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ouRNAL OF Pharmacy. 














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JANUARY, i8gs- 


Founder of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

Henry Troth, to whose enterprise and foresight the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy owes its existence, was born in Talbot County, 
Maryland, September 4, 1794. He was the son of Samuel and Ann 
Berry Troth, his ancestors being among the early settlers of Mary- 
land. After acquiring such education as circumstances permitted, 
he came to Philadelphia in 181 2, and was apprenticed to Jeremiah 
Morris, a druggist, in business on the north side of Market Street, 
below Eighth. 

It was toward the close of the war of 1812 that Henry Troth 
became satisfied that the time had come for him to assume graver 
responsibilities, and on April I, 18 1 5, he formed a partnership with 
his brother-in-law in the wholesale drug business, under the firm 
name of Henry Troth & Co., locating the new business upon the 
south side of Market Street, a few doors below Seventh. In 1816 
he was united in marriage to Henrietta Henri, of Philadelphia. He 
had been in business for himself but six years, when the University 
of Pennsylvania conceived the idea of teaching pharmacy to young 
apothecaries, and conferred the degree of Master of Pharmacy upon 
sixteen apothecaries already established in business. This action 
aroused the independent and progressive spirit of Henry Troth, and 
he, with his friend, Peter Lehman, called upon the druggists of the 
city of Philadelphia to defend their right to educate their own assist- 
ants, and, the project having been favorably received, a meeting was 
held in Carpenters' Hall, February 23, 1821. The action taken at 


2 HruTV T-rnth / Am. Jour. Pbarm 

Z ncnry jroin. \ January, I89.5. 

this meeting resulted in the estabhshment of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, 

In the meantime the business on Market Street became pros- 
perous, and in January, 1826, Samuel F, Troth, a younger brother 
of Henry, purchased the interests of Henry's brother-in-law, and 
thus the brothers became associated in business. As an illustra- 
tion of his energy and enterprise, in 1835 he built the first five-story 
store on Market Street ; this was regarded at the time as a very 
advanced step ; but Mr. George W. Carpenter, at the northeast cor- 
ner of Eighth and Market Streets, not to be outdone by a business 
rival, added two stories to his four-.story building, and thus secured 
the lead in elevation. This incident furnishes a glimpse of the 
competition amongst druggists more than half a century ago. 

Henry Troth's activity was not limited, however, to the demands 
made upon him by the college and drug business ; he had a great 
fondness for literature, and in 181 3 he became associated vvith 
Joseph Cooperthwaite, Benjamin M. Hollinshead, Joseph A. Needles, 
Peter Thompson, Edward Haydock, Samuel Stackhouse, Warwick 
P. Miller, Thomas Yardley, Watson Jenks, and James Hutchinson, 
who organized the Philadelphia Literary Association. This became 
one of the leading societies of its kind, embracing within its mem- 
bership many of the prominent citizens of Philadelphia, and was an 
active organization for over thirty years. 

Henry Troth was a member of the Orthodox branch of the 
Society of Friends, and philanthropy and the cause of the oppressed 
had in him an able champion, for we find him interested in a number 
of organizations, and for thirteen years he was treasurer of the 
Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery. In addition to 
this, he served as one of the managers of the Colonization Society, 
the Children's Asylum, the Almshouse, and the Provident Society. 

Through the active period of his life he was one of the Guardians 
of the Poor, of Philadelphia, a Trustee of Girard College, and one 
of the Board of Managers of the House of Refuge, from the first 
year of its organization. The education of the young was always a 
prominent interest with him ; he was one of the organizers of the 
Apprentices' Library, which still continues its useful work in the 
community. In the higher field of intellectual activity he was 
known as a valuable member in the Executive Board of the Phila- 
delphia Museum and Franklin Institute. In commercial and finan- 

^"jan'uTvS"-} Henry Troth. 3 

cial circles, Henry Troth was well known as a manager of the 
Schuylkill Navigation Company from 1825, and he was also one of 
the Directors of the United States Bank. From 1827 to 1836, 
he was a member of Common Council of the City of Philadelphia, 
and for four years was president of that body. 

During the time of his connection with public affairs he became 
much interested in the use of illuminating gas for lighting the city. 
This project met with violent opposition from many prominent citi- 
zens of Philadelphia. It was gravely contended by engineers and 
experts that the city would be in danger of being blown up, for the 
explosive properties of a mixture of this gas and air was then well 
known, and another objection which was freely urged, was that the water 
which was conducted by underground pipes through the city, would 
be contaminated by the pipes conveying the gas in their immediate 
vicinity. Henry Troth contended strongly against these objectors, 
and his views were soon sustained, for a company, chartered for the 
purpose of making illuminating gas, erected works, laid pipes, 
proved that the grounds of opposition were absurd, and finally sold 
the works to the city at an advance of 25 per cent. 

Henry Troth's progressive spirit was shown in 18 19 in his efforts 
to burn anthracite coal, he being one of the first to attempt it in the 
city of Philadelphia. The hardness of the " stone coal," as it was 
called in those early days, seemed to be an insuperable obstacle ; 
this hardness, as is well known, is now recognized as one of its 
greatest advantages. It is hardly necessary to say that he overcame 
the difficulty of burning anthracite, and we can well imagine his 
satisfaction and enjoyment, in after years, in seeing this important 
product become one of the great sources of wealth of the Common- 

The life of Henry Troth, viewed from the standpoint of the num- 
ber of years that he lived, was not a long one, for he died May 22, 
1842, in his 48th year; but his ceaseless activity, wonderful fore- 
sight and correct judgment, caused his labors to be appreciated long 
after he was laid to rest. In this connection, the words of a con- 
temporary and distinguished professor of the College, written imme- 
diately after his death, in an address delivered to the graduates of 
the College, may appropriately close this brief sketch : 

"An individual, once a member of our body, prominent with 
others, was among the first in his endeavors to promote its success- 

4 Structure of Sanguinaria Canadensis. •{ ^'janSary^isss"' 

ful establishment. In this country it was a new and untried under- 
taking, but the success with which it has been crowned has long 
since clearly exhibited the advantages expected by its founders. 
A foresight of the future, an anticipation of the growing wants of 
the profession, the necessity of preparation to meet the demands of 
the community, originated the enterprise. But it required unceas- 
ing vigilance, inexhaustible perseverance, widespread influence and 
unwearied personal attention. For all these our lamented Vice- 
President Troth was distinguished ; he boldly took his stand in 
favor of improvement, and no difficulties drove him from his path 
no disappointment diminished the firmness of his determination to 
accomplish it. His hope was high and he had the faculty of infus- 
ing it into all within his circle. His manly bearing, his practical 
intelligence, his tones of encouragement and decided liberality, com- 
municated power, and it was wielded for the advancement of this, 
his favorite project. In speaking of him thus, I detract nothing from 
the merit of those who stood by him and aided him. I praise him 
because he is no longer with us, and bring his deeds before our 
minds, because it is a melancholy enjoyment to dwell upon his 
memory, more especially in connection with the present ceremonies, 
in which so often he stood conspicuous. His mantle is among us^ 
and will continue to cover, I trust, many an eminent successor." 


By Edson S. Bastin. 

In The Pharmacist iox July, 1885, the author published an article 
on this plant, in which he described the secretion cells and laticifer- 
ous tissue of the rhizome. 

The following language was used : 

" The laticiferous tissue is an interesting subject of study from the 
morphological standpoint, as in the rhizome it shows every grada- 
tion of development from simple, isolated resin- or secretion-cells^ 
through those that are clustered in rows of two or three and those 
that form an irregular and long chain, but still have a distinct cellu- 
lar character, to those which form distinct tubes." 

A remark of De Bary in which he states that Sanguinaria con- 
tains no proper laticiferous tissue, but only secretion cells, led to 


Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

Structure of Sanguinaria Canadensis. {"^January.' 


this re-investigation of the subject. Fresh materials were procured 
and a large number of sections, longitudinal and transverse, of the 
rhizome were made and carefully studied with the view of ascertain- 
ing with certainty whether or not milk-tissue, in the proper sense of 
the term, really does exist in the rhizome. 

The red or orange-colored secretion is without doubt chiefly con- 
tained in distinct cells, which are either isolated or connected into 

Fig. 3. 

irregular chains and distributed among the parenchymatous tissues 
of the middle bark and large pith. But in the inner portion of the 
middle bark, and in the inner bark, occur chains of cells which are 
longer, more regular and contain a yellow rather than an orange-red 
secretion. The cells composing the chains are also much narrower 
and more elongated than are the ordinary secretion cells. Among 

"*" aniwrm5.™" } Structure of Sanguinaria Canadensis. 7 

these rows it is impossible in most instances to demonstrate any 
communication between the cells. The transverse partitions between 
the cells are in fact imperforate. In a few instances, however, par- 
ticularly in the inner layer of the bark, there is demonstrable con- 
nection between the secretion cells of the chains, which thus form a 
true laticiferous tissue, essentially like that occurring in many other 

a b c d e 

Fig. 4. 
of the Papaveraceae, though of course much less complex in its 
development. It is seldom the case that these milk-tubes are more 
than a dozen cells long, and they are seldom branching. In fact we 
find in this plant the form of laticiferous tissue called " complex," or 
" reticulate," only in the most rudimentary stages of its develop- 
ment. It plays a very subordinate part in holding the secretions of 
the plant ; but still, to the morphologist it is highly significant, as 


Structure of Sanguinaria Canadensis. /Am..iour. Pbarm. 

.lauuary, 1895. 

showing the relationship existing between secretion cells and com- 
plex laticiferous tissue. 

That the secretion cells contain resins beside the alkaloidal prin- 
ciples present in the drug, is clearly evidenced by tests. Moreover, 
it seems probable that the salts of sanguinarine are more abundant 
in the large orange-red secretion cells of the pith and outer portion 
of the middle bark, while those of the closely related alkaloid, chele- 
rythrine, are more abundant in the smaller yellow cells and laticifer- 
ous tubes of the inner bark and inner part of the middle bark. 

Fig. 5. 

Sections treated for twenty-four hours or more with strong 
glycerin showed deposits in the secretion cells of stellate masses of 
yellowish- brown crystals, with a decided diminution of the inten- 
sity of color in the liquid contents of the cells. The crystals polarize 
beautifully, but for lack of time their chemical nature has not 
been investigated. 

A number of drawings were made in the course of the study, 
illustrating further the structure of the rhizome and root. These 
drawings, together with one from the author's Laboratory Exercises, 

^ januar/iM^""' } Abtcs Balsumea, MUlcr. 

January, 1895. 

giving a view of the plant and illustrating its floral structure, are 
reproduced herewith. 


Fig. I. — A, Entire plant of Sanguinaria Canadensis in its flowering stage. 
a, rhizome and rootlets ; b, one of the outer bud-scales ; c, 
young leaf; d, flower complete, except that the caducous sepals 
have fallen away. i( natural size. 

B, Different floral organs separated, a, a sepal ; b and c, different 

petals ; d, stamens ; e, pistil in different views. , 

C, Ground plan of flower. 

Fig. 2. — Part of cross-section of rhizome magnified 15 diameters, a, cork ; 
b, vasal bundle ; c, cluster of secretion-cells in middle bark ; d, cambium ; e, 
secretion-cells in pith. 

Fig. J. — Small portion of longitudinal section through xylem of a bundle, 
showing the reticulate ducts composed of short, irregular cells, a, parenchyma 
cell containing starch ; b, one of the cells of a duct ; c, aperture communicating 
with next cell of the series, forming a duct. Magnification 330 diameters. 

Fig. 4. —Portion of the cross-section of a young root of Sanguinaria, showing 
the central radial bundle before any important secondary changes have 
occurred. The root-bundles are usually triarch or tetrarch, but in older roots 
the number of rays is much obscured by secondary formations so that the 
number of rays is difl&cult to determine, a, a secretion-cell; b, cell of endo- 
dermis ; c, small duct at end of xylem-ray ; d, pericambium layer, the cells of 
which contain much fine-grained starch ; e phloem mass, in which occur some 
secretion-cells. Magnification, about 112 diameters. 

Fig. £. — Starch of Sanguinaria magnified 1,200 diameters. The grains are 
spherical or spheroidal, mostly simple, sometimes double; hilum central and 
usually inconspicuous and unfissured ; grains smooth and with no obvious stra- 
tification lines ; polarization cross faint, equal-armed. 


By Carl G. Hunkel. 

Twigs containing fresh leaves and few cones from this tree were 
collected by Mr. Cheney,^ in Buffalo County, of this State, in the 
month of July, 1893. They were distilled in this laboratory, imme- 
diately upon their arrival. The specific gravity and rotatory power 
of the oil were determined by Mr. Urban, in the beginning of Octo- 
ber of the same year. In April of this year, 1894, the physical con- 
stants of the oil were again determined. The specific gravity and 

1 Instructor in Botany, University of Wisconsin. 

lo Abies Balsamea, Miller. {^"^s^Zly^r- 

rotatory power were determined at 20° C, the latter in a loo- 
millimetre tube. 

Urban. H. 

a — 28- 9166° — 29*0375° 

d o-S88[ 0-8892 

[a)d -32-55° -32-66° 

It will be seen from these data that practically no change had 
taken place within six months. 

Upon analysis the oil yielded the following results : 

I. o'2iG5 g. yielded o •6496 gram CO 2 ^= o'ljj^ g. C, and 
02209 " H2O = 002454 g. H. 
II. 0-2297 g. yielded 07066 " CO2 =- o-i927 g. C, and 
02426 " H2O = 0-02695 g. H. 

I. II. 

C 84-16 per cent. 83-895 per cent. 

H 11-66 " 11-735 

It will be seen from the results that the oil contains a large 
amount of an oxygenated compound. Upon distillation, the follow- 
ing fractions were obtained : 

Fraction. Yield. 

— 160° C. I 5 per cent. 

i6i°toi65°C. 15-4 

165° " 167° c. 17-7 

167° " 170° C. 14-6 

170° " 175° C. 21-5 

175° " 185° C. 77 

185° " 195° c. 5-4 

195° " 205° C. 4-6 

205° " 210° C. 6-2 

above 210° C. 5-4 " 

The unstability of the boiling point, as well as the acid reaction 
of the first fractions, seemed to indicate that the distillation was 
accompanied by a decomposition of an ester. Previous to saponi- 
fication, the fractions were placed in a freezing mixture over night 
without any separation. The fractions were then mixed and 57 
cubic centimetres of the oil boiled with potassium hydrate^ 
dissolved in alcohol, for four hours. The amount of potassium 
hydrate consumed was then determined by decinormal sulphuric 
acid. It was thus ascertained that 2-5562 grams of potassium 
hydrate had been consumed in the saponification, corresponding to 
8-9467 grams, or 17 65 per cent, bornyl or terpinyl acetate. 

^ January ^'mr-} ^^^'^^ Balsamca, Miller. ii 

The alkaline liquid was distilled with water vapor. Oil came 
over clear at first, but toward the close of the operation the distillate 
crystallized. The crystals were carefully separated and dried on a 
porous plate. Melting point, I98°-I99° C , in a sealed tube. 

The oil was dried with exsiccated sodium sulphate. It was color- 
less, of a terebinthinate odor, specific gravity 08759 at 20° C. In 
a lOO-millimetre tube, it deviated the ray of polarized light 26.47° 
to the left, hence [d)^ z= — 30-22°. The oil was then fractionated 
for a second time. Toward the close of the operation the oil con- 
gealed in the condensing tube, and shortly after removing the flame, 
the contents of the flask crystallized. 

FRACTION i6o°-i65°C. 

A colorless oil, of a slight tevebinthinate, but mixed odor, specific 
gravity at 20° C. = 0-8798. In a 100-millimetre tube it turned 
the plane of polarized light 27- 15° to the left; hence {a)-^ = — 
30-86°. Upon analysis it j'ielded the following results : 

I. 0-2085 gram yielded 0-6280 g. CO2 ^ 0-1713 g. C, and 

0-2135 g. HoO^ 00237 g.H. 
II. 0-1873 gram yielded 0-5667 g. CO^ = 0-1546 g. C, and 
0-1942 g. HoO = 0-02158 g. H. 

Calculated for CioHje Found 

I. II. 

C . . . . 88-23 P^r cent. 82-15 P^r cent. 82 52 per cent. 

H . . . . 11-77 " ii"38 " ii'52 

100 -oo 93-53 9404 


Since the odor of the fraction reminded one of pinene, the nitroso- 
chloride reaction was made. Five cubic centimetres of oil were 
mixed with 5 cubic centimetres of glacial acetic acid and 6 cubic 
centimetres of ethyl nitrite, and placed in a freezing mixture. To 
this was added, drop by drop, a mixture of 3 cubic centimetres of 
glacial acetic acid and 3 cubic centimetres of concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid, and then 5 cubic centimetres of methyl alcohol. The 
yield of nitroso-chloride was very small, the crystals melting at 
101° C. The mother liquid of the nitroso-chloride was then placed 
in a freezing mixture. Nothing separated after two hours. After 
twenty-four hours the mother liquid had become brown and crystals 

12 Abies Balsamea, Miller. {"^ January S"' 

had separated. These were filtered off and the mother hquid set 
aside again. In all, three crops of crystals were obtained. Their 
respective melting points were 134^°, 135° to 136°, 136^° to 
1373^°. The combined products Avere so small that nothing more 
could be done with the same. 

FRACTION 1 65°- 1 68° C- 
A colorless oil of a more distinctly terebinthinate odor than frac- 
tion l6o°-i65° C; specific gravity 0-8719 at 20° C. In a 100-mil- 
limetre tube it deviated the ray of polarized light 275 5° to the 
left, hence [a)-^ = — 31*58°. 


The crystals which had congealed in the condensing tube during 
fractional distillation, when dried on a porous plate, were found to 
have a melting-point of 20i°-202° C. Upon exposing the various 
fractions to the temperature of a freezing mixture, fractions i68°- 
172° C. and i72°-i85° C. yielded more of the borneol. This was 
collected and crystallized from petroleum ether. The crystals con- 
sisted of large shining plates having the characteristic appearance 
and odor of borneol.^ 


The acid which, by the saponification of the oil, had been con- 
verted into a potassium salt was set free by sulphuric acid and dis- 
tilled off with water vapor. The distillate was neutralized with 
sodium carbonate, evaporated to dryness, the residue repeatedly 
extracted with hot absolute alcohol and the hot solution filtered. 
The filtrate was set aside to crystallize. The crystals were dis- 
solved in a small quantity of water and silver nitrate added. The 
silver salt, which crystallized in needle-shaped crystals, was drained, 
washed and dried. 

O'lg gram of the salt yielded o'i2i5 gram silver. 
Calculated for CoHjO^Ag. Found 

64'65 per cent. 63 "95 per cent. 

With considerable degree of certainty it may be said that laevo- 
gyrate pinene and laevogyrate bornyl acetate are present in this oil. 
Bertram and Wahlbaum- attribute the odor of firs to the presence 

' Liebig's Annalen, Vol. 230, p. 226. 
"^Archil' d. Phartn., Vol. 231, p. 290. 

^janSa^fis^^."''} Diluted Hydrobro^nic Add. 13 

of bornyl acetate, which, according to their statement, is present in 
almost all of them. As scon as more material can be obtained the 
investigation will be continued, since the substance that crystallized 
from the mother liquid of the pinene nitroso -chloride deserves further 
Pharmaceutical Laboratory, University of Wisconsin. 


By Chas. H. LaWall, Ph.G. 

Diluted hydrobromic acid is one of the articles of the Pharma- 
copoeia for which there is no official process of manufacture, 
although the Pharmacopoeia fixes the standard of purity in a simi- 
lar manner to the other acids. Notwithstanding the fact that 
diluted hydrobromic acid is not an article of everyday occurrence in 
prescriptions, this standard of purity should be as rigorously upheld 
as that of the more frequently occurring acids. 

Some time ago the writer of this article had occasion to exam- 
ine a sample of diluted hydrobromic acid, which was known 
to have been made by Fothergill's process. The results of the 
examination v/ere so widely at variance with the requirements of 
the Pharmacopoeia that other samples were procured from various 
sources in order to ascertain the purity of the article as commonly 
found in the market. 

Six samples have been carefully examined, all but one of which 
were from wholesale and manufacturing houses in Philadelphia. 
Not one of the sam.ples tested complied with all of the require- 
ments of the Pharmacopoeia, and while one or two approximated a 
state of purity, the remaining specimens were very impure, and 
showed evidence of very careless or faulty methods of manufacture. 
Free sulphuric acid was present in several of the samples (Nos. 
3 and 6), an inexcusable contamination, and all of them indicated a 
higher percentage of absolute hydrobromic acid than is allowed by 
the Pharmacopoeia. 



I Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
L January, 1895. 

The tabulated statement of the behavior of the samples with the 
official tests is as follows : 

No. I 

No. 2 
No. 3 

No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 6 

I "090 


I 080 






01 • 


im c 

nt. of 

.S o- 


"^ aj « 



u a c 



Oh 1 

'7-14?. c. 









I p. c. 









Made by Foth- 
ergill's pro- 

Contained free 

Contained free 

The presence of sulphates in all of the samples examined, except- 
ing the fourth, would indicate that impure potassium bromide had 
been used in their manufacture, or that the acids had been made by 
Hager's process (Nat. Disp., page 58) and an excess of sulphuric acid 
used. The former view is more likely to be correct in the cases of 
samples 2 and 5, as they contained no free sulphuric acid. In 
the August number of the American Journal of Pharmacy for 
1 894, an article is published entitled " Potassium Iodide and Bromide 
of the Market — Do They Come up to the Requirements of the Phar- 
macopoeia? " and it is a significant fact that only three of the eight 
samples of potassium bromide that were examined were entirely free 
from sulphates. 
305 Cherry Street, Phii,adeivPhia. 


By Frank X. MoERK. Ph.G. 
At the Pharmaceutical meeting held in the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, December 4, 1843, ^ paper was read by William 
Procter, Jr., entitled " Observations on the Volatile Oil of Betula 
Lenta, and on Gaultherin, a Substance Which, by Its Decomposi- 
tion, Yields That Oil." The important points of that paper may be 

*"iara;ry!'it9r-} Gaulthcrin. I 5 

briefly reviewed as follows, using, as far as possible, the exact words of 
the writer: (i) as establishing the identity of volatile oil of Betula 
lenta with the oil of gaultheria, which had shortly before been 
proved to be methyl salicylate by M, Cahours ; (2) establishing the 
existence of a peculiar principle in the bark of Betula lenta, which 
bears the same kind of relation to the oil of gaultheria or Betula 
lenta that amygdalin bears to the oil of bitter almond, and which 
was called gaultheriJi, as it gave rise to the oil of gaultheria by its 
decomposition; the term betulin was admitted to be more appropriate, 
but had already been applied to another substance ; (3) the exist- 
ence in the bark of Betula letita, associated with gaultherin, of a 
substance enjoying the property of reacting with the latter so as to 
produce the volatile oil, and which is analogous in its mode of opera- 
tion to synaptase or emulsin. The constituents of the bark of 
Betula lenta were given as tannin, gum, saccharine matter, resin in 
considerable quantity, gaultherin, fixed oil soluble in alcohol, etc. 
The dry bark does not possess the odor peculiar to the volatile oil, 
but the latter is only developed by contact with water, recalling the 
analogous behavior of wild cherry bark. The powdered bark, ex- 
hausted by maceration and displacement with cold 95 per cent, alco- 
hol, no longer gives the odor of the oil when moistened with water; 
the alcoholic solution, evaporated to an extract and mixed with a 
part of the exhausted bark and water, immediately developed the 
odor, and by distillation yielded a liquid which gave all of the tests 
for the oil of Betula lenta. 

The leaves of Gaultheria procumbens, after drying, did not yield 
the same principle ; the leaves, when long kept, lose their odor, and 
mixture with water does not revive it as with Betula lenta ; hence, 
it would seem that the methyl salicylate is an immediate product in 
the Gaultheria procumbens, whilst in the Betula lenta it is secondary. 
To purify this principle, gaultherin, the alcoholic extract of the bark 
is treated with water, which leaves the resin and fixed oil ; the dark 
red liquid so obtained, containing tannin, extractive and saccharine 
matter, is then treated with an excess of lead hydrate until these 
substances are separated and the transparent, nearly colorless liquid 
obtained by filtration is carefully evaporated. A transparent, gummy 
mass results, which almost wholly dissolves in 97 per cent, alcohol ; 
the alcoholic solution by spontaneous evaporation yields a syrupy, 
almost colorless product, which does not crystallize after standing 

i6 Gaultherin. {^rJury.Ts'al™- 

several weeks. In this state it is evidently associated with some sub- 
stance that prevents its crystallization. The syrupy liquid was agi- 
tated with several times its bulk of ether, but the former separated 
from the mixture unchanged. The difificulty of combining gaul- 
therin with other bodies opposes a barrier to its examination. 

As thus obtained, gaultherin has little if any odor and a slightly 
bitter taste ; heated carefully on a glass plate until all the moisture 
has evaporated, it remains as an easily pulverizable, varnish-like 
layer, which may be heated to 300^ F. without change ; at 400° F. 
it is decomposed, oil of gaultheria being among the products. Dis- 
tillation with diluted hydrochloric and sulphuric acids gave rise to 
the volatile oil ; diluted nitric acid gave minute yellow crystals, 
similar to those obtainable from the oil. 

The fixed alkalies and alkaline hydrates wholly destroy the power 
of generating the volatile oil, and convert gaultherin into an acid 
(gaultheric acid), which remains combined with the base. Ammonia 
has but slight action upon gaultherin, as, after boiling, it still is cap- 
able of producing the volatile oil by reaction with the residue of the 

Gaultherin boiled with lead hydrate and water is but slightly- 
decomposed, yielding a filtrate having an alkaline reaction and con- 
taining lead; by the cautious addition of sulphuric acid and filtering, 
off the lead sulphate, there is obtained an acid solution which con- 
tains no sulphuric acid. 

Gaultherin in aqueous solution, made alkaline with ammonia, is 
precipitated by lead subacetate, but appears to be converted into 
gaultheric acid or otherwise decomposed, as neither the liquid fil- 
tered from the precipitate nor that obtained by decomposing the 
precipitate with dilute sulphuric acid would yield the volatile oil 
when mixed with the residue of the bark. Gaultheric acid is ob- 
tained by dissolving gaultherin in baryta water, boiling the solution 
for a short time, and afterward passing a current of carbonic acid 
gas through the liquid until all free baryta is removed, and then fil- 
tering. A neutral solution of gaultherate of barium is obtained, 
from which the free acid may be isolated by the cautious addition 
of dilute sulphuric acid, as long as a precipitate is produced. The 
filtered liquid is strongly acid and does not precipitate baryta water; 
by evaporation it dries into a gum-like mass. In this form it is im- 
pure. By boiling it with lead carbonate until saturated, filtering. 

Am. Jour. Pharru ■) /^ j-m 1 1 lir^y in 1*7 

January. 1895. j LraUltlUriH. 1/ 

and precipitating the lead with hydrogen sulphide, a solution is ob- 
tained containing the acid in a much purer state, which, by evapo- 
ration, yields it in a nearly colorless mass with some evidence of 
crystallization. Gaultheric acid is soluble in water and alcohol, but 
is only slightly taken up by ether. It saturates bases, forming neu- 
tral salts which do not crystallize. By distilling it with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, oil of gaultheria is obtained, and nitric acid appears to 
act on it like gaultherin. 

The substance existing in the residue of the bark, after exhaustion 
by alcohol, and which reacts with gaultherin to produce the volatile 
oil, has not been isolated. ' is insoluble in water, as by long 
maceration in that fluid it is not removed or changed. The tem- 
perature of ebullition, as well as maceration in solution of potassa 
sp. gr. 1 .05 , destroys its power of acting upon gaultherin. The impos- 
sibility of finding a menstruum capable of dissolving this principle, 
has prevented a further examination of its properties. 

It will be interesting to know the ultimate composition of this 
principle and the relation it bears to gaultheric acid and methyl 
salicylate ; before that can be accompli.'ihed, the necessity of obtain- 
ing it in a pure state is imperative. It is hoped that the attention 
of chemists will be attracted to these principles, and their character 
more fully developed. 

Just about fifty years have elapsed since the publication of the 
above experiments without any further investigation being recorded. 
In Arcliiv der Pharmacie, 1894, page 437, there is to be found the 
second publication bearing upon this subject, by Dr. A. Schneegans 
and J. E. Gerock. These writers have taken as their field of labor 
the separation and properties of glucosides which, by their decom- 
po.sition, yield volatile oils. Their first paper bearing upon the 
volatile oil of Spiraea ubnaria was published about two years ago. 
The results of this investigation, while not as successful as antici- 
pated, disclosed that several glucosides were present, which, by their 
decomposition, yielded salicyl-aldehyde, as well as methyl salicy- 
late, but the quantities of these glucosides which are present was 
very small, so that their preparation in a state of purity was not 

Turning their attention next to the glucoside >-ielding methyl 
salicylate which appeared to offer more promising results, the bark 

i8 Gaultherin. { "^ janu^aof .89^- 

of Betula lenta was taken for investigation. Preliminary experiments 
established the absence of preformed volatile oil ; the 94 per cent, 
alcoholic tincture, always possessing the odor of wintergreen, indi- 
cated the unexpected decomposition of the glucoside in strong 
alcoholic solution ; to prevent this decomposition the bark was 
extracted with lead acetate (15 per cent, of the weight of the bark) 
in strong alcoholic solution, whereby the ferment is rendered inactive. 
Such a tincture possesses no odor of wintergreen. After precipitating 
the lead with hydrogen sulphide, the liquid is concentrated by dis- 
tilling off the alcohol ; the brown syrupy residue is taken up in 
absolute alcohol, filtered from the insoluble substances, and the 
filtrate mixed with several volumes of ether, when a voluminous 
white precipitate is produced, which agglutinates to a yellow, plastic 
mass. This, redissolved in alcohol and allowed to evaporate spon- 
taneously, forms a thick liquid, in which are slowly formed star- 
shaped groups of short, prismatic crystals. The crystals, separated 
by suction from the mother-liquor (this by exposure for several 
months to low temperature did not separate any additional 
crystals; it consisted almost entirely of a reducing sugar, and con- 
tained but traces of gaultherin, as distillation with dilute acids failed 
to give appreciable quantities of the oil), and recrystallized several 
times from alcohol after digesting with animal charcoal, were 
obtained as colorless, crystalline needles. The name gaultherin 
is retained for the same reasons given by Procter. 

Gaultherin is quite, although in the crystallized condition only 
slowly, soluble in water ; also soluble in alcohol and concentrated 
acetic acid without decomposition ; ether, chloroform, aceton, benzol, 
do not dissolve it. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it, with a 
pale rose color, changing quickly to brown and black. It does not 
melt without decomposition; a little above 100° C. the odor of 
gaultheria becomes perceptible, and at 120° C. it commences to 
become brown. The freshly prepared aqueous solution is not 
colored by ferric salts even after boiling. Fehling's solution is not 
reduced in the cold, but quickly upon boiling. Heated with small 
quantities of mineral acids, the odor of wintergreen is recognizable, 
and the fluid becomes milky, and, if sufficiently concentrated, 
deposits heavy, oily drops ; the solution then quickly reduces 
Fehling's solution. 

Gaultherin, in aqueous solution, is laevogyre ; it possesses a purely 

^"ia-^/^ir} Gaultherin: 19 

bitter taste, therefore is not decomposed by the ferments of the 
sahva ; it is not decomposed by emulsin or diastase. Decomposed 
by dilute mineral acids, it yields only two products, sugar and 
methyl salicylate. Moist gaultherin is slowly decomposed, as is 
shown by the faint odor of wintergreen which such specimens show 
after a few days ; the aqueous solution, heated in a closed tube to 
I30°-i40° C, gives the above-mentioned two decomposition 

The glucoside crystallizes with a molecule of water, which is only 
in part given off if kept over sulphuric acid or dried at ordinary 
temperature or with moderate heating ; drying at a somewhat higher 
temperature brings about its decomposition, so that combustions 
made with the crystals dried under different conditions show a 
variation of as much as 2 per cent, in the amount of carbon. After 
ascertaining the cause of these variable figures, two combustions 
were made, giving the following composition : 


C 50-31 

H 5'99 

Procter's preparation in all probability consisted chiefly of sugar ; 
the formation of gaultheric acid (which see in the previous part), 
by boiling with barj'ta water, as stated by Procter, was repeated 
with the crystallized gaultherin, but with very different results. 
Baryta water, in the cold, will decompose gaultherin after a short 
time ; heated to the boiling point the glucoside is decomposed 
with the saponification of the methyl salicylate so that the solu- 
tion contains methyl alcohol, barium salicylate and sugar; what 
was called gaultheric acid, therefore, is a mixture of sugar and 
salicylic acid, and all of the properties ascribed by Procter to this 
acid are due this mixture, save one, which is not explainable, 
namely, the formation of oil of wintergreen by distilling the 
so-called gaultheric acid with dilute sulphuric acid. If the proof 
of this consisted in testing the distillate with a ferric salt, instead 
of actually observing the oil, even this is explainable, as salicylic 
acid will volatilize with the steam. 

Without attempting the isolation of the ferment, which brings 
about the decomposition of the gaultherin, the statement of Procter, 
that the ferment is insoluble in water, is discredited, on the ground 

Calculated for 


C14H18O8 + HoO 




6 '02 

20 Flesh in Pharmany. { ^^anSHJyS" 

that moistening the powdered bark develops almost instantly the 
odor of wintergreen. Attention is called to the development of the 
wintergreen odor in the alcoholic tinctures, and that the indicated 
decomposition of the gaultherin continues during the evaporation 
of the solutions. A com.plete decomposition of the glucoside during 
the evaporation was, however, never observed. To prevent this 
decomposition various experiments were made to render the ferment 
inactiv^e ; drying the powder at iio° C. for some hours, and the 
employment of mercuric chloride solution, were without effect; 
adding the powdered bark to boiling water somewhat interfered 
with the ferment, as decidedly smaller yields of volatile oil were 
then noticed ; the use of lead acetate proved to be the simplest and 
most reliable method of preventing the decomposition of gaultherin 
by the ferment. (This, possibly, is then the explanation of the 
remarkable behavior of gaultherin noticed by Procter when he 
added lead sub-acetate to an ammoniacal solution of gaultherin and 
tried the effect of the original filtrate and of the filtrate resulting 
from the decomposition of the precipitate with dilute sulphuric 
acid upon some of the exhau.sted bark without getting the odor 
of wintergreen from either solution.)^ 

An extended chemical investigation of gaultherin was intended, 
but was frustrated by the disappointingly small yield of gaultherin 
from a second lot of bark imported especially for this work ; the 
cause of this small yield cannot be positively stated, as it may be 
due to the time of collecting the bark or to a decomposition of the 
greater portion of the glucoside by some unknown cause. 

By William B. Thompson. 
Gland extract, and its utility as a therapeutic agent, is just now a 
debatable subject in medical circles. When experiment, obser- 
vation, and experience establish something definite, and this is 
favorable, the pharmacist may prepare for an era in animal pro- 
ducts. We do however have some connecting links with this series of 
actual body parts as internal remedies — in musk, castor and fel 
bovis — to which might be added cod liver oil ; but a revival such as 
is discussed would almost seem like a return to the cauldron 

' See pievious part of tliis paper. 

'*"j4nSa?yr^895.'"'} ^/^^ FloTida Spoiigc hidustry. 21 

contents of Macbeth's weird witches' stew ! and, seriously, the idea 
of the substance of a gland from an animal in health being 
used to effect a cure of a disease supposed to be due to the inter- 
rupted function of a similar gland in another body, has something 
about it of the similia similibus certainly. Animal physiology 
(human) divides the glands into two groups — the secreting, or those 
having ducts, and the non-secreting, orductless. The secreting glands 
all have outlets to the surface of the body. These diversified secretions 
can be collected and an analysis determine their character ; but how 
is it with the ductless glands ? These are none the less component 
parts of the physical structure, and perform certain wise and benign 
functions in the human economy. They do give to the body suste- 
nance and support in some appreciable way, but not in a manner 
of which we have exact knowledge. In this they differ essentially 
from the former class of glands. An analysis of their substance 
gives only the usual flesh constituents. We can discover in them 
no special or unusual element. How then can we intelligently 
apply and use them ? Such application would seem to be quite 
similar to taking the " hair of the dog that bit you " to heal the bite 
The attention which this subject has already elicited will arouse a 
yet stronger interest, and the evidence of " things seen " will be 
eagerly sought ; then, possibly, the pharmacist may place side by 
side with his jars, " ungenta," a flesh-pot or two labelled " Extractum 
carnis humanae," or " animalis " ! 

One merit, however, there will be in the gland treatment for the 
apothecary, and it is this, that, to maintain repair, the remedy 
must be maintained, and the original prescription will be necessarily ' 
renewed ad infinitum. 


By William B. Burk. 

Sponge is a substance with which almost everyone is familiar, as 
there are but few living in civilized communities who do not find 
occasion to use it for a great variety of purposes. The article is so 
very useful that a large number of inconveniences would arise if it 
could not be obtained. Without it, what would the surgeon, the 
traveller or the housekeeper do ? And yet, most of those who use 
sponges in an infinite variety of ways all their lives, never stop to 

22 The Florida Sponge Inelustry. {'' January .''m5'"."'' 

consider how they are formed ; that is, whether they are plants or 
animals, or what their history or habits may have been. 

Sponges consist of a framework or skeleton, coated with gelati- 
nous matter and forming a non-irritable mass, which is connected 
internally with canals of various sizes. The ova are very numerous, 
and present in appearance the form of irregular shaped granules 
derived from the gelatinous matter which grow into ciliated germs, 
and. falling at maturity into small canals, are then expelled through 
the orifices. When alive, the body is covered by a gelatinous film, 
which, being provided with cilia, causes a current of water to pass 
in at the smaller pores and out at the larger apertures, the sponge 
probably assimilating the nutritive principles contained in the 

Sponges are found abundantly in tropical waters, generally. 
They gradually decrease in numbers towards the colder latitudes, 
till they become entirely extinct. They vary much in shape. 
Some are shaped like a vase, others are semi-cylindrical, others 
flat like an open fan, and some are round. 

The commerce in sponges is of considerable importance. The 
great difficulty which is experienced in any attempt to distin- 
guish species, results from the extreme susceptibility of all kera- 
tose sponges to any change in external conditions. They appear to 
require, for the production of the forms in abundance, tropical or 
sub-tropical seas, and attain by far their greatest development in the 
number of the forms and species in the Gulf of Mexico and West 
Indian seas. The typical forms, the commercial sponges, are essen- 
tially confined to the waters of the Bahaman Archipelago, and the 
southern and western coasts of Florida in the Western Hemisphere, 
and to the Mediterranean and Red Seas in the other. 

The Florida sponge grounds form three separate and elongated 
stretches along the southern and western coasts of the State. The 
first includes nearly all of the F'lorida reefs, the second extends from 
Anclote Keys to Cedar Keys, and the third from just north of Cedar 
Keys to Saint ^Mark's. The Florida grounds have a linear extent 
of about 1 20 miles, beginning at Key Biscayne, in the northeast, 
and ending in the south at northwest channel, just west of Key 
West. The northwestern half of the grounds is very narrow, having 
an average width of only about five miles, and being limited to the 
outer side of the reefs. At about the Matacumbo Reefs the grounds 

^^an'Sa"?y^i'8?r-} The Florida Sponge Industry. 23 

broaden out so as to cover the entire width of the reefs, which are 
much broader here than at the north. The entire southern half of 
the grounds has more or less of the same breadth, which is about 
13 or 14 miles. The second sponging ground begins just south of 
Anclote Keys, with a breadth of 7 or 8 miles, which it maintains 
from a point opposite Bat Fort to Sea Horse Reef, just south of 
Cedar Keys. The total length of this sponging ground is about 60 
geographical miles. Its distance from the shore varies somewhat. 
At the south the inner edge approaches within 4 or 5 miles of the 
main land, and comes close upon Anclote Keys ; but throughout the 
remainder of its extent it is distant 6 to 8 miles from the shore 
until it touches the shallow bottom and reefs of Cedar Keys. The 
depth of water on these grounds, as indicated on the coast survey 
charts, ranges from 3 to 6 fathoms, but many portions are undoubt- 
edly shallower than this. The northern ground, which maintains a 
nearly uniform width throughout, is about 70 miles long by about 
15 miles broad. It approaches to within about 5 miles of the shore 
and terminates just off the mouth of Saint Mark's River ; the depth 
of the water is the same as upon the next one to the south, /. e., 
from 3 to 6 fathoms. The total area of the Florida sponging 
grounds, which are now being worked, including also those that 
were formerly fished upon but have since been more or less aban- 
doned, may be roughly stated at about 3,000 square geographical 
miles. This probably does not include all of the sponging grounds 
occurring in Florida waters, for the fact that new areas are being 
constantly discovered would indicate that there might still be more 
to find, and it is certain that no strenuous efforts have yet been made 
to extend the grounds already known, the discovery of new ones 
having generally been made by accident. 

The sponge fishery of the Florida coast differs from that of the 
Mediterranean, in that sponges are not obtained by divers, but by 
means of a long hook fastened to the end of a long pole, and managed 
from a small boat. In Florida, small vessels, of from 5 to 50 tons 
measurement, are employed to visit the grounds to afford quarters 
for the men, and to bring home the catch. These vessels are gen- 
erally of light draught and schooner rigged, having proportionately 
large decks on which to carry boats, working gear and the sponges 
caught. The holds are of considerable size for storing the sponges, 
and the cabins generally small, indicating a sacrifice of comfort to 

24 The Florida Sponge Industry. { 'TanSaryK"' 

working room. Each vessel carries, according to its size, from five 
to fifteen men, one as cook and the remainder as fishermen, and 
also a small yawl boat to every two fishermen, to be used by them 
in securing the sponges. In addition to the working tools for tak- 
ing sponges, they are provided with a sufficient quantity of provi- 
sions, wood and water for the trip, lasting from four to ten weeks. 

The working outfit for a Florida sponging vessel consists of a i^^fi 
small yawl boats, called dingies, and a supply of sponge hooks and 
sponge glasses. The boats used are always made as light as possi- 
ble. They are from 1 5 to 20 feet long, and from 4 to 6 feet wide. 
The idea is to have the boats light enough to enable two men to 
haul them in and out over the side of the vessel, and yet strong 
enough to withstand the rough handling, which they are sometimes 
subjected to, and to carry the heavy loads resulting from a day's 
catch. While catching sponges it is necessary to scull the small 
yawl boats (dingies) from the stern, and, for convenience in doing 
so, this form of sculling notch is used : A piece of oak plank, about 
6 inches wide and i foot long, is notched at one end to fit the oar 
and inserted at the other between two guiding strips well fastened 
to the stern sheet. This sculling notch is placed at one side of the 
centre of the stern sheet, and is made to be easily removable in order 
that it may be taken out of the way when not needed. The sponge 
hooks are made of iron, with three curved prongs, measuring about 
5 to 6 inches in width. The entire length of a hook is about 8 
inches, the upper end being made into a very strong socket for the 
insertion of the pole. 

The sponge glass is made from an ordinary wooden bucket, the 
wooden bottom being replaced by one of ordinary window glass, 
securely fastened by cement. In using a sponge glass it is placed 
upright on the surface of the water, the handle of the bucket is 
placed on the back of the neck of the fisherman with his head 
thrust down in the bucket. In this way the fisherman can dis- 
tinctly see very small objects in very deep water, and he can easily 
distinguish good sponges from those of an inferior grade. 

When the sponger discovers a suitable sponge, through the aid 
of the sponge glass, he hurriedly grasps his hook, and, plunging it 
directly upon the sponge, he skilfully pulls it from its habitation and 
brings it up to the surface and places it in the boat. As soon as 
the fisherman collects a sufficient quantity, he takes them to the 

"^jinuaryfmr"} The Florida Sponge Industry. 25 

vessel, where they are spread carefully on the deck in their natural 
upright position, so as to allow the slimy matter, called " Gurry," 
by the sponger, to run off. During the first stages of decomposition 
they have a very unpleasant odor, something like decayed fishy 
matter. After the dingies collect sufficient sponges to make a 
vessel load, they are taken to what are called sponge crawls, which 
is an enclosure of about lo to 12 feet, made general!}- by placing 
stakes in the beach where the water is from 2 to 3 feet deep. 

Sponges, after being kept on the decks of the vessel from one 
to two days, will generally be sufficiently cured to be taken to the 
crawls, and then they are kept there for a few days and then 
thoroughly washed and pounded with a flat stick. They are then 
placed upon strings of about 6 feet in length and taken to the 
markets, where they are sold at auction. They are generally sold 
in lots, and then carefully trimmed and packed in bales weighing 
from 15 to 100 pounds each, according to quality, the cheaper 
grades being generally packed in the larger bales. 

The principal varieties of sponges found in Florida are the follow- 
ing : Sheep-wool, yellow and grass. The Florida sheep-wool are 
the best quality, being of very fine texture, soft and very strong and 
durable. The yellow sponge is of fine quality, but not strong in 
texture, and not near as soft or durable as the sheep-wool sponges. 
The grass is very much inferior to the others, not being as strong 
nor so desirable in shape, and being easily torn. 

There are no sponges found in the world to equal the Florida 
sheep-wool for softness and strength, and no better bath sponge 
can be found than a good, solid Florida sheep-wool, although they 
are generally sold for washing carriages, etc. In former years 
Florida sponges were loaded with lime or sand in order to decrease 
the price, but of late very few loaded sponges have been placed 
upon the market. 

Sponges in great variety are also found in many places in the 
West India Islands, also in Cuba. The Cuban sponges are the next 
best to the Florida. The principal varieties found in Cuba or the 
West Indies are sheep-wool, reef, yellow and grass, also velvet, 
which are next best to the sheep- wool. 

The finer grades of sponges are found principally in the Mediter- 
ranean, such as the fine surgeon's, toilet, bathing and nursery 
sponges, and they are very much higher in price than any others. 

26 Laboratory Notes. {''liA^r/Xm^^ 

Florida produces nearly double the amount of sponges that are 
imp(5rted from all other countries; that is, in value, not quantity, and 
the demand for good Florida sponges is considerable greater than 
the supply. Consequently, the prices must advance from year to 
year. The prices have more than doubled, within the last twenty 
years, for Florida sponges. 

The fine, soft species of sponges, such as surgeon's, toilet, nur- 
sery, bath, etc., are found in great variety in the Mediterranean, and 
are fished principally by divers, sometimes at great depth. After 
being brought to the land they are buried in the sand and allowed 
to decompose, after which they are well washed and beaten with a 
small stick, and then, packed in bags and sent direct to London, and 
again thoroughly cleaned and packed in cases according to size and 
quality. The large London dealers have almost complete control of 
the sponges found in the Mediterranean. There are a great many 
varieties found there, principally the fine surgeon's, toilet, bathings 
potter's, fine thin flat, (called elephant's ears by the native fisher- 
men), fine cups, Zimocca toilet, Zimocca potter's, etc. Some of the 
finest cup sponges are sold at as high as Sioo per dozen. The 
Mandruka bath sponges are also very expensive and very rare. 
Some of the cheaper species are also found in the same waters, but 
none like those found in Florida or Cuban waters. 


By Lyman F. Kebler. 

It is considered by some that a standard for pure honey is not 
hard to fix, while others consider the task somewhat more difficult. 
Theodore Weigle^ in his report, at the tenth annual meeting of the 
Independent Association of Bavarian Representatives of Applied 
Chemistry, stated that there had come to the public notice an arti- 
ficial honey which so closely approximated the genuine product, 
both physically and chemically, that it was impossible to distinguish 
it from the real article. Nor is this an isolated case, but is amply 
supplemented by every tabulated examination of honey, conspicu- 
ous among which are the honeys reported in Bulletin Agr. Dept., 

Deutsche Zuckerindustrie i6, 1043. 

""januaryS"-} Laboratory Notes. 27 

Wash., D, C, No. 13, part 6, where we frequently find such 
appellations as "apparently adulterated," "apparently genuine." 

In deciding whether a honey is a natural product or not, we must 
call into question every recognized qualification a pure honey 
should possess, and then we are occasionally unable to make an 
absolute decision. 

Pure honey is the nectar of flowers and other saccharin exuda- 
tions of plants, collected by bees and stored in cells built, in part 
at least, by the bees themselves. The source from whence the honey 
is collected is of no small importance. 

Honey may vary in color from a water white to a black, is gener- 
ally levorotatory, rarely exceeding — 20° at 20° C. Contains from 
I2-20 per cent, of water, from a mere trace to 030 per cent, of ash, 
from 60—75 P^^ cent, of reducing sugar, from O-IO per cent, of 
sucrose, and a microscopical examination should reveal the presence 
of pollen grains. The U. S. P. requires a limit of chlorides and 

Recently there came to my notice a number of samples of honey 
containing an excess of chlorides. PVom this it was concluded that 
the honey had been adulterated with glucose prepared through the 
agency of hydrochloric acid. During a conversation with the pro- 
ducer I learned that the honey had been accumulated from a " salt 
marsh." Thinking that this environment might account for the 
excessive quantity of chlorides, I made a complete examination with 
the following results : color light yellow, all were levorotatory 
( — 1-85° to — 282°) at the normal temperature; average percent- 
age of water 1613 per cent.; ash 0-25 per cent.; reducing sugar 
68-19 per cent.; an abundance of pollen grains; sulphates, a trace; 
chlorides excessive ; and the honey would not comply with the abso- 
lute alcohol test which, in my opinion, is an excessive requirement. 
I have not found a single honey in over one hundred samples that 
would comply with this test rigidly. Dextrin is the principal 
ingredient this test endeavors to eliminate. G. L. Spencer^ has 
shown that pure honey may contain as much as 4 per cent, of 
dextrin, -and E. von Raumer^ has demonstrated that honey dew 
contains a large percentage of dextrin which frequently finds its 
way into honey during certain portions of the year. 

1 1892, Bull. Agr. Dept., Wash., D. C, No. 13, 808. 
•'1894, Ztsehr. anal Chem., 33, 397. 


Laboratory Notes. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1895. 

From these data I was convinced that the above samples repre- 
sented natural products. 


Three well-known brands of pyrogallic acid gave me the follow- 
ing melting-points: A, ii6— ii8°C.; B, ii6°C.; C, 117° C. 
After applying the ferric chloride, ferric acetate, lime water and pine 
wood moistened with hydrochloric acid tests I was unable to make 
a definite decision as regards the purity of the products. Recent 
authorities inform us that pyrogallic acid melts at 131° C, while 
catechol melts at iii°C. Judging from the melting points it is 
quite probable that the samples were mixtures of pyrogallic acid 
and catechol. 


It seems almost inconceivable to what depths the finite mind 
will stoop deliberately to defraud his fellow man for a little pecu- 
niary gain. I was forcibly convinced of this while examining 
a number of samples of light oil of wine. The price varied from 
80 cents to 54.50. The following table contains the results of the 
examination : 


Sp. Gr. at 

15° c. 

B. P. 












Fusel Oil 

Number 07ie was unadulterated fusel oil. Numbers tzvo 2lI\^ four 
were mixtures of ether, alcohol and small quantities of heavy oil of 
wine. Number three was, approximately, a mixture of equal parts 
of commercial ether and heavy oil of wine. 


Oil of sassafras begins to boiU at 115°- and gradually rises to 
235° C. Specific gravity from 1070 to i 080° at 15° C. Equal 
parts of the oil and nitric acid produce a violent reaction with a red 

^ Ladenburg's Handworterbuch der Chemie, 8, 320. 
2 Probably a little low. 

^"j.nuZy^m!^-} Laboratory Notes. 29 

color ; the oil is finally converted into a resin. The table below con- 
tains the results on ten samples of oil: 

Sample. ^Pj.^^^^ B. P. Color. Reaction. Nitric Acid Test. 


I -0680 

210-234 ' 









I "060 




I '053 


* * 


I -077 
I 053 





" ■ 



I '054 
I -076 
I 075 




Numbers one, five, nine and ten approximately comply with the 
U. S. P. requirements, number tivo is commercial safrol and of the 
remaining five, probably all but number tivo, are the so-called 
pseudo sassafras oil, or " artificial sassafras oil," produced by frac- 
tionating camphor oil. 


The following observation is worth a passing notice in that it 
scores a point for assaying with volumetric acid solutions. Two 
samples of ipecac root were assayed according to Mr. C. C. Keller's 
process. The thick annulated root, generally called " Fancy Root," 
yielded by the gravimetric process 1-67 per cent., by titration with 
volumetric acid solution 162 per cent, of alkaloid. The "Wiry 
Root " by the gravimetric process gave 2- 39 per cent., by titration 
with volumetric acid solution 2-33 per cent, of alkaloid. 

One hundred and two pounds of the " Wiry Root " were perco- 
lated. Before the fluid extract could be completed, it was necessary 
to utilize a portion of it. Accordingly, the product was assayed 
and the desired quantity was removed. This assay yielded 2- 18 per 
cent, of alkaloid, a loss of o-i5 per cent., or 1494 gallons when 
the product is finished. We were again compelled to remove a 
portion of the fluid extract before it was finished ; this was done by 
another assay. When the product was finished it was standardized. 
On adding the two portions previously removed to the finished 
product we obtained 15-25 gallons against 14-94 gallons obtained 
by the first assay, a difference of o'3i gallon. 

Several conclusions can be deduced from the above : 

30 Correspondence. {^TanSao-fim" 

(i) Titration with volumetric acid solutions gives most encourag- 
ing results. 

(2) That the " Fancy Root " is frequently not as valuable as 
the " Wiry Root." 
305 Cherry Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


To THE Editor of American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Sir : — The writer has been ever impressed with the work and 
good intentions of the membership of the "Alma Mater," they 
always being for the best interests of pharmacy. 

Yet, when at a recent meeting of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, the action taken by the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation at the Asheville meeting, as far as it related to Tax-free 
Alcohol, was denounced as being prejudicial to American pharmacy, 
and requesting the trade of this country to join with them in an 
appeal to the Government, for granting free alcohol under the present 
tariff bill, without pointing out to members of the profession the 
real and lurking dangers connected with this concession of Tax-free 
Alcohol, is a great surprise to the writer. 

Being one of those who advised the course taken by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and on reading the " circular letter " on 
Tax-free Alcohol issued by the committee of the College, I am 
impressed with the fact that there is a noptimistic and pessimistic 
view in the controversy. 

The writer wishes to say that he is opposed to any tax being 
levied on anything produced or manufactured /;/ this country, and as 
it is necessary to raise revenue for the carrying on and maintainance 
of the Government, that the same be either raised by direct taxation 
of every individual, or by imposing sufficient tariff upon goods that 
are imported into this country. Therefore I am {ov free alcohol for all. 
I am, however, opposed to class legislation, and for this reason I do 
not favor free alcohol in the arts or medicine. Class legislation is 
one of the great curses of the land, and it is productive of law- 
breakers, and consequently crime and criminals go rampant. I will 
not go further into the moral side of the question, but will adhere 
to the economic issue. 

^janSar'S'"} Correspondence. 31 

Is it good business policy for the retail druggists of this country 
to ask for Tax-free Alcohol ? In case the Government accedes to 
the request and allows the withdrawal and use of alcohol in the 
manufacture of medicine, the law provides that it be done under 
regulation and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury and the 
Collector of Internal Revenue. Who will defray the expense of 
this supervision ? Certainly not the Government, who, in granting 
a franchise, will not draw upon its treasury for the expense of its 
distribution. While the manufacturing pharmacist, who uses bar- 
rels of alcohol to that of the dispensing pharmacist's gallons, will 
cheerfully and willingly bear this expense, it will be out of the 
question for the retailer to do the same on account of a personal 
government supervision, which undoubtedly will be required. 

Cannot we learn a lesson from the past ? We petitioned Con- 
gress for the removal of the " stamp tax " from proprietary medi- 
cines; being promised by the manufacturers, that the retailer would 
receive the benefit in the less cost of goods. It was done, the tax 
was removed, and when we asked for the promised rebate, we were 
told that the money was being expended for advertising, and the 
retailer would thus be benefited. Then we took up the subject of 
having laws passed in the several states for the regulation of the 
practice of pharmacy. The laws have been in existence for a num- 
ber of years, and I ask in all candor, who has been the beneficiary? 

Therefore, my advice is to the retailer, ask for no tax-free alcohol; 
if the Government grants it under favorable regulations to us, all 
right ; if otherwise, we will protest in having legislation that is 
injurious to our trade and profession, and not be placed in the posi- 
tion of being told you petitioned for it and you got it, as in the 
fable of the frogs. 

Albert E. Ebert. 

Chicago, December 16, 1894. 

To the Editor of American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Sir: — With pleasure I noticed that the question about the presence 
of an active principle in Cereus grandiflorus , has been taken up in 
England. I would like to call your attention to an article in the 
Pliarm. jf. and Transactions for Nov. 24, 1894, p. 416, by Gordon 

32 The Kola Nut. nd^ly^^^^' 

" A preliminary analysis of Cactus grandifiorus," in which the 
author decides "glucosides and alkaloids are absent " in the plant. 

This disposition of a mooted question is effective. Over three 
years ago I was engaged in a similar investigation. I beg leave ta 
refer you to di Note on Cactus, written in August, 1891.^ A certain 
Dr. O. D. Deyer stated that he had isolated the active principle of 
Cereus grandiflorus, and employed it in constant and definite quan- 
tities, {New York Medical Joiirnal, for June 13, 189 1). It is not 
uncommon that substances are found by amateur chemists which do- 
not exist; that could not have been found if their method of inves- 
tigation was correct, or substances that are of an entirely different 
nature from the supposed and claimed one. Impurity of reagents, 
ignorance of the operators, lack of a good scientific foundation^ 
often come together in those discoveries. 

To general methods of plant analysis, fluid extract of Cereus 
grandiflorus did not yield to me an alkaloid. These methods included 
"characteristics for many glucosides," I worked in 1891 on plants- 
obtained here. 

Yours truly, 

J. B. Nagelvookt. 

Detroit, December 10, 1894. 


The following information concerning this drug has just appeared 
in Consular Report, Vol. 46, No. 171, page 532. 

The Department on August 18, 1894, instructed the consuls at 
Bathurst, Goree-Dakar, Monrovia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, 
Tamatave, and Zanzibar to investigate and report upon the kola nut 
in their respective districts — its cultivation, the trade therein, and its 
ascertained value as a substitute for ordinary food. 

The following reports from the consuls at Sierra Leone, Tamatave, 
and Zanzibar, are in reply to the foregoing instructions. No replies- 
have been received from the consuls at the other places; when 
received, they will be published at once. 

' Bulletin of Phartnacy, 1891, p. 354. 

''"j.iZry^mr-l Tli£ ^ola Nut. 33 


Referring to instructions from the Department, under date of 
August 1 8 last, I have the honor to state that, with the view of 
obtaining the best and most rehable information on the subject- 
matter, I immediately addressed the administrator of this colony, 
and have the honor to inclose his reply, received to-day, which con. 
tains all the information at present available, from public sources, on 
the subject of the growth, output, export, and value of kola nuts, as 
regards the colony of Sierra Leone. 

governor garden to consue pooeev. 

Government House, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 

October i6, 189^. 
Sir : In reply to your letter of the 17th ultimo, asking for certain informa- 
tion respecting kola nuts, I have the honor to forward herewith copies of 
memoranda by Mr. Spaine, the colonial postmaster, and Mr. Faulkner, the 
assistant colonial secretary, on the production, output, export, and prices of 
this article, which, I trust, will meet j-our requirements. 

The "broad leaf," mentioned in the assistant colonial secretary's memoran- 
dum, I understand, belongs to the natural order of the malvacese and is known 
in the West Indies and South America by ihe name of " Bal leaf." 
I have, etc., F. Garden, 



Herewith is a memorandum, made by Mr. Spaine, the colonial postmaster, 
respecting the production of kola nuts. The kola tree produces the nuts in 
pods containing from three to eight nuts. When full, the pod changes from 
a green to a red-brownish color, and, if not picked in time, dehisces or falls to 
the ground. 

The nuts, when collected, are laid by for a few days to allow the skin to 
soften, so as to admit an easy removal when washed. 

The nuts are exported in two ways, viz. : fresh and dry. To keep it fresh, 
care should be taken that the nuts are properly washed with clean, fresh 
water, not a particle of the decayed skin being allowed to remain on them. 
After the water has drained , the quantity for shipment is put into a cane 
basket, inlaid with a kind of broad leaf peculiarly adapted to keep the nuts 
fresh for a considerable time — say, three months and more— and to keep away 
worms, which are very destructive to the nuts. 

To export it in the dry state entails no troxible. After getting off the skin, 
by washing, the nuts are split into pieces and dried in the sun, after which they 
are shipped in ordinary packages, and, so long as kept dr}', are not subject to 
deterioration. The fresh nuts are sold in Freetown at from £3 to £6 (I14.60 to 
$29.20) per measure, equal to \yi bushels. 

The kola nuts are principally exported to the following places, and those 
exported from Sierra Leone in 1893 were as follows : 


The Kola Nut. 

Am. Jour. Pharoi. 
January. 1895. 

Whither Exported. 

Gambia . . . . 
Dakar . . . . . 


Senegal . . . . 
Windward Coast 
Rufisque . . . . 
Other places . . 



Cwts.^ Qrs. Lbs. 















£40, 105 





^ I cwt. = 112 pounds. 


The kola nut is grown from the nut itself. It should be planted when the 
nut is fresh, and not in the dried condition in which it is exported to European 

Raw kola nuts should be planted in nursery beds, the same as coflFee seeds. 
They will begin to shoot in about five weeks and produce leaves in a week 
after. It grows with some rapidity in its early stage, and in less than four 
months, if regularly watered, the plant will be fit for transportation. Its 
growth after this is slower, according to the nature of the soil. The kola likes 
a moist, but not damp, soil and thrives best by the side of running brooks. 
Lands with a flat-rock formation a few feet below the soil will not do, but a 
loose, porous soil, with a great depth of earth and a clay or sand formation 
below, will do very well. With a liberal supply of manure and water, during 
the dry season, the kola tree will come to maturitj- and bring forth fruit in five 
years. Where the conditions are less favorable, the tree, will bear fruit two or 
three years later. 

I may add to the foregoing, from personal knowledge, that the 
natives here, and at Bathurst, Gambia, eat the nuts in the early 
morning, as a stay against the wants of ordinary food while travel- 
ling, and in the evening to induce sleep. Altogether they consider 
that a general benefit to the human system is derived from the con- 
sumption of the kola — say a single nut morning and evening. 

Robert P. Pooley, 

Sierra Leone, October i6, i8g^. 

^ janSaJyfim™'} ^Jie Apocyiiacece in Materia Mcdica. 35 


By George M. Beringer. 

{Continued from Vol. 66, page 550). 


Strophanthus Kovib'c Oliv., confounded from the first with 5. his- 
pidus. The species was created by OHver from the specimens sent 
by Dr. Kirk from Zanzibar and those collected by the expedition of 
Livingstone. The differences which separate this species from i>". 
hispidus are, on the whole, small and gradually effaced by the exist- 
ence of a series of stages in the transit, in such a way that we 
may admit with Blondel, and with Oliver likewise, that the Konib'e is 
only an oriental form of the hispidus, possibly a variety. The form 
Komb'e commences to appear in the region of the great lakes, then 
extends as far as the eastern coast. Among other botanical charac- 
ters are the form and the less length of the calyx lobes in comparison 
with the tube of the corolla, the consistence of the calyx and bracts, 
the scarcity of inflorescence, the pubescence more abundant on the 
leaves, the size of the fruit, the caducity of the bracts, the consider- 
ably much larger seed, the abundance and length of hairs on its 
surface, the increased length of the awn and of the shaft, the color of 
the seed more or less green, the great length of the funiculus, the 
elongated form and the number of the lenticels on the fruit, etc., etc. 
All these characters which seem clear at first sight, become indefinite 
when we examine a sufficient number of specimens, permitting the 
verification of the intermediary stages. 

The 5\ Kombe inhabits the basin of the Zambesi and the Shire 
where it serves as the arrow poison. Indicated as about the Victo- 
ria Falls, an equal distance from the two oceans, it extends to near 
the eastern coast (Mozambique), and to the north in the region of 
the great lakes of the centre. 

The plant is analogous with the S. hispidus. It flowers in Oc- 
tober and November. The various parts, wood, bark, etc., are 
strongly bitter. The rough pubescence is very marked upon the 
leaves, the inflorescences and even the flowers. A specimen of the 
fruit sent by Dr. Kirk measured 32 centimetres in length. The 
upper extremity tapering at great length, but broken. It is said to 
be terminated by a stigmatic disk, greatly developed. External 
surface strongly wrinkled longitudinally, color a dark brown, len- 

36 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. ("^ januar'yrisos"' 

ticels extremely numerous, transversely elongated and irregular, 
forming a striation, close, and light brown. The commercial fruit is 
more or less scraped ; bearing at times the remains of the fibres of 
the mesocarp, appearing as longitudinal striations. More fre- 
quently the endocarp alone remains, straight or curved, always 
fragile and frequently broken, the color yellowish or clear fawn, or 
a little reddish, often marked by regions more deeply brown, longi- 
tudinal and badly limited. The lower extremity is notched, the 
upper extremity always broken. The internal face is shining, color 
a little green. It is about 25-35 centimetres in length and 2 centi- 
metres in diameter. 

The structure of the pericarp is a little different from that of 5. 
hispidus and that of S. nigcr ; the parenchyma cells here are sinu- 
ous, flattened, or in some regions more open. The sclerotic fibres 
are nearly constantly associated with a ligneous bundle. The longi- 
tudinal fibres are flattened quite regularly. 

The seeds are striking at once by their color, generally light, 
their surface strongly tomentose, their silky changeable lustre. 
The seeds isolated, as they ordinarily arrive in commerce, are in 
form lanceolate, at times rounded at the base, at other times much 
more slender even in the same specimen. The dimensions are 1 1- 
22 millimetres in length, 2^-5 millimetres in breadth, and 1-2 milli- 
metres thick. The margin is often sinuate, one face quite plane or 
even concave. The surface is covered with hairs much longer, much 
closer, more woolly than in the Jj". hispidus, and quite visible to 
the naked eye. They vary in color from cream white to nearly a 
brown, with all the intermediary colors and sometimes even with a 
little different tint upon the two faces of the seed. But the color 
ordinarily is a greenish gray or a greenish yellow. From handling 
the hairs drop off and the color then becomes a little more deep. 
The raphe is ordinarily well marked, very prominent on one side, 
and quite long. The fracture is white or grayish ; the odor is speci- 
ally well marked, but only if we scrape the seed ; the taste is 
atrociously bitter. 

The awn which surmounts the seed is very handsome ; the color 
a little grayish in mass, and is borne upon a very long shaft of which 
the naked part is always much longer than the plumed part, but not 
three or four times as long, as some one has said. The naked part 
generally 4-5 centimetres and the plume 3-4 centimetres. The hairs 

'*' January K""} The Apocytiacece in Materia Medica. 37 

are whitish, silky, brilliant, often 5^-6 centimetres or more long, 
always easily broken. They spread quite well without becoming 
entirely horizontal. The naked part of the shaft is more resistant 
than that of the liispidus. It is sinuous and of a pale yellow color. 
The albumen and the embryo are very similar to those of Jiispidus. 
The radicle is quite long and the cotyledons very thick. The hairs 
retain so much air that the seed floats a long time in water. 

We may distinguish three varieties based upon the anatomical 
structure, and in these may exist yet others. The first variety is the 
largest and possesses a longitudinal projection on th^ ventral face, 
quite sharp, with the thin borders folded and the dorsal face quite 
convex, turned over at times like a tuft of moss. 

The second variety is more attenuated towards the base, the 
point, ordinarily asymmetrical, shows an abrupt depression upon 
the dorsal face ; the hairs are longer and changeable. 

The third variety is less lanceolate, more sharply attenuated at 
both extremities ; the ventral face much less flat ; the tufted part a 
slender filament that becomes spread about the middle of the ventral 
face. It seems that the anatomy differentiates these forms not yet 
referable to definite species. In the external layer the thickenings 
are quite varied in the forms. The second tegumentary layer with 
the flattened cells more or less dilated between the depressions of 
the tegmen ; in the albumen, the cell walls vary in thickness and 
aspect. In none of these are crystals of calcium oxalate. The action 
of sulphuric acid is the more remarkable upon this seed so rich in 
Strophantliine : scarcely is the section placed in the reaction than 
an intense green coloration is revealed in the entire thickness of the 
albumen ; then rapidly likewise, but less, about the tip and its im- 
mediate neighborhood ; the coloration shows in the embryo, occa- 
sionally, with a bluish tint ; the color is always less bright than in 
the albumen. Shortly the aspect changes : the albumen becomes 
greenish yellow, while the embryo passes to an intense blue. 
Finally, it gradually assumes a reddish or even greenish tint with 
here and there a few red streaks. 


S. Paroissei Franch. an African species, inhabiting French 
Guinea to south of the Senegal. The plant is but little known, 
bears the indigenous name of Bini-bande, and presents branches 

38 The ApocynacecB hi Materia Medic a. ("^ january^m^"' 

covered with lenticels and relatively small leaves. The follicle seems 
quite characteristic, very shrunken and obtuse, rounded about the 
summit, i8-20 centimetres in length. The naked part of the awn 
or shaft is nearly 314 centimetres, Franchet says 4-5 centimetres. 
The plumed part always quite small, 18-20 millimetres. The hairs of 
the awn are quite long, nearly 3 centimetres, white, slightly yellow- 
ish, fine, brilliant and silky. 

The seed is lanceolate, the form occasionally somewhat asym- 
metric, 10-15 millimetres in length, 3-3^ millimetres in breadth, 
and ii^ miUimetres in thickness. The posterior extremity is 
rounded, the anterior lengthily attenuated into a very fragile shaft. 
The surface chocolate brown, covered with short, crowded brown 
hairs easily seen with a lens or even with the naked eye. The ven- 
tral line is rarely very clear. 

This species is important because it inhabits the same regions as 
the S. hispidus and S. minor and the seeds closely resemble those, 
so that the substitution or admixture becomes very certain. The 
bitterness of this seed is relatively weak. 

The first layer of the seminal tegument shows cells with the 
lateral thickenings quite small, convex, but not at all hemispherical. 
The second tegument is composed of cells extremely crowded and 
compressed, is a deep brown and is very little thickened. On a 
level with the raphe the second tegument divides into two, the 
external zone being very dark, the internal much more clear ; 
between these is placed the fascicles. 

With sulphuric acid the section is colored at once a yellow with 
a little greenish (but it is the droplets of oil which becomes colored), 
then to a rose (tissue of the cotyledons). But the color is never a 
decided green. This character, in conjunction with the abundance 
of the macles of calcium oxalate in the embryo and with the taste 
but slightly bitter, seems to indicate that the seed is quite poor in 
active principle. 


Strophanthus aspcr Oliv. — Although the botanical information is 
reduced to a minimum, it is evident from a single inspection of the 
seed that one is dealing with a distinct species. But, after more than 
six years, the primitive name given by Blondel, "Strophanthus 
lanieux du Zambeze," remains a resume of our geographic and 
botanic knowledge upon this subject. 

"^^ January ,78a^."} TJu ApocyuacecB tfi Materia Medica, 39 

The awn is greatly developed toward the summit, garnished with 
hair, relatively short, directed obliquely from base to the summit 
and a little yellowish. The naked region of the shaft is very short. 

Regarding the seed itself, it is at once remarkable for its yellowish- 
white color, shining, owing to the tomentum, extremely thick and 
long, with a soft woolly fleece. These hairs are directed from the 
base toward the summit; detached they form in the drug frequently 
handled small woolly balls. Their length exceeds 3 or 3^ mm. 
especially upon the margin of the seed. 

Under these hairs the color of the seminal tegument is a bright 
maroon. The form is vaguely lanceolate, rather oblong, sometimes 
a little irregular, the larger proportionally quite variable; rounded 
in the rear and a little tapering in front. The anterior portion 
covered by the hairs frequently dif^cult to be seen. The ventral 
face, a little flattened, presenting a small brownish tuft, a little 
inflated at its termination, towards the middle of the seed. The 
surface is longitudinally striated. The dimensions are 10 to 20 mm. 
in length (ordinarily 14 to 16), 3 to 4 mm. in breadth and i ^ to 2 
mm. in thickness. 

Macerated in water the seeds alter rapidly, soon exhaling a very 
disagreeable odor. The albumen is grayish-white, less horny, less 
cartilaginous than in the other species. The embryo is dull white 
with thick cotyledons and a radicle infinitely shorter than in the 
S. hispidus or the 5. Kombc. 

The transverse section shows that in the external layer the lateral 
cell thickenings are very little convex, and gives to the section the 
aspect of a lenticular fusiform body by coalescence with the corres- 
ponding thickening of the neighboring cell. The second layer of 
the tegument is formed of cells much flattened and nearly indistinct. 
The cells of the albumen and the thick embryo are relatively small. 

With concentrated sulphuric acid, the cotyledons give gradually 
a bright rose coloration, commencing about the vascular bundles. 
The color is much less intense in the albumen. In a few sections 
the red color is preceded by a yellow coloration. After one hour 
the albumen becomes red and the embryo violet. 


Strophantlms Sp. ? Important as have been the numerous expe- 
ditions of M. Vincent, Dr. Bellay, etc., and the physiological studies 

40 The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. { ^Tan^ry'^Si''."'' 

by Polaillon and Carville and the chemical investigations by Gallois 
and Hardy, Catillon, Arnaud, etc., these seeds can not yet be 
referred with certainty to any species botanically determined. 
According to M. Franchet, it is a fact, however, remarkably inter- 
esting : that in all the Strophanthus with glabrous seeds (all the 
Asiatic species are in this class), there exists a constant relation 
between the absence ot all villosity and the length of the point 
that terminates the anther. Now among the numerous African 
Strophanthus, two only present this character of the anthers, the 
^\ grains Franch. and 6'. Thollojii Franch. which inhabit precisely 
the region of the origin of 5. glaber. According to Thollon this 
second species bears at Gaboon the name of Ondie. It is thus 
allowable, with Franchet, to attribute this seed to one or the other 
of these plants, provisionally and the rather to S. grains which is 
likewise from the Gaboon, while the .S". Tholloni is from the regions 
of the rapids of the Ogoway consequently more to the East. 

The .S". grains Franch. {Ronpellia grata Wall et Hook., Nerium 
guineense Brongn., etc.) is a small tree, according to Griffon du 
Bellay, but more probably a liane. The plant inhabits Guinea, the 
Gaboon and Sierra Leone, whence it was introduced into culture by 
Whitfield under the name 5. Stanleyanus. 

The S. Tholloni Franch. is probably the species of which the 
fruits were sent by Thollon containing seeds very analogous to those 
of the 5". glaber. It is a long liane of western Africa inhabiting the 
French region of the Congo, especially the course of the upper 
Ogoway and the Cameroon, and its extent may be quite far towards 
the centre of the continent. The lobes of the corolla are short and 
sharp in the S. Tholloni and nearly round in 5. gratus. 

The 5. glaber serves for the fabrication of the arrow poison in 
this district.^ For a long time the seeds were confounded with those 
of ii". hispidns, from which they may be easily distinguished. 

^ The bark and leaves are poisonous, but less so than the seeds. To obtain 
one kilogramme of the seed 150 pods must be collected. 

It is this seed which is employed for the kombe poison. The seeds deprived 
of their awn, are beaten between two stones, and the paste worked up with a 
knife into a creamy consistence b}' the addition of a little water or certain veg- 
etable juices, and becomes a red color from exposure to air. This paste is 
applied to the points of the arrows or they are rolled in the substance, to which 
is previously added some adhesive ingredient (the mucilaginous bark of a 
Tiliacese, the latex of a Euphorbium rich in caoutchouc, the juice of the 

^janSaryfi^^'.'"'} The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. 41 

Each follicle is 30 to 35 cm. in length, strongly ligneous and very 
thick. The exterior surface is brown or reddish, with oval lenticels. 
In its commercial form, it is bound with the leaf of a palm. The 
-endocarp is fusiform, swollen about the middle 3 to 4 cm. in dia- 
meter. The color externally is yellowish to brownish yellow. The 
surface is quite smooth, dull, non-striated. The interior surface is 
fawn colored, uniform, shiny, with a brilliant silkiness. 

The seeds are much shorter than the other species studied. The 
shape of the isolated seed is lanceolate with the base ordinarily 
rounded or truncated and the summit lengthily attenuated with the 
margins more or less sharp, especially at the base, oftentime some- 
what undulated, always somewhat flattened, never cylindrical, the 
seeds relatively large averaging 13 to 16 mm. in length by 3 to 
41^ mm. in breadth and r to i ^ mm. in thickness. The dorsal 
face clearly convex, the ventral flat or even concave. A small keel 
exists at times near the shaft upon the dorsal face. The surface of 
this grain is absolutely glabrous and presents only the longitudinal 
plaitings. The color is an ochre-yellow, fawn, or cinnamon, but 
often deeper or greyish. The appearance is waxy, dull, tarnished; 
the fracture is horny, whitish or gray ; the odor is especially well 
marked; the taste extremely bitter. It requires about 35 seeds 
to weigh I gm. The naked part of the shaft is very short (about 
I cm.) in comparison with the plume, which often attains 4 cm. 
The hairs of the same are sometimes nearly 7 cm. in length ; they 
are numerous, silky, brilliant, fine, fragile, white, viewed in mass 
yellowish or grayish and diverging, describing a graceful curve. 

The envelope is relatively very thin ; the albumen thick, cartila- 
ginous, transparent ; the embryo is not thick, the radicle is long as 
in the hispidus and Koinb'c. 

On transverse section the seed shows first the external layer of 
the tegument with the thickened cells large and short, a little larger 

petiole and leaves of two indigenous plants not determined, etc.). The sub- 
stance dried, the arrow is ready. The effects are very rapid, and the game 
wounded falls within the limit of one hundred metres. The hunter 
hastens then, to excise with a knife, all around the wound, or better, forces in 
the wound the juice from a branch of Adansonia digitata. These precau- 
tions taken, the game maybe eaten with impunity. The act of poisoning their 
neighbor flourishes among the Gaboonese with all its splendor, and the Inee 
takes the first rank among those numerous powders, the recipes of which these 
savages religiously transmit as an inheritance. 

42 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {^^iiiZZfXm^' 

toward the internal region. The second seminal zone is strongly 
compressed especially on the inside and the first layer of the albu- 
men is strongly thickened on the outside. The cells of the embryo 
are often not distinct in outline ; they are rich in oil. 

With concentrated sulphuric acid the coloration is effected slowly 
and is never green. At first yellow, then becomes a bright rose. 
The rose appearing in the neighborhood of the vascular fascicles, 
and remaining more deeply so there. Finally, very slowly, a violet 
color is produced. 


^. divaricatus Hook, et Am., Pergularia divaricata Lour.; vS".. 
divergens Grah.; S. dichotomus ^ Chinensis Ker. This species oc- 
cupies the sea coast of China. The carpels are strongly divergent 
and make with each other an obtuse angle. The follicle is rela- 
tively small, 13-14 cm. in length and nearly 4 cm. in diameter ; 
the fruit is quite slender and the base strongly notched about the 
insertion of the peduncle. Externally it is blackish brown, strongly 
striated longitudinally, and here and there a little yellowish or red- 
dish in places. The interior is smooth, greenish yellow and generally 
dull. The seed is 15-17 mm. in length by 3-3^ mm. in dia- 
meter and I— i^ in thickness, with margins a little undulate. 
Color a blackish grey to deep brown. The ventral face bears 
a longitudinal line, brighter in color, and running nearly the 
entire length. The naked part of the shaft or awn is very short, 
4-6 mm., the plume is much longer, 2-3 cm., and brighter in 

The hairs of the awn are white, in mass grayish, quite long, 3^ 
to 4 cm., and relatively less fragile and more rigid than in the other 
strophanthus. They are directed forward here horizontally, then 
little by little they return to the rear, passing even beyond the 
body of the seed. The attitude is inverse to those of the 5. 
Kombe. The taste is much less bitter than that of S. glaber. 
With concentrated sulphuric acid the albumen and the embryo 
give a red, orange coloration. 

Strophanthus Caudatus, Kurz., 5. dichotomus. A. — P. DC. This 
species occurs in Java, India, Tonquin, Singapore, the Malay penin- 
sula, and is cultivated at Reunion. 

The variety, Marckii, inhabits India and Malacca, and, according. 

"^Januarys'"'} ^ ^^^ ApocynacccB hi Materia Medica. ■ 43 

to Franchet.the seed greatly resembles that of S.glaber of Gaboon. 
It is feebly bitter. 

Falsifications. — The substitution of one sort for another is fre- 
quent, as well as the admixture of the various products of different 
species. The admixture of seeds, which had been previously ex- 
tracted with alcohol, is likewise a fraud, to which attention is 
directed. The frightfully bitter taste of strophanthus is somewhat 
reduced by this treatment, and an excellent character for its detec- 
tion is the appearance of the seed which becomes dull, and of a 
greenish-brown color, with the hairs agglutinated by the resin 
which is dissolved by the alcohol. The distinction between the 
seeds foreign to the genus, is quite easy, a glance of the eye ordi- 
narily suffices. The single falsification of this nature which is 
really serious, is the substitution of a seed, at first attributed to a 
Wrightia, or to Holarrliena antidysenterica, but which E. M. Holmes 
has proven to be derived from Kickxia africana, Benth. This seed 
is a uniform chocolate-brown color, attenuated at both extremities, 
inflated spindle-like about the middle, and twisted in an S, and 
bears on one face a depressed line. The surface examined with a 
lens, appears longitudinally striated. Dimensions, 9 to 16 mm. 
long, 2 to 2.5 broad at the middle, and i 5 to 1.8 thick. The frac- 
ture is clear and horny, brownish-white ; the odor resembles that 
of the strophanthus, and the taste is extremely bitter. 

The seeds are provided with a\vns\ directed backward in the 
fruit. These awns are formed of a straight and rigid axis, in the 
neighborhood of i cm. long, cylindrical, and slender, the silky hairs 
which it bears, attain 5 cm. in length, and are very delicate, and 
brilliant ; in color, white, slightly yellow. 

A transverse-section shows the cotyledons broad and thin, sinu- 
ous, and folded upon themselves, very different from those of the 
strophanthus. The external layer is formed ot irregular, large, 
brown cells, often badly limited, but without the characteristic cir- 
cular thickenings. The cellular walls of the albumen are very thick, 
and the cells of the embryo contain numerous macles of calcium 

The section treated with sulphuric acid gives a yellow coloration 

^ According to E. M. Holmes, this seed is destitute of an awn, the tuft ap- 
pearing like a plumose awn, being really the hairy funiculus or stalk, by which 
the seed is attached to the pod. — G. M. B. 

44 ■ The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. {'^"anuaryfis""'" 

in the embryo, which then changes to an orange and then a red 
wine lees color, which persists for a long time. The liquid likewise 
becoming strongly colored. 

Chemical Constituents of Strophanthus. — In 1865, Pclikan and 
Vulpian made the first physiological study of strophanthus with a 
hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds brought from Africa by Griffon 
du Bellay. In 1869, Fraser published his first work giving the 
chemistry and therapeutics. He studied in reality, not the 5. hts- 
pidus, but the 5. Konib'e, and applied the name stropJianthin to a 
principle which he isolated imperfectly and which he supposed to 
be an alkaloid. Then Legros made a series of experiments with 
the poisoned arrows of the Pahouins. In 1872, came the experi- 
ments of Palaillon and Carville, who employed the S. glaber\\V^\\\s^ 
under the name of S. hispiUus. In 1877, Gallois and Hardy in their 
analyses obtained results different from those of Fraser, which now is 
fully explained, as instead of the 6". Komb'c employed by Fraser, they 
used vS. glaber. They isolated two substances: the one Incine ex- 
tracted from the awns, a body with alkaloidal properties and peculiar 
physiological action, but of which the existence even was afterwards 
contested by Elborne and by Gerrard ; the other, the siropkanthin 
crystallizable, separated from the seeds alone, and which accord- 
ing to these authors was neither an alkaloid nor a glucoside. 
Catillon in numerous analyses of the products of various origin 
obtained different strophantliins, some amorphous, others variously 
crystallized. Fraser, Adrian and Bardet, Catillon etc., showed the 
glucosidal nature of the principle and admitted the co-existence in 
the strophanthus of another body, alkaloid according to some, 
glucoside likewise according to the others. Finally, the magnifi- 
cent work of Arnaud proved the absence of stropJiantJiin, properly 
named, in the ^\ hispidus, its presence in 5. Kotnbe, the replacement 
of the strophanthin by otmbain in the 5. glaber. He gives the 
composition of these bodies, and indicates the formulas, and shows 
finally the relation between these two important substances, of 
which the one (strophanthin) is a higher homologue of the other 

The strophanthin from i)". Komb'c is a non-nitrogenized glucoside 
with all the characters of the glucosides and readily yields with dilute 
acids glucose and strongly toxic substance, strophanthidin, of which 
the effects are not otherwise the same as those of strophanthine. 

* jinSary.isys™'} The ApocyuacccE in Materia Meeiica. 45 

It crystallizes readily and is neither a glucoside nor an alkaloid. 
Strophanthine exists in S Komb'c in the proportion of 0.4 to 0.9 per 
cent., while ouabain is furnished by S. Glaber to the extent of 4.5 
to 5 per cent. 

Strophanthin is accompanied in the seed by another glucoside 
and by a large proportion of a deep green fixed oil (according to 
Catillon 32 per cent). Fraser has also separated an acid for which 
he proposed the name of kouibic acid. In addition there is con- 
tained a resin, mucilage and an albumenoid substance. 

Physiological AND Therapeutical Action. — It was not till about 
1885, that physicians following Eraser's experiments commenced to 
employ strophanthus. For a long time the results were contradic- 
tory and confusing. The same cause of errors which were fallen 
into in the chemical studies, appear here, the mixing of seeds, im- 
properly named or falsified, occasioned differences, and the results 
were not comparable. On the whole, strophanthus is a muscular 
poison, acting upon all the striated muscles but more especially 
upon the heart. The action upon the heart can be obtained with 
the exclusion of all other action and with neither accumulation nor 
gastro-intestinal troubles. It seems established that strophanthin is 
not diuretic, nevertheless strophanthus is distinctly so. In physiolo- 
gical dose strophanthus augments the force and the amplitude, 
diminishes and regulates the number of the pulsations. By a toxic 
dose the paralysis of the heart is accompanied by dyspnoea, nausea, 
vomiting, weakness and muscular resolution. It is certain that its 
direct action is rapid and that it is well tolerated. 

In answer to the query which strophanthus should be employed ? 
the author favors the adoption of the Strophanthus Komb'c for 
pharmaceutical uses for the reasons that it is most frequent in com- 
merce, is very active and quite easily recognized. 


The seed properly known under this name is that of the 
Holarrhena antidysent(rica. Conessi bark is a product from the 
same tree. Both of these drugs have been admixed with, or entirely 
substituted by, inert products obtained from VVrightia tinctoria, or 
other species of Wrightia. The products of Alstonia scholaris have 
likewise been confused with these drugs. These substitutions 
explain the failures that have been obtained in Europe with drugs 
so universally employed in India. 

46 The ApocynacecE in Materia Medic a. C" jalJuaryS"' 

In the appendix to the Pharmacopoeia of India, by Waring, Wight 
has estabhshed the distinctive characters of these three trees in which 
the size is the same, the barks latex bearing and scahng off in strips ; 
the flowers are white, and the inflorescences identical, the follicles long 
and slender and united in twos, the seeds garnished by tufts of white 
hairs. In Holarrhena and in Wrightia the leaves are opposite, oval, 
rounded at the base and attenuated at the apex, while in the 
Alsto?iia the leaves are verticillate, attenuated at the base and 
rounded at the summit. In Holarrhena the tube of the corolla is 
two or three times longer than the calyx, twisted to the left in 
aestivation, with naked throat, without appendages, stamens included 
and inserted in the dilated part of the tube. In the Wrtghiia tinc- 
toria the tube is relatively shorter, prefloration twisted to the right, 
the sagittate stamens exserted, forming a cone about the stigma, 
and a crown of filamentous glands laciniate, velvety. The dispo- 
sition of the hairs borne by the seed is likewise quite characteristic ; 
in the Holarrhena the tuft of delicate silky white hairs is borne at 
the upper extremity of the seed ; in the Wrightia it is the lower 
extremity, and in Alstonia both extremities are ornamented. 

Holarrhena antidysenterica, Rob. Br. [Neriuin antidysenterica, 
L. (in part). Echites antidysenterica, Roxb. Chofteviorpha anti- 
dysenterica, G. Don. Holarrhena pubescens, Wall. H. Codaga, 
G. Don. H. malaccensis, Wight). This is a shrub, or at most a 
small tree, of which certain forms are glabrous and others tomen- 
tose, abundant in the mountains and dry forest regions of India. It 
is known in the various regions under a multitude of vernacular 

[ To be Continued. ] 

1 Karra, Kora, Keor, Kuar, Kari, Dhudi, Kogar, La-thou, Indeijaw, Dud- 
huki-Lakri, Kureya, Kaureya (Hindj, Vepali, Veppaula, Veppalaj^ Kulappa- 
laivirai ; Kodoga-pala, Pala-chettu, Giri-mallika, Kalingamus, Kodisa-pala- 
chettu, Kodisa-pala, Kola-mukki-chakka, Kutajamu, Pedda-ankudu-chettu. 
Palavarenu, Ankudu, Palla-coodija, Mauoopala, Girimallika, Inderjo, Dowla- 
koora, Koora, Pomdhra-koora, Dood-kora, Conapola, Koorchi, Curayja, Inder- 
jauschiren, Palla-patta, Kiam, Kachri, Dudkuri, Tiwajs, Lissan-el-asafeer, 
Caraja, Cutaja, Amkudu-vittum, Dadhi-Ruar, Ankria, Kachii. 

^^JSa^^S"-} Editorial. 47 

It has always beeu the aim of the management of The American Jourxai, 
OF Pharmacy to first publish original papers on subjects relating to phar- 
macy, and then as far as possible to furnish abstracts of foreign communica- 
tions. Not less than forty-eight pages are issued monthly. During the past 
year, however, this has been found insufficient to include all the original con- 
tributions offered, and it is probable that sixty-four pages will be the usual size 
of the JouRXAL for 1895. By this means we hope, in* addition to the original 
articles, to give an occasional review of the latest developments in the various 
departments of pharmac}-. A review of industrial chemistry for the year 1894 
has been promised by an authoritj- on that subject. 


It is to be regretted that such an eminently respectable body as the Xational 
Wholesale Druggists' Association should be on the road to domination by a 
few "patent medicine kings." 

Coincident with the autumn meeting of this Association in New York, the 
Times of that city commented on these proprietary manufacturers as follows : 

They were men, any one of whom could have convinced one of the worthlessness of gold 
mines as compared with printer's ink. Their names are more familiar to the people of the 
United States than the names of the members of the President's Cabinet. They were men 
who advertised themselves into fame and fortune. 

Then followed a short biographical sketch of each, which some of the phar- 
maceutical journals, who profess to live for the benefit of the pharmacist, have 
published, with the view of still further advertising their " kings." 
^ While this article in the Times was written with the intention of lauding 
these men, to one who knows the true inwardness of the patent medicine busi- 
ness, it must have exactly the opposite effect. Nothing was said about the 
value or worthlessness of their bastard remedies; these men simply " adver- 
tized themselves into fame and fortune." 

To put it more truthfully, they simply preyed on the imagination and 
resources of the poor and ignorant and made themselves rich. 

A few days ago the writer received at his residence, through the Post Office, 
what professed to be a newspaper, but really was a circular from one of these 
"nostrum kings." This circular should never have been forwarded by the 
Postal Department ; it was filled with the portraits and testimonials of such a 
miserable class of unfortunate women, and with such a host of "prayerful" 
letters from a still more detestable class of so-called Doctors of Divinit}-, about 
their wives, as to make it utterly- unfit to appear in anj' respectable household. 

The Atnerican Pharmaceutical Association kept the whole patent medicine 
subject out of its meetings for man}' 5-ears, but now one may listen to drug- 
gists, doctors and professors eloquently denouncing the "cutter" and vividly 
picturing how some " new plan " or " league " will enable the pharmacist to 
once more establish himself in this miserable traffic. 

There is but one way for the pharmacists of the country to combat this busi- 
ness, and that is to combine against it. The phj-sician and pharmacist could 
unite on this platform, and now is a very opportune time to do it, while the 
physician is thinking about conducting a little pharmacy of his own in the 
shape of a chest of " tablet triturates " and " compressed tablets." 

aR lRp'i)ipnt}<: ( Am. Jour. l-harK). 

40 I^eVieWS. \ January. 18«S. 


The biography of Professor Maiscb, published in this Journal one year ago, 
gave a complete list of his contributions to pharmaceutical literature so far as 
this country is concerned, but we were recently supplied with a list of his 
papers contributed to Btichner's Repcrtoriuni, and consequently in the Ger- 
man language. The following are the titles and references, as translated and 
compiled by Mr. Hans M. Wilder, who thinks it covers all the contributions in 
German : 

(i) American Eclectic Resinoids. Vol. vi, p. 481-487. 1857. 

(2) Sale of Poisons in U. S. Vol. vii, p. 267-271. 1858. 

(3) Fluid Extracts in U. S. Same vol. and year, p. 297-304. 

(4) Manufacturing Pharmacy in U. S. Vol. viii, p. 433-437. 1859. 

(5) Alumen Ustum. Vol. ix, p. 127-129. i860. 
i(i) U. S. Ph. Same vol. and j-ear, p. 145-149. 

(7) Mineral Water Trade in U. S. Vol. x, p. 257-259. i86r. 

(8) Flora of Philadelphia. Vol. x, p. 289-294 and 259-364. 1861. 

(9) Standing of the Pharmacist in the U. S. Army. Vol. xi, p. 294-299. 

(10) Snake Bite Remedies in U. S. Same vol. and year, p. 352-356. 

Mr. Wilder also informs us that the penalty imposed on Prof. Maisch for his 
connection with the revolution of 1849 was 4^^ years at hard labor in the peni- 
tentiary'. Little wonder he sought the friendly shores of this country to 
escape such a penalty. 


Les Drogues Simples D'Origine Vegetale. Par MM. G. Planchon et 
E. Collin. Tome premier. Paris. Octave Doin. 1895. Pp. 805. 

This is a magnificent work on the simple drugs of vegetable origin. Begin- 
ning with the cryptogamia, the first article is on the varech {Fucus vesicniosus, 
L. ), then follow in systematic order the various members of this series, which 
occupy sixty pages. The phanerogamia are then considered as far as the cavi- 
panulacece, which terminate Volume I. The second volume is promised for the 
end of 1895. 

The whole subject is treated in a systematic manner; for instance, each drug 
is described under the following heads : origiji, description, structure, chemical 
composition and uses. Under some of the more important drugs there are 
given, in addition to the above, the history, commercial varieties and substitu- 
tions. There are 626 illustrations distributed through the volume, which 
greatly enhance its value. These, in many articles embrace, the whole plant, 
the part used, the structure and in some cases the starch. 

Rhubarb is especially -well-described and illustrated, the figures of the 
various commercial varieties, as well as those of the anatomical structure, being 
particularly noteworthj-. 

This volume is one of which the authors have the best of reasons to feel proud, 
and we shall await the appearance of the second volume with some impatience.' 

Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1894. London: J. and A. Churchill. This val- 
uable publication is made up of about 250 pages of abstracts and of over 200 
pages of the transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, held at 
Oxford, in August, 1894. The papers read at that meeting were given in 

Am. Jour. Pharm.i Rp7)ip'7tl<: Ad 

January, 1895. ] J\etneWS. 49 

abstract in the September number of this journal. These papers are of such a 
character as to bear reading in full. The one on "Animal Extracts," by C. E. 
Stuart, is of especial value to the pharmacist. 

Mededeelingen uiT 's lands Plaxtentuin. Eerste Verslag van het 
Onderzoek naar de plantenstoflfen van Nederlandsch-Indie door M. Greshoff. 

Communications from the Government Botanical Gardens Buitenzorg. First 
report outhe active principles of plants growing in Dutch East India. By M. 
Greshoff. Batavia, 1890. Part VII. 
The subject matter is as follows: 
I On carpaine (an alkaloid; yield 0.25 per cent, of the dried young leaves). 
— This is uot the peptogenic principle of Wuertz and Bouchut — it is 
chiefly found in the parenchyma of the leaves, but in very minute quanti- 
ties in other parts of the plant. Physiologically it appears to act on the 
heart, but does not seem to be very poisonous — a toad requires about 
10-15 mgni. Greshoff recommends for medicinal use the hydrochlorate, 
which contains 82 per cent, of the alkaloid. 
II. First contribution to the pharmacological chemistry of Leguminosae, 
growing in Dutch East India. Derris ; Pachyrhizus ; Sophota; Ery- 
ihrina ; Cassia ; Crotalaria ; Millettia ; Acacia ; Albizzia ; Pithe- 
colobiuni, species. (Derrid; Pachyrhizid; Sophorin; Erythrine, etc.) 

III. Apocyueae of Dutch East India, containing alkaloids. Melodinns ; 
Leuconotis ; Ran cvolfia ; Hunter ia ; Pseiidochrosia ; Ochrosia ; Kopsia ; 
Vinca ; Alstonia ; Voacauga ; Tabernajnontatia ; Rhynchodia ; Chone- 

IV. Cerbera Odollam. 

V. Laurotetanine found in Litsaea ; Tetranthera ; Haasia ; Notaphczbe ; 
Aperula Actinodaphne ; Hernandia ; Illigera ; Gyrocarpus ; Cassytha 
VI. Plants of Dutch East India, containing Hydrocyanic acid : 
(i) Containing amygdalin. Gyiiinema ; Pygeum. 
(2) Not containing amygdalin. Lasia ; Pangiuni ; Hydnocarpus. 
Gymnenia latifolia contains laurocerasine ; the first time this principle 
has been found in a plant not belonging to Amygdaleae (Gymnema is an 
Asclepiadaceae) 100 gm. fresh (?) leaves yielded 0*354 gm. AgCN. 
Dried in an exsiccator the leaves yielded no oil of bitter almond, even 
after months, on distilling with water, but quite a quantity after addi- 
tion of emulsin. 
Pygeum parviflortDu and latifoliuni. The fresh bark of latifolium yielded 
a distillate, containing suff. HCN to form 89 mgm. AgCN from 100 gm. The 
fresh leaves yielded 31 mgm. AgCN = o'oo6 per cent. HCN. 

100 gm. fresh bark of parviflorum yielded 98 mgm. AgCN = 0'02 per cent. 

Lasia Laureiro {Aroidecs). On macerating freshly powdered spadix twenty- 
four hours with i p. c. sulphuric acid water, and distilling with the usual pre- 
cautions, Greshoff obtained from 100 gm. about 0-047 gm- -AgCN. But on 
distilling the finely powdered spadix without previous maceration and without 
adding acid, he obtained nearly double the quantity ; probabl)' still more is 
originally contained in the spadix, a part of the hydrocyanic acid being neces- 
sarily dissipated by the heat (30° C.) necessary to drying it, previous to the 

50 Pharmaceutical Meeting. {'""janSa^y^'ls^r' 

powdering. GreshofF instances that exposure to a colder climate even occa- 
sions loss of acid, relating that whole (uncut) cherrylaurel leaves, collected in 
November, distilled in Holland, yielded o 086 and o"i33 per cent. HCN, while 
leaves from the same tree, but cut, yielded only o*o68 and 0*097 per cent. HCN. 

Pangium edule : — 100 gm. fresh seed yielded o'357 gm. AgCN = o'oy per cent. 
HCN. 100 gm. dried bark — o"o63 gm. AgCN =0012 per cent. HCN. 100 gm. 
of the fruit-pulp— 0*270 gm. AgCN. The young leaves contained 0*34 per cent. 
HCN (fresh leaves — 1'676 gm. AgCN from 100 gm.). A tree of Pangium edule 
is calculated b}' Greshoff to contain at least 350 gm. of HCN. 

//ydnocarpusinedrians and alpimis yielded respectively 187 and 41 mgm- 

MededeELIngen, etc., etc. Beschrijving der giftige en bedwelmende 
planten bij de vischvangst in gebruik. Door M. Greshoff. 

Description of the poisonous and narcotic plants employed in fishing. By 
M. Greshoff. Batavia. 1893. 

Greshoff intended originally to describe only such plants as were in use in 
Dutch East India for the above purpose, but soon found that many plants 
indigenous to the Indias, while in use elsewhere, were not used in the Dutch 
islands, and therefore has given quite a monograph concerning such plants, 
whether used in the East or in other countries. 

Pp. 169 contains the literature examined by Greshoff; 171-175 the list of 
plants in the order in which they are treated ; 176-179 the families, and 180-201 
an alphabetical list of genera and species. 

In his descriptions he quotes from many sources, using generally the words 
of the authors. 

The number of plants mentioned is 233. 

An appendix contains historical notices about the genus Verbascum, in rela- 
tion to their use in stupifying fish. H. M. Wilder. 

Consular Report, vol. 46, No. 170. 

The article in this number that will interest pharmacists is on "The Vanilla 
Bean in Mexico," by Consul Charles Schaefer, at Vera Cruz. 


Philadelphia, December 18, 1894. 

On motion of Professor Trimble, Joseph W. England was called to the chair, 
the reading of the minutes of the last meeting was dispensed with. The 
registrar announced that there had been received forty-one volumes of the 
Reports of the Finance Committee of the Senate, and two volumes of the 
Ethnological Bureau Reports, by J. W. Powell, Director. 

Professor Remington introduced his sketch of Henry Troth, by stating that 
he had tried for a number of years to obtain some permanent memorial of the 
founder of the College, Henry Troth, and, through the kindness of his daughter, 
Mrs. Henrietta M. Townsend, who gave it, he was enabled to present it to the 
Board of Trustees at their last meeting on the 4th inst. It is said to be a most 
excellent likeness of him at the time the College was founded, when he was in 
his twenty-eighth year. The paper was listened to with much interest, and 
referred to the Publication committee. 

^ January S"'} Pilar maccuiical Meeting. 51 

A paper upon Dilute Hydrobroinic Acid, by Mr. LaWall, was re^d by Pro- 
fessor Trimble. It elicited some discussion as to the best method of preparing 
it. Prof. Trimble stated he had made considerable quantities of it at different 
times and with uniformlj' good results, by using Squibb's process. 

Mr. Beringer said he thought that the preferable method was by treating 
bromine water with hydrogen sulphide. Mr. Thompson asked the proper 
strength, and the reply was that it should be a ten per cent, solution. 

Mr. England read a paper upon the Florida Sponge Industry, by i\Ir. Wm. 
B. Burk. Mr. Thompsonasked whether all sponges were bleached, and Mr. Han- 
coc"k wished to know w^hether sponges were cultivated at the present time 
in Florida. Mr. England said that Congress had been asked to place a duty 
on sponges, and Mr. Burk had informed him that there was in Florida a sponge 
plantation ; and it was stated that the bleached sheep wool sponge was not as 
strong as the unbleached. 

Mr. Kebler asked what was the limit of sand and insoluble matter ; that he had 
seen samples with as much as 26 per cent, of refuse matter in it. Mr. Beringer 
stated that he had found as much as 50 per cent, of sand and inorganic matter 
that could be beaten out. Mr. Kebler thought that there should be a standard 
of maximum of foreign matters fixed, so that dealers could know what to 
depend on. 

A paper entitled Laboratory Notes, by Mr. Kebler, was read. 

The first on Pure Delaware Honey. 

Professor Remington stated that the reason honey had been omitted from 
certain official preparations, was the great variableness even in honey that 
was really pure natural honey. 

Mr. Thompson thought it is not to be found in commerce of a standard 
quality, but although genuine it may be of variable composition. Mr. Kebler 
asked whethei bees would directly store honey. Professor Remington said he had 
known of its being tried successfully provided the glucose was flavored (not 
glucose alone); he had used orange flower water as a flavor, and they readily 
Ftored it; the bees, however, did not thrive, as they needed the pollen for bee- 
bread, and they also required exercise. 

(II) Pyrogallic Acid was also a subject of discussion. 

(III) Oil of Wine. 

(IV) Oil of Sassafras. 

Mr. Beringer thought the synthetical oils should not be used to replace those 
of natural origin, as they generally are wanting in some essential constituent, 
and more oil is needed to accomplish the same amount of flavoring. 

(V) Ipecac was also discussed. These papers were all referred to the Publica- 
tion Committee. 

Mr. Thompson presented a note upon Philadelphia history, written some years 
since by Thompson Westcott, giving the names of those druggists who were 
contemporary with Henry Troth, and were influential in founding our College; 
among the names appear those of John V. Wetherill, George D. Wetherill, 
Chas. Wetherill, and Sam'l P. Wetherill, Wm. Lehman, Peter Lehman, Alger- 
non S. Roberts, Alexander Fullerton, Jr., Daniel B. Smith, Peter Williamson, 
and many others whose names are still in the memory of the older residents 
of our city. T. S. Wiegand, 



Catalogue of the Class. 

■ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
.January, 1895. 


— OF THE — 




A'Becket, Thomas Hopkinson, 
Aikius, James Phil , 
Albaugh, Herbert Spencer, 
Alexander, Charles Ellis, 
Althouse, Harry B., 
Altmiller, Charles Fred., 
Anderson, Ralph, 
Ashmead, Alfred Elliott, 
Asnis, Eugene, 
Aszmann, Louisa Henrietta, 
Bach, John, 

Baer, Hermauus Ludwick, 
Bahe, William Franklin, 
Baker, Newton Claire, 
Baldauf, Leon Kahn, 
Barr, David Ford, 
Barrett, Wesley Johnson, 
Barth, Charles', 
Bartho, Fremont Kessler, 
Bartlett, Hannah Frances, 
Bates, John Phillips, 
Bauer, Edward Julius, 
Beardsley, Carrie Frances, 
Beavaus, Wm. Eugene, 
Becht, Frederick, 
Beckett, Josiah Bee, 
Beeler, Aaron Wilson, 
Beh, Edward, 
Bell, R. A., 

Bensinger, George Irvin, 
Berg, David, 
Berkenstock, Oscar, 
Bingman, Harry Clayton, 
Blair, Geo. Thomas, 
Boose, Wm. Engelhart, 
Booth, Harry Emanuel, 
Boyce, John Christian, 
Breithaupt, Alphonse Peter, 
Brown, Edward Pennelton, 
Brown, James Lawrence, 
Brown, Roscoe James, 
Breuckmann, W^alter, 
Brugler, Elmer Geo., 
Brumbaugh, Albert Sylvester, 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

State College, Pa. 

Covington, O. 

Yoirk, Pa. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hazleton, Pa. 

Latrobe, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Somerset, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. 

Watson town. Pa. 

Henderson, Ky. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Downingtowu, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sacramento, Pa. 

Vineland, N. J. 

Mansfield, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Merchantville, N. J. 

Enfield, N. C. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woodbury, N. J. 

Mt. Eaton, O. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Schuylkill Haven, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tannersville, Pa. 

Jersey Shore, Pa. 

Shippensburg, Pa. 

York, Pa. 

Camden, N. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Winchester, Va. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oxford, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bloomsburg, Pa. 

Mansfield, O. 

J. J. Moore. 
W. S. Glenn, M.D. 

A. C. Schofield. 
Geo. W\ Fulmer. 

F. J. Althouse. 
McNair & Hoagland. 
Jesse W. Pechin. 

B. P. Ashmead. 
Dr. Model. 

H. L. Smith. 
Wm. J. Pechin. 
John N. Snyder. 
W. A. Brabrook. 
W'm. A. Bright. 
Julius L. Baldauf. 

B. J. Stathem. 
Geo. E. Dennisson. 
W. G. Nebig. 

A. S. Jordan & Co. 
S. Hayhurst, M.D. 
J. M. Smith. 
L. G. Bauer, M.D. 
Special Materia Medica. 
P. Fitch, M.D. 
A. R. Lawson. 
A. S. Marshall. 
A. W. Blackburn. 
Harry Swain. 

G. B. Winebrenner. 
S. S. Commings. 
Special Chemistry. 

C. G. A. Loder. 
J. F. Grav. 

J. C. Alti'ck & Co. 

G. W. Fulmer. 

A. J. Frankelberger. 

H. J. BatdorfF. 

C. A. Werckshagen. 

McClure, Heritage & Co. 
W. S. J. Brown. 
Emil Jungmann. 
J. H. Mercer. 
Silas Shull. 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 1 
January, 1895. j 

Catalogue of the Class. 


Buehler, David Alexander, 
Buss, Marcus, 
Butler, Johu Bailey, 
Cameron, Charles Sherwood, 
Campbell, Emerson, 
Campbell, Frank Book, 
Carson, Samuel Thompson, 
Carstens, Louis Peter, 
Case, Luella, 

Catherman, Isaac Newton, 
Chadwick, Samuel Hilton, 
Charlton, John Edmot, 
Clapp, Samuel Clarence, 
Clark, Edward, 
Clark, Robert Hall, 
Cloud, Norman Henderson, 
Coberth, Louis Alexander, 
Codori, Simon Jacob, Jr., 
Coller, Wm. Warner, 
Collins, John Hall, 
Comber. Daniel Joseph, 
Compton, Richard Hal., 
Conklin, Claud Elgin, 
Conover, Arthur Bruce, 
Cooper, Morris, 
Cowdery, Martin Franklin, 
Craig, James, 
Craig, Ralph B.. 
Cravton, Blair, 
Cris'well, Edward Ott, 
Crumbie, James Henrj', 
Daniels, Charles Rock'ford, 
Davis, Jacob Baumgardner, 
Davis, James Joseph, 
Davis, John Ellsworth, 
Deane, Charles Howard, 
Deardorff, Calvin Abraham, 
Deemer, Geo. ^lortou Hays, 
Dewees, Wm. Holstein, 
Dickinson, Chas. Seymour, 
Donahue, John Linton, 
Draper, Oscar Carman, 
Dreifoos, Benj, Franklin, 
Dutt, William, 
Dysart, James Lafayette, 
Eckels, Frank Huston, 
Ehman, Joseph Wm., 
Elliott. Boyce, 
Elliott, James Troxell, 
Engler, Howard Samuel, 
Entwistle, Albert Henrj-, 
Eschbach, Clarence V. 
Evans, Fannie Cheney, 
Failing, Wm. Clark, 
Fellowes, Merrill Elwyn, 
Fews, Colin Spangler, 
Field, Benj. Franklin, 
Filer, Burrett Borngton, 
Flenniken, John Byron, 
Fluck, Frank Wilson, 

Place. State. 




L. M. Buehler. 

S. Bethlehem, 


Milton M. Buss. 

Newark , 


J. Lehr. 

Rising Sun, 


L. R. Kirk, M.D. 

Martin's Ferry, 


G. R. Ralston. 



F. W. Wiedemayer. 



Dr. Meredith. 



Gust. Schlegel & Son. 



