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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

LIBRARY OF THE 

Ontario college 

OF 

PHARMACY 



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THE 

AMERICAN 



OURNAL OF Pharmacy. 



PUBLISHED HY AUTHORITY OF THE 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EDITED BY 



HENRY TRIMBLE. 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR 1897. 

HKNRV N. RITTKXHOUvSK, WALLACE PRoCTKR. 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER. JOSEPH \V. ENGLAND, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 69. 



PHn.ADIvLPHIA 
1897. 



LIBRARY OF THE 

ONTARIO COLLEGE 

OF 

PHARMACY 




EUCALYPTUS ROSTRATA, SCHLECHT. MURRAY RED GUM. 
A, flower buds ; B, fruits ; C, part of leaf, magnified to show venation. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, iSgj. 



THE MURRAY RED GUM (EUCALYPTUS ROSTRATA, 

SCHLECHT) AND ITS KINO. 

By J. H. Maiden, 

Government Botanist of New South Wales and Director of the Botanic 

Gardens at Sydney. 

Aboriginal Names. — By the aboriginals of the lower Murrum- 
bidgee it used to go by the name of •' Biall," while to those of the 
western interior it was known as •• Yarrah," a name which it shared 
with some other trees. The specific name, rostrata (beaked), is in 
allusion to the way in which the operculum is drawn out to a point 
like a beak or snout, as shown in the figure. 

Other Vernacular Names. — Iksides being known as •* Red Gum," 
it is the " Flooded Gum " of the interior of Western and South 
Australia. In western New South Wales it is called" Creek Gum," 
as it is always found near watercourses. There are several trees 
which grow under the name of " Red Gum " in these colonics. One 
of them is the smooth-barked apple, Angophora lanceolata, which, in 
New South Wales, is often called red gum, but most of the trees 
known by that name are Eucalypts. The red gum of Western 
Australia is Eucalyptus calophylla, while in the neighborhood of 
St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia, Eucalyptus odorata goes by that 
name. In New South Wales two other valuable timbers also go 
under the name of red gum, viz.: Eucalyptus tcrcticornis, a tree 
bearing close affinity to rostrata, but it is essentially a forest timber, 
in contradistinction to rostrata, which is a river timber. Then the 
leather-jacket or gray gum, E. punctata, is also known as red gum 
occasionally; but the red gum par excellence of these colonics is 
Eucalyptus rostrata, and by way of distinction I have denoted it — on 
account of its most celebrated 1< cality — Murray Red Gum. 



2 Murray Red Giiin and Its Kino. {^"^-JZll^^m^' 

Meaning of the Term Gum as Applied to Eucalyptus Trees. — We 
have a very large number of species of the protean genus 
Eucalyptus, and they differ very much amongst themselves in 
(amongst other things) their barks. Some of them have rugged, 
dense, hard barks, and are known as *• iron barks." Others have 
very fibrous barks, which strip off in long pieces, and even sheets, 
used for roofing in the country ; these are called '' stringy barks." 
Others have woolly, matted barks, and are known as " box." All 
these, and many others, belong to the rough-barked Eucalypts, 
But others have smooth barks, smooth as a planed board, and go 
by the name of '' gums " or '' gum trees." Now the rough-barked 
species produce gum (kino) as abundantly, and often more so, 
than the smooth-barked ones, but the stain of the gum is more 
apparent on the latter, and that is why, I believe, the term 
*' gum " has come to be exclusively applied, in common parlance, to 
the smooth-barked forms. 

Having distinguished these two great classes, the " gums " are 
still further discriminated by means of various adjectives, some re- 
ferring to color, e. g., '' white," referring to the color of the bark ; 
''blue," referring to the tint of the bark or the glaucous appearance 
of the leaves ; " red," referring to the color of the wood, and so on. 
And, inasmuch as we have several red gums, I have proposed to 
permanently define E. rostrata as •• Murray red gum," for the reason 
already indicated. " Red gum " being thus the name of the tree, 
"red-gum kino" becomes the name of its product, in spite of its 
apparent tautology. It should strictly be written " red-gum kino" 
— not " red gum-kino." 

Hozv Red-Gum Kino Is Collected. — The manner in which the kino 
is procured is as follows : The men employed in getting it look for 
the trees from which the substance is or has recently been exuding, 
and cut into the tree until they get beyond the gum-vein ; they then 
insert a piece of tin (trough-shaped) into the cut or hole, and let the 
kino run into a bucket or kerosene tin.^ 

^ Kerosene tins are rectangular in shape, and hold about 2 gallons ; in them 
the kerosene (called paraffin oil in England) is imported from the United 
States, and the kerosene, in these original packages, finds its way into the 
remotest parts of the colonies. When the top is cut off and a wire handle fixed 
across, we have a rough-and-ready pail, which is used in Australia for many 
purposes of collection and storage, such as the case we have under considera- 
tion now. 



Am. Jour. Pharni 



jiiSary.i'Sf.'"'} Aft^rraj Red Gum and Its Kino. 3 

When the kino exudes it is of the consistency of molasses, and 
has a sourish odor. In a few days it dries into a sohd mass, which 
subsequently becomes quite friable. It is owing to this property 
(shared by other kinos of my " turbid group ") that it cannot be 
collected in an indurated condition by simple picking from the bark 
of the trees, as can kinos belonging to my " ruby" and " gummy 
groups," which do not become friable with age. 

As much as 4 gallons have been procured from one tree, but this 
is exceptional. On an average, not more than I quart per tree is 
obtained, and from the majority of trees no appreciable quantity of 
kino is obtained by tapping. Many are all but free from it. 

The usual price paid on the Murray River at the present time, 
for liquid kino (before induration) is /d. per pound, and a large 
quantity could be forthcoming at that price, if a steady demand 
were to set in for it. A good workingman can procure between 
10 and 12 pounds per day of the liquid kino. It loses but little 
weight in drying. 

The kino of the red gum is perhaps the best known of all Euca- 
lyptus kinos. The following notes of it were published by me in 
the Frocccdinjrs of the Linnean Society of Nezv South Wales for Sep- 
tember, 1891 : 

It is a useful astrmgent, and it seems to be increasing in favor 
with medical men in England, America and Australia. 

The official kino (Pterocarpus) contains, I believe, no substance 
which is not contained in this and some allied kinos, for which they 
appear to be a perfect substitute. See Pharm. Jour. [3] 20, 221, 
321. 

The kino of E. rostrata will be found mentioned in all modern 
works on Materia Medica. In Martindale and Westcott's Extra 
PharmacopcEia, for instance, we have the following : 

" E. rostrata and E. corymbosa, and probably other species 
imported from Australia. It is semi-translucent and garnet-colored, 
not so dark as, but resembling, kino in appearance, soluble in water, 
tough, difficult to powder [not correct as applied to these two kinos. 
— J. H. M.] ; it adheres to the teeth when chewed, is intensely astrin- 
gent to the mucous membrane, useful in diarrhoea, relaxed throats, 
and given with success to check the purging of mercurial pills." 

But the following statements pertaining to the percentage of tannic 
acid and the .solubility are somewhat misleading, since I have shown 



4 Murray Red Gum and Its Kino. {^ januaryfmr' 

the enormous variation in the properties of kinos caused by- 
age : 

"Of 100 parts, 90 are dissolved in cold water, the solution being 
clear ; 27 parts of isinglass precipitate all the astringent matter." — 
Squire's Companion to the B. P. 

Dr. Wiesner says of a sample : 

'* Easily soluble in water and alcohol ; solution neutral, free from 
gum resin. Broken masses of zircon-red, sometimes light brown, 
mixed with bits of bark." 

Following are experiments on *' Red Gum " kino purchased in 
Sydney, November 22, 1888, of Victorian origin: In lumps up to 
the size of peas, though angular. Prevailing color, purplish-brown ; 
is readily powdered between the fingers, forming an ochrey-brown 
powder. The mass of kino has not the brilliant appearance of the 
kinos of the ruby group, owing to this friability. 

In cold water it dissolves fairly readily, and almost entirely to a 
reddish-brown liquid. 

Its composition (determined November, 1888) is: 

Catechin and tannic acid 84*3 

Ligneous matter, etc "3 

Moisture 15*2 

Ash -2 

lOO'OO 

Tannic acid determination (Lbwenthal), 4622 per cent. 

A specimen of kino from the "■ Creek Gum," Tarella, Wilcannia, 
August 23, 1887 (diameter, 1-2 feet; height, 30-40 feet), gave the 
following results : it is only obtainable in rather small quantities 
and in rather small pieces ; pale, as kinos go, very bright-looking, 
and of a ruby color ; powders fairly readily, forming a powder of a 
light-brown tint. It dissolves almost immediately to a pale brown- 
ish or almost orange solution, leaving a sediment of a whitish- 
salmon color with a few dark-colored particles, like those of E. 
goniocalyx, only cleaner-looking. 

Its composition, determined October, 1888, is: 

Catechin and tannic acid 827 

Ligneous matter, etc '6 

Moisture 15-8 

Ash -9 



Tannic acid determination (Lbwenthal), 47746 per cent. 



ICO' GO 



^ jinua^irlT™} Murray Red Gum and Its Kino. 5 

Since the above observations were made, H. G. Smith and the 
writer^ have been re examinin^r Eucalyptus kinos. These researches 
have been continued by Mr. H. G. Smith.- From these papers it will 
be seen that certain kinos of the "Turbid" group contain new 
orf;anic bodies, Eudesmin or Aromadendrin, or a mixture of both. 
All the kinos of this group (of which E. rostrata is a member) are 
at the present time being examined with the view to ascertain 
whether they contain these new substances, and in what quantities. 
In the first broad grouping of these kinos, Catechin was (from im- 
perfect investigation) stated to be present. 

Why Eucalyptus Rostrata Kitio is Usually Chosen for Medicinal 
Purposes. — Because this species is very gregarious, it cannot, in the 
districts in which it occurs, be mistaken for any other species, and 
because it is a comparatively free yielder of kino. All these are 
important practical considerations, apart from the properties of E. 
rostrata kino itself. The discrimination of the various species of 
Eucalyptus in a forest is so difficult that considerable botanical 
knowledge would be required in the case of a kino collector who 
might be set to the task of collecting kinos true to name. As a 
matter of fact, such men are not available for the work of kino 
collecting in a mixed Eucalyptus forest. 

Eucalyptus Rostrata and Its Oil. — In passing, the following notes 
may be useful : 

The leaves of the red gum emit a pleasant odor when crushed in 
the hand, but the P2ucalyptus oil they contain is not a regular article 
of commerce, as it is not yielded in payable quantity. Mr. Hosisto 
thus reports on it in the Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria, Vol. VI, 1 861-4: 
*• Plants grown on high ground give an oil of a dark amber color, 
possessing an agreeable aromatic flavor, and having the odor of 
caraways. The yield from 100 pounds of the frcsh-gathcred leaves 
was I ounce 6 drachms. The plants grown on low marshy soil 
yielded an oil of a j)ale-}'ellow color, in appearance and smell simi- 
lar to that yielded by E. odorata, the quantity being 9*3 drachms 
to 100 pounds." Last year M. Mellon, of the Dunolly Scent Farm, 



• A Contribution to the Chemistry of Au&traliau Myrtaceout Kinos. Ptoc. 
Royal Society N. S. W^., 20, 30 (1895). 

'On Aromadendrin or Aroniadendric .\cid from the Turbid Group of Euca- 
lyptus Kinos. Proc. Royal Soc. JV. .V. !i\, »o, 135 (•896). 



Murray Red Gum and Its Kino. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
January, 1897. 



Victoria, obtained no less than 7 ounces of oil per 100 pounds of 
leaves. 

In Mueller's edition of Wittstein's work we find the following : 

" The essential oil is pale yellow to reddish amber in color ; it 
smells and tastes like that of E. odorata. Its specific gravity is 
0-918, and it boils at 137° to 181° C." 

The celebrated essential oil firm of Schimmel & Co., of Leipzig, 
Germany, have also examined this oil [vide \\\€\x Berichtiox October, 
1 891). Their oil was prepared by M. E. Mojon, of Algiers, from 
trees grown in that country. They determined the specific gravity 
of their sample to be 0-924 at 15° C, and the optical activity +12^ 
58^ in a 100-millimetre tube. The oil has a powerful odor of valerianic 
aldehyde, and is rich in cineol. E. rostrata and E. globulus appear 
to be the only two eucalyptus oils known to contain valerianic alde- 
hyde up to the present. 

Quite recently, Mr. W. Percy Wilkinson, of Melbourne, has 
made a valuable preliminary investigation of the Eucalyptus oils of 
Victoria {Proc, Roy. Soc, Victoria, 1893, P- I95)- Amongst others, 
he has examined three specimens of red gum oil, and following are 
his results : 



Sample. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Specific 
Rotation. 


Refractive 
Index. 


Specific 

Refractive 

Energy. 


I 

2 

3 


-9120 
-9216 
-9222 


+ 87° 
-f 2-2° 


I -4604 
I -4600 
I -4607 


•5072 

•5014 
•5018 



None of them gave the phellandrene reaction. 

Eucalyptus Rostrata. Where Found. — It is widely distributed in 
Australia, usually on the banks of rivers, or on river-flats subject to 
inundation, or in old water-courses. It becomes dwarfed in the in- 
terior; but it attains its greatest development on the banks of the 
Murray River, where, on the New South Wales side, there are mil- 
lions of acres of land which are periodically flooded (hence the name, 
" flooded gum," often applied to this species), and hence unsuited 
to agriculture. On this land are countless millions of red gum trees, 
the cutting of whose timber affords a large revenue to the New 



Am. Jour. PbartD. 



januar'y.S^8^':'"} Afurmj' Rcd Gum aud Its Kino. 7 

South Wales Government. On this flooded land the propaj^ation of 
the tree is largely unchecked, and so the production of timber — 
and, indirectly, of kino — is practically unlimited. 

The Murray River is a river nearly 2,000 miles long. It forms 
the greater part of the boundary between the colonies of New South 
Wales and Victoria. There is comparatively little red gum on the 
Victorian side, but in New South Wales territory it is very abundant. 

Beyond the Dividing Range, in New South Wales, the red gum 
has a very wide range, being found on the banks of the Cudgegong, 
Castlereagh, Darling, etc. It. is also sparingly found in the coast 
country, except from the Victorian boundary to the Hega district. 
In Victoria it is found on river-flats and open valleys in most parts 
of the colony, and in South Australia it is likewise very extensively 
distributed. It is also found in southwest Queensland. 

The way in which the red gum (yarra) usually marks the course 
of water was early observed by Sir Thomas Mitchell : " The yarra 
grew here (Lachlan), as on the Darling, to a gigantic size, the 
height sometimes exceeding 100 feet. The yarra is certainly a 
pleasing object in various respects; its shining bark and lofty height 
inform the traveller of a distant probability of water or. at least, of 
the bed of a river or lake, and, being visible over all other trees, it 
usually marks the course of the rivers so well that, in travelling 
along the Darling and Lachlan, I could trace with ease the general 
course of the river without approaching its banks until I wished to 
encamp." (" Three ExpeditiQns,"*ii, 54.) 

This useful tree has been introduced into several countries (chiefly 
through the agency of Baron von Mueller), with varying success. 
For particulars of most of the results, see Mueller's "Select Kxtra- 
Tropical Plants " (Victorian Edition). For results in Assam, see 
Kew Report {ox 1^79, p. 16; and for results in India see Kiw Re- 
ports: 1876, p. 23; 1879, p. 16; 1881. p. 12. Vilmorin, of Paris, 
has distributed a good deal of red gum in ICuropc. Some years ago 
I received, from a correspondent at Oporto, in Portugal, flowers and 
fruits raised from such seed, with the report that the SjKxics docs 
well in that country. The red gum has been planted by a number 
of people in California, and is favorably rept)rted upon by the local 
forest conservator. For an account of its growth m that State, 
reference may be made to the very interesting monograph on 
" Eucalyptus," by Mr. Abbot Kinney, of Los Angeles. 



8 Gelsemium. {"-^z^i^,^!^' 

GELSEMIUM. 

By L. E. Sayre, 
Member of the Research Committee C, of the Committee of Revision of the 

United States Pharmacopoeia. 

RHIZOMES, ROOTS AND STEMS. 

Some time ago my attention was called, by members of a class in 
microscopy, to the varied structure of this drug. Fragments of 
gelsemium root, handed to the different members of the class, 
when sectioned and mounted, did not show the same characteristics. 
This observation led me to examine samples of gelsemium root from 
different sources, and this forced the conclusion that the gelsemium 
of the market is composed not only of the rhizome and root, but 
also of the stem in varying proportions. Furthermore, that the 
description of the drug, supposing it to be composed of rhizome and 
root — as is taken for granted by the Pharmacopoeia — is somewhat 
ambiguous and misleading. n the present article a more accurate 
description of the rhizome and root, and a method of distinguishing 
both of these from the stem, is suggested. 

I am inclined to think that the stem, present to some extent in the 
commercial drug, is an adulterant. Reassuring myself on this 
point, I sent a package of the commercial drug to Gerald McCarthy, 
botanist of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 
asking him to report upon the same. In his response to my letter, 
he states : " The specimens you submit represent the rhizome and 
stem respectively, the latter is the specimen with the bast fibres in 
the cortex. The stem was apparently used to adulterate the rhizome 
in the original lot. So far as I know, the stem has no medicinal 
value." 

It is an interesting question whether the stem has any medicinal 
virtue. An investigation has been commenced, by which it is hoped 
that the relative value of the rhizome, root and stem may be deter- 
mined. 

Collectors in the South have been applied to for authentic speci- 
mens. In the meantime the article of the market is being examined. 
It may be of interest to state that Mr. McCarthy, in his letter, re- 
marks : " The parts of the plant collected here for medicinal use are 
roots, rhizomes, leaves and flowers." 

The description given of gelsemium rhizome and root, in one para- 
graph, by the U.S. P., 1890, reads asjollows : " Cylindrical, long, or 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Januarj'. 1897. 



} 



Geise 



mitim. 



cut in sections, mostly from 5 to 15 millimetres, and occasionally 3 
centimetres thick, the roots much thinner, externally li«^ht yellowish 
brown, with purplish-brown longitudinal lines ; tough ; fracture 
splintery; bark thin, with silky bast fibres, closely adhering to the 




Fig, I. — Cross- sections of Gelseinium sempervireus. A, stem ; /?, rhizome ; 
C, root. 

pale yellowish porous wood, which has fine medullary rays, and in 
the rhizome a thin pith ; odor aromatic, heavy; taste bitter." 

It will be noted in the above description that the only distinction 
made between the root and rhizome is that the latter lias a thin 
pith. 

Professor Rothrock (Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, p. 130) calls atten- 
tion to two structural characteristics of stems and roots, which, he 



lO 



Gelseinium. 



Am. Jour. Pharua. 
Januarj', 1897. 



says, are peculiar and of positive value. " The first of these char- 
acteristics," he says, '' is derived from the medullary rays. These 
usually widen in a marked manner, going from centre to circumfer- 
ence, being sometimes much more than twice as broad externally as 
internally. The second characteristic is the tendency of the pith to 
be penetrated by several plates of large, thin-walled cells, which 
divide the pith more or less perfectly into four portions. This lat- 
ter characteristic is always present and plainly enough marked to 
serve as a means of diagnosis." 

This, the author seems to indicate, is a characteristic of the stem 




Otx 



Fig. 2. — Gelsemium, Powder of rhizome. «, wood tissue ; b, cell from 
medullary ray ; c, cork cells ; d, bast ; e, parenchyma of cortex. 

and root. It is possible he may have meant by the stem the under- 
ground stem or rhizome, for the stem is not official. In either case, 
whether the stem or rhizome is intended, the statement is- inaccu- 
rate and misleading, because it does not make distinction between 
the stem (or rhizome) and root. The United States Dispensatory 
quotes this description of Professor Rothrock, and does not clear up 
the ambiguity and inaccuracy. None of the text-books make any 
more definite and lucid description of the root and rhizome of this 
plant. 

From the growing plant and from the commercial drug numerous 
sections have been made and examined microscopically. The ac- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1897. 



} 



GelseviiuiH. 



I I 



companying drawings may, perhaps, more clearly and more briefly 
describe these three parts of the plant than any written description 
can do. 

In an examination of cross-sections of the stem, rhizome and root 
of the gelsemium, we find the following microscopical characters 
and difference of structure. In the stem (^Fig. /, A) are found com- 
paratively large bundles of bast {b) near the wood, just outside the 
cambium. In the rhizome (Fig. /, ^) the bast is arranged near the 
corky layer, and in an interrupted ring, rather than in bundles. In 




Fig. J.— Gelsemium. Powder of root, a, wood tissue ; b, pareuchynia of 
cortex ; r, cork cells ; d, catnbium cells. 

the root {Fig. /, C) the bast is entirely absent, but there are several 
layers of cork. The following table shows the corresponding tissues 
in the three plant parts : 



stem. 
^, Epidermis, 
r, Collenchyma. 
p, Parenchyma. 
b. Bast. 
s, Sieve tissue. 
ca, Cambium. 
w, Wood tissue, 
r, Vascular tubes. 
Pi, Pith, 
w/, Medullary. 



Rhizome. 
Epidermis. 
Collenchyma, 
Parenchyma. 
Bast. 

Sieve tissue. 
Cambium. 
Woo<l tissue. 
Vascular tul)es. 
Pith. 
Medullary. 



Root 



Parenchyma. 

Sieve tissue. 
Cambium. 
Wood tissue. 
Vascular tube*. 



Fig. 4 shows a cro.ss-section of the pith in the rhizome; here the 
division into four parts is shown. It seems that, as the rhizome 
advances in age, the pith becomes less and less conspicuous, until 



12 Gelsemium, {^^.^ri^sir- 

in the larger stems and rhizomes it is almost absent, if not entirely 
so. In this respect the stem and rhizome are much alike. 

The description I have to suggest for gelsemium is as follows : 
Rhizome cylindrical, long or cut in sections, mostly 5 to 15 millime- 
tres, and occasionally 3 centimetres thick ; externally light yellow- 
ish brown, with purplish brown longitudinal lines ; tough and 
woody; fracture splintery; bark thin, with silky bast fibres near the 
pale-yellowish porous wood, which has fine medullary rays, and a 
small pith which, under the lens, is seen to be usually divided into 
four segments. 

The root is 2 to 10 millimetres thick; externally lighter than the 
rhizome ; fracture brittle ; thick bark, closely adhering to the light 




Fig. 4. — Gelsemium. Pith of rhizome. 

yellowish wood ; odor of both rhizome and root aromatic ; taste 
bitter. 

POWDERED GELSEMIUM. 

No. 60 Powder. — That the official drug is often adulterated with 
portions of the stem is very evident, but whether intentionally or 
carelessly I am unable to say. To distinguish the adulteration in 
powdeied form has been the subject of considerable work, but with 
very little attendant success. The root contains no bast, and hence 
but a glance will indicate whether the powder be of the root or not. 
However, the rhizome and stem both contain the bast and in almost 
equal quantities, so this cannot be relied upon to distinguish be- 
tween the two. It seems that neither has any characteristic cell 



^jaiiCao'^l^^:"} Licorice Root. 13 

structure that is not found in the other. The stem, when dried, is cov- 
ered with a dark brown, nearly black, layer of cork, while the rhizome 
is of a yellowish color. If the bark is in ordinarily coarse powder 
and contains a considerable amount of the stem, the dark, almost 
black, particles are quite noticeable ; but a fine powder, or a small 
amount of adulteration would likely fail to show these characteris- 
tics. The ordinary micro-chemical reagents produce the same effect 
upon both stem and rhizome. 

As before stated, the different parts — stem, rhizome and roots — 
are being analyzed. When the analysis is completed the results 
will be given. 

University of Kansas. 



THK COMMERCIAL SOURCES OF LICORICE ROOT. 

By H. N. Rittenhouse. 

While the commercial varieties of licorice root are well known 
to importers of the article, the qualities, values and sources of sup- 
ply are no so well known to the pharmacist as they should be, if 
any importance is to be attached to accurately dispensing either the 
root itself or its preparations. 

Previous to the year 1870 the principal source from which the 
United States obtained its supplies was Spain. Since then the con- 
sumption in the United States has increased so much that the 
Spanish root has been utterly inadequate to equal the demand. 
Other countries have since then come into the market, and now fur- 
nish the greater part of the market recjuirements. These countries 
are Southern Russia, Asia Minor (chiefly the province of Anatolia) 
and Syria, and about in the order above-named as to quantity, 
Russia being the largest exporter and Syria the smallest. Licorice 
root from any of the above named sources, when good and sound, 
should be acceptable to the pharmacist for his uses, but it is not 
always good and sound in a proper sense as found in commerce. 

Spanish root is gathered so closely and skilfully sorted and 
packed that much of it consists of fine, immature, fibrous roots, 
which, while they may be called licorice root, arc pract«cally 
worthless as such for the purposes for which licorice root is used, 
and besides are 50 per cent, higher in price than the other varie- 
ties; yet prejudice and perhaps ignorance on the part of some buy- 



14 Licorice Root. {^Vmwy^'Js?:"- 

ers still demand Spanish root and Spanish extract. The Spanish 
root is sweeter and with less acridity than the other varieties, and 
if Spanish root was what it once was in mature condition when 
found in the market, the preference above noted might be justified; 
but, as it actually is, this prejudice is based on its ancient reputa- 
tion, and is now unwarranted. The close digging and limited and 
practically exhausted fields of Spain are the causes of this. 

Turning now to Russia, with its new and almost unlimited fields, 
as yet but lightly worked (exports from Russia only began in 1887), 
we find a mature root, rich in glycyrrhizin and extractive, much 
better suited for commercial purposes because better and cheaper 
than Spanish root, the sole objection to it being in the taste, which, 
in addition to the usual sweetness of Spanish root, has a slight 
acridity, which is really not objectionable, but gives the impression 
of being " stronger." 

Anatolian root ranks between Spanish and Russian in the quality 
of sweetness (or absence of bitterness). In commerce no attention is 
paid to the botanical varieties of licorice root, and from the root 
alone it is quite impossible to determine its true botanical origin, 
the usual designations being from the countries of growth, as Span- 
ish, Russian, Anatolian, etc. ; though all varieties, except Spanish, 
are often classified as "■ Greek root," it must be remembered, too, 
that all licorice root of commerce is wild root, none being cul- 
tivated. 

The variety in the market known as '' selected " licorice root, 
and put up in small bundles, was formerly selected from Spanish 
sources, but as demand increased and supply diminished, other vari- 
eties having the requisite straightness and thickness were mixed 
with the Spanish, until now " selected root " consists of root from 
any and all sources if of the proper quality — straight, sound — and 
of the requisite length and thickness. 

Peeled Russian root may now be prepared in Russia. I know of 
no reason why it should not be, but Syria formerly prepared 
" peeled " root for shipment to Europe, some of which found its 
way into the market as " peeled Russian." Any variety might be 
peeled as well as Russian and be just as good. It would be a satis- 
faction, however, to have things called by their correct names and 
pay for them accordingly. Peeled "Russian root" has always 
commanded a good price, doubtless partly on account of the cost of 



^ januaryff^"'} Secoml Pan-Americau Medical Congress. i 5 

the labor of peeling and careful drying ; but if so much esteemed 
when peeled, why is it not just as much esteemed unpeeled as Span- 
ish or any other variety unpeeled ? Besides being much cheaper 
and richer in glycyrrhizin and extractive, for all practical purposes it 
is the best. Interest always attaches to a knowledge of the true 
sources and varieties of drugs, and is frequently a source of profit as 
well to the pharmacist. 

Batoum is the principal port of export for the Russian root, which 
is gathered along the Trans-Caucasian Railroad, running from Ba- 
toum on the Black Sea to Baku on the Caspian Sea. The port of ex- 
port for Anatolia is Smyrna, while the Spanish root finds its way 
into commerce through the principal seaports of Spain. 



SECOND PAN-AMERICAN MEDICAL CONGRESS. 

By Joseph P. Remington. 

The second Pan-American Medical Congress met in the city of 
Mexico during the week beginning November 16, 1896. The first 
Congress assembled in the city of Washington, in 1893. The pur- 
pose of these triennial gatherings is mainly to foster the advance- 
ment of medical and pharmaceutical science, and to establish closer 
relations between members of-the medical profession and correlative 
branches. The large number of delegates in attendance upon the 
first Congress surprised the friends of the movement, and, although 
the number in attendance upon the second Congress was not as 
large, it must be gratifying to the International Executive Com- 
mittee to know that over five hundred members testified to their 
interest by their presence, many of them contributing papers upon 
some subject connected with the work of the Congress. As is cus- 
tomary in such bodies, the detailed work was referred to sections or 
commissions, the latter having been organized for the purpose of 
carrying on continuou.sly important work and reporting at the trien- 
nial meetings of the Congress. Two commissions have been organ- 
ized, which are of special interest to pharmacists, the Commission on 
Pan-American Pharmacopoeia and the Commission on South Ameri- 
can Flora.* 



' The Commission on Pan-American PharmacoiKL-ia is organizc<l, with Prof. 
Jos. P. Remington as Chairman ; that on i^oulh American Plora, Prof. H. H. 
Rusby, Chairman. 



1 6 Second Pan-American Medical Congress. {'^ January fisK™' 

The sections embraced the following: General Medicine, Pathology 
and Therapeutics, 89 papers ; General Surgery, 45 papers; Military 
and Naval Surgery, 4 papers ; Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Abdom- 
inal Surgery, 41 papers; Anatomy and Physiology, 7 papers; 
Diseases of Children, 16 papers ; Ophthalmology, 15 papers ; Laryn- 
gology, Rhinology and Otology, 3 papers ; Dermatology and Syph- 
ilography, 3 papers ; General Hygiene, Demography, Marine 
Hygiene and Quarantine, 25 papers; Diseases of the Mind and 
Nervous System and Medical Jurisprudence, 17 papers; Dentistry, 
6 papers ; Medical Pedagogics, 7 papers. In addition to these, a 
large number of volunteer papers were presented. The sections 
met in different localities, and the discussions which took place 
added largely to the interest of the reading. 

The general sessions of the Congress were held in the National 
Theatre and Chamber of Deputies. A marked feature of the work 
of the Congress was the extraordinary interest manifested by Presi- 
dent Diaz, of the Republic, the members of his Cabinet, and, in 
fact, all of the officials of the Government. Their attentions were 
not only directed to extending hospitality, but public and private 
museums and collections were freely accessible, official statistics 
were furnished, and every possible facility .afforded for acquiring in- 
formation upon any subject. The surgeons were given every oppor- 
tunity to visit hospitals and chemists, botanists, mineralogists, arch- 
aeologists, paleontologists, geologists and students in any of the re- 
lated sciences were furnished with special guides to the valuable 
collections. The public and private social entertainments were on a 
scale of magnificence rarely approached. The subjects of permanent 
interest to pharmacists centre in the permanent commissions. 
These will be charged with the duty of investigating the Western 
Continent, especially the unknown South American plants, and the 
formulation of a plan for a Pan-American Pharmacopoeia. This 
will not supersede the special Pharmacopaeias of each country, but 
will collect the valuable features of each and endeavor to unify the 
strength of the powerful preparations, so that danger to life may be 
reduced to a minimum. 



The richest collection of palms in the world is said to be in the Botanic 
Garden at Buitenzorg, Java. It contains 300 species that are determined, ico- 
probably new and still undescribed, and 100 varieties of known species. — 
Garden and Forest. 



^jaiSJry?'/^'""'} Commercial Ferruginous Pills. \j 

COMMERCIAL FERRUGINOUS PILLS— BLAUD'S 

FORMULA. 

By William B. Thompson. 

Manufacturers honestly vie with one another in an endeavor to 
produce this pill in an exact condition, and in maintaining its compo- 
sition in a state that shall, in all respects, fulfil its therapeutic pur- 
pose or intention. Every price schedule issued lists this pill, and 
the quantities prescribed, sold and used exceed, perhaps, that of any 
other single kind except quinine. 

Physicians generally believe that a constitutional effect of the 
iron is more promptly assured by a continued use of the Blaud 
composition than by that of any other form — not excepting liquid — 
and satisfactory results must assuredly follow where the use and 
popularity continue to so great an extent. Yet, if we start with 
the theoretical principle, and also consider the chemical action 
which occurs in the formation of this pill mass, that action being 
instantaneous, when an alkaline carbonate is brought into contact 
with the ferrous sulphate, and then reflect upon the sensitive and 
chemically unstable character of the ferrous salt formed, with its 
inevitable tendency towards a ferrous oxide, and finally ferric 
oxide, we can scarcely understand in what manner art assumes 
to control or retard a chemical law, postponing an action which 
is ultimately, if not speedil}-, as sure as that which governs 
the planetary systems. Yet it is attempted ; pervious and impervi- 
ous coatings are used, as means to protect the iron-salt from the 
oxidizing influence of air and moisture. A physical examination, 
and the application of a color-test to these various products of the 
manufactories, reveal so many conditions and appearances as to 
bewilder the judgment when claims to chemical accuracy are made. 

The result of the first contact of the iron and the alkali in the 
presence of moisture is to produce a compound having a brownish 
green color, that of a more positive green hue being accepted as 
a more true product of this reaction. Then if this is accepted as 
the proper color indication of the true state or condition in which 
this ferrous salt should be presented to the human economy as a 
remedy, what shall we say in regard to those variable conditions as 
to color which the numerous commercial pills present ? Shall we 
adopt all these as affording the proper result of a definite chemical 



l8 Adulterated Japan Wax. {^TanSary.'isQ^."^- 

reaction which the originator of the Blaud pill designed ? Or shall 
we admit that varying states of oxidation do not seriously militate 
against the therapeutical efficacy of this iron salt, especially when 
it has merged into the ferric state. In the numerous essays which 
have appeared upon the subject of Blaud's pills are many finely 
wrought theories in regard to the action of the normal fluids of the 
stomach, most notably the supposed free hydrochloric acid, which 
is fancifully conceived to be in waiting in that wondrous receptacle, 
ready to claim first seizure upon any congenial substance which 
may be ingested — with a predilection for a ferrous salt of iron — and 
that an insignificant amount of ferric oxide, now and then, will be 
but a small obstacle to the action of this solvent acid. 

It would appear to be more reasonable to cease indulging in any 
more theories as to the precise behavior of the intestinal processes 
towards foreign substances, particularly medicines, or to speculate 
upon a probably uniform action regulating animal chemistry. But 
rather see to it that the state of combination is exactly such as will 
meet the indications suggesting its use ; and that if prepared in 
advance of requirement, how much of chemical change or alteration 
can occur, and yet demonstrate it a Blaud pill, or what is its precise 
character as commonly found in commerce, and wherein does it 
differ from that of extemporaneous preparation ? 

This paper is presented here for the purpose of eliciting dis- 
cussion. Whilst much has been written, the assertions are chiefly 
on one side only of the question. Now let us have the other side. 

Philadelphia, November 30, 1896. 



ADULTERATED JAPAN WAX. 
By Chari^ks H. I/AWai.!.. 

The analytical chemist, whose duty it is to examine the various 
commercial products sold by a large wholesale house, encounters 
many instances where samples are offered for examination before 
purchasing which are inferior in some respects to the official stand- 
ard required for the substance, or which contain some unmistak- 
able ingredient foreign to their nature. 

It frequently occurs that the description of a substance is capable 
of several different interpretations, or the requirements are faulty, 



^jan^Tyff^."^-} Adulterated J apau Wax. 19 

so that the manufacturer or dealer is forced into accepting a sub- 
stance which he beUeves to be inferior, but the impurity of which 
he cannot conclusively prove. 

The watchful care necessarily exercised in a large establishment, 
where a high standard is rigidly maintained for all goods purchased, 
is a distinct advantage to the retail dealer, and, indirectly, to the 
consumer. Only those who are actively engaged in this class of 
work, realize the extent to which the nefarious practice of wilful 
adulteration is carried on. 

Adulterations, according to a standard authority upon definitions, 
may be of three kinds: 

( i) Adulteration or admixture to suit the public taste or desire in 
some respect. 

(2) Unintentional admixture of foreign substances, due to faulty 
or careless methods of manufacture. 

(3) Wilful adulteration for the sake of pecuniary profit. 
Adulterators of the latter class are especially to be feared, as 

they strive to imitate the genuine product in every respect in order 
to obtain the full price for an inferior product. 

When a fraud of this kind is detected by a prospective purchaser, 
he promptly rejects the goods and usually refuses to purchase further 
supplies from the same source. The manufacturer of the fraudulent 
goods offers them, in turn, to various other purchasers of large 
quantities, until he succeeds in finding one who bu\s without 
examining the quality of his purchase ; thus, in almost every case, 
the goods eventually reach the consumer, who suffers the greatest 
loss. 

The extent to which the Japan wax of commerce is adulterated, 
at the present time, has never before been equalled, in the case of 
a single commercial article, according to the cxjK'rience of the 
writer or that of the house with which he is connected. 

F*ifty-nine cases of Japan wax, containing from 205 to 225 
pounds each, were examined ; twenty-five of these were found to 
be adulterated with starchy material to the extent of from 20 to 
25 per cent. This means that, in the Japan wax purchased by one 
house, about 1,200 pounds of starch were paid for at the price 
of Japan wax, which is about three times as great. 

Japan wa.x is a vegetable product imported from Japan, where 
it is prepared from the berries of several s|>ecies «)f AV/z/i. The use of 



20 Adulterated Japan Wax. {^ January fSS""" 

this substance has largely increased during the past few years, as 
(owing to its low price) it replaces beeswax in many industries. 
As imported, it is usually in the form of rectangular blocks or 
cakes, weighing several pounds each ; it possesses a yellowish-white 
color (becoming darker after age and exposure) and a somewhat 
rancid odor. The characteristics, taken from recent authorities, are 
as follows: Specific gravity, about 0975 to 0-980; melting point, 
about 54° C; saponification number, about 222. 

The fraud was detected in the latter part of October, and, since 
that time, besides the number of cases enumerated, several samples 
have been offered for purchase, identical in the character and extent 
of the adulteration ; thus showing that the quantity in the market 
is by no means confined to the amount named. 

In every case the wax was purchased from agents or brokers in 
this country, direct importations, up to the present time, being free 
from admixture. The quotation : " For ways that are dark and for 
tricks that are vain," can also be applied to individuals of Caucasian 
descent. 

The appearance of the sophisticated product differed slightly from 
that of the genuine wax. The specific gravity was slightly higher, 
and a difference was noticed in this respect when cakes of each were 
compared ; the adulterated wax was, in most instances, free from the 
peculiar network of minute cracks which usually cover the surface 
of a cake of pure Japan wax. Upon close examination of a freshly 
fractured cake, a variation or gradation in its internal structure was 
observed ; this was due to the settling out of the starch while the 
wax cooled. The quickest and most effective method found for dis- 
tinguishing between a pure and an impure wax is as follows : A 
cake is fractured and the freshly exposed surface is scraped slightly 
with a knife ; upon the application of several drops of iodine-test 
solution the adulterated article turns darker, becoming deep bluish 
black after fifteen minutes' time. The pure wax shows no alteration 
whatever, nor any coloration, excepting that which is produced by 
the iodine solution alone. 

Samples for the determination of the constants were obtained by 
taking sections squarely across the cake, as the presence of different 
proportions of starch in the upper and lower portions of a cake 
would produce varying results were the samples taken otherwise. 
The averages of the constants obtained from four samples are as 



^janJ^.^sS^.'"} Petrolatum vs. Vaseline. 21 

follows: specific gravity, 1-0653; melting point, 52^ C; saponifica- 
tion number, 173-28. From pure samples examined at the same 
time, the following results were obtained: specific gravity, 0-980 ; 
melting point, 54° C; saponification number, 22098. The amount 
of foreign matter indicated by the lowering of the saponification 
number was found upon calculation to be 21-24 per cent. The 
starch was estimated directly by treating a weighed sample of the 
wax in a flask with chloroform, which dissolves the wax, but does 
not take up the starch ; the solution was filtered, the residue upon 
the filter was washed well with ether, dried at lOO*^ C. and weighed ; 
the percentage obtained by this method of procedure was 23-42, 
corresponding favorably with the amount indicated by calculation 
from the saponification number. 

A microscopical examination was made of the starch, which 
showed a lack of uniformity existing in the material used in dif- 
ferent cases. In one instance it was unmistakably identified as corn 
starch, but in others it was difficult to decide upon the identity of 
the starch. 

The consumers and handlers of this article will observe that they 
are likely to have offered to them a product which is dear at a price 
even considerably below the market quotation ; and, as the sophist- 
ication is so easily detected, it becomes an important duty to search 
out and reject every case of this fraudulent material, in order to 
make it impossible for the originators of the compound to find a 
market for their product. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 



PETROLATUM VS. VASKLINK. 

By Louis Emanuel. 

In the advertising pages of the New York Medical Times the 
manufacturers of vaseline make the fallowing unjust attack on 
petrolatum : 

TO THK MEDICAL PROFESSION OF TH8 UNITED STATES. 
We consider it our duty to in fonn you that when you presents petrolatum 
for a patient (in accordance with the I'harmacop<i'ia) and have the prescription 
filled at the nearest druj^ store, you arc much more likely to injure than to 
benefit your patient and may do him serious harm. The committee in char^c- 
of the last Pharmacopoeia declined to enter therein the word "Vaseline," 
because it was our trade-mark, and we would not a>{ree to »urrcn<!er it, and in 



22 Petrolatum vs. Vaseline. {^ januaJyfissr" 

place thereof invented and adopted the word " Petrolatum," which was intended 
to represent a substance identical to our vaseline. This action has encouraged 
the manufacture of worthless imitations of our product, which are sold to the 
druggists, the vast majority of whom neither tnow nor care anything about 
their quality, and the result is a confusion of ideas amongst physicians and 
failure of benefit to the patient. Now it is about time that you should clearly 
understand : 

(i) That "petrolatum" is not "vaseline," and that the formula given in 
the Pharmacopoeia does not and will not make vaseline. 

