ; one found a body, and 
irowing a stone towards the face called the attention of the other, *That 
erhaps is some relation of yours,' but the body was not recognized. I 
•ied to get food at a trattoria^ the only house standing, at the comer of 
street ; but the proprietor, who was by our side, repulsed me, and re- 
ised to go in, saying that the moon has just entered the quarter, and we 
lould have another earthquake. In most of these places, as in Naples, 
le deep, heavy rumblings which preceded and accompanied the earth- 
nakc have been much dwelt upon." On the night of the 26th of De- 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH., 1858. 

36 



289 Scientific InielKgence. 

cember, the little town of Saaso, near Castelabbate, consisting of one long 
street, was sefmrated in two by the sudden opening of a fissure through 
its entire length, each side remaining separated from the other by a con- 
aiderable intenral — and so it stands. On the 28th and 20th of Decem- 
ber, both in Sala and Potenza, strong shocks were felt, followed by many 
others of a less intense character, and these still continue. The consequen- 
ces will be that even those houses which were only cracked will gire way, 
and those which were feeble will be reduced to ruins. In Naples, too, 
the shocks continue producing vibrations of the doors and windows ; and 
in one instance, I have heard rinsing of the bells. The common report 
is, that since the 16th of Dec^nber we have had eighty-four shocks in 
the capital. It is not at all improbable if every vibration is counted ss 
one, and if the great subterranean agitation, which is now going on, be 
taken into account Every one looks really with anxiety to Vesuvius, and 
prays, not for curiosity only, for an eruption. The indications of so de- 
sirable a result seem to be on the increase. A person who resides at 
Resina says, that on the night of the 29th, from 10 p. ic to 5 a. m. of 
the dOth ult., the whole town was in a state of continued Tibration. 
Every three minutes a sound was heard as of a person attempting to 
wrench the doors and windows out of their places, followed by a quiver. 
The next morning the mountain was observed to vomit forth mudi smoke 
and a cloud of ashes. Friends, too, who reside at Capo di Marte, near 
the city, speak of the deep thunders which they hear from the mouatain 
in the stillness of the night The same phenomena are observed at 
Torre del Greco. I must, also, advert to the manifest lowness of the sea, 
which seems to-day to have receded from tlie land. I noticed this fiict 
in my last letter, and tried to explain it as consequent upon the neap 
tides : but the same thing continues ; and unless it has been oceasioDed 
by the long continuation of a land wind, the conclusion is inevitable that 
there has been an upheaving of soil. It would be rash, however, to come 
speedily to so important a decbion. How this state of thinos will ter 
minate, it is impossible to say ; but that some g^eat change is pending, 
there is but too much reason for supposing. 

Some English gentlemen who have just returned from the scene of 
disaster give the following interesting though harrowing details: — ^^ Be- 
fore arriving at Pertosa, we found the houses on either side of the road 
thrown to the ground ; the landlord of a tavern now abandoned told ni 
that he had the good fortune to escape with his wife, but tliat his AM 
and servant had been both killed. He himself bore the marks of s 
heavy blow on his face. The population of this place was about 3,000, 
and 143 bodies only had been dug out on the Ist of January; whikt 
200 more were known to be missing. The whole town was destroyed, 
with the exception of six houses, which were* in a fiilling state. Between 
PertosH and Polla the strength and caprice of the earthquake were msde 
manifest in a remarkable way. Crossing a deep ravine, we found the 
road on the opposite side carried off 200 feet distant from its former po* 
sition: the mountain above it had been cleft in two, revealing to a gnat 
depth the limestone caverns in the bowels of the eailh. The ground wis 
seamed with fissures ; and we could put our arms into them up to the 
ahottlden. PoUa has a population of 7,000 persons *w — 1,000 had &Uca 



Oeohgy. 

ft 

▼ietiiiM, of whom 56? had been dug up and buried ; the work of disin- 
terment was continning slowly, but the stench here and elsewhere, from 
the bodies, was insufferable. Three shocks of an earthquake were felt on 
this day, January 1. The first was very early in the morning; the seo- 
ood about half-past 12. When we were standing t>n the ruins of a 
dinrch, the ground b^fan to heave under our feet and the snbterranean 
thunders to roll. We immediately fled from the spot, but were nearly 
overwhelmed as the wall of a bell-tower fell close upon our heels, and a 
leaning house, in an inclining state, c-ame down within twenty feet of ua. 
The frightened people immediately formed a procession, and headed by 
the priests, bearing the crucifix and an image of the Madonna, lashed 
themselves with ropes as they walked. On leaving the town, we rested 
on the wall of a bridge just outside, where some priests begged us to 
rise, sajring we were in danger, for the ground was continually trembling. 
Whilst sitting there, we felt the third shock, and required no other hint" 
At the last moment, I add, from official documents, that upwards of 
S0,000 are returned as dead, and 250,000 living in the open air. 

& OremU$ Artesian welly (Athen., No. 1577.) — ^The artesian well on 
the plain of Grenelle, at Paris, built in the years 18dltol841 by the 
engineer, M. Merlot, has become the finest ornament of the Place Breteuil. 
According to the plans of the architect, M. Joon, a cast-iron tower, of 
about 140 feet in height, has been erected on the stone basis, in the cen- 
tre of which a winding staircase with three landing-places, each of which 
has its own fountain, leads to the platform of the graceful building. On 
the top one enjojrs a beautiful view, and, under the three watery tents, 
produced by the thre^jets cTeau of the weU, the coolest and most refresh* 
ing of shades. 

9. Chemische und ChemMch-Technische Untereuchung der Steinkohlem 
Sachsens; von W. Stein, Prof, der Chemie an der Konigl. Polytechn. 
Schule zu Dresden. 98 pp., 4to. Leipzig, 1857. — This memoir con* 
tains the results of an extended research into the composition, and th# 
economical value for fuel and lighting of the coal of the Saxon eoalbeds» 
The following are a few of the results of the analyses : 



CtUm coal. 


Ash 


Carb. 


Hyd. 


Nit 


Ox. 


Sulph. 




1. Bertbelsdorf, 


28 671 


55*984 


8-878 


0-238 


11-884 


2-269. 


0.-:l-2l7 


Zwiekau cotU, 
















2. Zwickau, 


2-640 


77-211 


514» 


0-242 


18-821 


1-789. 


G.=: 1-294 


a. 


4-950 


81-410 


5-222 


0-845 


5-785 


2-955. 


G.=l-19» 


Plauen coal. 
















4. HSoicben, 


12607 


71-268 


8-882 


0-498 


11-478 


1-149. 


G.=l-86a 


6. Potachftppel, 


14521 


66-696 


8-481 


0-226 


15-046 


o-79a 


G.=1840 



Volatile products of distillation in 2, 32-518; in 3^ a7'333 ; in 4, 
28-690; in 5, 21-531. 

10. Tooth of the American Elephant, — Remains of the American ex- 
tinct Elephant (or Mammoth) occur GO miles north of the City of Mexico. 
One fine tooth in our possession, received from Mr. K L. Plumb, comes 
from the Barranca of Regla, near Real del Monte in that region. Others 
are found in beds which are overlaid by lava. — Fds. 

11. Second Report an the Oeologieal Survey of Kentucky y made dur- 
ing the years 1856 and 1857; by David Dale Owen, Principal Geolo- 
gist, assisted by Robert Peter, Chemical Assistant^ Sidney S. Lyon^ 



384 Scientific Intelligence. 

Topographical AasistaDt. 392 pages, large 8ro. — ^The geological survey 
of Kentucky, as this second report evinces, is carried forward with energy 
and ability, and with important results to the State. The general report 
by Dr. Owen, takes up first Agricultural Geology, under which after a 
chapter of general remarks on soils, he treats of Kentucky soils ; next 
diemical economic geology, comprising coala, iron ores, limestones, mine- 
ral springs and well waters ; next stratigraphical geology. 

The Falls of the Ohio are a noted locality for fossil corals. The follow- 
ing is given as a section of the rocks at uiat place, commencing above 
with the Devonian black slate, a well known horizon in the west. 

1. Black bituminous slate or shale. 

2. Upper crinoidal, shell, and coralline limestones, consisting of 

a. White or yellowish-white earthy fractured lavers, containing vast 
numbers of Crinoids {Actinocrinus ahnormtSj most common), a 
Favositej a large Zeptana, and Atrypa prisca. 

b. Middle layers ; containing a few Cystipkylla, 

c. Lower layers ; containing many Cyttipkyllay a Syrinffopora^ and 
on Com Island, remains of fishes, hence called the Upper fish bed. 

3. Hydraulic limestone, an earthy magnesian limestone; contains 
Atrypa priscay a Spirifer, &c. Thickness 21 feet and less. 

. 4. Lower crinoidal, shell, and coralline limestones; consisting in a 
great measure of comminuted remains of Crinoids, and containing Spir- 
ifer cultrijugatut, Atrypa prisca, a Leptana near euglypha, and remains 
of fishes. Thickness 3 to 11 feet. 

6. Olivanites bed ; thickness 6 inches near the mill on the south side 
of the Ohio, 6 to 7 feet on Fourteen-Mile Creek. 

6. A cherty band, charged with Spirifer preyaria, and many small 
hemispherical masses of Pavosites spofigites, tliickness 1 foot ; next be- 
low, a layer containing Conocardium subtriyonaUj with large hemisphe^ 
ical masses of Stromatopora and a Ceriopora? 3 to 5 feet Uiick ; next,' the 
Lower Fish Beds, a limestone stratum 19 feet thick, containing a large 
and beautiful species of undescribed Turbo, a large Murckisonid, a Cono- 
cardium, Spirifer gregaria, a Leptctna and some small Cyathaphyllida. 
The Conocardium layer is light gray ; the Lcpta^na layer is two feet 
above it. The Fish remains are mostly about three feet above the Turbo 
bed, but are also distributed in other parts of the stratum. 

7. Main beds of coral limestones : consisting of 

a. Dark grey bed, containing hemispherical masses of Favoiitit 

maxima of Troost, Zaphrentis gigantea, immense masses of Fovo- 

sites basaliica, sometimes as white as milk, Favosites palymorpka. 

6. Black coralline layers, being almost a complete mass of fossilized 

corals, including Cystiphylta, Favosites coniigera, Zaphrentis gi- 

gantea, Syringoporay etc. 

These Devonian beds rest upon an Upper Silurian stratum containing 

the Chain Coral (Catenipora). 

Other sections are given and much important detail. 

The chemical report of Dr. Robert Peter, exhibits a large and almoit 

incredible amount of research. 206 analyses are reported, 7 of iron orea, 

43 of soils, 31 of limestones, 30 of coals, 16 of mineral waters and sahii 

and others of rocks and ores. In the analyses of coalsi the author has 



Geology. 285 

not only ascertained the proportions of moisture, volatile matter, asbei 
and coke, but also the chemical composition of the ashes, the proportion 
of sulphur, and the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and 
nitrogen. 

The Breckenridge cannel coal afforded hj proximate analysis (p. 211) : 

Moifltnre 1*80, volatile oombastible matters 64*40, carbon in the ooke 82*00, 

ashes lt*80=100. 

Examining other specimens, the volatile matters varied from 55*70 to 
71-70 per cent, the coke from 28*30 to 44*80, the ashes from 7*0 to 12*80 
per cent, in the undried coal. The ashes contained 

Silica 8'49, alumina and ozyd of iron 7*78, lime 0*66, magnesia 0*89 ^ 12*21. 

By ultimate analysis it afforded 

Carbon 68*128, hydrogen 6*489, sulphur 2*476, nitrogen 2*274, oxygen audioes 6'888» 

ashes 14*800 = 100. 

Excluding the ashes and sulphur, the Breckenridge coal and the Bog- 
head of Scotland compare as follows : 

Carbon. Hydrogen. Nitrogen. Oxygen. 

Breckenridge, 82865 7*844 2*749 7*061 

•Boghead, 80*487 11*286 0*874 .6*726 

The Breckenridge coal is already noted for the mineral oils obtained 
from it by distillation. It affords per 100 lbs. 32 lbs. of crude oil. About 
6000 gallons of crude oil are distilled at the company's works near Clo- 
verport per wook, and manufactured by distillation and purification into 
benzole, n ^htba, illuminating and lubricating oils, and paraffine. 

Hadddv'i cannel coal (Owsley County) is also a coal yielding a large 
amount of oil, it giving 55 to 60 gallons of crude oil (or 27 to 30 purifi^)^ 
to the ton of coal. In the following table different Kentucky coals are 
compared a3 to their yield of oils, from 1000 grains each. 





Crude oils. 


Ammoniacal 
water. 


Coke. 


Gas 
(cob. In.) 


Breckenridge cannel. 


818*20 


6210 


456 


445 


Haddock's coonel, 


248*50 


64-60 


689 


870 


Union company's coal, bottom part, 
Mulford's five-foot, or main coal, 


148 


38 


760 


466 


136-60 


64*75 


684 


667 


Robert's, or Muddy river coal. 


10210 


119*80 


659.60 


870 


Ice House coal. 


108 


73 


714 


465 


Youghioghenj coal. 


186 


62 


710 


545. 



The topographical report of Mr. Lyon contains an account of observa- 
tions upon the Eastern and Western Coal Fields, tracing out the beds of 
coal, and the features of the country, and illustrating the subject by many 
sections. Near Owingsville in Bath county (eastern part of the State;, 
a section extending from the Lov^er Silurian (Blue limestone) to the beds 
at the base of the coal measures in Carter Co., showed a total thickness 
of 2,520 feet; of this 100 were the soft beds of the coal measures; 76 
to 100 millsit^.io grit (but thinning out to 14 feet on the Ohio near the 
mouth of Tigert's creek) ; 100 feet muddy shale with thin beds of lime- 
stone; 350 feet subcarboniferous limestone (thinning out to 12 feet on 
the Ohio) ; 20 to 76 feet of grindstone grit; 725 Waverley sandstone of 
Ohio; 120 black Devonian shale; 700 buff porous limestone of Lewis, 
Fleming and Bath Cos. ; 75 limestone producing red earth by disintegra- 
tion; 100 slaty mudstone, thin-bedded; 150 Lower Silurian, containing 



886 Scientific Intelligence. 

LepUtna altematOj Orthii occidentalism Orthia (Spirifer) Lfra^ and also 
Murchiwnia bicineta ? 

This volume is to be soon followed by another giving the remainder of 
the Report 

12. New spedee of Foeail PlanUfrom the Anthracite and Bituminoui 
coal'fielde of Pennsylvania ; collected and described by Lao Lksqusrbux, 
with Introductory observations, by H. D. Rooers, (Jour. Bost. See* Nat 
Hist, vi. No. iv, 409). — ^This memoir contains descriptions of 106 new 
species of coal-plants from the coal-fields of Pennsylvania. Prof. Rogers, 
in his introductory observations, states that M. Lesquereax has found that 
out of over 200 species examined by him, 100 are '^* identical with species 
already recogniz^ in the European coal-fields, and some 50 more of 
them show aiflferences so slight that a fuller comparison with better speci- 
mens may result in their identification likewise ;** moreover ^ those new 
species which seem to be restricted to this continent are every one of 
tnem in close relationship with European forms.'' The new species are 
of Calaraites 2, Asterophyllites 5, Annularia 1, Sphenophyllum 2, Noeg- 
gerathia 8, Cyclopteris 5, Neuropteris 13, Odontopteris 2, Sphenopteris 
8, Hymenophyllites 8, Pachyphyllum (new genus) 5, Asplemtes 1, Ale- 
thopteris 5, Callipteris 1, Pecopteris 7, Crematopteris 1, Scolopendrites 1, 
Gaulopteris 2, Stigmaria 6, Sigillaria 9, Lepidodendron 10, Lepidophyl- 
lum 6, BrachyphyTlum 1, Cardiocarpon 3, Trigonocarpum 1« Rhabdocar- 
pus 1, Carpolithes 3 ; and Pinnularia 5 (named but undescribed). 

The new genus Pcxhyphyllum is thus described. Frond large, thick, 
membranaceous, broadly oval or lanceolate in outline, either pinnately or 
irregularly lobed ; radical or borne on a thick rachis ? divisions short, 
lanceolate, obtuse, or long linear^flexuous ; nerves thick, compound and 
parallel near the base, separating above and solitary in each division or 
aisa])pearing totally. The Schizopteris Lactuca of StembeTg is referred 
to this genus. 

13. lUinoie Geological Survey. Abstract of a Report on Illinois 
Coals, with Descriptions and Analyses, and a General Notice of the Coal- 
fields ; by J. G. Norwood, M.D. 94 pp., 8vo. Chicago, 1858. Pub- 
lished by order of the Governor. — Fifty-eight pages of this Report are 
occupied with analyses of coals from different beds in Illinois, with brief 
notices of the localities. The few points noticed in the analyses are loss 
in coking, total weight of coke, moisture, volatile matters, carbon in ooks, 
ashes, carbon in the coal, with the specific gravity. The specific gravities 
vary between 1-21 and 1*3, excluding a few very impure; and the volatile 
matters between 30 and 44 per cent ; the ash mostly 5 to 8 per cent 

The Report contains a small colored geological map of the State, giv- 
ing the general outlines of the coal-fields and of the formations on its 
borders. The author remarks on the fact, that the coal-field is not s 
continuous one, but throughout its extent is broken into patches by uplifts 
of the millstone grit and carboniferous limestone; the displacements 
having been so great as to produce tiltings at all angles np to vertical. 
He states that the lower coal-beds were deposited in basins thus formed ; 
that there was then a farther displacement and erosions, and these new 
valleys and basins were filled with new deposits of coal, and so on up to 
the termination of the carboniferous epoch. We regret that tlM Rsfosi 



Geology. 5287 

18 geologicallj so meagre, as a few facts and sections proving the exact 
age of these uplifts would be of great interest The details are promised 
in the full Geological Report. 

These uplifts were alluded to at the Albany meeting of the American 
Association bj Mr. Worthen, who stated that the strike of them was 
northwesterly, and therefore parallel to the Rocky mountain range. 

14. Dertkschrifltn der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wutsemcha/Un Math' 
tmatisch-naturwiinenHhaftliche Claste. Vols. 11 and 12. 1856. — ^The 
Tolumes of Transactions of the Vienna Royal Academy are not exceeded 
by any others in the world in typography, beauty of illustration, or the 
TaJue of the science they contain. In Geology, the contents of the eleventh 
and twelfth volumes are as follows : — 

On the Cephalopods of the Lias of the northeast Alps, by F. R. ▼. 
Haukr, 86 pp. 4tOy with 26 plates (of Ammonites and all highly beau- 
tiful). 

On the Palaeontology of the Thuringian Forest, by R. Riobtsb and Fa. 
Ukosb. 100 pp., 16 plates. 

On the Fossil Fishes of Austria, by J. J. Heokel. 88 pages, with 15 
plates. 

On the Gasteropoda of the Trias of the Alps, by Dr. M. HdRNXs, with 
3 plates. 

On Foraminifera of the Family Stichostegues of D*Orbigny, by J. L. 
NsuGBBOREN, with 5 platcs. 

There are also other papers, — ^by Dr. K. M. Diesino on the Acantho- 
cephala and Cephalocotylea (Intestinal worms) with many fine plates; 
Prof. J. Htrtl on the Anatomical structure of the Mormyrus and Gym- 
narchus; K. Kkeil on Magnetic observations at Vienna; K. Lanoer on 
the circulating system in the Anodonta; J. Grailich on the refraction 
and reflection of light by twin faces; Ignaz Heger, Aufiosungsmethode 
fiir Algebraische Buchstabengleichungen mit einer einzigcn unabhangigen 
Buchstabengrosse. 

15. On the part which the Silicates of the Alkalies may play in the 
Metamorphism of Rocks ; by T. Sterry Hunt, Esq., of the Geological 
Survey of Canada, (Proc. Roy. Soc, in L. K and D. Phil. Mag., xv, 68.) 
— In my last communication to the Royal Society on the Metamorphic 
Silurian Strata of Canada, I endeavored to show, from the results of 
analyses of the altered and unaltered rocks, that it is the reaction between 
the siliceous matters and the carbonates of lime, magnesia, and iron of 
the sedimentary deposits, which has given rise to the serpentines, talcs, 
pyroxenites, chlorites, and garnet rocks of the formation. I then cited 
the observation of Bischof that silica, even in the form of pulverized 
quartz, slowly decomposes these carbonates at a temperature of '212<> F., 
with evolution of carbonic acid ; the same author mentions that a solu- 
tion of carbonate of soda has the power of dissolving quartz under simi- 
lar conditions.^ Desiring to verify these observations, I have since made 
the following experiments. 

Colorless crystalline quartz was ignited, finely pulverized, and then 
boiled for an hour with a solution of its weight of perfectly pure carbo- 
nate of soda ; the amount of silica thus dissolved was 1*5 per cent of the 

* Bischof '8 Chem. and Pbys. Oeologj, Eng. Edition, vol i, p. T. 



288 Scientific Intelligence, 

quartz, but on repeating the treatment of the same quartz with a second 
portion of the carbonate, only *d6 per cent was diseoived. The object of 
this process was to remove any soluble silica, and the quartz thus purified 
was employed for the following experiments, which were performed in a 
▼essel of platinum. 

L 1000 parts of quartz and 200 of carbonate of soda were boiled with 
water for ten hours, and the mixture was several times evaporated to dry- 
ness, and exposed for a few minutes to a temperature of about 300° F. 
The amount of silica taken into solution was 12 parts. 

XL A hydrocarbonate of magnesia was prepared by mingling boiling 
solutions of sulphate of magnesia and carbonate of potash, the latter in 
excess ; the precipitate was washed by boiling with successive portions of 
water. 1000 parts of quartz were mixed with about as much of this 
magnesian carbonate and boiled as above for ten hours. An excess of 
hydrochloric acid was then added, the whole evaporated to dryness, and 
the magnesian salt washed out with dilute acid. The residue was then 
boiled for a few minutes with carbonate of soda, and gave 33 parts of 
soluble silica. 

IIL A mixture of 1000 parts of quartz, 200 of carbonate of soda with 
water, and an excess of carbonate of magnesia was boiled for ten hours, 
and the residue, treated as in the last experiment, gave 148 parts of k)1u- 
ble silica. The alkaline liquid contained a little ma^esia, but no silica 
in solution. That the soluolo silica was really combmed with magnesia 
was shown by boiling the insoluble mixture with sal-ammoniac, which, 
dissolving the carbonate, left a largo amount of niacrnesia with the silica. 
This silicate was readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, the greater 
part of the silica separating in a pulverulent form. 