Francis M. Starr. 

Selins Grove, 


Geo. C. Wagenseller. 



Z. James Belt. 



D. W. Fleming. 



C. E. Stout. 



F. X. Wolf. 

Cnion City, 


I. R. Frey. 

West Chester, 


Luther Gerhard. 





J. M. Hillan. 



W. F. Potteiger. 



Lapp Drug Co. 





L. G. McKinstry. 


N. Y. 

H. B. Spackman. 



C. H. Breidenbach. 



Jos. H. Garman. 



Dr. Hazzard. 


Scotland. F. H. Davis, M.D. 



Kennedy & Brake. 

Anderson, C. H. 

S. C. 

Simpson & Son. 



Mentzer & Claigston. 



Geo. J. Crumbie. 


S. C. 

H. C. Blair. 



J. R. Smyser. 



C. Lorenz. 



• W. H. Dunn. 



J. M. Harvey. 


I, Pa. 

J. A. McCurdy. 

Green sburg, 


J. V. Stephenson. 



McClure Heritage & Co, 



C. J. Wood. 



Mover Bros. 



W. C. Taylor. 



A. Schaich. 



E. H. Buehl. 



Dr. S. Evans. 



C. A. Eckels. 



Milton Huber. 


S. C. 

W. E. Aikens, M.D. 



J. M. Huber. 



0. H. Sterner, M.D. 



C. H. Roberts. 



J. S. Follmer. 



Palatine Bridge, 

, N. Y. 

H. C. Blair. 



A. W. Pottle. 



J. D. :McFerren. 



E. P. Stephens. 



J. Frank Meade. 



Frank Huston. 



Peters & Smith. 



Flynn, James Francis, 
Foster, Wni. Newell, 
Franklin, Wm. Oliver, 
Frederici, John Koch, 
Freeman, Josiah Kisterbock, 
Funches, Cardoza Marion, 
Funk, CliflFord Altamout, 
Gabriel, Robert Rudolph, 
Garrison, Joseph Miller, jr., 
Geiger, Walter Samuel, 
Genz, George Leonard, 
Gessford, Otice Eugene, 
Godfrey, vSwain T., 
Godshall, Samuel R., 
Goldsmith, Lee, 
Good, Robert Franklin, 
Goodfellow, Charles Rumney, 
Gorman, Charles William, 
Gorrey, Thomas Francis, 
Graham, Harry Edgar, 
Grakelow, Ralph, 
Greer, Mary Caroline, 
Griffith, Oliver Brownback, 
Gross, Ernest Alpha, 
Gross, Paul Herbert, 
Hahn, Charles, 
Haines, Samuel Woolston, 
Halbe, John Peter, 
Hance, George Headlej', 
Handel, John Conrad, 
Hannan, Frank William, 
Harlow, Charles Mills, 
Harman, George Alvin, 
Harrell, Herbert Dean, 
Harris, Clarence Mulford, 
Harris, Overton Crawford, 
Harry, Hamilton Maxwell, 
Hauck, John Francis, 
Haus, Ralph Leonard, 
Hayes. Edward Albert, 
Hebden, William, 
Heckerman, Adam Bruce, 
HefFuer, Edgar Franklin, 
Heim, Christian, 
Heinbach, Frank Walton, 
Helfrich, Edward Daniel, 
Hendrickson,Wm. Randolph, 
Henry, Albert E., 
Henshaw, Harry Pawling, 
Herbst, Frederick, 
Herbuveaux, Jules, 
Herzog, Albert, 
Hess, Daniel Clyde, 
HifFmeyer, William Joseph, 
Hildebrand, Howard Ovid, 
Hippler, Harrv Richmond, 
Hodil, Frank Dilworth, 
Hoflfman, William Shalter, 
Holliday, J. Thomas, 
Holshue, Charles Raymond, 

'alogue of the 


/Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I January. 1895. 






C. D. Latterner. 



W. H. Saurer. 

Atlantic City, 


T. H. Franklin, M.D. 



C. M. Fry. 



R. P. Marshall. 


S. C. 



J. A. Miller. 



D. H. Ross. 



Theo. Campbell. 



J. C. Griesemer. 

Hazel Green, 


T. McNeill. 



Funk & Groff. 


N. J. 

G. J. Pechin. 


Pa. Smith, Kline & French Co. 



H. Wise & Co. 



Dr. C. A. Seler. 



E. M. Wallington, 


N. Y. 

S. Felt. 



W. S. Rishton. 



J. S. Barnitz. 



I. P. Amick. 





C. A. Smith. 



Dr. Wm. Delker. 



R. W. Ziegler. 



C. E. Howard. 



E. W. Collins. 



F. F. Drueding, M.D. 



R. A. Hance. 



D. J. Weidner. 



Charles Griffith. 



F. W. Brown & Co. 



C. Longfellow. 


W. Va. 

G. H. Ebeling. 



C. S. Ogden. 





Jas. W. Harry. 



E. F. Kesslef. 



J. C. Steans, M.D. 



A. S. Wickham. 



Caleb Scattergood. 



M. P. Heckerman. 



Charles Lashelle, M.D. 



Henry Mueller, M.D. 

St. Clair, 


J. L. D. Morison, M D. 



H. G. Hackedorn. 



H. E. Jones. 

Point Pleasant, 


P. N. Pinchback. 



Baker & Grady. 


August Hohl. 


N. Y. 

J. H. Sheehan & Co. 



E. W. Gallenkamp. 



A. R. Calhoun. 



Wm. Smith & Co. 



A. H. Lafean & Bro. 



Wm. C. Bichy. 



J. R. Murrav. 


;, Pa. 

J. F. Leavitt, M.D. 



Slaughter & Besore. 



Dr. F. A. Clark. 

^°ia.^u°a"A-!','8tr-} Catalogue of the 







Horst, Harry Lewis, 

Lock Haven, 


H. Hilton & Co. 

Howard, Horace Emory, 

South Hadley, 


J. J. Ottinger 

Hukill, Oscar K., 

Hot Springs, 


Andrew Blair. 

Hundertmark, John Charles, 



Acker Bros. 

Hunt, Warren Ernest, 



Jas. C. Perry. 

Ingling, Howard Edgar, 



]\I. Cowperthwait. 

Ink, Charles Thomas, 



C. E. Ink. 

Irwin, Wm. Reed, 

Atlantic City, 


Dr. A. D. Cuskaden. 

Jacobs, John Taylor, 




Jacoby, Charles Nicholas, 

Fond du Lac, 


C. P. Loeper. 

Jaeger, Charles Frederick, 

North Adams, 


E. E. Bostick. 

James, Robert Rosser, 



Clarence R. Shryer 

Jefferis, David Strode, 



Funk & Groff. 

Jennings, Isaac Aster, 



Johns, Frank James, 

Mt. Pleasant, 


W. P. Wingender. 

Johnson, Albert Burdis, 

Point Pleasant, 


J. H. Munson. 

Johnson, Charlton Graham, 



Evans & Howard. 

Johnson, Ferdinand, 



Special Cemistr}-. 

Johnson, Olive Curtis, 



S. Y. Thompson,' M.D. 

JoUej', John James, 



F. M. Apple. 

Jones, Walter Eugene, 


N. Y. 

E. E. Jones. 

Kaufman, Samuel, 



W. H. Piles' Son. 

Kelchner, Charles Eber, 



G. P. Ringler. 

Kessler, Laurence Anthony, 



F. W. E. Stedem. 

Killiam, Wm. Smith, 



N. B. Dan forth. 

Kirlin, C. Coleman Hageubach, Mahauoy Plane, Pa. 

P. P. Kirlin. 

Kline, Frank, 



F. Morse. 

Koehler, George, 



E. F. Kaempfer. 

Kottcamp, Edward Charles, 



Alva F. Tod, M.D. 

Kramer, George Henry, 



Robt. McNeil. 

Krewsou, Chester Merrill, 



G. S. R. Wright. 

Kunkle, Timothy Osgar, 



W. E. Kunkle. 

Kunz, Charles Cornelius, 



P. P. Klopp. 

Kupfer, Harry John, 



C. W. Newton. 

Lachman, Elmer Richardson 

, St. Clair, 


Langham, John Williams, 



E. B. Kvle, M.D. 

Langner, Paul Harry, 



I. J. Brandt. 

Laucks, Wm. Irwin, 



W. H. Foley. 

Laughliu, Albert Russell, 



C. A. Eckels. 

Leap, Percy Duff, New Martinsville, 

W. Va. 

Long & Co. 

Leas, Charles Wing, 



Eckels Bros. 

Leighton, Carl Bure, 



R. Shoemaker & Co. 

Lenhart, Enos Samuel, 



G. L. Carnau. 

Le Sage, George Louis, 


N. Y. 

Wm. Wilson. 

Leslie, Harry Carter, 



H. E. Outwater. 

Levan, Walter, 



J. E. Gregory. 

Lewis, Daniel Wm.. 



Wm. H. Faunce. 

Lewis, Frank Joseph, 



W. F. Thompson. 

Lewis, Howard Hornberger, 



G. L. Deugler. 

Liebert, Charles Frederick, 



A. G. Keller. 

Light, James Raymond, 



Geo. W. Schools. 

Lightcap, Wm. Edward, 



G. ^I- Beringer. 

Lincoln, Geo. Washington, 



H. G. Shinn. 

Lindsaj-, James, 


N. Y. 

J. A. Barkuff. 

Lippincott, David Alfred, Jr., 



H. B. Weaver. 

Littlefield, Bradford Allen, 


N. Y. 

C. E. Yan Anamee. 

Livingood, Wm. Worman, 



J. C. Sanderson & Co, 

Lockhart, Jas. Rankin, 



W. A. Dell. 

Longmire, Chas. Henry, 



F. P Riedenauer. 

Longshaw, Thos. Elmer, 



J. B. Moore. 

56 Catalogue of the 


f Am. Jour. Pharm 
I January, 1^95. 





Luhr, Fred. A., 

St. Marys, 


A. Miillhaupt, M.D. 

Macbride, Wm. Vaughan, Jr. 

, Philadelphia, 


Wm. F. Seiler. 

McClellan, Howard Leslie, 



jNIcCracken, James Henry, 



Harlan Cloud. 

McDonnell, Wm. Joseph, 



Chas. P. McDonnell. 

McGehee, Hauford Bell, 



Lawson C. Funk. 

McHenry, Walter Greenleaf, 



Aquila Hoch. 

McLaughlin, Charles Bishop, 



Dr. A. H. Lippincott. 

McLemon, Felix Aloysius, 



C. Moylan. 

McMillan, Edwin HorDaugh, 

Elk Lick, 


A. F. Speicher. 

McMillan, Harry Custer, 



J. R. Johnson. 

Mac Nair, Hugh, 



Lawson C. Funk. 

Mahone}-, James Xorris, 



E. A. Stabler. 

Malin, George Lawrence, 

Atlantic City, 


Willard Wright, M.D. 

Mangold, Wm. Ball, 



W. A. Musson. 

Maples, MurflF Ford, 



A. C. Daniels. 

Marshall, Charles Gross, 

West Fairview, 


R. C. Marshall, M.D. 

Marwood, Albert Victor, 



Dr. Wm. Shafer. 

Matthews, Chas. Morgan, 



Dr. A. Dalton. 

Matusow, Harrj', 



C. H. Bohn. 

Maybury, Edward Daniel, 



R. M. Sommers. 

Meginniss, Wm. H., 



N. B. Danforth. 

Meier, August Joseph, 


Geo. J. Crumble. 

Mellon, Harr}' Winfield, 



A. Wasley. 

Metz, Abram L., 



Dr. C. B. Lowe. 

Metzler, Claude Dallas, 



Jas. A. Ferguson. 

Miller, John Henrj-, 



W. G. Ruflf. 

Montgomery, John Custice, 



S. E. Wagaman. 

Moore, Chas. Robert, 



G. A. Weston. 

Moore, Fred. vSmith, 



Z. James Belt. 

Morgan, ClaA-ton Edward, 



Frank E. Morgan. 

Morron, George Shattuck, 

New Lisbon, 


J. S. Marquis. 

Morse, Thomas C, 



H. Gray Eakin. 

Mountaine, Wm. Lewis, 



L. L. Aldeu & Co. 

Musselman, John, 



R. W. Cuthbert. 

Musser, Frank Milburn, 



A. P. Martin. 

Nailor, Elmer Byard, 



Willard E. Smith. 

Nebel, Charles William, 



C. B. Hunterson. 

Nesbitt, Arthur Ettinger, 



Jas. A. Jeffries. 

Norman, John Franklin, 



S. P. Bloom. 

Notley, William T., 

Port Deposit, 


W. O. Thompson, M.D. 

O'Donnell, David Howard, 



B. S. Gilbert cSc Co. 

Page, Edward Lewars, 



C. A. Heinitsh.Ph.M. 

Parry, Edward, 

Wales, Great Britain 

, Dr. Kinsinger. 

Parry, Wm. Hough, 



H. 8. DeKalb. 

Parvin, John Pearson, 



W. F. Potteiger. 

Pasold, Julius Martin, 



Adolph Poehner. 

Pearce, Samuel Robert, 



A. Blair. 

Peck, Wm., 



d, A. R. Hesske. 

Peiffer, Chas. Oscar, 



Dr. A. R. Norton. 

Phillips, Robert Craig, 



W. A. Strode. 

Pierce, Herman Judson, 



R. F. Redington. 

Pierce, John Gray, 

San ford. 


Pierson, Wm. Harry, Jr., 



J. S. Beetem. 

Pipes, Wm. Henry, 



Post, Edward Meigs, 

South Seaville, 


A. S. Buchanan. 

Praul, Walter Francis, 



J. H. Masholder. 

Preston, Gilbert Kent, 



Wm. Procter, Jr., Co. 

Prosser, Thomas Moyer, 



M. S. Apple. 

Pulsifer, Jas. Perlie, 

Lake wood, 


C. A. Bve. 

Am. Jour. Pbarm.1 
January, 1895. J 

Catalogue of the Class. 


Punt, Arnold Anthony Joseph 
Purte, John Aldred, 
Quatman, J. Henry, 
Ranck, Chas. Watkins, 
Rantz, John, 
Read, Joseph Corson, 
Reed, Arthur, 
Reed, Geo. Oliver, 
Reese, John Bull, 
Reeve, James Whitaker, 
Reilley, Isabella Buist, 
Remaly, George Joseph, 
Remmel, George Swartz, 
Rewalt, Jay William, 
Rich, Beuj. Howard, 
Richardson, Neafie, 
Ridpath, Robert Ferguson, 
Rieben, Ernest, 
Ritter, Erwin Sterner, 
Ritter, Wm. Joseph, 
Roach, Charles Pettee, 
Robbins, Edward Cruise, 
Roberts, Edward Roscoe, 
Roberts, Wm. Henry, 
Robertson, Henry Edward, 
Robno, Pinkas, 
Rochell, Harry Birch, 
Rooney. James Peter, 
Ross, Annie Catharine, 
Ross, Frank Budd, 
Roth, Francis John, 
Rothberg, Elizabeth, 
Rutherford, John Burton, 
Ryland, Geo. Bertram, 
Sallada, Hunter, 
Sanders, Joseph Oliver, 
Sayforth, Julius. 
Schad, Harry John, 
SchaflFer, Charles Abraham, 
Schembs, Peter Joseph, 
Schiebel, Jacob Wm., Jr., 
Schindel, David Philip, 
Schmieg, Joseph Alphonse, 
Schneider. Kingsley Clark Th 
Schnurman, Henrj- Samuel, 
Schroeder, Johann Heinrich, 
Scott, Emma Love, 
Scott, Thornton T. B., 
Sebring, James Woods, 
Sellers, Walter Spangler, 
Semmel, Franklin Peter, Jr. 
Sharp, Warren Reed, 
Shaw, John Thomas. 
Sherwin, Robert Southers, 
Shissler, Edwin Ira, 
Simpler, Willard Eugene, 
Slobodkin, Rose, 
Smile}', Geo. Washington, 
Smiley, Laura Margaret, 
Smith, Cyrus Edward, 

, Philadelphia, 
Ocean Grove, 
Sado w, 
Port Royal, 
Rio Grande, 


ompsou, Berea, 

State. Preceptor. 

Pa. W. H. Pile & Son. 

X.J. H. L. N. Purte, M.D. 

Pa. C. Aug. Werckshagen. 

Pa. John W. Ranck. 

Russia. Emanuel Lupin. 

Fla. J. Barclay Hall. 

Pa. Thos. Hetherington. 

Del. B. L. Brown. 

Pa. Geo. W. Davis. 

N. J. Reeve & Fithian. 

Pa. Weaver & Solliday. 

Pa. F. Ross Harner. 

Pa. J. W. Rewalt. 

Pa. W^ C. Keplinger & Co, 

Pa. J. P. Frey. 

Pa. J. W. Ridpath. 

Pa. P. H. Gallaschick. 
Pa. Smith, Kline & French Co. 

Geo. Bille. 
W. H. Roach. 
F. G. Thorinan. 

J. H. Sheehan & Co. 
Shinn & Baer. 




X. C. 

N. Y. 


Russia. E. Lupin. 

Pa. W. A. Rumsey. 

Pa. Wm. Webber. 

Pa. J. L. Supplee. 

X.J. F. S. Hilliard. 

Sweden, F. L. Brown. 

Russia, D. D. A. Modell. 


















Chambersburg, Pa. 

Lehighton, Pa. 

West Chester, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scranton, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Minsk, Russia, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chas. A. Rutherford. 
J. B. Copland. 
L. C. Voshage. 
T. E. Hickman. 
Jas. F. Ross. 
L. J. Steltzer. 
J. A. Wiegner. 
I. H. Bailev. 
W. B. Pier, M.D. 
Samuel F. Schindel. 
H. D. Stechter. 
Xoble & Stone. 
J. W. Shoemaker & Co. 
L. X. Berube. 
S. Haj'hurst, M.D. 
J. R. Smvser. 
F. Potts Green. 
Cressler & Keefer. 
C. T. Home, M.D. 
A. B. Hfmmond. 
Joseph Crawford. 
C. Henwood & Co. 
W. H. Galbraith. 
W. J. Jenks. 
Woman's Hospital. 
E. R. Smilev, M.D. 
E. R. Smilev, M.D. 
H. A. Smith. 


Caialog7ie of the Class. 

Am. Jour. Fliaroj. 
.lanuary, 189.5, 

Name. Place. State. 

Smith, Justiu Towne, Windsor, Vt. 

Smith, Paul, New Berlin, Pa. 

vSmith, Thos. Brown, Swedesboro, N. J. 

Snyder, Benj. Crawford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Snyder, Harry Lamar, South Eastou, Pa. 

Spath, Geo. Balthaser, Dillsburg, Pa. 

vSpence, Wm. Arthur, N. Clarendon, Pa. 

Spidel, Frank Myers, Bedford, Pa. 

Stadelman, Herman R., Ardmore, Pa. 

Stahl, Joseph Bowers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stanton, John Emmet, Swatara, Pa. 

Steadman, Merril Linn, MifBinburg, Pa. 

Steiner, Stewart Banks, South Easton, Pa 

Stephens, Halsey DeForest, Seaville, N. J. 
Stern, Wilson Clinton Ammon, S. Bethlehem, Pa. 

vStevens, Thos. Ra}% Bethlehem, Ind. 

Stillwagon, Oscar Hulet, Ambler, Pa. 

Stine, Howard F., Mt. Carmel, Pa. 

Stommel, Henry Aloysius, Doylestown, Pa. 

Stradlev, Harry Benninghove, Wilmington, Del. 

Strayer, Otho O'Burn, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stroud, Allan Ward, Phoenixville, Pa. 

Stroup, Freeman Preston, Rouseville, Pa. 
Stump, Adam Franklin Marshall, Womelsdorf, Pa. 

Swainbank, Chas. Miller, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Swinehart, Daniel Harrison, Pottstown, Pa. 

Taggart, George Cole, Emporium, Pa. 

Thomas, Frank Benjamin, Johnstown, Pa. 

Thomas, Howard Elwood, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thorley, Alferetta Ma}', Harrisburg, Pa. 

Thornton, Michael Thomas, Ashland, Pa. 

Tiefenbach, Jacob Frederick, Easton, Pa. 

Tinsman, Edward Walker, Williamsport, Pa. 

Tobias, Herbert, Canal Winchester, O. 

Toelke, Charles, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Towles, Therret Rankin, Henderson, Ky. 

Townsend, James Vaughan, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Trein, Chas., Easton. Pa. 

Troxell, Frederick Bethelier, Lock Haven, Pa. 

Troxell, John Oscar Peter, Allentown, Pa. 

Truax, Robert Severson, Dover, Del. 

Twist, Oliver, Trenton, N. J. 

Tyson, Warren Sunderland, Norristown, Pa. 

Urich, Mark Spangler, Myerstown, Pa. 

Vernon, Harold Gilmour, Clifton Heights, Pa. 

Wagner, Chas. Henry, Ashland, Pa. 

Waldner, Paul Jacob, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wasley, Frederick Stanley, Shenandoah, Pa. 

Watkins, Mack Mclnnis, Mosspoint, Miss. 

Watson, Jonathan Ingham, Lambertville, N. J. 

Watson, 'Joseph Shaffer, Mt. Holly, N.J. 

Waugh, Wm. Alexander, Clinton, N. Y. 

Webb, Horace Gilbert, Norristown, Pa. 

Weida, Chas Arthur, Reading, Pa. 

Weiss, Henry Beale, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Weiss, Wm. Erhard, Canton, O. 

Weitzell, Sue C. , Greensburg, Pa. 

Wells, James Ralston, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wentzler, Hartman Gotthard, Muncy, Pa. 

Wermer, Harve}'^ Eugene, Allentown, Pa. 

W. A. Rumsey. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
E. H. Fahey. 

A. Spengler. 

H. W. Fishell, M.D. 

A. W. Storey. 

Dr. Macfarland. 

H. M. Davis. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

H. F. Rhoads, M.D. 

Allen Spengler. 
J. M. Ridge. M.D. 

D. Bruce Richards. 
H. B. Morse. 

Jos. S. Angney, Jr. 

A. S. Jordan & Co. 

E. M. Boring. 

B. R. Veasev, M.D. 
R. C. Cadmus. 

J. B. Van Dyke. 
W. C. Tyler, M.D. 
G. W. Ammon. 
H. H. Swainbank. 
L. I. Shuler. 
L. Taggart. 
Curt. G. Campbell. 
H. F. Rhoads. 

J. V. Antill. M.D. 
H. W. Sheets, M.D. 
J. Miles Yost. 

Frank E. Morgan. " 
J. L. Baldauf. 
H. B. Leeds. 
Chas. Shivers. 
Fetters & Hertel. 
A. L. Dix, M.D. 
Burton & Sypherd. 
Oscar Davison. 
Atwood Yeakle. 
I. S. Schmehl. 
G. R. Vernon, M.D. 
A. Shoenberger. 
W. G. Toplis. 
H. M. Wasley. 
O. Eastland. 
S. W. Cochran & Co. 
W. vSimes & Son. 
E. G. Bissell. 
Wm. H. Campbell. 
J. B. Raser. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Fisher & Young. 
S. Hay hurst, M.D. 
Builock & Crenshaw. 
Chas. Ourara. 
S. G. Bushev. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, I Sy.5. 

Catalogue of the Class. 




West, Morris Fussell, 



Weston, Edythe, 



White, Edward R., 



Whitruan. Wm. James, 



Wiegner, Chas. Wm., 



Wild, George Frederick, 



Wilson, Bryant Braid, 

Atlantic City, 


Wilson, Oliver Fawcett, 



AVinger, John Bowman, 



Wismer, Isaac Gross, 



Witmer, Daniel Obum, Jr., 



Wokatsch, Richard, 

San Francisco, 


Woltman, Enos Frederick, 



Yates, John Julius, Jr., 



Young, Asa Harvy, 



Young, Benj. Lee, 



Young, James Humphrey, Jr. 

, Philadelphia, 


Zentner, Wm. Herman, 



Zulliuger, Aaron Henry, 




Alsop, John War burton. 



Anewalt, Ellsworth Ouincj-, 


Pa. Sr 

Arcularius, Harrj- Edward, 



Armstrong, Walter, 



Armstrong, William Edward, 

North Adams 


Arndt, Harry, 



Baddour, Joseph Selim, 



Bailey, John, 



Ball, Wm. Ernest, 



Barbiere, Francis Joseph, 



Barnitz, Harry L. 



Barr, Elwyn Paul, 

Pine Grove, 


Bartholomew, Claude Lafayette, Bath, 


Bastiu, Mrs. Abbie Beardsley, 



Becker, Irwin Atwood, 



Biddle, Louis Ames, 



Blair, Chas. Lee, 



Bole, Robert, 



Bolton, Alfred Harrison, Jr., 



Booth, James Lofton, 



Booth, Wm. Henr}^, 



Boyd, Roger, 



Boyer, John Clinton, 



Brendel, Frederick Chas., 



Brockman, Frank William, 



Brooks, Joseph Warren, 



Brunhouse, Frederick, Jr., 



Bucher, Wm. Lewis, 



Bundy, Clinton Thomas, 



Butz, Newton, 



Brunier, Geo. Franklin, 



Caffrey, John Boniface, 

South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Cain, Maude Florence, 



Campbell, Andrew, 



Carman, Harr}' Alfred, 



Carpenter, Edward Albert, 



State. Preceptor. 

F. E. West, M.D. 
Maj' Revnolds. 
W. D. White. 

C. H. Bahl, M.D. 
J. A. Wiegner, deceased. 

D. E. Prvor. 
C. K. Harris. 
F. W. E. Stedem. 
O. F. Lenhardt. 

E. T. Spencer. 
J. White. 
E. G. F. Miekley. 
B. S. Gilbert & Co. 
H. K. Watson. 
Nebus & Richards. 
Ellis Drug Compan)\ 
R. C. Cadmus. 
Lapp Drug Company. 
Greenawalt Bros. 

G. P. Scheehle. 
Smith, Kline & French Co. 
E. W. Gallenkamp. 
L. C. Funk. 
Special Chemistry. 
H. F. Ruhl. 
Dr. S. Baddour. 
A. F. Merrell& C o. 
Ell wood Ball. 
W. R. Warner & Co. 
John L. Barnitz. 
Carl D. Friih, M.D. 
Peters & Smith. 
Special Botany. 
J. L. Lemberger. 
M. :SI. Osmun. 
E. M. Boring. 
J. B. Revnolds. 
A. H. Bolton. 
R. C. Cadmus. 
John L. Hagan. 
Geo. F. Pavne. 
H. C. Eddy. 
Henrv Mueller. 
Dale,' Hart & Co. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Wm. Smith & Co. 
Shinn & Baer. 
Geo. W. Goldsmith. 

A. Weber. 

B. N. Bethel. 
H. C. Watt. 

C. A. Heinitsh. 
Duble & Cornell. 
Shoemaker & Busch. 
W. L. Matthews. 



Carter, Charles Franklin, 
Cassell, James Wilson, 
Clialfant, Charles Joshua, 
Clair, Joseph Sj'lvester, 
Conger, Horace Glenn, 
Courey, Henry Slicer, 
Cope, Edward Krider, 
Coppen haver, Chas. Brewster, 
Cornell, Horace Hogeland, 
Cornfield. Abraham, 
Costen, Wm. Adams, 
Crawford, John Yocum, 
Da vies, Wm. Richard, 
Davis, Robert G., 
Dean, Guy Stewart, 
De GrafFe, Bertha Leon, 
Deibert, Wm. Henry, 
De Lorme, John Grenville, 
Dill, Benj., 
Doyle, Wm. Joseph, 
Durand, Arthur John, 
Durbiu, John George, 
Eddy, Volora Doolittle, 
Ellis, David, 
Faries, Wm. Edwin, 
Farley, Levi James, 
Farnsworth, Anthony, 
Farrell, INIartin Edward, 
Felker, Harry, 
Fischer, Fred'k Franklin, 
Fisher, Edmond Keim 
Fitzgerald, Samuel Walter, 
Flitcraft, Warren Whitney, 
Foresman, Harry Bastian, 
Freethy, Charles Henry, 
Gamble, Theodore Littlefield, 
Garcia, Juan Reyes, 
Geuther, Frederick Edwin, 
Gillespie, Wallace Gault, 
Goodenough, Harry Davis, 
Gorman, Patrick James, 
Gowen, Clarence Blaine, 
Grasser, Edward John, 
Greenawalt, David Lehman, 
Griesemer, James Adam, 
Grisw^old, Chas. Maust, 
Grotz, Milton, 
Hahn, Edward Titus, 
Haig, Chas. Roberts, Jr. , 
Haines, Charles Henry, 
Hall, Rob't Carson, 
Hamilton, Wm. Hamsher, 
Hamilton. Walter Scott, 
Haney, Marj- Augusta, 
Hart, Joseph Aloysius, 
Haymaker, Milo Miller, 
Ha3'mau, Walter, 
Hellyer, Edwin Fayette, 
Herbert, Thomas Lewis, 
Hering, Edwin Arney, 

^alogue of the 


/ Am. .Tour. Pharm 
I January, 1895. 






H. F. Stover. 

North Wales, 


W. R. Childs. 



E. D. MacNair & Bro. 



W. P. Weiser. 



E. J. Conger. 

North Branch, 


Shinn & Baer. 



F. H. Cope. 



James H. Garman. 



Robert Glenk. 


Germany, H. F. Rhodes. 

Pocomoke Cit)^, 


W. H. Gano. 

Bryn Mawr, 


A. W. Wright & Co. 



I. H. Moore, M.D. 

Hot Springs, 


B. W. Goode. 



W. D. Dean. 


N. Y. 



J. H. Stermer. 


S. C. 

J. F. W. De Lorme. 



W. E. Lee. 



J. M. Ballard. 

Mt. Holly, 


A. W. Taylor, M.D. 



R. D. Wilhams. 



A. L. Castle. 



W. S. Froelich. 



Lawson C. Funk. 



Wm. H. Farley. 

Lock Haven, 


Geo. W. Mason. 



W. H. Reed, M.D. 

S. Bethlehem, 


W. B. Gleim. 



E. C. Vogelbach. 



E. B. Kyle. 



D. S. Ferguson. 



G. M. Andrews. 



J. Paul Suess. 



H. A. Plum. 



Special Chemistry. 

Porto Rico, 

W. Indi 

es, R. C. Martin. 



E. H. Fienhold. 



Bullock & Crenshaw. 



Chas. P. Britton. 

S. Bethlehem, 


J. E. McBride. 



Special Chemistry. 



Special Chemistry. 



W. G. Greenawalt. 



Chas. Rentschler, Jr. 



Chas. F. Kramer. 



John Horning. 

S. Eastou, 


A. N. Richards. 



C. R. Haig. 

Rising Sun, 


L. R. Kirk, M.D. 



Chas. Leedom. 



J. C. Altick & Co. 



S. Hamilton. 



Dr. Grady. 



F. W. E. Stedem. 



H. L. Barber. 



Chas. Lashelle, M.D, 

Peun's Park, 


James Huston. 



Wm. Hummell. 



G. W. Kessler. 

Am. Jour. Pharui. 
January, 1895. 

Catalogue of the Class. 


Herrmann, William, 
Hetrick, Annie Louisa, 
Heyser, Jouas Edward, 
Heysham, Horace Besson, 
Hill, Wm. Maurice, 
Hodge, Wm. Roseborough, 
Hollopeter, Arthur Stadiger, 
Holt, James Stephen, 
Hoopes, Wilmer Preston, 
Hoskins, John, 
Hostelly, Joseph, 
Howard, John Edgar, 
Howell, Harvey Field, 
Hummell, David Fox, 
Humpton, Albert Norton, 
Hunter, Henrj' Blount, 
Hyers, Percy, 
Ireland, Wm. Page, 
Jackson, Robert MacGregor, 
Jackson, Thos., 
Jacob}', Wm. Lawless, 
Janisch, Fred. Wm., 
Jones, Chas. Lystou, 
Jones, Henr}' Abuer, 
Jones, John Comer, 
Jones, Lester David, 
Jones, Thomas Morgan, 
Kalbach, Chas. Peter, 
Kalkman, Henry Alfred, 
Kaufman, Reuben M., 
Kaye, Emma Louisa, 
Keiluer, Henry Chas. Fred., 
Kelly, Francis Patrick, 
Kercher, Edwin Harry, 
Ketterer, Martin, 
King, Albert Joseph, 
Kline, Harry Herbert, 
Knauer, August, 
Konover, Harold Dolbe, 
Labbe, Edward Blaise, 
Lachenmayer, Henry Julius, 
Lambert, Herbert Grayson, 
Lammer, Henrj- Bruno, 
Lancaster, Brenton Solomon, 
Lanius, Ross McDonald, 
La Rue, Willis Leslie, 
Lau, Scott Wolford, 
Lauer, Emanuel Hiram, 
Lau ten backer, Wm. Roth, 
Lawton, Henry Cuthbert, 
Leamau, Davis Hendrix, 
Lee, Henry Francis, 
Leech, David Malcolm, 
Leedom, ^Morris, 
Lehman, Joseph David, 
Lewis, Arthur Rimmer, 
Linn, Wm. Elliott, 
Lloyd, Ephraim Augustus, 
Long, Chas. Henry, 
Long, Harvey, 

Place. State. 




Albert Cable. 



Dr. A. C. Hetrick & Son. 



James Forgy. 



C. B. Ashtou. 



Tohn L. Currv. 

Columbia, Teun 

. Wooldridge, Irvine .Sl Towler. 



F. W. E. Stedem. 



J. D. McFerren. 



Edmond Preston, Jr. 



Wm. Procter, Jr., Co. 



T. W. Hargreaves. 



Roe & Son. 



Geo. B. Evans. 


, Pa. 

J. L. Patterson. 



H. G. Kalmbach. 


N. C. 

F. P. Hunter. 



Adolph Latin. 

Mt' Holly, 


E. B. Jones. 

New Glasgow, 

N. S. 

C. A. Eckels. 



L. W. Hildenbrand. 



Bullock & Crenshaw. 



F. H. Davis. 



F. P. Streeper. 



Kennedy & Burke. 



Dr. Chas. B. Neal & Co. 



Wm. Procter, Jr., Co. 



T. F. Simmons. •• 



P. P. Klopp. 



J. T. Brady. 



J. S. Baiuitz. 



John Kaye, M.D. 



Samuel Gerhard. 



B. A. Kelly. 



J. L. D. Morison, M.D. 



Max Sonntag. 



Turner & Kantner. 



Chas. Shivers. 



F. Romberg. 



D. W. Baker. 



Lane & Davis. 



R. Shoemaker & Co. 



H. C. Blair. 



Wm. Delker. 



W. F. Randall. 



A. W. Walters. 



H. A. Borell. 



Frank E. Morgan. 



T. J. Craig. 



I. L. Lautenbacker. 


N. S. 

Campbell & Bro. 



Wm. M. Koenig. 

Port Kennedy, 


Funk & Groff. 



Geo. Freshen. 



R. V. Wilkinson. 



Lewis A. Kelly, M.D. 



R. L. Long, M.D. 



John C. Keys. 



A. D. Cuskaden, M.D. 



Dr. Geo. Ross & Co. 



W. A. Burns, M.D. 

62 Ca 

talogne of the 


/ Am. Jour. Pharui 
I January, 1895. 





Long, James Grier, 



E. E. Wilson, M.D. 

Long, Wm. Wilson, 



Geo. B. Evans. 

Loreuz, Chas Gustav, 



L. C. Funk. 

Lovelaud, Prescott Raymond 

, Baltimore, 


B. Kent. 

Luburg, Leon Franklin, 



G. H. Jackson. 

Lutz, Walter Preston, 



H. Gre}' Eakin. 

McCanna, John Milton, 



G. V. Eddy. 

McCloskey, Wilson Cathcart, 



J. R. Irwin. 

McConomy, Paul Lucieu, 



E. F. Kessler. 

McCormick, Alexander, 



W. E. Lee. 

McFadden, Thos. Francis Jos 

eph, Greely, 


J. J. McFadden, M.D. 

McGhee, vSaylor John, 

Beech Creek, 


H. G. Shinn. 

McMeekan, Chas. Jas. Harvey, Philadelphia, 


H. Duffield, M.D. 

McXair, Wm. Righter, 



McNair & Hoagland. 

McNeil, Thos. Hunter, 



R. C. McNeil. 

Macfee, Thos. Duncan, 

New Glasgow, 

N. S. 

C. A. Eckels. 

Mader, Elias, 



E. H. Gingrich. 

Malsbur_v, Hillman Gaskill, 



J. W. Merrilt. 

Manko, Emanuel, 



Bullock & Crenshaw. 

Martin, Samuel £., 

New London, 



Mathews, Wm. Joseph, 

St. Clair, 


J. W. Pechin. 

Mavhew, Chas. Holmes, 



Wm. Brewer. 

Meiick, Ralph La Shelle, 



R. L. MeHck. 

Meredith, Chas. Howard, 



W. E. Dickeson. 

Michener, Elmer David, 



H. C. Watt. 

Miller, Albert T., 



Jno. Buckman. 

Milker, Chas. Glanz, 



A. J. Odenwelder. 

Miller, Harper Guiley, 

South Easton, 


Aaron Spangler. 

Miller, James Augustus, 



W. A. Alexander. 

Mider, Roshier W., 

Honey Brook, 


C. G. Treichler. 

Minton, Henry McKee, 



C. A. Eckels. 

Mitchell, Albert Tippett, 



John Ogden & Co. 

Moleen, George Arnold, 



A. J. McAllister. 

Moore, George Cooper, 



J. V. Slaughter. 

Moosbrugger, Chas. Otto, 



Geo. Latin. 

IMorris, Max, 



John Ingalls. 

Mosebach, Ferdinand Adam, 



G. H. Ochse. 

Moyer, Ralph Rodes, 



French, Cave & Co. 

Mueller, Chas. August, 



A. G. Keller. 

Murphy, Michael Chas., 

Plymouth Meeting, Pa. 

Cornelius Moylan. 

Musselman, ^Morris Myers, 



J. M. Stoever. 

Myers, John Henry, 



R. P. Long, M.D. 

Myers, Wm. Henry, 



Lewis Trupp. 

Nalv, Sarah Lusan' 

Mt. Pleasant, 


S. Hayhurst, M.D. 

Neville, Wm., 



Nickum, James Weller, 

Salt Lake City, 


J. D. Lisle, M.D. 

Nugent, Thomas Francis, 


N. Y. 

J. H. Sheehan & Co. 

Parke, John Siter, 



C. H. Tatem. 

Parker, Howard Eugene, 



A. B. Pixley. 

Pazmiilo, Francisco, 

Machale, Ecuador, S. A 

I. Cohen. 

Peabody, William Legoria, 

St. Louis, 


W. R. Grant. 

Pellett, Edmund Bumham, 



R. W. Cuthbert. 

Pennell, Jerome Chester, 



J. L. Supplee. 

Peterson, Wm. Vickerstaff, 



C. W. Shull. 

Phillips, Oscar Wilson, 



W. H. Bowron. 

Phillips, William Newton, 



A. J. Kendig. 

Pierson, Alfred M., 



Bidwell & Co. 

Pilgrim, John W., 



A. W. Cochran. 

Potter, John Morris, 



F. S. Hughes. 

Porter, William Edgar, 



F. K. Easterwood. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 189-5. 

Catalogue of the Class. 


Portser, Charles Harry, 
Powell, Charles Deitz, 
Quick, Benj. Chamberlain, 
Rabenau. Arwed Gustav, 
Randolph, Thomas Owen Fitz, 
Rectenwald, Louis Aloysius, 
Regar, Daniel vScheaffer, 
Reich, Solomon INIiller, 
Richman, Edward Milton, 
Ricker, William Homer, 
Ridenour, William Edward, 
Ridgway, Wm. Frederick, 
Ritter, Frederick William, 
Robbins, George Delbert, 
Robinson, Raleigh, 
Rock, Peter Joseph, 
Rogers, John Wilson, 
Roth we 11, Walter, 
Russell, Benjamin Alden, 
Sager, Verner Edward, 
Sallade, Raymond Ellwood, 
Sames, Joseph Howard, 
Saybolt, George Henry, 
Schabinger, Charles, 
Schaeffer, Otis Oliver, 
Schmalzreidt, Frederick, 
Schmitt, Albert Herman, 
Schrack, Robert F'ranklin, 
Schumann, August Frank, 
Scott, James Patrick Edward, 
Seiple, Harry Bertram, 
Semple, Henry Beidleman, 
Semple, John, 
Shenk, John Benjamin, 
Shoemaker, Clinton Llewellyn 
Shreve, Alexander, 
Shreve, Alex. Ross, 
Simonis, Otto, 
Simons. Harrj- Fisher, 
Sisler, Loerey Wm., 
Skay, Edward Joseph, 
Skinner, Harry Wharton, 
Slifer, Leo Enselman, 
Smith, Chas. Hye, 
Smith, John Ritner, 
Smith, Rodney, 
Spotts, Albert Ovster, 
Stahel, Albert Wm., 
Stephen, Annie Rex, 
Stephen, Walker Lewis, 
Stern, Charles Wilson, 
Stout, Edward Clayton, 
Streeper, Austin, 
Strickler, George, Jr., 
Stuart, Rob't Cummings, 
Swartz, Calvin I., 
Swartz, Edward, 
Svkes, Wm. Willard, 
Tarr, Robert H.. 
Ta3-lor, George Frederick, 







Port Jervis, 

N. Y. 

Dresden. G( 









W. Va. 

Deerfield Street, 

N. J. 




















N. Y. 

North Bristol, 




South Bethlehem, Pa. 









Los Angeles, 














Derry Church, 


1, AUentown, 


















































H. C. Watt. 
W. C. Thompson. 
S. St. John. 
, Dr. J. R. Angney. 
T. M. Newbold. 

F. H. Eggers & Son. 
Theo. Doench. 

. E. Bocking. 

G. B. Evans. 
C. R. Mvers. 
J. D. Lis'le. 
G. Omar Guy. 
George Holland. 
W. A. Lowenthal. 
W. T. Robinson. 
P. Niskey. 

C. J. Gebauer. 
J. W. Frey. 
Ogden & Downs. 
Andrew Blair. 
Frank T. Landis. 
S. Rau & Co. 
W. E. Supplee & Bro. 
Wm. Harris. 
R. T. Blackwood. 
W. R. Warner & Co. 
R. W. Maris. 
W. S. Young. 
P. G. A. Weber. 

E. J. Finnerty. 
L. Seiple. 

H. B. Semple &Son. 
O. P. Hooper. 
W. G. Toplis. 
Fred. Seitz, M.D. 

Machall Bros. & Flemer. 
M. M. Osmuu.M.D. 
W. A. Rumsey. 

D. C. Lyman. 

F. P. Rutherford. 
Special Chemistry. 
Cressler & Keefer. 
W. H. Ziegler. 
W. H . Farley. 

F. E. INIorgan. 
S.S. Collom. 
T. E. Conard, M.D. 

H. B. INIorse. 
W. L. Stephen. 
J. R. Elfreth. 
R.J. Burton. 

G. C. Devine, M.D. 
H. R. vStallman. 
S. H. McGowan. 
G. W. Heyer. 
J. S. Beetem. 
L. M. Swartz. 
J. B Hall. 
M. G. Tielke. 
Thomas Craighead. 



Terne, Henry B., 
Terry, Johu Herman, 
Test, EUwood Allen, 
Thayer, Guj' Parker, 
Thayer, Houston Talbot, 
Thompson, Alex. Peterson, 
Thompson, Nathan Lincoln, 
Thornton, Thomas Redman, 
Thrush, Morris Clayton, 
Ulrich, Julius Hirsch, 
Unaugst, Harvey Edgar, 
Van Korb, Wm. 
Waters, Thos. Carey, 
Watson, Walter Wilmer, 
Weakley, Chas. Carpenter, 
Weaver, Wilmer John, 
Webb, John Karl, 
Webbert, Harry Sigler, 
Weber, Howard Elmer, 
Weiser, Spencer Bircher, 
Welsh, Robt. Emmet, 
Wetzel, Samuel, 
Whitacre, Lewis Reese, 
Whiteley, Edward Albert, 
Whitely, John Campbell, 
Whittem, Wm. Henry, 
Wilson, Willets, 
Winch, Howard Geo., 
Winger, David Zwingle, 
Woods, Samuel Ross, 
Woolley, Washington Irving, 
Wyatt, John Congle, 
Yaple, Florence, 
Young, Geo., 
Young, Warren Ray, 
Zeigler, John Clayton, 
Zipp, Chas. James, 
Zook, John Noah, 

talogue of the Class. 

(Am. .Jour^fharm. 
I January. 18»5. 






Bnllock & Crenshaw. 



J. M. Fronefield. 



J. H. Kerr. 



C. W. Williams & Co. 



Special Chemistry. 



W. L. Cliffe. 

St. Johusbury, 


C.C. Bingham. 

Union Point, 


E. F. Kessle. 


W. Va. 

Light & Watson. 



W. M. Benton. 



O. F. Zaccherle, M.D. 


N. Y. 

G. H. Ingraham, M.D. 



J. S. Brown. 



D. B. McCleary, M.D. 



Geo. Holland. 



D. G. E. Musselman. 



J. A. Beard. 



J. H. Boyer, M.D. 

Mahanoy City, 


M. R. Stein. 



F. R. Weiser, M.D. 



G. A. Weston. 



W. T. Horn. 

Mt. Holly, 


Elmer D. Prickett. 

New Hope, 


Geo. M. Shamalia. 



W. C. Goode. 

Chestnut Hill, 


Wm. A. Whittem. 


N. Y. 

McClure & Fisher. 



S. Rau & Co. 



J. K. Waters, M.D. 



H. W. Ralph. 

Ocean Grove, 


S. D. Woolley. 


Ore. O 

. P. S. Plummer, M.D. 



Susan Hayhurst. 



Chas. Young. 



A. G. Stanley. 



B. L. Gilbert. 


N. Y. 

W. A. Teachout, 



Geo. W. Davy. 





By Fr. Hoffmann. 

As the scope of each of the auxiUary sciences of pharmacy has 
constantly expanded, the faculties and the life of an individual man 
are no longer sufficient to grasp the whole domain, or even the 
ramifications of either of such sciences as chemistry, physics and 
botany. Division of labor in every direction, therefore, has more 
and more taken place in the study and pursuit of these sciences. 
The nniversalist, possible a generation ago, has largely been reduced 
to the specialist among the professors and students of our days. 
The master minds in pharmacy, conversant with the theory and 
practice of the various branches of the pertinent sciences, and 
acting with equal proficiency in more than one, as teachers, investi- 
gators and authors, therefore, are also passing away, and are 
replaced by the specialist. One of the few of these generic stars 
in the domain of the sciences pertaining to pharmacy of the depart- 
ing century was Professor Fluckiger, who passed away at his home 
in Switzerland, on E>ecember ii, 1894. 

Friedrich August Fluckiger was born on May 15, 1828, at the vil- 
lage of Langenthal, near Bern, Switzerland. His father was a small 
merchant, and the boy was educated at the village school, with a 
view to pursuing a mercantile trade. At the age of seventeen years 
he entered a commercial institute in Berlin, but his inclination 
towards the natural sciences seems to have been nursed and to have 
found encouragement in Berlin, for he soon relinquished the course 
of the commercial college in order to attend lectures in chemistry, 
geology and botany at the University of Berlin. In 1847, he entered 


66 Fricdrich Aiigiist Fliickiger. {^"ebr^arj^fg^"- 

a pharmacy in Solothurn, Switzerland, as an apprentice. This intro- 
duction into the practice of pharmacy seems to have lasted but 
three years, for during the two years of 1850 and 1851 Fliickiger 
served as a drug clerk in Geneva and in Strassburg. In the fall of 
1 85 1, he entered the University of Heidelberg, where he obtained 
the degree of Ph.D. in 1852. He worked there in the laboratory 
of Professor Delffs, and subsequently, for a short time, with Pro- 
fessor Wurtz in Paris. Dr. Pliickiger then spent some time in 
London, where he made acquaintances that were, later on, of much 
value to him; among them was Daniel Hanbury, He returned to 
Switzerland, and, in 1853, entered into partnership for the purchase 
of a pharmacy in the small town of Burgdorf, near Bern. He 
remained there for seven years, occupying his abundant spare time 
largely with linguistic, historical and scientific studies, and also with 
an active participation in the elaboration of the first edition of the 
Swiss Pharmacopoeia, published in 1865. 

Although Dr. Fliickiger had published but few essays, his talents 
and comprehensive knowledge were soon recognized, and in 1857 
the Pharmaceutical Association of Switzerland elected him its chair- 
man, which position he retained, with great benefit to the society, 
for nine consecutive years. In i860, Dr. Fliickiger was appointed 
director of the state pharmacy (Canton-Apotheke) at Bern. He 
gave up his pharmacy and residence in Burgdorf to accept the posi- 
tion ; he filled it, and soon, also, that of co-examiner of pharmacists 
and that of state chemist until 1873. Besides, in r86i, he established 
himself as lecturer in pharmacy and pharmacognosy at the Univer- 
sity of Bern, and in 1870 was appointed to full professorship. His 
position at Bern in the laboratories of the Canton Pharmacy, as well 
as in that of the University, afforded Professor Fliickiger excellent 
chances and ample inducements for application and research in the 
domain of practical pharmacy. He made good use of these oppor- 
tunities, and with the wealth of his knowledge, the thoroughness in 
all his work, and with much zeal and assiduity, accomplished during 
the years of his stay in Bern a large amount of important practical 
and literary work, including the revision and the editing of the 
second edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia in 1872, and the elabora- 
tion of the first editions of his two greatest works — the " Manual of 
Pharmacognosy," published in 1867, and " Pharmacographia," pub- 
lished in 1874. 

'*'Februarv^is!^"'} Fricdrick Augiist Fluckigcr. 67 

The most significant and honorable recognition of Professor 
Fluckiger's labors consisted in his call by the German Government 
as Professor of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy and Director of the 
Pharmaceutical Institute, established at the reorganization of the old 
German University of Strassburg in Alsace in 1873. Professor 
Fluckiger accepted this call, and filled the position entrusted to him 
with success, and with niuch credit to himself and the University, for 
nineteen years. In 1 892, he retired at the age of sixty-four years and 
settled at his old home among the snow-clad Alpine ranges at Bern, 
with the intention of applying his remaining years to literary work, 
and particularly to collecting and assorting the accumulated mate- 
rial in preparation for the elaboration of a comprehensive history 
of medicinal plant drugs. 

The years in Strassburg were the most prolific, as well as the 
most useful ones, in Professor FlUckiger's indefatigable activity as. 
teacher, investigator and author, and he looked upon them as the 
most happy ones of his long and successful career. There he 
enjoyed the attractive and inciting intellectual intercourse with the 
elite of the pharmaceutical students of Germany and of foreign 
countries, who were drawn thither by the reputation of the great 
scholar, and who received his instruction in the lecture-room and 
the laboratory, passed the searching ordeal of his examination, and 
finally returned home,' imbued with a love for knowledge and study 
for its own sake, and with appreciation of their great teacher and 
veneration for him. 

Upon the retirement of Professor FlUckiger from his many years 
of academic activity, the veteran scholar was the recipient of many 
honors. The Emperor of Germany honored him by a decoration, 
the scientists of many countries presented him through a special 
committee with a magnificent album containing more than 300 
photographic portraits, and with a handsome donation as a contri- 
bution to the erection of a comfortable home in Bern. ]\Ioreover, a 
committee was formed for the institution of a FlUckiger Memorial 
Fund. The proceeds collected were to remain in the control of this 
committee, consisting, at the time, of Professors Tschirch of Bern, 
Schaer of Strassburg, Hilger of Munich, F. Weber of Zurich, and 
Professor Fluckiger. Upon the death of the latter, his place in the 
committee has to be filled by a person elected by the National 
Association of Pharmacists of Germany. The object of this memo- 

68 Friedrich August Fliickiger. {'^FebruarV^i8^95™" 

rial fund is the establishment of one or more endowments for talented 
students in pharmacognosy, and of a Fliickiger Medal to be pre- 
sented at special occasions to distinguished investigators and 
scholars in the domain of pharmaceutical and kindred sciences and 
arts. In the course of three years this medal has been conferred 
upon eighteen gentlemen.^ 

At the time when Professor Fliickiger entered pharmacy, the 
domain of chemistry, as well as of botany, could be fairly well mas- 
tered by an intellect so richly endowed with the power of ready 
comprehension and with an unusual memory. A prodigious amount 
of solid knowledge in all departments of literature relating to phar- 
maceutical and kindred sciences, and close application, enabled him 
to keep abreast with the prolific and large accumulation of new 
facts, resulting from the progress of chemical and botanical knowl- 
edge. He early became interested in plant drugs, and his bent 
towards an historical aspect in all knowledge gradually led his 
interest and study pre-eminently in this direction. Otto Berg had 
inaugurated principles and methods of stricter discrimination in the 

^ As the list of the recipients of the Fliickiger Medal has been frequently 
reported incorrectly, the names may here be mentioned as they were recently 
published b}- the committee in Bern : John Attfield of London ; H. Beckurts 
of Braunschweig ; Born of Buenos Ayres ; G. DragendorfF of Dorpat ; H. T. 
Fritzsche of Leipzig ; P. Giacosa of Turin ; Thom. Hanbury of La Mortola ; 
A. Hilger of Munich ; Fr. Hoffmann of New York ; Th. Husemann of Got- 
tiugen ; J. B. Nagelvoort of Detroit ; Nyegaard of Christiauia ; Theod. Peck- 
olt of Rio de Janeiro ; PfersdorfF of Strassburg ; G. Planchon of Paris ; E. 
vSchaer of Strassburg ; Alex. Tschirch of Ben . ; A. Vogl of Vienna. 

'^Feb^ruary^ifsr'} FriedricJi Aiigiist Fliickiger, 69 

study and knowledge of plant drugs, and, especially by his text- 
book of pharmacognosy (1852), and by his master-work, "Atlas ot 
Pharmacognosy " (1865), had laid an exacter scientific foundation 
for modern pharmacognosy. Upon this basis, Fluckiger continued 
and improved the new structure of this branch of applied science. 
Fifteen years after the first appearance of Berg's text-book he pub- 
lished one in 1867, and in 1875, jointly with Daniel Hanbury, 
enriched English literature for the first time by a standard work on 
pharmacognosy, namely by the " Pharmacographia." These two 
works, the former republished twice, the latter once, were his chief 
literary achievements and will remain his most lasting literary 
monuments. Both works, apart from their comprehensive an'd thor- 
ough treatment of the subject matter, are remarkable for the intro- 
duction of a large amount of historical material and data. J le 
recognized the superior value of historical research and cultivated it 
with all his inquisitive and critical powers. Fluckiger became the 
historian of pharmacognosy and his early demise is the more deeply 
to be regretted and is the greater a loss to the world of science, as 
he had in the course of his life accumulated an immense amount of 
historical material and data, preparatory to his long cherished desire 
to devote the leisure of his ripe and declining years to the consum- 
mation of his life work, namely the writing of a comprehensive his- 
tory of plant drugs. 

The same bent towards the historical aspect in all knowledge 
lends equal value and charm to his third great literary work, the 
Text-book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, published in one volume 
in 1879, and republished in a largely extended second edition in 
two volumes in 1888. 

Besides these main works Professor FlUckiger has published two 
more concise text-books for the study of pharmacognosy (Grundniss 
der Pharmacognosie, 1884, second edition, 1894, and Grundlagen der 
Pharmaceutischen Waarenkunde, 1873, second edition, 1885), and a 
chemical work on the application of chemical analysis to organic 
chemical compounds (Reactions). 

The number of his miscellaneous writings published in the course 
of many years is great ; they embrace biographical, historical and 
educational essays, sketches of the culture of plants useful in the 
industries and arts, and reports on original investigations in the 
domain of chemistry, pharmacy, pharmacognosy and botany, insti- 


70 Fricdrich Aiigust Fluckigcr. {""l^i^^lryMl^- 

tuted by himself or jointly with advanced students during his 30 
years of academic activity as professor and director of University 
laboratories in Bern and Strassburg. Most of FlUckiger's writings, 
and especially the miscellaneous essays, are distinguished by his 
mastery of a concise style and logical diction, and by the wealth 
and the depth of his philosophical and historical conception, and 
therefore are as attractive as they are instructive. Some of his 
essays may, on account of the beauty and grace of their style and 
conception, well be ranked among the few classic productions in 
modern pharmaceutical literature. 

As a teacher Professor Fluckiger was esteemed on account of his 
conscientious and painstaking consideration of every detail in the 
instruction, both on the platform and in the laboratory ; he was not 
so much a fluent as an impressive lecturer. His reputation drew 
pharmaceutical students from various countries to the University of 
Strassburg, and not a few of the most eminent pharmaceutical 
scholars of the younger generation at home and abroad have 
received his instruction, and by his inspiration have been imbued 
with a taste for knowledge and research for their own intrinsic 
interest and value, and for thoroughness in all study. They cling 
with veneration to the memory of their departed teacher and 

Professor Fllickiger's health had been failing for about one year. 
Early last year he accepted a long-standing invitation of friends to 
visit our country, at the same time hoping that the sea voyage dur- 
ing the summer months would prove beneficial to his health. He 
furthermore expected to search some of our larger public and pri- 
vate libraries for historical material in reference to American drugs, 
in addition to the accumulated material for his contemplated his- 
torical work. After a pleasant voyage from Genoa, he arrived here 
on the 28th of May, stopping most of the time of his stay in America 
in Brooklyn, paying brief visits to Washington, Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia and Boston, making a trip to Niagara and resting for a few 
weeks at a summer resort in the Shawangunk Mountains, N. Y., and 
at Cape Cod, Mass. At the end of August Prof. FlUckiger attended 
the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, in Brooklyn, and made there the personal acquaint- 
ance of many American scholars long and well known to him. He 
returned to Europe on September 15th, and after a delightful sail to 

'^FebT^IrJ'.mt'} Fricdrich August Fliickigcr 71 

Genoa, stopped, on his way to Bern, for a few days at La Mortola. 
Soon after his return to Bern, early in October, a complication of 
diseases of the alimentary canal set in, and, after an illness of nearly 
six weeks, he fell asleep at 1 1 o'clock on the i ith day of December, 


" Sustained aud soothed 
B}' an unfaltering trust, he approached his grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

The following is a list of Prof. Fliickiger's principal works : 

1S62. Contributions to the History of Pharmacy in Bern. 

1S67. Mayiual of Pharmacognosy, second edition, 1SS3, third edition, 1891. 

1573. Frankfort list of drugs. Contribution to the mediaeval history of 

1873. Elements of Pharmacognosy. Introduction into its study. Second 
edition jointly with Dr. Alex. Tschirch, 1878. 

1574. /%ar;;/a(:o^;'rt/!'/n'rt' (jointly with Dan. Hanbury), second edition, 1879. 
1876. Contributions to the History of Pharmacy. 

1S79. J^I^anual of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Second edition, 1S88. 
1883. The Cincho7ia Barks. 

1854. Elements of Pharmacognosy. Second edition, 1894. 
1S84. The Industry of Essential Oils in Grasse. 

1855. Historical Sketch of the Pharmaceutical Institute at Strassburg. 

1885. Pharmaceutical Education in Germany. 

1886. Contributions to the History of Pharmacy in Italy. 
1S88. Contributions to the History of Pharmacy in England. 
1889. Easter Vacation in Italy. 

1892. Reactions. 

1893. Further Contribution to the History of Pharmacy in Bern. 
1893. British Work and Progress in India. 

1 893. The Industry of Essential Oils and Synthetic Aromatas. 

Prof. Fliickiger's last contribution to a journal was his description of the 
Blasckka collection of glass models of plants in the Agassiz Museum in Cam- 
bridge, written for the September issue, 1S94, of the Pharjnaceidische 

The name argon has been given to the new element stated to exist in the 
atmosphere, and, at a special meeting of the Royal Society on January' 31st, 
Lord Rayleigh and Professor Ramsay are to present their paper on the supposed 
new constituent, and the matter will then be discussed. — Phar. four. Trans. 

-J 2 Cultivation of Licorice Root. {^Y^vu^v^mt' 



By Henry N. Rittenhouse. 

Many interesting accounts of the cultivation of the Hcorice plant 
are to be found scattered through the works on materia medica, 
agriculture and gardening during the past one hundred years, and 
the methods therein described are essentially the same as those 
pursued at the present time, and which it is not the intention to 
reproduce here. 

Licorice root is cultivated, in the true sense of that word, in so 
few places in the world, and to so small an extent as an article of 
commerce, as hardly to be worth mentioning. One or two places 
in England, and a like number in France and Germany, embrace all 
the localities I happen to be acquainted with, and the area of land 
under cultivation varies from a few rods to an acre or two, five acres 
being an exceptionally large field. 

The large amount of licorice imported into this country, and 
which also supplies the needs of the world, grows wild, without 
any care or cultivation whatever. Italy and Spain supply a small 
percentage of the total amount, probably 5 to 8 per cent., while 
Southern Russia, along the line of the Transcaucasian Railway, 
supplies two-thirds of the remainder, and Asia Minor and Syria 
the other one-third. The total amount of all kinds imported into 
the United States is about 80,000,000 pounds per annum, on an 
average. In 1872, the imports were about 5,000,000 pounds, and 
the consumption still increases yearly. 

The licorice plant grows over an area, extending from the shores 
of the Mediterranean, on the south (latitude 30°), to Siberia, on the 
north (latitude 55°), and from the western shores of Europe to the 
plains of Persia and farther India, and from low levels to ;,500 feet 
above the sea ; thus showing over what an immense area of land and 
variety of soil and climate it w'ill grow vigorously. In Afghanistan 
it forms the principal fuel. It is a hardy and tenacious plant, almost 
impossible to eradicate where it once obtains a foothold, and grow- 
ing without care or cultivation when once fairly started. The men- 
tion of these conditions under which the plant, which furnishes the 
root of commerce, is found, is to illustrate its hardy nature. 

As the plant grows wild, and generally on wild and uncultivated 
land, and is dug and prepared for market by cheap Asiatic and 

^FebraarV!?^"'-} Cultivation of Licorice Root. 73 

Russian labor at starvation Avages, the first question naturally is, 
would it pay to grow it in the United States ? The answer to this 
is: if it is intended to grow it as root dried and sold in competition 
with this wild, imported root, probably not ; but to propose and 
advance such an enterprise is not my object. 

Licorice root, as found in commerce, is dried and pressed in bales. 
The root, when freshly dug, contains, on an average, 50 to 60 per 
cent, of moisture. This must first be dried out, which is done by 
exposure to the air, much as hay is made, requiring frequent turn- 
ings and handling to prevent, as much as possible, heating, ferment- 
ing and darkening during the dr\'ing, as well as the wetting by rain 
or snow, which may be frequent before the root is dry enough to 
press for shipment. The root, when nearly dr}-, and danger from 
further damage from the presence of moisture has passed, is piled 
up in large stacks until ready to be pressed. Around these stacks 
are dug ditches for draining the ground, and after a heavy shower, 
or prolonged period of rain or snow, these ditches will fill with a 
black water, containing a very strong taste and a high percentage of 
the extractive matter of the root ; this, of course, deteriorates its 
value and is itself waste. When dry enough, it is pressed in pow- 
erful hydraulic presses worked by steam, so as to reduce the bulk to 
a minimum, and so save freight in shipment. The bales are bound 
with iron straps, and sometimes covered with canvas. 

The plants, which supply the root as found in commerce, have 
been growing for a long time, some pieces being two to three inches 
in diameter when dry, indicating probably a growth of twenty or 
more years ; but these very thick pieces are usually rejected as 
being worthless for making extract, as a root after four years' growth 
begins to deteriorate in value for the* purpose of making extract, 
because of becoming too woody and fibrous, and lessening the per- 
centage of extractive matter. On the other hand, the very thin 
fibres of one year or less growth are equally worthless, yet the 
the shipper works in as much of both kinds in the bales as he dare, 
to say nothing of adhering soil and debris. Root of three years is 
the most desirable, if it could be obtained, as being the richest in 
extractive matter. 

It will be seen from the above that the preparation of licorice 
root for market, as we find it, is a tedious and expensive process 
— first, the organization of the business, in the employment of clerks, 

74 Cultivation of Licorice Root. { Veb''ruary^?s^""' 

superintendents and a host of minor officials to superintend the dig- 
gers, receive and weigh the root at the various stations appointed in 
different locahties, pressing, shipping, etc. The right to dig over a 
certain territory is obtained by lease or tithe, as the land is owned 
by the Government, the church, the village, or by individuals. Then 
there are the digging, drying, curing, pressing and baling, inland 
transportation, ocean freights, insurance, fire and marine, bankers' and 
brokers' commissions, interest and loss of weight in transportation. 
These expenses alone, throwing aside the cost of the freshly dug root, 
v/ill represent fully 75 per cent, of the price of the root ex-ship in the 
United States. The foregoing expenses are fixed and unavoidable, 
as the fresh root could not be transported, owing to its perishable 
nature. These considerations have led me during the past four 
years to investigate the feasibility of growing this plant in the 
United States. 

The consumption of the extract in this country is now so large 
and important, especially in the manufacture of chewing tobacco, 
that in case of a European war, a blockade of the Black Sea at the 
Dardanelles, or the Mediterranean at Gibraltar, would effectually 
cork up the world's supply, and throw the large American industry 
of tobacco-manufacturing into confusion. As licorice has become a 
more or less important ingredient in most brands of chewing 
tobacco, and the present generation of chewers has become so 
accustomed to its use, new brands omitting this ingredient might 
be unsalable. 

Referring now to the vast and varied area over which the licorice 
plant grows wild, and the great variety of soil and climate in the 
United States, as well as cheapness of land and labor, and the 
ability to obtain large tracts of land of comparatively easy accessi- 
bility for transportation and labor, has led me to present the follow- 
ing information on the subject, of what I believe can be made a new 
and profitable industry in this country, with money and time intel- 
ligently expended. I believe it would, in time, pay better than 
either sugar cane, sugar beets, rice or cotton, although the industry 
would not be as large or important as any of those, which are all 
exotic, the cultivation of all of them having been begun in a very 
small way in the United States. 

Licorice extract can be made as well, or better, from fresh root 
than from the dry, and is so made in the countries that furnish the 

""F^brZ'ry. mt] Cultivation of Licorice Root. 75 

root; but the duty on it of five cents per pound restricts largely its 
importation, while the root is free. 

The thought I have in mind, in introducing the growing of licorice 
here, is very much on the same lines as sugar is now made from 
cane and beets ; that is, to have large tracts of land devoted exclu- 
sively to the growth of the plant, with the factory for making the 
extract from the fresh root in, or near, the fields. The present 
sugar factory, too, could easily be adapted to the manufacture of the 
licorice extract, the apparatus required being simply suitable 
crushers or shredding machinery, the diffusion battery and vacuum 
pans for evaporating. Sugar factories, too, could be utilized when 
not running on sugar, as the proper time for digging the root is 
from October to April, and if the root is not needed one year, it can 
be left in the ground until the next, not only without deterioration, 
but to its increased value in weight. It is not well, however, to 
allow the root to exceed five years in growth ; three or four year 
root is the richest in extractive matter; as it becomes older it 
becomes more fibrous. Frost or drought do not injure the root 
when once well established ; young and tender plants in the first 
year might be injured. The elaborate and expensive methods ot 
culture, followed by the gardeners of Europe, would be entirely 
unnecessary here on a large scale. After selecting a suitable tract 
of land, having the necessary requirements of soil, location, etc. 
(prairie land, because it is open and easily tilled, would be my 
choice), it need only be plowed once to turn down the grass and 
weeds, harrowed, then laid out in furrows about 25 to 30 inches 
apart, and the buds or cuttings, set in the rows 6 or 8 inches apart, 
and covered by a plow, throwing a furrow over the buds from each 
side, or even cover them 3 or 4 inches with a hoe ; this is all. From 
time to time, during the growing season, a cultivator should be run 
between the rows to keep down weeds or grass. The tops, at the 
end of the growing season, should be cut off; this could be done 
with the mowing machine. The second and third year the treat- 
ment would be the same. In the fall of the third year the crop 
would be ready to harvest. The cost of harvesting would be the 
most expensive part of the business, and thus far I am unable to 
give any exact figures, but up to the point of harvesting, the cost of 
planting and cultivation would not exceed $4 per acre per annum, 
or ^12 for the three years, including interest and taxes. As the 
root grows to a great depth in a light soil, if digging had to be 

76 Cultivation of Licorice Root. {^'^i^^liyMl^' 

resorted to, the expense would be more, and some other mechanical 
means would have to be used, as a plow or digger. All the 
world over, digging by shovel and pick is the usual method ; one 
reason for this is because labor is very cheap, and another is, the 
plants grow in patches often widely apart, and individual plants, so 
scattered over such an extensive area that no other plan is possible, 
while in the field, as proposed, the plants would be in rows and an 
acre very thickly grown. 

An acre, with the rows 30 inches apart and the plants in the rows 
6 to 8 inches apart, would contain 20,000 plants, and narrower rows 
and closer planting is permissible, so that many more than 20,000 
plants can be grown to the acre. I prefer to take 20,000 plants 
per acre as a unit for calculation, to allow for loss in many 
ways of a liberal percentage, say one-third, by failure to grow 
and by dying after starting, etc. The growth each year is 
not so much in weight as one might be led to think by reading 
what has been written on this subject ; but so far as I have been 
able to ascertain, there is nothing at all definite and specific pub- 
lished. The information herein is of my own investigation and 
experiment, and is only offered as approximate, as indeed the whole 
subject must be considered as still in an experimental stage, but, in 
my opinion, full of promise if properly entered upon with a view to 
making it a commercial success. 

By obtaining plants from the growers of one, two, three and four 
years' growth drying and weighing them, I get the following 
results : plants of three years' growth will average when dried four 
ounces, equal to eight ounces fresh ; or to an acre of 20,000 plants 
10,000 pounds as the crop at the end of the third year, costing, 
according to my estimates for growing and harvesting, $15 for the 
crop of 10,000 pounds of fresh root, at the end of the period of 
three years. 

I have not given the weights of the other root, as three year root 
is the basis on which I am working ; four year growths would show 
much larger results, and younger roots are too immature to dig. 

Allowing a loss in various ways of one-third the plant, leaving 
13,300 yielding y2 pound each of fresh root, or 6,650 pounds at 
the end of the third year at a cost of $\^, or even ^20, and the 
enterprise would be profitable. The 6,650 pounds of fresh root 
represents one and a half tons dry, and the lowest price at which 
dry Russian Root, or Asiatic, can be laid down in the United 

^TebiZ'v/.m:^'} Cultivation of Ucorice Root. yj 

States, is about £?> per ton ; the crop of a ton and a half would be 
worth $60, costing ;^20, or a net profit of $40 per acre for the three 
years, equal to $13 per acre per annum as the profit of growing the 
root ; but if the fresh root is at once made into extract, as I pro- 
pose, the profit would be much greater even at 4 cents per pound, 
just half the present price of the extract. 

My own experience in growing the plant in the United States 
has thus far been very moderate in results, owing to causes that 
might have been prevented, viz.: inundations, unsuitable buds for 
planting, and possibly a want of care or interest, or experience, on 
the part of those in charge, to say nothing of the effect of un- 
usually hot and dry weather on the young plants before they had 
become acclimated. I have grown the plants in several places in 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Louisiana and Florida, and still have 
some growing in the different localities, and believe it to be quite a 
feasible matter to introduce the industry on a large scale. 

In 1856 VV. R. Prince, of Flushing, L. I., contributed an article in 
The Horticulturist, Phila., on the cultivation of licorice root in the 
United States, showing the possibility of it. In 1854 the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture published in its annual report an account of its 
cultivation in this country. 

In 1886 Mr. Isaac Lea, of Florin, near Sacramento, Cal., grew 
several acres very successfully, but abandoned it for want of a home 
market and for more profitable use of the land occupied by it. 
There are still some plants growing on that farm as well as in 
several other places in California. Mr. Lea was an enthusiast on 
the subject of growing the plant on a commercial scale, and had 
visited Louisiana and Florida with the object of establishing the 
enterprise in one or the other of those States ; but finally aban- 
doned the project for personal and domestic reasons. I mention 
these facts to show that the plant has been grown here by prac- 
tical men whose opinion was that it could be grown on an ex- 
tensive scale, but who knew nothing of the manufacture of the 
extract from it. 

This paper is far from being exhaustive of the subject ; much 
practical information has been accumulated and my experiments 
are still going on, and I believe with the necessary capital in- 
vested in the business on a sufficiently large scale, it need not be 
many years before the entire wants of this country, of licorice 
paste, could be supplied from the home-grown root, as indicated. 


Structure of Iris. 

By Edsox S. Bastin. 

'Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
February, 1895. 

.The Blue Flag, Iris versicolor, Linnc, is one of the commonest of 
monocotyls in the eastern United States. The range of its habitat 
is from Canada to Florida, and from the Atlantic as far West as 
Minnesota and the Indian Territory, Its rhizomes are horizontally 
creeping, from 1 6 to 24 cm. long, more or less branched, and com- 
posed of 'joints, each from 3 to 10 cm. in length, and representing a 
year's growth. Each joint at or near its base is cylindrical or only 
slightly flattened, but toward its apex is larger and widened hori- 

FlG. I. 

zontally. At the anterior end on the upper surface of each joint is a 
more or less cup-shaped scar of a flowering stem. At this end also 
may occur two, or sometimes four, lateral branches arranged opposite 
each other in pairs. The surface of the joints is densely covered 
with scales consisting of the fibrous bases of the decayed leaves, 
and from the inferior surfaces, chiefly from the broader, flattened 
portion of the joints, spring numerous, sparingly branching, 
wrinkled rootlets, averaging 10 or 12 cm. long and about i^ mm. 
in thickness. These, together with the scales, are usually removed 
in preparing the drug for market. The dried drug, therefore, shows, 
except occasionally near the apex of the rhizome, only the crowded 

Am. Jour. Pharm.l 

'5. ; 

Structure of Ins. 79 

Ftbiuary, 189o. J 

ring-like scars of the leaves and the small circular scars of the 


The rhizomes are also longitudinally wrinkled from shrinkage m 

drying, are commonly banded transversely with different shades ot 
brown on the outside; the fracture is short, and the fractured 
surface is usually brownish or grayish brown. 


Structure of Iris. 

/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1895. 

A transverse section of the rhizome shows a distinct cyHnder- 
sheath separating the central cyhnder, which contains numerous 
scattered vasal-bundles, from the cortex, which contains relatively- 
few. The thickness of the cortex, compared with the central 
cylinder, is about as one to five. The sheath proper consists of a 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

single row of tangentially elongated and thickish-walled cells, but is 
stengthened interiorly by two or three thicknesses of tangentially 
elongated, somewhat fibrous cells. 

The vasal-bundles of the central cylinder are much more crowded 
toward the exterior of the cylinder next the sheath, and are mostly 
smaller than the more scattered ones toward the centre of the stem. 

Am. Jour. Pharin. i 
February, 1895. J 

Structure of Iris. 

The bundles consist of that modification of the concentric t5'pe in 
which the xylem elements are exterior, and the phloem tissues cen- 
tral, and, as seen in transverse section, the bundles are either circu- 
lar or somewhat elliptical in outline. The ducts are of rather small 

Fig. 5- 
size. Each bundle has an imperfectly developed sheath of thin- 
walled cells, differing little from the cells of the adjacent parenchyma 
except in their smaller size. 

Aside from the xylem elements of the bundles and the cylinder- 
sheath with its strengthening layer of fibrous elements, the tissues 

82 Striictnre of Iris. { ^FebrZ'rV^'IS!"- 

of the rhizome are unlignified. The cortex and fundamental tissues 
of the central cylinder consist of loosely arranged parenchyma. 
The cells of this parenchyma are notably unequal in size, and the 
intercellular spaces, though often large, are not regular either in 
size or in arrangement as they commonly are in the stems of other 
aquatic and marsh plants. 

The parenchyma cells abound in rounded granular particles which 
look remarkably like starch grains, but which do not polarize light, and 
which stain brownish instead of blue with potassium-iodide iodine. In 
chloral-hydrate iodine they swell and gradually disappear, but with- 
out acquiring the blue color of ordinary starch. If sections be 
treated with a 15 per cent, solution of alpha-naphthol, afterwards 
with sulphuric acid, and then heated, the grains disappear and an 
intense violet color will be gradually developed in the tissues. This 
test justifies the suspicion that the grains, though behaving in some 
respects like proteid, may really be carbohydrate in their character, 
related to, if not in fact a modification of starch. But this matter 
requires further investigation. 

There occur in the parenchyma, both of the cortex and of the central 
cylinder, rather numerous isolated crystals of calcium oxalate in the 
form of large-sized, mostly elongated and pointed prisms, which, 
between the crossed Nicols, show beautiful polarization effects. 

The cross-section of a rootlet shows a structure so characteristic 
that it might be employed readily in the identification of the drug. 
The epidermis consists of two or three layers of rather small and 
thickish-walled cells. The cortical parenchyma consists of very 
unequal-sized, quite loosely arranged cells,'with irregular intercellu- 
lar spaces. The central bundle is from ten to fifteen rayed. The 
rays terminate interiorly in about six or eight large ducts, which 
form a circle about a small pithy central portion. The endodermis 
is composed of cells very distinct from those of the adjacent tissues. 
Its cells are of nearly equal size and excessively thickened in their 
inner and radial walls, which are also lignified, while their exterior 
walls remain thin and unlignified. 


Fig. I. — Diagram of cross-section of rhizome of Iris versicolor, the section 
passing through near the base of one of the joints ; «, a vasal-bundle in the 
cortex ; b, cylinder-sheath ; c, a vasal-bundle in the central cylinder. Magnifi- 
cation, 6 diameters. 

^Feb™ao^l^"'■} Iodides of Tin. 83 

Fig. 2. — Small portion of cross-section of same rhizome more highly magni- 
fied, showing portions of cortex, cylinder-sheath and central cylinder, a, in 
tercellular space in cortex ; b, cylinder-sheath; c, xylem of one of the bundles 
in exterior portion of central cylinder. Magnification, 100 diameters. 

Fig. J. — Crystals of calcium oxalate from rhizome. Magnification, 150 

Fig. /. — A few parenchyma cells from central cylinder of rhizome, showing 
granules similar in appearance to starch grains. Magnification, 495 diameters. 

Fig. 3. — Portion of cross-section of root of Iris versicolor, magnified 100 
diameters, a, epidermis ; b, cell of cortical parenchyma ; c, large duct in 
vasal-bundle ; d, endodermal cell ; e, pericambium cell ; /, small ducts at 
exterior end of xylem ray. 


By Ch.\rles Bullock. 

Iodide of tin has been called for recently in medical practice for 
its supposed benefit in some forms of pulmonary disease. 

Tin forms with iodine two compounds — stannous iodide, SnI, and 
stannic iodide, Snl^. Stannous Iodide is formed when iodide of 
potassium is added in slight excess to a solution of stannous chloride. 
The solution must be made free from excess of acid by long diges- 
tion at a moderate heat in a flask over mossy tin. 

The iodide is precipitated as a yellow-red powder, somewhat 
gelatinous in character. When thrown upon a filter the filtrate is 
quite acid, and the iodide when washed soon turns white by decom- 
position, forming oxide of tin and hydriodic acid. If heated in a 
flat porcelain dish without washing it evolves hydriodic acid and 
changes to a brown-red powder. The best method was found to 
be the drying of the precipitate immediately between folds of bibu- 
lous paper. In this condition it still remains acid when dry. 

Stannous iodide crystallizes in yellowish-red needles ; it dissolves 
slightly in water and soon decomposes with formation of hydriodic 
acid and oxide of tin. In warm solution of the chlorides and 
iodides of the alkali metals it dissolves freely. When heated to 
near redness in the absence of air it liquefies, but does not sublime ; 
on cooling, it solidifies into a crystalline mass, which affords a 
yellow-red powder. When heated in an open vessel it is resolved 
into stannic iodide, which sublimes, and oxide of tin is left. 

Stannic Iodide, Snl^ (tetra iodide) is obtained when tin and 
iodine are brought together in a dry state. To prepare it, tin in a 
granular condition is placed in a flask, and twice its weight of 

84 Pharmaceutical Notes. {''FeWrua?y!'?8?r- 

iodine gradually and carefully introduced. To prevent violent reac- 
tion it is recommended to moisten the tin with carbon disulphide 
before introducing the iodine, but this is not necessary if proper 
caution be used. The contents of the flask liquefy by the heat 
generated; when the reaction is over, the flask is heated and shaken 
to insure complete combination. When cold, the iodide solidifies 
to a mass having a chocolate color, and crystalline in structure. 
The mass was placed in a porcelain dish, covered with a funnel hav- 
ing a long neck with a small flask on the top. It melts at about 
150° C.,and the stannic iodide sublimes at about 180° C, collecting 
in the funnel in yellow-red octohedral needles. The stannous iodide 
which forms part of the mass does not sublime when air is excluded 
even at a red heat. By this method the two iodides can be 

Stannic iodide has a specific gravity of 4-69, it is soluble in 
carbon disulphide, absolute alcohol, methyl alcohol, ether, chloro- 
form, benzol and oil of turpentine. It is quite sparingly soluble in 
water ; the aqueous solution soon decomposes into hydriodic acid 
and stannic oxide. 

It is not clearly stated which of the two iodides is wanted for 
medical purposes, and, as their therapeutic effects may vary very 
much, more information is wanted before they can be dispensed 
with safety. 

Specimens of the two iodides are herewith submitted. 


By F. W. Haussmann. 


The practice of keeping glycerin in tinned iron cans, often for a 
prolonged time, will have the effect of contaminating the same with 
traces of the metal. 

As special inducements are usually offered by the wholesale 
dealers to buy this liquid in lots of 50 pounds, cans of this capacity 
containing the same are generally found in retail pharmacies, and 
often form the only stock container, with the consequence of the 
above-mentioned contamination. 

In many operations, both in the laboratory and on the prescrip. 
tion counter, the delicate iron reactions produced with certain com- 

"^Feb "uarv'f ilir' } Pilar wiicetitical Notes. 85 

pounds are productive of color changes, which are at times difficult 
of explanation. 

- These may be produced by impure articles, in this instance the 
iron-contaminated glycerin. 

In a number of instances, where glycerin was kept in the con- 
tainers mentfoned, such reactions were produced and found at times 
to be the source of considerable trouble. 

It is hardly necessary to mention the various iron reactions, as 
they aie found in every chemical text- book. 

But to the pharmacist a few are of importance, as they are liable 
to occur at the dispensing counter, when the presence of a trace of 
iron in commercial glycerin is not suspected. 


In the popular glycerite of tannin we find the preparation not 
unfrequently to turn a blackish-brown color, no matter how careful 
we may be in the handling of our working utensils. 

Examination of the glycerin, which appears to contain the metal 
in the ferric form, will reveal the cause of the coloration. 

Extemporaneously prepared nipple washes, containing tannin, or 
similar preparations, are apt to show the same effect, as will also 
preparations containing tannin-like principles. 

In connection with this, attention may be called to the presence 
of tannin in commercial alcohol. 

The average pharmacist accepts this most important solvent from 
his dealer without even attempting a superficial examination as to 
its purity, and does not recognize the importance of the same until 
he finds color changes in delicate preparations. 

Elixirs containing scaled iron salts often show this result, 
and the question : Why does elixir iron, quinine and strychnine 
turn dark after standing a short time ? may find partly an explana- 
tion in the tannin-containing alcohol of commerce. 

Such alcohol, or preparations made therefrom, when mixed with 
glycerin kept in tinned iron cans, will show the same effect. 


The delicacy of the iron reaction with phenol compounds is well 

Carbolic acid is frequently prescribed in a mixture with glycerin 

86 Pharmaceutical Notes. {*?lwry!'l'l%" 

and if the latter is not free from iron, a red coloration is sure to 
take place. 

This was observed with a perfectly colorless sample of the acid. 

Salicylic acid, in particular its sodium salt, is a compound which 
is readily affected in this manner. The fact that a perfectly color- 
less aqueous solution of this salt, when mixed with glycerin, turned 
to a reddish violet color, first drew the writer's attention to the 
presence of the metal in the latter. 

Similar effects can also be observed with other aromatic com- 
pounds, especially with a number of the new remedies, such as 
antipyrine, salipyrine, etc. 

The following prescription was the subject of a controversy 

between a physician and a pharmacist : 

Tinct. Guaiaci, 
Glyceriui, aa 5 i 
AquEe Rosse, 5 ii. 

When this mixture was dispensed, it was found to acquire a blue 
color on standing. 

This took place either with or without the presence of gum arabic, 
thereby proving the same not to be a factor in the change. 

An examination of the rose water failed to find any oxidizing 
agents, but an examination of the glycerin revealed the presence of 

The same prescription was sent to several reputable pharmacists 
to be compounded for the sake of comparison, almost invariably 
showing the same result, with only one exception, indicating the 
presence of iron in glycerin to be quite general. 

Other color reactions, produced by this impurity, may also take 
place, but a consideration of analytical principles will enable the 
well-informed pharmacist to satisfactorily explain the cause of any 
such changes. 


The fact that glycerin, when added to aqueous solutions of borax 
decomposes the latter with formation of free boric acid is well 

The frequently asked query : What is the cause of the effervescence 
in preparing Dobell's solution? finds its explanation in this manner, 
also the pharniacopoeial identity test for glycerin. 

^Februaryr?89r-} Pharmaceutical Notes. 87 

The same reaction may take place in other instances, perhaps 
less frequently, yet being at times of importance at the dispensing 
counter, occasionally requiring some reflection before unlooked-for 
phenomena are satisfactorily explained. 

Some weeks ago a mixture consisting of aqueous tincture of rhu- 
barb and glycerin was found to explode when dispensed in a well- 
filled bottle. 

When this mixture was prepared in an open vessel, distinct 
effervescence could be observed on standing. 

Tinctiira rhei aquosa, a preparation frequently prescribed by 
German practitioners, contains, besides the active vegetable ingre- 
dient, borax and potassium carbonate. 

The glycerin decomposes the sodium borate, with liberation of 
free boric acid, and the latter is again neutralized by the potassium 
carbonate present with evolution of COj. 

The expansion of this gas renders the bottle holding this mix- 
ture liable to fracture. 


Several objections have been made against the addition of borax 
to the cold cream of the new Pharmacopoeia. 

The action of the borax upon salts of mercury and the alkaloids 
appears to be the chief objection. 

The addition of glycerin to cold cream, as sometimes ordered 
extemporaneously in prescriptions, will also decompose the borax 
in the manner mentioned. 

Borax appears to possess some saponifying action upon the fatty 
ingredients, and if glycerin is subsequently added, boric acid is 
liberated, changing the reaction of the ointment from alkaline to 

It would be interesting to know whether this would produce an 
impairment of the preparation as to its medicinal value. 


The pharmacopoeial bay rum formula is not satisfactory to many 
pharmacists on account of the almost colorless appearance of the 

In their efforts to cater to the popular taste, they prefer to have 
the preparation of a bright yellow, or even yellowish-brown color. 

88 Pharmaceutical Notes. {^v'^Xi^Ml^' 

To effect this, some follow the practice of macerating bay leaves 
or turmeric, or both, in the solution of the oils, while others add 
solution of potassa to the oils of bay and allspice before dissolving 
them in alcohol. 

Some also dissolve a certain amount of borax in the water before 
it is added to the alcoholic oil solution. 

Still others use the potash solution and make the borax addition 

When the last method is employed the bay rum will possess a 
handsome yellow color 

But if the preparation, thus prepared, is mixed with glycerin, the 
effect repeatedly mentioned takes place, namely, the borax is decom- 
posed and the acid liberated. 

This effect may readily be observed after the glycerin addition. 

The mixture will decolorize, the yellow color almost entirely dis- 
appears, and the previously alkaline bay rum will turn distinctly 
acid to test paper. 

Other illustrations may be mentioned, where chemical incompati- 
bility may arise between borax and glycerin, but a little reflection 
will readily indicate the liability of its occurrence. 

In the preparation of toilet washes, in which it is desirable to 
keep the borax unchanged, this fact must be considered with care. 

One point we may perhaps call attention to, namely, the chemical 
incompatibility of borax with fluid extracts and tinctures containing 

Astringent fluid extracts, such as those of sumach berries, rose, 
etc., as a rule, contain glycerin, and it is well known that these 
preparations enter frequently into mouth washes containing borax, 


Considerable variation appears to exist in the color of this 

As usually found in the United States it is yellow, due to the 
employment of the white variety of the drug in its preparation. 

Occasionally, however, we find the red variety of squill in our 
market, and this is especially the case with the ground drug. 

Vinegar of squill, made from this variety, is red-brown, appears 
to have a more pronouncedly bitter taste, which it will communicate 
to the syrup made therefrom, and which will also have a similar color. 

'^Feb^ruao-^1895"'-} Pharmaceutical Notes. 89 

As the syrup is a frequently sold article, the altered taste and 
color is at times regarded with suspicion by the consumer. 

Having occasion to examine a number of samples of the vinegar, 
the writer noticed in several the odor of acetic ether. Further 
examination revealed also the presence of alcohol. Such vinegars 
mostly had a cloudy appearance, and a sample, prepared by the 
writer from the fluid extract, according to the formula of a certain 
manufacturing firm, possessed the identical properties after standing, 
both in odor and appearance. 

Fluid extract of squill, a preparation largely alcoholic, appears 
to have been used in the preparation of these vinegars, and conse- 
quently the alcohol and acetic acid entered into combination to 
form acetic ether. 

On heating the vinegar, the latter is dissipated, together with the 
excess of alcohol, hence the odor of the ether is not so prominently 
noticeable in the syrup made by heat. 

The practice of " easy preparation " of this official vinegar should 
be discouraged. 

It is not only a flagrant disregard of the Pharmacopoeia, but a 
preparation of this kind will, by its odor, reveal the professional 
principle of its maker. 


The addition of this pigment to sugar by the refiner, for the pur- 
pose of " whiting," the same, is to the pharmacist at times the source of 
not a little trouble, not alone in the preparation of medicinal syrups, 
elixirs and allied saccharine preparations, but also in the manufac- 
ture of soda water flavors. 

The altered appearance of the finished syrup, differing from the 
expected colorless preparation, showing the same to possess a 
brownish tint, is a frequent source of chagrin, although liable to 
happen when made from the best variety of granulated sugar. 

The Pharmacopceia recognizes this fact, and requires large vol- 
umes of syrup not to deposit any sediment on standing. 

From a chemical standpoint another factor may be noticed, 
equally important as the mentioned physical change, namely, the 
occasional evolution of hydrogen sulphide from certain syrups. 

This has probably been noticed by many pharmacists, but the 
odor has been erroneously attributed to the " souring " of the syrup; 
in other words, to fermentation. 

90 Pharmacaitical Notes. {-^Fe^/ruary^wr' 

From the fact that evolution of the hydrogen sulphide gas only 
took place in the syrup, containing free acids, the writer drew the 
conclusion that it must be due to another cause. 

A number of experiments led him to the conclusion that the 
source laid in the ultramarine, added, as already stated, for the pur- 
pose of "whiting." 

To understand the reaction, by which the evolution of the 
gas is produced, the composition of the pigment must be briefly 

The exact constituents are not well known, but ultramarine is 
stated to be mainly a mixture of aluminum silicate, containing 
traces of iron, together with various sodium compounds, predomi- 
nant among which is the sulphide. When free acids act upon the 
latter, hydrogen sulphide is evolved. 

If this takes place in medicinal syrups, it is recognized by its 
odor or by suspending a strip of white paper moistened with lead 
acetate solution in the air space above the syrup in its container. 

Syrups containing mineral acids claim our first attention. Of 
these the most important official ones are those containing free phos- 
phoric or hypophosphorous acid, also the syrup of hydriodic acid. 

These acids will decompose the blue readily in the manner men- 

The action of acids upon the pigment is not confined to inor- 
ganic acids, but the organic produce a like effect. 

Among the latter may be mentioned citric, acetic, tartaric and 
oxalic acids. 

Syrup of the former acid, official in the Pharmacopoeia, is not 
rarely affected, as well as the hypophosphite syrup of the last Phar- 
macopoeia, which also contained this acid. 

Syrups containing acetic acid, such as ipecac, garlic, and squill, 
will also show the same effect, although in not as characteristic a 
manner, as, for instance, in the case of garlic syrup one odor will 
mask the other. 

Among other official syrups likewise subject to this change, syrup 
of gum arabic may be mentioned. 

The mucilage of acacia has an acid reaction, and its mixture with 
simple syrups, containing ultramarine in suspension, will be found 
to acquire an offensive odor on prolonged standing. 

Incidentally may be mentioned, that the same effect is noticeable in 

^FebruaoMsYo""'} Notcs OH Sovie Scips ttud Sccrctious. 91 

Jackson's pectoral syrup, although the odor is masked by the pres- 
ence of oil of sassafras. 

Even simple syrup itself, when turning somewhat sour, will 
have the odor of the gas, if the ultramarine has not been carefully 

Of inconvenience this fact will also be found in the manufac. 
ture of soda syrups, especially those containing free acid or acid 
fruit juices. 

The repulsive odor of some fruit syrups, after undergoing this 
decomposition, is thereby explained. 

It is noticeable at times that the ultramarine in syrups containing 
free acid gradually disappears on standing. 

The pigment is usually not found in acid syrups prepared by heat, 
as decomposition of the blue takes place more rapidly during this 

Syrups containing free alkali, such as rhubarb and senega, do 
not evolve sulphuretted hydrogen, as the ultramarine remains un- 
affected by alkalies. 

Incidentally the recommendation of the Pharmacopoeia, to prepare 
syrups by cold percolation, must be called wise and practical. If 
carefully prepared and preserved, it not only obviates the possibility 
of recrystallization of the sugar, but will also remove foreign mat- 
ter, which will at times occasion deposits or even induce fermenta- . 

In the presence of the ultramarine pigments the intervention of 
the sponge will remove the blue in neutral or alkaline syrups. 

Even if it should be decomposed in syrups containing acids, the 
exposure of the same, being yielded drop by drop in the course of 
its preparation, should be sufficient to expel all appreciable traces 
of the hydrogen sulphide gas. 


By p. L. Simmonds, F.L.S. 
There are very many of these which deserve special detailed 
notice, at all events as to their medicinal uses and statistics. 

Four subdivisions might be established under which all the varie- 
ties of gums and resins might be grouped : 

92 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions, {■''veil^ulr/.mi!'- 

(i) Gums. 

(2) Resins. 

(3) Oleo-resins. 

(4) Elastics and gums. 

The first would include all gums, wholly or partially soluble in 
water, whether of the Acacia or Tragacanth kind. 

The second would include resins more or less soluble in alcohol, 
such as copals, mastics and gum resins, like asafoetida and ammo- 

The third would include turpentine, wood oil and balsams. 

The fourth would contain India-rubber, balata and gutta-percha, 
with substances of a similar character. 

A resin is entirely soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in water. A 
gum resin is intermediate in character between a gum and a resin ; 
that is to say, it is partly soluble in water and partly soluble in 

A kino is the astringent inspissated sap of a tree. 

The resins may be divided into four groups: 

(i) Solid or dry resins. 

(2) Turpentines. 

(3) Balsams. 

(4) Soft resins. 

Perhaps it is better to arrange the products alphabetically under 
their botanic names. 

Adies balsamea, Marshall ; Abies balsaniifera, Michaux ; Pimis 
balsam ca, Lin. 

Cioada balsam is an oleo- resin produced from the stem of this 
tree by incision, and is also yielded by Pinus Frascri, Pursh. 

It is of a pale straw color, and is occasionally used medicinally, 
but is chiefly employed for mounting objects for the microscope, and 
as a fine transparent varnish for water-color drawings, which does 
not become darker with time. 

Abies excelsa, Poiret ; Pinus picea, Du Roi. 

Pinus Abies, Lin. The resinous exudation of the Norway spruce 
fir, melted and strained, furnishes the concrete oleo-resin, true Bur- 
gundy pitch, the Thus or Frankincense of the London Pharma- 
copce!a. The com non frankincense or American Thus is from 
Pinus palusti'is, Limbert ; Pinus Tteda, Lindl. It acts as a counter- 
irritant, and is applied to the chest in chronic pulmonary complaints, 

^FebruarV^^sfls!"'} ^^otcs OH Sovie Saps and Secretions. 93 

to the loins in lumbago, and to other parts to relieve local pains of 
a rheumatic character. 

The Indian gums are coming in largely into European commerce 
to supplement the African gums, the exports of gums for India 
having averaged 37,000 cwt. in each of the last five j^ears. The 
African gums may be recognized from Indian gums by an expert, 
being of a different shade of color, often with a pinkish hue. The 
imports of gum arabic into the United States have declined by 
more than one-half of late years; in 1892 they were only 417,000 
pounds, but recovered in 1893 to 915,855 pounds. 

Acacia Calechii, Willd. The extract from this tree, known as 
" cutch," is used medicinally as nn astringent, in fevers and other 
maladies, and the better qualities are equally as good medicinally as 
the Gambier of Singapore. 

There are several kinds of cutch made in India and used in 

A resinous extract is prepared by boiling down chips of the wood. 

In Burma and Bombay the decoction is boiled down to a solid 
consistence and thrown into leaf moulds, or is baked into cakes and 
balls. This is the ordinary cutch of commerce, and instead of being 
a pale grayish color, it is deep reddish-brown, with a glassy fracture. 

Another inferior kind is made from a decoction of the nut of the 
betel palm (^Areca CatecJui.) This form exists in large slabs, about 
an inch in thickness, prepared on the leaves of the Teak tree. This 
substance is, however, rarely exported from India, but a considerable 
local trade is carried on in it in Madras and Mysore. 

Cutch is prepared thus : 

The tree is cut down to about six or twelve inches from the 
ground and chopped into small pieces, the smaller branches and 
bark being rejected. The chopped wood is then taken to the place 
of manufacture, generally under trees in the open air, and placed 
over a brisk fire in clay jars, filled with about two-thirds of 

This is allowed to boil down till, with the extracted matter, it 
forms a liquid of a syrupy consistence. The contents of several jars 
are then poured into a larger jar, and again placed over a brisk fire 
for a period of from two to four hours, and, when sufficiently boiled 
down, it is poured over mats covered with ashes of cowdung and 
allowed to dry. 

94 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. { '^Feb^nmrV^i' 



Catechu is used in medicine as a gentle tonic and a powerful astrin- 
gent, on account of the large quantity of tannic acid (50 per cent.) 
which it contains. Combined with opium it answers a good purpose 
as an internal remedy in chronic diarrhoea, catarrh or dysentery. 

Cutch is not specified in the American imports, but gambier is 
named, but appears among gums, with the old misnomer of " Terra 
japonica." The quantity imported fluctuates between 27,000,000 
and 35,000,000 pounds. 

Sugars. — The maple tree, several palms, the white beet root, 
sorghums, the sugar cane, and other plants and trees, yield saccharine 
saps, but as the product of these have chiefly dietetic uses, rather 
than medicinal, I shall not enter into details on them. 

Aloes Species. — The simply inspissated juice of the leaves of 
various species of this gum constitutes the " aloes " drug of phar- 
macy. It is best obtained by using neither heat nor pressure for 
extracting the sap. By redissolving the aqueous part in cold water 
and reducing the liquid through boiling to dryness, the extract of 
aloes is prepared. All species are valuable in localities where they 
are hardy, and can be used (irrespective of their medicinal import- 
ance) to beautify any rocky or otherwise arid spot. 

Aloe Ferox, Lamarck. — This yields the best Cape aloes, as observed 
by Dr. Pappe. Other species, such as A. perfoliata, Lin., also yield 
the drug. A. africana. Mill., and A. plicatis. Mill., and A. commelini, 
Salm., are said to yield a less powerful kind. 

The following are also South African species : A. arborescens, 
Miller; A. lingucBforniis, Mill.; A. angulata, Willd. From this 
species the purest gum resin is obtained. 

A. purpurascens, Haworth, is one of the plants which furnish the 
Cape aloes of commerce. A. spicata, Lin., also provides Cape aloes. 
A. Zeylien, Harvey, a magnificent, very tall species, is doubtless valu- 
able like the rest. A. soccoirina, Lamarck., is also indigenous to South 
Africa; A. dichotoma, Lin. fil., in Damara and Namaqualand, at- 
tains a height of 30 feet and expands occasionally with its branches 
so far as to give a circumference of 40 feet. The stem is remarkably 
smooth, with a girth sometimes of 12 feet. It is a yellow-flowering 
species. A. Bainesii, Baker and Dyer, is almost as gigantic as the 
foregoing. Both, doubtless, yield the medicinal gum resin, like 
several others. 

In many parts of the Colony of Natal, a wild aloe is very abund- 

^FebCr■>^lf™*} Notes OH Sovic Saps and Secretions. 95 

ant, and a few people make an industry of the preparation of the 
product for export. Shipmehts, of late years, have reached ;£'400 in 
value. Small balls of it were shown in the Natal Court at the 
Colonial Exhibition in London. 

A. indica, Royle. — There are many varieties of aloe met with in 
cultivation throughout India, some of which have gone wild, as, for 
example, on the coast of South India. The inspissated juice, as a 
medicine, is regarded as an aperient and deemed highly beneficial 
to persons predisposed to apoplexy. The fresh juice from the leaves 
is said to be cathartic, cooling and useful in fevers, spleen and liver 
disease, enlarged lymphatic glands, and as an external applicant in 
certain eye diseases. The pulp of the leaves is, in native practice 
in India, applied to boils and is regarded as acting powerfully on 
the uterus. It is largely employed in veterinary medicine. The 
root is supposed to be efficacious in colic. A. soccotrina, Lamarck; 
A. vera. Miller, is usually imported in skins and casks from Bom- 
bay. Soccotrina aloes may be recognized by its reddish tint and by 
the fragments being nearly transparent, as well as by its odor. A. 
Perryi, Baker, is indigenous to the island of Socotra. In very large 
doses it is a powerful hepatic stimulant. In small doses the drug is 
used as a stomachic tonic, in larger doses purgative and, indirectly, 
emmenagogue. It is a remedy of great value in constipation caused 
by hysteria and atony of the intestinal muscular coat. It is also 
very useful in atonic dyspepsia, jaundice, amenorrhoea and chlorosis. 
Locally applied, dissolved in glycerin, it is valued in India as a 
stimulant application in skin diseases, and, for this purpose, is gen- 
erally combined with myrrh, constituting the Musanbar of Bombay. 

Hepatic aloes is a species of Arabian aloes, so called from its liver 
hue. It is duller and more opaque in color than other kinds, more 
bitter, and has a less pleasant aroma than the Socotrine aloes itself, 
but is believed to be the sediment deposited in Socotrine aloe juice. 

A. vulgaris, Lamarck and Bauhin ; A. vera, Lin.; A. Barbadensis, 
Miller, has long been cultivated in the Antilles, and furnishes from 
thence the main supply of the Barbadoes and Curacoa aloes. 

This West Indian aloes may at once be distinguished by its dis- 
agreeable odor. 

There are two varieties met with in commerce, one presenting a 
brown, the other a black fracture ; the former is the best. 

The culture in Bar adoes is confined to the small farmers entirely, 

96 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {^Febr°u"ao^'is!i5'."' 

and is carried on chiefly in the parish of St. Philip, towards the sea- 
shore, where the soil is scant}^ and dry. The produce of an acre of 
land is about 140 pounds of extract. The plants require to be 
renewed about every fourth year. 

It is this species which Professors Willkolm and Parlatore record as 
truly wild in countries around the Mediterranean Sea, on the sandy 
or rocky sea coasts of Spain and Italy. Haworth found the leaves 
of this and of A. striata, more succulent than those of any other aloe. 

Barbadoes aloes is usually imported in gourds, breaks with a dull 
conchoidal fracture, and has a bitter taste. Socotrine breaks with 
an irregular or smooth and resinous fracture, has a bitter taste and 
a strong but fragrant odor. 

In my work on '• The Commercial Products of the Vegetable King- 
dom," published as far back as 1853, I described the production 
and commerce in Aloes, but much information has been published 
since then. The imports into London have been falling off of late 

In 1890 the receipts were 7,360 cases and packages and 622 
gourds; in 1892, they were only 2,652 cases and 277 gourds. 

Aiiacardium occidentale, Lin. — The trunk and branches of the 
cashew-nut tree yield, on being wounded, during the monthly ascent 
of the sap, a white and transparent gum, similar to that of arabic. 
A full-grown tree will furnish an annual amount of ten or twelve 
pounds. The fresh acid juice of the flower stalks is used in lemon- 
ade ; wine and vinegar are made by fermenting it. 

Anogeissus latifolia. Wall. — The gum from this Indian tree occurs 
in clear, straw-colored, elongated tears, adhering in masses, some- 
times honey-colored, or even brown from impurities. As an adhe- 
sive gum it is inferior in strength to gum arabic, in consequence of 
which it commands a much lower price in Europe, the more so 
since it is nearly always mixed with the bark of the tree, sand and 
other impurities. 


B. Ehrenbcrgi, Berg. — This species of the deserts of Arabia yields 
myrrh, and some other species produce the same resin. Professor 
Oliver unites this with B. opobalsamuin, Kunth, which furnishes 
Mecca or Gilead balsam. 

B. africannm, Arnott ; Heudelotia afrieana, Rich.; Aviyris niot- 
toiit, Adans. 

^Febi^uar/Asis"'} ^^otes OH SoDic Sttps and Secretions. 97 

African bdellium is translucent, but has a dull fracture. The taste 
is slightly bitter. 

B. kataf, Kunth ; Aviyris kataf, Forsk., furnishes the gum resin 
or African bdellium, which reaches Bombay from Berbera, the purer 
kinds very much resembling myrrh in perfume. The opaque 
bdellium of Guibourt is used for the extraction of the Guinea worm. 
It is of a yellowish white color, resembling ammoniacum. 

B. iiiukul, Hooker, of Scinde and Beloochistan, furnishes the 
Indian bdellium, or " Gugul," which is used in native medicine as a 
demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative ; especially useful in 
leprosy, rheumatism and syphilitic disorders. It is also prescribed 
in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin 
diseases, and is employed in the preparation of an ointment for bad 
ulcers. A fragrant balsam is obtained in Arabia from the fruit of 
this species. The African bdellium is the product of another species. 

B. inyrrha, Nees. — This tree of Arabia and Africa yields the 
myrrh of commerce, which occurs in the form of tears, of irregular 
shape, of variable size, and of a yellow or reddish- yellow color, 
light, brittle, somewhat translucent, and at times shining. Fracture 
vitreous or conchoidal, of a bitter aromatic taste and peculiar smell. 
It contains a volatile oil, was used in ancient times as " frankincense," 
and is still so employed in China. Myrrh is used as a stimulating 
medicine, and as an ingredient in tooth powders. Bombay is the 
chief port at which myrrh is received and shipped. Four kinds are 
imported there : the African or true myrrh, which is considered the 
best quality ; the Arabian, the Persian (source unknown), and the 
Siam. On the bags arriving at that port, they are opened and 
sorted into the different kinds. 

The Aden agents of Bombay houses attend the annual fair at 
Berbera, and exchange goods for the gum resins. The bags or 
bales, when opened in Bombay, are found to be made up of (i) a 
large proportion of roundish masses of fine myrrh ; (2) of a con- 
siderable proportion of small, semi-transparent pieces of myrrh of 
irregular shape; (3) of numerous pieces of dark-colored myrrh, 
mixed with bark and other refuse ; (4) a small proportion of an 
opaque bdellium. When sorted the best myrrh goes to Europe, the 
darker pieces form a second quality and the refuse is exported to 
China, where it is probably used as incense. 

Myrrh is beneficial in dyspepsia, amenorrhoea and chlorosis, and a 

98 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. { ^KeifmaryTiIgs"'' 

useful astringent to all ulcerations or congestions of the mucous 
membrane. It makes a valued wash for the mouth and gums and 
a gargle in ulcerated sore throat. It is a stimulant, expectorant, and 
much admired as a remedy for pulmonary affections, especially the 
asthma of the aged. Hakims, in India, use it for intestinal worms. 
It is detergent, siccative, astringent and aperient, a disperser of cold 
tumors and one of the most important of medicines, as it preserves 
the humors from corruption. Dissolved in milk it is dropped in the 
eye in purulent ophthalmia. It is useful in humid asthma and 
chronic catarrh, also in chlorosis and defective menstruation. Dose, 
in pill, powder or emulsion, lo to 30 grains; of tincture, ^ to i 
fluiddrachm. — Dr. George Watt. 

B. opobalsam, Kunth ; Aniyris opohalsani, Lin. — This tree fur- 
nishes the balsam or balm of Gilead, which is not a true balsam, but 
an oleo-resin of a consistence like that of Chian turpentine. It has a 
fragrant odor and warm, aromatic taste, and was held in high esteem 
by the ancients, and accredited with a variety of medicinal proper- 
ties. As a cosmetic and perfume it is still largely employed by 
Turkish ladies. There are references to it by many ancient writers, 
among others, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Pliny and Galen, and also 
many mentions of it in the Bible. So highly prized was this balsam 
that, during the war of Titus against the Jews, two fierce contests 
took place for the orchards in Jericho, where it was produced, the 
last of which was to prevent the Jews from destroying the trees that 
the trade might not fall into the enemy's hands. The gardens were 
taken formal possession of as public property, an imperial guard was 
appointed to watch over them, and it appeared that the emperor 
increased their size and endeavored to propagate the plants. The 
imperial care was unavailing, for not a branch of the balsam tree is 
now to be found in all Palestine. The shrub was taken to Arabia 
and grown in a recess in the mountains between Mecca and Medina, 
whence the balsam is now exported, not as balm of Gilead, but bal- 
sam of Mecca. The substance is still eagerly sought for in Egypt 
and the East under this name. It is obtained by making incisions 
in the trunk or branches, but the yield is very small, only averaging 
three or four drops per diem. This fact accounts for the comparative 
rarity and the great costliness of the genuine article, as also for the 
numerous substitutes and imitations of the original. There are 
three qualities produced by art ; the first and best is the opobalsam, 

^febm^Ti^^iit'] ^^ot^s on Some Saps and Secretions. 99 

expressed from the green berry and leaves ; the second is the carpo- 
balsam from the ripe seed or berry ; and the last is obtained by 
bruising and boiling the young wood. The twigs, possibly after 
boiling, are sent to Venice, where they enter into that heterogeneous 
compound — Venice treacle. 

B. Roxburghii, Lin. — This yields a gum resin of a greenish color, 
moist and easily broken, having a peculiar cedar-like odor. 

Boswcllia Carterii, Birdwood. — The Frankincense of commerce. 
This stimulating gum resin is also obtained from B. Frereana and 
other species ; it is used medicinally and as a perfumery incense. 
The European frankincense is, however, distinct, being a resinous 
exudation from the spruce fir, used in the composition of plasters. 