(2) That petrolatum has come to mean a worthless and often noxious petro- 
leum product, varying in quality from axle-grease up. 

(3) That vaseline is not only useful as a vehicle (as many physicians think), 
but that it has extraordinary value as a remedy both externally and internally, 
which petrolatum has not. 

These reasons ought to be conclusive, to say nothing of the fairness which 
should prompt honorable men to recognize those who give time, brains and 
money to the benefit of the world, rather than to those who live by appropri- 
ating to themselves the creations of others. 

It would seem at first sight that the patentee has some rights to 
an unlimited monopoly, which the advertisers claim in recompense 
for the brains and money which has been largely devoted to the 
benefit of mankind. It appears, however, that no mortal born of 
woman has yet been endowed with talents sufficient to enable him 
to render mankind any service whatsoever without having himself 
first profited by the labor and brains of others. For this reason 
patents have only a limited existence. The wisdom of this limited 
monopoly is clearly demonstrated when we consider that the 
patentee of the process for the purification of the crude residue of 
petroleum distillation was not the originator of the use of animal 
charcoal as a deodorizer and decolorizer, and, in fact, was not the first 
person to apply it for this particular purpose; for Fliickiger's Fhar- 
maceutische Chemie tells us that "in 1847 C. B. Mansfield, Cam- 
bridge, England, patented a process for decolorizing or deodorizing 
petroleum sediment by means of animal charcoal; in 1865-66 R. 
A. Cheseborough, of New York, U. S. A., patented a process for 
the purpose by the use of hot animal charcoal, and in 1872 he 
patented the fantastic name of vaseline." 

EVOLUTION OF VASELINE. 

Patent No. 49,502, dated August 22, 1865, to R. A. Chesebor- 
ough, for the use of bone-black for purifying petroleum or coal oils 
by filtration. 



""janSao-.^^T"} PctroUitum VS. VascliHc. 23 

Patent No. 56,179, dated July 10, 1S66, to same, for heating 
bone-black by dry steam or otherwise, previous to using the same 
for filtering hydrocarbon oils. 

Patent No. 127,568, dated June 4, 1872, to same, for the name 
vaseline. 

In the latter, the claim made by the patentee is as follows : 

I have invented -a new and useful product from petroleum, which I have 
named Vaseline, and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear and 
exact description thereof, which will enable those skilled in the art to make 
and use the same. 

The substance from which vaseline is made is the residuum of petroleum le t 
in the still after the greater part of the petroleum has been distilled off. Vas- 
eline is the product of the filtration of the said residuum through bone-black, 
and varies in color as it comes from the filter. First it is pure white at the be- 
ginning of the operation, soon changing to a light straw, and then a deep 
claret at the close of the operation. 

Vaseline is a thick, oily, pasty substance, is semi-solid in appearance, unob- 
jectionable in odor, becomes liquid at temperature varying from 85' to 110° V. 
It will not saponify, does not crystallize, and does not contain paraffine. 

Vaseline is especially useful in currying, stuffing and oiling all kinds of 
leather. It is also a good lubricator, and may be used to great advantage on 
all kinds of machinery. It is also an excellent substance for glycerine-cream 
for chapped hands. 

When we compare the above with the description of petrolatum 
of the U. S. P., we must come to the conclusion that the pharma- 
copccial committee is grossly misrepresented, and that pharmacy is 
unjustly charged with piracy. 

The Pharmacopoeia says of petrolatum ; 

A mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series, otuained by dis- 
tilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from petroleum, and purifying 
the residue when it has the desired melting point. A fat-like mass of about the 
consistency of an ointinL*nt, varying from white to yellowish, or yellow, more 
or less fluorescent when yellow, especially after being melted, transparent in 
thin layers, completely amorphous, and without olor and taste, or gi^nng off, 
when heated, a faint odor of p>etroleum. 



.\\\ unusually large fasciatc<l stem of meadow thistle (Cnicus alliftsimu.s. 
Willd.) was sent to the museum of Purdue University a short lime ago from 
northern Indiana. When dry.it measured 12 inches broad at the top and .; 
inches at the base. The thickness of this greatly flattened stem was normal, 
that is, less than one-fourth inch. It was covered evenly with normal Icavea, 
and bore a score or more of immature flower beads sessile along the upper 
edge. It 8too<l 3 feet high. The interest in it lies in *' . / . 

wedge form, as fasciated stems art- usuallv irrreularly <K 
Gazette, Novcml)er, 1896. 



24 Modern Surgical Dressings. { ^TanSaryfS" "' 

MODERN SURGICAL DRESSINGS. 
By F. B. Kii^mer. 

The surgical dressings in use at the present time by such practi- 
tioners as keep pace with the advancement of the surgical art are 
the products of the practical application of scientific knowledge. 
They are the outcome of the modifications and amplification of pro- 
cedures that have been brought about in the evolution of surgical 
science. 

Dr. Wm. Pepper states that " medicine and surgery have made 
more progress in the last twenty years than in the twenty centuries 
preceding." This statement may also be applied to the surgical 
dressing. 

In the dawn of the present era of surgery, the teachings of Lister 
demanded that the dressings to be applied to a wound should be 
saturated with chemicals capable of killing germs " within the 
wound or coming from without." During this epoch antiseptics 
were empirically applied. A dressing that promised sure death to 
the microbe was in demand. In those days cloth was plastered 
with masses of pitch, paraffin fat and carbolic acid. The products 
were unclean — sticky, irritating and non-absorptive — directly the 
opposite to those in use at the present time. Crude as was this 
beginning, it contained the '' living spark of truth that illuminated 
the mysterious darkness which for centuries hovered over wound 
infection." It brought blessings that " have soothed and removed 
untold suffering and misery — have saved millions of lives. For this 
gift to surgery we are indebted to Sir Joseph Lister." — Gerster. 

During the decades that have followed the time of which we 
speak, the forward progress of the principles of antisepsis has been 
continuous. 

The accurate scientific observations of bacteriology has determined 
the value of antiseptic substances, brought a knowledge of the na- 
ture of bacteria, their habits, their life, and shown their influence in 
the causation of wound infection. Such knowledge has given to 
the surgeon newer and better weapons than those first used in the 
combat against wound infection. The surgical dressing has always 
been to the front in the revolution and evolution of surgery. Caus- 
tic applications were early substituted for those which were mild, 
yet more pDtent. Many microbe-killers were found to be man- 



^ January^'.'"-} Modcm SuTgical Drcssiugs. 2 5 

killers ; others were shown to be valueless. Power to absorb wound 
secretion and exclude infection was made an essential requirement 
for wound-dressing material. 

Prevention became both the watchword and the keystone of sur- 
gical technique. What is termed by Gerster " the conscientious 
practice of thorough-going cleanliness," was found possible of attain- 
ment by the use of antiseptics — "angels of cleanliness." Chemical 
sterilization has been combined with mechanical cleansing. Natural 
agents, as well as those instituted by the operator, have been called 
to the aid of the surgeon. In this transition, antisepsis has not 
been abandoned, but has developed into its higher form — asepsis. 
The antiseptic dressing has not been discarded, but has become 
aseptic. The terms antisepsis — asepsis, are not antagonistic ; the 
one is not the antithesis of the other. •' Asepsis is an exalted 
degree of cleanliness." 

It is reached by the surgeon through the aid of antiseptics. The 
antiseptic agents employed to produce the condition of asepsis may 
be physical — heat, chemical — carbolic acid, etc., mechanical — wash- 
ing. These ma)' be supplemented by measures which exclude all 
bacteria. The aim sought is a condition of freedom of septic 
material or micro-organisms — asepsis. 

The Fundamental Law. — In the transition of surgical practice, 
which we have noted, the great guiding principle first recognized by 
Lister has been strengthened, viz.: " that the presence of certain 
kinds of bacteria is an essential condition of wound infection." 
From this has been evolved the fundamental law that all materials 
which are to come in contact with the wound must be free from 
pathogenic organisms. To i)rcpare a dressing which shall lulhl the 
requirements of this law would, at first glance, seem to be a simple 
undertaking. We find, however, that the task is not so easy of 
accomplishment when we note that over 150 species of bacteria are 
classed as pathogenic (6 pyogenic) ; in addition to this we have 
nearly 3CX) species of organisms classed as non-pathogenic for lack 
of information as to their disease producing power.' 



' Bucbn^r has shown that many of the common saprophytes classed as non- 
patliogenic, when injected under the skin, cause local abscess. I have recently 
witnessed serious results follow nn < cntal inoculation of a clean wound 

with mould spores supposed to he li 



26 Modern Surgical Dressings. {'^'^kl^.y^ml^' 

These bacteria are widely distributed. * 

** There is no well-defined dividing line between pathogenic and 
non-pathogenic bacteria." — Sternberg. 

It would be impossible in the manipulation of dressing material 
to separate or remove harmless bacteria from those which may be 
virulent. Therefore, in its practical application the fulfillment of 
the law demands that surgical dressings shall be free from all forms 
of bacteria. 

All antiseptic agents do not possess the power to destroy or kill 
organisms. Therefore, dressings impregnated with antiseptics will 
not, of necessity, meet the demand. Hence, in the preparation 
of surgical dressings, the law must be construed to mean that, what- 
ever may be the material and whatever may be the methods by 
which it may be prepared, in order to meet the requirements of 
surgery, the fundamental principle governing its production must 
provide that it shall be free from all micro-organisms. 

The Infection of Dressings. — The materials which enter into sur- 
gical dressings, such as absorbent cotton, gauze, wool, are those 
which, in themselves, reach after, absorb and hold bacterial life. 
Every person and every object with which the dressing may come 
in contact in the course of its preparation, are liable to transfer to it 
infection. Infection through air is a possible factor. 

Micro-organisms are readily disseminated through the air by the 
medium of dust. The air of a crowded room is always laden with 
bacterial life. In hospitals, the air is infected through the dis- 
charges of patients. The air of a physician's office cannot be kept 
free from infected dust. The dust on the drug-store counters, tables 
and shelves will always furnish a luxuriant bacterial garden. 

Wherever people move about, they must, of necessity, transfer soil 
and create dust. If they move from infected centres, as do the 
inmates and attendants at hospitals, the visitors to the doctor's 
office or the patrons of a drug store, they spread infected dust. 

Dressings may also become infected through the water used in 
their preparation. The water used upon the dressings should 
always be that which is boiling or which has been thoroughly boiled. 

A greater source of infection arises from contact with the person 
who handles the dressing in the course of its preparation. Here 
the clothing of the operator is a possible germ carrier ; his body is 
swarming with bacteria numerous in species, in uncountable num- 



^Jan'oT/y.^s^T'} Modcru Surgical Dressings, 27 

bers. Skin, hair and mucous membranes, even of persons who are 
healthy and of cleanly habits, furnish to bacteria a natural home for 
growth and multiplication. 

In catarrhal conditions, skin disease, or wherever there is an 
increase of secretions, the bacteria of the body increase both in kind 
and in number. These sources of infection require more than ordi- 
nary attention. 

Sterilization of the entire surface of the body is impossible. Yet 
we are confronted with the fact that the skin secretions, perspira- 
tion, dandruff from the hair, all mucous secretions, are a fruitful 
source of infectious particles, fatal to asepsis if by any chance they 
should be transferred to the dressing. To even touch an aseptic 
dressing with hands not disinfected, to touch with prepared hands 
the eyes, nose, mouth or clothing, and then touch a dressing, would 
mean that infection would surely follow. Such a procedure would 
be ap unpardonable violation of surgical cleanliness, a crime against 
asepsis. We must further take into account that the objects within 
the room where dressings may be prepared, including the air, the 
walls, furniture, floors, the tables upon which the dressings are laid 
every piece of apparatus, every object of any nature that may come 
in contact with the dressing, may be the means of transference of 
germ life. If such objects happen to be of the nature of organic 
material or those which hold moisture, the more rcadil)- do they 
become carriers of infection. 

The maker of surgical dressings must have in mind, therefore, 
the materials of which the dressings are composed, that they are in 
their nature absorptive of infectious particles, that all objects con- 
nected with, all surrounding conditions, are sources through which 
infection may be carried to dressings during their handling and 
manipulation. 

The Disinfection of Dressings. — Whatever the term disinfection 
has been made to mean elsewhere, when applied to surgical dress- 
ings it can only mean one thing — destruction of all micro-organisms 
in or upon the material. This process presents many var>'ing prob- 
lems. Hacteria show widely varying powers of resistance. Agents 
which destroy growing forms will not affect the vitality of their 
spores. The conditions of life and environment are all factors which 
must be taken into account in the disinfection of dressings. Thus, 
utensils and objects with smooth surfaces are readily di-iinfectcd. 



28 Modern Surgical Dressings. { ^Tanuao .""isor* 

because any bacteria present will be found upon their outer surface ; 
but when bacteria are enclosed in a rock-like mass, as they are in 
dried dust particles, where we find them surrounded by an almost 
impenetrable fortress, in dried pus, sweat, in dried secretions or 
flesh tissue, these organisms are protected by a varnish-like coating. 
Bacteria, within the fibre of cotton or wool, are enclosed within a 
cellulose structure. Therefore, in the disinfection of cotton, wool, 
silk, sponge and catgut, we find that there is presented a varying 
problem with each material. Chemical reaction is also a factor in 
disinfection that has been long overlooked. In the disinfection of 
dressings the nature of the materials and their behavior toward the 
disinfecting agent must be taken into account. Thus cotton may 
be disinfected in a solution of soda, but wool thus treated would be 
destroyed. 

Wool may be disinfected in an acid solution, which, in turn, 
would destroy cotton. Catgut is affected by most chemicals ; it is 
destroyed by moisture. Sponge tissue is affected by many chem- 
icals ; it is destroyed by moist heat. Oily substances are impene- 
trable by watery solutions. 

The sole universal disinfectant is fire. It destroys the infection 
and the infected material. It is applicable to the disinfection of 
asbestos dressings, which have recently been recommended for sur- 
gical purposes. There is no one method or agent which, under all 
circumstances, will meet all conditions. Generally, more than one 
agent and several methods of procedure must be used together or 
in succession. 

The writer has made a long series of investigations, having in 
view the possibility of disinfecting dressings with agents that would 
have no reaction with the material composing the dressing, that 
could be readily removed from the dressing, or, when allowed to re- 
main [within the dressing material, would have no effect upon 
wound tissue. In these experiments, such agents as electricity, 
gases, vapors, friction and pressure were employed. 

The general method pursued was to infect fibres with a nutrient 
fluid containing bacteria, to then subject the infected fibres to the 
action of the disinfecting agent. The results may be briefly sum- 
marized. 

Electricity was not effective upon the organisms, except when 
electrolysis took place, as was the case when water or a solution 



^'j^nu^f'/Sr-} Modern Surgical Dressings. 29 

of salts was the medium used in the transmission of electrical 
energy. 

Oxygen gas when under pressure had a germicidal effect, espe- 
cially so when the bacteria were in a moist state. Nascent oxygen 
was found to be a powerful germicide. Ozone gave similar results, 
as did oxygen. Carbon dioxide was found to be an inhibitant, 
but not a germicide. The gaseous oxides of nitrogen, except 
NjO were found to be powerful in their action upon bacteria, but 
destructive to dressing material and productive of great irritation 
upon inhalation. Sulphur dioxide was found to be germicidal in 
the presence of moisture, but inapplicable to many classes of the 
materials used in surgical dressings. Chlorine gas is a disinfectant, 
especially in its reactions which takes place in the bleaching pro- 
cess, namely, union with hydrogen, and consequent liberation of 
oxygen. 

The bleaching process, therefore, effectually destroys germ life. 
Iodine and bromine are energetic agents in the presence of mois. 
ture, but they react destructively with materials used in surgical 
dressings. Formaldehyde vapors possess a high power as a germi. 
cide. The vapors are highly irritating and destructive to flesh 
tissue. They are, however, applicable in the disinfection of some 
classes of material used in dressings, and are utilized in the pro- 
cesses hereinafter outlined. 

During the mechanical process of carding cotton and other 
fibres, the fibres are subjected to prolonged friction, with conse- 
quent heat and electrical action. The results upon infected fibre 
passed through the process were interesting, and the process was 
found to be one of sterilization. 

Experiments numbering many hundreds of series were made to 
ascertain the value of pressure as a sterilizing agent upon dress- 
ing materials. The results show that infected fibres may be steril- 
ized by a pressure of 50 to 100 tons to the square inch. This pro- 
cess has been utilized in the sterilization of certain forms of surgi- 
cal dressings. 

With the discovery of a new species of bacteria tlicre is said to 
be a new chemical born for its destruction. 

I^ut in the present day practice of surgery, only in a few 
instances, may we use chemical germicides for the disinfection of 
dressings and allow the chemical to remain in the finished pro- 



30 Modern Surgical Dressings. { ^ January ffsgT."'- 

duct. The active chemical disinfectants are for the most part 
destructive to dressing fabrics as well as irritating to flesh tissue. 
Out of the many disinfectants lauded in days past for the impregna- 
tion of surgical dressings, but few remain. It has been found 
that dressings, even when impregnated with antiseptics, may still 
harbor germ life. In the presence of dry iodoform, dry corrosive 
sublimate, boric acid, germs will retain their vitality for a great 
length of time. 

Though seemingly a contradiction of terms, it is, nevertheless, a 
truth born of experience to state that antiseptic dressings may be 
the means of conveying infection to a wound. Hence, the require- 
ment that antiseptic dressings shall be free from micro-organisms. 

In the list of agents applicable to the disinfection of dressing 
materials, heat ranks first in germ-destroying power. Heated air is 
precluded for use with cotton and some of the other substances used, 
for the reason that the temperature required for efficiency is de- 
structive to the material. Heated air is quite inferior in disinfecting 
power to boiling water and steam. Boiling water almost instantly 
destroys most forms of germ-life ; resistant ^orms succumb to its 
action in a few minutes. 

Steam, then, holds the first place as a practical agent for the dis- 
infection of surgical dressings. To be effective, it must be saturated 
(unmixed with air). Saturated or streaming steam circulating under 
moderate pressure reaches the efficiency and gives the results at- 
tained in boiling. 

Practical Application. — Having passed in review some of the prin- 
ciples which underlie the preparation of surgical dressings, fitted to 
fulfil the requirements of surgery, we can best gain an impression 
as to their practical application by a brief review of the methods 
instituted by the author, which are now in working operation in the 
laboratories of Johnson & Johnson, at New Brunswick, N. J. 

The buildings set apart for this work were built for this special 
purpose — made plain and tight to exclude dirt. They are admira- 
bly situated away from busy and dusty streets. For miles on either 
side stretches river and meadow-land, securing an almost dustless 
atmosphere. In fitting up the rooms in which the manipulations 
take place, the ideas kept in view were the exclusion of bacteria, 
easiness of keeping clean. 

The walls and ceilings are glass-smooth. The floors are filled and 



'"'^jkiZl'/.m^-} Modern Surgical Dressings. 31 

polished. There are no closets or shelving, no cracks or crevices to 
harbor dust or dirt. The furniture consists of glass-topped tables 
with iron frame, allowing effectual and easy cleansing. The princi- 
pal part of the work is done in the '• aseptic room," so called be- 
cause all things within it are at all times kept surgically clean. 
The following is an extract from the rules governing this room : 

" Kverything outside of this room, everybody and everything passing 
into this room from the outside are to be regarded as infected until subjected to 
special cleansing operations. 

" Everything required for use in this room, or being brought in, must be ster- 
ilized according to the prescribed rules. 

" All cleaning, sweeping and dusting must be done at the close of the day's 
work. Tools, apparatus, towels, aprons, aseptible clothing, etc., are to be ster- 
ilized in the sterilizing chambers. The floor must be well moistened before 
sweeping ; dusting must be done with damp cloths. -Xfter sweeping and dust- 
ing, the covers upon the tables must remain for at least eight hours. 

"As often as may be necessary, the entire wood and iron work of the room 
must be washed with soap and water, then with antiseptic solutions ; the 
room closed and fumigated with sulphur and steam." 

FJverything, whatsoever may be its nature or history outside of 
this room, is considered as infected (though, in fact, it may be free 
from germ life) ; it is, therefore, disinfected before being taken into 
the room. The entrance to this room is through an ante-room, 
which is a disinfecting station of the highest type. Through this 
quarantine all persons and things pass before entering the aseptic 
room. The persons who operate in this room are under charge of 
graduate surgical nurses. 

The following extracts from the rules in force show the methods 
adopted for securing personal cleanliness : 

" Kvery person before entering the aseptic room must jmi on the jr*-- 
scribe<l washable garments (flowers, ornaments, jewelry, etc., must !>« remove 
They must thoroughly wash and scrub their hands, forearms and face according 
to the prescribed rules. 

" //and Disin/t-ctioH. — (i) Scrub hands, face and forearms in a solution of 
ammonia and soap with a disinfected brush. By the aid of a knife or niijl- 
cleaner, scrape all particles under the nails and on the margins. 

" (2) Wash again m ammonia and soap solution, then rinse in clean hui \%.iict 
and dry on a sterilized towel." 

After this preliminary washing, operatives must pa.ss at once into 
the aseptic room. Persons engaged in directly handling dressings 
must further put on sterilized over-drcsscs, caps, sleeves, etc., and 
again wash their hands with soap and ammonia, rinse ihcm in clean 



32 Modern Surgical Dressings. {^"^s'A^y^xm^^ 

water without drying, rinse in a solution of oxalic acid, finally in 
soda and alcohol without drying. After this washing, only such 
objects as have been cleansed and sterilized must be handled unless 
the hands are rewashed. If for any reason there is cause to leave 
the room, the sterilized garments must be taken off, and then, before 
re-entering, both the preliminary and final washing be again per- 
formed. Tracing the history of a yard of gauze on its way through 
these rooms, its course would be somevv^hat as follows : It is first ren- 
dered absorbent and bleached (in an adjoining department) and arrives 
at the ante-room to be made into dressings. The jars in which it will 
be packed, with their tops, fastenings, etc., are brought to the same 
point from a bath in hot soda solution. If the gauze is to be im- 
pregnated with antiseptics, it is done in this outer or ante-room. 
The gauze, the containers, labels and all things pertaining thereto 
next pass into the sterilizing chamber. This chamber forms a part 
of the dividing wall between the ante-room and the aseptic room. 
The chamber is rectangular in form, large enough to hold a wagon- 
load of goods. It is constructed with thick walls made of metal, 
asbestos and other non-conducting material. The interior is lined 
with steam-pipe radiators for producing heated air within the cham- 
ber. Doors to the chamber open at both ends, one into the ante- 
room and the other into the aseptic room. These doors are steam- 
tight and held in place by ratchet screws. 

The chambers are fitted with steam supply and escape connec- 
tions, gauges for pressure and vacuum, safety valves, exhaust valves, 
etc. Cars of iron with trays carry the articles to be treated. Sup- 
ply pipes controlled by valves admit live steam to the interior of the 
chamber. The actions involved in the operations within the cham- 
ber are : 

{a) Preliminary warming of the materials to prevent condensa- 
tion. 

[U) Removal of air. 

{c) Circulation of saturated steam unmixed with air under press- 
ure through every fibre of the material, subjecting them to the 
highest possible action of this agent. 

{d) Subsequent exhaustion of steam and substitution of heated 
air. 

After the gauze passes into this chamber, the doors are closed 
and it then becomes a hot-air chamber. The air is then exhausted. 



^"jkirry^S^""-} Modern Surgical Dressings. 33 

to a vacuum of lo or 12 pounds; saturated streaming steam is then 
let in; the temperature soon rises to possibly 240° F., and the press- 
ure gauge indicates 5 or 10 pounds. The steam pipes are now 
closed ; the vacuum pump is again started until the proper vacuum 
is obtained. 

Again steam is turned on, and so on, in turn, currents of satur- 
ated steam follow each other through the vacuum for from one to 
two hours. Every part of the chamber is penetrated, every fibre is 
subjected to the action of this highest of bactericides. The most 
resistant form of germ life must be reached and destroyed. From 
the sterilizing chamber the gauze passes directly into the aseptic 
room. In this room, all persons, tables and apparatus having been 
previously prepared, the dressings are cut, folded and packed in the 
jars, the covers laid on loosely. 

(A large portion of this work is done by apparatus, to avoid 
touching with the hands.) 

This work is rapidly performed, and the filled jars returned to 
the sterilizing chambers for a re-sterilization. This final steriliza- 
tion effectually secures absolute safety against the remote possibility 
of infection by handling. After this final sterilization the jar seals 
are locked. For dressings packed in jars, this process is one of 
hermetic sealing, a partial vacuum having been formed within the 
jars during their heating and cooling. The finished dressings now 
pass on to be labelled, put in cartoons and made ready for shipment. 

These same chambers are utilized for disinfection with formalde- 
hyde vapors, the process being : first heating oC the chambers, ex- 
haustion of the air, filling the chamber with formaldehyde vapors, 
which penetrate every portion of the material ; finally, exhaustion of 
the formaldehyde vapors, which are in turn replaced with heated air. 

Sterilization Tests. — The effectiveness of sterilization procedures 
can be readily confirmed. 

In the writer's laboratory the practice is substantially as follows : 
A portion of the dressing material (for example, a piece of gauze) 
is impregnated with an infected nutrient fluid. The thus infected 
material is then dried in air, that the organisms may, as far as pos- 
sible, be placed in a resistant condition. As a check cxijcrimcnt, a 
portion of this infected and dried material is placed in sterilized 
nutrient jelly in the culture chamber. This is done to ascertain 
whether the test material has surelv been infected. The remaining 



34 Modern Surgical Dressings. {^'^aJf^^^ySr- 

portion of the infected material is then passed through the steriliza- 
tion process, care being taken that it passes through like conditions 
as would the sterilized dressings. 

In the case of gauze or cotton, the writer's practice is to wrap 
the test material in the centre of the package. 

In testing catgut ligatures, the ligatures are moistened and 
untwisted ; the infected material is then rolled up within the tissue 
and dried. After the infected material has passed through the 
sterilization processes, it is placed in nutrient media in a culture 
chamber. After a suitable time (at least three days) if a growth is 
found in the check experiment, we are certain that our test material 
was infected. If no growth has taken place in the infected material, 
that has passed through the sterilization processes, we are certain 
that sterilization has been complete in all the dressings. This con- 
clusion needs no verification. The dressings have been prepared 
and sterilized by methods which exclude contamination. If a cer- 
tain portion of material purposely infected, in passing through the 
sterilization process with them, is rendered sterile, it is conclusive 
proof that the whole of the dressings cannot fail to be sterile and 
aseptic. 

The above method of procedure applies particularly to dressings 
containing no chemical antiseptic. Where the dressings are so 
impregnated, the process is varied as follows : 

To avoid the restraining influence of the antiseptic upon the 
growth of the test organism, portions of the infected material, after 
passing through the sterilization processes, are placed in quite a 
large body of liquid nutrient media, which is shaken to dilute the 
antiseptic below its normal antiseptic potency; to carry this dilution 
still farther, a few drops from the first dilution are passed on to a 
second tube of culture media. 

It has been found in the use of antiseptics that enough may 
adhere to the organism (especially to spores) to restrain develop- 
ment, though not destroying their vitality. This is obviated even 
in the use of strong solutions of an antiseptic by the dilution above 
mentioned. 

In testing with antiseptics the test material is kept under a culti- 
vation for at least a week. Development is often so retarded by 
the antiseptic tending to make hasty conclusions erroneous. In 
these tests with antiseptics, liquefied flesh— peptone— gelatine of 
Koch is usually employed. 



^"^aiully^mr} Modern Surgical Dressings. 35 

Where no antiseptic has been employed, sterihzed potatoes and 
other soHd media have been found convenient. 

The required test is the presence or absence of a growth which 
will liquefy solid media or produce form, color or odor characteristic 
of bacterial colonies. 

This is verified when deemed necessary by a microscopical exami- 
nation. In surgical bacteriology, the bacillus of anthrax is used as the 
standard test organism ; whatever will destroy the vitality of this 
bacillus will destroy all the known organisms of wound infection. 

Who Should Make Surgical Dressings. — In the past, dressing 
materials were largely the product of domestic industry and convict 
labor. We could not now tolerate supplies from such disease- 
breeding sources. In recent discussions by surgical authorities, the 
question has been raised as to the relative fitness of the surgeon, 
the pharmacist and the manufacturer as makers and purveyors of 
surgical materials. 

The apostle of modern surgery manufactured " Lister's Gauze " 
in his own kitchen. Sir Joseph's kitchen is doubtless a more fitting 
place for such work than is the office of many of his followers. 
Doctors' offices are not, as a rule, the most wholesome spots. Their 
upholstered furniture is in constant contact with the clothing and 
persons of patients carrying infections of ever)' name and kind. 
Their tapestried carpets are filled with dust brought from pest-laden 
households. In the doctor's ofifice we will find that tables, shelves, 
books and apparatus are spattered with debris from urinal examina- 
tions, pus from foul sores, dried excretions from diseased skin, 
pathological tissue, clotted blood and dried discharges from innumer- 
able sources. 

Streams of infectious matter continually pour into the rooms ot 
the busy doctor and find a lodging-place in its paraphernalia. The 
unfitness of such surroundings for the production of surgically clean 
dressings is evident. 

I claim for the American physician the highest of honors. I all 
but reverence the skill and genius of the American surgeon ; but 
before I would attempt to prepare aseptic dressings in their offices, 
I should, in most cases, require that they be first cleansed and disin- 
fected upon the lines adopted by health authorities for the purifica- 
tion of infected premises. 

A certain hospital claims that its operating room is •• the cleanest 



36 Modern Surgical Dressings. {"'^ January, ist?™* 

place in the world." All hospitals have not earned such a title. 
Many of them are attached to medical colleges where students and 
professors gather fresh from the dispensary clinic, from visits to 
infected houses, from dissecting rooms, from hundreds of sources 
of contagion. 

Clinging to their persons and clothing may be found particles 
rich in pyogenic and pathogenic bacteria. In hospitals, the aggre- 
gation of infectious organisms cannot be avoided. Formerly, they 
were •' hot-beds of infection." Now dangers are excluded only 
by the most rigorous procedures. 

When dressings are prepared by the pharmacist, the work is 
generally performed in the drug store back room. This place 
comes far short of the conditions known as surgical cleanliness. 
The chemically clean graduate is still unclean in the eye of the sur- 
geon. Counters covered with vegetable and animal drugs of all 
kinds are not suitable places upon which to lay absorbent gauze. 
Street and store dust, spatterings of syrups, extracts, oils, and all 
manner of decoctions, create a favorable lodging- and breeding-place 
for organic life. These are not wanted in surgical dressings. The 
pharmacist, though ordinarily clean in person and habits, familiar 
with soap and water in the pursuit of his calling, yet he is far from 
aseptic. Like the physician, he is constantly in contact with infec- 
tion through the person of his patrons. 

The hands that dispense beef tea at the soda counter, or that 
bring a jar from a mouldy cellar, should not touch sterilized mate- 
rial without cleansing. Thus there must be a radical change of 
environment before the pharmacist can attain success in aseptic 
technique, though he may, perhaps, rightfully claim conditions and 
facilities that are above those of the ordinary physician. 

The facilities of the manufacturer, whose whole organization is 
adapted to the production of surgical dressings, are certainly more 
perfect than those of the surgeon, to whom such work is incidental. 
The environment of a room from which pathogenic organisms and 
septic matters are entirely excluded is superior to that obtained in 
the hospital or in the doctor's office. The room in which no work 
is undertaken except the handling of aseptic material will certainly 
be more nearly surgically clean than one to which infection has 
constant access. Persons whose only calling is that of preparing 
surgical ma'erial, who have been schooled in the principles under- 



^fkiulry^'t^"''} Modern Surgical Dressings. 37 

lying the infection and disinfection of dressings, are probably more 
competent to handle dressings than the doctor's student or his 
attendants, to whom such work is of necessity relegated. In this 
work, as in many other instaiices, properly constructed apparatus is 
more efficient, more cleanly, more perfect, than hand work. 

Further, an organization devoted exclusively to the manufacture 
of dressings, once having the details arranged to prepare a yard of 
dressing, can produce any number of yards more perfectly than if 
done as occasion may require, as is the rule in the hospital or in 
private practice. 

To the manufacturer and dispensing pharmacist is due the credit 
of having made possible the universal application of the principles 
of modern surgery. They have supplied to the practitioner in the 
most remote regions appliances as perfect as those used in the great 
hospital centres. They have placed in the hands of the practitioner 
appliances that fulfil every requirement of the advanced art of 
surgery. 

I hold that the preparation, selling and dispensing of medicinal 
and surgical supplies to the doctor, to the surgeon and to the pub 
lie belong to pharmacy. Their application is the province of the 
practitioner of medicine and surgery, and I maintain that it will be 
to the betterment of surgery to receive all dressing materials from 
the hands of a competent pharmacist. 

Training for the Work. — It is important that persons who are to 
handle surgical dressings in any capacity be familiar with the prin- 
ciples as well as the details of the work. They should also know 
why things are done as well as how to do them. The principles of 
surgical asepsis are applicable to the dispensing and sale of these 
materials. Therefore, the following epitome oi a course in aseptic 
technique, devised for use in the writer's laboratory, may be found 
useful to many pharmacists. 

In addition to the daily manual training under experienced per- 
sons, the operatives are required to attend stated instructions. 
These instructions are in the form of demonstrations of the processes, 
with an explanation of the principles involved. Those in attend- 
ance are given questions to be answered and experiments to per- 
form. Text and reference books are furnished. The scheme is 
modeled upon the plan of a college extension course. Among the 
subjects are the following : 



38 Modern Surgical Dressijigs. {^ January ^isgr.""' 

( i) The work of preparing surgical materials, its importance, its requirements. 

(2) Definition and meaning of terms. 

(3) Nature of the material used in dressings. (Fibres, cloth, ligatures, etc.) 
(4] Preparation of materials, bleaching, rendering absorbent, etc. 

(5) Kinds of dressings used in modern surgical practice. 

(6) Uses to which dressings are put in surgery. 

(7) Bacteria, their nature, conditions of growth, multiplication, products of 
their activity, with demonstrations of the means by which they may be trans- 
ferred to and from persons and things. 

(^S) Wound infection. 

(9) Infection of dressings. 

(10) Disinfection — chemical agents and physical agents. 

(11) Exclusion of bacteria. 

(12) Sterilization. 

(13) Disinfection of persons and things. 

(14) Asepsis and aseptic technique in the preparation of dressings. 

The entire course in my practice occupies several months — in fact, 
becomes a continuous course, as additional methods are constantly 
brought into practice. 

Surgical Dressings in Commerce. — Dr. Gerster, in one of his ad- 
dresses, condemned the use of ready-made products as sold in the 
drug store, on the ground that the gauge of success is purely com- 
mercial, only directed solely to profit. 

Another writer affirms that the standard of such dressings iscom- 
mercial in nature, the essential requisite being profit, and that they 
must be sold to meet competition. That in this the requirements 
of surgery are matters of indifference and generally matters of igno- 
rance. 

These statements were corroborated in a recent instance by a 
druggist in one of our large cities, who is commercially wise. He 
stated that to him quality, kind or make was no factor. Low prices 
were the sole criterion of value. Responsibility hovers over every 
field of the pharmacist's activity in dispensing dressings ; we share 
the burden with the surgeon. Whoever has stood beside the sur- 
geon in his operating room and realized how much depended on 
not only the hand, the training and the skill of the operator, but the 
absolute cleanliness in every movement, must realize that there 
are some things that cannot be expressed in a money ratio. 

At such a time and in such a place the integrity of the dressing 
rises to supreme importance. Any neglect in its preparation, any 
misstep through the ignorance, cupidity and stupidity of any who 



"^'janSafy^'i^'""-} ModcTH Suvgical Drcssiiigs. 39 

have had to do in its history, is sure to be revealed. The issue of 
life or death in such a case should not be subject to the market rates 
per pound or yard. What results must follow the very common 
practice of dispensers who open packages of dressings, measure and 
weigh them over dusty counters with unclean hands, and send them 
on their mission ? It would be more humane, perhaps, to send a 
lethal dose of strychnine. In the light of asepsis, to dispense mor- 
phine for quinine becomes a virtue when compared with the wilful 
contamination of a surgical dressing. 

Poisons are put under lock and key, dispensed under rigid sys- 
tems of precaution and checking. 

The importance of the surgical dressing, the nature of its re- 
quirements, call for equal care. There is no article in the druggist's 
stock which should receive greater care and judgment. Upon every 
yard of gauze, sponge or ligature he dispenses hangs, perhaps, the life 
and death of a patient and the reputation of a surgeon. They should 
be guarded from every chanrtel of direct or indirect infection. 

A closet or a room, or a case should be provided for their recep- 
tion that is cleanable ; it should be cleaned often and kept clean. 
They should be sold within the containers in which they are packed 
in their preparation. They should never be broken open for sale or 
for any other purpose. They should be delivered to the surgeon so 
perfect that there can be no question as to their integrity, placmg 
all the responsibility for their subsequent care in his hands. In 
dispensing to the public, every purchaser should be cautioned 
as to their nature and instructed in their handling and use. The 
price should meet the cost of the dressing plus a profit which will 
cover this service of advice, trouble and care. 

Ninety-five per cent, of the 100,000 physicians in our land who 
apply these principles of surgery must look to the pharmacist for 
their dressing materials. In filling this demand, the pharmacist 
should supply such materials as will meet the highest surgical re- 
quirements. As far as the dressing is a factor, the surgeon at the 
country cross-roads, by the aid of the pharmacist, should be enabled 
to reach the advanced methods of the metropolitan clinic. 

To attain this end in the making, in the buying, in the sale and in 
the dispensing, even to the most minute detail, there is required 
knowledge, skill, ability and finally a faithful application of the same. 



40 Analysis of the Bark of Honey Locust, {^"^-^l^l^y^^^!^' 

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BARK OF HONEY 
LOCUST, GLEDITSCHIA TRIACANTHOS. 

Bv Louis P. Carstens, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. i6o. 

The specimen analyzed was obtained in central Pennsylvania. 
The results of the analysis were as follows : 

Petroleum Ether Extract : 

Per Cent. 

Fat, wax, etc 1*38 

Ether Extract: 

Resin, 1*15 per cent. ; organic acid, etc IT7 

Absolute Alcohol Extract : 

Resin, 097 per cent.; alkaloid, etc i 62 

Water Extract: 

Glucose, o'63 per cent; saccharose, 0*57 per cent.; mucilage, 

2"o8 per cent; dextrin, i'92 per cent.; etc 6'5i 

Alkaline Water Extract: 

Pectin and albuminoids, 4*84 per cent. ; etc 13*68 

Acidulated Water Extract: 

Pararabin, etc 3-62 

Lignin 11-76 

Cellulose 42-42 

Moisture c-jq 

Ash yoo 

Loss and undetermined c-y^ 

'^Otal lOQ-QO 

The a.sh contained potassium, calcium, aluminum and ferric iron, 
as chlorides, sulphates, carbonates and phosphates. 

Starch, tannin and glucosides were not present. 

To obtain more of the organic acid and the alkaloid, which were 
indicated in the proximate analysis, for further examination, about 
500 grammes of the ground bark were percolated with 95 per cent, 
alcohol. After reducing the percolate to a small bulk by distilla- 
tion, it was diluted with about five times its bulk of distilled water, 
distinctly acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the mixture filtered. 
After agitating the filtrate with chloroform, it was made alkaline 



^"ammryfi^sir} Aualysis of tkc Burk of Honey Locust. 41 

with sodium hydrate and again agitated with this solvent. The 
chloroformic layers were allowed to evaporate spontaneously. The 
residues were dissolved in alcohol, but failed to crystallize on spon- 
taneous evaporation. The test solutions for alkaloids were then 
applied to the residue from the chloroform shaken with the alkaline 
solution, with the following results: 

Potassium tri-iodide, no precipitate. 
Mayer's solution, precipitate. 
Gold chloride, precipitate. 
Phospho-tuugstic acid, precipitate. 
Picric acid, precipitate. 
Platinic chloride, precipitate. 
Tannic acid, no precipitate. 

Two and one-half kilogrammes of the bark, when operated on in 
the manner described above, furnished a larger quantity of this 
principle. The residue obtained upon evaporating the chloroform 
was dissolved in absolute alcohol, and the solution filtered through 
animal charcoal. The filtrate yielded crystals of the principle when 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. The following reagents were 
applied to these crystals on a porcelain surface : 

Sulphuric acid, dark-red color. 

Sulphuric and nitric acids, brownish-red color. 

Sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, dark-brown color. 

Nitric acid, brownish-red color. 

Gold chloride, brown color. 

When the crystals were heated with soda-lime, ammonia was 
evolved. 

The substance, removed from the acid filtrate by shaking it with 
chloroform, was dissolved in absolute alcohol, but failed to crystal- 
lize on spontaneous evaporation. Dissolved in water it gave pre- 
cipitates with the following reagents for organic acids: 

Lead acetate, yellow precipitate. 
Silver nitrate, dark precipitate. 
Ferric chloride, black precipitate. 
Potassium bichromate, brown precipitate. 
Gold chloride, black precipitate. 