The third experiment was suggested by some observations on the reac- 
tions of silicate of soda with earthy carbonates. Kuhlmann has remarked 
the power of carbonate of lime to abstract the silica from a boiling solu- 
tion of soluble glass,* and it is known that alumina exerts a similar 
action. I have found that when artificial carbonate of magnesia in excess 
is boiled with a solution of silicate of soda, the latter is completely de- 
composed with the fonnation of carbonate of soda, and u silicate of mag^ 
nesia which gelatinizes with acids ; and I have long since described this 
reaction in the evaporation of alkaline mineral waters.f This mutual 
decomposition of carbonate of magnesia and silicate of s"ia, «.orjoined 
with the power of carbonate of soda to dissolve silica, leads to a {iunous 
result. If we boil for some hours a mixture of ignited silica, obtaiued 
from the decomposition of a silicate by an acid (and consequently readily 
soluble in all alkaline carbonates), with a small portion of carbonate of 
soda and an excess of hydrocarbonate of magnesia, we obtain a d€is6 
powder which contains all the silica united with magnesia, and may be 
Doiled with carbonate of soda and sal-ammoniac without decomposition. 
It is obvious from tlie above experiments thatf similar results may be ob- 
tained with quartz, although the process is much slower ; it would doubt- 
less be accelerated under pressure at a somewhat elevated temperature^ 
which would enhance the solvent power of the alkaline carbonate. 

* Comptes Rendus de TAcad. des Sciences, Dec. Srd and Dec. 10th, 1855, when 
will be found many important observations on the alkaline silicatei. 
t Beporto of the Ocol Survey of Canada, 1861-68-54. 



Otology. 389 

Silicates of potash and soda are everywhere present in sedimentarj 
rocks, where decomposing feldspatliic materials are seldom wanting, and 
these salts in the presence of a mixture of quartz and earthy carbonates, 
aided bv a gentle heat, will serve to effect a union of the quarts with the 
sarthy bases, eliminating carbonic acid. A small amount of alkali may 
thus, like a leaven, continue its operation indefinitely and change the 
character of a great mass of sedimentary rock. Such a process is not 
only a possible but a necessary result under the circumstances supposed, 
and we cannot, I think, doubi that alkaline silicates play a very import- 
tnt part in the metamorphism of sedimentary rocks, which are composed 
for the most part of earthy carbonates, with siliceous, aluminous, and 
reld^pathic materials.* 

The direct action between the carbonates and silica must necessarily 
be limited by their mutual insolubility, and by the protecting influence 
of the first- formed portions of earthy silicate; but witn the solvent action 
3f a small portion of alkali, which is disnffed from silicate to carbonate, 
ind then back again to silicate, the only limit to the process would be 
the satisfying of the mutual affinities of the silica and the basic oxyda 
present 

16. On the Extinct Volcanoe$ of Victoria^ Australia; by R. Bbovoh 
Smyth, Esq^ C.E., F.G.S., (Proc. Geol. Soa, in L. E. and D. Phil. Mag., 
Kv. p. 74.)~The district in Southern Australia in which lavas, basalts, 
und other evidences of recent igneous action are found, extends from the 
River Plenty (a tributary of the Yarra), on the east, to Mount Gambler 
>n the west. Its most northern point is Macneil's Creek (a tributary of 
the Loddon), in 37^ S. lat, and its most southern point is Belfast, in 
38^ 21' S. lat. Its extreme length is 250 miles, and its extreme breadth 
ibout 90 miles. 

The following were enumerated and described as the most distinctly 
narked crateriform volcanic hills : — 

1. A hill near the source of the Merri Creek, on the Dividing Range, 
ibout 25 miles north of Melbourne, and already descrilnid by Mr. Selwyn, 
:he Government Geologist. 2. Mount Atkin, about 1500 feet above ihe 
;ea-lcvel. 3. Mount Boninyong, adjacent to th«j Ballarat Gold-fields. 
1. Larnebaramul or Mount Fraiikljn. 5. Mount House. 6. Several 
crateriform hills around Lake Koraugnmite, and the often conical hills 
known as the Stony Rises. 7. Tower Hill, between the towns of War- 
oambool and Belfast, and close to the coast. In the last-mentioned in- 
stance the scoria has been found by well- sinkers to overlie, at the depth 
Df sixty-three feet, the original surface of the ground, covered with coarse 
^rass, such ns that now found growing, and amongst this dry, but not 
>corched, grass the workmen are said to have found some living frogs. 

Over neariy the whole extent of Victoria there are masses of intrusive 
Dasalt, in some places columnar, breaking through both the granite and 
:he palaeozoic strata, and occasionally through the overlying Tertiary 
[Miocene) beds also. Extensive denudation has destroyed the probably 
)verlying portions of these old basaltic outbursts, both before and after 

* It is well known that Bmall portions of alkalies are seldom or never wiinting in 
he earthy silicates, Buch as serpentine, talc, p;^roxene, asbestus, epidote, idocrase^ 
md even beryl and corundum. See the memoir of Kuhlmann already cited. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MARCH, 1898. 

37 



290 Scientific Intelligence. 

the tertiary period. A newer series of eruptive trap-rocks, soroetiroes as 
dense and hard as the older basalts, bat more frequently vesicular and 
amygilaloidal, pierce the old tertiary and also the post-tertiary beds, or 
the later quartzose and auriferous drifts. These newer basalts and lavas 
were probably erupted at a period when considerable areas, both north 
and south of the main-coast range, were submerged ; and the lavas cooled 
rapidly and not under very great pressure. These eruptions do not ap- 
pear to have disturbed the Tertiary beds, which are usually found nearly 
horizontal. After these newer basaltic lavas were erupted and denuded, 
and after the deposition of the overlying pleistocene drift, some of the 
volcanoes were still acting, though not so energetic as previously, emitting 
porous lavas and pumice ; and at a still later period, volcanic ash and 
scoria, such as that which rests on the ancient humus at Tower Hill, and 
that of Mount Leura and the Koraugamite district, were thrown out 
when the igneous force was almost exhausted. Mr. R. H. Smyth pointed 
out the interest attached to the extinct volcanos of Victoria as connected 
with the great volcanic chain extending from the Aleutian Islands to 
Kew Zealand ; and concluded with some observatioBs on the recent 9c- 
currence of earthquake-movements in Southern Australia, and on tlie 
eoast-line, as having reference to the probably not yet exhausted force of 
the volcanic foci of that region. 

17. On the occurrence of Marine Animal Forms in Freth-water. — A 
translation of a paper by Dr. E. von Martens, on this subject, is published 
in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, [3], i, 50. The facts 
are important in their bearing on the detennination of the marine or 
freshwater character of geological formations from tlieir fossils. 

18. WoUaston Medal, — The Geological Society of London at the an- 
niversary meeting, Feb. 25, 1857, awarded the Wollaston medal to M. 
Barrande, the distinguished palaeontologist, and the balance of the pro- 
ceeds of the Wollaston Donation Fund to Mr. S. P. Woodward, author 
of tlie excellent *' Manual of the Mollusca," and now engaged on a ** Man- 
ual of the Radiated Animals." 

IIL BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 

1. DeCandolle't Prodromua, Part II of Vol. XIV (pp. 493—706) was 
publiRhed near the close of the past year. It contains the Thymeiceaeea 
by Moisner,dtbe Elop,agnaceat by von Schlechtendal, the Grubbiacece liy De- 
Candclle, resting merely on one of those outlying or anomalous geners 
Avhicli there is too great tendency to raise to ordinal importance, merely 
because the author knows not what to do with them, — and Santalacta 
by DeCau.lolle. Of the fii-st order wo Lave only Dirca^ i>e<-uliar to this 
country, and with no con<rener known. There is nothing to add respect- 
ing our three species of Elcear/nacece, As to our few Santa iacfte^ it is in- 
teresting to remark that one of our characteristic genera, Pyrularia (the 
Oil-mir), is found to have two representatives in the Himalayas (Spkiro- 
carya. Wall.), and apparently two more in southern India [Seleropyrvm^ 
Arn.). Also that an European species is introduced into our Comandn 
(the Thesium elfffons of Rochel), and the genus itself shown to be hardly 
distinct from Tlusium, And Varhyay Gray, published in this Jouroal 
twelve years ago, is reduced to a subgenus of Comandraf^~U> which «f 



Botany and Zoology. 291 

are not disposed to object. But we take the new species of true Coman- 
dra^ C, pallida^ to be a mere variety of C, umhellata ; which, by the way, 
we did not state to be eight or Xexifeet^ but only as many inches in height. 
DeCandolIe thinks that the hairs which connect the anthers of Comandra^ 
and of most Thesia also, with the perianth, belong to the latter, not to 
the former, as the generic name impRes. Our own observations, and 
especial'y some made by Mr. H. J. Clark upon very young flower-buds, 
confirm this view. The discovery, announced in this Journal in 1864, 
that the striking genus BuckUyu^ Torr^ is truly dichlamydeous in the 
female flowers, proves a capital fiftct for M. DeCandolle ; who draws from 
it the confident inference that the floral envelop which in all other plants 
of the order occurs alone, and .has the stamens opposite its lobes, is corolla 
and not calyx, and consequently so in the Loranthacece and ProteacecB 
also. Our author's views are presented in detail in an article, Sur la 
Famille des Santalacea^ in the Bihliothhque Uniwerselle^ published last 
autumn, and they appear well-nigh convincing. An analogous r^se is 
found in Zanthoxylum (only here the suppression is the rare case), Z. Atner- 
icanum plainly wanting that which in Z, Carolinhnum is the corolla 
{Genera Illustr, 2, p. 148). Nyua oflers a good instance of the limb 
of a calyx so reduced as to have escaped notice, until four years ago. For 
what to DeCandolle seem to be petals (p. 622, note in char, of order 
Santalacev), were seen to be so, and the ob^rvations recorded in the 5th 
volume of the Memoirs of tJie American Academy^ p. 3:36, and after- 
wards extended in the Manual Bat, U, S,y ed. 2, p. 162 (1856). It is 
singular that DeCandolle should remain so uncertain of the place of 
Nyssn in the Natural System. If he will compare it and Mastix-a with 
Cornus ho will surely be con\'inced that Nyssa is a true Cornaceous 
genua. So of Cevallia, the true place of which our author seems not to 
know, although given in the Flota of North America many years ago, 
under the sanction (we may add) of the very highest authority. Indeed, 
so plain is its relationship to Oronovia that Fenzl soon saw and corrected 
his mistake in referring the genus to Calycerece, And if at this day any 
should doubt that these are Loasaceous plants, let thera turn to the 
characters of Petalonyx, in Mem, Amer, Acad., 5, p. 319. 

Leaving these details, let us consider our pleasing prospect in respect 
to the continuation (at least through the Dicotyledoneai) of the great 
work upon which the DeCandolles, father and son, and other excellent 
botanists, have bestowed so much labor and talent. The great order of 
Laaracecb was to have been included in the present volume. It would 
have extended the volume unduly. But, unfortunately, or fortunately, 
as the case may be, Professor DeVriese has gone to Java on a govern- 
ment mission without finishing the work; and the indefatigable Sieisner 
now takes it in hand. It is to form the leading part of volume 15, the 
Beyoniacece by DwCandolle himself, and the Aristolochiacem by Duchartre 
being appciwled, and perhaps the Eupharhiacsce, also by DeCandolle, ex- 
cept the genus Euphorbia which lioissier undertakes. The 164h volume 
k intended to commence with the Urlicacece proper, by Weddell, or the 
Monimiacect by Tulasne. We are pleased to learn that Prof. Andersson 
of Sti>ckholm is to elaborate the Salicinece ; and we beg of all North 
American botanists that they will collect for him all the native Willows 



292 Scientific Intelligence. 

and Poplars of their districts, taking pains to procure blossoms, foliage, 
and fruit from the same trees. And for DeCandolle himself, who will 
probably undertake the CupulifercBy we likewise ask for good and copious 
specimens of every species or form of our American Oaks. Specimens 
communicated to the writer of this article will be duly forwarded, and 
will doubtless be very useful. Such arrangements are made as to render 
it probable that the DicotyledonecB may be completed in the Prodrorous 
in the course of three or four years. a. o. 

2. Dr. Hooker^s Flora of Tcumania has been issued as far as to Part 
V, which completes the first volume, and the Dicotyledonous class, Conif- 
era included : 359 pages, and 100 admirable plates. The work is pub- 
lished by Lovell Reeve, London, in the same form and style as the Flora 
Antarctica and the Flora of New Zealand. It is enough to say that the 
work is of the very highest character, and that it abounds with import- 
ant observations upon the structure and afiSnities of plants. One volume 
more will finish this series of high southern Floras, which — although they 
embrace only a part of the author's botanical writings — would appear 
sufficient to represent a life-time of arduous scientific labors. a. g. 

3. Journjal of the Proceedings of the Linncean Society (Botanv) ; No. 
6, 1857. — Dr. Thomson's interesting paper upon the embryo and germi- 
nation of Barringtonia and Careya is concluded. The embryo is shown 
to be exalbuniinous, essentially a macropodous radicle, destitute of cotyl- 
edons, developing from one end a nearly naked plumule, and from the 
other a primordial slender roi>t. Drs. Hooker and Thompson continue, in 
a second series, their Prfwcursores ad Floram Indicam. They here take 
up a group of related orders, consisting of " Saxifrageoe (including 
Hydrangece^ Ac), Crassulacece^ DroseracecBy Pamaseieaj Oro^sulariea^ 
Hamamelidece^ and PhiladelpkecB, The very close relationship of the 
group or alliance to Rosacece on the one hand and to Comaeece on the 
other is pointed out. The resemblance of Pamassia to Saxifraga^ as 
indicated by Brown, is insisted on, and the affinity strengthened by the 
di<^overy that the stamens advance in pairs to the stigma, as in the latter 
genus, and by the disposition to an adhesion of the calyx-tuV»e with the 
base of the ovary, which (somewhat evident even in our P. Caroliniana) 
is very striking in several species. We are pleased to find, however, that 
Dr. Hooker retains Pamassia as a distinct order, on account of the 
' staminodia' and tlie exalbuminous seeds. But he omits all mention of 
the anomalous position of the stigmas, which is decidedly anti-saxifrageous, 
as also is the division of the styles or stigmas in Droseraccce. (There is 
an oversight or misprint on p. 78, in speaking of the parietal placentation 
of Elodea.) The transference of Uroseracece to the Saxifragal alliance en 
suite to Pamassiece^ is surely a happy thought, naturally suggested by 
our author's discovery of the perigynous character of some Antarctic 
species, and by the other obvious points of resemblance with Pamassia. 
But we demur to the statement that ^* Drosera4:e(B and GrosMviafiea 
seem to be rather aberrant members of Saxifragea in its extended signi- 
ficance, than separate orders." But, if there bo here '^ too much easiness 
in admitting variations" of the order, there is on the other hand, aa it seemi 
to us, '* too much stifi^ness in refusing" to admit the Philadelphiem^ which, 
as our authors limit the groups, are distinguishable from Saxifiragactm bj 



Botany and Zoology. 298 

no one assignable character. If limited to Philadelphus and to Carpen" 
teria (which is as it were a Philadelphits mih an almost free ovary) the 
^roup may indeed be distinguished by the convolute aestivation of the 
petals ; but this is of no great moment in such a case, especially since 
Jamesia exhibits a transition into the ordinary imbricative mode. (See 
Bot U. S. £xpl. Exped., 1, p. 663, note.) In PileoBtegia our authors 
bring to our knowledge an interesting new Hydrangeous genus. They 
also have a new Crassulaceous genus, Triactina^ a sort of Sedum with the 
carpels reduced to three and connate half way up. So that, with this 
genus, Penlhorum and Diamorpka^ on the one hand, and Spirceanthemum 
on the other, the interval between Crassulacece and SaxifragacecB^ so far 
as respects technical distinctions, is completely bridged over. a. o. 

4. PlantCB India Batavice Orientalis^ qwu .... exploravit Casp. G. C. 
Reinwardt. Digessit et Illustravit Guil. H. de Vriese. Leyden. Fasc. I^ 
1856. Fasc. II, 1857, pp. 160, tab. 1-8. Roy. 4to. — The venerable Rein- 
wardt died in the year 1854, and his botanical collections, made in the 
Dutch East Indies about thirty years ago, were beoueated to the herba- 
rium of the Leyden Botanic Garden ; and their publication in very hand- 
some style has been commenced by Professor De Vriese, aided by other 
able botanists. The first fasciculus comprises the Gesneriacece, Temstra- 
miacecBy Sapotaceoe^ Myrtaceas^ and Dillenlacece by De Vriese, and the 
HepatkcB by Dr. Van der Sande La Coste. Sauravja, of which many 
species are here described, is taken as the type of a distinct order, but 
nothing new is suggested in respect to its aflSnities. We suspect that 
Planchon is right in considering it as of the Ericaceous type. Several 
species are said to have their styles united at the base, and a trigynous 
species is said to have them united up to the middle. This militates 
against Draytonia, The second fasciculus contains the Araliacea by 
Miqnel, the Afyristicaceoe, by De Vriese, the GramiheoB by L. H. Buse, 
the Musci Frondosi by La Coste, the Urticacece by Weddell, and the 
CyperaceoB^ Aroidecs, CombretcLcece, Saxi/rayacecBy dtc^ and Ruhiacem 
(commenced), by Miguel. Miquel's new Cunoniaceous genus SpircBopsU 
is much closer to Weinmannia tban our Spirceanthemum. The plates 
of this work are truly beautiful, A. o. 

5. Botanical Necrology for 1857. — Charles Girou de Buzareinyues of 
the South of France. — A, N, Desvaux, who was a botanivst of some con- 
sequence in the earlier part of the century, when he was the editor of a 
well known Botanical Journal. In 1817 he became director of the Bo- 
tanical Garden of Angers where he remained until his death. His son 
£mille Desvaux, a very promising botanist, who elaborated the Grasses 
for the Flora Chilena, died a few years ago, at an early age. — F, W. 
Wallrothy a well known German botanist, the monographer of Orohar^ 

chece. — Targioni-Tozetti, the distinguished Florentine botanist. — W, G, 
Tilesius (bom in 1769), the naturalist of Krusenstern's voyage of explo- 
ration in 1803-1806! — Z. W, Ddlwyn (born in 1778), of Swansea, 
S. Wales. — H, D. A, Ficinus^ of Dresden, author of a Flora of the neigh- 
borhood of Dresden and other works. — M, Graves, of Paris, a well known 
French botanist, but scarcely a botanical author. 

To this list we may add the name of the venerable Madame deJussieu^ 
widow of A, Z. Jussietiy and the mother of Adrien^ who died in Paris 



204 Scientific Intelligence. 

last year, at a venr advanced age. The library and collections of tlw 
distinguished family are now dispersed. The herbaria we believe hare 
gone to the Jardin des Plantes^ but the library, so rich in botanical 
works, and especially in separate memoirs, gathered witli such pains hj 
at least three generations of botanists, is before this time widely dispersed 
by the hammer of the auctioneer. 

An equally venerable name is now to be added, that of the distin- 
guished algologist, Mrs. Griffiths, of Torquay, England, who died in the 
latter part of January, at the age of ninety. To her, almost half a cen- 
tury ago, Agardh dedicated the genus Griffitksuiy a beautiful group of 
plants of the family she loved so well and so successfully cultivated even 
to the last, continuing her scientific correspondence with her friends down 
to the last months of her long and actively useful life. 

We have also to announce the death, at the beginning of the present 
year, of Dr, J. Forbes RoyU of London, author of Illustrations of the 
Botany of the Ilimalaya Mountains, and of various other works upon the 
botany, materia medica, and the industrial products of India. a. o. 

6. Notice of the occurrence of Green-gilled Oysters ; by W. J. Tatlob. 
— A curious characteristic of the oysters of a locality in a sound on the 
eastern shore of Maryland may interest naturalists. The sound is on 
the Atlantic coast, and its principal outlet is Chincoteague Inlet The 
oystei*a in question were taken from the latter named place where they 
had been planted to prepare them for the markets of New York and 
Philadelphia. They were planted about four years ago, at which 
time from some unknown cause numl)ers of them died. After a time 
they thrived greatly and were prized for their superior size aud fine 
flavor. 

After two years had elapsed, a peculiar green color was observed in the 
gills which continues; it is particularly intense and markod in the fall 
and winter when the mollusc is fat, and nearly disappears in the spring 
and summer. The color is only in the gills, the mantle being white; it 
may be termed a pea-green. By cooking it becomes darker ; but it 
nearly disappears when the mollusc is placed in dilute alcohol. 

The oysters are planted on a hard sandy bottom which has a slight 
C'Oating of dark mud, in which grows a very small grass. The locality ifl 
within eight or nine miles of *' Green Run" inlet, which is rapidly filling 
up with sand, which already prevents navigation. The tide ebbs and 
flows regularly about four inches. The same peculiar green color was 
noticed in oysters at this locality fourteen years ago, after which time it 
disappeared. The same color not so strongly marked has been observed 
near Ohincote^ue inlet 

7. Humming Bird of the U. States, (Ann. and Mag. Nat Hbt, [2], 
XX, 520). — Mr. Gould having returned from a visit to the United States, 
whither he had proceeded for the purpose of studying the habits and 
manners of the species of Trochilus frequenting that portion of the 
American continent, detailed some of the results of his observations. 

Having arrival just prior to the period of the binl's migration from 
Mexico to the north, and having had ample opportunities for observing it 
in a state of nature, he noticed that its actions were very peculiar, and 
quite different from those of all other birds : the flight is peifiurmad witk 



Attronomy, 295 

a motion of the vi'mm so rapid as to be almost imperceptible ; indeed the 
iDHscnlar power of Uiis little creature appears to be very great m every 
respect, as, iDdependently of its rapid and sustained flight, it grasps the 
small twigs, flowers, &c., upon which it alights with great firmness, and 
if wounded clings to them with the utmost tenacity : it appears to be 
most active in the morning and evening, and to pass the middle of the 
day under the shade of the thick leafy branches. Occasionally it occurs 
ID such numbers, that fifty or sixty may be seen on a single tree. When 
captured, it so speedily becomes tame, that it will feed from the hand or 
mouth within half an hour. Successful in keeping one alive during a 
long railway journey, in a gauze bag attached to nis breast-button, for 
three days, during which it readily fed from a small bottle filled with a 
syrup of brown sugar and water, Mr. Gould determined to attempt the 
bringing of some living examples to England, in which he succeeded, but 
unhappily they did not long survive their arrival in London, and died on 
the second day : had they lived, it was his intention to have sent them to 
the Society's Gardens, where they would doubtless have been objects of 

rEit attraction. Mr. Gould added that he was certain that they might 
readily brought to this country ; that they would live in the gardens 
at least during the months of summer, and that the captains of any of 
the great steamers now voyaging between England and America would 
willingly render the assistance requisite to effect this desirable object. 

8. Lepiosiagon, Trask, nov. gen. (Proceedings of the California Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, vol. i, p. 99, plnte vi.) — Described by the 
author as a new genus of microscopic orgauisms referable to " the family 
of crustaceas, their form and inorganic structure, with their configuration 
seeming to warrant this, more properly perhaps than among the zooj)hytes 
or diatoms." They are said to be stylitbrm, membrano-calcareous, with 
a central canal divided by transverse septa ; the extremity anued with a 
moveable mandibular process. Eight species are described occupying 
" an extended geographical range, from Mexico to Japan." The figures of 
the plate are well executed ; and to judge from them, these forms must 
have a remarkably close resemblance to the falcigerous setae of some 
Annelides, Nereis for instance, both in form and structure. These set» 
vary much in character in the different rings of the same worm, so that 
if our conjectures be true, all of these objects may belong to two or three 
species of Annelides. w. s. 