Olibanum consists of tears, often an inch in length, of an ovate 
or oblong clavate or stalactite form, and mixed with impurities. 
The pieces are light yellow to brown, pale green or colorless. There 
are two varieties, one of which is far inferior to the other. The- 
best is found in pieces as large as a walnut, of a high yellowish 
color, inclining to red or brown, covered on the outside with a white 
powder, the whole becoming a whitish dust when pounded. It 
burns with a clear and steady light, not easily extinguished, and dif- 
fuses a pleasant balsamic and resinous fragrance. This drug is con- 
stantly burnt as incense in the Hindu temples, under the names 
of "Khomda" or "Kunda" and " Luban," and also in Roman Catholic 

Bombay is the port from whence the greatest quantity is exported. 
England receives from 7,000 to 8,000 packages yearly, Olibanum is 
rarely used in medicine in Europe, but in India it is regarded as a 
demulent, aperient and alterative, acting chiefly on the lungs and 
as a purifier of the blood. It is there used in rheumatism, nervous 
diseases, scrofulous affections and skin diseases. It is regarded as a 
diaphoretic and astringent, and is employed in the preparation of an 
ointment for carbuncles, boils, ulcerations and other sores. As a 
fumigating agent, it is employed to overpower unpleasant odors and 
to destroy noxious vapors, 

B. glabra, Roxb., also yields this fragrant resinous substance. It 
is bitter and pungent ; mixed with " ghee " or fluid butter, the native 
doctors prescribe it in gonorrhoea and other complaints. 

B. serrata, Stackh., is sometimes called the Indian olibanum tree. 
Of this there are two varieties, one being the B. tJiurifera of Rox- 

lOO The Apocynacc(P in Materia Medtca. {^FebnmV'^sU""' 

burgh and Colebrooke, and the other B. glabra, noticed above. The 
gum resin occurs as a transparent golden yellow semi-fluid sub- 
stance, which hardens with time. It has a slightly aromatic and 
balsamic resinous odor. 

B. Thiirifcra, Coleb. ; B. serrata, Stackh. This and some other 
species yield the gum resin. It has astringent and stimulant prop- 
erties. Externally, it is useful as a rubefacient and antispasmodic, 
especially as a plaster in cramps of the stomach. 

[7c» be coniinued.] 


By George M. Beringer. 

{Continued from page 4.6). 

In structure the fruit of Holarrhena Antidys enteric a approaches, 
in the main, that of strophanthus. Externally, is the epidermis 
with cells distinct and thickened on the outside. The mesocarp is 
formed of a fundamental tissue in which the cells are not flattened 
or pressed, but are distinctly visible without the aid of potassa. 
These cells have granular contents, the walls reddish-brown, and 
in the external zone, thickened nearly collenchymatous. 

The internal region forms a fibro-vascular zone with white or 
yellowish white, very thick fibres, and vascular fascicles rounded or 
flattened, and with numerous laticiferous vessels. The endocarp is 
analogous to that of strophanthus. 

The seeds of Holarrhena are quite small, 10 to 20 m.m. in length, 
2 to 21^ m.m. in breadth, and i to i^ m.m. in thickness. It 
requires forty of these seeds when dry to weigh i gramme. The shape 
is oblong, straight, elongated ; the extremities somewhat attenuated^ 
but blunt. The lower extremity is somewhat pointed, the upper bears 
a sort of collar, a very small swelling, upon which is inserted the 
characteristic tuft of hairs, but in commerce, these hairs are 
always absent. The seed is flat, or rather plano-convex, the dorsal 
face a little rounded, the ventral face flat or even concave in grooves. 
The margins of the seed enrolled a little toward this face, which is 
ordinarily marked by a small, whitish line extending from one 
extremity to the other. The color varies from a pale fawn or cinna- 

^Tebvui^T^,^is9t'} T^f^^ Apocynaccte in Materia Medica. loi 

mon with a little greenish, even to a chocolate brown. It is dull 
and ordinarily uniform. 

The surface presents always quite large ridges, due to drying, but 
is not regularly and finely striated, as are those of Wrightia. Viewed 
with a lens, it is finely granulated, or even rugose. The fracture 
is easy, ordinarily greenish white, or at times brownish. The odor, 
while not marked, upon crushing approaches that of Strophanthus. 
The taste is frightfully bitter. 

Macerated in water the seeds rapidly give to the liquid a disa- 
greeable and nauseating odor and dissociate into their three ele- 
ments. The envelope, brown and quite thin, often carries away 
with it the albumen in the form of a thin, peripheral sac of the 
embryo. The embryo is large, brownish ; the cotyledons are refolded 
several times upon themselves, a little rumpled, but not rolled up. 
Five large nerves, well marked, start all at the base. The radicle is 
conical and relatively short. Sulphuric acid slowly produces, with 
the transverse section, a yellow coloration, changing to orange and 
finally red. The active principle is an alkaloid first isolated by 
Haines in 1858, and to which he gave later the name conessine. 
Stenhouse, in 1864, isolated from the seeds the same principle under 
the name, WriglUine and recently Warnecke obtained the Wrightine 
in a crystalline state. 1 The name Wrightine is still erroneously 
retained, as Wrightia does not yield this substance. 

In India this drug is considered a valuable remedy against mala- 
dies of the bowels, especially dysentery. Its use is constant as a 
febrifuge, astringent and bitter tonic. It was imported into Europe 
toward the middle of the last century. Antoinc de Jussieu employed 
it in 1730 and compared it with simaruba. It is said to be an excel- 
lent astringent, useful in dysentery, diarrhoea, vomiting of cholera 
and all inflammations of the digestive tract. It is used in hemor- 
rhages, angina, as a lithontriptic, and as an antipyretic. Externally it 
is employed for haemorrhoids, itch, ulcers, etc., and has given good 
results in epizooty. The thick red fixed oil extracted from the seeds 
is considered an anthelmintic. 

^ Herr Waruecke obtained ou aualysis of Wrightine figures corresponding to 
the formula CnHj^N, and it is interesting as one of the few solid, uon oxygen- 
ated alkaloids occurring in nature. G. M. B. 

I02 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {*February^V«»5"" 


These are classified as Toxics and as Comestibles. 

A. Toxics — The Seeds of Thevetia neriifolia. The Thcvetin 
neriifolia Juss. {Ahoiiai neriifolia Plum., Nerio affinis angustifoha 
Pluk., Ccrbera foliis linear ibus Plum., C. Thevetia L., C. peruviana 
Pers.), is indigenous to the West Indies, but has been introduced 
into India and the warmer parts of Asia, where it is frequently cul- 
tivated as an ornamental garden shrub and is employed here as in 
the country of its origin. In America the common names em- 
ployed are : Ahouai, Voire, Alelia de Matto, Jaca, Serpents nut, etc. 
in India: China Korobee, Kolkaphul, Exile or Yellow Oleander. It 
is an elegant small tree, with hard, white wood, with very fine grain; 
the leaves are linear, close together, alternate, nearly sessile, entire, 
shining, with a prominent mid-vein, very straight for their length 
(i2 cm. by I cm.); the flower is large, yellow, fragrant; the bud 
resembles that of the Nerium. 

The fruit is very characteristic, it is trigonal, 31^ cm. by 4, and 
about 2]A cm. thick, with the angles and borders blunt. Atone of 
the angles is inserted the long peduncle and about this the fivecaly- 
cinal pieces ; a circular line extends around the circumference of the 
fruit, and upon the broad upper margin is a small papilla. The 
fruit is at first green, then becomes black, shining ; at maturity the 
surface is somewhat folded, the consistence is quite soft, the brown- 
ish pulp adhering to the stone. The endocarp is extremely hard, 
ligneous, yellow to brown in color. The kernel is very oily, bitter, 
and produces in a few moments a slight sensation of numbness on 
the tongue. 

The active principle is Thevetine, isolated by DeVrij and studied 
by Bias and by Warden. It is a glucoside, crystallizable, splitting 
up by diluted acids into glucose and Theveretinc, and which the 
experiments of Dumoutier show to be a tetanic ; it is extremely 
bitter, possesses a metallic taste followed by a tingling of the 

Warden has obtained from the mother-liquor, after the preparation 
of Thevetine, a yellow, amorphous, bitter substance, soluble in 
water, which appears much more active than Thevetine, and explains 
the extreme toxicity of the kernels. 

Warden has discovered in the seeds and in the bark also a mate- 
rial, pseudo-indiean, which was isolated as a yellow amorphous sub- 

'*^Febm"ry^is95°'} Tkc Apocyuacciv 111 Materia Medica. 103 

stance, probably a glucoside, and which yields with hydrochloric 
acid a blue coloration. 

The seed of Thevctia ncriifolia is a powerful poison, ordinarily 
considered an acrid narcotic, producing violent convulsions and 
gastro-intestinal phenomena. It has been employed as a purgative 
in rheumatism and dropsical conditions in the dose of one-half 
kernel. It is especially as a febrifuge that it is used along with the 
bark. In certain regions of America the seeds are considered a good 
alexiteric ; two of the seeds pulverized are macerated in rum, the 
liquid drunk in fractions and the expressed pulp applied to the 

The Fruit .and Seeds of Ahouai. — The Theveiia Ahouai A.DC- 
{Cerbera Ahouai 1^), is a native of Brazil, and is distinguished from 
the Thivctia neriifolia by having relatively broad leaves. The seed 
are identical with the preceding and possess the same properties 
.and usages. 

The Seeds of YccoTLi.^The Thevetia Yccotli A.DC. {^Cerbera 
thevetioidcs Kunth), of Mexico, is one of the most poisonous of 
the Apocynaceae. • The T. ovata A.DC, T. aincifolia A.DC, var. 
Andrieuxii and T. glabra, all these species and varieties are known 
in the state of Jalisco as Narcisos amarillos. 

The tree is named Yccotli, Icotli, Yccali, Joyottli, or Joyote. The 
Aztec word is Joyottli, which Hernandez transformed into Yccotli, 
adopted by DeCandolle as the specific name. The fruit is a drupe, 
with two papillae on the sides, rich in latex in the whitish mesocarp 
and contains a stone, a bony endocarp, yellowish, with four seeds or 
more often, two by abortion. 

Herrera has separated from the seeds a non-drying fixed oil, by 
expression ; another oil by ether and a white glucoside, crystallized, 
inodorous, non-volatile, very acrid, Thcvetosine. Carpio has shown 
that the two oils are toxic in action upon pigeons, but not upon 
rabbits, and that the Thevetosine is extremely poisonous, emetic by 
action on the nerves, paralyzing the respiratory muscles first and 
then the other muscles and causing death by slow asphyxia. The 
substance has likewise some of the properties of the Digitalins. 

The Mexicans use the seeds principally against haemorrhoids, 
cutaneous maladies, ulcers and tumors. It seems likewise to be 
used to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. 

I04 The ApocynacecB in Materia Mcdica. {^Y^i^liy^tl\^ 

The Seeds of the Tanghin. — The celebrated ordeal poison of 
Madagascar, the Tanghin is furnished by the Tanghinia vcnenifera 
Poir. [Cerbera Tanghin, Wook. Cerbera venenifcra St&v)d., Tanghinin 
veneniflua Boj., T. madagascarietisis Dup. — Th.). The tree inhabits 
Madagascar, especially the forests of the north and the eastern sides 
of the island. It is cultivated in the hot houses of Europe, but has 
not fructified. It attains a height of ten metres. A bluish-white 
latex, very poisonous, abounds in all parts of the tree. The fruit 
and seeds are the only parts employed. The leaves are remarkable 
for their elongated shape, lengthily acuminate, their soft consistence 
and the black color which they assume in alcohol or by drying. 

The fruit is a drupe, in the fresh state yellow or reddish, shaped 
like an egg or a peach, and in which the external region is a fleshy 
sarcocarp, fibrous and includes a ligneous, stony endocarp, which 
contains a single kernel. The shell resembles in form and appear- 
ance of the surface that of an almond. 

The structure of the seed is analogous to that of Theveiia. 

The toxicity of the kernel of the Tanghin i? such that a single 
seed suffices to cause the death of a number of persons, according 
to some, as many as twenty. This kernel is frequently employed 
in its native country for the poisoning of criminals and the heads of 
the arrows are likewise frequently coated with the poison. But the 
reputation of Tanghin comes especially from its use as a legal poison 
in the ordeals or judicial trials. 

The first physiological experiments were by Ollivier, who ranks 
the poison with the acrid narcotics. Then Pelikan and Kolhlcer, who 
employed the leaves and dry branches, concluded that there was a 
muscular action, and at the same time, or even before, a nervous 
action. J. Chatin, in 1873, admits, as a result of his experiments 
with the kernels, that it destroys the muscular irritability without 
reaching directly the nervous system. It is a paralyzer of the heart, 
acting equally by way of the stomach, or subcutaneously ; more 
quickly by the latter way. The effects are obtained on the inverte- 
brate animals likewise. 

[ To be Continued.'] 

^Feiryasr'} Editorial— Revicivs. 105 


F. A. Fluckiger. 

The pharmaceutical profession, in both continents, has met with an irrepara- 
ble loss in the death of Professor Fliickiger. 

Such a thoroughl)' disciplined and well- stored mind is rarely found in any 
individual, and when, as in his case, that rich treasury of facts was about to be 
recorded for the enlightenment of all mankind, the loss is especially to be 

We have been fortunate in securing a sketch of his life for the Journal, 
from the pen of his friend Dr. Hoffmann, yet we cannot refrain from here call- 
ing attention to the peculiar style of Fliickiger's writing, as illustrated in the 
Pharmacographia. A master of several languages, with the facts stored where 
he could use them, and with a clear and concise style, he was able to write so 
as to impress the dullest reader with a force that was fascinating. It is fittingly- 
said by Dr. Hoffmann that some of his writings " may well be ranked among 
the few classic productions of modern pharmaceutical literature." 


This is a subject which has often been talked and written about, but the 
industry has never taken that practical turn which is necessarj- in all such 

We give on another page an account of the whole subject as seen and under- 
stood by a practical man, who has for some years made this subject a special 

With the immense tracts of undeveloped land in the United States at our 
disposal, there is no apparent reasoQ why the whole amount of licorice root used 
in this country- should not be grown here. 

We hope to be able to give further information concerning the progress of 
this industry at an early date, as we understand steps have been taken towards 
its development. 


A magnificent new building has been erected by the New York College of 
Pharmacy, and was occupied at the first of the present term. The formal 
opening, with appropriate exercises, took place Friday evening, December 28, 


Laboratory Exercises in Botany. By Edson S. Bastin, A.M., Professor 
of Materia Medica and Botany, and Director of the Microscopical Laborator}- in 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Philadelphia : W. B. Saunders, 1895. 
Pp. 540. 

This work is divided into two nearly equal parts : Part I, Organography ; and 
Part II, Vegetable Histology. 

The first exercise, under Part I, takes up roots, and the student is told how 
to practically examine a specimen of dandelion root. A full-page plate illus- 
tration accompanies the text. The external characteristics are first considered, 
and then the internal structure. Drawings are directed to be made of the root 

infi R/'T>if7ll<; /Am. Jour. Pharm. 

*'-'" JXtcneiVi. •^ February, 1895. 

as a whole, aud of the iuner structure. A pocket magnifyiug glass, or hetter, a 
simple dissecting microscope, is all the apparatus recommended at this stage of 
the work. 

Stems and various other parts of plants are then systematically treated, the 
study of seeds completing this part of the book. 

The exercises in Part II are prefaced by an illustrated description of the 
compound microscope and accessor}' apparatus, together with a statement 
of the preparation and properties of the more important micro-reagents. 
Staining fluids, permanent mounting or enclosing media, processes of mount- 
ing, drawing microscopic objects and general directions for work, also form 
important parts of the introduction. The first exercise in Part II takes the 
study of a tj'pical vegetable cell, and the onion is selected as the most available 
material. The study of leaf structure occupies the closing exercises. 

The author says in his preface that this book had its birth in the laboratory, 
and every page bears evidence that this concise statement is literally true. 

Being an earnest advocate of practical stud}', and being one who carries his 
theories into practice by spending his time in the laboratory or in the field. Pro- 
fessor Bastin has mapped out a course which none but the hopelessly stupid 
can fail to follow. There is no work like it in the pharmaceutical or botanical 
literature of this country, and we predict for it a wide circulation outside 
of the author's own classes. 

The illustrations of plant structures were all drawn by the author from 
natural objects, and are especially noteworthy. The mechanical part of the 
book has been very carefully attended to. 

The Phvsiology of the Carbohydrates: Their Application as Food 
AND Relation to Diabetes. By F. W. Pavy, M.D., LL D., F.R.S. Lon- 
don: J. and A. Churchill, 1894. Pp. 280. 

The author has long been recognized as an authority on this subject, aud he 
very properly remarks in the preface that "a life's labor, attended with unceas- 
ing laboratory work, has been devoted to the attainment of the knowledge that 
has been acquired." The book, therefore, is not a compilation; it represents a 
mass of facts laboriously acquired. The titles of some of the chapters will 
indicate the ground covered; for example, there is a chapter devoted to each of 
the following subjects : Transmutation of Carbohydrates, Glucosides, Descrip- 
tion of Analytical Steps of Procedure, Ingested Carbohydrates Traced to the 
Portal Blood, The Liver in Relation to the Sugar Derived from Ingested 
Carbohydrates, The Liver in Relation to Constituent Sugar, The Blood in Rela- 
tion to Sugar, The Urine in Relation to Sugar. A number of other equally 
important chapters, followed by one on the Author's Conclusions, completes 
the work. 

The conclusions reached are: That the old glycogenic theory must be aban- 
doned; the liver, instead of forming sugar, prevents its entry into the general 
circulation, and thus secures escape from diabetes; carbohydrate matter, 
through the influence of living protoplasm, undergoes (i) transmutation, 
(2) application to the production of proteid, (3) transformation into fat. 

It will thus be seen that the subject is a far-reaching one, and embraces the 
whole subject of health and disease. 

The book deserves the closest study at the hands of the physician as well as 

Am. Jour. Pharm.X ReT)ie7S}S I07 

February, is'jo. ( iKtutt:cu:>. lu/ 

the chemist. There is uot a dull page in it. The author is either describing 
an interesting series of experiments, or else he is drawing conclusions which 
he almost compels one to accept by his forcible and logical description. 

A Manual of Org.anic Materi.a Medica and Pharm.acognosy. By 
Lucius E. Sayre, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, Professor of Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy in the University of Kansas. Philadelphia : P. Blakis- 
ton, Son & Co. 1895. Pp. 555. 

Professor Sayre issued a work in 1S79, entitled " Organic Materia Medica and 
Pharmacal Botany," which has been out of print a number of years. The 
present volume is in a slight degree a revision of that work. 

Part I, of about 85 pages, treats of Pharmacal Botany, and Part II, c5ompris- 
ing 385 pages, is devoted to Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognos}\ In 
this part the author adopts two systems of classification : 

(i) Arrangement of drugs according to their most prominent physical char- 

(2) Arrangement according to botanical relationship. 

The former is quite brief, but by a system of numbers, a drug in this class 
can readily be found in the second class, where it is fully described. 

In the second class each drug is treated SN'stematically as follows : Botanical 
Characteristics, Habitat, Description, Constituents, Action and Uses, Official 
Preparations. There are 543 well-executed illustrations distributed through 
the work, and they add very materially to its value. 

Appendix A. Insects Injurious to Drugs. Under this title, eight pages of 
illustrated matter are given, which cannot but be of value. 

Appendix B. Organic Remedies Formed by Synthesis. Over forty pages 
are devoted to brief descriptions of what might be termed the newer materia 

Appendix C, treats of Pharmacal Microscopj-. A glossary and full index 
complete the work. 

The book is modern in every sense. It is modern in the order of treatment 
and in the facts detailed. The student will find it an indispensable companion, 
and the pharmacist and physician can turn to it as an excellent work of 

The publishers have done credit to themselves on the mechanical part of the 

The Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis. Volume I, 
Soils. By Harvey W. Wiley. Easton, Pa.: Chemical Publishing Company. 

This work is coming out in parts, and was noticed soon after the appearance 
of the first number. Now, that the first volume has been completed, a brief 
review of the same may be of interest. 

The author has in this volume succeeded in clearly giving the principles 
which underlie the science and art of the analysis of soils and the best approved 
methods of conducting it. 

An introduction gives a brief description of soils and their origin. Then 
sampling, physical properties, and mechanical analysis are briefly described. 
Chemical analysis of soils is then taken up in detail, in which the most modern 

T/-\Q T? r'^i-tc'-cic / Am. Jour. P)iarni. 

I05 l\LOl€cVS. I February, 189.5. 

methods of estimatiug nitrogen, phosphoric acid and a number of other con- 
stituents are concisely stated. 

Appropriate illustrations accompany the text and aid the explanations. 

It is a creditable work, and the first one of any magnitude on this subject 
that has been attempted in America. We predict for it a wide circulation. It 
is the intention of author and publishers to issue Volume II in monthly parts 
of 48 pages each, and complete it during the present year. 

ET COMMERCIALES, par Adolphe Renard. Paris: Baudry et Cie. 1895. 8vo. 

Pp. 438. 

This little work, arranged alphabetically, seems to cover a tolerably wide 
range of subjects, as it deals with the outlines of analysis of most of the 
technically important organic products. 

Many of these are of pharmaceutical interest, as the essential oils, glycerin 
and fatty oils, alkaloids, sugar^, soaps, tannins, resins, inks, wines and color- 
ing matters, both natural and artificial. 

Indeed, it covers very much the same ground as " Allen's Commercial 
Analysis," but in a much more condensed form. We notice that reference is 
made to the original journal literature in many cases, so that fuller details may 
be looked up if needed. 

The illustrations are few and rather indifferent in their execution. The 
book, however, can serve an excellent purpose in readily indicating the most 
convenient methods of analysis and pointing out fuller information on most of 
the subjects. It seems to be thoroughly modern in its statements and refer- 
ences, and, from a casual examination, to be trustworthy. 

S. P. S. 

Kola. An Illustrated Monograph on Kola, issued by the Scientific Depart- 
ment of Frederick Stearns & Co., Detroit, Mich. 

This pamphlet of seventy-eight pages places in a compact and readable form 
a considerable portion of the existing information regarding a product whose 
medicinal action and economic value are claiming attention. It is another 
example of the enterprise of American manufacturers, and will, no doubt, 
tend to popularize and disseminate much useful information concerning this 

In scientific writings, the title, "Monograph," should be restricted to con- 
tributions which exhaustively elaborate and extend the existing knowledge 
on special subjects, and is here inappropriately used for a collection of four 

Part I, devoted to Kola pharmacognosj-, is disappointing, as it contains 
scarcelyt any suggestions of original work by the writer, being largely a 
compilation from the excellent monograph of MM. Heckel and Schlagden- 
hauffen. Abstracts from this exhaustive contribution appeared ten years ago 
in the Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions and in Christy's New Com- 
mercial Plants and Drugs, and the wording of a considerable portion of the 
pamphlet before us shows that this English translation has been extensively 
borrowed by the present compilers. To the chemistry and botany nothing of 
importance is added to our knowledge of ten years ago. 

The probable economic value of Kola as a source of chocolate has not 

Am. Jonr. PUarm.-l Rp'inC'iif'; TDn 

February. 1895. J Jvrt/rttJ. lUy 

received attention. Nor has the practical pharmacy, the best method of pre- 
paring and exhibiting the remedy, been treated. 

Part II. — The physiological and therapeutic action is likewise a compilation 
from standard works on therapeutics and pharmacology, and not a single origi- 
nal experiment is described. The physiological action of Kola is undoubtedly 
due to the caffeine and the tannin contained therein. It is attempted here to 
assign undue importance to the phj'siological action of the slight amounts of 
theo-bromine and the glucoside, kolanin, present in the Kola-red of Heckel. 

Part III. — A clinical study of Kola is a reprint of an able article by Dr. John 
V. Shoemaker, citing a number of cases in which Kola had been exhibited 
with benefit. 

The closing part, a chronological index of the literature relating to Kola, 
is. perhaps, to the student of pharmacognos}-, the most valuable. 

G. M. B. 

Organic Chemistry, Part I. By W. H. Perkin, Jr., and F. Stanly Kipping. 
Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Company. 1895. Pp. 302. 

This work is designed for advanced classes as an introduction to organic 

Part I constitutes the whole of the present volume, and "deals with the 
fatty compounds." It contains a general account of the methods most fre- 
quentl}' employed in the separation, purification and anah'sis of organic com- 
pounds, and in the determination of molecular weight 

The preparation and properties of t3'pical compounds are then described, 
attention being directed to those changes which come under the heading of 
general reactions rather than to isolated facts regarding particular substances. 
Bj' this means practical exercises accompany theoretical considerations. 

Considering the size of the volume, a vast amount of valuable information is 
condensed into it, and it can be recommended to those taking an advanced 
course in organic chemistry, as well as to teachers as a work of reference. 

DiK Chemie der Kohlenhvdrate uxd ihre Bedeuxtung fur die 
Phvsiologie. Rede, gehalten zur Feier des Stiftungstages der militararzt- 
lichen Bildungs-Anstalten, am 2. August, 1894. Von Professor Dr. Emil 
Fischer. Berlin, 1S94. Verlag von August Hirschwald. 

This address of thirty-six pages deals with the history of the carbohydrates 
during its greater part, and then discusses the theories of the present day. 


VELLES POUR 1S95. Par H. Bocquillon-Limousin. The sixth edition of this 
work contains the following additions, chiefly in the line of synthetic reme- 
dies : Alangine, Ales pictum, Alphol, Antipyonine, Bromethylformine, Acide 
cathartitiic. Chlorate dc soude, Cristallinc, Diaphtol, Di-iodoforme, Ferratitie, 
Gaiacol-iodoforme, Gallate de tnercure, Glycerophosphates, Glycozone, lodo- 
formine, lodiire de Rubidium, Loretine, Lycetol, Manacine, Naphtol di-iodide, 
Xectandra aniara, Neurodine Paico, Faraforme, Rcsol, Salicetol, Saturnine, 
Serotherapie, Sue pultnonaire, Sutphocafiate de soude, Tannal, Thermodine, 
Thio/orme, Vasogi'ne. Some of these are not new to the American pharmacist, 
for instance, sodium chlorate. It, however, has recently attracted some atten- 
tion in France as a remedy in cancer of the stomach ; it is stated to be less toxic 

T rn Rr7)7f"7ll<: f Am. Jour. Pharni, 

IIO I\CVieiUi. \ February. 189-.. 

than potassium chlorate. The book, however, is especially valuable for 

Kola Nut, a working bulletin reprinted from the Pharmacology of the 
Newer Materia Medica. By Parke, Davis & Co. 

It is of interest to observe the recent revival in the use of this product ; for, 
though first mentioned in this country in 1865, in the American Journal op 
Pharmacy, and later in medical journals, it failed to excite any special 

We hope that kola will receive the investigation its merits seem to demand. 
At present it is largely on trial as a therapeutical agent, and any extravagant 
claims made in its behalf by interested manufacturers should be taken cum 
grano satis. J. W. E. 

Erdmann-Konig's grundriss der AllgemeinenWaarenkunde, unter 
Berucksichtigung der Technologie. i2te Auflage, von Prof. Edward 
Hanausek. Leipzig, 1895. Large 8vo. Pp. 570. 

This is a new and revised edition by Prof. Hanausek, of the Vienna >School 
of Commerce, of the well-known work founded by Otto Linne Erdmann. It has 
long been a standard work, for commercial and technical schools, on the raw 
materials of commerce and the manufacturing arts. The ground covered is 
necessarilj' very extensive, embracing both inorganic and organic materials, and 
including the substances used in a wide range of the arts. Nevertheless, most 
valuable information is given, the microscopic structure of fibres, cereals and 
fruits being given, as well as the methods of preparing the raw materials for 
their technical applications. 

The illustrations are numerous and in general of excellent qualit}', especially 
the many microscopical sections of plant and animal tissues. While the book 
is much more general in its character than " Berg's Pharmaceutische Waaren- 
kunde," as now edited by Dr. Garcke, it possesses much of interest for the 
well-informed pharmacist or chemist. 

The extensive bibliography of special and general works on the subjects 
covered in the work is also a valuable feature, as it points out to the student 
the sources of additional and more detailed information on many points. 

S. P. S. 

Zur Kenntniss in der echten Cotorinde enthaltenen krystallisir- 
baren Stoffe. Von O. Hesse. Reprint from Liebig's Annalen, 282, 191. 
Revised by the author. 

Bericht uber die dreizehnte Versammlung der Freien Vereinigung 
am 5. und 6. August 1894. Munich, 1894. 

The Chemists' and Druggists' Diary for 1895. Received from the 
Chemist and Druggist of London. 

In addition to containing space in which to write memoranda, or the events 
of each day in the year, this volume contains much compact valuable infor- 
mation about such subjects as Laws Affecting Chemists and Druggists, Postal 
and Telegraphic Information, the ySale of Spirits and Wines, Water Analysis, 
etc. It is likewise a marvel in the line of advertising, as it shows what one can 
do in that direction in the great city of London. 

''Feb"uao'!'ltyT'} Report on Alcohol Legislation. in 

Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Convention of the Asso- 
ciation OF Official Agricultural Chemists. Edited by Harvey W. 
Wiley. U. S Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Washington, 

The most interesting report in this number to pharmacists, is that on Tannin 
by Mr. W. H. Krug, in which an attempt is made to present a method that will 
be uniformly adopted by all chemists in this country. 

A Compilation of the Pharmacy and Drug Laws ok the vSever.^l 
States and Territories. By A. J. Wedderbum. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Division of Chemistrj', Washington, 1S94. 

This pamphlet of 152 pages is of especial interest to pharmacists, since in it 
will be found the answers to many questions that are constantly being asked 
about pharmacy laws. We learn in the Letter of Submittal that the following 
States and Territories are without laws regulating the practice of pharmacy : 
Idaho, Indiana, Montana, Nevada, Arizona and the Indian Territory. The 
Maryland law relates only to the city of Baltimore. 

Report on the Extent and Character of Food and Drug Adultera- 
tion. By A. J. Wedderburn. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of 
Chemistry, Washington, 1894. 

Consular Reports. Volume 46, Nos. 171 and 172 

The most interesting contribution in No. 171 to pharmacists is the one 
on Kola Nut, which was printed in the January number of this Journal. 

A Contribution to the Knowledge of Bacteriological Chemistry. 
By W. T. Wenzell, M.D. Reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical 
Association, December 15, 1894. This interesting paper was read before the 
Section on Materia Medica and Pharmacy, at the Forty-fifth Annual Meeting of 
the American Medical Association, held at San Francisco, June 5-8, 1894. 

The Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Register-Directory 
and Intelligencer. With special Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental 
Departments, containing detailed information of Colleges, Hospitals, Asylums, 
Medical Societies, etc., for Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware 
and the District of Columbia. Third edition. George Keil, Publisher and 
Editor. Philadelphia, 1895. 




To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

Your Committe on Alcohol Legislation, appointed at the Pharmaceutical 
meeting, held on October 16, 1894, would report that the subject has received 
careful consideration, and that they have endeavored to discharge the duty 
imposed upon them by the resolutions and instructions then adopted. 

A circular letter, a copy of which is here appended,^ was issued to the phar- 
macists, and in addition to the circulation, by mail to those engaged in the busi- 

'This was printed on page 601, Vol. 66, of this Journal. 

112 Report on Alcohol Legislation. {'^FebViary^i'stJ^"'' 

ness in Pennsylvania. New Jersey and Delaware, a much larger number have 
been reached through pharmaceutical journals that have generously reprinted 
the letter. 

The replies received and the correspondence resulting therefrom, prove 
beyond any doubt that the retail pharmacists are, almost universally, in favor 
of the abolition of all tax on alcohol used in the arts or medicine. Corres- 
pondence with a number of officers of State Pharmaceutical Associations indi- 
cated that they are likewise, enthusiastically in favor of the same. 

The information gleaned from these replies fully confirmed the statements 
made in the circular letter issued by the Committee, and we emphatically 

That alcohol is indispensable to the manufacture of medicinal products and 
in many processes in the arts. 

That in the medicinal preparations in which it enters, it becomes as much a 
medicine as the contained drugs or chemicals. 

That the present tax of per proof gallon is oppressive, and opposed to 
the best interests of both manufacturer and consumer. 

That this tax requires the manufacturer to greatly increase the amount of 
capital invested, and on a large percentage of such increase no profit is derived. 

That this tax is a barrier to the healthy development of pharmac}- and to the 
advance of the manufacturing industries in which alcohol is necessarily used. 

That it prevents the retail pharmacists from preparing a large number of the 
preparations which he dispenses, and the purity of which he should be able to 
vouch for, in order to conscientiously discharge his duties to the community. 

That the enhancement in the value of medicines, caused bj' this excessive 
tax is really a hardship to many sick and poor. Your Committee cannot believe 
that anj' urgenc}' of the treasury would warrant Congress in continuing this 
barbarity, nor that the sentiment of the country would uphold a tax on the 
medicines needed by the sick and infirm. 

A concise review of the history- of the alcohol tax may not be inappropriate. 
When the demands on the Treasury, in 1862, compelled the introduction of an In- 
ternal Revenue system of taxation, a tax of20 cents per proof gallon was placed 
on distilled spirits. This was continued until 1864, when the need of greatly 
increased revenue, compelled the Government to change the tax on distilled 
spirits three times within that year; first to 60 cents per proof gallon and then 
to 51.50 and finally to $2.00. This was recognized, at the time, as an extreme 
measure necessitated by the war, and the increase in fraud following each 
increase in the tax was notorious. The price of alcohol in 1861, 46 cents per 
gallon, was by this means increased, until, in 1S65, it was I4.96. 

The manufacturers and pharmacists at that time fully realized that this was 
a burden borne only partly by the consumers, as with each advance in the cost 
of their products they were enabled to charge only a portion of that advance. 

In 1868, in response to numerous petitions for relief from this burdensome 
tax, and in accordance with the recommendations of the commissioner of 
Revenue, " that a rate of 50 cents per proof gallon was ample," Congress fixed 
the rate at that figure. 

In 1872 this was advanced to 70 cents, and in 1S75 again changed to 90 cents, 
and despite the appeals of the manufacturers for relief from this unjust burden, 
the tariflf act of 1894 now advances the tax to >i. 10 per proof gallon. On every 

^FebroaryS"" } Report OH AlcoJiol Legislation. 113 

gallon of 94 per cent alcohol the Government now collects I2.07 tax. In other 
words, tax is six times that of the intrinsic value of the article at the present 

This committee would especially direct attention to the fact, that, with the 
exception of a few isolated articles, this recent increase in the burden of taxa- 
tion, amounting to 38 cents per gallon on alcohol, has been entirely borne by the 
retail phannacists. The manufacturers and wholesale dealers have advanced 
the price of most products from 4 to 8 cents per pint, yet the retailer has been 
unable to distribute this advance on his sales in small amount and obtains for 
his goods no more than he did prior to this change in tax. 

Since 1S62 manufacturers have claimed that it was a very unvrise and unjust 
policy of the Government to single out a large, very respectable and honorable 
class of manufacturers, engaged in most instances, in preparing products nec- 
essary for the welfare and prosperity of the nation, to bear unusual and burden- 
some taxation. 

Alcohol is to the druggist a raw material, and is as indispensable to the man- 
ufacturer of pharmaceutical and chemical products as iron is to the manufac- 
turer of steel. Alcohol is, to this class of manufacturers, as essential as cotton, 
iron, silk and fuel are to other industries. 

Steel is the basis for many manufactures, yet the Government would not 
think of taxing these manufacturers so much per ton on the iron consumed, 
because certain manufacturers make therefrom fire-arms, with which evil- 
■ lisposed persons might commit assault, murder or suicide. Why, then, should 
^uch manufacturers as pharmacists and chemists, who use alcohol only in their 
legitimate operations, be subjected to this enormous tax on their materials ? 
Are we not engaged in an honorable and necessary calling and as much deserv- 
ing of encouragement by the Government as others ? We certainly should not 
be discriminated against unfairly by tax-laws. 

While admitting that the alcohol consumed as a beverage may be a legitimate 
article of taxation, this attempt to tax people into temperance, after a trial of 
more than thirty years, has proven to be a signal failure. While there may be 
moral reasons for retaining this tax on beverages, neither morality nor revenue 
necessity should compel this enlightened nation to assume a position, of which 
a writer says : " The nation is robbing the sick far greater than the drunkard." 

Several acts, aiming to grant to manufacturers the relief from the alcohol 
tax, have, at different times, been proposed to Congress, but, until the enact- 
ment of the present customs law, failed of passage. Notable was the act oflFered 
in the Senate in 18S8, which provided for the use, by manufacturers, of alcohol 
on which the tax had not been paid. This provision necessitated every manu- 
facturer establishing a bonded warehouse on his plant, from which the alcohol 
could be drawn only under the supervision of a revenue inspector. All such 
alcohol could only be received under the regulations covering the withdrawal 
of spirits from one bonded warehouse to another. The expense attached to 
such a plan would prohibit any but the larger manufacturers from adopting it, 
and it is questionable if the manufacturers of America would submit to the 
mortification of conducting their operations under the surveillance of an official 
inspector. This proposed Act of 18S8 appears still to be lingering in the minds 
of some of those who are discussing the subject at the present time. 

Your committee are not ready to admit that by the increase of tax on alcohol 

114 Report on Alcohol Legislation. {■'^Febraary^i'^s!^" 

in 1894, Congress intended to place an additional burden of taxation on manu- 
facturers who necessarily use that article in their operations. The very fact, that 
section 61 was incorporated in the same act is an admission and a positive 
proof that the legislative branch of the government recognized as a distinct 
matter of principle that alcohol for legitimate manufacturing purposes, should be 
exempt from all taxation. It is admitted that the evident intention of this act 
was to grant that relief which had so long been prayed for by druggists and 
other manufacturers. It behooves us to cling tenaciously to this legislative 
concession and not permit the Government to recede from its admitted inclina- 
tion to correct a long standing injustice. 

Section 61 of the Customs Law of 1894, reads as follows : 

"Any manufacturer finding it necessary to use alcohol in the arts, or in any 
medicinal or other like compound, may use the same under regulations to be 
prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and on satisfying the Collector of 
Internal Revenue for the district, wherein he resides or carries on business, that 
he has complied with such regulations and has used such alcohol therein, and 
exhibiting and delivering up the stamps which show that a tax has been paid 
thereon shall be entitled to receive from the Treasury of the United States a 
rebate or re-payment of the tax so paid." 

A careful study of this act convinces us that, although in some respects some- 
what indefinite, it is a more simple, much wiser and more equitable provision 
than any of the previously proposed acts. 

As many of the newspapers and pharmaceutical journals have commented 
upon this act and placed constructions upon its wording which your committee 
deems unwarranted, we would offer a few comments on its provisions. 

The introducing words '' atty manufacturer''' show that it was not intended 
to limit the operating of this act to only the larger manufacturers. The use of 
alcohol in large quantities was not the requisite. The act was to be general ; 
to include all manufacturers whose products were used in the arts or medicine. 

The words '' inedicifial compound ^^ indicate that the intent was to include 
all products used in medicine in which alcohol is necessarily a component 
part, and as such, really a medicine itself, and not only products in which the 
alcohol has by chemical process undergone change so as to entirely destroy its 
identity. This narrow construction would limit the use of tax-free alcohol to 
only a few manufacturers of chloroform, ether, etc. It is even doubtful, if such 
chemical products could, with the correct meaning of the phrase, be classed 
with " medicinat compounds.'''' 

Your committee would submit, that whatever regulations are prescribed by 
the Secretary of the Treasury or enacted by Congress for carrying this law into 
effect, they should be in harmony with the evident intent of the law. They 
should be simple and general and not discriminate in favor of only a few manu- 
facturers. In this respect, it has been generally assumed by the public press 
that those manufacturers who obtained the benefit of this act would be com- 
Ijelled to establish a bonded warehouse and be subjected to the accompanying 
expense and espionage, and they assume, erroneously, that manufacturers 
would be permitted to withdraw alcohol from 'bond-without paymetit 0/ the tax. 
It is rather surprising that a writer, usually so well informed, as the Washing- 
ton correspondent of the Philadelphia Public Ledger, should as late as January 
I, 1S95, state that " the Tariff Act authorizes the ivithdrawal of alcohol without 

'^Frtru'JfiV^isT'" } Report on Alcohol Legislation. 1 15 

/>ajj/w^«/ ct/" ^a^- when intended for use in the arts." * - * " The Secretary 
of the Treasury is required before putting the law into operation to formulate 
regulations for the protection of the revenue against improper withdrawals.''^ 

It must be remembered that this act d^es not contemplate the establishment 
of bonded warehouses, and that when such a plan was proposed by a wholesale 
rlruggist coupled with the oflfer that each manufacturer should bear the expense 
of government inspection, the Secretary of the Treasury stated at once that a 
statute positively forbade the government accepting any financial aid in the 
discharge of the treasury regulations. 

Any regulation looking toward the establishment of bonded warehouses by 
manufacturers must be strenuously opposed by pharmacists, as they would be 
deprived of any benefit, and such a provision would monopolize all chemical 
and pharmaceutical manufacture to the few who could afford the expense. The 
act does not provide that alcohol should be taken out of bond and used without 
the payment of tax, but does provide that only alcohol on which the tax lias 
been paid can be used, and that after stic/i alcohol lias been used and the can- 
celled stamps delivered up, shall the manufacturer be entitled to receive from 
the treasury of the United States a rebate of the tax paid. The alcohol must 
be used and not intended for use, as the Government will not accept the 

This is at once a wise provision and a most excellent safeguard against fraud 
on the Treasury. The Government collects all the tax, and only when the 
" collector of the district is satisfied " that the alcohol has been used for legiti- 
mate manufacture within the intent and spirit of the act, shall the user receive 
repayment of the tax. 

It was apparent to your committee, from the first, that the great obstacle in 
the way of enforcing this law is the difficulty of framing regulations by the 
Treasury Department that would be satisfactory to the various interests con- 
cerned, and that would be effective in protecting the Government from fraud. 
To this problem we have given careful deliberation. After some progress had 
been made in the consideration of the various ideas presented as a basis for 
some suggestions as to how this might be accomplished, your committee 
learned that committees of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, and of the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association were similarly engaged. 

It was suggested that the work of these several committees would be more 
effective if they could agree upon suggestions or a plan which would be accept- 
able and secure the support and concerted and harmonious action of the various 
interests represented by these three bodies. A conference of representatives 
of these committees was arranged, and it was seen that a united action was 
perfectly feasible. 

In this conference and in the subsequent deliberations of the joint com- 
mittees, your committee have assumed the position of representing the interests 
of the retail pharmacists, and have insisted that the suggestions framed must 
be such as would permit this numerous class sharing in the benefits of the 

A copy of the suggestions as now agreed upon is submitted herewith for 
your consideration. Should they merit the approval of the three bodies repre- 
sented, copies will be transmitted to the .Secretary of the Treasury and mem- 

ii6 Report on Alcohol Legislation. {'^Febraary^ 


hers of Congress with the request that they form a basis of rej^ulations or 
further Congressional action to render the law operative. 

GKORCtE M. Bkringkr, 

Robert England, 
William McIntyre, 
Rush P. Marshall, 
Joseph W. England, 


Suggestions offered by the Committee on I^egislation of the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association : the CoMMi'rrEE on 
Legislation of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange; and the Com- 
mittee ON Alcohol Legislation of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, as a basis for framing a law, or making Regulations 
towards defining and rendering operative Section 6r of the 
Customs Law of 1S94. 

defining "manufacturer." 

That the term " manufacturer'''' as used in Section 61 of the above-mentioned 
act, and in these suggestions, shall be construed as meaning and including all 
those who purchase alcohol in original packages, as hereinafter defined, for the 
purpose of manufacturing products used in the arts or medicine, and who do 
not use the alcohol in the preparation of compounds that can be classed as 

defining alcohol for manufacturing purposes. 

That no spirit of less strength than eighty (So) per cent, above proof, or 
ninety (90) per cent, by volume, shall be classed by the Internal Revenue Office 
as Alcohol for Manufacturing Purposes ^'\\^\-a. the meaning of the act. 

defining original packages and regulating the storage of 

All alcohol used in the arts or in the manufacture of medicinal compounds on 
which a claim for rebate of the tax is to be made, must be purchased in pack- 
ages, as put up by registered distillers, of not less than one-half barrel, and 
containing not less than twenty (20) wine gallons each. Such packages shall 
be considered as "' origi?ial packages'''' within the meaning of the act. All 
such alcohol must be stored by the manufacturer, immediately on receiving the 
same, in an apartment separate from that in which alcoholic liquids of any kind 
are oflFered for sale, and each package must be marked distictly " For Manufac- 
turing Purposes Only." 

That every manufacturer desiring to secure the benefit of the act, shall file 
with the Collector of Internal Revenue for the district in which the said manu- 
facturing industry is located, a notice of such intention, accompanied by a state- 
ment of the location of the factory or apartment, and the character of the pro- 
ducts in which the alcohol is to be used. For the faithful observance of the 
conditions of the law he shall give bonds, to be renewed annually, to an amount 
proportionate to the quantity of alcohol likely to be used. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1895. J 

Report on Alcohol Legislation. 


That an accurate account be kept of all alcohol purchased for manufactur- 
inof purposes, and of the class of products in which it was used. 

At the time stamps are surrendered and a claim made for payment of the 
rebate of the tax on alcohol used for manufacturing purposes, there shall be 
presented by the claimant a sworn statement setting forth the class of articles 
in the manufacture of which such alcohol was used. 

No such claim to be allowed until it is certified to as correct by the Internal 
Revenue officer deputized for this purpose. 

To protect the Revenue against fraud by the manufacture of any compound 
that, under the guise of medicine, could be popularly sold as a beverage, the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall refer a sample of the preparation to 
an expert connected with his office for analysis, should he doubt the character 
of the product on which the manufacturer claims the rebate of tax on alcohol. 
Upon the report of this expert the Commissioner shall base his decision as to 
whether the manufacturer is entitled to the rebate. From this decision an 
appeal can be taken as hereinafter provided for. 

From the Commissioner's decision there shall be a right of appeal to a Board 
to be selected by the Secretary of the Treasury, from names submitted by the 
presidents of such associations as: 

The American Pharmaceutical Association. 

The American Medical Association. 

The American Chemical Society. 

The National Wholesale Druggists' Association. 

The National Paint, Oil and Varnish Association. 

Each president presenting the names of three persons, but not more than 
one to be selected from each Association. The Board here provided for shall 
meet at stated intervals in Washington, at the office of the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, to consider the appealed cases as above provided for. Pro- 
tection to the Revenue against the danger of illicitly reclaiming alcohol, selling 
the alcohol represented as having been used for manufactures, or other evasions 
of the law, to be afforded by the methods now at the command of the Internal 
Revenue Office for the detection of frauds. 



Edward H. Hance, Chairman, Phil- 
Horace M. Sharp, Philadelphia. 
Horace Burrough, Baltimore. 
B. F. Fairchild, New York City. 
Albert Plant, New York City. 
Hugh H. Osgood, Norwich, Conn. 
.\rthur W. Claflin, Providence, R. I. 
John A. Oilman, Boston. 
Charles Cook, Portland, Me. 
Wni. .\. Robinson, Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. R. V. Pierce, Buffalo, N. Y. 

L. A. Lange, Chicago. 

C. H. West, St. Louis. 

Frank A. Faxon, Kansas City, Mo. 

J. C. Fox, Atchison, Kan. 

John B. Purcell, Richmond, Va. 

Evan F. Lilly, Indianapolis, lud. 

P. P. Van Vleet, Memphis, Tenn. 

Edw. H. Cutler, St. Paul, Minn. 

A. R. Olney, Clinton, la. 

Wra. P. Reddington, San Francisco. 

1 1 8 Special Meeting . { "^^i^^^^^^J^^- 

Kdward H. Hatice. H. N. Ritteuhouse. 

H. B. Rosengarteu. 



George. M. Beringer. Rush P. Marshall. 

William Mclntyre. Joseph W. England. 

Robert England. 


Philadelphia, January 23, 1895. 

A special meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day. 
On motion of Robert England, Prof. Jos. P. Remington was called to preside, 
and T. S. Wiegand was asked to act as Secretary. 

The chairman stated that the object of the meeting was to consider the 
report of the Committee on Alcohol Legislation. 

The report of the Committee on Alcohol Legislation was read by the chair- 
man of the Committee, Mr. Geo. M. Beringer, and suggestions for a plan to 
carry out the provisions of the law relative thereto. (See Report and Sugges- 
tions on preceding pages). 

The chairman stated that the subject was open for discussion. 

Mr. Procter, asking for information, wanted to know what a druggist should 
do about selling alcohol for burning purposes. 

Mr. Beringer replied that the law did not contemplate the sale of alcohol by 
druggists and others who should get it tax-free for manufacturing purposes. 
Other alcohol, on which tax had been paid, would have to be sold for house- 
hold purposes. 

Mr. Redsecker, in further explanation, thought that those who contemplate 
using it for burning, varnishes, etc., must purchase it in original packages if 
their uses warranted getting that amount. He thought the suggestions of the 
Committee a fair presentation of the case. 

Prof. Remington said there could be no question about the desirability of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacj' taking an active part in trying to pro- 
cure tax-free alcohol for the pharmacist. But the great question was not one 
of excluding the retail druggist, but of preventing fraud. The loss of 
$20,000,000 revenue to the Government was not for us to consider. It was not 
the duty of the College to point out how the Government revenue is to be 

Mr. Ross said that Government inspectors are required at the present time 
to detect fraud, and decide between a beverage and a medicine, and they could 
do the same if the present law were enforced. 

Prof. Remington said he thought that the Committee had done very good 
work, and offered the most practical set of suggestions of any he had seen. 

It was announced that these resolutions had been endorsed by the directors 
of the Drug Exchange, and since then approved by the Drug Exchange itself; 

^"'} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 119 

they also received the approval of the executive committee of the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association. 

It vras the opinion of the meeting that the Committee had shown their ability 
and zeal by their report, and that the suggestions made by them were the most 
valuable of any yet submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for the purpose 
of carrying out the law. 

On motion it was resolved and adopted that the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy approve of the report and suggestions thereto appended. 

That the report be printed in the American Journal of Pharmacy and 
the Alumni Report, and that an abstract of the report be given to the daily 

There being no further l)usiness, an adjournment was ordered. 

Thos. S. Wiegani), 
Secretary pro teiii. 


Philadelphia, January 15, 1S95. 

Frank G. Ryan, Ph.G., was asked to preside. 

The Registrar reported the donation of a volume of the Memoir and Science 
Papers of the late Daniel Hanbury, presented by Dr. E. R. Squibb on behalf of 
Mr. Haubury's brother. It was accepted with thanks. A paper upon the Culfiva- 
tion of Licorice Root in the United States, \)y H. N. Ritteuhouse, Ph.G., w^as 
read by Professor Trimbk-. Almost all the licorice root of commerce is of wild 
growth; a five-acre field is the largest patch of cultivated root the writer had ever 
seen. Five-eighths of the entire supply is derived from Southern Russia. 

Mr. Procter stated that his father, the late Professor Procter, had grown it at 
Mt. Holly, N. J. 

Mr. F. W. Haussmaun read some Pharmaceutical Notes, the first one being on 
the contamination of glycerin by iron. As most of the glycerin used in phar- 
macy is put up in tin containers of about 50 pounds each, it was thought this 
was the most common cause of the trouble . Mr. Beringer stated that large quan- 
tities of the ghxerin now sold is of foreign make, and is brought to this country 
in large iron tanks, from which it is put up in the various containers. 

This is one of the troubles found in preparing glycerite of tannin, elixirs 
and salicylates. 

Variations in the appearance or taste of vinegar of squill have been noticed, 
by careful examination; these have been traced to the use of the red variety of 
squill, which gives a much darker preparation, very much more bitter than 
that made from the white squill. 

Ultramarine in sugar has been frequently noticed by pharmacists ; the objec- 
tionable odor which is so frequently noticed occurs particularly after the addi- 
tion of both organic and inorganic acids. Mr.Beringer suggested that some of the 
contaminating sulphides are derived from the boneblack which contains both 
iron and calcium sulphides, which very naturally will be dissolved in the syrup 
and set free by the action of acids when added to such syrups. 

Iodides of Tin was the subject of a paper by Mr. Chas. Bullock, and read by 
Mr. Beringer. It has been recommended for use in pulmonary affections, those 

I20 Obituary. n^lt^.y^X,'!'- 

who have brought it forward have not stated whether the stannous or stannic 
iodide was the one found to be useful. 

Mr. Joseph W. England exhibited a sample vial of antitoxin serum used in 
diphtheritic diseases. This differs from the Koch lymph method, as that inocu- 
lates with diseased virus, while this supplies an antagonistic principle which 
renders the patient immune to the diphtheria poison. The cost per vial is $2.50. 

On motion the papers were referred to the Committee on Publications. 

A discussion was held upon tax-free alcohol, and an outline of the course of 
action by the committee was given by Mr. Beringer. The great difficulty at- 
tendant upon the adoption of a plan to supply tax-free alcohol arises from the 
needs of the Government for money, and also the difBculty of ascertaining the 
cost and best methods of regulating its sale for medicinal uses without endan- 
gering the loss of revenue from that used for the purposes of beverages. 

On motion, adjourned. 

T. S. WlEG.\ND. 


Richard Clement Geist, Ph.G., Class 1889, died on Wednesday, August 29, 
1S94, of typhoid fever, at his residence, Medford, N. J., aged 26 years. 

He was born at Medford, N. J., November 28, 1S67, and received his educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native place. He entered the employ of Henry 
P. Thorn, Ph.G., Medford, N. J., to learn the drug business, April 8, 1885, and 
remained with him up to the time of his death. 

He attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and graduated with the 
class of 1889. He was a careful and competent pharmacist and strictly honest 
in his deportment to both his employer and to the customers, and was greatly 
respected by the entire community. He also enjoyed the respect and confi- 
dence of the medical profession of his neighborhood. 

He was married, August 23, 1893, to Miss Rebecca W. Woolman, of Cross- 
wicks, N. J-, who, with his parents and a large circle of friends, mourned his 
early death. 

His funeral was largely attended, all the business places of ]\Iedford being 
closed during the services, which were held the following Monday, vSeptember 

3. 1894- 

He was a member of the Alumni Association. W. E. K. 

Dr. Chas. P. Stout, Ph.G., Class of iSSo, died at his late residence. No. 830 
North Fifth Street, on Wednesday, August 22d, 1894, aged 36 years. He was 
born at Florence Heights, N. J., and received his early education at his native 

He came to Philadelphia January i, 187S, and entered the employ of Leidy 
Seiple, at the corner of Fourth and Poplar Streets, where he learned the drug 
business. He attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and graduated 
in the class of 1880. Afterward he attended the University of Pennsylvania 
and graduated as a physician in 1884, and immediately located on Fifth vStreet 
near Poplar, where he continued in the practice of medicine up to the time of 
his death. He was a member of the Alumni Association; His remains were 
interred in Cedar Hill Cemetery, at F^'lorence Heights, N.J.; on vSaturday, 
August 25, 1894. W. E. K. 



MARCH, iSqj. 

Bv Edson S. Bastix. 

Cimicifuga racemosa, Nuttall, the source of the drug, is a native 
of the eastern portion of Canada and of the United States, extending 
as far south as Florida. It is a large, perennial, smooth herb, 
whose wand-like stem often attains a height of seven or eight feet, is 
leafy only near its middle, where it bears several large petiolate, 
triternate leaves, the leaflets of which are ovate or ovate oblong, 
acute and deeply serrate-toothed. The white flowers are borne in 
long, terminal, erect racemes which attain a length of from eight 
inches to three feet ; the four or five small sepals fall when the 
flower opens ; the petals, from one to eight in number, are small, 
clawed and two-horned at the apex ; the stamens are indefinite in 
number, and constitute the most conspicuous part of the flower when 
fully expanded ; the pistil is usually single, but sometimes there are 
two or three. The pods are oblong, dehiscent and many-seeded. 

The thick, knotty rhizome, with its numerous rootlets, constitutes 
the official drug. The rhizomes have a horizontal growth and often 
attain a length of four or five inches, and the rhizome proper may 
attain an inch or more in thickness. On its upper surface are 
numerous stout, erect or somewhat curved branches which are 
terminated by cup-shaped scars, each of which usually show a dis- 
tinct radial structure. The sides of the rhizome are more or less 
distinctly annulate with the scars of scales, and from the sides and 
lower surface, chiefly from the nodes, issue numerous rootlets. 
These, at their base, range from one-twelfth to as much as one- 
fourth of an inch in diameter and from six to ten inches long. In 



Stniciiirc of Civiicifiiga. 

Am. Jour, Pharm. 

the dried form, as the drug occurs in the market, the roots are much 
broken, the! rhizomes are blackish-brown, hard and break with a 
smooth or a somewhat fibrous fracture. The color internally is 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

much lighter, being brownish or whitish. The roots are longi- 
tudinally wrinkled, brittle, and in cross-section appear obtusely 
triangular, pentangular or most commonly quadrangular, the number 
•of angles depending upon the number of rays in the meditullium. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1895. J 

Structure of Cimicifuga. 


The drug in the dried form has a shght but heavy odor, and a 
bitter and acrid taste. 

The cross-section of the rhizome or of its branches, when stained 
by aid of phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid to reveal distinctly the 
wood wedges, shows that the latter are rather short, irregular in 
size and placed at unequal distances apart around a large central 


Fig. 3. 

pith. The vasal bundles are usually considerably narrower than 
the medullary rays which separate them, and the bark is rather 
thick. These facts are shown in Fig. i. 

A longitudinal section stained in the same way shows the bundles 
to be also irregular in their course, and that adjacent bundles fre- 
quently send out anastomosing branches, as indicated in Fig. 2. 

124 Strnchire of Cimicifuga. {^"\^:^^.^^^^■ 

The parenchyma both of the rhizome and roots contain, if the 
drug is gathered in autumn, as should be the case, a considerable 
quantity of rather fine-grained starch, as shown in Figs, j and /j.. 
The starch grains are more commonly simple and rounded, or some- 
what angular, with a central or subcentral not usually conspicuous 
hilum, and only rarely showing concentric markings. Many of the 
grains, however, are compound, in twos, threes, or occasionally even 
in masses composed of several grains, very rarely as many as nine 
or ten. 

The roots afford an interesting microscopical study and reveal a 
structure which is quite characteristic. If a section be made a little 

O <^ 

Fig. 4. 

way back of a root-tip, another near its middle and a third near its 
base, the primary structure of the central bundle and the secondary 
changes it undergoes may be easily traced. The primary bundle is 
usually tetrarch or possesses four xylem rays, but is sometimes tri- 
arch or pentarch. Pig- 5 shows a tetrarch bundle from a young 
portion of a root in which the bundle is but little altered by secon- 
dary changes. A wavy zone of cambium has only just been formed 
between the phloem masses and over the ends of the xylem rays. 
In Fig. 6 the secondary changes have progressed much farther, 
the whole bundle is much increased in size by growth in the endo- 
dermis, in the pericambium and particularly in the cambium zone. 
The inner ends of the xylem rays have grown by the formation of 

Ana. Jour. Pharno. 
March, 1895. 

Structure of Ciniicifuga. 


new ducts until the bases of some of the adjacent rays appear to 
coalesce. The phloem masses have also increased considerably in 
size by new growths on their inner face. Finally, in Fig. 7, a sec- 
tion of the old or mature portion of the bundle is shown. In this 
the bundle is observed to be enormously increased in size, and most 
conspicuous among the structural changes observed are the forma- 

FiG. 5. 

tion between each pair of primary xylem rays and back of each 
phloem mass a large xylem wedge, so that the xylem elements in 
their arrangement now present the form of a Maltese cross. Alter- 
nating with the arms of this cross are four broadly-wedge-shaped 
medullary rays (also secondary formations), the thin inner end of 
each wedge resting upon one of the original xylem rays, as shown 
at/ in the figure. 


Structure of Cimicifuga. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1895. 

In this species it will be seen that the number of secondary xylem 
wedges and of medullary rays corresponds to the number of xylene 
rays and of phloem masses in the primary radial bundle. 

The root thus affords us the best characters for the identification 
of the drug. There are few roots in whifh the most characteristic 

Fig. 6. 

secondary changes that occur in the roots of dicotyls are traceable 
with so little difificulty as in this. It therefore affords an especially 
good example for the young microscopist to study. 

It should be observed also that the number of rays is not always 
constant in the same root. It may, for example, be triarch at the 
apex and tetrarch near its base, or it may be tetrarch near its apex 

Am. Jour. Pbarm.l 
March, 1895. j 

Structure of Ciinicifuga. 


and pentarch toward its base. In this respect, however, the roots 
of cimicifuga are not exceptional, many other dicotyls as well^as 
many monocotyls showing similar variations in the number of 


Fig. I. — Diagram of cross-sectiou of a small rhizome of Cimicifuga, magni- 
fied 6 diameters, a, cork ; b, middle bark ; c, phloem mass or bast ; d, xylem 
of a bundle ; c, cambium zone ; f, pith. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. ^.—Diagram of a longitudinal tangential section of same rhizome, also 
magnified 6 diameters, showing anastomosing bundles, a, cork ; b, middle 
bark ; c, xylem of a bundle ; d, small portion of bundle passing out to supply 

Fig. J. — Small portion of cortical parenchyma, showing starch grains. Mag- 
nification, 495 diameters. 

128 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {^Va^ch.fs^gs.''"*' 

I^ig. /. — Starch of Cimicifuga. Magnified looo diameters. 

Fig. 5. — Drawing showing tetrarch radial bundle of root of Cimicifuga, mag- 
nified 1 10 diameters. The section was from a young root, in which the medi- 
tullium had undergone but little secondary change. <?, a parenchyma cell from 
cortex ; b, cell of endodermis . c, pericambium ; d, outer end of xylem ray ; e, 
phloem ; /,/, meristem forming between xylem ray and phloem. 

Fig. 6. — Section showing central part of an older root in which the secondary 
changes have made further progress. Magnification, no diameters, a, paren- 
chyma cell of cortex ; h, cell of endodermis ; r, phloem ; d, meristem now 
traceable as a cambium zone ; r, outer extremity of xylem ray; f, starch-bearing 
cells formed beneath pericambium ; g, cambium opposite outer end of xylem 
ray ; /;, new ducts in process of formation, the beginning of the secondary 

Fig. 7. — Section of central part of a mature root in which the secondary 
changes have been completed. Magnification, about 60 diameters, a, paren- 
ch3'ma cell of cortex ; b, cell of endodermis ; c, cambium zone ; d, duct in 
secondary xylem ; c, broad, wedge-shaped, medullary ray ; /, outer end of one 
of the original xylem rays at inner end of n.edullarj' ray; //, inter-fascicular 
cambium. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are from the author's Laboratory Exercises. 


By p. L. Simmonds, F.L.S. 

{^Continued from p. ioo.'\ 

Butea frondosa, Roxb. This Indian tree — the Dhak or Pulas — ■ 
yields a gum which is sold as Bengal kino. It occurs in the form of 
fragmentary pieces of a deep claret color, mixed with similarly- 
shaped particles of gray bark. The purer qualities are met with in 
round tears, often bright claret colored and free from dirt. It may 
be purified by solution in water. The brilliant ruby-red colored 
tears are translucent and very brittle, heat rendering them more so, 
instead of melting the gum. With age, it darkens, and becomes 
opaque. In native medicine, in India, it is largely used as an 

Caniphora officinarum, Nees. The aggregate exports of camphor 
from China have increased considerably of late years. They were 
22,231 cvvt. in 1892, and 40,763 cwt. in 1893. The island of For- 
mosa yields the principal quantities, the yearly output being now as 
much as 41,650 cvvt., shipped from the ports of Tamsui and Tainan. 
The exports from Japan range from 3,000,000 to 4,500,000 cattsen, 
= 35,714 cwt. to 53,571 cwt. 

'*'"MOTch.w5!''^} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 129 

Malay or Borneo camphor is obtained from Dryobalanops aro- 
inatica. The imports of crude camphor into the United States 
seem on the decHne, having been 2,857,222 lbs. in 1887, and but 
1,733,425 lbs. in 1893. 

CanariiUH coniniiine, Lin. This tree yields the concrete resinous 
exudation, known as Manila Elemi. It has a fragrant, fennel-like 
odor, and is usually soft and unctuous to the touch. Its medicinal 
properties are analogous to those of turpentine, and it is for external 
use only. It is said, however, to have the same properties as 

C. edu/a, of Africa, exudes a similar resin. 

C. strictum, Roxb. The black dammar tree, yields a brilliant 
Tcsin, which is used medicinally in India as a substitute for Bur- 
gundy pitch. 

Carica papaya, Lin. This tree has several valuable medicinal 
properties. The milky juice is among the best vermifuges known. 
The natives in India repeatedly use it for children Tn the West 
Indies the powder of the seeds is used for the same purpose. The 
juice of the fruit is said to destroy freckles on the skin, caused by 
the sun's heat, and the negroes eniploy the leaves to wash linen, 
instead of soap. The fruit is pickled and preserved for curries. 
The milky, viscid juice of the fruit has a singular effect in rendering 
meat tender. It has this effect even if the meat is hung under the 
tree for two or three hours. 

Cedrus Dedara, Loudon. This tall, handsome Indian tree yields 
a true resin, and, by destructive distillation, a dark-colored oil, 
resembling tar, which is used medicinally. 

Cistus Creticiis, Lin. 

Labdanuni, or Ladanum, is a viscous, resinous exudation from the 
above species, and also to some extent from C. ladaniferus, L., C. 
Ledon, Lam., C. laiirif alius, L.,and C. monspiliensis , Lin. It is black 
brown, soft, of pleasant smell and bitter taste, and was once in high 
repute in medicine as a stimulant and expectorant, and recommended 
in chronic catarrh ; but at present is chiefly used in perfumery. 
About 50 cwt. are annually collected in Crete, and some quantity 
also m Cyprus, and sent to Constantinople. Labdanum was formerly 
regarded by the Turks as a preventive against the plague, and they 
wore pieces as amulets, or affixed to their walking-sticks. They 
chiefly use it now for fumigation. 

Aru. Jour. Phartn 

130 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {'^'"\ia?ch 

Coclilospermuui Gossypiinn, DeC. This tree and Stercnha urens 
yield a clear white gum, which can be employed as a substitute for 
tragacanth, and is exported to America. It is issued to the Gov- 
ernment hospitals in Bombay instead of tragacanth, and is largely 
used in that city in the manufacture of sweetmeats. 

Commia Cochinchinensis, Lour. This tree yields a white tena- 
cious gum, of an emetic, purgative, deobstruent nature. If pru- 
dently administered, it is useful in obstinate dropsy and ob- 

Copaifera Lansdorffii, Desf. This and some other species {C. 
officinalis, Lin., C. Martii, Hayne, C. Guianensis, Desf., and C, 
coriacca. Mart.) are believed to yield the medicinal oleo- resin. It 
is obtained chiefly from the Amazon district, by making incisions in 
the tree, and the sap flows so abundantly that as much as 12 pounds 
weight is collected in a few hours, and 42 quarts during the season. 
The source of copaiba is usually given as C. multijiiga, but this is 
very questionable. In its medicinal action, copaiva is of great value 
as a diuretic and stimulant remedy in certain affections of the bladder 
and urethra ; also in chronic bronchitis and other affections of the 
lungs and air passages, attended with excessive secretion. It has 
likewise been found serviceable in some chronic skin diseases, as 
leprosy and psoriasis. The imports into London are included with 
other balsams, therefore the quantity cannot be given. The imports 
into the United States, however, were, in 1888, 132,262 pounds; in 
1889, 163,624 pounds, and in 1890, 206,240 pounds. 

Dichopsis Gutta, Bentham ; Isonandra Percha, Hooker ; Ison- 
attdra Gnita, Lind. ; Palaqiiinm Gutta, Baillon and Burck. Gutta- 
percha, although chiefly employed for various economic purposes, 
has also a few medicinal and surgical applications. Sheets softened 
in water, when applied to injured limbs, harden and form good 
splints ; dissolved in chloroform, it is applied as a dressing for 
wounds, and various surgical instruments are made of it. The 
imports into Great Britain fn 1890 were 70,162 cwt., of the value of 
nearly i^8oo,ooo, and in 1893, 40,497 cwt., valued at ;^ 303,593. 

Dipterocarpiis lacvis, Ham. 

The WOOD OIL known in all the Indian bazaars as " Gurgun," is 
obtained by tapping certain trees of this order, and applying heat 
to the incision. Several species yield the oil, which has all the 
medical properties of some of the more esteemed balsams, especially 
as a substitute for capaiva, in gonorrhoea and certain skin diseases. 

*'%i?ch.f^"'"'} ^'Otes on Some Saps and Secretions. 131 

D. incanus, Roxb., is reported to furnish the largest proportions 
of the best sort. The following is Roxburgh's account of the man- 
ner of obtaining this oil from D. turbinatns, Gaert. : " This tree is 
famous over all the eastern parts of India and the Malay Islands, on 
account of its yielding a thin, liquid balsam, commonly called 
* wood oil,' which is much used in painting ships, houses, etc. To 
procure the balsam, a large notch is cut into the trunk of the tree, 
near the earth, and, say, about 30 inches from the ground, where 
a fire is kept up, until the wood is charred, soon after which the 
liquid begins to ooze out. A gutter is cut in the wood to conduct 
the liquid into a vessel placed to receive it. The average product 
of the best trees during the season is said to be sometimes 40 gal- 
lons. It is found necessary, every three or four weeks, to cut off the 
old charred surfaces, and burn them afresh; in large, healthy trees 
abounding in balsam, they even cut a second notch in some other 
part of the tree, and char it as the first. These operations are per- 
formed from November to February. Should any of the trees 
appear sickly the following season, one or more year's respite is 
given them." 

This oleo-resin has been used in the cure of leprosy. Large quan- 
tities are exported from Burma to Europe, as it has become an 
important drug in trade. From the port of Hankow, in China, in 
1893, 403,200 cwt. of this oil was exported. 

Doreina anunoniacuni, Don. 

Diserneston gummiferuvi, Sp. and Jaub. 

Peucedamivi amvioniacinn, Nees. 

This fetid gum resin, having properties similar to asafoetida^ 
comes in mass and in tears from Persia. 

Lump ammoniacum resembles galbanum, while that 'in tears is 
somewhat like olibanum, but has a smooth surface outside, and an 
opaque fracture. It is used in medicine as an antispasmodic, stimulant 
and expectorant, in chronic catarrh, bronchial affections and asthma, 
and also for some plasters. 

The imports into London are not large, and average about lOO 
packages, but fluctuate; in 1891, only 46 packages were received, 
but in 1892, 279 cases of 13^ cwt. each, and in 1893, 45 cases. 

It is called "Uschekh " in Persia; in that country it is much used 
as an inward medicament, and also frequently for greasing the spin- 
ning wheels, as it is very cheap. 

132 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. { ■^'Va?ch,i895.'''"' 

DraccBna species. The dragon's blood of Africa has been 
known in medicine from the earliest historical times. About 200 
chests in mass or blocks come into London yearly. It is the resi- 
nous exudation of several different plants, is dark red-brown, and, 
when pulverized, carmine red, without taste or smell. 

The African from Somali land is yielded by D. Schizantha, and 
that of Socotra by D. Ombet. The resin exudes, after the bark has 
been scraped, in about a fortnight. The Socotra kind is exported 
from Aden to Bombay. 

Dragon's blood was formerly referred to Draccena Draco, Lin., and 
Calamus Draco, Lin. The Sumatra dragon's blood appears in com- 
merce in the form of reeds or sticks about a foot long wrapped in 
palm leaves. It is, sometimes, employed in the composition of 
tooth-powders, but seldom now in medicine. Pterocarpus Draco 
also yields dragon's blood ,and other species kino. 

Epcruafalcata, Aubl., Dimorpha falcata, Swartz. The Wallaba 
resin obtained from this tree in Guiana is inflammable and gives a 
bright light. 

Its styptic and curative powers in cuts and bruises are well appre- 
ciated by the Indians and other natives of the Colony. An oil 
obtained from the wood is also used as a dressing for incised 

Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlechtendal. An exudation from this tree 
is a most invaluable medicine in certain disorders. It exudes in a 
fluid state from the bark, and in some instances between the differ- 
ent layers of the wood, and by the evaporation of the watery par- 
ticles by which it is held in solution, it concretes into a beautiful 
ruby-colored gum, which, when exposed for a length of time to 
the air and sun, assumes a black color from an imperfect oxidation, 
losing at the same time its astringency. This gum is an original 
astringent principle, analogous in some respects to tannin, the basis 
of other vegetable astringents, but by no means identical with that 

It is more effective than catechu, or Indian kinos, although it con- 
tains a less amount of astringent matter. 

Dr. J. Sutherland, of Bathurst, Australia, in a communication to 
my Technologist (vol. 3, p. 69), thus speaks of it : 

"As a medicine, it is a more powerful astringent than any in our 
Pharmacopoeias, and justly merits a place among the legitimate arti- 

^°Mi?ch;r^5.'"'"} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 135 

cles of the Materia Medica. I have prescribed it in a variety of 
disorders in which astringents are indicated, and found it pecuHarly 
serviceable in certain stages of diarrhoea and dysentery, in passive 
haemorrhage, as an injection in leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea and gleet, 
in scurvy of the gums; as a gargle when the acute symptoms have 
subsided, in relaxation of the uvula, in haemorrhoids; in the form 
of an ointment made by dissolving a drachm of the gum in a tea- 
spoonful of water, and, when intimately mixed, rubbing it up with 
an ounce of lard. The dose for internal administration varies from 
one or two grains to twenty, dissolved in water." 

Euphorbia officinarum, Lin., or E. resinifera, Berg. The above, E^ 
canadensis, Lin., and some other fleshy species, produce the saline, 
waxy resin, called in the shops " Gum Euphorbium," which is the 
inspissated, milky juice of these plants. It is chiefly obtained in the 
neighborhood of Mogadore and called " Dergmuce." It is used as a 
vesicant in veterirary medicine, but is seldom employed otherwise. 
The inhabitants of the lower regions of the Atlas Range make inci- 
sions in the branches of the plant, and, from these, the milky sap 
exudes, which is so acrid that it excoriates the fingers when applied 
to them. This exuded juice hardens by the heat of the sun, and 
forms a whitish-yellow solid, which drops off in the month of Sep- 
tember and forms the Euphorbium of commerce. It causes consid- 
erable irritation of the nostrils and eyes when powdered. E. Antiqu- 
ornvt, Lin., yieldg a hydrocarbon, gutta-percha-like substance, 
known as " Cattimandoo," which is the Dorf of the Hindus — a 
much-prized medicine. 

Feroniuni elephantnvi, Corr. ; CratcEva Valanga, Kon. This 
tree yields a brownish or reddish gum with a small proportion of 
clear, yellow tears, soluble in water. The Pharmacopoeia of India 
pronounces it as superior to gum arabic for medicinal 

Ficus elastica, Roxburgh ; Urostigma clasticuvi, Miqu To give 
some idea of the vastly increasing extent to which rubber, obtained 
from various elastic saps, is now required, it may be stated that the 
British imports of caoutchouc, in 1893, were 293,373 cwt., 
and the United States import even more. The combined 
imports of India-rubber and gutta-percha into the United Kingdom 
in 1893, were about 324,000 cwt. Great Britain also imports 
about 3,250,000 pounds of rubber manufactures. At Wedzell's 
factories, in Munden and Hildesheim alone, there were produced, 
a few years ago, over lOO.COO pounds of surgical articles from it. 

134 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. /An..jour.puarn,. 

March, 1895. 

Fraxinus omits, Lin.; F. rotundifolia. Lam.; Ornus Europcea, 
Pers.; or Ornus rotundifolia. The sweet exudation, known as 
" Manna," is chiefly the concrete juice obtained by incising the bark 
of the ash and collecting it on pieces of stick, hence, called flaky 
manna. The best is in oblong, light, friable pieces, of a whitish 
color and somewhat transparent, with a sweetish, sharp taste and a 
weak smell. The inferior kinds are moist, unctuous and dark- 
colored. It is a mild aperient medicine. Each hectare (of two and 
one-half acres) planted with the ash — 4,000 to 5,000 trees — pro- 
duces on an average nearly 2,000 pounds of manna. It used to be 
produced in Calabria, but that exported comes chiefly now from 
Palermo, in tin boxes weighing about 14 pounds. Small flake- 
manna is sent out in cases of about 120 pounds, large flake-manna, 
in cases of half that size. The export of manna from Italy, in 
1884, was about 446,000 pounds. Spurious manna is known by its 
uniform color and freedom from the slight impurities, as well as 
from the peculiar odor and slight bitterness of true manna. 

Calabria was, many years ago, the only source of the manna of 
commerce, but the production there has ceased, and, as stated 
above, Sicily is now the chief seat of production. Manna is nutri- 
tious, particularly when recent. It is a mild laxative, does not 
excite inflammation, useful for children and delicate females, usually 
operating mildly, but in some cases produces flatulence and pain. 

In certain cases, the leaves of Larix EuropcBa exude a species of 
manna called " Manna of Briancon," which is eaten in Russia- 
Another kind is from Tamarix mannifera, and the Oriental manna 
of the desert from Alhagi maurornm, DeC, A. mannifera, Desf. 
The sugary secretion obtained naturally from this plant is chiefly 
collected in Khorasan, Kurdistan and Hamadan, and imported into 
Bombay. As a medicine its effects correspond to those of the ash 

The Arabs who cross the deserts avail themselves of the manna of 
the camel's \.\\oxn [Alhagi camelorum, Fisch.). It is found in the 
morning on the ground round the plant, during several days of the 
summer, and is collected before the sun can melt it. It occurs in 
small, round, unequal grains, .the size of coriander seed, of a yellow- 
ish white or greenish yellow color, caking together and forming an 
opaque mass, in which are found portions of the thorns and points 
of the plant. This manna is inodorous, its flavor is sweetly saccha- 

^"Mi?ch.f^t.""} Volatile Oil frcwi Canada Balsam. 135 

rine, followed by slight acidity. The Khergese use it for various 
kinds of sweetmeats. The inhabitants collect these exudations and 
make them into loaves or cakes. These soon become of a black 
color, owing to a kind of fermentation, produced by the air and 
moisture. The flavor of these manna loaves resembles that of senna 
in taste ; they also resemble senna combined with sweetness These 
two characters lead one to suppose that this manna is more purga- 
tive than nutritive. Some authors, as Halle and Guillamin, state 
that this constituted the manna of the Hebrews, but it is more gen- 
erally supposed that the Lecanora affinis, Eversm, was the sub- 
stance upon which the Israelites fed in the wilderness. 

Some kinds of manna are obtained in Kurdistan from the dwarf 
oak, tamarisk, and other trees, but are seldom met with in com- 
merce, being used up locally. 

A kind of manna is found in small quantities on the branches of 
the cedar of Lebanon, in the form of transparent, resinous drops, 
indubitably the result of the puncture of an insect, like the lerp of 
Australia. The monks collect this manna and prepare with it va- 
rious electuaries and ointments, which are sold to strangers visiting 
the monasteries. This cedar manna enjoys a considerable reputa- 
tion in Syria as a remedy in phthisis. 

The imports of manna into the United States were as follows : 

in 1888, 31,703 pounds; in 1889, 25,246 pounds; and in 1890, 

43,509 pounds. 

(7b be continued.') 

Bv Herman L. Emmerich. 


The oil of Canada balsam i^Abies balsainca. Miller) has been 
examined by several students of this laboratory during the past 
few years.^ The material with which Mr. Kressin worked, in the 
spring of 1892, has been standing untouched for the past two years. 
Upon the examination of the bottles containing the fractions men- 
tioned by him, a number of observations were made which invited 
further examination. 

^ I, was published by Mr. Kressin. Proc. Wisconsin Phar. Assoc. i892, 66. 
II, Carl G. Hunkel, Am. Jour. Ph.\r. 67, 9. 

136 Volatile Oil from Canada Balsam. {''' Mlrch.f^l'"" 


The bottle containing this fraction was filled completely and well 
stoppered. The oil possessed a pale straw color and a terebinthi- 
nate odor. Its relative density was found to be o-QOO at 20° C. In 
a 100 mm, tube, it deviated the ray of polarized light 2483° to the 
left; hence, {a) D equals — 27-59°. 

Since Mr. Kressin had not determined any other constant than 
the boiling point of this fraction, no comparisons could be made. Mr. 
Kressin's note (page 6"]^ refers to Fraction II, not Fraction I, of Mr. 
Kradwell. However, one will certainly not go far amiss to suppose 
that the {a) D for this fraction was about — 34° (compare table 
p. 67). 

Upon analysis this fraction yielded the following results: 

I. o"2034 gms. of substance yielded o'i9i4 H_,0 = 0"02i25 H. , 

and 0-6191 CO,, = o-i688 C. 
II. 0-2182 gms. of substance yielded 0-2324 H.^O = 0-0258 H. 

and 0-6638 CO, = 0-18103 C. 
Calculated for CioH,,;. Kouud. 

Per Cent. 
C. 88-23 
H. 11-76 

Although the boiling-point of this fraction, as well as its odor, 
indicated the presence of pinene, the amount of oxygen present, 
65 per cent., clearly indicated that it was by no means pure. 

That pinene is present in the oil has been clearly demonstrated. 
That it is present also in this fraction was shown by means of its 
nitroso chloride, 6 54, 10-17 and 11-25 P^^" cent., respectively, being 
obtained in three different experiments. That the yield should be 
much greater in these experiments than in those made by Mr. 
Kradwell and Mr. Kressin, is now easily understood, if one takes into 
consideration the results of E. W. Smith on the yield of nitroso 
chloride of pinene from oils of different rotatory power. ^ The 
decrease in the rotatory power of this fraction, after two years, stand- 
ing, is sufficient explanation for the increased yield of nitroso chlo- 
ride. The melting point of the nitroso chloride, after purification, 
was found to be rather high, viz.: 107° C. However, the nitrol- 
benzyl-amine base closely resembled the nitrol-benzyl-amine pinene. 
It melted at 122° C. 

^ Proc. Wisconsin Phar. Assoc, 1891, 



Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 





^"ixirch.Tsg"""'} Volatile Oil from Canada Balsam. 137 

Since the bottle in which this fraction was contained was com- 
pletely filled and well stoppered, it did not appear very probable 
that a large amount of oxygen should be due to the presence of 
pinol-hydrate, or any other oxidation product of pinene that might 
result upon standing. 

To ascertain whether it was present in the form of an ester, 25. 
c.c. of this fraction were boiled with 62 c.c. of a 6 68 per cent, 
alcoholic solution of potassa for four hours. Upon titration with 
decinormal sulphuric acid, V. S., it was ascertained that o 6978 gms. 
of potassa had been consumed in the experiment, corresponding to 
2-442 gms., or 10-85 per cent, of bornyl or terpinyl acetate. Upon 
distillation with water, a camphoraceous odor was very perceptible, 
but it was impossible to separate crystals. The experiment was 
repeated on a larger scale, 100 gms. of oil being used. 

After saponification and distillation with water-vapor, 49 gms. of 
oil were obtained. A black, shining, pitchy residue was left in the 
distillation flask. The oil was colorless, and possessed a mixed 
terebinthinate and camphoraceous odor. After drying with anhy- 
drous copper sulphate, its relative density was found to be 0-864 at 
20° C. In a 100 mm. tube, it deviated the plane of polarized light 
30-18° to the left, hence (<-?) D equals — 34"93°- Upon fractiona- 
tion, the following fractions were obtained : 

Boiling Point. 


Relative Density 
at 20° C. 



155° — 161° 

about 25 -cx) 


- 34-267° 

161° — 164° 

about 24-00 


- 34-254° 

164° — 167° 

about 23 '6 


- 34-34° 

167° — 170° 

Upon exposure to cold for several days, no crystals separated. 
Fraction 170^ was further fractionated, and fractions 170 — 180° 
and 180° + were obtained ; fraction 180° -f was exposed to a freez- 
ing mixture. Crystals resembling borneol were obtained, but the 
yield was too small to allow isolation. 

The bottle containing this fraction was almost filled and well 
stoppered. The oil possessed a pale straw color and a terebinthi- 
nate odor, very much like Fraction I. Its relative density was 
found to be 0-903 at 20° C. In a 100 mm. tube it deviated the 

138 Volatile Oil from Canada Balsam. {^""Mirch.lm""" 

plane of polarized light 25-4° to the left, hence [a)V> equals — 

Mr. Kressin had determined the physical constants of this frac- 
tion. On comparison, it will be seen that the relative density had 
increased 0045, and that its optical activity had decreased 661°. 

Upon analysis this fraction yielded the following results : 

I. 0203 1 gms. of substance yielded 0-6236 COj = o-i68i C. 

and o-2c8i HjO = 0-023 H. 
II. 01776 gms. of substance yielded 0-5459 CO2 = 01488 C. 

and 0-1S54 H2O = o-o2o6 H. 



Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 




1 1 "599 

Calculated for CioH,6. 
Per Cent. 
C. 88-23 
H. 11-76 

That pinene was present also in this fraction was proved by 
means of its nitroso-chloride 7-136 — J-'j — 639 per cent., respect- 
ively, being obtained in three different experiments. The melting- 
point of the nitroso-chloride proved to be io2°-io3° C. To further 
establish the presence of pinene, the benzyl-amine base was pre- 
pared, which closely resembles pinene-nitrol-benzylamine. Its 
melting-point proved to be 122° C. 


The bottle containing this fraction was about one-quarter filled 
and well stoppered. The sides were covered with small acicular 
crystals, presumably pinoUhydrate. The oil was filtered and 
dehydrated by means of anhydrous sodium sulphate. The oil was 
of a slightly yellowish tinge, almost colorless, and possessed a tere- 
binthinate odor, though less marked than the lower fractions. Its 
relative density at 20° C. was found to be 08805. In a 100 mm. 
tube it deviated the plane of polarized light 30-187° to the left, 
hence [a) D equals — 34 304°. 

Compared with Mr. Kressin's constants we found the relative 
density had increased 021 1 and its optical activity had decreased 


Upon analysis this fraction yielded the following results : 

I. 0-231 gms. of substance yielded 0-7138 CO2 = 0-1947 C. 

and 02466 H2O := 0-0274 H- 
II. 0-258 gms. of substance yielded 0-8036 CO.^ = 0-21916 C. 

and 0-2932 H.^O = 0-03257 H. 



Per Cent. 






'*''Mirch,f89f°''} Volatile Oil from Canada Balsam. 139 


Calculated for CioHig. 
Per Cent. 
C. 88-23 
H. 1176 


The bottle containing this fraction was about one-quarter filled, 
well stoppered, and showed no crystals on its surface. The oil 
possessed a faint terebinthinate odor, and was almost colorless. It 
had separated into two strata. 

The lower stratum was colorless, and possessed a terebinthinate 
odor. The relative density of the dehydrated oil at 20° C. was 
found to be 08483. In a 100 mm. tube it deviated the plane of 
polarized light 31-666° to the left, hence {a) D equals — 37-332°. 

Upon analysis it yielded the following results : 

I. 0*1928 gms. of substance yielded 0-6048 COj = 0-16493 C. 

and 0-21 16 HjO = 0-0235 H. 
II. 02736 gms. of substance yielded 0-864 CO2 = 0-2356 C. 

and 0-2946 H2O = 0-0323 H. 


Calculated for C,oHi6. 
Per Cent. 

C. 88-23 

H. 11-76 

The upper stratum was barely colored, possessed a pleasant 
fragrance, reminding of lemon oil. After dehydration the rela- 
tive density was found to be 08257 at 23° C. In a 100 mm. tube it 
deviated the plane of polarized light 13-637° to the left, hence its 
id) D equals — 16527 at 23° C. 

Upon analysis it yielded the following results : 

I. 0-1758 gms. of substance yielded 0-3959 COj = 0-10797 C. 

and 0-1996 H2O = 0-02217 H. 

II. 0-1997 gms. of substance yielded 0-457 ^^i = 0-124635 C. 

and 0-2274 H2O = 002415 H. 


■Calculated for CoHjaO. 
Per Cent. 

C. 78-947 
H. 10-526 

The quantity of this fraction was not sufficient to allow of further 



Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 







Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 





I40 A Cheap Substitute for the Sclenite. {-'^"iSfs'Sr"'" 

As will be seen from the quantity of oxygen in fractions i and 9 
the composition of this oil is much more complex, than was sup- 
posed. The investigation will be continued. 

Pharmaceutical Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, 
(i) Gustave V. Kradwell, Proc. Wise. Pharm. Ass., 1891, p. 37. 
(2) Louis H. Kressin, ibidem, 1892, p. 66. 

By Hans M. Wilder. 

A set of selenite plates (generally three) is an indispensable 
adjunct to the polarizing outfit, because of the beautiful display of 
colors caused by their use. 

Having on a certain occasion mislaid my selenites, I looked about 
for a substitute, and bethought myself of trying what mica, which 
is stated to possess similar light-retarding power as selenite, might 
do. To my agreeable surprise mica (the common stove-door kind) 
proved to be fully equal to any ordinary selenite, the colors being 
quite as handsome. Mica possesses two advantages: It is much 
cheaper, a piece three inches square costing about two cents, 
while a selenite (the usual size of which is ^g of ^^- inchj costs 
from one dollar up, and mica can be cut with scissors and handled 
without much fear of breaking it. The best way to proceed is as 
follows : 

Put a slide of any polarizing substance (starch for instance) on 
the stage of the microscope, having previously put the two nicols 
in their places, and slip a piece of mica under the slide. Some 
kind of color will be observed. If not satisfactory or especially 
handsome, give the mica a slight turn around its axis, and try in 
this way whether in any position a satisfactory color is obtained. 
When found, cut one end square so as to be parallel with the slide ; 
by always slipping in the mica in the same way the same color dis- 
play will be obtained, since the retarding power and consequently 
the color varies with the thickness. Quite a variety of beautiful 
color effects may be obtained by either using mica plates of varying 
thickness, or by merely using two or more layers of thin plates 
superimposed. The colors may be varied still more by altering the 

^"'Ma°ch.^^""''} Beesiuax, Petrolatum Molle, etc. 141 

relative positions of the superimposed plates ; in fact, three plates 
of varjang thickness will be all that are necessary to keep. As stated 
before, mica costs next to nothing ; if, therefore, the first piece does 
not suit, throw it away and try another. Select the clearest pieces. 
The mica plates may be cut and mounted to suit. Personally, I 
prefer strips about i}4, inches wide, and somewhat longer than the 
stage from front to back, so as to be easily slipped in under the 
slide, and as easilv removed. 


Bv Lymax F. Kebler. 

About a year ago^ I presented some notes on the examination of 
beeswax. Since then I have examined a goodly number of sam- 
ples of this article, and not until recently have spurious goods come 
into my hands. This section of the country appears to be especially 
favored with highly adulterated beeswax,- some containing as high 
as So per cent, of paraffin, some composed of black earthy matter 
moulded into cakes and cleverly coated with yellow wax, other 
samples containing chrome-yellow, mineral matter, rosin, etc. Prob- 
ably some sections do not report the results of their examinations. 

It has frequently been asserted that beeswax is weighted with 
mineral matter such as gypsum, kaolin, yellow ochre, heavy spar 
and various other adulterants. I had come to the conclusion that 
the days of such gross sophistications were past, but the examina- 
tion of four samples recently convinced me that this opprobrious 
business had been awakened from the slumber room of time, if it 
has been asleep. These four samples were composed of rosin, 
chrome yellow, }^ellow ochre, haematite, mineral wax and a little 
beeswax. A fifth sample was composed of about equal parts of 
mineral wax and beeswax. The following table contains the analy- 
tical data of the adulterated beeswax. Number 1 is a beeswax of 
known purity for comparison : 

' 1893, Am. J. Pharm., 65,585. 

- 1874, Am. J. Pharm., 46, 510; 1S75, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc, -33, 232 
and 499. 


Beeswax, Petrolatum Molle, etc. 

( Am. .Tour. Pharm. 
l March, 1895. 


M. P. 


Sp. Gr. 
at 15° C. 























30- 10 





2 . . . . 

3 • . . . 

4 . . . . 

5 • . • . 

6 . . . . 

(Resin, paraffin, chrome 

1 yellow. 

/ Yellow ochre, earthy 

t matter, paraffin. 

1 Earthy matter, paraf- 

\ fin, hsemaiite. 

Mineral wax. 

Mineral wax. 

I have not added additional data, since they can be easily calcu- 
lated from the above. 

These samples of beeswax are curiosities, and if the specimens alone 
existed, it would be well and good, but that they represent hun- 
dreds of pounds in this market is a deplorable fact. 


The U. S. P. requires this product to be ointment-like in consist- 
ence, odorless, tasteless, with a melting point varying from 40° to 
45° C, and a specific gravity ranging from 0-820 to o 840, at 60° C. 
It should be completely volatilized when heated on a piece of plati- 
num w^ithout erriitting any acrid vapors, and be free from resin and 
saponifiable fats and oils. When one volume of petrolatum is treated 
with two volumes of concentrated sulphuric acid in a test-tube 
placed in hot water and agitated occasionally during fifteen minutes, 
the acid should neither acquire a deeper tint than brown nor lose 
its transparency. 

The following table contains the analytical results of nine samples 
of petrolatum molle : 



Sp. Gr. at 

60° C. 

Color of 


of H2SO4 

Taste and 


Lily white . . 







Snow white . 






Snow white . 



Light Brown 



Cream white . 






Pearl white 





Pearl white . . 



f Blackish ) 
\ Brown J 




Pearl white 







Light yellow . 







Light amber . 



r Blackish \ 
\ Brown ) 



Each sample completely volatized on platium foil without any 
acrid vapors, was ointment-like in consistence, neutral and soluble 
in its various solvents. 

'^^VSTs'^gt.''''-} Becsivax\ Petrolatum iMolle, etc. 143 

Two French chemists have recently made numerous comparative 
tests with petrolatum, and came to the conclusion that this article 
was highly adulterated with fatty substances of both animal and 
vegetable origin. For easily detecting this sophistication 5 drops 
of a saturated solution of potassium permanganate are added to 5 
grams of petrolatum, in a glass or porcelain mortar and triturated. 
If the petrolatum is pure the rose-red color is persistent ; if saponifi- 
able fats or oils are present the color becomes chestnut-brown. The 
intensity of the color is directly proportional to the percentage of 

I applied the permanganate test to each of the above samples, 
but no chestnut-brown was obtained in any case. 


" Rock Candy Syrup " is generally considered to be the evaporated 
mother-liquor obtained in the process of manufacturing " Rock 
Candy." This product necessarily contains more or less reducing 
sugar. We must remember, however, that this article is also prepared 
by dissolving granulated sugar itself in a specified quantity of water, 
sometimes using an antiseptic. A certain manufacturer informed 
me that he used one ounce of salicylic acid for every 500 gallons of 
syrup. I was unable to detect it, however, even after having been 
informed concerning its employment. 

This commodity has largely come into use in this country within 
recent years. Being differently prepared by various producers it 
necessarily varies in composition. In view of these facts it behooves 
us to examine carefully every sample before employing it for any 

Some workers have expressed themselves quite adversely con- 
cerning this product, calling it worthless and not deserving a place 
in the drug market. Certain examiners while in quest of a pure 
rock candy syrup called the work "monotonous" since the danger 
signal flashed in every case, even with rock candy itself. While I 
realize that he who shuts his eyes to the adulteration of drugs is 
not the pharmacists' friend, yet I contend that it is not just to con- 
demn all rock candy syrups because a few are spurious. 

I have examined a fair number of samples and find the percentage 
of good rock candy syrup as high as that of ot)ier goods handled by 
druggists. Below you will find a table recording the results of a 


Mann fact tire of Acetone. 

/Am. Jour. Hharnj. 
I March, 1895. 

number of samples examined during the past year. Some were 

excellent products, products that no pharmacist need reluctantly 

place on his shelf as rock candy syrup. A few were extremely 


Sp. Gr. 

at 15°C. 

Reducing Sugar. 



Inorganic Compounds. 



Trace per cent. 





Trace per cent. 

Slightly acid. 



I "346 

5750 percent. 




I "330 


Slightly acid. 




65 per cent. 

Slightly acid. 



I 330 

17S5 percent. 


Sulphates & Chlorides 


I 330 

20 '00 


Sulphates & Chlorides 









Slightly acid. 




36" 13 per cent. 

SlighUv acid. 





SlighUy acid. 




700 per cent. 

1 Slightly acid. 


' Highly flavored with vanilla. 

My standard for " Rock Candy Syrup " is; sp. gr. about 1-320 at 
15° C, from a trace of reducing sugar to two per cent., neutral or 
slightly acid in reaction. 

You will notice that every sample contains some reducing sugar. 
Simple syrup on standing a short time is said to deteriorate, form- 
ing reducing sugar. Some say simple syrup on being boiled is 
slowly converted into reducing sugar, but my experiments do not 
support this latter assertion. 

A carefully prepared syrup, sp. gr. 1-330, free from glucose, was 
boiled vigorously for 13^ hours, the evaporated water carefully 
replenished from time to time. A drop of the syrup was tested 
every fifteen minutes for reducing sugar, but not a trace was detected 
in even the last test. 


By E. R. Squibb, M.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The increasing use of acetone as a chemical solvent, and especially the rela- 
tion of acetone to the manufacture of chloroform, gives importance to any 
improvement in its production. 

Up to this time the writer knows of no process of manufacture except by the 
destructive distillation of acetates at high temperature. The acetates are 
charged into stills and heated as long as they yield any acetone. Then the 
acetates being decomposed to waste carbonates are discharged and the stills 

^Ephemeris, Vol. 4, No. 3. 

'^■"ML^ch.rd^™} MamifactJire of Acetone. 145 

recharged with fresh acetate, making an interrupted process of repeated charg- 
ing and discharging and heating and cooling. This process is very old; but 
two patents have been taken out in this country on some details of the process 
and apparatus. 

The writer proposed to himself to make acetone directh- from acetic acid by 
a continuous process, and has accomplished that object. 

In Gmelin's Hand Book of Chemistry, Cavendish Society edition, 1853, ^'o'- 
VIII, at page 291, under the head of decomposition of acetic acid by heat, 
much work is given where the vapor of acetic acid was passed through heated 
tubes, acetone being one of the products; and, on this line of investigation, the 
writer's work was taken up. 

It was not difficult to see that the discrepant results reached by the authori- 
ties were due to differing physical conditions, and different degrees of heating, 
since it was mechanically quite certain that a current of vapor passing through 
a stationary tube, heated from below, whether empty or filled, could not be 
heated to the same degree in all parts of the tube, and therefore could not give 
the same decomposition in all parts. 

The work undertaken was commenced in verj- long-necked, glass bulbs, held 
in a horizontal position so that they might be stationarj- or be revolved by 
hand, and these were heated bj' a bath of Wood's metal — the acid being passed 
in, and the products coming out through horizontal tubes in the long necks. 

Experiences with these bulbs led to much better mechanical devices. A 
small flask was arranged as a still, and from this, by a gas burner, a constant 
current of acetic acid vapor could be produced at any desired rate. The rate 
was regulated by the rate of supply of liquid acid from an elevated graduated 
supply vessel, the supply going to the still through a glass tube, in which the 
rate of dropping was seen and controlled by stop-cock. Then, by varying the 
acid suppl}' and the heat from the burner, the boiling liquid in the still could 
be kept at about a constant level, and with a controllable known rate of vapor 

At some distance from this end of this apparatus the condensing apparatus 
was arranged to receive the distillates. The products of distillation were first 
received in a flask where most of the watery vapor and undecomposed acid was 
condensed, but where the temperature continued so high that but a mere trace 
of acetone was arrested there. From the neck of this flask the remaining 
gases and vapors passed through a good condenser which delivered the re- 
mainder of the water and undecomposed acid and the acetone into a flask 
immersed in an ice bath. Here almost all the condensible vapors were con- 
densed. The gases and uncondensed vapors were taken from the neck of this 
flask to a small wash bottle supplied with water, by which the current of gases 
was washed. Here waste acetone enough was caught to increase the volume of 
contents to a point at which all went off together in the current of gases, and 
the level remained constant. Next was a wash bottle containing a strong 
solution of sodium hydrate. Through this the residual gases were passed in 
order that most of the carbon dioxide might be combined. Finally the gases 
were passed through another small wash bottle containing water. At the 
small exit tube of this bottle the gases were tested for inflammability, and the 
proportion of methane and carbon monoxide was estimated by the absence or 
the degree of inflammability. Except at the times of testing, this exit tube was 

146 Manufacture of Acetone. {^'"SiS.fsg"'"' 

counected to a Sprengel water pump, and a minus pressure of i to 6 Cm. of 
mercur}- was maintained on the entire apparatus. This served to relieve all 
joints and connections and caused all the leakages to be inward, whilst a mer- 
cury gauge at each end gave due notice of obstruction or irregularities. 

These two ends of the apparatus remaining constant, the intervening space 
was occupied hy the varying form of distilling or decomposing apparatus. An 
earthenware drain pipe with movable tile ends served as a furnace. This drain 
pipe, supported in a horizontal position, had 6 holes drilled above and below. 
Each lower hole was large enough to admit a Bunsen burner with limited air 
space around it, while the holes on top, to give exit to the products of the com- 
bustion, were smaller. The decomposing tubes or stills of wrought iron, with 
cast-iron ends, occupied this drain pipe furnace, being connected with the 
vapor supply apparatus at one end and the condenser at the other. 

Much preliminary work was necessary in getting the apparatus in good work- 
ing order and in following up tangential points; but these are passed over, and 
onl}' the important work given — and that not always in the order in which it 
was done, but in an order which brings the results into a more logical sequence 
more easily understood. 

Two strengths of acetic acid were used. First, an acid containing 36 p. c. of 
absolute acid. But as this gave distillates unnecessarily dilute, it was gener- 
ally given up in favor of a 60 p. c. acid, although the reactions were not notice- 
ably different in the use of the two strengths. Hence, with two exceptions, the 
results given are from a 60 p. c. acetic acid. 

Reducing the work from the disorderly way in which it was done to a natural 
order, and rejecting what was not trustworthy, it is best to begin with some 
repetitions of work already long on record. (See Gmelin's Hand Book, and 
other authorities.) 

A tube of wrought iron about 36 Cm. (14 inches) in length by 6'5 Cm. (2'5 
inches) internal diameter, reduced at each end to tubing of about o'6 Cm. ("25 
inch), was held stationar}- in the centre of the furnace, and connected at one 
end with the acid vapor supply, and at the other with the condensers. This 
tube could be heated by the gas burners to anj' desired degree up to a dull red 
heat. The trials were made under as nearly the same conditions as practicable, 
the. running time being about 3'5 hours, and under close observation. The 
amount of 60 p. c. acetic acid which could be passed in in vapor during this time, 
varied much — generally 250 to 350 Cc. The quantities used were always re- 
duced to absolute acid (HC2HiO.^ = 59*86), and the results are given in the same 
acid, but a high degree of accuracy was impracticable, and therefore not 
aimed at. 

(i) With the tube empty and heated nearly to redness at first, and finally to 
dull red heat, 290 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid = 174 Gm. absolute acid, was passed in in 3 -5 
hours. About 11 1 Gm. of this acid passed through unchanged, and 63 Gm. was 
decomposed. That is, about 63"8 p. c. came through unchanged, and 36-2 p. c. 
was decomposed. In the first receiving flask, kept hot by the vapor, there was 
no acetone, but only 132 Cc. of a 53 p. c. acid. In the second flask, in the ice- 
bath, there was 115 Cc. of a 36 p. c. acid; and this liquid, roughly estimated by 
the iodoform test, contained 10 to 12 p. c. of acetone. From the final wash 
bottle came a stream of inflammable gas — probably methane and carbon mon- 
oxide — that would burn almost continuously. 

'*^'Mi?ch:T8'95""} Majiufachire of Acetone. 147 

(2) Next this stationary tube was filled with coarsely-granulated pumice- 
stone, freed from large pieces and from dust, and so tightly packed as to have 
spring enough to keep the tube full when expanded by heating. Into this, in 
35 hours, 189 Gm. of absolute acid, in vapor, was pass d. and yielded in the 
first, hot flask 103 Cc. of 54 p. c. acid = 55"62 Gm. aij^olute acid. In the 
second, ice-bath flask 138 Cc. of 3S"4 p. c. acid = 52'97 Gm. of absolute acid, 
making io8'6 Gm. out of 189 Gm. distilled over unchanged, and 8o"4 Gm. de- 
composed. The contents of this second flask were about I4'5 p. c. acetone. 
The stream of inflammable gases was estimated as being not less, but rather 
greater than with the empty tube. 

(3) Next, took the pumice from the tube, divided it into two parts, and, 
rejecting one-half, intimately mixed with the other half 500 Gm. of dry precip- 
itated barium carbonate. Charged the tube with this mixture, having a little 
unmixed pumice at both ends. Barium carbonate was selected to multiply 
surface, as being a rather heavy powder that would not shrink nor fuse, nor be 
likely to decompose. 

About 450 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid ^270 Gm. of absolute acid was passed, in 
vapor, in 3*5 hours, into this mixture, heated as before. The distillate in the 
first hot flask was 8i Cc. of acid water of only i'6 p. c. = i'3 Gm. absolute 
acid. In the second ice-bath flask was 227 Cc. s. g., about 0*955, containing 1*2 
p. c. acid = 2.7 Gm. absolute acid. Of the 270 Gm. passed in, 4 Gm. only dis- 
tilled over unchanged, while 266 Gm. was decomposed. The 227 Cc. of dis- 
tillate in the second flask contained about 23*3 p. c. of acetone. This proportion 
gives about 20 p.c. of acetone from the 266 Gm. of absolute acid used. The 
stream of inflammable gases was very much greater than in the other experi- 
ments, burning with an almost continuous large flame. 

The desired splitting of acetic acid to yield acetone requires 2 molecules of 
the acid to yield i molecule of acetone, the residuary products being i mole- 
cule each of carbon dioxide and water. That is, 120 Gm. of absolute acetic acid 
should give 

58 Gm. of acetone, 

44 " " carbon dioxide, 

18 " " water, or 
b}' percentage the acid should give 

48 "33 p. c. acetone, 

36 "67 " carbon dioxide, 

I5'oo " water. 

When marsh gas or methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) are formed 
it is probably largely, if not entirely, through a secondary decomposition of 
the acetone by a higher heat than that which gives the primary decomposition 
into acetone, carbon dioxide and water, and when acetone and methane are 
produced together, it is rational to suppose that inequalities of heating are the 
cause. That is, if acetone be produced it indicates that the exact conditions 
required are present at that time and place. Then it follows that if these exact 
•conditions be extended throughout the whole time and place of reaction, the 
acetone splitting of the acid only can occur, and no methane or other products 
of other reactions can be produced. The conditions for producing these differ- 
ent reactions are doubtless diff"erent degrees of heating, and uniformity of reac- 

148 Manufacture of Acetone. { "^^ Va^h. rsM.'"' 

tion can be expected only from uniformity of heating. And the differences in 
the degrees of heat required to produce the different reactions here do not 
seem to be great. 

The physical and mechanical conditions of heating a stationarj' tube cannot 
possibly yield an equal degree of heating to the contents of such tube, espe- 
cially where only a part of such contents is in motion. Even if the whole out- 
side of the tube could be equally heated — as it could not be practically— the 
contents would be cooler from circumference to centre. But in this case, where 
a current of vapor at about 100° C. is passed continually into a tube, the out- 
side of which is kept unequally heated to 500 or 600° C, and where this current 
has to find its way at varying speed through varying friction and expansion, 
only a varying decomposition can be possible, and the conclusion must be that 
if uniform decomposition is to be reached it must be through uniform con- 

Equable heating in a stationary tube, under the conditions of this process, 
being impracticable, it became necessar)^ to devise some better form of still; 
and a careful consideration of the principles involved, and the especial me- 
chanical difficulties of this decomposition, led the writer to a form of rotary 
still, which, after some alterations and modifications, has proved successful. 

A wrought-iron tube about 36 Cm. (14 inches) long by I2'7 Cm. (5 inches) in 
diameter, contracted at the ends to central, hollow journals of about 2 Cm. 
(075 inch) external diameter and i"2 Cm. (o'5 inch) bore, free to revolve, was 
supported in the centre of the iS Cm. (7 inch) drain pipe furnace, and connected 
at one end with the vapor suppl}', and the other with the condensers by air- 
tight glands or " stuffiing-boxes." The ends were provided with charging and 
discharging openings which could be closed air-tight, and the still was revolved 
slowly by means of a pulley on one end of the hollow shaft. A small stationary 
tube passed into the still through the revolving shaft to convey the acid vapor 
to the entrance of the still at one end, and a similar tube gave exit to the pro- 
ducts of the decomposition at the other, condenser end. It was necessary to 
protect this tube from obstruction by dust carried by the current of vapors, and 
this was done by a cartridge of rolled-up, wire cloth filled with glass wool. 
This rotary still was driven at the rate of three to six revolutions per minute by 
a small water-motor, and was found to heat with great equability as it revolved 
over the burners. Inside of the still, at equal distances apart on the periphery, 
five L-shaped, longitudinal strips of sheet-iron were riveted. These were nec- 
essary to prevent the charge from sliding round as the iron became smooth, 
and they were found to carry the charge round, turn it over and mix it most 
effectively at each revolution. Thus, while by the revolutions over the source 
of heating the shell was heated very uniformly, this continuous moving and 
turning over of the contents must bring all parts of the charge, solids and 
vapors alike, in successive contact with the hot surfaces and the cooler atmos- 
phere of the still, and thus secure a fair degree of equable heating. The still 
being about one-third filled with the solid charge and slowly rotated, the charge 
occupies principally, not the bottom of the still directly over the fire, but the 
ascending third which has just been over the fire. Then, as the charge is car- 
ried up, the superficial cooler portion, too deep to be held by the longitudinal 
shelves, slides back onto the hot surface below, while the portion carried on 
by the shelves falls back, shelf by shelf, from contact with the hot shell through 

*'"Ma''rch.ri«5.''°'"} Manufactiire of Acetone. 149 

the atmosphere of vapor, outo the cooler portions below, to be mixed and car- 
ried up again in a similar order. At the same time the whole atmosphere of 
the still is filled with dust which becomes very fine, aud very largely multiplies 
the surfaces of contact with the vapor for decomposition, whilst the vapors 
pass slowly and uniformly and with a minimum of friction to the exit at the 
condenser end. If the motion and heating of a charge in this still be compared 
with those in a stationary still with a horizontal stirrer driven by a vertical 
shaft, the advantages of the former will be easily understood. The latter 
moves the charge round over the fire, but has a comparatively slight effect in 
bringing new portions of the charge successively in contact with the heating 
surfaces, and it does not tend to prevent horizontal stratification of the charge 
with consequent irregular heating ; and it does not tend to the fullest contact 
of the vapors with the surfaces of the charge, where the decomposition proba- 
bly takes place. After the inevitable number of trials and adjustments and 
breakings down, the following successful experiments are selected from a 
large number : 

(4) As a parallel experiment to (i) with the stationary still, the rotary still 
was used empty. 