France finds her Algerian cork oaks a convenient and sali^faclory source of 
direct revenue. According to a recent official bulletin, the department of 
Algiers contains 65,000 acres of cork trees in the hands of the Government. — 
The Forester. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



42 Alcohol in tJic Titration of Alkaloids. {^^anuaryfS 

ALCOHOL AS A SOURCE OF ERROR IN THE TITRATION 
OF ALKALOIDS AND ALKALOIDAL RESIDUES. 

By Chas. Caspari, Jr. 

In August last, the writer presented a paper on the above sub- 
ject at the Montreal meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, but not content with the results detailed therein, decided, upon 
his return home, to investigate the matter more fully with the view 
of presenting a second paper on the same subject at the next annual 
meeting. Such a paper has been made unnecessary by the publica- 
tion of an article, written by Mr. L. F. Kebler, in the December, 
1896, issue of the American Journal of Pharmacy, wherein is 
demonstrated the fact that strictly pure alcohol does not interfere 
appreciably with the titration of acids by alkalies in the presence of 
color indicators, except in the case of methyl orange and a few 
others. Having carried out a series of titrations with strictly pure 
alcohol prepared by himself, using haematoxylin, Brazil wood and 
cochineal as indicators, the writer desires herewith to corroborate 
the statements made by Mr. Kebler, that satisfactory results can be 
obtained with such alcohol quite as well as with water. 

The writer, in his paper (see American Journal of Pharmacy, 
September, 1896, p. 473), called attention to the fact that alcohol 
and absolute alcohol, as available in the market, exercise a decided 
influence on color indicators and may prove the fruitful source of 
error in volumetric work, the statement being supported by a large 
number of tabulated results obtained in actual work. This was 
probably the first time that attention had been publicly called to 
this matter, and inquiry made at the time of several leading phar- 
macists and chemists failed to elicit any information or experimental 
data. The absolute alcohol used in the writer's experiments last 
summer and stated to have a slight alkaline reaction was of E. R. 
Squibb & Sons' manufacture, and taken from a fresh bottle. That 
the error liable to occur from the use of commercial alcohol will 
be greater or less in proportion to the impurities present in the 
alcohol is, of course, true, and the question arises : Has strictly 
pure alcohol always been used in volumetric work, and have 
analysts been in the habit of preparing it specially for such 
work, the market (at least to the writer's knowledge) not pro- 
viding the article? The chairman of the Committee on Indi- 



^'january^'isyf.'"} AlcohoUti the Titration of Alkaloids. 43 

cators of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Mr. Kebler, 
in his instructions to the committee last winter, directed the use of 
alcohol, but failed to note his experience of eighteen months ago 
{see American Journal of Pharmacy, 1896, p. 667), nor did he 
caution the members against the use of commercial alcohol. Did 
he assume that all would use strictly pure alcohol, and did he use 
such alcohol in his own work done for the committee? This fact 
should have been noted in the committee's report. 

The explanation offered in the writer's paper for the peculiar 
behavior of alcohol, on the basis of electrolytic dissociation, was 
made on the assumption that high-grade commercial alcohol, known 
as cologne spirit, could scarcely be so impure as to account for the 
great disturbance observed, especially as the alcohol employed cor- 
responded quite well with pharmacopoeial requirements, and since 
Ostwald has directed attention to the action of alcohol on color 
indicators. Even now, when using strictly pure alcohol, the writer 
has observed that in a mixture of only alcohol and indicator a much 
larger (two to four fold) quantity of alkali solution is required for 
the characteristic reaction than in a mixture of only distilled water 
and indicator; moreover, the same peculiar behavior towards 
tropjuolin was observed as recorded in the writer's paper, for 50 
c.c. strictly pure alcohol with 3 drops of a very sensitive tropxolin 
solution failed to show a decided acid reaction after addition of 45 
c.c. y^ H^SO^. This latter circumstance, while confirming the un- 
fitness of tropaiolin as an indicator for alcoholic titrations, requires 
further investigation. 

While the writer regrets his misapprehension of the causes lead- 
ing to the observations mentioned in his paper of last August, and 
although the conclusions then arrived at have now been shown to be 
partly erroneous, both by experiments in his own hands and by the 
recently published reports of Mr. Kebler, one good result has at 
least been obtained, namely, to show the wholly unreliable character 
of commercial alcohol for volumetric work and to direct the attention 
of pharmacists and others prominently to this fact, and to the neces- 
sity for purifying all alcohol intended for such work. 

Baltimore, December 17, 1896. 



Pharm. 



44 A Rcsuvic of Reairrent Topics. { ^TaimryrfioT 

A RESUME OF RECURRENT TOPICS. 
By WiIvI^iam B. Thompson. 

Tlu Avoirdupois of Odors. — The ingenious are never idle. There 
need be but few lost moments to the industrious mind. The povver^ 
volume, weight of odors can be relatively compared, it is claimed, 
by the amount of organic matter obtainable by reducing this to 
condensation and solution. Dense and heavy odors must assail the 
nerve filaments in our nasal organ with a ponderosity greater than 
those of a lighter or more ethereal kind. Experiments may be 
made by thoroughly impregnating the warmed and dried air of a 
closet or compartment with a chosen odor. Something is certainly 
diffused when our sense detects. What is it to be thus appreciable? 
Is it organic matter? This being granted, it must have weight. 
After a prolonged diffusion of the odor in the air of the closet or 
room, it is suddenly filled with the vapor of water, and finally 
cooled, when the condensate is collected. This is to be examined 
for amount of organic matter, and comparisons instituted. The 
actual utility of this does not appear except in the light of scientific 
interest ; ordinary tests are all physical. We may, however, desire 
to know whether the volume of natural odor in the plant species can 
be intensified by natural means. The power and diffusiveness of 
fragrance must have a basis of considerable materiality to be so 
permanent and enduring. Does it exist there as we recognize it, or 
is it not rather the result of the subtle chemistry in which the oxygen 
plays the most important part ? 

hucainc. — This new therapeutic, similar to cocaine, is a laboratory, 
not a vegetable, product. Sixty-seven letters are required to con- 
stitute its correct scientific orthography. An abbreviated prescrip- 
tion for such an article will not be criticized for ambiguity. The 
derivation of eucaine would seem to invest it with an antiseptic 
character. Its solubility in aqueous media is very free. It does not 
present that tendency to fermentative change or to decomposition 
as many vegetable alkaloids in solution are prone to do. Some ob- 
servations have been made as to the comparative toxic effect 
with cocaine, eucaine being less, and its onset and intensity less. 
The pharmaceutical preparations will include an ointment, but its 
chief uses will be those of a mydriatic, and as an anaesthetic (lO per 
cent, solution) in minor dental surgery. Its composition is said to 



^janua/y.^svf."'} ^ Rc'sumc of RcairrcHt Topics. 45 

be very complex, and its preparation difficult. The pharmacology 
of eucaine, however, is well worthy of attention. 

Resemblance with Difference. — The realm of nature abounds in 
curious creations, and a fanciful imagination can help many compari- 
sons. But with all these freaks, or, to be more reverent, designs, 
these objects would almost seem to present the appearance of art 
assisting nature. For instance, the fly-orchis, Ophrys muscifera, 
and the bee-orchis, Ophrys apifera, produce flowers, the parts of 
which bear a very close resemblance to the body forms of these 
insects respectively. Then we have, in the mandrake and the gin- 
seng, forms which require very slight additions to parts to complete 
the figure of human shape. The poetic fancy has given us a tradition 
that the ploughman stood aghast as his blade threw upon the surface 
the rooted mandrake with its human feet and hands ! Minerals are 
often observed to possess outlines of figures which might be mis- 
taken for exquisite chiseling. 

Professional Cotnpensation. — There seems to exist a somewhat 
fixed law of compensation in almost all affairs except those of hu- 
man agency, and even there, if we look carefully into the subject, 
will be found causes for which we ourselves are directly responsible. 
We honor the individual who honors himself; we respect the man 
who gives evidence of an innate self-respect, especially in a profes- 
sional character. That man who degrades the value of a prescrip- 
tion down to that point of a commercial bartering standard creates 
a torment which will return to plague him all the remaining days of 
his business life. There should be no autocratic rates on prescrip- 
tions ; but there should be a just and fair compensation when all the 
elements of expense are duly considered. Some estimates have bet n 
given as to what should be a fair basis of calculation in attaching 
the value, commercially and scientifically, to a physician's prescrip- 
tion. The value to the patient may be incalculable; but this is 
never computed. A curative compound is of inestimable worth to 
illness, suffering and pain. And when the compounder is justly re- 
warded for his knowledge, skill and science, what a twopenny com. 
parison is the cost of the remedy to the man's or woman's health, 
strength and enjoyment of life! Tliis is the way in which the public 
should be educated to view it. In the meanwhile, let no reputable 
pharmacist consent to gauge the value of a presented prescription 
by the price to which some mercenary competitor, some commercial 



46 A Rl'suiiii: of Recurrent Topics. {"^Tanuaryj 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
897. 



apothecary, whose existence is made possible by our loose, lax laws, 
has degraded it and himself. The value of the service in compound^ 
ing a prescription, omitting the cost of material, bears the just ratio 
of 50 per cent, of the price charged, yet what a dignified recompense 
on a ten-cent prescription ! 

Fruits and Juices. — Those who are in the habit of observing may 
often wonder why tropical fruits are so much less perishable than 
those grown in temperate regions. The first impression is that the 
high degrees of heat and the strong, direct light would both con- 
duce to relaxed tissue and vapid juice ; yet exactly the reverse of 
this is true. The provision which guards against this, and so wisely 
adjusts the productions to the clime, is seen in the structure of the 
orange and the lemon. The volatile oil and fixed oils, which exist 
in the pellicle of the rind, absorb and check the penetrative power 
of the heat, whilst the soft, white substance, the inner pulpy coat- 
ing, is as good a barrier against both cold and heat as the fur on an 
animal's body or the soft down on the bird's breast. As the result 
of this the orange species, when uninjured in the picking and hand- 
ling, can be carried, without deteriorating, to great distances and to 
all varieties of climate. 

How very different is the case with our Northern berries and 
fruits ! But few of these, if any, will keep their flavor for forty-eight 
hours, and none of them retain their form for any considerable dur- 
ation of time. Another curious and striking fact is that the juices 
of tropical fruits are all of a cool temperature in the native or natu- 
ral stale, being shielded from vicissitudes. The milky juice of the 
cocoanut is of an even temperature, refreshingly cool, being well 
protected in that dermic coire, or skin, which is between the outer 
shell and the meat of the fruit. Then again, our now indigenous 
watermelon gets an abundance of sweet juice and retains it, no mat- 
ter how dry and arid may be the soil of its habitat, the largest — 
and much the finest — variety of these fruits being grown in the In- 
dian Desert, between the valley of the Indus and the Ganges, where 
not a drop of water falls from the clouds during the annual cycle, 
and the rainy monsoon often passes over the region without shed- 
ding one sympathetic tear of moisture upon the parched soil ; yet 
the melon secures its quota of sweet, watery juice, and keeps it, 
under its varnished rind, comparatively cool. Verily, before the 
magic of Nature, the feats of art and legerdemain are insignificant! 



^janaaryl'ST.'"'} Cvichotia Cultivation iti Bengal. 47 

CINCHONA CULTIVATION IN BENGAL.^ 

The Thirty-fourth Annual Report of the Cinchona Plantations of 
the Government of India in British Sikkim and Bhutan has lately 
been submitted to the Ben^^al Government by Dr. George King, 
C.I.E., F.R.S , Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta, and of cinchona cultivation in Bengal, and Government quin- 
ologist. 

The number of trees uprooted for their bark during the year 
1895-96 was 453,000, comprising 65,000 of C. succirubra, used for 
the manufacture of " G3vernment Cinchona Febrifuge," and 
388,000 of the kinds which yield yellow or quinine-producing bark 
chiefly hybrid cinchona and Calisaya ledgeriana, a large proportion 
of the trees uprooted being small. The number of plants was in- 
creased during the year by 9,200 hybrids ; the total census of living 
cinchona plants at the close of the year, including nursery stock, 
was 3,807,701. 

The crop collected during the year amounted to 467,190 pounds 
of dry bark, consisting of 53,380 pounds of red and 413,810 pounds 
of yellow bark. The whole of this crop, with the exception of 
79^/i pounds supplied to the Government Medical Stores Depart- 
ment or sold to Government institutions, was made over to the cin- 
chona factory for manufacture into quinine and febrifuge. In addi- 
lion to the bark cropped at the Government plantations, 170,000 
pounds of quinine-yielding bark was purchased from private culti- 
vators in the district. Seventy-four thousand pounds of red bark, 
worked up in the factory during the year, yielded 3,124 pounds of 
cinchona febrifuge, valued at Rs. 10 (about 12s.) per pound, and 
from 387,200 pounds of yellow bark, 9,004 pounds of quinine sul- 
phate, valued at Rs. 14 (about i6s.) per pound, were manufactured. 
An additional 1,500 pounds of quinine were purchased from the 
quinine factory of the Madras Government at Ootacamund.in order 
to meet the greatly increased demand for the 5-grain packets, which 
are issued to the people at all post-offices throughout the province, 
at the rate of i pice each (less than a farthing). 

The total issue of quinine for the year amounted to 10,287 
pounds, an increase of 2,725 pounds on the previous year, 1,145 
pounds of this increase being due to the growth of the post-office 

' niarmaceuticat Jounial, October 17, 1896. 



48 Literature Relating to Pharmacy, {^'^dnZy'^im'^' 

demand for pice-packets, and 937 pounds issued on account of the 
Chitral expedition. Of cinchona febrifuge there were issued during 
the year 3,830 pounds, 554 pounds more than in the previous year, 
the amount purchased by the pubhc having increased by 194 
pounds, showing that the preparation is held in high estimation by 
the pubhc as a cheap and rehable remedy for fever, notwithstanding 
that cinchonidine and cinchonine can be purchased at a cheaper rate 
in the Calcutta bazaar. The febrifuge is an unbleached quinetum, 
and represents the total alkaloids in the bark. 

The net profit on the year's operations amounted to Rs. 4,598, a 
sum which Dr. King says would form but a small dividend on the 
capital which has been sunk in these plantations since they were 
first begun. There has not been for many years, however, any 
capital to pay interest upon, as the cost of the plantations was 
extinguished long ago by profits made during the early years of 
the manufacture of cinchona febrifuge. As the Government of 
India desires only to secure for the people, without loss to itself, a 
cheap remedy for fever, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal con- 
siders this result entirely satisfactory. The demand for quinine in 
the popular 5-grain powders has increased with such rapidity that it 
has been found necessary to limit the sale to post-offices in Bengal 
and Assam, and to discontinue the regular supply to other prov- 
inces. 

The acknowledgments of Government are again accorded to 
Dr. King and to Mr. G. Gammie, the Deputy Superintendent, for 
their efficient management of the department during the j^ear. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

IODINE MANUFACTURE IN JAPAN. [Chemist and Dvuggist, 

October 2^, 6og.) 
It is well known that enormous quantities of seaweed containing 
iodine are gathered along the coasts of Japan, and were it not for 
the fact that the manufacture of iodine from kelp is scarcely profita- 
ble in view of the competition of the Chilian product, Japan would 
no doubt be one of the principal iodine-producing countries. In 
fact, even under the present circumstances, Japanese iodine and 
iodides find a market locally, and have even been seen in Eu- 
rope in commercial quantities. A proposal has now been made 



^Tan2"yri8^™'} Literature Relating to P liar mac y. 49 

to the Japanese Government by certain native chemists that the 
customs duty on iodine and iodides in Japan should be increased to 
such an extent as to enable the Japanese industry to be self-support- 
m^. — TJie Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Octobtr ^i , 
iSg6. 

BARIUM PLATING CYANIDE. 

The text-book way of preparing barium platino cyanide is to pass 
gaseous hydrocyanic acid through a mixture of platinous chloride 
2 parts and barium carbonate 3 parts, suspending in twice their 
weight of water. Schertel, in a recent issue of Berichte, describes a 
safer process, viz. : Platinum chloride is precipitated by hydrogen 
sulphide at 60° to 70° C, and the well-washed platinum sulphide is 
dissolved in a warm solution of potassium cyanide. On evaporation, 
the potassium platino cyanide (K.^PcCy^3H^O) crystallizes out, and 
equal parts of potassium sulphide and potassium thiocyanate remain 
in the mother-liquor. If a solution of barium cyanide be used, the 
barium platino cyanide is obtained, and from this, by double decom- 
position with uranium sulphate, the platino cyanide of uranium may 
be gotten in beautiful crystals. — The Chemist and Druggist, October 
J/, i8g6, 

PKODL'CTION OF QUICKSILVER IN CALIFORNIA. 

The Engineering and Mining Journal (New York) states that 
quicksilver production in California has shown this year a consider- 
able increase, the total receipts at San Francisco for the six months 
ending with June having been 18,439 flasks, a gain of 4,743 flasks, 
or 346 per cent., over the first half of 1895, and of 6,033 flasks, or 
487 per cent., over 1894. While these receipts gauge the rate of 
production very fairly, they do not give the whole amount, as the 
reports do not include the quicksilver sold directly from the mines, 
nor that shipped from them to the East by rail, which does not 
come to San F'rancisco at all. 

The larger output seems to have been absorbed without difficulty. 
In addition to the greater demand from the California mines, there 
has been a growth in exports very nearly corresponding to that in 
the production. The trade with China, which had been suspended 
for several years, has been renewed, and has aided materially in dis- 
posing of the increased production — The Journal of the Society of 
Chemical Industry, October jr, rSgd. 



50 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {"^Tanuary.^ 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
1897. 



MAPLE SUGAR. 

The Production of Maple Sugar, G. H. Grimm {Cult, and Country 
Gent., 6 1 (1896). No. 2247, p. 146) — The author urges the neces- 
sity of absolute cleanliness in everything connected with the pro- 
cess; the sap should come in contact with tin only; tin spouts 
should be used ; and the buckets should be covered. The sap 
should be evaporated as soon as possible after it leaves the tree. 
With suitable apparatus a barrel of sap can be converted into a gal- 
lon of syrup weighing 1 1 pounds in 20 minutes. This syrup will make 
8 pounds of sugar. The natural color of the syrup is a translucent 
white ; if it weighs less than 1 1 pounds per gallon it will ferment ; if 
more, it will crystallize. The syrup is far superior to that from re- 
melted sugar. 

In putting it up for the market it should be poured into tin cans 
at 83° C, and hermetically sealed. It will keep better in an attic 
than in a cellar, unless the cellar is very dry. 

GOLD AND SILVER IN SEA WATER. 

Gold and silver in sea-water may not be plentiful enough to war- 
rant the formation of limited companies to extract them, yet 
those metals exist in the ocean in appreciable amounts. Professor 
A. Liversidge, in a long paper read before the Royal Society of 
New South Wales [vide Chemical News, Sept. 18, et seq.), gives the 
results of some experiments made with the object of determining 
the amount of precious metal in the sea-water off the coast of New 
South Wales. The evidence obtained indicated the presence of 
gold in the proportion of about 0-5 to I grain per ton, or in round 
number^ from 1 30 to 260 tons of gold per cubic mile. Assuming that 
the cubic contents of the whole of the ocean equal 400,000,000 cubic 
miles, the above proportion would be equivalent to a total amount 
of 100,000,000,000 tons of gold. With regard to silver, Malaguti 
obtained 00005 S"^- ^^om 50 litres of sea-water, representing more 
than 40 tons per cubic mile. The metal sheathings of vessels have 
been proved to remove both gold and silver from sea-water, that 
from one old trader yielding silver, 4 ozs. 15 dwts. 92 grs., and gold, 
I dwt. 24 grs. per ton, together with a good deal of iodine. Muntz 
metal sheathings from the piles of wharves have also yielded con- 
siderable proportions of both gold and silver. — Pharmaceutical 
yoidrnal, October ly^ i8g6. 



^jan'ryr'^'"-} Editorial. 51 

EDITORIAL. 

The sixty-eighth volume of the Amkricak Journal of Pharmacy, which 
closed with the December uumber, contained 708 pages of reading matter and 
index, and was the largest volume of this journal ever issued. It is but justice 
to our contributors to say that we believe the quality of the reading matter has 
never been excelled in previous volumes. Many of the papers called for illus- 
trations, and the call was liberally answered by the publishing committee, so 
that every number contained one or more illustrated papers. 

The present issue opens the sixty-ninth volume with an array of original 
matter, which we have no hesitation in designating as highly meritorious. 
Mr. Maiden's paper on red gum is one of the first published in this country 
oi that subject. Mr. Rittenhouse's contribution on the present sources of lico- 
rice root contains information derived from first hands ; and Mr. LaWall's 
article calling attention to a new and easily detected sophistication of Japan 
wax is of the greatest importance. It is no detraction from the other papers 
that they are not mentioned here, yet we cannot refrain from especially calling 
attention to the address by Mr. Kilmer on modern surgical dressings, in which 
the pharmacist will find information about the dispensing of these commodi- 
ties which should cause him to redouble his vigilance in the direction of clean- 
liness, and encourage him to insist on the physician ordering such quantities 
as to enable the dressings to be dispensed without danger of their becoming 
infected. 

THE PATENT MEDICINE AI.MANAC. 

This is the season of the year when the pharmacist is liberally supplied with 
almanacs, bearing his own business card, for distribution to his customers. 
Many fall into the trap, and pass these wretched advertisements on to their 
customers, and thereby commit a grievous error which injures them in a uum- 
ber of ways. 

If every pharmacist who reads this Journal, would either return the alma- 
nacs to the sender or consign them to the fire, it would, in some sections of the 
country at least, break up this system of making him the advertising agent of 
the nostrum manufacturers. 

EXIT LUCIUM. 

Some three months ago, a new element was announced in monazile sand. 
It was soon found, however, that the enterprising discoverer had patented it, 
and proposed to use it in incandescent gas lighting. 

Dr. William Crookes, editor of the Chemical \cius, has been supplied with 
the nitrate and oxalate of the alleged element by the patentee, Mr. V. Rarritire, 
and finds, by spectroscopic and chemical examinations, " that lucium is nothii g 
but impure yttrium." 

In the same issue of the Chemical News, Dr. R. Fresenius calls attention to 
the fact that his name had been used in connection with the so-called element 
without authority. 



52 Reviews. {""^^J.^Sm^- 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Inorganic Chemical Preparations. By Frank Hall Thorp, Ph.D., 
Instructor iu Industrial Chemistr}^ in the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. Boston : Ginn & Co., publishers. 

We have several excellent small manuals in the English language for the 
manufacture of organic preparations, such as those of Cohen and Fischer, but 
this is the first one covering the ground of inorganic chemistry in the same 
waj'. It has, moreover, several new and distinctive features which we think 
are of value. After stating the formula and molecular weight of each com- 
pound, it gives the materials and quantities of the same needed for the prepa- 
ration, and full working directions for the carrying out of the manufacture, 
followed by the reactions involved and the properties of the product. Under 
the latter head, the author gives, in a large number of cases, tables showing 
the solubility of the salt in water at different temperatures, and the specific 
gravity of solutions of different strengths. For these tables the authorities are 
invariably given. While the book wants a table of contents, the substances 
are alphabetically arranged and an index follows. 

A valuable introductory chapter on solution, precipitation, filtration, decan- 
tation, washing, evaporation and crystallization, abounding in valuable sug- 
gestions, has not been overlooked. S. P. S. 

The Principi.es of Theoreticai. Chemistry, with special reference to 
the constitution of chemical compounds. By Ira Remsen, Professor of 
Chemistry iu the Johns Hopkins University. Fifth Edition. Lea Brothers & 
Co., Philadelphia and New York. 1897. 

It has been the aim of the author, in the latest edition of this valuable work, 
to bring it in accord with all the recent advances of chemical science. The 
salient features of this book are, that it contains a clear statement of theoretical 
chemistry in a moderate space. It is therefore not so formidable to the 
beginner as several of the larger works on this subject, yet it contains abun- 
dant information to equip the student for almost any amount of research work. 

Semi-Annual Report of ScHiMMEi< & Co. (Fritzsche Brothers. ) Leip- 
zig and New York : October, 1896. 

On Certain Derivatives of Trichlordinitrobenzol. By C. Loring 
Jackson and W. R. Lamar. Reprint horn American Chemical Journal , October, 
1896. 

A Guide to the Organic Drugs of the U. S. Pharmacopceia. By John 
S. Wright. First Revision, Twelfth Thousand. Indianapolis: Eli Lilly & 
Co. 1896. 

Chemists' and Druggists' Diary for 1897. 

British and Coi.oniai, Druggists' Diary for 1897. 

Fourth and Fifth Annuai. Reports of the California State Board 
OF Pharmacy, 1H94-96. 



^ January ^/Sf.""} Pharmaceutical Meeting. S3 

MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Phii.adkli'HIa, December i6, 1S96. 

The regular pharmaceutical meeting of the series of 1S96-97 was held in the 
Museum of the College. Mr. J. \V. England presided. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were allowed to stand as published, 

Mr, F. B. Kilmer, of the firm of Johnson .S: Johnson, of New Brunswick, 
N. J., was the first speaker on the programme, and addressed the meeting on 
the subject of " Modern Surgical Dressings." (See page 24. ) This address was 
not only interesting from the technical standpoint, but embodied many valua- 
ble suggestions of a practical character. The speaker said that the pericd 
marked by the introduction of Sir Joseph Lister's principles of antisepsis was a 
distinct epoch in the history of surgery. The wound dressings made at the 
beginning of this epoch were characterized as crude in contrast with those 
manufactured at the present time. Formerly they were caustic, irritating and 
non -absorptive, while to day the essential requirements are power to alsorb 
wound secretion and to exclude infection. The author stated that observations 
of bacteriological life had determined the value of antiseptic agents, and an 
interesting feature of his address was his description of the various methods 
and agents used for making sterilized dressings at the present time. Accompa- 
nying the address were samples of present-day surgical dressings, and, by way 
of comparison, one of gauze cloth that was made in 1887. The speaker said 
that this sample was the type of the first antiseptic dressing ; that in making it 
cloth was impregnated with wax, rosin and carbolic acid ; and that, in the light 
of present knowledge, it was as antiquated as though it were a thousand years 
old. Microscopic slides of bacilli and tubes containing cultures of the harm- 
less kinds were also exhibited. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington delivered an address on the " Second Pan Ameri- 
can Medical Congress," which was held in the city of Mexico during the week 
beginning November 16, 1896. (Seepage 15,) The speaker defined the purposes 
of the Congress and gave a concise statement of the work that was accom- 
plished at the recent meeting. The Congress was held under the auspices of 
the Mexican Government, and all of the entertainments and social features 
connected therewith were on a magnificent scale. An invitation to hold the 
next meeting in Caracas, V^enezuela, in 1S99, was received from the Venezuelan 
Government, and was accepted. The speaker also related some other incidents 
of his trip, which were both entertaining and instructive. One thing in par- 
ticular he spoke of, and that was the harmonious relations existing between 
this country and Mexico. He believed that more could be done by scientists 
in strengthening and promoting these relations than by diplomats or poli- 
ticians. 

"Spermaceti" was the subject of a paper presented by Mr. Lyman I". 
Kebler. About a year ago the author made a chemical examination of a large 
number of samples of spermaceti, but as a cjueslion was raised as to their 
genuineness, he determined to procure, if possiljlc. samples which would fulfil 
this requirement. These were accordingly procured, antl the results obtained 
with them agreed in every particular, except that of specific gravity, with those 
obtained with the previous samples. In the former work but one mclho^l was 
employed for determining the specific gravity, anil in the latter several niethoils 



54 Phar^naceiitical Meeting. {'"^January. is"™* 

were applied, the figures varying with the method used. The paper was 
accompanied bv specimens, and was the occasion for considerable discussion. 

" Murray Red Gum, Eucalyptus rosirata, and Its Kino," was the subject of a 
communication by Mr. J. H. Maiden, Government Botanist at Sydney, New 
South Wales. (See page i.) This paper is not only a valuable one from the 
botanical standpoint, but is of interes t as bearing on the commercial and medic- 
inal products of the Australian colonies. In connection with this subject 
attention was called to the following samples : Syrupus eucalypti rostrati, 
made from the kino, and recommended as a valuable astringent remedy ; Eu- 
calyptus red gum, and samples of oil of several species of eucalyptus. These 
were sent by Mr. J. Bosisto, of Richmond, Melbourne, who is an honorary 
member of this College. 

Mr. Wm. B. Thompson contributed a paper entitled, " Ferruginous Pills 
{Blaud's Pills):' (Seepage 17.) The writer suggested examinations of the 
commercial and extemporaneous preparations for the purpose of ascertaining 
the precise character of the former, and of determining wherein it differed 
from the latter. He doubted whether ferrous carbonate was superior in medic- 
inal efficacy to the other compounds of iron formed by the oxidation of this 
constituent. He thought it was time to stop theorizing, and offered these sug- 
gestions for the purpose of stimulating investigation along this line. 

"The Commercial Sources of Licorice Root" was the subject of a paper by 
Mr. H. N. Rittenhouse. (See page 13.) This paper was a concise statement of 
the sources of commercial licorice root, together with the qualities of the vari- 
ous kinds, and was mainly intended to aid the retail pharmacist in making 
purchases of the article. 

Mr. Chas. H. LaWall contributed the last paper, which was on "Adulterated 
Japan Wax." (Seepage 18.) The facts presented by the author were timely, in 
that they showed to what extent fraud may be perpetrated, and in warning 
buyers against the efforts of the purveyors of the article to obtain a market for 
their product. Samples of both the pure and the adulterated Japan wax were 
shown. 

On motion of Professor Trimble, a unanimous vote of thanks was tendered 
Mr. Kilmer for his interesting address and accompanying specimens. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. WiEGAND, 

Registrar. 



The tenth volume of Professor Sargent's Silva of North America was pub- 
lished on the 28tli of November. It contains figures and descriptions of the 
arborescent species of Yucca, which grow north of the Mexican boundary, the 
Arborescent Palms of the United States, the Cupressinese and Taxaceae, and 
the following genera of Coniferae : Juniperus, Cupressus (including Chamsecy- 
paris), Thuya, Libocedrus, Sequoia and Taxodium. Two additional volumes 
will complete the work. The eleventh, now in course of preparation, will be 
devoted entirely to the genus Pinus, and in the twelfth and final volume will 
be described the Spruces, P^'irs, Hemlocks, Larches and a few trees of earlier 
orders which have been found since the publication of this work was begun. 
— Garden and Forest. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January. 1897 



Catalogue of the Class, 



ss 



CLASSES 



— OF THK— 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, 

SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL SESSION, 1896-1897. 



FIRST YEAR CLASS LIST. 



Name. 



Allen, Milton Deronda, 
Andrews, Willard Crandall, 
Anstock, Arthur David, 
Arnott, William, 
Aughinbaugh, John Keely, 
Bacliman, Herbert Keck, 
Ball. ClifTord Arthur, 
Balliet. Howard Paul, 
Bamford, Melvin William, 
Barker, Laura Alice. 
Barker, Raymond Clark, 
Barnett, Eldredge Kwing, 
Bayles. John Wickoff, 
Bear, Benj. vSam'l Janney, 
Beddow, Llewellyn Jenkins, 
Blankemeyer, Henry John, 
Booth. John Henry, 
Bounds, Jesse Vastine, 
Bowers, Howard Lewin, 
Brown, James Lawrence, 
Bulger. Walter John, 
Camplxjll, William Lester, 
Chalquest, Gustave F)mil. 
Chamberlin, William Allen, 
Clark, John Hdwanl, 
Cochran, Harry Barr, 
Cockroft, David Ilolidav, 
Collins. Mary O.. 
Crain, Charles Edward, 
Crawford. Horace Victor, 
Culbv, Walter Gibson, 
Curtis, Henry. 
Davis, Benjamin Winter, 
Davis, Samuel Bond, 
Dichl, (reorge Kdward, 
Dixon, John Glaspey. 
Do<lson, Henry ^Lllcolm, 
Dohcrty, Harry Aloysius, 
Donnelly, Clarence Kugene, 
Doubler, George Hogen, 
Dunn, P^lwin Alfred, 



Place. 


State. 


Preceptor. 


Med ford, 


N. J. 


D. W. Flemming. 


Cortland, 


O. 




Mahanoy City, 


Pa. 


L. Oliphant. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Jos. P. Williams. 


Greenvillage, 


Pa. 


Eberly Bros. 


S. Bethlehem, 


Pa. 


Luther Gerhard. 


Hellertown, 


Pa. 


El wood Ball. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


John P. Frev. 


Reading, 


Pa. 


R. P. Wilkinson. 


Coalport, 


Pa. 


Dr. Woods 


Philadelphia. 


Pa. 


Van Dvke Bros. 


Cape Mav Citv, 


, N.J. 


D. C. Guthrie, ^LD. 


Mt. HollV, 


N.J. 


Edward B. Jones. 


Mt. Joy. ' 


Pa. 


James C. Perrv. 


Mahanoy City, 


Pa. 


M. R. Stein. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Kennedy & Burke. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Long 6i: Neely. 


Wortham, 


Tex. 




P'aston. 


Pa. 


H. B. Sample & Son. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


R. T. Marshall & Co. 


Conshohocken, 


Pa. 


Thos. F. McCoy. 


Mt. Pleasant 


la. 


Frank L. Kreider. 


Morristown, 


N. J. 


E. A. Carrell. 


Indianapolis, 


Ind. 


Frank Morse. 


Lock Haven, 


Pa. 


Franciscus ^: Co. 


Millerstown, 


F'a. 


J. C. Altick .S: Co. 


Phila<lelphia, 


Pa. 


-■\rthur S. Hollojjeter. 


Atlanta. 


Ga. 




Springfield, 


O. 


G. cS: S. Coblentz. 


>Iifllinburg, 


Pa. 


G. W. Rowland. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Jose])!! Healy. 


Minneapolis, 


Minn. 


(). J. Thompson, M.D. 


Camden, 


N.J. 


(U'o. L. (;eiger & Co. 


Bridgelon, 


N. J. 


Reeve M: 1-ithian. 


Charh stown, 


W. \a. 


Light N: Watson. 


Salem, 


N. J. 


J il. Lock, M.D. 


Delta, 


Pa. 


M. L. Hollowav. 


Atlantic City, 


N.J. 


F. F:imer Post.' 


Bridgtton, 


N. J. 


F. Seilz. M D. 


Milton, 


Pa. 


W. H. Galbraith. 


Meadville, 


Pa. 


P. Heury I'tech. 



56 



Catalogue of the Class. 



r Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t January, 1897. 



Name. 
Egel, rrederick William, 
Engler, Robert Savior, 
Evans, Alex. Cornelius, 
Evans, Fannie Cheney, 
Falkenhainer, Charles, 
Faulhaber, Gustave Adolph, 
Fenncr, Harvey Albert, 
Finger, Philip Charles, 
Fishburn, Richard Levis, 
Fleming, Arthur Bowles, 
FYeeman, William Joseph, 
Gasslein, Richard Joseph, 
Gillan, Charles McDowell, 
Grady, William Patrick, 
Greisamer, Henry Franklin, 
Gruel, John I{dward, 
Gryning. John Francis, 
Hammond, Nathan Brown, 
Hance, Plovvard Ivins, 
Hannum, John Lewis, 
Harrison, Walter B., 
Hartman, Harry Kessler, 
Hartman, Henry Loelke, 
Harvey, Charles John, 
Hays, Samuel Smith, 
Heckman, John George, 
Heineberg, Alfred, 
Hess, Percy Dudley, 
Hesse, Frederick William, 
Hetrick, Harry Leady, 
Heyke, John Kricson, 
Heyl, Charles Ambrose, 
Hicks, George Wellington, 
High, Raymond, 
Hill, George Price 
Hillan, Joseph Jame", 
Hoagland, Robert John, 
Hoch, (2uintus, 
Holland. Albert James Fowler, 
Holloway, Paul P'undenberg, 
Holt, Edwin Merrimon, 
Hostetter, Harry Jacob, 
Hottenstein, Peter David. 
Humma, (J.smond Bernard, 
Hungerbuehler, John Conrad, 
Hunt, P^arl Robert, 
Huzzard, Kurtz, 
Jackson. Charles Henry, 
James, Arthur Bernstein, 
Jenkins, David livans, 
Kaderly, Eugene John, 
Keiser. I'rederick, 
Kelchner, I'rederick Victor, 
Kemp, Lousian Scott. 
Kimberlin. P'red, William, 
Kincaid, Raymond Keck, 
Klusmeyer, Henry Chester, 
Koch, Chri.stc)])her. Jr., 
Kraus, Wm. I'red. Constance, 



Place. 



State. 



Bound Brook, X. J. 

Temple, Pa. 

Brookhaven, Miss. 

Reading, Pa. 

Guttenburg, la. 

Loudenville, O. 

S. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Lancaster, Pa, 

Lock Haven, Pa. 

Chambersburg, Pa. 

Trenton, N. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chambersburg, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

East Greenville, Pa. 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

W^est Chester, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Media, Pa. 

INIcKeesport, Pa, 

Pensauken, N. J. 

Lebanon, Pa. 

Butler, Pa. 

Greensburg, Pa. 

Meadville, Pa. 

Selma, Ala. 

vS3'racuse, N. Y. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Altoona, Pa. 

Dayton, O. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Trenton, N. J. 

Norristown, Pa. 

Lansford, Pa. 

St. Clair, Pa, 

Peoria, 111. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

Mifflintown, Pa, 

Goldsboro, N, C, 

Reading, Pa. 

Kutztown, Pa. 

Reading, Pa, 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Norristown, Pa. 

Salem, N. J. 

Kingston, N. Y. 

Danville, Pa. 
New Philadelphia, O, 

Milton, Pa. 

Fleetwood, Pa. 

Dayton, Q. 

Norristown, Pa. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Easton, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preceptor. 

Chas. L. Manning. 
John B. Raser. 
George Dejan. 
W. C. Rowe. 
James Hervey. 
Gustav Appenzeller. 
Campbell & Bro. 
J. A. Brown. 
Andrew Blair. 
J, S. Barnitz. 
M. Tidd, 

James J. Ottinger. 
P, B. White, 
F, W, E, Stedem. 
Emil Jungmann. 
John C, Long, dec'd. 
Geo. B. Evans. 
Arthur B. Hammond. 
R. A. Hance. 
W. E. Dickeson. 
J. C. Smith. 
J. W. Kohlerman. 
Dr. Geo. Ross & Co. 
D, H. Waller. 
S. Logan Waltham. 
J. G. Lindemau, 
Selma Drug Co. 
J. LeRoy Webber. 

W. M. C. Craine. 

C. E. Martin, 

P. M. Kelly, M.D. 

A. D. Cuskaden, 
W, M. Rickert. 
W. M. Hill. 
John M. Hillan. 

B. G, Clapham, 
Aquila Hoch, 

Geo. Holland, M.D. 
Jos. W\ England. 

C. B. Miller, 
Harry Bitler. 

C. L. Shoemaker. 
F. X. Wolf. 

C. E. Keeler. 
Eugene Fillman. 
Harry Lippen. 
J. Wohlgemuth. 
Henry C. Blair. 

C. Carroll Meyer. 
C. A. Eckels. 
Justus Schmitt. 
Chas. B. Ashton. 
Harvey I. Keiper. 
Fred. L. Mevus. 
C, A, Eckels. 
Otto Kraus. 



Am. Jour. Pbarra. 
January, IP97. 



Catalogue of tJie Class. 



57 



Name. 
Krehl, Benjamin, 
Lacy, Burdett Seldon, 
Lauer, Julius Paul, 
Lawton, Oliver Halton, 
Lehman, Charles Luther, 
Lehman, George Theodore, 
Leonard, Emma, 
Lincoln, John Hamilton, 
Lingle, John McXit, 
Lock, William, 
Longstreet, Chalmer Joseph, 
Love, Thomas B., 



Place. 

Titusville, 

Gloucester, 

Millersville, 

Philadelphia, 

Boiling Springs, 

Portsmouth, 

Davisville, 

Bowling Green, 

Bellefonte, 

Philadelphia, 

Mexico, 

Philadelphia, 



J- 



Luckenbach, Harry Windfield, Bethlehem, 



McClure, Richard Terris, 
McCoUin, James Garrett, 
McCoy. James Edward, 
McCullough, Ed. Leonard, 
McDonnell. Joseph Francis, 
McElwain, William Thomas, 
McEall. John Allen, 
McGarrah, William Henr}-, 
McGuire, Thomas Edward, 
McKane. Francis Joseph, 
McKeever, William Henry, 
MacMurray, Annie, 
MacPherran, Ivan LeRoy, 
Maghee, Griffith Holme, 
Malone, Charles FMward, 



Wilmington, 

Philadelphia, 

New York, 

Salladasburg, 

Centralia, 

Chambersburg, 

Charleston, 

Scranton, 

Mahanoy City, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Upland, 

Pittsburg, 

Rawlins, 

Philadelphia, 



Matlison, Richard Van Selous, Jr., Ambler, 



Meister, Samuel Emil, 
Meredith, Harry Lionel, 
Mervine, Graydon Duncan, 
Metzger, Chiis. Washington, 
Mitchel, F^lward, 
Mooney, I'rank, 
Mountain, Lloyd Lott, 
Moury, Joseph Daniel, 
Mutly, Walter Clement, 
Nicklas, David Ivlward, 
Norris, Clarence Augustus, 
Orf, George Marion, 
Orr, James Alexander, 
Osterlund. Otto William, 
Patrick, William Smith, 
Pechin, Ivdward Charles, 
Pflieger, FUlwoo<^l Keech, 
Phillips, John Henry, 
Pile, Wilson, 

Popp, .\ndrew Martin Ralph, 
Potts, Samuel Lawrence, 
Price, .Vrthur Chew, 
Pullen, Ro«lney Woolston, 
Radefeld, Robert, 
Rains, FMward Lee, 
Ranck, David Walter, 
Reice, William. 
Reigel, M. Calvin, 
Reinhart, Robert Lucian, 



Lancaster, 

Hagerstown, 

Milton, 

Abbottstown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Confluence, 

Shamc^kin, 

South Hrt-wer, 

Chambersburg, 

Manasquan, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Kinekulle, 

Salem, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Red field, 

Philadelphia, 

Reading, 

Newtown, 

Wilmington, 

Camden. 