IV. ASTRONOMY. 

1. Note on the Periodicity in the Sun's Spots ; by O. Reicrenbach, 
(Communicated by letter dated Norristown, Pa., Jan. 15, 1858). — The 
frequency of "spots" as observed mainly by Mr. Schwabe of Dessau, em- 
braces, in passing from maximum to minimum, a period of about 11 
years. The cjiuses of phenomena are far and near ; there is often idle 
discussion about two claims. In suggesting a cause, I shall not indulge 
in fanciful details on the processes at the sun's surface, on the effects rather 
than causes, which practical men, consulting experience alune, conjecture, 
but which theory framcrs, as I confess to be, believe themselves unable to 
observe. 



296 Scientific Intelligence, 

The period is about 11 years, the number of our jear giving an i\V 
defined mark. A period by a primary cause oscillates by aecondaiy 
causes. The revolution of Jupiter, the largest planet, is 11*8G yesra. 
There is affinity iu these numbers. Ihe maxima occurred in 1828, 1837 
and 1848; another draws near; farther off, six periods correspond to six 
revolutions of Jupiter; but I may be mistaken, and by a constant accele- 
ration seven periods may take place. When we try to combine the days 
of observation, the number of spots and of spotless days, we find the in- 
crease and decrease to be in a slow ratio before and a^r the maximum, 
and the decrease and increase in a rapid ratio before and after the mini- 
mum, a coincidence with the requirements of elliptic motion. 

In 1828, 1837 and 1848 occurred the maxima. In 1827, 1839, 
1851, 1862, Jupiter passes its aphelion. The first numbers coincide. 
The frequency of spots corresponds to the aphelion of Jupiter. The 
piessure at the perihelion, as my theory supposes, expands and increasa 
the envelop ; the aphelion condenses it, introducing a rapid alternation 
of precipitation and evaporation ; the mass is thereby allowed to descend 
and meet in the equatorial regions, and the temperature is there increased. 
The numbers do not all coincide. But 

(I.) Do the maxima by groups of spots correspond to the greatest 
area and darkness? No days were spotless in 1829, 1888 and 1839, all 
those years produced spots of largest dimensions. 

i2.) There is a number of other planets ; if we abstract from the far 
slow, and the near and rapid small ones, the second central planet 
remains as the principal disturber. In 1827, Saturn was 10° (corres- 
ponding to the aphelion of Jupiter) in advance of its perihelion, and the 
number of spots was considerably less than in 1837 or 1848. In 1839 
Saturn was 23° from its aphelion, advancing toward it. During the pre- 
ceding years both planets advanced together towards their aphelions, and 
the greatest number of spots occurred before 1 839. The reason of this 
anticipated maximum becomes obvious when we consult the position of 
the two aphelions. When the two planets draw near each other, the at- 
tractive force of the greater dimiuishes the spot-producing power of the 
smaller, the combined pressure on the sun is increased, Uie average dis- 
tance diminished, the angular velocity of the greater augmented, whereii 
both planets advance in 1837 towards their aphelions in the latter half 
of the serai-orbits, but differ still about a quadrant in length, their spot- 
producing effect culminates, they exercise tlie least pressure, the least re- 
pulsion on the interior sun.' In 1851 Saturn was 60° from its perihelion 
advancing towards it; beyond 48° its effect diminishes, the s(K>t-prodao- 
ing effect of Jupiter still advancing to its aphelion. In 1862 Saturn will 
bo 82° from its perihelion (in 1857-58 the time of the two perihelioDi 
pretty near coincides) advancing to its aphelion, and the maximum will 
be delayed till near that time. There is here a coincidence with tlM 
aphelion of Jupiter, but the maximum is in itself small. The next period, 
1874, is brought down to 1872. 

A relation between the ^^ spots" and the oscillations of magnetism ii 
suspected; it must exist. The planets must influence the magnetkin; 
the effect from Jupiter on the eartli must be large, as the latter twelve 
times revolving, passes at one time between the sun and that planet in it» 



MuctOaneout IntelKgence. S9T 

perihelion nii'l then in its aphelion. The earth is now pressed, now 
elated, its envelop now expanded, now condensed, between those two ro- 
tating balls, or magnets, or volUiic piles, or weights, or whatsoever thej 
are called with reference to phenomena classed under those various de- 
nominations. 

y. KISCSLLAKSOUS SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

1. Telestereaseope, — Professor Helmholtz has described an instrument 
(Pogg. Ann., 1 857, and Phil. Mag^ Jan. 1 858) which he calls a Telesti* 
reo$cope (Telescopic stereoscope), the object of which is ^* to present, ste- 
reoscopically united, two pictures of a landscape corresponding to two 
points of view, whose distances considerably exceed the distance between 
the two cyes.*^ The stereoscopic power of the eyes is small, because the 
distance between them is small. By the instrument it is widened, and the 
effect which a stereoscope produces in a picture of a landscape is thrown 
over the landscape itself. The instrument is made up of four mirrors 
and two eye-glasses. Two mirrors placed, alike, at an angle of 45^, one 
to the right and the other to the left, receive the rays of light from tlie 
landscape. These mirrors throw the rays horizontally towards one an- 
other to two oblique mirrors, which thniw Uie rays through the eye- 
glasses to the eyes. In a window, place on either side, say three or ftmr 
feet or the width of the window apart, a mirror, at the angle stated, to 
receive the rays from outside, the pUnerf of the two mirrors convi^rging 
of course to a point in the room. The mirrors will have the position of 
the half-opened shutters of the window. The rays from the scene outniJe 
on reaching them will be thrown parallel to the window, those of one 
mirror towards the other. Now by placing at the middle of the window 
two smaller mirrors meeting like the legs of a V, but at an angle of 90^, 
and facing in the room, the rays will be thrown into the room ; and if 
these two mirrors are not too large or are properly placed, the rays will 
have just the distance apart required to pass into the eyes. A box or 
frame may enclose the mirrors, and a couple of lenses be inserted as eye- 
pieces, and the effect thereby be improved ; though the lenses should have 
a focal length of thirty or forty inches. The mirrors should be made of 
the best. plate glass. The size may be much larger than the breadth of a 
window ; although not to any very great advantage. 

To see near objects in the teles tereoscope, the reflectors must be turned 
round their vertical axes so that the angle between their surfaces and the 
long edge of the box is somewhat greater than 45°. The objects then 
appear greatly reduced in size, but in surprisingly prominent relief. When 
tlie large mirrors only are turned, the small ones being left at the angle 
of 45°, an exaggerated relief is obtained. If the dimensions in the di- 
rection of the depth of the fieltl of view to those on the surface are to 
retain their right relations, the large mirrors must always remain parallel 
to the small ones. The aspects of near objects, particularly of the human 
figure, are strikingly beautiful in the telestereoscope. The impression 
dilfers from the reduction produced by concave glasses, in the circum- 
stance that it is not reduced pictures that the observer imagines he sees, 
but actually reduced bodies. 

SECOND SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. — MAECH, ISM. 

38 



SOS Miscettaneous Intettigince. 

MagnifyiDg poorer xnnj easilj be connected ^rith th^ teleitereoecOpe: 
it is only necessary to place a double opem-glass l)etwecn the eyea of the 
observer and the small reflectors ; it is still preferable for the field of view, 
to separate the eye-glass from the object-glass of Uie instiumeni, and to 
fix them in the tclestereoscope that the light at each side first strike the 
large mirror, then the object-glass, then the small reflector, and finally 
the eye-glass ; so that in this arrangement the optic axis of the telescope 
itself is broken at a right angle. The greater the magnifying power, the 
ffreater of course m\j»t be the perfection of the plane reflectora, but then 
It is not necessary to choose them larger than the object-glasa of the 
telescope. 

Tliese views, at the same time teleecopic and stereoscopic, also exceed 
to an extraordinary degree the common image of the telescope in vivid- 
ness. In the simple telescopic images, difierence of distance disappears 
totally : the objects look exactly as if they were painted on a plane sur- 
face. By the ordinary combination of the two Galileo's telcacopea, the 
appearance of relief for nearer objects is in some degree obtained; and 
hence it is that a double opera-glass givea a much livelier impreition of 
relief than a single one. But in the usual construction of the instruRient 
the relief is false : the objects appear as if they were squeezed together 
in the direction of depth. In the case of human faces, on which, for the 
most part, opera-glasses are directed, this is very striking. When they 
are regarded from the front, they appear much flatter tnan they reallj 
are, and when looked at in profile, they appear too narrow and sharp. 
In both cases the expression of the countenance is essentially altered. 

When a double opera-glass is turned round and the observer loob 
tlirough the object-glass, the deep dimensions of objects are magnified 
out of proix>rtion. While, therefore, tlirough a simple telescope all ob- 
jects appear as paintings, through a double opera-glass, complete objects 
are seen as bas-reliefs^ while by reversing the opera-glass, objects appear 
in high relief. 

2. Inquiries into the Quantity of Air inspired throughout the Day ani 
Nighty and under the influence of Exercise^ Food^ Medicine^ TemperaiMfti 
d;c., by Edward Smith, M.D., (Proc. Roy. Soc, L. E. and D. Phil. Magn 
ziv, p. 546). — ^This communication consists of three parts and cootaiai 
the results of 1200 series of observations. The author was hinaself tht 
subject of all tlie investigations. lie is thirty-eight years of age, six 
feet in height, healthy and strong, and with a vital capacity of the langs 
of 280 cubic inches. 

The paper concludes with a summary of the principal results obtained 
and a series of deductions, applicable especially to the solution or dttci* 
dation of hygienic questions. From the former the following fiicti an 
extracted : — 

The total quantity of air inspired in 24 hours (allowance being made 
for intervals amounting altogether to 40 minutes, during which it wai 
not recorded) was 711,060 cub. ins.; or an average of 20,627 cub.iiM^ 
per hour and 403*6 per minute. The quantity was much less during tht 
night than during tne day. There was an increase as the moroing sd* 
vanced and a decrease at about 8^ 30<° p. ii., but most suddeoly at wcMt 
1 1 p. M. During the day the quantity ucreased immodialdy after a bmi1| 



Miscellatuous IntelHgenc0. 9M 

I then sabmded before the next meal ; but in every inttance it rose 
in immediately l)efore a meal. The rate of frequency of respiration 
erally corresponded with the quantity, but the extremes of tlie day 
i night rates were greater. The period of greatest parallelism waa 
ween tea and supper. An increase was occasioned by one meal only, 
aely breakfast. The average depth of respiration was 20*5 cub. ins.y 
b a minimum of 18*1 cub. ins. in the night, and a maximum of 82*2 
». ins. at 1^ 30™ p. if. The mean rate of the pulse was 76 per min- 
, the minimum at 3^ 30"b a. m., the maximum at 8^ 45*" A.if.; the 
erence being more than one-third of the minimum rate. 
>leep came on in two of the series of continuous observations, and the 
e of its occurrence was also that of the lowest quantities of air in- 
•ed. 

The amount of breathing was greater in the standing than in the 
ing posture, and greater twitting than lying. It was increased by ridine 
horseback, according to the pace« also by riding in or upon an omni- 
. In railway travelling the increase was greater in a second- than in 
rst-class carriage, and greatest in the third-class and on the engine. 
increase was also produced by rowing, swimming, walking, running, 
rying weights, ascending and descending steps, and the labor of the 
id- wheel ; and in several of these cases the rate of increase was de- 
nined for different degrees of exertion used. Reading aloud and 
png, and the movement recommended by Dr. Hall for restoring sus- 
ided respiration, increased the quantity ; bending forwards whilst sit- 
IT, lessened it. 

The quantity of inspired air was increased by exposure to the heat 
1 light of the sun, and lessened in darkness. Increase and decrease of 
ficial heat produced corresponding effects ; and the depth of respira- 
1 was greatly increased by great heat. An increase in quantity was 
aed also by cold bathing, and sponging, and the c^ld snower-bath ; 
breakfast, dinner, and tea — when tea actually was taken, but when 
fee was substituted there was a decrease. Supper of bread and milk 

> caused a decrease. Milk by itself or with suet caused an increase. 
\n increase was obtained witli the following articles of diet, via. : eggs, 
f-steak, jelly, white bread (home-made), oatmeal, potatoes, sugar, tea, 
n ( I oz). The following caused a decrease, viz. : butter, fat of beef, 
^e oil, cod-liver oil, arrow-root, brandy (1 oz. to 1 J oz.), and kirchen- 
iser. Ether (^ drachm) increased the quantity and depth of inspira- 
1. A decrease in quantity was caused by sp. ammon. co. (|iss), sp. 
mon. foet (|is8), tincture of opium (20^), morphia (^ and igr.), 
:arized antimony (^ er.), and chlorid of sodium. 

Carbonate of ammonia (15 grains) caused a small increase at first and 
n a small decrease; febrifuge mediciues had a like effect Chloroform 
vi and ^ss), by the stomach, varied the quantity from an average in- 
ase of 28 cub. ins. to an average decrease of 20 cub. ins. per minute; 
h a maximum increase of 63 cub. ins. per minute. Chloric ether (|.ss) 

> varied the quantity, but there was an average increase of 17 cub> 
. per minute, and of 1*8 per minute, in the rate; whilst the pube fell 
tlie average 1*7 per min. Chloroform, by inhalation (to just short of 
:;onsciousucss), lowered the quantity a Utile during the inhalatioU) and 



800 Miscellaneous InteUigence. 

more 80 afterwards. The rate was UDchaDged, but the pulse fell, on an 
average, 1 *7 per min. Amy lene similarly administered and to the same 
degree, increased the quantity during inhalation 60 cub. ins. per min., 
but afterwards decreased it to 100 cub. ins. per min. less than during the 
inhalation. The rate of respiration was unchanged : the pulse fell 6 per 
min. at the end of the observation. 

Digitalis (infusion ^i) varied the quantity, increasing it at firet and 
then decreasing it The rate of inspiration was unaflfected, whilat that of 
pulsation somewhat increased. 

The paper is accompanied by tables of numerical statements, and by 
diagrams exhibiting the results m a series of curves. 

8. Fluorescence, — Prof. J. W. Mallet states in a letter to one of the 
editors of this Journal (dated Tuscaloosa, Ala., Jan. 29) that an old solu- 
tion of oir of orange-flowers (Oleum Neroli) in alcohol — one part of the 
former to twelve or fifteen of the latter — fluoresces strongly with a beau- 
tiful pale purplish light. The solution was made some six or seven yean 
ago, and did not exhibit this phenomenon at first 

4. A St/stem of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe^ being 
a graduated course of analysis for the use of Students and all those m- 
gaged in the examination of metallic comlnnations. 268 pp., 12mo. 
New York, 1858. H. Bailliere. — The use of the blowpipe has been so 
thoroughly perfected by Berzelius and Plattner that now-a-days it is 
hardly possible to produce an original treatise on this subject Those 
who have hitherto undertaken to prepare blowpipe manuals, have wisely 
followed the accurate observations of these masters, and have reproduced 
them in a more or less altered form and arrangement, to suit the conven- 
ience of students. The book before us is acknowledged to be chiefly a 
copy, but it is eminently and unfortunately original. 

The work is due, as appears from the publisher's advertisement, to Prof. 
J. Milton Sanders of Cincinnati, Ohio, though a modest S. appended to the 
Preface is all of the name the present volume contains. We had occasion 
recently to criticise a publication issued over the same name ; and we 
could wish that now we had only to commend. But we should not be 
just to ffood English or good science if we were so to treat it 

Besides much incorrect use of plain English, we find Geruian idioms 
strangely intruded on the language of the laboratory, and also misunder- 
stood. He says, ** If insoluble substances are fused with others for the 
purpose of causing a combination which is soluble in water and acid, the 
operation is called uyic^«t9i^" (auftchliessen ?). A^ain, ^If we detonate 
(as it is termed by the German chemists) the sulphide of antimony or 
the sulphide of arsenic with nitrate of potash, we get the nitrate of anti- 
mony or nitrate of arsenie,^^ We are not aware that either our own or 
the Latin language is indebted to the Germans for the word detonate^ aod 
moreover we do not see any propriety in its use in that place. The author 
may have meant to say deflagrate^ though tliis would uot be a term from 
the German chemists. The science of the passage is its most extraordinary 
feature ; for we have here announced for the first time in the history of 
chemistry, the existence of a basic oxyd of arsenic and its niinoUs — a fiKt 
not even mentioned in the 4th American edition of Gregory^a Chemiitiyt 
"' ' by PkoC Sanden himself! 



Miscellaneous Intelligence. SOI 

The above may be enough to exhibit both the literary and scientific 
merits of the work. We would not however do the author injustice, and 
therefore make a few other citations. The italics beyond are ours. 

Page 160 we read: ^Arsenic acid (AsO^) h a white mass which 
readily absorbs moisture and dissolves. It will not volatilize at a low red 
beat, nor will il decompose. Exposed to a strong beat it is decomposed, 
yielding oxyeen, and passing into arsenious acid.*' Under arsenioun acid 
we are told tnat ^ Upon charcoal it instantly volatilizes, and token heated 
the characteristic garlic smell is perceived.'' 

Of silver is said (p. 163^, ^ it is not oxydizable, neither at common tem- 
peratures nor at those which are con^idernblv higher." The merest tyro 
in chemistry will henceforth have an infallibfe means of recognizing this 
useful metal. On page 59, in describing the behavior of silver on char- 
coal before the blowpipe, the language of Plattner and Seheerer being 
nearly followed, and also on pa^ 264, where Blanford's account of the 
reactions of native silver is copied — the well known red deposit of oxyd 
of silver formed when the metal or its oxyds are strongly heated on char- 
coal is of course duly noticed ; but in the chapter on Special Reactions^ 
which appears to be the most original part of the work, in giving the 
general characters of his ** ninth ffroup" of metals, viz., copper, silver 
and gold, Pmf. S. states that: "In the reduction of the oxyd of this 
group no sublimate is visible on charcoal." 

Platinum is repeatedly said to be infusible. We are however in the 
habit of showing to our classes tlie fusion of a fine wire of this metal in 
the flame of the mouth blowpipe in accordance with the observations of 
Fiedler, Plattner and others. 

According to the author, boracic acid bleaches brazil-wood-paper, but 
nothing is said of the action of sulphurous acid, the latter having this 
bleaching effect while the former has not. We also learn that phosphoric 
acid tinges it yellow in the same manner as hydrofluoric acid. 

The blowpipe is concisely described in the tbllowing language. *'It is 
generally made in the form of a tube bent at a right angle, but without 
a sharp corner. The largest one is about seven inches long, and the 
smallest about two inches." This of course refers to the common blow- 
pipe ; but the hand blowpipe used for chemical purposes does not seem to 
be " made in the form of a tube" if we rightly understand the following 
description. It ^* is composed of the following parts : (fig. 1) A is a little 
reservoir made air-tight by grinding the part B into it" 

Af^er 178 pages of the proper treatise on the blowpipe, the author 
finishes his labors by copying bodily, typographical errors included, about 
90 pages from Blanford on the Behavior of Minerals before the Blowpipe, 
which his preface thus acknowledges ; we quote the paragraph as an 
example of his style : ^ In Part Third of this work, commencing at 
page 109, the student will find a sufficiently explicit description of the 
blowpipe reactions of those principal substances that would be likely to 
come beneath his attention. The following tabular statement of those 
reactions — which we take from Seheerer and Blanford's excellent little 
work upon the blowpipe— will be of great benefit, as a vehicle for con- 
suliaiion^ when the want of time — or during the hurry of an examina- 
tion — precludes the attentive perusal of the more lengthy description in 
the text" 



802 Mi9ceUaneouM IiUeBigenc€. 

5. Lectures on Boman Husbandry — delivered before the UniTersitj of 
Oxford, comprehending such an account of the System of Agriculture, 
the Treatment of Domestic Animals, tlie Horticulture, etc. pursued in 
ancient times, as may be collected from the Scriptores Rei UusticA, the 
Georgics of Virgil, and other classical authorities, with notices of the 
plants mentioned in Columella and Virgil ; by Professor Charles Dau- 
BENT, M.D., F.R.S., etc., Professor of Botany and Rural Ecoooroy in the 
University of Oxford. 828 pp., 8vo. Oxford and London, 1857. — ^The 
scientific and classical world are under equal obligations to the learned 
author for his valuable and attractive work on the condition of agricul- 
ture and horticulture, and the breeding of domestic animals, in the most 
flourishing period of the Roman power. The author alludes in his pre* 
face to his indebtedness to the earlier treatise of the Rev. Mr. Dickson on 
the *' Husbandry of the Ancients," published in 1788, but states that he 
has embraced a wider range of topics, adding to the subject of tillags 
that of the culture of the vmeyard and orchard, the treatment of domes- 
tic animals of all kinds, the cultivation of the garden and other oollatend 
topics. Dr. Daubeny has brought to the task a familiar acquaintance 
with classical learning as well as with the sciences pertaining to the sub- 

1'ect As a chemist and botanist and also a man of general science he 
las long been known. It is impossible, within the limits of a brief no- 
tice, to present an analysis of a work which is itself an analysis of the 
ancient authors on the subjects referred to. The impression left on the 
mind of the reader is, that of an intereetinff and instructive review of an- 
tiquity ; we travel along pleasantly with the author through his learned 
and agreeable volume. 

The work is illustrated by a plan of Pliny's Laurentian villa and 
grounds, another of a Villa Urbana Rustica and Fructuaria according U> 
Columella, of a Garden and Portico at Pompeii, pictures of agricultunl 
operations from Egyptian monuments, ancient Greek agricultural imple- 
ments, plan of an Egyptian garden, and drawings of plants mentioned 
by ancient autliors. n. s. ' 

6. Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science^ tie.; byRosisr 
DuNOLisoN, M.D., LL.D., revised and very largely corrected. Philadel- 
phia : Blanchard ik Lea. 1857. 8vo, pp. 992. — ^This accomplished tnd 
learned author here presents us with a thoroughly revised edition of bit 
Lexicon of medical tenns. It is prepared with great care and in tht 
widest and most catholic spirit The literary and the mechanical exeea- 
tion of the work are remarkably accurate and satisfactory. Good lexicons 
and encyclopedic works generally, are the most labor-saving contrivancei 
which literary men enjoy ; and the labor which is required to prodooe 
them in the perfect manner of this example is something appalliDf to 
contemplate. The author tells us in his preface that he has added about 
six thousand terms and subjects to this edition which before was consid- 
ered universally as the best work of the kind in any language. 

7. Cosmos. — Ilumboldt, in a letter to the German Association of Nat- 
uralists and Physicians, recently published, announces that a new volams 
of the Cosmos (the first Ahtheilung of the fourth and last Band) is almost 
ready for publication. It will present, as a counterpart to the third Tot 
nme on Uranologiei an introduction to the sf&dtl preientitiott cf Ttmi' 



MisceUaneaus InUUigene^. 808 

trial phenonidna. The contents are stated as follows. Book I : Size, 
Shape and Thickness of the Earth, Internal Heat, Ma^etic Activity of 
the Earth, Intensity, Inclination, Declination, Ma^etic Equator, Four 
Points of the Greatest Intensity, Curve of the Weakest Intensity, Extra- 
ordinary Disturbances, Magnetic Storms, Polar Light. Book II : Reac- 
tioo of the Interior of the Earth upon the Surface, Earthquake, Thermal 
Bprings, Volcanoes, Naphtha Springs, Volcanic Phenomena. 