About 200 Cc. of 36 p. c. acid = 72 Gm. of absolute acid was slowly passed 
into the heated, rotating, empty still. 

The first hot flask of distillate contained 33 Cc. of acid of 14-6 p. c. = 4 82 of 
17 89 Gm. absolute acid. 

The second ice-bath flask contained 142 Cc. of acid acetone, 12 6 p. c. 
Gm. absolute acid. Then 4"82 -|- 1789 = 2271 Gm absolute acid distilled over 
unchanged. Then 72 Gm. — 2271 = 49-29 Gm. of acid decomposed. The 
second distillate gave an estimate of 12. i Gm. acetone. Then as 49.29 acid : 
121 acetone: : 100 : 24-5 p. c. acetone from the acid. The current of inflam- 
mable gas was considerable, but less than in (i). 

(5) The rotary still was charged with about a litre of the same granulated 
pumice used in (2), and when heated about 295 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid = 177 Gm. 
of absolute acid, was passed in in vapor during 3'5 hours. 

The first distillate, hot flask, had loS Cc. of acid water of 4-4p. c. =475 
Gm. acid. 

The second distillate, ice-bath flask, had 116 Cc. acid acetone 2*4 p.c. 
acid ^278 Gm. acid. 

Then 475 + 278 = 7-53 Gm. acid came over unchanged, out of 177 Gm. 
passed in ; or, 177 — 7-53= 169*47 Gm. decomposed. 

The acetone estimated by iodoform was 243 p. c. of the acid decomposed. 

(6) About 500 Gm. of precipitated barium carbonate was put into the rotary 
still on top of the charge of pumice, and when the whole was heated 380 Cc. 
60 p. c. acid = 228 Gm. of absolute acid was passed in in vapor during 35 

The first distillate was loS Cc. of acid water containing 3*9 Gm. acid. 
The second distillate was 135 Cc. of acid acetone containing 27 Gm. acid. 
228 Gm. acid — 6'6 Gm. over unchanged = 22i'4 Gm. decomposed. 
The estimated acetone was 16 p. c. of the acid decomposed. 
Much inflammable gas throughout the process. 

(7) About 456 Gm. of precipitated barium carbonate put into the cleaned-out 
rotary still, and when heated 510 Cc. of 36 p.c. acid = 1836 Gm. absolute acid 

150 Manufacture of Acetone. {"^"Mirch.l'^jr"' 

was passed in in 4'5 hours. About 24 '5 Gm. of acid came over unchanged, 
leaving 159 i Gm. decomposed. 

The acetone was estimated at 537 Gm., or about 34 p. c. of the decomposed 

(^8) Charged the rotary still with 1,000 Gm. of dry barium acetate and distilled 
this acetate as long as it would yield a distillate, and until it was reduced to 
about 770 Gm. of barium carbonate quite free from acetate. This yielded ace- 
tone estimated by iodoform at about 60 p. c. of the theoretical quantity. 

When the distillation from the acetate had ceased the receivers were changed 
and 490 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid = 294 Gm. of absolute acid were passed into this 
charge of carbonate in about 4"5 hours. 

The distillate was received in 5 fractions. 

1st. 37 Cc. of acid water containing I5'6 p. c. acid or 577 Gm. 

2d. 256 " " dilute acetone " 4*4 " " " ii"26 " 

3d. 230 " " " " " 9.6 " " " 22-o8 " 

4th. 46 " " " " " no " " " 5-06 " 

5th. 26 " " " " " 17-6 " " " 4-58 " 

595 Cc. Distilled over undecomposed, 4875 Gm. 

294 Gm. — 49 Gm. = 245 Gm. decomposed. 

In each of the 2d and 3d flasks was about 40 Cc. of water at the start. Then 
80 from 595 gave 515 Cc. of total distillate from the 490 Cc. fed in. 

Acetone required from 245 Gm. acid 118 Gm. Estimated yield 71 Gm., or 60 
p. c. of the required yield. 

On the following day, without having opened the still, it was reheated and 
530 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid ^318 Gm. of absolute acid was passed in in vapor. 
From low street pressure in the gas mains the heat on this day was deficient. 

1st distillate 50 Cc. acid water containing I9"6 p. c. acid or 9 8 Gm. 
2d " 255 " dilute acetone " lo'o " " " 255 " 

3d " 138 " " " " 6-0 " " " 8-2 " 

443 Cc. 43-6 Gm. 

318 Gm. — 44 Gm. = 274 Gm. acid decomposed. 

Acetone required from 274 Gm. acid 132 Gm. Estimated yield 95 Gm. or 
72 p. c. of the required yield. 

On the day following, again without opening the still, in about 4 hours, 
passed in 535 Cc. of 60 p. c. acid = 321 Gm. of absolute acid, 

1st distillate, hot flask, 22 Cc. acid water containing 7*6 p. c. acid or i"67 Gm. 
2d " ice-bath, 258 " dilute acetone " 4.8 " " " I2*38 " 

3d " " 131 " " " '« 7-6 " " " 9-96 " 

411 Cc. 24 'oi Gm. 

231 Gm. — 24 Gm. = 297 Gm. acid decomposed. 

Acetone required by theory from 297 Gm. acid 143 Gm. Obtained by esti- 
mate about 113 Gm. or nearly 80 p. c. of the required yield. 

^ Va^cb. i'^gt.""" } Manufacture of A cetotie. 1 5 1 

Now, upon cooling and opening the still, samples taken from various parts 
of the contents were all found to be barium carbonate and free from acetic 

During the progress of these distillations from pumice stone, from carbon- 
ates and from the empty stills alike, whenever the supply of acid vapor was cut 
oflF the distillation almost instantly ceased, showing that there was then noth- 
ing in the still to decompose. 

This, then, is the improved, continuous process for the production of acetone 
directly from the acetic acid, which avoids and saves the intermediate steps of 
forming and decomposing acetates. 

The formation of acetates in the still was repeatedl)^ tried with both barium 
and calcium carbonates, but always failed until the temperature was reduced 
to about the boiling point of water, or the condensing point of watery vapor, 
and then the acetates formed, cohered and adhered to the ribs and shell of the 
still, and no longer moved until again decomposed by a higher heat. 

Corresponding trials were made with calcium carbonate and with calcium 
acetate decomposed to carbonate, with results very similar to those above given, 
but the barium carbonate seemed to answer best, possiblj* because it yields a 
heavier powder that occupies less space and moves better. 

When commercial acetate of lime was used tarry matters obstructed the exit 
tubes and contaminated the distillates. The portion of these tarr)' matters 
that was reduced to charcoal in the still, and there mixed with the carbonate, 
seemed to be rather beneficial than obstructive. But on the whole the process 
appeared to do better with carbonates reduced from acetates that were made 
for the purpose from good materials. As the process seems to be rather a 
mechanical or phj-sical one of surface contact, it would be reasonable to expect 
better results from reduced carbonates than from precipitated carbonates. And 
it is still an open question whether, on the large manufacturing scale, with 
better control of the essentials, heat and motion, pumice or bone black, or 
some other such substance, will not be better than the carbonates. Of one 
thing the writer is convinced, and that is that the close regulation of the heat- 
ing within narrow limits of variation, is far the most important element in 
the process. Within very narrow limits, too little heat gives undecomposed 
acid, while too much gives inflammable gases in place of acetone. But on the 
large scale this element will be under much better control, whilst a proportion- 
ately longer still will give the acid vapor farther to go and a prolonged 
exposure to the limited heating and contact. 

There are no patents sought for on this process or apparatus. 

The dilute acetone from this process is fairh' good and clean, and is colorless 
except for the action of the free acid contained on the iron tubing. With the 
free acid the s. g. by hydrometer varies between o'93 and 0*97. No part of the 
distillate has more than a thin film of oil on the surface too small to be meas- 
ured, and this oily surface is only in the first flask with the acid water. On 
further dilution of the ice-bath distillate it is rendered opalescent for a minute 
or two and then becomes again transparent. 

This distillate (undiluted) is a good solvent for many substances, and is prob- 
ably pure enough for the manufacture of chloroform. 

When allowed to stand some days upon caustic lime and then poured off and 
rectified, it is much improved in character and strength, and is then adapted 

1 5 2 Manufacture of A ccione. { '^'"m'1?^^; XHH "'' 

to a still larger number of uses, and is perhaps better adapted to the manu- 
facture of chloroform. 

The product of this first rectification was then digested with about lo p. c. of 
dry calcium chloride. This abstracted most of the water and settled in dense 
solution at the bottom of the bright yellowish acetone. This latter was separ- 
ated and distilled, and again dij^ested for several days with lo p. c. of fresh 
calcium chloride, being frequently well shaken. Again twice separated and 
distilled from fresh portions of calcium chloride, in a capacious flask with a 
good Hempel tube filled with small glass marbles, and the whole apparatus 
filled with well-dried air, and distilled directly into specific gravity bottles, such 
as are described in the Ephemeris, Vol. IV., p. 1448 — it gave six fractions, four 
of which had the specific gravities at }|o C, as follows : First, o 79662; second, 
079704; third, 079712; sixth, 079793. The irregularities of these differences 
are doubtless due to differences in rate of boiling, yet they demonstrate con- 
clusively that the first fraction can not be anhydrous. 

Authorities differ much as to the s. g. of acetone. The lowest noticed is 
given by W. H. Perkins, Ph.D., F.R.S., in the Journal of the Chemical Society 
of London, 1884, Vol. XLV, p. 478. He gives the s. g. at |f „ as 079652, and 
at ^|o as 078669 — and says this is lower than that usually observed, but agrees 
pretty closely with that of Linnemann, who obtained ||° = 07975. Thorpe's 
number, calculated for this temperature, gave If" = o'8o244. Judging 
from the circumstance that the w^riter's fractions did not agree, and that there- 
fore there was no constant boiling point to his distillate, and hence no part 
anhydrous — his and Perkin's results are both too high. 

Notwithstanding this, the writer accepts, for the present at least, his own 
result as a basis for the following specific gravities of dilutions. His best 
results as obtained by the use of his above-mentioned specific gravity bottles, 
and a sensitive thermometer in tenths of a degree, recently compared with a 
standard, are as follows: 

At lo C. 0-808157. At 11° C. 0796620. At fJo C. 0786988. 

It was first desirable to know whether dilutions of acetone with water were 
mixtures, or whether, as in the case of alcohol, there was molecular com- 
bination with contraction and elevation of temperature. It was found that 
when 40 Cc. of acetone of about 90 p. c. was mixed with 40 Cc. of water there 
was a contraction of 3*2 Co., and an increase of temperature of 56° C, with an 
effervescence of gas as in alcohol. 

The proportion of 10 Gm. of recently boiled distilled water added to 90 Gm. 
of this distillate, mixed by connecting two flasks with the weighed quantities, 
and passing the liquids back and forth without exposure to external air or loss 
of vapor, gave the following specific gravities : 

Acetone at |o C. o'837i. \i"o C. o'826o. f|o C. o'8i68 for 10 p. c. of water or 
90 p. c. acetone. 

This method of dilution by weighing the acetone and water separately in 
flasks and then connecting the flasks for mixing without loss of vapor or outer 
air contact was adopted for the basis of an acetone table. The lines of the 
table that are given in heavy-faced type are given from actual observation, 
and the remainder by interpolation. 

Acetone = C;;H„0, or Dimethyl Ketone = CHjCOCHj is a transparent, color- 
less, mobile, light, inflammable liquid of an agreeable spirituous or ethereal 

niSTs'sr"-} Antitoxin. I53 

odor, with a suggestion of mint, and a sharp, biting taste. The suggestion of 
mint in the odor varies in strength in different samples, and probably does not 
belong to acetone, but comes from a minute trace of impurity. It boils at 
56-3° C. (Regnault). The s. g. when very nearly anhydrous is at ^o C. 0808157 
at 1*0 C. 0796620, at \\\ C. 07869S8. It mixes in all proportions with alcohol 
and water, and is a very general solvent, dissolving many substances that are 
insoluble in alcohol. 


Under this title there has been developed, during the past year, a 
substance which, without doubt, will place the human race in a 
position towards diphtheria, that it already enjoys, with the aid of 
vaccine virus, towards smallpox. 

History. — Like many other discoveries, that of antitoxin has 
been one of evolution. French writers go back to the year 1888, 
when Drs. Hericourt and Richet announced that the blood of animals, 
which had been rendered immune to a poison, possessed the power 
of destroying or neutralizing that poison. 

About four years ago, Dr. Emil Behring, of Halle, announced the 
discovery of the use of an immunized serum in the prevention and 
cure of diphtheria. Since that time, experiments have been con- 
stantly prosecuted, until, at the present time, the remedy is to be 
obtained in commerce. Behring has declared that Loeffler's dis- 
covery, in 1884, of the diphtheria bacillus was the first chapter in 
the history of antitoxin. 

Dr. Roux, at the Pasteur Institute, Paris, has developed the sub- 
ject, so far as the French are concerned, although he has said that 
the credit of first introducing this serum must be awarded to 

Preparation. — The first step towards obtaining antitoxin should 
be denominated the preparation of diphtheric toxin. The latter is 
prepared by cultivating the diphtheria bacillus, obtained directly 
from a patient, in flasks of bouillon exposed to the air, at a temper- 
ature of 37° C. Usually this operation is allowed to go on for 
several months, in order to accumulate a quantity of the poison, 
but, according to Roux, who conducts the cultivation in moist air, 
it may be accomplished in three weeks. 

The resulting solution is next passed through a porcelain filter, 
which arrests the bacilli and yields a clear, intensely poisonous 

154 Antitoxin. {^Va^c^^.Tsr"' 

The next step is to render the blood of some animal immune to 
this poison, by injecting subcutaneously small quantities at a time 
until the desired result is attained. The cow, sheep or goat may 
be used for this purpose, but, for various reasons, the horse has been 
selected ; he is not so seriously affected by the poison ; that is, he 
does not contract the disease ; then he is usually healthy, and will 
yield a comparatively large quantity of blood at one time. 

The treatment of the horse consists in injecting a small quantity 
of the toxin into the upper part of the neck, beginning with such 
a small amount as to produce no ill effects. If the solution is too 
active, its strength may be reduced by exposure, for a few minutes, 
to a temperature of 65° to 70° C, or it may be treated with a 
small quantity of solution of iodine in potassium iodide. In the 
course of a few days, the strength and frequency of the injections 
are gradually increased, and in a few weeks, the animal is able to 
bear large doses without injury. When this condition has been 
reached, the horse is bled to the extent of one to one and one-half 
litres ; as much as ten litres have been drawn from one horse during 
two days, and the average for each animal varies from twenty-five 
to fifty litres a month. Dr. Behring has stated that a horse from 
which he had drawn blood at frequent intervals during four years, 
remained in good physical condition. After the horse has been 
immunized, he may be so retained by occasional injections of the 
toxin. As a rule, twenty days are allowed to elapse after the 
injection before blood is drawn. 

When the blood is withdrawn, it is cooled and allowed to stand 
until clotting takes place, whereby the fibrin and corpuscles are 
removed and a clear serum is obtained. 

Properties. — This anti-diphtheric serum is what is popularly 
known as antitoxin. It is a clear, yellowish-colored liquid, and 
may be concentrated to dryness in a vacuum without undergoing 
change. It is preserved by drying in this manner, or by the addi- 
tion of carbolic acid. It is also sometimes preserved by the addi- 
tion of a small lump of camphor to each bottle of the liquid. The 
dried antitoxin, when wanted for use, is dissolved in eight or ten 
parts of water. 

Age is said to improve the serum, by lessening its tendency to 
cause in some patients a slight eruption of the skin. 

Administration Antitoxin is administered subcutaneously from a 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1895. 

} Loejfflers Toluol Solution. 155 

special syringe, which must be of a pattern that will admit of com- 
plete sterilization. Most of the serum which is produced has an immu- 
nizing power of I to 50,000 ; that is, i cubic centimeter of the serum 
is sufificient for 50 kilogrammes of body weight. The dose is 15 to 
20 cubic centimeters, repeated in about 24 hours, the two injections 
being sufficient for most cases. 

The serum employed in America has thus far been almost entirely 
obtained from Berlin ; but several cities in the United States now 
have horses under treatment, so that the home supply will, no doubt, 
soon equal the demand. 

Wherever the remedy has been used against diphtheria, the per- 
centage of mortality has at once shown a marked decrease, and 
this has been so universally the case that we are forced to the con- 
clusion that a remedy for this dreaded disease has been found. 


Despite the fact that antitoxin is the coming remedy for diph- 
theria, this solution, proposed by the discoverer of the diphtheria 
bacillus, is a useful adjunct in the treatment, and is also serviceable 
in suspicious cases, and in various non-diphtheric inflammations. 
The formula is as follows: 

Menthol 10 grammes. 

Toluol sufBcient to make 36 c.c. 

Alcohol 60 c.c. 

Solution of ferric chloride 4 c.c. 

The application is made by first cleansing the affected parts with 
a cotton swab, held by forceps, and then in a similar manner apply- 
ing the solution with a freshly-saturated cotton swab. 

Precautions must be taken against infection from the sudden 
coughing of the patient, which is liable to occur as a result of the 

156 Ar^on. {^'\iTcf;X'^' 


At a meeeting of the Royal Society, held January 31, 1895, 
Lord Rayleigh and Professor William Ramsay presented a paper 
which contained the facts necessary to the establishment of a new 

It Had previously been shown by Lord Rayleigh that nitrogen 
extracted from chemical compounds was about ^ per cent, lighter 
than that obtained from the atmosphere. He was led to study 
the atmospheric gases under a number of different conditions, one 
of which consisted in submitting a mixture of air and oxygen to the 
prolonged action of electric sparks; another involved the withdrawal 
of nitrogen from air by means of red-hot magnesium. In both cases 
a gas was obtained whose properties could not be reconciled with 
those of any known element. 

To prepare argon on a large scale, air is freed from oxygen by 
means of red-hot copper. The residue is then passed from a gas 
holder through a combustion tube, heated m a furnace, and contain- 
ing copper, in order to remove all traces of oxygen ; the issuing gas 
is then dried by passage over soda-lime and phosphorus pentoxide. 
It then enters a combustion tube packed tightly with magnesium 
turnings, and heated to redness in a second furnace. 

A single tube of magnesium will absorb from 7 to 8 liters of 
nitrogen. The temperature must be nearly that of fusion of the 
glass, and the current of gas must be carefully regulated, else the 
heat developed by the union of the magnesium with the nitrogen 
will fuse the tube. 

Having collected the residue from 100 to 150 litres of atmospheric 
nitrogen, which may amount to 4 or 5 litres, it is transferred to a 
small gas holder and, by means of a species of self-acting Sprengel's 
pump, the gas is caused to circulate through a series of tubes of 
copper, copper oxide, soda lime, phosphorus pentoxide and red-hot 
magnesium turnings, until it is freed from any possible contamina- 
tion with oxygen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons or nitrogen. It is pre- 
served over mercury, or over water saturated with argon. 

The solubility of the gas prepared by means of red-hot magne- 
sium was found to be 4-05 per lOO at 13-9°; it is, therefore, two 
and one-half times as soluble as nitrogen and possesses approxi- 
mately the same solubility as oxygen. 

^"MarchTs^Bt.""""'} ^^^^ Apocjuacece in Materia Medica. 157 

All attempts to combine argon with other elements failed. It 
was found to be a monatomic gas and, as a monatomic gas can be 
only an element or a mixture of elements, it follows that argon is 
not of a compound nature. 

From Avogadro's law the density of a gas is half its molecular 
weight ; and, as the density of argon is approximately 20, hence its 
molecular weight must be 40. But its molecule is identical with its 
atom ; hence its atomic weight or, if it be a mixture, the mean of 
the atomic weights of that mixture, taken for the proportion in 
which they are present, must be 40. It was decided to assign to 
argon the symbol A. 

In addition to the foregoing information, Dr. William Crookes 
read a paper O71 the Spectra of Argon, and Dr. K. Olszewski con- 
tributed the results of his experiments on The Liquefaction and 
Solidification of Argon. Two sealed tubes of the new element were 
exhibited at the meeting and Lord Kelvin, who presided, Dr. Arm- 
strong and Professor Rlicker, all expressed themselves as believing 
that a new element of the atmosphere has been discovered. V/e 
are indebted to the Chemical News, of February 1st, for the above 

By George M. Beringer. 
[Coniitiued from page 104. Conclusion). 

O. Henry and Ollivier, in 1824, first obtained from Tanglmi a 
fixed oil, a crystalline substance, very poisonous, and a varnish-like 
substance which they named Tangiiine. J. Chatin obtained the crys- 
tals in prisms, of which the nature was not determined. In 1889 
Arnaud isolated the active principle, Tanghininc, in crystals, and 
presenting the singular property of swelling up with water. It is 
present in the kernels to the extent of i per cent. It is neither an 
alkaloid nor a glucoside. Arnaud states that the seeds contain an 
abundant amount of oil, which cannot be obtained by simple expres- 
sion, as an emulsion is formed with the water. He recommends 
the extraction with carbon disulphide. J. Chatin concludes, from 
his experiments with this oil, that it is absolutely inoffensive. 
Quinquaud observes the great excitability of the medulla by the 

158 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {^'"MiXTsss""*' 

poison, and employed it in some toxic paralyses, and likewise in 
intestinal atony and in incontinence of urine, but the symptoms 
indicated the danger of toxicity. 

The Seed of Cerbera Manghas. — The Cerbera Manghas L. is a 
tree found in India and nearly all of Oceanica. In the various 
islands we find numerous varieties based on details of the flowers. The 
fruit is the size of a hen's t^^. In the fresh state it is fleshy, with 
a fibrous stone, coriacious and black at maturity, and confining a 
large oily kernel. According to Horsfield the pulp is employed in 
Java as a cataplasm in some cutaneous maladies. 

The seeds and leaves are considered as very dangerous, and are 
stated to be drastic purgative and emetic, and too violent for use. 
The kernels are said to be narcotic, and produce effects comparable 
with those of Datura. M. Jeanneney, by expression, first cold and 
then with heat, obtained from the kernels 72 per cent, of a limpid 
golden yellow-colored oil, which burns with a clear flame and an 
odor resembling that of cocoanut oil. It is very acrid to the taste, 
producing a sensation of burning in the stomach, vertigo, nausea 
and violent purgation and colic. 

The Seeds of Cerbera Odallam. — The Cerbera Odallant 
Gdiertn. (^Oda/Zatn Rheede ; Cerbera MangJiu Lin.; Manghas '^\xx\s 
not L. ; Tangliima Odallam G. Don.) is a shrub or tree inhabiting 
the western coast regions of India. Plugge describes the fruit as a 
red drupe, spherical or ovoid, the size of an apple, with a stone in 
the centre surrounded by a mesocarp. The fruit contains generally 
two hemispherical seeds with a tough, horny, granular envelope. 
The kernel is rounded on the outside, flattened or depressed about 
the centre on the internal side. It is formed of two unequal cotyle- 
dons, the external surrounding the internal and a short ascending 
radicle. The seeds of Cerbera Odallnm contain a colorless crystal- 
lizable glucoside Cerberine isolated by De Vrij. It is distinct from 
the Tangkinine of Arnaud, of which it is probably an isomer. It 
yields with dilute acids Cerberetine equally toxic and of a handsome 
yellow color. 

The seeds contain JJ per cent, of fixed oil. Cerberine is very 
toxic, and acts by arresting heart action. It presents some of the 
advantages of Digitalis, and merits clinical study. The seeds are 
employed as an emeto-cathartic, the bark, the latex (rich in caout- 
chouc) and the leaves as purgatives, but all are dangerous. 

^°Mi?ch.wt.'™} The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. 159 


Nerium Oleander. — The bark of Neriiim Oleander L. is the only 
one of note of this family obtained from Europe. The stem is 
vaguely triangular or tetragonal, depending whether the leaves are 
ternate or opposite. The bark is externally yellowish green in the 
young parts, soon becoming grayish. The internal face is greenish 
white, the fracture green, the latex originates especially in the 
internal region of the bark, which is quite thick compared with the 
wood. The liquid is likewise abundant in the neighborhood of the 
periphery of the pith, which is large, triangular or square, greenish 
yellow, with a green line of contact with the wood. The leaves and 
young stems appear absolutely glabrous. The microscope, how- 
ever, shows a few hairs, very short and large, unicellular, with a 
small cavity. 

Anatomy. — The young bark of the stem shows : an epidermis 
with walls externally thickened, soon replaced by a zone of a few 
suberous layers ; a collencliyma very clear and quite thick, with 
elements elongated in the direction of the axis ; these contain 
chlorophyll and starch ; a chlorophyll-bearing tissue with rounded 
thin- walled cells containing an abundance of starch. The Endodermis 
is not visible excepting near the summit of the stem. The. per icy cle 
is thick and contains the bundles of cellular fibres extremely long, 
pearly white, and with cavities very straight, often flattened ; and 
the cells with a thin membrane with macles of calcium oxalate. The 
liber encloses not macles, but numerous rhomboids, often in longi- 
tudinal or radial series. Sometimes a number of crystals are 
enclosed in a single cell. Cambium. Wood rich in starch. The 
laticiferous vessels are difficult to see ; we find them especially in the 
pericycle and in the exterior parenchyma. 

The Bark of Thevetia Neriifolia Juss. Generally the bark is 
obtained from the young branches ; it is thin, delicate, strongly 
enrolled upon itself from one or both borders. The surface is gray, 
greenish or a little yellow, rarely glossy, is finely striated longitudi- 
nally, with few whitish streaks, more or less numerous elongated 
lenticels and scars of the alternate leaves. The internal face is 
bluish-black or reddish-violet, smooth. The fracture sometimes 
quite clear, is nearly always lengthily fibrous, with soft fibres in the 
liber. The length is variable, 15 to 20 cm.; the thickness i m.m. 
or more ; odorless ; taste pungent, then strongly bitter. 

l6o The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. { ^"Mi^ch. mr"" 

Ihe anatomical structure shows : (i) a suber formed of cells with 
wliite flattened walls ; (2) a parenchyma of which the cells are tan- 
gentially compressed, the walls colored and with brownish contents ; 
(3) a zone constituted of numerous white fibres, very long and large, 
and cavities sometimes quite large and flattened. Beneath this is 
the liber region, the color analogous to that of the cortical paren- 
chyma, but with the medullary raj's. In this tissue are the laticifer- 
ous canals filled with a substance at times granular, at other times 
transparent, little starch, some rhomboids of oxalate. The bark 
contains the same active principles as the seeds and pseudoin- 
dican. It is employed as an anti-periodic, febrifuge and purgative. 
Shortt and Bidie employed it in remittent fever with satisfactory 
results: a tincture (i part to 5 of rectified spirit) in doses of 15 to 
18 drops during the interval of the attack is recommended. 


This genus is represented by tropical trees or shubs, frequently 
cultivated as ornamental plants. The medical properties are due to 
the latex, frequently drastic and corrosive. The barks of several 
species are employed. The Plumeria alba L., a native of the Island 
Sante Croix, now found in all the warm regions of the Antilles, 
India, the Mascarene Islands, etc., is known under the F'rench 
names Fraiigipanier blanc, Bois de lait, and the English Jasinitie-tree. 
It is the Topaiba of the Spanish, and in India is called Arali. It 
attains a height of 5 to 6 m., and bears alternate leaves and 
handsome odorous flowers. It contains an abundance of a white 
poisonous juice. 

The bark of this species in commerce is separated from the 
wood and is in very irregular strips ordinarily curved, rolled up 
or shrivelled, the length ranging from 10 to 12 cm. These 
strips are constituted of an external envelope, papyraceous, 
cartilaginous, and an internal region tougher and thicker : these 
two parts are frequently united, but more often, however, detached 
from each other. The external layer is parchment-like, ranging in 
color, reddish brown, more or less glossy, or yellow marked with 
lichens, showing a few whitish streaks and black points, and the 
leaf scars. 

The internal layer attains in old barks 3 m.m., and the inter- 
nal face more smooth and dark in young barks, is brown and 

^Varchjag"""'} The Apocynacecv in Materia Medica. i6i 

quite rugose in older barks. It breaks readily, the fracture being 
short, non-fibrous, except in the inner zone, and with white points 
rather regularly marking the brown body. In mass the odor is 
slightly acid ; taste nil near the parchment-like region, feebly pun- 
gent and bitter in the bark proper. 

The bark is purgative, alterative, depurative, and given especially 
in blenorrhagia. It may be admini-itered in a form of decoction or 
by macerating the powder in sweetened water, wine or beer. The 
remedy is often associated with other plants (Aristolochia trilobata; 
Cynosurus sepiarius, etc). It is also given in herpes, syphilis, and, 
externally, in lotions upon syphilitic ulcers. 

Phimeria riibia L. {P. flore rosco odorafissimo Tournef.; Nerium 
arboreum Sloane, etc.), the Frangipanier rouge is found in tropical 
America, Venezuela, Mexico, etc. The bark of the root is generally 
employed and greatly resembles that of the root of the P. alba, and 
is used in the same maladies as the bark of the latter species. 

The Plumeria pliagedenica Mart, occupies the valleys in Brazil, the 
indigenous name being Sebni-iiga. Heermeyer has described the 
anatomical structure of the bark [Pliarniaceiitische Post, Sept. 24, 
1893). The bark is vermifuge and drastic. 

The Plumeria drastica Mart, inhabits the Brazilian province Minas- 
Geraes, where it bears the name Tiborna. The bark is employed as 
a febrifuge, anti-icteric, drastic, etc. 

The Plumeria acutifolia Poir. {P. obtusa Lour, not L.; P. acuminata 
Roxb.) is native of America, but extensively cultivated in the Indies. 
The bark has been employed against abscess, gonorrhoea and fevers. 
The juice has been applied to carious teeth, ulcers and wounds, and 
is rubifacient and anti-rheumatic. 


The name Quebracho (pronounced Quebratcho) is applied in South 
America, especially in the Argentine Republic, to a number of trees 
of entirely different families having in common an extreme hardness 
of the wood and being very rich in tannin. Among these we may men- 
tion CcBsalpinia melanocarpa, Quebracho rouge (Leguminosse) ; the 
Machceriuiii fertile Grisb., or the Machcerium Tipa Grisb. {Tipuana 
speciosa Benth.), (Leguminosse). It may be the lodina rhombifolia 
Hook et Arn, or Quebracho flojo,z. handsome Santalaceae commonly 
known as Sombra del tor o, whose bark is sometimes mixed with that 

1 62 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {"^""vi^ch.TS,"'"' 

of the Q. bianco. The Qtiebraclio Colorado is the wood of a Terebin- 
thaceae, the Loxopterygium Lorentzii Grisb. The Quebracho Blanco 
is an Apocynaceae, the Aspidospenna Quebracho Schlecht [Macagha 
Quebraclio H. Bn.). 

The discovery of the tree known as Quebracho Blanco is due to 
Burmeister, who considered the two sorts, white and red, but two 
varieties differing simply in a few details, among others the color of 
their wood. Schlechtendal gave to the tree the name Aspidosperma 
Quebracho, but he continued the red sort under the name A. Que- 
bracho Colorado. Ten years later, Griesbach recognized in the red 
Quebracho a Terebinthaceae of the group Anacardiuin and assigned 
the name Loxopterygium Lorentzii, in honor of Professor Lorenz, of 
Cordoba. Many of the specimens arrived in Europe without spe- 
cific name or precise information as to botanic origin, leading to 
serious confusion and diverse results in clinical experiments with 
this important drug. 

All the Aspidosperma are from tropical America. The Quebracho 
abounds particularly in the Argentine Republic, and more especially 
in the district of Catamarca. It extends to the south as far as the 
north of Patagonia. The Loxopterygium seems rather to belong to 
the province of Corrientes. 

The genus Aspidosperma, Mart, et Zucc, is formed of shrubs or 
trees of tropical America with solid wood, leaves ordinarily alternate 
and with small flowers in cymes, with one or two ligneous dehiscent 
follicles, and with seeds exalbuminous and winged. 

The Aspidosperma Quebracho is an evergreen tree with very 
straight trunk, attaining the dimensions of 15 m. in height and 
I 20 metres in diameter. The branches are long and flexible, re- 
curving toward the ground, giving the tree the appearance of a 
weeping willow. The bark, the wood and the leaves are rich in 
tannin, bitter and astringent. 

The bark of Qztebracho , as collected, dried and shipped to Europe, 
appears in thick fragments, little bent, nearly flat, evidently collected 
for the most part from old plants. One writer says that the trees em- 
ployed are more than seventy years old. These fragments vary in 
thickness between ^ and 3^2 cc, and with the suber more or less 

The exterior face is very rugose, irregularly marked by deep 
fissures. The color varies, even in the same fragment, from grayish 

'*''Mi?ch.fJ95.'''"} The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. 163 

brown to yellowish -brown, fawn, brick-red, etc., the tint being dull 
and earthy. The perider, nivvhen present, is very tough and fre- 
quently bears lichens. 

The internal face is finely striated lengthwise, sometimes the 
striae are sinuous. The color of this face varies also from a steel 
gray to a much darker fawn or even distinctly rose. 

The transverse fracture is short, strongly granular and very stony; 
with a lens we see the fascicles of fibres come to the surface in the 
internal region. The vertical fracture shows these same fibres as 
small white lines. The taste is bitter but not extremely so. 

The most interesting elements in the anatomy of this bark are 
the curious fibres which it bears in great numbers, but always iso- 
lated and embedded in the ordinary parenchyma. The fibres are 
large, elongated, spindle-shaped ; the thickening very considerable 
in concentric zones and with small clear lumen. Each fibre is sur- 
rounded completely by an envelope of small cells forming a single 
layer, in which each cell contains a large rhombohedral crystal of 
calcium oxalate. 

The chemical composition is extremely complex. The first 
research was made by G. Fraude, who extracted an alkaloid, aspi- 
dospcrinine. Hesse demonstrated the presence of six alkaloids in 
this bark : Aspidosperuiine, Aspidospermatine , Aspidosamiiie, Hypo- 
guebracine, Qiicbrachine, Qiiebraclianiine, and a neutral body Que- 
bracJiol. The Aspidospermine of commerce is an indefinite mixture 
of these various bodies. Tanret thinks that some of these alkaloids 
are produced in the reactions from the others. He has extracted like- 
wise two new sugars, quebrachite and levogyre inosite. The bark 
contains also tannin and starch. According to Huchard the action 
of Aspidospermine appears to be directed especially toward the 
respiratory centre. It augments the amplitude and then the fre- 
quency of the respiration, diminishes and regulates the action of 
the heart and lowers the temperature. Outside of this action due 
to the pure Aspidospermine all the alkaloids are antithermic, but 
more especially Quebrachine ; all color the blood a vinous or cur- 
rant-red, all cause an increase in salivary, intestinal and renal secre- 
tions; all are toxic, especially Quebrachine and Hypoquebracine. 
The least toxic is Aspidospermine. They cause death by asphyxia. 

Quebracho is employed in its native country as a febrifuge, and 
according to Schikendanz, the physicians of Tucuman esteem it as 

i64 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {^'^ii^^'^xi^mh.'^' 

equal to cinchona, but this reputation has not been justified in 
Europe. As a tonic it is of less value than many European 
astringents. Its antidyspnceic action renders it especially valuable 
in asthma, emphysema and even in phthisis. 

Pao-Pereira. — This drug is the bark of Geissospermiivi Vellozit 
Fr. Allem. {TaberticEmontana Icevis Veil., Vall'esia inedita Guib., 
Vallesia punctata Spreng., Geissospermiini Iceve H. Bn.), a tree of 
tropical Brazil. It is in fiat or slightly-curved pieces, 15 to 20 centi- 
metres long, I to 5 centimetres broad and 4 to 8 millimetres in 
thickness. The external surface is reddish-yellow, more or less 
fissured, and the internal is generally formed of thin papyraceous 
layers, having a tendency to strip off. The transverse fracture is 
difficult and unequal. The odor is very slight. Taste extremely 
bitter. According to Hesse, it contains two principles, the one 
Geissospermine crystalline and the other Fereirine amorphous. It is 
recommended as antithermic, antiperiodic and tonic. 

OcHROSiA BORBONiCA. — The bark of Ochrosia borbonica Gmel. 
This tree inhabits Reunion, Mauritius, Ceylon, Java, the Mascarenes, 
etc., and is commonly known as " Yellow-woody The bark is 
ordinarily in pieces, 4 to 6 cm. long by 2 to 4 cm. wide and 2 mm. 
in thickness. 

The external surface is nearly entirely covered with greenish or 
grayish lichens, is strongly ridged and brownish in color beneath 
the lichens. The internal face is red to dark brown, striated longi- 
tudinally and with the internal layers only slightly adhering. The 
fracture is clear on the outside, unequal, but not fibrous on the 
inner layer. M. Boissard has separated from the yellow-wood a 
shining white substance, crystallizing in fine needles. This sub- 
stance, named Ochrosine, has been studied by Dr. Vinson, who 
writes it is tonic and analeptic. The bark is employed among the 
Mascarenes as tonic, stomachic and febrifuge. 

HoLARRHENA AFRiCANA. — The bark of Holarrhena africana 
A. DC, appeared in commerce under the name of African quinine 
bark and erroneously also as conessi bark. This bark is employed 
in tropical Africa, where it is known as " Gbomi," against dysentery. 
Externally it is brown or blackish gray, suberous and more or less 
covered with lichens. Internally, fawn or brownish in color, raised 
in irregular fibrous plates. Fracture coarse, but little fibrous ; odor 
slight and taste bitter. 

^"MS.Tsg""""} The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. 165 

CoNESSi Bark. — Conessi Bark or Tellichery is obtained from 
Holarrhena antidysenterica R.Br. In its native country it has a 
great reputation and is known there under the name of Codaga-pala. 
The true Holarrhena bark is in curved pieces of varying size. Ex- 
ternally it is earthy brown to a light fawn color, irregularly striated 
with oblique furrows. Internally, the striations are always longi- 

The fracture shows an external rose-colored zone, an internal zone 
with brownish striations. The bark is quite thick. As previously 
stated it is frequently substituted by products from various species 
of Wrightia, and to this is attributed the unsatisfactory results 
obtained in Europe. It is largely used in India as a remedy in dys- 
entery. The bark contains the same alkaloid as the seeds, 


Dita or Alstonia bark is obtained from Alstonia^ scholaris^ R.Br., 
which tree is very common in the forests of India. The remedy 
was introduced into Europe by Graham, in 1839, and Alexander 
Gibson, in 1853, contributed an account of the drug. The bark as 
it enters commerce is in more or less contorted fragments of vary- 
ing size, and in thickness from 4 to 12 m.m. The external face is 
frequently marked with blackish lichens and in some fragments the 
suberous portion is quite thick; the periderm is reddish-brown. 
Frequently it is marked by large transverse lines and fissures and 
leaf-scars. The internal face shows a tough grey or brownish-grey 
zone. The fracture is short, granular, porous but not fibrous and 
yellowish-white. The microscopic structure shows the suber, (where 
it remains), formed of cells very regularly piled up in series some- 
what tangentially elongated and at times with a reddish-brown con- 
tents. Immediately beneath the suber is a layer of small cells, 
nearly all of which contain a large rhombohedral crystal of oxalate. 

^The genus Alstonia was named in honor of Charles Alston, a professor of 
botany, at Edinburgh, about the middle of the last century. It consists of 
large trees with verticillate or opposite leaves, calyx without appendages, 
corolla without crown, stamens included, two carpels containing numerous 
ovules, two follicles elongated and seeds peltate and are rich in caoutchouc. 

^ The specific name scholaris was applied to this plant, because in the schools 
of India school-boards are constructed from planks of this tree, the fine 
grained wood being well adapted for such purposes. 

1 66 The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {^^il^^'Jc,, 


Beneath this the layers of cells pass insensibly into the fundamental 
parenchyma formed of irregular, sinuated cells, with walls irregu. 
larly thickened and elongated in the direction of their axes. The 
limit of the liber portions is not very distinct. The medullary rays 
traverse the parenchyma in a sinuous manner and are formed of 2 
or 3 rows of cells. The sclerotic elements are numerous and scat- 
tered throughout the external parenchyma and disappearing almost 
entirely in the liber. The laticiferous vessels on transverse section 
appear like the other cells except for their granular contents; on 
longitudinal section, they appear large and distinct. 

The first analysis of Dita bark appears to have been by Gruppe, 
who separated a bitter non-crystallizable substance, which he named 
Ditaine. Gorup Besanez, by Stass' method separated this in a crys- 
tallized condition. Hesse and Jobst succeeded in \so\2i\\x\^D it amine, 
an alkaloid, and a closely related body, Echitainine. Harnack 
obtained the Ditamine pure by crystallizing from ether under the 
name of Ditaine crystallized, and concluded that this was the only 
body present. Hesse, as a result of a later complete analysis^ 
described the following constituents, EcJiiceric acid, Ditamine (alka- 
loid), Ditaine or Echitamine (alkaloid), Echicaoutchine (amorphous 
resin), Eckiretine (amorphous neutral body), Echcerine, hchitine, 
Echiteine (non-crystallizable bodies). 

Dita bark is greatly employed as an antiperiodic in the countries 
of its production, where it is even claimed to be superior to quinine 
and, in a number of intestinal disorders, as diarrhoea and dysentery, 
it has given good results. It is recommended in debility and such 
fevers as typhoid and puerperal, and also as a vermifuge. It is a 
bitter tonic, stimulant and astringent. The powdered bark is 
administered in doses of -3 gm. to i gm., frequently associated with 
ipecac or gentian. The 10 per cent, tincture is used in doses i to 4 


The Alstonia constricta F. von Mueller {Tabeernoemontana sp. 
Mitch.) furnishes the Queensland Fever-Bark used to some extent in 
Europe. The bark in commerce appears to be from branches 10 to 
12 cm. in diameter, and is found in curved pieces varying in length 
from 20 to 30 cm. and about 12 cm. wide. The thickness varies from 
7 m.m. to 10 m.m., depending upon the development of the suber 
The external face is yellowish-gray, marked by deep fissures. The 

^"Mirch.^895"""} The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. 167 

internal face is brown, finely striated longitudinally. The fracture 
is granular, short in the periderm, and although quite fibrous in the 
internal zone, is easily broken; the color is lighter than that of the 
faces. The odor is very slight. The taste is strongly bitter, slightly 
pungent and disagreeable. Hesse has isolated from this bark the 
following alkaloids, Alstonine and Alstomdine, and Porphyrine and 
Porpliyrosine possibly alkaloidal. The analysis of Oberlin and 
Schlagdenhaufer indicates the presence of the alkaloids Alstonine 
crystallized and Alstonicine amorphous. 

Hesse attributes to Alstonidine properties analogous at once to 
those of quinine and to nux vomica. The experiments of Ban- 
croft and of Bixby prove that this drug is valuable as a tonic febri- 
fuge and more valuable as a febrifuge than as a tonic, while the 
Aistonia sc/wlris is more generally employed against dysentery. 
The A. constricta is, however, a good stimulant to the nervous sys- 
tem. As a bitter, it is comparable with gentian. It is ordinarily 
administered in powder, .5 gm. per day in syrup or in tincture 4 to 
8 cc. per day. 


The subterranean organs, with the exception of the Apocynums 
of America, are relatively unimportant. They are at times swollen 
and tuberculous, but more often the roots are ligneous and cylin- 
drical. The cortex presents the same general constitution as that 
of the stem, with usually an abundance of starch and frequently a 
diminution of the thickened elements (fibres and sclerotics). The 
oxalate and the laticiferous vessels are less abundant than in the 
stem. The pith is ordinarily absent. 

Apocynum Cannabinum. — The rhizome of the Apocynnm cafina- 
binuvi L. is commonly known as the root of the Indiam hemp of 
Canada and as Bowman's root, and also as bitter-root. These vulgar 
names have caused considerable confusion. The plant is a perennial 
3 or 4 feet high, branched with slender branches, opposite leaves, 
greenish-white corolla, follicles hanging, seeds have a tuft of silky 
white hairs at the summit. If the plant grows in the shade the 
bark is green ; if exposed to the sun it is brown. The Indians 
employed it for binding on account of its fibrous nature, and hence 
the name Indian hemp. 

The rhizome is in the fresh state 8 to 18 m.m. in diameter and fre- 
quently branched, and is quite soft. The bark is quite thick and 

1 68 The Apocynaccte in Materia Medica. { 

Am. Jour. I'haroi. 
March, 1895. 

clearly distinct from the wood. The horizontal portion is devoid of 
pith ; the other portion possesses a pith more or less developed and 
rich in latex. If collected in the spring the pith is absorbed, leaving 
a cavity. It is usually collected in the fall and cut in fragments, and 
in drying becomes hard, brittle and transversely fissured. 

Schmiedeberg has separated two bodies having a cardiac action, 
similar to Digitalis and to Strophanthus ; Apocynine-resin and 
Apocyneine a glucoside. To this drug are ascribed diuretic, diapho- 
retic, emetic, cathartic and expectorant properties. 

Apocynum Andros^mifolium L. — This plant has also a number 
of common names, some of which are identical with those applied 
to the A. cannabimini ; such as Indian hemp, bitter-root, dogs-bane, 
milk-weed, etc. It inhabits generally the same region as the latter 
and in commerce the rhizomes of the two are frequently mixed 
under the name of A. cannabmum. The rhizome is of a reddish 
color, and more contorted and generally longer and less bitter in 
taste than the latter. The anatomical structure shows no distin- 
guishing characters between the two species, and their properties 
appear identical. 

Jalapa, — The root of the Echites longiflora Desf., inhabiting por- 
tions of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine Republic is said to be 
purgative, and likewise the leaves. Anatomically the root is remark- 
able for the regularity of the arrangement of the elements of the 
wood and bark in radial rows. The names Jalapa, Yalapa and 
Yalapina are applied in the Argentine Republic to the roots of a 
number of species of Echites. 

The Madagascar Periwinkle. — The root of the Vinca rosea L. 
is yellowish, quite small and thin, with a relatively thick bark and 
yellowish wood, and v^ith numerous rootlets. The leaves and roots 
are both credited with depurative, antiherpetic and vulnerative 

Nerium Odorum. — The Neriiim odoriini Solander, considered by 
many authors as a species, is probably only a form of N. Oleander. 
It inhabits the western base of the Himalaya mountains extending 
thence to the eastern part of Persia. The root is considered the 
most active part, but the bark, stems and leaves are also used. The 
root is somewhat twisted 15 to 20 cm. in length, and 5 to 15 m.m. 
in diameter. The surface is reddish-fawn colored m places, longi- 
tudinally ridged with short nearly smooth striations ; few rootlets ; 

^^l^chirsgo""'"} The Apocynacece in Materia Medica. 169 

bark relatively very thin, frequently separated from the wood and 
formed of two zones. 

Greenish has isolated from the roots of N. odoruni two glycosides 
Neriodorine analogous to Oleandrine and Neriodoreme analogous 
with Digitaleine : the two principles are bitter and poisonous. In 
India, a decoction of the stems in oil is applied externally against 
leprosy and other cutaneous affections, and the fresh juice in 
ophthalmies. The juice is said to be strongly irritant, and caustic 
and very poisonous and used for poisonings and suicide. 

Ophioxylon Serpentinum. — The root of the O. serpentinum 
Willd., the Rauwolfia serpentina Benth., is described as quite large 
^ to 2 cm. in diameter recurved, sinuate, tapering to the extremity 
and light brown in color. The section shows a ligneous axis yellow- 
ish white and hard, and a thin brown cortex. The odor is slight, 
taste strongly bitter, disagreeable, alliaceous and nauseous. The 
cortical parenchyma is filled with starch and the laticiferous ducts 
contained are filled with a brown substance. According to the 
investigations of Prof. Wefers Bettnick the root contains a resin, a 
volatile oil, tannin and a yellow crystalline substance Ophioxylin} 

The specific name indicates the use to which it is applied in 
India against snake bites and the sting of the scorpion, being em- 
ployed internally in decoction and externally in powder. It is 
largely used as a bitter febrifuge and extensively in febrile intesti- 
nal affections : cholera, dysentery, etc. It is also recommended as 
an anthelmintic and as augmenting uterine contractions in labor. 

^ The authors of the Phannacographia Indica report examining this root and 
finding traces of alkaloid present in extracts made with petroleum ether, ether, 
alcohol and amylic alcohol, and state as follows: 

"At present we do not offer any opinion as to whether the alkaloidal princi- 
ples we have referred to in the various extracts are identical or not ; we are also 
at present unable to state whether these alkaloids are new or merely princi- 
ples which have already been described as occurring in other plants of the 
same natural order. An analysis of the root of O. serpeniinuin, by W. Bettnick, 
has been published, where no alkaloid is reported to have been found, but a 
crystalline body related to juglone. We feel convniced that the drug exam- 
ined by Bettnick was not authenticated. Prof. Eykman has recorded the dis- 
covery of an alkaloid in an Indian species ophioxylitie, and later still (1890) M. 
GreshoflF has found an alkaloid giving a veratrine reaction with Frohde's re- 
agent, thus substantiating our analysis. It is probable that as the root resem- 
bles plumbago root, Prof. Bettnick's ophioxylin was only plumbagtn.'^ 

G. M. B. 

I/O The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. {"^Varch.fs^.""' 


The wood of a number of species of apocynaceee is useful both 
in medicine and in industrial operations. Those of Africa and 
neighboring islands appear to be the most important. 

Stem of the Guachamaca. — The Maloiietia nitida Spruce, 
Guachatnaca toxifcra Grosourdy is a small tree inhabiting Vene- 
zuela. On incision there exudes from the cortex a white latex. 
The bark is the most active organ, but generally the entire branch 
is used. Externally it is reddish-gray, ridged longitudinally and 
marked by leaf scars. The bark is thin reddish, wood is reddish 
in concentric zones ; pith is small and brown. Taste is a little acrid, 
slightly astringent and not bitter. The cortical parenchyma is rich 
in resin and contains numerous groups of sclerotic elements. 

GuacJiavianine separated by Schiffer appears to approach curare 
but in action has not been sufficiently studied. 

Quebracho. — The wood of the Aspidosperma quebracho is exten- 
sively used in South America in various industries. It was exhibi- 
ted for the first time in Europe at the Vienna Exposition in 1873, 
and again at Paris in 1878. The name quebracho bianco is in allu- 
sion to the color of the wood and not to the bark. The wood con- 
tains but little tannin, and will not answer for the purpose of tan- 
ning, but is highly prized by the wheelwright and carpenter. 

Aspidosperma excelsa Benth, a tree of British Guiana known 
as " Kzr//n," has a light, elastic and solid wood, which is greatly 
used for the construction of oars. 

Aspidosperma sessiflorujn, Fr. Allem. — This wood is esteemed for 
building and carpenter-work in Brazil. The juice which exudes 
from incisions in the bark in drops, is caustic and bitter, and is pro- 
bably very toxic. It is one of the satin woods. A number of trees 
which in the Brazilian provinces are known under the names of 
Peroba or Paroba, are probably obtained from other members of the 
• genus Aspidosperma. Brazil appears to be very rich in these species, 
39 being described. From the vulgar names it is very difficult to 
determine the species. 

OuABAiA. — This arrow poison of the Somali tribe of Africa is 
prepared from the wood of an Apocynaceae. The history of 
this substance is entirely recent. In 1882, De Rochebrune and 
Arnaud examined this drug, but their investigations were inter- 
rupted by lack of material. In 1888, Arnaud isolated from 

'*'Va?ch,f89f'"} The ApocynacecB in Materia Medica. 171 

the wood brought from Oriental Africa by Revoil, a crystallized 
glucoside, Ouahai?ie, and which was proved by Gley to be a heart 
tonic. Poisson studied the botany of the plant, and showed its 
resemblance to Carissa Scliimperi, A. DC, and in the absence of 
flowers and fruit, classed it provisionally in the genus Acokanthera 
which G. Don in 1838 had separated from Carissa on account of the 
absence of spines. The plant being named Acokanthera Ouabdia, 
Poiss. In 1889, Cathelinau, as a result of microscopic study, con- 
cluded that the genus Acokanthera agreed with Carissa, with but one 
single exception. Bentham and Hooker likewise considered these 
two genera as differing but very little, and Dyer thinks they should 
be reunited. Franchet also identifies the Carissa ouabdia, with the 
C. Schimperi, A. DC., a species found in Zanzibar, among the 
Somali and in Abyssinia. Finally, M. Max Cornu reunites the 
plant with the Arduina, under the name of A. Ouabdia, M. Cornu. 

More recently Lewin has investigated the subject and distinguishes 
true Carissa, while being bitter and containing a glucoside, as 
inoffensive, while the true Acokanthera are toxic. To the three 
species A. Ouabdia, A. Schimperi, A. Deflersii, has been successively 
attributed the veritable Ouabdia. 

Acokaftthera Ouabdia, Poiss., known under the vernacular names of 
Wabet, Wabajo, Ghedulajo, according to Schweinfurth, is the accepted 
species. D. Hanbury and Holmes consider it identical with the 
A. Schimperi. It is a tree attaining a height of 5 metres and 
inhabiting that portion of the Somali country 1,000 to 1,200 metres 
in altitude. Schweinfurth states that the leaves of the plant are 
much thicker than those of A. Schimperi, and have three lateral 
nerves instead of four or five, and are of brown color. 

A. Schimperi B et H. i^Strychnos abyssinica Hochst.; Carissa Mpte 
Hochst.; C. abyssinica R. Br.; C. Schimperi A. DC.) the " Mptah," 
" Mupta," " Maktat," " Mepti," " Menbtchen," etc., occupies a large 
surface of oriental Africa to about 1,800 metres altitude. The leaves 
are entirely glabrous, shining, and flowers without odor, often rose- 

A. Deflersii Schw. This species inhabits the region in Africa 
around the Red Sea, and extends throughout Yemen in Asia at an 
altitude of 600 to 1,000 metres. According to Schweinfurth the 
leaves are rough in the lower surface, especially the midvein and 
the flowers are larger and pure white. In these three species the 
wood appears to be identical. 

172 The Apocynace(S in Materia Medica. {'^°>ii?ch.f8^*""" 

The drug is constituted of fragments of wood obtained 'rom the 
stem, but the root is equally active. They attain 3 to 5 cm. in 
diameter. The bark is i to 1-5 mm. thick, greyish yellow in color 
with silvery appearance in spots. It adheres closely to the wood, 
but the suber can be easily scratched off. Externally it is longitu- 
dinally ridged and somewhat scaly. The fracture is brownish, taste 
is peculiar and persistent. 

The wood is very hard and compact, yielding a clear, bright sec- 
tion without pores ; the concentric zones scarcely visible ; the pith 
is very small quadrangular and eccentric. The color is a pale yel- 
low and clear on fresh section, deeper ochre-yellow on old surfaces, 
and quite dense, odorless and having very little taste. Ligneous 
fibres very abundant ; the vessels are relatively few in number and 
quite small. The medullary rays consist of one or two rows of 
cells which frequently contain crystals of calcium oxalate. The de- 
coction of the wood yields a green coloration after twelve to forty- 
eight hours, which lasts for several days. A green fluorescence is 
also produced by sulphuric acid in either solutions of ouabaine or 
in decoctions of the vvood. 

Arnaud, in 1888, separated a white crystallized glucoside, the 
Ouabaine, which is inodorous and not bitter, or but very slightly so 
in comparison with the wood. Its formula differs from that oi Stro- 
phanthine by CHg. It has been found by the same chemist in the 
Strophanthus glaber of Gaboon. The wood and the root contam 
about 3 parts in 1,000. 

Lewin has separated from A. Schimperi A. DC. a product different 
from the Ouabaine of Arnaud, which he named amorphous Ouabaine. 
He likewise separated an oily substance readily solidified Carissol. 
From the bark he separated impure Ouabaine, and a very bitter, 
non-poisonous substance Carissine. 

The toxicity of the wood of the Ouabdia is demonstrated by 
usage to be the same as that of the arrow poison. For the latter 
purpose the aqueous extract is made into balls, and a small amount 
is spread on the extremity of the arrows ; 5 to 10 being suf- 
ficient to kill a rabbit. The physiological action seems to be simi- 
lar to that oi Strophanthine, only many times stronger. On the con- 
junctiva of animals it produces anesthesia, but according to Panas 
it is inactive upon the human. According to Lewin this anaesthe- 
sia of the cornea is much slower but more perfect and durable than 

'*^°ML''rch.T^f°'} The ApocynacecE in Materia Medica, 173 

that of cocaine. The Amorphous Ouabdine is toxic in the dose of 2 per kilo in the rabbit, and 3 to 5 in the pigeon. Cans- 
sol is said hkewise to be toxic. 

The extremely small dose allowable renders the employment of 
Ouabdine in medicine very difficult. Its use at present appears to be 
restricted to the treatment of whooping cough. The dose is one to 
two-tenths of a milligramme. 

Carissa xylopicron Dup.-Th. The Carissa coriacea, Wall.; the 
Bitter- Wood of Bourbon, Bois d' absinthe. The wood appears in the 
market in pieces with or without the bark, and is used in cups, etc., 
the same as the wood of Picrcena excelsa or the Ochrosia borbonica. 
The wood is of an orange or yellowish-white color, odorless, very 
bitter and a persistent aftertaste, and colors the saliva yellow. It 
has a reputation as a bitter tonic, febrifuge and stomachic and also 
as a vermifuge. 


Leaves of the Rose Laurel. — These leaves are at times opposite, 
but the more frequently verticillate in threes about the young 
branches. They are rigid, tough and coriaceous, on short petioles. 
They are lengthily lanceolate, margins entire, attenuated at both 
extremities, the point acute. The upper face is a deep green, dull ; 
the lower surface is somewhat brighter. The midvein is prominent 
with numerous very fine secondary veins. The leaves are quite acrid 
and bitter. 

According to Schmiedeberg they contain three glucosides, Nerein 
which he considered identical with Digitalein ; Neriantin and 
Oleandrin. The therapeutic action appears to be that of a heart 
tonic and more distinctly diuretic than Digitalis without accumula- 
tion, and is likewise said to be useful in dyspnoea, oedema and pal- 
pitations. It is likewise frequently used in certain cutaneous affec- 
tions as an antipsoric and parasiticide. 

Periwinkles. — The various species of Vinca that are recognized 
as interesting medicinally are Vinca minor L, V. major L., V. media 
Link et Hoffm., V. acutiflora Bertol., V. herbacea Waldst et Kit. 
These may be substituted one for the other without any great dis- 
advantage, but the two first mentioned are the most important. 
They are said to be bitter and astringent and serviceable as vul- 
neraries and are slightly laxative. They have also been recommended 
in leucorrhoea. No active principle has yet been isolated. 

1/4 The Apocynaccce in Materia Medica. { 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1895. 

Allamanda Cathartica L., all the Allamanda are energetic 
evacuants. The A. cathartica is a native of Guiana, where the 
leaves are commonly employed as a purgative. The A. Schottii 
Pohl. of Brazil has similar properties. 

EcHiTES suberecta Jacq, — A plant of the West Indies, especially 
Jamaica, and introduced into the Bahamas. Bowrey has analyzed 
the plant and isolated UrecJiitine a very toxic, crystalline glucoside ; 
Urecliitoxine, likewise a toxic glucoside, acrid and crystalline or 
amorphous. These two bodies are extremely active cardiac poisons 
and their therapeutic application does not appear permissible. The 
plant is stated to be used for criminal poisonings by the negroes. 

The leaves of the Echites bifiora Jacq. of Central America and the 
Antilles is stated to be purgative and applied topically to scrofulous 
ulcers. The leaves of Echites longiflora Desf, of the Argentine 
Republic are strongly purgative and in infusion are employed against 
haemorrhoids and used also in cataplasm. 

AspiDOSPERMA Quebracho Schlecht. — The leaves of this tree are 
verticillate in threes, deep green, lanceolate, subsessile, coriaceous, 
smooth and terminated as in many of the species of this genus by 
a sharp point. They are said to contain 27.5 per cent, of tannin 
and to be employed in the industries. 

Geissospermum Vellosii Fr. Allem. — The leaves of this plant 
are extremely bitter. They x:ontain Pereirine, but in less quantity 
than the bark and seem to be but little used. They are lanceolate, 
attenuated at the base and short petiolate and prolonged into a long 
point at the summit ; borders undulate, entire ; the surface smooth 
and shining ; greenish or brownish, brighter but less glossy beneath. 


The products formed by coagulation of the latex of the apocynaceae 
nearly all caontcJwiics, but some are true guttas.* The number of 
apocynaceae containing caoutchouc is considerable, but only in com- 

* Caoutchouc and Gutta Percha are two substances very similar, differing 
only in a few points. At the ordinary temperature Caoutchouc is elastic, Gutta 
is solid. On warming, the caoutchouc becomes adhesive, but remains elastic ; 
the gutta becomes malleable and plastic, bvrt not elastic. With prolonged 
action of heat and air caoutchouc is transformed to a sort of pitch, gutta 
becomes brittle and resinous. Ether readily dissolves caoutchouc, and is 
a poor solvent for gutta ; with oil of turpentine the solvent action is reversed. 
Sulphur combines readily with caoutchouc and but poorly with gutta. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 
March. 1895. 

•} The Apocyniacece in Materia Medica. I75 

paratively few are the products utilized or of commercial importance. 
They are, for the most part, obtained from the stems of climbing 
plants. The solidification is sometimes allowed to take place naturally, 
but generally by concentrating by exposure to the sun or by fire. 
Rapid coagulation has the advantage of preventing from the begin- 
ning injurious fermentation, which develops disagreeable odors in the 
caoutchouc and alterations, and yields a product harder, more dense 
and containing less water. Coagulation can also be produced by 
chemical means, as by acids (sulphuric, nitric, tartaric or lemon 
juice, etc.) or by sodium chloride, sea-water, alum, etc. Coagulation 
by heat is usually preferred, and during the operation it is necessary 
to strongly compress the product. 

For the most part the American caoutchoucs are excellent for 
industrial purposes ; their resistance, their toughness and their con- 
siderable hardness is much appreciated, and equatorial America 
furnishes alone the best caoutchouc for all the rest of the world. 

All the caoutchoucs of Mexico, Central America, Columbia 
Guiana, Ecuador, and likewise a large part of that from Brazil, are 
exclusively furnished by Euphorbicese (Hevea, Siphonia, etc.) or by 
Urticaceae (Castilloa, Cecropia, etc.) The Hancornia specicosa. 
Gomez is, with one or two closely allied species, the principal 
caoutchouc yielding Apocynaceae of America. It yields the varieties 
known as Pernambuco caoutchouc, Maranham Caoictchotic, and Bahia 
Caouthouc The first appears in plates varying in thickness from 
0*5 to 7 c.m., of a rose color and an efflorescence of alum on 
the surface. Its quality is very inferior to that of Para or of the 
Malay caoutchoucs. The Maranham Caoutchouc is deeper in color, 
like wine-lees, with brown marbling. The surface is smooth, non- 
efflorescent, harder and less porous, and contains less water. It is 
probably coagulated by sulphuric acid. The Bahia Caoutchouc is 
said to be produced from the variety minor of Hancornia. It is rare 
and of but little value, possessing none of the excellent qualities. 
It contains much water and foreign substance and a certain quantity 
of non-solidified latex. It is in masses or large plates, rose-colored, 
and is probably prepared by spontaneous coagulation. 

The caoutchoucs of Africa are furnished almost exclusively by 
two genera of Apocynaceae, the Vahea and the Landolfia, which 
many botanists consider under one genus. A few Ficus and some 
Asclepiadeae may produce a little of the gum elastic, but generally 

176 The Apocynacece tn Materia Medica. {^%^^^^;^'^^^."'- 

this is not appreciable and the true caoutchoucs of Africa are furn- 
ished by these Apocynaceae. The Vahea tomentosa Leprieur, 
furnishes a large proportion of the Senegal caoutchouc. The V. 
Senegalensis A. DC. likewise is said to yield a large quantity. 
These lianes are of small diameter and greatly entangled and the 
most usual method of collection is to cut them and collect the juice, 
which flows very rapidly. Each plant yields 3 to 4 kilos of caout- 
chouc. The solidification is accomplished by water containing acids 
or salt in solution. In the interior of the continent, the coagulation 
seems to be accomplished by sun heat and the product made into 
balls with ashes. This caoutchouc enters commerce generally in 
plates weighing 130 to 150 gm. blackish externally, and grayish 
within and containing a large proportion of water, or in balls, more 
highly esteemed and freer from impurities, varying from 8 to 60 gm. 
and united in groups of from 1 5 to 20, and these are of a rose 

The Landoljia Heudelotii A, DC. and the L. Owariensis Pal. de 
Beauv., are important as caoutchouc producing plants. They inhabit 
the western side of tropical Africa and the latter plant is said espe- 
cially to produce the caoutchouc from Sierra-Leone, which appears in 
balls, mostly of a slate color internally. The Landoljia florida Benth, 
occupies an altitude of 2,500 feet and is found also in Mozambique 
and is the source of a large amount of caoutchouc. The caoutchouc 
of Gaboon is undoubtedly derived from the two last-named plants. 
It appears in masses, white upon cutting, quite consistent, contain- 
ing much waterand but little foreign matters. It is readily purified 
and then remains firm and resistant. It is estimated that from the 
French colonies there is annually exported 400 tons. The Lan- 
doljia Kirkii occupies the oriental regions of Africa, especially Zan- 
zibar and Mozambique, being the "Matire" or " Mtiri " of the 
natives. It is the most important species of this region and its 
latex solidifies spontaneously so readily that artificial coagulation is 
unnecessary. The exportation of this product in 1879 WdS valued 
at 1,125,000 francs. The L. Petersiana inhabiting the same region 
is characterized by an extremely fluid latex, the coagulation being 
secured by acids or by fire. 

The caoutchoucs of Madagascar are furnished by Vahea viada- 
gascariensis Boj. V. giimmijera Lamk, and V. Cantor ensis Boj.; 
and are coagulated by acids, lemon juice being mostly used. 


^•Mi?ch:f895™-} Pineapple Cultivation. 177 

In India several species of Willughbeia are said to yield caout- 
choucs. The Alstonia scholaris, the source of Dita bark, is said to 
yield a gutta of poor quality. In the region of Inclo China a number 
of species yield caoutchoucs generally of little value. 

The only ApocynacecB of Oceanica important in this respect is the 
Urceola elastica Roxb, This plant and the Asclepiad, Calotropis 
gigantea furnish nearly all of the caoutchouc of Borneo and is like- 
wise known as white Assam caoutchouc. The Urceola is a tree 
about 10 cm. in diameter and the latex is extracted by making a V- 
shaped incision as far as the cambium. 



The question is frequently asked us : " Can pineapples be successfully gro-wn 
in Lake County?" We unhesitatingly answer, they can. Many are grown, 
but generally in small patches, here and there, of which little is known except 
to the individual growers ; yet sufficient to demonstrate the adaptability of our 
soil, and showing that with the same treatment they require elsewhere success 
is equally certain. We give below a few facts concerning the plant and the 
mode of culture in the interior of the State. 

Although the lower Indian River and Lake Worth region is the great pine- 
apple district of Florida, yet there are other portions of the State where much 
attention is now being given to pineapple culture. In the vicinity of Orlando 
the industry has probably made the greatest advancement, although possessing 
no greater natural advantages than many other portions of South Florida. The 
best results are reached in this region by growing the plants under a grating 
cover, which affords protection from occasional frosts and strong winds, and 
shuts out some of the summer sunshine. The cover is made of narrow boards 
placed a few inches apart on stringers and supported by posts at an elevation 
sufficient to allow persons to walk upright under it. The sides of the sheds on 
the north and west are weather-boarded in order to further protect the plants 
from cold winds. The cost of such sheds varies from ^300 to 550o per acre. 

Near Orlando there are three large pineries— Russell's Fairview and Modela 
Park. The latter is the largest covered pineapple iield in Florida, and probably 
the largest in the world. It contains six acres and about 6o,oco plants. 

Pineapples grown under cover average much larger in size and have a better 
flavor than those grown in plantations, and hence command a better price. 
They generally net the shipper from 15 to 30 cents each. Six thousand apples 
sold from the Fairview pinery last year brought si, 200. The suckers, however, 
produced by this pinery, which are in great demand for planting, were much 
more profitable, nearly $8, cod having been realized from their sale. 

While the pineapple ripening season in the Indian River region is from April 
to September, in interior Florida it is not strictly confined to these months, as. 

178 Pineapple Cultivation. {^VaTcii.^sg"'"* 

under cover, the flowering, and hence the fruiting of the plant, can be to some 
extent controlled. There is hardly a month in the year when ripe apples 
cannot be picked from the covered pineries. Grounds bordering lakes are 
favorite pinery sites. The plant requires frequent fertilizing to insure good and 
large fruit. Cotton seed meal is considered one of the best fertilizers for pine- 
apple plants. 

A few facts concerning the pineapple plant botanically considered may add 
interest to this article. Not many years ago many people who had not studied 
the subject thought that it was a parasite growing on pine trees, and that the 
fruit was grown in its aerial position. This idea may be accounted for by the 
fact that the fruit resembles the pine cone (it was so named from this resem- 
blance), that the pineapple belongs to the botanical family, Bromillaceae, of 
which the long moss is a member, and that botanists say that all plants of this 
family are capable of "living on air alone." The pineapple plant has long, 
serrated, sharp-pointed rigid leaves, springing from the root of the plant, and 
from the centre of the leaf cluster a short flower stalk growth, bearing a single 
spike of flowers and a single fruit. In the development of the fruit each flower 
and the bract accompanying it become thickened and fleshy, and this causes 
a crowding or growing together of the mass forming a single fruit covered with 
berr3--like projections — the withered tips of the remaining petals. It is these 
petal tips that give the fruit the appearance of being covered with eyes. The 
plant grows to the height of from three to five feet. 


This compound has attracted considerable attention in France ; a formula 
for its preparation was given in this journal, 1894, p. 383. 

A number of forms for its administration have been suggested, of which 
the following appear to have the preference : 

Solution of Calcium Phosphoglycerate. 

Calcium phosphoglycerate 10 grammes. 

Distilled water sufl&cient to make 1,000 cc. 

Dissolve and filter. 

The solution is not entirely clear, but may be made so by the addition of 
a trace of citric acid. 

Syrup of CalciiiDi Phosphoglycerate. 

Calcium phosphoglycerate 10 grammes. 

Citric acid i gramme. 

Granulated sugar 610 grammes. 

Water 340 " 

The salt and acid are dissolved in the water, the sugar is added and dis- 
solved without heat; the product weighs about 950 grammes, which may be 
brought to the weight of 1,000 grammes by the addition of syrup of orange. 

-^^Va^ch.fsa?""'} Editorial— Reviews. 179 



The editor of the Medical News (February 9, 1895) comments as follows : 

In contrast with the efforts on the part of some members of the American Medical 
Association, as representative of the medical profession, to exorcise certain salutarj- restric- 
tions from the code of ethics, are the numerous indications of a disposition on the part of the 
dental profession to elevate its standard both ethically and educationally. While certain men 
in the medical profession look upon nostrums with indifference, if not with encouragement, 
the dentists are discussing measures for the suppression of unethical practices of all kinds. 

The foregoing remarks refer to the indiscriminate use of various cocaine 
preparations for the relief of diseases of the teeth and gums, the manufacturers 
claiming in most cases that the preparations are harmless. 

It is suggested that dentists and physicians might well join hands in an 
eflfort to enact and enforce salutary legislation. 

As pharmacists, let us ask ourselves how we stand in this matter. Are we 
endeavoring to get out of this slough, or are we to remain the tool of the nos- 
trum manufacturer ? 


This is a subject which, sooner or later, is bound to effect everj'^ pharmacist, 
but whether it will interest him pecuniarily or not cannot at present be deter- 
mined. He must either furnish the various substances used in this form of 
medication, or lose his prestige as a purveyor of remedies. The present indi- 
cations are that the various serums will be sold in original packages, in which 
case probably no skill will be required to dispense them, and we may see them 
offered for sale, very much as patent medicines are now, by any one who 
chooses to sell them ; or, as is usually the case with vaccine virus, the physi- 
cian may prefer to supply himself directly from the manufacturer, in which 
event it may be safely predicted that the latter will offer every inducement. 

That pharmacist who has a knowledge of bacteriology will be in abetter posi- 
tion to intelligently judge such serums as may be required of him, than his 
less fortunate brother who has no knowledge of the use or value of his 


BuLi^ETiN Voiv. II, No. 2. College of Agriculture, Imperial University of 

No. I of this bulletin was noticed in this Journal (1894, p. 412), and the 
leading article in this number is the continuation of the subject, "The Energy 
of Living Protoplasm," by Dr. Oscar Loew. The author presents some inter- 
esting theories concerning the formation of proteids in plant cells, he adds 
many facts in support of his theory of active albumen, and thinks this theory 
has reached the stage when men say there may be something in it. 

The other papers in this number are: "On the Vegetable Cheese, Natto," 
and " On the Poisonous Action of the Hydroxy 1-derivations of Benzol upon 
Yeast and Bacteria," by K. Yabe ; "On the Quantity of Wood-gum {xylan^ 
Contained in Different Kinds of Wood," by J. Okumura; "On the Reserve 
Protein in Plants," by G. Daikuhara; "On the Occurrence of Mucin in 

i8o Reviews. {^Va?ch:{m"- 

Plants," and "Mannane as a Reserve Material in the Seeds of Diospyros Kaki, 
L.," b}' J. Ishii; " Mannane as an Article of Human Food," by C. Isuji. 

Les Tabacs et Toubekis Grecs. Rapport Presents; au Congres 
International DE Chemie Appliquee (Bruxelles 4-10 Aout 1894.) Par 
A. K. Dambergis. Athens, 1894. 

The foregoing report to the International Congress of Technical Chemists held 
at Brussels, August, 1S94, treats of Grecian tobacco from a chemical standpoint. 
We find that Greece is, to a certain extent, a producer of tobacco for many of 
the other European countries, the exports in 1893 amounting to 2,597,740 
kilos. The results of the chemical analyses of the tobacco from the various 
Grecian provinces are tabulated in an instructive manner. 

The Pharmacology of Cola Acuminata. Third edition of Parke, Davis 
& Co.'s "Working Bulletin," on the subject of Kola. One object of this 
bulletin is to show that Kola is by no means a new remedy. It contains two 
•well-executed colored plates and much valuable information, but we are still 
looking for something more recent, concerning the chemical constituents and 
therapeutic action of this drug, than the motiograph of Heckel and Schlagden- 

Sweet Cassava ; its Culture, Properties and Uses. By Harvey W. 
Wiley, Chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 44. 

Obituary Notice of John M. Maisch. By Charles S. Dolley, M.D. 
Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 7, 1894. This con- 
tribution is especially valuable, as it gives a complete list of Professor Maisch's 
contributions to science. They number over 250, and extend from the year 
1854 to within a few months of his death. 


NoTiz UBER DIE Pereirorinde VON O. Hesse. Reprints from Liebig^s 

Resolutions adopted by the closing meeting of the VIII International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography, held at Budapest, September 9, 

The Shaw Gas Tester for Detecting the Presence and Percentage 
OF Fire Damp and Choke Damp in Coal Mines, etc. By Joseph R. 
Wilson. A paper read before the Federated Institution of Mining Engineers 
at the Annual General Meeting, Newcastle-on-Tyne, September 5, 1894. 

Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Con- 
taining the papers read before the College from January, 1894, to December, 
1894, inclusive. Philadelphia. 1894. 

Boyd's Business Directory of Philadelphia for 1895. Published by 
C. E. Howe & Co., southwest corner Eighth and Locust Streets, Philadelphia. 

The Calendar of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

Warner's Therapeutic Ready Reference Book for Physicians. 
Philadelphia. W. R. Warner & Co. 1895. 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
March, 1895. 

Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



PHiLADEt,PHiA, February 19, 1895. 

The meeting was called to order by appointing Prof. F. G. Ryan Chairman. 
On motion the reading of the minutes was dispensed with. 

The Registrar announced that there had been received as donations since the 
last meeting the following works: 

Les Drogues Simples d'Origine Vegetale, by MM. Planchon and Collin. 
From Octave Doin. 

Bastm's Laboratory Exercises. From W. B. Saunders. 

Extent and Character of Food and Drug Adulterations. Proceedings of the 
Eleventh Annual Convention of the Association of Official Agricultural 
Chemists. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

U. S. Consular Reports for 1894. 

U. S. Civil Service Commission. Tenth Annual Report. 

U. S. Bureau of Education. 

Mr. L. F. Kebler read some notes on beeswax and various adulterations ; 
■conspicuous among the variations are those of the specific gravity and acid 
numbers; the principal contaminations being parafBn and earthy materials, 
the latter to make its specific gravity nearer to normal. When paraflSn is used 
to any large extent, the surface of the mixture will always show a concavity of 
marked character. 

Petrolatum was also reported on and he had examined nine samples, but one 
of them was closely within the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. Where 
vegetable or organic matter was the contaminant, the French chemists relied 
upon a saturated solution of permanganate of potassium, used in the proportion 

1 82 Pharmaceutical Meeting. {'"Va^cb.Vs'is.""' 

of 5 drops of the solution to 5 grammes of the suspected article ; they should 
be thoroughl)' triturated in a glass or porcelain mortar ; if the petrolatum is 
uncontamiuated with organic matter the color remains as normal, but in the 
presence of organic matter it turns chestnut-brown. 

Rock candy syrup was also reported on. This is generally thought to be the 
residue from the manufacture of rock candy, evaporated to a proper consistence. 
Samples that had been examined showed considerable variation, some contain- 
ing notable amounts of uncrystallizable sugar. Some manufacturers make it 
from granulated sugar by solution in water and bringing it to the specific grav- 
ity of I '32. One manufacturer claimed that he used i ounce of salicylic acid 
in 500 gallons of syrup. 

A label cabinet of neat and thorough workmanship was exhibited. The design, 
as shown b)'^ the accompanying figure, is novel and well calculated to answer 
the object for which it was designed ; the drawer is divided from front to back 
with strips of wood, making spaces slightly wider than the labels. A ribbon of 
nickel-plated metal, the exact width of the divisions, is secured to the front of 
the drawer and made into curves slanting from the top of the front of the 
drawer all the wa}' to the back, so that the labels lie at an angle of nearly 45° 
to the bottom of the drawer. This enables one to take any label out of its 
appropriate place with great ease. Screws are arranged by which any shrink- 
age of the wood may be taken up very readily and exactly. 

The question of methods to prevent accidents in dispensing prescriptions was 
brought up for discussion. The general opinion was that no mechanical con- 
trivance could be relied on to prevent mistakes. Constant vigilance is the only 
method to avoid errors. 

Dr. Miller .said it was his rule to insist upon the patient's name being placed 
upon the prescriptions, and if for external use it be also indicated in the direc- 
tions to be placed on the label. 

There being no further business, on motion adjourned. 

T. S. Weigand, Registrar. 


C. Uffelmanu and A. Borner {Zeit. fiir angewand. Chetnie, 23, 710, through 
Analyst, 20, 42) have analyzed ten samples of Kola nut, varying in price from 
$1 to 1:5 per pound, with the following average results : 

Per Cent. 

• Water i3'35 

Total nitrogen 1*53 

Caffeine (including theobromine) 2'o8 

Ethereal extract i'35 

Starch 45'44' 

Tannin 379 

Cellulose 701 

Other non-nitrogenous matter 18*21 

Mineral matter 2-90 

In spite of the great difference in price, the different specimens showed 
great similarity in composition. 







APRIL, i8g5. 



By Joseph P. Remington. 

Pharmacy must advance ; with the extraordinary growth in the 
general educational field, with the striking progress which has char- 
acterized the methods of imparting pharmaceutical knowledge in the 
last decade, and with the absolute necessity of higher and more 
thorough education of those who enter the ranks, it must be appar- 
ent to all that the college which fails to come up to its full measure 
of the demands made upon it by the ever-widening and rapidly- 
growing sphere of action, must fall behind ; on the other hand, the 
institution which pushes recklessly forward so far in advance that it 
cannot carry with it the main body, will soon find itself lost in the 
clouds and its usefulness greatly impaired, if not irretrievably 
ruined. Without a progressive element in a college, destruction is 
certain; without wise foresight and accurate judgment with the 
restraints imposed by the conditions of its clientele, serious damage 
is equally certain. 

The success of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy must be 
attributed in the past to the wisdom of those who have, during the 
last seventy- five years, guided its destinies. In its early history, in 
the day of small things, a total class of twenty students was 
regarded as a great encouragement ; when, in the course of time, its 
income exceeded its expenses; when, more than this, the college 
proved to its faithful sponsors that it was fulfiling its mission, and 
when, finally, it became the recognized centre of pharmaceutical 


1 84 Educational Development. {'^"Aprii'isaJ"""' 

education in America, there arose indications which seemed to show 
that some of its friends beheved that it had reached the acme of its 
development and influence. But fortunately in this crisis, the 
majority of those in control clearly grasped the possibilities of the 
future, realized that there could be no such thing as resting 
upon the record of the past, but that more labor and greater achieve- 
ments must be the order of the day, and a backward step was not 
to be thought of. If this brief review of the past is correctly por- 
trayed, it must be apparent to all that the same conditions prevail 
now, with the exception that they are at present greatly magnified. 

The colleges of pharmacy throughout the United States were 
founded and have been successfully developed with mainly one 
object in view, i. e., the fitting of the younger members of the pro- 
fession for their duties as practical pharmacists, and this must 
always continue to be the first consideration ; but the standard of 
the qualifications of the practical pharmacist will probably always 
remain to be a subject which admits of diversity of opinion. There 
are those who hold that the graduate should be an accomplished 
chemist, an expert botanist, well grounded in mathematics and the 
languages, and that too much education is beyond the reach of 
possibility ; on the other side, there are those who maintain that 
such accomplishments unfit the graduate for properly performing 
his routine of duties — indeed, some going so far as to say that one 
so highly educated is placed upon a plane far beyond the needs of 
his position, and is, in fact, made dissatisfied with his lot as a prac- 
tical pharmacist, and thus such knowledge literally educates a man 
out of the business, such a scholar is useless behind the dispensing 

Between these extreme views lies the truth. The education 
which, ten years ago, would have been considered ample to fit the 
pharmacist perfectly for his daily work is totally inadequate for the 
demands of to-day ; for, as that most pungent writer of his time, 
Carlyle, puts it : " The goal of yesterday is but the starting-point of 
to-morrow." One has but to consider the enormous additions to 
our materia medica, the flood of synthetic remedies which must be 
intelligently dispensed, and the practice of the modern, but much 
abused, elegant pharmacy. 

It is easy to fix a standard, and a college catalogue may teem 
with requirements which, upon paper, seem very alluring to the 

Am. Jour. Pharru. 

Ap^rif.'ilg'^"'"'"'} Educational Development. 185 

advocate of the highest culture ; but even if the ambitious aspirant 
has succeeded in reaching such a dizzy height, the question may 
well be asked : " Will the possessor of such rare accomplishments 
ever condescend to accept service in a pharmacy ?" In the present 
condition of the drug business, it must be admitted that there are 
many other fields of activity which will promise a far better pecuni- 
ary return for such a gifted individual, but it must be acknowledged 
that too little education is far worse than too much. The " rule-of- 
thumb " druggist who sneers at the college-bred man, and says he 
can "learn" his boys more in a month than the college can in a 
year, has his own standard, and it must be a cause of rejoicing for 
all well-wishers of pharmacy that this man's, power for evil is dying 
just in proportion as the cut-rate evil is progressing. His standard 
is the mercantile one, and what is he in the drug business for, if it is 
not solely to sell drugs ? 

But, leaving this unpleasant individual, let us turn to the means 
of training outside of the colleges — the education of the shop. There 
are yet thousands of conscientious preceptors who do not consider 
the assistants in their employ as mere money-getting machines for 
them, but view them as fellow-creatures, who will soon be called 
upon to assume the same responsibilities that they themselves are 
grappling with, who realize that the profession, of which they them- 
selves are honored members, must advance, and that the assistant 
of to-day must perforce start, theoretically, at least, where the pre- 
ceptor left off; and that, while in his time, three hours a week at 
college, with such stolen opportunities from daily routine of shop 
duties as could be snatched, saw him through college, that "tcmpora 
mutantur, et nos niutamnr in illis ;" and it must be remembered that 
all of our colleges of pharmacy owe to these men a debt which can 
never be adequately discharged. 

It is unfortunate that, at the present time, an effort is being made 
by some pharmaceutical writers to ignore the value of shop exper- 
ience, and to insist that the college degree should be conferred 
before any such experience is acquired. The principal reason upon 
which this action is based is that the college has no adequate means 
of judging of the value of this shop experience, and that many stu- 
dents present certificates, which attest to the requisite number of 
years in the drug business, but which cannot afford any criterion of 
the preceptor's fitness to give valuable instruction in pharmacy. 

1 86 Educational Development. {'^'"apXiss!;"'"' 

While these facts are in a measure true, and there does not seem to 
be in sight at present any better way than to compel each candidate 
for the degree to present a duly witnessed and attested certificate 
of time served, it must be plain that the practical examinations 
which the college compels the candidate to pass, can be made to 
measurably reflect the teachings of the preceptor ; and it would 
seem to be illogical and unwise to graduate students and declare 
them to be fitted to fulfil their duties as practical pharmacists when 
they have never had a d^'s experience in a pharmacy. 

Shall the work of the good preceptor count for nothing, because 
of the incompetence of some ? Can a man serve four years in a 
drug store and learn absolutely nothing ? And is it possible for one 
who has never served a day behind the counter, and yet passed a 
successful examination, to be expected to equal in efficiency one who 
has served four years and, in addition, had his college education and 
passed his examination besides ? Has the time come for the col- 
leges to throw away this immense advantage which the pharma- 
ceutical student possesses over all other professional students, of 
actually practising pharmacy, either before he comes to college or 
after he has entered it ? Is not the diploma of a college, which 
requires this practical experience before graduation, far more valu- 
able in securing for its possessor a remunerative position, than one 
which grants its diploma to those who never had a day's actual 
experience ? If it has been the misfortune of a student to have 
served his time with a careless or incompetent preceptor, it should 
be the duty of the college to repair the loss as far as possible, and 
every well-equipped college has in its laboratories the means of at 
least measurably overcoming such a misfortune ; but for the college 
to ignore the value of actual practice in the shop is to throw away 
an advantage of the first importance. The work of the preceptor 
and the college labors of the students should go hand in hand, and 
what better way can be devised of keeping the college work in 
touch with the daily duties of the shop, than the conferences which 
should be held continually between master and assistant ? The 
preceptor gains greatly ; the new points which have been developed 
since he sat on the benches at college, are discussed and possibly 
illustrated and amplified to the edification of both, whilst the effect 
upon the student, upon finding a willing helper and a sympathetic 
adviser in his daily work, is of incalculable benefit. Surely the best 

^'^Ap^\-JsT'^'} Educational Development. 187 

interests of pharmaceutical education lie in the direction of building 
up these relations between the preceptor and the assistant, and every 
effort should be made on the part of the college to foster the inter- 
est and influence of such a preceptor. Because same preceptors 
neglect their privilege and duties, does this constitute sufficient 
grounds for the college to ignore the work of all ? When the point 
has been reached (and it is sincerely hoped that such a misfortune 
will never occur), when an able preceptor's work is counted as nothing, 
or. worse than useless, then may we look for the decadence of 
American pharmacy. 

But what shall be said of the druggist who never gives his assistant 
the slightest training ; whose business is limited strictly to merchan- 
dising ; who gives nothing, yet takes all; whose object is to pay his 
assistant the lowest salary and exact the utmost amount of labor 
possible ? A moment's time spent by the assistant in examining a 
drug, testing a chemical or making a preparation, is regarded as a 
serious fault ; kept on the move all day long, deprived of sufficient 
time to even digest his food properly, and then compelled to rush 
off to his lectures with his mind and body in a condition of exhaus- 
tion, he is surely an object to excite commiseration and arouse indig- 
nation. The trifling pecuniary consideration which" drug clerks 
usually receive is always admitted to be offset by the much more 
important factor of the personal training of the preceptor, and 
when this part of the contract is shown to be valueless, is it any 
wonder that the assistant turns to the college and demands that it 
shall supply the knowledge which is lacking ? If the preceptor is 
unable to properly train his assistant, through lack of knowledge or 
press of business, he should be more than willing to furnish him 
with the opportunity to qualify himself elsewhere. 

Philadelphia has long been noted for the large number of her 
well-educated pharmacists. It was here that the first educational 
institution for teaching pharmacy was established ; necessarily, the 
influence of this school was at first local. Gradually, but surely, the 
desire for education grew ; the little knot of enthusiastic devotees 
increased. The graduates of the college soon became proprietors 
of drug stores ; these, realizing the great benefits that they had 
derived from their college education, with a true spirit that they 
were engaged in a liberal profession, were glad to offer to their 
assistants the privileges that they themselves had enjoyed, and in 

Am. .lour. I'harni. 

1 88 Educational Development. {^'"apXi^Jhs' 

this way the scope of its usefulness was extended. In the course of 
time the work of the college attracted the attention of the lovers of 
progress outside of the city and the State, and before many years it 
became apparent to all, that provision must be made for the needs of 
students who were eager to avail themselves of its courses of 

Many of those who came had already served the necessary four 
years In the drug business, and necessarily desired to employ their 
whole time, during their sojourn in the city, in their college work. 
To accommodate these, laboratories were established, largely 
through the efforts of the Alumni Association, and this work was 
successful from the beginning. Students who were employed in 
city stores, realizing the advantages that the laboratories afforded, 
applied for admission, and these soon became taxed to their utmost 

Up to this time such instruction was optional, but the Board of 
Trustees, being thoroughly convinced of the value of laboratory 
work, decided that all candidates for the degree should possess such 
knowledge. This did not necessarily compel students to attend the 
laboratories, but as a matter of fact the great majority knew that 
they could obtain this knowledge far more thoroughly at the college 
than elsewhere. As the methods of teaching gradually developed 
and improved, it soon became apparent that the student could 
obtain far more valuable instruction in certain branches by making 
preparations and conducting experiments himself, than by seeing 
such performed by the professors on the lecture table. The enlarge- 
ment of the laboratories necessarily followed, until, at the present 
time, there are three in successful operation, the last one to be 
established being devoted to the practical study of pharmacognosy 
and microscopy. 

The college has undoubtedly reached such a period in its devel- 
opment that it must be recognized that more time must be required 
of the student if he wishes to thoroughly grasp and assimilate the 
vastly-augmented accumulations of facts which modern pharmacy 
demands. It might be supposed, from a superficial view of the sit- 
uation, that more intense application on the part of the student dur- 
ing two years of college life would meet the requirements, but the 
experience of our universities, particularly those devoted to the 
study of medicine, during the Ust decade has demonstrated beyond 

^^"'Av^n:Fm"^'] Educational De%>elopvient. 189 

question that nothing short of an extension of the courses will 
answer the imperative demands of the hour; for the student, en- 
gaged in a drug store while attending college, there can be no 
other alternative. Our medical schools, that formerly regarded 
courses of lectures extending over two years sufficient, now require 
a four years' course, and pharmacy owes it to herself to keep pace 
with medicine. The Board of Trustees of the College unanimously 
decided to extend the time for college attendance to tliree full 
courses, extending over as many years, and this requirement will go 
into effect with the beginning of the course in October, 1895. 

This extension will enable the student not only to become more 
thoroughly grounded in the subjects which are a part of the curri- 
culum, but will permit of the extension of the instruction in the 
direction of more advanced subjects, as well as those eminently prac- 
tical. This action of the Board was not taken hastily, but was under 
serious contemplation for a number of years. Another step which 
has been contemplated for a still longer time, and which will also go 
into effect, is the granting of the degree of " Doctor in Pharmacy " 
to all who successfully complete the three years' course and pass 
the final examination. 

The subject of granting the degree of Doctor in Pharmacy is by 
no means a new suggestion ; it is true that the proposition was 
thoroughly considered twenty-two years ago by the conference of 
teaching colleges. The Philadelphia College, at this conference, 
while not disapproving of granting such a degree, felt that the time 
was not ripe, and the instruction then given did not justify the 
change then proposed. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was 
adopted by this College at the beginning of its career, when oppo- 
sition to the establishment of the institution came from the physi- 
cians of Philadelphia who were interested in the work of the medical 
schools. It must be admitted that the founders of the College of 
Pharmacy acted wisel}'at the time, but since then the term "doctor" 
has outgrown the limited meaning which it then had, and has come 
to be recognized in many professions as the proper title to be 
bestowed upon a graduate of any professional college. 

With the inauguration of the course extending over three years, 
with its added requirements and responsibilities, and the system of 
examinations at the end of each term, it is believed that such action 
is thoroughly justified. Pharmacy as a profession has, in the past, 

190 Distilled Water. {^""Ap'rii'.'iss!;""'" 

not received the reeognition from the public which it has deserved. 
The colleges of pharmacy, without exception, have been maintained 
solely through the efforts of pharmacists themselves ; we rarely or 
never hear of endowments or bequests from the general public to 
assist in their development. Public-spirited and self-sacrificing 
members of the pharmaceutical profession have freely contributed 
their services and their money for the buildings ; carrying on the 
work, the students who have come for instruction have furnished 
the means for their support. It is true the latter have always 
been given an equivalent, and has not the time come when Phar- 
macy shall demand that recognition from the public which is her 
right ? 

The legislatures of our various States have recognized the princi- 
ple that the pharmacist must be not only thoroughly educated in 
his profession, but must possess qualities which surely place him 
upon a professional plane ; and is it not true that the people respect 
those who respect themselves ? And while it is true that millions 
of great and good men have gone before, " untitled and unwept," 
and that titles alone do not make men, the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy believes that the time has come when it should give an 
education which shall command respect, and a title which will be 
recognized by the public as equivalent to that offered by other 
professional schools of no higher degree. 


By J. U. Li<OYD. 

Water condensed from the steam of boilers that are used as the 
source of mechanical power is usually contaminated with oil. This 
oil comes both from the exhaust steam water of the engine, which is 
usually returned to the boiler, and in some cases, additionally, from 
the substances used to prevent boiler incrustation, among which 
crude petroleum is often employed. In the latter case the water 
obtained from the condensed steam may contain large quantities of 
oil, amounting, perhaps, to enough to coat its surface with a film of 
grease. In either case, under the most favorable conditions, the 
water procured from such a source will not, in my experience, con- 
form to the Pharmacopoeial requirements for distilled water, neither 
can it well be used to make official distilled water. 

Am. Jour. Pharm.') 
April, 1895. J 

Distilled Water. 



A. Stoneware worm. 

B, B. Stoneware head and arm. 
C C. Water gauges. 

D. Steam coil for boiling the water. 

E. Stop-cock for emptying the still. 

F. Copper flange, connecting with stone head. 

G. Three-way glass stop- cock. 
H. Stoneware receiver. 

/. Stoneware stop-cock. 

192 Distilled Water. {^'^i^r^-J^h"'^- 

According to the U. S. P., " Water" that will conform to certain 
tests is to be used in preparing distilled water. Persons in more 
favorable positions than Cincinnatians may, perhaps, obtain water of 
this condition of purity from natural sources. However, those situ- 
ated as is the writer of this paper cannot hope to attain this desid- 
eratum without previous manipulation, as the following statements 
will show : 

(1) Persons dependent upon surface drainage, such as supplies 
rivers like the Ohio, realize that quantities of mud are present in its 
waters during most of the year. This mud is mostly clay and sand, 
but associated therewith are to be found considerable amounts of 
organic matters. Thus it is impractical to obtain the ofificial water 
from the water works of cities dependent upon such sources of sup- 
ply, as is the city of Cincinnati. 

(2) The ice of the glacier period is supposed to have scraped out 
the valley of the Ohio about Cincinnati, and also the tributaries such 
as the Miami River (just above) and Mill Creek (just below) the city, 
dumping into them great beds of sand and gravel, often to a depth 
of several hundred feet. These are reservoirs for unlimited amounts 
of water (driven well water), but beneath the city of Cincinnati this 
stratum is impregnated with sewage to such an extent as to render 
it impractical as a source of " Water." 

(3) Then, beneath the gravel alluded to, is found the limestone 
formation through which artesian wells are sunk until at a depth of 
about 1,800 feet from the surface, the carboniferous formation is 
passed and saline water (artesian water), strongly impregnated with 
hydrogen sulphide, rushes to a height of several feet above the surface 
of the ground. This water is so strongly contaminated with sulphur 
compounds as to blacken the lead paint for a great distance about 
each well, and is seemingly out of the question as a source of dis- 
tilled water. 

Thus it is that, notwithstanding its impurities, we must naturally 
depend upon the water of the Ohio River, which is practically iden- 
tical with the water upon which most of our river towns depend. 
It follows that, in order to make distilled water, we must, to be 
exact, purify the natural water at our command as a preliminary 
step, for it does not meet the U. S. P. requirements for water ; but 
I take it that this precaution is unnecessary if the natural water, 
regardless of impurities, can be employed to make a product (dis- 

^""aptuJU.^"'-} Distilled Water. 193 

tilled water) that will meet the official requirements. This point, so 
far as I know, has not been commented upon in print, with the 
water under consideration. 

In order to determine if this is possible on a small scale, a half 
gallon glass retort, with a bent neck, was connected with a Liebig 
condenser. The connections were not luted, being made by means 
of corks, every endeavor being taken to avoid grease or soluble 
organic matter. 

A preliminary charge of water was first distilled in order to 
insure the cleanliness of the apparatus and the connections, after 
which the pharmacopceial requirements were followed. Upon 
applying the most rigorous tests of the Pharmacopoeia, no impurity 
could be detected in the reserved portions of the product. 1 The 
permanganate test resulted in but a slight decrease in the shade of 
pink, and after standing for ten hours, loosely tied over with 
two thicknesses of tissue paper, every fraction maintained its per- 
manganate coloration. This demonstrated that the water of the 
Ohio River at the time of these investigations (February and March, 
1895), if employed after the method prescribed by the Pharma- 
copoeia, will produce official distilled water. On a small scale it can 
therefore be practically produced by means of any suitable distilla- 
tory device. 

Next, an attempt was made to determine whether it is necessary 
to adhere strictly to the Pharmacopceial requirements as to detail. 
After suspending the operation in the evening, the exit of the con- 
denser was plugged with absorbent cotton and allowed to rest over 
night. Next morning the retort was charged and distillation con- 
tinued, the products being fractioned into successive portions of lOO 
c.c. each, until nearly the entire contents of the retort had been 
recovered. These successive fractions were tested and each fraction 
was found to conform to the Pharmacopoeia, even the first fraction 
withstanding the permanganate test. 

While, therefore, the Pharmacopoeia wisely provides that the first 
fraction of distillate (one-tenth) be thrown away, it is seen that, 
with clean connections and proper apparatus, every portion of the 

^ Upou evaporation in clean glass vessels, however, visible rings resulted, 
•which, although too slight to respond to weight, were perceptible. Further 
report will be made on this point in the future. 

194 Distilled Water. {■^Vpri'uisga^'"'" 

distillate withstood the requirements of the authority under consid- 

TJie various specimens of water were next subjected to more rigid 
tests than those Pharmacopoeial (including Nessler's test also), and 
were found to maintain their records for purity. After boiling ten 
minutes with the permanganate, they were allowed to stand, tied 
over with tissue paper, for several days and under different expos- 
ures, without destruction of the pink coloration. Reference only is 
made to this fact now, as it is the intention to give detail test results 
at a future day. 

The foregoing points having been determined in a general way, 
an endeavor was next made to obtain pure distilled water on a large 

A chemical stoneware worm was made to order by the Doulton 
Pottery, London. It was i inch bore and 42 feet in length, all in 
one piece. To this a stone arm, connected with a stone head, was 
attached, thus providing that every portion of the surface touched 
by the condensed water should be of material unaffected by water. 
The head referred to sat loosely in a copper flange upon the apex 
of the lengthened exit of a new copper still. All connections were 
closed by absorbent cotton, no cement being employed. 

The still was constructed of copper, being designed after the plan 
adapted for the concentration of such extractives as I do not wish 
to evaporate to dryness. In this case, instead of the usual false 
bottom for the steam jacket, a copper coil is thrown three times 
around the inside of the still, the lower line being one-tenth the 
space above the bottom of the still. Thus, with an extract or resin 
it is not necessary to watch the still constantly, for when the liquid 
contents are evaporated to the lower line of the coil, further evapo- 
ration ceases. All danger of injury by caking of the residue through 
forgetfulness is thereby overcome. The exit of the stone worm, in 
the present case, was provided with a three-way glass stop cock, one 
terminal being attached to a 25-gallon chemical stoneware jar, closed 
at the top and provided with a stone stop-cock at the bottom. The 
other terminal of the stop-cock was intended to divert the first 
portions of the distillate in case continuous distillation was found to 

^ After this paper was written, the Chemiker-Zeitung , No. 15, February 20, 
1895, reached me, with description of a patented apparatus for making distilled 

^'^Aprn.i^r'"} Distilled Water. 195 

be impracticable. This, in general, describes the apparatus — shown 
in greater detail by the accompanying drawing — the comparison 
with the figure beside it showing the relative size of the various 
parts of the device. 

First, a charge of 15 or 20 gallons of water was distilled in order 
to completely cleanse the apparatus. The first part of the distillate 
was found to be contaminated with oil that came from the new 
water-pipe connections through which the still was fed. Upon 
thoroughly cleansing them, however, no further trouble of this 
description was experienced. Finally, the water passed transparent, 
colorless and odorless, and was found to conform in every way to 
the requirements of the Pharmacopceia, excepting the matter 
referred to in note i, p. 193. ByNessler's test no trace of ammonia 
could be detected. 

Thus it was shown conclusively that the water of the Ohio River, 
at the time these investigations were made, would readily produce 
official distilled water. Not only did the large still, when operated 
according to the official method, produce water of a quality to meet 
the exactions of the U. S. P., but it does so by continuous distilla- 
tion, regardless of fractionation, and it retains its quality from the 
first to the last part of a charge. 

In considering, furthermore, the conditions necessary to insure 
reliable test returns, it is scarcely necessary for me to state that the 
reagents were exceptionally pure and free from dust, and were dis- 
solved in pure, distilled water. The vessels employed to hold them, 
and the water-bottles as well, were previously cleaned with both 
caustic potash solution and sulphuric acid, and all subsequent finger- 
mark contaminations were carefully avoided. 

The water operated upon contained 0022 per cent, of solid mat- 
ter, and the residue taken from the still after the operation deposited 
a heavy layer of yellow mud. 

To persons convenient to clean, natural water, such a report as 
this may seem unnecessary, but to those who realize the necessity 
in this neighborhood of a correct understanding of the subject, the 
matter is important. 

The evidence is unquestionably to the effect that pharmacopceial 
distilled water can be made, by means of suitable apparatus, out of 
the impure Ohio River water. Under what condition it subsequently 
alters, if at all under proper care, will be the subject of a future 

196 Structure of Veratruvi Viridc. {^""Apriuisa!"'"" 

paper, as exacting investigations in these directions are in process 
and will be carried on during the coming summer. 

By Edson S. Bastin. 

This liliaceous plant is a perennial herb native to eastern North 
America, and ranging in its habitat from Canada to the Carolinas. 
It prefers damp localities, such as the borders of moist thickets, the 
banks of mountain streams, etc. Its erect, leafy stem rises to the 
height of from two to seven feet and, except in the inflorescence, is 
unbranching. The leaves are three ranked, simple, broadly-oval, 
acute or acuminate, entire-margined, basi-nerved and plicate along 
the principal nerves, so that on their lower surface they present a 
strongly-ribbed appearance. They clasp the stem at their base and 
so ensheath it that a cross-section of its lower portion shows it to 
be enclosed in a succession of thin cylinders. The lower leaves, 
which are from six inches to a foot long, are the broadest, those 
above gradually decreasing in size and relative width to linear-lance- 
olate bracts, next the inflorescence. 

The inflorescence consists of a terminal pyramidal panicle from 
eight to sixteen inches long, and composed of dense spike-like 
racemes of greenish-yellow, monceciously polygamous flowers, each 
subtended by a pointed bract. 

The perianth consists of six pieces, the three outer (calyx) very 
similar in form and color to the three inner (corolla), except that 
they are a little longer. All of the pieces are distinct, or very 
slightly united at the base, lanceolate in outline, somewhat 
narrowed and thickish at the base, and ciliate-serrulate on the 

The androecium consists of six stamems, which are distinct, 
hypogynous, and shorter than the pieces of the perianth. 

The gynascium consists of a single, three-carpeled pistil, which 
is exteriorly three-lobed, and with three sessile, recurved stigmas. 
Internally, the ovary shows an axile placentation and numerous 
ascending anatropous ovules. The fruit is a septicidal capsule con- 
taining usually in each loculus from eight to ten flattish-oblong, 
membranous-margined seeds. 


Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
April, 1S95. 

} Structure of Vcratriiui Viride. 


The plant is so similar to the European Veratrum album as to 
lead many botanists to regard it as only a variety of that species. 
The general aspect of the two plants, however, is quite different, 
ours having greener flowers, its panicles more compound, and the 

Fig. I. 
component racemes more loosely flowered and less regular, and also 
having its leaves more pointed. The plate illustration conveys 
an idea of the general appearance of the plant. 


Structure of Veratriim Viride. { 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1895. 

In our latitude the blossoming takes place in the latter part of 
June or early in July. 

The rhizome is fleshy, upright or oblique, obconical,one and one- 
half to three inches long, and one to one and one-fourth inches 
thick at its upper end, and densely covered with somewhat fleshy, 
simple roots, about one-twelfth of an inch thick and from six to ten 
inches long. Those toward the somewhat truncate lower end of 
the rhizome are dead, or, in older rhizomes, even withered away, 
leaving rounded scars. In the fresh state the roots are white, the 

older ones closely and irregularly wrinkled, while the younger ones 
are nearly smooth ; but in the dried form the color is yellowish 
or yellowish-brown, and all the roots are much shrivelled and 
wrinkled. The wrinkling is due to the loosely arranged and thin- 
walled parenchyma of the cortex, and particularly to the numerous 
large, lysigenous, intercellular spaces in the cortex. Toward the 
lower ends of the roots are numerous fine fibrils, which, however, 
are only sparingly present in the dried drug. 

The central radial bundle of the roots is from eight to fourteen 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
.■\pril, 1895. / 

Structure of J^eratruin Viride. 


rayed, with conspicuously large scalariform ducts at the inner ends 
of the xx'lein rays, and very small ones at the exterior ends. The 
cells of the endodermis have their outer walls thin, but those of its 
cells which come opposite the phloem masses are conspicuously 
thickened in their inner and radial walls. Those opposite the ends 
of the xylem rays are usualh- but slightly thickened. 


The rhizomes in the dried forms are dark brown, or blackish, 
exteriorly, usually crowned at their upper end with the remains of 
the solid above-ground stem, ensheathed by the numerous thin, 
tunicated leaf-bases. To facilitate dr3Mng, they are commonly split 


Structjcrc of Veratrum Viride. 

I Am Jour Pliarni. 
I April, 1895. 

in a longitudinal direction, into two or more wedge-shaped or flat 
pieces. The fracture is short, and the color, internally, whitish. 
The cross-section shows a distinct cylinder sheath forming an irreg- 
ular dark line between the central cylinder and the thickish cortex. 
The bundles are of the concentric type, with a small central phloem 
surrounded by two or three layers of small sized scalariform ducts 
and tracheids, and these are bounded exteriorly by an endodermis. 

The ducts and tracheids are irregular in form and direction in the 
bundle. The bundles also pursue a very irregular course in the 
rhizome, so that a cross-section cuts some of them transversely, 
others longitudinally, and still others obliquely, giving rise to the 
appearance of numerous irregular brownish dots and wavy lines, 
imbedded in the whitish parenchyma. In the cortex, the wavy 
lines and dots are also present, but less numerous, and toward the 
outside are seen the sections of the root-bundles near their origin. 

Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
April, lS9o. 

} Structure of Veratrum Viride. 

20 1 

Owing to the peculiar course of its bundles, the appearance of the 
longitudinal section of the rhizome is not very unlike that of the 
transverse section. 

The parenchyma of both roots and rhizome is rich in small- 
grained starch, and there are also in both scattered cells containing 
bundles of needle-like raphides. 

The starch grains are sometimes nearly spherical, simple, and 
with a central, and often fissured, hilum ; but they are more fre- 
quently compound, consisting of two, three, or sometimes of a 
larger number of easily separable grains. Stratification lines are 
only recognized with difficulty, even in the largest grains. 

Fig. 5. 

The writer has observed in one instance the fraudulent substitu- 
tion of the rhizome and rootlets of Symplocarpus foetidus for those 
of Veratrum viride. The drug was so prepared that the incautious 
purchaser might easily have mistaken it for the genuine article, but 
the fraud could not have deceived a careful observer, for the roots 
of Symplocarpus are much coarser, averaging at least an eighth of 
an inch in diameter ; the rhizomes also average considerably larger, 
the cortex is relatively thicker, the structure of the rhizome is more 
porous, the starch grains are much smaller, and the leaf-bases at the 
top are much less numerous and not tunicated. The fcetid odor of 


Structure of J'eratruin llride. 

j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1895. 

Symplocarpus is also characteristic; but when the drug has been 
kept for some time, this odor becomes faint, or entirely disappears, 
and so is less reliable than the structural characters as a means of 

As between the rhizomes of Veratrum album and those of Ver- 
atrum viride, it would indeed be very difficult to distinguish by 
structural, or any other characters, if the drugs were trimmed alike. 
Fortunately, however, this is not the case, the rhizomes of Veratrum 

Fig. 6. 

album having the roots mostly trimmed away, while those of Ver- 
atrum viride are not removed. 


Plate. — Plant of Veratrum viride in natural colors, about one-sixth natural 

/^i^". I. — Longitudinal section of fresh rhizome, about one-half natural size, 
c, tunicated leaf-bases ; b, above-ground stem ; c, lateral bud; d, cylinder 

Fig. 2. — Diagram of half of cross-section of rhizome magnified about five 
diameters, a, section of root near its origin; b, cylinder sheath; c, one of the 
wavy bundles in cortex ; d, cortical parenchyma ; e, a bundle of the central cyl- 
inder ; y, parenchyma of the central cylinder. 

Fig. J. — Portion of cross-section of root, showing central radial bundle and a 
little of the surrounding cortex, a, cell of cortical parenchyma ; b, endoder- 
mal cell opposite phloem mass ; c; small duct at outer end of x\lem ray ; d, 
large duct at inner end of xylem ray ; e, phloem mass. Magnification, 230 

Fig. 4. — One of the bundles of the rhizome, as seen in cross-section, magni- 
fied 370 diameters, a, cell of parenchyma exterior to bundle ; b, cell of endo- 

^"Apr'if:r^5""} ^/^^" Chlorinated Compounds of the U. S. P. 203 

dermis ; c, scalariform tracheid in xylem ; d, phloem tissues occupying centre 
of bundle. 

Fig. 5. — Small portion of parenchyma of rhizome, magnified 230 diameters, 
a, cell hea^^lv charged with fine-grained starch ; b, cell containing a bundle of 

Fig. 6. — A few starch grains of Veratrum viride, magnified 1,200 diameters. 