Philadelphia, 

Mein])his, 

Phila«lelphia, 

Bloomsl)urg, 

Linglestown, 

Shepherdstown, 



State 
Pa. 
N. 
Pa 
Pa. 
Pa. 
O. 
Pa. 
O. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Del. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
S. C. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Wv. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Md 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Me. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Sweden. 
X.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Del. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Tenn. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
W. Va. 



Preceptor. 
Theo. W. Renting. 
Wm. E. Lee. 
C. E. Keeler. 
Lawson C. Funk. 
R. T. Blackwood. 
Fisher & Streich. 

J. C. Lincoln. 
F'. Potts Green. 
James Huston. 
Norval D. Hart. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Simon Rau 6s: Co. 
N. B. Danforth. 
Wm. H. Milliken. 
H. G. Shinn. 

G. W. Davis. 
Charles D. Keefer. 
A. C. McClennan, M.D. 
F. W. F:. Stedem. 
Shenandoah Drug Store. 



Wm. H. Farley. 

Thos.G. Maghee, M.D. 

R. V. Mattison, M.D. 
James F. Ro>s 
D. C. Auginbaugh & Son. 
J. S. I-ollmer, M.D. 
A. Dalton. 

E. R. Gatchel. 

F. Schwartz, M.D. 
W. S. Mountain. M D. 

L. W. Hensvl, >LD. 

F. W. K. Sledem. 
J. S. Barnitz. 
.\ndrew Blair. 

J. V. Slaughter, M.D. 
Theo. Cam])bell. 
W. Henrv Dunn. 

G. J. Pfchin. 
Dale, Hart vS: Co. 
Wm. H. Phillips. 
Gustavus Pile. 
John B. Raser. 
Richard W. Livezey. 

Joseph C. Roberts. 
J. S. Haer. >LD. 
Fred. Radefild. 
Jas. S. Robinson. 
J. W Ranck, M.D. 
Jas, H. Mercer. 
G. n. Evans. 
S. I*. Loughridgc. 



58 



Name. 



Revnolds. Alver Carroll, 
Rh'oads. Robert Elliott, 
Rice, Albert Ainsworth, 
Robbins, Edward Cruise, 
Roesstier, Benjamin, 
Rogers, Edward Bancroft, 
Ross. Dell Noblitt, 
Rossell, Edward Wood, 
Ryan, William Stephen, 
Sample, James Turner, 
Savior, Byron Centennial, 
Schreiner, Charles Herman, 
Schwaenmile, Fred. Philip, 
Seitz, John Alphonsus, 
Seubert, Charles Aloysius, 
Shannon, Samuel Coward, 
Sh^iro, Henry, 
Sheehan, William Henry, 
Shirey, Orville Ludwig, 
Shoffner. John Perry, 
Simcox, Howard Leon, 
Sipes, Clarence Lessly, 
Skinner, Clarence Russel, 
Sleifer. Jay Ward, 
Smith, Chas. El wood Rupert, 
Smith, George Carroll, 
Smith, Silas Alfred, 
Smith, Wellington Gordon, 
Snyder, Herman Hugo, 
Stable, Robert Xevin, 
Stancill. George Walter, 
Stang, Peter, 

Steel, Chalmers Alexander, 
Stern, Wilson C. A., 
Stinson, William vSamuel, 
Stout. Philip Samuel, 
Strode, Richard Clark, 
Suhn, Minnie, 
Tanzola, Angelo, 
Turner, Kenneth Beymer, 
Turner, Joseph Constant, 
Turner, James Deaver, 
Tye, Frank John, 
Van Dyke, James Wiiber, 
Van Senden, James, 
Wagner, Charles, Jr., 
Waite, William Crigler, 
Walters, I'red. Robert, 
Warrington, Henry, 
Watson, James Nathaniel, 
Weakley, William Stair, 
Wehn, Clyde P)dwards, 
Wenner. Ilarvey PUitjene, 
West, Katheriiie Powell, 
Wiiber, John Arthur, 
Wf.lf, Charles. 
Wright. John Franklin, 
Wyckoff, Elmer Leroy, 



ilogue of the 


Class. 


/Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I January . 1897. 


Place. 


State. 


Preceptor. 


Rising Sun, 


Md. 


C A. Eckels. 


Reading, 


Pa. 


Irviu J. Brandt. 


P'lemington, 


N.J. 


Franklin C. Burk. 


Glassboro, 


N.J. 


F. G. Thoman. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Decatur Milligan. 


Mt. Holly, 


N.J. 


Elmer D. Prickitt. 


Rosemont, 


Pa. 


Frank W. Prickitt. 


Springfield, 


N.J. 


Charles B. Mathis. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Albert D. Forrest. 


Roaring Spring, 


, Pa. 


C. J. Biddle. 


Annville, 


Pa. 


Henrv T. Hayhurst. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


L.W. Hildenbrand, M.D. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


E. H. Fienhold. 


Wilmington, 


Del. 


Z. James Belt. 


Lebanon, 


Pa. 


John F. Loehle. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


D. M. Harris. 


Vitebsk, 


Russia. 


F. W. E. Stedem. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


H. M. CampbeU. 


Chambersburg, 


Pa. 


Cressler & Keefer. 


Xorristown, 


Pa. 


Harrv H. Stallman. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


G. W. Bo wen, M.D. 


McConnellsburg, Pa. 


W. H. Perkins, M.D. 


Chambersburg, 


Pa. 


Samuel E. Wagaman, 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


J. A. Wamsley, M.D. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Shoemaker & Busch.. 


Pottstown, 


Pa. 


C. A. Smith. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Wm. ISIcCorkle. 


Lykens, 


Pa. 


A. B. Schminky. 


Philad-lphia, 


Pa. 


Frank C. Davis. 


Gettysburg, 


Pa. 


Jesse W. Pechin. 


Selma, 


N. C. 


G. T. Williams. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Henry Mueller, M.D. 


Huntingdon, 


Pa. 


H. E. Steel. 


S Bethlehem, 


Pa. 


D. B. Richards, M.D. 


Titusville, 


Pa. 


Geo. B. H. Brown. 


Quakertown, 


Pa. 


Oliver Stout. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Funk & Groff. 


Vitebsk, 


Russia. 


Marcus Peisakhovitch. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Victor Michelotti. 


Washington, 


D. C. 




Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


W. F. Steinmetz. 


Baltimore, 


Md. 




Gordon, 


Pa. 


'j. E. Gregory. 


Hightstown, 


N.J. 


H. G. Rue. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 




Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


J. A. Fajans, M.D. 


Culpeper, 


Va. 


R. B. Macoy. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 




Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


C. W. Warrington. 


Elizabethtown, 


Pa. 


Henrv C. Blair. 


Vork, 


Pa. 


J. J. Weakley. 


Johnstown, 


Pa. 


Charles Young. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


Geo. D. Feidt. 


Xorristown, 


Pa. 


Jos. C. Roberts. 


Malone, 


N. Y. 


A. A. Allen. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


S. K. Loder. 


Caiion City, 


Col. 


Hunter Palmer. 


Ithaca, 


N. Y. 


Fred, H. Blackmer. 



Am. Jour. Phamj.i 
January, 1897. / 



Catalogue of the Class. 



59 



Name. 

Young, Annie Hawkins, 
Zeller, Earl Emanuel, 
Ziegler, Chester Winsor, 



Place. State. Preceptor. 

Henderson, X. C. Geo. B. Evans. 

Mifflinburg, Pa. James Kleckner. 

Gettysburg, Pa. Shinn ^: Baer. 



SECOND YEAR CLASS LIST.— 1896-97. 



Name. 
Abrams, I-'rederick Arthur, 
Albert, Harry Clay, 
Albright, Charles Henr\', 
Anderson, George Charles, 
Baer. Lemuel ^Iiles, 
Bartholomew, .\rthur, 
Beane, George Ridenour, 
Beardsley, Carolyn Frances, 
Berbericii. Herman, 
Berry, Robert Taylor, 
Beyerle, Charles Wellington, 
Bishop, David Kerlin, 
Black, Robert Morris, 
Bloor, Alfred Wainright, 
Booth, Thomas, 
Brach, Cornelius, 
Bradford, Edward Burton. 
Bready, William Ramsey. Jr., 
Brennan, Thomas Francis, 
Brewton, Swain Hoffman, 
Brown, Hampton Housman, 
Buckingham. Harry Sheldon, 
Calloway, Harry Willis, 
Cassel, Oscar Heebner, 
Cohen. John Thomas, 
Coleman. John FMward, 
Cooper, Walter Greenlee, 
Cox, Lin wood, 
Cunningham, Orrick Sim, 
Dale, David, 
Davis, George I-'ckley, 
DeBeust, William Hare, 
Decker. William Robert, 
DeHaven, Ida Valeria, 
Dirmitt, Charles Walter, 
Downing, William Henry, 
Dubell, Alexander, 
Eason, David Clark, 
Estlack, Walter Forrest, 
Evans, Abner Thomas, 
Evans, Samuel, Jr., 
Farrow, I'rederick Reeves, 
Felty, Harvey Long, 
F'ishcr, Samuel Keim, 
Fleming, John Halbert, 
Foltz, Ivdgar Daniel (irant, 
Friel)ely, Harry luigene, 
Funk, Robert Rowland, 



Place. 

Philadelphia, 

Maysville, 

Philadelphia, 

Meadville, 

Lancaster. 

Golden City, 

Bainbridge, 

Chicago, 

Baden, 

Charlestown, 

Bernville. 

Mifflintown. 

Philadelphia, 

Manor, 

Philadelphia, 

Kerzenhcim, 

Newport, 

Philadelphia, 

New London, 

Cape May City, 

Pleasant Grove 

Clayton, 

BaltimoT e, 

Norristown, 

Chester, 

Carbondale, 

Savannah, 

Norristown, 

Clear S])ring, 

Philadelphia, 

Eckley, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Bayonne, 

Philadelphia, 

Wilmington, 

Mt. Holly, 

Brookville, 

Philadelphia, 

Greensburg, 

Circleville, 

Philadelphia, 

Palmvra, 

Litit/, 

Mi-dia. 

Hflhlchem, 

S. Hethlchem, 

Hagerstown, 



State. 

Pa. 

Kv. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Col. 

Pa. 

111. 
Germany. 

W. Va'. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Tex. 

Pa. 
Germany 

N.J. ' 

Pa. 

Conn. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

X. J. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Mo. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

DeL 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

O. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Md. 



Preceptor. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 

John P. Frey. 
A. L. Ballinger. 
Breidinger & Comber. 
J. W. Higgins. 
H. C. Blair. 

James MofTet. 
P. H. Franklin. 
E. M. Boring. 
W. G. Nebig. 
P. M. Kelly, M.D. 

Alexander Wilson. 
W. E. Miller. 
\. La Dow. 

A. J. Frankelberger. 
W. Higbee Whitcomb. 
W'm. Porter. 

B. L. Brown, M.D. 
H. G. Shinn. 

H. Browning. 
William vStahler. 
R. H. Henderson. 
Geo. V. Eddy. 
J. P. Cooper. 
Atwood Veakle. 
George W Hurd 
John Wyeth 8: Bro. 
Charles J. Schneider. 
R. H. DeBeust, M.D. 
R. Wm. Ziegler. 

C. H. Dirmitt. M.D. 
N. B. Dan forth. 

R. C. Barrington. 
Shinn vS: Baer. 
H. W. Ivsllack. 
S. P. Brown. 
pA'ans ^y: Kimmel. 
F'bcrlv Bros. 
A. CHersh. 
J. C. Broh^t. M.D. 
A. W. - v,dec'd. 

N. B. i n. 

HA Bur k hart, M.D. 
Blew ^c Luca.s. 



6o 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1897. 



Name. 
Gag;e, Porciiis Silkinan, 
Geitrer. Kdward George, 
Gibb, Andrew, 
Gladhill, James White, 
Greer, Mary C, 
Groff, Harry Musselman, 
GrofT, William, 
Grunden, Percival Edward, 
Guth, Herbert Wallace, 
Hans, Ralph Leonard, 
Heintzelman, Joseph August, 
Helmbold, Anna Palmer, 
Heverly, Frederick Chase, 
Hoffman, William Anthony, 
Hubbert, William Ernest, 
Hudson, Harr}-. Jr., 
Hukill, Oscar k., 
Huntington, Joseph, 
Jenkins, Frank Huston, 
Joffe, Jacob Leopold, 
Kain, John Kauffman, 
Keen, George Carll, 
Keen, Geo. Samuel Jacob, 
Keenan, John Joseph, 
Keim, Joseph Paxson, 
Kepner, Weldon vStover, 
King, James David, 
Kintzer, Harry Augustus, 
Kirby, Frank Brennand, 
Kohl, George ]\Iichner, Jr., 
Krewson, William Egbert, Jr. , 
Kyser, George Herbert, 
Latchford, Orwan Luther, 
Lee, Walter Evan, 
Lefever, John Matthew, 
Lerch, William Abraham, 
Levy, Joseph Jacob, 
Lindig, Charles Warren, 
Luebert, August Gustav, 
:McCleary, Harry Walter, 
Mahoney, J. Norris, 
Mathers, Grace, 
Met/.ler, Walter Scott, 
Midflleton, Claude Ruoff, 
Miller, William I-'rederick, 
Mills, John Leopold, 
Monaghan, Thomas Francis, 
Monroe, William Robeson, 
Morell, Charles Joseph, 
Morgan, I'rank William, 
Mountain, Lloyd Lott, 
Xey, Howard Jacob, 
Obear, Josiali Julian, 
Otto, Glenn Frazier, 
Page, (ieorge Ralph, 
Parse, Andrew Con net, 
Perse, James Woodlock, 
Pettebone, Thomas J., 
Preston, Gilbert Kent, 



Place. 



State. 



Vineland, 


N.J. 


Peoria, 


111. 


Lock Haven, 


Pa. 


Jersey Shore, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. ] 


Lancaster, 


Pa. 


Quarryville, 


Pa. 


Steelton, 


Pa. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


Mifflinburg, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Wilkes-Barre, 


Pa. 


Renovo, 


Pa. 


Hico, 


Texas. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Hot Springs, 


Ark. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Hanover, 


Pa. 


Kovno, 


Russia, 


York, 


Pa. 


Vineland, 


N.J. 


Wiconisco, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Bristol, 


Pa. 


Shippensburg, 


Pa. 


Easton, 


Pa. 


Womelsdorf, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Jenkintown, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Richmond, 


Ala. 


Markelsville, 


Pa. 


Vineland, 


N.J. 


York, 


Pa. 


Allentown, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Lewisburg, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Carlisle, 


Pa. 


Bridgeport, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Baltic, 


O. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Erie. 


Pa. 


Cardington, 


O. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


P'resno, 


Cal. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Pass Christian, 


Miss. 


Confluence, 


Pa. 


Harrisburg, 


Pa. 


W^innsboro, 


S. C. 


La Crosse, 


Wis. 


vScranton, 


Pa. 


I'lemington, 


N. J. 


Plymouth, 


Pa. 


Dorranceton, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 



Preceptor. 

F. H. Vonachen. 
W. C. Franciscus. 
George M. Beringer. 

, K. Richardson, M.D. 
C. W. Warrington. 
T. M.Rohrer, M.D. 

G. A. Gorgas, 
Peters & Smith. 

W. H. F. Vandegrift. 
Jos. A. Heintzelman. 
F. W. E. Stedem. 
R. D. Williams. 
E. T. Swain. 
W. E. Hubbert. 
Wm. C. Walter. 
Andrew Blair. 
J. C. Perry. 
J. L. Emlet. 

E. J. Lupin. 

J. B. Kain, M.D. 
J. J. Ottinger. 

C. D. Christman, M.D. 
J.J.Burk. 

Enilen Martin. 
J. C. Altick & Co. 
Rowland Willard. 

F. T. Landis. 
Lawson C. Funk. 
Thos C. Coltman. 
Wm. E Krewson. 

G. W. Kyser. 

D. H. Ross. 
Bidwell & Co. 
S. M. Gable. 
Peters & Smith. 

J. H. B. Amick, M.D. 
H. N. Hoffman. 
David A. Over. 
J. E. vSipe. 

E. A. Stabler. 
Susan Havhurst. M.D. 
A. S. Metzler, M.D. 
Shinn & Baer. 

Wm. Fischer. 

A. C. Schofield. 

H. D. Stichter, M.D. 

G. H. Monroe. 

Chas. M. Morell. 

Wm. Greve. 

W. S. Mountain, M.D. 

Chas. F. Kramer, 

O. Y. Owings. 

Oscar Houck. 

Horatio M. Cole. 

J. Sherman Cooley. 

J. V. Perse. 

C. \Y- vSpayd, M.D. 

David Preston. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
January, 18i>7. 



Catalogue of the Class. 



6\ 



Name. 

Putt, Milton Thomas, 
Raker, John Wilson 
Randolph, Edward Fitts, 
Richardson. James, 
Ringer, Lewis Johnson, 
Rinker, Henry Paul, 
Ritz, Charles August, 
Roberts, DeWilton Smith, 
Rose, Frank, 
Ross, Annie Catherine, 
Sausser, Howard Elmer, 
Schlauch, Theodore Storb, 
Scott, Emma Love, 
Seiberling, Joseph Dallas, 
vSheitz, Lloyd A., 
Shemp, Russell Nicholas, 
Shwab, George Augustus, 
Sieber, Isaac Grafton, 
Slobodkin, Rose, 
Smith, Alfred Homer, 
Smith, Benjamin James, 
Suavely, Clarence Osborne, 
Snyder, John Paul, 
Steinmetz, William Baer, 
Stimus, Howard George, 
Stokien, Francis Joseph, 
Stott, Horatio Allen, 
Strawinski, Jacob Franklin, 
Swartley, Harry Mahlon, 
Thomas, Frank Hartwell, 
Thompson, Henry Kirk, 
Thompson, Harry Merril, 
Tomlinson, George Walton, 
Troth, Finest Augustine, 
Tyler. William Walston, 
Underwood, James Harris, 
Waldner. Herman Theodore, 
Walter, William liell, 
Wilt, Geo. Washington, Jr., 
Winkler. Oscar Charles, 
Winslow, John Hayes, 
Wiza, Joseph Louis, 
Zane, William Spence, 
Zimmeniian, Thos. Edmonds, 



Place. 

Lebanon, 

Pillow. 

Plainfield, 

Pickering. 

Hagerstown, 

Hellertown, 

Ashland, 

Xorristown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Schuylkill Hav 

New Holland, 

Richmond, 

Hvnemansville 

York, 

Philadelphia, 

Nashville, 

Harrisburg, 

Minsk, 

Smyrna, 

Trenton, 

Lebanon, 

Lancaster, 

Ephrata, 

Moorestown, 

Charleston, 

Coatesville, 

York, 

Philadelphia, 

Yaldosta. 

Titusville, 

Selins Grove, 

Rydal, 

Palmyra, 

Onancock, 

Woodbury, 

Ashland, 

Gettysburg, 

F'lemingsburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Vineland. 

Philadel])hia, 

Seabright, 

Carlisle, 



State. 

Pa. 
Pa. 

N- J. 

Out. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 
en. Pa. 

Pa. 

Ya. 
, Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Tenn. 

Pa. 

Russia, 

Del. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

S. C. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ga. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N J- 
Ya. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ky. 

Pa 

N.J. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 



Preceptor. 
\\\ B. Means 
Chas. H. Tatem. 
L. W. Randolph. 
Geo. Y. Wood. 
M. L. Bvers & Co. 
C. W. Albright. 
A. Schoenenberger. 
O. F. Lenhardt. 
G. W. Bo wen. 
W^ E). Supplee. 
John B. Raser. 
C. J. Seltzer. 
Susan Hayhurst, M.D. 
Frank Morse. 
Harrv A. Hav. 
\V. E' Supplee & Bro. 

J. Wilson Hoffa. 
Susan Hayhurst, M.D. 
Wm. F. Dunn. 
Aquila Hoch 
Wm. G. Shugar. 
W. T. Hock. 
G. S. Rover 
G. H. W'ilkinson. 
R. P. Wilkinson. 
W. S. Young. 
Dale, Hart & Co. " 
Y. P. Streeper. 

R. C. Cadmus. 
T. C. Tomlinson. 
S. T. Hamberg. 
Shoemaker & Busch. 
George B. F'vans. 
W. S. Reeve. 
T. H. Strouse. 
H. C. Blair. 
John J. Reynolds. 
Milton S. Apple. 
A. C. Taylor. 

A. A. Pochner. 
G. B. Minton. 

B. F. Emrick. 



SENIOR CLASS LIST.— 1896-97. 



Xame. 

Althouse, Harry B., 
Anderson. Ralph. 
Baker, Newton Claire, 
Barth, Charles. 



Place. 
Harrisburg, 
I^atrobe, 
Sunbury, 
Philadelphia, 



Bartholomew, Claude Lafayette, Bath. 
Bates, John Phillips, Mansfield. 

Becht. Frederick, Philadel])hia, 

Beh, Edward, Philadelphia, 



State. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 



Preceptor. 
F. J. Althou.se. 
R. T. Blackwood. 
Charles Leedom. 
W G. Nebjj^'. 
Peters & Smith. 
J. M. Smith. 
Bullock ^: Crenshaw 
David J. Reese. 



62 



Catalogue of tJie Class. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1897. 



Name. 
Breilliaupt, Alphons Peter, 
Brown, Roscoe James, 
Briieckmann, Walter, 
Brumbaugh, Albert Sylvester, 
Carson, James Thompson, 
Clapp, Samuel Clarence, Jr. , 
Clark, Kdward B , 
Clark, Robert Hall, 
Cloud. Norman Henderson, 
Codori, Simon Jacob, Jr., 
Compton, Richard Hal, 
Cooper, Morris, 
Cope, Edward Kreidler, 
Cornell Horace Hogeland, 
Craig, Ralph Butz, 
Criswell, Edward Ott, 
Deibert, William Henry, 
Eckels, Frank Huston, 
Eddy, Volora Doolittle, 
Entwistle, Albert Henry, 
Eschbach, Clarence Derbie, 
Failing, William Clark, 
Farley, Levi James, 
Few, Colin Spangler, 
Filer, Bunitt Boynton, 
Frederici, John Koch, 
Funches, Cardoza Marion, 
Garrison, Joseph Miller, Jr., 
Gessford, Otice Eugene, 
Godshall, Samuel R., 



Place. 
Philadelphia, 
Oxford, 
Philadelphia, 
Mansfield, 
Philadelphia, 
INIilton, 
Reading, 
Union City, 
West Chester, 
Gettysburg, 
Allen, 

Friedensburg, 
Philadelphia, 
Newtown, 
Allentown, 
Waynesboro, 
Northampton, 
Carlisle, 
S. Chester, 
Philadelphia, 
Milton, 
Albany, 
Chester, 
Middletown, 
Hammonton, 
Auburn. 
Rowesville, 
Elmer, 
Lippincott, 
Soudertown, 



Goodfellow, Charles Rumney, Philadelphia, 



Grakelow, Ralph, 
Gross, Paul Herbert, 
Harry, Hamilton Maxwell, 
Hebden, William. 
Heim, Christian, Jr., 
Hildfbrand, Howard Ovid, 
Hill, William Maurice, 
HofTman, William Shalter, 
Horst, Harry Lewis, 
Hostellcy, John Jos. hVancis, 
Howard, Horace Emory, 
Howell, Plarvey I'ield, 
Hundertmark, John Charles, 
Ingling, Howard Ivdgar, 
Jacoby, William Lawless, 
Jaeger, Charles I'rederick, 
Janisch, Frederick Wm., 
JelTeris, David Strode, 
Jennings, Isaac Astor, 
Johns, I'rank James, 
JoUey, John James, 
Kessler, Lawrence Anthony 



Tower City, 

York, 

Conshohocken, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Lansford, 

Danville, 

Lock Haven, 

Collingdale, 

S. Hadley, 

Easton, 

Cleveland, 

Riverton, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Pleasant Mount 

Philadelphia, 

Logan, 



J- 



State. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

O. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ind. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Tex. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. ^ 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. 

Pa 

S. C 

N.J 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Mass 

Pa. 

O. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 
, Pa. 

Pa. 

O 



Kirlin, Chas. Coleman Hagenbach Shenandoah, Pa. 



Kf)ehler, George, 
Konover, Harold Doble, 
Kramer, CVeorge Henry, 
Ku])fer, John Harry, 
Langham, John Williams, 



Philadelphia, 
Trenton , 
Philadelphia, 
Butte City, 
Philadelphia, 



Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Mont. 

Pa. 



Preceptor. 

George H. Ochse. 
W. T. J. Brown. 

E. W^ Herrmann. 
Silas Shull. 
Dr. Meredith. 

C. E. Stout. 

F. X. Wolf. 
J. P. Frey. 
Luther Gerhard. 
J. M. Hillan. 
Geo. F". McKinstry. 

G. D. Borton. 

F. H. Cope. 
Robert Gleuk. 
Kennedy & Burke. 
J. W. Harrigan. 
J. H. Stermer. 
J. B. Moore. 
A L. Castle. 
Chas. H. Roberts. 
JohnS. Follmer, M.D. 
H. C. Blair. 
Wm. H. Farley. 
Geo. B. Evans. 
J. F. Meade, M.D. 
E. F. Haenchen. 
J. M. Hillan. 
Theodore Campbell. 
Funk & Groff. 

Smith, Kline & French Co. 
E. M. Wallington & Co. 
Ira P. Amick. 
R. Wm. Ziegler. 
Jas. W. Harry. 
Caleb Scattergood. 
Henry Mueller, M.D. 
A. H. Lafean & Bro. 
Wm M. Hill. 

G. C. Devine. 
T. C. Hilton & Co. 
T. W. Hargreaves. 
J. J. Ottinger. 
Geo. B. Evans. 
Acker Bros. 

Milton Cowperthwaite. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

E. E. Bostick. 

F. H. Davis. 
Funk & Grofif. 
Theodore Campbell. 
H. C. Blair. 
F. M. Apple. 
E. F. Kessler. 
P. P. D. Kirlin. 
E. F". Kaempfer. 

D. W. Baker. 
Robert McNeil. 
C. W. Newton, M.D. 

E. B Kyle. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January. 1897. 



Catalogue of the Class. 



63 



Name. Place. 

•Laughlin, Albert Russell, Newville, 

Lenhart, Enos Samuel, Philadelphia, 

Levan, Walter, Nuniidia, 

Lewis, Daniel William. Catasauqiia, 

Liebert, Charles Frederick, Philadelphia, 
Lincoln, George Washington, Philadelphia, 
IvOngshaw. Thomas Elmer, Philadelphia, 
Luhr, Frederick A., St. Marys, 

Lukens, Charles Baker, Philadelphia, 

MacKride, W^illiam Vaiighan, Jr., Philadelphia, 
McGehee, Hanford Bell, Staunton, 

McNeil, Thomas Hunter, 
Malin, George Lawrence, 
Matusow, Harn^-, 
Metzler, Claude Dallas, 
Morgan. Clayton Edward, 
Morse, Thomas, 
Mueller, Charles August, 
Nebel, Charles William, 
Parry, Edward, 
Parry, William Hough, 
Pasold, Julius Martin, 
Pearce, Sanmel Robert, 
Peiffer, Charles Oscar, 
Peterson. Walter Nickerstaff, 
Pierson, Wm. Harry. Jr., 
Pipes. William Henry, 
Praul, Walter I'rancis, 

Prosser, David Davis, Jr., _, 

Punt, Arnold Anthony Joseph, Philadelphia, 
Reese, John Bull, Centralia. 

Reifsnyder, David Ernest, X. Heidelberg, 
Rieben, Ernest, Philadeli)hia, 

Robertson, Henry Edward, Jr., Philadelphia, 



Philadelphia, 
Atlantic City, X. 
Minsk, 

Harrisonville, 
Lynn, 

Montgomen.-, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Cramer Hill, 
Xewtown, 
Joliet, 
Manasquan, 
Morton, 
Philadelphia, 
Wilmington, 
Millington, 
Philadelphia, 
Hellertown, 



Roth, Frans Johan, 
Rowe. Thomas Maurer, 
Seipel, Harry Bertram, 
Smiley, Geo. Washington, 
Smiley, Laura ^L1rgucrite, 
Smith, Justin Tone, 
Sny<ler, Harry Lamar, 
Stommel. Henry Aloysius Jos., 
Strayer, Otho O'Burn, 
Streeper. Austin. 
Swinehart, Daniel Harrison, 
Test, Ivllwoo<l Allen, 
Tobias, Is.'iac Herbert, 
Toelke, Cliarles, 
Troxell, John Isaac Peter, 
Tyson, Warren Sunderland, 
Watson, Joseph Shaffer, 
Weber, Howard Elmer, 
Weiss, Hervev Beale, 
Weit/el, Sue C., 
Wells, James Ralston, Jr., 
Went/.ler. Hartman Gotthanl, 
Wet/el, S.imuel, 
Wilson, Oliver I'awcett, 
Winger, John Bowman, 
Yates, John Julius, Jr., 



Lund, 

Reading, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadel])hia, 

Windsor, 

Aniiaiid tie, 

Doylestown, 

Wilmington. 

Xorristown, 

Pottstown, 

Philadelphia, 

Canal Winchester, O. 

Philadel])hia, 

Allentown, 

Xorristown, 

Mt Holly, 

Mahanoy City, 

Philadelphia, 

Greensburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Muncv, 

Carli-sie. 

Pittsburg. 

Philadelphia, 

Wilmington, 



State. Preceptor. 

Pa. B. F. Emrick. 

Pa. Harry E). Jones. 

Pa. J. E. Gregory. 

Pa. Wm. H. Faunce. 

Pa. A. G. Keller. 

Pa. Howard G. Shinn. 

Pa. Henrv Sunderland, ^LD. 
Pa. A.'Mulhaupt, ^LD. 

Pa. D. A. Over. 

Pa. W\ F Seiler. 

\'a. Lawson C. I'unk. 

Pa. Robert C. McXeil. 

Willard W^right. M.D. ( dec'd). 
Russia C. H. Bohn. 

J. A. I'erguson. 

Frank E. Morgan. 

H. G. Eakin. 

Alex. G. Keller. 

A. S. Hollopeter. 

W. H. Kensinger. 

M. B. Fretz. 

H F. Voshage. 

Andrew Blair. 

J. ^L Sharp. 

C. W. Shull. 

J. S. Beetem. 

Dr. Todd. 

J. H. Masholder. 
J. Howard Evans, >LD. 

W. H. Pile cS: Sons. 

Geo. W. Davis. 
Wm. P:. Donough, M.D. 

A. A. G. Starck, M.D. 
Shinn ^: Baer. 
E. W. Shaq). 

B. A. Hertsch. 
Leidy Seipel. 
F:. R. Smiley, M.D. 
E. R. Smiley, >LD. 
W. .A.. Rumsev. 
H. A. Xolte. ' 
E. M. Boring. 
A. W. Tavlor, M.D. 
H. R. Stallman. 
L. L Shuler. 
John H. Kerr. 
Shinn cS: Baer. 

Pa. I'rank \\. Morgan. 

Pa. J. Iv. Bennett, >LI). 

Pa. .\twood Vcakle. 

X. J. Wm F. Simes ^c Son. 

Pa. M. R. Stein 

Pa. Bullock ^: Crenshaw. 

Pa. Susan Hay hurst. .M.D. 

Pa. Bullock iS: Crenshaw. 

Pa. John W. McLeer. 

Pa. W. F. Horn. 

Pa. v.. F. Kessiler. 

Pa W. L. Hartzcll. 

Dil. H. K Watson. 



Pa. 

Mass. 

Ala. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

X.J. 

Pa. 

111. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Del. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Sweden. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Vt. 

X.J. 

Pa 

Del. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 



64 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January. 1897. 



LIST OF SPECIAL STUDENTS.— 1896-97. 



Name. 

Bailey, Esther, 
Carrington,Thos. Specs, M.D, 
Case, Luella. Ph.Cx., 
Cheney, Millwood C, 
Collings, Walter Xagle, 
De Graffe, Bertha Leon, Ph.G 
Frislimiith, H. H., 
Heckeroth, William Conard, 
Hoft, William Irving, 
Ketterer, Martin, Ph.G., 
Kinzey, Calvin Otto, 
Krider, C. Richard, 
Leas. Fred. C, B.S.", 
Mavs, Edmund Anstie, 
Post, Edward Meigs, Ph.G., 
Rowe, William C, Ph.G., 
Silverthorn, Alfred P., 
Stroup, Freeman Preston, Ph.G 
Suhr. Charles Louis, 
Toplis, William G.. Ph.G., 
Tucker, Stephen Allen, 
White, William Clements, 



Place. 



State. 



KiefF, 


Russia, 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Delaware, 


0. 


Brooklyn, 


N. Y. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Albany, 


N. Y. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Cumberland, 


Md. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Chester, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Ridley Park, 


Pa. 


r.. Rouseville, 


Pa. 


Oil City, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 


Philadelphia, 


Pa. 



Department. 

Pharmacy. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistr}-. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistr3\ 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistr3\ 
Chemistr^^ 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 
Chemistry. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, iSgj. 



ON THE VOLUxMETRIC ESTIMATION OF ACETONE. 

Bv Lyman F. Kebler, 

Since the modern developments in the manufacture of acetone, the 
application of this product has been developed in many directions. 
As a solvent its uses appear to be almost unlimited, in both analy- 
tical and technical operations. Ethyl alcohol, wood alcohol, ether 
and acetic ether have been displaced by it in many instances, not 
only as being a more economical solvent, but a better general solv- 
ent. Prof. S. P. Sadtler' has proposed its use for the technical anal- 
ysis of asphalt ; C. Kippenberger- has employed it as a solvent in 
volumetric determinations of alkaloids by means of Wagner's rea- 
gent ; and H. Trimble and J. C. Peacock'' have used it in the pre- 
paration of tannic acid. These are only instances of the possibilities 
of acetone. 

Now, it can reasonably be expected that the manufacture of this 
product will be materially cheapened in due time, and, with this 
cheapening, samples of various degrees of purity will be met with ; 
then the analyst will be called on to devise ways and means for 
deciding in favor of the deserving products. 

At present, we are not in position to determine the acetone, or 
dimethyl ketone, in various mixtures with accuracy. The commer- 
cial acetone generally contains bodies, besides acetone, that respond 
to the iodoform reaction, on which all of our analytical methods are 

' 1-^95. /• Frank. Inst., 140. 383. • 

' 1896, Zlschr. anal. Chctn., .m. 10, aud 422. 

' 1893, Am. J. PiiARM., ea, 435 ; /V<><. ./;//. Phatm. Assoc, 41, iia 

(65) 



66 Vohimetric Estimation of Acetone, {^Y^^r^lxyAm^' 

based. The writer examined a sample of acetone that contained 6 
per cent, of material (higher ketones?) that possessed a boihng 
point of 80" C. and above ; yet it proved on analysis to contain 20 
per cent, of iodoform-yielding substances by our present methods. 

The specific gravity is of little value, since there are a number of 
products formed during the destructive distillation of the acetates 
that possess practically the same specific gravity as acetone. An 
actual case will illustrate this fact admirably. A certain make of 
acetone was examined, and on submitting the results of the analysis 
the producer protested loudly. He maintained that their product 
contained 98 per cent, of pure acetone according to the alcoholo- 
meter. Would methyl alcohol contain 98 per cent, of acetone if, on 
immersing the alcoholometer, it sank to the 98 per cent, mark ? 
Comment is unnecessary. 

The boiling point is of considerable value, but some allowance 
must be made even for this constant. A sample, assaying 91-96 
per cent, of acetone, yielded, on distilling 100 c.c, the following frac- 
tions : from 55°-58° Z. = 6 c.c; 58^-59° C. = 20 c.c; 590-60° C. 
= 30 c.c; 6o°-62° C. = 25 c.c; 62^-65° C. =. 10 c c; 65^-70° C. 
=r 3 C.c; 70° and above = 6 c.c Another sample, assaying 96*95 
per cent, of acetone, boiled between 56° and 61° C, with a small 
amount of residue. 

A word about the stability of acetone at this point may not be 
inappropriate. On assaying a drum of acetone, it was found con- 
siderably below the requirements. On informing the manufacturer 
concerning it, he made the assertion that acetone deteriorated very 
materially in a month. This information was quite contrary to the 
writer's experience. For example, a sample of acetone had been 
kept by the writer for two years, about one-half of the time in a 
dark, dry cellar, in an ordinary greenish, cork-stopped, glass bottle; 
the remainder of the time the bottle and contents were kept in 
direct and diffused sunlight. This acetone assayed 97-12 per cent. 
This product certainly did not deteriorate much in these two years; 
for the best commercial acetone obtainable contains only from 97 to 
98 per cent, of pure acetone. Dr. Squibb, in a private communica- 
tion, writes thus on this point : " Nothing within our knowledge or 
experience has ever led us to suspect any spontaneous change in 
acetone by keeping, and I do not believe there is any such change 
either in full or partly filled vessels." 



^Februar/?^!''} Vohinietric Esthfiatioyi of Acetone. 67 

A. Lieben,^ in 1870, discovered that certain organic groups, such 
as CH3, COC — , CH3 CH(OH)C — . CH3CH2OH, etc.. when treated 
with iodine in the presence of an alkali, yield iodoform. Iodoform 
itself, however, was discovered in 1822, by SeruUas.- With some 
of the groups the application of heat is necessary to bring about the 
reaction. Lieben also observed that methyl alcohol did not re- 
spond to this test, and suggested at the same time that this fact 
might be of service in establishing the purity of this alcohol. 

Ten years later, G. Kramer^ devised a gravimetric process, based 
on the iodoform reaction for estimating acetone in wood alcohol. 
The results obtained by this method were rarely concordant, conse- 
quently it was unsatisfactory. 

From 1884 to 1888 much interest was manifested in this country 
concerning the manufacture of chloroform from acetone. During 
this period, \V. R. Orndorff* and H. Jessel studied the action of 
chlorinated lime on acetone in the manufacture of chloroform. On the 
results of this investigation J. Messinger^ based the first volumetric 
method for estimating acetone in wood alcohol. The method has 
been applied with success to all* mixtures in which acetone gener- 
ally occurs. 

The reactions^ involved for this volumetric process are as fol- 
lows : 

I3 -f 2KOH = KIO 4- KI + H2O. 

CH3COCH3 -I- 6KIO = CH3COCI3 + 3KOH -f 3KI. 

CH3COCI3 -f KOH = CHI3 -f KCH3O2. 

KIO -f KI -}- 2HCI = I, + 2KCI -f H.b. 

KIO3 -i- 5KI -:- 6HC1 = 31, -f 6KC1 + 3H2O. 

The solutions required for the process are as follows : 56 
grammes of potassium hydroxide, free from nitrite, dissolved in dis- 
tilled water and made up to i litre. 



* 1876, Ann. (Liebig) Supp., 7. 218 and 377. 
' 1822, Ann. chem. phys., 20, 165. 

* 1S80, Brr, d. chem. Ges., 13. 1000; Ztschr. anal. Chrm., 19,498. 

* 1888, Atn. Chrm.J., 10. 363. 

* 1888, Bfr. d. chem. Ges., 3366. 

* Sec Hteraturc at the end of the article. 

^ There may be some question concerning the actual reactions, but the basis 
of calculation is not involved. Kramer expresses it in a single equation : 
CHjCOCH, 4- 61 i- 4KOH = CHIj 4 3KI - KC,H,0, -f 3H,0. 



68 Volumetric Estimation of Acetone. { "^reb^ruary^JsT?!"* 

Solution of hydrochloric acid, specific gravity 1-025. 

A decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate. 

A starch solution. 

A dilute solution of acetone containing from i to ij^ per cent, of 
acetone by weight. This is prepared from the acetone or ace- 
tone solution to be examined. The writer prepares this by weigh- 
ing the acetone in a beaker containing water, transferring to a gradu- 
ated cylinder, rinsing the beaker well with water and making up to a 
definite volume. 