The second part of the fourth volume, which will complete the whole 
work, will contain, Classification of Mountains and Strata according to 
their different modes of origin, Conformation of Plains, the Sea and iti 
Currents, the Atmosphere, Meteorological reflections, Isothermal Linet| 
Organic Life, Geography of Plants and Animals. 

8. Graham's CheinUiry^ Vol. U.* — This long expected volume is at last 
published, forming volume ziii of Mr. Bailliere's * Library of Illustrated 
Scientific Works.' It is a very acceptable addition to the library of 
standard books of every chemical student Mr. Watts, well known as the 
translator of the Cavendish Society edition of Gmelin's Chemistry — has 
made in the Supplement an able resume of the progress of the science 
nnce the publication of the first volume. It is plain from the number 
and importance of the topics there discussed that great progrress has been 
made in the interval both in chemical physics and in general inorganio 
chemistry. The best thing the enterprising publisher can now do is as 
soon as possible to reprint the whole work and incorporate in their proper 
places the various topics forming the Supplement of 320 pages, i^ut as 
it is, no reader of English worlu on this science can afibrd to be without 
this edition of Prof. Graham's Elements. A mention of some of the 
topics discussed will justify this assertion. We find the new methods 
of Volumetric Analyses detailed, with a description of Bunsen's General 
Method, the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, the Mechanical and Chemical 
Measure of the effects of the Electric Current, Pasteur's observations on 
the remarkable relations between Crystalline form and Molecular rotarr 
power. The modern views of the constitution and classification of Chemi- 
cal Compounds are explained at considerable length chiefly according to 
Gerhardt's Unitary System. The work is beautifully printed, and, as far 
as wo have examined it, praiseworthy in its freedom from typographical 
errors. 

9. Life of Dr, E. K, Kane ; by Dr. Wm. Eldkb. Philadelphia, 1858. 
Childs h Petersen. 8vo, pp. 416. — Every thing connected with the ro« 
mantic and self-sacrificing lite of Dr. Kane is read with avidity by people 
of all conditions. Dr. Elder's memoir is a glowing eulogy of his hero. 
The most valuable portions of it are the numerous extracts from the letters 
and manuscripts of Dr. Kane, picturing his various wanderings in Africa, 
Asia and Europe. 

10. American Association for the Advancement of Science. — The next 
meeting of the Association will be held at Baltimore, commencing with 
the last Wednesday in April. Prof. Jeffries Wyman of Cambridge is 
President elect for the coming year. 

* Elempnts of Chemistry, including the Application of the Science to the Arts, 
by Tuo«. Ob ARAM, F.R.S., L. A E. 2d edition, edited by UxNar Watts, B.A., F.C5. 
New York, Chas. £. Bailliere, 1867. 8vo, pp 804. 



804 Miicellaneous Intelligence. 

O. Reiohbnbach : Einige Gedanken eines Nichtgelebrten bei Lesung 
des Kosmos. 138 pp. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1857. 

Boston Journal of Natural JTistory, Vol VI, No. IV. Contents. — Art XXV, 
New Species of Fossil Plants from the Anthnicite and Dituminoua Coal fields of 
Pennsylvania, bv Leo Lrsqukrkux, with introductory ob^enrations, by H. D. Rooku. 
— Art XX vt 6li8ervations on the Development of Anablept Oronovii, by Jicrnuii 
AVtman.— Art XXVII, On the Crustacea and Echinodemiata of the Pacific shores 
of North America, by W. Stimpson.— Art. XXVIII. A list of the Fishes collected 
in Califomiii by Mr. E. Samueb*. with descriptiorib of new specie's by C. Oirabd. 

Journal of the Aeadumy of Natural Scifnce* of Philadefphia. New Series, Vol 
III, Part IV. — Art XIX, Descriptions of Exotic Genera and Species of the Family 
Unionidie, with plates 21 to 88, by I. Lea.— Art XX, Observations on agmopof 
Cretaceous Fossil shells, found in Tippah Co., Miss., with descriptions of fifty-siz 
new speciea, with plates 84. 85, by T. A. Conrad.— Art XXI. On the Cadudbian* 
dilate Urodele Batrachian^ by E. HALix>W£Li. — Art XXII, On Trigooophrys rugi- 
eeps, and plate 86, by K. Uali^owkll. 

PttooBEi>i.>ios AoAD. Nat. Soi. Piiilad., 1867.— p. 101, Six new Rpeciesof Fresh- 
water and Land shells of Texas; /. Lea, — p. 102, Examinat'ion of a Nickel Meteor- 
ite from Mississippi ; W. /. Taylor — p. 109, Notes explanatory of a Map and Sectioa 
illustrating the Geology of the Nebraska Territory; F, V, Hayden, — p. 117, De- 
scriptions of New Fossils from the Nebraska Tertiary and Cretaceous ; Meek and 
Baydett.^p. 148, On the Larva of Thyreus Abbottii; J. P, KirtlantL—j^ 149, 160. 
Bone and Coprolite from the New Red Sandstone of Pennsylvania ; J. LeUy.^ 
p. 160, Tlie Insectivorous mammal of the New Red of N. Carolina, nanMsd Jhoma- 
therium eyf ventre by Emmons, is closely allied to the Spalacotherium of Owen fmm 
the En^i^lish Pin beck beds of the Oolitic formation ; J. Leidy. — Change of the 

generic name of fossil fishes AfikoleptH to Eurylepie; J. 8. Netoberry. — p. 151, 
fotes on the Geology of the Mauvaises Terres, Nebraska; F. V. Hayden, — pi 16d, 
Prodmmus descriptionis Animalium evertebnitoruro, <&c., Annelides; W. Stimpeoh. 
—p. 1 65, Dtiscriptirms of two new genera of shells, one including a species near 
Anoilonta from tiie Sacramento, the other an Eocene fossil hitherto referred to Ko»- 
tellaria, and named Calyplraphoras ( C. velatun, being Rost. velatiis, of Conrad, Tcrt 
Foss., p. 88, pi. 15, f. 4); T. A. Cofirad—p. 166, Rectification of some generic names 
of U. S. Tertiary fossils; T. A. Conrad — A new MyacUee from the Black shale of 
the New Red Sandstone of PennHylvaiiia; 7! A, Conrad — p. 167, A new genu^ 
Jfylilopin, related to Mytilus; 7! A, Cotirad-^p. 167. Notice of some remains of 
extinct Fi>'he8 (Cretaceous, Tertiary and New Red); / Leidy.— ji. 168, ExaminatioQ 
of Enargite ; IV. J Taylor.-— p. 16U, Descriptions of 27 new species of Uniones frum 
Georgia; /2>a. — p. 178, Fish scale from lied Sandstone formation of Uwynned, 
Pa., probably identical wiih Jiadiolepin ttpeciotwt, Emmons, of N. Carolina ; /. Xm.— 
p. 174, On three new species of Vespertilionidie ; John LeConte. — Rectificatioo of 
the references of certain of the Extinct Mamtiialian Genera of Ncbrasika ; J. Leid^/. 
— p. 176, Dentition of Mosasuurus; /. Leidy. — p. 178, Note on Insect wax of China. 
—The .Atlantic finhes, Exocetun acuttt*, Prititipotna Rodo, Ephippue Faher^ found at 
Panama in the Pacifii*.. — p. 1 79, Observations on the Wild Turkey, Gallopava sylves- 
trin; /. LeConte. — p. 181, 195, New Reptiles collected in Wilkes^s ExpL Exp.; C 
Oirard — p. 188, Notes on American Lamd Shells; W. O. Binney. — p. 2»K), Notice 
of new genera and species of Marine and Freshwater Fishes from Western North 
America; C Girard — A new Cypselus from Puget Sound; C. B. R. Kennerly.— 
Notes on Gordius. larves of an (E'ttrus in a pouched rat, a new animalcule ; J.Ltii^. 
p. 205. — p. 206. On the experiment of introducing the Camel into America; Dr. 
Hamm*md — p. 218, On N. Americim species of Archibuteo and Lanius and deKiip- 
tion of a new Toucan; /. Catnn. — p. 215, New North American Reptiles; R Hm- 
lotoell. — p. 216. IVodromus Descrtptionis An. everteb. drc, Ringgola and Rodgers' 
North Pacific Expedition, — Species of Crustacea (Alaioids) ; W. Stimpfion, — Auaoal 
Reports. 



i 



305» 



APPENDIX 



1. On Permian Strata in Komos Territory; by Pro£ G. C. Swallow. 
(From a letter to J. D. Dana, dated Columbia, Misaouri, Feb. 16, 1858.) 

I have jnst finished the examiDation of a oollection of fomU from 
Kansas Territoij, made by Maj. Hawn, who was formerly connected with 
our Survey. The larger part of the collection is from the Upper Coal 
Measures ; but by far the most interesting part can not be referred to the 
Carboniferous, or to any other formation lieretofore known to exist in the 
West 

From the beds in doubt there was but one known Carboniferous spedei, 
Terebratula subtilita of Hall. It is quite certain they are not Cretaceous. 
After a somewhat careful comparison with the Permian fossils of Runiai 
we are satisfied that they are Permian. 

Three out of the four species of corals, are without doubt Permian. 

ITiamnieua dubius^ ^ng^ is certainly in our collection. 

Thamnicus. Species undetermined, but identical with a Permian spe* 
dmen figured in the Geol. Trans., 2d Series, vol. iii, pi. zii, fi^. 7. 

Fenestella reti/ormis, King. Our specimens are identical with the Rus- 
sian species referred doubtfully to this, by Mr. Lonsdale, Geol. Russia, p. 680. 

Sckizodus Bossicus, Yern., Geol. Russ. pi. xdl, figs. 7 and 8. We hare 
many specimens of this Permian species. Both varieties and the inter- 
mediate forms are represented. 

Atncula aniiqua. Geol. Russ., pi. zz, fig. 13. 

Productus horrescenSy Vem., Geol. Russ. pi. xvni, ^g. 1. Our collection 
contains specimens which are more nearly allied to these than to any 
other known species. 

We also have species which are very nearly if not quite identical with 
Murchisonia euhangulata^ Vem., Mytilus Pallan, Vem., Solemya hiar- 
mica, Vem., Ostodemia Kutorgana, Yern., of the Permian in Russia and 
Cardinia LUteri of the English Lias. We also have one or two speciei 
of MonotiSy a genus seldom, if ever, extending down into the Carbon- 
iferous. 

I can but feel that the above is sufficient to justify us in the decision 
that they are Permian. I know of no other formation in the country, 
whose fossils would give so large a proportion of species identical and 
analogous with those of any one locality in Europe. 

We have as yet compared them with none but the Russian species by 
Vemeuil. When the examination is completed I will give you the result 
more in detail. 

2. New Determination of the Sun^e Parallax, — In a letter to the Hon. 
L Toucey, Secretary of the Navy, dated Feb. 18, 1858, Prof. J. M. Gilliss 
communicates as one result of the observations on Yen us and Mars made 
by the U. S. Astronomical Expedition to Chili in 1849-1852, compared 
with simultaneous observations in the Northern hemisphere, that the Sun*s 
Equatorial Horizontal Parallax is 8"-4950, or 0"-0762 less than the value 
commonly adopted ; corresponding to a mean distance of the Sun from 
the earth of 96,160,000 statute miles. 

SBCOKD SERIES, VOL. XXV, NO. 74. MARCH, IS6S, 



TBI 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS. 



[8X00 K B 81 R 118.] . 



Art. XKYIL— Geographical NMoe9.—Ifo. L 

It is proposed to give in this jonrnal from time to time notioet 
of nev geographiciS disooveries and explorations, particularly 
aooonnts of scientific expeditions in different parts or the world. 
In preparing these articles, free use will be made of the Vest 
European journals and especially of the excellent repository 
edited by Dr. Petermann at Gotha, Die Qeographiache MtUhellr 
ungen. 

As this periodical is new and not widely circulated in Ameriot 
we desire to call particlilar attention to its valae. It was com* 
menced in 1865 at Gotha under the editorial charge of Dr. A. 
Petermann, who has long been distinguished for his geograph* 
jcal labors. Twelve numbers appear in the year, each contain- 
ing one or more new maps, for the most |>art aomirably engraved* 
The editor has a wide correspondence in different parts of the 
world and his relations with various scientific men in England, 
Germany, and America, are such that he is able to give early 
and reliable intelligence in respect to all important explorations* 
In addition to the discussion of specific questions, particular 
a4;tention is paid to a review of new geographical literature. 

The necessity of giving, at the outset, a wide survey of inves* 
ligations which are now in progress, precludes, in the present 
article, the possibility of so much detail as would otherwise be 
desirable. 

WCOEfD SEBIES. Vol. XXV, No. 7«.^IUV, IW. 
39 



800 Geographical Notices. 

AFRICA. 

BartKs Travels, Dr. Vogel — Particular attention is now di- 
rected toward Africa from all civilized countries, and explora- 
tions are in progress at numerous points. The publication in 
Germany ana England and the reprint in America of the first 
three volumes of Dr. Barth's Travels in North and Central 
Africa, followed immediately by the publication of Dr. Living- 
stone's work on his journey and residence in South Africa gives 
especial interest to all expeditions on that continent. These 
important volumes being generally accessible it is unnecessary 
to state here their character. It is however desirable that stu- 
dents should know that the relations of Barth's work to other 
previous and cotemporaneous journies are well shown in Map 
No. 1 of the English edition, but this and all the other maps of 
that edition are omitted in the American reprint. An outline 
map only, which originally appeared months ago in Petermann's 
Mittheilungen, is given in the New York edition. 

Kiepert's new Wdnd-Atlasj Lieferung 2, embodies the more 
important of Barth's topographical determinations. So to a less 
extent does a map in the new Encyclopaedia Britannica, illustrat- 
ing an article on Africa which is attributed to Dr. Petermann. 

Letters have just been received in Germany which were sent 
home by Dr. Barth three years ago. They contain much inter- 
esting matter not before published, in respect to his final resi- 
dence in Timbucktu ana his journey on the Niger to Gogo. 
They are printed in Petermann's MittheiL, vol. iii, Nos. 9 and 10, 
in advance of the publication of the fourth and fifth volumes of 
Barth's Travels. 

Hopes are still entertained that Dr. Vogel, one of Barth's com- 
panions, was not murdered as reported, but is still alive. Direc- 
tions have been forwarded by tne British Government to their 
Consul at Chartum directing him to make all possible inquiries 
in respect to the fate of this intrepid traveller. 

On the other hand, letters have been received in England and 
Germany from Cairo, mentioning the arrival of an Envoy from 
the Sultan of Dar Fur, who states that Vogel was murdered at 
Wadai by command of the prince of Wadai. 

Later dates say that Baron Neimann, who has lately been 
traveling in Arabia, having heard that Vogel was yet in impris- 
onment at Wadai, had determined to go and ascertain. 

Dr. Limngstone^s return to Africa. — Dr. Livingstone it is an- 
nounced will return immediately to South Africa. His plan of 
operations there is thus stated in Sir R I. Murchison's Annive^ 
sary Address before the Roy. Geog. Soc. of London. " His aim, 
when he returns to Quilimane and Tete in the spring of 1858, or 
the first period of the healthy season, and after he liaa rejoined 



Omgi-apkiMl Nukm. Wn 



i 



his old oomptnioiifl the Makololo, who axe anxionsl]^ waiting for 
him, will be to endeavor to establish marts or stations beyond 
the Portngaese eolony, to which the inhabitants of the interior 
may brinff their goocGs for sale, and where they ma^ interohan{D;e 
ikem for British produce. At these stations^ which will be m 
those flankinff, high srounds of the African continent that he 
has described as perfect sanatoria, he will endeavor to extend 
the growth of cotton, as well as to teach the natives how to till 
their lands, taking oat with him for these intents cotton-seed, 
ins, ploughs, &c. He will farther endeavor to bring to the 
Inglish maricet a vegetable called Boise, which possesses so 
tough and fibrous a tissue as to render it of ^;reat value even to 
the natives in their rude manu&ctures. Specimens of this plants 
which grows in profusion on the north oank of the Zambesi, 
have b^n converted into a substance that has been pronounoea 
by a leading manufacturer to be worth, when prepared, between 
fifty and sixty pounds per ton, and applicable to all purposes 
for which flax is employed. In this material, therefore, atone, 
to say nothing of indigo, cotton, beeswax, ivory, and the ores of 
iron, with much good coal, we have sufficient indication that no 
time should be lost in establishing a regular intercourse with the 
natives of so prolific a region. 

"Thus, acting as the pioneer of civilization, Dr. Livingstone 
will first engage the gooa will of the natives through their love 
of barter, anoj having secured their confidence by honestrtr of 
purpose, he will the more readily be able to leiul them to aaopt 
the truths of that religion of which he is a minister, and of the 
value of which his whole life is a practical illustration." 
Dr. Livingstone himsell^ in a speech at the Farewell Banquet 

S'ven to him in London, February 14, expresses a hope that he 
all find, through that part of the country which he has already 
explored, a pathway by means of the river Zambesi, which may 
lead to highlands where Europeans may form a settlement^ and 
where, by opening up communication and establishing commer- 
cial intercourse with the natives of Africa, they may slowly but 
not the less surely impart to the people of that country the 
knowledge and the inestimable blessings of Christianity. 

With the aid of Captain Bedingfield, who accompanies him, 
he hopes to ascertain the principles of the river system of that 
^reat continent ; and if he finds that system to be what he thinks 
it is, he proposes to establish a d^pot upon the Zambesi/ and 
from that station more especially to examine into that river sys- 
tern, which, according to the statements of the natives, would 
afford, if discovered, a pathway to the country beyond, where 
cotton, indigo and other raw material might be obtained to any 
amount 



308 Qtograpkical Notices. 

Men experienced in geology, botany and photograpliy are also 
to join in this expedition, ana nnder a leader of sucb acknowl- 
edged ability important results may be anticipated. 

it is proper to remark that Mr. W. D. Cooley, who has long 
been distinguished for his attention to African geography, dis- 
putes* many of Dr. Livingstone's generalizations and inferenoes 
in respect to the structure of the southern portion of the conti- 
nent, and especially his statement of the union of the Leeambye 
and the Zambesi. 

Niger Expedition, — A new expedition sent out by the British 
Government under a contract with Mr. Macgregor Laird is enr 
ga^ed in exploring the regions watered by the Kwara or Niger 
and its tributaries. It is commanded by Dr. Baikie who nsA 
visited the same region in 1854, and is now accompanied by his 
former companion Mr. May, R. N., and by other scientific men. 

The objects of the expedition as organized by the English 
Admiralty are, " to explore the river Niger and its tributaries, 
to ascertain the natural productions and capabilities of the coun- 
tries through which they flow, to enter into friendly relations 
with the Native chiefs, to facilitate the return of liberated Afri- 
cans to their homes, and practically to show the advantages of 
legitimate trade over the debasing and demoralizing traffic in 
slaves." 

An iron screw-steamer the " Day Spring," 170 tuns burth^ 
combining 30-horse power with less than five feet draught of 
water, was originally employed by this party ; but it has lately 
been lost above Rabbat and its place will be supplied by another 
vessel, the " Sunbeam." 

The party, consisting of twelve Europeans and forty liberated 
black seaman, was to proceed up the river to Babbat. Sakatu 
was then to be visited, and also Isai and Busah. The neighbor 
hood of the confluence of the Benue or Tchadda and the Kwan 
was then to be examined with reference to the establishment of 
an English commercial station. In another season the Benue is 
to be ascended, and the regions of Adamawa and Hamarrawa are 
to be explored, and perhaps the higher part of the Old Calabar 
river may be reached. 

The geological instructions of this expedition were prepared 
bv Sir R. I. Murchison, who expresses the hope (in his annual 
address before the Royal Geographical Society, from which some 
of the above facts are taken) that much mineral wealth is to be 
found. 

"In fact,^' he says, "if the survey be completed in the manner 
devised, the whole western side of Central Africa will have beea 
so traversed, as to yield two important sections, which cannot fidl 
to give us the knowledge we desire. The Niger or Kwara flowi 

* LoDcloQ Atbemeam, Feb. 18, 1858. 



€k0gnfJiikal Nodeu. SQ0 

in a goige acrosB aadi ihiok ribs of rooloi as must sorely enable 
the travellers to read off a dear lessoii, whilst an exoursioa from 
the upper part of the Tchadda to the sources of tiie Calabar, on 
the one hand, and to the heights of Aed Hamarrawa on the 
other, will also a£Ebid an instructive parallel traverse of no less 
iinportance." 

Tke Etoayrac expedition to Ae Nik. — An expedition, paid for 
by the Yioeioy of Egypt, and placed under the direction of the 
^noh geoffrapher Count Escajrao de Lauture, to explore the 
Boufoes of &e W hite Nile, has been abandoned on, account of 
dissensions among the members of the party. Its appointed 
head, in a letter to the Paris " Presse," expresses his belief that 
an armed force is necessary to accompany such an expedition as 
he had under command. 

Boman CkUkoUo Mieeion to the Upper NUe, — ^A mission, founded 
at Chartum in 1846 by Pope Gr^ory XVI, and continued in 
that rMion until now und^ difiEmnt leaders and in spite of 
many cufficulties, has made known ma^ interesting &cts in 
respect to thepeople and country of the Upper Nile, which are 
published at Vienna in the Annual Beports (from 1862 to 1867) 
of the Mariens-Yerein ftir Beforderung der katholischen Mission 
in Central- Afrika. The three joumies of Father £nobIecher to 
Qondokoro especially deserve mention. 

BeugUn^e Journey in Abyssinia. — Th. von Heuglin, of the Aus^ 
trian consulship at Chartum made, in 1862-S, extended travels in 
AbvBsinia, with a view to the establishment of friendly reUttions 
with that country. We have just received an account of the 
journey, published in Gotha. The flora and especially the fituna 
y{ that region are noticed by the author. The volume contains 
m original profile of the country between the mouths of the 
jrandowa and the Takkasi valley, a map and some other illus- 
nations. 

Major Burton on the Coast of Zanzibar. — ^Major Burton, who is 
3xploring the coast of Zanzibar, has been heard from as &r in 
;he interior as Fuga, some eighty miles from the coast. His 
>bBervations may be expected to settle definitely the disputed 
x>int whether or not there are snow-covered mountains near the 
quator and the extent of the great sea UniamesL 

Sirsch on Algiers, — Special efforts have been made within a 
few years past by the French government to turn toward Algiers 
lie stream of German emigration which would naturally flow 
ioward America. With reference to this, Dr. Max Hirsch has 
published a volume entitled ^* Skizze der volkswirthschaftlichen 
Sostande von Algerien," (Gottingen, 1867,) in which he briefly 
tates many important &ct8 concerning the capabilities of Algiers, 
>romising a fuller account of his travels at no distant day. He 
apposes German emigration in that direction. 