Bv Chas. H. LaWai^l, Ph.G. 

In the Pharmacopoeia of 1890 the strength of the two chlorinated 
compounds was made uniformly higher than in the previous edition 
of the same work, the strength of Ca/x Chlorata being changed 
from 25 per cent, to 35 per cent, of available chlorine, and the 
strength of Liquor SodcB Chlorates being changed from 2 per cent, 
to 2-6 per cent, of available chlorine. 

The former of these two articles is beyond the jurisdiction of the 
pharmacist, regarding its preparation, as it can be made more 
economically and satisfactorily on the large scale. Liquor Sodee 
Chloratee, however, is prepared in every carefully-managed pharma- 
ceutical establishment, as it can be economically and expeditiously 
made on the small scale, and is all the better for being freshly man- 

The present official process for the preparation of solution of 
chlorinated soda is not satisfactory in all respects. The principal 
difficulty consists in allowing just enough chlorinated lime, of the 
full official strength, to produce a finished preparation, also of full 
official strength. 

As will presently be shown, the strength of a number of samples 
of chlorinated lime, which were examined by the writer of this 
article, was found to be far below the official standard ; but, even 
granting that this were not the case, and that the strength of chlor- 
inated lime is uniformly 35 per cent., it would still be extremely 
difficult, if not impossible, to make solution of chlorinated soda of 
standard strength by following the present official process. 

In a series of carefully conducted experiments upon known quan- 
tities of the substance, whose strength was in all cases previously 
ascertained, the writer was unable, at any time, to extract all of the 
available chlorine from a sample of chlorinated lime, by exhausting 
it as the Pharmacopoeia directs. The process in the Pharmacopceia 

'204 Tlic Chlorinated Compounds of the U. S. P. {•^'"x"'p°r"i';i895^""" 

directs that the chlorinated lime shall be exhausted of its available 
chlorine by repeatedly triturating with water and pouring off the 
supernatant fluid, and subsequently pouring the residue upon the 
filter, washing it with the remainder of the water, the proportion of 
water used in exhausting it being to the chlorinated lime as 6}^ : i; 
this solution is then mixed with the solution of sodium carbonate, 
and the mixture subsequently filtered. 

In the process of the 1880 Pharmacopoeia, the chlorinated lime 
was mixed with four times its weight of water, and the solution of 
carbonate of soda poured into the mixture. The preparation was 
allowed to stand for a certain length of time, after which it was 
strained through muslin, allowed to settle, and the clear liquid 
removed afterward by means of a syphon. 

Much has been written concerning the composition of chlorinated 
compounds, and of chlorinated lime in particular; but from a rational 
view of the subject, it would be more natural to suppose that the 
process in which the decomposing action of the sodium carbonate 
is brought to bear upon the whole bulk of the chlorinated lime, 
instead of upon washings of it, which have been found to be far 
from uniform, would be the one to give the greater percentage of 
available chlorine. The results from several careful experiments 
upon the practicability of completely exhausting a given sample of 
chlorinated lime, show the following average : 

The first trituration extracted less than the second, and the avail- 
able chlorine remaining in the residue amounted to about 10 per 
cent, of the total. 

Per Cent. 
The total available chlorine iu the sample was taken as ... . 10c 00 

Amount extracted by first trituration 33 "28 

Amount extracted by second trituration 40*58 

Washings of residue extracted 14*41 

Available chlorine determined in residue 1104 

Total 99*31 

Working with the two processes simultaneously, and using chlor- 
inated lime of the same strength in both instances, the writer was 
unable, in any case, to obtain a product by the 1890 process, which 
contained as much available chlorine as that made by the 1880 

'*''°Aprii''.i8!^""' } The Chlorinated Compounds of the U. S. P. 205 

This appears to be due, in a great measure, to the two operations 
of filtration which are embodied in the present official process, and 
in both of which cases the residue is very difficult to exhaust com- 

Given the same degree of care and attention, the 1880 process 
affords a better preparation in a shorter time, both of which results 
are of unquestionable advantage. 

After an experience of manufacturing over 300 gallons of the 
preparation, within three weeks (to be used in the flooded districts 
of Pennsylvania during the spring of 1894), it is the opinion of the 
writer that the 1880 process, which was used after one trial of the 
present process, which trial proved unsatisfactory, is by far the better 
of the two, as it was found by using it, that a preparation containing 
a larger percentage of available chlorine could be made with a 
decided saving of both time and labor. It also occurred at the time 
that the injunction to dispense a clear liquid was somewhat unnec- 
essary, as the liquid syphoned off, while still slightly cloudy, was by 
no means unsightly ; and the filtration which was necessary to pro- 
duce a clear liquid, without waiting for it to settle, added to the 
time, labor and cost of preparation, while it in no wise added to its 
good qualities. 

While working upon this subject a few experiments were also 
made to test the validity of the following assertion, which is made 
in the United States Dispensatory, page 825. " When it (solution 
of chlorinated soda) is boiled, chlorine is not given off, nor is its 
bleaching property sensibly impaired, and when carefully evaporated 
a mass of damp crystals is obtained, which, when redissolved in 
water, possesses the properties of the original liquid." 

The following experiments were performed with the accompanying 

The first sample was evaporated upon a water bath almost to dry- 
ness, the residue dissolved and water added to restore the original 
volume. The loss was 1-205 P^^ cent, of available chlorine. 

Sample number two was evaporated to a small volume in an air 
bath, temperature 60° C, and redissolved as before. The loss of 
available chlorine amounted to -597 per cent. The third sample 
was evaporated to complete dryness in the air bath, and the original 
volume restored as in the previous cases. The loss was I 644 per 
cent, of available chlorine. These experiments show that, while 


The Chlorinated CompLUinds of the V. S. P. { "* "Xp""'; 

Pliarii . 


the original properties of the liquid may be recovered, it is accom- 
panied by a diminution of strength. 

50 c.c. of the solution were exposed to spontaneous evaporation 
in the laboratory ; after twenty-four hours the liquid was found to 
have gained -122 per cent, in strength, and after forty eight hours it 
had gained -593 per cent. This would indicate that a preparation 
deficient in strength might be brought up to the official standard 
by carefully evaporating some of the solvent, but no experiments on 
this subject were performed with large quantities. 

The results which were attained by these investigations would 
indicate that the process for the preparation of solution of chlori- 
nated soda should be more thoroughly tested before the next 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia. 

The strength of the market samples of chlorinated lime, as 
referred to in the beginning of this article, was also investigated 
with the results as tabulated below. 








Per cent, of 
available CI. 





Bulk stock. 



Pasteboard box. 



Pasteboard box. 



Pasteboard box. Same brand 
as No. 3. 



Pasteboard box. Same brand 
as Nos. ^ and 4 



Bulk ^tock. 



Pasteboard box. Bore guaran- 
tee of full strength. 



Pasteboard box. Same brand 
as No. 2. 



Bulk stock. 

The samples were procured from a variety of trade sources, and 
it is thought that they fully represented the market condition of the 
substance. In 1892, before the recognition of the new standard, 
Dr. E. R. Squibb examined eight market samples with an average 
of 28-66 per cent. (Ephemeris, page 1330). The average of the 
above nine specimens was but 25-20 per cent., but there were several 
samples which were of scarcely any value whatever, and eliminating 
these, the average would be fairly good, but not yet up to the 
standard. Evidently the pasteboard containers do not preserve the 


'^''^A^pTiM^ps!'''" } Commercial Varieties of Cacao. 207 

substance for a great length of time, as the bulk stock samples, 
which were presumably fresh, were higher in percentage than those 
in the pasteboard boxes, which had no doubt been kept in stock for 
some time. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 


By William E. Ridenour. 

Contribution for the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 138. 

This paper is confined exclusively to the chemical examination of 
some commercial varieties of Cacao and is intended to supplement 
Professor Edson S. Bastin's publication, " Starches in Commercial 
Varieties of Cacao," Am. Jour. Pharm., 1894, page 369. 

The present work was carried out in the Chemical Laborator}' of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Henry Trimble. 

The following are the varieties of Cacao examined : Bahia, Suri- 
nam, Java, Trinidad, Roasted Trinidad, Ariba, Caracas, Roasted 
Caracas, Granada, Tobasco, Machalle, Maracaybo. 

The process will first be given and the results then tabulated. 

Estimation of Fat. — Three grammes of the beans were finely 
comminuted with an equal bulk of purified sand and this mixture 
extracted with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet apparatus for 10 hour?, 
although afterwards a shorter time was found sufficient for complete 

The percolate was transferred to a tared beaker, evaporated and 
dried under a desiccator until of a constant weight (when dried at 
100° C. the character of the butter appeared to be changed, as it 
remained liquid at normal temperatures for several days). 

Fstimation of Alkaloid, Theobromine. — P. Suss's process {Ztschr.f. 
Anal. Chem., Apotheker Ztg., 1893, y2)\ Am. Jour. Pharm., 1S93, 
170) was used for the estimation of the alkaloid. The residue, after 
separating the fat, was boiled for one-half hour with 200 c.c. of dis- 
tilled water and six grammes of freshly-prepared pure lead hydrate, 
strained, expressed and filtered ; the insoluble portion was boiled 
twice with lOO c.c. of distilled water and the united filtrate evapor- 

208 Commercial Varieties of Cacao. { "^"'apTu," /^*""- 

ated to lo c.c, transferred to a separating funnel and agitated for 
three minutes with lOO c.c. of chloroform. After complete separa- 
tion of the chloroform, requiring about three hours, the latter was 
removed and the operation repeated three times. 

From the combined chloroform solutions, the greater portion of 
the solvent was distilled off, the remaining portion transferred to a 
tared beaker, the flask rinsed with warm chloroform and the con- 
tents of the beaker evaporated to dryness in a water bath. 

The theobromine was obtained in the form of almost perfectly 
white microcrystalline powder, which observation agrees with P. 
Suss, but is contrary to the assertion made by Wanklyn (Cocoa and 
Chocolate Analysis, page 48). 

Estimation of Albumen. — The nitrogen was estimated by the Kjel- 
dahl process; and the percent, found multiplied by the factor 6 25 
gave the amount of albumen. 

Estimation of Glucose, Saccharose and Starch. — The powdered 
beans, after extracting the fat, were treated with 100 c.c. of distilled 
water, filtered and then twice again extracted with 50 c.c; the united 
filtrate was divided into two equal parts ; in one portion the glucose 
was estimated by Fehling's solution ; the other portion was boiled 
three hours with dilute acid to convert the saccharose into glucose, 
and was then estimated by Fehling's solution. 

The difference between the first and second reduction gave the 
reducing effect due to saccharose. 

The residue from the above was boiled three hours with acidu- 
lated distilled water, to convert the starch into glucose, filtered, and 
the glucose estimated in the filtrate by the above process and calcu- 
lated into starch. 

Lignin and Cellulose. — Ten grammes of the powdered beans were 
extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with petroleum ether for eight 
hours, or until exhaustion of the fat was complete; the residue was 
dried and then treated with 200 c.c. of hot distilled water, strained, 
expressed and filtered ; this operation was repeated twice. The res- 
idue from this hot- water extraction was next treated with alkaline 
water until the color, which was very deep in the first alkaline water, 
was no longer given to the filtrate. 

The insoluble portion was next treated with acidulated water. 

After extracting with these four solvents the residue was dried to 
a constant weight and then treated with chlorine water for twelve 

^'^ApT^l'm.""''} Commercial Varieties of Cacao. 209 

hours ; the insoluble matter was again dried and weighed and the 
loss calculated as lignin. The residue was then incinerated and the 
loss estimated as cellulose. 

Moisture and Ash. — The moisture was obtained by drying two 
grammes of the powdered beans at 100° C, in an air-bath to a 
constant weight. The residue was incinerated, which, when 
weighed, gave the ash. A qualitative examination of the ashes 
gave the following general constituents : 

Potassium. Phosphates. 

Magnesium. Sulphates, trace. 

Calcium. Chlorides, trace. 

Sodium. Carbonates, trace. 

Iron was found in varying quantities in all except the Tobasco 

Weight of Beans. — The determination of the weight of one bean 
was found by taking the average of fift\' beans: 


Bahia -856 

Surinam II75 

Java 994 

Trinidad i'295 

Ariba 1434 

Roasted Trinidad . 1189 

Caracas i'447 

Granada -920 

Tobasco 1266 

Machalle i'237 

Maracaybo i"364 

Roasted Caracas i"2i4 




• ^ CO 



















e I. 












Fat (cacao butter) . 

4210' 41 03 

45 "40 



41-89 I 50-95 





Theobromine . . . 

I -08 93 

I 16 

•85 i -86 



■95 i'i5 



I 03 


Albuminoids . . . 

7-50 10-54 


1 1 '90 1 lo'i4 



I2-02 785 






107 127 


1-38 42 



1*48 -94 


I -60 

I 09 


Saccharose . . . 

•51 -35 

■51 32 . 6'37 










753 361 

5-17 4-98, 1-58 






I '35 





EJrtractive matter 

7-86 3-90 


5'65; 462 


5 '55 







i3'8o 16*24 


i3'oi 1 i4'o7 









(by difference) . . 

899 i 13-53 







9- 26 



6 79 




5'96| 5'55 







I 55 





3-60 1 305 












2IO Deterniination of PyrophospJioric Acid. {'^"Ap^'i'r.isss^''"'' 





Bv J. B. Nagei,voort. 
(Received for publication, Jan. i6, 1895.) 

(1) Fresenius teaches, that the precipitate obtained upon the 
addition of niagnesmni sulphate to an aqueous solution of a pyro- 
phosphate of an alkali, Mg'-P-O', is soluble in an excess of the 
pyrophosphate, as well as in an excess of the magnesium sulphate. 

(2) T h . S a 1 z e r remarked, in the Arckiv der Pharmacie, Band 
232, Heft 5, p. 371, 1894, ''Uebcr Natrium pyrophosphate," that it 
is " doubtful if this solubility of the precipitate is a characteristic 
property of pyrophosphates." 

He published the remarkable experience that he found an ortho- 
phosphoric acid, which showed all the identity reactions of a pyro- 
phosphate, with the exception of the one with potassium perman- 
ganate. The orthophosphoric acid that led to this discovery was 
contaminated with one- fourth of an acetyl compound of one of the 
oxyacids of phosphorus. A sodium salt of this compound, mixed 
with 5 parts sodium diorthophosphate, gives a picre white precipi- 
tate with silver nitrate solutions, this white precipitate being the 
well-known identity reaction for pyrophosphoric acid. 

Writing phosphoric acid, according toGerhardt's type theory, 


and replacing one atom H with the radical, 

we have for S a 1 z e r ' s acetyl compound, 

PO ) 
H- \ O' 

(3) It will be readily conceded that S a 1 z e r ' s experience is of 
importance to us, and that a wider knowledge of it may end the 
doubt and confusion for manufacturers of pyrophosphates, and 
for dispensers of it, in which, unfortunately, the seventh edition of 
the U. S. P. leaves its readers where they have to make a determi- 
nation of pyrophosphates in the presence of orthophosphates. 

^"xSm^"'} Determination of PyropJiosphoric Acid. 2il 

(4) The prescription of the U. S. P. which is referred to here 
(p. 193) is all very well for an expert analyst. But it does not 
work well with less experienced operators. The writer received, 
lately, official complaints from manufacturers of pyrophosphates, 
that they objected to the application of the U. S. P. test for purity 
of their article, /. c, absence of orthophosphates. 

(5) I agreed. But they seem not to have read an article by my 
colleague. Prof. Dr. Julius Stieglitz, on the previous Pharma- 
copoeia, or it has escaped their memory I^Am. J. Ph., 1891, p. 585). 

(6) The reader is requested, to prevent misunderstanding, to 
operate literally, as is here prescribed. This will furnish proof 
to any unbiased mind that it is better to make the determination of 
pyrophosphoric acid in the presence of orthophosphoric acid, 
according to Fresenius, than according to the U. S. P. 

(7) "If I gm. of the salt /^t' boiied with loc.c. of potassium hydrate T.S., a red- 
dish-brown precipitate will be produced, and if the colorless filtrate from this pre- 
cipitate be strongly acidulated with hj-drochloric acid, then magnesia inixture 
added, and subsequeutlN- a slight excess of ammonia water, no precipitate 
should be produced." — U. S. P.-, p. 193. 

(Italics are mine.) 

(8) This somewhat vague prescription (see italics) is a source of 
fatal errors to an operator of limited experience in analytical 

Tivo (2) c c. magnesia mixture seem to be a fair proportion for the 
colorless filtrate, and Jive (5j drops of ammonia water furnish the 
slight excess of the latter. 

In five commercial samples, used for this paper, I did not obtain 
an orthophosphoric acid reaction with two (2) c.c. magnesia mixture 
and five (5) drops of ammonia water. Orthophosphoric acid was, 
however, largely present in all the samples, as is shown below, 
where other results are recorded, obtained from the same samples. 

I found that many iron pyrophosphates in the market are only 
pyrophosphates in name ; that pyrophosphoric acid, for economy's 
sake, perhaps, is only to be found on their labels. 

(9) The confusion of the quoted vague prescription of the 
U. S. P. is to be avoided as follows (to which Dr. Stieglitz called 
attention already years ago) : 

Dissolve I gm. of the salt under examination, for the determination of pyro- 
phosphoric acid, in ten (10) c.c. of water. 

212 Determination of PyropJiospJioric A cid. { '^'"x'prir' xm^"^' 

I do uot advise boiliug. There is no necessity for it. When the salt i? 
dissolved, add lo c.c. of a lo per cent, solution of potassium or sodium 
hydrate ; stir and filter, after a little while, into a 25 c.c. graduate. You will 
obtain between 12 and 15 c.c. colorless filtrate. (Perforate the filter, and sub- 
mit the mixture of the salt, and the potassium or sodium hydrate solution to a 
somewhat longer contact if not colorless.) 

Add five (5) c.c. of a 10 per cent, ammonium chloride solution, and drop by 
drop, from a pipette, from i to 2 c.c. of a 10 per cent, magnesium sulphate 
solution. Shake the graduate slowly as long as the precipitate, that forms, 
redissolves. Do not stir vigorously. 

In thisway, orthophosphatesof the alkalies can be separated from 
pyrophosphates, a similar manner of separating as is in use in the 
separation of narcotine from morphine, in opium assaying, accord- 
ing to the process of D i e t e r i c h [Helfenbergcr Annalefi). Ortho- 
phosphate of ammonia and magnesia forms later, if present, and 
sinks to the bottom of the graduate, as a distinctly different micro- 
crystalline substance. 

When the filtrate remains clear, no orthophosphate is present. 

These proportions of ammonium chloride and magnesium sulphate, 
and the conditions under which the reactions took place, were found 
favorable for the determination of alkali pyrophosphates in six 
commercial samples of different manufacturing companies/ 

If a precipitate lias formed, it must be collected on a small filter, 
washed and dissolved on the filter in dilute nitric acid ; the acid 
solution of it has to be made slightly alkaline with ammonia water ; 
the precipitate that hereby forms has to be redissolved in dilute 
acetic acid, and this solution has to be tested for orthophosphoric 
acid with a 5 per cent, silver nitrate solution. A canary yellow 
precipitate indicates the presence of orthophosphates. 

(10) Where the text of the U. S. P. reads : 

" If a portion of the filtrate be acidulated with acetic acid and heated to 
it should read, according to the proposition in this paper : 

" If a portion of the filtrate from a precipitate, if any, is formed by the addi- 
tion of the ammonium chloride and magnesium sulphate solution, or from the 
colorless filtrate mixed with ammonium chloride and magnesium sulphate, if 
no precipitate is formed . . . ." 

'Dr. S t i e g 1 i t z detected, by taking much less magnesium sulphate, one (i) 
part orthophosphate in nine (9) parts pyrophosphate. 

'*'"Ap°r"[; m.""^' } Determination 'of Pyrophosphoric A cid. 2 1 3 

because very frequently we have to do with a mixture of ortho- and 

Na- HPO^ + NH^ OH + ngSQ-" = 

Mg (NH^) P04+ Na-^ SO-« + H^O. 

(11) Neither Fresenius, Fluckiger nor E. Schmidt men- 
tions in their well-known respective text-books how sensitive the 
silver nitrate test is for orthophosphates. I do not know if this has 
been given elsewhere. Since it is valuable to know, from a pharma- 
ceutical and chemical standpoint, " about " how much orthophos- 
phates a silver solution detects, experiments were made — o-ooi g. 
could be found. The reaction with molj'bdate solution is sensitive 
on orthophosphates in the fifth decimal place. Quantitative estima- 
tions of phosphoric acid are uncalled for. 

" Wer dies aber wisseu muss, 
Der kauft sich ein Fresenius." 

(12) Strongly acidulating with hydrochloric acid and then adding 
magnesia mixture in unlimited quantity [see (7) ] is another source of 
error. Fresenius teaches that magnesia mixture should not be 
used in too excessive quantities. 

In one sample (No. 6), which was nearly pure pyrophosphate, five 
(5) c.c. magnesia mixture and one (i) c.c. ammonia water, gave a 
precipitate which did not visibly dissolve. On the authority of the 
U. S. P., this sample would have, therefore, been condemned. This 
precipitate gave a ivhite color reaction with silver nitrate solution, 
after it was collected, washed, dissolved in dilute nitric acid, repre- 
cipitated by ammonia and redissolved in dilute acetic acid. 

It is repeated here that the pyrophosphate was " nearly" pure ; 
that the precipitate did not visibly dissolve, because : 

(i) The colorless filtrate of the mixture of the salt with potas- 
sium hydrate solution remained clear with two (2) c.c. of magnesia 
mixture and five (5) drops ammonia water, for a day. With o 5 c c. 
ammonia water, the same results. 

(2) The molybdate test showed only traces of orthophosphoric 

(3) The experienced eye detected a yellowish tinge in the white 
silver precipitate, when a larger quantity of the silver solution was 
added after the first portion, whereby the white precipitate was 
thrown down. 

214 Australian Sandarach. {^'^-^^t'x.xm''^' 

I hope that this paper will be of some use to my colleagues, so 
that we may act harmoniously in the spirit of our law-book, which 
is purity of medicines, instead of being obliged to shield inferior 
products with its shortcomings. 


By J. H. Maiden. 

(Issued by the Department of Agriculture, New South Wales, and communi- 
cated by the author.) 

Introductory. — It is a matter of common observation that a num- 
ber of raw vegetable products of more or less importance are going 
to waste in Australia, simply because our people are ignorant o{ 
their properties and value. I can hardly cite a better instance than 
that of Australian Sandarach. Here we have a product absolutely 
and entirely identical in chemical and physical properties with a 
well-known article in regular demand. The price of this article at 
London auction sales is shown by the figures I give below (Ap- 
pendix Aj, while its cost in Sydney is very much enhanced; and 
yet we actually import from Algeria, via London, at this high price, 
what is common enough in parts of New South Wales, and to be 
had for the gathering. The trees from which this resin (for San- 
darach is a resin) exudes are the well-known Cypress Pines of this 
Colony, some species of which are found in the coast districts and 
table-lands, but they are far more largely developed in the drier 
parts of the Colony. 

The collection of Australian Sandarach is one of those minor 
industries which could be readily undertaken by a family of chil- 
dren. As the resin flowed from the Cypress Pines, it could be ac- 
cumulated in clean dust-proof tins, until a sufficient quantity was 
obtained to be sold to the local store -keeper, who would again sell 
to the wholesale chemist, or wholesale oil and color-man of Sydney. 
Sandarach is usually graded. There would be no difficulty in grad- 
ing locally our local product, while any surplus available for export 
could be shipped without grading if found expedient. 

I have no means of getting at the consumption of Sandarach in 
this Colony, but we ought to be able to supply the local demand 
and have a good surplus for export. 

^ " Apr"i[ ; i^sg^"""- } ^ iistralian Sandarach. 2 1 5 

With these introductory remarks, I will give some further infor- 
mation in regard to Sandarach and Australian Sandarach, based 
upon a paper "On Australian and Tasmanian Sandarach," written 
by me and published in the proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Tasmania in 1S89. I do hope that educated men who may read 
what I have to say, and whose inclinations or duties carry them into 
districts where the native Cypress Pines grow, will take the trouble 
to encourage settlers and others to collect the product referred to. 

Notes on Sa^idaracli. — The Sandarach or gum juniper of commerce 
is the product of a Callitris {quadrivalvis), which grows in North 
Africa. The following summary of its uses is taken from Morel 
{Pharm. Joiirn. [3] viii, 1024): "According to Gubler, the Arabs 
used it as a remedy against diarrhoea, and to lull pain in haemor- 
rhoids. The Chinese used one kind {C. sinensis) as a stimulant in 
the treatment of ulcers (as promoting the growth of flesh), as a de- 
odorizer, and to preserve clothes from the attacks of insects. In 
Europe it is used very little in medicine. It is most frequently 
employed as an ingredient in varnish, to increase its hardness and 
glossiness. It is used also as a fumigant, and in powder (' pounce ') 
to dust over paper from which the surface has been scraped, to 
prevent the ink from running. It rarely enters into the composition 
of plasters." 

Ordinary Sandarach exudes naturally, but the practise in Northern 
Africa is to stimulate the flow, making incisions in the stem, par- 
ticularly near the base, and this hint might be borne in mind by 
our people. 

When our Cypress Pines are wounded, the resin exudes in an 
almost colorless, transparent condition. It has obviously high re- 
fractive power, and is much like ordinary pine resin in taste, smell 
and outward appearance, when the latter is freshly exuding. This 
transparent appearance is preserved for a considerable time, the 
resin meantime darkening a little with age. Old samples possess a 
mealy appearance, but this is merely superficial. The origin of this 
appearance has been explained as follows in regard to Sandarach, 
and doubtless the simple explanation holds good here: "The sur- 
face of the tears appears to be covered more or less with powder, 
but this character is not to be attributed, as alleged by Herlant 
{Etude siir les produits r'csineux de la famille des conifires, p. 38), to 
the friction of the fragments one against another ; but, as has been 

2i6 Australian Sandarach. {^^ap^msSs"™' 

ascertained by a microscopical examination by Dr. Julius Wiesner 
(Die chemisch-technisch verwendte Gummiarten, Ilarze iind Bal- 
zame, 1869, p. 129), to the unequal contraction of the resin while 
drying, resulting in a mass of fissures that form, as in the case of 
several kinds of copal, facets that gradually separate from the mass 
and constitute the ' powder ' of many authors." (Morel, op. cit.) 
Evidence against Herlant's supposition is also found in the fact 
that resins of the Sandarach class are nearly -white on the trees after 
they have been exuded some little time, showing that the appear- 
ance is brought about by exposure to the weather. 

Australian Sandarach. — Australian Sandarach burns readily, and 
on the Snow}^ River (near the Victorian border) it is often mixed 
with fat by the settlers to make candles. The aborigines used fre- 
quently to use it for a similar purpose. Sir Thomas Mitchell {Three 
Expeditions, ii, 37) says: "Each carried a burning torch of the 
resmous bark of the Callitris, with the blaze of which these natives 
(Lachlan) seemed to keep their dripping bodies warm." 

The Callitris resins soften slightly, but do not melt in boiling 
water, and a sample of commercial Sandarach behaves similarly. 
In the mouth they feel gritty tdthe teeth, and in no way different 
to Sandarach. When freshly exuded they are very irritating to a 

I will reiterate, at this place, in order to save time, that the prop- 
erties of Sandarach are shared by Australian Sandarach ; I do not 
know in what respect they differ, and the one article may be sub- 
stituted for the other. 

It was a specimen of resin from the Oyster Bay Pine of Tasmania, 
sent to the exhibition of 1851, which first drew the attention of 
experts to the possibilities of Australian Sandarach. For "the fine 
pale resin of the Oyster Bay Pine [Callitris australis) from the 
eastern coast of Van Diemen's Land " and other gum.s and resins, 
Mr. J. Milligan was awarded honorable mention [jurj' /Reports, 185 i. 
Exhibition, p. 182). 

I have only alluded to naturally-growing trees, but Baron von 
Mueller states : " Probably it woujd be more profitable to devote 
sandy desert land, which could not be brought under irrigation, to 
the culture of the Sandarach Cypresses than to pastoral purposes, 
but boring beetles must be kept off." Of course, Cypress Pine 
timber is very valuable, as it is ornamental, and one of the best of 

^'^Ap^nimt'^-] Australian Sandarach. 217 

our timbers to resist white ants, but I propose to confine myself to 
the resin in this paper. 

The various kinds of Cypress Pines. — Our Cypress Pines all belong 
to the natural order Coniferae (Cone-bearers), and are therefore 
allied to the pines, firs, spruces, etc.. of the Northern Hemisphere. 
They belong to the genus Calli.ris, which is mainly a synonym of 
Frenela. [The word Callitris is from the Greek Kallos, beautiful, in 
allusion to the appearance of the trees. Frenela is in honor of M. 
Frenel, a former member of the French Academy.] 

In the Australian Colonies there are twelve species of Callitris, 
and some of them have varieties more or less marked, so that there 
are a goodly number of Australian Cypress Pines. Four of the 
species [Roei, Drummondii, Actinostrobus and acuminata) are con- 
fined to Western Australia, and have, of course, but a limited interest 
to us in the eastern colonies. C. oblonga is only found in Tasmania. 

The Cypress Pines that are found in New South Wales, and which 
therefore especially interest us, are seven, namely : 

(1) Callitris Made ay ana. "Port Macquarie Pine," an elegant 
species now often seen in gardens. 

(2) C. Parlalorei. " Mountain Cypress Pine." " Stringybark 
Pine." These two species are closely allied, and are both found in 
the North Coast districts. They are not as abundant nor do they 
yield Sandarach as freely as the other species. 

(3) C. verrucosa. The " White or Common Pine," often known 
simply as "Pine" or " Cypress Pine," but also as " Mallee Pine," 
*' Rock Pine," etc. Well known under its name of " Murray Pine." 
It is the most widely diffused of all the Cypress Pines, being found 
in every one of the mainland colonies. It is easily known by its 
rather ornamental warted cones. 

(4) C. columellaris. This is usually known as " Cypress Pine," 
and it attains a great size. It appears to be confined to the coast 
districts and moderate elevations of Northern New South Wales and 
Southern Queensland. 

(5) C. Muelleri. " Baron Mueller's Cypress Pine," "Mountain 
Pine." This species is often very ornamental. Its range does not 
appear, at present, to be very well defined. I have collected it at 
Middle Haibor, Port Jackson, and in the Blue Mountains (Mount 
Victoria). It has been sent to me from the Illawarra. Mr. Baker 
has collected it at Rylstone in the Mudgee district. 

2 1 8 A ustralian Sandarach. { *""A^p°"f; i^Jj"^™- 

(6) C. cupressiforinis. Perhaps better known by its synonym of 
rhoviboidea. This pine I believe to have been a good deal confused 
(in New South Wales) with the preceding. Of course, the cones are 
quite different. It is usually simply known as " Pine " or " Cypress 
Pine." It is extensively diffused in the coastal districts. 

(7) C. calcarata. Better known under its synonym of Frenela 
Endlicheri. Everybody knows it under its name of " Red or Black 
Pine," whose timber is so largely used in the western parts of the 
Colony where white ants are prevalent. I need not further allude 
to the species here. 

Of the above, C. verrucosa and C. calcarata will be found by far 
the most important from a commercial point of view, but the others 
all produce excellent Sandarach. 


Having learned what sandarach is, and what Australian trees pro- 
duce it, the following notes of observation and of incomplete exper- 
iments on definite Australian sandarachs will be interesting. To push 
the experiments further than I have done would be more of scientific 
than of economic interest. 

My experiments tend to show this: Given similar circurtistances 
in regard to size and age of tree, season of flow, climatic conditions, 
etc., the sandarachs from all the species are precisely similar in 
chemical and physical properties. Conversely it follows that if two 
specimens of sandarach are of different qualities, the explanation is 
to be found in the circumstances above enumerated. What is the 
best season to collect sandarach or to bleed trees in a particular dis- 
trict, is only to be learned by experience, and I think I have said 
enough to show that it is worth the trouble to try and find out. 

Callitris verrucosa, R. Br. (Syn. Frenela robusta, A. Cunn). A 
sample of" Murray Pine " resin from Ouiedong, near Bombala, has 
a pale bleached appearance, much lighter than ordinary sandarach. 
Externally it has a very mealy appearance. Water has no effect on 
it. In rectified spirit, it almost wholly dissolves, leaving a little 
whitish resinoid substance. Petroleum spirit dissolves 5 per cent, 
of a perfect colorless and transparent resin. 

Speaking of "Mountain Cypress Pine," or " Desert Pine " {C 
verrucosa), the cateHgue of Victorian Exhibits, Colonial and Indian 

^"fpru.f^""'} Australian Sandarach. 219 

Exhibition, 1886, states: "A sandarach in larger tears than ordinary 
sandarach is yielded by this species. It yields it in considerable 
abundance, 8 or 10 ozs. being frequently found at the foot of a single 
tree, but although this exudes naturally, the supply is stimulated by 

" It is a transparent, colorless or pale yellow body, fragrant and 
friable, fusing at a moderate temperature, and burning with a large 
smoky flame ; very soluble in alcohol and the essential oils, and 
almost totally so in ether ; turpentine at the ordinary temperature 
does not act upon it, nor do the drying oils, but it may be made to 
combine with these solvents by previous fusion." [Report on Indig- 
enous Vegetable Substances, Victorian Exhibition, 1861.) 

This resin was used to make firm the union (after lashing) of the 
hardwood head to the reed in the making of reed spears by the 
aborigines of Victoria. The resin was called by them Bij-jin-ne. 
(Brough Sv!\y'Cc\, Aborigines of Victoria, i, 306.) 

A sample of New South Wales resin of this species is of a dark 
amber color, and, externally, possesses the dulled appearance found 
on lumps of amber. It is the darkest specimen of an Australian 
Sandarach hitherto examined by me. It almost wholly dissolves in 
rectified spirit, yielding a bright yellow liquid, leaving 25 percent, 
of insoluble residue. Petroleum spirit removes 228 per cent, of a 
clear resin when the original substance is digested in it. 

Callitris verrucosa, R. Br. (Syn. C. Preissii, Miq. partly). The 
following note by Dr. Julius Morel {Pharvi. Jojirn. [3], viii, 1025") 
in regard to a specimen of South Australian resin, is interesting: 
" With Sandarach resin may be connected another resinous sub- 
stance, which was exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of 1867, from 
South Australia, under the name of" Pine Gum." It is the resin of 
Callitris Preissii, Miq. The product resembles Sandarach, and 
might become an important article of commerce. . . . This 
resinous substance occurs in the form of slightly yellowish tears, 
thicker and longer than those of ordinary Sandarach. In conse- 
quence of unequal contraction it presents, like Sandarach, numerous 
facets, and, consequently, the surface appears to be covered with a 
white powder. In its transparency and hardness the resin corre- 
sponds to Sandarach. Its odor is very agreeable and balsamic, and 
the taste is bitter and balsamic." 

Callittis coluinellaris, F. v. M. (Syn. Frenelarobusta, A. Cunn; var. 

220 Australian Sandarach. |Ain..Tonr.Pharm. 

April, 18^5. 

niicrocarpa, Benth.). A sample of resin from this species dissolves 
almost entirely in rectified spirit, forming a pale yellow solution. 
The insoluble residue amounts to 46 per cent Petroleum spirit, 
when digested on the resin, removes no less than 358 per cent, of 
a transparent, colorless resin. This is a remarkable percentage, and 
it would be interesting to inquire whether Australian Sandarach 
becomes increasingly soluble in that menstruum by age. An ordi- 
nary sample of commercial Sandarach yielded 8-9 per cent, to 
petroleum spirit. 

Callitris ci/pressiformis, Vent.: " The Oyster Bay Pine of Tas- 
mania," partly. This is the pine already referred to, and a brief 
account of the resin has been copied into many of the text-books. I 
have collected resin of this species from Port Jackson, clear and 
transparent as water. It turns pale amber-colored if placed in a 
bottle, but its brilliancy shows no sign of diminution in that time. 
The Sydney trees readily exude their resin on slightly wounding, 
and the .same remarks apply to the Tasmanian. 

Callitris calcarata, R. Br. (Syn. Freticla Endliclieri, Parlat). A 
sample of Red Pine resin from the Lachlan River has freshly exuded, 
and has the color and appearance of best selected Sandarach. Rec- 
tified spirit nearly wholly dissolves it, forming a beautifully clear, 
slightly yellowish liquid, with 13 per cent, of residue. Petroleum 
spirit extracts 22-1 per cent, of an apparently perfectly colorless and 
transparent resin. 

Gum Sandarach. 

London, nth May, 1892. — The market is very dull. At auction sale last 
Thursday a few packages sold, without reserve, at 59s. 6d. to 6is. for fair palish 

Londop, i6th September, 1893. — Sold cheaply to-day at a decline of about 3s. 
to 4s. for a parcel of 13 casks, offered without reserve; it brought from 72s. to 
74s. per cwt. 

London, 14th October, 1893. — A parcel of 12 casks sold cheaply, without 
reserve, at 65s. per cwt., one lot realizing is. more. 

London, 25th November, 1893. — Nineteen casks sold very cheaply to day; 
ordinary dirty and dusty at 48s. 6d., medium quality at from 64s., rising to 69s. 
per cwt. 

London, 3d March, 1894. — Seven casks, mostly oil damaged, sold, without 
reserve, with fair competition, at 41s. to 56s. per cwt. 

The latest London quotation of a wholesale London firm is 125s. per cwt. 

"^"'Aprir.-im'"'"} Editorial. . 221 



As Stated on another page, the time of holding the next meeting of this Asso- 
ciation, at Denver, Col., has been fixed for August 14th. It was first contem- 
plated holding the meeting in June, and for some reasons this would have been 
satis- factory, but the latter month is one in which man}- State Pharmaceutical 
Associations are convened, and this would, no doubt, have been the cause of 
many members failing to reach Denver. 

It was certainly demonstrated, in 1893, that August is a suitable month in 
which t3 hold the meeting of the National Association, and that it is by no 
means the most disagreeable month in which to travel. 


We have just received a circular, bearing the above title, from a committee 
of the Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association, which circular contains a valua- 
ble suggestion and considerable sound, practical sense. 

The committee state that " carbolic acid, U. S. P., is in crystals; and not being 
convenient in this form for the household or medical use, it is made liquid by 
the addition of from 5 to 8 per cent, of water ; when thus prepared, it does 
not strictly conform to the legal (U. S. P.) standard, yet by common usage it 
has become recognized by the public and by many physicians, erroneously, 
as true carbolic acid, and has been so labelled." 

Since this conveniently liquefied acid apparently mixes with water, o'ls and 
other liquids, yet solution does not usually take place. The strong, milky or 
cloudy acid that remains undissolved acts as' a powerful caustic instead of a 
healing agent. 

" If directed to be mixed at home with oil, vaseline, lard or other fats, the liquefied acid 
will uot dissolve on account of the 5 to 8 per cent, of water it contains, thereby resulting in 
caustic instead of healing actions." 

" If swallowed by accident it is almost universally fatal before assistance can arrive ; yet 
it is not desired or needed in so dangerous a liquid form." 

" The Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association, having had its attention called thereto, and 
believing that it owes a duty to the public to prevent injury as far as possible without depriv- 
ing the people of the proper use of a valuable drug, have devised and adopted a formula and 
label for carbolic acid for general dispensing purposes, which they hope will do away with 
much of the injury due to careless use, and respectfully request the co-operation of all phar- 
macists and physicians to that end. 


Take of carbolic acid crystals 16 troy ounces. 

Glycerin 40 " 

Melt the acid and stir in the glycerin. 


Carbolic acid ■ • i measure. 

Glycerin 2 measures. 

" This formula furnishes a 33 per cent, carbolic acid fluid. The label explains the rest. It 
is to be popularized as No. 33 carbolic acid, which indirectly instructs the phjsician as to the 
strength of the acid and indirectly enables him to tell what strength it is by its directions for 
making a practically i per cent, solution ; thus also, by multipU-ing the amount directed, he 
can order a i, 3, 4 or 5 percent, solution, as desired. 

" This No. 33 acid mixes readily with water or alcohol in all proportions, and not being as 
caustic, cannot result in as much mischief or fatality if taken accidentally or purposely. 

222 Reviews. {^'"kSm^^"""' 

"The Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association have unanimously decided to recommend : 
"(i) To all druggists, and especially to their members, not to dispense a stronger carbolic 
acid than No. 33, except on physicians' prescriptions. 

" (2) To all physicians, vyhen desiring to mix carbolic acid with fatty bodies, instead of 
entrusting such dangerous work to the laity (since such work requires professional skill to 
suit each case), it will be the best entrusted to the proper professional expert— the phar- 

" (3) To all physicians requiring the liquefied carbolic acid as hitherto dispensed, to please 
specify this article in their prescriptions to avoid error and relieve the druggist of the respon- 
sibility for dispensing it, or of embarrassment for refusing to sell without prescription. 

■' (4) All druggists desiring electrotypes of the label may obtain them by applying to the 

Nathan Rosewater, 
P. I. Spenzer, M D., 
E. A. Schellentrager, 
Eugene R. Selzer, 



The label which accompanies the circular designates the solution as "Strong 
Carbolic Acid, Fluid. No. 33." The antidotes are given and also the direc- 
tions for making a i per cent, solution by mixing one tablespoonful of the 
solution with one pint of water. 

We can subscribe to all of this circular, except the first recommendation, 
which is that druggists shall not dispense a stronger carbolic acid than No. 33, 
except in physicians' prescriptions. 

We cannot recommend that any prescription or compound be suddenly 
reduced to one-third strength and dispensed without any legal authority. 
This is the kind of reasoning employed by those who sell weak laudanum. 


Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry . A Te.xt-Book of Chemistry intended 
for the Use of Pharmaceutical and Medical Students. By Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Ph.D., F.C.S., and Henry Triinble, Ph.M. f. B. Lippincott Company. iSg^. 

This is a compendious text-book of several branches of chemistry, filling 
nearly one thousand large octavo pages. Its issue, in these generous propor- 
tions, is an event of interest, as it will take a prominent place among one- 
volume publications bearing the title of pharmaceutical chemistry'. Its authors 
are severally well known for their respective publications, and their conjoined 
names have therefore a favorable introduction to students and practitioners of 
medicine and of pharmacy. 

The work furnishes ninety pages upon elementary physics, four hundred and 
thirty pages upon inorganic chemistry, two hundred and seventy-nine pages 
upon organ 'c chemistry, and in ninety-six pages gives certain data for chemical 
and pharmaceutical analysis. The style throughout is direct, clear and easy ; 
the treatment of subjects is that of simple explanatory statement, with little 
discussion of theory, and altogether without citation of authorities. 

The presentation of physics, in its first principles, as a distinct introductory 
part, is a very commendable feature for such a general text-book as this is 
designed to be, because those students who have most used such general text- 
bjoks have commonly neglected the use of anj- separate text-book of physics 

^^ASifsr"-} Rcvuws. 223 

for collateral reading. In Part I of this work the general and special proper- 
ties of matter, and the laws of heat, light and electricity are outlined in brief. 
Such subjects as the use of the balance, the determinations of density, the 
principles of the microscope, spectroscope and polariscope are introduced, the 
limits of space not covering topics like the use of the refractometer, the modern 
studies of solution, etc. In a general treatise upon chemistry, the primary 
conceptions of physics are necessary to a clear understanding of the nature of 
chemical action, and the one study ought to be a companion to the other. 

In Part II, devoted to the chemistry of the non-metals, directions are given 
for very simple practical exercises, that is to say, easy experiments, showing 
the character of the elements and the manner of chemical reaction. In this 
part, as well as in Part III, treating of the metals, the operations of industrial 
chemistry receive a good share of attention. Throughout these two inorganic 
divisions of the book, and also in the division of organic chemistry, the articles 
of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia are announced in full type, and are described from 
the Pharmacopoeia, as they are reached in the chemical order of the work. 

The text for organic chemistrj', in Part IV, is by necessity of space less 
ample in proportion to the extent of the subject, but the treatment is especially 
concise, and in quite full accord with the present state of organic research in 
its last results. For all simple and t5'pical compounds the molecular structure 
is fully stated, and for representative types certain of the most important 
proofs of structure are given. The synthetic products used in medicine are 
described, both as to constitution and chemical properties. Certain of the more 
important series of organic compounds are tabulated with their physical con- 
stants. The carbohydrates are presented in the classification which has been 
adopted, following the work of Emil Fischer. 

But statements of stereochemical isomerism seem to be avoided, except in a 
paragraph of the introduction. The subject of essential oils, camphors and 
resins is made rich in recent chemistry, and the text upon the alkaloids is very 
much more systematic and full than in most treatises upon organic chemistry, 
as, indeed, it might well be. The alkaloids have been huddled into closing pages 
of current chemical text-books as though they were a supernumerary residue 
of things merely dissected out of plants ; and this for years after the results 
of Hofmann and Ladenburg, O. Hesse and E. Schmidt, Claus and Liebermann, 
among many, have been on record in literature as classic as any in the science. 
Finally, the manufacturing operations related to organic chemistry, the indus- 
tries of fermentation, dry distillation, etc., are liberally presented in a way that 
is already familiar to the readers of the volume on industrial chemistry issued 
by one of the authors of this work a few years ago. 

The compact analytical data in Part V include brief directions and tabulated 
schemes for qualitative work, selections for gravimetric and volumetric use, the 
latter with certain assay processes from the pharmacopoeias. The work is in 
excellent print, upon the best of paper. The authors may be congratulated 
upon it. A. B. Prescott. 

A Standard Dictionaryof the English Language, Voluivie II. I. K. 
Funk, D.D., Editor-in-chief; F. A. March, LL.D., Consulting Editor; D. S. 
Gregory, D.D., Managing Editor ; and the following Associate Editors : John 
Deunison Champlin, M.A.; Rossiter Johnson, Ph.D.; Arthur E. Bostwick, 
Ph.D. New York, Toronto and London. Funk & Wagnalls Company. 1895. 

224 Reviews. {^"xSrs's"™- 

It has been just about a year since the first volume of this truly magnificent 
work was reviewed iu this journal. 

Two hundred and forty-seven editors, selected from the front ranks of English 
and American scholars, have been engaged upon this book. 

About five years have elapsed since this work was undertaken, and 1960,000 
were expended before a copy was offered for sale. 

To give some idea of the advances made in the language in modern times, we 
ma}- quote the following comparisons: Johnsoti's Z?/W/c;/(Z»-r contains 45,000 
vocabulary terms; JVorcester's, 105,000; Webster's International, 125,000; 
Century (six volumes), 225,000 ; Standard, 301,865, exclusive of the appendix, 
which contains 47,468 entries. 

One of the attractive features of the work is the magnificent colored plates. 
That of the solar spectrum and typical colors is especially noteworthy. 

Some of the titles are defined so as to be encyclopaedic in character. As an 
illustration, we may mention the term oils, under which are given the name, 
source, use and properties of 337 different oils. 

About four pages are devoted to the term measure; and weight receives a 
similar exhaustive treatment. Different systems under both of these titles are 
compared so as to be especially instructive. 

The title, pharmacy, is defined as " the branch of materia medica that treats 
of the compounding of drugs and other substances for use in medicine, includ- 
ing also their collection, preservation and identification ; the art or business of 
compounding and dispensing medicines." Those of us who claim that phar- 
macy is a profession cannot extract much consolation from such a definition. 

Medicine comes off a little better as "the healing art ; the science of the 
preservation of health and of treating disease for the purpose of cure." We 
can hardly agree, however, with the following statement: "Plants and 
minerals are the source of most medicines." Since the introduction of serum 
therapy aud the flesh extracts, it is necessary to exercise caution in making 
sweeping statements, besides it is stretching a point to assign the origin of 
many of the new synthetic remedies to either plants or minerals; the source is 
too remote. 

We have no wish, however, to find fault with what is undoubtedly the greatest 
dictionary of modern times. Its two volumes stand in strange contrast with 
the ponderous six-volume Century Dictionary, which does not contain as 
much information. 

The reception given to the Standard Dictionary has been so universal and 
so enthusiastic that we feel sure it will become ///^standard for America, if not 
for all English-speaking countries. 

The following prices will be of interest to many : 

Sold Only by Subscription. 

Single-volume Edition. Price. 

Half Russia $12 00 

\ With Denison's patent reference index >■ ' ' " 
Full morocco •- J ... 18 00 

Two-volume Edition. 
Half Russia $1$ 00 

Full Russia f wui, r,.„;.^„-o ^„.^„* ^^r^.^^.o ;^^^^ \ • • ■ 1700 

Full morocco 

\ With Denison's patent reference index / 

^'^aSis^^'"} Reviews. 225 

Manuai. OF Chemistry. By W. Simon, Ph.D., M.D. Fifth edition. Phila- 
delphia, Lea Bros. & Co. 1895. 

The demand for this work has necessitated the issue of another edition, and 
the author has taken the opportunity to thoroughly revise it and bring it in 
complete harmony with the new Pharmacopoeia. The orthography recom- 
mended by the American Association for the Advancement of Science has not 
been fully adopted, for the reason that neither the leading chemical journals 
nor the United States Pharmacopoeia use this spelling, and that it would be 
unwise to have the student confronted with two different systems of orthogra- 
phy. The foregoing statements of the author we can heartily endorse; the stu- 
dent should not be confronted with any more systems in anything than are 
absolutely necessary, least of all in the every-day matter of spelling. Let the 
Pharmacopoeia lead. 

What has been said of Dr. Simon's standard work in previous pages of this 
journal, we can fully subscribe to, and we can especially commend the unique 
colored plates, representing, as they do, sixty-four chemical reactions. One 
new plate has been added to the present edition, showing the chemical behavior 
of a number of the more important benzene derivatives. 

Sweet Cassava : Its Culture, Properties and Uses. By Harvey W. Wiley. 
Bulletin No. 44, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry. 

An abstract of this interesting and valuable contribution will be given in a 
future number. 

Etidorhpa, or the End of the Earth. The Strange History of a Mys- 
terious Being, and the Account of a Remarkable Journey, as Communicated in 
Manuscript to Llewellyn Drury, who promised to print the same, but finally 
evaded the responsibility, which was assumed by John Uri Lloyd. With many 
illustrations by J. Augustus Knapp. Author's edition, limited. Cincinnati, 
John Uri Lloyd. 1895. 

We have been allowed to see some proof-sheets of a work which is destined 
to figure conspicuously in the literature of both science and romance. 

Professor Lloyd is well and favorably known as an experimenter and a writer 
on scientific subjects relating to pharmacy, but it will surprise some of his 
friends to know that he now appears in the role of philosopher and romancer. 
If it is feared by any one that the author, in assuming such a difficult part, has 
impaired his faculties for writing on pharmaceutical subjects, we venture to 
convince them of the contrary by pointing to his valuable paper on distil' ed 
water, which appears on p. 190, of this number of the Journal, and which 
was prepared by him since his " Etidorhpa " went to press. 

As we have not the whole work we reserve our decision, but feel safe in saying 
that it will be intensely interesting and at the same time instructive. 

The following interesting contributions have been issued by the Department 
of Agriculture of New South Wales, and forwarded by the author, Mr. J H. 
Maiden, of the Technological Museum at Sydney: 

Useful Australian Plants. No. 12— The Turpentine-trhe. {Syn- 
carpia laurifolia, Ten.). No. 14 — The New South Wales Blue Gum. {£u- 
calyptus sa/i<; na, Sm. ). 

Grass Tree Gum. Tan Substances (Canaigre). 

226 Colleges and Associations. { 

f Am. Joiir. Pharni. 
April, I8i5. 

The Corkwood or Duboisia. Australian Sandarach (we reprint this 
last on page 2:4). 

Etude de Nouvelles Plantes Medicinales Neocaledoniennes. {A) 
Resme de Gardenia. — {B) Gornme-resine de Garcinia.—{C) Produits des Sper- 
molepis {Chene-gotnme). Par MM. Edouard Meckel et Fr. Schlagdeubauffen. 

The last one of these secretions is of especial interest on account of its rich- 
ness in gallotannic acid. The following is given by the authors as its compo- 
sition : 

Per Cent. 

Gallotannic acid 7973 

Tauno-resin i9'5o 

Gum,- coloring, albuminoids, salts o"47 

Crystalline substance 0*30 

1 00 GO 
The following interesting contributions have been received from the author, 

Professor Dr. A. Tschirch: 

(i) F. A. Fluckiger, Sonderabdruck aus den Berichten der Pharmaceuti- 

schen Gesellschaft. 

(2) Die Keimungsgeschichte von Myristica fragrans, Hoct. Son- 
derabdruck aus den Bericht. d. Phar. Gesell. 

(3) Untersuchungen ueber die Secrete. (10) Ueber den Tolubal- 
SAM. Von Paul Oberlander. Sonderabdruck aus den Archiv der Pliarmacie . 

(4) Ueber Secrete und Secretbildung. Separatabdruck aus Phartn. 

Antisepsis AND Antiseptics. By Charles Milton Buchanan, M.D. With 
an Introduction by Prof. Augustus C. Bernays. The Terhune Company, New- 
ark, N. J. 1895. 

The 350 pages of this book treat of a very interesting subject in such a man- 
ner that it is not apparent at first sight that a part of it is a thinly-disguised 
advertisement of a certain antiseptic preparation manufactured by a St. Louis 
"chemical company." No doubt " up-to date " prescribers are already ordering 
it, and the long-suffering pharmacist is already " stocking " with it, although 
under protest. " Sennine " is its name ; it is a combination of phenol and boric 
acid, of such rare properties that it contains all the virtues of these two valu- 
able agents, without any of their disadvantages. The formula by which this 
peculiar compound is obtained is not given. 

The Alkaloids, Alkaloidal Salts, and Neutral Principles of the 
United States Pharmacopceia. Compiled by Albert N. Doerschuk, Ph.G. 

This is in chart form, and was originally issued as a supplement to the 
National Druggist, and copies may be obtained free by writing to that journal 
at St. Louis, Mo. 



Washington, D. C, March 18, 1895. 
The Council has, by vote, named Wednesday', August 14, 1895, for the next 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, which is to be held in 
the city of Denver. 

^"°Apri[;i893"'''°} Colleges and Associations. 227 

The arrangements for hotel accommodations and transportation have not 
yet been efTected. As soon as completed they will be announced. 

W. S. Thompson, 
Chairman of the Council, American Pharmaceutical Associatio7i. 

The best reason that can be given for becoming a member of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association is because it pays. 

There is no initiation fee. The annual dues are fs, payable after the election 
of a member, or, preferably, when application is made. There is no other 
expense connected with becoming and continuing a member than this fs per 

The American Pharmaceutical Association was founded forty-three j'ears 
ago, the first meeting being held in the city of Philadelphia, on October 6, 1852. 

Its ai)n was to unite the educated and reputable pharmacists and druggists 
of America in securing such objects as would elevate pharmac}-. By united 
action, it has fully justified the designs of its founders; its roll contains the 
names of over 1,700 members, drawn from all parts of North America, some of 
the most distinguished exponents of the art and science having been enrolled. 

Its objects appeal to no clique, section or faction, but it is, in the broadest 
sense, a national body. It has from the first encouraged and fostered State 
Pharmaceutical Associations, receiving delegates from these bodies, and ex- 
tending to them aid whenever such was sought. 

Among the many benefits received in return for annual dues, the first to 
be mentioned is the handsomelj^-bound volume of about 1,000 pages, issued 
annually gratis to members. It is called "The Proceedings," yet this term but 
remotely expresses the character and value of the work. True, it contains the 
proceedings of the annual meeting, which are of much interest to members, but 
it contains what is of greater value — the interesting discussions and extempo- 
raneous remarks, as they drop from the lips of America's most eminent phar- 
macists and authors, besides all papers read during the meeting, embracing 
every class of subjects with which the pharmacist is concerned. 

0/ great practical value to every retail pharmacist is the "Report on 
Progress of Pharmacy," which is published in the volume of proceedings. 
This feature alone will give as great returns as can be derived from I5 invested 
in works of reference. The formulae are well worth the price. 

With the continued growth of pharmacy va. this country it has become of 
the utmost importance for all organized bodies to work in harmony, and it is 
earnestly hoped that the members of State Associations will strengthen the 
parent body and in turn receive the benefits which this powerful organiza- 
tion can bestow, by becoming members of the National Association. This 
may be done by filling out an application which can be obtained from Dr. H. 
M. Whelpley, 2342 Albion Place, St. Louis, Mo., Chairman of the Committee on 
Membership. Return the application with I5 to Mr. Geo. W. Kennedy, 
Pottsville, Pa., Secretary of the Committee. The 1895 meeting will be held in 
that world-renowned health resort, prosperous city and hospitable convention 
place, Denver, Col., August 14th to 21st. 

228 Colleges and Associations. {-^^Apr'*'""' 

American Pharmaceutical Association. 

organized 1852. incorporated 1888. 

section on pharmaceutical education and legislation. 

The Forty-third Annual Meeting. 

Denver, Col., August 14, 1895. 
The Committee on Education and Legislation desires to present statistical 
information on these two important branches this year. 

In order that the educational and legal status of pharmacy may be improved, 
it is deemed essential that the present requirements, as existing in over forty 
States, be summarized for ready reference and comparison. Secretaries of 
Pharmacy Boards, Colleges and other tnemVjers are respectfully requested to 
transmit the information required for the subjoined queries at the earliest date 
for tabulation by the Secretary. 

Papers on subjects considered by this section are urgently solicited and 
should be in hand, together with an abstract or synopsis, not later than 
June 15th, that they may be printed for distribution at the meeting. 

Kindly advise the Secretary of this Section as promptly as possible what 
contribution you intend to make. 


James M. Good, Chairman, 

2348 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
James H. Beal, Associate, 

Scio, O. 
Carl S. N. Hallberg, Secretary, 

358 Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, III., March /, iSg^. 


The subscribers to the fund for the new Pittsburg College of Pharmacy build- 
ing met on Thursday, February 21st, in the Chamber of Commerce rooms, for 
the purpose of forming a permanent organization. 

The oflBcers elected were : Wm. G. Schirmer, President ; Theodore E. Ihrig, 
Recording Secretary ; Joseph P. Urben, Treasurer; and S. S. Holland, Louis 
Emanuel and A. J. Kaercher, Vice-Presidents. 

Prof. F. T. Aschman, Louis Emanuel and E. A. Schaefer were appointed a 
committee to draw up a constitution and by-laws. 

One of the objects of the organization is to form a Druggists' Club for the 
furtherance of social and trade interests. It is hoped that all the druggists in 
the count}- will become members of the club, which will own and control the 
proposed new College building, which will contain the rooms of the Association 
also. By thus forming a club with a financial standing it is hoped that much 
can be accomplished in the way of relie%nng the present evils of the trade. 

The following committee was appointed to solicit membership : John C. 
Smith and Richard Mierzwa, Lawrenceville ; George L. Bimber, South Side ; 
T. Ray Wirsing, Sharpsburg ; C. E. Steunz, Mt. Washington ; B. P. Welsch, 
Charles F. Waltherand J. F. Neeh-, Allegheny ; D. B. Kahle, New Kensington; 
C. A. Givens, McKee's Rocks ; Otto Friebing, East End ; A. F. Judd, Beaver 
Valley ; W. C. Martin, Homestead ; Howard Jackson, Wilkinsburg ; Adolph 
Schmidt, McKeesport ; Joseph M. Dodds, Braddock. 

^'°Ap°r"i'":i89r°'"} Phannaccutical Meeting. 229 


At a meeting of the State Board of Pharmacy, Illinois, held Februar}- 12, 13, 
14, 15, 19, 20, 2r, 1895, for examination, 141 applicants were present, out of 
which 34 passed the examination for registered pharmacists. 

The next meeting of the Board will be held in Chicago, April 16, 1895, at 
173 Thirty-ninth Street. All applications must be on file in the office at Spring- 
field on or before April 13, 1895. Applications will not be received the day of 
the meeting. Address all communications to Springfield. 

Frank Fleury, Secretary, 

Springfield, Illinois. 


Philadelphia, March 19, 1895. 

On motion of Professor Trimble, Wm. Mclntyre was asked to preside. 

The Registrar presented, on behalf of the publishers, through the Journal 
OF Pharmacy, to the library a copy of the Standard Dictionary of the English 
Language, volume II, published by Funk & Wagnalls, and a copy of Sadtler 
& Trimble's completed text-book of Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 
They were received with the thaaks of the College. 

A paper was read by Mr. C. H. L^ Wall on the Chlorinated Compounds of 
the United States Pharmacopceia. After reading, a discussion which followed 
showed that the chlorinated line, which is one of the most used chlorinated 
compounds, deteriorates faster by moisture than by any other cause, and that 
heat, if it be not above 70° F., exerts but little deleterious influence upon it. 
The general opinion was that liquor sodcB ehlorat(B was better made by the 
formula of 1880 Pharmacopceia than by that of 1890. 

Mr. W. E. Ridenour read a verj^ interesting paper upon the Chemical Char- 
acteristics of the J 'arious Kijids of Cacao Beans of Commerce . The paper was 
the occasion of a number of queries relative to the best cocoa for soda water 
and dietetic uses, and whether the chemicals used by some changes the charac- 
ter of the cocoa. 

The flavor of cocoa of the Caracas is generally more highly esteemed than 
other varieties. The Dutch prepared chocolate has a larger percentage of ash. 

The question was asked whether the Kola nut is used to any extent for fabri- 
cation of chocolates. 

The papers were referred to the publication committee. 

Professor Trimble inquired whether there was any demand for Loefiler's 
Toluol Solution for diphtheria. The reply was that the druggist should make 
it and let doctors know they had it. 

Mr. Kebler asked if any members present had experienced unpleasant 
efiFects on their eyes from handling and examining saffron. The inquiry was 
made as to the variety of saff"ron handled, as there are so many substances and 
adulterations in saflfron. Mr. Beringer said that the ash of saff"ron retained the 
shape of plant unchanged. Mr. Kebler also asked what should be sold as 
blacli sulphur. That commonly sold is black sulphide of antimony and flowers of 
sulphur. Another article examined proved to be metallic iron, crude sulphur 
and earthy matters ; another carbonate of calcium and coal dust. Sulphur 

230 Obituary. {^"x'J'rir.-.^'s""- 

vivum, the residue from sublimation of sulpliur, reduced to powder, is also 
known under this name. 

It was suggested that Mr. Kebler furnish the next meeting with a paper upon 
this subject. 

White sulphur was also inquired about. This is usually precipitated sulphur 
made by precipitating sulphur with sulphuric acid instead of hydrochloric acid, 
thus contaminating it with sulphate of calcium. 

Adjourned. T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar. 



Chas. Bradford Hunterson, Ph.G., Class of i8Si, was born in Philadelphia, Pa.. 
October 12, i860, and died at his residence, 1828 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, 
Pa., December 9, 1894, in his 35th year, of pleura pneumonia. He received 
his early education in the public schools of Philadelphia, and went to Potts- 
ville, where he spent four years and finished his education, after which he 
returned to Philadelphia and entered the employ of Dr. Clement B. Lowe, Ph.G., 
corner Ninth and Vine Streets, and remained about one year, after which he 
went with Wm. Wilson, Montgomery Avenue and Thompson Streets, with 
whom he remained until he finished the drug business. While with the latter 
he attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy with the class of 1881. Afte^" 
his graduation he entered the employ of Lancaster Thomas, corner Nineteenth 
aud Pine Streets. In 1S86, he purchased the drug store, 1828 Frankford Avenue, 
corner Vienna Street, which he occupied up to the time of his death. In 189T, 
he was elected a member of the Executive Board of the Alumni Association, 
and continued a member up to the time of his decease. He was an active 
member of the Northeast Branch of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and took a great interest in the erection of their new building, assisting in 
the collecting of the funds for that purpose, and was elected its Treasurer, 
which position he held up to the time of his death. He was also an active 
member aud one of the Trustees of the Bethesda Presbyterian Church. He was 
married in 1S88 to Miss Porter, daughter of the Hon. Jas. Porter, of Camden, 
N. J., who survives him, with two children. A sad feature of his death was the 
loss of a younger brother just two weeks previous, with the same disease. 

W. E. K. 




A/AV, i8g5. 

By Edson S. Bastin. 

The " first sweet smiles of May," as Whittier calls the flowers of 
this plant, prettily portray the fact that they are at once among the 
earliest and the most prized of our spring floral treasures. 

In most localities where the plant is known it is called the Trail- 
ing Arbutus, but in Massachusetts and some other portions of New 
England it is commonly called the Mayflower, partly, perhaps, in 
allusion to its time of blossoming, and partly to the fact that it was 
the first flower to gladden the eyes of the Pilgrims in the spring 
after their first winter on the bleak shores of their new home. 

The plant is widely distributed over the northeastern part of 
North America, but is especially abundant in the region of the Alle- 
ghenies and in the pine and fir-clad regions bordering the Great 
Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. It particularly affects rocky 
hill slopes, where the soil is light and well drained, but is not infre- 
quently found on lower-lying sandy, tree-clad areas, where the soil 
is well aerated. The sturdy little plant also prefers the vigorous 
north, and is seldom found south of the line of the Ohio River, save 
in the more elevated portions of the Alleghenies. Its stems are 
prostrate, and the slender trailing branches often attain a foot in 
length, and possess, like the petioles and the under surfaces of the 
leaves, a copious growth of rusty-brown, multicellular, but simple 
hairs. These also occur, but much more sparingly, on the upper 
surface of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen, veiny, scarcely 



Structure of Epigcea Repens. { 

Am. Jonr. Ptiarin. 
31 ay, 1895. 

coriaceous, deep green above, from 3 to 6 cm. long, elliptic in out- 
line, ciliate-margined, cordate, or sometimes rounded at the base, 
cuspidate at the apex, exstipulate, but provided with petioles which 
are nearly as long as the leaf blades. 

Fig. I. 

The fragrant flowers are arranged in short, almost spike-like 
racemes at the ends of the stems, and when they unfold in the 
spring are often quite concealed from view by dead leaves which 

Am. Tour. Pharm. 
May, 1895. 

Structure of EpigcBa Repens. 


have fallen from the overhanging trees. The flowers are white or 
rose-tinged, and attain a length of i^ or 2 cm. The pedicels are 
only two or three mm. long, and covered with rusty-brown hairs, as 
are also the scaly bracts which subtend the flowers. The calyx is 
deeply five-parted and the segments are erect, lanceolate, entire, 
nearly smooth, about the length of the corolla tube, pointed and 
scale-like. 1 he corolla is hypogynous, salver-shaped, and the lobes 
of its five-parted limb are ovate, entire, obtuse or mucronate, and 
alternate with the segments of the calyx. The tube is hairy on its 

Fig. 2. 
interior. The androecium consists of ten stamens, as in most other 
Ericaceae, and they appear to be in but one whorl, though prob- 
ably this is the result of a condensation from two. 

The flowers, according to the investigations of Prof. W. P. Wilson, 
are really dioecious, though most of them still possess both stamens 
and pistils. In the pistillate flowers, which are rose-colored, the 
stamens have sometimes completely disappeared, though in most 
instances they are still present, but functionless and smaller than 
they are in the staminate white flowers. The staminate flowers differ 

234 Structure of Eptgcea Repens. {^""CyViraa""- 

Irom each other also, some having long stamens, others short ones, 
and still others those of intermediate length. There is a correspond- 
ing difference also in the length of the styles. The history of the 
flower, then, according to Prof. Wilson, is as follows : It was at first 
hermaphrodite, and the flowers of the species all had the same 
form. It then became dimorphous, later on trimorphous, and finally 
the stamens in some flowers and the pistils in others became abor- 
tive, as is the case with the species at the present time. It may 
therefore be safely predicted that in the process of evolution still 
going on the last vestige of stamens from the pistillate flowers, and 
of pistils from the staminate ones, will ultimately disappear. 

The insertion of the stamens is, as in most other Ericaceae, on 
the receptacle, and not on the tube of the corolla, differing thus 
from most other gamopetalae, in which they are adnate to the 
tube of the corolla. The filaments are bearded at the base and 
alternate toward the apex. The anthers are introrse, versatile, 
2-celled, and differ from those of the majority of the family in the 
fact that they dehisce longitudinally rather than by means of 
apical pores. 

The pollen grains also differ from those of most other plants out- 
side this natural order in the fact that each is composed of a group 
of four cells. 

The pistil is 5-carpeled, the ovary faintly lO-lobed exteriorly, 
5-celled interiorly, with an axile placentation and very numerous 
ovules. The style is!:, unbranching and crowned, in the pistil- 
late flower, with a star-shaped, 5-rayed stigma. The stigmas of the 
staminate flowers are also 5-lobed, but the lobes never open. 

A study of the cross- section of the stem shows such a structure 
as that drawn in Fig. 2 ; a small-celled epidermis, a loosely-arranged 
cortical parenchyma, whose cells vary greatly in size, a zone of well- 
developed bast-fibres in the outer phloem, a narrow zone of wood 
with a rather large pith composed of parenchyma cells, some ot 
which are small or moderate in size, others relatively very large. 

A cross-section of a leaf near its base shows the vascular area 
constituting the midrib to possess an outer crescent- shaped mass of 
bast-fibres, the horns of which are presented toward the upper sur- 
face of the leaf. Lining this is a thinner crescent of soft bast, which 
in turn includes a short, thick crescentic mass of xylem tissues. The 
latter shows a distinct radial arrangement of its elements, and these 

Am. .Tour. Pharm. 
May, 1895. 

Structure of Epigcea Repens. 


rays focu.s upon a small area of parenchymatous tissues included 
between the horns of the inner crescent. This parenchyma, the 
x>lem tissues, and the bast-fibres, in the mature leaf, are all strongly 
lignified. Exterior to the crescent-shaped area of bast- fibres is a 
region of loosely-arranged parenchyma enclosing the bundle, except 
on its upper side, and extending nearly to the epidermis below, and 
laterally to form the spongy parenchyma of the thin portions of the 
lamina. This parenchyma is quite similar in appearance to that 
composing the pith of the stem. 

The epidermis is one-layered and rather small-celled, and the 
cells of the lower are smaller than those of the upper epidermis. 
The cuticle is thinner than that of most evergreen leaves. The 
rather compactly-arranged chlorophyll-bearing cells which face the 
upper epidermis differ from most palisade tissue in being but 
slightly lengthened. There are two or three layers of these 
cells. / 

The ordinary epidermal cells, in surface view, appear .=trongly 
wavy in outline, or lobed, and there is little difference of shape 
between those of the upper and those of the lower face of the leaf. 
Stomata occur also on both surfaces, but are more abundant on 
the lower. 

236 Some Derivatives of Chimaphilin. {'''"May,'"i8^&.'""'- 


Frontispiece. — Trailing Arbutus. 

A. — Flowering shoot about three-fourths natural size. 
B. — Vertical section of a flower. 
C. — Stamen, much enlarged. 
D. — A pistil, also much enlarged. 
E. — Pollen grains. 
F. — Ground plan of flower. 

G. — Enlarged view of cross-section of ovary, showing axile pla- 
[The above drawings are reproduced from the author's Laboratory Exercises 
in Botany. '\ 

Fig. I. — Portion of cross-section of stem magnified 230 diameters; a, base of 
one of the hairs; 3, epidermal cell; r, cell of looselj-arranged cortical paren- 
chyma; d, bast-fibres; <?, soft bast; f, cambium zone; g, medullary ray; h, duct 
in xylem; z, one of the large parenchyma cells of the pith. 

Fig. 2 — Portion of cross-section made near base of leaf of Epigaea. Magni- 
fication 75 diameters; />, palisade tissue, composed of cells scarcely elongated; 
^, a hair; 5^ a stoma; z', section of a veiulet; d, bast-fibres; 5, soft bast; x, 
duct in xylem; a, spongy parenchymatous tissue composed of large and small 

Fig. s. — Small portion of lower epidermis of leaf magnified 560 diameters, 
showing ordinary epidermal cells and stomata. 


By W. E. Ridenour, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 139. 

Chimaphilin is a crystalline, neutral principle, obtained from 
Chimaphila timbellata, Nuttall, and Clmnaphila maculata, Pursh. 

It was first described by Samuel Fairbanks [Jour, and Trans. Md. 
College of Pharm., i860, or American Journal of Pharmacy, i860 
p. 254), who obtained it by distilling the drug of the former species 
with water. E. S. Beshore (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1887, 
p. 125), was the next to investigate Cliimaphila umbellata. He 
prepared chimaphilin by Fairbanks' process. He also extracted 
the dried drug with petroleum ether, and in the percolate found 
another crystalline principle, which melted at 236° C. Upon ulti- 
mate analysis he found its composition to be Cj^Hj^O. He believed 
it to be the active constituent of the drug. 

In 1892, J. C. Peacock published in this Journal, p. 295, the 
account of an investigation of both species. He showed that 


"^^^May^irgs"™ } Some Derivatives of Chimaphilin. 237 

chimaphilin was obtainable from dry Chimaphita mactdata, and, 
besides isolating it from both species by the method of Fairbanks, 
he extracted it by percolating the dried drug of the C. junbellata with 
petroleum ether. The crystals so obtained, after repeated crystalli- 
zation, were found, by him, to melt between 113° and 114° C., and 
to have a composition represented by the formula C24H01O4. 

The same investigator also found three other crystalline princi- 
ples, which were designated — according to their appearance — as 
matted crystals, melting at 153° C. ; tufted crystals, having a melt- 
ing point of 166-167° C. ; glistening crystals, not melting at 
250° C. 

This work of investigating the derivatives of chimaphilin was 
undertaken at the suggestion of Professor Trimble, and was con- 
ducted under his direction. 

The chimaphilin used in these experiments was procured by dis- 
tilling water with the coarsely-ground Oiimaphila umbellata of the 
market. The crystals were collected from the condenser and the 
light yellow distillate. The color, odor and taste of the latter sug- 
gesting the presence of dissolved chimaphilin, it was accordingly 
shaken with ether, which removed all color, and, upon evaporation, 
left a very small quantity of chimaphilin, and some volatile oil of a 
strong odor. 

When freshly isolated, the crystals had a melting-point of 109° 
C. By recrystallization from alcohol of specific gravity -820, and, 
through precipitation of a concentrated alcoholic solution with 
water, the melting-point was raised to 114° C. 

The solubilities of the principle were found to be the same as 
those assigned it by former investigators. 

When applied in the dry state to the skin, the crystals pro- 
duced, after a few minutes, a burning sensation, which became quite 
intense. That the identity and purity of the crystals might be 
further proven, they were submitted to ultimate analysis, the result 
of which is compared with the composition assigned the principle 
by Peacock. 

Found. Calculated for C24H21O4 

Per Ceut. Per Cent. 

Carbon 77"3o 77'2i 

Hydrogeti . 576 5-63 

Oxygen 16-94 17-16 

238 Some Derivatives of Ckimaphilin. {^"'AlyAm^''^ 

From this purified chimaphilin the following compounds were 
prepared : 


Pure dry chlorine gas was conducted through a solution of the 
crystals in absolute ether. The reddish-yellow color of the solution 
gradually became paler, until at the end of three hours it retained 
but a light yellow tint. 

Nothing was deposited from the solution so treated, but, upon 
the spontaneous evaporation of the ether, tufts of light-yellow- 
colored, needle-shaped crystals remained. They melted between 
93° and 94° C, thus showing their difference from chimaphilin. 
They were soluble, to some extent, in a 10 per cent, solution ot 
potassium hydrate, to which they imparted a faint pink color, which, 
upon heating, changed to yellow. When their solution in potassium 
hydrate was" acidified with nitric acid and tested with silver nitrate, 
a distinct precipitate of silver chloride was obtained. The action 
of ammonium hydrate was similar to that of potassium hydrate. 

A combustion of the derivative (silver-foil being used to absorb 

the chlorine), afforded the following figures : 

Carbon 54 '33 per cent. 

Hydrogen 4'63 " 

To estimate the chlorine, a mixture of the derivative and calcium 
carbonate was heated to redness in a piece of combustion tubing 
for one hour. The tube was allowed to cool, then broken, and its 
entire contents treated with water, and afterwards with nitric acid 
in excess. The solution was filtered from the fragments of glass, 
and completely precipitated with silver nitrate. The resulting silver 
chloride was collected, washed, and subsequently dried at 1 30° C. 
Its amount indicated the presence of 28-22 per cent, of chlorine in 
the derivative. 

It would therefore appear, from the results obtained by analysis, 
that this compound is a tetra-chlor addition product of C24H21O4, 
and, for convenience of comparison, the matter may be tabulated as 

follows: Found. Calculated for C24H21O4CU 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Carbon 54-33 55-92 

Hydrogen 4-63 4-07 

Chlorine 28-22 27-57 

Oxygen 12.82 12-44 

lOQ-co loo-oo 

^""May^iSs*"^"} ^0^^^ Derivatives of Chimaphilin. 239 

A bromine derivative was made by adding an ethereal solution 
of bromine to a solution of chimaphilin in ether. The addition 
was continued as long as the color of the bromine disappeared. 
The derivative formed tabular crystals, which underwent decompo- 
sition when exposed to the air. 


A quantity of chimaphilin was boiled with acetic anhydride for 
four hours. When the resulting solution was poured into water, a 
crystalline precipitate, having the appearance of the original 
chimaphilin, was produced. A melting-point determination, the 
complete volatilization and the sublimation of the precipitated sub- 
stance, proved the correctness of that opinion. 


Chimaphilin was dissolved in chemically-pure nitric acid, of spe- 
cific gravity, 1-42. The solution was kept in a water-bath, at a tem- 
perature of 90° C, for one hour. During this time, red fumes were 
emitted. The resulting liquid, when allowed to cool, separated a 
mass of lemon-yellow tabular crystals. These were collected and 
washed with water. Another lot of the same crystals was obtained 
by evaporating the solution to dryness on a water-bath. 

After several recrystallizations from absolute ether, the crystals 
were found to melt to a red-brown liquid at a temperature of 153° 
to 154° C. When recrystallized from alcohol, a decomposition into 
resinous substances, incurring great loss of material, took place. 
The product of the action of the nitric acid was somewhat soluble 
in a 10 per cent, solution of potassium hydrate, producing therewith 
a reddish-yellow liquid. This color was destroyed by strong acids, 
but it was not restored by the addition of alkali in excess. 

The action of ammonium hydrate was similar to that of the fixed 

A combustion of the product showed the following results : 

Carbon 63*64 per cent. 

Hydrogen 6*57 " 

Both silver-foil and copper-turnings were used in the tube, to 
insure the decomposition of the oxides of nitrogen. 

An estimation of nitrogen by the soda-lime method showed 1-70 
per cent., while one by the Kjeldahl method indicated 219 per 
cent, of the element. 

240 Some Derivatives of Chimaphilin. { ^^May'is^*™' 

These results seem to indicate that the compound was a nitro- 
derivative of an oxidation product of chimaphilin. 

Fairbanks stated that concentrated nitric acid did not affect the 
crystals of chimaphilin, while Peacock reported that they dissolved 
in nitric acid, and were precipitated, apparently unaltered, by the 
addition of water. 

The residue of Chimaphila umbellata, from which the water had 
been distilled to obtain the chimaphilin, was dried and afterwards 
percolated with petroleum ether. This solvent extracted a consid- 
erable quantity of green coloring matter, and a small amount of a 
granular substance. The amount of the latter seemed to increase 
in the percolate as the drug came nearer exhaustion of the coloring 

The greater part of the petroleum ether was recovered from the 
percolate, which subsequently, upon cooling, separated the granular 
substance mentioned. When cool, the liquid portion which 
retained the green color was filtered off. Trial having shown that 
the granular substance upon the filter was but sparingly soluble in 
alcohol, it was washed with that liquid to remove traces of green 

It was found best to recrystallize the principle by the spontaneous 
evaporation of its chloroformic solution — a plan that was adopted, 
and by means of which colorless, many-sided crystals were 
obtained. These crystals possessed little or no taste, but produced 
a burning sensation when their chloroformic solution was applied to 
the skin. They did not melt at 250° C. When carefully heated on 
platinum foil, they fused to a clear liquid and sublimed, apparently 
unchanged, passing off as white clouds. 

When rapidly heated, the crystals burned with a smoky, lumi- 
nous flame, and were entirely consumed. 

Benzol, like chloroform, readily dissolved the crystals, while ether, 
absolute alcohol and petroleum ether, showed slight solvent power 

Purification seemed to have decreased their solubility in the last 

This principle was obtainable from both the stem and the leaf of 
the plant. 

Though melting at a temperature distinctively different from that 
recorded by Beshore for the substance discovered by him, and to 

'*'"'May'"i895^''"} Some Derivatives of Chimaphilin. 241 

which he gave the formula C^jHigO, this principle showed so much 
resemblance in solubility to the same, that a combustion was 
deemed necessary to prove or disprove their identity. 
The results of such analysis were : 

Average Found. Calculated for CjoHigO 
Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Carbon 77-53 77-42 

Hydrogen 11 "25 12-25 

. Oxygen 11-22 10-33 

By not melting at 250° C, by corresponding solubility, and by 
some general properties, the principle also showed a similarity to 
the " glistening crystals " described by Peacock; but as the result 
of a combustion of the same, he reported several per cent, more of 
carbon than the writer found. 

A collection of the species viaciilata was made on November 12, 
1894, near Haddonfield, New Jersey. About i kilo, of the whole 
plant was at once macerated with water, which was distilled off 
without delay. Crystals of chimaphilin were obtained in the dis- 
tillate. Peacock {vide loc. cit.) did not obtain chimaphilin from fresh 
Cliimaphila maailata gathered in the same locality in July, 1891. 

His reason for stating it absent was that " no solid separated in 
the condenser, nor in the distillate, even upon allowing the latter to 
stand for a month." In view of the fact that chimaphilin is slightly 
soluble in water, and under the circumstance of no mention by him 
of having shaken the distillate with ether or other solvent to sepa- 
rate the small amount that is soluble, such traces might have 
escaped his notice. Upon allowing another portion of the same 
collection to dry in the air of a room for forty days, he was enabled 
to detect the principle by the usual method. 

Some Chimaphila iimbellata was gathered at St. Davids, Penn- 
sylvania, on December 12, 1894. Crystals of chimaphilin were 
obtained when the fresh drug was subjected to the usual distillation 
process. From the difference in the experience of Mr. Peacock and 
the writer, the latter is led to believe that the amount of chimaphi- 
lin present in the fresh herb depends upon the time of collection. 

The writer is much indebted to Messrs. Peacock and Manger for 
the Chiuiaphila umbdlata, from which the chimaphilin was 

24a Black Sulphur. { ^" May'iius!'""" 

By Lyman F. Kebi,br. 

Synonyms. — Native sulphury sulphur vivum, horse brimstone, 
crude sulphur, sulphur nigrum, and Magnus " black sulphur!' 

Black sulphur was first mentioned^ by Magnus in 1854, and 
again studied" in 1856 by the same worker. As is well known, a 
portion of the sulphur that has been melted and allowed to cool is 
incompletely soluble in carbon disulphide. This residue, after 
repeated melting and extracting with carbon disulphide, constituted 
Magnus' first " black sulphur." It was subsequently prepared, by 
the same investigator^ by mixing sulphur with a very little oil, sootor 
charcoal and fusing ; a bluish black, soft, plastic mass resulted, which 
was only partially soluble in carbon disulphide, Magnus did not con- 
sider it an allotropic form of sulphur, but a special modification. 

A number^ of investigators have contributed to the knowledge of 
black sulphur, but it was left for Fr. Knapp to exhaustively study 
the subject. He studied the conditions under which the largest per 
cent, is produced, as well as the most uniform product formed. Black 
sulphur is evidently not a modmcation of sulphur, but consists of a 
carbonaceous mixture wmch forms a nucleus, affording a surface 
for the adhesion or condensation of the sulphur, or the carbonaceous 
material in some manner occludes the sulphur. Whatever may be 
the facts, a uniform product is hard to prepare. 

As a rule, pharmacists have a vague conception of what black 
sulphur is, if they know anything about it. Some think it is a mix- 
ture of sulphur and antimonious sulphide ; others say it may be 
Ethiops mineral, or sulphureted antimony, depending on what it is to 
be used for. 

What are the real facts concerning its composition ? The writer 
has been able to secure only three samples from many drug stores. 
Below are the results of the investigation of these samples. 

(l) Sulphur 81-58 per cent.; antimonious sulphide, 12-68 per cent, 
sand and earthy matter, 5 74 per cent. 

1 1854, Pogg. Ann., 93, 308. 

* 1856, Pogg. Ann., 99, 145. 

* 1865, Dietzenbacker, Pogg. Ann., 124, 644, 
1879, T. Gross, Berliner Akadetnie-Berichte, 7SS. 

f 1880, H. C. Jones, Chem. News, 41, 244. 
\'^%,J. prakt. Chem., (2) 38, 48, and 1891, Ibid., (2) 43, 305, 


^""May'irJr™'} Artificial Oil of Wintergreen. 243 

(2) Ground limestone, 5300 per cent.; coal-dust, 47-00 per cent. 

(3) Sulphur and other combustible matter, 57-09 per cent.; 
metallic iron, 17 91 per cent.; sand and earthy matter, 2500 per 
cent. From number three, by repeated extractions with carbon 
disulphide, the writer succeeded in extracting 39-13 per cent, of sul- 
phur. It was not all extracted, however. What a heterogeneity 
the above results present ! 

These few words are presented here solely with the view of bring- 
ing about a unity on black sulphur. The writer would be pleased 
to receive any information on this subject by any pharmacist 
meeting this article. Your opinions regarding the composition 
of black sulphur is especially desired. The results, if any, will 
be made known in this journal at some subsequent date. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

By Houston T. Thayer, Ph.G. 

The subject of this paper was one of the organic compounds by 
the production of which synthetical chemistry first showed itself to 
be a rival of Nature's mysterious functions. And as, under the 
name of methyl salicylate, it is a prominent member of the list of 
articles added to the Pharmacopoeia at the last revision, a practical 
process for its preparation would seem to be of interest to the phar- 
macist who might wish to make his own supply. 

The method of producing it long in use is that described in 
works on chemistry as consisting of the saturation of a solution of 
salicylic acid in methyl alcohol with hydrochloric acid gas, and of 
subsetjuent purification, either through distillation of the mixture 
by the aid of steam or by repeated washing with water. 

In following this outhne without taking the precaution of drying 
the hydrochloric acid gas, the availability of the process is not 
Hkely to be recognized, as the salicylic acid separates as a solid, and 
for that reason does not easily combine with the methyl alcohol. 

Some authorities, however, direct the use of sulphuric acid with 
which to digest the salicylic acid and methyl alcohol, instead of the 
usual treatment with hydrochloric acid gas. 

244 Artificial. Oil of Wintergreen. {^"May'ife^a*'""' 

On p. 8 of The American Journal of Pharmacy for 1887, Charles 
Bullock published, under the title of " Synthetical Oil of Gaultheria," 
the following process : 

Salicylic acid Yz oz. 

Methyl alcohol, absolute 2 fl. ozs. 

Sulphuric acid i fl. oz. 

Dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol ; then add gradually the sulphuric 
acid ; warm gently during twentj'-four hours ; then distil from a retort, into 
which a current of steam is introduced. The distillate is to be well washed 
and separated by decantation. 

The product aflforded by this process has, when recently prepared, a rank 
odor, but it is said in the article cited that the odor " improves by keeping." 

Although the writer does not object to the use of absolute methyl 
alcohol, he is of the opinion that it adds unnecessarily to the cost 
of the oil, because such an article is obtainable only by the expen- 
diture of much work and time — items of significance scarcely 
expected to be compensated by any probable superiority of the 
product over that obtained when a methyl alcohol of reasonable 
purity is employed. 

In the contribution mentioned, attention is directed to an artifi- 
cial oil then recently introduced into commerce. It is described as 
being colorless, as having a specific gravity of 1-176 and as boiling 
at 398° F. (203° C). 

The specific gravity compares favorably with i-i8o, the figures 
required by the Pharmacopoeia of 1880 for the natural oil of winter- 
green, in place of which the synthetical oil was obviously intended 
to be used. And the boiling point, while notably lower than that 
of pure methyl salicylate, fulfilled the necessity of a temperature 
above 200° C, required at that time, vide National Dispensatory, 
third edition, p. 1060. The cause of this variance in the boiling 
point may have been the presence of the methyl ether which Mr. 
Bullock suspected in the sample. 

By a number of experiments the writer has been enabled to 
develop the hydrochloric acid method already described as the one 
most frequently directed for the preparation of the artificial oil, 
and to devise the following practical and economical process, which 
yields an oil of good qualities : 

Salicylic acid 505'470 grammes. 

Methyl alcohol 690-850 grammes. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1895. 

} Artificial Oil of Wintergreen. 





















246 Artificial Oil of Wintergreen. {^"'May.iri'."'"'' 

The salicylic acid was added in portions to the methyl alcohol contained in 
a wide-mouthed flask until a saturated solution was obtained. This solution 
was then heated to the boiling point on a water bath, the flask having been 
connected with an upright condenser. Dry hydrochloric acid gas was passed 
into the hot solution until the latter was thoroughly saturated. The flask was 
then disconnected, an addition of about ten grammes of salicylic acid made, 
the flask replaced and the solution again completely saturated with the hydro- 
chloric acid gas. Such additions of salicylic acid and subsequent treatment 
with hydrochloric acid gas were repeated until all of the former substance had 
been added. After the last addition, the passage of the hydrochloric acid gas 
was continued for about two hours. 

The contents of the flask were then found to have separated into two dis- 
tinct layers, the lower of which was an oily liquid of a dark brown color. The 
upper layer was decanted, the lower washed with water until no longer acid to 
litmus paper, and then distilled from a flask with the aid of live steam. 

The oil was separated from the excess of water by means of a separating 
funnel, and afterwftrds completely dried by the use of anhydrous calcium 

The salicylic acid used had a melting point of 156°- 157° C. 

It was dried at 100° C. The methyl alcohol boiled between 
58° and 72° C, and had a specific gravity of -820. 

Especial care must be bestowed upon the drying of the hydro- 
chloric acid gas. 

The present operator found it necessary to pass the gas over 
anhydrous calcium chloride and through three bottles of sulphuric 
acid, as shown in the accompanying illustration. 

The quantities directed above yielded 500 grammes of a color- 
less or slightly yellowish oil, which had an agreeable odor, a 
specific gravity of i'i87 and a boiling point of 221° C. 

All of these qualities harmonize with the official requirements. 

The odor of the product has improved on standing. 

To ascertain the ultimate composition, the oil was submitted to 
combustion, whereby the following results were obtained : 

Calculated for 
Found. CHaCjHsOa. 

Carbon 63-38 63-16 

Hydrogen 5"io 526 

Oxygen 3i"52 3i"58 

Placing the price of methyl alcohol at $1.25 per gallon and that 
of salicylic acid at 56 cents per pound, the cost of the raw mate- 
rials required to produce 500 grammes of oil by the processproposed 
would be 99 cents. 

^'^i^^.im^'"'} Dr. W. G. Boorsmas Phnnierid. 247 

The proportionate rate for one pound would be 83 cents, while 
an allowance of 7 cents, which more than defrays the expense of 
salt and sulphuric acid (for the preparation of the hydrochloric acid 
gas) and heat needed to make that amount, raises the cost of the 
artificial oil to 90 cents per pound. 

In connection with the consideration of methyl salicylate, it might 
be remarked that ethyl salicylate of good quality can also be made 
by this process. It is reported that the ethyl compound is some- 
times substituted for the methyl. The odor of the ethyl salicylate 
is rather more delicate than that of the methyl salicylate. Specifi- 
cally, methyl salicylate is decidedly the heavier. 


An infusion of the bark of Plumiera acutifolia P., an Apocynea, 
cures horses of chronic colic. The bark is very bitter ; contains an 
acid, " plumiera acid," discovered by Altheer and Oudemans (Gen. 
Tijdschr. v. Ned Indie x, 1863, p. 183). This acid is not bitter. 

A maximum yield of about 6 per cent, was obtained, in white 
crystals, of this bitter principle. (Minimum not given.)- The 
nneh'-powdered bark is hereto exhausted with alcohol. There 
is a brownish green, waxy mass left, when the alcohol is distilled 
off. ivhicJi is not bitter when exhausted with water. The bitter 
principle has been dissolv^ed in the water. Crystals form in this 
watery exhaustion, when it is evaporated in vacuo to a thin extract 
and left to itself for some time. The watery solution is treated with 
lead acetate. The excess of lead is removed with H2S. The fiuid 
is evaporated to a minimum and decolorized through charcoal. The 
product of this treatment is intensely bitter. It is washed with 
boiling amyl alcohol. The amyl alcohol is removed in a separator 
and at last by warming. The decolorization process is to be repeated 
until final product is colorless. Leave the v/atery fluid to itself for 
crystallization. Collect crystals, dissolve them in warm amyl alcohol 
and water, under addition of some MgO ; filter warm. Leave again 

^Condensed from " Mededeeliugen uit' s. Lands Plantentuin, 1S94." The 
first series of these " Mededeelingen " are from the pen of Dr. M. Greshoff, and 
appeared in the Am. J. OF Ph., Mar. 1891, p. 124. J. B. Nagelvoort. 

- The leaves contain only traces of it. 

248 Dr. IV. G. Boorsmas Plumierid. {'^'^-^^^i^i^''^- 

to crystallize. Dry crystals between filter paper and remove the 
odor of amyl alcohol by warming. 

The bitter taste of the crystals is to be detected in a 1:15,000. 
solution (Plumierid is, therefore, much less bitter than quinine, 
which is to be detected in a 1:50,000 dilution. Referent.) 

Plumierid does not contain nitrogen. Its solutions are neutral. 

Plumierid does not reduce Fehling's fluid, when boiled with dilute 
acids ; it is, therefore, an indifferent bitter principle. 

Plumierid crystallizes with 2-5 per cent, water of crystallization. 
It commences to char at 150° C, but has not melted at 200° C. 

Platinic chloride, gold chloride, silver nitrate, lead acetate, lead 
subacetate, mercuric chloride, potassium mercuric iodide, picric 
acid, nor tannin solutions produce a precipitate in its watery 
solution, 1:20. 

Sulphuric acid dissolves it with an intense yellow color. A 
greenish black precipitate is thrown down in 24 hours, while the 
fluid is violet. 

Potassium dichromate, added to its solution in sulphuric acid, 
gives green stripes. (Great caution is needed where green colors 
appear after the addition of potassium dichromate, not to draw a 
wrong conclusion. Referent.) 

Nitric acid dissolves it colorless. This solution leaves a yellow 
red residue when evaporated. 

Hydrochloric acid dissolves it colorless in the cold. The solution 
soon becomes yellow and red ; a brown precipitate settles down 
after 24 hours, while the fluid is violet. The solution is immedi- 
ate!}' yellow and red when a few mgr. of Plumierid are boiled with 
I c.c. HCl. This solution, too, discolors and throws down a dark 
brown precipitate. The filtrate has dichroistic properties ; is red 
by transmitted light, blue by reflected light. (Those dichroistic 
properties from boiling with HCl remind one of Resorcinol reac- 
tions. Referent.) A purple-blue colored fluid is obtained by dilution 
with water. An excess of caustic soda or ammonia changes the 
color to orange. 

Plumierid has the formula C3,3HjQO,g.H20. It is not poisonous. 

The genus Plurniera seems to be rather remarkable from a phyto- 
chemical standpoint. Peckolt obtained a crystalline alkaloid from 
P. lancifolia, which he called agoniadine ; P. drastica is a very 
active pur^^ative. 

^"'-yi7J:mt'"'] TTrr Production and Uses of Cottonseed Oil. 249 

By p. L. Simmoxds, F.L.S. 

I think I may claim the merit of having first suggested the pro- 
duction of cotton-seed oil. Forty years ago, in a course of lectures 
I gave before the Society of Arts and Manufactures in London, on 
" The Utilization of Waste Products," I mentioned, among other 
waste products, cotton seed, which was then an incubus cotton culti- 
vators did not know how to get rid of. 

The Council of the Society of Arts awarded me their silver medal 
for my valuable suggestions, and subsequently elected me a life 
member under one of their rules, in consideration of being eminent 
in the application of abstract science to the Arts, Manufactures and 

These lectures I afterwards expanded into a volume, under the 
title of " Waste Products and Undeveloped Substances," which 
went through several editions and is now out of print. I have 
reason to believe that the adoption of many of my suggestions has 
resulted in fortunes to some, and has utilized profitably much of the 
former waste in manufactures. 

The Science and Art Department employed me to form a collec- 
tion of waste products and their utilization, with a descriptive cata- 
logue, which is now placed in the Bethnal Green Museum. 

I had also to make a similar collection for the Austrian Govern- 
ment at the Universal Exhibition, held in Vienna in 1873. 

To return to cotton-seed oil. At the time my suggestion was made 
of utilizing cotton seed for oil in 1855, the United States production 
was less than 1,250,000,000 pounds; now the production has risen 
to about 3,500,000,000 pounds. The first shipment of cotton- seed 
oil in the year ending June, 1872, was but 547,165 gallons, and few 
would have anticipated it would reach, in 1S92, the enormous export 
of nearly 14,000,000 gallons, worth nearly $14,000,000. The 
various forms of cotton seed all yield good oils capable of being 
refined for dietetic use. 

The oil possesses excellent lubricating qualities, and is useful for 
soap-making and for lamps. The quantity of oil produced, even in 
England, is large, the imports of cotton seed exceeding, in some 
years, 400,000 tons. 

In the States the production of seed exceeds 3,000,000 to 
4,000,000 tons, of which half is available for oil; 100 pounds of 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 

250 TJie Production and Uses of Cotton-seed Oil. {^'^-May^i 

seed will yield two gallons of oil. There are four qualities of oil 
made. The crude oil is of a dirty yellow to reddish color ; on stand- 
ing it deposits a slimy sediment. The second quality has a pale 
orange color, and is obtained by refining the crude oil with a solu- 
tion of caustic soda. The yellow oil resulting from this process is 
further purified by being heated and allowed to settle again, or by 
filtration, and is called "yellow summer oil." "Winter yellow oil" is 
made from the above material by chilling it, until it partially crys- 
tallizes, and separating the stearin (about 25 per cent.) in presses, 
similar to those used for lard. 

This is then treated with fuller's earth in a tank, which holds 
back the coloring matter, and the oil which issues from the filter 
press is almost white. 

In 1893, there were probably 1,250,000 tons of cotton seed 
crushed in the United States. From this seed there were obtained 
1,000,000 barrels of oil. It is estimated that 300,000 barrels were 
used in Chicago for making oil lard ; and St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Omaha took 200,000 for the same purpose. About 250,000 
barrels went to Holland for making margarine, and large quantities 
to Southern Europe for mixing with olive oil. 

Cotton-seed oil appears to be useful for table purposes, and it is 
desirable that its use in the pure state, rather than as a mixture, 
should be encouraged. It ought, however, to be sold on its merits, 
and with the addition of some qualifying term, which will indicate 
its origin. 

This oil has entirely replaced olive oil in America, and there is 
scarcely a restaurant in London or Paris in which this new " salad 
oil " has not taken the place of the old Lucca product. In Portugal 
every means are now taken to prevent the sophistication of olive oil 
with cotton-seed oil, or passing it off as a food oil of the same value 
as olive oil. 

For pharmaceutical purposes cotton-seed oil cannot be regarded 
as a good substitute for olive oil. It saponifies with difficulty as a 
drying oil, and the coloration which it gives with nitric acid shows 
that if used for any preparation liable to oxidation it may give 
curious results. The density of crude cotton-seed oil is o 920 to 
O 933, and when refined 0925 to 0.930. 

To distinguish cotton-seed oil from olive oil, take pure, colorless 
nitric acid of the density of 1-40 and mix it with half the quantity 

^'^'yiT/:m"'^'} Notes on Some Saps and Secretiofis. 251 

of oil in a test tube, closed with gum. After shaking it for several 
seconds, allow the tube to rest in a vertical position for five or six 
minutes. If the oil is from olives, the liquid is at first pale or 
colorless, changing to an ashy gray, with a slight yellowish hue. 
On shaking, a coffee-brown color will be seen if cotton-seed oil is 
present. The reaction is delicate enough to detect an adulteration 
of 5 per cent, of cotton-seed oil. 

The shipments of cotton- seed oil from the United States have 
progressed as follows in decennial periods : 


1873 709,576 

18S3 415.611 

1893 . 9,462,074 

With the extended production of cotton in various countries — 
India, China, Egypt, Brazil and the United States — a great future 
awaits cotton-seed oil. Some idea of the magnitude of the future 
may be formed from the fact that British India produced in 1889 a 
little over 9,000,000 cwt. of cleaned cotton ; that amount must have 
been obtained from 27,000,000 cwt. of seed. Allowing half this to 
be required for home consumption and seed for next crop, over 
6,000,000 cwt. of seed should have been available for export, 
whereas the export of seed has hitherto seldom reached 37,000 cwt. 
This year the export of seed will be larger, as for the nine months 
already expired, nearly 89,000 cwt. has been shipped. The weight 
of seed may be estimated at three pounds for every pound of 
cleaned cotton. 



By p. L. Simmonds, F.L.S. 

{^Continued fi'oin p. /jj.] 

Garcinia, sp. The yellow gum resin known as gamboge and used 
as a pigment and in medicine is believed to be obtained from differ- 
ent species of this family. From G. cochin chinensis, Chois., G. 
Morella, Desv., G. pictoria, Roxb., G. Hanburii, Hook. fil. Several 
Indian species of Garcinia seem to furnish gamboge. 

It is chiefly received from Siam in the form of pipe or roll, and in 
cylindrical masses. It has a faint odor, and an acrid, rancid, after- 
wards sweetish taste. It is employed medicinally in the treatment 
of dropsical affections, amenorrhea and obstinate constipation, 

252 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. | Am 

May, 1895. 

attended with torpidity of the bowels, and has frequently been 
found effectual in the expulsion of the tape-worm. It is a valuable 
drastic and hydragogue cathartic, and also possesses anthelmintic 
and diuretic properties. It consists of 75 per cent, of resin and 15 
of gum. 

On the Continent of Europe it is known as " gum gutte," from 
the mode of its preparation. When the sap of the tree is in active 
circulation, the leaves and young branches are broken off, and the 
yellow juice that flows from the wounds is collected in cocoanut 
shells, or twisted leaves, of the plant itself This is afterwards 
poured into larger vessels, made of clay, and dried in the sun until 
it is of a proper consistence. 

G. bozva, Roxb., yields a kind of gamboge of a somewhat paler 
color than that produced by G. Morella. 

Gardenia liicida, Roxb. A fragrant exudation, known in India 
as " Dikamale resin," is procured from the tops of the branches. 
It is extensively used in Indian hospitals as a slight dressing for 
open wounds, to keep away flies from the sores, on account of its 
strong aroma. 

Gtiaiacum officinale, Lin. A medicinal resin is obtained from the 
stem of this tree, called lignum vitee. It exudes sp(5ntaneously, 
and is partly obtained by extracting with alcohol. The resin is 
obtained most copiously by wounding the tree, which is usually 
done in May. Another method is by heat. The trunk and larger 
limbs being sawn into billets of about three feet in length, an 
angular hole is bored lengthwise in each, and one end of the billets 
so placed on a fire that a calabash may receive the melted resin, J 
which runs through the hole as the wood burns. It is also obtained 
in small quantities by boiling chips or shavings of wood in water, 
with common salt. The resin swims on the top and may be 
skimmed off. 

The resin is inside reddish or greenish-brown, brittle, gray-white 
when pulverized, turns greenish in the air, has a balsamic odor 
and a sweetish bitler taste, which is at the same time acrid and 
irritating to the throat. The resin is chiefly used in gout, chronic 
rheumatism, etc. A decoction of the capsules, wood or bark is also 
used in medicine as a sudorific. A tincture made of the resin 
diluted with water is used to cleanse the mouth, strengthen the 
gums and relieve the toothache. 

^'"■jsly^'im"'^'] Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 253 

The British imports are small, seldom exceeding thirty or forty 
packages in a year. The guaiacum in tears is supposed to be the 
product of G. sanctum, Lin. 

Humiriwn floribundwn, Mart. This plant, in Brazil, yields from 
its trunk, when wounded, a fragrant, limpid, pale-yellow balsam, 
called Umiri, possessing the same medicinal qualities as Balsam of 
Copaiva. It is used by the natives for gonorrhoea, chronic cystitis, 
bronchitis, and all diseases attended with excessive secretion. A 
decoction of the bark is used as a remedy for coughs and derange- 
ment of the stomach. Another species, H. balsamijernm, Aubl., 
yields a similar balsam in Guiana. 

HymencBa Coiirbasil, Lin. A fine, transparent, fragant gum- 
resin exudes from this tree. In solution it has been given inter- 
nally in doses of a teaspoonful for rheumatic and pseudo-syphilitic 
complaints, and employed externally as an embrocation. In Brazil 
the resin is mixed with sugar and rum, so as to make an agreeable 
emulsion or syrup, which is administered in tedious coughs, weak- 
ness of the lungs, spitting of blood and incipient phthisis pulmonalis. 
A decoction of the inner bark is said to act as a vermifuge. 

Idea Tacamahaca, Kth. The fragrant, bitter resin of the above 
species is used in Brazil for making ointments. Another Tacama- 
haca from Elaphrium iomentosa, Jacqu., fetches in Mexico $l a 
pound. The resin of Iciea Jieptaphylla, Aubl., in Venezuela, takes 
the properties of Thus. When liquid it is a valuable remedy for 
coughs. A decoction of the bark is an emetic in fevers. The Cal- 
opJiylliini Calaba, Lin., yields East Indian Tacamahaca. 

Jcica kicariba, DeC, produces a great deal of the resin passing 
under the name of " Almaciga," which is much used in medicine 
and the arts. It is found in the provinces of Maranham, Para and 
Amazon, in Brazil. Another Icica, known as " Pave de brea," also 
furnishes it in the same provinces. Some of the resin known as 
Almaciga is said to be furnished by Bnrsera balsaniifcra, Pers., 
Hedzoigia balsamifera, Sw., and is aromatic like incense. Elemi 
proper is from /. icicariba, DeC, and /. araconc/mii, Aubl., but is 
often replaced by the resin of other species of the same genus. The 
odorous resin which exudes from the trunk, gives off, in burning, a 
lively, agreeable odor. This is used as incense in the churches of 
French Guiana, It is sometimes used medicinally as balsam of 
Araconchi, but there is little demand for it in commerce. On 

254 ^otes on Some Saps and Secretions. {^°'-AlT,\l^^''^ 

wounding the bark of the Jamaica birch {Bursera ginnmifera, Jacq.), 
a white, resinous sap exudes, which soon hardens and is in no way 
different from gum Elemi. 

Elaphritim yacquinianum and E. eleniiferum, natives of Mexico, also 
produce a fragrant balsamic, glutinous resin, which furnishes one of 
the sorts of Elemi. Elemi is very friable, and, when heated, puffs up 
and melts. In boiling water it agglomerates without melting; 
slightly soluble in ether, insoluble in acetic acid and caustic soda, 
slightly soluble in carbonic sulphide, soluble in turpentine, slightly 
soluble in boiling linseed oil, benzine and oil of naphtha. Sul- 
phuric acid dissolves it, coloring it a dark bistre ; nitric acid colors it 
a dirty yellow without dissolving it, and ammonia does not act upon 
it. What is known as Manila elemi is believed to be a resinous 
exudation from Canarhun commune, Lin. In burning, elemi gives 
out a lively and agreeable odor, hence it is used for incense in some 

Kino. Under this common name is known as an astringent and 
resinous deposit, being the dried sap of several trees of India, Africa 
and Australia. 

The best Kino, which contains about 75 per cent, of tannic acid, 
exudes from the sap of Pterocarpus marsupiujn, DeC, in India, and 
dries in angular pea-like grains in the course of a day or two. 
Another kind which was originally brought from Africa, under the 
native name of Kano, is the sap of Pterocarpus erinaceus, Poir. 

Nearly all the Australian Eucalypti exude astringent gum 
resins in considerable quantity, resembling Kino in appearance and 

The red juice which flows from fissures in the barks of the Indian 
creepers, Biitea superba and B. frondosa, Roxb., yields some of the 
Indian Kinos. Kino is commonly used in medicine as a powerful 
astringent, especially in diarrhoea, chronic dysentery and other 
such cases, and as an injection in leucorrhoea, and as an application 
to ulcers. 

The tincture of Kino, although used medicinally, has an incon- 
venience, which is found to arise from its changing to the gelatinous 

Kino resin is dearer than it has ever been wichin living memory, 
;^20 per cwt. being now the nominal quotation. 


Am. Jour. Pharm 

May!"!!^*"^™} Notes OH Some Saps and Secretions. 255 

The British imports are very small, only averaging 15 or 16 
packages now, whereas they were 98 in 1884, and 73 in 1888. 

Lactuca species. From several species of Lettuca — L. virosa, L 
scariola, L. altissirna and L. sativa — the drug known as '' Lactu- 
carium " is obtained. It is the hardened, milky juice which exudes 
from the cut stems in Germany, France and Austria. The average 
yield from each plant is only from 40 to 50 grains. It occurs in 
commerce in the form of angular pieces of a brownish color, inter- 
nally opaque and wax-like. It possesses slightly narcotic properties 
and is useful in coughs. 

Lanrus gigatitea. — " Caparrapi balsam " is referred to this tree. 
It is so named from the village of Caparrapi, in the province of 
Cudinamarca, Colombia, where it is prepared. It may probably 
be derived from Oreodaphne epifera, Nees. The seed is oily and has 
a burning taste like capsicum. The balsam has an aromatic odor 
and resembles balsam of Tolu, but is more fluid. 

In medicine it is used by the natives as a stimulant in catarrhal 
complaints, and is also employed by them in the treatment of snake 
bites and the stings of poisonous insects. 

Liquidambar orientate, Miller ; L. imberbe, Aiton. A balsamic 
gum-resin, prepared from the bark, is known as liquid Storax, and 
in the East as " Rose Malloes." It is stimulant and detergent and 
similar in action to the balsams of Peru and Tolu. 

Another species, L. styractflua, Lin., exudes a sweet gum through 
cracks in the bark and wounds in the trunk, during all seasons of 
the year, which hardens on exposure to the air. It is much 
esteemed by children for chewing and is soluble in water. This 
gum yields a balsam more terebinthine in odor, but almost as 
pleasant as Tolu balsam. This syrup is produced in the Southern 
States of America. It is transparent, amber-yellow, has the con- 
sistence of a thick oil, and an aromatic, bitter taste. It has been 
used in the form of ointment for healing indolent ulcers, and for 
cutaneous diseases. 

A syrup of Liquidambar is used for the diarrhoea of infants. It 
is largely exported from Bombay to China, where it has for many 
centuries been used as a medicine. The dried and compressed 
residual bark, after boiling for the storax, constitutes the fragrant 
cakes formerly common and well known in Europe, under the name 
of Cortex Tliyiniamatts . 