Having prepared the above solutions, place from 25 to 30 c.c. of 
the potassium hydroxide solution into a suitable flask, add I or 2 
c.c. of the diluted acetone solution, very carefully measured, or if 
greater accuracy is desired, carefully weigh the aqueous acetone, mix 
well, and run in from a burette, while rotating the flask, from 25 to 
30 c.c. of the iodine solution ; insert the stopple quickly and agitate 
vigorously for one minute. After shaking, render the mixture acid 
by means of the hydrochloric acid solution; add, while rotating, an 
excess of the sodium thiosulphate solution. Allow the mixture to 
stand several minutes, add the starch indicator, and re-titrate the 
excess of the sodium thiosulphate with the iodine solution. From 
the above data the per cent, of acetone can readily be calcu- 
lated ; thus I molecule of acetone (58) requires 3 molecules of iodine 
(762) to form I molecule of iodoform. Expressing it in the form 
of a proportion, letting j/ equal the amount of combined iodine, and 
X equal the amount of acetone, we have ; 

762 \ i^Z \\y\ X or x = y. A_ or x = y. 0-07612. 

762 

Before leaving the process, it may be well to direct attention to 
several important points. After adding the iodine solution, agita- 
tion must not be delayed if concordant results are desired, since 
the active agent KIO is rapidly converted into KI and KIO3. 
Experiments have proven that it becomes inactive in one-half an 
hour. It is essential to allow the mixture to stand a few minutes 
after adding the sodium thiosulphate solution, in that the reaction is 
not immediate. It is necessary to add an excess of the iodine and 
sodium thiosulphate solution, respectively, at the time of adding 
them, in order to secure completed reactions. 



^FeDruaryT?^""} Volufftetric Estimation of Acetone. 69 

MM. F. Robineau^ and G. Rollin, in 1893, proposed another volu- 
metric method for estimating acetone. This method was first 
brought to the writer's notice through the generosity of Dr. Squibb 
and the kindness of his chemist, Dr. L. L. Jackson, while visiting 
the laboratory of the former last summer. Prior to this time 
Messinger's process had been used exclusively by the writer. R. 
and R.'s method is applied by mixing an aqueous acetone solution 
with a strongly alkaline solution of potassium iodide and convert- 
ing the acetone into iodoform by means of a titrated solution 
of sodium hypochlorite, the end reaction being determined by 
means of a bicarbonated starch solution. 

The writer has not applied the above process to any extent, but 
has studied and worked with Dr. Squibb's- modification of the same 
considerably. 

The solutions required for this modification and the methods 
of preparing them are as follows : 

Pure acetone made by the bisulphite process. 

An alkaline solution of potassium iodide. Dissolve 250 grammes 
of pure potassium iodide in distilled water and make up to i litre. 
Dissolve 257 grammes of sodium hydroxide, purified by alcohol, in 
distilled water and make up to I litre. Allow the insoluble 
part to subside and mix 850 c.c. of the clear solution with the litre 
of potassium iodide. 

Solution of hypochlorite, containing about 2^ per cent, of 
available chlorine. To each litre add 25 c.c. of sodium hydroxide 
solution, specific gravity 1-29. 

l^icarbonated starch solution. Treat 01 25 gramme of starch 
with 5 c.c. of cold water, then add 20 c.c. of boiling water 
and boil a few minutes, cool and add 2 grammes of sodium 
bicarbonate. The keeping quality of this solution is certainly 
an agreeable surprise. A sample prepared four months ago is as 
delicate to-day as a freshly prepared one. 

The manner of application. Prepare an aqueous solution of the 
pure acetone of such a strength that each 10 c.c. contains exactly 
-jIq^ gramme of the acetone. Of this solution, accurately measure, 



' 1893, Moniteur Scitntijiquf (4), 7. pt. i, 272 ; translation \nj. Am. Cfum 
Soc, 18, 106S. 
' 1896, y. Am. Chem. Sac, is. 1068. 



70 Volumetric Estimation of Acetone. {'^Feb'I-uaryTJf/?"'' 

with a pipette, lO c.c. into a 50 c.c. beaker, add 20 c.c. of the alka- 
line potassium iodide solution and mix well. To this mixture add, 
from a burette, while vigorously agitating the contents of the beaker, 
the standard solution of sodium hypochlorite in rapid drops until 
about 9 c.c. have been run in. Allow the iodoform to subside* 
which it does rapidly, then add a drop or two of the hypochlo- 
rite solution ; should a cloudiness result, add another J^ c.c. of 
the hypochlorite solution ; agitate well ; allow the iodoform to sub- 
side, etc., until just a faint turbidity results on adding the hypo- 
chlorite solution. Now agitate the solution well ; transfer a small 
drop to a white porcelain tile ; in a similar manner, bring a drop 
of the bicarbonated starch solution near this drop, then connect the 
two drops by means of a glass rod. If a blue color does not 
develop at the point of union, not enough of the hypochlorite solu- 
tion has been added. Continue adding the hypochlorite solution, 
a small quantity at a time, agitating and testing, until a blue line 
is just formed at the meeting of a drop of the starch solution and 
a drop of the mixture titrated. Ordinary starch solution is value- 
less for this end reaction. 

The number of c.c. of the hypochlorite solution required to com- 
plete the reaction is the amount of this active agent needed to con- 
vert J^ gramme of acetone into iodoform. From this basis calcu- 
lations for any amount of acetone are readily made. 

In estimating the amount of acetone in any solution, first prepare 
an aqueous solution containing from i to 2 per cent, of acetone by 
weight, then proceed as above for establishing the standard with 
pure acetone. For fuller details the reader is referred to the origi- 
nal communication. 

The two latter methods will meet with two objections: first, 2, pure 
acetone, and second, the tedious, time-consuming drop end reaction. 
Pure acetone is not so readily prepared. It necessitates the prepa- 
ration of an acetone absolutely free from other ketones, before the 
bisulphite process can be applied. The writer has not been able to 
secure acetone that assayed more than 9973 per cent, of pure ace- 
tone by either Messinger's process or the one presently to be 
described. This small quantity may have volatilized, but the loss 
would be practically constant for all the methods, consequently, the 
basis of calculation for the pure acetone methods would be 100, 
when in reality it is less. The difference may again be due to some 



^Febroary^^S?*} Vohinietric Estimation of Acetone. yi 

slight inaccuracies in the volumetric solutions. Grant that abso- 
lutely pure acetone is made, it is not readily secured when desired. 

The writer has adapted Dr. Squibb's modification so that both 
the pure acetone and the drop end reaction are eliminated. In this 
process the following solutions are employed : 

A 6 per cent, solution of hydrochloric acid. 

The alkaline solution of potassium iodide of Dr. Squibb. 

A decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate. 

Sodium hypochlorite solution, about ^ normal, or containing from 
2^g- to 3 per cent, of available chlorine. To prepare this solution, 
intimately mix lOO grammes of bleaching powder (35 per cent.) in 
400 c.c. of distilled water. Dissolve 120 grammes of crystallized 
sodium carbonate in 400 c.c. of hot distilled water, and immediately 
pour the latter into the former. Cover the vessel and allow to cool, 
then decant the clear liquid, filter the remainder and to the filter 
add enough water to make up to i litre. To each litre add 25 
c.c. of sodium hydroxide solution, specific gravity 1-29. 

An aqueous solution of acetone containing from i to 2 per cent, 
by weight. Prepared as for Messinger's process above. To esti- 
mate the acetone, place 20 c. c. of the alkaline potassium iodide 
solution into a suitable flask add lO c.c. of the diluted aqueous ace- 
tone solution, or weigh if greater accuracy is desired; mix well, and 
run in from a burette, while rotating the flask, an excess of the 
sodium hypochlorite solution, insert the stopple quickly and shake 
well for one minute. After agitating, render the mixture acid by 
means of the hydrochloric acid solution, add, while rotating the 
flask, an excess of the sodium thiosulphate solution, and allow the 
mixture to stand a few minutes. Then add the starch indicator and 
re-titrate the excess of the sodium thiosulphate. 

The relation of the sodium hypochlorite solution to the sodium 
thiosulphate solution being known, the percentage of acetone can 
readily be calculated from the above data. One atom of available 
chlorine will liberate I atom of iodine from the potassium iodide 
of the alkaline solution, or i c.c. will liberate just enough iodine to 
make I c.c. of iodine solution of the same normal strength as the 
sodium hypochlorite solution originally was ; therefore, by reading 
the number of c.c. of sodium hyp>ochlorite solution consumed as so 
many c c. of iodine solution of the same normal strength, we reduce 
the calculation to the basis of iodine. For explanation from here 
see Messinger's process above. 



/2 



Volumetric Estimation of Acetone, {^FebrXyasw"' 



Example of calculation. Ten c.c. of the acetone solution, con- 
taining I gramme of the solution to be analysed, required 14-57 cc. 
of N X 0806 sodium hypochlorite solution, which formed 14-57 c.c. 
of iodine solution of the same strength ; or combining we have : 

14-57 X 0-806 X 01265 X 0-07612 _ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ _ 
I gramme of solution. 

11-307 per cent. 

On comparing Messinger's, Dr. Squibbs' and the writer's adapta- 
tion with the same solution, the following results, in per cent, were 
obtained : 





Messinger. 


Squibb. 


Author. 


Pure acetone 


99-69 


99:95 


9973 


Residue 80° C. and above . 


20*00 


19-67 


20-39 


Purified by fraction . . . 


99*03 


99-00 


99-41 


Commercial acetone 






96-23 


96-00 


9663 










98-00 


97-83 


97-93 










94 "30 


94-00 


94-46 










94-80 


94-70 


94-81 










97-12 


96-23 


96-42 










94-93 


94-80 


94-39 










96-b8 


96-56 


96-79 










97-32 


97-28 


97*45 










90-74 


89-03 


90-51 










98-82 


96-11 


9862 










92-32 


92-20 


92-94 


Wood alcohol 






14-61 


14-49 


14-78 


1 ( ( ( 






ii-8i 


11-73 


12-00 


Crude wood alcohol 






11-23 


1 1 00 


11-42 



The above table clearly shows that the results obtained by Dr. 
Squibb's process are a trifle too low, notwithstanding the fact that 
its basis of calculation gives it some advantage. The method is 
represented to yield satisfactory results for ordinary work, and that 
it certainly does. The difficulty with this method lies in the end 
reaction. According to some experiments made by the writer, it is 
necessary to have present a larger excess of the active agent, to 
bring about the completed reaction, than the end reaction allows. 

The iodoform reaction with ethyl alcohol is an endothermic one, 
consequently its presence does not interfere with the estimation of 
acetone, which does not require the presence of external heat to 
bring about the reaction. The same holds true for all other groups 
of endothermic reaction. 



^Feb',?."/r,^?S^"} Terpin Hydrate. 73 

LITERATURE NOT IN THE BODY OF THK ARTICLE. 

1888, E. Hintz, " Zur quantitativen Bestimniung von Aceton in Methyl- 
alcohol, Holzgeist und Aceton," Ztschr. anal. Cfion., -ii. 182. 

1890, Fr. Collischonn, " Ueber die gebrauchlichen Methoden zur quantita- 
tiven Bestimniung des Acetous," Ztschr. anal. Chem., 29,562. 

1890, H. Huburt, "Zur quantitativen Bestimniung des Acetons im Harn," 
Ztschr. anal. Chem., 29, 632, from Neubauer und Vogel ; " Anleitung zur 
Analyse des Harns," 9 Auf., 471. 

1890, L. Vignon, " Dosage de I'ac^tone dans I'alcool m^thylique et dans les 
methylenes de ddnaturation," Comp. rend., 110, 534. 

1890, G. Arachequesne, " Dosage de I'acdtone par I'iodoforme," Comp. rend., 
110, 642 ; Ztschr. anal. Chem., 27, 695. 

1894, N. Savelieff, " Ueber das Vorkommen von Aceton ira Mageninhalt bei 
Erkrankung en des Magens ;" Berliner klin. Wochenschrift, No. 33 ; und 
Malys Jdhresberichte iiber die Fortschrittc der Thierchemie, 24, 352; 1896, 
Ztschr. anal. Chem., 35, 507. 

1896, Chr. Geelmnyden, '* Ueber die Messinger'sche Methode zur Bestimmung 
des Acetons," Ztschr. anal. Chem., 35, 503. 

1896, M. Klar, " Zur Bestimniung des Acetons in Denaturirungs-Holzgeist 
und Rohaceton," Die chetn. Ind., 19, 73 ; Ztschr. anal. Chem., 37, 595. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pa, 



TERPIN HYDRATE. 
By Edward T. Hahn. 



In 1840, A. Wiggers contributed an article to the Annaicn der 
Chemic, 33, 358, on the crystalline substance from turpentine oil, to 
which, however, he applied the name turpentine camphor. He em- 
ployed a mixture of nitric acid, alcohol and turpentine oil, and in 
1846^ i^Annalen der Chemie, 57, 247) reported a formula for making 
the substance on a large scale, stating that it could only be obtained 
from that variety of turpentine which yielded a crystalline com- 
pound with hydrochloric acid. 

The method suggested by Wiggers was tried with commercial 
oil of turpentine, but it failed to produce any crystalline compound. 
Knowing that the oil of turpentine found on the market at the pre- 
sent time is occasionally adulterated with some of the heavier 
petroleum oils, a quantity of the commercial oil was procured and 
distilled with lime and water. An oil having a sf)ecific gravity of 



• Am. JoiR. Pharm., i». 286. 



T' J.:. U..^^^/^ / Am. Jour. Pharm. 

74 lerpin nyarale. | February, 1897. 

0-856, and a boiling point of from 154° to 157° C, was obtained, 
and this product was used in all my experiments. 

The first method tried was one suggested by Carl Hempel {An- 
nalen der Chemie, 153, 71), using the following quantities: 

(i) Oil of turpentine 120 c.c. 

(2) Alcohol (sp. gr., o-8i6) 30 " 

(3) Nitric acid (sp. gr., 1-35) 30 " 

These liquids were mixed in a flask in the order indicated by the 
numbers, and allowed to stand three days, shaking occasionally. 
The mixture separated into two layers, the lower one becoming 
quite dark in color. On the third day it was poured into a flat dish 
and 15 c.c. of alcohol added, and allowed to stand in a room having 
a temperature of about 18° C. 

Crystals began to form within five days, and at the end of two 
weeks they had separated from the mother liquor. About 13 
grammes of crystals were thus obtained. This product was puri- 
fied by recrystallization in a solution of boiling alcohol, and yielded 
8 grammes of terpin hydrate, which was found to answer all the 
U.S.P. requirements. 

The mother liquor was allowed to stand for a short time, and 
another crop of crystals was obtained ; but these, when tested with 
sulphuric acid, did not give the characteristic deep orange color, 
but a light, pinkish one, which quickly faded. 

The next method tried was one suggested by Wm. A. Tilden 
{Jour. Client. Soc. Lond., 33, 247), the following being the propor- 
tions of liquids used : 

Oil of turpentine 60 c.c. 

Alcohol 30 " 

Nitric acid (sp. gr., 1-40) 60 " 

In this method and all others suggested by Tilden, nitric acid 
having the specific gravity of 1-40 was employed, but the writer's 
experience with acid of this strength was that a thick resinous-like 
mass was obtained, which showed no signs of crystallization. 

A method was also given by F. Flawitzky {Jour. Chem. Soc. Lond., 
38, 264), in which he used sulphuric instead of nitric acid, and 
obtained a compound having the formula CioH^gO. 

As ethyl alcohol commands a comparatively high price at the 
present time, methyl alcohol was substituted for it, and the follow- 
ing formula was found to be very satisfactory : 



''fd^ln''%"'} Terpin Hydrate. 75 

(i) Oil of turpentine 120 c.c. 

(2) Methyl alcohol (sp. gr., o-8oi) 30 ** 

(3) Nitric acid (sp. gr., 1-35) 30 '• 

These liquids were mixed in the order indicated and allowed to 
stand in a flask three days and then poured into a flat dish. Taking 
advantage of the very slight solubility of terpin hydrate in water, 
30 c.c. of this liquid were added to the mixture, with the result that 
the crystals separated in a much shorter time than they did with 
the methods previously employed. No additional crystals were 
formed dn allowing the mixture to stand several days. The weight 
of the crystals obtained was 7-32 grammes, and these, on purifying 
from hot solution of methyl alcohol, yielded 32 grammes of terpin 
hydrate, which answered to all the tests for the U.S.P. compound. 

By further evaporation an additional quantity of crystals may 
be obtained. 

The crystals obtained by the use of methyl alcohol had a closer 
resemblance to the article which is found in the market, and also a 
more aromatic odor than those obtained by the employment of 
ethyl alcohol. 

Amyl alcohol likewise may be used in making terpin hydrate. 

An explosion occurred a few years ago {Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. y 
1887) in a Parisian laboratory during the manufacture of terpin 
hydrate. The following proportions of liquids were employed : 

Oil of turpentine 72 L. 

Alcohol 50 " 

Nitric acid 17 Kg. 

The mixture was usually cooled in stone jars set in water, but as 
these were all in use at the time, a part of the mixture was poured 
into a wooden cask, to cool off, and as the wood did not conduct 
the heat away rapidly enough, a violent explosion took place, doing 
much damage. 



Indian podophyllum, according to W. R. Dunstan {Imp. Inst. Jour., Decem- 
ber, 1896), is derived from Podophyllum emodi, and contains two to three 
times as much resin as the American podophyllum from P. peltatnm. Dr. 
Mackenzie finds that the two resins 1 Indian and American 1 are idcMitical in 
their medicinal effects, and that there is no reason why the resin obtained 
from the Indian drug should not be substituted for the American resin. 



76 



Solanuni Carolinense. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1897. 



SOLANUM CAROLINENSE. 

By Chari^ton G. Johnson, Ph.G. 

(Abstract from Thesis.) 

Since its introduction to the medical profession by Dr. J. L. 

Napier, in 1889, several contributions to the chemistry of Solanum 




/-Vir. / represents a portion of a branch of Solanum Carolinense. It shows 
the spiny stem, bearing the rather irregularly shaped leaves, with the small 
axillary leaves and the racemose flowers. 

Carolinense have appeared in this Journal. In the meantime phar- 
macists have become better acquainted with the botany of this plant. 



Am. Joar. Pbarm. "» 
February, 1897. / 



Solatium Carolviense. 



77 



The microscopical characters, however, have not been so fully 
investigated. But, at the beginning of this article, the author 
wishes to call attention to a slight difference which was observed in 
the fruit (or berry, as it is called), obtained from two sections of the 
country. In the specimens obtained from the South, mainly 
Georgia and Florida, the calyx, though adherent, was recurved, 
while the berries gathered near Philadelphia had the calyx adhering 
to the fruit. 

A transverse section of the root {Fig. ^) shows it to have a con- 
centric structure caused by irregular, alternating zones of wood- 




Fif^. 2 shows a small portion of a branch bearing the fruit. Natural size. 
The berries frequently grow much larger. 

parenchyma and vascular tissues. The cork tissue replacing the epi- 
dermis is composed of about three layers of cells, with the rough 
fissured remains of older cork cells exterior. The cork meristem in 
the root, as well as in the stem, shows quite plainly. The paren- 
chyma cells of the cortex are larger in the middle bark than near 
the epidermis, becoming very much smaller and elongated longi- 
tudinally near the cambium zone, while in the outer and inner por- 
tions of the cortex they are, from mutual pressure, much distorted 
and elongated tangentially. The ducts of the xylcm are large and 



-8 



Solanum Carolinense. 



/Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
I February, 1897. 



numerous ; and seen in longitudinal-radial section {Fig- 5), they 
prove to be pitted, the pits showing an elliptical marking within a 
larger circular one. Spiral, annulate and reticulate ducts are also 




^m^ 



Fig. J is a drawing of the root of vSolanum Carolinense in the fresh state. It 
shows the natural size of the root when about two years old. 



I)resent. The libriform cells show markings from the pressure of 
adjacent cells, and are usually forked at one end. In the portions of 
the wood studied no collenchyma was found and bast-fibres were 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February. 1887. 



Solatium Carolinense. 



79 



also absent. The medullary rays are distinct and slightly undulate, 
the number of rows varying from two to five or six. 




^^£^- /. portion of a transverse section of a root of Solanum Carolinense, 
magnified 45 diameters. ./, rnptured cork tissue ; h and b', secretion cells 
containing calcium oxalate ; c, cambium zone ; d, medullary ray; r, one of the 
concentric layers of ducts, alternating with wood parenchyma. 

The underground stem {Fi^. 6) shows the pericyclc relatively 
thicker and the corte.x thinner than in the root. The cork tissue 



8o 



Solamim Carolinense. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
February, 1897. 



resembles that of the root, except that a part of the epidermis is 
present. Collenchyma is found in the younger parts of the stem, 
though absent from the older portions. No bast-fibres were found. 




A 



/S. 



^'. 






aa^ 




t. 



Fig. 5, longitudinal-radial section, made from a young root of Solanum 
Carolinense having a thick cortex, magnified 35 diameters. A, cork tissue; 
b, b\ secretion cells of calcium oxalate ; c, the cambium, with the ducts of the 
xylem on one side and the phloem tissue on the other. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
February, 1897. 



Solatium Carolinetise. 



8i 



The cortex is mainly composed of parenchyma tissue ; the cells 
are round, but otherwise correspond to the same tissue in the root. 
The woody tissue is rather irregular in width, and beside the phloem 
tissue on its exterior, there is a distinct inner phloem, which, though 
narrower in some places than in others, is distinctly discernible. 
The pith is composed of large parenchyma cells. 




Fig. 6, transverse section of underjjround stem of Solanum Carolincnsc 
(from a portion just at or beneath the ground), magnified 56 diameters. A, 
epidermis ; d, cork cells ; r, c/, secretion cells of the cortex ; d, cambium ; ^, 
xylem ; p, secondary or inner phloem, l>eneath which arc the soft, parenchy- 
matous cells of the pith. 

The petiole, as seen in transverse section in Fi^. 7, shows three 
bi-coUateral bundles. Heneath the epidermal tissue are several rows 
of collenchyma cells, and next to these are the parenchyma cells 
surrounding the vasal bundles. Two large secretion reservoirs are 
found, one on each side, near the upper surface. Some starch is 
present in the parenchymatous cells of the stem, principally in the 




f^i]^- 7. transverse section of a younger portion of a petiole of Solanum Caro- 
linense. Magnification, 65 diameters, a, epidermis ; b, collenchyma tissue ; 
c, c\ large secretion reservoirs ; d, d\ upper and lower phloem tissues, respec 
tively ; r, xylem ; /, meristem, found only on the lower side ; g, stellate hair. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 18y7. 



Soianum Carolinense. 



83 



cortex, but it is more especially found in the cortical tissue of the 
root, chiefly near the pericycle. In some of the specimens exam- 
ined, the whole of the cortex seemed filled with starch granules, 
while others failed to show its presence so profusely. The grains 




Fig. S, starch grains found in the root of Soianum Carolinense*; magnified 
about 40f) diameters. 

show distinct stratification lines. In shap>e some were oblong, some 
ellipsoidal and others in clusters of two, three or four, the oval or 
oblong-ovate being, however, the most common form. The hilum 
is distinct, eccentric, and usually presents a fissured appearance. 



84 Solannm Carolinense. {^Y^J>r^Iiy^m^' 

Some of the grains were bi-nucleated and others possessed a pecu- 
liar, contorted shape. The starch grains resemble somewhat in 
shape those of another plant of the same genus, Solanum tuberosum, 
the potato. Scattered irregularly through the cortex of the root, 
and less profusely in the stem, are secretion cells containing a pecu- 
liar, mucilaginous-like matter. On treating these cells with potas- 
sium hydrate test solution they were rendered clear, and their con- 
tents now shown to be a white, granular or crystalline substance. 
This substance, by dissolving in warm hydrochloric acid, without 
-effervescence, proved to be calcium oxalate. The tests for tannin 
failed to show its presence. On testing for resins and oils, with 
alcannin solution, small quantities of these substances were found 
in some of the starch-bearing cells and also in some of the lignified 
tissues. 

In conclusion, the author wishes to express his thanks to Messrs. 
Parke, Davis & Co. for specimens kindly furnished, and to Dr. M. 
V. Ball for his valuable assistance in the microscopical work. 



SOLANUM CAROLINENSE. 

By M. C1.AYT0N Thrush, Ph.G. 
(Abstract from Thesis.) 

The author found the fruit to contain the largest amount of alka- 
loidal constituents ; consequently, it is the most active therapeuti- 
cally. The leaves came next in strength, then the root, and finally 
the stem, which is the least active. 

In order to study the drug microscopically, sections were cut by 
means of the microtome from specimens of the plant which had 
been preserved in strong alcohol. They were then placed in Labar- 
raque's solution until properly bleached, except those intended for 
the tests for tannin and oleoresin. They were then treated as fol- 
lows : For double staining some of the sections were treated with 
iodine green, then washed to separate excess, then passed through 
dilute, strong and finally absolute alcohol, to anhydrate them. 
They were then treated with eosin, oil of cloves, and from that 
through pure oil of cloves, and mounted in xylol balsam. The 
others, after being treated with the reagent, were washed to sep- 
arate excess, anhydrated by absolute alcohol and mounted in xylol 



Am. Joar. Pbarm. 
February, 1897. 



Solan Jim Carolinensc. 



85 



balsam. The sections which were tested for tannin and oleoresin 
were treated direct with ferric chloride in absolute alcohol and 
alcannin, respectively, then mounted in xylol balsam. These latter 
tests were confirmed by treating dry sections with ammonio- 




FiK' '• un<lerground portion of the plant, one-half natural size. 

ferric alum. By treatinpj dry sections of the younp^ root for 
tannin with ferric chloride in absolute alcohol, tannin precipitates 
were produced in the central parenchyma and the cortical 
parenchyma. In the old root tannin precipitates were produced in 



S6 Solanum Carolinense. V^Y^iv^lryMT^' 

a great number of the cells of the cortical parenchyma, also in a 
itw cells of the phloem tissue and the medullary rays. In the 
mature stem, indications of tannin were obtained in abundance, in 
the pith parenchyma, medullary rays, cambium zone, phloem, corti- 
cal parenchyma and suberous tissue. In the leaf indications were 
produced in all of the different tissues. In the fruit tannin indica- 
tions were obtained in the cells of the section irregularly scattered. 
The tannin was estimated by the *' hide powder method," and 
found to be 3-10 per cent, in the leaves; 2-27 per cent, in the root ; 




Fig. 2, transverse section of rootlet of Solanum Carolinense, magnified 75 
diameters. A, epidermis ; b, collenchyma tissue ; c, cortical parenchyma ; d, 
endodermis ; e, phloem tissue ; / cambium zone ; g, duct of xylem ; h, xylem 
tissue, consisting of wood cells and ducts. 

806 per cent, in the fruit ; 5-06 per cent, in the stem— all calculated 
for absolutely dry material. 

Fig. I represents the underground portion of the plant. 

/e^^/._Phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid stain the xylem tissue, 
which is strongly lignified, a bright red. In the young undeveloped 
root central parenchyma exists, but as the root becomes older the 
xylem of the radial bundle extends to the centre with the develop, 
ment of rings of growth, medullary rays and a cambium zone, and 



Am. Jour. Pbarm 
February, 1897 



^•} 



Solanuin Carolineiise. 



87 



has a similar appearance to the structure of a dicotyl stem. Zinc 
chloriodide iodine shows an abundance of starch in the cells of the 
medullary rays, phloem, collenchyma and cortical parenchyma. 
Chloral hydrate iodine gives the same indications. The epidermis 
of the mature root consists of several rows of suberous tissue, 
which exfoliates at the surface ; beneath this is a circle consisting of 




Fig. J, longitudinal section of younj;^ root of Solanuni CaroHnense, magni- 
fied 75 diameters. A, epidermis, not yet displaced by cork cells forming 
beneath ; c, cortical parenchyma ; d, phloem tissue ; ^, cambium zone ; /, xy- 
lem tissue, consisting of wood cells and ducts ; g, central parenchyma, not 
yet develof>ed into xylem tissue ; h, duct of xylcm. 

several rows of collenchyma tissue ; interior to this a layer of cortical 
parenchyma, consisting of several tiers of cells, then the phloem tis- 
sue and finally the xylem, which extends to the centre and is sepa- 
rated from the phloem by the cambium zone. The different rays 
are separated by the medullary rays. 




Fig. 4, transverse section of the mid-rib of a leaf of Solanum Carolinense, 
with one of the prickles, which is shown in longitudinal section, attached ; 
magnification, 150 diameters. A, epidermal cells ; b, parenchyma of upper 
portion of mid-rib ; c, a portion of the lamina of the leaf; d, xylem tissue of 
mid-rib ; c, cambium zone ; /, phloem tissue of mid-rib ; g, parenchyma of 
lower portion of mid-rib ; h, collenchyma tissue ; i, slightly lignified tissue of 
the prickle, which occurred on the mid-rib and was cut through longitudinally; 
k, epidermal tissue, more lignified. 



Am. Jonr. Pbarm. ) 
February. Ift97. j 



Solatiion Carolinense. 



89 



Steyn. — Zinc chloriodide iodine shows starch in the central paren- 
chyma, in the cells of the medullary rays, in the cortical paren- 
chyma, and in the cambium zone. Chloral hydrate iodine gives the 
same results, as does also potassium iodide iodine, but much more 
prominently, especially in the central parenchyma tissue, which 
contains an abundance of the substance. Phloroglucin and hydro- 
chloric acid stain the xylem tissue, which is strongly lignified, a 




Fig. 5, portion of transverse section of fruit of Solanum Carolinense, showinj^ 
the succulent tissues, magnified 200 diameters. A, epidermal tissue ; b and 
c, succulent tissues, farther interior ; d, parenchyma tissue, adjacent to the pla- 
centa. 

bright red. The stem possesses open collateral bundles, which are 
in wedge-shaped rays, and which are separated from one an other 
by medullary rays. In the mature stem the outer portion of the 
section consists of several rows of cork tissue, which are exfoliat- 
ing at the surface. In the mature stem indications of tannin are 
obtained in abundance in the pith parenchyma, medullary rays, 
cambium zone, phloem, cortical parenchyma and suberous tissue. 



Artificial whalebone is prepared from bones by removing fat, then irraim^ 
with hydrochloric acid to extract lime ; the cartilaginous residue is then 
steeped in concentrated chrome alum solution until saturated. It is then dried 
and cut into strips for use. 



90 North American Conifer a;. {'^Februaryfisg?"'* 

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOME 

NORTH AMERICAN CONIFER.©. 

By Edson S. Bastin and Henry Trimbi^K. 

{^Continued from Vol. 6S,page 648.) 

TSUGA CANADENSIS. 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 

Considering the enormous commercial importance of this tree 
and its products, it has received very little attention by the botanist 
or chemist. No investigations have been reported recently, except 
two on the volatile oil, so that the text-books at the present time 
give the results of observations made from twenty-five to fifty years 
ago. 

The Leaves. — The most important constituent of the leaves is the 
volatile oil. The preparation of this product was described by 
Stearns^ in a report to the American Pharmaceutical Association in 
1858. He had, from a practical distiller, the information that in 
Michigan, at least, the oils of hemlock and spruce (Picea nigra) were 
one and the same thing, and distilled from the boughs of Tsuga 
Canadensis, a statement which is probably true to-day. 

" The proceeding is as follows : The trees are cut down and 
the boughs collected only ; they are cut up fine and subjected to a 
distillation with water, in a portable copper still and worm, capable 
of holding about one hundred gallons, which is so arranged that it 
can be transported in the woods, and erected quickly upon a tem- 
porary arch ; two pails full of boughs (about 8 pounds) are 
calculated to yield I ounce of oil. The distilling is done only in 
winter, when the tree is richest in oil." 

Bertram and Walbaum,^ in 1894, examined oil of spruce, said to 
have been prepared from Abies Canadensis (Tsuga Canadensis), and 
found it to consist of laevogyrate pinene, laevogyrate bornyl acetate 
(36 per cent.) and a sesquiterpene. It had a specific gravity of 0-907 
at 15° C. Carl G. HunkeP considered it a question whether this 
sample was derived from Tsuga Canadensis, or from Picea nigra ; he, 
therefore, collected the leaves and twigs of Tsuga Canadensis him- 
self in the month of September, and submitted them, while fresh, to 
distillation with water vapor. The yield was small, of a yellowish 

' Report on the Medical Plants of Michigan, Am. Jour. Pharm. 1859, P- 28. 
"^Archil der Pharm., 231, 294. 
' Pharmaceutical Review^ 14, 34. 



''FebiSalryT?^"} Novth American Conifcm. 91 

color and it possessed the characteristic odor of hemlock. The 
specific gravity of the dried oil at 20^ C. was 09288, [«]u = — 
18399° ^t the same temperature. His conclusion was that this oil 
of hemlock was very similar in composition to that examined by 
Bertram and Walbaum, and also to the oil of black spruce, Picea 
nigra, previously examined by himself. 

Our own experiments on the leaves have been limited to an esti- 
mation of the tannin, resin and ash. For this work the leaves were 
collected in November, and, after a short exposure to dry air, were 
found to still contain 1280 per cent, of moisture. The ash esti- 
mated on absolutely dry substance was found to be 378 per cent., 
and tannin, similarly calculated, amounted to 1-48 per cent. The 
ash contained calcium and potassium sulphates, phosphates and 
traces of carbonates and chlorides. The leaves submitted to the 
action of absolute alcohol yielded 22-97 per cent, of their weight to 
that solvent. From the residual extract, after recovery of the alco- 
hol, petroleum ether removed 583 per cent, of the weight of the 
leaves, consisting of fat, volatile oil, wax, chlorophyll and resin. 
Water then removed from the residual alcohol extract 14/O per 
cent, of the weight of the leaves, which consisted of tannin, sugar 
and extractive, leaving 2-44 per cent, of resinous matter and chlo- 
rophyll. 

The Root Bark. — This portion of the hemlock was collected for 
examination on the first day of August, and yielded the following 
results : 

I'er Cent. 

Moisture 11*83 

Ash in dry bark 3 96 

Tannin in dry bark . 24*46 

This large amount of tannin was equivalent to 21-57 per cent, in 
the air-dry sample. 

Tkc Trunk. — The wood portion of the hemlock tree supplies the 
chief amount of the resin, which is found in commerce under the 
name of Canadian pitch. 

Probably the first pharmaceutical literature concerning this resin 
was by Charles Ellis,* in 1830, and the full title of the paper, as 

^ "Finns Canadensis, Willd.; Abies Canadensis, Mich. Sylv. A lar^ tree 
belonging lo the natural order Conifera.', Mon(i.*cia, Monodelphia of Linnaeus. 
Officinal Resin Pini Canadensis. Hemlock Resin. By Charles KUis." Jour- 
nal of the Philadelphia College of Phartnaey, Vol. 2, p. 18. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 



92 North American Conifer ce. { February. isT?' 

given in the foot-note, indicates that the tree and its products were 
not well known at that time. The paper opens by stating this tree 
is " known only in the United States by the name of hemlock 
spruce, and in Canada by the French is called perusse." That 
the resin had not been an article of commerce very long is indicated 
by the following : " The resin which exudes from it was first intro- 
duced into this City (Philadelphia) about twelve years since, and was 
obtained in this State (Pennsylvania) near Silver Lake, Susquehanna 
County. But its history even here has been but little known, and 
still less elsewhere." That the wood of the hemlock was not much 
esteemed is evidenced by the statement that "of all the great 
resinous trees of America, its wood is of least value." The pro« 
cess of collecting the resin at that time was different from that given 
by more recent writers. Then it was prepared by boiling the bark 
with water and skimming off the melted resin as it rose to the 
surface. The quantity yielded by a single tree with this process 
was said to be from 4 to 6 pounds. The product was more or less 
contaminated with pieces of bark and was submitted to a process 
of purification by melting and straining. 

A more recent report, by Stearns, in 1858, already referred to,^ 
gives the process of preparation as wholly from the wood, two 
methods for this purpose being employed, one by making cup-like 
incisions in the body of the living tree and allowing the resin to 
flow out, after the manner of collecting turpentine ; the other, by 
chopping out the knots in the wood, which are rich in resin, and 
boiling them with water. The latter method is not considered as 
good as the former, as the boiling with water deprives the resin 
of most of its volatile oil, which is present in the resin obtained by 
exudation. 

Canada pitch is considered to be equal, if not superior, to Bur- 
gundy pitch in the manufacture of plasters ; but both have given 
way, in the modern methods, to caoutchouc and asphalt, chiefly 
the latter. 

Very little is known of the chemistry of Canada pitch ; the vola- 
tile oil contained in it is probably similar to that obtained from the 
leaves, and just described ; but the resin or resins, which constitute 
a large proportion of it, have not been studied. 

The bark of the trunk is, from both chemical and industrial 
standpoints, of great importance; nevertheless, there does not ap- 



""Febi^a'iV^?^'"} North American Cofiifem. 93 

pear to have been published anything concerning its composition. 
It is evident that it contains resin, volatile oil and tannin, and a 
closer examination will show the presence of a considerable amount 
of red coloritig, as has already been shown in the description of 
microscopical structure. 

The following results were obtained by us on a sample of bark 
collected in June, 1896, in eastern Tennessee. The sample was 
taken from the trunk of a large tree, near the ground, and repre- 
sents an average sample of the hemlock bark used in that district 
by tanners. The whole bark was taken; that is, it had not been 
" rossed." After having been finely powdered, 50 grammes were 
submitted successively to the following solvents, moisture and ash 
being added in the proportions they were found to exist in the air- 
dry drug : 

Per Cent. 
Petroleum ether dissolved 070 



Ether 

Absolute alcohol 

Water 

Alkaline water 

Acid 

Boiling 



350 

1574 

392 

75' 

o-8i 

147 

Ash in air-dry bark i 42 

Moisture in air-dry bark 673 

Residue and undetermined 5820 



loooo 

The petroleum ether extract consisted of 0036 per cent, volatile 
oil, 0564 per cent, of fat melting at 50*^, and o 10 per cent, of wax 
melting at 65°. 

The ethereal extract consisted chiefly of resin and red coloring 
matter, with a small amount of tannin. 

The alcohol extract contained 7-90 per cent, of resin and decom- 
posed tannin, known as hemlock red, the balance being pure tannin, 
soluble in water. 

The water extract contained neither mucilage, sugar nor tannin, 
and only a small amount of coloring matter ; its composition was not 
further studied. 

The alkali extract contained 229 per cent, of albuminoids, and the 
hot water extract consisted almost entirely of starch. 

The ash was found to be composed of magnesium in greatest 
abundance, aluminum, calcium, manganese, potassium and traces of 
phosphoric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. 



94 



North American Coniferce. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t February, 1897. 



It will be seen from this analysis of the bark that the important 
constituents are tannin, resin and hemlock red; all of these con- 
stituents vary with the season of the year. Hemlock red may be 
an intermediate product between the resins and the tannin ; its pro- 
portion in the bark is very variable. 

HEMLOCK TANNIN. 

The tannin of hemlock bark has received so little attention at 
the hands of investigators, and is of so much importance industrially, 
that it is considered worthy of especial notice here. 

Occurrence. — The few results that have been published concern- 
ing the amount of tannin in hemlock bark are widely at variance 
with one another. Procter^ says it contains nearly 14 per cent.; he 
probably quoted Mulligan and Dowling,^ who, m 1859, found 13*9 
per cent. Mafat,'^ 1892, gives 8 to 10 per cent, as the average 
amount. The following results will show that there may be a great 
variation in the proportion present, according to the season of the 
year and other circumstances: 

PERCENTAGES OF MOISTURE, ASH AND TANNIN IN THE BARK OF TSUGA CANADENSIS. 



Date of 
Collection. 



Moisture. 



May 12, 1895 . . . 20'o6 

June 30, 1895 . . . 15-54 

August I, 18951 . . 1000 

October 27, 1895 . irgo 

November 28, 1895 14-01 

January 17, 1897 . 13-45 

May, 1896 .... 10-73 

June, 1896 .... 1043 

July, 1896 .... 10-98 



Ash in 
Absolutely 
Dry Bark. 


Tannin in 
Absolutely 
Drj^ Bark. 


I "46 


8-22 


3 '03 


9-82 


2-51 


1477 


1-21 


15-12 


I '43 


I5*45 


1-58 


13'05 


1-56 


io-6o 


I "40 


14-96 


1-29 


11 "34 



Remarks. 



Small tree. 

Taken from a branch. 

Small tree. Bark from trunk. 

(( K l( tl (( 

Medium" " " " 

<( i< 11 (< i< 

I^arge " '• " " 



Near Philadelphia. 



Tennessee. 



1 This sample was taken from the same tree that yielded the root bark, the composition of which ha 
been given on a previous page of this article. 

Hemlock bark is usually collected during the months of May, 
June and July, and the three samples in the foregoing table which 

' Text-Book of Ta^ming, p. 31. 
2 Chemical Gazette, 17, 430. 

^Bulletin de la Socicte industrielle de Mulhouse, 63, 130. Am. Jour. 
Pharm., 64,531. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Februarj'. 1897. 



North American Conifer ce. 



95 



were collected in 1896 were taken from similar trees for the especial 
purpose of determining their relative tannin value. 

Preparation. — For the purpose of investigating its composition 
and properties, a considerable quantity of the tannin was prepared 
by extracting hemlock bark with acetone. The solvent was recovered 
by distillation and the syrupy residue was poured into several times 
its bulk of water; the insoluble resin and anhydrides were separated 
by agitation with paper pulp and filtration. The clear aqueous liquid 
was saturated with sodium chloride and shaken with acetic ether, 
which removed the tannin,' the solvent in this case being removed 
by distillation under reduced pressure. The residue was redissolved 
in water, salt added and the tannin again removed by acetic ether, 
and the operation repeated until a tannin resulted which formed 
a clear solution with water. It was then treated with absolute 
ether, in which it was insoluble, and, after removal of the ether, 
dried. 