310 



Otographical NatictM. 



Soundings and Surveys near tlie African coast — ^The following 
information is derived from the Address, before mentioned, of 
Sir R. I. Murchison : 

" On a recent route from Malta to the Dardanelles, Captain 
Spratt bad an opportunity of obtaining a line of deep-sea sound- 
ings between that island and Candia in which the greatest depth 
was 2170 fathoms. The section is very striking; for a distance 
of 50 miles to the eastward of Malta the depth does not exceed 
100 fathoms, after which it drops almost suddenly to 1500 and 
2000 fathoms, and continues near that level below the sur&ce of 
the sea until within 20 miles of the east end of Candia or Crete, 
where the White Mountains and Mount Ida rise ui) to a nearly 
equal height above the level of the sea. Between Crote and the 
Dardanelles the greatest depth is 1110 fathoms. 

On the North coast of Egypt, Commander Mansell in the 
Tartarus, with his assistants Lieut. Brooker and Mr. Skead, 
have completed a survey of thfe coast from Damietta eastward to 
£1 Araish, on admirable plan of the port of Alexandria, and a 
survey of the Bay of Suez, a place daily becoming of more im- 
portance, as our direct mail communication extends to India, 
China, and Australia. 

While on this subject I should mention, that in October, 1856, 
Messrs. Delamanchc and Ploix, Ing^nieurs Hydrographes of the 
French Imperial Marine, carried a line of soundings across the 
Mediterranean between Port Vendres in France ana Algiers, in 
which the greatest depth was about the same as in the Levant, 
namely 1600 fathoms.^ 

In the Nautical Magazine, Captain Mansell reports the follow- 
ing soundings between Alexandria and the west end of Rhodes.* 
The first column gives the miles from Alexandria, the second 
the depth in fathoms, and the third the nature of the bottom. 



10 
20 

30 
60 
70 
90 



110 
200 
450 
850 
1000 
1300 



Sand and mud. 
Sand and coral. 
Fine black mud. 
Yellow mud. 



4i 






110 
130 
160 
170 
200 



1660 
1600 
1600 
1500 
1300 



Yellow mud. 



u 
u 
u 
u 



u 
u 
u 
u 



Between the west end of Rhodes and Nicasia he obtained these 

soundings: 



10 
80 



500 Yellow mud. 
920 " " 



66 1400 Yellow mud. 
76 1360 « ** 



ASIA. 



The Brothers Schlagintweit in India. — The report of the broth- 
ers Schlagintweit (well known from their earlier journeys in the 
Alps) in respect to their recent travels in India^ and eepedallj 

* Y. Peteno. MittL, yoL iii, Ko. IS. 



( 



Qeographical Notices. 31 1 

tiieir visit to the Trans-Himalayan chain of Kuenluen, may be 
looked for atan early day. Notwithstanding the jealousy with 
which this expedition has been regarded in England,* there is 
reason to believe that it will make important additions to our 
knowledge of that region. 

In Peterraann's Mittheilungen, 1856, p. 104, there is an outline 
map of the route which the brothers followed. Robert Schla^^int- 
weit gave, before the British Association in August last, a brief 
sketch of the journey, which is thus reported in the Athenaeum : 

"In 1854 they reached India, and passed from Bombay to 
Madras through Central India, each by different routes, making 
geological, geographical, and other scientific investigations as 
they proceeded. On their sea voyage, previously, they had 
made observations as to the specific gravity of sea water, and 
also as to the currents of the sea, and continued these in the 
voyage from Madras to Calcutta. On arriving at Calcutta, in the 
beginning of 1855, Hermann Schlagintweit set out for the north- 
western provinces of Bengal, and, having reached Sikkin, con- 
tinued their researches all along the Himalayas, with a view of 
ascertaining their height, and the characteristics of the places, 
from that until they came to the high mountain of Nepaul, 
which was lately called Mount Everest by Col. Waugh, after 
his distinguishea predecessor. This is the highest mountain in 
the world at present known, beint? considerably over 29,000 
feet above the level of the sea. The natives have two names 
for it — one of them, Gorishanta, which is mythological, is to be 
found only in the Nepaulese, and the second name Chino^ofan- 
mara, is that by whicn it is known among the people of Thibet. 
The name Deodunga, which was mentioned by Mr. Hodgson in 
connexion with this peak, was not the name of it at all, but of 
a small mountain some 8,000 feet high, which lies in the same 
direction. 

''After leaving Sikkin, Hermann, having examined part of 
Bhostin, the Himalayas, and Upper Assam, returned to Calcutta, 
by Brahmapootra and the delta of the Ganges. Robert and his 
brother Adolphe, left Calcutta in March, 1855, and after passing 
through the northwestern provinces, reached Natal, and then 
went to Milum, and thence to Thibet. They investigated the 
geographical and other features of the country as they went on: 
paying special attention to the alluvial deposit along the immense 
valley, the largest probably in the world. In this valley the 
Indus and the Dihong both take their rise, and flow in the one 
direction for hundreds of miles in parallel lines, separated only 
by a small rise in the surface of the valley. They then went to 
Abiganuri, and having encamped on a glacier there, at the 
height of 19,220 feet, on the evening of the IStli of August, 

* See Athen., Feb. 6, 1858. 



312 Geographical Notices. 

they succeeded on the 19th of August in reaching Abiganuri, 
at the height of 22,260 feet, the greatest height which had ever 
been attained on any mountain. They returned by different 
routes, each pursuing his inquiries. 

"He then entered into some details respecting a journey which 
they took in the subsequent year to Central India, where they 
visited the plateau of Amerkantak, which is only about S,SOO feet 
in height aoove the level of the sea, though it is commonly sup- 
posed to be 8,000 feet Four rivers take their rise in the neim- 
Dorhood of this plateau, — ^the Nerbudda, the Soane, the Johifia, 
and the Mohamaddy. From this tour they returned to Simla 
by way of Delhi. 

"H. Schlagintweit stated that he had arrived at the conclusion, 
that Western Thibet did not form a plateau, but was an undula- 
ting country ; and one of the features of it near the Indies was 
the depression of the snow line to 17,900 feet, owing to the 
great amount of snow and rain which falls there. Sometimes 
die heat in the great valley of Balkistan, at an elevation of 
between 7,000 and 8,000 feet, even under the glaciers, is exces- 
sive, the thermometer from the 1st of July to the 20th marking 
73 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit at the minimum, the maximum 
being sometimes 90 degrees. The snow line at Karakoin which 
they visited in a former journey after reaching the mountains of 
Nepaul, is the highest in the world, being 18,600 feet That 
range of mountains it should have been observed, is called the 
Black Mountains, in oppasition to the Himalayan range, which 
means the * White Mountains.' The two ranges run parallel.'^ 

Adolph Schlagintweit remained in India for some months after 
his brotners, who returned to England in order that they might 
prepare and publish the results of their observations. 

In one of the latest letters published from him the following 
particMilars are given in regard to his recent course.* 

" Having parted with my brothers at Rawul-Pindi in Decem- 
ber, 1856, I went to Peschawur. Here I spent the greater por- 
tion of January, collecting with care as much geological and 
geographical information respecting the mountainous region to 
the west of Peschawur iis it was possible to do without personal 
observation. ... In the Salt-Chain, near Dehra Ismail Chan, I 
found much of geological interest; the stratified rocks are nch 
in fossil remains, and I secured many beautiful specimens fixnn 
nearly every sedimentary formation, from the palaeozoic to the 
miocene. 

" The lowermost visible rocks are palaeozoic ; to the eastward 
of the Indus, these are found only along a narrow band, but on 
the other side of the river, as well as in the Kyber mountaiDfl) 
they have a much wider range. They contain a great viri^ 

• P«tmEUum*t mtihmL, voL iii, p. 887. 



I 



Oeographieal Notice$% SI3 

» 
variety of fossil species, — ^long-winged Devonian Spiriferae, Pro- 
duct!, Orthites, Terebratul», but no Trilobites. Next above the 
Mlseozoio strata we find gypsum and vast saliferous deposits. 
Tbese are covered by a thin out distinct stratum of black slate, 
in which oolitic Ammonites and Belemnites abound. Close 
above the slate and evidently of the same period with it, is 
brown limestone in connection ¥rith coal. Tne coal is overlaid 
with strata of reddish sandstone, intermixed with occasional 
fossils. Still higher up there are large masses of whitish and 
yellow nummulite limestone, containing variolas fossils. The 
whole is covered with tertiary sandstone and conglomerate in 
which we find remains of quadrupeds. There are two very 
diverse formations of coal in these mountains ; the one as men- 
tioned above^ is oolitic, the other occurs in connection with 
fossils imbedded in the tertiary sandstone. But neither va- 
riety, so far as my observation has extended, is ever likely to 
possess any practical value, occurring as they each do, in such 
thin beds. 

" Many of the fossils that I found here, are such exact coun- 
terparts of those that I had brought from the Himalayas and 
from Thibet, that I must conclude that the sedimentary stratified 
rocks of all these regions were formed under the same ocean. 

" From Dehra Ismail Chan I went to the Mandi district. I 
found the salt here similar in formation and date to that of the 
Salt Chain. But the accompanying sedimentary strata have un- 
dergone extensive and multiform changes from the metamorphic 
action of those vast snow-capped shafts of feldspar which rise 
immediately back of the salt-mines to the height of 17,000 and 
19,000 feet. In fact the alteration of rocks and the phenomena 
of metamorphism are, in my opinion, nowhere more strikingly 
manifest than in this locality. 

" Having now finished my explorations in the salt-regions, 
etc., I am on my way to Kulu, whence I shall cross the lofty 
chain of the Dliauladhar and penetrate to the sources of the 
Bavi in the Tschamba District. 

Hiver Amur. — Russian travelers have lately examined the re- 
gion of the Amur stream, in Eastern Siberia, and tberr observa- 
tions, translated from the Russian, form the basis of a valuable 
article in Petermann's Mittheil, 1857, p. 296, in which the hy- 
drography, ethnography, geology, zoology and botany of that 
river and the neighboring country are discussed. Aside from 
the scientific value of these researches they have a commercial 
bearing, an American steamboat having already ascended the 
river and regular trade being planned between that part of the 
Russian Empire and the United States. An excellent map ac- 
companies the article in Petermann. 

BBCOND SERIES, Vou XXV, No. 75.<^MAY, 1856. 
40 



814 Qtograpkical 

The Evening Post of March 19, contains a brief report fixxn 
P. McD. Collins, United States Consul on the Amoor River, pie- 
lirninary to a fuller report to be presented to the proper depart- 
ment at Washington, on the charucteristics of Eastern Siberia 
and the feasibility of opening a direct trade with that countrj. 

In this article Mr. Collins states that leaving Chetah, the capi- 
tal of the Province of Trans-Baikal, on the seventh of May, 
1857, he rowed, sailed and floated down the rivers Ingodab, Schil- 
kah, and Amoor, to the Straights of Tartary, a distance of 26O0 
miles; in fifly-two days. His comments on the natural charac- 
teristics of the region are only general, but he is sanguine in re- 
spect to the openings for American commerce, and states that the 
Bussian authorities have listened with &vor to his proposition 
to build a railroad three hundred miles from Irkutsk to Chetidi, 
thus establishing an easy connection between the interior of 
Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. 

EUROPE. 

Hofniann's Expedition to the Urals, — ^The first volume of Hof- 
mann's scientific expedition to the Northern Ural and the Coast 
Mountains Pae Choi, in the years 1847-50, was publish^ in 
1853. The second volume of the same work has recently ap- 
peared. The following facts are gathered from it* 

The Ural maintains its northern direction, nearly coincident 
with the 59th meridian east of Greenwich, as far as 65° N. lat 
Here it trends eastward, and at 67° 30' N. lat. it touches the me- 
ridian 66° K At this point rises conspicuously the peak of 
Pae-Jer, visible from Obdorsk. Thence the range resumes its 
former course from south to north, and at last terminates ab- 
ruptly at 68° 32' N, lat and 66° 20' E. long, in the Constantine 
peak on the Tundra, without reaching the sea. From it, sepa- 
rated by a plain forty-five versts broad, rises another mountain 
system, the Pae-Choi, which extends in a northwestern direction 
across the straights of Jugar to the island Waigatsch. The 
direction and external form of this mountain prove its independ- 
ence, although it is not distinct from the Ural as regards the 
geologic era of its formation. The North Ural, despite its scant 
breadth, which in its greatest extent at Sablja is but 75 versts, 
yet oflen suffers a separation into two or three parallel chaini. 
In the north too are found the loftiest peaks of the whole range 
with perhaps the exception of the Konschakowsky peak near 
Bogoslowsk. The Ttill-Poss and Sablja exceed 6000 feet in 
height, the northern Pae-Jer reaches nearly the same height as 
do many peaks and even whole chains. We may take 3O00 
feet as the medium height of the peaks, but no peak peoetntes 
the snow-line and consequently there is an entire absence of ghb 
ciers throughout the whole range. Its gec^ostic constitution 

* Petermaiui, toL iii, p, 270, 



Qtographical Notices, 816 

amid great individual diversitieB presents as a whole a remarka- 
ble uniformity. The Ural consists of metamorphic, talcose and 
chloritio schist, quartzite and* granular limestone, which with 
a greater or less dip, run parallel to the axis of the range, and 
which are broken or uplifted at intervals by granite, syenite, 
serpentine, diorite, and porphyry. In relation to the forest line, 
it has been observed at 64^ N^ lat it extends no higher than 
1600 feet but at 65i° N. lat that it ascends to 2000 feet. Far- 
ther towards the north the forest retreats from the summits of 
the range, though in the gorges clumps of larches are found, 
still, but no higher north than at the source of the Kara, above 
67° N. lat On the east side of the Ural the forest line running 
north is higher up than on the west side. 

On the Tundra there are no species of wood found but dwarf- 
birches and willows, which flourish as £aT north as the sea of 
Kara. Many esculent fruits and plants are found in the more 
southerly parts of the North Ural. The fauna of this region 
is closely related to its vegetation. 

Russian measuremerU of an Are of Meridian. — ^From the year 
1815 until 1855 the measurement of an arc of the meridian 
26* 20' long. E. from Paris was in progress between the mouth 
of the Danube and the Polar Sea. The work has been under 
the direction of Struve and Tenner of Eussia, Selander of Swe- 
den, and Hansteen of Norway, and in some respects it may be 
considered as the most important of all geodetic enterprises. It 
is now announced that the first two volumes, in quarto, pertain- 
ing to the survey, edited by M. Struve of Pulkova, and pub- 
lish'^ by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburgh 
are almost ^ready to appear. Two editions, one in Russian and 
one in French, will be printed. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Report of the United States Coast Survey for 1856. — 1. The re- 
port of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey 
K>r 1856 has just been distributed. It contains, like the pre- 
vious volumes, in addition to several important papers on As- 
tronomy and Physics, a large amount of interesting geographical 
matter. Most of this is of too detailed and special a character 
to be here referred to, but the following facts are of general in- 
ter^t. Prof. Bache states that on the coast of the Atlantic 
Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, the work of the survey is more than 
half completed and the present rate of progress being more 
rapid than the former, he estimates that in ten or twelve years 
the field work will be essentially completed in all the sections 
bat two. Forty-one plates have been completely engraved dur- 
ing the year, beside twenty -eight which have been in progress. 



810 Ckographical NqHcu. 

2. The chronometer expeditioss for the determination of longi- 
tude begun in 1849, have been continued, but in the prospect of 
telegraphic communication between Europe and America are 
now to be suspended. The final longitude for these voyages is 
reported by Mr. G. P. Bond, as Cambridge, west of Greenwich 
^ 44" 8l'89% with a probable error of 0'19»; or from Liverpool 
4»> 82« 31-84», with a probable error of 0-19». Prof. Bache re- 
marks that after a careful comparison of this and former results 
he has come to the conclusion that the previous expeditions 
must be considered as mainly preparatory, their use having been 
in pointing out the errors to wnicn the methods were liable, and 
in sugK^stmg the proper means of eliminating them. 

8. The survey of New York harbor, conducted at the reouest 
of the Commissioners on the Harbor Encroachments of Tfew 
York is still in progress. Important results have been reached 
in respect to the well-establisned fact of the increase of Sandj 
Hook to the northward, thus narrowing the main ship-channel 
entrance. It is found that the deposit is caused by a slowly 
moving northwardly current on both sides of the Hook, running 
on the outer side more than seven hours out of the twelve, ana 
on the inner, eleven hours out of the twelve, during both the 
ebb and flood tides, and meeting at the point of the Hook. The 
inner current is the one by which the flood and ebb tides draw, 
by the lateral communication of motion, the water from Sandy 
llook bay, and the outer is similarly related to these tides as 
they pass False Hook channel. Within a century the Hook has 
increased a mile and a quarter, and at the rate of about one-six- 
teenth of a mile a year on the average for the last twelve years. 

4. Dr. J. G. Kohl, a German traveler, for some time past resi- 
dent in this country, has prepared for the Archives of the 
Coast Survey and submitted to the Superintendent, three dis- 
tinct memoirs on the History of Explorations and Discoveries 
upon the Coast of the United States. The first relates to the 
Pacific, the second to the Gulf of Mexico, and the third to the 
Atlantic shores. Each memoir is in three parts, — Historicsl, 
Hydrographical and Bibliographical. A synopsis of the Memoir 
on the Pacific was given in the Report of the Coast Survey 
for 1855. Synopses of the other two are given in the report 
for 1856. It is proposed to publish the whole series as "Hydro* 
graphical Annals ot the United States." • 

6. Lieut. E. B. Hunt makes a report on the progress of his 
index to articles in scientific journals, philosophical transactional 
and works of a kindred character. This index will have partic- 
ular reference to the wants of the Coast Survey, but the opera- 
tions of that establishment bring under tribute so large a por- 
tion of the arena of physical science, that the volume will be 
of service to all who are interested in geodesy, geography, oan* 



Qtographical Notices. 817 

fation, hydrography and the various depai'traents of physics, 
t will not be at all a reference index for separate treatises which 
must still be searched for in existing bibliographies. The value 
of this great work will be apparent to all investigators, and its 
early completion and publication are greatly to be desired. 

6. A series of convenient tables forprojecting maps of large 
extent, arranged by Assistant J. E. Hilgard, are published in 
Appendix No. 68. " They are based on a polyconic develop- 
ment of the earth^s surface which supposes each parallel of lati- 
tude represented on a plane by the development of a cone hav- 
ing the parallel for its base, and its vertex in the point where a 
tangent to the parallel intersects the earth's axis. The degrees 
on the parallel preserve their true length and the general distor- 
tion of area is less than in anv other mode of representing a 
givenportion of the earth's surwce." 

" Wnen the polyconic development is extended to the whole 
surface of the sphere a figure results which is represented on 
sketch No. 65 of the report. The distortion unavoidable in any 
representation of a spherical surface on a plane is here greatest 
in the equatorial regions near the eastern and western extrem- 
ities of the map. The circumpolar regions are well represented, 
and it is believed that this projection will be found preferable to 
Mercator's for maps illustrating various points of physical geog- 
raphy, the only kind for which representations of the whole 
sphere are likely to be desirable." 

Surveys in California for the Pacific Railroad, — Volumes 5 and 
6 have just appeared of Reports of Pacific railroad surveys un- 
dertaken by the government of the United States. Vol. 5, con- 
tains a part of the results attained by the expedition which Lieut. 
R. S. Williamson commanded in 1858, the object of which was 
to determine routes in California to connect with the routes near 
the thirty-fifth and thirty-second parallels. The region explored 
lies chiefly west of the Colorado River and the crest of the 
Sierra Nevada. The first portion of the volume, by the com- 
mander, gives a general view of the country examined, having 
particular reference to the best course for a railroad. It is fully 
illustrated by tinted lithographs and wood cuts. 

This is followed by a Report of Mr. William P. Blake on the 
geology, divided into two parts, (1.) an Itinerary, with general 
geological observations, and (2.) Particular observations upon 
portions of the route. Aside from the geology this report con- 
tains much that is new and valuable in respect to the geography 
of the region. A part of his observations on this journey were 
published by the author, Mr. Blake, in the Report of the U. S. 
Coast Survey for 1855, entitled, *' Observations on the Physical 
Geography and Geology of the coast of California fi'om Bodega 
Bay to San Diego." 



818 Oeographical Notices. 

The chapters most interesting in a geographical point of yiew, 
are the eleventh and seventeenth ; of which the former is de- 
voted to the orography and general features of relief of iht 
middle and southern portions of California, and the latter to the 
characteristics of the Colorado desert. 

Mr. Blake's views of the orography of the state are thus 
briefly stated. '* That portion of the continent which lies with* 
in the limits of the state of California presents a greater variety 
in the relief of its sur£stce and in its climate and vegetable pro- 
ductions than any other portion of equal area. The lofty chains 
of mountains, towering into the regions of perpetual snow, are 
perhaps not more striking and peculiar than the broad plain-like 
valleys which lie at their base and separate the principal rangea 
The prominent orographic features are developed on a grand 
scale and with such simple relations that a conception of them 
is readily formed. The chief range, the Sierra Nevada, rises 
like a great wall of separation between the State and the ele- 
vated semi-desert region of the Great Basin and extends from 
the northern boundary as far south as the parallel of S5^ Par- 
allel with this, and extending over a similar distance we find 
the Coast mountains, the two systems of ranges being separated 
by the broad plains of the Sacramento, San Joaquin aud the 
Tulares, but uniting in latitude 35°, thus terminating the ex- 
tended interior valleys of the south. South of the junction of 
the Sierra Nevada with the Coast Mts. there is but one promi- 
nent range, separating the coast slope from the Great Basin 
and the desert plains of the interior. Its direction is n^ly 
transverse to the Sierra Nevada and Coast Mts., extending a 
few degrees south of east for more than 100 miles to the peak 
of San Bernardino. This is described in the notes as the Trans- 
verse Chain, the Bemardine Mts. or Bernardino Sierra. The 
peak of San Bernardino is separated from a high mountain south 
of it, San Gorgoiio, by a considerable break or gap known as 
the pass of San Gorgo£Lo or San Bernardino. From this pass 
southward the mountains form a continuous line throughout 
the peninsula of Lower California to its extremity at Cape St 
Lucas. This line of elevation is described as the Peninsula 
Sierra. There are other less extended lines of elevation in the 
Great Basin and separates it from the Colorado river. Ranges 
are also found between the Peninsula Mts. and the Colorado, bat 
all of these are only the southern extremities or prolongatioDS 
of ranges, which reach their greatest development beyond the 
limits of the State. The principal mountains in this State may 
thus be described under five groups or divisions, the Sierra Ne- 
vada, Bernardino Nevada, Peninsula Sierra, Coast Mts. and 
Great Basin Mts." 