256 The Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. { ^'"Mayrifgf "°' 

L. alttngia, Blume.also yields the fragrant balsam known as liquid 
storax. It is vanilla-scented, containing much styrol and styracin, 
and is often used for imparting scent to some sorts of tobacco and 
cigars, and also for keeping moths from clothing. Its use in medi- 
cine is more limited than in perfumery. The solid exudation known 
as storax is from the stem of Styrax officinale. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn. This small tree yields a gum 
which is white as it exudes, but gradually turns to a mahogany or 
claret color as it dries. This is one of the balsa Tragacanths which 
are used in native medicine. 

Musa paradisiaca, Lin. The sap has medicinal properties ; it is 
used in San Domingo to stop internal and external hemorrhage, as 
tannin is in other countries. At the Philippines it is used to heal a 
species of venereal disease, very common in the province of 

[Tb be continued. '\ 

By Dr. B. H. Paul and A. J. Cownley. 

In some papers published conjointly by us previously, in the 
PJianiiac Clitic al Jonrnal^ it has been shown that the descriptions 
generally given of the alkaloid, to which the medicinal action of 
ipecacuanha is attributed, are for the most part erroneous. It is 
stated that this constituent of the drug, as hitherto obtained, is 
chemically an individual substance ; but the accounts given of its 
physical characters are remarkably discordant. We have, on the 
contrary, shown that ipecacuanha resembles cinchona bark — a pro- 
duct of the same natural order — in containing at least two alkaloids, 
and probably other alkaloids in smaller proportions. 

Of the two alkaloids which we have isolated and examined, one 
is uncrystallizable, but capable of forming salts which are crystalliz- 
able, though for the most part very freely soluble. This base is 
readily soluble in ether, alcohol or chloroform, very sparingly solu- 
ble in water or petroleum spirit, and insoluble in solutions of caustic 
alkali. We have retained for it the name of emetine. 

^Phar.Jotir. Trans., February i6, 1895. 
'^Ph.J., liii, 61, liv, iii, 373. 

'*'"May?i^*™} The Chemistry of Ipecactianha. 257 

The other alkaloid — cephaeline — is crystallizable, less soluble in 
ether than emetine, but freely soluble in alcohol or chloroform, 
much more soluble than emetine in hot petroleum spirit, and readily 
soluble in solutions of caustic alkali. 

By these characters the difference between the two alkaloids is 
very distinctly marked. There are also differences in their melting 
points — emetine melting at 68° C, cephaeline at 102° C. — and in 
their percentage composition, as is shown by the following com- 
parison : 

Emetine. Cephaeline. 

Carbon . 72-01 71 •2S 

Hydrogen 8"86 8"69 

Nitrogen • 575 624 

Oxygen • . 1338 I379 

lOO' lOO' 

These figures give as their most simple expression the following 
formulae : 

Emetine. Cephaeline. 

CuHasNO, = 248 C,^H.,oNO, = 234 

Analysis of the neutral hydrochloride salts has shown that the 
quantities corresponding to these formulae are respectively equiva- 
lent to one molecule of hydrochloric acid. 

The very marked peculiarity, common to both alkaloids, of form- 
ing crystalline salts more readily in the presence of excess of acid 
than when neutral solutions are slowly evaporated, led at first to 
the erroneous conclusion that neutral cephaeline salts were uncrys- 
tallizable and that the crystallizable salts of both emetine and 
cephaeline were acid salts. It has since been ascertained that 
cephaeline hydrochloride can be obtained in well-defined prismatic 
crystals when a slightly acidified solution is slowly evaporated, and 
that this salt contains equal molecular proportions of alkaloid and 

In the case of emetine the influence of an excess of acid in deter- 
mining the formation of a crystalline salt is still more marked. On 
adding a drop of moderately strong hydrochloric acid to a particle 
of emetine, a mass of acicular crystals is at once formed. 

Both emetine and cephaeline are very sensitive to the influence o\ 
light. Though perfectly colorless when pure and in a free state, 
they rapidly acquire a yellow color when exposed to sunlight. 

258 The Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. {^"^May'irgs""' 

Solutions of the alkaloids in alcohol, chloroform, benzene or ether, 
also become colored on exposure to light, with formation of a reddish- 
colored deposit. The salts of both alkaloids, on the contrary, do not 
appear to undergo similar alteration, but in a pure state remain 
perfectly colorless when exposed to light. 

Since the publication of the last paper on ipecacuanha a third 
alkaloid — the probable existence of which has already been indi- 
cated — has been isolated in small quantity. It exists in the drug in 
very small amount relatively to emetine and cephaeline, and it dif- 
fers from those alkaloids in being very sparingly soluble in ether. 
This alkaloid is soluble in alkaline liquids, and it remains in the 
ammoniacal liquor from which emetine and cephaeline have been 
extracted by shaking with ether. It was extracted from that liquor 
by shaking with chloroform. The quantity obtained as yet was toe 
small to admit of complete examination, but the physical characters 
of this alkaloid distinguish it in a very definite manner. It is a crys- 
tallizable substance obtainable by slow evaporation of an ether 
solution in well-defined transparent prisms of a pale lemon-yellow 
color. It melts at about 138° C, neutralizes acids, and apparently 
has a much higher molecular weight than emetine or cephaeline. 
It dissolves readily in alcohol or chloroform, the solutions becoming 
dark-colored on exposure to light and depositing a dark brown 

The failure of most previous observers to arrive at correct con- 
clusions in regard to the alkaloids of ipecacuanha presents some 
collateral features of interest, inasmuch as it shows how largely the 
results of such investigation may be determined by accidental cir- 
cumstances. The extraction of ipecacuanha with chloroform in the 
presence of caustic potash, adopted by Lefort, naturally furnished a 
product consisting of a mixture of all the alkaloids, and in the 
absence of any ascertained distinction between them their separation 
was impossible. Hence the formula assigned to emetine by that 
observer, on the basis of Dumas' analysis, was inaccurate. In the 
subsequent investigation by Lefort and Wurtz the result arrived at 
was defective for the same reasons, although the mixed alkaloids 
were then obtained in a condition of greater freedom from impurity 
by extracting the drug with ether in presence of lime. 

The result obtained by Podwyssotzki, by using ferric chloride to 
get rid of the tanni constituent, was vitiated by the use of petro- 

'*"™Ma"'i8?o"'"'} The Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 259 

leum spirit for extracting the drug. While the product thus 
obtained was an indefinite mixture of cephaeHne and emetine as a 
consequence of the action of that solvent on both the alkaloids, 
probably the greater part of the emetine was not extracted at all by 
the petroleum spirit. In the investigation by Kunz petroleum 
spirit was also used for extraction with a similar result, as shown by 
the fact that the alkaloid obtained is described as (partially?) soluble 
in caustic alkalies. The formula deduced from analysis by Kunz 
was, therefore, necessarily incorrect, as the material operated upon 
by him must have been of a mixed nature. The experiments made 
by Kunz for the purpose of ascertaining the constitution of emetine 
were also for the same reason fallacious, and, therefore, no import- 
ance can be assigned to the conclusions arrived at by him in 1887, 
or to those which he has more recently put forward on the same 

The investigation of the alkaloid of ipecacuanha by Glenard was, 
however, more fortunate in its result. That circumstance was due 
to the care taken in obtaining the alkaloid in the state of a crys- 
tallized neutral hydrochloride, after extracting it from the drug by 
treatment with lime and ether. As a natural consequence of this 
mode of operating, the cephaeline was eliminated, and emetine was 
isolated in a pure condition, as shown by the results of Glenard's 
analyses, which correspond very closely with our own. Indications 
of the existence of another alkaloid were observed by Glenard, but 
they were not followed up by him. 

Glenard's observations appear to have received little notice, how- 
ever, and in most chemical works the formula assigned to emetine 
by Kunz has been adopted as the most satisfactory. That view 
must now be abandoned, since the data already published in our 
previous papers prove that the substance to which it relates could 
not have possessed chemical individuality. 

It is satisfactory in connection with this point to be able to refer 
to results obtained by Messrs. E. Merck, of Darmstadt, in following 
up our observations on the alkaloids of ipecacuanha. In the Bericht, 
for 1894, recently published by that firm, it is stated that on repe- 
tition of our work in their manufactory, our descriptions have been 
fully confirmed, while the statements of Dr. Kunz-Krause could not 
be adopted. Following the indications given in the papers already 
published by us, Messrs. E, Merck now manufacture emetine and 

Am. .lour. Ptiarm. 

260 The Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. {■'^"Vuy,''i8% 

cephaeline and their salts, and announce that they are prepared to 
supply these substances for medicinal use. We understand that 
they are alreacly receiving orders from England. 

The reputed value of ipecacuanha in the treatment of acute dys- 
entery gives a great importance to this drug, but its emetic action 
has been found an inconvenient objection. Acting upon the assump- 
tion that the emetic action is due to the alkaloid, it has been pro- 
posed to make use of the drug from which that constituent has been 
removed. The successful results obtained by some medical men in 
India with de-emetinized ipecacuanha suggest the possibility that 
the value of the drug as a remedy for dysentery may be due to some 
other treatment than the alkaloid. 

Some attempt was therefore made to isolate and study another 
constituent of ipecacuanha which has been described by Willigk, 
under the name of ipecacuanhic acid, as analogous to tannic acid 
and having a composition represented by the formula Cj^Hj^O^. 
Following on the lines of VVilligk's process, an alcoholic extract of 
ipecacuanha was mixed with basic lead acetate until no further pre- 
cipitate was formed. The lead precipitate, collected and thoroughly 
washed with strong alcohol, was treated with weak sulphuric acid 
not quite sufficient to convert the whole of the lead into sulphate, 
and the clear alcoholic liquid was evaporated to dryness. In that 
way a reddish-brown amorphous material was obtained, amounting 
to about 225 per cent, of the drug, and corresponding to Willigk's 
description — very soluble in water, or alcohol, of bitter taste, and 
giving a green coloration with ferric salts, but not precipitated by 
gelatin. It was found to have no emetic action in doses of 4 or 5 
grains. After boiling with acid it reduces Fehling's solution. The 
product so obtained was, however, a crude material, and probably 
of a mixed character. By treatment with absolute alcohol it was 
almost entirely dissolved, leaving about 5 per cent, of residue. The 
solution, mixed with dry ether, gave a white precipitate amounting 
approximately to 20 per cent., which darkened on exposure, and 
presented some resemblance to saponin, and. after boiling with acid, 
it reduced Fehling's solution. On evaporating the ether alcohol 
solution a residue was obtained amounting to about 60 per cent., 
which was soluble in water, and gave a dark green color with ferric 
chloride. The water solution did not froth on shaking, but after 
boiling with acid it reduced Fehling's solution. 

'*'"May!"ii5.^'''""} Tkc Chemistry of IpecacuanJia. 261 

These characters point to the probability that VVilligk's ipecac- 
uanhic acid was not a definite substance, but a mixture, and further 
examination will be requisite for ascertaining its true chemical 
nature. That appears to be of importance as regards the medicinal 
action of ipecacuanha, since it is stated on good authority that the 
utility of the drug in the treatment of dysentery is augmented by 
the removal of the alkaloids. 

The two alkaloids, emetine and cephaeline, are contained in the 
ipecacuanha of New Grenada, as well as in that of Brazil, the only 
difference in this respect being the larger relative proportion of 
cephaeline in the New Grenada drug. So far, therefore, as the 
medicinal effects of the drug are due to these alkaloids jointly, there 
would appear to be but little difference between Brazilian ipecac- 
uanha and that of New Grenada, so that the latter might, without 
disadvantage, be made official in the Pharmacopoeia. 

Assuming that the medicinal properties of ipecacuanha are due to 
the alkaloids emetine and cephaeline, it may be inferred from the 
characters of these substances that in making galenical preparations 
of the drug, a process which would insure their conversion into 
salts would be preferable to one furnishing a product in which the 
alkaloids were in a free state and liable to alteration under the 
influence of light. In that respect the acetic acid extract used in 
the preparation of the official B. P. wine would seem to be well 
adapted for the purpose, since solutions of the salts do not appear to 
undergo alteration when heated, i;nless it be that the acetic extract 
is too mixed a product, containing some constituent which helps to 
destroy or remove the alkaloids. Mr. John C. Umney's observa- 
tions on the loss of alkaloid in ipecacuanha wine to the extent of 
one-fifth seems to point in that direction. But now that the alka- 
loids or their salts are obtainable in a pure state, a very excellent 
ipecacuanha wine, suitable for administration as an expectorant, can 
be made by dissolving half a grain of emetine hydrochloride in our 
ounces of sherry. 

262 Sweet Cassava. {"^""May'ifes.*""" 

By Harvey W. Wiley. 
(Abstracted from Bulletin No. 44, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Chemistry.) 

In the southern peninsula of Florida, and growing well up into 
the frost belt, is found in many localities a cultivated plant known 
as cassava, or sweet cassava. From a careful study of the climatic 
conditions under which the plant flourishes, it is safe to assume that 
it may also be grown with success in southern Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Texas. Cassava is a name which should properly 
apply only to the purified starch derived from the roots of the 
plant, but it has passed into general use to designate the plant 
itself. Botanically, the plant is known as Jatiipha manihot, Mani- 
hot utilissima, Jatropha manihot, Manihot dipi, Manihot Iceflingii, 
and Manihot palmata. One of its common names is manioc 

There is properly only one variety of the plant growing in 
Florida, while that variety which grows in the tropics contains so 
much hydrocyanic acid as to render it poisonous. The variety 
grown in the subtropical region of Florida, however, contains only 
a small quantity of hydrocyanic acid, and is, therefore, commonly 
known as sweet cassava. It is quite probable that after the tropical 
variety has grown for some time in a subtropical climate, it would 
lose largely its poisonous properties. 

The attention of the Division of Chemistry was first called to the 
cassava plant as an article of food and a possible source of starch, 
in 1888, in a letter received from Mr. R. H. Burr, of Bartow, Fla., 
who also sent a package of the roots. These roots were long, 
slender and of various sizes, some of them two feet long and 
weighing several pounds. The analysis of the substance, exclusive 
of the bark, calculated to dry substance, is given in the following 
table : 

Per Cent. 

Ash l'94 

Oil (petroleum ether extract) 1-27 

Ether extract (resins, etc.) 074 

Alcohol extract (amides, sugars, glucosides, etc. ) 17 '43 

Crude fibre 4'03 

Starch 71-85 

Albuminoids (calculated from nitrogen) 3-47 


Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
Maj-, 1895. 

Sweet Cassava. 


The amount of starch compares fairly well with the best varieties 
of potatoes. On account of the large quantities of sugars present, 
the cassava root could be more economically used for the manufac- 
ture of glucose than for starch. 

A larger quantity of the root was obtained from Florida, the bark 
separated from the root, and each subjected to analysis, with the 
following results : 

Peeled Root. 



Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Moisture 61 30 

Ether extract "17 

Albuminoids (N X 635) . "64 

Starch 30'98 

Fibre -88 

Ash '51 

Undetermined 5 '52 



80 -06 



Fibre after 


of Starch. 

Bark of Root. 




Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 


I 02 

64 -64 



21 94 






29 90 



5 23 

77 27 

With the starch in the analysis given above is reckoned also the 
soluble carbohydrates, consisting almost exclusively of cane sugar, 
and of which, in an analysis of another portion of the dry sub- 
stance, as high as 17 per cent, was found. In the laboratory it 
Is not difficult to prepare crystallized cane sugar from the aqueous 
extract of the fresh pulp. The percentage of sugar in the plant, 
however, is too low to' excite any reasonable hope of the prepara- 
tion of this article on a commercial scale. The most promising way 
to save it is by conversion into glucose, as indicated in another 
place. The undetermined portion consists of the digestible fibre 
and c^arbohydrates of the pentose series. The pentosans in the fibre 
were determined by the furfurol process, as modified by Krug, and 
the amount in the air-dried material was found to be 3 92 per cent., 
and in the material after the removal of the starch, 5 33 per cent. 

The amount of mineral matter taken from the soil by the 100 
kilos of the fresh root is approximately only one-half a kilo. The 

264 Sweet Cassava. { ^"iiay 'i^s"'"' 

albuminous matters are also present in small quantities, being only 
slightly more in amount than the ash itself. The plant, therefore, 
is one which seems particularly suited to feed almost exclusively 
from the air and water, and hence is one which could be recom- 
mended on the sandy soils of Florida as a crop which would require 
the minimum of fertilization. 

The ash was found to consist of silica, ferric oxide, calcium oxide, 
magnesium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, phosphoric acid, 
sulphuric acid, carbonic acid, and chlorine. The calcium, potas- 
sium and phosphoric acid made up three-fourths of the ash in the 
peeled root, while silica and potassium predominated in the bark 
from the root. 

Quite a number of preparations are made from the starch of the 
root, and among them maybe mentioned: (i) Tapioca ; the first 
portions of starch washed out, especially, produce an excellent 
article of tapioca when treated in the usual way. (2) Glucose ; both 
the fresh root and the extracted root yield full theoretical amounts 
of glucose, and samples of this article were made by the conversion 
of the starch both by sulphuric acid and by diastase. The samples 
of glucose made from the starch were exceptionally good, especially 
when diastase was used, the glucose in this case containing large 
quantities of maltase. (3) Alcohol ; the glucose on fermentation 
affords the usual quantity of alcohol. (4) Cane sugar ; a beautiful 
preparation of cane sugar was made from the water used in washing 
out the starch. The amount of cane sugar, however, is not large 
enough to warrant its extraction on a commercial scale from the 
waters used in washing. It is, however, present in such quantity as 
to indicate that in making glucose it is better to use the whole root, 
and so obtain the product from both the cane sugar and the starch, 
rather than to make it from the starch alone. 

The general result of the investigation is to establish the fact that 
the cassava is a plant of high economic value, and worthy of the 
attention of those interested in the carbohydrate products of the 

Cassava has been grown for one year on the department experi- 
ment station at Runnymede (post-office, Narcoossee), Osceola 
County, Florida. The field in which the crop was grown is high 
pine sand, with almost no other ingredient. 

Attempts were also made to grow cassava in a piece of very wet 

*"Ma7;i^"'""} Sweet Cassava. 265 

muck land on the station, in which sugar cane would not grow to 
any advantage. An immense development of tips was secured, 
some of the plants reaching a height of 10 feet, and resembling 
young trees. The root development was fair, but not commensu- 
rately increased with the top growth. 

The profits which the farmer may make from growing this crop, 
and the manufacturer from using it, should be based upon a yield of 
4 or 5 tons per acre. If it be desired to n>ake starch from the 
plant, we may suppose, as a minimum rate of yield, that 20 per 
cent, of the weight of the fresh root may be obtained as a merchant- 
able starch of a high grade. On a yield of 4 tons per acre, this 
would amount to i,6oo pounds. Compare this with the weight of 
starch obtained from Indian corn producing 40 bushels per acre. 
The yield of merchantable starch of a high grade may be placed 35 
pounds per bushel, which for 40 bushels would amount to 1,400 
pounds. It is thus seen that the yield per acre in the matter of 
starch from cassava would be fully equal, if not superior, to that 
from Indian corn. If the manufacture of glucose be considered, the 
estimate is even more favorable. 


(i) Cassava can be cultivated with safety and profit in the greater 
part of the peninsula of Florida, and probably also in southern 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. 

(2) It will yield, with fair treatment, on sand soils, from 4 to 5 
tons per acre. 

(3) It will give, when properly manufactured, from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of the weight of the fresh root in starch of high grade. 

(4) The starch is naturally in a pure state, and no chemicals of 
any kind are necessary in its manufacture. 

(5) The starch resembles, in its physical properties, that of 
maize, and can be used as a substitute therefor in all cases. 

(6) An excellent article of tapioca can be prepared from the 
starch of the cassava plant. 

(7) Glucose can be prepared directly from the starch, or more 
profitably from the pulp of the peeled root. 

(8) The plant furnishes an excellent human and cattle food, 
deficient, however, in nitrogen. It would make a well-balanced ration 
for cattle when mixed with one-fourth its weight of cotton-seed oil- 

266 Chemistry for the Pharmacist — Reviews. {^""'May.isbs"'"' 

By \Vn,i.iAM B. Thompson. 
There are many reasons why pharmacists who seek avenues for 
the application of scientific knowledge should make especial study 
of the chemistry of agriculture and the chemistry of soils. Soil 
analysis is wholly within the possibility of scientific investigation. 
In the growth of plants and trees, soil loses nothing appreciable of 
its ponderous material. The elementary substances which enter 
into it are exhausted by absorption and the processes of vegetable 
growth. Nature has, it is true, her own occult method of supplying 
these, but art is a most valuable factor in supplementing or aiding 
the operations of natural causes. Science has done much, and there 
is yet much to be done, and agriculture much needs the principles 
and theories of science applied to its practice. Themes for study 
are to be sought in determining the action of manures and other 
animal and mineral fertilizers — the terms or periods necessary for 
the proper recuperation in cleared and open lands, where the chemi- 
cal elements are only to be derived from the air, artificial treatment 
not being feasible; the character of sub-soil as it affects top soil ; 
the action of infiltration and absorption ; the upward and down- 
ward movements of moisture. In cattle manures the important 
office of the saturating urines, which, by a species of fermentation, 
gradually develop the ammonias, these, in turn, combining with 
acids, and thus oxidation forms less volatile and more soluble salts. 


Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the 
Forty-second Annual Meeting, Held at Asheville, N. C, Septbm- 
BER, 1894. 

By far the most valuable part of the proceedings of the last meeting is the 
Report on the Progress of Pharmacy. It constitutes a sort of pharmaceutical 
encyclopaedia for the year from June 30, 1893, to July i, 1894. The only regret 
we have in regard to it as a whole, is that it is not usually available to members 
until some months after it is presented at the meeting. We are not disposed 
to find fault with the Secretary on this account, as he has no doubt been dela3'ed 
by others. In selecting a printer, the Secretary or Council should take time 
into account as well as the lowest bid. While the original communications are 
not on a par with the above-mentioned report, still there are a few y&ry credit- 
able ones. The great majority, however, had belter remained in the hands of 
the Publishing Committee. 

It is to be regretted that one member should load the Proceedings with six 
communications on qu-eries, sotne of which could be answered to the satisfac* 
tion of every intelligent pharmacist by a simple negative or aflSrmative. 

^°'May!"ir9l*'"°''} Reviews. 267 

The Association was also treated to a rather excessive dose of cod-liver oil. 
The Publishing Committee will make no mistake to let it be known that only 
papers of merit will be printed. 

Cod-liver Oil and Chemistry. B3' F. Peckel Moller, Ph.D., London, 
and Christiania, Norway, Peter Moller ; and can be had from W. H. Schieffelin 
& Co., New York, and from A. T. Moller & Co., Copenhagen. 1895. 

The author apparently does not try to conceal the fact that this large work 
of something over 600 pages is intended to be indirectly an advertisement. 
With this knowledge we are still favorably impressed with the book. It gives, 
in the 100 pages devoted to cod-liver oil, some facts that it will be diflficult to 
controvert ; at the same time it is refreshing to read some of the theories 
advanced in favor of the administration of a pure cod- liver oil. The author 
relegates nearly all of the " active principles " which have been discovered at 
one time or another to the category- of decomposition products, and we believe 
he is about right. 

Proceedings oe the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the North 
Carolina Pharmaceutical Association, Asheville, 1894. 

The proceedings of this Association make a creditable showing with four 
original papers and some other interesting matter, including the Report of the 
North Carolina Pharmacy Board. 

Proceedings of the Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association, 
at its Twelfth Annual Meeting, Held at Detroit, 1894. 

Five original communications have been allowed to appear in the appen- 
dix. They are, however, well worth reading, and it is a pity they were 
given such an inconspicuous position. We have some doubts about the advi- 
sability of printing portraits of living members in proceedings of this kind ; 
particularly when, as in this case, one of the former presidents is made to face 
an advertisement of Duffy's Malt Whisky, another to face Ayers' Remedies, 
and so on through the list to the end, where we read of " the greatest medical 
discovery of the age." Are the Michigan pharmacists trying to deplete the 
coffers of the proprietary manufacturers, that they admit their "display" 
advertisements ? 

Forschungs-Berichte uber Lebensmittel und ihre Beziehungen 
zuR Hygiene, uber Forense Chemie und Pharmakognosie- Heft 4, 

The most noteworthy and timeh' article in this issue is concerning "The 
Action of Formalin on Foods." 

Annual Report for the Year 1894. By E. Merck, Darmstadt. 
This report is divided into Original Communications, of which there are six; 
Preparations, of which a great number of new ones are mentioned ; and Drugs. 

Sketches of Wonderland. By Olin D. W'heeler. 

Although the pamphlet is published in the interest of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, the illustrations alone are worth the trouble and expense of sending 
six cents in stamps (to cover postage) to Chas. S. Fee, General Passenger and 
Ticket Agent N. P. R. R., St. Paul, Minn. It may at the same time be useful 
to some members of the A. Ph. A. who are going to Denver. 

268 Meeting of Members of the College. { ""•iT/.-uy^^^- 


March 25, 1895. 

The annual meeting of members was held to-day, the unusual number of 38 
being present. Charles Bullock presided. Reports of permanent committees 
and of officers of the College were received at this meeting. Report of editor 
was made as follows : 

During the year there have been published 79 original papers by 40 authors- 
This number of original contributions has been exceeded but few times in the 
history of the Journal. Of the authors, 11 were active members of the Col- 
lege, and one, Mr. Hooper, an honorary member residing in India, who con- 
tributed two papers. Eleven of the twelve numbers issued were illustrattd. 
The contributions by Professor E. S. Bastin merit special mention, he having 
furnished 9 papers during the 5"ear, all of which were illustrated but one. 

Sixtj'-five reviews and a number of editorials made up the balance of the 
literary matter. 

Although the number of pages in several issues were increased, it was not 
found possible to publish as many abstracts as desirable. 

There was a creditable disposition shown on the part of writers throughout 
the country to furnish original matter to the Journal, and had it not been for 
this fact, there would have been a marked decrease in the number of original 
papers, for the number of contributors among the College membership showed 
a decided falling off. 

It is to be hoped that those who are associated with the College will not for- 
get that much of the advancement of the institution in its early history was 
due to the scientific character of its members, who were willing to put on 
record their observations for the benefit of their pharmaceutical brethren. 

The Pharmaceutical Meetings are a source of support to the Journal, and it 
is to be regretted that they have been so poorly attended by members of the Col- 
lege. It has been shown during the present series that valuable papers can be 
provided for each meeting, but the authors are discouraged by the poor attend- 
ance, and consequently the absence of discussion, which materially adds to the 
value of the contributions. 

Mr. Robert England moved that the price of the American Journal of 
Pharmacy be reduced to subscribers to $2.50 per annum. Motion amended 
by Mr. Beringer that the subject be referred to the Committee on Publication. 
Amendment carried. The treasurer of Publication Committee appended supple- 
mentary statements to the general report of the editor as usual. The librarian 
and curator also made their annual statements, the latter asking for an appro- 
priation of $133 to perfect some improvements in the museum appliances. 
Referred to Board of Trustees with approval. Prof. Remington presented 
communication having reference to a representation by this College at the 
sessions of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to be held in Denver, to 
consider the subject of " a uniform college requirement for graduation." The 
chairman appointed Prof. Remington to represent this College . 

The president appointed Messrs. Mclntvre, Cliffe and Prof Trimble as dele- 
gates to the Pennsj'lvania Pharmaceutical Association, which convenes at 
Eagle's Mere, Pennsylvania, in June. Mr. Boring called the attention ©f the 

'*''"May?ir95""'} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 269 

members to what he considered an omission in the financial statement distribu- 
ted to members, namely, that the gross receipts or income of the College was 
uot given. This subject, with some other allied matters, elicited much discus- 
sion, being participated in by Messrs. Boring, Robert England, Buckman, Proc- 
ter, Remington and Beringer. As a result a motion prevailed to refer the subject 
to the Board of Trustees for full conside:ation. 

Wallace Procter offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, desiring to record their 
appreciation of the interest that has always been evinced by the Alumni Asso- 
ciation in all pertaining to the advancement of the College, and especially in 
view of the handsome contribution of over |i,4oo toward the electric light 
plant just installed, do tender an especial vote ofthanksto the Alumni Associa- 
tion of the Philadelphia College of Pharmac}'. 

A violation of the code of ethics on the part of a member of the College was 
referred to and facts stated. A committee was appointed to consider the facts 
and report thereon. The annual election recurring with this date, the follow- 
ing officers and trustees were elected: Charles Bullock, President; Robert Shoe- 
maker, 1st Vice President; Wm. J. Jenks, 2d Vice-President; James T. Shinn, 
Treasurer; Dr. A. W. Miller, Corresponding Secretary; Wm. B. Thompson, 
Recording Secretary; Thos. S. Wiegand, Librarian; Jos. W. England, Curator; 
Henry Trimble, Editor. Committee on Publication : Henry N. Rittenhouse, 
Joseph W. England, Saml. P. Sadtler, Wallace Procter, and the Editor. Trus- 
tees for three years: Jos. L. Lemberger, Robert England and Saml. P. Sadtler. 

Meeting on motion adjourned. 

William B. Thompson, Secretary. 


Philadelphia, April 16, 1895. 

The meeting was called to order by asking Prof. F. G. Ryan to take the 

The following books were stated to have been received and placed in the 
Library : Report on Education in Alaska, and a Monograph on the Domestica- 
tion of the Reindeer. 

Prof. Trimble showed a specimen of Golden Wattle Bark, Acacia pyctiatiiha, 
containing 35 per cent, of tannin, another specimen of the same species assay- 
ing from 40 to 42 per cent, of tannin, and said to be the best bark ; also a spe- ' 
cimen of S}-dney Wattle Bark, Acacia decm-rens, containing 35 per cent, of 
tannin. The barks had been presented by Mr. J. H. Maiden, of Sydnej', New 
South Wales. 

The same gentleman also showed a variety of kino derived from Eucalyptus 
calopkylta, R. Brown. 

The specimen had been collected in West Australia, and donated by Baron F. 
von Mueller. 

The Actuary was instructed to send the thanks of the College both to Mr. 
Mriideu and Baron F. von Mueller. 

Mr. F. W. Hausimann real a paper on Fluid Extracts, which elicited con- 
siderable discussion. Glucose had been found in some of the fluid extracts 

270 Invitation to Pharmaceutical Association. ('*'"'MHy? sla"'"' 

examined. Its addition, with a view of giving them consistence and of adul- 
terating them, was commented on. 

Prof. Ryan pointed to the fact that the small amounts found wonld not 
afford enough profit to cause the use of glucose by manufacturers. 

Some of the pharmacists present suggested the drug itself to have been the 
source of the glucose found. 

Prof. Trimble was of the opinion that in some cases it might have been intro- 
duced through the use of glycerin containing it. 

Query was made whether or not the fluid extracts produced by the large 
manufacturers are official as regards the exact process of preparation given by 
the Pharmacopoeia. 

Prof. Ryan stated that the manufacturers often find the pharmacopoeial 
directions poorly adapted to the preparation of these products on a large scale 
but that, having selected a menstruum and formulated a method through expe- 
rience, they can produce fluid extracts of uniform and full official strength. 

It was remarked that these manufacturers would be glad to advise with the 
committees charged with the construction of the formulas of the Pharma- 

Mr. Iv. F. Kebler spoke of some experiments ou opium assaying. Some samples 
of opium which were quite curious were exhibited. One of the samples had a 
strong odor of coffee and assayed 15 per cent, of morphine. Mr. Kebler also 
presented a paper on Black Sulphur, a topic that had been discussed at the last 
meeting, and upon which he had been asked to report. 

On motion, the papers were referred to the Publishing Committee and an 
adjournment ordered. 

T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar. 


Members interested in commercial and allied subjects are respectfully invited 
to write papers for our next meeting, to be held on August 14th, at Denver, 

As income and revenue derived from the practice of pharmac}^ is, beyond 
dispute, the most important factor involved in the pursuit of our material affairs, 
I hope that hundreds who will be unable to attend the above convention, will 
favor the commercial section with their views on an impending crisis. 

I particularly request the Chairmen of Committees on Trade Interests in every 
organized State Association to favor me with their existing grievances and 
problems, to be solved in the interests of the common welfare of our brethren. 
Many able members whom I approached at Asheville, and suggested that they 
enlist themselves among writers on commercial subjects, surprisingly responded : 
What shall I write on ? In order to promote the desideratum I take great pleas- 
ure in suggesting the following queries : 

(i) Where is the practice of pharmacy drifting? 

(2) To what cause is failure due, in attempting to protect our mutual trade 
interests ? 

(3) Why do a large number of wholesale druggists supply department stores 

"^''^Mayrifys.^'^"'} Invitation to Pharmaceutical Association. 2;i 

with drugs and medicine, and violate contract agreements on rebate goods with 
manufacturers of proprietary medicines ? 

(4) Under what circumstances is substitution admissible? 

(5) Is the protectioti of the trade interest of the druggists and. chemists by 
the manufacturer of proprietary goods a possibility ? 

(6) Is general substitution justifiable? 

(7) Is it justifiable to purchase unreliable materials for the purpose of 
increasing profits, thereby injuring the reputation of the phj^sician, and 
endangering the patient's chance of recovery ? 

(8) Are non-secret preparations, in imitation of well-known domestic medi- 
cines, a legitimate product, and is it honest for a dealer to allow his name to be 
printed on the label so as to give an unknown compound currency, when he is 
ignorant of the contents of such preparation ? 

(9) Does not the pharmacist jeopardize his reputation and standing by deal- 
ing in non-secrets, when he possesses the knowledge of compounding as good 
or better formula ? 

(10) Does it pay pharmacists to substitute? 

(11) Is the claim true, that physicians dispense their own medicines on the 
ground that pharmacists use inferior materials in their prescriptions? 

(12) Where reputable pharmacists discover goods falsely labelled and below 
pharmacopoeial standards, is it not their duty to expose such dishonesty ? 

(13) Has excessive competition introduced a " cheap era " into the drug 
trade ? 

(14) Why are physicians' supply establ'shments making inroads on the biisi- 
ness of the pharmacist ? 

(15) What are the chief arguments employed to induce physicians to supply 
ready-made medicines to their patients? 

(16) Where is the practice of medicine drifting? 

(17) If the futurefacilitates the art of dispensing by physicians, what is our 
remedy ? 

(18) Is it not our duty to demand protection from the ph5-sician and make an 
eflfort to fuse our natural relationship by 'a just compromise? 

(19) What argument have we against those who advocate that the day has 
arrived when any person, with open store for the sale of merchandise, will have 
the right to sell his goods to any other person who comes with money in hand 
and demands same, irrespective of his calling or profession ? 

There is no hypothetical sensationalism in my queries, and I might add a 
few more sure to present themselves in the future, but we will await develop- 
ments. There are questions that confront us daily — a revolution in our ranks 
is imminent. What shall we do about it? Shall we submit to the situation 
like slaves ? Never! Let us get together at Denver and act, not like flustered 
and unsympathetic brethren, but like men willing to battle for justice and our 
rights. It is high time to cry halt. 
Address all papers and communications to 

Very truly yours, 

George J. Seabury, 
Chairman 0/ Commercial Section, A. Ph. A. 

272 Examination Questions. {'^°°May'm5.^'""'' 


Junior Examination. — The examinations of the Junior students during the 
past term were on the following subjects : 


A—(i) Write a short composition on the Metric System, giving as complete 
an account as you are able to, upon half a page of the examination paper. 
(2) Give the equivalents of the following metric quantities in ordinary or old 
form weights and measures: 5 Kg.; I774"4 c.c. ; 29'573 c.c; >2 grain; j^g 
grain. (3) How many grains are there in a fluid ounce of water at r5'6 C. 
(60° F.) ; in an imperial fluid ounce of water ; in an avoirdupois ounce ; in a 
troy ounce ? 

B — Define vaporization, evaporation, and distillation, and state the principle 
which governs the rapidity of the evaporation of liquids at or above the boiling 
point and below the boiling point. 


C — (i) Definie the term specific gravity — as applied to solids and liquids. (2) 
Give two methods for the determination of the specific gravity of a solid. Two 
methods for the specific gravity of a liquid. 

Z) — (i) What is meant by " latent heat of f Jsion ?" Give an example of 
practical utilization of this principle. (2) What eff"ect has pressure upon the 
boiling point of a liquid ? Give an example of a practical utilization of boil- 
ing under reduced pressure. 


£ — Roots, (i) Define an adventitious root. (2) Name a common plant that 
bears adventitious roots. (3) In what group of plants are the roots destitute 
of a radial structure ? (4) In what group of plants do we usually find stems, 
leaves and hairs, but no roots? (5) \^hat are the chief uses of roots ? 

F^Stems. (6) What names are applied respectively to such a stem as the 
potato, to the flowering stem of the dandelion, and to the scaly unbranching 
stem of the palm ? (7) In what groups of plants do we find a cambium zone 
in the stem ? (S) What organs of vegetation are necessaril)- present in a bulb ? 
(9) What is a supernumerarj- bud? (10) Define a scandent stem. 


A — 'i) In what respects does eolation differ from filtration? Describe the 
methods and materials employed bj' pharmacists in both processes. (2) How 
are mixtures of oil and water separated ? Draw a sketch illustrating the appa- 
ratus used in the separation. 

B — Crystatlizati^n. (i ) What is the object of requiring /•ifr/lfr^ rest for solu- 
tions designed for crystallization, and why are such solutions sometimes 
agitated during the cooling process ? (2) Of what use are nuclei in effecting 
crystallization? (3) What is water of crystallization ? (4) Define efflorescence 
and deliquescence. 

'""May'ilis""''} Examination Questions. 273 


C— (i) State the difference between a binary and a ternary molecule, and 
give examples of each. (2) What is a haloid acid? An oxygen acid? Give 
examples of each. (3) Write in symbols the formulas of the following : Potas- 
sium bromide, magnesium oxide, mercurous chloride, mercuric chloride, 
carbon disulphide, phosphorous trichloride, hypochlorous oxide, sulphuric acid. 

D — (i) Write two reactions for the preparation of hydrogen. (2; Upon what 
does the reducing action of hydrogen depend? (3) Mention illustrations of 
the aflBnity of chlorine for hydrogen. 


E — The Stern, (i) Draw a diagram of a cross-section of a dicotyl stem, and 
that of a cross section of a mouocotyl stem. (2) Name the different kinds of 
buds a stem may bear. (3) Name the different kinds of underground stems 
that plants may produce. (4) State the distinction between a stem and a 
thallus. (5) In what two principal ways may stems branch ? 

F— Leaves. (6) Draw a diagram of circinate prefoliation. (7) How many 
orthostachies on a stem when the phyllotaxy is ^ ? (8) The first two mem- 
bers of a series in alternate phyllotaxy being ^ and }^, what would the seventh 
member be? (9) A certain leaf is described as follows: Petiolate, exstipulate, 
general outline of lamina ovate, apex mucronate, margin serrate, venation 
pinni-furcate. Draw such a leaf. ( 10) What is the chief use of an ordinary 
or foliage leaf ? 


A — Extracts, (i) Define extracts. (2) Name six classes of extracts. (3) 
What are " Succi Spissati ?" (4) Give a general process for their preparation. 
(5) Describe Prof. Herrara's method of making extracts, and state the theory 
upon which it depends. (6) What proximate principles are usually found in 
extracts? (7) What class of principles are best extracted by strong alcohol? 
(8) What class of principles are best extracted by water? (9) Is diluted 
alcohol a good solvent for extracts ? Give reasons for your answer. (10) 
What influence has the choice of the menstruum on the yield of most extracts ? 

B — (i) What are scaled salts? How are they prepared? (2) Are they 
usually definite chemical salts, or are they of varying molecular composition ? 
(3) Does reduced iron belong to this class ? (4) What is the present official 
name of reduced iron ? What was its former official name ? Under what other 
name is it known in commerce? (5) Describe the method of making reduced 
iron, illustrating the process by a drawing. (6) What precautions are neces- 
sary to prevent the very freshly-made powder from spontaneously igniting ? 
(7) When a dose of reduced iron is administered and eructations of hydrogen 
sulphide ensue, what is the usual cause of the unpleasant experience? (8) 
How may the ev^olution of hydrogen sulphide be prevented? (9) How may 
the quality of reduced iron be tested ? ( 10) What is its dose ? 

C— (i) Give the formula for ammonia. State its sources and methods for 
its production. (2) Describe the physical and chemical properties of ammo- 
nia, and state what are its most important uses at present. (3) How does 

274 Examination Questions, { 

Am. Joiir. Pharm. 

aninionia react with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids? Give the 
formulas and chemical names of the products in these three cases. 

D-{x) Complete the reactions: NajS.Ps + 2HCI =; Ca3(P04)2 + 
2H2S04 = ; CajfPOJo -f 3H,S04 =. 

(2) Give the chemical formulas for boric acid, ofificial sodium borate, ortho- 
phosphoric acid, official sodium phosphate. 


E — Organs of Vegetation, (i) Name in the order of their evolution the 
organs of vegetation of the higher plants. (2) How would you distinguish 
between a tuber and a tuberous root? (3) State the distinction between a 
cladophyll and a phyllode. (4) Make a drawing of a single leaf that answers 
the following description: exstipulate, petiolate, lamina 2 inches long, obcor- 
date, crenulate, and with a pinni-furcate venation. (5) Write the pharmacal 
name of the drug derived from Barosma betulina, and state three of the most 
important of the structural characteristics of the drug. 

F — Organs of reproduction. (6) What organs of the complete flower are 
essential to the production of seed ? State the respective functions of these 
organs. (7) Draw the ground plan of a typical flower of a monocotyl in which 
the anthers are bilocular and extrorse and the single compound ovary has mar- 
ginal placentae. (8) State the most distinctive difference between the flower of 
an angiosperm and that of a gymnosperm. (9) Write the appropriate names 
of each of the following fruits: a pineapple, a grape, a black pepper, a colo- 
cynth, and a juniper fruit, (ro) Draw a diagram of a complete dicotyledonous 
embryo, pointing out and correctly naming each of its parts. 


G — Diluted Hydrobromic Acid. { i ) What is its official name ? (2) What is its 
percentage strength ? (3) Give a process for its manufacture. (4) What is its 
specific j«jravity ? Should it be completely volatilized by heat ? and why ? 
(5 ) What are its medicinal properties and dose ? 

H — Describe the following classes of official preparations. Give the offi- 
cial title and mode of preparation of one of each class, (i) Mucilages. (2) 
Emulsions. (31 Mixtures. (4) Infusions. (5) Glycerites. 

/ — A pharmacist made a compound mustard liniment by mixing 3 per 
cent, of volatile oil of mustard, 20 per cent, of fluid extract of mezereum, 10 
percent, of oil of camphor, 15 per cent, of castor oil, with sufficient alcohol 
to make ten litres. How many c.c. of each ingredient did he use? (Percent- 
age by measure being understood without allowance for contraction.) How 
many bottles, each to contain 500 grams of the liniment, would this quantity 
fill if its specific gravity was 0*850 ? 

K — What antidotes should be administered at once for poisonous d^ses of 
— (i) Corrosive sublimate. (2) Ammonia water. (3) State how you would 
prepare an emergency antidote for arsenous acid. (4) What precautions are 
necessary in administaring antidotes ? 


The Junior Examination in Operative Pharmacy was held on Saturday, 
March 2, 1895. The work exacted was the making of solution of ferric sul- 
phate, mass of mercury, and granulated sodium acetate. 

'^'"■jiayyifgl''™} Examination Questions. 275 


The Junior Examination in Pharmacognosy was held on Saturday, IMarch 9, 

1895. The students were divided into three sections. Numbered specimens of 

drugs were given them for examination, and they were required to answer 

the following questions : 


A — (i) Rhizome or root ? (2) Monocotyl or dicotyl ? (3) Official name of 
drug ? (4) What test applied for starch ? (5) Result of test for starch ? (6) 
What test applied for tannin ? (7) Result of test for tannin ? 

B — Draw diagram of cross-section at least twice natural size, and point out 
the following parts : (i) Meditullium. (2) Cambium zone (if present). (3) 
A medullary ray (if present). (4) The endophloeum (if present). (5) The 
pith (if present). 


A — Describe leaf or leaflet, with reference to the following* points : (i) 
General outline. (2) Base. (3) Apex. (4) Margin. (5) Upper surface. (6) 
Under surface. (7) Texture. (8) Venation. 

^— Make drawing of leaf or leaflet, writing underneath it the botanical name 
of the plant and the official name of the drug. Also point out in the drawing : 
(i) The petiole or the petiolule (if present). (2) One of the stipules (if 
stipules are present). (3) The midrib of a lamina (if a midrib is present). 


A — The Flower. (In describing it, use the appropriate botanical terms), 
(i) Kinds of organs present ? (2) Numerical plan ? (3) Symmetry? (4) Reg- 
ularity ? (5) Insertion (a) of calyx ; {b) of corolla ; {c) of stamens? (6) 
Cohesion (a) of calyx ; {b) of corolla ; (r) of stamens ; {d) of pistils? 

B — Draw a diagram of the ground plan of the flower, indicating the correct 
number and relation of parts, the number of lobes of the anthers, the direction 
in which the anthers face, and the placentation of the ovary. 


A — The Fruit, (i) Apocarpous or syncarpous? (2) If syncarpous, number 
of carpels? (3) Inferior or superior? (4) If dehiscent, the mode of dehis- 
cence? (5) Placentation? (6) Simple, aggregated, or multiple? (7) Proper 
name of fruij; ? 

B — Draw diagram of cross-section of fruit, showing number of loculi, mode 
of placentation, and point out a false partition, if any false partitions are present. 


A — The Seed, (i) Atropous, anatropous, campylotropous or amphitropous ? 
(2) Texture of testa? (3) Albuminous or exalbuminous? (4) Texture of 
albumin, if albumin is present ? (5) Does the kernel of the seed possess starch ? 
(6) Embryo monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous, or polycotyledonous ? 

.5 -Draw a diagram of the vertical section of the seed, and point out such 
of the following parts as are present : (i) Hilum. (2) Micropyle. (3) Chalaza. 
(4) Raphe. (5) Albumen. (6) Embryo. 

276 Examination Questions. {^^May'isps.*""' 

The specimens in each section were as follows: 

First Section. Second Section. Third Section. 

Root: Taraxacum. Pyrethrum. Podophyllum. 

Leaf: Uva Ursi. Gaultheria. Buchu. 

Flower: Azalea. Viola Tricolor. Tulip. 

Fruit: Illicium. Poppy Capsule. Cardamom. 

Seed: Amygdala Amar. Castor Bean. Pepo. 

Senior Examination — The examination of the senior class for the degree 
of Graduate in Pharmacy commenced with that in Operative Pharmacy on 
Saturday, March 23d. On Monday, the 25th, the one on Analytical Chemistry 
was held, followed by the written examinations in the other branches. The 
following are the questions : 


A — Opium, (r) Can the value of opium be judged by its physical proper- 
ties? (2) What reliable methods are employed to ascertain its value? (3) What 
is the average difference in strength between opium and powdered opium ? (4) 
In what proportions may four quantities of powdered opium containing respec- 
tively 7, 8, 16 and 18 per cent, of morphine, be mixed so that the mixture shall 
contain 14 per cent, of morphine ? 

B — Give the synonym, unabbreviated official or Latin name, ingredients, 
brief outline of process, and describe the appearance of: (i) Mitigated caustic. 
(2) Yellow niercurous iodide. (3) Milk of asafoetida. (4) Hoffmann's ano- 
dyne. (5) Spirit of glonoin. (6) Chloroform liniment. (7) Tincture of 
strophanthus. (8) Elixir of vitriol. 

C — Give the official name, English name, ingredients, brief outline of pro. 
cess, and describe the appearance of : (i) Liquor magnesii citratis. (2) Syru- 
pus picis liquidse. (3) Spiritus ammouiae aromaticus. (4) Syrupus rhei. (5) 
Tinctura veratri viridis. (6) Pilulae ferri carbonatis. (7) Unguentum iodi. 
(8) Emplastrum ammoniaci cum hydrargyro. 

D — (i) How is salicylic acid made ? (2) What is the principal objection to 
prescribing it in simple aqueous solution ? (3) Name three official salts of the 
acid. (4) What official liquid is made from the acid? (5) Describe the 
physical properties of this liquid. (6) Give the official name of the salicylic 
ether of phenol. (7) Describe its appearance and physical properties. (8) 
What are its medical properties ? (9) What is its dose ? ( 10) How is it usually 
administered ? 

E — (i) How is turpentine obtained ? (2) Describe its appearance. (3) What 
commercial products are obtained by distilling it ? (4) What products are ob- 
tained by distilling the results of the distillation ? (5) What is terebene ? (6) 
How is it made ? (7) What is its dose ? (8) How is it best administered ? 

F — (i) How is aloe purificata made? (2) Name seven official preparations 
(giving full official titles) into which it enters. (3) What is the active principle 
of each official aloes ? (4) How may they be distinguished from each other by 
a chemical test ? 

G — (i) In compounding prescriptions, state under what circumstances it is 
advantageous to aid the solution of a solid by heating it with the solvent. (2 
State when it is proper to filter a prescribed liquid preparation, and explain 
why, for certain reasons, filtration sometimes should not be resorted to. (3) 

^'"M»y!im^^'° ] Examination Questions. 277 

When is it permissible to make an addition to a prescription withou'. the con- 
sent of the prescriber ? Give reasons for your answer. (4) Is it desirable, 
when renewing a prescription, to follow the order of mixing the ingredients 
originally used? If so, wh}'? 

H— Pills, (i) What physical properties are essentially required in forming 
a good pill mass? (2) Give reasons for each requirement. (3) What is a pill 
excipient ? (4) Give reasons (and illustrate by a practical example) for select- 
ing either of the following excipients : water, syrup of acacia, glycerin, glucose, 
soap, confection of rose. 

/—Criticise and translate the following prescriptions. Write out the English 
names of each ingredient, with quantities. State how you would compound 
each, and if any incompatibility would be developed in either, state what it is, 
and what would be the proper procedure: 
ft Hyd. Bichlor., gr. j. 
Pot. lod. 

Fer. et Am. Cit., aa, ^iij. 
Tinct. Cinch. Co., f|iss. 
y\. ft. Sumat drachmam ter in die. S. 

R Ext. Secale Cornut. Fid., f5i. 
Vin. Ejusdem, f^i. 
Sacch. Alb., ^ss. 
y\,. S. — One teaspoonful every two or four hours, as needed. C. 

K — Criticise and translate the following prescriptions. Write out, with 
English names, the ingredients and quantities. State whether you would 
compound them as written, or what course you would pursue upon receiving 
them : 

R Mist. Digitalis Comp., f^ij. 
Tinct. Gentian Comp. 
Tinct. Cinch on. Comp., aa fji. 
Morph. Sulphat., gr. x. 

TT\^. S. — Two teaspoonfuls three times a day (in water). 

R Colchicine. 



Sulph. Calcium, aa gr. x. 
Tt\,. ft. in Caps., No. x. Sig. — One every three hours. 


A — (l) Give the ofiScial name and chemical formula for nitre. (2) State the 
sources of nitre, and describe how it is made commercially. (3) State the 
physical and chemical characters and tests by which nitre can be recognized. 
(4) Give the uses of nitre, whether in medicine, in the arts, or for general 

B — (i) Give the proper chemical name and formula of sodii hyposulphis. 
(2) How is the salt made commercially? (3) State the physical and chemical 
tests by which it can be distinguished from sodii sulphis. (4) What are the 
most important applications of this compound ? 

2/8 Examination Questions. { 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Way, 18«5. 

C — (i) Describe the occurreuce of the element copper, mentioning its most 
important minerals. (2) Describe the metal and note its most important 
physical and chemical characters. (3) Mention the most important alloys of 
copper, stating their several components. (4) What is the composition of the 
several green copper pigments? (5) Wliat is the eflFect of adding ammonia to 
a solution of a copper salt? 

D — (i) Describe the metal bismuth. (2) Give the formulas of bismuth 
chloride, of bismutk oxychloride, of the normal nitrate, of bismuthi subnitras 
and of bismuthi subcarbonas. (3) Mention some of the alloys of bismuth, and 
state their character and uses. (4) How is bismuth distinguished in the course 
of qualitative analysis ? 

E — (i) State the formula oi acidum chroniicunt and give its proper chemical 
name. (2) Write the reaction for its production. (3) Give the formulas of 
potassium chromate and potassium dichromate respectively, and state what 
physical and chemical differences in properties exist. (4) Give the formula of 
"chrome alum," and describe it. 

F—[^i) Give the exact chemical name and formula for chloroform. (2) From 
what several sources is it obtained ? (3) Explain the production in each case 
by the use of reactions. (4) Describe chloroform, and give the pharmacopceial 
test for its purity. 

(7— (i) To what chemical class do the fatty oils belong ? (2) Mention the 
proximate constituents usually contained in them. (3) Write several reactions 
for the decomposition of these proximate constituents. {4) Enumerate official 
compounds which are obtained as the result of these reactions. (5) State 
what technically important industries are based on these reactions. 

H — (1) Give the exact chemical name and graphic formula of aniline. (2) 
Show by reactions how it is derived from benzene. (3) How is aceianilidiim 
made? (4) What are its physical, chemical and therapeutic properties? (5) 
Write the graphic formula of para-bromacetanilid and methylacetanilid. 

/ — ^i) What is a terpene, and what are the most characteristic reactions of 
this class of bodies? (2) What is a camphor ? What classes of chemical com- 
pounds are included under this name? (3) What are essential oils, and what 
is their general chemical composition ? (4) How are the resins related to the 
preceding classes of compounds? (5) Into what groups may the resins be 
divided ? 

K — Give the correct chemical names for the following : 

(I) (2) (3) (4) (5) 


I I ^\ ^\ /\/X. 


I " I II I II I II i 




/ — Botany, (i) Name three proteids different from ordinary protoplasm that 
frequently occur in vegetable cells. (2) Classify and name the different 
varieties of vasal bundles that occsr in plants. (3) What is the essential tissue 
of phloem and what is the essential tissue of xylem ? (4) State the two most 


^"""MayMps*'"'"'} Examination Questions. 279 

important uses of vasal bundles. (5) Name the variety of bundle that is the 
most common respectivel}' in roots, in the stems of Pteridophyta, in the stems 
of pines, and in leaves. (6) In what natural order of plants may we look for 
stems having bi-collateral bundles? (7) Name the series and class to which 
each of i:he following plants belong : Bacillus tuberculosis, Cetraria Islandica, 
Claviceps purpurea, Lycopodium clavatum, and Chenopodium ambrosioides. 

// — Materia Medica. (8) How do the drugs calamus and podophyllum differ 
{a) in the kind, and [b) in the distribution of their vasal-bundles ? Explain by 
aid of diagrams. (9) What acrid rhizome-and-root drug is easily distinguished 
from other oflBcial drugs by the conspicuously 4-rayed (or rarely 3- or 5-rayed) 
meditullium of its roots ? (10) What two bark drugs are readily distinguishable 
from other ofl&cial barks by the fact that solutions of the caustic alkalies turn 
them a deep red? (11) Write the pharmacal names of three official leaf- 
drugs which are characterized by the possession of internal glands which cause 
them to appear pellucid-punctate when held up to the light. (12) Name three 
official drugs, each powerfully sialagogue, one a leaf-drug, one a bark-drug and 
the other a root-drug. (13) Name a bark-drug, a root drug, and a seed-drug, 
each official and each derived from the natural order Apocynaceae. (14) Write 
the botanical names and natural orders of the plants furnishing the following 
drugs : cloves, wild cherry, and prickly ash. (15) B}- means of what chemical 
test may guaiac wood be easily distinguished from other medicinal woods? 
(16) State the botanical origin of each of the following: coca, cacao and 
cocoanut oil. (17) Name one example each of official vegetable drugs, chiefly 
valuable for the following properties : refrigerant, antispasmodic, analgesic, 
and myotic. (18) Name the official drugs which are the sources of the follow- 
ing active principles : eserine, thebaine, allyl sulphocyanide, veratrine, and 
brucine. (19) Name three m}-driatic alkaloids. (20) Name two drugs which 
powerfully antagonize each other in the effects they have upon the glands of the 
skin, one promoting diaphoresis, the other diminishing it. (21) Name a drug 
that is used as a physiological antidote in opium poisoning. (22) Name a 
diuretic drug that produces diuresis indirectly by raising the blood pressure. 
(23) Name one emetic drug that produces emesis by direct action on the vomit- 
ing centre in the medulla, and another that produces it by direct action on the 
stomach. (24) Name three cholagogue cathartic drugs of vegetable origin. 
(25) Name three hj'dragogue cathartic drugs of vegetable origin. 


A — A druggist made a dentifrice from the following ingredients : 
15 pounds powdered orris root . . . . @, lio.40 per pound. 

^Yz " " cuttle fish . . . (a) .30 " " 

10 " " myrrh . . . , («y .50 " " 

413 grains otto of rose ©8.75 per ounce. 

7 ounces 24)2 grains French carmine@ 10.00 per kilogram. 
Sufficient precipitated chalk @ .o6per pound to make 100 pounds. 

What would the whole quantitj^ cost ? 

What percentage of profit would he make if he sold it at 80 cents per 
pound (no charge being included for labor or time) ? 

Show all figures used in obtaining your answer on this sheet of paper. 

28p Exaviination Questions. {'*'"'May?if95*"°" 

B — Pepsin, (i) Give the ofiBcial name of pepsin. (2) What is the official descrip- 
tion? (3) Is it a chemical compound? (4) What are its medical uses? (5) 
How is its value estimated? (6) Describe a process for making scale pepsin. 

C — Silver. ( i ) How does silver usually occur in nature ? (2) Give its symbol 
and atomic weight. (3) Give its specific gravity. (4) Describe two testsfor silver 
salts. ( 5) Name six official preparations of silver. (6) How may its oxygen com- 
pound be prepared ? (7) What official precautions should be observed in dis- 
pensing this substance ? 

D — Massa Hydrargyri. (i) What ingredients are used in preparing it? 
(2) What percentage of metal does it contain ? (3) Give the common names 
for this preparation. (4) Why is long-continued trituration necessary? (5) 
Give a test for absence of mercuric oxide. (6) Give a test for limit of mercu- 
rous oxide. (7) What are its medical properties ? (8) What is its dose ? 

E—Spanish Flies, (i) Give the official title, the Latin name of the insect 
and the order to which it belongs. (2) Give the commercial sources of this 
drug. (3) Which flies are most highly esteemed, and how may they be recog- 
nized ? (4) Give the name of the vesticating principle. What is its best sol- 
vent ? (5) Give a process for obtaining this principle. What is the usual per- 
centage of it in Spanish flies ? (6) Name the official preparations of Spanish 
flies, and give the ingredients of each. (7) What are the medical properties 
and dose of Spanish flies ? (8) How does the official process for blistering 
cerate diff"er from that of the previous Pharmacopoeia ? 

F— Potassium Hydrate, (i) Give a method of preparing potassium hydrate. 

(2) In what form does it usually occur in the shops? (3) Describe (a) the 
physical and {b) the chemical properties of the official compound. (4) What 
impurities are liable to be present ? {5) What is the quantitative method of 
determining its value. (6) Give four reagents for the detection of potassium 

G — ( I ) How would you distinguish a root-drug from a rhizome-drug. ( 2 ) 
Write the pharmacal names of two root-drugs which possess laticiferous tissue. 

(3) Write the pharmacal name of a monocotyl rhizome-drug that contains oleo- 
resin cells. (4) Write the pharmacal names of two drugs, one a root-drug and 
the other a bark-drug, each of which contains mucilage cells. (5) Write the 
name of the most potent principle m each of the following drugs : Digitalis, 
veratrum viride and jaborandi. (6) Name three poisonous alkaloids, one 
derived from a root-drug, one from a leaf-drug and the other from a seed-drug. 
(7) Name a fruit drug, which, on pulverization and treatment with solution of 
potassium hydrate, emits a volatile alkaloid which has an odor similar to that 
of mice. (8) Name a bark-drug from which, on heating in a test tube, there is 
distilled a purple liquid that accumulates in droplets on the cooler portions of 
the tube. (9) Name two official drugs, both of which, in medicinal doses, slow 
the heart's action, but one strengthens it, while the other greatly depresses it. 
( 10) Name a cholagogue bark -drug and a cholagogue rhizome-drug. 

H — Iron, (i) What two well-defined series of compounds does this metal 
form? (2) State the valence of each series. (3) How is reduced iron made ? 

(4) What compounds of iron with the halogens are official ? (5) What three 
forms of ferrous sulphate are official ? (6) What iron salt is contained in 
"Liquor Ferri Tersulphatis ?" (7) How does " Monsel's Solution " diff"er in 
the character of its iron compound from "Liquor Ferri Tersulphatis?" 

^"^Mayrif^.^™} Examination Questions. 281 

(8) In the making of the oflScial solution of ferric chloride, how is the acidu- 
lated solution of the ferrous chloride oxidized, and what is the special order of 
mixing the acidulated solution and the oxidizing agent ? Is the former added 
to the latter or the reverse, and why ? 

/—Give the official title, botanical name of plant, natural order^ habitat and 
active principle of each of the following drugs : (i) Aconite. (2) Deadly 
nightshade. (3) Yerba Santa. (4) Hops. (5) Calabar bean. 

K — (i) Write a prescription for a 100 c.c. solution to contain chloral hydrate, 
hyoscine hydrobromate and sodium bromide, with a proper adjuvant and 
vehicle ; adjust the doses for a soporific for an adult patient ; express the 
quantities metrically, and use the unabbreviated official names of the ingre- 
dients. Let the signa be: Take 4 c.c. at bedtime ; repeat in two hours if 


The following specimens were placed before the students for identification 
during the respective examinations : 

(i) Glycerinum. (2) Aqua camphorse. (3) Emulsum chloroformi. (4) 
Ceratum cantharidis. (5) Pulvis cretae compositus. (6) Pulvis glycyrrhizae 
compositus. (7) Spiritusjuniperi compositus. (8) Extractum ergotae fluidum. 
(9) Tinctura calumbae. (10) Tinctura gentianse composita. 

(i) Aqua. (2) Sulphur sublimatum. (3) Amylum. (4) Ammonii carbonas. 
(5) Magnesii carbonas. (6) Acidum boricum. (7) Acidum gallicum. (8) 
Acidum tartaricum. (9) Plumbi acetas. (10) Benzinum. 

Materia Medica. 
(i) Senega. (2) Pyrethrum. (3) Iris. (4) Convallaria. (5) Viburnum 
opulus. (6) Mezereum. (7) Pilocarpus. (8) Santonica. (9) Anisum. (10) 
Stramonii semen. 


(i) Terebinthina. (2) Inula. (3) Carum. (4) Potassii carbonas. (5) Acidum 
boricum. (6) Acidum benzoicum. (7) Liquor ammonii acetatis. (8) Oleum 
picis liquidse. (9) Pulvis rhei compositus. (10) Tinctura cardamomi com- 


Write your name and examination number on each label. Restore all con- 
tainers to their proper places before leaving. Articles marked with an asterisk 
t*) are weighed. 

(/) Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 

Iron Wire 25 gm. 

*Iodine, 8*3 gm. 

Water, 15 c.c. 

Syrup, q. s 75 c.c. 

Make Syrup of Ferrous Iodide, LT. S. P. 

N. B. — The syrup for the above should be made by the following formula : 

*Sugar 64 gm. 

Water, q. s., 75 c.c. 

Make sj-rup. 

282 Examination Questions. {'^""May'isps""'' 

{2) Oiiitnient of Mercu7'ic Nitrate. 

^Mercury, 25 gm. 

Nitric Acid, 2 c.c. 

Nitric Acid 3 c.c. 

Lard Oil 30 c.c. 

Make Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate hy the official process. 

(J) PiUs. 

Ferrous Sulphate 4 gm 

Potassium Carbonate, 2 gm 

Sugar, powd., i gm 

Tragacanth, '25 gm 

Althaea, powd., -25 gm 


Water, aa, 3 drops. 

Make 25 pills ; coat with silver. 

N. B. — The silver leaf will be found in the pill-box. 

(j?) Pozvders. 

Cinchonine Sulph., 3-5 gm. 

Glj-cyrrhiza, powd., i gm. 

Mix ; make 12 powders. 

(5) Suppositories. 

Ale. Ext. of Belladonna leaves, 50 gm. 

Tannic Acid, -50 gm. 

Oil of Theobroma, . . . • 6 gm. 

Make 6 suppositories, by rolling. 


The examination in this branch consisted in submitting to each student a 
mixture of three, four or five salts, to analyze qualitatively. The time allowed 
was two hours. 


Part I. — From the stem given you for study, first prepare several thin trans- 
verse, longitudinal-radial and longitudinal-tangential sections, placing some of 
each kind in water and the rest in alcohol until required for use. Then pro- 
ceed to the study of the sections, applying such reagents or stains as are neces- 
sary to enable you to answer the following questions: 

(i)"Is the stem that of a fern, that of a monocotyl, that of a gymnosperm, 
or that of a dicot}4 ? State reasons for your conclusion. (2) If vasal bundles 
are present, to what type and variety do they belong ? (3) What lignified tissues 
are present in the area enclosed by the cambium zone ? (4) What lignified tis- 
sues occur in the area exterior to the cambium zone ? (5) What layers of the 
bark are present in this stem ? (6) Of how many rows of cells are the medullary 
rays composed ? (7) Is starch present ? What test did you apply to determine ? 
(8) What kinds of secretion-sacs, if any, are present? (9) Is collenchyma present? 
If so, in what part of the stem does it occur, and how does it differ from paren- 
chyma? (10) What reagent could you use that would stain the cellulose mem- 
branes blue or purple and the lignified and cutinized ones brown or yellowish- 
brown ? 

Am. Jour. PUaru 
May, 1895 

Coniinoicemcnt Exercises. 


Part 2. — Draw, uuder a magnification of seventy-five diameters or upward, 
a wedge-shaped segment, including about one-sixth of the cross-section and 
extending from the peripherj- to the centre of the section. Then, by means of 
index lines, point out such of the following parts as are present : 

(i) A parenchyma cell. (2) The area in which sieve tissues occur. (3) A 
stone cell. (4) Some meristem tissue. (5) A duct in the xylem of a bundle. 


The exercises connected with conferring the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy 
were held at the Academy of Music, Wednesday evening, April 17th, at 
8 o'clock. 

President Charles Bullock conferred the degree upon the following : 

Aley, Hamilton, Jr., 


Spiritus amvwniie aromaticus, 

Anewalt, Ellsworth Quincy, Sambucus Canadensis, 

Bacon, Edwin Gray, 
Baddour, Joseph Selim, 
Bailey, John, 
Ball, William Eruest, 
Barnitz, Harry L., 
Barr, Elwyn Paul, 
Binns, Harry R., 
Blair, Charles Lee, 
Boyd, Roger, 

Brendel, Frederick Charles, 
Branin, Fred. Winston, 
Brockman, Frank William, 
Brooks, Joseph Warren, 
Brunhouse, Frederick, Jr., 
Brunier, George Franklin, 
Bucher, William Lewis, 
Bundy, Clinton Thomas, 
Cain, Maude Florence, 
Campbell, Andrew, 
Campbell, Thos. P. V. 
Carpenter, Edward Albert, 
Carter, Charles Franklin, 
Cavanaugh, Chas. Joseph, 
Chatham, John Eliason, 
Coffey, Maurice Grant, 
Colsten, George Henry, 

Gum arable. 



Saw palmetto. 

Old remedy, 

Prunus Virginiana, 

Oleutn ricini. 

Tincture of myrrh, 


Org a n ic ch em is try. 

Zingiber officinale, 


Permanganate of Potassium, 

Sulphur sublimatum, 





Liquor potassii ai senilis. 

Preservation of viedicines, 


Syrupus ferri iodidi, 


Kola nut, 

Successful Pharmacist, 


Conard, Norman Shoemaker, Digitalis and strophanthus, 
Conrey, Henry Slicer, Coca, 

Coppenhaver,Chas. Brewster, Pilocarpus, 
Davies, William Richard, Kola ac2iminata, 
Davis, Robert Goode, Ginger, 

Dean, Guy Stewart, Eucalyptus, 

New York. 
New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 
New Jersey. 




Comnuncement Exercises. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 189.5. 

Durand, Arthur John, 
Durbin, John George, 
Eberly, David Alexander, 
Ellis, David, 
Farnsworth, Anthony, 
Faunce, Benjamin Rice, 
Fisher, Edmund Keim, 


Pharmacy vs. tablet triturates, 
Syrupus acidi hydriodici. 
Ancient history of phartnacy, 

Fucus vesiculosus, 

*Flitcraft, Warren Whitney, Cochineal, 
Foresman, Harry Bastian, Acetic acid as an extractive, 
Freeth}', Charles Henry, Medicated wines, 
Geuther, Frederick Edwin, Tinctura nucis vomiccs, 
Greenawalt, David Lehman, Examination of lime water, 

Success of the American pharmacist. 

Hypodermic tablets, 




Euonymus bark, 

Aciduni aceticufn. 


Aconitum, U.S. P., 

Grotz, Milton, 

Hahn, Edward Titus, 

Hamilton, Walter Scott, 

Haney, Mary Augusta, 

Herbert, Thomas Lewis, 

Hering, Edwin Arney, 

Herrmann, William, 

Hetrick, Annie Louise, 

Heysham, Horace Besson, 

Hodge, Wm. Roseborough, Belladonna, 

Hollopeter, Arthur Stadiger, Urethral suppositories, 

Hoopes, Willmer Preston, Saccharuvi lactis, 

Hoskins, John, Saw palmetto, 

Hughes, Harry Bittenbender, Liquor calcis. 

Hummel, David Fox, Atropa belladonna. 

Hunter, Henry Blount, Metallic stearates, 

Hyers, Percy, Fluid extract of cubeb, 

Jackson, Robert MacGregor, Pills and pill excipients, 

Jones, Charles Lyston, 
Kalbach, Charles Peter, 
Kalkman, Henry Alfred, 
Kauffman, John Wm., 
Kaufman, Reuben M., 

Coca atid its alkaloid, 

Kellner, Henry Chas. Fred'k,/%rtr;«arj/, 

Kelly, Francis Patrick, 

Kercher, Edwin Harry, 

King, Albert Joseph, 

Kline, Harry Herbert, 

Knauer, August Henry, 

Labbe, Edward Blaise, 

La Master, Harvey Gillette, Camphora, 

Lambert, Herbert Grayson, Tablet triturates, 

Lancaster, Brenton Solomon, Afititoxin, 

Lanius, Ross McDonald, Glycerin suppositories. 

La Rue, Willis Leslie, Fluid extracts, 

Lau, Scott Wolford, Disinfectants, 



Peumus boldus, 

Linaria vulgaris, 

famaica dogzuood. 

Assay of resin podophyllum. 


New Jersey. 







New Jersey. 




















N. Carolina. 


Nova Scotia. 



















Am. Jour Pi arm 
May, 1895. 


Commencevient Exercises. 

Lauer, Emanuel Hiram, 
Lawtou. Henry Cuthbert, 
Leaman, Davis Hendrix, 
Leedom, Morris, 
Lehman, Joseph David, 
Lewis, Arthur Rimmer, 
Linn, William Elliott, 
Long, Charles Henry, 
Long, John Grier, 
Lorenz, Charles Gustave, 
Loser, Damon Aloysius, 
Lower, George Grafley, 
Lutz, Walter Preston, 


Epiphegtis Virginiana, 
Vaccine virus. 
Hydrastis Canadensis, 
Oleum gossypii seminis, ' 
Acetic acid. 

Fluid extracts and changes, 
Heat and cold, 
Oleitni morrhucs, 

McCanna, John Milton, 

McClosky, Wilson Cathcart, Benzinum, 

McFadden, Thos. Francis Jos., Botany, 

McGhee, Saylor John, Chocolate, 

McNair, William Righter, Vegetable coloring matters, 

Mackenzie, Edwin Golding, Permanganate of potash, 

Macphee, Thomas Duncan, Peppermint, 

Mader, Elias, Taraxacum, 

Manko, Emanuel, Asbestos, 

Mathews, William Joseph, Sodii boras. 

Mayhew, Charles Holmes, 
Melick, Ralph La Shelle, 
Michener, Elmer David, 
Miller, Albert T., 
Miller, Harper Guiley, 
Minton, Henry McKee, 
Mitchell, Albert Tippett, 

Tablet triturates. 
The metric system. 
Castor oil, 
Pharmaceutical assay, 

Moosbrugger, Charles Otto, Elder bark. 

Moritz, Birdis Emanuel, 
Morris, Max, 

Murphy, Michael Charles, 
Musselman, Morris Myers, 
Myers, William Henry, 
Naly, Sarah Lusan, 
Nickum, James Weller, 
Nugent, Thomas Francis, 
Parse, John Merritt, 
Pazmiiio, Francisco, 
Peabody, William Legoria, 
Phillips, Oscar Wilson, 
Porter, John Morris, 
Porter, William Edgar, 
Quick, Benj. Chamberlain, 
Rabenau, Arwed Gustav, 

Rectenwald, Louis Aloysius, Jambul seed, 


Yucca Jilamentosa, 


Poisons and their antidotes, 

Patefit medicines, 

Microscopical laboratory, 

Anatolian licorice root, 

A drug store, 


Tinctura Gallce, 

Tannin of cloves, 


hi compatib ility, 


Strophanthus hispidus, 





Nova Scotia. 











New Jersey. 






Nova Scotia. 




New Jersey. 















New York. 

New Jersey. 






New York. 




ConiDiencement Exercises. 

Am. Jour Phaim. 
Mav, 1885 

Name. Subject. Stale 

Reeser, Richard, Oleum ricitii, Pennsylvania. 

Regar, Daniel Schaeffer, Theobroma cacao, Pennsylvania. 

Reich, Solomon Mittler, Manna and mannit, West Virginia. 

Rhoads, Edward Elliott, Acetic acid, Pennsylvania. 

Richardson, Arthur Norris, Achillea mille/olium, Indiana. 

Richnian, Edward Milton, Erythroxylon Coca, New Jersey. 

Ridenour, William Edward, Some chimaphilin derivatives, Ohio. 

Ridgway, Wm. Frederick, 
Ritter, Frederick William, 
Robbins, George Delbert, 
Rock, Peter Joseph, 
Roessner, Frank George, 
Rossman, George Albert, 
Rothwell, Walter, 
Sames, Joseph Howard, 
Schmitt, Albert Herman, 

Schrack, Robert Franklin, 
Semple, Henry Beidleman, 
Semple, John, 
Shinier, Miles Herman, 

Commercial syrup of hydriodic acid, Washington. 

Eriodictyon glutinosuiii, 

Eugenia caryophyllata, 

Cotton plants and derivatives, 

Preparations of sangiiinaria, 


Emtilsion of cod liver oil, 

Cicuta maculata, 

Tasteless fluid extract of cascara 


Fluid extract of kola. 
Education in pharmacy, 

Shoemaker, Clinton Llewellyn, Solanum Carolinense L. 

Simonis, Olto, Jr., 
Simons, Harry Fisher, 
Skinner, Harry Wharton, 
Slifer, Leo Engelman, 
Smith, Charles Hye, 
Smith, Rodney, 
Stengel, Arthur, 
Stephen, Annie Rex, 
Stephen, Walker Lewis, 
Stern, Charles Wilson, 
Strickler, George, Jr., 
Stuart, Robert Cummins, 
Swartz, Edward F., 
Tarr, Robert H., 
Terne, Henry Bruno, 
Terry, John Herman, 
Thayer, Guy Parker, 

Glycerin suppositories. 

The pharmacist. 

Cod liver oil. 

Successful pharmacist, 
Benzoic acid, 


The chemist. 

Cream of bismuth, 

Gum arable, 



General chemistry. 

Animal refuse. 


Heuchera Americana, 

Thompson, Nathan Lincoln, Examination of kola, 
Thornton, Thomas Redman, Tatinin of cassia. 

Ulmer, Stephen E., 
Ulrich, Julius Hirsch, 
Unangst, Harvey Edgar, 
Van Korb, William, 
Warfel, Wni. Sylvester, 
Waters, Thomas Carey, 
Watson, Walter Wilmer, 

Metric system. 

Acetic acid as a solvent. 

Fluid extracts by pressure. 


Syrupus acidi hydriodici. 

Analysis of a liquid. 




































New York . 





Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1895. 

Comuienceine7it Exercises. 



Weaver, Wilmer John, 
Webb, John Karl, 
Webbert, Harry Sigler, 
Weiser, Spencer Bucher, 
Welsh, Robert Emmet, 
Whiteley, Edward Albert, 
Whitely, John Campbell, 
UTiittem, William Henry, 
Wilson, John Swain, 
Winch, Howard George, 
Winger, David Zwingle, 
Wolfe, Wm. Holmes, 
Woods, Samuel Ross, 

Vaccine virus. 
Spirit us cetheris tiitrosi, 

Syrup by cold process, 
Pepsin, * 

Glycyrrhiza glabra, 
Precipitates of sanguinaria, 
Elixir cinchona:, 

BashanVs mixture of U.S. P., 
Pharmaceutical education. 

Woolley, Washington Irving, Structure of convallaria. 

Wyatt, John Congle, 
Yaple, Florence, 
Yeakle, Samuel Newton, 
Young, George E., 
Young, Warren Ray, 
Zook, John Noah, 

Assay of sanguinaria, 

Twelve commercial cocoas. 

Eucalyptus globulus. 

Problems for the pharmacist. 


Syrup of hydriodtc acid. 

New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 


Arkansas i Mississippi .... i 

California i Missouri i 

Delaware 5 Nebraska . 

Ecuador i Nevada . . 




Oregon . . . 


Syria . . 



Utah . . 




West Virginia 


Georgia 3 New Jersey 

Germany i New York 

Illinois I North Carolina 

Indiana 2 Nova Scotia 

Kansas i Ohio 11 

Maine i Ontario 2 

Maryland 4 

Special certificates for a two years' course in general applied and anahtical 
chemistry were awarded to : 
H. Blount Hunter, North Carolina. 
Theodore Littlefield Gamble, Pennsylvania. 
William Edward Ridenour, Ohio. 
Houston Talbot Thayer, Tennessee. 
The following members of the graduating class received the grade of 


David L. Grcenawalt, Percy Hyers, C. Otio Moosbrugger, William L. Pea- 
body, William F. Ridgway. 


Andrew Campbell, Warren W. Flitcraft, Robert M. Jackson, Scott W. Lau, 
Benjamin C. Quick, Nathan L. Thompson, Robert G. Davis, Walter S. Hamil- 
ton, Harry H. Kline, Max Morris, Frederick W. Ritter, Thomas R. Thornton. 

288 Aluvim Association. {"""^May'i^s""' 

The Materia Medica Prize of a microscope, oflFered by the family of the late 
Professor Maisch, for original histological work ou American plants, was 
awarded to Frederick W. Ritter, and the following graduates received honor- 
able mention in connection therewith : Edwin A. Hering, Horace B. Heysham. 

The Pharmacy Prize^ a gold medal, offered by Professor J. P. Remington for 
original pharmaceutical work, was awarded to Annie R. Stephen. 

The Chemistry Prize of an analytical balance, offered by Professor S. P. 
Sadtler for original chemical work, was awarded to William E. Ridenour, with 
honorable mention of William L. Peabody and James W. Nickum. The 
American Journal of Pharmacy Prize of $25, offered by Professor H. Trimble 
for original chemical work, was awarded to William E. Ridenour. 

The John M. Maisch Prize of ^20 in gold, offered by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, of 
Lebanon, Pa., for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Robert M. 
Jackson, with honorable mention of Frederick W. Ritter, Warren R. Young, 
Scott W. Lau. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize of $25 in gold, for the best examination in 
that branch, was awarded to W^illiam F. Ridgway, and the following received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Frederick Brunhouse, Jr., Henry 
S. Conrey, William R. Davies, David Ellis, Warren W. Flitcraft, William L. 
Peabody, John K. Webb, Samuel R. Woods, Washington I. WooUey. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize of a balance, offered by Mr. Henry J. Maris 
for the best examination in that branch, was awarded to David L. Greenawalt, 
with honorable mention of C. Otto Moosbrugger, Warren W. Flitcraft, Harry 
B. Foresman, Walter S. Hamilton, Percy Hyers, Robert M. Jackson, Scott W. 
Lau, Emanuel H. Lauer, Max Morris, William L. Peabody, William F. Ridg- 
way, Frederick W. Ritter, Nathan L. Thompson, Julius H. Ulrich. 

The Robinson Prize, a gold medal and certificate, offered by Mr. J. S. Robin- 
son, of Memphis, Tenn., for the best examination in general and analytical 
chemistry, was awarded to Thomas R. Thornton, with honorable mention of 
Percy Hyers, C. Otto Moosbrugger, James W. Nickum, William L. Peabody, 
Nathan L. Thompson, George E. Young. 

The valedictory address to the graduating class was delivered by Professor 
Henry Trimble. 

The farewell supper, given by the professors to the graduating class, was 
held in the Museum of the College, on Tuesday evening, April i6th. The offi- 
cers and trustees of the College were present, along with some other invited 
guests. After the menu was disposed of, speeches were made by the faculty, 
some of the trustees and members of the class. 


The thirty-first annual meeting of the Alumni Association of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy- was held at the College Building, Tenth Street, 
above Cherrj-, ou Monday afternoon, April i5tli. 

President William Lincoln Cliffe, Ph.G , presided, and read his annual ad- 
dress, in which he said: " The end of this year begins another era in the history 
of the Association. Along with the inauguration of three terms of instruction," 
the Board of Trustees has found it necessary, owing to changes in the curricu- 

'*''"Mav!'i8^f ""'I Alinnni Association. 289 

lum, to place the mauagement of the quizzes directly under its own control, 
thus abolishing the interest, both financially and supervisory, which the Asso- 
ciation has heretofore enjoyed." 

William E. Krewson presented his fifteenth annual report as secretary, in 
which he reviewed the work of the Association during the past year. 

"The college review quizzes were quite successful this year," he stated, " 221 
of the juniors subscribing. The senior quiz class numbered 168 full tickets; 19 
did not come up for examination; 188 took first modified examination, and 17 
failed to pass the examination; 134 passed successfully; of the latter number 
106 will be members of the Class of 1S95, and the other 26 are deferred on 
account of being under 21 years of age, or because they have had less than four 
years' experience in the drug business, and will be assigned to future graduat- 
ing classes. During the past year 25 members of former quiz classes who 
passed the examinations in previous years so successfully, and were deferred, 
have been duly elected by the Board of Trustees as graduates in pharmacy, and 
are assigned to the Class of 1895, which will make a total of 169 new members 
from the Class of 1895. This makes a total of 177 new members added during 
the past year. The total membership of the association is 2,514; total receipts 
during the past year, 17,370.57; expenditures, $6,543.75; balance in the treas- 
ury, SS26.22." 

The report of the ^Memorial Committee showed that 20 members had died 
during the past year, and the deaths of 5 others not before reported were also 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Jacob S. Beetem, '78; First Vice-President, Dr. J. Louis D. 
Mprison, '88 ; Second Vice-President, Jos. Crawford, '84 ; Treasurer, Edward 
C. Jones, '64 ; Secretary, \Vm. E. Krewson, '69 ; Corresponding Secretary, 
James C. Perry, '91 ; Trustee of Sinking Fund, Thos. S. Wiegand, '44, 
Executive Board, elected for three years: William Lincoln CliflFe, '84; Joseph 
W. England, '83; Rush P. Marshall, '81; F. W. E. Stedem, '82. Dr. Henry 

A. Xewbold, '70, was elected for t>vo years to fill the unexpired term of Charles 

B. Hunterson, deceased. 

There is a strong sentiment among the members of the Alumni Association 
favoring the establishment of a gymnasium for the students. The matter of 
securing a room in the College building for the students for social uses, and the 
question of publishing a historical compendium of the graduates, were referred 
to a special committee. 


The thirt3--first annual reception of the Association to the seventy-fourth 
graduating class, which was held on the evening of April 15th, at the Hall of 
the Voung Men's Christian Association, Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, was 
a very pleasant event. 

An interesting concert programme was plaj-ed by Bastert's Orchestra; Presi- 
dent Cliffe made the introductory address; Francis P. Kelly, of Carbondale, 
Pa., delivered the annual class oration; Brenton S. Lancaster, of Forksville, Pa., 
recited a poem dedicated to the graduating class; Robert H. Tarr, of Cleveland, 
O., gave the history of the class of '95, and Charles Wilson Stern, of Smyrna, 
Del., foretold the future of the class. 

290 Obituary. {'^'^Mayris^g^*""" 

Alumni Association gold medal and prize certificates for 1895 awarded to the 
best student in each branch: Alumni gold medal, William Legoria Peabody, 
St. Louis, Mo.; pharmacy, David Lehman Greenawalt, Chambersburg, Pa.; 
chemistry, Percy Hyers, Dayton, Ohio ; materia medica, Robert MacGregor 
Jackson, New Glasgow, N. S.; pharmacognosy, Scott Wolford Lau, Dills- 
burg, Pa. ; general pharmacy, Andrew Campbell, Williamsport, Pa. ; operative 
pharmacy, Wm. Frederick Ridgway, Seattle, Wash.; analytical chemistry, 
William Van Korb, Amsterdam, N. Y. ; microscopical botany, Frederick 
Wm. Ritter, Middleport, Pa. ; prize certificate for best collection of indigenous 
plants, Clinton Llewellyn Shoemaker, Allentown, Pa.; prize certificate to 
best junior student, Louis Peter Carstens, Davenport, la. 


Edmond Preston, Jr., Ph.G. 

Edmond Preston, Jr., Ph.G., Class of 1884, was born at Fallston, Hartford 
County, Md., December 6, 1S62, and died at his late residence, N. E. corner 
Broad and Ellsworth Streets, on Tuesda}', December 18, 1894, aged 30 years and 
18 days. He was the youngest son of Edmond and Phoebe H. Preston, who 
were members of the Society of Friends. He received his education at his 
native place and attended the school of Geo. G. Curtis, who was a Harvard 
graduate. At the age of 17 he entered the drug store of Wm. Proctor, Jr., & 
Co , at Ninth and Lombard Streets, Philadelphia, as an apprentice and learned 
the drug business with that firm, serving faithfully for four years. He matric- 
ulated at the College October, 1880, and passed a successful examination in the 
following spring. In the fall of 1882 he entered the senior class, and after 
taking two senior courses, he graduated wdth honor in March, 1884, his thesis 
being entitled " Phytollacca Radix." After his graduation he entered the 
employ of Howard G. Shinn, Ph.G., corner Fifteenth and Master Streets, re- 
maining for one year, and afterwards he went with Lancaster Thomas, at 
Nineteenth and Pine Streets, remaining for a few months, when he was trans- 
ferred to the store Broad and Ellsworth Streets, and was shortly afterwards 
promoted to the position of chief clerk, remaining until 1890, when he pur- 
chased the business from Mr. Thomas, and remained in this location until his 
death. He was married October 3, 1888, to Lena M. Griest, of Hartford 
County, Md., who survives him, together with three children. He was an 
honorable and active business man and an honor to his profession. 

His funeral services were largely attended by his fellow-druggists, on Wed- 
nesday afternoon, December 19, 1894, and his remains were interred the fol- 
lowing day at his native place, Fallston, Md. W. E. K. 



JUNE, 1895, 



By Frederick W. Haussmann, 

Every pharmacist who has handled fluid extracts obtained from 
different manufacturers, must have noticed the variation in their 
physical properties, as pertaining to color, odor and taste, and also 
as shown in their miscibility with water or other liquids. 

These variations, whichwere in a number of instances of a strik- 
ing nature, induced the writer to make a series of examinations, not 
primarily regarding their chemical composition, such as the alkaloidal 
percentage, but more particularly the menstruum, as compared 
with that required by the Pharmacopoeia, and also to determine the 
causes which led to the differences mentioned in their physical 

The first feature to which our attention is called, lies in the vari- 
ous shades of color which are frequently observed in fluid extracts 
prepared from the same drug. 

Due to the high degree of heat at which some fluid extracts are 
evaporated, variations in odor and taste are also noticeable at times. 
Extracts whose properties are due to volatile principles, such as 
buchu, cubeb, eucalyptus, etc., are liable to be affected in this manner. 

The physical condition of fluid extracts, as regards their fluidity, 
varies considerably, and in this respect, as probably in no other, the 
preparations of some manufacturers are characterized. 

Some we find of a decidedly syrupy consistence, especially those 
with a low alcohol percentage, while others are more approximate 
to the pharmacopceial products. These variations may be partly due 
to differences in the physical properties of crude drugs, but in many 


292 An Exammation of Commercial Fluid Extracts. {^'^• 

Jour. Ptiarm. 
June. 1895. 

cases also to the tendency of some manufacturers to economize that 
most important menstruum constituent, alcohol. Unfortunately, 
specific gravity is no criterion of the alcohol percentage of fluid 

It is true, that an extract of a high specific gravity, for which the 
Pharmacopoeia directs a largely alcoholic menstruum, must be 
regarded with suspicion, but it does not furnish the means to deter- 
mine the alcohol percentage of the employed menstruum with any 
degree of accuracy. 

While handling a number of commercial fluid extracts, the high 
specific gravity of some, contrary to his experience with the same 
official fluid extracts, induced the writer to determine their alco- 
hol percentage. 

Taking the menstrua of the Pharmacopoeia as the standard 
authority, with which the manufacturer, as well as the pharmrcist, 
should comply, comparisons were made between the alcohol per- 
centage found and that required. The extracts examined were 
taken at random from the preparations of different firms, and 
regarded as representing the respective average percentage of their 
preparations. The following table gives the results obtained : 

Fluid Extract. 



Cimicifuga . . . . 



Serpentaria . . . . 





Phytolacca Root. . 
Hydrastis . . . . 


Rhamnus Pursh. . 



Taraxacum . . . 
Glycyrrhiza . • . 
Sarsaparilla Conip. 


Prunus Virgiuiana 




I -0095 

I 0085 

I "008 

I "080 
I -0985 
I 080 

I -103 

I "0465 
I • 1 296 
I -1025 

Pharmacopceial Alcohol Percentage Found. 

Menstruum in \ 

Alcohol Per- i 

centageby Vol- I 1 

ume of official, j Weight. Volume. 

'^'^junef 1895.'''^"' } ^'^ Examination of Commercial Fluid Extracts. 293 

In the last-mentioned extract, the exact alcohoHc percentage of 
the menstruum cannot be stated, as the Pharmacopoeia directs the 
drug to be macerated with a mixture of water and glycerin, to be 
followed by percolation with a mixture of 85 parts alcohol and 15 
parts water. 

The largest percentage of alcohol in fluid extracts, whose men- 
struum consists entirely of that liquid, was found in F. E. Cimicifuga, 
the smallest in F. E. Buchu. 

The two samples examined of the latter were from different 
manufacturers, and a glance upon the table will reveal a decided 
difference in their respective alcohol percentages. Fluid extracts 
for which the Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum of 2 parts of 
alcohol to I of water, contained a comparatively larger alcohol 
percentage than those for which the same authority requests an 
alcoholic menstruum of 3 parts of alcohol to i part of water. F. E. 
of Calumba, which belongs to the latter class, was found to contain 
only 34 per cent, of absolute alcohol, while F. E. Phytolacca, 
representing the former, contained 5 i per cent. 

A small alcoholic percentage was also found in a syrupy F. E. 

Remarkable variations were found in fluid extracts with a sup- 
posed-to-be diluted alcohol menstruum. The largest percentage 
found was in F. E. Stillingia, 36 per cent., which is closely approxi- 
mate to the pharmacopoeial requirement. 

F. E. Cascara Sagrada and Taraxacum contained only 12 per 
cent, of alcohol, by weight. 

Compound F. E. Sarsaparilla, with a menstruum of 30 per cent, of 
alcohol, was found to contain 6 per cent., by weight, while F, E. 
Glycyrrhiza, with the same alcoholic menstruum percentage, con- 
tained 23 per cent. 


The syrupy condition of some commercial fluid extracts, and 
the sweet taste, occasionally observed in preparations from bitter 
or acrid drugs, induced the writer to determine the percentage of 
glucose, or, what is perhaps a more correct statement, an allied 
substance, which likewise has the property of giving the various 
glucose reactions. 

In addition to this, the negative result experienced in some 
instances, where the preparations were made from drugs, which are 

294 A7i Examination of Commercial Fluid Extracts, {'^""jun^'isle*'"'"' 

not stated to have an appreciable saccharine percentage, or whose 
sugar, if present, is stated not to possess the power of reducing 
Fehling's solution, was also the basis for |hese examinations. 

Such was, for instance, found to be the case with several samples 
of F. E. Gentian, which showed by repeated examination the 
presence of 5 per cent, of a substance corresponding to glucose in 
every respect. 

According to published authorities, gentianose, the sugar present 
in gentian root, does not reduce Fehling's solution. This has not 
been the writer's experience, either in the commercial fluid extract 
or in a sample which was prepared strictly according to the phar- 
macopoeial directions. The remarkably high sugar percentage of 
some fluid extracts prepared from ranunculaceous plant drugs, 
which, on comparison with similar official fluid extracts, showed a 
vast difference, was likewise another reason for this investigation. 

Glucose is a normal constituent of many plants, also laevulose, or 
fruit sugar, which possesses likewise the property of reducing 
Fehling's solution. 

In the process of preparation of galenical preparations, it may 
also be produced by the decomposition of other compounds, such as 
inulin, triticin, particularly in the presence of heat. These may 
be regarded as being some of the natural sources of the sugar 
which is liable to be present in fluid extracts. Again, excessive 
heat in their evaporation will have the effect of caramelizing some 
of the constituents, which, however, by careful observation of 
pharmacopoeial directions, is obviated. Besides this, the claim is 
made, that caramel is frequently added by manufacturers of fluid 
extracts on a large scale, for the purpose of coloring their prepara- 

The fallacious popular idea that darkness in color is an indication 
of strength and a criterion of quality is unfortunately also accepted 
by a number of pharmacists. 

Caramel also has the property of reducing Fehling's solution, and 
forms, in some fluid extracts, when examined for glucose, an 
important factor. 

Glucose cannot be detected with certainty directly in fluid 
extracts, or liquids containing other vegetable matter. These 
compounds, as, for instance, tannin, have also the property of 
reducing Fehling's solution, and must, therefore, first be removed. 

"■*" jun"';i895"°'' } ^« Examination of Commercial Fhiid Extracts. 295 

The process recommended in Dragendorff's Plant Analysis, pre- 
cipitation with basic lead acetate, and subsequent treatment with 
sulphuric acid, was employed. 

Ten c.c. of the fluid extract under examination was diluted with 
water to 20 c.c. 

In most cases the mixture became cloudy, and filtration, until a 
clear liquid was obtained, was necessary. 

The mixture was then precipitated with basic lead acetate solu- 
tion, filtered from the precipitate and the excess of lead in the fil- 
trate carefully precipitated by diluted sulphuric acid. 

The liquid, by means of washing the precipitate with water, was 
made up to the original volume of 20 c.c. 

As a rule the effect of picric acid test solution upon the liquid 
representing 50 per cent, of the fluid extract, was first noted, and 
also a superficial examination for glucose made by means of the 
picric acid and potash method of Braun with the intention of 
determining the necessary degree of dilution before making the 
volumetric examination with Fehling's solution 

A few statements must be made regarding fluid extracts in gen- 
eral, before quoting the results obtained. In samples containing 
caramel, if the same is present in considerable amount, the filtrate, 
after the lead and acid treatment, is of a brown color. 

Caramel is not precipitated by basic lead acetate, and through 
this fact evidence of its presence was shown in a number of fluid 

For instance, in a sample of F. E. Taraxacum, prepared by the 
writer according to the Pharmacopoeia, the final filtrate, after this 
treatment, was almost colorless, while in several commercial speci- 
mens, similarly treated, the same was decidedly brown. A like 
observation was also made with F. E. Gentian and several others. 

The preparations examined by the writer comprised the products 
of eight different manufacturing firms, the samples all being selected 
at random, preferring, however, those official, wherever obtainable. 

The amount of glucose, or, perhaps, more appropriately, the 
substance which reduces Fehhng's solution and gives reactions with 
other glucose reagents, varied considerably, some extracts showing 
a high percentage, while others only contained scarcely appreciable 
traces. Due to lack of time, the percentage was not ascertained in 
some, while in a number several determinations were made. 

296 A/i Examination of Commercial Fluid Extracts. {^'^i]^Tl\i^'^^^' 

The following were the figures obtained : 

(i) Twenty samples were examined of this firm, and they are ar- 
ranged according to the amount of glucose found. 

Five per cent, and over. F. E. Taraxacum, Triticum, Gentian and 

Four per cent. F. E. CascaraSagrada. 3-5 per cent. F. E. Rheum. 

25 per cent. Buchu, Pmnus Virginiana, Senna, Hydrastis, Ascle- 

One per cent. Grindelia Robusta, -833 per cent. Humulus and 
Digitalis, -5 per cent. Ipecacuanha. 

F. E. Belladonna leaves, Calumba and Nux Vomica, also con- 
tained sugar in small amount, but no quantitative estimation was 

F. E. Coca contained less than 05 per cent. 

F. E. Cubeb, which was also examined, was found perfectly free 
from all saccharine matter. 

(2) From this source 8 samples were examined, quantitative de- 
terminations being made in each case. 

The largest percentage found was 5 per cent, in F. E. Pulsatilla ; 
3-5 per cent, was found in Cypripedium ; 3 per cent, in Buchu ; 2 5 
per cent, each in Frangula, Ipecacuanha and Pilocarpus; "5 per cent, 
in Rhus Glabra, while the smallest amount found was in F. E. Dam- 
iana, namely, -35 per cent. 

(3) Five extracts were examined from this source. 

The average glucose percentage of these preparations was small, 
the largest amount being found in F. E. Stillingia, which contained 
1-66 per cent., the smallest in F. E. Aconite Root, which only gave 
indication to the extent ot -i per cent. 

F. E. Dulcamara contained about 15 per cent.; Belladonna root, 
1-25 percent. ; and Eucalyptus, -625 per cent. 

(4) This source furnished 5 samples. 

The largest amount was found in F. E. of Phytollacca, the fruit, 
which was over 7 per cent. 

This is, however, no criterion, as the drug contains considerable 
fruit sugar. 

F. E. Granati Rad. Cortex gave indication of -67 per cent.; Eu- 
phorbia pilulifera, -5 per cent. 

F, E. Pichi and Quebracho were also examined, and revealed but 
small amounts, so that a quantitative estimation was not made. 

^™june?i895!"^°^} ^'' Examinatio)i of Commercial Fluid Extracts. 297 

(5) Four samples were examined from this source. The largest 
percentage was found in F. E. Bryonia, r668, per cent., in Hydran- 
gea -712, while in F. F.. Xanthoxylum and Lippia Mexicana the exact 
amount was not ascertained. 

(6) Three samples were procured from this source. The largest 
percentage was found in F. E. Convallaria, which was 25 per cent.; 
F. E. Stigmata Maydis contained i per cent., while F. E. Belladonna 
Leaves showed 5 per cent, 

(7) Two samples were obtained from this firm. The largest 
amount of glucose was found in F. E. Burdock Root, which was 5 
per cent. F. E. Pimpinella contained 1-67 per cent. 

(8) The two samples from this source were F. E. Coca and 

The hop fluid extract contained the largest amount, 2 per cent.; 
the other contained i per cent. 

A few remarks may perhaps be not inappropriate regarding these 

The remarkably high glucose percentage in some of the repre- 
sentatives of the Ranunculaceae, 5 percent, each in F. E. Cimicifuga 
and Pulsatilla, obtained, by the way, from different manufact- 
urers, induced the writer to determine the amount of glucose in 
F, E. Cimicifuga, prepared by himself. 

While traces of glucose were present, determinations by Fehling's 
solution showed the presence of less than i per cent. 

The small amount present was also indicated by the fact that 
Braun'sor Boettger's bismuth test, when applied, responded but feebly. 

This is remarkable, as the commercial extract examined bore but 
little evidence of the presence of caramel. (In the pulsatilla sample, 
the presence of the latter was, however, very evident.) 

To determine whether the process of evaporation of the final per- 
colate produced any material change in the glucose percentage found, 
examination was made respectively before and after the evaporated 
extract was incorporated with the reserved portion, but no material 
difference was revealed. 

Similar determinations were made with fluid extracts of gentian 
and rhubarb, with a like result. 

Evaporation at the temperature directed by the Pharmacopoeia 
does not appear to produce any material change — in particular, no 
appreciable increase of the glucose percentage. 

298 All Examination of Commercial Flmd Extracts. {^^'jw^J^il^^^"^' 

Comparison was also made between fluid extracts, prepared from 
the same drug and obtained from different manufacturers. 

As already stated, considerable variation in color is frequently 
observable, and this is in many instances due to the presence of 

Regarding their glucose percentage, some variation also exists. 

In a sample of F. E. Buchu, the percentage of one sample was 
25 ; of another, 3 per cent. The filtrate of the former, after the lead 
and acid treatment, was almost colorless ; of the latter, a decided 

In F. E. Belladonna leaves the glucose percentage of one sam- 
ple was -5 per cent. ; of another, less than -2 per cent. Incidentally 
may be noticed, that the narcotic fluid extracts in general appear to 
contain but little sugar. 

This was observed in F. E. Belladonna leaves, hyoscyamus and 
also in digitalis. 

F. E. Coca leaves, of a deep black color, obtained from one firm, 
showed a glucose percentage of i , while the dark green prepara- 
tion of another firm showed less than -5 per cent. 

F. E. Humulus, from one firm, strongly alcoholic, precipitating 
resin on dilution with water, gave indication of about '830 per cent, 
of glucose, while the dark brown miscible extract from another 
source indicated 2 per cent. 

F. E. Ipecacuanha showed in one instance a percentage of -5 ; in 
another, 25 per cent. 

Other comparisons were also made, but the above may illustrate 
the claim that commercial fluid extracts, as a rule, are not alike in 
physical properties and composition as obtained from different 

Interesting revelations are made in some fluid extracts after sub- 
jecting them to the lead and acid treatment mentioned. 

If to the final filtrate picric acid test solution is added, alkaloids, 
if present in the drug, will be indicated. 

Among those affected in this manner may be mentioned F. E. 
Coca, Ipecac, Hydrastis, Quebracho, Cimicifuga, Xanthoxylum, 
Calumba, and a number of others. 

Fluorescent compounds were revealed in the filtrates from F. E. 
Pichi and Hydrangea, the fluorescence in each being increased by the 
addition of an alkali. 


Am. Jonr. Pharm. 

} An Examifiation of Co}>imercial Fluid Extracts. 299 

Comparison was also made between commercial fluid extracts and 
some prepared from the same drug according to pharmacopoeial 

F. E. Cimicifuga has already received mention. 

F. E. Gentian readily reduces Fehling's solution, both in the 
official and commercial preparations. 

The samples of the commercial extracts examined, however, 
showed a glucose percentage of over 5 per cent., while the official 
preparation was found to contain 25 per cent. A like result was 
also found in F. E. Taraxacum. 

This preparation, when made according to the Pharmacopoeia, con- 
tained between 2 and 3 per cent, of glucose, while two samples of 
the commercial fluid extract, showed between 5 and 6 per cent, to 
be present. The presence of caramel was, however, noticeable in 

A sample of commercial F. E. Calumba gave ready indication of 
the presence of glucose, while the preparation made from the drug 
by the writer was found to be perfectly free from the same. All 
the available tests for glucose gave a negative indication of its 

F. E. Rhubarb, prepared by the writer, was found to contain 
about I per cent, of glucose. 

Two commercial samples were found to contain respectively 3 and 
4 per cent 

A number of similar comparisons were also made, furnishing, in 
the main, like results. 

Incidentally it may also be mentioned that, while making the 
above examinations, the presence of possible metallic contamination 
was also inquired into. In a number of commercial samples the 
presence of copper was easily detected, showing that but little dis- 
crimination was used in the selection of the working utensils. 

The importance of self-manufacture in this class of preparations 
cannot be too strongly urged upon the pharmacist, if it is his desire 
to comply strictly with the Pharmacopoeia. 

While it is impossible for him to do so in every instance, there is 
no reason why he should not manufacture those frequently used, 
and in whose reliability he can have absolute confidence. 

In commercial fluid extracts his only authority is the manufac- 
turer's statement upon the label. 

300 The Tannin of Cloves. {"^"juXi^s*''"' 


By Wm. L. Peabody, Ph.G. 
Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 140. 

The United States Dispensatory (17th edition, page 331) states 
that Trommsdorff found i8 per cent, of tannin in cloves. The 
National Dispensatory (5th edition, page 417) states that the same 
investigator obtained 13 per cent, of tannin, and adds, in parentheses, 
" which has not been further investigated." 

Whether this parenthetical clause is an expression of doubt as to 
the occurrence of the principle in such quantity, or is intended by 
the editors of that authority to direct attention to the nature of the 
tannin of this aromatic drug, the writer is not assured. So, in 
order to further investigate this matter, he procured and estimated 
samples of powdered cloves from the cities named in the tabulated 
results, and subsequently isolated the tannin from an authentic speci- 
men with the intention of classifying it. 

The estimations were made upon decoctions prepared by com- 
pletely exhausting twenty grammes of the powdered air-dry sample 
with hot water ; when the liquid had cooled it was mixed with 
enough water to make one litre and then filtered. 

Upon trial the method of estimation which involves the precipi- 
tation of the tannin by gelatin in the presence of alum was found 
to be ill- adapted for application to cloves, for the reason that the 
precipitated matter clogged tlie filter upon which it was to be col- 
lected, to such an extent that it was feared decomposition would 
take place before the filtration of the mixture and the washing of 
the precipitate could be accomplished. This process having been 
abandoned, the plan of estimation tried next was that known as the 
" Hide-powder Method," and, as no difficulty was experienced in 
the use of it, this method was accordingly employed on all of the 

The application of the process consisted in siphoning some of the 
decoction through previously rasped raw hide contained in a small 
glass percolator, which was made to serve as the short arm of the 
siphon, it having been inverted in a vessel containing the decoction. 
A rubber tube attached to the neck of the percolator so arranged, 
and leading into a graduated cylinder, constituted the long arm of 
the apparatus. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1896. 

} The Tminin of Cloves. 301 

After allowing sufficient time for the liquid to thoroughly pene- 
trate the hide, the flow of the siphon was started by gentle suction 
applied to the long arm. The hide retained the tannin and coloring 
matter, but allowed the other constituents of the decoction to pass 
through in solution. 

The first 30 c.c. of the liquid obtained in this manner were con- 
sidered as containing the soluble matter of the hide, and were there- 
fore rejected. The succeeding 50 c.c. that were received from the 
siphon were evaporated to a constant weight on a water- bath to 
ascertain the amount of solids unabsorbed by the hide. 50 c.c. of 
the original decoction were likewise evaporated to a constant weight 
to determine the total solids present. The difference between the 
weights of the solids in these equal volumes was taken as the 
amount of tannin absorbed by the hide, and from this quantity the 
percentage was calculated by simple proportion to the weight of 
air-dry cloves represented by this volume of decoction. 

The following results were obtained : 

Sample Where Percentage 

No. • Obtained. of Tannin. 

I St. Louis io"50 

2 Philadelphia 11 60 

3 Philadelphia 12 '65 

4 New York 1003 

5 •-,.... Philadelphia i2'oo 

6 St. Louis 13-35 

7 St. Louis 5-50 

The samples, with the exception of No. 7, were obtained from 
the better wholesale and retail stores. No. 7 was purposely bought 
from the very cheapest trade in order to estimate the tannin in an 
adulterated article. 

Based upon the difference in percentage of tannin found, an esti- 
mation of that principle might be of some service in deciding 
whether a sample of cloves was of good quality. 


To extract the tannin in order that an investigation of its chemi- 
cal characters might be made, a quantity of powdered cloves of good 
quality was exhausted by percolation with acetone. The solvent 
was recovered from the percolate by distillation, the residual extract 
thoroughly agitated with water, and the resulting mixture filtered. 
The filtrate was agitated with acetic ether, which removed some 

302 The Tannin of Cloves. {"""june'is^JS*""- 

coloring matter, but no tannin. The aqueous layer from the above 
operation was saturated with sodium chloride and again shaken with 
acetic ether. In the presence of the sodium chloride, the coloring 
matter and almost all of the tannin were readily removed from the 
aqueous liquid by agitation with three successive portions of acetic 
ether. These were united and the solvent recovered. The residue 
so obtained was treated with water, which left considerable wax, oil 
and resin undissolved. The solution was filtered and the filtrate 
shaken with acetic ether as before. The acetic ether layer was sep- 
arated and the solvent recovered. The residue left was treated with 
water and the filtered solution shaken with acetic ether in the man- 
ner described. After several repetitions, this process indicated its 
value to separate the resinous constituents from the tannin. But a 
considerable waste of that principle was found to have occurred 
when the acetone extract was treated with water for the first time. 
To obviate this loss, which arose through precipitation of the tan- 
nin along with the resin, a second method of purification was insti- 
tuted. This consisted in mixing the acetone percolate of another 
lot of the same quality of cloves, and from which the solvent had 
not been recovered, with suf^cient water to completely precipitate it. 
Paper-pulp was uniformly distributed throughout the unfiltered mix- 
ture in order to fully clarify the aqueous solution. This treatment 
proved successful ; the pulp retained the oil, wax and resin so effec- 
tually that a clear liquid was obtained by simple filtration. Some 
acetone was added to this liquid to replace that lost by evaporation, 
and the entire solution afterwards saturated with sodium chloride. 
The last substance caused the acetone to separate as a supernatant 
layer. When this was removed and the solvent recoverecJ, a con- 
siderable quantity of tannin was obtained. Further agitation with 
two successive portions of acetone sufficed to exhaust the aqueous 
layer of tannin. 

The product obtained upon the recovery of the acetone was equal 
in purity to that in hand when the process of repetition at first 
employed was discontinued, while the attendant waste of tannin 
was very much less. 

From both the first and second methods of isolation, the tannin, 
upon the recovery of acetic ether or acetone, was obtained in a 
porous or " puffed-up " condition. The products of both processes 
were dissolved in the same portion of water, the solution treated 

A m . Jour. Pharm. 1 
June, 1895. J 

T/ie Tannin of Cloves. 


with paper-pulp, the resulting mixture filtered, and the clear filtrate 
shaken repeatedly with ether to remove the last traces of oil and 
resin. From the aqueous layer, after the separation of the last 
portion of ether, Ihe tannin was removed by the addition of acetone 
and subsequent saturation of the liquid with sodium chloride. The 
acetone layer, which was thus separated, was removed, and the 
solvent recovered. The residue was dissolved in water, the solution 
filtered, and the filtrate agitated with ether. The ether layer was 
separated and the aqueous layer distilled under reduced pressure to 
dryness. The resulting tannin was of a straw-yellow color. To 
render it more porous, the tannin was dissolved in a mixture of 
absolute alcohol and ether, and these solvents rapidly vaporized 
under greatly diminished pressure. 


The tannin, isolated and purified by the process already described, 
was submitted to a series of experiments, by means of which its 
chemical behaviors and composition might be ascertained and its 
classification therefrom decided. 