Properties and Composition. — The product was a reddish porous 
powder, completely and readily soluble in water and in alcohol. A 
I per cent, solution gave the following reactions: 



Reagent. 



Ferric chloride 

and 

Ammonium 
hydrate. 

Ammonio-ferric 
sulphate. 

Calcium hydrate. 
Bromine water. 



Hemlock Tannin. 



Brownish -green 
color and ppt. 

Purple color 
and ppt. 

Brownish-green 
color and ppt. 

Pinkish ppt., 
turning red. 

Yellow ppt. 



Chestnut Oak 
Tannin. 



Gallotannic Acid. 



Green color 
and ppt. 

Purple ppt. 



Green color 
and ppt. 

Precipitate 
turning pink. 

Yellow ppt. 



Blue color 
and ppt. 

Purple ppt. 



Blue color 
and ppt. 

Precipitate 
turning blue. 

No ppt. 



A Study of the decomposition products of hemlock tannin was 
made in the usual way. The product resulting from the action of 
heat on a solution of the tannin in glycerin was identified as 

' It has since been found that methyl acetate with salt answers the purpose 
of an immiscible solvent, for the removal of tannin, equally as well as ethyl 
acetate, and is much cheaper. 



96 North American Conifer ce. {^F^bSyT^s"!"' 

catechol. Boiling hydrochloric acid containing 2 per cent, of HCl 
gas, resolved the tannin into an amorphous, reddish-brown, in- 
soluble phlobaphene and soluble protocatechuic acid. The phlo- 
baphene was of the same character as that obtained from the 
tannins of several oak barks. When heated with fused potassium 
hydrate the tannin yielded protocatechuic acid. Although the 
above reactions and decomposition products indicated a great 
similarity between the tannins of the barks of the hemlock and 
oaks, an ultimate analysis was made in order to further establish 
their relationship. The results which were obtained show that 
the tannins from these two sources are very closely related, if, 
indeed, not identical. For comparison, the figures which represent 
the composition of chestnut oak bark tannin, gallotannic acid and 
the average composition of the tannins from nine species of oak 
bark are given : 

Average on 
Chestnut Oak Tannins from Nine Gallotannic 
Hemlock Tannin. Tannin. Species of Oaks. Acid. 

Carbon 60*09 59'69 5979 52 "17 

Hydrogen 5*18 5"o6 5*08 3*10 

Oxygen 3473 35*25 35-13 4473 

IGO'OO IQG'GG lOO'OO lOO'OO 

The several tannins used in the combustions were dried at 120° C. 

The conclusion from this study of the properties and composition 
of hemlock tannin is that it is identical with the other tannins 
of this natural order, which have thus far been studied by us, as 
well as with the tannin of oak bark, and a number of others from a 
variety of sources. 

The only other investigation of hemlock tannin on record was 
made by Boettinger\ in 1884, who, by precipitating a commercial 
extract of hemlock bark with bromine, and estimating the halogen in 
the product, deduced the formula Z^^^fixf)^^ from which he con- 
cluded that the tannin had a composition expressed by the formula 
^zo^igOio- Such a formula would require the following percentage 
composition : 

C . . 



• • • 57*41 

^ 4-31 

O 38-28 

100 GO 

' Berichtcder deut. chem. Gesell., 17, 1041 and 11 23. 



^Febmary^iS"''} NortJi American Co ni fern. 97 

This is a considerable variation from our figures given for hemlock 
tannin and, in fact, from those of a larger number of other tannins, 
and it appears reasonable to attribute this difference to the fact that 
Boettinger operated on a commercial extract of hemlock. To those 
familiar with the manufacture of tanning extracts this would be a 
sufficient reason for allowing his results to await further research on 
the bark. Much assistance on the chemical investigation of this 
tannin was given by J. C. Peacock and VV. E. Ridenour, who also 
aided in the collection of the various samples used in the estimations. 

ECONOMICS. 

When Ellis wrote concerning this tree in 1830, the wood 
was considered of very little value, but the steady diminution 
of our forests has brought this wood to the front, and it is now one 
of the most important lumber trees in northeastern United States. 
The hemlock trunks also found use before iron became so cheap, in 
conveying water. A case was reported in 1862^ where pipes of this 
wood had been in service thirty-two years, and where the earth was 
moist they had not decayed. The resin has had extensive use in 
the manufacture of plasters, and is still employed for that purpose. 
The volatile oil from the branches is used as a flavoring and for dis- 
infecting purposes. The bark is used to an enormous extent in the 
manufacture of heavy leather. In recent years, many tanneries have 
been built in the hemlock districts, so as to be near the supply of 
bark. For the finer grades of leather the hemlock bark is mixed 
with that of the oak, in order to avoid the reddish color produced 
by the former. 

An extract of the bark is employed by tanners in place of the 
bark, or to strengthen their bark liquors, and in a variety of 
other ways, notably by dyers, in conjunction with logwood coloring, 
to modify the shades of the latter, especially when copper sulphate 
is used as the mordant. Large quantities of hemlock extract go to 
the European markets, where it finds ready sale. All parts of the 
tree are used except the root, and from what we have seen of its 
contents of tannin we may look forward to the day when it, too, 
will not be allowed to go to waste. 

( To be continued.) 



* Am. Jour. Pharm., 34. 377. 



98 Correspondence, {^^.i?^lr?^^^i^' 

CORRESPONDENCE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SOME 
GALENICALS FROM FLUID EXTRACTS. 

By Edward R. Souibb, Charles Rice and John Uri IvLoyd. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., January 8, 1897. 

Mr. L. F. Kebler, Philadelphia. 

Dear Sir: — Your favor of yesterday is received. I am not in a 
condition to enter upon this discussion, but must confine myself to 
my chief argument against the general practice of making tinctures 
from fluid extracts ; and this single argument has been sufficient to 
control my practice ever since fluid extracts were introduced. 

The objection to the practice is that it is not authorized by the 
U.S.P., and that, therefore, such tinctures are not officinal, but are 
substituted for the officinal tinctures. 

To make them so is to break through our own authority, or law, 
as to how they should be made, and to substitute them for the 
U.S.?. tinctures is an immoral act of dangerous influence and ex- 
ample. 

The convenience of such a practice has been known to the suc- 
cessive Committees of Revision ever since fluid extracts were ad- 
mitted to the U.S. P., since the practice antedated the admission, 
and in some of the committees, at least, it was fully discussed and 
rejected by majority vote. A prominent reason for rejecting the 
practice was that it doubled the risks of quality in the tinctures so 
made, and pushed the responsibility for quality back from the dis- 
penser to some one behind. If a dispenser makes a tincture from a 
drug, he is bound to know, and does know, whether it be the offici- 
nal drug or not, and responsibility for the quality of the tincture is 
direct and, therefore, right and proper. If he makes his tincture 
from a fluid extract, according to the formula of the fluid-extract 
maker, he goes entirely behind his only legitimate authority, the 
U.S.P., both for material and process, and supposes he avoids the 
responsibility for quality. If he says : " I buy standardized fluid 
extracts because they are better than unassayed drugs," he brings 
the practice to depend on the standardization, which is still further 
back from the legitimate responsibility, for then, who standardizes 
the standardizer, and who authorizes his assay process ? 

When the Pharmacopoeia finds a set of assay processes simple 



""Fe'rZ'rri^oi^] CoTrespondcncc. 99 

enough to be trusted for general use, it will probably direct some 
such practice. It has not done so yet, and until it does it is but 
right, and it is the part of wisdom and safety, to conform to its 
authority and obey its commands. Why sacrifice the advantages 
of having an excellent Pharmacopoeia by trying to set up individual 
or popular authority against it. Change the law, if you will — but 
don't change the practice against the law. 

I have no objection whatever to your using what I have said in 
your approaching discussion of the subject on the 20th. Indeed, I 
would very much like to have this letter read in the discussion at 
the Pharmaceutical Meeting on January 20th, and published in the 
Minutes of the College Meeting, Very truly yours, 

E. R. Squibb. 

New York, January 9, 1897, 
Lyman F. Kcblcr^ Esq. 

My Dear Sir: — You ask me what my opinion is regarding the 
propriety of making tmctures and other liquid preparations from the 
corresponding fluid extracts, citing as an example the case of nux 
vomica, where the U.S.P. directs the tincture to be made from the 
assayed extract, and then raising the question why a tincture of 
aconite (35 per cent.) prepared from an assayed fluid extract should 
be less reliable than one made direct from the drug of unknown 
strength. 

In compliance with your request, I submit the following, which 
you are at liberty to use, as coming from me, in any way agreeable 
to you : 

When fluid extracts were first suggested and introduced, the prin- 
cipal claim made for them was that they represented the correspond- 
ing tinctures, wines, etc., in a more concentrated form and in a 
smaller bulk. No one claimed for them a different therapeutic 
action, except, of course, that a proportionately smaller quantity of 
them was required to produce the same effect as a corresponding 
dose of the respective tinctures. No authority in therapeutics to 
this day has maintained that tinctures and fluid extracts prepared 
from the same drug differed by more than the degree of effect, ex- 
cept, perhaps, in a few cases, and then for reasons well understood. 

Now, if a tincture or a fluid extract is properly made from the 
same, uniformly mixed and comminuted lot of a drug, either of them 



lOO Correspondence. { ^^^ebiuarV^'fsT- 

should and will contain all the desired active principles of the drug. 
If this is true, it follows logically and necessarily that if such a 
fluid extract be diluted by the proper menstruum to the strength of 
the corresponding tincture, the resulting dilution will be equal in 
therapeutic effect to the latter. But one reservation must be made 
here. The equality will be disturbed,if the liquid added as diluent 
to the fluid extract causes such a disturbance of the dissolved mat- 
ters that some of the latter, either at once or gradually, lose their 
solubility and become precipitated. That there are drugs behaving 
in such a manner cannot be denied, and it must, at the same time, be 
stated that, while the matters first thrown out of solution are proba- 
bly, m theynselves, always inert, yet they are apt to carry along with 
them some of the useful, active constituents, thereby causing the 
tincture made by dilution from the fluid extract to become weaker 
in therapeutic strength than that made originally as a tincture from 
the drug direct. Moreover, it is well known that when such pre- 
cipitation once begins, it is liable to progress for a long time, so that 
even filtration will not interrupt the process of deterioration. A 
notable example of this class of drugs is cinchona bark, particu- 
larly the red variety. 

If the statements thus far made are agreed to, it seems to me 
that we may formulate a few propositions regarding the subject, 
which will probably also be accepted, though there is likely to arise 
a difference of opinion as to whether it is practicable at all, or at 
least as to how far it is practicable to apply the propositions. It 
should be understood that in comparing any fluid extract and tinc- 
ture made from one and the same drug, they are assumed to have 
been prepared from known quantities of the drug of known strength, 
and, therefore, to be commensurate. The propositions which I wish 
to make are as follows : 

(i) If a fluid extract differs from a tincture only in the quantity 
of the solvent or menstruum, and if the dilution of the former to 
the strength of the tincture by the addition of more of the solvent 
throws nothing out of solution, the two tinctures must be alike in 
the quantity of active constituents, and, therefore, be alike in thera- 
peutic effect. 

(2) If the dilution of a fluid extract to the strength of the corre- 
sponding tincture by the addition of even the most favorable men- 
struum causes a precipitation, the two tinctures may still be re- 



^Febtuary!'?^"^} Correspondcftcc . lOI 

garded as alike in therapeutic effect, if the precipitate contains none 
of the useful medicinal constituents. 

These propositions are almost self-evident, and will probably not 
be gainsaid. But it is a well-known fact that, in many cases, the 
dilution of a fluid extract produces, sooner or later, more or less 
precipitation. And as it is not at all practicable to classify drugs 
into groups representing such as will or will not yield precipitablc 
fluid e.xtracts, though it is possible to mention some from which no 
precipitate is derived, it seems to me unwise to give a general en- 
dorsement to the practice of preparing tinctures from fluid extracts, 
at least at the present time, and in the present state of our knowl- 
edge. If the manufacturing houses could put on the market fluid 
extracts of full official strength, made with menstrua, the further 
addition of which would cause no precipitate, or at most only one 
known or guaranteed to be inert, the practice might be approved. 
But as this is not the case, nor likely to happen in the near future, 
no general license to make tinctures from fluid extracts should be 
given. On the other hand, if a pharmacist has the knowledge and 
ability to examine and assay his preparations, and is willing to as- 
sume full responsibility for the quality of the medicines he dispenses, 
he should have full liberty as to how he arrives at any preparation, 
say at a tincture, and it is then immaterial whether he prepares it 
from the fluid extract or the drug. I would, therefore, offer as a 
third proposition the following : 

(3) The practice of preparing tinctures from fluid extracts, in all 
cases where dilution causes obvious physical changes (such as pre- 
cipitation, gelatinization, etc.), is not to be recommended for general 
use, but may be adopted in cases of necessity or urgency, when a 
prescription calls for the tincture of a drug of which only the fluid 
extract is available or obtainable. 

Now as to the labels you sent me. To judge from exj>erience, I 
should say that no trouble will be encountered in preparing a tinct- 
ure from the fluid extracts of aconite and ipecac. But it is probable 
that some precipitate will form in the case of belladonna leaves and 
coca leaves, particularly as different persons are apt to use different 
menstrua, in spite of your direction. Still, we should not pay any 
attention to what may happen if your directions are disobeyed. If 
it can be shown that the i)rccipitate in these cases is free from alka- 
loids, there can be no objection raised against the method. 



r ^A^^V^^^^ f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

102 Lorresponaence. \ February. 1397. 

I have been more profuse than I intended ; but I do not regret it 
now, since it gave me a chance to discuss a subject which has often 
been brought to my notice. Very truly yours, 

Charles Rice. 

Cincinnati, O., January 9, 1897. 

My Dear Mr. Kebler : — Permit me to strongly urge you not to 
commit yourself without reserve to the tincture-from-fluid-extract 
method. In my opinion there is more than one side to the subject. 
In the case of preparations in which the therapeutical constituent or 
constituents of the drug are firmly established and known, and in 
which no question exists concerning the exact value of the fluid 
extract, there seems to me to be no question but that the tincture 
may be made by diluting the fluid extract ; this, of course, being in ' 
cases where the menstruum will not be considered at all as a thera- 
peutical part of the product. 

In such cases as nux vomica, where the therapeutical constituents 
are permanent, I will go further, and say that, owing to the difficulty 
of extraction, in my opinion, unless the tincture is assayed in order 
to establish its value, the method of preparation from an unexcep- 
tional fluid extract (standardized) is to be preferred to blind extrac- 
tions from a standardized drug. 

In some cases, however, as, for example, ipecac, I question if it 
has been demonstrated that a standardized fluid extract will retain 
its therapeutical value as fully as will the drug. Indeed, I am of 
the opinion that the advantage is decidedly with the drug. Hence, 
in such cases as this, which might be illustrated more markedly, 
perhaps, with other drugs, the element of time may play an import- 
ant part in the subject 

On the other hand, with drugs that deteriorate more rapidly than 
a bottled preparation made promptly from the drug when in its 
best condition, the preference must, in my opinion, rest with the 
fluid extract. Among these may be cited those substances con- 
taining volatile bodies that escape by age ; as, for example, penny- 
royal, peppermint, etc. (of course, the fluid must carry full amount 
of tannates, etc.), and included in this class must be such substances 
as disintegrate on exposure in drug form, as exemplified in Pulsa- 
tilla, arum, etc. 

Passing now to the great class of drugs in which nothing has been 



""rebrrr-ri^™} Correspondence, 103 

recorded as to the therapeutical constituents, and in which the men- 
struum employed in making the official tincture is different from 
that used in making the fluid extract, in my opinion the question is 
open yet, and I hardly venture to express a view for or against. 
Indeed, I would prefer to place these among emergency prepara- 
tions, in which, in cases demanding prompt action, the making of 
a tincture from the fluid extract is permitted, but in which the 
general stock should be made, as yet, from the drug. 

Among the preparations where tinctures may be made, I would 
include all these fluid extracts not official and of which no standard 
menstruum exists for making either the tincture or fluid extract. 
These the pharmacist should be permitted (expected) to mix from 
the respective fluid extract when he has a call for the tincture. 

Finally, in cases where the menstruum directed by the U.S. P. is 
decidedly different from that used in making the fluid extract, espe- 
cially in those cases where the tincture is given in large doses and 
in which the alcoholic strength of the tincture is very much less 
than that of the fluid extract, the question ot therapy extends beyond 
the drug question. If the fluid extract is mixed with the official 
menstruum, an unscientific product results ; if it be not mixed with the 
tincture menstruum, the superabundance of alcohol may prove objec- 
tionable. In these cases, until the U.S. P. is corrected and identical 
solvents used in making both tincture and fluid extract (which, in 
my opinion, should be accomplished, and with few exceptions can 
easily be done), the making of the tincture from the fluid extract 
should be avoided, unless an emergency case renders it absolutely 
necessary, which now and then will be the case. 

In my opinion this subject is one worthy of some study and con- 
sideration. I see no reason why manufacturers of fluid extracts 
should not give directions for making tinctures from fluid extracts; 
but, in my opinion, although such information is useful in emergency 
cases, and in certain cases to be preferred, I would not advocate 
the substitution of a line of tinctures made in this way without 
Pharmacopceial authority. I feel that the skill required in making 
these simplest of pharmaceutical preparations is not such as to pre- 
vent their preparation from the drugs, and I believe it is the duty of 
the Pharmacist to make them according to the PharmacopcL-ia, until 
the Pharmacopoeia gives him the privilege of selecting either 
method. This, I believe, in face of the fact that in my opinion ccr- 



r Am. Jour. Pharm. 



104 Ptire Spermaceti. { February, I897, 

tain tinctures can in a general way be made as reasonably (or even 
cheaper) from the fluid extract, and with greater uniformity than 
from the drug. Of course, you are at liberty to use this letter in 
your society if my personal opinion will be of service. Bear 
in mind that the subject is considered in a rambling way and super- 
ficially, but still it voices opinions gained by more than a little 
thought in this direction. Very sincerely yours, 

John Uri Lloyd. 

PURE SPERMACETI. 

By Lyman F. Kebi.e;r. 

About a year ago, the writer presented^ some data on the ques- 
tion of spermaceti. The conclusions arrived at then raised a ques- 
tion concerning the absolute purity of the material operated on. 
While it was impossible to state that the spermaceti was absolutely 
pure, yet there was every reason to think that such was the case. 
In order to settle the question as completely as possible, specimens 
of spermaceti were secured as close to the natural source as the 
nature of the case permitted. To bring this about most effectually, 
every person who was likely to be in a position to secure a sample 
of pure material was interviewed, either personally or through corre- 
spondence. The original producers were also requested to furnish 
samples that they were willing to guarantee absolutely pure. This 
they cheerfully did. 

By the above procedure, three specimens were received from the 
Pacific Coast, through the kindness of Prof. W. R. Searby, of San 
Francisco, Cal. Prof. E. L. Patch, kindly secured a sample himself 
at New Bedford, Mass. Profs. J. P. Remington and W. R. Scoville 
each obtained a sample from the same source, through friends closely 
connected with the spermaceti trade there. The writer himself 
secured five samples from the original producers, with guarantees of 
absolute purity. Dr. Chas. Rice also assisted in the way of sugges- 
tions. No. 12 was a specimen obtained by melting together several 
samples taken from a purchase of 2,000 pounds. These specimens, 
coming directly from the centres of supply of the United States, can 
reasonably be expected to be pure, at least purer material cannot be 
secured in this country. 

^ 1896, Am. Jour. Pharm., 68, 7. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1897, 



Pure Spermaceti. 



los 



Having accumulated the samples, they were carefully examined. 
Physically, they resembled one another very closely, and did not 
differ in any respect from the commercial material examined during 
the past three years. They were all tested in the same manner 
that those reported on last year were ; in addition, however, the 
specific gravity was taken in a liquid lighter than the spermaceti, by 
means of the sinker attached, and at the boiling point of water in a 
pycnometer. Two methods lor attaching the sinker were employed. 
In the first case, the sinker was simply tied to the spermaceti ; in 
the second case, the sinker covered the spermaceti so that only one 
surface was exposed to the liquid, thus reducing the question of 
attached air-bubbles to a minimum. This was done in the follow- 
ing manner : Porcelain crucible covers were carefully cleansed, dried 
and their weight taken. The melted spermaceti was poured into 
these covers, allowed to cool at the temperature of the working- 
room and the specific gravity taken at the end of two days with 
the spermaceti in situ. The congealing points were also observed. 
The results are as follows : 



1 


) 








\o 


? 


u 





J . 

^ 


^-6 



S 

es 




6 










cd 


°o 






•o 


'J 


= 










>» 




^3 


^b 


u 
3 

(A 


"p 


I 

be 

a 


u 
u 

s 


u 

CI 

a 

9 


2s; 
«2 


fit 


1- 

2o 




St 
0% 


* a 


a 


be 

a 


"5 


y. 




£^ 


£^ 


it 

a— 


U V 


^ s 


u 3 


1 


«< 
c 


be 
a 



1 


JO 


y 


•c . 


11 


u 


1-- 


s 


u 


-< 


W 


(A 


(A 




(A 


tfl 


(0 


KemiDKton . 


43*5° 


42° 


0-47 


13962 


08406 


0*8083 


0*8981 


0*8979 


08902 


0*9381 


Scoville . . . 


44V 


43° 


O'lO 


>25* 


0*8405 


0*8083 


0*8989 


08992 


08987 


09385 


Patch .... 


45° 


43° 


0-25 


124*8 


08404 


0-8083 


09042 


09009 


0*9036 


0*9401 


Scarby .... 


44° 


42-5° 


0'2I 


131*06 


0-8458' 


08124 


0*9066 


O9UO7 


0-8954 


0-9510 


Searby .... 


43° 


4X° 


om6 


136-31 


08432 


81C9 


0-8960 


019099 


0*8118 


0-9413 


Searby .... 


43-5° 


42° 


043 


129-91 


0*8452 


0*8160 


0*8969 




o*9uu9 


0-9420 


Kebler .... 


44° 


43° 


o\V> 


13030 


0*8412 


0*8089 


1 0*8960 

1 


0*8972 


0-8993 


0-9394 


Kebler .... 


43° 


42° 


035 


130*20 


0*8412 


0*8089 


0*8899 


08974 


08937 




Keblcr .... 


44° 


43° 


023 


I258I 


0*8410 


O.80&7 


' 0*8982 


0*8983 


0*8982 


0-9421 


Kebler .... 


46P 


44-5° 


019 


129'oa 


0*8412 


08089 


0-9079 


09079 


0-9013 


0*9410 


Kebler .... 


44 5° 


43° 


039 


12813 


08419 


08097 


1 
09103 


0*9018 


0-8992 


0*9500 


Commercial . 


44° 


43° 


009 


125*1 


0*8409 


0*8093 


0*8991 


0*8993 


0*9010 


0*9400 



io6 Pure Spermaceti. {"^Y^i^^liyM^^- 

The melting- points, acid numbers and ether numbers correspond 
very closely with those reported last year. The anomalous specific 
gravities are unique and require an explanation. The highest spe- 
cific gravities were obtained by the same method that was used to 
ascertain the specific gravities reported on in a previous paper, viz.: 
alcohol diluted to such an extent that the small pellets floated 
indifferently. This method, for convenience, will be called the sus- 
pensory method. 

In making the pellets for the suspensory method, the melted (on 
a water-bath) spermaceti was dropped on a moistened plate having 
a temperature of about 20° C. This was cool enough to chill the 
melted spermaceti quickly, so that the molecules were not given 
time to assume a crystalline form ; at least, the pellets were very 
slightly crystalline, if at all. 

For the other methods in which the solid material was employed, 
the melted spermaceti was poured into porcelain crucible covers and 
allowed to cool in a room at about 22° C. After cooling, the sper- 
maceti was removed from the covers. All material worked on was 
given at least two days' time to assume a normal state before the 
specific gravity was taken. These prepared forms were 30 mm. in 
diameter and about 6 mm. thick ; thicker in the centre, tapering 
towards the circumference. The manner of congealing allowed 
ample time for the spermaceti to assume crystalline forms. 

Normally, spermaceti is crystalline. From the fact that the pel- 
lets prepared for the suspensory method were non-crystalline, and 
of a higher specific gravity than the crystallized material, the writer 
is led to think that the specific gravity for normal spermaceti is not 
much above o 9000 and not much below 08900 at 15° C. The spe- 
cific gravity obtained by the suspensory method is probably abnor- 
mal, due to the non-crystalline character of the pellets. 

The writer, on referring td his memorandum, finds that the low 
specific gravities obtained by the suspensory method, reported in a 
former contribution (0905, 0-915. 0-920, etc.), were taken during the 
months of August and early September ; while the higher specific 
gravities (0935, 0939, etc.) were taken in November and Decem- 
ber. 

In the former case the elevated temperature was conducive to 
the formation of more highly crystalline pellets than in the latter 
case, when the temperature was considerably lower. The specific 



^Febrnary^?S^"} P^^rc Spcrmaceti. lOJ 

gravities embodied in the present paper were all taken during the 
cold weather of December, 1896. 

To throw further light on this point, further observations were 
made. The writer has in his possession a sample of crude sperm 
oil; on cooling, spermaceti crystallizes out and floats indifferently 
on the liquid at about 22° C; the specific gravity of this mixture at 
22° C is o 8846, which would approximate 08900 very closely at 1 5° 
C. Next, a sample of spermaceti, having a specific gravity of o 9385 
at 15° C. by the suspensory method, was dissolved with 20 per 
cent, of paraffin, having a specific gravity of 09132 at 15° C. by the 
same method. This mixture possessed a specific gravity of o 945 
by the same method. The same spermaceti, with an admixture 
of 33 per cent, of paraffin, had a specific gravity of 0-946 at 15° C. 
by the suspensory method. The experiments again indicate that 
the conclusion arrived at above is correct. 

In view of the possibility of obtaining such variable results for 
the specific gravity of solid spermaceti it is necessary to detail ex- 
actly the conditions under which the observations are made, or the 
results are worthless. 

The writer recommends that the specific gravity of this substance 
be taken at the boiling point of water. The results by this process 
are uniform and concordant. This is done as follows : Pour the 
melted spermaceti into the warmed pycnometer, insert the stopple 
and plunge the bottle immediately into boiling water, to such a 
depth that the neck of the bottle only projects. Keep the water 
boiling for one hour, remove the bottle, wipe well, cool and weigh. 

This gives the weight of a given volume of spermaceti at the 
temperature of boiling water. 

The conclusions arrived at in the previous article are fully sup- 
ported by the observations made in this communication, except the 
specific gravity of the solid material. To this constant a greater 
degree of variableness must be ascribed, depending entirely on the 
crystalline or non-crystalline condition of the spermaceti oper- 
ated on. 

Before closing the writer desires to kindly thank all who 
assisted him with this work. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



io8 Solninc— Pilocarpine Hydrochloride. { ^ February! 1^97°"' 

SOLNINE NOTE. 
By John Uri Lloyd. 
The American Journal of Pharmacy, April, 1894, contained a 
paper from my pen concerning the alkaloid of Solamnn Caroli- 
nense. To this alkaloid I ventured to affix the name Solnine, " in 
order to give it an existence in literature." I also stated that 
'• having never made a study of Solanine, I am not prepared to de- 
cide concerning the identity of Solnine and that substance. If Witt- 
stein's description of Solanine is correct, they are different." After- 
ward (September, 1895) ^ determination was accurately made of the 
melting point of crystallized solnine. This, together with the 
characteristics noted in the paper of April, 1895, may be said to 
fairly establish that Solnine is not the same as Solanine. 

Melting point of Solnine 127-2° C. 

Melting point of Solanine (as per current literature) . . . . 235-0° C. 

A fresh supply of Solnine is now in process, and then I hope to 

supply combustion figures. 



PILOCARPINE HYDROCHLORIDE.! 
By Dr. B. H. Paui^ and A. J. Cowni^ey. 

In the last issue of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of 
America an addition was made to the characters of this salt by giv- 
ing the melting point as 197° C, and an American journal has re- 
cently expressed the opinion that an observation of the melting 
point is the best means of ascertaining the purity of the salt met 
with in commerce. It might therefore be inferred that the hydro- 
chloride has in that respect an advantage over the nitrate, some 
samples of which we have shown differ considerably in the melting 
point. The question, however, is not so much as to the purity of 
any particular salt, but whether the alkaloid obtained from jabor- 
andi consists of more than one chemical individual. The results 
already described by us'-^ point to the probability that the salts met 
with in commerce under the name of pilocarpine nitrate do contain 
more than one base, and there is consequently some uncertainty as 
to which of those bases has the medicinal action peculiar to 
jaborandi. 

^ Pharmaceutical Journal, November 21, 1896. 

"^ Pharm. Jour., 1896, p. i. Am. Jour. Pharm., 1896, p. 445. 



'^Februa'ry^?^,™} Pilocarpine Hydrochloride. 109 

A similar want of homogeneity might be expected to obtain with 
the hydrochloride and other pilocarpine salts. 

In examining some samples of pilocarpine hydrochloride as to 
the melting point, we have found that this salt gives indications of 
being a mixture of more than one chemical compound. Taking 
the melting point in a Roth apparatus, we found that two different 
temperatures might be read as the melting point, one at which the 
substance in the capillar)' tube showed signs of partial liquefaction, 
and a higher point, at which the contents of the tube became en- 
tirely liquid. The results obtained with two samples of pilocarpine 
hydrochloride are given in the following table : 

Sample. Befjan to Run. Clear Liquid. 

A 1927° 1967° 

B 192-2° 1967° 

This behavior appears to point to the probable presence of two 
substances in both of the samples, judging from the partial melt- 
ing at the lower temperature, and the way the salt becomes a clear 
liquid at a point about 4° higher. 

For one of these samples of pilocarpine hydrochloride we are 
indebted to Messrs. Domeier, who were good enough to procure it 
specially from the makers, Messrs. C. F. Boehringer & Sons. At 
the same time they sent an account of the result of some pharma- 
cological examinations they have had made in consequence of the 
statement as to abnormal action of pilocarpine salts. ^ They have 
found that a salt of high melting does not differ in its action from the 
one of low melting point which can be separated by purification — 
presumably fractional recrystallization. In regard to the medicinal 
use of pilocarpine salts, this result would appear to show that the 
possible presence of two substances is, from that point of view, a 
matter of no account ; but, at the same time, it would do away 
with the value of the melting-point test as a criterion of the quali- 
ties of pilocarpine salts. 

In reference to the abnormal action of pilocarpine salts analogous 
to that of atropine, Messrs. Boehringer suggest that it may prob- 
ably be due to the presence of jaborine ; but as the existence of 
that base is somewhat questionable, such a mode of explanation 
would require to be supported by more definite proof than is at 
present available. 

' Ibid. , p. 2. 



Am. Jour Pharm. 



no Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^FebSiary! 



1897. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

NOTES ON THE TREES YIELDING MYRRH. 

E. M. Holmes read an interesting paper on this subject at 
an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, of Great 
Britain (Pharmaceutical Journal, December 12, 1896), in which he 
detailed his own investigations and at the same time incorporated 
some literature on this subject, which appeared in the Kew Bulletin 
for March and April, 1896. 

Myrrh is imported into England chiefly from Aden, to which port 
it is sent from Arabia and Abyssinia. Some comes from Bombay, 
and is known in the London market as '' red Zanzibar " myrrh. 
Writers on materia medica distinguish four varieties : Somali myrrh ; 
Arabian myrrh, of Hanbury ; Arabian myrrh, of Dymock, or 
Meetiya, and Yemen myrrh. There are also three others men- 
tioned in Pharmacographia Indica, I, p. 307, as occurring in the 
Bombay market : Persian myrrh, sent principally from Mekran, 
Chinese myrrh and Siam myrrh or Meetiya ; the same authority 
states that myrrh appears to have been shipped from China as early 
as A. D. 1340. 

Judging from the taste and odor of the four principal varieties of 
myrrh mentioned above, it might reasonably be supposed that they 
are the product of one species of Commiphora, or of varieties of 
the same species modified by conditions of soil, elevation and 
climate. 

Concerning the plant which yields Somali myrrh, we have no 
exact information, for there exists very little evidence connecting 
the gum resin with the trees supposed to yield, owing partly to the 
fact that collectors of plants are not usually well acquainted with 
the drugs of commerce. 

With respect to Arabian myrrh the case is different. About the 
year 1820, Ehrenberg collected specimens of a myrrh tree at Gezan, 
in South Arabia. These were referred to Balsamodendron myrrha, 
Nees. Subsequently, however, Berg showed that two species were 
mixed under this name, and he separated the second, which has 
obcordate leaflets, under the name of B. Ehrenbergiana, Berg. The 
first of these, Balsamodendron, or, as it is now called, Commiphora 
myrrha, has recently been stated by Schweinfurth to yield no resin 
at all, and the second has been identified as a variety of the Balm of 



'^Febr**uao^?«^' ; Literature Relating to Pharmacy, III 

Gilead tree, C. opobalsamum. Professor Schweinfurth has recently 
stated that Arabian myrrh is the product of Commiphora Abyssinica, 
Engl., and of C. schimperi [Berichte dcr Pliarin. Gcsellschaft, 1893, 
pp. 218 and 237), but the Director of Kevv Gardens, in a lengthy 
paper on the subject in the Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 91, in which he 
differs somewhat from the views of Professor Schweinfurth, expresses 
the opinion that Commiphora simplicifolia may be accepted as the 
source of Yemen myrrh, and that Fadhli myrrh be yielded by both 
C. myrrha and C. simplicifolia. 

Professor Schweinfurth supplied the herbarium of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society with specimens of C. Abyssinica, C. schimperi, C. 
simplicifolia, C. Africana and C. opobalsamum, and it occurred to Mr. 
Holmes that some light might be thrown on this difficult question 
by tasting the bark and fruits of these specimens, especially as true 
myrrh has a very bitter taste, and a peculiar aroma, hardly likely to 
be entirely absent in the plant itself. In none of these did Mr. 
Holmes detect the odor and taste of myrrh, and he says we are 
driven to the conclusion that Arabian myrrh is the produce of the 
plant named Balsamodendron myrrha, by Nees.and not of C. Abys- 
sinica, nor of C. simplicifolia, nor of C. schimperi. There are several 
acrid gum resins that occur mixed with myrrh as imported. The 
most abundant of these is opaque bdellium, which, as pointed out 
by R. H. Parker [Pharm. Jour. [3], il, p. 41), differs from hotai in 
its greater toughness, and in giving an intense greenish-black color 
with ferric chloride. These are, doubtless, yielded by other species 
of Commiphora. Thirty-five species of Commiphora are described 
in A. DeCandolle's MonographicB Phancrogajnarutn Proiiro)ni, Vol. 
4, pp. 9-^9. 

RELATION OF THE GROWTH OF FOLIAGE LEAVES AND THE CHLORO- 
PHYLL FUNCTION. 

The following conclusions have been reached by D. T. MacDougal 
{The Journal of the Linnean Society, 31, 526), after a practical study 
of a number of plants: 

(i) Material constructed in active chlorophyll areas and stored in 
special organs may be transported to inactive chlorophyll-bearing 
organs in some plants in light and in darkness, and be used in such 
manner as to allow of the perfect development of these organs. 

(2) The removal of concurrent members in darkness may have 



112 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {''^^i^^lrjAm^' 

no effect, may cause an exaggerated development of the petioles, or 
may result in the perfect development of the entire leaf. The 
nature of the regulatory mechanism in each instance must be 
entirely specific. 

(3) It is possible for some plants to form perfect leaves in dark- 
ness, some when a portion of the stem only is darkened, and others 
when the entire plant is etiolated. It is thus shown that no invari- 
able connection exists between the phototonic condition and leaf- 
development. 

(4) The conclusion of Jost, that pathological conditions ensue 
more quickly in inactive leaves in light than in darkness, is not 
capable of general application. The deterioration in certain plants 
appears as quickly in darkness as in others in light. 

(5) Placing a leaf under such conditions that it cannot construct 
food material, sets in motion the specific regulatory mechanism of 
the organism in such manner that the plastic material may be with- 
drawn and the organ cast off. An exaggerated development of the 
petioles may be induced in darkness by this mechanism. 

(6) It is to be noted that plants may not be entirely ? as to their 
reaction to an atmosphere devoid of COg upon the basis of species, 
since a given plant may be capable of developing inactive leaves at 
one stage of its development, and not at another. This is evident 
upon consideration of the fact that such capacity is entirely depend- 
ent upon the availability of the reserve food for this purpose. 

In addition to this summary, the article contains an interesting 
historical introduction and a short bibliography of the subject. 

ORANGE GROVES OF NAPLES. 

The Orange Groves of Naples are planted with wild trees, which 
are grafted in the usual way, and grow with bare trunks to 4 or 5 
feet from the ground. The branches then run out and form the 
fruit-bearing portion of the tree. An ingenious and beautiful inno- 
vation has been introduced into one grove, and is described by 
Consul Neville-Rolfe in his latest report. Lemons are grafted upon 
the bare and non-productive stems of the oranges, about 2 feet 
from the ground, and trained in garlands from tree to tree, thus not 
only increasing the productiveness of the grove very materially, but 
adding greatly to the picturesqueness of its appearance. Orange 
trees being usually planted in rows at a measured distance apart, a 



"^Februao^r^T™} Liter uUirc Relating to Pharmacy. 113 

grove has usually a geometrical appearance which is unsatisfactory, 
but this appearance is very much modified by the lemons, which 
break the lines in all directions. There is a legend which most 
people firmly believe, that the grafting of a second fruit on the parent 
stem materially alters the type and quality, not only of the original 
fruit, but also of the graft, and it is sometimes gravely asserted that 
•• blood oranges " are obtained by grafting the pomegranate on to 
the orange. This, says the Consul, is a complete fallacy. Both 
fruits retain their original quality, and neither borrows anything from 
the other. There is thus no difference between the lemons grown 
in the orange grove from those grown in the grove where lemons 
alone are cultivated. — Pharmaceutical Journal, October //, i8g6. 

DETERMINATION OF THEOBROMINE IN CACAO. (Eminger, in 

Forschungsberichte, 1896, 275.) 

The author first extracts vegetable fat by digesting 10 grammes 
of the finely powdered material with 150 parts of petroleum 
spirit ; the residue is then dried and a weighed portion boiled for 
about half an hour, or until the formation of cacao-red is completed, 
with 100 cubic centimetres of dilute sulphuric acid (3-4 per cent.) 
in a flask fitted with a reflux condenser. The contents of the flask 
are then turned into a beaker and, whilst hot, exactly neutralized 
with the calculated quantity of baryta ; the whole is evaporated to 
dryness with some sand, and the residue extracted in a Soxhlet 
apparatus with 150 parts of chloroform for five hours; the chloro- 
form is then distilled off and the residue dried at 100° C. This 
residue is then washed with not more than 1 00 cubic centimetres of 
carbon tetrachloride, which dissolves the fat and caffeine ; the theo- 
bromine, being quite insoluble in carbon tetrachloride at 18° C., is 
collected on a filter, dissolved in boiling water, the solution filtered 
and evaporated and the residue weighed. By this method the 
theobromine in different kinds of cacao was found to vary from 105 
to 234 per cent., and the caffeine, from 005 to 036 per cent. 
Theobromine is soluble in 736-5 parts of water at 18 C, in 136 
parts at 100° C, in 818 parts of boiling absolute alcohol, in 21,000 
parts of ether at 17° C, in 2,710 parts of boiling chloroform, and in 
5,808 parts at 18^ C. "Theobromine begins to sublime at 220° C. 
without melting, whilst caffeine sublimes at 180° C. and begins to 
melt at 220° C." Theobromine is more or less decomposed if 



114 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {Tebruaryfis^'!"' 

warmed for any length of time with alkalies, earthy oxides or hy- 
d rated lead oxide. — The Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry ^ 
October ^i, iSg6. 

ANALYSIS OF CHLOROFORM. {Gay, in y. Pharm. Chim., i8g6, ^, ^5P-) 

(i) A piece of filter paper saturated with the chloroform should 
dry completely, and the odor remain pleasant to the end. The con- 
trary indicates the presence of amyl alcohol. 

(2) Shake 6 c.c. with 3 c.c. of water and test with litmus paper ; 
this should not be reddened. 

(3) Shake with an equal volume of 10 per cent, silver nitrate ; a 
white precipitate on standing indicates the presence of hydrochloric 
acid, and a black precipitate on boiling, that of aldehyde or acetone. 

(4) To 5 c.c. add 2 c.c. of a solution of I part of potassium bi- 
chromate in 100 parts of strong sulphuric acid, and warm gently; 
if alcohol be present a green coloration appears. A quantitative 
test for alcohol is necessary, since 0-5 per cent, may be added to 
preserve the chloroform. To 5 c.c. add I c.c. of Mohr's solution 
(i part of potassium permanganate and 10 parts of alcoholic potash 
dissolved in 25 parts of water) in such a manner that the liquids do 
not mix ; then shake whilst slowly turning the tube, and observe 
the time between the mixture and the appearance of a green color. 

Time : 5 minutes Very pure chloroform. 

25 " o*oi percent, alcohol. 