Otographical Notice§* 319 

The following account is given of the two principal valleja 
<^the state. ''The great valley between the Sierra Nevada and 
the Coast Mts. is traversed in its lowest portion by the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin rivers, which, flowing from the north 
and south, unite in the latitude of San Francisco and empty into 
the bay. It however extends further south than the sources of 
the San Joaquin, its southern limits being determined by the 
union of the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Mts. under the par- 
allel of 85^, and its northern limits extending beyond the paral- 
lel of 40^ near to the head waters of the Sacramento, or over 
five degrees of latitude, a distance of more than 350 miles. Its 
average breadth south of the mouth of the American river in 
the Sacramento is about flfty-flve miles ; it being fifty miles at 
the mouth of the Sacramento and Joaquin, at the sources of the 
San Joaquin sixty miles, and across the Tulare lakes over sixty 
milea Its whole area probably exceeds 15,000 square miles. 
The average elevation ofthese plains above the sea is not ^reat" 

" The valley of the Colorado desert is in many respects similar 
to the Tulare plains, but is more heated, arid ana desert-like. 
It is properly the northern prolongation of the valley of the 
Gulf, reaching from its shores to the base of the San Bernardino. 
Its length to the head of the gulf is thus about 180 miles, and 
its avera^ breadth about 50 miles, giving its area 9000 square 
niiles. Its southern portion, or nearly haJf the area, is beyond 
the southern boundary of the State. The elevation of this valley 
is very slight and a portion of its surface is probably below the 
level of the sea. It is without any rivers and only one or two 
small streams reach its borders from the pass of San Bernar- 
dino and the Peninsula Sierra, and these are speedily absorbed 
in the sand or evaporated. The trend of the longer axis of the 
valley is nearly northwest and southeast, being parallel with 
the mountains on each side and coincident with the direction of 
the plains of the Sacramento and San Joaquin." 

In referring to this new volume on the Pacific Railroad Sur- 
veys, we may mention a fact, which is stated in the December 
number of Petermann, p. 546. The draftsman of the expedition 
commanded by Lieut. Whipple, Herr Mollhausen, whose sketches 
of figures and landscapes illustrate vol. 2 of this great work, 
took home with him to Germany a large number of views and 
sketches which are now in the possession of the King of Prus- 
sia. These are about to be published in an elegant manner, by 
Mendelssohn in Leipsic, accompanied by Mollhausen 's diary up- 
on the journey, which will form a sort of commentary upon the 
drawings. This work will have considerable ethnographical 
value. Alexander von Humboldt has written a preface to it, in 
which he refers to the historic importance of the nations in New 
Mexico and the neighboring lands, because of their being on the 
c^ourse of the great migratory companies which under the name 



820 Geographical Notices. 

of Tolteks, Chichimeks, Nabuatleks, and Azteks wandered, be- 
tween the sixth and twelfth centuries, through southern tropical 
Mexico, partially peopling it. The work will consist of sixtj or 
seventy sheets in quarto. 

The sixth volume of the surveys is a report by Lieut, H. L, Ab- 
bot on the expedition originally commanded by Lieut R. S. Wil- 
liamson for determining a route for connecting the Sacramento 
Valley and (Columbia nver. The surveys were made in 1866-6. 
Of this volume, "Part L contains the general report, divided into 
seven chapters; of which the first contains a sreneral description 
of the different regions traversed during the survey. This syn- 
opsis has been prepared nartly to enable those wishing merely 
to obtain a general idea or the country, to dispense with reading 
a mass of details, and partly to render the railroad report more 
intelligible. The second chapter is devoted entirely to a discus- 
sion of the facilities offered for the construction of a railvoad near 
the lines of survey. The third, fourth and fifth chapters con- 
tain a narrative and itinerary of the expedition. An attempt 
has been made to give, in this portion of the report, a detailed 
description of the nature of the country examined ; of the sup- 
ply of wood, water, and grass near the trails ; of the charact^ 
of the Indian tribes ; and of various other matters, interesting 
to those who wish to thoroughly understand the character of the 
regions explored. The sixth chapter contains a statement of the 
method used in computing altitudes &om observations taken 
with the barometer. The seventh chapter contains an aooount 
of a former exploration of Lieut. Williamson, near a portion of 
our line of survey. 

"Parts II, III, and lY, contain geological, botanical, and 
zoological reports upon the regions explor^. 

" Tne various appendices exhibit, in a tabular form, the astro- 
nomical and barometric observations, with the results deduced 
from them by computation. 

" Two maps, constructed upon the polvconic projection, have 
been made to accompany this report 'The first illustrates Aat 
portion of the survey which lay in California, and the second 
that in Oregon. The scale of each is one inch to twelve miles, 
or 1 : 760320. Two other illustrations of this report contain 
profiles of the most important portions of the routes travelled 
over by the surveying parties, and also of the most favorable 
railroad lines found in the vicinity of the trails. The horizontal 
scale of each profile is the same as that of the maps, being twelve 
miles to the inch, or 1 : 760320 ; the vertical scale is 1 : 16206-4 
They are, therefore, distorted fifty times. 

" *rhe altitudes of the different stations were all determined bj 
barometric observations." 

Both of these volimies are issued in fine typographical styh^ 
and are handsomely illustrated. D. a o. 

Yale College Lihraiy, March 26, 1868. k 



Natural History of the United States. 891 



T. XXVin. — Agassiz^s Contributions to the Natural Histary of 

the United States. 

(Concluded from p. 216.) 

)n the subject of classification, Professor Agassiz has thoti^ht 
foundly and brought out many original views. Begardmg 
Author of nature as the author of the system of classifica- 
I in nature, and believing that the various subdivisions stand 
profound and orderly relations to one another, eminently be- 
ng kingdoms under a vast comprehensive plan, he has sought 
liscover the philosophical significance of these subdivisions — 
Branches, Classes, Orders, Families, Genera, Species — ^in or- 
that the terms may no longer be mere arbitrary symbols in 
nee, but expressions of exact and positive truths. Even if 
principles may reauire a fuller expansion and more precise 
nition to meet all the difficulties in this most difficult aepart* 
it of science. Prof. Agassiz has the honor of pointing out the 
it way of thought and research and throwing light on the 
iamental ideas in the grand system. Now that the subject 
begun to take shape under his labors, it will be compara- 
bly easy for future science to mould this part or the other 
► that exact symmetry and truthfulness, which will be a per- 
expression of the plan in the kingdoms of life. 
Vith regard to Classes, Orders, Families and Genera in classi- 
tion, Professor Agassiz holds as before stated, that they have 
eal although ideal existence, and that the groups are more 
i the separate stellar systems in the heavens, one above the 
3r in range or comprehensiveness, than like the larger and 
Her branchings of a tree. The groups stand apart; and 
bey graduate into one another, as they often do, they still 
e their central type or cluster, and coalesce by their infe- 
, or what may be called marginal, speci«s. Under such a 
V, we have an important test of the naturalness of subdi- 
Dns in science. Reptiles do not approximate to Fishes 
mgh the higher families among the Fishes ; nor Monkeys to 
nivora throuprh the higher Carnivora; nor the Brachyural to 
Macroural Crustaceans through the typical Macrourans: 
approximations are through inferior species in each type, 
re are here no linear series any more than among the sys- 
s in space. Many exceptions to this rule will occur to natu- 
jts : and, still, it expresses a general truth with regard to the 
em of nature which cannot be overlooked without failing 
rely to appreciate that system. 

^Q enter now upon the views presented with relation to the 
use of the terms Branches, Classes, Orders, Families, Genera 
Species, and first cite a summary of the whole, irom page 



k^ 



COND SERIE.'*, Vol XXV, No. 75 —MAY, 1853. 

41 



332 Agasrix's Contrilmtiaiu to the 

^ Upon the closest scrutiny of the subject, I find that these diTiskmi 
eorer all the categories of relationship which exist among animals, as fiv 
as ihnt structure is coucemed. 

^^ Branches or ti/pes are characterized by the plan of their structure, 
*^ ClasseSj by the manner in which that plan is executed, as £» as wap 
and means are concerned, 

*^ Orders, by the degrees of complication of that structure, 
'* Families^ by their form, as far as determined by structure, 
^ Genera^ by the details of the execution in special parts, and 
^ Species^ by the relations of individuals to one another and to the 
world in which they live, as well as by the proportions of their pait% 
their omamentatioD, etc. 

" And yet there are other natural divisions which must be acknowl- 
edged in a natural zodlogical system ; but these are not to be traced to 
uniformly in all classes as the former, — they are in reality only limits- 
tions of the other kinds of divisions.'* 

1. Branches. — The Branches correspond to the ideal plans of 
structure in the Animal Kingdom, without any reference to the 
mode of expressing that plan in form or structure. They are 
the four Archetypes, recognissed by Cuvier, the Badiate, Mol- 
luscan, Articulate, and the Vertebrate : the idea in the firsts a 
radiate arrangement in the interior structure whatever that struc- 
ture, the second and others having a bilateral symmetry ; in the 
secojid, a iointless body or a simple sac ; in the t/iirdy a jointed 
body, including a single cavity for the viscera and nerves; in 
the fourth^ a vertebrate system with two longitudinal bone- 
sheathed cavities, — a neural cavity above and a visceral below. 

In the course of his illustrations of the subject, Professor 
Agassiz says : 

** As to the highest divisions of the animal kingdom, firet introdneed 
by Cuvier under the name of embratiehements, (and which we may well 
render by the good old English word branchy) he tells us himself tbst 
they are founded upon distinct plans of structure, cast, as it were, ioto 
distinct moulds or forms. Now there can certainly be no reason why ws 
should not all a^e to designate as types or branches all such great di- 
visions of the animal kingdom as are constituted upon a special plan,* if 

* It is Almost soperfluouR for me to mention here that the terms plan, wayi ind 
mMiDv, or manner in which a plan is carried out, complication of atnicturt, fora. 
details of structwe, ultimate structure, relations of indiTidunls, IreqaeotW used m 
the following pages, are taken in a somewhat different sense from their niud mt» 
inff, an is always necessary when new views are introduced in a scieoee, and tbi 
aooption of old expressions, in a somewhat modified sense, is found preferable to 
framing new ones. I trust the value of the following discussion will be apprcdatcd 
by its intrinsic merit, tested with a willingness to understand wliat hiis been bit 
ami, and not altogether by the relative degree of precision and cleameaa with wMok 
I may have expressed myself, as it is almost impossible, in a firvt attempt of tkii 
kind, to seize at once upon the form best adapted to carry conviction. I wiA sin 
to be understood as expressing my views more immediately with reference te tfai 
animal kingdom, as I do not feel quite competent to extend the inqairf and tls 
diseuasion to the vegetable kingdom, though I have oocatiooally idloded to i^ v 
far aa my information would permit 






Naturai History of the UniUd Suites. 929 

we ihould find practically that such gronpa may he traced in nature* 
Those who may not see them may deny their existence; those who recog* 
nize them may vary in their estimation of their natural limits ; but all 
can, for the greatest benefit of science, agree to call any group which 
aeems to them to be founded upon a special plan of structure, a type or 
branch of the animal kingdom ; and if there are still differences of opin* 
ion among naturalists respecting their limits, let the discussion upon this 
point be carried on with the understanding that types are to be charac- 
terized by different plans of structure, and not by special anatomical pe- 
culiarities. Let us avoid confounding the idea of plan with that of com- 
plication of structure, even though Cuvier himself has made this mistake 
nete and there in his classification. 

^ The best evidence I can produce that the idea of distinct plans of 
structure is the true pivot upon which the natural limitation of the 
branches of the animal kingdom is ultimately to turn, lies in the fact 
that every great improvement, acknowledged by all as such, which these 
primary divisions have undergone, has consisted in the removal from 
among each, of such groups as had been placed with them from other 
considerations than those of a peculiar plan, or in consequence of a want 
of information respecting their true plan of structure. Let us examine 
this point within limits no longer controvertible. Neither Lifusoria nor 
Intestinal Worms are any longer arranged by competent naturalists 
among Radiata. Why they have been removed, may be considered else- 
where ; but it was certainly not because they were supposed to agree in 
tlie plan of their structure with the true Radiata, that Cuvier placed them 
in that division, but simply because he allowed himself to depart from 
his own principle, and to add another consideration, besides the plan of 
structure, as characteristic of Radiata, — the supposed absence of a nervous 
system, and the great simplicity of structure of these animals ; — as if 
simplicity of execution had any necessary connection with the plan of 
structure. Another remarkable instance of the generally approved re- 
moval of a class from one of the types of Cuvier to another, was the 
transfer oi the Cirri peds from among the Mollusks to the branch of Ar- 
ticnlata. Imperfect knowledge of the plan of structure of these animals 
was here the cause of the mistake, which was corrected without any op- 
position, as soon as they became better known.'^ — pp. 141, 142, 143. 

2. Classes. — Under this head, Professor Agassiz remarks : 

" Structure may be considered from many points of view : first, with 
reference to the plan adopted in framing it; secondly, with reference to 
the work to be done by it, and to the ways and means employed in 
building it up ; thirdly, with reference to tiie degrees of perfection or 
complication which it exhibits, which may differ greatly, even though the 
plan be the same, and the ways and means enjployed in carrying out 
such a plan should not differ in the least ; fourthly, with reference to the 
form of the whole structure and its parts, which bears no necessary rela- 
tion, at all events no very close relation, to the degree of perfection of 
the structure, nor to the manner in which its plan is executed, nor to the 
plan itself, as a comparison between Bats and Birds, between Whales and 
Fish 08, or between Holothurians and Worms, may easily show ; fifthly 



834 Agassiz's Contributions to tke 

and lastly, with reference to its last finish, to the execution of the details 
in the individual parts. 

^ It would not be difficult to show, that the differences which exiit 
among naturalists in their limitation of classes have arisen from an in- 
discriminate consideration of the structure of animals, in all these diffe^ 
ent points of view, and an equally indiscriminate application of the re- 
sults obtained, to characterizing classes. Those who have not made a 
proper distinction between the plan of a structure and the manner in 
which that plan is actually executed, have either overlooked the import- 
ance of the great fundamental divisions of the animal kingdom, or thej 
have unduly multiplied the number of these primary divisions, basing 
their distinctions upon purely anatomical considerations, that is to say, 
not upon differences in the character of the general plan of stmctnre, bat 
upon the material development of that plan. Those, again, who havs 
confounded the complication of the structure with the waya apd means 
by which life is Ynaintained through any given combination of systems 
of organs, have failed in establishing a proper difference between class 
and ordinal characters, and have again and again raised orders to the 
rank of classes. For we shall see presently, that natural orders most be 
based upon the different degrees of complication of structure, exhibited 
within the limits of the classes, while the classes themselves are charac- 
terized by the manner in which the plan of the type is carrred out, that 
is to say, by the various combinations of the systems of organs constitute 
ing the body of the representatives of any of the great types of the ani- 
mal kingdom ; or perhaps, still more distinctly, the classes are characte^ 
ized by the different ways in which life is maintvined, and the different 
means employed in establishing these ways." — pp. 145, 146. 

An illustration next follows from among the Radiates. The 
Polyps and Acalephs constitute two Classes^ diflFering .Dot in the 
complication of their structure, but in the manner in which the 
Radiate plan is carried out The same is true for the Worms, 
Crustaceans and Insects, the three classes of Articulates; for 
Mammals, Birds, etc., among Vertebrates. 

3. Orders. — In no department of classification is there greater 
diversity of opinion among naturalists, than in that relating to 
the subdivisions termed orders. The following paragraphs are 
from the section on this subject. 

^^ To find out the natural characters of orders from that which retllv 
exists in nature, I have considered attentively the different systems of 
Zoology in which orders are admitted and apparently considered witli 
more care than elsewhere, and in particular the Systema Natura of Lio- 
nteus, who first introduced in Zoology that kind of groups, and th« 
works of Cuvier, in which orders are frequently characterized with un- 
usual precision, and it has appeared to me that tJie leading idea prevailiDg 
everywhere respecting orders, where these groups are not admitted tt 
random, is that of a definite rank among them, tlie desire to determine 
the relative standing of tliese divisions, to ascertain their relative superi- 
ority or inferiority, as the name order, adopted to designate them, actually 
implies. The first order in the first class of the animal kingdom, accord- 



Natural History of the UniUd States. 325 

ing to tbe classificatioD of Linnieus, is called by him Primates^ expressing, 
BO doubt, his conviction that these beings, among which Man is included, 
rank uppermost in their class. Blainville uses here and there the ex- 
pression of *^ degrees of organization," to designate orders. It is true 
Lamarck uses the same expression to designate classes. We find, there- 
fore, here as everywhere, the same vagueness in the definition of the dif- 
ferent kinds of groups adopted in our systems. But if we would give 
ap any arbitrary use of these terms, and assign to them a definite sci- 
entific meaning, it seems to me most natural, and in accordance with 
the practice of the most successful investigators of the animal ^kingdom, 
to call orders such divisions as are characterized by different degrees of 
complication of their structure, within the limits of the classes. As such 
I would consider, for instance, the Actinoids and Halcyonoids in the class 
of Polypi, as circumscribed by Dana ; the Hydroids, the Discophorae, and 
the Ctenoids among Acalephs ; the Crinoids, Asterioids, Echinoids, and 
Holothuriae among Echinoderms; the Bryozoa, Brachiopods, Tunicata, 
Lamellibranchiata among Acephala; the Branchifera and Pulmonata 
among Gasteropods; the Ophidians, the Saurians, and the Chelonians 
among Reptiles ; the Ichthyoids and the Anoura among Amphibians, 
etc" * * * * 

**From the preceding remarks respecting orders it might be inferred 
that I deny all gradation among all other groups, or that I assume that 
orders constitute necessarily one simple series in each class. Far from 
asserting any such thing, I hold on the contrary, that neither is necessa- 
rily the case. But to explain fully my views upon this point, I must in- 
troduce here some other considerations. It will be obvious, from what 
has already been said, (and the further illustration of this subject will 
only go to show to what extent this is true,) that there exists an unques- 
tionable hierarchy between the different kinds of groups admitted in our 
systems, based upon the different kinds of relationship observed among 
animals, that branches are the most comprehensive divisions, including 
each several classes, that orders are subdivisions of the classes, families 
subdivisions of ordere, genera subdivisions of families, and species subdi- 
visions of the genera : but not in the sense that each type snould neces- 
sarily include the same number of classes, nor even necessarily several 
classes, as this must depend u]K>n the manner in which the type is carried 
out A class, again, might contain no orders, if its representatives pre- 
sented no different degrees characterized by the greater or less complica- 
tion of their structure ; or it may contain many, or few, as these grada- 
tions are more or less numerous and well marked ; but as the representa- 
tives of any and every class have of necessity a definite form, each class 
must contain at least one family, or many families, indeed, as many as 
there are systems of forms under which its representatives may be com- 
bined, if form can be shown to be characteristic of families. The same is 
the case with genera and species; and nothing is more remote from the 
truth than the idea that a genus is better defined in proportion as it con- 
tains a greater number of species, or that it may be necessary to know 
several species of a genus before its existence can be fully ascertained. 
A genus may be more satisfactorily characterized, its peculiarity more 
fully ascertained, its limits better defined, when we know all its represen- 



826 Agassiz*s ContrilmtionM to tk^ 

tatives ; but I am satisfied that any natural genua may be at least pointed 
out, however numerous its species may be, from the examination of any 
sfbgle one of them. Moreover, the number of genera, both in the ani* 
mal and vegetable kingdom, which contain but a single speciea, is to 
great that it is a matter of necessity in all these cases to ascertain their 
generic cliaracteristies from that one species. Again, such species require 
to be characterized with as much precision, and tlieir specific cfaaraoten 
to be described with as much minuteness, as if a host of thcniy but not 
yet known, existed besides. It is a very objectionable practice among 
zoologists and botanists, to remain {satisfied in such cases with character- 
izing the genus, and perhaps to believe, what some writers have actually 
stated distinctly, that in such cases generic and specific characters are 
identical." — pp. 151-163. 

4. Families. — Professor Agassiz, in his section on Families, 
explains at length that form is not the characteristic at the basis 
of Classes, Orders, or Genera. He shows that the Classes and 
Orders embrace a great diversity of form, as those of Bats and 
Whales for example among Mammals, of Sharks and Eels among 
Fishes, of Ix)bsters and Barnacles among Crustacea, of Batter- 
flies and Beetles among Insects, and so on. Again, form is not 
the fundamental characteristic of Genera; for in related genera 
there is little distinction of this nature. He asks : 

"Do, for instance, the genera of Ursina, the Bears, the Badgers, the 
Wolverines, the Raccoons, differ inform? Do the Phocoidae, the Del- 
phinoidae, the Falconinae, the Turdinae, the Fringillinae, the Picins, the 
Scolopacinse, the Chelonioidae, the Gockonina, the Colubrina, the Spa- 
roidae, the Elateridse, the Pyralidoidae, the Echinoidse, etc., differ any 
more among themselves ? Certainly not ; though to some extent, there 
are differences in the form of the representatives of one genus when com- 
pared to those of another genus ; but when rightly considered, these dif- 
ferences appear only as modifications of the same type of forms. Just 
as there are more or less elongated ellipses, so do we find the figure of 
the Badgers somewhat more contracted than that of either the Bears, or 
the Raccoons, or the Wolverines, that of the Wolverines somewhat more 
elongated than that of the Raccoons ; but the form is here as completely 
typical as it is among the Viverrina or among the Canina, or among the 
BradypodidsB, or among the Delphinoidse, etc. We must therefore ex- 
clude form from the characteristics of natural genera, or at least introduce 
it only as a modification of the typical form of natural families.*' — ^p. 167. 

Form is then laid down as the character at the basis of the 
Family groups. 

" Unless, then, form be too vague an. element to characterize any kind 
of natural groups in the animal kingdom, it must constitnte a promineot 
feature of mmilies. I have already remarked, that orders and fiuniliei 
are the groups upon which zoologists are least agreed, and to the study 
and characterizing of which they have paid least attention. Does this 
not arise simply from the fact, that, on the one hand, the differenoe be- 
tween ordinal and class characters has not been mideretood, and only wh 



Natural History of the United States. 327 

Biinied to be a difference of degree; and, on the other hand, that the 
importance <^ the form, as the prominent character of families, has been 
entirely overlooked 9 For, though so few natural families of animals are 
well characterised, or characterized at all, we cannot open a modem 
treatise upon any class of animals without finding the genera more or 
less natarally grouped tc^ther, under the heading of a generic name 
with a termination in idm or ifue indicating family and sub-family dis- 
tinctions ; and most of these groups, however unequal in absolute value, 
are really natural g^ups, though far from designating always natural 
fiuniliea, being as often orders or sub-orders, as families or sub-families. 
Yet they indicate the facility there is, almost without study, to point out 
the intermediate natural groups between the classes and the genera. 
This arises, in my opinion, from the fact, that family resemblance in the 
animal kingdom is most strikingly expressed in the general form, and 
that form is an element which falls most easily under our perception, 
even when the observation is made superficially. But, at the same time, 
form is most difficult to describe accurately, and hence the imperfection 
of most of our family characteristics, and the constant substitution for 
such characters of features which are not essential to the family. To 
prove the correctness of this view, I would only appeal to the experience 
of every naturalist When we see new animals, does not the first glance, 
that is, the first impression made upon us by their form, give us at once 
a very correct idea of their nearest relationship ? We perceive, before 
examining any structural character, whether a Beetle is a Carabicine, a 
Longicom, an Elaterid, a Curculionid, a Chrysomeline ; whether a Moth 
is a r^octuelite, a Geometrid, a Pyralid, etc. ; whether a bird is a Dove, a 
Swallow, a Humming-bird, a Woodpecker, a Snipe, a Heron, etc., etc. 
But before we can ascertain its genus, we have to study the structure of 
some characteristic parts; before we can combine families into natural 
groups, we have to make a thorough investigation of their whole struc- 
ture, and compare it with that of other families. So form is character- 
istic of families ; and I can add, from a careful investigation of the sub- 
ject for several years past, during which I have reviewed the whole animal 
kingdom with reference to this and other topics connected with classifica- 
tion, that form is the essential characteristic of families. I do not mean 
the mere outline, but form as determined by structure ; that is to say, 
that families cannot be well defined, nor circumscribed within their natural 
limits, without a thorough investigation of all those features of the inter- 
nal structure which combine to determine the form." — ^pp. 159, 160. 