Reactions. — The following reactions were obtained from a one 
per cent, solution of the tannin in water. For comparison, the 
reactions afforded by gallotannic acid and white-oak bark tannin — 
representatives of the two classes of tannins now recognized — are 
placed beside those given by the tannin of cloves : 

304 The Tannin of Cloves. {"^"june'IsSs"/"'' 

It will be seen that the preceding reactions point to a similarity 
of the tannin of cloves to that of galls rather than to the tannin of 
white oak bark. 

Action of Heat. — 05 gramme of the tannin were heated with a 
few cubic centimetres of glycerin to 150° C, for twenty minutes. 
The heat was then gradually raised to 190° C, at which tempera- 
ture it was maintained for a short time. The resulting mixture was 
allowed to cool. It was then shaken with several portions of ether, 
which removed, and, upon evaporation, left a crystalline substance. 
This was dissolved in water. The aqueous solution reacted as 
follows : 

Calcium hydrate, red color ; becoming a precipitate. 
Ferric chloride, green or brownish-green color. 
Ferric acetate, green or brownish-green color. 
Ferrous sulphate, no change. 

Action of Acids. — Two grammes of the tannin were added to lOO 
c.c. of 2 per cent, (absolute gas) hydrochloric acid. The liquid was 
heated to boiling, whereby a large part of the tannin was dissolved 
in a few minutes with the production of a reddish-brown solution. 
When the liquid had been boiling for an hour all of the tannin had 
entered solution. After the lapse of three hours the boiling solu- 
tion had separated a dirty substance, but no red precipitate of 
phlobaphene character. The liquid was then allowed to cool, the 
insoluble substance filtered out and the filtrate shaken several times 
with ether. The mixed ethereal solutions when allowed to evaporate 
left a crystalline substance, whose water solution reacted in a way 
to indicate gallic acid, as follows : 

Potassium cyanide, red color that faded, but, upon agitation, was restored. 

Potassium hydrate, green color. 

Ferric chloride, blue color, turning to green. 

Ferrous sulphate, violet color, turning to brown, in neutral solution. 

Ammoniacal silver nitrate, reduced. 

Fehliug's solution, reduced. 

Lead oxyacetate, precipitate. 

Lead acetate, precipitate, filtrate not pptd. by lead oxyacetate. 

Pine shaving and HCl, no violet or red color. 

The dirty substance that separated while the liqnid was boiling 
was treated with hot alcohol, in which it was almost entirely solu- 
ble. The solution so obtained was set aside to allow the alcohol 

^"'•/uZ'm^'"'-] The Tannin of Cloves. 305 

to evaporate spontaneously. The residue left upon evaporation was 
dissolved in water and the solution tested with these reagents : 

Calcium hydrate, brown color. 

Ferric chloride, blue color, changing to green precipitate. 

Ferric acetate, greenish-black color. 

Ferrous sulphate, blue color; slight precipitate. 

Action of Fused Alkali. — o 5 gramme of tannin were gradually- 
added to potassium hydrate in the state of fusion. When first 
brought into contact with the alkali, the tannin swelled into a 
white, spongy mass, but, upon stirring, it readily mixed with the 
fused alkali and produced a brown solution. During this treatment, 
which was conducted for twenty minutes, an odor similar to that 
noticed in soap-making was emitted. 

The products of the fusion were allowed to cool, and afterwards 
dissolved in water. The solution was neutralized with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, and shaken several times with successive portions of 
ether. The ethereal layers were mixed and the bulk of solvent 
recovered by distillation. The last portion was allowed to evapo- 
rate spontaneously. It left a residue, the water solution of which 
gave the following reactions : 

Potassium cj'anide, red color, fading, but upon agitation was restored. 

Potassium hydrate, red color. 

Ferric chloride, blue color, changing to green precipitate. 

Ferrous sulphate, violet color. 

Ammouiacal silver nitrate, reduced. 

Fehling's solution, reduced. 

Lead oxyacetate, precipitate. 

Lead acetate, precipitate, filtrate giving white ppt. with lead oxyacetate. 

Pine shaving and HCl, no violet or red color. 

Acetyl Derivative. — 0-250 gramme of the tannin were boiled 
with acetic anhydride for an hour. The resulting solution was then 
poured into water, which caused the precipitation of a gummy 
mass that became hard and brittle upon standing in contact with 
the water. This mass had a brown color. When dried and pow- 
dered it was found to have a melting point of 145° C. 

Ultimate Analysis. — While the reactions afforded by the products 
of the several treatments to which the tannin was subjected were in 
no case distinctly indicative of any of the four substances to be 
expected from the decomposition of the two classes of tannin, still they 
point to pyrogallol and gallic acid — products of the decomposition 

3o6 Anatolian Licorice Root. {^"^janlml""' 

of gallotannic acid — rather than to catechol and protocatechuic 
acid, which are derived in hke manner from oak bark tannin. The 
partial vitiation of those reactions was undoubtedly due to the ina- 
bility of the process of purification to separate every trace of the 
oil and resin which were associated so tenaciously with the tannin. 
In order, therefore, to conclusively decide to which class the tannin 
of cloves belongs, two combustions were made of a quantity of the 
principle that had been dried at I20° C. 

The centesimal composition of gallotannic acid and of white oak 
bark tannin are supplied for comparison with the results of these 
elementary analyses: 

Tannin of Cloves. 

I. II. Average. Gallotannic White Oak 

Acid. Bark Tannin. 

Carbon 52*95 51-80 5237 52-10 5995 

Hydrogen 3-71 3-66 3-69 3-52 5-04 

Oxygen 43-34 44'54 43 '94 44*38 35'Oi 


The results of these investigations may, therefore, be expressed in 
the following recapitulatory statements: 

(I) The amount of tannin present in cloves ranges from 10 to 13 
per cent, of the weight of the spice as found in the market. 

(II) The tannin of cloves has the same percentage composition as 
gallotannic acid, and yields the same decomposition products as does 
that compound ; hence, they are identical. 


By James W. Nickum, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 141. 

That a knowledge of the constituents of this variety of licorice 
root might be attained, 50 grammes of the air-dry drug in No. 40 
powder were submitted to Dragendorff's scheme for proximate 
analysis. Consequently, the solvents were applied in the order in 
which their respective extracts are hereafter treated of. 

The application of each solvent was repeated until no further 
action was exercised. The several portions so applied were filtered 
off and mixed. In the cases of the petroleum ether, ether and abso- 
lute alcohol extracts, the bulk of the solvent was recovered by dis- 

'^°''june?il^5?"^'} Anatolian Licorice Root. 307 

tillation, after which operation, to estimate their amounts, the 
entire extracts were transferred to tared beakers and evaporated to 
constant weights on a water-bath. 

The total soHds of the water, alkahne water and acidulated water 
extracts were determined by evaporating an aliquot part of the 
solution to a constant weight by the means already described. The 
residue was ignited and the resulting ash deducted from the weight 
of total solids. The difference was taken as organic solids. 

Both in the absolute alcohol and water extracts, glucose was 
tested for and estimated by making the liquid alkaline with sodium 
hydrate and then heating with Fehling's solution for twenty minutes 
on a water-bath. The cuprous oxide was then collected, washed, 
dried and converted by ignition into cupric oxide. Forty-five per 
cent, of the weight of the latter was considered to equal the amount 
of glucose present in the fractional part of the extract under exam- 
ination. To estimate the sucrose an equal volume of the glucose 
containing liquid was boiled for one-half hour with a small quantity 
of hydrochloric acid to convert the former into the latter sugar. 
After this treatment, the liquid was allowed to cool, and, after having 
been made alkaline, Avas treated with Fehling's solution, as in the 
case of glucose alone. The increase in the amount of cupric oxide 
obtained upon the ignition of the cuprous oxide, that resulted irom 
this treatment, was attributed to sucrose, the amount of which was 
calculated as 95 percent, of the amount of glucose represented by 
the additional cupric oxide. 

To obviate any discrepancy that might arise from the presence of 
extractive or glycyrrhizin, the water solution, previous to the appli- 
cation of the process for the determination of glucose and sucrose, 
was completely precipitated with neutral lead acetate. After filter- 
ing the mixture, the excess of lead was thrown out with hydrogen 
sulphide. The resulting lead sulphide was separated by filtration. 
The filtrate was warmed to expel hydrogen sulphide, then allowed 
to cool, and afterwards made up to a definite volume. Portions of 
this were then used for the determinations of the sugars. 

The percentages of constituents stated in this paper are adjusted 
on the air-dry drug. 

Petroleum Ether Extract. — Petroleum ether extracted -54 per cent, 
of the weight of the root. Only a slight loss in weight occurred 
when this extract was heated to 120° C. Treatment with hot alco- 

3o8 . Anatolian Licorice Root. | 

June, 1895. 

hol, sp. gr.,-820, left some caoutchouc undissolved. The clear, hot 
alcoholic solution, filtered from the above insoluble substance, 
became opalescent when allowed to cool, on account of the separa- 
tion of wax. When it had become thoroughly cold, this opalescent 
mixture was filtered. The filtrate was evaporated on a water-bath, 
a residue of fat and wax being thereby obtained. In this residue 
there was noticed a crystalline principle which will be treated of 
more fully under a separate heading. 

Ether Extract. — This represented 407 per cent, of the drug. 
About one-tenth of the extract was found to be soluble in cold water. 

Absolute Alcohol Extract. — The amount of this extract equalled 
6 64 per cent, of the drug. Cold water dissolved about one-half of 
it. The resulting solution had an acid reaction. It gave, with lead 
acetate, a considerable yellowish precipitate. Glucose was present 
to the extent of i 04 per cent. The amount of sucrose found was 
1-41 per cent. 

A portion of the cold water solution of the alcoholic extract when 
treated with test solution of ferric chloride, yielded a dark, brownish- 
red precipitate ; the liquid at the same time acquired a very dark red 
color. This treatment caused the development of a very strong, 
licorice-like odor. This odor was as decided as is that of the com- 
mercial extract of the drug. After obtaining this result other por- 
tions of the aqueous solution were tested with different oxidizing 
agents, that their effect might be observed. The same odor was 
produced by the addition of potassium permanganate. Mercuric 
chloride caused the same effect, but not to such a marked degree. 
As treatment with diluted hydrochloric acid did not develop the 
odor, it would seemingly not be due to the decomposition of a glu- 
coside by the usual action of acids. 

The results of these tests suggest the inquiry whether or not the 
odor and possibly the sweet taste of licorice, ensue from a process 
of oxidation that takes place in the plant during life, or upon drying. 
It is a well-known fact that these properties are restored in old 
licorice root by exposing it to an ammoniacal atmosphere ; and, in 
the light of the above results, there arises a question as to a possi- 
ble oxidation by the air in the favorable presence of the alkali. 

That part of the absolute alcohol extract, which was insoluble in 
water, was almost entirely soluble in ammonium hydrate, only a 
very small quantity of resinous matter having failed to dissolve. 

'""■june'-ili^s^''"} Anatolian Licorice Root. 309 

When this ammoniacal solution was acidified with dilute sulphuric 
acid, a precipitate was obtained, which was dried to a constant 
weight and thus estimated as glycyrrhizin. It amounted to -48 per 
cent, of the entire drug. 

Water Extract. — Water dissolved 10-34 per cent, of organic 
solids. A small quantity of albuminous matter was precipitated 
when some of the unevaporated solution was mixed with four vol- 
umes of absolute alcohol, and allowed £0 stand over night. The 
extract included 5*2 per cent, of glucose and 2-21 per cent, of su- 

Alkalitie Water Extract. — This was obtained by treating the resi- 
due from the application of water to the drug with a -2 per cent, 
solution of sodium hydrate in water. This solvent removed 114 
per cent, of organic solids. A small quantity of albuminous or mucil- 
aginous matter was detected by acidifying a portion of the liquid 
extract with acetic acid and then adding four volumes of absolute 

Acidulated Water Extract. — Water containing -l per cent, of hy- 
drochloric acid extracted -52 per cent, of organic solids, including 
pararabin. Phosphates and oxalates were also dissolved by the 
acidulated water. 

The Crystalline Principle of the Petroleum Etlier Extract. — This 
principle was first noticed when the residue left upon evaporating 
the alcoholic solution of the petroleum ether extract, and from which 
most of the wax had been separated by cooling, was viewed with a 
lens of low magnifying power. It formed numerous minute crystals 
of peculiar shapes, and was embedded in the fatty and waxy matters 
of the extract. Some of the crystals were fern-like in shape, some 
had the outline of the Maltese cross, while others were long, acicu- 
lar and interlaced. 

The residue containing the crystals was treated with distilled 
water. The water solution was evaporated to dryness on a water- 
bath. A very small quantity of distinctly crystalline residue was 
thereby obtained. This residue was again dissolved in water, and 
the resulting solution shaken with ether. When separated and 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously this solvent left a small amount 
of the crystalline substance. To obtain more of the principle a 
larger quantity of the same variety of licorice root was subjected to 
the process by which the crystals were at first isolated. A small 

3IO Anatolian Licorice Root. {'^"june'isJ.y""" 

amount was again obtained. The crystalline residue obtained 
upon the evaporation of the water solution had a distinctly 
acid reaction, and a peculiarly sour or acid-like taste. The residue 
was treated WMth absolute alcohol, in which it was soluble. A few 
drops of the alcoholic solution were placed on a clean watch crystal, 
and allowed to evaporate spontaneously. 

The watch crystal was examined with the compound microscope, 
by the aid of which the fern-shaped crystals already described were 
rendered very distinct. Another portion of the crystalline residue 
was treated with a small amount of distilled water. A few drops of 
this solution were transferred to a clean watch crystal, and there 
allowed to evaporate. Upon examining the residue left in this case 
with the compound microscope, long, acicular crystals, which inter- 
laced, were observed. The yield from a kilo of the Anatolian lico- 
rice root was not sufficient for further investigation. 

Three kilos of the Persian variety were manipulated in the same 
manner, in order to detect the principle and isolate it in larger 
quantity. Crystals of the same character were obtained from this 
variety also, and at the same stage of the process, but the small 
amount so obtainable, as also the limited time at the author's dis- 
posal, precluded their further investigation. 

Moisture and Ash. — To determine the comparative amounts of 
moisture and ash contained, estimations were made on four varieties 
of licorice root. 

A weighed quantity of each variety was dried to a constant 
weight in an air-bath at a temperature of iio° C. The loss in 
weight was taken as moisture. 

To ascertain the amount of ash, the dried residue from the mois- 
ture determination was incinerated until the organic matter was con- 
sumed and no further loss in weight was experienced. The results 
were as follows : 

Moisture. Ash. 

Auatolian 7-58 8-84 

Persian 7"49 5'43 

Turkish (Russian) 6-31 5-04 

Spanish 6-8i 4-65 

The figures given in the foregoing table for Anatolian licorice 
represent the moisture and ash of the root that was submitted to 
the proximate anah'sis described in this paper. 


^"'june'iFgsf''"-} Anatolian Licorice Root. 31 1 

Action of Acetone. — Acetone was applied to each of the varieties 
of licorice previously mentioned. The treatment was continued 
until exhaustion was complete. After recovering the greater quan- 
tity of the solvent by distillation, the extracts were evaporated to 
constant weights on a water-bath. 

The extract from the Persian variety equalled 5-07 per cent. It 
was transparent and of a bright, ruby red color. The Anatolian root 
yielded 23-84 per cent, of an extract that was much darker than the 
extract of the Persian variety. 7-02 per cent, of extract was ob- 
tained from the Spanish licorice root. This extract was lighter 
in color than any of the others obtained from the four varieties of 

The Turkish root furnished an extract that was darkest in color. 
It amounted to 1406 per cent. 

A quantity of the Anatolian root was treated with alcohol, sp. gr. 
•820, until exhausted. The amount of extract removed by this sol- 
vent was 1374 per cent., as against 2384 per cent, extracted by 

Tannin. — The statement in Hanbury and Fliickiger's Pharmaco- 
graphia, that " a trace of tannin is found in the outer bark of lico- 
rice," led to some experiments by which the validity of that asser- 
tion might be tested. 

A quantity of the outer bark of each of the four previously 
named varieties of the root was carefully scraped off. From these 
scrapings infusions were made by the use of cold water. The fil- 
tered liquids reacted as follows : Ferric chloride, no precipitates ; 
ammonio-ferric sulphate, slightly dark precipitates ; gelatin and 
alum afforded slight precipitates with the infusions, but others of 
the same character were obtained upon the addition of alum alone ; 
dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid produced precipitates resemb- 
ling very closely those caused by alum. 

When these several reagents were applied to decoctions prepared 
from the outer bark by the use of hot water, the same reactions were 

To further investigate the possible presence of tannin, a decoction 
was made from a lot of ground drug that represented the" entire 
root ; the reagents, even when applied to this, failed to detect tan- 
nin. It may, therefore, t>e concluded that there is no tannin in 
licorice root. 

312 Structure of Sassafras. {"""june'i^s"""' 

By Edson S. Bastin. 

This American tree is the only Hving species of its genus, though 
the fossil remains from the cretaceous rocks of our Northwest 
prove that there were once several at least, and probably the genus 
was once as abundant in species as are now the oaks. This species 
has probably persisted beyond its congeners by reason of its ability 
to endure a wide range of conditions. This is evidenced by the 
fact that it thrives almost equally in the austere climate of Canada 
and in sub-tropical Florida, and that it endures almost every condi- 
tion found in the forest regions between these Northern and South- 
ern limits, and between the great plains on the West and the 
Atlantic coast on the East. 

In the North it is a shrub, in middle and southern latitudes it is 
a tree, often with a trunk that attains a diameter of a foot or more, 
and a height of fifty or sixty feet. Its top, when growing in open 
ground, is also dense and shapely, so that the tree is not without 
value as an ornament to our parks and roadsides. The trunk is 
covered with a grayish, strongly-fissured bark, but the twigs remam 
green for several years, the corky layer being slow to form beneath 
the epidermis. 

The alternate exstipulate, petiolate, deciduous leaves are remark- 
able for the variety of their forms on the same tree. Some are 
entire, oval and acute or obtuse, while others are more or less 
deeply separated into two or three unequal lobes, the lateral lobes 
being the shorter. This variability in the foliage of the tree has 
given origin to one of its botanical names, that recognized in the 
last edition of our Pharmacopoeia, namely. Sassafras variifolium. 
This tree, in fact, well illustrates the vicissitudes of our botanical 
nomenclature. In the earlier editions of Gray's Manual we find it 
named Laurus sassafras, following Linnaeus. In the later editions 
it is called Sassafras officinale, the name given it by Nees. Salis- 
bury named it Laurus variifolius, and now in the recent " List of 
Pteridophyta and Spermaphyta, growing without cultivation in 
Northeastern North America," the name Sassafras vSassafras (Linne) 
Karsten, is adopted, a name doubtless applied in strict accordance 
with the new rules for botanical nomenclature, but whose unpleasant 
effect upon the ear could not well be endwred except in the hope 
that sometime between now and the millennium our botanical nomen- 
clature will acquire something like a stable equilibrium. 


Fig. I. 


Str2ictiire of Sassafras. 

/Am. .lour. Pharni. 
I June. 1895. 

The tree is dioecious and the inconspicuous flowers appear in early 
spring, before or with the leaves. They are arranged in clustered 
corymb-like racemes which are involucrate with scaly bracts. The 
sepals, six in number and spreading, are yellowish-green, and in the 
staminate flowers the nine stamens are inserted in three whorls on 

Fig. 2. 

the base of the calyx. The stamens of the inner whorl differ from 
the rest in bearing at the base of each filament a pair of stalked 
glands, probably representing stipules. The anthers of all the sta- 
mens are introrse and have two pairs of loculi, one pair smaller and 
superposed over the other, and the loculi dehisce by valves. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 189-5. ) 

Structure of Sassafras. 


The pistil in the staminate flower- is wholly aborted. In the pis- 
tillate flower six stamens are present, but with wholly or partly 
aborted anthers and without pollen. The pistil is single, with an 
ovoid ovary and a single, rather short st}-le terminated by a discoid 
stigma. The ovary contains usually a single ovule, which is ana 
tropous and suspended from the top of the ovary. 

The fruit is a bluish-black, ovoid drupe of the size of a pea, sup- 
ported on a fleshy, club-shaped, reddish pedicel, crowned by the per- 
sistent reddish calyx teeth, which clasp the fruit at its base. The 
seed is exalbuminous. 

All parts of the plant contain more or less of volatile oil, but this 


is much more abundant in the bark of the root, which, therefore, 
constitutes the most important medicinal portion. 

The leaves and young twigs, particularly the pith of the latter, 
are rich in mucilage, which causes them to be employed, to some ex- 
tent, for demulcent purposes. 

A cross-section of the bark of a root which has attained a diam- 
eter of two inches or more shows a structure which is represented 
in the illustration, Fig. i. 

The friable exterior corky layer shows the usual microscopic ap- 
pearance of corky tissue. The thickish. middle bark beneath it is 
rich in oil cells, which average larger in size than the parenchyma 
cells among which they are scattered. 


Structure of Sassafras. 

Am. Jour. Phaicn. 
June, 1895. 

Oil cells are not confined to'lrhis layer, but occur, though some- 
what less abundantly, among the sieve and companion cells of the 
inner layer of the bark. Parenchyma cells, rich in tannic matters, 
are also freely scattered through the middle and inner layers. 

The medullary rays,Swhose course in the bark is usually some- 

FiG. 4 

what wavy, are composed sometimes of one, sometimes of two, and 
more rarely of three rows of cells. 

No primary bast fibres are formed in the root bark, and the bark 
of roots not more than two or three years old is usually destitute 
of bast fibres of any kind. 

'""juuorjr'""} StrncUire of Sassafras. 317 

Later on, however, secondary bast fibres are formed, but these 
are never so abundant as to give an evident fibrous fracture to the 
inner layer of the bark. They are scattered without apparent order 
through the bast wedges, and are not usually clustered, though 
occasionally two or three may be seen in juxtaposition. 

They are excessively thick-walled, and, for bast fibres, short, their 
length being not more than from ten to fifteen times their thickness* 
They are also hard and brittle. 

If the bark be gathered in late autumn or in very early spring, 
the parenchyma cells of the bark, and even the thinnish-walled wood 
cells and medullary ray cells of the medituUium, are found to be 
heavily charged with starch grains. These are of rather small size, 
and, when single, are spherical or spheroidal in shape, with a central 
hilum, which sometimes shows a few stratification circles about it. 
The circles, however, are usually indistinct or wanting. The hilum 
is usually entire, and appears, even under a very high power, as a 
mere point, but it is sometimes angularly fissured. Compound 
grains, however, are more common than simple ones, the commonest 
being double and triple ones, though more complex forms are not 

In most structural characters the wood of the root and that of the 
stem resemble each other closely. The ducts, which are mostly of 
the pitted variety, with the pits closely arranged, are, in both, of 
large diameter, and usually grouped in twos or threes, but some- 
times single. They agree also in the fact that the walls of the wood 
cells do not become so strongly thickened as they do in many 
other woody plants, and in the fact that the medullary ray cells are 
of rather large diameter as compared with the wood cells, are usually 
elongated in a radial direction, and are finely pitted. They differ 
chiefly in the conspicuous large^celled pith of the stem, which, of 
course, does not occur in the ro6t at all, and in the fact that in the 
stem, the medullary rays are rather more numerous and inclined to 
become fewer-rowed, three-rowed rays being seldom found. 

The differences between the bark of the stem and that of the root 
are more conspicuous. Besides the inevitable difference due to the 
presence of chlorophyll in the middle bark of the former and its 
absence in the latter, and the difference in cork formation already 
alluded to, namely, the fact of its much more tardy formation in 

3i8 Sonic Comjiiercial Cocoas. {^"'\um':im.""' 

the bark of the stem, the stem-bark contains clusters of numerous 
primary bast fibres associated with stone cells, which form an inter- 
rupted zone at the junction of the middle with the inner bark. 
Both primary bast fibres and stone cells are wholly wanting in the 
root-bark. The secondary bast fibres of the stem are similar in 
structure and arrangement to those of the root. 

The volatile oil cells of the stem-bark, while they have a distribu- 
tion quite similar to that in the root-bark, are very much less 


i^/^". /. — Transverse section of the root-bark of sassafras taken from a root 
about 2 inches in diameter. Magnification about 50 diameters, a, cork ; d, d, b, 
volatile oil cells ; c, c, cells containing tannic matters ; d, medullary ray ; e, e, 
bast fibres ; y, cambium. 

^i^. 2. — Small portion of longitudinal-tangential section of inner bark, a, 
medullary ray cell ; b, b, bast fibres ; c, e, volatile oil cells ; d, d, cells contain- 
ing tannic matters. Magnification about no diameters. 

Fig. ^. — Starch of sassafras bark. Magnified 750 diameters. 

Fig. /. — Small portion of meditullium of root. Magnified 370 diameters. 
a, a, pitted ducts ; b., b, wood cells ; c, medullary ray cell. 

By Florence Yaple, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 142. 

The history of cocoa, as an exhilarating and agreeable beverage, 
dates back to the time of the discovery of America by Columbus, 
it having been largely used by the natives of tropical America at 
that time. Introduced into Europe by the above discoverer, the 
drink became fashionable among the wealthy classes, and it was so 
highly esteemed by Linnaeus that he gave to the plants producing 
this fruit the name Theobroma, which means food of the gods. 

The commercial activities of our time have increased the produc- 
tion and thereby cheapened the price of the commodity, so that now 
the cocoa preparations are largely consumed by all classes of people. 
The most popular of these are the so-called chocolates and cocoas, 
the latter probably superseding the former for table use, or, more 
particularly, in the preparation of the beverage. 

'*'™jun"e?if95!''^™'} Some Commercial Cocoas. 319 

Chocolate is made by grinding the roasted beans deprived of the 
husks, in heated rollers, which soften the fat, and while in this pasty 
condition the mass is mixed with sugar and afterward pressed in 
moulds. In the preparation of cocoa, the roasted beans, also 
deprived of the husks, are reduced by grinding to a fine, smooth 
paste and placed in bags and subjected to powerful pressure in 
heated presses. The fat exudes slowly and the residue, which is a 
solid, compact cake, is broken in pieces and finely powdered for 

In practice, there are many modifications of these processes, such 
as the addition of flavoring and coloring substances and materials 
to give consistency, and sometimes even to give weight to the 
finished preparations. 

The cocoas prepared as outlined above are considered more 
palatable and digestible than the chocolates, and hence are deemed 
worthy of a distinct classification. 

It was with the view of making a comparative chemical examina- 
tion of a few of the more popular brands of this class that the pres- 
ent work was undertaken. 

The following is a list of the names of the preparations exam- 
ined : 

(i) Rowntree's Elect Extract of Cocoa ; (2) Huj'ler's Caracas 
Cocoa; (3) Breakfast Cocoa (Croft & Allen) ; (4) Miller's Breakfast 
Cocoa; (5) Fry's Cocoa Extract; (6) Walter Baker & Co.'s Break- 
fast Cocoa ; (7) Van Houten's Pure Soluble Cocoa; (8) Bensdorp's 
Pure Royal Dutch Soluble Cocoa; (9) J, & C. Blooker's Dutch 
Cocoa; (10) Wilbur's Breakfast Cocoa ; (ii) Cadbury's Cocoa Es- 
sence , and (12) Whitman's Pure Cocoa. 

A moisture determination was first made by subjecting two 
grammes of the powder contained in a crucible to a temperature of 
100° C. until a constant weight was obtained. 

The dry residue from the preceding operation was then ignited at 
a low, red heat until the weight remained constant. The ashes 
were all light gray in color, some of them being nearly white or 
having a pinkish tinge. These were examined qualitatively, and 
were found to be composed almost entirely of the phosphates and 
carbonates of potassium, magnesium and calcium, with a small per 
cent, of iron in No. i, and a trace of sodium in No. 7. The high 
percentages of ash in Nos. 8 and 9, and the still higher per cent, in 

320 Some Commercial Cocoas. {'^"'■/u°n"e;f89r'"" 

Nos I and 7, led to a further examination as to their solubilities 
in water and acid. 

The water-soluble portion was obtained by treating the ash with 
water, filtering, evaporating filtrate and then carefully heating the 
residue. The portion insoluble in water was then treated with 
dilute hydrochloric acid and the insoluble residue carefully washed, 
dried and heated to redness. 

It was found that in those samples having a high per cent, of ash, 
the proportion soluble in water was two or three times larger than 
in those brands having a lower per cent, of inorganic constituents. 

The fat was determined in the following manner : 5 grammes of 
the powder were placed in a test tube and agitated with a conve- 
nient quantity of petroleum ether and allowed to settle, when the 
clear liquid was separated ; this was repeated four or five times, or 
until all of the fat was removed. The petroleum ether was allowed 
to evaporate spontaneously, and the fat so obtained placed in a desic- 
cator to deprive it of moisture. The melting point was then ascer- 
tained by simply exposing this residue contained in a beaker to the 
temperature of a water-bath. The melting points, so ascertained of 
the several samples, were found not to vary much, the range being 
from 37° C. to 40° C. This, together with the general appearance, 
was thought to indicate the genuine character of the fat contained 
in these brands. 

The residue left after the extraction of the fat was exhausted with 
hot alcohol, sp. gr. o 850, and this extract, while still warm, treated 
with basic lead acetate, to precipitate tannates, tartrates, etc. The 
filtrate was then evaporated, the residue taken up with chloroform, 
the mixture filtered, and the residue obtained upon evaporation to 
dryness weighed as theobromine. 

That part of the sample undissolved by the treatment with hot 
alcohol was treated with cold water until the filtrate was nearly free 
from color, and the aqueous solution so obtained was evaporated to 
dryness and weighed as extractive. 

The portion undissolved by the foregoing solvent was dried at 
100° C. and calculated as starch, fibre, etc. 

For the determination of starch lOO mg. of this residue were 
gently boiled for two hours with 50 c.c. distilled water acidulated 
with 2 per cent, of dilute sulphuric acid in a 250 c.c, flask, the water 
lost by evaporation being replaced from time to time. After filter- 

'^"'"june'18^5*'''"'} S^"^^^ Commercial Cocoas. 321 

ing and bringing the measure up to lOO c.c, 50C.C. were made alka- 
line with sodium hydrate solution, filtered, 50 c.c. of Fehling's solu- 
tion added, and the liquid kept at a temperature of 90° C. for half 
an hour, then filtered and the precipitate well washed with hot 
water, dried, ignited and the percentage of starch calculated from 
the cupric oxide so obtained. 

Another portion of the powder, after treatment with ether to 
remove fat, was examined microscopically for the detection of 
foreign starches. The results were mostly negative as only one, No. 
1 1 contained more of a foreign starch than would be allowable by 
accident. In No. 4 the character of the starch was somewhat 
changed by fermentation, and in No 7 the granules were consider- 
ably disintegrated, due probably to excessive heating. No. 2 con- 
tained a rather large amount of starch, but it seemed to be that of 
genuine cocoa. 

The nutritive value that the cocoas are supposed to possess sug- 
gested the importance of a nitrogen determination that an idea of 
the quantity of albumenoids present might be had. To accomplish 
this, Kjeldahl's process was essentially carried out as follows : About 
I gramme of the powder was placed in a 500 c.c. flask with approxi- 
mately 700 mg. of freshly precipitated and thoroughly washed mer- 
curic oxide, 50 c.c. of sulphuric acid were added, the flask contain- 
ing the mixture placed on a sand-bath, the heat regulated until 
frothing ceased, and the mixture raised to the boiling point until the 
liquid was clear and of a light straw color. To this liquid, while 
warm, potassium permanganate was gradually added until a perma- 
nent purple color was imparted. The addition of the potassium 
permanganate required considerable care, and it was necessary to add 
small quantities of water from time to time to keep the contents of 
the flask in a liquid condition. 25 c.c. of a solution of potassium 
sulphide (40 grammes in 1,000 c.c. of distilled water) were then 
added, and to this 50 c.c. of a saturated solution of potassium 
hydrate, or enough to render the liquid alkaline, and lastly, a few 
pieces of granulated zinc. This mixture was then distilled by means 
of a Liebig condenser into 50 c.c. of decinormal volumetric solution 
of oxalic acid, and the excess of acid neutralized by decinormal 
volumetric potassium hydrate solution. The albumenoids were 
calculated from these figures after having deducted the percentage 
of nitrogen found to exist as theobromine. 

322 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {■^'"iune.''i895.*""' 

The following summary will serve for a com.parative consideration 
of the results obtained by analysis : 

Extrac- Theobro- Albume- 

Nos. Moisture. Ash. Kat. tive. mine. Starch. noids. 

I 4'05 770 30'82 7'48 . roS — 15-22 

2 4'27 5'54 34'04 7'44 i'02 ir26 17-29 

3 3'98 4'24 32"48 6-52 0-56 17-65 17-27 

4 3'99 4'05 3876 7"52 i'o6 2071 6-77 

5 4'33 4"28 3i'i6 5'26 1-36 16-07 12-78 

6 4'44 5"23 27-52 6-62 1-28 2334 1574 

7 4-53 8-19 2978 9'88 0-69 21-26 17-03 

8 4'59 6'69 33'o6 8-52 088 11-33 ii'4i 

9 464 6-70 3178 7-70 1-22 15-90 i6'87 

10 3'S4 4*69 33"32 584 o'82 16-94 16-74 

II 4'oo 470 27-58 648 0-70 21-05 13-58 

12 2-70 4-15 37'68 4-10 0-66 16-26 I4'I3 

Average . . 4'ii 5"5i 32'33 6-94 0-94 17-43 U'S^ 

These results do not warrant the conclusion that any of the above 
samples were adulterated, but rather point to the fact that they were 
free from any appreciable amount of foreign admixture. 

The percentage of fat, however, was found to be more than some 
of the manufacturers' claims would lead us to expect. 

The high ash in Nos. i, 7, 8 and 9, and the dark color produced 
when the samples were heated with water, naturally led to the con- 
clusion that they had been treated with a small quantity of 
inorganic material, probabh* for the purpose of rendering them 
more soluble. 



By p. L. Simmonds, F.L.S. 

{^Continued from p. 256.'\ 

Narthex asafoetida, Falconer; Ferula Narthex, Boissier. The Ferula 
asafatida, Linne, of Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan yields the 
ordinary medicinal gum resinous exudation locally known as Anguzi, 
but in India the pure drug is called " Hing," and the coarser kind 
" Hingra." Asafoetida contains two essential oils ; although the 
odors of oil of garlic, oil of onions and asafoetida are similar, asa- 
foetida contains no trace of allyl. An exhaustive paper on this 
essential oil has been published by Dr. Semmler. Its density is 
about 0-984. 

Asafoetida is commonly used by the Mahomedan population of 

'^'"june "is^^."'"'' } ^^^otcs OH SojHc Sups and Secretmis. 323 

India and the vegetarian Hindoo classes, as a favorite ingredient in 
their curries, sauce for pillaus, and other dishes, especially mixed 
with rice and dal or pulse on account of its stimulant, stomachic 
properties. The Turkomans are very fond of the young shoots 
dipped in vinegar. But it is not an article of general consumption 
in Afghanistan itself. The fresh leaves of the plant, which have the 
same peculiar odor as its secretion, when cooked, are commonly used 
as a diet by those near whose abode the plant grows. The white 
inner part of the stem of the full-grown plant is considered a deli- 
cacy when roasted and flavored with salt and butter. India seems 
to be the principal consumer of this gum resin, as the imports there 
range from eight to nine thousand hundredweight annually. Its 
uses in Persia are very numerous, especially as a medicine. There 
are people there who are so accustomed to its use for nervous com- 
plaints that it is like opium to the opium eaters — one of the neces- 
saries of life. Its excellent anti-spasmodic qualities are too little 
known and appreciated in Europe. 

The liquid form of asafoetida has, from the remotest times, been 
held in great estimation by Eastern doctors, and was once regarded 
as worth its weight in silver. It is highly esteemed as a carminative 
and condiment. If taken daily it is said to prevent the attacks of 
malarious fever. 

Among the ancients, condiments to stimulate the sluggish appe- 
tite seemed to be in chief demand. Amongst these asafoetida, 
which is to-djy highly relished in Persia and the East, was an indis- 
pensable ingredient; and it is even now used moderately by cooks 
in Europe to give flavor to some dishes and meats. 

Opopanax Chironiu7n, Koch. This gum resinous exudation from 
the juice of the roots is met with in lumps and tears, is opaque, of a 
disagreeable balsamic odor, of a bitter acrid taste. It has a slight 
resemblance externally to myrrh. In most of its properties it 
closely resembles asafoetida, and is now scarcely used in medicine in 
Europe, although found in the bazars of India. 

Papaver somniferuvi, Linne. The concrete, inspissated juice from 
the capsules of this poppy, known as opium, is a valuable narcotic 
and anodyne, obtained by scratching the capsules and collecting the 
juice. Great Britain imports from 400,000 to 500,000 pounds of 
opium annually for medicinal purposes, chiefly from Turkey and 
Persia. The imports into the United States since the duty has been 

324 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {^'^ilnlAm:^''^' 

removed, on October 2, 1890, have increased. The imports, in 1890, 
were 473.095 pounds of crude or unmanufactured, valued at ;^l,i83,- 
712 and 34,465 pounds prepared for smoking, value ;^269,586, 

In the financial year ending to 1893, the imports were, of crude, 
615.957 pounds, value ;^i,i86,824. 

The chief seat for the production of opium is India, where the 
export trade to China used to average 126,000 cwts., valued at 
;^ 1 0,000,000, but of late years has been falling off. 

The exports were : 


1869 74,955 

1879 125,765 

1889 122,160 

The exports from India in the recent financial years, ending in 

March, have been as follows: 

Quantity, Cwts. Value. 

1891-92 121,701 £9,562,260 

1892-93 104,658 9.255.013 

1893-94 97,9'o 8,019,428 

1895 (11 montlis, to February 7th) .... 89,865 8,617,604 

The poppy is largely grown for the opium it yields in many of 
the provinces of China, hence the Indian exports now go to many 
other countries, especially Cochin China and the Straits settlements. 
The export share of the two provinces has been as follows, in late 
years : 

Cwts. Bengal. Cwts. Bombay. 

1891-92 83,221 38,480 

1892-93 70,615 • 34043 

1893-94 63,853 34,057 

The imports of sorts of opium into China in each of the last two 

calendar years (January to December) have been as follows, in 

piculs, of ii^ cwt.: 

1892. 1893. 

Piculs. Piculs. 

Malwa (Bombay) 27,782 28,694 

Patna 18,877 20,295 

Benares . 15, 353 12,121 

Persian 7,770 6,998 

70,782 68,108 

The returns for 1894 are not yet to hand, but the Statistical 
Secretary of the Customs at Shanghai, in his report for 1893, stated : 
" The protection of the rupee enhanced the price of opium so 


'*'"jun"e''i^^'"'"'} ^^^otes on So)ne Saps and Secretions. 325 

greatly that it placed the Indian drug beyond the means of a vast 
number of consumers, and this rise taking place concurrently with 
adequate supplies of native opium — which has so improved in 
quality that, it is averred, smokers prefer it to Mahva — renders it 
almost hopeless for the imported drug to continue to compete suc- 
cessfully with the excellent and ever-improving home-grown pro- 

There are two kinds of opium made in India ; that for export to 
China is called " provision opium ;" that to be used locally is known 
as " excise opium," and is moulded into cakes, which are stamped 
with the device of an Imperial Crown, and the legend " Benares 
Abkari," from being made in that district. 

Excise opium, for internal consumption, is retailed to the con- 
sumer as a decoction, or in the form of two smoking mixtures, 
known, respectively, as Chandu and Madat. The excise opium 
yields to the Indian Government a revenue of about 1,000 000 sterling. 

The opium for export is made up into round cakes or balls, about 
the size of a 24-Ib. spherical shot. These are packed for shipment 
in chests, in two layers of 20 each, and the chests weigh about 140 

The expediency of the Government production and supply of 
Indian opium to China has been much discussed and questioned, 
and a commission has been taking evidence and reported on it. 

It is doubtful whether the moderate use of opium smoking is more 
injurious to the system than other narcotics and intoxicants, and 
especially when the habit has been confirmed and is almost general 
in China, and the culture of the poppy- is allowed and fostered in 
many of the provinces of the Empire. 

The stimulant effects of opium are most apparent from small doses, 
which increase the energy of the mind, the frequency of the pulse, 
etc. These effects are succeeded by languor and lassitude. In exces- 
sive doses it proves a violent and fatal poison. 

In disease it is chiefly employed to mitigate pain, produce sleep, 
and to check diarrhoea and other excessive discharges. It is also 
used with good effect in intermittent and other fevers. Combined 
with calomel, it is employed in cases of inflammation from local 
causes, such as wounds, fractures, etc. ; it is also employed in small- 
pox, dysentery, cholera, and many other complaints. It is taken in 
various forms in different countries. 

326 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {Am.jour. fharm. 


The Chinese both smoke and swallow it. In Turkey it is chiefly 
taken in pills, being sometimes mixed with syrup to render it more 

In England the drug is administered either in its solid state, made 
into pills, or as a tincture in the shape of laudanum. The natives of 
India take it in pills or dissolved in water. In upper India an 
intoxicating liquor is prepared by beating the capsules of the poppy 
with jaggery and water. 

The native practitioners consider opium to be injurious in typhus 
fever, but they administer it in intermittents, lockjaw, and in certain 
stages of dysentery ; externally, they recommend it in conjunction 
with arrach, aloes, benzoin and bdellium, in rheumatic affections. 
They consider, however, after all, that it is merely efficacious in 
giving temporary relief. 

Persian opium is cultivated principally in Yezd and Ispahan, and 
partly in the districts of Khorassan, Kerman, Pars and Shushtes. 

That grown in Yezd is considered to be better than that of Ispa- 
han and elsewhere, owing to the climate and soil of the place being 
better adapted to the growth of the poppy. The crop comes to 
hand in May and June, and the greater part of the opium finds its 
way to the shipping ports between September and January. These 
ports are Bushire and Bunder Affas. The Persian opium was formerly 
not much liked in China, owing to its having a peculiar flavor, 
caused by the mixture of a large quantity of oil during the process 
of preparation, and owing, also, to its being sometimes found adul- 
terated. It, however, finds a better market in London, inasmuch as 
it contains, on an average, a larger quantity of morphia. From Yezd 
a quantity of opium prepared in the shape of small sticks or cylin- 
ders, is sent to Herat, and a small quantity in this form is locally 
consumed for smoking and eating. 

Opium smoking is very prevalent in Yezd, and it is said that more 
is used in this place in that way than in any other town in Persia, 
with the single exception of Kerman. The habit is gaining ground 
daily throughout the country. 

In late years there has been a decided decrease in the crop of Per- 
sian opium. A few years ago an average crop would be reckoned 
at 4,000 boxes ; in 1889, a fair year, it was about 3,000; in 1893 it 
was only about some 2,000, but for 1894 an area was planted which 
is calculated to give some 2,500 boxes. It was anticipated that in 

^'''jun'e?i8%.*'"} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 327 

1895 a very much larger quantity will be planted. The Persian 
merchants are looking with keen and anxious eyes to the report of 
the opium commission in India, and their future conduct will be 
greatly biased by it. 

In Khorassan the cultivation of the poppy has increased ten-fold 
within the last fifteen years. That destined for China is mixed 
with linseed oil. in the proportion of 6 or 7 pounds to each chest. 
That sent to England is pure. Persian opium is fast overtaking 
Patna opium in Chinese estimation, according to the advancing 
prices. A v^ery few years ago it was quoted at less than half the 
price of the Indian drug. 

The poppy is now grown in many parts of Europe, France, Ger- 
many, etc, and is even extending to Australia and Africa. Opium 
raised in Europe is stated to yield from 8 to 13 per cent, of mor- 
phine. The main value of opium depends on its contents of mor- 
phia, for which the genus Papaver (as far as heretofore known) 
remains the sole source. 

Not less than fourteen alkaloids have been detected in opium by 
the progressive strides of organic chemistry. 

The Persian opium is packed in chests containing a little over 
I cwt. The price in 1894 was £71, \Os. to X72, 105. per chest. It 
is nearly all prepared for the China market, and there are only one 
or two native merchants who have sufificient knowledge to prepare 
the high-class article required by the London market. The crop 
was smaller than in previous years. 

The total quantity prepared in Shiraz was about 1,300 chests, of 
an approximate value of ^93,500. 

The partial destruction of the opium crops in 1893 was a heavy 
blow to Persian commerce. The yield for the year was very poor, 
and the value of the total export shows a decrease of ^132,000 
when compared with the export of 1892. The exports from the 
port of Bunder Affas in 1892 and 1893 were as follows : 








Peucedanuui Galbanifcrnm and Polylophiuvi Galbannm. — These 
two plants are said to furnish the medicinal gum resinous exudation 
known as galbanum. It used to be referred to Ferula galbaniflua, 
Bjissier, a Persian species. Galbanum may be distinguished from 

328 Martindalcs '' Extra Pharmacopceia." {"^"juneyiffis*""* 

other gum resins by its somewhat musky odor, and by being easily 
indented by the finger nail, especially where the tears have a 
blueish tint. It is more or less brownish-yellow, at ordinary tem- 
peratures tough, brittle when cold, of disagreeable smell, and acrid, 
nauseous, bitter taste. It is indigenous to Africa and sent to Con- 
stantinople under the name of " Khasni." The root is of a roundish 
form and about the size and shape of a large black radish, with two 
spreading shoots. The British imports are merely nominal. Gal- 
banum is frequently used for plasters, and inwardly for menstrual 
illnesses in the country of its growth. 

( To be continued.) 



By Joseph \V. England. 

The eighth edition of William Martindale's " Extra Pharma- 
copoeia " has just been issued through publisher H. K.Lewis, of 
London, England ; and while it is largely based on the British 
Pharmacopoeia and procedures of British pharmaceutical practice, it 
refers as well to the products and preparations of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia. The work has a national reputation in Great Britain, 
and presents many features of interest to all pharmacists. It is not 
the writer's intention to review the book in this paper, but simply 
to jot down a few cursory thoughts on subjects of general interest 
which have occurred in perusing it. 

Oddly enough, on page 123 reference is made to the " A. C. E. 
Anaesthetic Mixture" of alcohol (S. G. 0-838) i volume, chloroform 
(S. G., 1-497) 2 volumes, and ether (S. G., 0735) 3 volumes, that 
found favor in this country some years ago. This mixture has been 
condemned b\' American surgeons, on the ground that its rate of 
volatilization is unequal, so that the anaesthetized patient is sub- 
jected to varying vapors, and not to an anaesthetizing vapor of 
uniform composition. Mr. Martindale has recognized this fault, and 
claims to obviate it by using the following formula : Absolute alco- 
hol (S. G , 0-795) I volume, chloroform (S. G., 1-497) 2 volumes, and 
ether (S. G., 0720) 3 volumes. He presents the results of experi- 
ments in support of this claim, which show a practically uniform rate 
of evaporation. The mixture has a specific gravity of about roi. 

^"juSef'iS'f "■} Martindales ''Extra Pharmacopeia. " 329 

Prepared with U. S. P., absolute alcohol, chloroforni and ether, the 
mixture would have a slightly lower gravity. 

It is singular to note the influence that water in ether has of re- 
tarding anaesthesia. The writer has frequently observed that the 
higher the specific gravity of an ether, the greater the amount of it 
that was required to produce anaesthesia. To a degree, the higher 
the gravity of an ether, the more water it contains, and it seems 
reasonable to believe that it is the presence of water in ether and not 
so much the alcohol that retards anaesthetization, or rather renders 
an increased amount of ether necessary to produce it. That this is 
Mr. Marti ndale's opinion also, is evident from his improved formula 
for the " A.C.E. Mixture," in which he seeks to minimize, as far as 
practicable, the percentage of water present, by using absolute 
alcohol, and an ether stronger than that contained in the original 
formula. This " A.C.E. Mixture " is alleged to be safer than chlo- 
roform, and quicker in action than ether, though not so quick as 
chloroform ; and the improved formula certainly deserves a thorough 

If petrolatum possesses therapeutic virtues — which, apart from its 

being demulcent to the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, 

is doubtful — a formula for an emulsion of it with hypophosphites 

is given on p. 331, as follows: 

Soft petrolatum 5 ounces i av. ) 

Powdered acacia 2*5 ounces (av.) 

Mix and add 4 fluid ounces of water. Dissolve 120 grains each 
of sodium hypophosphite and calcium hypophosphite in 6 fluid 
ounces of water. Add to the above with constant trituration, and 
then add a sufficient quantity of water to measure 15 fluid ounces. 
Dose : i to 4 teaspoonfuls. 

In the making of tincture of strophanthus, Mr. Martindale gives 
preference to Eraser's process as improved upon by himself {i. e., 
exhausting the ground and dried seeds with ether, drying and 
exhausting with alcohol], to the U.S. P. process of simply percolating 
with a diluted alcoholic menstrum (alcohol 650 c.c. to water 350 c c.) 
without prior exhaustion with ether. In the writer's experience, 
Mr. Martindale's process is decidedly the better of the two. It may 
require a longer time than the present U.S. P. process ; but the final 
product is surer of representing all the therapeutically active prin- 
ciples of the drug. 

330 Martindales ''Extra Pharmacopceia." { ^" juXiS's*""' 

The author refers interestingly to Terebene (p. 410). He claims 
that, chemically, it consists of camphene, cymene, borneol and ter- 
pilene, the last named of which is alleged to be the active or toxic 
constituent of terebene. 

The U.S. P., '90, states that terebene consists chiefly of pinene, 
and contains not more than very small proportions of terpinene and 
dipentene. Sadtler and Trimble, in their new text-book on "Chem- 
istry " (p, 781) quote Dr. F.B. Power as stating that it consists 
chiefly of the hydrocarbons dipentene and terpinene, with some 
cymene and camphene. For the internal administration of terebene, 
other than inhalations of vaporized terebene, Mr. Martindale recom- 
mends the conventional method of giving the terebene in sugar. A 
much better way, in the writer's opinion, is to admix the terebene 
with an equal volume of olive oil, and emulsify with powdered acacia, 
sugar and water, flavoring with oil of gaultheria ; each teaspoonful 
to contain 5 minims of terebene. 

The formula is given (p. 224) for the French product " Glycero- 
alcohol," as follows: Glycerin, 333, distilled water, 146, and alcohol, 
a sufficient quantity to measure looo. It has a specific gravity of 
about I. It is much used in Paris as a solvent of alkaloids and 
other proximate principles, keeps indefinitely, and does not readily 
evaporate. It could doubtless be often used with advantage by 
American pharmacists for the making of standard solutions of alka- 
loids, etc. 

Paraldehyde (p. 55) is recommended to be given in diluted syrup 
or almond mixture. A better method is to mix it with an equal 
volume of olive oil, and emulsify with powdered acacia, sugar and 
water, flavoring with oil of gaultheria. The writer of this paper is 
disposed to question the statement made on p. 56 that paraldehyde 
is probably the /r/«a/rt/ therapeutic agent in Spiritus JEtlicris Nitrosi 
B.P. It may be an important constituent, but surely the contained 
ethyl nitrite is of equal or greater importance. It is known that 
paraldehyde has absolutely no diaphoretic action on the human 
economy, and from this fact it is very evident that the diaphoretic 
action of spirits of nitrous ether must be due to some constituent 
other than paraldehyde, and this is most probably ethyl nitrite. 

For the making of" Creosote Pills,'^ Mr. Martindale recommends 
(p. 180) the following formula: 

Creosote 2 flu'd drachms. 

Powdered soap 120 grains. 

'^'""■.S'lf^*'""'} ^^g(^ Cultivation in North Borneo. 331 

Place the creosote in a one ounce wide-mouth, stoppered bottle, 
add "the soap, and mix well. Then digest on a water bath until they 
combine. Each 2 grains of the mass will contain, practically, i 
minim of the creosote. This mass can be combined with other 
ingredients without decomposition, as occasion requires. 

The writer of this paper has used the following formula : 

Creosote 12 minims. 

Powdered licorice root iS grains. 

Triturate well until the licorice root has absorbed the creosote, 

and then add : 

Powdered soap i grain. 

Powdered acacia 6 grains. 

Make up into a mass with an excipient of glycerin and syrupy 
glucose (i part by volume of the former to 4 parts by volume of the 
latter). Divide into 12 pills, and enclose in gelatin capsules. 

The licorice root absorbs the creosote, the soap — small in 
quantity as it is — softens the fibrous mixture, the acacia gives ad- 
hesiveness, while the excipient helps to form a plastic, non-friable 
mass readily made into pills. Encapsulating in gelatin is essential 
to mask the creosote odor. 

The objection is sometimes made to creosote pills that only small 
quantities of creosote can be given in this way. Where rela- 
tively large quantities of creosote are desired to be given an excellent 
method is to admix the creosote with twice its volume of olive oil, 
and enclose in gelatin capsules. The use of the fixed oil in this 
connection is not objectionable. In point of fact, there are reasons 
for believing that its presence is of value in diminishing the caustic- 
ity of creosote upon the gastric mucous membrane and in promoting 
its absorption. 


{^Metroxylon Sagu, Rottb. Metroxylon Runiphii, Mart.) 

The sago of commerce is a kind of starch prepared from the soft 

internal stems of certain palms, natives of the Malay Archipelago, 

Borneo, New Guinea, and possibly of Fiji. The word sago or sagu 

is said to be Papuan for bread. 

There are two well-recognized species of sago palms. The smooth 
or spineless sago palm [Metroxylon Sagu) is specially abundant in 

^ Kew Bulletin. 

332 Sago Cultivation in North Borneo. /Am.Jour. 

June, 1890. 

Sumatra and adjacent islands. It does not reach so far eastward as 
New Guinea. In North Borneo it is known as rumbia bcnar. Wet, 
rich soils, especially at the base of mountains, are its favorite locali- 
ties. This species is regarded as the principal botanical source of 
the sago received in Europe. 

The thorny sago palm [Metroxylon Rumphii) is found further 
east than the other species. It is plentiful in New Guinea, and in 
the Moluccas and Amboyna. 

Both sago palms resemble each other in general appearance, but 
the latter is a smaller tree, and it has its leaf-stalk and the sheaths 
enveloping the lower part of the flower spikes armed with sharp 
spines from one-half an inch to about one inch long. It has, more- 
over, decided littoral tendencies, and is abundant along the shores 
of many small islands, forming a dense, impenetrable belt. In North 
Borneo the thorny sago palm is known as rumbia berduri, or rumbia 

Some sago is obtained from the sugar palm [Arenga sacchariferd) 
after the plant is exhausted of its saccharine juice. The sago palm of 
India is Caryota urens. The farinaceous part of the trunk of old 
trees is said by Roxburgh to equal the best sago from the Malay 
islands. In China, Japan and Florida, sago, differing in character 
of the starch grains from palm sago, is obtained from species of 
Cycas such as C. nvoluta and C. circinalis. The commercial import- 
ance of the latter is very slight. 

The cultivation of the true sago palms is entirely confined to the 
Eastern Archipelagos. The plants are difficult to grow elsewhere, 
and it is improbable that the industry will extend beyond its present 
limits. Both species of Metroxylon are monocarpic, and die after 
the seeds are ripened. The life of the plant lasts for about fifteen 
to twenty years, at the end of which period the terminal inflores- 
cence is fotmed. In spite of the abundance of flowers very {&\y 
fruits are produced ; these occupy two or three years in ripening. 
The propagation of these palms is usually effected by means of 
suckers or stolons formed around the base of old trees. 

An interesting account of sago cultivation in Province Dent, in 
British North Borneo, is included by Governor Creagh in the report 
on the Blue Book of Labuan for 1893. {^Colonial Reports^ No. 122, 
Annual, 1894.) As the subject has not hitherto been dealt with in 
these pages, the report, which has evidently been carefully prepared 

'^^yineM'si'""™"} ^^S^^ Cultivation in North Borneo. 333 

on the spot by Mr. J. G. G. Wheatley, is reproduced for general 


The sago palm, from which is manufactured the well-known sago 
flour of commerce, resembles in appearance the cocoanut tree. 
The former is valued for its trunk alone, the nuts are useless, and 
the tree dies if allowed to fruit. 


(i) There are only two kinds of sago palm which are cultivated, 
the " rumbia benar " (true sago), and the " rumbia berduri" (the 
thorny sago), also known as " rumbia salak." In appearance both 
are the same, but on close inspection the stems of the latter, to 
which the leaves are attached, known as " pallapa," will be found to 
be covered with bunches of thorns about lyi to 3 inches long. 


(2) Sago grows chiefly on damp ground, subject to floods at cer 
tain times of the year. If grown in swamps, less sago is produced, 
and the trunks do not attain as great a height as when planted on 
clayey damp soil subject to floods periodically. Once planted, the 
tree withstands floods and brackish water, but in the latter it does 
not grow as fast and the trunks are small. Sago is planted chiefly 
by suckers sent out by the parent tree, which are carefully cut off 
under ground. In swampy ground the shoots are planted out at 
once, but in other localities the shoots are tied together in bundles 
and placed in wet, muddy ground until they have begun to send 
out roots, when they are planted out in holes 12 inches deep, i foot 
in diameter, and 4 to 6 fathoms apart. No earth is placed about the 
roots, but the plants are supported in an upright position by two. 
sticks fixed on either side. The earth gradually fills the holes dur- 
ing rains and floods. One man with an assistant can plant 300 
plants a day. After this, further attention is generally unnecessary 
for a year, and in some cases two years, when the jungle growth is 
cleared around the growing tree. Some planters regularly clear 
around the roots and cut away suckers if they are too abundant. 
Rumbia berduri is preferred to the rujnbia benar, chiefly because 
the wild pigs do not attempt to destroy young plants, on account of 
the thorns. In planting rumbia bcuar, fences have to be made to 
keep out the pigs, which are very destructive. Rumbia berduri is 

334 Sago Cultivation in North Borneo. {'^Tune^iWs'"'""' 

also reported to produce more raw sago, but the quality of flour is 
the same in both species. Each tree produces from four to five 
pikuls of raw sago (133 lbs.:=:i pikul), being at the rate of one 
pikul per fathom of trunk. Both trees grow to the same dimen- 
sions, 24 to 42 feet in height, and in i^ to 3 feet in diameter at the 
base of trunk. The sago palm is not subject to any disease ; but, if 
a deep cut is made at the base of the trunk close to the earth, the 
pith is attacked by large maggots, which gradually eat their way 
into the centre of the tree, and in three or four months destroy the 
whole trunk. This is a favorite way of paying off a grudge among 
the natives. The sago tree takes from five to seven years to mature, 
according to the nature of the soil. During the third year the 
plant begins to send out shoots. These grow up with the parent 
tree, and in time give out suckers. If these are allowed to grow too 
freely they form a dense thicket around the mature trunks and give 
a great deal of trouble to the workers. Every year each clump pro- 
duces a large number of workable trunks. During the fifth year 
the parent tree is ready to be cut down. In the meantime, the 
young shoots are rapidly developing, and in the seventh year prob- 
ably three or four trees are ready, and so on, so that the sago tree, 
once planted, continuously supplies the planter with logs without 
giving him any trouble as regards their cultivation. The natives 
compare their sago plantation to a herd of cattle, and it would be 
difficult to reckon the number of logs that each clump may have 
produced in the space of forty or fifty years. When the sago tree 
is allowed to flower, the pith begins to diminish, and, if the mature 
trunks are not cut down regularly, the whole clump gradually 
deteriorates and the trees become stunted bushes instead of grow- 
ing to the usual height. Nothing of the sago tree is lost. The 
trunk supplies the sago, the leaves and stems are largely used by 
natives for building purposes, the former for roofs and the latter for 
partitions and walls of houses, which, when properly constructed, 
are very neat-looking and durable. The top shoot makes an excel- 
lent vegetable, while the trunk, when split in two longitudinally, and 
the pith scooped out, is used as a boat to transport the raw sago 
which has been extracted from it. The bark, when taken off, makes 
excellent fuel, and an enterprising Chinaman, who employs an 
engine for rasping sago logs, uses this as a substitute for firewood. 
The sago trade between Mempakul and Labuan is carried on by 

^"june'ils.*"") ^^^(^ Cultivation in North Borneo. 335 

native schooners of about forty tons, which ply regularly, and in 
fair weather are able to make a trip every two days. 

The following are the figures recorded in the returns at Mempakul 
of the sago shipped to Labuan since January, 1890: 

Sago Fhmy. Raw Sago. 

1890 $23,483.72 510,350.32 

189I 24,826.67 18,560.20 

1892 101,327.06 25,304.59 

1893 119,092.70 25,034.24 

The latter portion of the year is generally the busiest, as the 
rains assist in the transport of the raw material from streams which 
may have become too shallow during the dry weather. 

The present price of sago flour at Singapore is $2. 5 5 per pikul. 
The Chinese traders buy the raw material at from ^i to $1.20 per 
pikul, according to the market price at Singapore, and, after allow- 
ing for the cleaning of the raw sago and washing it in the factories, 
there remains a profit of at least 50 cents per pikul to the Chinese 
manufacturers. The freight from Labuan to Singapore at present 
is 22 cents per bag of 115 catties = 150 lbs. A royalty of 6 cents 
per pikul is charged on sago flour exported from Province Dent to 
Labuan, when the Singapore price is below $2.50, and 8 cents when 
above that sum. On raw sago a royalty of 8 cents is charged to 
protect the sago factories. The sago trade is increasing rapidly on 
the Borneo Coast, and at the present time over three-fourths of the 
flour and raw sago exported from and imported into Labuan comes 
from British North Borneo ports, 

(Signed), J. G. G. Wheatley, 

Magistrate, Province Dent. 

Mempakul, September 15, 1894. 

Seeds without Fertilization. — Some years ago, Mr. John Smith, the Curator 
of the Kew Gardens, had a plant of the Euphorbia family, which was wholly 
pistillate— not another plant was known in Europe — and yet it produced perfect 
seeds. On this account, the plant being of a new genus, he named it ^'Ccele- 
bogyne,'' a Greek term representing this curious behavior. Peculiarities of 
this kind seem incomprehensible, and yet they are generally believed in by 
scientific men. Mr. David H. Day, of BuflFalo, writes that he is quite sure a 
pistillate plant he has of Thalictrum Fetidleri produces seeds without being 
pollenized, and the writer of this paragraph, one year, cut oflF all the pollen- 
baring flowers of the castor-oil plant, so that not a particle of pollen perfected, 
and yet the plant produced its complement of seeds. The whole experiment, 
however, can be so easily repeated, that it is much better to consider this result 
as only a possibility until further experiments have been made. — Meehan's 
Monthly for April, 189^. 

336 • Editorial, {^"/ur/m^""- 


It was announced in the April number of this Journal that the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy had decided to establish a three years' course of study, 
instead of the present one of two years ; and, in order to compensate for this 
additional study, it had been decided to confer on graduates, who have had 
four years' practical experience in the drug business, the degree of Doctor of 

There have alwaj-s been in attendance at the College a number of students, 
who, for various reasons, have not taken store experience because of their 
intention to study medicine, or to take positions in manufacturing laboratories. 
It has also been decided to grant a degree to the individuals of this class. The 
title conferred on them for three j-ears' attendance at the College, and the 
passing of satisfactory examinations, will be that of Pharmaceutical Chemist. 
The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy will not be awarded after the graduation 
of the class now in course. 

The reasons for conferring the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy have already 
been clearly set forth by Professor Remington in the paper referred to, and 
further argument seems unnecessary at the present time. 

As was anticipated, some opposing criticism has already appeared in the 
medical press. It is natural that certain elements in the medical profession 
should be jealous of encroachment by the pharmacist, even if it is only in the 
field of titles. They may be reminded, however, that the candidate for the 
degree of Doctor of Pharmacy will have given one year more to the stud}' of 
his profession than was until a comparatively recent period required of the 
candidate for the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

It has not been so long since two years of study in our leading medical 
schools sufficed to procure the medical degree. Is it reasonable to expect the 
pharmaceutical student to be content with simply the statement that he is a 
graduate in pharmacy after he has devoted three years to the study of his pro- 
fession ? 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has not taken this step to gain an 
advantage over other colleges of pharmacy, for they can, and probably will, be 
conferring the same degree within two years, but because it has been evident 
for some time that the pharmaceutical profession of the United States demands 
something more than the title of Graduate in Pharmacy. 

The editor of the Phartnaceutische Rundschau, of New York, has ventured 
to assume the role of a prophet, and to predict the calamities which will befall 
the two professions of pharmacj' and medicine if the degree of Doctor of Phar- 
macj' shall be conferred. 

The editor of the Medical News, of Philadelphia, echoes these prophetic 
arguments, and supplements them with the following wail : " The Doctors of 
Divinity have largely gone into the patent-medicine business in opposition to 
physicians ; and now if every druggist also turns doctor, what in the world 
may the medical men do, and what may they be called ?" So far as his deplor- 
ing the opposition of the D.D. is concerned, we can only say that, in his 
sweeping arraignment of the clergyman, the editor probably did not intend to 
make it appear that the physician is in the patent medicine business, too, but it 

Am. Jour. Pharm.1 l?c'7<-to'-:ie 'i i n 

June. 1895. / Keoteu'S. 337 

is unfortunate that the latter often, though unwittingly serves as a cat's paw for 
the patent-medicine manufacturer bj- prescribing his remedies. What he will 
do when every druggist turns doctor is too hard a question for us to answer, 
as we do not possess the necessary faculty of seeing into the future, but we 
suggest that he keep out of the clutches of the patent-medicine manufacturer 
and that he confine himself to the legitimate practice of medicine. 


The American Pharmacy Fair was held at Boston, from the ist to the 25th of 
May. It has been announced as the first of the kind in America. While it was 
not the first pharmaceutical exhibition held in this country, we agree that it 
was the first of its kind. 

It failed in a few important particulars to represent American pharmacy. In 
the first place there was but one retail drug store exhibited, and that was by a 
" store-fixture " firm in the interest of the fixtures, so that real pharmacy may 
be said to have been conspicuous by its abseuce. 

There were very few exhibits of crude drugs or chemicals. 

A few firms exhibited manufactured pharmaceutical products, and these 
products were not of the kind to be of educational value, man}' of them being 
simply for this or that disease. 

The most creditable exhibit was that of the Massachusetts College of Phar- 
macy, which displayed a sample of every preparation in the U. vS. Pharma- 
copoeia and the National Formulary — over 1,600 in all ; these were made bj' 
students of the Institution. 

Had the fakir and the nostrum-manufacturer been excluded, the omissions 
and shortcomings might have been overlooked, but with some one offering you 
a cure at every turu for every disease, from dyspepsia to delirium, it became 
unbearable. We regret that the words " American Pharmacy " were associated 
with the undertaking, and we are not surprised to learn that its doors were 
closed ten days before the time advertised for this to take place. Lack of 
funds was given as the immediate cause of the disaster. 


Missouri Botanical Garden. Sixth Annual Report. St. Louis, Mo. 

Much valuable space is gained for more scientific matters in the Sixth Annual 
Report by the omission of the section consisting of "Anniversary Publica- 
tions," comprising the annual flower sermon and the proceedings at the two 
annual banquets ; the report of the Director, Dr. William Trelease, containing 
all that it is considered necessary to state concerning these matters which are 
of local or temporary interest. 

In addition to the reports of the officers of the Board and the Director, the 
volume contains 100 pages devoted to the following scientific papers : 

Revision of the North American Species of Sagittaria and Lophotocarpus, 
by Jared G. Smith. 

Leitneria Floridana, by William Trelease. 

Studies on the Dissemination and Leaf Reflexion of Yucca aloifolia and 
other species, by Herbert J. Webber. 

338 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { '^""ju'jr/.isas"'"' 

Notes and Observations on New or Little Known Specie?, by Jared G. Smith. 

Notes on the Mound Flora of Atchison County, Missouri, by B. F. Bush. 

Eighteen full-page illustrations adorn the work and add to its interest and 
value. The whole book is especially valuable to botanists and horticulturists, 
although any intelligent person can read it with profit. 

Biographical Sketch ok Dr. J. Bernard Brinton (with Portrait). 
Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 22, No. 3, 
March, 1895. 

The subject of this sketch excelled in several departments of science, but 
his greatest success was attained in the field of botany. He was a member of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, of the Torrey Botanical Club and of the 
Philadelphia Botanical Club, which he founded in 1892. He was an extensive 
collector, and possessed an herbarium of large proportions, which he had 
labeled and preserved with the most scrupulous care. 

Dr. Brinton was born near Waynesburg, Chester County, Pa., August 16, 
1S35, and died in Philadelphia, December 6, 1894. 

The Extra Pharmacopceia. By William Martindale, F.C.S. Eighth 
Edition. Pp. 584. London. H. K. Lewis. 1895. 

In the anticipation of the production of a new British Pharmacopceia, Mr. 
Martindale has for some time been engaged in investigating the claims of 
many new drugs and preparations for official recognition. The work, there- 
fore, includes notes on the proposed revision, and through the analysis of 
25,500 prescriptions by the author, lists have been compiled of unofficial prepa- 
rations which, seem to require admission, and of official preparations which, 
not being in demand, might be deleted. 

The Extra Pharmacopceia, in the eight editions it has now passed through, 
has attained a well-deserved reputation for a concise treatment of most unoffi- 
cial drugs and preparations ; at the same time it includes some official sub- 
stances. The author very appropriately remarks in the preface : " A tangent of 
an important character has been projected in the direction of preparations 
from the animal kingdom, which till recently had been almost entirely 
neglected as curative agents. We have, therefore, inserted a special chapter 
on Antitoxins, Serums and Lymphs, and on Animal Glands and Tissues and 
their preparations." 

Some further investigations have been included, notably the observations on 
"A. C. E." (Alcohol, Chloroform, Ether) mixture (see paper by Mr. Joseph 
W. England on page 328 of this issue). The latest researches on the alkaloids 
of Aconite and Ipecacuanha, including Aconitine, Emetine and Cephaeline, 
which will have an important bearing on therapeutics, have been added. 

As attested by its eight editions, the book is a valuable one for reference, 
not only bj' those using the British Pharmacopoeia, but by every one who 
prescribes or dispenses medicines. 

The medical references and therapeutic index of diseases and symptoms 
have, as usual, been contributed by W. Wynn Westcott. 


The next meeting of this Association will be held at Eagles Mere, Pa., on 
Tuesday, June t8, 1895. Detailed information can be obtained by addressing 
J. A. Miller, Harrisburg, Pa. 




JULY, 1895. 


By L. E. Sayre. 

If one will take the trouble to review the chemical constituents 
of white and black mustard, he cannot fail to be impressed by the 
fact that we have in these two plants of the Cruciferae a most inter- 
esting chemical study. Just why these two plants of the same 
order, of the same genus, indigenous to almost the same countries, 
growing in similar soil, and in the same climate — why these two 
plants, with so many conditions and circumstances in common, 
should elaborate different chemical substances in fructification, and 
then arrange them in ways so similar, and what the significance of 
this peculiar fact is, are questions which are beyond our under- 
standing. It is my purpose in this review to compare the chemical 
constituents of the two ^eeds, and to bring out, if possible, any 
other points of interest that may be obtained from a review of the 
work that has been done by others. 

Not many months ago I had occasion to write, for publication, an 
article which had to do with the subject of mustards. From an 
oversight on my part, I failed to draw a distinction between the 
chemical constitution of the two seeds, and when my attention was 
called to the mistake by a friend, 1 tried to ascertain how it was 
that the error had crept into the manuscript. This gave me an 
incentive to look further into the subject, and to study some of the 
original articles by such investigators as Will and Laubenheimer. 
For the compilation of the work done by these chemists, as pub- 
lished in Liebig's Anna/en, I am indebted to Prof. J. U. Lloyd, who 
has this valuable work in his library. And for the laboratory work 


340 White and Black Miistard Seed. f"^'" JSly. t^ss""' 

here I am indebted to Mr. Edward F. Schopflin, of the graduating 
class of the School of Pharmacy of the University of Kansas. 

Mustard was known and used, especially for its volatile oil, many 
hundred years ago. But not until the early part of the nineteenth 
century was anything known of the chemical action taking place 
when water was added to ground black mustard. Will and Horner, 
in 1863, established beyond a doubt that the pungent principles 
developed upon the addition of water were due to the decomposi- 
tion which took place between a glucoside and a ferment. They 
made a very thorough study of the black mustard and, some years 
later, Will and Laubenheimer studied white mustard. 

Comparing the gross characteristics of the two seeds, we find in 
both cases, pre-form«d in the seed, a fixed oil, almost the same 
amount in each, the black seed containing 23 per cent, and the 
white 22 per cent. The two fixed oils are almost identical in com- 
position. While the compounds that form them may vary some 
quantitatively, there has been found no compound in the one that 
has not been shown to exist in the other. In both seed are found 
a considerable quantity of albuminous matter, also about 19 per 
cent, of mucilage; but in neither case is there found any (?) starch. 
Both seed contain the ferment myrosin, the white seed usually con- 
taining the larger quantity. The quantity of myrosin in the black 
seed is quite variable, sometimes going as low as 2 per cent., and 
again containing as high as 18 per cent. They each yield about 4 
per cent, oi" ash. They each contain a glucoside which resembles 
that of the other in very many ways, and again differ one from the 
other very materially in two or three ways. The glucoside sinal- 
bin (C3oH^4N2S._,Oi6) from the white seed yields, when decomposed 
by myrosin, glucose, sinapin sulphate and a fixed oil, which is the 
sulphocyanate of acrinyl, or, chemically, the ortho-hydroxy-benzyl 
sulphocyanate. Sinigrin (CioHigKNSoOjo), the glucoside from black 
tnustard seed, yields glucose, potassium sulphate, and a volatile oil, 
allyl isosulphocyanate. 

The reactions may be represented as follows : 


C3oH,,N,S,Oi6 = QH.OCNS + CieH^.O^NSHSO^ + CeH^^O^ 

Sinalbin. Acrinyl sulphocyanate. Acid sinapiu sulphate. Glucose. 


KQoHigNSAo = KHSO, - C3H5CNS + CeHjA 

Potassium myrouate. Acid potassium sulphate. Allyl isosulphocyanate. Glucose. 

^" •ju'iy'ifl""'-} White and Black Mustard Seed. 34 1 

In reviewing the literature relating to black and white mustard, 
the average reader is exceedingly liable to be confused and misled ; 
in the first place, because there exists a great similarity between the 
white and black mustard, and at the same time there exists a very 
decided difference between the two ; then also because of the ever- 
changing system of nomenclature in use. The glucoside from white 
mustard has been known under no less than four different names : 
sulphocyanide of sinapine, sulpho-sinapisin, sinapin, and sinalbin, 
and, which makes it more confusing, one of these names has been 
retained for the alkaloid developed from sinalbin by decomposition 
with myrosin. Even now sinigrin is known by two different names : 
sinigrin and potassium myronate ; and the pungent oil of white 
mustard is known by three different names, acrinyl sulphocyanate, 
ortho-hydroxy-benzyl sulphocyanate, and sinalbin-mustard-oil (many 
believing this to be a volatile oil). 

Owing to this general confusion, one has to read with the utmost 
care, and carefully sift from the miscellaneous mass the points which 
draw a sharp comparison between the two. The following compari- 
son of their constituents will probably help make it more clear : 


Fixed oil 23 per cent. Fixed oil 22 per cent. 

Stearin, Stearin, 

Olein, Olein, 

Erucic acid (C^yi,s!^i\, Erucic acid (C22H42O.2), 

Sinapolic acid (CioHsgO.^), Sinapolic acid (CooHagO^), 

Behenic acid (C22H44O.2). Behenic acid (C22H4402). 

Mucilage about 19 per cent. Mucilage. 

Albuminous matter. Albuminous matter. 

Myrosin (generally less than in white seed). Myrosin (generally more than in black seed). 

Sinigrin (Cir,HijKXS.20io), or, Sinalbin (C3,,H44XoS..Oic^ : 

Potassium myronate : Glucose (CeHjoOs), 1 

s r Glucose (CeHioOg), Sinapine sulphate (C16H25NSO9), I ^ g 

Potassium acid sulphate (KHSO4), Ortho-hj-droxy-benzyl-sulphocyanate £•£■ 

AUyl-isosjjlpho-cyanide (C3H5NCS), (fixed oil) ^ |p. 

volatile oil. „„ ^OH 

Sinapine sulphocyanate (alkaloid) \CH2CNS 

(C16H24NO5CXS). Sinapine Sulphocyanate (alkaloid) 

As it would prolong this paper unduly to give the details ot 
laboratory work in connection with the study, and as this work was 
designed merely for the purpose of verifying and studying the 
work that has been done by others, it behooves the writer to make 
no further reference to this than to say that the constituents of 
white mustard were extracted, following the process of Will and Lau- 
benhelmer, and by test-tube experiments the acrid and pungent 


White and Black Mustard Seed. 

/Am Jour.Pharm 
\ July, 189.5. 

principles from the white and black mustard were obtained by the 
action of the ferment upon the glucosides. In the subjoined para- 
graphs a statement is made as clearly as possible as to the best 
methods of procedure in obtaining the principles named. 

To obtain sinigrin from black mustard seed ; reduce them to a 
fine powder, and express the fixed oil as completely as possible, 
then extract with benzene (CgH^.) to remove the remainder. Expose 
the seed thus treated to the air, and allow the benzene to evaporate 
completely. Then re-powder and place them in three or four times 
their bulk of boiling alcohol. Boil for about thirty minutes on a 
water bath and evaporate to dryness; re-powder, and extract with 

Sinigrin. From an Alcoholic Solution. 

cold water. Treat this with barium carbonate and evaporate on a 
water bath to dryness. Extract the residue with strong boiling 
alcohol and filter while hot. Set the solution away in a cool place 
for several days, and sinigrin, or potassium myronate will crystallize 
out in long, fine, silky needles. From aqueous solution it crystallizes 
in four-sided prisms. It may be purified by recrystallization from 
boiling alcohol. 

Free myronic acid may be obtained from sinigrin by decomposing 
it with a concentrated solution of tartaric acid, and adding alcohol. 

To obtain sinalbin from white mustard seed, powder finely, and 
extract the fixed oil completely with benzene (CgHg). Spread the 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1895. 

White and Black Mustard Seed. 


powder out and allow the benzene to evaporate. Re-powder, and 
place in about four times its weight of boiling alcohol. Boil for 
thirty minutes, adding sufficient alcohol to make up for loss by 
evaporation. Filter, keeping filter hot in steam-bath. Set the 
filtrate aside in a cold place for about twenty-four hours. The 
sinalbin separates out in a crystalline mass. Decant and preserve 
the liquid. Re-dissolve the residue in hot alcohol. Filter while 
hot and set aside to re-crystallize. Repeat the crystallization until 
pure, clear crystals of sinalbin are obtained. It crystallizes very 
similar to sinigrin in small, pearly needles, concentrically arranged. 

SiN.\PiN Sulphate. From au Alcoholic Solution. 

When pure it is almost colorless, but shows just the faintest 
shade of yellow. It is sparingly soluble in cold alcohol ; it 
requires 3-3 parts of boiling 85 per cent, alcohol to completely dis- 
solve it. It is easily soluble in water, and insoluble in ether and carbon 
disulphide ; its solutions are neutral. When heated, it melts, form- 
ing a yellow liquid, and, when heated still further, is decomposed, 
evolving fumes of disagreeable odor, and, like sinalbin itself, alkalies 
turn it intensely yellow, and nitric acid gives with it a blood-red 

In. the liquid preserved from above is contained sinapine-sulpho- 
cyanate. It separates out, on standing eight or ten days, in globular 
aggregations. The liquid may be poured off and the sinalbin 

344 White and Black Mustard Seed. {^"^in^y.-m"'"- 

sulphocyanate partially purified by repeating the solution in alcohol 
and separation several times. Alkalies color it intensely yellow, and 
acids, if added at once to this solution, restore the original sulpho- 
cyanate ; but if the alkaline solution be boiled and the acid added, a 
heavy precipitate is formed. This precipitate is sinapinic acid, the 
same which is called by Blyth, sinapric acid. Sulphocyanic acid is 
given off, and remaining in solution is a very deliquescent base, 
sinkalin, which is undoubtedly a derivative of trimethylamine, and 
has since been shown to be identical with cholin. 

It might be inferred from the above that the compound is the 
sulphocyanate of a base composed of sinkalin and sinapinic acid, or 
that it is the sinapinate of a base composed of sinkalin and sulpho- 
cyanic acid. But from the experiments performed by Will on sina- 
pine, it seems more probable that it is a base composed of sinkalin 
and sinapinic acid, and cannot be isolated on account of its insta- 
bility. The sinapine sulphocyanate may be converted into the acid 
sulphate by the addition of sulphuric acid to its alcoholic solution. 
The acid sulphate crystallizes in beautiful, slender, monoclinic 
prisms, seldom large enough to be seen except under the micro- 

Myrosin may be obtained by extracting the powdered white seed 
with cold water, concentrating in vacuum below 40° C. and then 
precipitating with as small a quantity of strong alcohol as possible, 
filtering and washing the precipitate on the filter with alcohol until 
no red color is produced in the filtrate by the addition of ferric 
chloride (even after the addition of water), and no longer colored 
yellow by ammonia. 

The work still remaining to be done on the mustard is the deter- 
mination to a certainty of the nature of the alkaloid sinapine 
sulphocyanate, and the investigation of the nature and composition 
of myrosin. 

The satisfactory study of the ferments is an exceedingly difficult 
one, but it seems that there is no reason why we should not be able 
to analyze and study myrosin better than many other organic com- 
pounds that have been studied. 

Professor E. C. Franklin, of the University of Kansas, suggested 
a synthesis of the pungent fixed oil (?) of white mustard. An at- 
tempt was made to carry this out, but owing to numerous draw- 
backs, such as the accidental breaking of sealed tubes containing 

"^''^juiy'l^?"'"'} White and Black Mustard Seed. 345 

bromine and toluidene, etc., and a want of time, the work was, for 
the time at least, abandoned. 

Professor Franklin suggests that if the composition of the pun- 
gent principle of white mustard is as reported, it may be synthetized 
by the following reactions : 

(i) Beginning with the ortho-nitro-toluidene 



add bromine and heat to 130° to 160° in a sealed tube until the 
reaction is completed — probably two or three hours. The result 
will be ortho-nitro-benzyl bromide 


^NOo (2) 

Treat this with a reducing agent (Zn 4- HCl). The result will be 
ortho-amido-benzyl bromide 

C H / 

Diazotize this and boil the resulting diazo-compound with water. 
The resulting compound will be ortho-hydroxy-benzyl bromide.. 
Treat this with ammonium sulphocyanate : 


CeH / -r NH,-S-CN = NH,Br+QH / 

^CH,Br ^CH, — S — CN 

(Ortho-hydroxy-benzyl sulphocyanide.) 

(2) Take carbolic acid (QHg • OH) and treat, in the presence of 
aluminum chloride (pure), with dichlor methane (CH^Cl.,) : 

QH5OH + CHXl., = QH / 

^CH,C1 - HCl 

Treat this with ammonium sulphocyanate : 


C,H / -f NH,— S - CN = QH / ^ NH^Ct 

\CH.,Cl ^CH, _ S — CN 

University of Kansas. 

346 The Violet Perfume. { ^""/uiy'isM*""" 

By Henry Kraemer. 

One of the large industries of the world requiring a vast ex- 
penditure of money and employing some of the most ingenious 
and educated of men, is the industry for the extraction of perfumes 
from the plants and animals yielding them. It may be further said 
that nothing, probably, has contributed more to the welfare and 
happiness of the race than those plants of pronounced odors and 
colors. To the rich and poor, alike, they have come at times laden 
with the unmistakable signs of rest and hope. By the beautiful as 
well as homely, they have been utilized for their power of adorn- 
ment. The extent of their influence may be ascertained, possibly, 
when we recall that the beautiful Countess Eugenie de Montijo 
draped her gown with violets, " caught " the Emperor Mapoleon III 
and mounted a throne. 

There are about 170 species of violets known — but two or three 
species are sweet-scented, and those cultivated for their perfume 
are varieties of the species, Viola odorata Linne. The chief locality 
for the cultivation of the violet in large quantities is on the shores 
of the Mediterranean at Grasse and Cannes. The seeds of the 
violet are planted either in April or October in olive groves 
in order to protect the growing plants from either the sun in sum- 
mer or the cold in winter. In from 4 to 6 weeks the flowers appear 
and they are then picked twice a week in the morning. In the 
afternoon these flowers are delivered to the factories and are at once 
treated for their perfume. 0:herwise if the flowers are allowed to 
remain too long on the plant, or subsequently after picking, they 
lose very much of their odor. The plant is exceedingly delicate 
and the harvest is hence very subject to the climatic influences and 
Sawer records the suffering to the extent of 75 per cent. 

Commercially the perfume of violet is extracted by the cold pro- 
cess of " enfleurage " and subsequent solution in deodorized alcohol 
as an " extrait." The real "violet extrait" is very fine, but is said 
to be rarely obtained pure, as that retailed consists of other per- 
fumes, chiefly that of the Iris rhizome. This leads to a considera- 
tion of so-called " Orris Root," which is yielded by three species of 
Iris. Formerly the rhizome from the wild plant was employed ; 
today it is said that the cultivated rhizome is much more profitably 

^'"•/Jiy'ifgs"'"} The Violet Perfume. 347 

The cultivation of the iris is not attended with difficulties as it 
seems to thrive either in a calcareous or damp soil. The rhizome 
is collected in the early spring. The flags being cut back to within 
a few inches of the rhizome, and another cut is made across the first 
tuberous formation. This portion then containing the growing 
young flag is replaced in the ground, which continues to grow, pro- 
ducing another rhizome, while the remainder of the rhizome is 
trimmed of its rind, cleaned and dried in the sun. The fresh rhi- 
zome — so called " Orris Root" — has an earthy smell, differing but 
little from the iris of our swamps. The peculiar aroma is developed 
during a process of drying. The maximum development is said 
not to be aWiained for at least two years, and that it even intensifies 
after that time. The odor of the iris rhizome is similar then to 
that of violets. 

The iris rhizome was distilled with steam by F. A. Fllickiger 
(1876), and he obtained in the distillate " butter of Iris," possessing 
the characteristic odor of Orris and consisting principally of myristic 
acid and a minute quantity of an essential oil, to which he claimed 
the entire fragrance of the root is due. He estimated the propor- 
tion of oil in the root to be not more than i part in 10,000. 

In extracting the oil from the rhizome now they frequently add 
some dilute sulphuric acid with the water, the idea being to convert 
the starch into soluble dextrose, the oil then being readily caught 
up by the steam and carried into the distillate. The yield of oil by 
this method is greater, but the aroma is not considered to be so 
delicate. Ferd. Tiemann and Paul Krliger have, during the past 
ten years endeavored to isolate the chemical principle to which the 
odor of the fresh flowers of the violet and iris rhizome is due. It 
has been found impossible as yet to obtain sufficient of the odori- 
ferous material from violet to ascertain whether or not it is identical 
with that contained in the iris rhizome. They have, however, had 
considerable success with the iris and have published their investi- 
gations thus far in the Ber. d. Chem. Ges., xxvi., 3, p. 2675. 

According to these authors, the odoriferous principle of the iris 
rhizome- cannot be obtained directly by distillation with steam. 
This is due evidently to the large amount of starch contained 
therein, which, in some way, seems to hold the volatile substances 
They, therefore, extract the root repeatedly with ether and then dis- 
til the ethereal extract with steam. As a result of the distillation 

348 The Violet Perfume. {'""ju*iy'"im""' 

two products are obtained, the one remaining behind being a slimy 
mass, which, on treatment with alkali, gives myristic acid, ingenin, 
iridic acid and a brittle, crystallisable resin. In the distillate isthe 
volatile portion consisting of the ethereal oil with a large amount 
of myristic acid and its methyl salt, oleic acid and an ester of the 
same, oleic aldehyde and other substances probably in the nature of 
alcohols that were not further studied. The ethereal solution of 
this mixture is shaken with a two per cent. KOH solution to remove 
in part the free organic acids. The remaining organic acids with 
the esters are further removed by repeated fractional distillation of 
the oil with steam. The neutral oil, obtained by this distillation 
treatment, is then dissolved in alcohol, and at the ordinary tempera- 
ture treated with alcoholic KOH to saponify any organic esters re- 
maining. This alcoholic solution is then poured into water, and 
the aqueous solution extracted with ether, and the ethereal extrac- 
tion again distilled with steam. The " Irisaroma" goes over with 
the first distillate. This oil is then boiled with water -f AgjO to 
oxidize any aldehydes present, and so remove the same. The "Iris- 
aroma" being a ketone, is purified by forming a phenylhydrazine 
compound by allowing equal molecules of the " Irisketone," and 
phenylhydrazine to remain together for a day at the ordinary tem- 
perature, and then distilling this hydrazone mixture with steam. 
The " Irisketone" remains behind in combination with the phenyl- 
hydrazine as a brown oil, which is then decomposed with dilute 
HgSO^ into phenylhydrazine and the " Irisketone " or " Irisaroma," 
called Irone. This is then extracted with ether from the aqueous 
distillate and rectified under diminished pressure. Irone CjgH^jO is 
an oil which is scarcely soluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, benzol and ligroin. B. P. 144° under a pressure 
of 16 mm. Specific gravity o 939 at 20°. Index of refraction 
nj5 = 1-50113. It polarizes light to the right and in a dcm. tube to 
the extent of 40°. The smell of pure irone is sharp and in the 
concentrated condition quite unlike that of violets. But when di- 
luted with alcohol and exposed to the air the odor resembles that of 
the natural flowers. 

Ironoxiine — CjgHjoNOH. The oxime is generally obtained as an 
oil soluble in alcohol ether, benzol, chloroform and ligroin. Once 
crystals were obtained, and some of these were subsequently used 
in obtaining, with great difficulty, however, further crystals from a. 
ligroin solution. 

'^■'"•/uiy'im '■'^' } The Violet Perfume. 349 

Constitution of Irone, — On treatment with NaClO it yields 
CHCI3, showing that it is methylketone of the formula 

Irene, C^jHjg. — On treatment of irone with HI -f- P it loses a 
molecule of HoO, and forms a colorless oil Irene, B.P. Ii3°-ii5° 
(9 mm). Specific gravity, 09402 at 20°. Index of refraction, 
nj, = 1-5274. It dissolves in concentrated H._,SO^, decolorizes a 
solution of Br in acetic acid, does not combine with picric acid, is 
gradually converted by air into a resin, burns with a sooty (" rus- 
sender ") flame. When carefully oxidized, Irene yields a series of 
compounds which throw much light on the constitution of both 
Irene and Irone. 

{a) Trioxydehydroirene : 

CH3 CH„ 


CHjQHg/ I 


Produced on the addition of Irene to a chromic acid in acetic 
acid solution. It crystallizes from benzol in highly refractive rhom- 
bohedra of M. P., 154°-! 55° and possesses feebly acid properties. 

(<^) Iregenondicarboxylic Acid : 

CHg CHg 

r y — COOH 


^ ^CO • COOH 

This acid is yielded by the oxidation of trioxydehydroirene by 
alkaline KoMn.^Og. It crystallizes from hot water in either needles 
or prisms of M. P. 227°. 

{c) Iregenontricarboxylic Acid : 




This is formed upon the further oxidation of the foregoing acid, 
and crystallizes from water at 5° in prisms (granular) holding water 
of crystallization, which it loses at 110°, and on heating to 227° 

350 The Violet Perfume. |Am. jour. pimrm. 

July, 1895. 

melts without decomposition. Its trimethyl ester forms compact 
crystals of M. P. 127^-128^. 

{(T) loniregenetricarboxylic Acid : 

CH, CH, 

.C — COOH 


CgHg CO, 


This acid is always produced as the final oxidation product of 
Irene, when this operation is carried out at first by gentle and then 
by more powerful oxidizing agents. It crystallizes in white needles, 
and is slightly soluble in cold water, alcohol or ether, but is solu- 
ble in these reagents when they are hot, and is not dissolved by 
benzol or ligroin. At 1 50° it loses a mqlecule of water, and is con- 
verted into the anhydride. The salts of the acid crystallize well 
The acid is stable, and is not altered by oxidizing agents or by 
warm concentrated H^SO^. The anhydride 



-crystallizes from benzol in plates of M. P. 214°, and may be dis- 
tilled without decomposition. The trimethyl ester of the acid crys- 
tallizes from warm ligroin in colorless needles of M.P. 93^. 
Itnid acid of loniregenetricarboxylic Acid : 

C3H— CO/ 
-^ ^COOH 
This imid acid is produced when the NH^ salt of loniregenetricar- 
boxylic acid is dry, distilled in a current of CO^ gas. It is a white 
•crystalline powder, which is insoluble in the usual solvents, M. P. 
over 300°, and boils a few degrees higher than this. 
Its Ag salt 

/ >NH 
C.H,,— CO/ 


is a white powder which, when heated in a current of COj, yields 

the imid of dimethylhomophthalic acid 


'''°Ju°"is95 "''"■} The Violet Perfume. 35 E 



previously prepared by Gabriel. 

Synthetical Researches. — The authors made a series of synthetical 
researches in order to throw further light on the constitution of 
Irene and Irene. They started with geranial (called by Dodge,, 
citriodor-aldehyde), also called citral. This has been shown by 
Semmler to have the constitution 

I 23 45678 


I " I 

CH3 CH3 

for when treated with KHSO^ it yields cymol and with HI, (p) iso- 
propylmethylbenzol (cymol) much easier. This geranial is con- 
densed with acetone and yields Pseudionone as follows : (Erchmann, 
p. 173). In a stoppered flask (i^^ L) are added 65 cc. acetone; 50 
CO. geranial, and i L of cold saturated baryta water. Shake this 
mixture thoroughly and allow to stand for several days. The pro- 
ducts of the reaction are removed with ether, the ether evaporated 
and the residue distilled under diminished pressure. That which 
distils at 138°-! 5 5° (12 mm) is preserved. From this product the 
unattacked citral, acetone and other condensation products are 
removed from the Pseudionon with steam distillation. The residual 
oil is again fractionated and that fraction distilling at 143^-145° (12 
mm) is pure Pseudionon. 

The products of reaction are : 

CjoHi.O H- CH3COCH3 = CiaHjoO + HoO. 

Pseudionon is a clear, colorless oil, B. P. I43°-I45° (12 mm.); 
sp. gr., 0-9044; index of refraction, nj)=i-5275; odor, characteris- 
tic and prominent. Its phenylhydrazine and oxime compounds are 
thick oils. It does not combine with NaHSOg. It is changed by 
alkalies and strong acids into resinous products. With dilute acids, 
changed to lonon. 

Pseudionon formula : 

I 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 II 


CH3 CH3 

352 The Violet Perfume. { ^'"- •"'"'• ^'^"'"• 

July, 1895. 

I 071011 formula : 

CH3 CH3 

\ / 

/ \ 


% / 

When Pseudionon is treated with dilute minerals, it is changed 
into an isomer of lower B. P., etc. To this end the following mix- 
ture is heated on an oil bath at the boiling point ; Pseudionon, 20 
parts; water, 100 parts; H.SO^, 25 parts; glycerin, 100 parts. When 
cold, extract with ether. Evaporate the ether, and fractionally distil 
the oil remaining, under diminished pressure. That portion distilling 
at I25°-I35° (12 mm.) is preserved and purified, either by fractional 
distillation again, or in the same manner as Irone. Pure lonon has 
B. P. I26°-I28° (12 mm.); sp. gr., 0-9351 at 20°; refractive index, 
njj=rr507. It is a colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol, ether, benzol 
and chloroform. It possesses an odor similar to the fresh flowers 
of violets, and resembles that of the vine blossom. When heated 
with Hl-f-P, it loses HoO and yields lonene, QgH^g, which boils at 
I06°-107° (10 mm.); sp. gr., 0-9338, and refractive index, ng= 
l'5244. It resembles Irene very closely, and has the property of a 
terpene. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, benzol and chloroform. 

lonene, on cautious oxidation with chromic acid, yields a mixture 
of the following compounds, which can be separated by means of 
their calcium salts : 

(ci) longenogonic Acid, 

f^sC^j /CH3 


CHgCgHg/ 2 / 

On crystallization from water it yields white needles, M. P. 237* 
Soluble in alcohol, benzol and chloroform. 

^'"■juTy''if^"°''} '^^J^e Violet Perfume. 353 

(b) lonegenondicarboxylic Acid, 

CH3 /CH3 


,C — COOH 

On crystallization from dilute alcohol forms clear vitreous prisms 
with difficulty soluble in hot water ; soluble in ether, alcohol, acetic 
ether, chloroform and boiling benzol. When rapidly heated it 
melts at 130°-! 31°, but when gradually heated it melts a few 
degrees lower, and is converted into the anhydride which crystal- 
lizes #om light petroleum ether in long, white needles, M. P. 105°. 
The acid is bibasic and its calcium salt when distilled with soda 
lime yields Cymene. 

{c) lonegenalide 

CH3 /CH3 


On crystallization from benzol it forms transparent plates, M. P. 
175°. It possesses feeble acid properties and has the composition 
of the semi-aldehyde of lonegenondicarboxylic acid. It does not, 
however, appear to contain the aldehyde group and is, therefore, 
probably the aldehyde of the anhydride shown. It is readily con- 
verted by oxidation into ionegenondicarboxylic acid. lonene on 
direct oxidation with KoMn^Og yields loncgeyiontricarboxylic acid, 

CHg /CH3 

(4) ,C — CO. COOH 



On crystallization from hot water, it forms white granular crys- 
tals, sparingly soluble in water, alcohol, ether and acetic ether; in- 
soluble in benzol, chloroform and ligroin. It crystallizes with 2 
molecules of HoO. When rapidly heated it melts at I40°-I45°and 
decomposes above this temperature forming the anhydride. The 
final product in the oxidation of loncne acid and of all intermediate 
oxidation products described is lonegenontricarboxylic acid and is 
identical with that obtained from Irene. 


The Violet Per f 21 me. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1895 


The isomeric hydrocarbons Irene and lonene are shown by the 
nature of their oxidation products to be trimethyl derivatives of a 
tetrahydronaphthalene. They both contain three ethylene Hnkings 
of which two are probably on the ring which by the removal of two 
H atoms is converted into the benzol ring, as this is necessary to 
account for the terpene-like properties of the two substances. The 
constitution of lonene follows from that of lononc (being — H^O), 
which is shown by its formation from Pseudionone by intra-mole- 
cular changes to be probably as indicated in No. i. 




H..C HC 






^C CH 

/ \/\\ 


\ / \// 

H,C^ ^CR, 




'^"'•/u'lyS'"""-} 1 he Violet Perfume. 355 



/ \/\\ 


\ /\ 
H,C CH3 

It will be seen from the above constitutional formula for Irone 
that it is related to Irene (-f HoO) in the same manner as lonetie to 
lonone. lonone and Irone are extraordinarily alike, and can only be 
distinguished by much practical experience, and the authors believe 
that there is a great similarity in the constitution of these two com- 
pounds. It is probable that either Irone, lonone, or some optically 
active isomeric substance is present in the violet blossoms, but this 
has not yet been decided. 

lonone and hone are both without injurious effects on the animal 
organism, as experiments were conducted upon some dogs by Prof. 
Dr. F. V. Mering, and the author himself took three drops. 

Other plants^ having odors resembling the Violet, are the following : 

id) Costus, being the root of Aplotaxis lappa, Decaisne, of the 
N. O. Compositae. It grows in the Northwestern Himalayas, at 
from 10,500 to 13,000 feet. The dried root yields i per cent, of a 
light yellow volatile oil of sp. gr. 0,982, and rotatory power in lOO 
mm. tube = + 15° 29'. It begins to boil at 275° C, and about 
half passes over below 315° when decomposition takes place 

[b) Carlina gnmmifera, Lesson, being the " White Chameleon " 
of the ancient Greeks. It possesses a root, said to be as thick as a 
man's thigh, and to develop a powerful violet odor when dry. It is 
identical with Acarna gummifera, Willd.; Atractylis gummifera, 
Linn.; and Cincus carlinse folio, Gummifer acanleatus, Tourn. 

{c) Myall wood, being the wood of Acacia homalophylla, whose 
habitat is Australia, and is Scid to be fragrant, so long as the wood 
is not polished. 

^ Sawer, in " Odographia. 

356 Structure oj- Our Hemlock Barks. { "^^ juiy'-iis^*""' 

{d) Tritelia uniflora, of N. O. Liliaceae ; habitat, Buenos Ayres ; 

{e) Deudrobium heterocarpuni, the flowers of an orchid. 

(/) Oncidium inosmum, the flowers of an orchid. 

[g') Geonoma pamila, N. O. Palmeae ; habitat, tropics of the West- 
ern Continent. The violet odor emanates from the young green 

{Ji) Many acacias develop the odor of Cassie, which is considered 
an approach to the violet, as : A. farnesiana, Willd.; A. bertoloni ; 
A. lophantha, A. dealbata, A. pycnantha, A. suaveolens, A. odor- 
atissima, Willd.; A. latronum, Willd ; and A. lomatocarpa, DeCan- 

By Edson S. Bastin. 

Only five species of the genus Tsuga are known ; two of these 
belong to Eastern Asia, one, Tsuga Canadensis, Carriere, is the 
common hemlock spruce of the Eastern United States; and the 
other two, Tsuga Mertensiana, Carriere, and Tsuga Pattoniana, Brewer 
and Watson, are natives of the Pacific Coast of North America. All 
are trees of large size and graceful habit, and the first four are very 
closely allied, being so similar in appearance that they are with 
difficulty distinguished, while the fifth, Tsuga Pattoniana, is some- 
what aberrant in its characters, approaching more closely the pines 
and spruces in its structure 

Tsuga Canadensis is an abundant species in many portions of the 
Eastern United States and Canada, ranging in its habitat from Nova 
Scotia to Delaware on the east, extending southward along the 
Alleghanies to Alabama, and westward along the northern ranges 
of States and the Canadian border to Minnesota. It is easily dis- 
tinguished from the coniferous trees with which it is associated, by 
its small cones, one-half or two-thirds of an inch long, pendulous at 
the ends of the branches ; by the slender, spreading branchlets 
which have crowded apparently two-ranked leaves along their sides; 
and by the distinctly petiolate, flattened, linear, denticulate leaves, 
which are green above and glaucous beneath, and provided with a 
single resin duct on their dorsal surface. Its trunk is extensively 
employed for lumber and its bark for tanning purposes. Its pitch, 
also, which is extracted from the old bark by boiling, is employed 

Fig. I. 


Structure of Oitr Hemlock Barks. { 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July. 1895. 

in medicine for the same purpose as Burgundy pitch. Tsuga Mer- 
tensiana occurs on the Pacific Coast from the vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco northward to Alaska. While very similar in appearance to 
our Eastern species, it is, when fully developed, a tree of much 
larger size, sometimes attaining a height of 200 feet. It is also 
straighter-grained, and has a redder and usually thicker bark ; but 
the most distinctive difference, perhaps, is in the fruits and seeds, 
the scales of the cones being more elongated and the wings of the 

Fig. 2. 

seeds being relatively longer and straighter. The wood and bark, 
like those of our Eastern species, are used for lumber and tanning 
purposes, respectively, but whether or not any commercial use is 
made of the pitch certainly obtainable from the bark, the writer is 
not informed. 

The barks of these two species are the only ones the writer has 
examined microscopically. The barks show, as might have been 
expected, a great similarity in structure, though there appear to be 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1895. 

} Structure of Our Hemlock Barks. 


some characters which we may rely on for distinguishing them. In 
both, cork formation begins early, and in all cases where the bark 
has been taken from stems more than a few inches in diameter, the 
secondary cork-formations have invaded the inner layer of the bark, 
and bands of cork will be observed crossing at various angles the 
medullary rays. The cork in both is colored a deep purple, and 
this coloring matter is bleached out only with difficulty, even by 
Labarraque's solution. This coloring matter appears to differ in 
composition from the reddish-brown coloring matter found in the 
tissues between the bands of cork, for not only is the color a different 
shade of red, but it bleaches more readily. Tests for tannin show 
that in both species, also, the white or colorless younger portions of 
the bark contain little of it, while the older portions, particularly 
the dead sieve and parenchyma tissues between the bands of sec- 
ondary cork, are exceedingly rich in it. Stone cells of large size 
and often quite irregular shape occur, either isolated or clustered in 



groups of several or many, throughout all except the youngest por- 
tions of the inner bark. They are quite numerous, but are distrib- 
uted without apparent order. They are marked with numerous 
very fine pore-canals, and very numerous and fine concentric lines. 
Abundance of starch was found in the bark of Tsuga Canadensis. 
The medullary ray cells and the tangential rows of large parenchyma 
cells, which occur at frequent and regular intervals in the inner bark, 
were found to be especially rich in it ; but, strange to say, no starch 
was observable in the bark of Tsuga Mertensiana, although there 
were a similar structure and arrangement of medullary ray-cells and 
there were the tangential rows of large parenchyma cells, the same 


Structure of Our Hemlock Barks. { 

Am. .lour. Pharm. 
July, 189.5. 

as in the other species. The very close structural resemblance of 
the barks, and the very intimate relationship of the two species in 
habit as well as in structure, suggest that the presence of starch in 
the one and its absence in the other was only a seasonal differ- 



Fig. 4. 

ence. But this is a point which requires further investigation. The 
medullary rays in both barks are composed of single rows of cells, 
and these are radially elongated and of large size as compared with 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July, 1895. 

} Structure of Our Hetnlock Barks. 


those of adjacent tissues ; but those of Tsuga Mertensiana are, on 
the average, larger, and the rays in this species, as seen in a longi- 
tudinal-tangential section are composed, on the average, of a larger 
number of cells. These differences in the medullary rays are per- 
haps the most constant ones between the two barks. 

Both barks contain abundance of crystals of oxalate of calcium. 
These are mostly in the form of long prisms, and are contained in 


FiG. 5. 

rows of elongated cells of narrow diameter, which traverse the bark 
in the direction of its length. The crystals are frequently associated 
in the containing cells with resinous and coloring matters. In form 
and arrangement they do not differ in the two barks, but appear to 
be rather more abundant in the Pacific Coast species. 

Oleo- resin cells appear to be about equally abundant in the two 
species. Those that do not also contain crystals are isolated or in 

362 Syrup oj Ferrous Iodide. {^""■jur/.im'"'"' 

rows of two or three, and the cells are shorter and broader than the 
crystal cells, though they are not usually so large as the parenchyma 
cells with which they are associated. They are scattered without 
apparent order through the inner bark. Besides the oleo-resin cells 
proper, just described, oleo-resin occurs in many cells not especially 
devoted to secretions. This is particularly true of the cells in the 
older portions of the bark. 


Fig. I. — Small portion of cross-sectiou of bark of Tsiiga Canadensis, magni- 
fied about 50 diameters, c, c, c, secondary cork formation ; a, dead phloem 
tissues rich in coloring, resin and tannic matters ; s, s, stone cells ; in, ;«, 
medullary rays ; cr, crj^stal cell ; ca, cambium. 

Fig. 2. — Small portion of longitudinal -tangential section of the inner bark of 
Tsuga CaJiadensis, magnified about 75 diameters, a, a, medullary rays, the cells 
containing much starch ; b, b, stone cells ; c, row of cells containing crj'Stals 
of calcium oxalate ; s, cell containing oleo-resinous secretion. 

Fig. J. — A few of the crystals magnified 230 diameters. 

Fig. ^. — Small portion of cross-section of bark of Tsiiga Mertensiana, magni- 
fied about 50 diameters, c, c, c, bands of secondary cork ; a, intervening dead 
tissues composed of sieve and parenchymatous elements, and like the other 
species, rich in tannic, resinous and coloring matters ; s, s, groups of stone 
cells; ;;/, ni, relatively large, fusiform medullary-ray cells; b, band of 
large parench3'matous cells ; cr, cr3'stal cell ; ca, cambium cells. 

Fig. 5. — Small portion of longitudinal-tangential section of bark of Tsuga 
Mertensiana, magnified about 75 diameters. s, cluster of stone cells ; cr, 
crystals of calcium oxalate ; tn, in, medullary rajs ; r, oleo-resin cell. 

By Charles F. Carter, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical L,aboratory of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. No. 143. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia designates syrup of ferrous 
iodide as " a syrupy liquid, containing about lO per cent., by weight, 
of Ferrous Iodide [Fel2= 308-94], or about 13-4 gm. in 100 c.c." 

This preparation has always been considered as tedious to make, 
and also as difficult to maintain in a perfect state, on account of the 
unstable character of the ferrous compound, which is prone to 
decompose with the liberation of iodine. To guard against the 
presence of free iodine, the Pharmacopoeia orders that, to be 
official, a syrup should not show a blue color when it is mixed with 
a small quantity of starch test solution. 

^""•/u""'!!^*""-} Syriip of Ferrous Iodide. 363 

With the idea of ascertaining the condition of the article as sup- 
plied to the retail trade by manufacturing firms, ten samples were 
procured and examined in regard to both free iodine and amount of 
ferrous iodide contained. 

Some of the samples were obtained directly from the producers; 
the others were bought from retail pharmacists. 

That a comparison of the results might be made with those 
obtained from a product of the official process, the author prepared 
a sample by this means. It possessed the standard pale green 

The test with starch was employed to detect the presence of free 
iodine. The content of ferrous iodide in the samples was deter- 
mined by the official method, which consists of completely precipi 
tating the iodide, in the presence of nitric acid, by the addition in 
excess of a known volume of decinormal silver nitrate volumetric 
solution, and of subsequent titration of the excess of silver in the 
known volume with a decinormal potassium sulphocyanate volu- 
metric solution. 

The estimation is ordered to be performed in the presence of 
ferric ammonium sulphate, which will indicate, by the production 
of a red color of ferric sulphocyanate, upon the continued addition 
of the potassium sulphocyanate solution, the complete precipitation 
of the excess of silver. 

In adjusting the strength of the potassium sulphocyanate solu- 
tion, by titration against decinormal silver nitrate volumetric solu- 
tion, the Pharmacopoeia directs -5 c.c. of ferric ammonium sulphate 
test solution to be used as the indicator, whereas, in the estimation 
of ferrous iodide in the official syrup, it orders 5 c.c. of the same 
test solution. 

Tentative experiments having shown that the results obtained 
when the smaller volume was used were as uniform as those afforded 
in the presence of the larger volume, the smaller amount was 
adopted, for the reason that the solution of potassium sulphocya- 
nate was standardized by its aid. 

The following results show about one-half of the syrups of 
ferrous iodide placed on the market by manufacturing pharmacists 
to be of good quality. 

The percentage results were calculated from the amount of deci- 
normal potassium sulphocyanate volumetric solution over i c.c. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1895. 

required to completely precipitate the silver ; each c.c. in excess of 
this amount, which is prescribed by the Pharmacopoeia, denotes a 
deficiency of i per cent, of ferrous iodide. 

Number of Location of 







of Fel,. 



Greenish -brown 

Present in 
small amount 




Pale green ; later, 





Pale greenish- 





Pale green. 





Pale green. 