" 3*5 seconds q-i " " 

" 5 " 0-5 

" Less than 5 seconds . . more than 0*5 " *' 

One agitation 10 ** " 

(5) Shake violently 10 c.c. with an equal volume of strong sul- 
phuric acid and let stand. The mixture remains colorless, even for 
an hour, if the product is pure, but if it becomes brown, the pres- 
ence of chloro-derivatives of ethyl alcohol or of the higher homo- 
logues is indicated.— r/^c- Journal of the Society of Chemical Indus- 
try, October ji^ i8g6. 



The quantity of quicksilver exported by the mines of Auerbach & Co. , at 
Nikotovka, Russia, in the course of last year, amounted to 10,706 bottles, which 
went to various European countries, China, India and to the Transvaal. For 
consumption in Russia 1,596 bottles were sold. The output is steadily increas- 
ing.— CA^wrj/ and Druggist, December 5, 1896. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February. 1897. 



Editorial. 



IIS 



EDITORIAL. 

MINERAL STATISTICS FOR 1896. 

The Etie^iyieering and ^fining Journal, of New York, in its issue of January 
2, 1897, presents the statistics of the mineral and metal production of the I'ni- 
ted States for the year 1896. These statistics are gathered from official sources, 
or irom reports of producers, and will be found to be very close to those which 
are made up later in detail. From these statistics we glean some facts of inter- 
est to pharmacists. 



1^5. 



Non-Metallic Products. 



Metric 
Tons. 



Alum 68,035 

Bromine 179 

Borax 6,126 

Copperas 12,805 

Copper sulphate 20,413 

GypJsum 270,804 

Petroleum, crude 6,420,741 

Salt. evap>orated 1,539.178 

Salt, rock 173.662 

Soda, natural 1.724 

Soda, manufactured 167,000 

Sulphur 1,676 

Metals. 

Aluminum 408 

Antimony 393 

Copper 175.294 

Oold 70,470 kilos. 

Iron, pig 9.597,449 

Lead (New York value) 142.29S 

Platinum 150 ozs. 

Quicksilver 1,179 

Silver (commercial value) 1,441,087 k. 

Zinc (spelter) 74 245 



Value. 



$2,225,000 

102,662 

742,850 

69,846 

1,350,000 

974,219 

42,547,701 

5,844,34s 

518.740 

47.500 

3,841,000 

136.950 



495.000 

68847 

36,944,9** 

46,830,200 

ioS.632,542 

10,132,7^8 

2,250 

1.313.589 

30.254,087 

5.942,890 



1896. 



Metric 

Tons. 



72,900 

2495 

6,SiB6 

10.796 

20,412 

241,900 

5,731,920 

1. 39 1. 349 
146,998 



».524 



5893 

579 

205.853 

85,773 kilos. 

8,909 000 

159.410 

150 ozs. 

1.160 

1,414.'48 

74.925 



Value. 



13,225,000 

143.074 

759.094 

53112 

1,350.000 

867,071 

42,116,184 

5,43', J 05 

138,840 

3,500,000 
100,000 



520,000 

83.440 

48,786,080 

S7, 000 ,000 

87.688,690 

10,472.733 
2,250 

1.222,444 

30.461,665 

6,074,319 



s. p. s. 



FIKLD BOTANY IN WINTER. 



The Pharmaceutical Journal, in its issue of January 2, 1S97, says the wild 
flowers most likely to be found in blossom in England during the early part 
of January arc Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Ulex Europieus and Senecio vulgaris. 
This leads us to speak of the winter-blooming plants in the I'nited States, 
where in the latitude of Philadelphia one does not need to await the arrival of 
spring to pursue outdoor botanical studies, since there is probably no month 
in the year in which plants cannot be found in bloom in this latitude. It is 
also of peculiar interest to observe the winter habits of a great number of 
plants, even if they are not in flower. 

A walk of four or five miles in the vicinity of Philadelphia, on November 
26, 1896, revcale<l the following eighteen plants in bloom ; they were not 
unusually protected, although many of them were found on banks having a 
southern exposure: Sisymbrium ofllicinale, Lepidiuni virginicum, Stellaria 
media, Ccrastium viscosum, Malva rotundifolia, Trifolium pratense, Daucus 
carota. Solidago serotina, S. nemoralis, S. rugosa. Taraxacum officinale, 



, r> ' ^ f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

no KeVteWS. \ February,! 897. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Aster ericoides, A. cordifolius, Autennaria 
plantagiuifolia, Guaphalium polycephalum, Erigeron Canadense and Lobelia 
inflata. Two other plants, Symplocarpus fcetidus and Claytonia virginica, 
were found, which showed the floral organs well developed and only awaiting 
a suitable time in which to bloom. 

On December 31, the following were found in blossom : Taraxacum officinale, 
Stellaria media, Veronica Buxbaumii, Lamium amplexicaule and Symplocarpus 
foetidus. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

EiNFUHRUNG IN DAS Studium der Ai.kat^oide, mit besoudercr Beriick- 
sichtigung der vegetabilischen Alkaloide und der Ptomaine. Von Dr. Icilio 
Guareschi, O. O. Professor an der konigl. Universitat Turin, und Director des 
pharmaceutisch-chemischen und toxicologischen Instituts. Mit Genehmigung 
des Verfassers in deutscher Bearbeitung herausgegeben von Dr. Hermann 
Kunz-Krause, dozent fiir allgemeine und pharmaceutische Chemie an der 
Universitat Lausanne. Erste Halfte. Berlin, 1896. R. Gaertner's Verlags- 
buchhandlung, Hermann Heyfelder. 

In publishing a German translation of Guareschi' s ** Introduzione alio Studio 
degli Alcaloidi," Dr. Kunz-Krause has made available to a large number of 
readers what would otherwise be a sealed book. The first half is now obtain- 
able, and the second half will appear during the year 1897. After a brief intro- 
duction , the work very properly begins with a historical review, in which the 
development of the alkaloids is shown to have been the work of chemists of the 
nineteenth century. Beginning with the discovery of morphine, by Sertiirner, 
in 1805, this historical summary is divided by the author into six periods, as 
follows : 

Period i. — Discovery of numerous vegetable alkaloids, 1806-1835. 
Period 2. — Investigation of the coal-tar bases (aniline), 1834-1848. 
Period 3. — Discovery of pyridine and quinoline bases. 

Period 4. — Synthesis of the oxy-ethylene bases and of the paraconiines ; the- 
ory of the constitution of pyridine and quinoline. 
Period 5. — Discovery of ptomaine and leucomaine. 

Period 6. — vSynthesis of a large number of basic pyridine and quinoline 
derivatives, and the investigation of the constitution of the natural alkaloids. 
The history is followed by a brief description of the properties of the various 
organic bases and a discussion of their structural relations. Several pages are 
devoted to the alkaloidal reagents, and the behavior of each towards the alka- 
loids is explained. Following this is a short summary on classification and 
nomenclature, in which the great body of the book is divided into five sections, 
as follows : I, Bases of the Open Chain Series ; II, Bases of the Closed Chain 
Series; III, Metal Amines; IV, Alkaloids in the Narrower Sense; V, Pto- 
maines and Leucomaines. The present volume is largely occupied by the first 
two sections, and consequently embraces most of the synthetic organic bases, 
as well as those natural alkaloids whose structure has been established. 

The whole book is very systematically arranged, and furnishes abundant 
material for prolonged study by everyone who is interested in this important 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) ReVte'WS 11/ 

February, 1897. / yvrt/to/J. / 

branch of organic chemistry. It is a great credit to both author and translator, 
and we look forward with interest to the appearance of the second half. 

Commercial Organic Analysis. A treatise on the properties, proximate 
analytical examination, and modes of assaying the various organic chemicals 
and products employed in the arts, manufactures, medicine, etc., with concise 
methods for the detection and determination of their impurities, adulterations, 
and products of decomposition. By Alfred H. Allen, F.I.C., F.C.S. Second 
Edition. Vol. Ill, Part III. Philadelphia: P. Blakistgn, Son & Co. 1S96. 

The installment of this work now published is nominally Part III of Volume 
III, though practically it forms Volume V of the book. One more volume, 
treating of proteids and albuminoid compounds, will complete the work. The 
part now issued treats of the less important vegetable alkaloids, left over from 
Part II ; non-basic vegetable bitter principles ; animal bases, including 
ptomaines ; animal acids, and cyanogen compounds. Although considered by 
the author as less important alkaloids, still there are among them those derived 
from ipecac, colchicum, calabar bean and jaborandi, which makes them of con- 
siderable importance. 

The same systematic treatment has been accorded these alkaloids that was 
given to those in Part II, and it serves to make the two volumes the most 
important works on this subject in the English language. About one hundred 
pages are devoted to the non-basic vegetable bitter principles. The literature 
concerning these important compounds is very voluminous, and the author has 
sifted that so as to make it available to other chemists. Not the least in this 
class is his condensed statement concerning the constituents of digitalis, about 
which so much has been written that in many minds the whole subject is 
decidedly mixed. 

Under the animal bases we have the whole subject of estimating urea as 
well as the latest information concerning creatine and creatinine; these have 
also been exhaustively treated in the author's Chemistry of the Urine, published 
over a year ago. 

The whole book is fully equal in value to its predecessors, and the final 
volume is looked forward to with interest. 

Popular German Names of Domestic Drigs and Medicines (Volks- 
thiimliche deutsche .\rzneimittel-Namen). Compiled by Dr. Fr. Hoffmann. 
Revised and enlarged edition. Pharmaceutical Review Publishing Company, 
Milwaukee. 1.S96. 

Dr. Hoffmann has performed a real service for the American druggist by com- 
piling this list of popular German names and arranging them so as to be 
available to every one but the most stupid. In nearly all parts of the United 
States the pharmacist is confronted in his daily practice with the (lernian 
names of many of the simpler drugs. The book can be had of the Pharma- 
ceutical Review Publishing Company, at the moderate cost of fifty cents ^x 
copy. 

LE CoM.MERCE .\CTrEL I>E L'HkRBORLSTERIE I»\v^ TNI Ric.ioN DU 
Langueix)C. Par le Dr. Ix>uis Planchon. 

Ke^nni irom Journal de Pharmacie et deChimie, 1H96. An mtrrcsting con- 
tribution to the local flora of a region very rich in medicinal plants. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



1 1 8 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { ^^ebrnarVT isp' 

La Composition des Peptones de Viande. Par A. Denaeyer. A com- 
munication to the second International Congress of Applied Chemistry at 
Paris. 1896. Reprinted from ^«wa/^5t/^ /%arwa^/>. 

Prospectus of the Twenty-fifth Annual. Session of the Cai^ifornia. 
College of Pharmacy. Session of 1897. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, January 20, 1897. 

The regular Pharmaceutical Meeting was held in the Museum of the College. 
Mr. J. W. England was chairman. The minutes of the previous meeting were 
allowed to stand as published. 

Professor Trimble called attention to a sample of the genuine kino of Euca- 
lyptus rostrata, which had been sent by Mr. J. H. Maiden, of Sydney, New 
South Wales ; also to a sample of Texas rhatany Kramerie secundiflora, which 
was collected in Mexico and presented by Prof. Alfonso Herrera ; and also to 
some specimens of cultivated canaigre root, which were grown in California 
and were unusually large. 

Mr. Lyman F. Kebler read a paper on the "Volumetric Estimation of 
Acetone" (see p. 65), which was considered to be particularly opportune, 
inasmuch as the various applications of acetone as a solvent have only just 
begun. 

The author stated that the methods for estimating the percentage of acetone 
were not yet perfected, and that only the amount of iodoform producing 
bodies could be determined in the commercial product. 

Mr. Edward T. Hahn read a paper on " Terpin Hydrate " (see p. 73), and 
said that his experiments had been made with a view of producing the crystals 
of this substance, rather than studying its therapeutic properties, or of deter- 
mining its ultimate composition. Samples which had been made with ethyl 
alcohol and also with methyl alcohol accompanied the paper. 

After the reading of the papers, an interesting discussion on the subject of 
the manufacture of some galenicals from fluid extracts ensued, and was par- 
ticipated in by Mr. Kebler, Mr. England, Professor Remington and others. 
The question was introduced at the December meeting by Mr. Kebler, but was 
deferred on account of lack of time, and in the meantime he received letters 
on the subject from Dr. E. R. Squibb (see p. 98), Dr. Chas. Rice (see p. 99) and 
Prof. J. U. Lloyd (see p. 102). 

Mr. Kebler prefaced his remarks by saying that the commercial aspect of the 
question could not be taken into consideration ; that human life was too valua- 
ble for this phase of the subject to merit any attention in this connection. 

He said in considering the merits and demerits of the main subject that 
" when it comes to the question of making infusions from the fluid extracts, 
it must be admitted, on the one hand, that it is wrong in many cases, in the 
light of our present knowledge ; but, on the other hand, it remains to be 
demonstrated that an infusion made from a fluid extract is less active, thera- 
peutically, than one from the drug direct. In some cases an aqueous meustuum 
will educe active constituents that are insoluble in alcoholic solutions and vice 



'^FebrX/^S:"} Pharinaccjitical Meeting. 119 

versa. But when we enter the field of manufacturing tinctures and some other 
preparations from the respective fluid extracts, debatable ground is invaded." 

Before taking up this question he deemed it necessary to state that if the 
position were taken that a U.S. P. preparation was U.S. P. only when made 
strictly according to the directions therein laid down, and could not be made 
in any other way, there was only a single answer to the question. 

Some of the faulty and imperfect tests and methods of the Pharmacopoeia 
were referred to, as well as some of the duplicate processes sanctioned by it, 
as in the case of the processes for the manufacture of fluid extracts, and thus 
the Pharmacopceia itself was considered to justifj-, in a measure, the applica- 
tion of processes which seemed best adapted to the needs of the case. 

Standardized preparations and the manufacture of other preparations from 
them then claimed the speaker's attention. He said that the 1890 Pharma- 
copoeia had incorporated methods for assaying the crude drugs cinchona, nux 
vomica and opium, as well as some of their preparations ; and that the next 
revision would, undoubtedly, be enriched by methods for assaying a number of 
other drugs and their preparations. The assay processes already authorized 
had been introduced on account of the great variability of the drugs to which 
they were applied. Then referring to his analytical records the speaker said 
that these showed that there were other drugs equally variable in character ; 
for instance, one bale of aconite root assayed 0*4 per cent, total alkaloids, and 
another I 14 per cent., or one root was nearly three times as potent as the 
other. It was evident that tinctures and fluid extracts, made according to the 
Pharmacopceia from these roots, would vary accordingly. In other words, the 
tincture made from the root containing the high percentage of alkaloids would 
be as powerful as the fluid extract made from the lower assaying root. This 
was not an isolated case, but similar data could be furnished for other drugs. 

The problem of extracting the active principles from the drugs completely 
was next considered, and the speaker said that again and again cases had come 
to his notice where only one-half, three-fifths, two-thirds or three-fourths of 
these principles had been extracted from the drug operated upon. The fore- 
man of the fluid-extract department of a large wholesale house was quoted as 
saying: "The manufacture of unassayed preparations and of standardized 
preparations are two diff"erent things. Before assaying was adopted, appear- 
ance was the only requirement, whether one-half or one-third of the active 
principles was extracted." 

Then, summarizing his opinions, with reference to the foregoing statements, 
the speaker said : " In view of the variableness of the drugs, and the element 
of uncertainty introduced in manufacturing the various preparations, which is 
the most rational course to pursue : to make tinctures, varying in strength 
from a very small potency to the strength of fluid extracts, and fluid extracts, 
solid extracts, etc., varying in the same degree ; or to make preparations that 
are uniform in strength ?" In his mind there was only one answer. And again : 
"What tinctures, for example, will possess the greater degree of uniformity — 
those made from crude drugs varying extremely in potency, or those prepared 
from standardized fluid extracts, etc.'" 

It was stated that, in preparing tinctures from their respective fluid extracts, 
the menstrua directed to be used were usually of such a strength that precipita- 
tion was obviated. In some cases, a small precipitate settled out on standing ; 



I20 Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^FebruaryTJsT;!"- 

but this was also true of tinctures freshly prepared from the drug. If it was 
inert in one case, it remained to be demonstrated that it was not in the other. 

The chairman, Mr. Joseph W. England, was opposed to the manufacture of 
other galenicals from fluid extracts, and referred to a paper prepared by him 
and published in the September, 1893, number of this Journai,, upon the 
question : " Is it possible to produce fluid extracts of such strength that they 
can be diluted with proper menstrua to standard tinctures?" Much of the 
argument then presented was brought forward by the speaker in support of 
his views on the subject proposed for discussion. 

One of the statements which he emphasized was that different classes of 
proximate principles were yielded to menstrua of varying strength, and hence 
oflScial tinctures could not be made from the respective fluid extracts, inasmuch 
as the menstrua for these two classes of preparations varied greatly in their 
proportions of alcohol and water as applied to different drugs, and in evidence 
of this, the menstrua for a number of these preparations were given in tabular 
form. 

The claim was also made that an officially made tincture was relatively 
stronger than the corresponding fluid extract, the relatively larger dose of the 
fluid extract confirming this opinion. 

The speaker stated that many manufacturers did not make their fluid extracts 
according to Pharmacopoeial directions, but according to methods which their 
own experience suggested. Another point was the variation in menstrua which 
they used, which neither agreed with the Pharmacopoeial requirements nor 
among themselves. 

He, therefore, concluded that it was impossible to make tinctures uniform in 
strength from fluid extracts, whether these were assayed or not, inasmuch as 
the assay processes used likewise varied, as well as the standards assumed for 
many drugs. 

Professor Remington said that the main question was in reference to the 
objects had in view concerning these two classes of preparations ; that fluid 
extracts were intended to be permanent preparations and were made strongly 
alcoholic, while on the other hand, the menstrua for tinctures were made as 
aqueous as possible, and still extract and retain the desirable constituents of 
the drug. 

He also said that some principles which could not be obtained with a small 
amount of dilute menstruum could be extracted from the drug by the use of 
a larger quantity of the solvent, whereas in the case of fluid extracts the object 
was to limit the quantity of menstruum. 

In his opinion, to consider the question in reference to standardized fluid ex- 
tracts was to limit it, as many manufacturers, who do not standardize these prep- 
arations, nevertheless give directions for diluting them in the preparation of 
tinctures. 

The speaker remarked upon the custom among manufacturers of storing fluid 
extracts for a time and then removing the precipitates formed, and questioned 
the propriety of making tinctures from fluid extracts thus deprived of some of 
their constituents. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. WiEGAND, 

Registrar. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, iSgj. 



ACETIC ACID AS A MENSTRUUM AND SOLVENT. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

Any one who has delved, even moderately, into the pharmacy of 
the ancients, must have noticed the frequency with which the vine- 
gar of that time was used as a solvent, but the nineteenth century 
has witnessed the gradual decline of the use of acetic acid in phar- 
macy. 

The alcohol question, which is so perplexing, and which is still 
unsettled, furnishes a reason for diverting the attention of the phar- 
macist to some liquid which will, occasionally, take its place. 
The object of the following experiments is to determine whether 
acetic acid cannot be made to replace alcohol in at least some of the 
preparations now in common use. 

The antiseptic power of acetic acid is frequently overlooked, and 
there is no question that the vinegars, if properly made, could ad- 
vantageously replace many tinctures. 

Slightly acidulated liquids are palatable to most patients, and 
these, when combined in prescriptions with .syrups, are particularly 
acceptable, inasmuch as the acid counteracts the cloying sweetness of 
the syrups. 

Then again, it is very desirable for physicians to have alternative 
preparations of the same drug to give to patients who are liable to 
become victims of the alcohol habit, and it cannot be denied that 
the prescribing of tinctures, elixirs and other alcoholic preparations 
have been the innocent means of working disaster. 

The writer, four years ago, made a number of lluid extracts, using 
acetic acid in place of alcohol. I hesc* liave been allowed to stand 

( 121 ) 



122 Acetic Acid as a Menstruum and Solvent. {"^'^iS'SK''""* 

alongside of others which have been made with alcohol, and most 
of them have proved their superiority. It is the intention to report 
upon these later. 

It will at once occur to the reader that the presence of strong 
acetic acid in a fluid extract would be objectionable on account of 
its taste; but it can be shown that it is possible to evaporate the fluid 
extract at a very low temperature, thus getting rid of the acetic acid, 
and then re-dissolving a proper portion of the extract in a sol- 
vent. If this extract be standardized, a definite preparation is se- 
cured. It is true that a portion of the extractive seems to be ren- 
dered insoluble during the evaporation ; but the experiments will 
show that this can be re-dissolved by varying the menstruum, and, 
in addition, it can be shown that this insoluble extractive usually 
represents inert substances. 

In the following experiments the acetic extract of nux vomica 
was prepared with a lo per cent, acetic acid, made by Dr. E. R. 
Squibb & Sons, and proved by assay to contain 15 per cent, of 
alkaloids. 

These acetic extracts can be made dry and pulverulent, and to dis- 
tinguish them the writer proposes for them the name of " Acetracts." 

No. I. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with 100 c.c. alcohol, 
sp. gr. 819, yielded a light colored tincture; the residue weighed 
I 1 12 gm., and was not devoid of bitterness, plainly indicating that 
the alcohol was too strong. 

No. 2. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
75 c.c. alcohol and 25 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0502 
gm. The residue was very slightly bitter and practically an inert 
substance. The tincture was limpid, transparent and of a dark 
amber color. 

No. 3. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
70 c.c. alcohol and 30 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0-4<4 
gm. This had a very slightly bitter taste, and was practically 
exhausted, producing a limpid, dark brownish-red liquid. 

No. 4.-2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
65 c.c. alcohol and 35 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0-360 
gm. The liquid was not clear, a fine, brownish-red precipitate mak- 
ing its appearance. The liquid could not be filtered satisfactorily, 
and a small portion which was filtered continued to let fall a pre- 
ci[jitate. 



^'"M^ch.^Sw^"'} Acetic Acid as a Menstruum and Solvent. 123 

No. 5. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
60 c.c. alcohol and 40 c.c. water, yielded a residue weif;hing 04 10 
gm. The liquid was not clear, filtering with great difficulty, the 
precipitate not settling. 

No. 6. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
55 c.c. alcohol and 45 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0340 
gm. Ihe liquid was not clear, filtering with great difficulty, the 
precipitate not settling. 

No. 7. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 50 c.c. alcohol and 50 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing o 320 
gm. The liquid was muddy, precipitate not settling, and not easily 
filtered. 

No. 8. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
45 c.c. alcohol and 55 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0-246 
gm. Liquid cloudy, precipitate settling in three days, filtering 
with difficulty. 

No. 9. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 40 c.c. alcohol and 60 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0450 
gm. Liquid muddy, not easily filtered. The addition of a little 
talc improved filtering. 

No. 10. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
ot 35 c.c. alcohol and 65 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing O 338 
gm. Liquid not clear; not easily filtered. 

No. II. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 30 c.c. alcohol and 70 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0360 
gm. Liquid not clear, filtered with difficulty, and filtrate does not 
remain clear. 

No. 12. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 25 c.c. alcohol and 75 c.c. water yielded a residue weighing 0378 
gm. Liquid not clear, but filtered more easily than No. 11. 

No. 13. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 20 c.c. alcohol and 80 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing o 476 
gm. Liquid not quite clear, filters without much difficulty, but 
slowly. 

No. 14. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
15 c.c. alcohol and 85 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0426 
gm. The liquid was not quite clear, but filtered fairly well. 

No. 15. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 10 c.c. picohol and 90 c.c. water, yielded a residue weighing 0-376 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



124 Acetic Acid as a Menstruum and Solvent. {^^iAxcl'Xm. 

gm. Liquid not clear, deposits some sediment, and showed evi- 
dence of decomposition ten days after preparation. 

No. 16. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 65 c.c. alcohol, 10 c.c. glycerin, and 25 c.c. water, left very slight 
residue, filtered easily and remained clear. 

No. 17. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum 
of 50 c.c. alcohol, 25 c.c. glycerin and 25 c.c. water, left very slight 
residue, filtered easily but slowly, and remained clear. 

No. 18. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
40 c.c. alcohol, 30 c.c. glycerin and 30 c.c. water, left very little res- 
idue, filtered easily, and remained clear. 

No. 19. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
20 c.c. alcohol, 20 c.c. glycerin and 60 c.c. water, left very slight 
residue, filtered very slowly, but clear. 

No, 20. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
10 c.c. alcohol, 10 c.c. glycerin and 80 c.c. water, left very slight 
residue, filtered easily, but not quite clear. 

No. 21. — 2 gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
100 c.c. diluted acetic acid, and I gm. ground nux vomica added to 
the percolate to aid in filtration. The liquid was not quite clear. 

No. 22. — I gm. acetract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
100 c.c. diluted acetic acid, gave a liquid which was not easily filtered, 
but which remained clear. 

No. 24. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with 100 c.c. alcohol, 
left a residue 0352 gm. The liquid was light-colored, filtered 
easily and remained perfectly clear. 

No. 25. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
75 c.c. alcohol and 25 c.c. water, left a residue weighing 01 22 gm. 
The liquid was dark brownish-red, remaining perfectly clear, but 
throwing down a very slight dark precipitate after filtering. 

No. 26. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
70 c.c. alcohol and 30 c.c. water, left a residue weighing o-i88 gm. 
The liquid remained clear after filtering, but with a slight precipi- 
tate. 

No. 27. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
65 c.c. alcohol and 35 c.c. water, left a residue of 0-212 gm. The 
liquid was clear, a slight precipitate settling after the liquid was 
filtered. 

No. 28. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 



^"iurch.^s^'"'} Acetic Acid as a Mcnstruuin and Solvent. 125 

60 c c. alcohol and 40 c.c. water, left a residue of 0-232 gm. The 
liquid was clear. 

No. 29. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
55 c.c. alcohol and 45 c.c. water, left a residue of 031 gm. The 
liquid was clear, a slight precipitate settling after filtration. 

No. 30 — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
50 c.c. alcohol and 50 c.c. water, left a residue of 0-316 gm. The 
liquid was not quite clear, a slight precipitate settling after 
filtration. 

No. 31. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
45 c.c. alcohol and 55 c.c. water, left a residue of 031 gm. The 
liquid was not clear, a precipitate settling. 

No. 32. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
45 c.c. alcohol and 60 c.c. water, left a residue of 0342 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy, a very slight precipitate after filtration. 

No. 33. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
35 c.c. alcohol and 65 c c. water, left a residue of 040 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy. 

No. 34. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
30 c.c. alcohol and 70 c.c. water, left a residue of o 430 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy. 

No. 35. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
25 c.c. alcohol and 75 c.c. water, left a residue of 040 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy. 

No. 36. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
20 c c. alcohol and 80 c.c. water, left a residue of 0372 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy. 

No. 37. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
15 c.c. alcohol and 85 c.c. water, left a residue of 0-420 gm. The 
liquid was cloudy. 

No. 38. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, treated with a menstruum of 
10 c.c. alcohol and 90 c.c. water. The residue not weighed. The 
liquid was not clear. 

No. 39. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, dissolved in 100 c.c. water, 
left residue 040 gm. The liquid was muddy, and, upon stand- 
ing, showed evidence of decomposition. 

No. 40. — 2 gm. extract nux vomica, di.ssolved in 100 c.c. diluted 
acetic acid. The liquid was a clear, light amber color. 

No. 41. — 2*4 gm. extract nux vomica, dissolved in 2,400 c.c. 



126 Frangula and Cascara Barks. {^^iv^l\^Jm^.^' 

diluted acetic acid. The liquid was clear and of a light amber 
color. 

It will be observed that the object of these experiments is to as- 
certain whether acetic acid can advantageously replace alcohol in the 
extraction of a drug like nux vomica. The answer is decidedly in 
the affirmative. Acetic acid may be used for exhausting a drug 
known to be difficult to exhaust, like nux vomica. 

A solid preparation can be made from it ; this can be assayed and 
standardized, and the liquid preparations made by re-dissolving the 
solid in various mixtures of alcohol and water, with or without gly- 
cerin, and of different strengths of acetic acid. 

If the proper menstruum be chosen, the residue will be inert, and 
may be filtered out. A number of other drugs have been exhausted 
with varying strengths of acetic acid, such as sanguinaria, kola, 
ipecac, squill, cinchona and colchicum seed. 

A number of samples are presented, and especial attention is called 
tosanguinaria with acetic acid 60 percent. This fluid extract has been 
made four years, and does not show the least sign of precipitation. 

It, doubtless, would be just as satisfactory if made with U.S. P. 
acetic acid, and experiments are being conducted now, which will 
prove this view. 

FRANGULA AND CASCARA BARKS. 

TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN RHAMNUS PURSHIANA AND RHAMNUS FRAN- 
GULA, AND TO EXCLUDE RHAMNUS CALIFORNICA, IN THE 
STATE OF POWDER, 

By L. E. SayrE, 
Member of the Research Committee C, of the Committee of Revision of the 

United States Pharmacopoeia. 

One of the problems submitted to this committee is embraced in 
the title to the present paper. For the purpose of the investi- 
gation, authentic specimens of the barks were received from the 
chairman of the sub-committee. Dr. Rusby, who had them specially 
collected for the work. 

In order to arrive at a conclusion as to the best method of distinguish- 
ing the barks in the state of powder, it was, of course, necessary, 
first to study them microscopically, and, if possible, find distinctive 
elements which might survive pulverization, and be recognizable in 
the state of powder. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 18y7. 



} Frangula and Cascara Barks. 



127 



The description of the gross characteristics of these barks may 
contribute Httle to the purpose of the investigation; but these should 
be stated, as they have a bearing upon {)harmacop(jL*ial description, 
an item of interest to every worker in pharmacoprjeial revision. 

Taking the specimens, furnished as above stated, I should say 
that the pharmacopoeial description of Rhamnus Purshiana is some- 
what faulty ; the color of the bark on the outside cannot be con- 
sidered as a •• brownish gray," but a dark gray ; the thickness, 
instead of being "about 2 millimeters," is about I millimeter. For 




Fig. I, Rhamnus Purshiaua, cross section. .7, epidermis ; b, collenchyma ; 
r, sclerenchyma ; d, stone cells ; e, medullary ray ; J\ bast bundle ; g, paren- 
chyma ; //, crystals of calcium oxalate. 

a description of the external characteristics of the three barks, 
using the specimens furnished as a guide, I should perhaps adopt 
in substance the following : 

Rhamnus Purshiana. — In quills or curved pieces, about 3 to 10 
centimeters long, and about i millimeter thick ; outer surface dark 
gray and much encrusted by ashen gray lichen patches, with longi- 
tudinal grooves from 3 to 10 millimeters apart ; inner surface 
yellowish to light brownish, becoming darker by age ; smooth, 
glossy and finely striate ; fracture short. \'ellowish ; in the insitic 



128 



Frans:ula and Cascara Barks. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1897. 



When 



layer of thick bark, somewhat fibrous and sHghtly bitter, 
chewed the bark imparts a yellowish color to the saliva. 

Rhamnus Californica. — In quills or curved pieces about 3 to lo 
centimeters long, and about 1-5 millimeters thick; outer surface 
grayish brown, beset with numerous lenticels, which are from round 
to transversely elongated, infrequently longitudinally elongated, and 
often longitudinally confluent. On scraping the surface of the bark 
a reddish brown color is observed, which is due to the contents of 




Fig. 2, Rhamnus Purshiana, longitudinal section. A, epidermis ; b, collen- 
chyma ; c, sclerenchyma ; d, stone cells ; e, medullary ray ; f, bast bundle ; gy 
parenchyma ; h, crystals of calcium oxalate. 

the cork cells. Inner surface reddish brown to dark brown ; smooth, 
glossy and finely striate ; fracture short (inner layer of thick bark, 
although somewhat fibrous ; breaks with a short fracture); inodorous 
and slightly bitter. When chewed the bark imparts an orange-red- 
ish color to the saliva. 

Frafigida. — See U.S.P. External character of this baric answers 
well to official description. 

From the marked physical distinction between these barks, one 



^"Ma°rchj^'""} Frangula and Cascara Barks. 129 

might suppose it an easy task to distinguish between them in pow- 
der; but such is not the case; although differing widely in ap- 
pearance, they possess very similar microscopical or anatomical 
structure. The points of similarity may be stated briefly as fol- 
lows : 

(l) Narrow medullary rays, which extend nearly to thejcork, 
these rays in Rhamnus Purshiana convcrgijig at their outer ends. 




Fig. J, Rhamnus Frangula, cross section. A, epidermis ; b, collenchyma ; r, 
sclerenchyma ; e, medullary ray ; f, bast bundle ; .1^, parenchyma ; /;, crystals 
of calcium oxalate. 



(2) Numerous small groups of bast scattered somewhat regularly 
throughout nearly the whole bark, the number of fibres in the bast 
bundle varying from 2 to 3 to perhaps 25 in each bundle. 

(3) P^ch bundle of bast is bordered by a layer of thin. walled 
cells, filled with cubical crystals of calcium oxalate ; these crystal 
cells appearing very distinctly in longitudinal section, and in the 
powder. (See drawings.) 



130 



Frangiila and Cascara Barks. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1897. 



(4) In each, the relative amount of cork, of collenchyma and of 
parenchyma is about the same. 

These structural similarities would seem to make the distinction 
between the pulverized barks quite difficult, but fortunately, for this 
purpose, there are a very few points of dissimilarity revealed by the 
compound microscope and reagents, which may serve the pharma- 
cologist. 




Fig. 4, Rhamnus Frangula, longitudinal section. A, epidermis ; b, collen- 
chyma ; c, sclerenchyma ; e, medullary ray ; /, bast bundle ; gy parenchyma ; 
h, crystals of calcium oxalate. 



Rhamnus Frangula contains no stone cells, while the Rhamnus 
Californica and the Rhamnus Purshiana contain a large number of 
them, scattered in large, irregular groups below the cork, and usually 
outside the region of bast. The presence or absence of stone cells 
is very easily noted by one familiar with vegetable tissues, and this 
one characteristic is suggested as a means of distinction between 
Rhamnus Frangula and the other two barks. 

In the case of Rhamnus Purshiana and Rhamnus Californica, it 



/ 



dm^ ^^es 




^^S^' S> Rhamnus Californica. powder. B, collenchyma ; r, sclerenchyma 
(cross); ^'', sclereuchyma (longitudinal); d, stone cells; e, medullary ray ; _/", 
bast bundle ; ^, parenchyma ; h, crystals of calcium oxalate. 




Fig^. 6, Rhamnus Frangula, powder. /?, collenchynia ; <', sclerenchyma 
(cross); r' sclerenchyma (longitudinal ); e, medullary ray; /, bast bundle;^, 
parenchyma ; h, crystals of calcium oxalate. 



n2 



Fran^ula and Cascara Barks. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1897. 



seems that no microscopical element can be detected sufficiently 
reliable to depend upon as a means of distinguishing the two species, 
the one from the other. However, if the powder be macerated 
several days in diluted alcohol, a very marked difference may be 
noted ; the powder of Rhamnus Purshiana will be of an orange- 
yellow color, when mounted for microscopical examination, and 
when viewed by a moderately high power the various tissues will 
come out clearly, while the powder of Rhamnus Californica, sub- 




FiIq-. 7, Rhamnus Californica, cross section. A, epidermis ; 5, collenchyma ; 
c, sclerenchyma ; ^, stone cells ; e, medullary ray ; /. bast bundle ; ^, paren- 
chyma ; h, crystals of calcium oxalate. 



jected to the same treatment, assumes a purplish color, and when 
viewed through the lens the tissues seem to be obscured more or 
less by a dark coloring matter. If to a small quantity of the 
powdered barks an alkaline solution be added, the color developed 
in the Rhamnus Californica is a deep red, while that of the Purshi- 
ana is orange. This test may be briefly stated as follows: If 0-2 
gramme of the powdered bark be placed in a small test tube, and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1&97. 



Frayigula and Cascara Barks. 



133 



there be added 2 c.c. of solution of potassa, T. S., Rhamnus Californica 
will immediately produce a blood-red color, while Rhamnus Purshi- 
ana will produce an orange-red. These differences in intensity of 
color, thus developed, are very marked. 

The deep red coloring matter so abundant in Rhamnus Califor- 
nica is just beneath the outer cork layer, including the phellogen. 
It can be very plainly seen in the whole bark by the aid of a simple 
lens. 



I 
i 



I 




Fig. 8, Rhamnus Californica, lonj^itudinal section. A, epidermis; h, colleu- 
chyma ; c, sclerenchyma ; d, stone cells ; i\ medullary ray ; /, bast bundle ; 
g, parenchyma ; //, crj'stals of calcium oxalate. 



The above outline seems to answer well the purpose of distin- 
guishing between tlie three barks named ; but to detect one powder 
mixed with another would, perhaps, be very difficult even to one 
perfectly familiar with the drugs. Rhamnus Californica, when used 
as an adulterant for Rhamnus Purshiana, could be distinguished by 
the color test if in considerable cjuantit)'; small amounts could hardly 
be detected. 

The following addition to the descriptions of the two official 



134 Phytolacca Decandra. {^iSSr"- 

barks, Frangula and Rhamnus Purshiana is suggested. To the de- 
scription of Frangula add : Medullary rays not converging at the 
outer ends (distinction from Rhamnus Purshiana). Stone cells absent 
(distinction from Rhamnus Purshiana and Rhamnus Californica). 

To the description of Rhamnus Purshiana add: Medullary rays in 
groups converging at their outer ends (distinction from Rhamnus 
Californica). Stone cells present (distinction from Rhamnus Fran- 
gula). 

Drawings. — The description accompanying each one of the draw-- 
ings presented will aid somewhat in pointing out the structural 
characteristics above referred to. Figures were drawn, using a i 
inch ocular and i objective. 



A CHEMICAL STUDY OF PHYTOLACCA DECANDRA.^ 

By G. B. Frankforter. 
part first. 

The important medical properties of the root of the common 
poke weed, Phytolacca decandra, have made it the subject for a 
number of investigations. While many important facts have been 
learned, yet nothing of a definite character in connection with the 
chemical side of it has been discovered. Crystalline substances 
have been obtained, but none of them seem to have been carefully 
studied. It has been with the hope of adding more to the present 
knowledge of this interesting plant that the following experiments 
have b^en conducted. 

The -root, which has been the principal part of the plant under 
investigation, was personally obtained, dried and prepared for exami- 
nation.' It has been stated that the root undergoes a change, so 
that after a year it virtually loses its medicinal properties. The 
writer has been unable to corroborate this statement. Samples 
were examined shortly alter the roots were gathered, and again 
after two years. There was no apparent change. The writer there- 
fore believes that if the root is carefully dried immediately after 
gathering, it will retain its properties for a long time. 



' Read before the American Chemical Society, Aug;ust, 1896, aud communi- 
cated by the author. 



''"March.'ISi^:"} Phytolacca Decandra. 135 

ANALYSIS OF THE ASH. 

It seldom occurs that a common plant is characterized by the 
inorganic substance it contains. In this respect the poke weed 
seems to be an exception to the rule. Mention has been made of 
the large per cent, of potassium present, but beyond this the writer 
has been unable to find any analyses of the inorganic part of the 
plant. In order to verify the above statement, and to throw more 
light on the inorganic side of the plant, a complete analysis of the 
ash was made. The root was carefully cleaned, in order to remove 
any soil from the surface, carefully dried and analyzed. Three 
analyses gave the following average : 

Per Cent. 
Ash or inorgauic matter 13*38 

The ash contained the following constituents : 

Per Cent. 

Potassium oxide 41*62 

Sodium oxide 4 41 

Calcium oxide 4*13 

Aluminum oxide 1-62 

Iron oxide . . 0*59 

Magnesium oxide 6"25 

Carbon dioxide 30*01 

Chlorine 225 

Phosphorus pentoxide 3 54 

Silicon dioxide 5*21 



Total 99 63 

It will be observed that the plant is exceptionally rich in potas- 
sium. It was at first suspected that this high per cent, of potassium 
was characteristic of the locality from whence the samples came. 
Samples from different localities were examined with practicall}' the 
same results, so that there is little doubt that the plant has the power 
of assimilating large quantities of potassium. It has been stated 
that the leaves and stems of the plant contain as high as 4 2 per 
cent, of potassium hydroxide. This is low as compared with the 
above analysis, inasmuch as the leaves and stems of plants invari- 
ably run higher than the roots in inorganic matter. 

ANALYSIS OF THE GASES GIVEN OFF BY A DESTRLCIIVK DISTILLATION 

OF THE KOOT. 

The gas obtained by a destructive distillation of the root of this 
plant has been briefly referred to as having a peculiar odor and pro- 



136 



Phytolacca Decandra. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1897. 



ducing dizziness if inhaled.^ With the hope of throwing some 
light on this physiologically active gas, a complete analysis of it 
was made. The gas was prepared by placing a known quantity of 
the dried root in a hard glass retort, removing the air and heating 
as long as gas was given off. The gas was collected over mercury. 
It was found to vary widely at different stages of the distillation. 
That given off early in the process contained as high as 60 per 
cent, of gas soluble in water, while that near the end of the process 
contained less than 2 per cent. The gas at various stages of the 
distillation was tried on several persons without producing any 
physiological effects. There is a characteristic odor of ammonia 
and pyridine derivatives throughout the whole process. 

Owing to the wide variation in the composition of the gas given 
off at different stages of the distillation, a series of analyses were 
made by heating the substance just long enough to drive off suffi- 
cient gas for a single analysis. For the experiment, 72 grammes of 
the dried root were taken. The apparatus used was that already 
mentioned. The distillation was continued until the gas ceased to 
come off at a bright red heat. 

The following is the result of the twelve analyses in the order 
in which they were made : 



Analysis. 


I. 


2. 