5. Oenera. — The relations of Genera to the other grades of 
snbdivisions are thus presented on pages 162, 163 : 

** I have stated before, that in order to ascertain upon what the differ- 
ent groups adopted in our systems are founded, I consulted the works of 
such writers as are celebrated in the annals of science for having charac- 
terized with particular felicity any one kind of these groups, and I have 
mentioned LatreiJle as prominent among zoologists for the precision with 
which he has defined the genera of Crustacea and Insects "pon which 
he has written the most extensive work extant. An anecdote which I 
have often heard repeated by entomologists who knew Latreille well, is 



828 Agassiz's CorUributions to the 

very characteristic as to the meaning he connected with the idea of 
genera. At the time he was preparing the work just mentioned, he loii 
no opportunity of obtaining specimens, the better to ascertain from nature 
the generic peculiarities of these animals, and he used to apply to the 
entomologists for contributions to his collection. It was not show speci- 
mens he cared to obtain, any would do, for he used to say he warned 
tliem only * to examine their parts.' Have we not here a hint, from a 
master, to teach us what genera are and how they should be character- 
ized ? Is it not the special structure of some part or other, which char- 
acterizes genera ? Is it not the finish of the oi^nization of the body, as 
worked out in the ultimate details of structure, which distinguiahes one 
genus from another ? Latreille, in expressing the want he ielt with refer- 
ence to the study of genera, has given us the key-note of their harmo- 
nious relations to one another. Grenera are most closely allied groups of 
animals, differing neither in form, nor in complication of structure, but 
simply in the ultimate structural peculiarities of some of their parts ; and 
this is, I believe, the best definition which can be given of senera. They 
are not characterized by modifications of the features of the families, for 
we have seen that the prominent trait of family difference is to be found 
in a typical form ; and genera of the same family may not differ at all 
in form. Nor are genera merely a n>ore comprehensive mould than the 
species, embracing a wide range of characteristics ; for ^>ecies in a natu- 
ral genus should not present any structural differences, but only such as 
express the most special relations of their representatives to the surround- 
ing world and to each other. Genera, in one word, are natural groups 
of a peculiar kind, and their special distinction rests upon the ultimate 
details of their structure." — pp. 1G2, 163. 

6. Species, — ^Many topics are suggested in the section on Spe- 
cies. Professor Agassiz commences by denying that there is 
"an unfailing criterion of specific identity" in the laws of the 
sexes or hybridity, stating that the idea *'is a complete fallacy^ 
or at least a pelitio prtncipii, not admissible in a ])hilosopliicaI 
discussion of what trulj constitutes the characteristics of species.^ 
But surely an assumption either side is, one as much as the other, 
a petitio principii. The subject is one for investigation, and in 
which direct study of the actual intercourse of admitted distinct 
species is but barely begun ; science is far from a conclusion based 
on well establishea natural history facts. In an article entitled 
"Thoughts on Species," published in the number of this Journal 
for last Xovember, we have appealed to general science for evi- 
dence on this point; and all nature has seemed to respond to 
the idea of permanence, against destructive hybridity. Pro- 
fessor Agassiz would urge that the limits of hybridity are some- 
times too indefinite to allow of the safe use of this criterion with 
regard to species. We should claim that this is the point to be 
investigated ; that the limit is so obviously distinct to present 
knowledge in the great majority of cases, and so essential to the 
existence of the kingdoms of nature, that its indefiniteness in 
any case requires special and cogent demonstration. 



Natural History of the United States, 329 

We would add, that the great question whether man is of one 
species cannot in our view be decided adversely by science, until 
the limits of variation and laws of variation in zoological spe- 
cies are far better understood than at the present time ; not until 
'we know why it is that so many species, and in some groups all 
the species of those groups, vary little, while others undergo 
such diversities that naturalists have sometimes made a number 
of species and even genera out of a single species before the 
truth that there was but one among them was finally known — 
showing that the variations in one species may be equal to spe- 
cies- or genus-differences in others ; and farther, not until we 
comprehend more thoroughly than now the causes that are oper- 
Eiting to exterminate the weaker and more degraded races of 
men. Our ignorance of adequate causes of variation is an ever 
present argument with many on this subject: but as long as 
there are ascertained varieties or abnoraiities, the origin of which 
ve cannot explain, the argument is as much against these as the 
others, and, plainly, therefore, has no force against either. As 
suggested in the article referred to, we believe that the evidence 
which science will hereafter furnish will strengthen the proof 
that man is (1) of one species, (2) of one birthland, and (3) of 
one original variety. The question (4) as to one first family un- 
der that one variety, it may not be so able in itself alone to meet. 
One of the most prominent arguments against unity, — that from 
our ideas of incestuous connections, — touches only this last 
point. Professor Agassiz, it should be said, enters into no dis- 
cussion of this subject in his volumes, and rather implies than 
expresses the views which he has elsewhere presented at some 
len^h. The main principles above referred to as lying at the 
basis of this discussion — both the actual permanence of species 
and the necessity of studying out the limits of variations, — he 
fully sustains. The question of the plurality of parentage or of 
species for the human race, he has rightly regarded as coming 
within the admitted range of zoological investigation, and de- 
manding the most careful research. While expressing his opin- 
ion freely on the side of plurality, at least, of parentage, he 
leaves the subject in his publications still an open one. 

Upon the nature of individuals and species, he observes, — 
first speaking of individuals : 

" No one nor all of thL*m represent fully, at any particular time, tlioir 
species : they are always only the temporary rc])rcsent*itives of the spe- 
cies, inasmuch as each species exists longer in nature than any of its indi- 
riduals. All the individuals of any or of all s])ecies now existing are 
>nly the successors of other indivitluals whie.h have gone before, and the 
predecessors of the next generations ; they do not constitute the species, 
iiey represent it. The species is an i<leal entity, as much as the genus, 
ie family, the order, the class, or the type ; it continues to exist, while 

SECOND SERIES, Vor. XXV, No. 75.— MAY, H&6. 

42 



880 Agassiz's CorUributions to the 

its representativeft die, generation after generation* But these representa- 
tives do not simply represent what is specific in the individual, they ex- 
hibit and reproduce in the same manner, generation after generation, all 
that is generic in them, all that characterizes the family, the order, the 
class, the branch, with the same fullness, the same constancy, the same 
precision. Species then exist in nature in the same manner as any other 
ffroups ; they are quite as ideal in their mode of existence as genera, fami- 
nes, etc., or quite as real But individuals truly exist in a different way; 
no one of them exhibits at one time all the characteristics of the spedes, 
even though it be hermaphrodite, neither do any two represent it^ even 
though the species be not polymorphous, for individuals have a growth, 
a youth, a mature age, an old age, and are bound to some limited home 
during their lifetime. It is true, species are also limited in their eziatence; 
but for our purpose, we can consider these limits as boundless, inasmudi 
as we have no means of fixing their duration, either for the past geologi- 
cal ages, or for the present period, whilst the short cycles of the life of indi- 
viduals are easily measurable quantities. Now as truly as individuals 
while they exist represent their species for the time being, and do not 
constitute them, so truly do these same individuals represent at the same 
time their genus, their family, their order, their class, and their type, the 
characters of which they bear as indelibly as those of the species. 

" As representatives of Species, individual animals bear the doeeit re- 
lations to one another ; they exhibit definite relations also to the sur- 
rounding elements, and their existence is limited within a definite period. 

^^ As representatives of Genera, these same individuals have a definite 
and specific ultimate structure, identical with that of the representatives 
of other species. 

" As representatives of Families, these same individuals have a definite 
figure, exhibiting, with similar forms of other genera, or for themselves, if 
the family contams but one genus, a distinct specific pattern. 

^* As representatives of Orders, these same individuids stand in a definite 
rank when compared to the representatives of other fEunilies. 

*^ As representatives of Classes, these same individuals exhibit the plan 
of structure of their respective type in a special manner, carried out with 
special means and in special ways. 

^* As representatives of Branches, these same individuals are all oigan- 
ized upon a distinct plan, differing from the plan of other types. 

*^ Individuals then are the bearers, for the time being, not only of spe- 
dfic characteristics, but of all the natural features in which animal life is 
displayed in all its diversity. 

" Viewing individuals in this light, they resume all their dignity ; tlwy 
are no longer absorbed in the species to be for ever its representatives, 
without ever being any thing for themselves. On the contrary it becomes 
plain, from this point of view, that the individual is the worthy bearer, 
for the time being, of all the riches of nature's wealth of life, 'ftiis view 
further teaches us how we may investigate, not only the species in the 
individual, but the genus also, the fGunuy, the order, the class, the type, 
as indeed naturalists have at all times proved in practice, whilst deoyuig 
the possibility of it in theory. 

'^ Having dius cleared the field of what does not belong therein^ it now 
remains for me to show what in reality constitutes species, and how thfj 
may be distinguished with precision within their natural limits. 



Natural History of the United &ates. 881 

^ If we would not exclude from the charaoteristiGS of species any fea- 
ture which IB essential to it, nor force into it any one which is not so, we 
must first acknowledge that it is one of the characters of species to be- 
long to a given period in the history of our globe, and to hold definite 
rewions to the physical conditions then prevailing, and to animals and 
plants then ezistmg. These relations are manifold, and are exhibited : 
Ist) in the geographical range natural to any species, as well as in its ca- 
pability of being acclimated in countries where it is not primitively found ; 
2d, in the connection in which they stand to the elements around them, 
when they inhabit either the water, or the land, deep seas, brooks, rivers 
and lakes, shoals, flat, sandy, muddy, or rocky coasts, limestone banks, 
coral reeft, swamps, meadows, fields, dry lands, salt deserts, sandy deserts, 
moist land, forests, shady groves, sunny hills, low regions, plains, prairies, 
hig^ table-lands, mountain peaks, or the frozen barrens of the Arctics, 
etc ; dd, in their dependence upon this or that kind of food for their sus- 
tenance ; 4th, in the duration of their life ; 5th, in the mode of their 
association with one another, whether living in flocks, small companies, 
or isolated ; 6th, in the period of their reproduction ; 7th, in the changes 
they undergo during their growth, and the periodicity of these chan^ 
in uieir metamorphosis ; 8th, in their association with other beines, which 
is more or less close, as it may only lead to a constant association in 
some, whilst in others it amounts to parasitism ; 9th, specific character- 
istics are further exhibited in the size animals attain, in the proportions of 
their parts to one another, in their ornamentation, etc., and all the varia- 
tions to which they are liable. 

^ As soon as all the fiaci& bearing upon these different points have been 
fully ascertained, there can remain no doubt respecting the natural limit- 
ation of species ; and it is only the insatiable desire of describing new 
species from insufficient data which has led to the introduction m our 
systems of so many doubtful species, which add nothing to our real 
Imowledge, and only go to swell the nomenclature of animals and plants 
already so intricate. 

^ Assuming then, that species cannot always be identified at first sight, 
that it may require a long time and patient investigations to ascertain 
their natural limits ; assuming further, that the features alluded to above 
are among the most prominent characteristics of species, we may say, 
that species are based upon well determined relations of individuals to 
the world around them, to their kindred, and upon Uie proportions and 
relations of their parts to one another, as well as upon their ornamenta- 
tion. Well digested descriptions of species ought, therefore, to be com- 
parative ; they ought to assume the character of biographies, and attempt 
to trace the origin and follow the development of a species during its 
whole existence. Moreover, all the changes which species may undergo 
in course of time, especially under the fostering care of man, in the state 
of domesticity and cultivation, belong to the history of the species ; even 
the anomalies and diseases to which they are subject, belong to their cycle, 
as well as their natural variations. Among some species, variation of color 
is frequent, — others never change, — some change periodically, — others 
accidentally ; some throw ofl* certain ornamental appendages at regular 
dmes, — the Deers their homi, — some Birds the ornamental plumage they 



382 Agassiz's ContribiUions to the 

wear in the breecliug season, etc. All ^his should be ascertained for eadi, 
and no species can be considered as well defined and satisfactorily chu- 
acterized, the whole history of which is not completed to the eitent 
alluded to above." — pp. 161-169. 

In the citation on page 322, it will be observed that other sub- 
divisions in classification are here recognized, namely, subclasses^ 
suborders^ subfamilies^ subgenera^ subordinate to those already 
mentioned ; that of a subclass being based on a cKaracter like 
that characterizing a class, but of less comprehensive character; 
and that of a suborder on ordinal characters : and so on. Be- 
specting them we cite a single paragraph : 

" These distinctions have long ago been introduced into our systema, 
and every practical naturalist, who has made a special study of any clan 
of the animal kingdom, must have been impressed with the proprietr of 
acknowledging a large number of subdivisions, to express all the vanous 
degrees of affinity or the dift'erent members of any higher natural group. 
Now, while I maintain that the branches, the classes, the orders, the 
families, the genera, and the species are groups established in nature re- 
spectively upon different categories, and while I feel prepared to trace the 
natural limits of these grouj^ by the characteristic features upon which 
they are founded, I must confess at the same time that I have not yet 
been able to discover the principle which obtains in the limitadon of 
their respective subdivisions. All I can say is, that all the different cate- 
gories considered above, upon which branches, classes, orders, ^Eimilies, 
genera, and species are founded, have their degrees, and upon these de- 
grees sub-classes, sub-orders, sub-families, and sub-genera have been estab- 
lished. For the present, these subdivisions must be left to arbitrary esti- 
mations, and we shall have to deal with them as well as we can, as long 
as the principles which regulate tliese degrees in the difl'erent kinds M 
groups are not ascertained. I hope, nevertheless, that such arbitrary 
estimations are forever removed from our science, as far as the categories 
themselves are concerned." — p. 171. 

The citations which have been made are unavoidably an im- 
perfect presentation of the subject of classification as developed 
by Prof. Agassiz, and we must refer our readers to his own 
words for full explanations. Many, while admiring the clear 
sighted vision which has jKTceived, in the midst of so much 
detail in nature and so much confusion in science, the great ideas 
brought out, will llnd difticulties in applying the scheme. We 
feel tliem ourselves, and shall need to give the system a more 
thorough study, before we can fully appreciate all the bearings 
of the principles. Proll'ssor Agassiz acknowledges his own embjur- 
rassmcnt in adapting tliem to the Vegetable Kingdom. We enter 
therefore into no proper discussion of the whole subject, and 
only throw out a few thouirlits by way of suggestion, or to elicit 
further explanations. As Prof. Agassiz has stated, the truthful- 
ness of the system of ideas, and the correctness of any partica- 



i 



N^Om^ 9i9tuy of tke VmM SlaUs. Ut 

lar applioatioa of thapL aare two diiliQct qneBtioiis; and if the 
fixrmer be ettaUiahecL OQKnwioQ beoomeB restricted to the latter. 

While peroeiviog that aoieiioe has here derived viewa reapeot* 
iQg Branohee^ dawfl^ and the other sabdiyiidoiui, which will 
oontribate miiGh to her progieiB, and alao believing that inde* 
pcfodent ^pea of atroctme (usiog thia word in it9 n^oat geneial 
aepae) are the true baaia fiur ihb aubdiyiaiona which are to be oo« 
fiidinated into ayatem, or rather to be reoognised in theirnatoral 
ooSrdinate and anbordinate relationa, we are atill led to inquire-^ 

Whedier the number of primal aqbdiviakma ja neoeflaaiily in 
all departments of life only those stated? whether the number 
of prunal subdivisions between Order and Qenua ia in all cas^f 
but one, all others being aubordinate to Order and Family ? Jxh 
what sense the idea of ranli^ made oharaeteriatjc of the urdenii 
differs fiom the all-penradnig idea, which leachea from thia 
Branches downward, until it mdea out because we cannot longer 
diatinffuish what are luarka of higher or lower grade,<-^the ft>ur 
Brammea (the Vertefaratei Articulate, MoUaaoan e^i BadiateO bf^^** 
ing a distinct ordinal relation amonffthemselvea; sotheOlaaaea 
under these branches (as Insects, Crustaoea ana Woorme in tiie 
Articulate) ; so the Oroere, the same; and so also any subdivi^ 
sions under Ordere, (see beyond,) even in some caaea to Familiea 
and Ctenera? Whether the ordinal characteristics may not fidl to 
be distinguishable, fixr want of marks of rank or grade that we 
can now understand, even in divisions as high aa Orders^ and 
whether it is not for this reason, in mrt^ that the system is notao 
eadly applicable to the Vegetable Kinroom in which the criteria 
of girade are not fully made out? Whether the idea of order 
or rank is not in fact so universal in the system as to make it 
an unsatis&ctorv definition of any one gnde of subdivisions^ 
except under other restrictions than these meuticmed ? Whether 
the mcUity with which we mark off distinctions of gri4e or 
ordinal relations in subdivisions xmder the different cUsses of 
animals does not depend in s<Hne d^ree on the extreme di& 
ference of grade between the highest wd lowest spedes^ — ^mul^ 
titudes of species within narrow limits being on this ground, 
less easily mvided off into grades than if distributed Mtween 
wide extremes, and especially if, at the same time few in num- 
ber? Whether, when we leave the grand level upon which 
the species of an Order or ffroup have been mostly developed^ 
and trace out the degraded ^rms pf the same group, we do pot 
generally find difference of rank coming out prominently to 
view, and so proving that some actual difference exists among 
the multitudes, even when not to be detected by anv known 
methods? Whether one of the grand subdivisions oi a Glass, 
or an Order, eta, does not ofiien stand apart, as an expression of 
a new or intruded idea, not involved in either of the other grand 



334 Agassiz*s Contributions to the 

subdivisions, and often coming less distinctlY into ordinal rela- 
tions with them? Whether, while ordinal custinctions £Eide oat 
as we descend firom Branches to Families, fyrm does not, con- 
versely, rise in defined value, — ^being an element even in the 
idea of the Branches ; and in the succeeding divisions becoming 
increasingly appreciable, each in succession having a more ana 
more narrowed system of variants ; and whether it is not as a 
member in this series, that the Family (a grade of subdivision 
based on those variations of the essential parts or material of the 
structure out of which form proceeds, and not on profounder 
differences,) has the &mily likeness marked in external form, as 
Agassiz claims? And also, whether, in connection with general 
form, it does not happen that the form or structure of organs, 
besides being an adoitional expression of the same idea, some- 
times requires the dividing off of a family group, when external 
form would not seem to demand it? 

We throw out these Queries without attempting to give them 
a formal answer. We ao not imply any douot as to the tmth- 
fulness of the grand idea laid down for the Branches, or of that 
for the Classes, or of the importance of ordinal relations, or of 
form, as characteristic of the Family group, or of superficial 
structural details as the basis of Genera. Instead of attributing 
less importance to these ideas we are led by the views them- 
selves, Srom which we have derived profound mstruction, to sus- 
pect even a more comprehensive meaning and use of them than 
nas been presented. The idea of ordinsu relations seems to rise 
every where, in the divisions above Orders, as well as below ; 
and with diminishing distinctness as we go downward in the scale 
of subdivisions ; so as to suggest the consideration, why Classes 
are not Orders under the Branches ; and whj the first range 
of Orders under Classes should be a primal division and not ue 
second range, and so for others. So again with regard to Form : 
it is an ideal element even as regards a species, since with each 
there is a range of variations more or less wide. But the ran^ 
in species is extremely small, compared with the range m 
Classes : and with each step downward, it is becoming less and 
less of a mathematical abstraction, and therefore more easily 
cognizable by the mind. The variations in the higher subdivi- 
sions embrace the existence and non-existence of fundamental 
parts ; but as we descend, we come to a range in which these are 
constant, and then the variation is in the relations of the parts; 
at this grade of subdivisions then, form may be of that kind 
which strikes the mind of one but little accustomed to see gen- 
eralities, and this is most prominently the Family grade, although 
it may be one of higher aegree. If then we give to ordinal im- 
tions and form this comprehensive bearing we are only exalting 
their importance. We hold all the more strongly the view that 



I 



Natural Huiory of the United States. 835 

ideal plan, structural type, order or rank, form, and diversitj 
of details and adaptations, are "all the categories of relation- 
sliip which exist among animals, as &r as their structure is 
concerned." 

There is a freedom in nature in the use of form, structure and 
differences of ^rade in her systems of groups, which teaches that 
all general principles of classification should be liberally inter- 

Sreted, and not be allowed to become rigid and thereby artificial, 
[oreover, under this fir^dom, we find so much diversity in the 
value of the same organs among different groups,— one group, 
for example, exalting certain characteristics that are valueless 
in others, — that we are compelled to allow each, for itself, to be 
in a sense its own interpreter. These &cts make it the more 
difficult to give general principles that comprehensive form of 
expression which shall not encounter objections; and at the 
same time they enhance the difficulty of applying those principles 
when once brought out to view. It is especially essential to hiave 
in niind, as a foundation for correct judgment on these topics, 
this one truth of comprehensive bearing, which has been already 
referred to, that natural groups are bas^ on distinct types, or are 
expressions of distinct purposes or ideas in nature ; and that only 
groups of this kind — and not those made by reference to some 
special organ in the structure — can be satisfiictorily compared 
with one another in the determination of ordinal relations ; also^ 
that while a type may run down into degraded forms, mere de- 
gradation is not a reason for breaking the group in two, an upper 
and a lower portion ; and that types of very unequal rank may 
descend in their lowest species nearly to a common level. 

A brief reference to tne class of Crustacea, which has been 
our special study, will serve for a few illustrations. This class, 
although not one of the most prominent in the Animal Eangdom 
is one of the best for the study of general principles of classifi- 
cation, because of its great diversities of grade. The spiral 
arran^ment of vegetation is but faintly distinguished in flowers, 
and the mathematical law would not have l^en learned at all 
were it not for the leaves, which show us the spiral drawn out 
long. The class of Crustacea is somewhat analogous in being 
a class drawn out long. It reaches in one direction to the 
memberless animalcule (the Eotifer), and in the other to the 
Lobster and Crab : — ^and in cubic dimensions its members vary 
from a ten-millionth of an inch to 200 inches, or in ratio from 
1 : 2,000,000,000, at least 1,000 times greater than that for In- 
sects; and while the extremes are thus widely separate, the 
whole range from one limit to the other is occupied dv a num- 
ber of species not exceeding one-fiflieth of those of Insects. 
There is reason, therefore, for expecting a magnified display of 
principles. 