Pale green. 


7 '5 



Pale green. 






Present in 
large quantitj- 




Greenish brown. 





Pale green. 




Own make— Philadelphia 

Pale green. 



ihe experience of the author leads him to believe that the 
present official process, when conducted with the proper care, will 
furnish a syrup of good quality. In conclusion, he would recom- 
mend every one who makes or uses the preparation to test it, accord- 
ing to the Pharmacopoeia, for both free iodine and the amount of 
ferrous iodide, 


By Wilson C. McClosky, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy, No. 144. 

After defining benzin as " a purified distillate from American 
petroleum, consisting of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas 
series [C5Hj2, CgHj^, and homologous compounds]," the United States 
Pharmacopoeia describes it as " a transparent, colorless, diffusive 
liquid, of a strong, characteristic odor, slightly resembling that of 
petroleum, but much less disagreeable, and having a neutral reac- 
tion." The same authority assigns to benzin a specific gravity of 
•670 to 675 at 15° C.,and a boiling point of 50° to 60° Centigrade. 

To permit the purified distillate to contain hydrocarbons having 
more than six carbon atoms in the molecule is certainly to afford it 
a ripe opportunity to deviate from the stringent official require- 
ments in specific gravity and boiling point. 

^"•/ui^ila""-} Benzin. 365 

The existence of such a deviation must surely have been sus- 
pected by every pharmacist who has noticed the odor of the benzin 
usually handled by the trade. 

In order to determine the extent of this variation, the writer 
examined samples of benzin which were purchased at eighteen 
retail pharmacies and at five paint stores, all of which were located 
in Philadelphia. 

All of the samples were transparent and colorless. 

The odors were noted from equal volumes of the samples con- 
tained in vessels of the same capacity. When examining the table 
of results, the reader should understand the word " normal," when 
applied as the description of odor, to mean a freedom from the 
odor of petroleum. 

The samples were all neutral to litmus paper, and water agitated 
with them remained neutral to the same substance. 

While ascertaining this last fact, peculiar behaviors of some of 
the samples, when agitated with water, were noticed. 

When shaken in graduated cylinders with equal volumes of water 
and then permitted to rest, some of the samples demonstrated their 
conformity to the official requirement of insolubility in water, for 
the two layers that separated were equal in volume. But when 
other samples were treated with water in this manner an increase 
in the volume of the lower, or water, layer was noticed ; and when 
still other samples were subjected to this treatment the upper, or 
benzin, layer was found to have been increased. 

These observations were first made upon volumes of 10 c.c. each 
of water and sample. For the purpose of observing these phe- 
nomena from larger quantities, a line of experiments was instituted 
in which 50 c.c. of each liquid were employed. These experiments 
were attended with interesting results, for in the cases of some 
samples a strange reversion of the solubility occurred. When the 
experiments were repeated to insure certainty, the same behaviors 
were again observed. 

The specific gravities were taken at the temperatures of the 
samples with a Westphal balance. As the densities thus indicated 
were in almost all instances greater than 675, it was considered 
unnecessary to determine them at 15° C. 

The boiling point of each sample was found by distilling a conve- 
nient quantity (22 c.c. of each lot) from a fractioningbulb. A Centi- 
grade thermometer was inserted almost to the bottom of the bulb. 



( Am. Jour. Pliarni. 
I July, 1895. 

The lower temperature given in the chart was that at which the first 
distillate passed over, while the higher temperature was that regis- 
tered at the conclusion of the distillation, or when, approaching the 
end, the process was proceeding very slowly. 

Any liquid that refused to distil from the bulb upon prolonged 
application of the highest recorded temperature, was transferred to 
a warm dish. The residues of petroleum given in the chart were 
detected by this means. When a portion of each sample was boiled 
for a few minutes with one-fourth its volume of spirit of ammonia 
and a few drops of silver nitrate test solution, the ammoniacal 
liquids were not turned brown, thereby showing their freedom from 
pyrogenous products and sulphur compounds by this pharmacopoeial 
test. To obtain data for comparison, some kerosene was examined 
in the same manner as was the benzin. 

The results are furnished in the chart. 









V ■ 







in Dish. 

10 c.c. of each. 

50 c.c. of each. 





73° — 123° 








72° — 13,° 








66° — 100° 






4 SlighUy 



69° — 115° 





5 Decidedly 



80°— 135° 




' petroleum 


6 Decidedly 



55°- 96° 

Water in sample 




0-5 c.c. 

7 ! Slightly 



80°— 115° 

Water in sample 

Water in sample 


{ petroleum 


I c.c. 

8 Slightly 

•681 1 


67°— 121° 

Water in sample 

Water in sample 


' petroleum 


2 c.c. 


9 1 Decidedly 



65° — 109° 

Water in sample 

Sample in water 





I c.c. 

lo ' Decidedly 



78° — 102° 

Water in sample 

Sample in water 


1 petroleum 

I c.c. 


2*6 c.c. 

II Decidedly 



94° — 120° 


Sample in water 




6 c.c. 

12 Decidedly 



64° — 120° 


Sample in water 




13 Strongly 



97° - 137-5° 


Sample in water 





14 SlighUy 




Water in sample 

Water in sample 




I c c. 

15 Decidedly 



106° — i4S° 


Sample in water 





16 Decidedly 



60° — 105° 

Water in sample 

Sample in water 


I petroleum 

4 c.c. 



17 j Decidedly 



89° — 120° 

Sample in water 

Sample in water 



2 c.c. 



18 i SliehUy 



68° — 113° 


- None 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1895. 

Some Commercial A loins. 

367 from paint stores. 


II Odor. 







10 c.c. of each. 

50 c.c. of each. 

1 Slightly 

2 Decidedly 

3 Slightly 

4 Xormal 

5 Slightly 











50° — 109° 
970 - 139° 
91° — 146° 
94° — 128° 
93° - 123° 

149° — 200° 

Sample in water 

about o'5 c.c. 
Water in sample 

I c.c. 
Sample in water 

I c.c. 

Water in sample 

o'5 c.c. 



None None 

None Distinctly 


Sample in water Distinctly 

0-5 c.c. petroleum 

None Slightly 


None 1 Black 

None Distinctly 


By Chari^es H. La Wall, Ph.G. 
" Read not to contradict nor to believe, but to weigh and consider." 

The foregoing well-known precept from Lord Bacon was forcibly 
recalled by the contradictory statements made in the literature upon 
the subject of the aloins. Of all proximate plant principles there are 
few, if any, that have such a wide range of physical characteristics 
attributed to them as have these. 

The examination of a commercial sample of aloin, and the appli- 
cation of the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia for identity and 
purity, led the writer of this article to consult various authors for 
confirmation of certain ascribed properties. Instead of enlightenment 
upon the subject, confusion seemed to attend every inquiry as to its 
physical characters, especially that of solubility. Almost every 
author assigned a different degree of solubility to each of the several 
varieties, and few of these were actually verified upon examination 
of a number of samples from reputable manufacturers. 

These discrepancies led to a thorough review of the literature 
upon the subject, and a few references from different authorities are 
given in regard to its physical characters, together with the result 
of the examination of the commercial specimens, and it is hoped 
that with* the aid of others who may be interested in the subject, 
researches may be carried on which will eventually produce uni- 

^ Read before the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, June, 1895. 

368 Some Commercial A loins. [^""jX'm^""' 

formity and correctness in the requirements of our official guide 
with reference to this substance as well as numerous others. 

Aloes, which is the inspissated juice of various species of Aloe 
(Nat.Ord. Liliaceae), was mentioned by Celsus and Dioscorides, who 
lived in the first century A. D., and it was probably known for sev- 
eral centuries previous to this. Those persons wishing a complete 
history of the drug itself are referred to " FlUckiger's Pharmaco- 
graphia," and Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, 2d series, 
Vol. lo, page 1 06. 

In 1 85 1 a crystalline principle was isolated from Barbadoes aloes 
by T. and H. Smith.^ This principle was analyzed by Dr. Sten- 
house, who named it aloin, after proving it to be a neutral principle 
different from the previously-mentioned aloetin of Robiquet.- The 
discoverers of this new substance mentioned that one ounce of cold 
water only dissolved one grain of aloin, but that it was more soluble 
when warmed. 

In the same year Jonathan Pareira^ mentioned the possibility of 
the existence of a similar principle in Socotrine aloes. Five years 
later T. B. Groves* discovered an aloin in this variety, and the name 
of the previously-discovered principle was changed to Barbaloin to 
indicate the difference in the source of the two principles, which 
resembled each other in some respects, but behaved differently in 
their deportment with various reagents. 

Still later, Nataloin and Zanaloin were discovered, the former from 
Natal aloes, by Professor Fluckiger,^ in 1871, the latter by Histed, 
assisted by Fliickiger, in the same year, from Zanzibar aloes (a 
variety of Socotrine aloes imported via Zanzibar). Zanaloin was 
afterward pronounced identical with Socaloin. 

Dr. Shenstone*^ subsequently extracted an aloin from Jafiferabad 
aloes, which he found to be identical with Zanaloin and Socaloin. 
He then proposed that the confusing nomenclature of the aloins 
be changed ; Nataloin to be applied to the principle from Natal 
aloes, a-Barbaloin to the principle from Barbadoes aloes and 

1 Pharm.Jour. Trans, (i), 10, page 23. 

'Jour, de Pharm. (3), 10, 173. 

^ Pharm.Jour. Irans. (i), 11, 439. 

* Pharm. Jour. Trans, (i), 16,128. 

* Pharm. Jour. Trans. (3), 2, 193. 

* Phartn. Jour. Trans. (3), 13, 461. 

'*^'°'/u°iyy'iS^''"'} Some Commercial Aloins. 369 

/3-Barbaloin to the similar principle existing alike in Socotrine, 
Zanzibar and Jafferabad aloes. 

During the time of these discoveries and for some years after- 
ward many prominent investigators instituted researches for the 
purpose of clearing up the confusion which seemed to exist among 
these similar principles and also to investigate their therapeutical 
activity which some writers believed to be of little or no value. 
Among the names of writers who accomplished much in this respect 
are : T. and H. Smith, Stenhouse, Groves, Fliickiger, Histed, 
Pareira, Tilden, Dobson and Craig. 

Three distinct aloins were acknowledged to exist, Nataloin, Bar- 
baloin and Socaloin. Nataloin is seldom found in commerce, and at 
the last revision of the U. S. P., Barbaloin and Socaloin were given 
official recognition. 

In 1870, W. A. Tilden' made a thorough investigation of the 
subject in which he ascertained the following facts : Aloin in pure 
solutions is liable only to tardy alteration ; exposed to the air the 
solution deepens in color by absorption of oxygen ; this change is 
hastened by the addition of a small quantity of alkali to the 

Preparations of aloes upon standing for a long time, lose their 
bitterness without sensibly impairing their therapeutical activity 
and, in his opinion, aloin could not be considered the active con- 
stituent of aloes, as it possessed very little action. 

He was immediately contradicted by T. and H. Smith,- who con- 
tended that the dose of aloin bore a simple ratio to the dose of the 
drug itself and was of unvarying effect. 

Dr. VVm. Craig" in 1875, i^ ^^^ ^^le article, summed up his con- 
clusions regarding aloin in the following words: 

"(i) Aloin may, by exposure to air, undergo considerable chemi- 
cal change without losing its physiological activity as an active 

" (2) The resin when thoroughly freed from aloin possesses no 
purgative properties and, therefore, cannot be the active principle of 

* Pharm. Jour. '^rans. {3), 1, 375. 
^ Pharm. Jour. Trans. (3), 1, 402. 
3 A}n. four. Pharm., 47, 349. 

370 Some Commercial Aloins. {^^'i^\y,\l%^^'^^' 

"(3) The resin is not the cause of the griping which sometimes 
follows the administration of the drug. 

" (4) Aloin is an active aperient and is, in all likelihood, the active 
principle of aloes." 

This same author, at that time, favored its admission into the 
British Pharmacopceia. 

Another writer upon the subject, A. P. Brown,^ found aloin made 
from Barbadoes aloes to possess effects equal to the same dose of 
the drug, and also found that the extract made from the residue 
after the separation of the aloin was entirely destitute of purgative 
properties; two statements which seem to be mutually con- 

In 1887, J. F. Brown,- confessed his bewilderment in regard to 
the properties of aloin and reviewed the work of preceding investi- 

He showed numerous contradictory statements, mostly thera- 
peutical, and he also asks for information as to the true properties 
of a substance which was said to have the following solubilities, in 
water : i in 60, i in 90, i in 500, insoluble and freely soluble. 

The preceding extracts are typical examples of the contradictory 
nature of the entire literature upon the subject and it is not sur- 
prising that the properties of the commercial product of the present 
time should differ from the properties attributed to it by the early 

The following table shows a few of the solubilities ascribed by 
different authorities to the various aloins : 


Sol. in Water. Alcohol. 



15° C. 15° c. 

u. s. p. 

I — 60 I — 20 

I —470 


freely, warm freely, warm 
sparingly, cold sparingly, cold 


15° C. 15° C. 



U. S. P. 

I — 60 1 — 30 

I — 380 


1—90 1—30 


I —380 

According to : 

Gmelin's Handbuch 



Gmelin's Handbuch 

I — 600 readily 


Gmelin's Handbuch 

I — 10 1—2 (8&« ale.) 



1877. Proc. Amer. Pharni. Assoc, 401. 
Amer. four. Pharin., 59, 193. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
Julj , 1895. J 

Some Coviniercial Aloitis. 


Fehling's Handworterbuch 

Storer's Dictionary 
Wohler's Organic Chem. 
Phillips Mat. Med. and Therap 

Sohns' Diet. Act. Prin. Plants 
Ladenburg's Handworterbuch 




1 - 2 (86^; ale) 

I — S 

very soluble 


difficultly cold 

insol. cold 

readily, warm 


diff. soluble 

Sol. in IVater. 
I — 6cc 
I — 60 cold 
I — 5 boiling 
difficultly cold 
spanngh- cold 
readily, warm 
I — f 00 cold 
I — 10 boiling 
difficultly cold 
easily hot 

In the experiments upon commercial samples the solubility was 
taken at 25° C. instead of 15° C, as the latter temperature is seldom 
attainable for working purposes in an ordinary laboratory. 

The solubility in water was ascertained by placing i gramme of 
aloin in a stoppered and graduated cylinder and adding the solvent 
in small portions, agitating thoroughly after each addition until solu- 
tion was completed. It was observed that at a low temperature 
(15^ C) the aloin was only sparingly soluble, but at 25° C. it was 
dissolved with a perceptible deepening in color of the solution. 
The solubility in ether was ascertained by placing i gramme of 
aloin in a cylinder as before, adding 30 c.c. of ether and agitating 
occasionally for two hours, 20 c.c. of the filtered ether were then 
evaporated to dryness in a tared watch glass, and the solubility cal- 
culated from the weight of the residue. 

The solubility in alcohol was taken in the same manner as the 
solubility in water. The melting point was taken by placing a 
small quantity in a capillary tube and immersing the tube in melted 
paraffin along with a thermometer. The lowest temperature at 
which it became transparent in the thimnest part of the tube was 
observed as the melting point. 

The ash was calculated after incinerating a weighed portion in a 
platinum crucible. Notes were also made of the general appearance 
and microscopical characteristics of the different samples under 
consideration, and following is the report of their examination : 

Soluble in 

Soluble in 

Soluble in 





Per Cent. 












Distinct crystals, 

and crystal 

















Same as 
No. 2. 








Same as 
No. I 


Laboratory Notes. 

( Am. Jour. Pharoj. 

July, 1895. 

The variations in the properties attributed by the different authori- 
ties can only be accounted for upon the ground that the samples of 
aloin experimented upon varied greatly in purity. 

Upon referring to the samples examined by the writer it will be 
noticed that a distinct ratio exists between the solubility in water 
and the solubility in ether; thus number one is soluble in 800 parts 
of ether and only lOO parts of water, while number two is soluble 
in 2,500 parts of ether and 70 parts of water. The presence of a 
small amount of ether-soluble resin would partially account for 
this difference, and it is extremely probable that strictly pure aloin 
is soluble to a less extent than any of the figures given ; indeed 
one sample of aloin which was made by the writer was soluble in 
16,000 parts of ether, but as further experiments are be*ig made in 
this direction, it is hoped that something more definite regarding 
the solubility of strictly pure aloin can be reported in the near future. 
305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 


By Charles H. La Wall, Ph.G. 

(Read before the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, June, 1895. ) 

Peroxide of hydrogen is a recent addition to the U. S. P., and it 
is required that it -shall contain about 3 per cent., by weight, of 
absolute peroxide of hydrogen, corresponding to about ten volumes 
of available oxygen. 

Manufacturers of this preparation, while recognizing the fact 
that the solution, as commonly made, is not very stable, and easily 
loses strength during transportation and handling, are very careful 
that it shall not contain a large excess of the dioxide over the ten. 
volumes required. 

The following table shows the volume strength of twenty- 
five samples examined during the past few months : 














8 . 

9 • 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13 • 

14 . 


10 -06 
10 16 



16 . 

17 ■ 

18 . 

20 . 

21 . 


9 '35 

22 - . . 990 

23 . . . I0-02 

24 . . 10-28 

25 • • ■ 10-37 

Average of 25, 
9 "94 

Am. Jour. Pbarrn. 
July, 1895. 

Laboratory Notes. 



Oil of wintergreen is described officially as a volatile oil distilled 
from the leaves of Gaultheria procumbens, and although oil of 
sweet birch and methyl salicylate are no doubt often substituted for 
it in the market, the difference is so slight as scarcely to be detected. 

Following are the characteristics of a number of samples exam- 
ined by the writer since January i, 1895 J they were all offered as 
oil of wintergreen, and there was great uniformity among the samples, 
except as regards color, which varied from deep red to colorless. 
The specific gravity of a number of the samples was slightly higher 
than is required by the Pharmacopceia, which specifies from i-i/S 
to 1-185. 










Dark red. 



Light red 









Dark red. 
















Average of 15 samples 



















Light red. 














. . 1-1S4 



Two different grades of oil of turpentine are official ; the follow- 
ing samples represent the commercial variety. They show great 
uniformity in characteristics, and it is a matter of especial note that 
although the samples represent several hundred barrels of turpen- 
tine, there was only one specimen which was insoluble in three 
parts of alcohol : 


Solubility in 


Solubility in 






















. 154° 





10 . 







II . 







12 . 







13 • 







14 . 
















;rage of i 

5 samples . . 


153= c. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 

374 Editorial. {^'^/u'ly^iF^.''"- 




It is true that there are some members of the medical profession who are 
skilled chemists, and such have an advantage over their brethren which cannot 
be estimated. The great majority of physicians, however, are handicapped by 
dense ignorance of even the elements of chemistrj-, either because they have 
forgotten, or because the}' never knew. Most of these know enough to let the 
subject alone, but a few do not, and rush into print with statements that must 
be startling to the average chemist. 

We have been led to make these remarks by reading a paper on Calomel 
"read in the Section on Practice of Medicine, at the Forty-sixth Annual Meet- 
ing of the American Medical Association, at Baltimore, Md., May 7-10, 1895," 
and published in the journal of the Association, June i (Vol. 24, page 836). 

The author, very early in his paper, makes the following sweeping statement: 

"Calomel is subject to adulteration; to improper purification in manufacture; and to 
chemic changes both atmospheric and in chemic mixtures. Bichlorid of mercury is the most 
common impurity found in it, and this varies from the smallest trace to comparatii-tly large 
amounts. * * * 

" On the other hand, calomel may contain such large amounts of barium, calcium, lead 
and other impurities that its action is greatly lessened and rendered almost inert. With these 
thoughts before us, and a thorough know'.edge of making appropriate chemic tests for their 
confirmation, we can often explain untoward actions which might otherwise be attributed to 
a uure preparation." 

The inference to be drawn from the foregoing quotation is, that between 
adulteration and dilution the unfortunate patient to whom calomel is admin- 
istered has a very slim chance of recovery. 

As a matter of fact, calomel is very rarely adulterated, and still more rarely 
does it contain corrosive sublimate or any other impuritj-. Probably no oflScial 
chemical has received more study and care at the hands of manufacturing 
chemists than has calomel. Its production is attempted only by a verj' few of 
the largest manufacturers, which fact alone is somewhat of a safeguard, since 
an impure lot would certainl}- be traced to its origin. Then it does not occur 
in isolated crystals, as suggested by the author of the aforesaid paper, but is 
usuall}' amorphous, or nearlj- so; the Pharmacopoeia requiring it to be "a white 
impalpable powder, becoming yellowish-white on being triturated with strong 
pressure, and showing only small isolated crystals under a magnifying powfer 
of one hundred diameters." • 

That such a paper with such chemistrj' in it should have been read where it 
-was is not surprising; but not only was it printed with all its faultj* nomencla- 
ture in the journal of the Association, but it was discussed in the meeting in a 
way to give it support, except that one member questioned the statement about 
contamination with corrosive sublimate, and announced that he had, with the 
aid of a prominent chemist, been unable to find any samples of calomel that 
contained corrosive sublimate. The reader is staggered, however, by the fol- 
lowing statement from the same member: "We might have some oxid of 
calomel, but there was no single instance in which bichlorid of mercury was 

^""•/uTise" ""^ } Editorial. 375 

"Oxid of calomel" is a new compound to us, and "bichlorid of mercury" 
is without parallel as an illustration of ancient nomenclature and modern 
reform spelling of chem'cal terms. 

Where were the chemists in the meeting that such incongruous statements 
were allowed to go unchallenged ? 


Under the title of " Chicory in Belgium," Consul Henry C. Morris, in Con- 
sular Report No. 169, page 157, gives some statistics concerning the exportation 
of chicory from that country, which should engage the attention of every one 
in this country who is interested in maintaining our food supply at a reasonable 
standard. The consul evidently looks on the increased demand for chicory in 
this countr}- as commendable, while we are inclined to take the opposite 

Chicory has rather a bad name among pharmacists because it occasionally 
masquerades as taraxacum. It has long been used as a cheap adulterant and 
substitute for coffee in England and on the continent of Europe, and the result 
is that one rarely gets in those places the delicious cup of coflFee that he is 
accustomed to in the United States. 

In England the substitution and admixture has been carried to such an extent 
that coffee has, to a large extent, given wa}' to tea, which has become the pop- 
ular beverage. 

In the United States, on the contrarj-, coffee is the more popular of the two, 
because here it is the custom of many consumers to buy the coffee in an un- 
ground condition and either have it ground at once in their presence, or grind 
it at home as needed. Of course this does not apply to boarding houses and 
hotels, where cheaper grades are often employed, which means an admixture 
of chicory or some other cheap material. 

It is safe to saj' that no consumer of coffee ever goes to his grocer and de- 
mands chicory, or a mixture of that substance and coffee. Chicory yields a 
black, astringent infusion, which is devoid the stimulating and aromatic prop- 
erties that are a necessary part of coffee. 

All the statements about chicor}- being a healthy drink, recommended bj- the 
medical profession and beneficial to those suffering from disorders of the 
stomach, are fairy tales invented by those commercially interested in the sub-- 
stitution of it for coffee. 

The yearly chicory crop of Belgium amounts to about 350,000 tons, of which 
4,000 tons are sent to the United States. The growth of the demand for this 
adulterant in this country may be seen by the value of the imports of it from 
Belgium for five years as follows: 

1889 11,166 dollars. 

1890 39.440 

1S91 80,074 " 

^892 78,295 

1S93 129,662 " 

The report of Consul Morris has already called forth some criticism in one of 
our leading magazines, but the newspapers, as a rule, have echoed a favorable 

376 Editorial. {^"^zX^.m^^'' 

sentiment under the false impression that chicory would benefit the poor. 
Owing to the adverse criticism of his report, the same consul has seen fit to 
send another communication on the same subject, entitled "Chicory as a 
Beverage." (Consular Report No. 176, page 139, May, 1895). In this report he 
defends his former remarks, and advocates its use as a beverage because of its 
harmlessness, and because it is used in England, France and Belgium, under 
legal restrictions. 

We cannot see, however, that the weight of his argument is strengthened in 
the least. We cannot get legal restrictions in this country; popular sentiment 
is stronger to keep an objectionable article out, and on that we must depend. 

Chicory belongs in company with prepared and roasted beet roots, rye bread, 
acorns and all the other coffee substitutes that are utterly devoid of the proper- 
ties for which coffee is employed. 

It would be an excellent substance for Congress to place a high duty upon, 
for it is not demanded by the consumer, and can only be sold under some other 
name, or in a mixture. 


There is no doubt that the members of the medical profession, as a class, are 
opposed to patent medicines. The encouragement which these remedies occa- 
sionally^receive from physicians is usually due to carelessness or inexcusable 

The American Medical Association, at its May meeting in Baltimore, placed 
itself clearly on record in regard to this subject, and in a manner that is highlj' 
commendable. It involves a much needed reform in the Association's journal, 
as shown by the following extract from the report of the Board of Trustees con- 
cerning that journal : 

" During the year no advertisements of secret remedies have been accepted that were not 
accompanied by a formula, but to still further comply with what appears to be the desire of a 
large number of those interested in the highest success of the Journal, the editor, with the 
termination of present contracts, has been instructed to accept no advei-tisemeuts of medici- 
nal preparatious, the proprietors of which do not give a formula containing the official or 
chemic name and quantity of each composing ingredient, to be inserted as a part of the 

This report was adopted with considerable enthusiasm, and we think the 
Board need not have used the guarded language it did by saying the}' proposed 
to " comply with what appears to be the desire of a large number, " for the sen- 
timent of those present not only appeared to be, but actually was unanimous. 

As many of the advertisements in the above-mentioned journal, as well as in 
many other medical journals, have long been a standing disgrace to the profes- 
sion they represent, we, more than a month after the meeting, made an examin- 
ation of the advertising pages of the Association's journal, but were unable to 
notice that any decided change had taken place. We, therefore, concluded that 
the advertisers' contracts had not expired. 

There were, however, a number of advertisements in which the formulas were 
given, and the conclusion was that their contracts had expired, or else they 
were preparing to renew. 

Two of these formulas were so unique, and at the same time so interesting, 
that we venture to enlighten our readers by reproducing them here, as follows : 

^"•/u^^:-!^"'"-} Editorial. 377 


" A combination of coal tar derivatives of the series C^ H3n_e. into which the amines have 
entered, forming the various amido-compounds. Antikamnia has as its base the derivatives 
of the amido-benzoles, so combined as to ob%-iate the bad effects caused bj' manj- of this series 
of organic bodies when administered alone." 


'■ Eucaiyptol. Campho-Thymic Acid, Hydrous Chloral." 

No possible good can result from publishing such formulas as these. They 
are simply ridiculous, and the Journal of the American Medical Association, 
by admitting them, lays itself open to the possibility of being considered the 
most " gullible " medical journal on the face of the earth. 

There is no secret about the faculty necessarj- to decide what should be 
admitted. We could name a dozen members of the medical profession who 
possess that inborn knowledge that would enable them to decide almost in a 
moment on the admissibility of an advertisement. The result, however, would 
be such a " clean sweep " in the advertising pages of the K^%ocm\S.on's Journal 
as to be apparent to the most casual reader. 

There is another lesson to be derived from these so-called formulas. We 
have heard a great deal in the past few years about legislation to control the 
manufacture and sale of patent medicines, and nearly all of the suggestions are 
based on the publication of the formula on the label. But the experience of 
the American Medical Association shows us that it will be necessary to define 
what shall constitute a formula. 


There are many ways of viewing almost everj' subject, and alcohol legislation 
is not an exception. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has endorsed rec- 
ommendations to the Secretary of the Treasury asking for the enforcement of 
the present law, as it is believed it would be to the advantage of the' pharma- 
cist. The Chicago Retail Druggists^ Association, however, takes a different 
view of the subject, and has sent the following fesolutions to many State Asso- 
ciations asking for their adoption: 

Resolved, That this association favors the repeal of the clause in the present 
tariflf law exempting alcohol used in manufactures from internal revenue 
taxation, on the ground primarily that the law in its present form would inevi- 
tably be attended with gross discrimination against the retail druggist, and 
great resulting loss to his business and profession, and with no material advant- 
age to the people to compensate for the serious loss to the national revenue 
from the remission of the said tax. 

Resolved, That a special Committee on National Legislation, to consist of 
three members, be appointed with authority to act independently, or in co-op- 
eration with such similar committees as may be appointed b}- other pharma- 
ceutical associations, in behalf of measures promotive of the interests of legiti- 
mate pharmac}' and the retail drug trade as said interests may be affected by 
national legislation, including specificallj' the said law relating to alcohol taxa- 
tion, the laws concerning trade-marks, copyrights and patents as related to 
medicinal preparations, and the law imposing an annual tax on druggists as 
retail liquor dealers. 

37^ Reviews. { "^'"•/uly^rsa"'"'"' 

It is the hope of the undersigned committee that your association will act 
without delay in this important matter, and thus enable the sentiment of the 
retail drug trade of the country properly to make itself known, and to assert its 
due influence in behalf of right legislation and against such laws as may be 
inimical to the profession and trade. 

This committee hopes to be favored with notice of the appointment of the 
committee suggested, with names and addresses of the members. All com- 
munications relating to this letter should be addressed to A. E. Ebert, Secre- 
tary, State and Polk Streets, Chicago. 

We have the honor to be, with fraternal regards, 

William Bodemann, 
Albert E. Ebert, 
George P. Engelhard, 
Committee Chicago Retail Druggists' Association. 


Katechismus der Stochiometrie, mit besonderer Riicksichtname auf die 
Bediirfnisse der Studierenden der Pharmazie, Medizin und Technik. Sechste 
Auflage. Albert und Hermann Frickhiuger. Miinchen, 1895. 284 Seiten. 

Catechism of Stoichiometry, with special reference to the needs of students 
of pharmacy, medicine and technics. Sixth edition. Albert and Hermann 
Frickhinger, Munich. 1S95. 284 pp. 

The first edition of this little manual appeared in 1844, under the authorship 
of the elder Frickhinger, an apothecary of Nordlingen, who continued it 
through five editions, the last appearing in 1873. Now, with the aid of his 
son, it is again brought out in a new edition, the sixth. The book has been 
verj^ popular in Germany, and, indeed, seems to us to be a verj- handy and 
useful book for the classes of students referred to in the title. It is written in 
the form of a series of questions and problems, to which full answers and solu- 
tions are given, with all needed explanations. It includes first simple arith- 
metical problems, then questions on the subjects of volume and notation of 
elements and the rules for the formation and naming of molecules, the names, 
formulse and molecular weights of all compounds likely to interest the phar- 
macist or medical student, practical problems in volumetric and gravimetric 
analysis, and lastly, on the main outlines of chemical theory. A very full 
index completes the work, and makes it thoroughly available for ready refer- 

On the Speed of the Liberation of Iodine in Mixed Solutions of 
Potassium Chlor.\te, Potassium Iodide and Hydrochloric Acid, By 
Herman Schlundt. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, Science Series, 
Vol. I, No. I. Madison, Wis. 1894. 

We should have more contributions like this from our pharmaceutical 
schools. The author takes up a subject in chemical dynamics and sj-stem- 
atically pushes it to a successful conclusion. The results can best be under- 
stood by quoting the conclusions as follows : 

(i) The speed of the reaction is influenced to a marked degree by the 
temperature, the speed increasing with the rise of temperature. 

^°^ju?y:is^«5"'"'"-} Reviews. . 379 

(2) The presence in the mixture of an excess of one or more of the compo- 
nents increases the speed. The effect of an excess of potassium iodide is 
about the same as an equivalent excess of potassium chlorate. But a corre- 
sponding excess of acid causes a greater increase of speed. 

(3) Other things being equal, the speed of the reaction is modified by degree 
of concentration of the mixtures, the speed increasing with the concentration. 

(4) To obtain the complete reduction of potassium chlorate bj' potassium 
iodide and hydrochloric acid in a comparatively short time, the solutions must 
be concentrated, there must be quite an excess of both potassium iodide and 
hydrochloric acid, and the mixture must be strongly heated. 

(5) The presence of an excess of the ordinary inorganic acids accelerates the 
reaction. Assuming their respective influences as indicating their relative 
strengths, the results on acceleration show the following order of strength : 
(i) hydrobromic ; (2) hydrochloric ; (3) nitric ; (4) sulphuric. 

(6) Organic acids and boric acid do not increase the speed. 

Ueber Secrete und Secretbildung. Von Prof. Dr. A. Tschirsch. 
Reprint from Zeitschrift des Allgemeinen osterr. Apotheker-Vereines. No. 
30. 1894. 

Weitere Mittheilung uber das Kupfer vom Standpunkte der 
ToxiKOLOGiE. Von Prof. Dr. A. Tschirsch. Reprint from Zeitschrift des 
Allgem. osterr. Apotheker-Vereines. No. 35. 1894 

UxTERSUCHUNGEN UBER DIE SECRETE. Mitgetheilt vou A. Tschirsch. 
10 Ueber den Tolubalsam. Von Paul Oberlander. Reprint from Archiv 
der Pharmacie, 232, 7 und 8 Heft., 559. ir Ueber den Succinit. Von 
E. Aweng. Reprint from Archiv der Pharmacie, 232, 9 Heft. 

Semi-Annual Report of Schimmel & Co. April, 1895. 


Chemie der N.ahrungs-und Genussmittel. Neunter Jahrgang, Viertes 

Free Hydrochloric Acid— Is its Absence from the Stomach a Sign 
OF Cancer ? By Richard B. Faulkner, M.D. Reprinted from the Journal of 
the American Medical Association, March 2, 1895. 

A Treatise on the Wine of Cod-Liver Oil with Peptonate of Iron. 
Detroit. Frederick Stearns & Co. 

The following new periodicals relating to pharmacy have recently appeared : 

Annates de Pharmacie is a monthly journal devoted to practical pharmacy, 
pharmacognosy, foods, chemistry, toxicology, microscopy, hygiene, profes- 
sional interests and legislation. The editor is Fernand Ranwez, pharmacist at 
Louvain, Belgium, and the publisher is Louis Honart, likewise a pharmacist, at 
the same place. The first number starts out well with original articles on the 
"Adulteration of Saffron," " Syrups of the Belgian Pharmacopoeia" and 
■' Pharmacy in Belgium at the present time." There are also reviews from other 
journals — varieties, notes and bibliography. The two succeeding numbers 
which have reached us are fully equal to the first. 

Medicine. — A monthly journal of medicine and surgery, edited by Harold 
N. Moyer, M.D., and published by George S. Davis, Detroit, Mich. The 
first number consists of sixty-four pages, and is made up of a number of 
original papers by well-known medical writers, and of a comprehensive 
review of the progress of medical science and literature. 

38o Pharmaceutical Meeting. {"'""z^xylmh!"^' 

The Buffalo Druggist is a claimant for honors in the field of pharmaceu- 
tical literature ; it is devoted to the advancement of pharmacy and the inter- 
ests of the general drug, paint and oil trade. 

The Graduate, which has been issued annually by the Alumni Association 
of the Chicago College of Pharmacy, will in future appear quarterly. 

Proceedings of the Missouri State Pharmaceutical Association, 
held at Excelsior Springs, Mo., June 12 to 15, 1894. A number of original 
papers appear in the volume, some of which have already been printed in this 


The meeting was held Tuesday, May 21st, at 3 P.M. Prof. F. X. Moerk, 
Ph.G., was elected Chairman. 

On motion the reading of the minutes of the last meeting was dispensed 

A specimen of Chenc goinnie, an educt of the Sperniolepes tannifera, was 
presented to the cabinet by Prof. E. Haeckel, an honorary member of our 
College, residing at Marseilles, France. It is said to contain about 25 per cent, 
to 30 per cent, of tannin. The gum is obtained in Algiers, and is said to be very 
abundant there. 

Mr. Henry N. Rittenhouse, Ph.G., presented a specimen of California licorice 
root, gathered in San Joaquin Valle}-, where it has been growing wild for twenty- 
years under rather unfavorable circumstances. 

A paper upon the Tannin of Cloves, by W. L. Peabody, Ph.G., was presented. 
His attention was called to the subject bj- the statement that cloves contained 
18 per cent, of tannin. The samples examined showed the presence of 10 03 
to 13 '35 per cent, of tannin. A cheap specimen of cloves showed 5 per cent, of 
tannin ; examination showed the tannin to be identical with nutgall-tannin. 
It was thought that the percentage of tannin might be used as a means of form- 
ing a proximate judgment regarding the purity of cloves, as a tannin-bearing 
substance would not likely be used as a sophistication. 

Anatolian Licorice Root was the subject of a paper by James W. Nickum, 
Ph G., of Salt Lake City, Utah. From this paper we learn that the root con- 
tains 23-84 per cent, of extract by the use of acetone, but it yields less with 
ethj'lic alcohol. Turkish root yielded i4"o6 ; Spanish root, 7 02 ; Persian root, 
7 '02 with acetone. Anatolia is a corruption of the word Andoli, and the district 
meant by this term is almost identical with Asia Minor. 

The remaining paper of pharmaceutic character was one by Miss Florence 
Yaple, of Chillicothe, Ohio, upon Twelve Varieties of Commercial Cocoas. 
The examination showed that there had been little or no adulteration practiced 
in an}- of the specimens tested. The papers in full are contained in the June 
number of the Journal. 

There being no further business, a motion to adjourn was made and carried. 


^°°jutv!"if95"'"'} Pharmaceutical Associations. 381 



The Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association held its eighteenth annual 
meeting at Eagle's Mere, Penna., June iS to 21, 1S95. 

The pleasant surroundings, the fine weather and the admirable combination 
of business and pleasure made this one of the most notable meetings in the 
history of the Association; although the attendance was not so large as that on 
a number of previous occasions, }-et the sessions were attended by a large num- 
ber of those present, and almost everyone took an active part in the proceed- 

The President, W. H. Reed, in his address reviewed the condition of the pro- 
fession during the past year and made a number of suggestions whereby the 
Association might be improved; these suggestions were on reference to a com- 
mittee, nearly all adopted at a subsequent session. Delegates were in attend- 
ance from the Associations of New York State, New Jersey and Maryland. 

The Secretary reported on the general condition of the Association and gave 
a detailed account of the publication of the proceedings. The Treasurer was 
able to show a ver\- satisfactory condition of the Association's finances. 

The following officers were elected: 

President, H. N. Coxe; First Vice-President, John H. Hahn, Second Vice- 
President, D. M. Krauser; Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger; Secretary, J. A. Miller; 
Executive Committee, A. R. Durham, W. S. Seabold, J. H. Knouse. 

Resolutions were adopted favoring the betterment of the pharmacist in the 
armj' and nav}-, and asking that his rank be made that of assistant surgeon. 

The subject of tax-free alcohol was brought up and a subsequent session was 
set apart for its consideration. 

At this session the resolutions of the Chicago Retail Druggists' Association 
on this subject were read, as well as the combined circulars of the National 
Wholesale Druggists" Association, the Philadelphia Drug Exchange and the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

After some discussion the Association placed itself on record as favoring tax- 
free alcohol as recommended by the circular of the three last-named associa- 

J. W. Miller explained the intentions of the Uni%'ersal Trade Association of 
Retail Druggists, and asked for an endorsement of their plan of dealing with 
various evils which injure the pharmacist. This Association, with headquarters 
at Detroit, Michigan, proposes, with a million dollars capital, to furnish stamps 
to manufacturers by which the packages ma}- be traced to the one who offers 
it at a cut rate. This plan was at first endorsed, but at a subsequent session it 
was reconsidered and after much discussion it was decided to recommend the 
formation of a national retail druggists' association, without specifying the 
particular one at Detroit. 

C. T. George presented the report of the Committee on Legislation which 
was adopted. 

W. L. Cliffe read the report of the Committee on Adulteration, and gave the 
results of analysis of prescriptions compounded by one druggist of Phila- 
delphia. The sum of «2oo was directed to be placed at the call of the Com- 

382 Pharjuaceutical Associations. 1^°° JuiyViws"™' 

George J. Seabury was elected an honorary member. A number of dele- 
gates and committees reported, and then one whole session was given to the read- 
ing of papers. 

C. H. La Wall read a paper on Commercial Aloins (see page 367), and one 
on Laboratory Notes on Peroxide of Hydrogen, Oil of Wintcrgreen and Oil of 
'^urpentifie (see page 372). 

Papers on The Sabbath as a Day of Rest, were offered by C. R. Lowe, D. M. 
Krauser and Emile Ott. 

C. B. Lowe presented a paper ou The Pharmacy /^azv of Pennsylvania and its 
Administration, in which he delicately drew attention to some of the defects in 
the law, as well as weakness in the past administration. C. T. George in dis- 
cussing the paper admitted som.e of the short-comings of the Board of Pharm- 
acy, and satisfactorily explained them. It was evidently the prevailing opinion 
that the members of the Board should receive more money, and that their com- 
pensation should come directly from the State Treasury, and not be paid by 
the pharmacists of the State as at present. 

A paper by Louis Emanuel was read. It was in answer to query No. 23 : 
How may the Pharmacy Lazv be Efficiently Enforced j' 

He illustrated some of the difficulties of enforcing the law, and showed that 
when properly enforced it would protect the public as well as the members of 
the pharmaceutical profession. 

John F. Patton read an interesting paper on Tendencies. After numerous 
illustrations of the tendency of the human race in general, the author con- 
sidered the tendency of the pharmacist in particular, as follows : 

The present status of pharmacy is that of evolutiou, with a strong tendency to eliminate 
the pharmacist. The large pharmaceutical manufacturers, with their wealth, enterprise and 
acknowledged ability, have not only relieved the pharmacist from the labor of making his 
own preparations, but they have instructed the physician as to the value of the remedies, and 
aided him in his practice by applying the same. Ethically, this is all wrong ; but it is 
business. It has tended, however, to the degradation of the profession, and reduced the 
practice of medicine to a mere matter of consulting manufacturers' catalogues and price-lists, 
to say nothing of the great damage it has done to legitimate pharmacy. Thus, the queer 
anomaly is presented of reversing the order of therapeutics, by fitting the disease to the 
remedy, instead of the medicine to the disease. 

The enterprise of the manufacturer dots not stop here. We observe a tendency to eliminate 
the physician also. For, do we not find treatment and dosage, with other information 
conducive to self-medication, plainly printed on their packages? Having, by the aid of the 
physician, introduced their products to the consumer, they would now instruct the latter to 
do without the services of the former — a case of base ingratitude. 

A paper was read on A Glance at the Contributions of Dr. Priestly to Phar- 
maceutical Science, by the late Mrs. Susan C. McCay, a lineal descendant of Dr. 
Priestly. This paper is of considerable historical interest. 

A Record of 1,000 Poison Sales was the title of a paper by Emile Ott. This 
gave a list of poisons called for in a Philadelphia store. Laudanum headed the 
list, having been called for 284 times. It was closely followed by " Rough on 
Rats," 275 times, and Paris green 245 times. There was then a decided drop to 
corrosive sublimate. So times. A total of 41 articles were given, representing 
1,038 sales. A large number were called for but once. 

The remaining papers were: A Country Drtig Store, by S. H. Hill; Cata- 
loguing a Drug Store, by C. B. Lowe ; Percolating Opium, A Tabulated 

'^'"■ju*iy!;ifft5"'^'} Pharmaceutical Associations. 383 

List of Poisons and Aromatic Elixir, by Em-ile Ott; Sponges, by William 

B. Burk. 

Some additional reports, and the installation of officers concluded the pro- 

Gettysburg Springs was selected as the place for holding the next meeting, 
on June 9, 1S96. 


The eleventh annual meeting of this Association was held at Lake Minne- 
tonka, ]Minn., June 11 to 13, 1S95. 

The following officers were elected : President, William Gausewitz : \'ice- 
Presidents, L. Trautman, M. A. Sheldrup and Miss Emma Combacker ; Secre- 
tarj' and Treasurer, C. T. Heller ; Executive Committee, S. H. Reeves, A. T. 
Hall and J. L. Stiles. 

The leading paper was by Dr. J. W. Harrah, on Trade Interests. The com- 
mittee, of which he w£.s chairman, advised the formation of a corporation 
consisting of members of the State Association to manufacture household 
remedies, to advertise them, and to promote their sale in preference to patent 
medicines. The Association, as a body, heartily endorsed this recommenda- 

G.-H. Webster presented a paper on the Benefit of Ptiannacy Lazvs. 

Prof. J. P. Remington delivered a lecture on Prescription Difficulties, to a 
large and appreciative audience. 

Ttie Best Means for a Retail Druggist to Advertise, was the subject of a prac- 
tical paper by Truman Griffin, and The Pharmacopcsia was the title of one by 

C. R. Marelius. 

The second Tuesday of June; 1896, was decided on as the time for holding 
the next meeting, and Lake Minnetonka was selected as the place. 


The ninth annual session of the Florida State Pharmaceutical Association 
convened in the city of Jacksonville, Fla., May 8th, at the New Duval Hotel. 

The meeting was presided over by President F. P. McElroy, of Dade City, 
with R. J. Martinez, of Jacksonville, Secretary. 

President McElroy introduced Mayor Fleeter. The latter extended a heart}- 
welcome to the members, and spoke of the good work that was to be accom- 
plished b}- the Association. 

President McElroy responded in a few words, thanking the Maj-or for the 
kind words expressed, and then read his annual address. He then spoke of 
the importance of the Association, both to the members and people of the 
State. He advocated a change being made in the present State pharmaceutical 
laws, so that general stores could not carry a line of drugs and medicines unlass 
compounded by a duly registered pharmacist, as is necessary in places of more 
than 200 inhabitants, under the present State law. The President also sug- 
gested that a change in section 2 of the law, so that physicians could not com- 
pound their own medicines, and thus take legitimate trade away from the drug 
stores and pharmacies. 

The Committee on Legislation reported that a draft of the amendments 
desired had been prepared and placed in proper hands, with the assu«ance that 
the matter would have attention. 

384 Obituary. {^"XTs'^T"' 

The reports of Secretarj- Martinez and Treasurer Clark were read, and, upon 
motion, approved. 

The afternoon session was largely taken up on matters relating to the v;ork 
of pharmacists. An interesting letter on "Saw Palmetto," written by Dr. J. 
M. Dixon, of Titusville, was read. 

Officers were elected for the ensuing year, as follows : President, W. I. Wood- 
man, St. Augustine ; First Vice-President, J. A. Conover, Jacksonville ; Second 
Vice-President, Dr. Mendoza, Tampa ; Third Vice-President, J. H. Pittmann, 
Tampa ; Secretary, M. W. Stewart, Palatka ; Treasurer, Francis Lawton, Jack- 
sonville ; Local Secretary, H. R. Thomas, Jacksonville. 

Committees were appointed by the President, and it was decided to hold the 
next meeting at Jacksonville, the time to be decided by the Executive Com- 

The Association then adjourned sine die. 

M. W. Stewart, Secretary. 

Palatka, Fla. 

John S. Newton, Ph.G. 

Dr. John S. Newton, Ph.G., Class of 1866, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 
29, 1842, and died at his late residence, 4031 Brown Street, West Philadelphia, 
August 18, 1894, of Bright's disease, aged 52 years, 2 months and 20 days. 

He was the oldest son of Ralph and Emily Newton, and received his educa- 
tion in the Locust Street Grammar School and Central High School, and was 
afterwards made assistant professor of the latter. 

He learned the drug business with his father and his brother, Alfred W. 
Newton, Ph.G., Class of 1864, was his preceptor, while he attended the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, and graduated in the Class of 1866. He also 
attended the Jefferson Medical College, and graduated as a physician in 1867. 
He was married, in 1871, to Miss Frances Taylor, of Troy, N. Y., who died in 
September, 1S83, leaving two daughters, who survive them. In 1879, he was 
engaged in the drug business in Columbus, Ga., where he contracted the fatal 
disease; afterwards he removed to Philadelphia, and located in West Phila- 
delphia, where he practiced medicine up to the time of his decease. He was 
a member of Pennsylvania Lodge, No. 144, Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
and American Castle, No. 35, Knights of the Golden Eagle. His funeral ser- 
vices were held at Calvary P. E. Church, Forty-first and Brown Streets, on the 
following Tuesday, August 21, 1895, the interment being private. He was a 
member of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
which he joined March 16, 1866. W. E. K. 

Edward C. Jones, Ph.G. 

Edward C. Jones, Ph.G., was bom on Fifth Street above Market, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., August 26, 1843, and died suddenly, at Media, Pa., May 29, 1895, 
aged 51 years 9 months and 3 days. 

He was the son of Wm. and Jane P. Jones. His parents were members of 
the Society of Friends (Orthodox). Edward in early childhood was in delicate 

^"^j'u?y":ilE""-} Obituary. 385 

health aud was sent to Friends' Select School, Philadelphia, where he received 
his early training, and afterwards was sent to Westtown Boarding School, 
Chester County, Pa., where he finished his education. September 6, 1S60, 
when 17 j-ears of age, he went to learn the drug business with Amos H. 
Yarnall, at the southeast corner Fifteenth and Market Streets, and remained 
with him four years ; during his apprenticeship he attended the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and graduated with the Class of 1864, being second in 
class, his thesis being entitled " Leptandra Virginica." 

During this year the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was organized, and Edward was one of its projectors, and through 
his untiring eflForts in the early days of its existence is due the high place she 
holds to-day among the graduates of the College. In 1S68, he was elected 
Treasurer of the Association, and has held that honorable position up to the 
time of his decease, a period of twenty-seven years. 

On the 13th of March, 1866, he was elected a member of the College, and 
has alwa3-s taken an active interest in its affairs. On the 30th of March, 1874, 
he was elected by his fellow-members of the College as a member of the Board 
of Trustees, and he continuously served the Institution as Trustee up to the 
daj' of his death, over twenty-one years. In 1864, he became a member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, and was present at the meeting held at 
Cincinnati, O., and has attended almost every annual session since. 

He became a member of the Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion at its organization, and has attended almost all of its sessions and was a 
faithful and zealous advocate of any improvement or advancement in the 
Pharmaceutical profession. 

After his graduation from the College he went to Chicago, 111., and spent a 
short time in the laboratory of E. H. Sargent, and afterwards in the drug store 
of W. J. M. Gordon, Cincinnati, O.; but his health failed him, and he returned 
to his native city and entered into business with his former preceptor, at the 
old-established store, southeast corner Fifteenth and Market Streets. In 1877, 
his partner, Mr. Yarnall, died, when Mr. Jones succeeded him at the head of 
the firm of Jones & Shaw, and shortly afterwards Mr. Shaw retired from the 
firm ; when Wm. B. Thompson was associated with him under the firm name of 
E. C. Jones & Co., and still later Mr. Thompson also retired, when Wm. H. 
Earl entered the firm, which continued until 1889, when they became involved 
and Mr. Jones retired from the business, since which time he has been with the 
firm of Robt. Shoemaker & Co., Fourth and Race Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
as salesman. 

Edward C. Jones was highly esteemed by all who knew him, and had a host 
of friends among the graduates of the College. He had always taken an active 
interest in all the affairs of the pharmaceutical profession. 

He was a consistent member of the Orthodox branch of the Society of 
Friends, and took a deep interest in all of the affairs of the Society. 

His sudden death was a great surprise and shock to his many friends. The 
day previous he was at his usual avocation, visiting many of the drug stores 
in the western portion of the city. He returned to his home in Media appar- 
ently as well as usual and quite cheerful. He retired to his room about 11 
o'clock, after having spent the evening in writing ; early the next morning 
his sister called to him, and, receiving no response, she entered his room, and 

386 Nezus and Notes— Formulas. {'^"/u'ly'i^s""'- 

found that he had passed quietly away a few hours before without a struggle. 
We shall miss his genial face and kindly disposition, but we feel assured 
that our loss has been his eternal gain. He was never married, and leaves 
an only sister and two brothers to inourn his loss. 

W. E. K. 


Henry Kraemer, well known as the Reporter on Progress of Pharmacy in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, has accepted the chair of Materia 
Medica and Pharmacognos}^ in the Illinois College of Pharmacy. He will 
devote a year to study in Europe, before assuming his duties in Chicago. Pro- 
fessor Kraemer recently received the degree'of Ph.B., after a four years' course 
at Columbia College, New York. 

J. B. Nagelvoort has been ap'pointed Professor of Applied Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry at the Illinois College of Pharmacy. He has for a number of years 
been in the analj-tical department of Parke, Davis & Co., at Detroit. 

N. Gray Bartlett, after many j'ears' service as Professor of Pharmaceutical 
and Organic Chemistry in the Chicago College of Pharmac}', has resigned. 
The position has been filled by the appointment of Prof. W. A. Puckner. 



Solution of ammonia 7 parts. 

Collodion 3 " 

Salicylic acid 03 " 


Salicylic acid 20 grammes. 

White wax 25 " 

Lanolin 55 " 


Chrysarobin 10 grammes. 

Salicj-lic acid 20 " 

White wax 20 " 

Lanolin 50 " 



AUGUST, i8gj. 

By L. E. Sayre, 
Member of Research Committee C, Revision Committee of U. S. P. 

The two barks, Viburnum prunifolium and Viburnum opulus, 
have been for some time almost equally popular among practitioners. 
Wherein lies the advantage of one over the other, therapeutically, 
is, perhaps, difficult for one to say without more data than is at 
present at our command ; but, as far as my investigations have 
gone, it appears that the prunifolium is more frequently depended 
upon in neuralgia of the ovaries, that the opulus is most useful in 
uterine and ovarian pain, in dysmenorrhea and pains of that class, 
and that it is more often depended upon for prevention of abortion 
whether accidental or habitual. But it is not so much a question 
of therapeutical merits of the one or the other of these barks which 
so much engages the attention of the pharmacist, as it is the phys- 
ical characteristics which will enable one to assure himself of their 

The Pharmacopoeia describes these two barks as follows : 


" In flattish or curved bands, or occasionally in quills, sometimes 30 centi- 
metres long, and from i to i'5 millimetres thick; outer surface ash-gra}-, marked 
with scattered, somewhat transversely elongated warts of a brownish color, due 
to abrasion, and more or less marked with blackish dots, and chiefly in a longi- 
tudinal direction, with black, irregular lines or thin ridges ; underneath the 
easily-removed corky layer of a pale brownish or somewhat reddish-brown 
color ; the inner surface dingy white or brownish ; fracture tough, the tissue 
separating in layers ; inodorous ; taste somewhat astringent and bitter." 


" In thin pieces or quills, glossy purplish-brown, with scattered warts and 
minute black dots ; when collected from old wood, grayish-brown ; the thin, 


388 Vilmrmim Priinifolunu. {'"'a-S^^'^s'''"' 

corky layer easily removed from the green layer ; inner surface whitish, 
smooth; fracture short ; inodorous; somewhat astringent and bitter." 

Among the problems presented to Research Committee C by its 
chairman, Dr. H. H. Rusby, is one which relates to the question of 
discrimination of these two barks, particularly in the crushed or 
powdered condition, and one relating to the distinction between the 
bark of the root and bark of the stem of Viburnum prunifolium. 
Entering upon the investigation, I have formulated the problem as 
follows : 

(i) What are the distinguishing characteristics which will identify 
the bark of the stem and the bark of the root of Viburnum pruni- 
folium ? 

(2) How can one distinguish between the bark of Viburnum 
prunifolium and V. opulus ? 

(3) What are the differential characteristics of these barks which 
will enable one to distinguish between them in the crushed condi- 
tion or in the state of powder ? 

Before seriously taking up the third question, it is necessary to 
have clearly before one the gross characteristics of these barks, and 
to understand the relation between them structurally as well. At 
the sam.e time, it is essential that such a knowledge of the constitu- 
ents be had as shall enable one to compare them pharmaceutically. 

It is the object of this paper to lay before those who desire to 
contribute to the work a statement of what has been done thus far 
in answering the first and second questions. I am gratified to state 
that there are those, even outside of the committee, who have inter- 
ested themselves in the work, and who desire such a statement. It 
is this that has suggested this paper. 

For authentic specimens for the investigation I am indebted to 
Dr. H. H. Rusby. These were as follows : 


I. Viburmnn opulus. — Trunk bark, commercial specimen from 
Parke, Davis & Co, Curved pieces from 6 to 10 inches (150 to 
250 mm.) in length, and about yV inch (2 mm.) in thick- 
ness, the inner surface usually with strips of the white wood adher- 
ing. The bark consists of three layers, the periderm, a green chlo- 
rophyll layer, and a yellowish or brownish-yellow inner bark. The 
periderm is nearly smooth, especially on the younger bark, greenish 
or greenish-gray, marked with greenish and whitish patches, and 

"^""iugustjiis""-} Viburnum Prunifolium. 389 

with brown, corky warts. Fracture short through the outer layer ; 
the inner layer tears in long, fibrous strips 

II. Vibiirmim prunifolium. — Trunk-bark collected by Dr. H. H. 
Rusby, at Franklin, N. J., May, 1894. Curved pieces and fragments 
about ^ inch (4 mm.) thick ; outer surface very rough, greenish or 
grayish, covered here and there with gray lichens; inner surface yel- 
lowish-white, about half as thick as the corky layer, free from adhering 
wood; the cork is thick, reddish, and shows, on a cross-section, small 
white spots dotted throughout its tissue. Fracture short. 

III. Viburnum prunifoliuni. — Bark collected from small branches. 
Small curved pieces, very thin ; periderm brownish-gray, smooth, 
overlaying a green chlorophyll layer ; inner layer whitish, its inner 
surface yellowish-brown from exposure to air. Fracture short. It 
seems to possess the bitter principle to a greater extent than any 
of the preceding. 

IV. Viburnum prunifolium. — Bark of root collected at Franklin, 
N. J., May, 1894, by Dr. H, H. Rusby. Quills or fragments, some- 
times with strips of the yellowish-white wood adhering to the inner 
surface, which is brownish by exposure to air. The corky layer is 
grayish-brown, somewhat ridged so as to form more or less distinct 
meshes. The inner layer is thick, breaking with a short, or some- 
times waxy, white fracture, easily cut or scraped with the finger- 

V. Bark of root {source unknown^. — Flattish or curved pieces, 
from y^ to J/^ inch (3 to 4 mm.) in thickness, covered by (or some- 
times deprived of) a reddish or grayish-red cork. Inner layer of 
about equal thickness to the outer, breaking with a short, brownish- 
white or white fracture. 

All of these specimens have a pronounced, peculiar odor, difficult 
to describe, differing quite considerably among themselves in this 
respect. The root-bark of Viburnum prunifolium has a somewhat 
disagreeable odor. All contain a bitter principle, this bitterness 
being particularly prominent in the root-bark and bark of small 
branches of V. prunifolium. In the trunk-bark the bitterness is 
noticeably less. In Viburnum opulus there is not much bitterness, 
but there is quite an astringent taste. 


A cross-section of the stein bark of Viburnum opulus under the 
microscope shows the following structure : Immediately interior to 


Viburnum Prn^iifoliiini. 

/Am. Jour. Pharni. 
I August, 1805. 

the periderm are numerous irregular clusters of stone cells. These 
are succeeded in the inner or bast layer by large clusters of bast 
fibres associated with a few stone cells. These clusters are arranged 
in bands parallel to the surface of the bark, and are separated from 
each other radially by narrow, one or two-rowed, straight medullary 

Viburnum opulus — Bark of stem. 

KIG. 2. 

Viburnum opulus. 

Bark of trunk. 

Longitudinal section. 




Viburnum prunifolium. 

Bark of trunk. 

Longitudinal section. 

rays. The clusters are also partly or wholly encased in thin-walled 
crystal cells, each usually containing a single crystal of calcium 
oxalate. These interrupted bands of bast fibres and stone cells are 
separated from each other by rather broader bands of soft bast, in 
which also a few scattered stone cells and bast fibers occur. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August. 1895. 

J^ibm-HJim PrunifoluiDi. 


Tests by means of ferric solutions show the presence of consid- 
erable quantities of tannic matters in the middle bark, in the soft 
bast and in the medullary rays. 

A cross-section of the stent bark of V. priinifoliinn shows groups 

FIG. 4. 

Viburnum prunifolium — Bark of root. 

of stone cells somewhat irregularly disposed, but no bast fibres. 
These groups appear in this section rounded or somewhat elongated 
in a tangential direction, or sometim*es irregular in outline, but in 
longitudinal view they appear mostly fusiform, and sometimes five or 

392 Viburmtm PrunifoliiUH. { 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
August, 1895 

ten times as long as thick. The component cells are also of large 

The clusters of stone cells occur both in the middle and in the 
inner layers of the bark, but are larger in the latter. 

The medullary rays, which in this species are also straight and 
composed of one or two rows of cells, are much less easily traceable 
than in the former species, because the cells differ little in size and 
shape from adjacent parenchymatous elements. They are best 
recognized by means of iodine solution, their cells containing more 
starch than those of adjacent tissues. 

Freely sprinkled through the parenchymatous regions of this 
bark are cells containing stellate crystalline masses of calcium oxa- 
late, but cells containing single crystals are rare or wanting, and 
there is no crystal sheath about the masses of stone cells. 

Tannin is also present in this bark, but apparently somewhat less 
abundant than in the former species. 

The bark of the young stems or brandies differs from that of older 
ones, in the fact that the stone cells are in smaller groups. This is 
because in the old bark the earlier formed masses of stone cells 
have been cut off by the secondary cork formations, and the later 
formed groups of stone cells in the inner layers of the bark are of 
larger size than the older ones farther exterior. 

The bark of the root of V. prunifolium differs from that of the 
stem chiefly in the fact that its groups of stone cells are farther 
apart and average somewhat larger in size. The outer bark is also 
thicker and more spongy in its texture.^ 


Five grammes of each of the powdered drugs were taken, and, by 
means of the continuous extracting apparatus, chloroformic extracts 
were obtained. The amount of the extractive obtained from the 
tv/o official drugs by this means was quite different, that of the pru- 
nifolium being nearly twice that of the opulus. The physical char- 
acteristics of these chloroformic extracts were similar, resin-like, 
yellow to green in color, sticky to the touch, and having a very 

^ It appears possible to distinguish between the two species, V. opulus and 
V. prunifolium, by the presence or absence of stone cells. A further report will 
be made on this point w'len some experience has been obtained in practically 
distinguishing the powders of the two species. 


^"iS-,^s^™-} • Viburnum Prunifolium. 393 

bitter taste. The extractives were then allowed to evaporate down 
and their solubility in water was taken. Of the Viburnum opulus 
000459 gramme was dissolved, and of the Viburnum prunifolium' 
0.005 gramme, showing both to contain about the same amount of 
the principles soluble in water. This extractive was of a clear, 
greenish color and \&xy bitter, that of the opulus being the more 
bitter of the two. 

The residues remaining after treating the chloroformic extracts 
with water were next treated with a small quantity of petroleum 
spirit and filtered, the total extractive of the Viburnum opulus 
being 0-0834 gramme, and that of the V. prunifolium 0-391 5 gramme. 
These figures show a marked difference in the amounts of the fixed 
oil (?) contained in the two barks. The physical properties of this 
fatty material from the different barks were similar in most respects. 
Both were of a pale green to yellow color, rather sticky, showing 
the presence of a small quantity of resinous matter ; hard to 
saponify, darkened with sulphuric acid, and, in case of the opulus, a 
slight reaction was obtained with hydrochloric acid. 

The chloroformic residues which remained, after extracting with 
water and petroleum spirit, were macerated for two days in 80 per 
cent, alcohol. The quantity of extractives obtained thereby was, of 
Viburnum opulus, 0-122 gramme, and of the V. prunifolium, 00375 
gramme, showing the extractive of the opulus to be considerably 
larger than that of the prunifolium. The physical characteristics 
were similar. Evaporated to small bulk and poured into acidulated 
water gave a large precipitate of resin from the solution of Viburnum 
opulus, but scarcely any with the prunifolium. 

The powdered drugs which had been treated with chloroform 
were dried and subjected to the action of alcohol for fourteen hours. 
The quantity of extractive from each was as follows : Viburnum 
opulus, 1-515 gramme, and V. prunifolium, 0969. The only distin- 
guishable point of difference in these extracts was the very astringent 
taste in that of the opulus, which was almost entirely lacking in the 
extractive of the prunifolium. Evaporating to small bulk, and pour- 
ing into a large volume of water, a precipitate of resin came down 
from both solutions, but much larger from the prunifolium than from 
the opulus. 

The analysis was continued through an alcoholic and aqueous 
solution of the dregs in turn, and an examination was also made of 

394 Balsam Copaiba vs. Gurjun Balsam. {"^"kuguHt.^i'"""' 

all the barks in order to compare them ; but as this part of the 
examination did not yield results which appear of special signifi- 
cance now, they need not be here recorded. The examination of 
the chloroformic extract proves the most interesting, and is worthy 
of mention at this time. 


V. opulus. V. pruii. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Chloroformic extract 5-98 9*46 

V. op. V. prun. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

(rt) Soluble in water "0918 "100 

(^) Soluble in petroleum spirit i'66 7-83 

(c) Resinous matter 2*44 75 

{d) Residue 17882 78 

For this comparison of constituents I am indebted to the assist- 
ance of Mr. E. E. Cowman, who performed the work under my 
direction. The figures are his. Work on the proximate analysis of 
the different specimens is still in progress, and what is here pre- 
ented must be regarded as preliminary. 

These preliminary results seem to justify the hope that a means 
may soon be discovered by which the different barks may be dis- 
tinguished even in the state of powder. The practical details for 
this discrimination are not yet worked out. It is hoped this pre- 
liminary report will be a help to those who may desire to offer 
assistance in perfecting these details. 

By Lyman F. Kebler. 
For some time considerable unrest has been displayed by several 
dealers concerning the questionable purity of some of the balsam 
copaiba in our markets. On comparing the statistics^ of importa- 
tions for the past few years, this anxiety is not without foundation. 
The arrivals from direct sources of this commodity during 189 1 
amounted to 205,480 pounds; during 1892, amounted to 185,280 
pounds; during 1893, amounted to 80,000 pounds; during 1894, 
amounted to 82,000 pounds ; while the annual sales for consumption 
are 1 22,000 pounds. During the latter part of 1 894 about 
30,000 pounds of gurjun balsam arrived. At the request of Mr. 

1 From Messrs. Stallman and Fulton. 

^'^ugus't.^sgs!""''} Balsam Copaiba vs. Gurjnn Balsam. 395 

French, of Smith, Kline & French Company, I have investigated 
the questionable possibility of detecting gurjun balsam in balsam 
copaiba by the present methods. 

Owing to the natural variable composition of balsam copaiba, its 
purity cannot always be ascertained with absolute certainty. If the 
variable composition of balsam copaiba was the only obstacle to 
surmount, our task would not be so difficult, but when we remem- 
ber that it is practically impossible to secure this article from first 
hands (in this country only from third hands) we see how uncertain 
the genuineness of even a sample becomes from which reliable data 
can be secured. The tests, until recently, at our command, for 
detecting gurjun balsam in balsam copaiba, frequently made it 
impossible for the analyst to render an absolute decision as to its 
presence or absence when less than 25 per cent, was present. 

Balsam copaiba is described as varying in color from a pale yellow 
to a brownish-yellow, is usually quite transparent, but there are 
varieties that always remain opalescent. Some kinds are occasion- 
ally slightly fluorescent. Samples have come into my hand, guar- 
anteed genuine, and an examination proved them so, that were of a 
dark amber color and highly fluorescent. Balsam copaiba is insol- 
uble in water, but soluble in absolute alcohol, ether, chloroform, 
benzine, carbon disulphide and fixed and volatile oils. It varies in 
specific gravity from 0-940 to 0993 at 15° C. 

In order to obtain the most reliable material possible, samples 
were obtained from several well-known dealers of this article ; some 
were guaranteed pure, while others were represented to be of ques- 
tionable purity. 

Several samples of gurjun balsam were also secured. The dealers 
appeared somewhat reluctant to furnish this article, either because 
they were not in possession of it, or did not desire it to become 
known that they handled it. 

The samples were all examined by the most approved methods, 
which are briefly reviewed below ; 

Turpentine. — When a sample of balsam is heated the odor of 
turpentine should not be emitted. 

Fixed Oils — The residue left after driving off the volatile oil 
should be transparent, friable and amorphous. 

Paraffin Oil can be detected by introducing i c.c. of the 
balsam into a test^ tube containing 4 c.c. of 95 per cent, alcohol. 

396 Balsam Copaiba vs. Gurjun Balsam. {/^"AuBustS""' 

agitating the mixture well, then suspending the test tube in boiling 
water until the contents begin to boil ; parafifin oil, if present, will 
separate from the mixture and sink to the bottom, while the balsam 
is held in solution or in suspension by the alcohol. 

Gurjun Balsam. — Hager's test is as follows: To 3 c.c. of a mix- 
ture of I part of sulphuric acid and 25 parts of pure acetic ether, 
add 6 drops of the balsam ; after a few minutes the mixture will 
assume a violet hue, if a large per cent, of gurjun balsam is present, 
and on standing twelve hours it will change to a dark brown or 
black color. 

A second test is as follows : Dissolve i drop of the balsam, to 
be tested, in 20 drops of carbon disulphide ; to this mixture add i 
drop of a cooled mixture of equal parts of sulphuric and nitric acids ; 
mix well. If gurjun balsam is present a red or violet tinge will 

Glacial Acetic Acid Test, due to Messrs. Dodge and Olcott, 
is executed thus : Place i c.c. of glacial acetic acid (99-5 per cent.) 
into a test tube ; to this add 4 drops of pure, concentrated nitric 
acid (r42), mix well ; then add to this mixture, carefully, 4 drops of 
the balsam in question ; if gurjun balsam is present, a reddish zone 
will be formed between the layer of balsam and the acid mixture in 
a few minutes. On mixing the contents of the test tube well, the 
whole will assume a reddish or purple color. The degree of color 
varies with the amount of gurjun balsam present. 

Acid Number. — A weighed portion of the balsam is dissolved in 
alcohol, a few drops of phenolphthalein solution added, and titrated 
with as eminormal solution of caustic potash. The number of mgms. 
of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize I gramme of the 
balsam is called the acid number. 

The Ammonia Tests. — All varieties of balsam copaiba, except 
para, when mixed with an equal volume of 10 per cent, ammonia 
water, will form a clear, transparent solution, more readily when 
warmed. Again, when i part of the balsam is mixed with 10 parts 
of 10 per cent, ammonia water, the resulting mixture should neither 
gelatinize nor separate a gelatinous substance, even after standing a 

The accompanying table contains the results of the examination 
of the samples secured, as well as a few samples of pure balsam 
copaiba, adulterated by myself with gurjun balsam. 





Hager's Test. 

Sulphuric Acid, 
Nitric Acid and 
Carbou Bisul- 
phide Test. 

Glacial, Acetic 
and Nitric 
Acids Test. 








No action. 







No action. 






iepa- 1 

Pure. 1 

No action. 
No action. 





.epa- ) 
Pure, Para. ^ 

No action. 




f Pure, Cent"»al. 
\ America. , 
Adulterated.^ . , ^ 

No action. 





No action. 






VJ 1 1 1 

Violet color. 

Light purple. 

Light purple. 

35 '09 


( No. 6, and 5 pial. 
< cent, of gi 

No action. 


Tinge of red. 


I jun balsamial. 
1 No. 7, and lo 

No action. 


Light purple. 



-< c. of gurji 
( balsam. aal. 
1 No. 7, and 15 

No action. 

/Slight tinge of) 
I red. ; 

Light purple. 




< c. of gurji 
1 balsam. -mal. 
Gurjuu balsa 

Guijun balsa^,^^ -j 

fVery slight) 
I tinge of red. j 

Light red. 

Light purple. 












AA. = absolute alcohol, 
de. F. and V. = fixed and volatile oils. 




Fluorescence. G 

15° C. 

Soluble in 

Insoluble in 



Paraffin Ten Per Cent. Am- 
Oil. monia Test. 

Hager's Test. 

Sulphuric Acid, 
Nitric Acid and 
Carbon Disul- 
phide Test. 

Glacial, Acetic 
and Nitric 
Acids Test. 




Tinge of yellow. 



1 and V. oils. j 

f Water, AA. and 1 
1 Ma. I 




Soluble.' Normal.^ 

No action. 





Light yellow. 



1E..B.,CS2.C.and F. | 
\ ana v. oils. ) 

fWater.AA. andl 
i Ma. ; 




Soluble. Normal. 

No action. 





Dark amber. 



I E.,B..C3i,C. and F. | 
\ and V. oils. / 

J Water.AA. and! 
1 Ma. 1 




Soluble. Normal. 

No action. 





Dark amber. 

Highly. o 


j E., B.,CSi,C. andF. 1 
1 and V. oils. j 

f Water, AA. and J 




fSoluble. Oil sepa-j 

No action. 





Dark amber. 



fE.. B..CSo.C.andF. ( 
\ and V. oils. 1 

f Water.AA. and) 
\ Ma. ; 




J Soluble. Oil sepa-l 
X rated. / 

No action. 





fure, Para. 
(Pure. Central! 
\ America. J 

light yellow. 
Light yellow. 

Very slight. o 


JE., B.,C&2, C, AA. 1 
( and F. aud V. oils/ 
1 E., B., CS2, C. Ma. \ 
\ and F andV. oitsj 

Water and Ma. 
Water aud AA. 




Insoluble. Normal. 
Soluble. Normal. 

No action. 
No action. 










J E..C6«,C.. Ma.,AA. 1 
1 and F. and V.oilsj 

Water and B. 




( Insoluble. i ! 1 
\ separated. / 

Violet color. 

Light purple. 

Light purple. 



j No. 6, and 5 per) 




f E..CSs..C.,Ma.,.\A. 1 
1 and ^, and V. oils J 

Water and B. 




Soluble. Normal. 

No action. 


Tinge of red. 



ceut. of Bur-y 
( jun balsam. J 
( N<j 7, and lo p. i 
-^ c. of gurjun S- 
( balsam. J 

Light yellow. 

Some. o 


JE.. B..CS0. C. AA. 1 
t and F. and V. oils/ 

Water and Ma. 




Soluble. Normal, 

No action. 


Light purple. 



Light amber. 



fE..CSo, C, Ma. audi 
1 F. and V, oils. / 

(Water.AA. and 1 




Soluble. Normal. 

No action. 

(Slight tinge of) 

Light purple. 



1 c. 01 gui]un > 
1 balsam. J 

Light amber. 



JE..CS2. C.Ma and! 
i F. and V. oils / 

( Water.AA. and 1 




Insoluble. Normal. 

/Very slightl 
( ttugeof red. J 

Light red. 

Light purple. 



Gurjuu bnlsara. 




JE..CS., CAA.andl 
1 F. and V. oils. / 

Water and B. 




(Insoluble. Gelat.l 
1 PPt- J 






Guijun balsam. 




/E.-CSa, CAA.andl 
\ F. aud V. oils. / 

Water and B. 




f Insoluble. Gelat. 1 
1 Ppt. / 





'*''^ugSs't.^89'^v°''} Balsam Copaiba vs. Giirjiin Balsam. 397 

The conclusions from the above and other data may be summar- 
ized as follows : 

(i) The color and the fluorescence or non-fluorescence are of no 

(2) The wide range of the specific gravity of balsam copaiba 
makes that factor practically valueless. 

(3) The solubility or the insolubility of balsam copaiba are 
uncertain factors and cannot be relied on. One sample of pure 
substance is soluble in absolute alcohol, another is not. One sam- 
ple of benzine will indicate the presence of gurjun balsam, another 
will not ; hence, is valueless as a specific test. 

(4) The specific tests for turpentine, fixed oils and paraffin oils 
are reliable. 

(5) The ammonia tests are misleading and are consequently unre- 

(6) The acid number cannot be relied on. At first the author 
anticipated valuable results from this source, but was utterly dis- 

(7) Hager's test is not reliable, especially with less than 25 per 
cent, of gurjun balsam present. 

(8) The carbon disulphide test is fairly reliable with a moderateljr 
large per cent, of gurjun balsam. Some varieties of balsam copaiba 
turn reddish-brown with this test, and it sometimes becomes very 
difficult to discriminate. 

(9) The glacial acetic acid (99-5 per cent.) is perfectly reliable,, 
even when not more than 5 per cent, is present, at least so far as the 
above results indicate. 

The writer has found that gurjun balsam is even more variable im 
composition than balsam copaiba, consequently an absolute decision, 
is reserved until a thorough test has been made with a fair number 
of samples. This will be done as soon as sufficient material can be 

The U. S. P. instructs us to detect gurjun balsam in balsam 
copaiba by heating a sample to 130° C, when it will gelatinize if 
the former is present. Some samples may gelatinize, but a trial 
proved that the material employed in these experiments increased 
only slightly in viscosity, not even assuming a semi-gelatinous state. 
The test is unreliable in toto. 

Unless otherwise specified, the dealer will always supply a non- 
solidifiable product which will comply with every test in the U.S. P., 

398 Determination of Morphine. {^"ku^si.^m'"' 

and yet it is to be used only for mass copaiba. It seems almost 
absurd to prescribe a series of tests for a substance intended for a 
special purpose, and yet cautiously omit the test leading to its 
identification. A balsam copaiba designed especially for mass 
copaiba should be subjected to the solidification test. 
305 Cherry Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

By Lyman F. Kebler, M.S. 

In this article the author contributes some interesting and valua- 
ble information in regard to opium assaying, with especial reference 
to the several methods for obtaining corrections for the amount of 
impurity associated with the crude morphine. 

The crude morphine from thirty opium assays was mixed, and a 
portion" incinerated, a quantitative estimation being made of the 
ash. 27-88 per cent, of the ash was soluble in water, to which it 
imparted an alkaline reaction. 

The complete analysis showed : 

Soluble in H,0 (K2CO3, K2SO4, NaCI) 2788 

Silica o"83 

Aluminium phosphate 043 

iMagnesium phosphate I3'45 

Calcium carbonate 56' 17 

Loss I "24 

Total . . . . ■ loo'oo 

A comparison of the several methods for obtaining corrections, 
including titration with volumetric acid solution, using various indi- 
cators, gave the following results : 

Methyl orange ioo"02 

Cochineal 99'53 

Litmus •. 9893 

Brazil wood 98 '47 

Haematoxj'lin 97 '59 

Ash method 97'59 

Lime water method 98"22 

Absolute alcohol 98'33 

' Read before the New York Section Soc. Chem. Ind., in April, and published 
in the May number of the Journal of the Society, page 464. Abstracted bj- 
Charles H. La Wall. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 

August.^sg"™'} Determination of Morphine. 399 

The author gives preference to the various methods in the follow- 
ing order : 

(i) Ash method. 

(2) Titration. 

(3) Lime water method. 

(4) Absolute alcohol. 

A comprehensive series of assays was made from one sample of 
powdered opium, allowing the separation of the crude morphine to 
take place during periods of time ranging from three to thirty-six 

The tabulated results are as follows : 

Number of hours allowed for pre- • 

cipitation 3 5 S 12 16 20 I 24 28 I 36 

Per cent, of crude morphia in the I I 

op'i'Jii 1303 14-32 14-35 1472 14-S0 14-81 14-85 14-98 Ij'I? 

Percent, of ash in the crude morphia 0-91 1-33 1-41 i-Si 1-90 2-00 210 2-63 3-00 
Per cent, of pure morphia in the 

crude morphia by the ash method. i 

Based on the above analysis .... 9S-54 9734 97"35 97"63 96'63 96 28 1 96'io 95-06 94'45 
Per cent, of pure morphia in the | . 

opium by the ash method. Based I 

on the above anaU'sis 12-84 i3'94 i3'97 i4'22 14-28 14-26 i4'27 ! 14-24 | 14-32 

Per cent, of pure morphia in the 

crude morpliia by the lime-water 

method ... 99'io 9801 98-21 97-32 96-70 9640 96-31 96-02 96-21 

Per cent, of pure morphia in the 

opium by the lime-water method . 12-91 14-03 14-09 i4"3i i4'3i I4"27 i4'3i i4"39 '4'59 
Per cent, of pure morphia in the 

crude morphia bj- titration . . 9S-17 97-26 97-36 97-03 9652 96-31 96-31 95'8i 9302 

Per cent, of crude morphia in the 

opium by titration 12-78 i3'92 I3"99 14-28 14-28 14-26 14-30 I4"35 i4'4i 

According to the above table there is a decided increase both in 
impurity and morphine as time increases ; also an appreciable aug- 
mentation is noted in the twelve-hour assay when compared with 
the eight-hour assay, which immediately precedes it. 

The presence of meconic acid, potassium and calcium was estab- 
lished in morphine of three hours' precipitation, and, after appro- 
priate experiments, the author concludes that the addition of the 
alcohol in the assay process hastens the precipitation of a part of 
the impurity. 

The author thinks that a slight modification of the present pro- 
cess would yield a crude morphine needing no correction, i. e., that 
the amount of imipurity associated with the morphine would not 
exceed the amount of morphine lost during the operation. 

The deposit which forms in the mother liquor, mixed with the 
wash water, rejecting the alcoholic and ethereal washings, was col- 

400 Tannin of Cinnamonmin Cassia. {"^"Augusi.m*!"' 

lected from eight of the above assays after two months' standing. 
The weight of this precipitate showed an increase of 0-8 1 per cent, 
of morphine for the opium, but upon closer examination this precipi- 
tate was found to consist of but 5443 per cent, pure morphine, the 
remainder being calcium meconate and organic matter. 

After three months' standing, an aliquot part of the mother liquor 
and aqueous washings, free from any sediment, was treated accord- 
ing to Mr. Dieterich's process, and 015 per cent, more of morphine 
was obtained, making the total quantity for the given sample 14-81 
per cent, pure morphine. 

The author states that he considers a correction unnecessary for 
a well-executed assay ; that is, allowing from twelve to sixteen hours 
for precipitation and adhering closely to the text, the amount of the 
crude morphine will not exceed the percentage of pure morphine in 
the sample. 

By Thomas R. Thorntox, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laborator}' of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 145. 

In a lecture on pharmacy delivered to the Senior Class of this 
College during the past winter, the lecturer stated that the nature 
of the tannin present in the variety of cinnamon under discus- 
sion at times interfered very much with the process of perco- 
lating the drug with aqueous menstrua, and occasionally rendered 
it almost impossible. 

This statement induced the author to undertake the examination 
of the tannin that is recorded in this paper. But before commenc- 
ing the investigation of the character of the tannin, it was decided 
to estimate the amount of the principle contained in the drug. 
For this purpose three samples of the drug were obtained, and from 
each lot a decoction was made by exhausting 20 grammes of 
the powdered article with enough hot water to make l litre of 
liquid when the latter was cool. The tannin contained in these 
liquids was then estimated by both the hide powder and the gelatin 
and alum methods, both of which have frequently been described 
in this Journal. 

"*''Au|ust,^g9T."''} Tannin of Cinnaviovmni Cassia. 401 

The following are the results which were obtained ; they are 
stated in percentage and are based on the original drug : 

Method of EsTiirATiox. 

Number of Sample. Hide Powder. Gelatin and .\lum. 

I 370 3'37 

2 3'20 3'83 

3 4-80 4-32 

In order to isolate the tannin, a quantity of powdered cinnamon 
was exhausted by maceration and percolation with acetone. From 
the percolate the greater part of the solvent was recovered by dis- 
tillation under reduced pressure. 

To the concentrated liquid resulting from this operation, succes- 
sive additions of water were made, until the resinous substances and 
associated matters were completely precipitated. The mixture was 
then filtered, the insoluble part set aside and the filtrate shaken 
with acetic ether, the object being to remove any tannin from the 
water solution. However, when the layer of acetic ether was sepa- 
rated and distilled there was but a very small residue left. This 
residue was of a resinous nature. To afford the acetic ether a better 
opportunity to extract the tannin from the water solution, the latter 
was saturated with sodium chloride. But a repetition of the agita- 
tion with acetic ether after this treatment did not serve to remove 

Having cognizance of the possibility of a co-precipitation of the 
tannin with the resin of the drug when the concentrated acetone 
percolate was mixed with water, the author resorted to the precipi- 
tate which was produced by the addition of water, the insoluble 
part of the extract which he had set aside. This was dissolved in 
acetone, the solution diluted with water and afterwards saturated 
with sodium chloride. 

The outcome of this treatment was a reddish-brown plastic mass, 
which separated in the layer of brine and a supernatant layer of 
acetone. The latter was removed, but no residue of tannin was 
obtained when the solvent was recovered. 

This last described attempt to isolate the tannin having proved 
futile, it was decided to try the extraction of the tannin from the 
drug by the use of hot water — a solvent which would remove at 
most but mere traces of resin. Accordingly, a decoction was pre- 
pared in this manner. It was shaken with acetic ether, the mixture 


Tannin of Cinnamomum Cassia. { 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

August, 1895. 

at once saturated with sodium chloride, after which it was allowed 
to stand at rest for the acetic ether to separate. But no tannin was 
obtained when the layer of this solvent was removed and evapo- 

The failure of these methods to effect a solution of the tannin in 
water indicates clearly the phlobaphene character of that principle. 

The fact that the astringent principle originally possessed this 
property of slight solubility in water, or acquires the same in the 
course of manipulation, seems alone sufficient to mark a relation- 
ship of the tannin of this species of cinnamon to that class of these 
compounds which are so well typified by the tannin of the oak 
barks ; but that this relationship might be further inquired into, 
some of the insoluble substance, which was set aside, was dissolved 
in alcohol, and the deep wine- red solution which resulted was tested 
with the reagents named in the subjoined table. 

The reactions given by the tannin of white oak bark and by 
gallotannic acid, when in water solutions, are supplied in the table, 
that the similarity of the tannin under consideration to the former 
and its dissimilarity to the latter may be the more manifest : 


Copper sulphate "1 

and V 

Ammonium hydrate J 

Bromine water ... 

Ferric chloride .... 

Ammonio-ferric 1 

sulphate J 

Lime water 

Lead acetate 

cinnamon Tannin. 

Brownish-red ppt. 

Dirty-green ppt. 
f Brownish-yellow 
I ppt. 

t Ppt., blackish-green 
( color. 

Blackish-green ppt. 

/ Ppt., turning brown- 
\ ish. 
Brick-red ppt. 

White Oak Tannin. 


Brown-green color. 
Yellow ppt. 

Green color and ppt. 

Green color and ppt. 

Ppt., turning pink. 
Pale yellow ppt. 

Gallotannic Acid. 

No ppt. 

Brown ppt. 
No ppt. 

Blue color and ppt. 

Blue color and ppt. 

Ppt., turning blue. 
White ppt. 

To learn the effect of the action of fused alkali on the tannin, 
some of the alcoholic solution of it was poured into water and 
the precipitate which was produced was collected on a filter, 
washed and allowed to drain. It was then added to fusing potas- 
sium hydrate, in which it dissolved with effervescence and the 
exhalation of a peculiar odor, one which was suggestive of that 
noticed in soap-making. After being allowed to cool, the mass 
was dissolved in distilled water. The solution was slightly acidi- 
fied with diluted sulphuric acid, and without filtration agitated 
with ether U. S. P. The ether layer was removed and the sol- 

'^°Au|Ssf,^s^™'} Solution of Potassium Arsenite. 403 

vent recovered. The residue was treated with distilled water and 
the solution filtered. In order to further purify the product of 
the action of the fused alkali, it was removed from the last solu- 
tion by agitation with ether, as before. The residue left upon 
the evaporation of the ether was dissolved in water, and in this 
solution the following reagenis indicated the presence of proto- 
catechuic acid. 

Ferric chloride, green color, slight ppt., 

Sodium carbonate, red color. 

Ferrous sulphate, in neutral solution, purple color and ppt. 

Lead acetate, yellow ppt. ; filtrate gave a slight ppt. with lead oxyacetate. 

Ammoniacal silver nitrate, reduced. 

Fehliug's solution, reduced. 

Lead oxyacetate, yellow ppt. 

Pine wood and -> 

Hydrochloric acid, j ^° ^'^^'^^^ °'' ''^^ ^°^°^ (absence of phloroglucol). 

The inference the author draws from this investigation is that the 
tannin principle of Cinnamomum Cassia is either a phlobaphene as 
it exists in the drug, or that it acquires a phlobaphene character 
when brought into contact with water. In either case, the presence 
of such compounds could be expected to contribute a large part of 
the difficulty experienced in percolating the drug with aqueous 

By Andrew Campbell, Ph.G. 
Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 146. 

With the object of practically ascertaining the value of a sugges. 
tion of Garraud, in the Bulletin de la Socicte de Pharmacie de Bor- 
deaux, in regard to a rapid method for the preparation of Fowler's 
solution, the experiments described below were undertaken by the 

But before taking up the consideration of the proposed method, 
it might be well to review the methods which have been so long in 
vogue, so that their features will be fresh in mind. 

The official method of the United States Pharmacopoeia of i8go 
for the preparation of solution of potassium arsenite, is to boil 10 

404 Soliitio7i of Potassium Arsenite. { ^''"aSjSm™' 

grammes of arsenous acid and 20 grammes of potassium bicarbon- 
ate with 100 c.c. of water, until solution is effected, when cold, water 
is added to make 970 c.c, and then 30 c.c. of compound tincture of 

It is to be noted in this formula that the amount of potassium 
bicarbonate is double that of the Pharmacopreia of 1880. The 
weight directed by the present authority practically agrees with the 
quantity required for a reaction, which may be represented thus : 

As.O, +4KHCO,3 = 2K,HAs03 + 4^0, + H.,0 
197-68 399-52 
The view generally taken, however, as to the nature of the arseni- 
cal salt present, is that it is a mono-potassium arsenite, the reaction 
being : 

As,0,, + 2KHCO.3 4- H,0 = 2KH,As03 + 2CO2 
197-68 19976 

And with the quantities required for this reaction those which 
were stated in the Pliarmacopoeia of 1880 practically coincide. 

It is, of course, well understood that neither of these reactions 
are fully realized, and upon testing a volume of 20 c.c. of a freshly- 
made official solution (in the production of which -400 gramme of 
potassium bicarbonate had been used) in a carbon dioxide appara- 
tus for excess of carbonate undecomposed by the action of the 
arsenous acid, a loss of -115 gramme of that gas was experienced. 
The same process was carried out, with varying results, upon solu- 
tions which had been kept for longer periods, but the evidence was 
abundant proof of the fact that solution of the arsenic trioxide can 
take place even before boiling has converted all of the potassium 
bicarbonate into carbonate. 

Garraud's recommendation consists in the use of potassium 
hydrate instead of the potassium carbonate directed by the French 
Codex, or the purer salt, potassium bicarbonate, ordered in the 
United States Pharmacopoeia. 

The reactions would then be expressed as follows : 

AsA -f 4KOH = 2K0HASO3 -f- H.,0 
197-68 223-96 

As.A + 2KOH -f H.,0 = 2KH2ASO3 
19768 1 1 1-98 


^^A^^IiAm.'"'} Sohition of Potassium Arsenite. 405 

By the first of these reactions, 10 grammes of arsenous acid 
would require 11-329 grammes of potassium hydrate, while by the 
second 5-665 grammes would be needed, in both cases the amounts 
being calculated by proportion. Since the potassium hydrate of 
the market is of uncertain strength, the definite weight required 
cannot be adjusted without resorting to a valuation of the article. 
In view of this existing condition, a convenient way to supply the 
necessary quantity of the alkali would be to add the requisite 
amount in the form of a solution of known strength, as, for exam, 
pie, a normal volumetric solution (55 99 grammes of KOH in 1,000 
c.c ). 

If a normal volumetric solution was to be used, 10 grammes of 
arsenous acid would require, for the fulfilment of the reactions, 202 
c.c. and loi c.c, respectively. 

That the reaction involving the smaller amount of alkali might 
be accomplished, 10 grammes of arsenous acid were added to loi 
c.c. of normal potassium hydrate volumetric solution, in which it 
dissolved completely on slight agitation, and without the necessity 
of applying heat. To this solution was added sufficient water to 
make 970 c.c, and then 30 c.c. of compound tincture of lavender. 
The product of this rapid and easy method was correct in arsenical 
strength, this fact being established by the results of an application 
of the pharmacopoeial process of estimation, while in physical 
appearance and stability it was identical with the product of the 
official directions. An objection which may be urged against the 
general use of this process is that, although it is easy and rapid, the 
average pharmacist may not have at hand the apparatus necessary 
for adjusting a potassium hydrate solution to a known strength. 
But any such difficulty can be obviated by making use of the 
ofificial liquor potassae, instead of the normal volumetric solution, in 
which to dissolve the arsenous acid. The strength of liquor 
potassae is stated by the Pharmacopoeia to be about 5 per cent., and 
that of the normal volumetric solution is practically 56 per cent. 
When 10 grammes of arsenous acid were added to lOO c.c of liquor 
potassae, it was found to dissolve as readily as did the same amount 
in loi c.c. of the normal volumetric solution. 

In order to determine the limit of this ready solubility an excess 
-of arsenous acid was added to some liquor potassae, the mixture 
agitated for a few minutes and then filtered. Five cubic centimetres 

406 Solution of Potassium Arsenite. {^'ausubiS'"" 

of the filtrate were titrated with decinormal iodine vohametric solu- 
tion in the presence of an excess of sodium bicarbonate. This vol- 
ume was found to contain .699 gramme of arsenous acid. In the 
same proportion 10 grammes of arsenous acid would require 71 5 
c.c. of liquor potassae. The difference between this amount and 
that indicated above (100 c.c.) would amply allow for any defect in 
the strength of the liquor potassae, and would insure the complete 
solution of the arsenous acid ui\der all circumstances. 

The arsenous acid used should, of course, be pure and, as gen- 
erally recommended, that in mass should be obtained and powdered 
as required, for the best samples of commercial powdered arsenous 
acid were found during the course of these experiments to be only 
of about 93 per cent, purity. 

In connection with this subject eight commercial samples of 
Fowler's solution were examined by the pharmacopoeial method of 
assay. Two of the samples were from an inland city, five from 
retail druggists of Philadelphia, and one from a wholesale drug 
house of the same place. 

The results are indicated in the amount of decinormal iodine vol- 
umetric solution required by the official method of estimation, and 
also in percentage comparison with the official requirement of arse- 
nous acid. 


2 . . 

3 • • 
4. . 

5 • • 

6 . . 

7 • • 

These figures were all verified by duplicate titrations, and in the 
case of No. 7 recourse was had to a gravimetric determination of 
the arsenous acid to insure accuracy. 

The excessive and dangerous strength of this sample is significant 
in showing that too much care cannot be exercised in the manufac- 
ture of even the galenicals of the Pharmacopoeia. 

c.c. of N 













45 'o 







I CO -40 

'^'August.^18^''.'""} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 407 

The arsenous acid being present in practically ten times the 
proper amount leads to the suggestion that the error may have 
occurred in an attempt to translate from the metric to the custom- 
ary system, in the absence of a proper outfit of metric weights and 



By p. Iv. Simmonds, F.L.S. 

[^Concluded from p. J28.I 

Pinus species. Very many species of Pimis yield volatile oils 
used in pharmacy. Among others, P. palustris, Ait, or P. pinaster, 
P. Tceda, Pinus sylvestris, Lin,, P. Pumilio, Hank., the P. Mngus, 
Scop., and others. 

Pinus Abies, Lin., P. Picea, Du Roi, P. vulgaris, Abies excelsa, 
Dec, the silver fir. — This species furnishes the oleo-resin known 
as Strasburg turpentine, which resembles common turpentine, but 
has a more agreeable odor. 

P. balsainea, Lin., Abies balsamea, Marshall, A. balsamifera, 
Michx — The balsam fir yields the well-known oleo-resin, Canada tur- 
pentine, which is exported from Quebec in kegs or large barrels, 
Canada balsam is used for medicinal and manufacturing purposes. 
It is an ingredient in blistering paper and flexible collodion. It is 
highly valued and much employed as a menstruum for mounting 
microscopic objects, and makes a fine, transparent varnish for water- 
color drawings, which does not become darker with time. 

P. Australis, Michx., P. palustris. Mill. — This is the most valuable 
of all the American pines. From it are obtained the American 
"Thus," the concrete turpentine, the volatile oil from turpentine, 
and the resin. There are three principal descriptions of turpentine 
known in commerce, American, Bordeaux and Russian. Bordeaux, 
from P. pinaster, Ait.; Russian, from P. sylvestris, Lin.; Chian, from 
Pistacia Tercbinthus , Lin. 

P. Canadensis, Lin., Abies Canadensis, Michx. and DeC. — The 
hemlock spruce furnishes the concrete turpentine known as 
Canada pitch, which is official in the United States. It is slightly 
stimulant, like Burgundy pitch, and employed for similar purposes. 
A volatile oil is obtained from the leaves, which produces dangerous 

408 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. {*'August,i'ro6"° 

effects. The inner bark, being a powerful astringent, is used medi- 
cinally in America, but its chief application is for tanning. The 
young shoots are used in making spruce beer. 

Turpentine is the general name for the oleo-resinous exudations 
of coniferous trees, which flows in the crude state from incisions 
made in the stems. The turpentines, as a rule, are yellowish-white, 
very viscid, transparent or translucent masses, of honey consistence 
and of acid reaction ; of a peculiar, strong, mostly unpleasant odor, 
and generally of a burning, aromatic, bitter, disagreeable taste ; 
they consist chiefly of resin and volatile oil. When distilled, this 
oleo-resin yields the volatile oil or "spirit of turpentine." 
England imports from 420,000 to 520,000 cwt of oil of turpentine, 
in barrels of 2 to 3 cwt., chiefly from the Southern States. Its 
medicinal properties are stimulant, diuretic, occasionally diaphoretic 
and anthelmintic. In large doses, purgative, sometimes causing 
nausea, vomiting and intoxication. Previous to 1846, the tariff of 
Great Britain was such as to exclude imports of spirits of turpen- 
tine and resin. 

Turpentine especially affects the kidneys and the mucus of the 
genito-urinary organs. Externally rubifacient, employed as a lini- 
ment in chronic affections. The yellow, translucent resin, the resi- 
due of the distillation of the turpentines, is important as an ingredi- 
ent of plasters and ointments, which are employed as stimulant 
applications to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. 

Picea vulgaris^ Link., in the north of Europe, furnishes a quan- 
tity of resin, from which different products are obtained, among 
others, pitch. From Larix Ejiropcsa is obtained the resinous extract 
known as Briancon, or Venice turpentine, employed in consump- 

From P. pinaster, Ait., P. viaritima, Poir. and Dec. (the cluster 
pine). Galipot is obtained, also known as " Barras." It is employed, 
like American "Thus," in the preparation of certain plasters. The 
annual production from a tree ranges from 5 to 8 pounds. 

P. religiosa, H. B. K. — The turpentine produced by this tree is 
similar in properties to the Venice turpentine. The local name of 
this tree in Mexico is Oyatmetl. 

P. sylvestris, C. Bauhin. — Tar is procured by the destructive dis- 
tillation of the fir in Northern Europe and America. That used in 
North America is chiefly obtained from P. palustris, Mill. {P. Aus- 

■^'^August.^^!^'"} Notes 071 Some Saps and Secretions. 409 

trails, Michx.). The tar obtained in Europe is generally considered 
superior to that of America. The imports of tar into the United 
Kingdom were, in 1892, 132,000 barrels, and in 1893, 102,216 bar- 
rels, of about 30 gallons each. Tar acts as a stimulant, diuretic 
and diaphoretic, but is not much employed in medicine. It may be 
used internally in chronic catarrhal affections, and complaints of the 
urinary passages, also for some chronic skin diseases. Tar water 
used to be popular in England as a medicinal drink, and in France 
in most of the Duval and other cheap restaurants, gallons of " Eau 
de Goudron " are drank daily. 

A kind of barrillin is prepared from the cambium sap of this 
pine. An oily substance, called " fir-wool spirit," has been intro- 
duced from Germany, recommended for external use in rheumatism, 
neuralgia, etc. 

P. Larix, Lin., Abies Larix, Lamarck., Larix Enropcsa, Dec. — Larch 
bark is considered to be stimulant, astringent and diuretic. This 
tree furnishes Venice turpentine, the properties and uses of which 
are the same as those of the other turpentines. 

P. nigra. Ait., when tapped, yields the essence of spruce, an infu- 
sion of which, with the leaves and branches, in water, sweetened 
with molasses, makes the chowder, or black beer, used by the fish- 
ermen of Newfoundland as an antiscorbutic. 

P. Picea, Du Roi, P. Abies, Lin. — The resinous exudation from 
the spruce fir, commonly known as Burgundy pitch, is obtained 
chiefly in Finland and the Black Forest. It is a useful application 
as a plaster to the chest in chronic coughs and other pulmonary 
affections, to the loins in lumbago, and to the joints in rheumatism. 

P. Taeda, Linn. — The oldfield, or frankincense, a fine American 
pine, furnishes similar products to P. sylvestris and P. Australis. It 
yields turpentine in good quantity, though of inferior quality, and 
exudes much resin. 

P. Tcocot, Schlecht. — The Brea turpentine produced resembles 
that of Bordeaux. It yields 17 per cent, of essential oil. The tree 
abounds in the mountains that surround the valley of Mexico, and 
in some other localities in that country. Its local name is Ocoto. 

Pistacia Lentiscns, Lin. — This and /^. Atlantic a i\xxx\\%\\ t\\Q. gum 
resin of commerce known as mastic. The largest consumption is 
in the east of Europe, where it is universally chewed like chicle 
gum in America, and thence derives its popular name. The women 

4IO Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. { ^"'i.ugJlJi.'is^s'"' 

of Scio, Smyrna and Constantinople have almost always a piece of 
mastic in their mouths. It is asserted to be effectual in whitening 
the teeth, strengthening the gums, and sweetening the breath. 
Hence it is used by dentists, and also the inferior kinds for making 
varnishes, and is one of the ingredients in fumigation. It is obtained 
in the Greek archipelago, by making incisions in the bark of the 
tree. When good it occurs in pale yellow, brittle, transparent 
drops, of an astringent taste, slight agreeable odor, especially 
when heated. Such as inclines to black, green, or is dirty, 
should be avoided. The principal revenue of Chios, or Scio, is 
derived from this gum resin, of which some 4,000 to 5,000 cwt. are 
obtained. The picked first quality is sent to Constantinople, 
France and Austria, in small cases. Very little comes to England, 
only a few cases. The second' and third qualities are used in the 
manufacture of mastic raki, a liqueur made with spirit, mixed with 
pulverized mastic, which ^is boiled and cooled. About 200,000 
gallons of this are exported annually from Scio. 

Pistacia Terebinthns, Linn. — The Chian turpentine of commerce 
was obtained from this tree in Scio. The produce was under 1,000 
lbs. a year. As a medicine it is now obsolete. It is chiefly used in 
Greece, and other parts of the Levant, for preserving wine, and 
flavoring the spirituous cordial called Raki. 

A resinous gum called Alk or Lik (whence the word Lac), flows 
so abundantly from the trees, even without incision, in Algeria, that 
it is often dangerous to sleep under them. It is supposed that this 
tree would yield good terebinthine. 

The resins of Algeria are those from the teribinth cedar, juniper, 
Piniis halepensis, Mill, (of which there are large forests), Thuya 
articulata, Vahl., sandarac and mastic. 

Pluchea balsamifera. Less. Blumea balsamifera, Dec. Conyza 
balsaviifera, Lin. — This Eastern shrub has diaphoretic and expec- 
torant properties, in lung diseases. It is the source of a kind of 
camphor known as Ngai, exported from the Chinese port of Hoihow, 
in the island of Hainan, to the extent of about 15,000 lbs. annually. 
The crude camphor is refined at Canton, and is then known as 
Ngai-pijn, and about 10,000 lbs. are exported yearly from Canton. 

Plnmeria phagadcemia, Mart. — The milky juice is used in the 
Amazon valley of Brazil as a vermifuge, administered in coffee, with 
castor oil. It is also applied externally in rheumatism, and for the 
cure of ulcers, boils, dislocations, etc. 

^"A^gusL.'i^^s""'} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 41 1 

Populus balsamifera, Linn. — The leaf buds of this species, and of 
P. nigra, Lin., are gathered for medicinal purposes. Their resinous 
secretion is said to be diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is used to pre- 
vent rancidity in ointments, but paraffin is equally effectual. 

Miviusops globosa Gaertner, Chicle gum, exudes from this and 
another species in Mexico, and is largely collected, being used in 
the United States for chewing. The exports from Mexico in 1892 
were to the value of over ;$476,000. 

Prosopis dulcis, H. B. — Mezquite is used in the preparation of 
mucilage, gum-drops, jujube-paste, etc. The gum, which exudes 
from the trunk and branches, is very soluble in water, and forms, 
when dissolved, a demulcent of a sweet, creamy and agreeable taste, 
but souring more readily, and probably containing a larger propor- 
tion of tannic and gallic acid than gum arable. 

There are vast forests of the mezquite trees, embracing millions 
of acres, in the southwestern part of Texas, The process of gath- 
ering the gum is simple. The outside bark of the tree is scraped 
off, and the gum begins to exude and form in icicle-shaped masses, 
and, after one day's exposure in the autumn, is dry and hard enough 
to collect. Its color, however, unfits it for pharmaceutical pur- 

Pruniis spinosa, Lin. — The acid, astringent juice of the fruit (the 
sloe), inspissated over a slow fire, has been used in France as a sub- 
stitute for catechu. The leaves have that peculiar flavor which 
exists in Spircea uhnaria, the American Gaidtheria, and some other 
plants, which resembles the more delicate perfume of green tea, and 
hence they were said to be used as adulterants of tea, A water dis- 
tilled from the blossoms is used as a medicmal vehicle in some parts 
of the continent. 

Pterocarpus marsupiinn, Roxb, The reddish gum, resin which 
exudes from the bark of this tree forms one of the best kinos of 
commerce, containing about 75 per cent, of tannic acid, and has 
been known in Europe for upwards of a century. It is the dried 
sap which exudes copiously, on the stem being artificially wounded. 
It becomes brittle on hardening, and is very astringent. It is 
exported in considerable quantities from Malabar, Another kind 
of kino is from Buteafrondosa. Nearly all the Australian Eucalypti 
exude astringent gum resins in considerable quantity, resembling 
Kino in appearance and property. Kino is commonly used in 

412 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions, {^'^ugust, 



medicine for its astringent properties, especially in diarrhoea, chronic 
dysentery and other such cases. 

P. Santalinus, Lin. — The essential oil of nosandus wood, or 
" sandalwood," as it is sometimes called, is prescribed for gonorrhoea. 
This tree also yields a kind of dragon's blood. 

Rhus Metopiiim, Lin. — This tree is known in the West Indies as the 
false hog gum tree. From the bark, when wounded, a transparent 
juice exudes, which is used on plasters as a substitute for Burgundy 
pitch, also in medicine as a substitute for balsam of copaiba. The 
milky juice of some other species of Rhus, especially of R. radi- 
cans, Lin., a variety of R. Toxicodendron, Michx , is exceedingly 

SaccJiarinn officinarinn, Lin. — One-half of the sugar now made 
in the world is produced from beet root, which, however well pre- 
pared, is inferior to that obtained from the sap of the sugar cane. 
The latter alone is prescribed in the Pharmacopoeias ; it is demulcent, 
given in catarrhal affections, in the form of candy, syrup, etc. It is 
also employed in pharmacy to render oils miscible with water, and 
enters into the composition of several mixtures and pills, and all 
the confections, syrups and lozenges. 

Molasses is the drainage from raw or muscovado sugar. It is 
sometimes sold as " golden syrup." Treacle, which is darker and 
thicker, is that which drains from refined sugar in the moulds. 
Treacle is slightly laxative, and is used in pharmacy to give cohesive- 
ness to pill masses. To persons disposed to dyspepsia and bilious 
habits, sugar in excess becomes more hurtful than otherwise. 
Sugar, when concentrated, is highly antiseptic, and, from a knowl- 
edge of its possessing this principle, it is frequently employed in the 
preservation of vegetable, animal and medicinal substances. In 
cases of poisoning by copper, arsenic, or corrosive sublimate, sugar 
has been successfully employed as an antidote ; and white sugar 
finely pulverized is occasionally sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy 

Salix tetrasperma, Roxb. — At the commencement of the hot sea- 
son in India, the upper surface of the leaves of this tree are occa- 
sionally covered with a sugary exudation, which dries up in thin 
white flakes to a sugar or manna. The same trees often yield this 
exudation several years in succession, but it appears to be confined 
to a few trees and is not common. Two or three other species of 

^'!"'""} Notes on Some Saps and Secretions. 413 

Salix hav^e also been observed to yield a saccharine exudation — 
S. Jragilis, in Persia ; S. Chilcnsis, in Chili, and a species in the 

Styrax benzoin, Dryand.; Benzoin officinalis, Hayne ; LitJiocarpus 
Benzoin, Blume. — Benzoin, known in commerce as "Gum Benjamin" 
is an odoriferous or balsamic gum resin, an exudation from the stem 
of trees in Siam and Sumatra, and imported in small chests of 2^^ 
cvvts. These two qualities are chiefly used in medicine ; the one in 
tears from Siam, and the other, in agglutinated masses from the far 
East. The former is the purest and has the strongest odor. Its 
medicinal properties are stimulant, expectorant and styptic. It is 
used also in perfumery, for incense, and in making aromatic pas- 
tilles, coating court-plaster and for healing wounds. 

The imports into London were, in 1891 : 3,464 chests; 1892, 
2,655 chests; and in 1893, 3,163 chests. Benzoin was formerly 
employed in chronic bronchitis and dysentery, but is now chiefly 
used in the tincture known as *' friar's balsam," as a styptic and 
stimulant to wounds and old ulcers. Benzoic acid is stimulant and 
diuretic, and also a valuable antiseptic. 

Tabashur, a word of Sanscrit origin ; Tavakshiri meaning cow's 
milk. This secretion is procured from the joints, or internodes, of 
the female bamboo, Banibuso arundinacca, W. It so far resembles 
silex as to form a kind of glass when fused with alkalies. It is also 
unaffected by fire and acids. It is called " bamboo salt," and is 
employed medicinally in the East as a tonic and astringent in the 
cure of all sorts of paralytic complaints, flatulencies and poisons. 
This hydrate of alumina is often found in the soil where a plantation 
of bamboos has been burnt. P. Smith gives the following analysis 
of its composition : 

Silica 90*50 

Potash I'lo 

Peroxide of iron o'go 

Alumina 0*40 

Water 4'87 

Sap 223 


Beesha Rhudii, Kunth. {Melocanna bambusoides, Tim.), yields 
more or less of the Tabashur ; sometimes, it is said, the cavity is 
nearly filled with this silicious crystallization. 

414 Notes on Some Saps and Secretions, {^m. joar.PharDD. 

August, 1895. 

Tolinfcra balsanuim, Lin.; Myroxylon Toluifera, H. B. K.; Myros- 
perniuni toluifcrum, A. Rech. — There are many other synonyms of 
this tree. 

There is great confusion yet as to the origin of the two balsams, 
Peru and Tolu. The exudation known as "balsam of Tolu " is 
obtained by incisions in the trunk. When in the first state it is 
thickish, yellow, becomes slowly darker and solid, and has a very 
pleasant odor and an agreeable taste. It is chiefly obtained in New 
Granada, and exudes only from the tree during the heat of the day.