3d< AgoiMs Cantrihuium$ to the 

a. In this Class, with so vast a range, we necessarily find Ae 
ordinal character of the Orders well exhibited— 4he oitlers Deoa- 
poda, litradecapoda^ Entomostrdca and Bx^erO^ being well de- 
fined types, distinct in grade. The Articulate Branch of the 
Animal Kingdom was established through the institution of the 
type-structures of Insects, Crustacea and Worms ; and the Crus- 
tacean type of structure was to have a range from the animalca- 
lar grade to the Crab and Lobster. This result has been accom- 
plished, not by modifications of one subordinate type, for no one 
admits of being made efficient through so wide a range ; but by 
four tjnpes of structure each corresponding to a separate gra^ 
of qualily and range of size, — ^the normal size of the Decapods 
greatest, of the Tetradecapods next^ of the Entomostracans next, 
and of the Botifers least The laige size found amon^ some 
Entomostracans may be regarded as vegetative expansion be* 
yond the normal size. A type of structure of inferior grade may 
admit of a great amount of enlargement^ while one of superior 

Etde could not undergo corresponding diminution. The en- 
gement in the former is rather evidence of degradation than 
elevation ; it is not making the least approximation to that ele- 
vation which belongs normally to the higher and larger type. 

Agassiz's ordinal relations are thus admirably exhibited by 
the Orders. An example of the value of his views is seen in 
their having led him to the right step in arranging under the 
head of Entomostraca the Cimpeds, of which the writer had 
made a distinct Order. In ordinal value they belong with the 
Entomostracans. 

Three of the Orders, the Decapod, Entomostracan, and Rotifer, 
appear to be tjrpes in a common series. But the Tetradecapods 
are out of the range, on an independent plan of structure. Still, 
the type may be considered as Imked to the other series through 
the composite type of Palaeozoic time, the Trilobites, if we are 
right in the position we give this ancient group of Crustaceans. 

6. We now look a step lower, and consider the types or sub- 
divisions under one of these Orders, the Order Decapoda. The 
subdivisions of the Decapods are three — Yl) The Brachynram 
(Crabs), (2) the Macrourana (Shrimps and Lobsters), and (8) the 
Squilhids. Among these groups oniinal relations are strikingly 
apparent, as much so, indeed, as in the case of the Orders: the 
Macrourans are obviously below the Brachyurans, and the Squil- 
loids, below the Macrourans. But while the types were maoe to 
correspond to separate grades, there was little reference in their 
institution to a separate range of size ; it is a difference of grade 
within nearly the same range of size ; and it is dependent funda- 
mentally on different grades of anterior concetitration in the life 
energies of the animal, or of cephalization (or thoraco-cephalin- 
tion) in the system, — a principle alluded to on p. 218 of our Iftrt 



Neural HiMiory cf ike VmUed Oaies. MV 

mber, and ecEempIifiedi in a general way, in the ahoortening of 
» body poatariorly and the compacting anteriorly which aooom- 
lies elevation of grade.* 

Fhe lowest of these groups^ the Sqnilloidi stands somewhat 
urt irom the others like a distinct ioeai intruded on the type, 
e Braehyorans and Macronrans belong to a common typical 
e and are separate expansions in tiiat line ; the series howeyer 
not a continnons one, for the groups approximate only throu^ 
i degradations of the former, these degradations appearing in a 
mbor of genera which make up the soHsalled AnomourcL This 
t indicates the independence of the types. This independence 
ivrther sustained by the fact that the Anomoura were the char- 
eristic Crustacea of the Secondaryage preceding mostly the 
Bchyura and topical Macroura. The Anomoura are an em- 
romc prolongation downward of the Brachjrural type ; and the 
rms grou^ ^chisopoda) consists of s1^ inferior embryooio 
ms <n mainly the Macroural line. 

u Looking, again, a step lower, at subdivisions under the 
ichyural type, we find four, well defined : the Maioidi^ the 
ncroids (ana Gxapsoids), the Goiyatoids, and the Leuooeoida; 
>m the Maioids to the Gorystoids the ordinal relation is very 
dent, the Maioids or Triangular Crabs standing obviously at 
\ head. But, as in the pre^din^, ^re is litde reference in 
\ types to a different range of suse, while there is a reference 
anterior concentration or an inooreased cephalization of the 
stem. 

rhe omms and structure are essentially the same in the 
ioids, Cancroids and Coryatoids. But the Leucosoids (embra- 
g the genera Leucosia, Iphis, Ixa, Ebalia, &c,) are a side type; 

Hie nutfkf of grade in tliese and other Omftacea are dbeiiaaed vn the wriler'a 
4. Szpu Report oo Onutacea, and alio hntAj in this Journal, toL zzii, pL 14. We 
ire a gooa illostration of this diiSerenoe of oephalothoradc ooDcentratioo b the 
tiooe of fhe Bradiyurans, Macronrans and SqaillcndSi The body oonsista in 
staoea of the two partsi abdomen and cephaiothorax. In the Sqnifla gnmp, the 
est of the three, toe abdomen is two to three times larger than the oephalotho* 
; the energies of the animal are used to an extreme extent in making its hinder 
\M ; and the front are loosely put together, the eyes and two pairs of antemus 
ig on separate segments; aiKi oesides, the posterior part of the cephakythoraz is 
fthened out into a series of distinct segments like tne abdomen. MoreoTer the 
omen carries the liver and ovaries ; ami the Squilloids therefore are eminently 
tr&uran». In the Macrouran type, the abdomen m in weight about equal to die 
halothorax, or smaller, and the whole cephaiothorax is gathered compaetlT 
eath the carapax. In the Brachyuran type, the abdomen is not orer one-mtietb 
wei^t of the cephaiothorax, and nearly all the energies of life are employed 
nakiDg the cephaiothorax and exalting the head organs. Thus in eacn step 
nurd, a large share ef the force of the being is thrown forward, to the exaltation 
he cephalic portion of the body. The three types are constructed in accordance 
I this distinction. And it is a potential and mathenmtical distinction ; for eadi 
(ud is a kind of life-engine, and the three types are three grades ia the life- 
ne structure, differing in the quality or degree of the force ; each has a typical 
le, and a range of variations upon this value according with variations of stnu&ure. 
:CX)NI> 8ER1BH, Vol. XXV, No. 76.— MAY, 1856. 

43 



838 Agoitiz'i ContribuHans to the 

that ifl, they embrace a distinct idea engrafted on the ordinary 
Brachynral type : — ^their rank is probably between that of the 
Maioias and Cancroids. 

Among the Macrourans, also, there are four types, the Asta- 
coids (including Scyllarus, Palinurus, Astacus), the CSaridoids 
(inclu(Ung Palsemon, etc.), the Penseoids, and the Callianaasoidfl, 
and they are parallel with the four subdivisions of the Brachy- 
urans. From the Astacoids to the Pensaoids, ordinal relations 
are exceedingly distinct ; the three types depend on three sys- 
tems of modifications of one general plan of structure, and, l&e 
the above, rest, as we have elsewhere shown, on different grades 
of cephalization. The Callianassa group is out of the line, an 
intrusive or aberrant group like the Leuoosoids in the Brachyura. 
In mean or average graoe the species may rank with the Gari- 
doids ; but the ranse of grade among them is large. They have 
some relations to the Squilloids — ^the aberrant Order among the 
Decapods.* 

There are thus in Crustacea, 

First, a range of Orders, based on independent type0, in which 
ran^ of size as well as grade of quality is a fundiamental idea. 

Second, another ordinju range, based on grades of anterior con- 
centration in the structure, and affecting the structure of the 
body as a whole, the cephalothorax and abdomen. 

Third, a third ordinsd range, also based on grades of anterior 
concentration, but affecting the cephalothorax mainly, and lead- 
ing to the highest degree of cephalization. 

* The BubdivisioDs of Crustacea whidihave been mentioned, are the fbUowiitg: 
The grouping differs somewhat from that given in the writer's Report od Crastacet. 

CRUSTACEA. 
Order I. DECAPODS. 

Oedebs or 2d grade, 

L BRACHYURANS. 

Orders of 3d grade, 

1. Maioids. 

2. Cancroids and Orapeoids. 

3. Corystoids. 

4. Leucosoids. Aberrant, 

Appendix. Anomoura — Embryonic in type, 

U, MACROURANS. 

1. Astacoids. 

2. Caridoids. 
8. PenflBoids. 

4. CaUianaasoidi. AberrmU, 

Appendix, Schizopods — EmbrywUe in type, 

ni. GASTROURANS oE SQUILLOIDS. 

IL TETRADECAPODS. 
m. ENTOMOSTRACANS. 
lY. ROTIFERS. 



Natural History pf the United StaUs. 339 

Form, under rather wide limits of range, distinguishes the 
Tders ; with narrower limits, the next grade of Oniers ; very 
istinctly, the third grade, the Maioids being called triangular 
rabs, eta, and still more distinctly and usually without the aid 
r ordinal distinctions. Families, or the next range of subdivisions. 

We do not undertake at this time to inquire particularly into 
le subordinate groupings. 

The Brachyura, on what may be called their normal level, are 
neatly multiplied in species, and amon^ either the Maioids, 
aneroids or Leucosoids, diiference of rani: is little apparent in 
le great majority of species. Here Families may be distin- 
uished hj/orm, though hardly by this exclusively. But there 
re genera in which the groups decline from the normal level, 
ad the decline once begun, goes on with rapid increase from 
ae genus to another. Among the Maioids, the decline is seen 
istinctly in the Parthenope group which has not the close corn- 
act head and head oi^ns of the Maioids, but approximates in 
lese respects to the Cancroids ; it is more obvious still in the 
iferior genera of the group, Trichia and Oncinopus ; and from 
lese it goes off by leaps through the Anomoural genera, Dromia, 
ad Lithodes to f agurus. 

The Cancroids and Grapsoids show more signs of grade among 
le ordinary genera than the Maioids. From the level of the 
aneroids, on which the species are the most numerous, there is 
declining grade through the Grapsoids, from Gonoplax to Pin- 
othera; and the declining curve at last descends rapidly 
irough one or two Anomoural genera. The Corystoids have 
istinct ordinal relations among the families and the lowest is 
jiomoural. 

The same system of remarks applies to the Macrourans ; the 
bservations about the Maioids, Cancroids and Corystoids, re- 
>ectively to the Astacoids, Caridoids and Penseoids ; and those 
bout the degradations of the Brachyura or the Anomoura, to 
le Schizopods or degradations of the Macroura. 

We hence note the following facts : (1) the great multiplication 
F species on what may be called a normal level, where grade is 
jldom or but slightly distinguishable: (2) the fall from this 
;vel, becoming a more and more rapid descent, so that grade is 
bserved even among Families and also Genera, because the type 

here " drawn out long" ; (3) the small number of species exist- 
ig below the normal level along the declining grade. The num- 
3r of ordinal degrees of subdivisions in Crustacea — that is, sub- 
Lvisions in which grade is distinctly marked, — is not necessarily 
law for other groups, because, as before said, this class is few in 
)ecies, and is expanded over an immensely wide range of grade, 
L striking contrast with the class of Insects. The same number 
' degrees of subdivisions might have existed without distinct 



S40 Agasrix's Contributions to th€ 

ordinal relations, and then structural type would have been the 
sole reliance in classification, as it is in a great number of in- 
stances. 

In groups like that of the Crustacea, or wherever the lines of 
grade are declining or are long drawn out, and occupied by com- 
paratively few species, there is a chance for naturalists to reduce 
the groups called genera to one-species genera ; while in those 
upon the normal level on which the principle multiplication of 
tne species occurs, genera naturally are numerous in species. 
Nature seems to give us a caution here as to laying down un- 
bending criteria for generic subdivisions, irrespective of the 
group under consideration. When our system of classification 
runs downs into numerous monotypic genera, it appears to us to 
be failing of one great purpose, whicSi is, to exnibit groups of 
species, in their true relations. 

The application of the views brought forward by Pro£ Agassiz, 
we suspect will give the greatest occasion for diversity of judg- 
ment. He has not sketched out the system in zoology in order 
to exemplify his principles, and has only mentioned hypotheticallj 
the names of the Classes of Vertebrates. Instead of tne ordinary 
number, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes, there are the fol- 
lowing : Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Selachians, Ga- 
noids, Fishes proper, and Myzontes, — the last four being dis- 
memberments of the group of fishes, and the preceding two, of 
Reptiles. The subdivision of the Reptiles had been before sug- 
gested ; but the Fishes are here for the first time divided. (Sa 
this subject, he observes, p. 186 : 

^*The number and limits of the classes of this branch (the Vertebrate) 
are not yet satisfactorily ascertained. At least, naturalists do not ui 
agree about them. For my part, I believe that the Marsupialia cannot 
be separated from the Placental Mammalia, as a distinct class, since we 
observe, within the limits of another type of Vertebrata, the SeUchians, 
Tvhich cannot be subdivided into classes, similar differences in the mode 
of development to those which exist between the Marsupials and the 
other Mammalia. But I hold, at the same time, with other naturalists, 
that the Batrachia must be separated, as a class, from the true Beptiks, 
as the characters which distinguish them are of the kind upon which 
classes are founded. I am also satisfied that the differences which exist 
between the Selachians, (the Skates, Sharks and Chimaerse,) are of the 
same kind as those which distinguish the Amphibians from the Reptiles 
proper, and justify, therefore, their separation, as a class, from the ^shei 
proper. I consider also the Cyclostomes as a distinct class, for similar 
reasons ; but I am still doubtful whether the Ganoids should be sepan- 
ted also from the ordinary Fishes. This, however, cannot be decided 
until their embryological development has been thoroughly investigated, 
though I have already collected data which favor this view of the can. 
Should this expectation be realized, the branch of Vertebrata would ooo- 
tain the following classes : — 



Naiural History of the United States. 341 

.Ist CIbm :Myzontes; with two orders, MyxiDoids and Cyclostomes. 

2d Claas: Fishes proper; with two orders, Ctenoids and Cjcloids. 

3d Class : Ganoids; with three orders, Coelacanths, Acipenseroids, 
and Sauroids; and doubtfu], the Siluroids, Plectognaths, and Lopho- 
branches. 

4th Class: Selachians; with three orders, Chimaerse, Galeodes, 
and^Batides. 

5th Class : Amphibians; with three orders, Csecilise, Icthyodi, and 
Anura. 

6th Class: Reptiles; with four orders, Serpentes, Saurii, Rhizo- 
dontes, and Testudinata. 

7th Class: Birds; with four orders, Natatores, Oralis, Rasores, 
and Insessores, (including Scansores and Accipitres.) 

8th Class : Mammalia; with three orders, Marsupialia, Herbivora, 
and Camivora." 

Here then, at the very first step, there will probably be a divi- 
sion among naturalists as to the signification of the principles 
laid down. Some will assume, and correctly as we believe, that 
the adult form of fishes and reptiles is the true expression of 
the potentialities of the type, and should alone be regarded in 
determining Classes, and that embryogeny can rightly come in 
only to form Subclasses ; while others may take as a basis the 
whole range of structure through development. It is obvious 
too that there is room for wide diversity in the use of the other 
subdivisions, down to genera and even species. 

Again, if the subdivisions of fishes above mentioned are called 
Classes, some may ask, what name shall be applied to this entire 
group, the rank of which would be between Branch and Class? 

whatever may be the final conclusion on these points, the 
discussion which has been pursued by Professor Agassiz has 
already borne science to a higher level than it had before attained, 
and given a force and direction to thought which will insure 
rapid progress towards perfection. The work proceeds next with 
its special topic, the North American Testudinata; and the sub- 
ject is carriea out with that thoroughness of research and beauty 
of illustration, reaching even to the structure of the embryo and 
its whole course of development, which is just what is needed 
for a full demonstration of the truth, on the points in science still 
open to discussion. Moreover, the volumes by Agassiz which 
are to follow in the series, will make still broader the foundation 
for the true philosophy of nature. We shall look eagerly for 
the last words on this subject from his searching mind. 

The review of the Embryological part of the volumes forms a 
separate article, and is prepared by Mr. H. J. Clarke, Professor 
Agassiz's assistant, the results of whose microscopic investiga- 
tions appear upon many of the pages and plates of the work. 



342 Agasiiz on the Embryology cf the TwriJe. 



Art. XXJX.— Recapitulation of the "JErrAryology of the TarOsf 
as given in Professor Agassv^s " Contributions to the Natural Bii- 
iory of ilie United States of North America^^' Vol. II, Part HI; 
by EL James Clark, of Cambridge, Mass. 

The following summary, of the "Embryology of the Turtle," 
was undertaken at the request of Professor J. D. Dana» one of 
the editors of this Journal For certain reasons, given below, 
it will be seen that neither comment nor criticism upon the work 
is in place here. The method adopted in writing out this sub- 
ject, as it stands in the original work, is so far from the aphoristic 
style that I find it will oe next to impossible to make extracts, 
which will give the pith of the matter, without inserting here a 
great portion of the whole. On this account I shall be compelled 
to rewrite, whatever may be presented, in a condensed form, 
with perhaps here and there a short extract 

Had it not fallen to my lot, as Professor Agassiz's assistant, 
to write out the embryological portion of these " Contributions" 
I would not have dared here to take the liberty of reconstmct- 
ing the fabric of the story of the development of the Turtle. 
As it is, it will not be possible, for want of room, nor reaHj 
necessary, to render account of the whole history as originally 
written, but I will confine myself mostly to what is new m this 
department of science. 

Whenever anything is presented to the scientific world as 
new and especially controvertive of old and perhaps apparently 
well established views, every caution is necessary in proving 
that all liability to error has been guarded against whilst pursu- 
ing the investigations. 

On this account considerable care has been taken, in the open- 
ing part of the " Embryology," to state clearly, and how that 
the egg and embryo, so called, were kept in as natural a oondition 
as possible. In tne study upon the origin and development rf 
the egg, " a young animal was resorted to on account of the 
greater abundance of the smallest sized eggs and also because 
Sie ovary is less opaque than in the adult 

The origin of ike egg, — The ovary was cut out entire and 
floated in serum, so that the eggs might not be distorted by pres- 
sure nor by pulling and tearing in order to get them unaer Ae 
microscope. In the first place a comparative view was taken of 
the whole mass of the eggs, from the youngest to the oldest, 
with a low magnifying power, and in this manner a rapid survey 
was made of the respective condition of each egg, ana the mini 
prepared in part, by anticipation as it were, to more readily 
comprehend the relation of the phase of any one to that of any 
other or of the whole. 



AgMtiz on the Embryology of the Turtle. 343 

"he physiognomy of the egg in its younger stages is so pecu- 

with its thick dark oufline, brilliant, strongly refractive, 
iogeneous, yellowish contents, and the lateral nucleus, that 
innot be mistaken for one of the cells, of the corpus graafia- 
a, which press upon it from all sides. " The initial form of 
^gg is a dark, oily looking, ffranule-like, spherical body, situ- 
l among the interstices* of the cells of the corpus graananum. 
the latter not only, but even their nuclei surpass such an 

in size by several diameters, it is superfluous to debate the 
Btion, whether the egg may not be the nucleus of a cell of 
generating organ." 

Lt first the egg has no wall about it, but finally by a differen- 
ion of tiie superficial particles a consistent envelop is elabo- 
d and answers to the name of the vitelltne sac. 
Tie origin of the PwrJdnjean vtsicU. — About this time, or soon 
r, the Purkinjean vesicle— germinal vesicle oftentimes called 
•ecomes visible, by a condensation of a portion of the homo- 
eous yolk against the inner sur&ce of the vitelline sac. The 
le of origin of this vesicle is very important to notice, be- 
se it bears reference, in a very i)ointed manner, to the theonr 
^e origin of free cells. Here it is evident that the egg-cell 

not originate, as is usually stated of cells, around its nucleus, 

that its nucleus is the oflfepring of the cell which encloses it 
3 Purkinjean vesicle always remains close to the parieties of 

egg, even to the time when it disappears, and in no way 
nts to a falsely claimed relation to fecimdation and the origin 
the embryo. The wall of this vesicle originates like that of 

vitelline sac, about a previously conglomerated mass of 
tides. 

rhe appearance of numerous vesicular bodies, known as the 
ignerian vesicles, upon the inner surfiice of the wall of tiie 
rkinjean vesicle, completes the operations, which have here 
in going on, necessary to the perfectinff of the egg-cell, and 

rendering of it^ although a ccw, totally different in properties 
m all other apparently smailar ceUs. 

The development of the yolk, — It will be more convenient after 
s, on account of the complicity of the contents of the egg, to 
at of its different constituents separately. We will conmience 
h the yolk first, as that is the fostering substance from which 

the other components essentially onginate. Previously to 

" The first blood corpuscles are yolk-cell nuclei which have midergoDe changes 
itical with those of the whole * embryo/ and they alone remain free, circulatfng 
le channels hollowed out in a mass of cells identical with themselyea. These 
the first cells originating interstitially, but yet, after all, not essentially so, as ia 
case with the egg ; for each blood corpuscle is a segment of an original yolk-cell 
ens, which has gone through the process of self-diyision; whilst the egg originates 

as the primary yolk-cell does, by conglomeration of particles, and the formation 
I membrane around the parieties of this concretion." 



344 Agassiz on the Embryology of the Turtle. 

the development of distinct yolk cells, the yolk passes thionj^ 
some peculiax granulated phases, the most remarkable of whick 
is the gradual encroachment of granules, commencing at one 
side of the egg, upon the hitherto homogeneous contents, till 
they pass across the whole bulk of the vitellus. At one lime^ 
during this progressive incursion of the granules, the egg appeals 
as if a half of two different eggs had been stuck togetner, one* 
half being homogeneous and the other thickly granulated. After 
the granular stages, at the time the egg is alx)ut one-sixteentibi of 
an inch in diameter, the oily looking ^anules gradually disap- 
pear and at the same time minute hyaline, albuminous, vesicaliir 
bodies begin to develop. These a^ain, as is the case with the 
egg-cell and Purkinjean vesicle, onginate without the interven- 
tion of a so-called nucleus,''^ and each one grows for some time 
without the least sign of a second body within its walL 

" Here then we have essentially, nay in every sense, a odi, a 
hollow layer of spherical surfisice derived fix)m the lateral adhe- 
rence of the superficial particles of a homogeneous fflobule. It 
is not a cell formation by the hollowing out of a solid substazioe^ 
forming at first a very thick wall, which would stretch by the 
increase of the contents, as it gradually surroimds a larger spuobf 
till it thins out to the ordinary crassitude of such envelopa 
Never, throughout the whole range of cell development in too 
egg, is there tne merest hint of this mode of genesis. From the 
beginning to the end of the growth of the ectoblast it ever pre- 
serves the same thin stratum, apparently of a single layer of 
corpuscles, and moreover the same tenderness and the same re* 
fractory power. Nor can we compare this process to the re- 
ceived mode of cell origin according to which a wall is con- 
densed around and upon a * nucleus, for the mesoblast is often 

* ** Thus far we have employed, in our descriptions of the egg and its oonteati, 
the nomenclature generally in use to designate its different parts, and thoae of tbe 
cell But this