3. 


4- 


5- 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9- 

17-6 

22-3 

I" 

CO" 

10-8 
6-1 

9' 
33'2 


10. 


II. 
6- 

12' 
I' 
GO" 
10" 
10" 

i6- 
45" 


12. 


Ammonia 

Carbon dioxide . . . 
Heavy hydrocarbons . 

Oxygen 

Carbon monoxide . , 

Hydrogen 

Methane 

Nitrogen 


65- 
13* 

0-8 

0-4 
12*2 

CO' 

0-6 
8- 


6o-2 

13" 
0-8 

GO' 

i8-6 
•6 
1-8 
5- 


55* 
H" 
1-4 

CO' 
201 

r 
3- 
5*5 


46- 
19-4 

2* 
00' 

14* 
2-6 

^^ 

12* 


37- 
23- 

2" 

GO* 

15-8 

4' 

4* 
14*2 


32- 
24"6 

2" 2 
CO" 

14* 
6- 

3" 

l6*2 


26- 

24- 
17 

00* 
12' 

8-6 

5-2 

22-5 


24*2 

25" 

I '5 

00* 

6- 

9" 

8- 

26-3 


15' 
13* 
1-8 

GO- 

8-8 
6-4 

IG* 

45" 


2" 

10". 

I* 

00* 

9" 

17-8 
19-4 
4G-8 


Total 


100 '0 


lOO'O 


lOO'O 


lOO'O 


1 

lOO'G I00"0 


lOG'O 


IGO'G 


IOO"0 


lOO'O 


lOG'G 


100"0 



The gas estimated as ammonia, upon examination, was found to 
contain other gases, as the amines, but no determinations of the 
latter have as yet been made. The gas estimated as carbon dioxide 



' American Journai, of Pharmacy, 1888, p. 123. 



^VrchriS^'"."'} Estimation of Ash in Various Drugs. I37 

was largely the peculiar-odored gas which is under examination. 
It will be seen that the gases increase and decrease quite uniformly. 
The variations which occur were undoubtedly due to the uneven 
application of heat. 

In order to determine whether or not the nitrogen estimated as 
such was pure, the hydrocarbons were removed by combustion with 
pure oxygen, and the residue sparked with excess of oxygen over 
potassium hydrate until no further change took place. About 2CX) 
c c. of the residue were taken, and at the end of the process there 
remained 2-6 c.c. of gas, which remained unchanged after several 
days' sparking gave the spectrum for argon. No satisfactory ex- 
planation for this spectrum can as yet be given. The process is 
being repeated with larger quantities of gas. It seems impossible 
that this quantity could have come from the air which was left after 
exhausting the retort with a mercury pump. 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



ESTIMATION OF ASH IN VARIOUS DRUGS. 

By Charles H. La Wall. 
Sub-Committee of Research of the United States Pharmacopoeial Committee 

of Revision. 

The subject of the inorganic constituents of plants has received 
very little attention in itself; the existing data are scattered, and, in 
many cases, obtainable only after a laborious search. One exten- 
sive work on the ash in plants was published in 1871.^ 

This concerns itself mainly, however, with the per cent, of ash in 
various agricultural products. The work is in very few libraries in 
this country, and jt was due to the kindness of Professor Trimble 
that the author was enabled to consult it before tabulating his 
results upon this subject. 

Works on materia medica usually contain a list of the proximate 
organic constituents of each plant considered ; percentages of these 
constituents are only given in few cases, and then with no reference 
to the authority whose figures are used. This is often unsatisfactory, 

' 1871, Aschen-analysen von landivirihschaftlichcn ProJuctcn, Fabrikabf alien 
und wildwachsetidrn Pflanzen. Dr. Va\\\\ Wolf. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



138 Estimation of Ash in Various Drugs. {^^i^^l^X^l 

as in one case which came under the author's notice, the percentage 
of ash present in a certain drug was stated as " about 8 per cent.;" 
and, as authentic samples collected by the author gave a maxi- 
mum of 5-20 per cent., and the highest amount in the commercial 
drug was 342 per cent., the accuracy of the authority quoted is 
questionable. 

Some scattering contributions to this subject have been made in 
the past few years, but in most cases the data are incomplete in 
some one respect. It is a matter of surprise to note what little 
importance has been attached to the moisture in the sample taken 
for estimation. It is obvious that the moisture content varies with 
the atmospheric changes to which the drug is exposed, and that 
the only reliable basis for comparison is the per cent, of ash calcu- 
lated to, or estimated in, the moisture-free substance. 

The therapeutic activity of any given drug is attributable to the 
constituents peculiar to that drug, irrespective of the physiological 
effects produced by so-called inert cellular tissue. It might, there- 
fore, truthfully be said that : The therapeutic effect of any given drug 
is the algebraic sum of the effects of its proximate constituents. Effect 
is used in a relative sense only ; no uniform or fixed value can be 
given, in view of the fact that, in no two cases of administration, are 
the conditions exactly similar. The inorganic constituents may play 
a very small part in the physiological action of a drug, but, in the 
present state of our knowledge, no factor, however slight, should 
be ignored. 

Certain groups of plants show marked peculiarities in the amount 
of ash present. The leaves of those plants belonging to the Natural 
Order Solanaceae are noted for the large amount of inorganic mat- 
ter present ; in some instances over 25 per cent., or more than 
one-fourth their weight, is obtained as ash, upon ignition of a 
sample. 

This work was begun for the purpose of collecting data on a 
number of the more commonly-used drugs, with the hope that they 
might be found of service in subsequent studies concerning identifi- 
cation of drugs. The subject proved to be one of great interest, 
and the results accompanying the present paper are published with 
the idea that by making occasional contributions of a limited num- 
ber each time, the tedium of a long, uninteresting list (dry reading 
at its best) would be avoided, and also that others who are in a po- 



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142 F lores DaturcE AlbcB. {^"mSSSt^'"'"' 

sition to verify or add to the figures here given may be interested 
enough to contribute additional data. 

The general arrangement has been made alphabetical, the offi- 
cial drugs being distinguished by printing them in italics, using the 
pharmacopceial titles. 

The present contribution contains all of the estimations made by 
the author to date, the lack of uniformity in many respects being 
due to an imperfect knowledge of what was required when the 
work was begun. 

Those which are incomplete are merely included for comparative 
effect, and duplications will be made in every case, and, in the 
future, only those results will be published which are complete as 
regards the per cent, of ash, percent, of moisture in the air-dried 
drug and qualitative examination of ash. 

The ash estimations were made in a platinum crucible in the usual 
manner; the moisture was estimated by drying about 5 grammes to 
a constant weight at 1 10° C. In certain cases the alkaloidal or ex- 
tractive value is included, but this is merely for the purpose of gen- 
eral comparison ; the processes used for the estimation of such con- 
stituents are at all times obtainable upon application to the author, 
as a detailed record is kept of all estimations made. 



FLORES DATURA ALB^. 

By J. B. NAGE1.V00RT. 

The task of investigating the alkaloidal strength of the flowers of 
Datura Alba, L., was undertaken after reading the article by Mr. Van 
der Wal, in Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor PJiarmacie, 1895, and re- 
produced in the Bulletin of Pharmacy^ 1896, p. 153. 

It was my intention to go a step further and extend Van der 
Wal's experiments over the Solanaceae, then Atropa and Hyoscya- 
mus, on which he reported, and to begin with Datura. 

There was not, however, as much material on hand for the work 
as an English analyst, Mr. Frank Brownei had at his disposal. 

The flowers of Datura are not used in the United States save for 
ornamental purposes, while Browne reports that they are considera- 
bly used in China as a medicine, as well as for criminal purposes. 



' " Datura Alba," by Frank Browne, Pharm. four., 1896, p 197. 



"^^^Mareh.^Sfr!"'"} F lores Daturce Albcc. 143 

It will be wise to take particular notice of this, because the 
Chinese element in our large cities amounts to something. Browne 
reports that the drug is easily administered in tea. 

I might be allowed to remark that the use of Datura as a stupe- 
fying agent is practised, on a large scale, by all Asiatics, not by 
the Chinese exclusively. 

Mr. Browne's communication, with its local color, disposes effect- 
ually of a doubt expressed in Gehe's BerichtCy for September, 1896, 
p. 6. That firm state that they feel bound to call the attention of 
the public to the irregularity that Naou-yang-hwa is the Chinese 
name of a flower, which is mixed with aconite tubers, and that this 
mixture is used, in powder form, in surgery, to alleviate pain. Gehe 
further states: " Hanbury records that the above name is the Chi- 
nese vernacular for Hyoscyamns. Naou-yang-hwa and Nau-young-fa 
(Datura) are semi-successful European experiments to reproduce 
one and the same Chinese hieroglyph." This seems to be a small 
matter and easily disposed of. Of greater importance is what fol- 
lows in the same Berichte, in regard to Datura. 

Dr. Pienemann made an analysis of the seeds, of the root, and of 
the leaves of Datura alba according to Keller's process, so that we 
have now a fairly accurate knowledge of the value of this drug. 
Compare also a later investigation by R. A. Cripps in No. 1290, 
March 16, iS95,of the Pharm. Journal. 

Dr. Pienemann has, in all probability, exhausted his plants with 
Prollius' fluid. 

Pienemann presumed that the alkaloid he obtained was atropine ; 
he intended to prove this by Vitali's test. He mentioned also the 
hypothetical " stramonine ;" but Vitali's test is a test for mydria- 
tics in general, is a group reagent, not an identity reaction for atro- 
pine only. 

Above is said that not as much material could be gathered for 
this investigation as Browne had at his command. I had about 60 
grammes of dry flowers. 

Browne found in the dry flowers, Chinese growth, 0485 f>er 
cent, of an alkaloid which he called hyoscine. 

I found in flowers grown in parks in Chicago, 0464 per cent, al- 
kaloid by weight. I presume that Browne's figures are also obtained 
on the balance, and not by titration and calculation. 

Of course, the coincidence of these figures is remarkable. But it 



144 F lores DaturcB AlbcB. {^'"mS;£9T°'- 

is wise not to attach too much importance to this. I assayed the 
flowers only once. I do not know if Mr. Browne repeated his analysis. 
If I had obtained a higher result than Mr. Browne, that would not 
have been proof that American-grown Datura alba flowers were 
richer in alkaloid than those collected in China. Neither could the 
reverse be argued if conditions differed. Let us take it simply as 
a contribution in favor of the original Van der Wal's investigation, 
and deduce a recommendation to our U. S. P. Revision Committee 
from it. When the article, Stramonii folia, is revised for the eighth 
decennial revision, I would like to see it read *' Herba Stramonii, 
collected in blossom," instead of folia S., so as not to throwaway the 
most valuable part of the plant any longer. 

Assay. — The flowers, after being dried without the application of any artifi- 
cial heat, were reduced to a fine powder. Fifty grammes of this air-dry powder 
was exhausted by percolation with alcohol of 90 volume per cent. Exhaustion 
was proved according to analytical rules. Alcohol was recovered in vacuo. 
Residue was taken up with acidulated water (HgSOj^), whereby all the waxy 
and resinous matter was left behind. The aqueous fluid, which was carefully 
kept to a small amount, was, in a separator, thoroughly washed with chloro- 
form, the latter removed. The fluid was made alkaline with ammonia water, 
agitated again with chloroform. This was collected and the operation repeated 
to exhaustion. The chloroform was evaporated spontaneously. The residue 
was dissolved in acidulated water, because the alkaloid was not pure enough, 
washed with chloroform ; the acid fluid being made alkaline again, yielded to 
chloroform an amorphous, nearly colorless residue, which, being dried over sul- 
phuric acid to constant weight, weighed 0*232 gramme, or o" 464 per cent. This 
was dissolved in very diluted hydrochloric acid, precipitated with gold chloride, 
the precipitate dissolved in slightly acidulated (HCl) water and recrystallized 
from boiling water. The crystals thereby obtained had the form published on 
page 67 of Fliickiger's Reaction, American edition. "Hyoscin goldchloride. " 
Dried over H2SO4 in vacuo. M.p., 5 determinations, 792° C. 

Atropine goldchloride has a melting point of 137°, Hyoscyamine goldchlor- 
ide a melting point of 160°. 

An extract of the flowers of Datura alba, was free from that large amount 
of oil that bothers one so much in Sol. Ex. Sem. Stramonii, U.S.P. 

Will the Revision Committee take it kindly under consideration to replace 
stramonium seed with 20 per cent, useless fat, by stramonium flowers with 
hardly any ? 

Will a colorless petrolatum preparation of those flowers not make an elegant 
sub-siitute for the unsightly ointment? 

I want to see retained in our U.S.P. the very useful Datura. The flowers are 
stronger tliaii the seed. 

Conclusion. — I have made arrangements to repeat this examina- 
tion on a larger scale, in the fall of 1897, and will plant a vacant lot 
next to my laboratory with Datura alba. 



^"i/aTh.^^""-} Ideyttifying Fats and Oils. 145 

Mr. Frank Browne concluded that he obtained hyoscine, 
goldchloride, m.p., 198°. This will have to be verified also, but 
material is lacking now. The reader interested herein is referred to 
the works of E. Schmidt, Max Biechele, Hager, F'isher and Hart- 
wich, and especially to Blythe on •• Poisons, their Effects and Detec- 
tion," London, 1895, P- 37^- 

School of Pharmacy, Northwestern University. 



HEAT OF BROMINATION AS A MEANS OF IDENTIFY- 
ING FATS AND OILS. 

By Wm. BR0MWE1.L, Ph.D., and Joseph L. Mayer, Ph.G. 

A contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Brooklyn College of 

Pharmacy. 

Among other work required of the students in the Brooklyn Col- 
lege of Pharmacy in the course in analytical and applied chem- 
istry, is the examination of fats and oils, with a view to identifying 
them and their adulterants. 

In addition to the regular color tests, we had been employing 
Maumene's method of identifying them by the rise in temperature 
produced on the addition of sulphuric acid. 

This method is a good one in the hands of an expert analyst, but 
our experience with the students here proved it was not the 
method for pharmacists ; it is somewhat unsatisfactory and the re- 
sults not always regular and concordant, so much so that Professor 
Bartley suggested that Professor Bromwell and myself adopt 
Hehner and Mitchell's method of recognizing them by the rise in 
temperature produced on the addition of I c.c. bromine to i gramme 
of oil, and that the table published by them be extended so as to 
include as many other fats and oils as could be obtained. 

This method, which is quite recent (having been introduced to 
the chemical world through the Analyst, July, 1895). depends for its 
action on the fact that the oils are natural glycerides containing un- 
saturated radicals capable of combining with the halogens. 

This fact had been taken advantage of by Hlibl, whose iodine ab- 
sorption method is so well known that it needs but to be mentioned. 
Fawsitt (Journal Society Chemical Industry, 1888) tried to utilize 
the heat evolved by sulphur chloride (SXI..). but nut with sufficient 
success to make it popular. 



146 



Identifying Fats and Oils. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1897. 



To prevent as far as possible loss of heat by radiation, Mitchell 
and Hehner used Professor Devvar's vacuum jacketed tube, which 
he had employed in his experiments with liquefied air. It is a small 
inner tube soldered at the neck to a larger outer tube, from which 
the air is practically exhausted, leaving almost a perfect vacuum and 
consequently making it a non-conductor of heat. 

The expense of such a tube determined us to make our experi- 
ments with a cheaper apparatus, so that our method could be 
applied and our results obtained at any time or place without special 
apparatus. 



X 



?^^^ 






^^ 



^ISS 






:-^-5t^ 






*«fy^ti 



r^-g^cc 



hm.*i'^^^mT.''.y»j 



Fig. I. 



Magnesia and Cotton. 



.^ Magnesia. 



The apparatus we adopted consisted of a larger beaker (a gradu- 
ate or other glass vessel will do when a beaker is not at hand), with 
about one-fourth of an inch of calcined magnesia in the bottom, a 
test tube about 7 inches in length, around the bottom of which was 
wrapped a small piece of cotton ; it was then put in the beaker and 
imbedded in alternate layers of cotton and calcined magnesia, 
being packed quite tightly so that the tube could be withdrawn and 
replaced at will without disturbing the nest so made. 

A Centigrade thermometer graduated to fifths of a degree com- 
pleted the apparatus, which, when ready for use, presented the 
appearance shown in Fig, /. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
March, 1897. 



} Identifying Fats and Oils. 



147 



Mitchell and Hehner added the bromine directly to the oil, but 
the difficulty of conveniently handlinf]^ i c.c. of it was recognized 
by Dr. Wiley {Journal American Chemical !£ociety, April, 1896), 
who su<Tgested that it be diluted with chloroform. 

Acting upon his suggestion, we diluted in the proportion of i c.c. 
of bromine to 4 c.c. of chloroform. 

The action of the bromine on some of the oils being so violent, 
we diluted or dissolved them in chloroform in the proportion of 6 
grammes of oil and made up to 30 c.c. with chloroform. We made 
up this quantity, so that we might conduct a number of determina- 
tions on each oil without having to prepare a fresh solution for each 
determination. 




Fig. 2. 

Of the chloroform bromine solution, we made up enough to last for 
one day's work, fearing that the action of the bromine on the chlo- 
roform might, in due time, generate hydrobromic acid, which would 
interfere with the results. 

It is of great importance to accurately measure the 5 c.c. of oil 
solution ; this is best accomplished by using a glass-stopped burette, 
care being taken to avoid any loss by contact with the walls of the 
tube during the flowing in. 

In the oil solution a thermometer is inserted, to .sec that it lias 
the same tcm()erature as the bromine solution ; if such is not the 



f Am. Jour. Pbarm. 



148 Identifying Fats and Oils. {^"^ii^lliXii. 

case, it must be brought to the same temperature. As the action of 
the bromine on the oil is instantaneous, it is necessary to have the 
thermometer in the oil solution before adding the bromine. 

The bromine being largely in excess of the amount required, the 
5 c.c. of the solution need not be so accurately measured ; we 
adopted Dr. Wiley's apparatus for measuring it {Fig. 2). 

It is simply a wash bottle arrangement ; through one opening 
in the stopper a pipette (graduated on the stem to 5 c.c.) passes 
nearly to the bottom, through the other a short tube which con- 
nects on the outside with an atomizer bulb ; by pressing this bulb 
the solution is forced up in the pipette to the 5 c.c. mark ; the in- 
dex finger is then used to close the top, the stopper and tube are 
withdrawn from the bottle, the point of the pipette directed into the 
oil, and, the finger being withdrawn, the solution flows in. 

Our experiments proved that if the solution was allowed to run 
in very quickly the temperature would be reduced, in some instances^ 
2°, there being much ebullition, which would throw the hot liquid 
against the cold sides of the tube and thus reduce the temperature; 
this result was also brought about by stirring the mixture with the 
thermometer. We would, therefore, recommend that the bromine 
solution be slowly run in, consuming about a half minute in adding 
it. The figures in the table are the results of four determinations 
on each oil, the average of these being given. 

In making the tests we had in use about twelve of the beaker 
test tube apparatus, so that after making the four tests the tubes 
were withdrawn from the nests, washed out with petroleum benzine 
and inverted so that they would dry. For the next set of tests we 
took four more tubes and beakers, and so on, until we had used all ; 
we then come back to the first set, having them, in the meantime, 
cleaned, and the temperature of the nest reduced to that of the room. 

Experiments made with a beaker with cotton loosely packed, 
without any magnesia, proved that in this way the temperature 
was also considerably lowered. 

In the table will be found Hehner and Mitchell's figures for the 
oils on which they worked. There will also be found Dr. Wiley's, 
who worked on a few oils in the laboratory of the Washington 
Bureau of the Department of Agriculture. 

We are still at work on this subject, and hope in our next paper 
to give a factor which, when multiplied by the rise in temperature 
of the oil, will approximately give Hiibl's iodine number. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
March, 1867. 



} Identifying Fats and Oils. 



149 



We would also take this opportunity to thank the members of 
the Class of 1897 for valuable assistance rendered us, under our 
supervision and direction. 

The oils were all supplied gratuitously by the dealers mentioned 
in the table, and were supplied as the purest obtainable. For their 
kindness and promptness in complying with our request, our thanks 
are due. 



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150 A7n?nO?i0/. {^^Ia'r^ch;f8r"- 

AMMONOL. 
By George M. Beringer. 

The manufacturers state that "Ammonol is a product of the 
Amide- benzene series (CgH^NH.,). It differs essentially from the 
other m.edicinal coal-tar products, especially in that it contains am- 
monia in an active form and has a stimulating action on all the vital 
functions." Its medicinal action is claimed " to be stimulant, anti- 
pyretic and analgesic." The chemical composition is given as 
•* Ammoniated-Phenylacetamide," but the chemical formula giv^en 
on the label, '• CgHgNHo," is the accepted formula {ox amido-benzene, 
which is commonly spoken of as aniline. 

The writer was induced to make an examination of this valuable 
mzu coaitar derivative {?^ It is a powder, having a very faint yel- 
low color, put up in i-ounce vials. The odor is strongly ammo- 
niacal, and on smelling the vial one can readily detect the peculiar 
empyreumatic odor of commercial ammonium carbonate. On closer 
examination, even with the naked eye, one can detect small parti- 
cles of a crystalline character, indicatmg imperfect comminution of 
a cr^'stalline ingredient. This is the so-called auiorphous micro 
crystals of the manufacturer's description. 

One gramme of the powder was rubbed up with 20 c.c. of water 
and poured on a tared filter, and the mortar and filter carefully 
washed v>-ith an additional 10 c.c. of water added in small portions. 
After drying, the residue was a white powder, weighing -360 gm. 
A portion left no ash on incinerating. On boiling with concentrated 
potassa solution it was converted into aniline, and with chloroform 
readily yielded the isonitrile reaction. From these tests, also sup- 
ported by solubilitj' and color reactions, I was led to conclude that 
this was pure phenylacetamide, or acetanilid. According to the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia, acetanilid is soluble in 194 parts of water, and 
so the 30 c.c. of water used would have extracted -154 gm., and this, 
added to the undissolved portion on the filter, would give the total 
amount of acetanilid as -514 gm., or about 50 per cent. 

'I he filtrate was a light canary-yellow-colored solution, and, on 
testing, showed the presence of sodium and ammonia as carbonates. 

The filtered solution of i gm. of ammonol in 30 c.c. of water, evapo- 
rated on the water-bath, yielded a residue of -222 gm., and on pro- 
longed heating, minute micaceous crystals separated and sublimed 



^^March ';S^^"- } A mmonol. 1 5 1 

into loose tufts on the surface. These crystals proved to be acetanilid, 
showing that, as stated above, it had been partly extracted by the 
water, and that it was more or less volatile at the temperature of 
the water-bath. On incineration, the residue left -158 gm. ash, 
which required 29- c.c. ^,j sulphuric acid for neutralization, which, 
calculated for sodium bicarbonate, would be -24317 gm. 

One gm. of ammonol was incinerated, and left an ash weighing 
•157 gm., which, titrated with f-^ sulphuric acid, required 30 c.c, or, 
calculated as sodium bicarbonate, -25 i 5 gm. This would indicate the 
presence of about 25 per cent, of sodium bicarbonate in the product, 
and leave 25 per cent, for ammonium carbonate. 

On adding hydrochloric acid in excess to the canary-colored 
aqueous solution, the color is changed to a rosy pink, which is again 
changed to the pale yellow on adding ammonia water. With nitric 
acid, the color is also changed to pink, but in excess is destroyed, 
the solution becoming colorless, and ammonia does not again 
restore the original color. From these reactions I became con- 
vinced that a small amount of some aniline color had been added 
as a disguise, and not for medicinal action. An examination of a 
number of so-called aniline orange and yellow colors, for one possess- 
ing similar reactions and tinctorial properties, was made, and the 
dye known as Dietanilycllaiv was found to give similar reactions. 
According to Allen (Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. Ill, Pt. I, 
p. i84),metanil-yellowor orange MN, is the sodium salt of diphenyl- 
amine-azobenzene-meta-sul phonic acid. 

From my examination, I am compelled to conclude that •• ammo- 
nol," instead of being a new " coal-tar derivative," is merely an 
admixture of the well-known acetanilid, sodium bicarbonate and 
ammonium carbonate, and that the following formula represents its 
real composition : 

Gramme*. 
li Acetanilid 

Stxlium bicarbonate -5' 

Ammonium carl>onate .... • ■ 5' 

Metauil-yellow 0*005 

Mixtures of acetanilid and sodium bicarbonate, as an antacid and 
antipyretic and analgesic, have been in daily use by nearly every 
physician for at least a decade. The addition of ammonium carbo- 
nate as an arterial stimulant is not unusual, and in many cases such 
a mixture must undoubtedly prove serviceable. Mr. Joseph \V. 



152 Chemical Analysis of Sage Brush. {'^'^^^^11^^^'^' 

England informs me that at the Philadelphia Hospital they use an 
ammoniated acetanilid, the formula of which is : 

Grains. 

Ammonium carbonate ^ 

Sodium bicarbonate i/^ 

Pulv. acetanilid 2^ 

Misce. 
Dose, one to three powders. 

Ammonol thus appears to be another of the numerous mixtures 
of acetanilid that are being palmed off on the gullable physicians 
as new and valuable discoveries. The names published in their 
circulars would indicate that the Ammonol Chemical Company have 
been unusually successful in playing on the credulity of quite a 
number of prominent practitioners, and medical as well as pharma- 
ceutical journals. 

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SAGE BRUSH, ARTEMISIA 

TRIDENTATA, NUTT. 

By Griffith H. Maghke. 
Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 161. 

The sage brush, or sage bush, is a small shrub, 5 or 6 feet in 
height, which grows abundantly on the Western plains, covering 
hundreds of square miles on the foot-hills of Nevada and Utah, and 
extending from Arizona to Oregon and Sonora, and as far east as 
Nebraska. It does not thrive where there is an abundance of water, 
but rather prefers a dry, barren soil ; ranchmen very often clear their 
ground of it by flooding with water. 

When fired, it burns rapidly and with an intense heat, affording 
excellent fuel, and the Indians employ the smoky flame in curing or 
smoking their buckskins ; they also use an infusion of the leaves 
for colds, headache and mountain fever (considered by many physi- 
cians to be a modification of typhoid lever). 

The leaves and flower heads used in the present analysis were 
collected in Fremont County, Wyoming, at an elevation of 5,000 
feet. F'ifty grammes of the fine powder were used, and the usual 
method of plant analysis was employed, except that the drug, after 
extraction with alcohol, was enclosed in a strong piece of muslin 
and suspended in the water and succeeding solvents, with the result 
that a much smaller amount of liquid was necessary for complete 



^ V^h.^STi"" } Fluid Extracts. 1 5 3 

exhaustion, and some loss in handling the drug by the ordinary 
method was avoided ; it also admitted of expression being employed 
without loss of material. 

The following results were obtained : 

Per Cent. 

Moisture 848 

Ash 492 

Petroleum ether extract, containing volatile oil 084, fixed oil 
and fat 041, wax melting at 61^ C. o 61, and caoutchouc 

026 212 

Ether extract, consisting of resins 4' 25 

Absolute alcohol extract, containing resins, glucosidal bitter 

principle, etc •• • 332 

Water extract, composed of mucilage 3*22, glucose 052, ex- 
tractive 4*90 8*63 

Alkali extract, containing pectin 274, extractive 3 36 610 

Acid extract 114 

Lignin 6*44 

Cellulose 54"6o 



loooo 

The ash was composed of calcium, potassium, manganese and 
iron, combined with hydrochloric, sulphuric, phosphoric and car- 
bonic acids. 

The alcohol extract yielded a bitter principle by treating with 
acidulated water and agitating this solution with ether or chloroform, 
which removed the principle and deposited it, on evaporation, in 
an amorphous condition. 

Tannin and starch were not found in the drug. 



FLUID P:X TRACTS. 
By William B. Thompson. 



Reasonable and well-tempered discussion on subjects in contro- 
versy ought to be improving to knowledge. The natural tendency 
of such would be to turn thought into new channels, or to broaden 
its scope in directions already pursued. Events which, at times, 
seem adverse and disappointing, may often be turned into fortune- 
ate advantage. The use and ;///5-use of fluid e.xtracts in extempor- 
izing the preparation of the lesser galenicals, as tinctures, wines, 
syrups and infusions, has evoked the expression of some opinions 
and is likely to arouse more. It would seem to be within the con- 



154 Zanzibar Copal. { 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 



March, 1897. 



fines of truth to say that at least 90 per cent, of the pharmacists of 
this country resort, in a more or less extent, to the practice of dilut- 
ing fluid extracts to form the minor preparations. That this prac- 
tice would inevitably follow the advent of this class of preparations 
(fluid extracts) having official sanction, as well as unauthoritative 
origin, was obvious, and plainly foreseen at the various periods of re- 
vision, adoption and introduction. And it now has the appearance 
of an eleventh-hour conversion for pharmacists to criticize the 
natural sequence of their own acts. No protest having come from 
the medical profession in regard to any deficient therapeutic value 
of the lesser galenicals so made, may we not be straining a point or 
principle somewhat in making too broad a condemnation of the 
practice ? 

If the fluid extract is right exactly, and in every particular just 
what it should be, the addition or dilution (provided it be made 
without material disturbance of permanent solubility) must be right. 
There are two dilemmas and two horns ! If the result of contro- 
versy should be to induce pharmacists to discriminate more intelli- 
gently between the true and the false — between the good and the bad 
— much good will undoubtedly arise from a seeming evil. But that 
the 90 per cent, of pharmacists can be induced by any persuasion 
or argument to abandon that national penchant for a short-cut to 
the goal, is an idea too un-American to be entertained. Had w^e 
not better wisely adapt the fluids to the dilutions ? 

Philadelphia, February, 1897. 



ZANZIBAR COPAL.i 

By a. Stephan. 



Copal is a collective name for a number of resins that exhibit 
great differences in their chemical and physical properties ; they 
may, according to the author, be arranged in the following groups : 

[a) East African, probably derived from Trachylobium mossam- 
bicense and Hymenea verrucosa. 

{b) West African, said to be obtained from Guibourtia copallifera, 
or from species of Copaifera. 

* Pharmaceutical Journal, December 19, 1896. 



^VaTh.^g^^"} Zanzibar Copal. I55 

[c) Kauri copal from New Zealand, the botanical origin of which 
is Dammara australis. 

{d) Manilla copal, obtained from Vateria indica. 

(e) South American copal, derived from Hymenea coubaril, H. 
stilbocarpa, Trachylobium martianum, T. hornemannianum. 

The first three are fossil resins, and are dug up out of the earth, 
whilst the last two are collected from the plants yielding them. 

To the East African copals belong the following three varieties: 

(i) Copal from Mozambique. 

(2) Copal from Madagascar. 

(3) Copal from Zanzibar. 

The purity and hardness of the last variety render it the most 
valuable, and the principal object of the author's work was to 
investigate the constituents of Zanzibar copal ; the details that 
follow relate, therefore, to that variety only. This must be empha- 
sized, because many statements are met with without any mention 
of the variety of copal to which they refer. 

From Bagamoyo, in East Africa, the author received raw 
(unwashed) copal, pure copal, and specimens of the tree yielding it. 
The resin is brought down by the natives to Kiboa from districts 
from the coast ; the botanical specimens came from Usegna, which 
lies inland westward from Bagamoyo. The commercial resin, 
obtained from a German firm, agreed in its characters with the 
genuine specimens sent from East Africa. 

Zanzibar copal, finely powdered, melts at about 140^ C; it is 
slowly but completely soluble in alcohol ; benzol, chloroform and 
glacial acetic acid dissolve about 30 per cent., ether about 34 per 
cent., petroleum spirit and carbon bisulphide about 10 per cent. 

When boiled with alcohol the resin caked, and only a slight pro- 
portion dissolved, but by repeated digestion with alcohol it could be 
brought entirely into solution and precipitated with water. The 
resin thus jjurified was more soluble in the menstrua previously 
mentioned, and dissolved also in boiling very dilute solution of pot- 
ash (o I). All attempts to separate it into other constituents were 
unsuccessful, nor could it be saponified. It appeared to consist of 
resin-acids, the principal of which, constituting about 80 per cent, of 
tlie resin, was called trachylolic acid. This acid could be obtained 
with difficulty in minute sphiero-crystalline masses, melting at 
168° C. From it the potassium, copj^er and iron salts were pre- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1897. 



156 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {"^"MaS 

pared. A second acid, present to the extent of about 4 per cent, 
only, was also obtained ; to this the name isotrachylolic acid was 
assigned. These two acids, together with about 6 per cent, of 
^/-copal resin and /9-copal resin, a bitter principle and volatile oil, 
form the constituents of Zanzibar copal as far as the author could 
succeed in separating them. 

An examination of the stems sent from Usegna showed that^ 
although the primary cortex contains schizogenous secretion ducts, 
these are soon thrown off as the secondary cortex is produced, and 
in the bark of older twigs and of the stem no ducts could be found. 
The resin appears, therefore, to the author to be a pathological 
product. 

RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

ASSAY OF JOHORE GAMBIER. 

\V. O. Richtmann {Pharmaceutical Review^ 15, 27) has examined 
six specimens of Johore gambier obtained by the University or 
Wisconsin from the Columbian Exposition. The tannin was esti 
mated by the process recommended by the Commission of German 
Technical Chemists and published in 1885; the catechin was deter- 
mined by extracting it from the aqueous solution of the gambier, 
and the ash and moisture according to the usual methods. The 
following are the results in per cent. : 

Specimen No. Moisture. Ash. Tannin. Catechin. 

2,900 12-37 4'35 39*63 ii'ic. 

2,901 II*20 3-63 32'5I 9*22 

2,902 1-38 3-65 40-51 9-39 

2.904 1-50 1-87 46-95 5-25 

.2,905 8-37 3-77 22-21 8*68 

2,906 7-00 4-13 29-94 6-98 

The presence of two fungi, Penicillium glaucum and Aspergillus 
niger, was demonstrated. 

ON THE SEPARATION OF NITRATE OF COPPER FROM NITRATE OF 
SILVER IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CAUSTIC. 

C. J. H. ^ dixd^n [Pharmaceutical yournal, January 23, 1897) gives 
the following method for separating these two salts : It is not gen- 
erally known that strong nitric acid precipitates nitrate of silver 
from concentrated aqueous solutions, and this action has been used 



Am. Jour. Pharm. • 



SiarchT^?.''"'} Literature Relating to Pliarmacy, 157 

in the manufacture of caustic at the Calcutta Medical Depot. The 
silver employed always contains a certain amount of copper, and 
after solution of the metal in nitric acid and separation of the gold, 
as much as possible of the nitrate of silver is crj'stallized out, and 
the deep blue mother liquor evaporated to dryness. The dry salt 
is then powdered and placed in a glass funnel, stopped with a plug of 
asbestos, and percolated with strong nitric acid, specific gravity 1-42. 
The nitric acid dissolves the whole of the nitrate of copper, leaving 
the nitrate of silver perfectly white, while only a very small amount 
of the latter salt is dissolved. The nitric acid can, of course, be re- 
covered by distillation, and the small amount of nitrate of silver 
separated from the nitrate of copper by precipitation with salt, and, 
when sufficient has accumulated, reduced to the metallic condition 
by one of the usual methods. In preparing nitrate of silver by 
crystallizing out the salt, a point is reached when the mother liquor 
is too highly charged with nitrate of copper to permit of a suffi- 
ciently pure silver salt separating by crystallization, and this impure 
or •* blue nitrate of silver" has hitherto been returned to the mint. 
By the adoption, however, of the method above described, these 
residues can be worked up and nearly the whole of the silver 
obtained in the form of nitrate, and as the nitric acid can be recov- 
ered the process is decidedly economical, while it affords a salt 
practically free from copper. 

TONKA BEANS. 

The following information concerning this drug is furnished by 
Superintendent J. H. Hart, of the Royal Hotanic Gardens, Trinidad, 
in the Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information for January, 1897, 
p. II. 

The tonga, tonquin or tonka bean is the product of a tree known 
to botanists as Dipterix odorata, Willd., and less frequently as the 
Coumarouna odora of Aublet. The latter, however, is given in the 
Kew Index as the nonun prius. 

The tree thrives well in Trinidad when planted in shady, damp 
situations, and is very abundant in the forest of the neighboring 
mainland of Venezuela. The fruit or seed ripens in June and July, 
and in these months large shipments are received in Trinidad 
from South American ports. In the newspaper of July 10, 1896, 
the arrival is reported of a consignment of 260 bags" Tonca Heans," 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



158 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^^ilxcx^Jm. 

by S. S. Bolivar, an Orinoco trader. The beans are sent to Trinidad 
for preparation for European and American markets ; for this pur- 
pose they are conveyed to warehouses, where, under customs regu- 
lations, they are steeped in rum for a certain time, and are then 
spread on the floors in layers 9 to 12 inches in thickness, to undergo 
a kind of fermenting and decaying process, during which white 
crystals are developed on the outside of the bean. As much as 
;^30,ooo worth have been imported and reshipped during a single 
year. The tree grows some 60 or more feet high. It belongs to 
the Leguminosae or bean family, but is one of the few members of 
this order that produces a single-seeded drupe- like pod, which does 
not open at maturity. The seed, when ripe, so soon loses its vitality 
that it is difficult at times to procure supplies for raising plants. 

A SOLVENT CAPABLE OF SEPARATING CODEINE FROM MORPHINE. 

L. Fouquet (Jour, de Pharm. et de Chim,, [O], 5, 49) has found 
that morphine is insoluble in anisol in the cold, and only slightly 
soluble at the boiling temperature. Codeine, on the contrary, is 
soluble in the same solvent cold, and its solubility rapidly rises with 
the temperature according to the following : 

Temperature. Morphine. Codeine. 

9° Insoluble. 7*80 per 100, by weight. 

16° .... '« 15-28 " " 

32° 

100° o"95 per 100. i64"oo *' ** 

150° 4-80 

These investigations were made with a very pure anisol, boiling 
at 150° C, and having a specific gravity of 0-991. 

Morphine was found to crystallize in beautiful, colorless, anhy- 
drous prisms by chilling the solution made in boiling anisol ; these 
crystals did not melt at 120^, like the hydrated morphine, but 
became brown at 210°, and were converted into an oily black liquid 
at 247°. 

It should be noted that the solubility of the codeine is increased 
by crystallization from anisol ; since after one crystallization the 
alkaloid dissolves in the proportion of 1075 P^rts per 100 at the 
temperature of 0°, whereas the proportion is only 7-80 per 100 at 
9° with the codeine of commerce. 

The author concluded that he could, with anisol, effect a separa- 



Am.Joar. PhHrm. 



Ma^rch.TS""} Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 159 

tion of the two alkaloids when mixed, and to establish this he made 
a mixture of 1044 grammes codeine and 0-7 10 grammes of mor- 
phine; he exhausted this with 20 c.c. of anisol at 15°, and washed 
the residue with 10 c.c. more of the solvent poured on the filter; 
after drying he found the residual morphine to weigh 0702 grammes, 
corresponding to a loss of a little over i per cent. From these re- 
sults he concluded that anisol is applicable in many ways as a 
laboratory solvent in toxicological investigations. 

NATIVE FOOD PLANTS OF THE COEUR d'ALENE INDIANS. 

The following is taken from a "Report on a l^otanical Survey 
of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains in Idaho," by John B. Leiberg. 
Conttibutiotis from the ♦• U. S. National Herbarium^' Vol. 5, No. I. 

The native food plants are few. The paucity of plants suitable 
for human food is one of the most remarkable circumstances in 
a region which supports such vast quantities of vegetation as 
does this in its forest covering. Probably, for this reason mainly, 
it contained only a small aboriginal population, and the only 
localities in which there appear to have been permanent settle- 
ments of the Indians were in the slack-water portion of the Coeur 
d'Alene — possibly some existed in the lower valley of the St. 
Joseph. The rest of the country was visited by them only in 
their migratory summer and fall excursions in pursuit of game 
and fish, with which the St. Mary and St. Joseph Valleys for- 
merly abounded. 

The most valuable food plant in the dietary of the Coeur d'Alene 
Indians was undoubtedly the camass (Camassia esculenta), a plant 
belonging to the lily family, therefore related to the onion, but lack- 
ing all trace of alliaceous flavor and smell. The esculent part of 
the plant is the bulb, which, in the fresh state, is of an oblong 
shape, seldom more than 25 cm. (i inch) in diameter and 4 cm. 
(l J^ inches) long. It is mucilaginous, and possesses very little, if 
any, flavor. The flowers are bright or deep blue, and a cnmass 
meadow in full bloom, seen from an elevation, gives the impression 
that one is looking at a body of very clear water reflecting a cloud • 
less sky. The lower portion of the valley of the St. Joseph, and, in 
particular, that of the St. Mary and its tributaries, were, before the 
advent of settlements, among the classic camass grounds of the 
Coeur d'Alenes. Here the tribe came in large numbers each sum- 



Am. Jour Pharm. 



1 60 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^"^MaSfsS: 

mer to dig the root and to hunt the deer and elk, which roamed 
by the thousand in the surrounding forest, and to catch the trout 
with which the streams teemed. Every meadow was a camass field. 
The plant was so plentiful in many places that it is no exaggera- 
tion to say that in the upper St. Mary basin more than one-half of 
the total herbaceous vegetation in the lowlands was composed of 
this one species. With the advance of settlements came the utili- 
zation of the camass fields as hay meadows. This ended the exist- 
ence of the plant, except as a weed in the farmers' fields, and the 
camass digging in the Coeur d'Alene basins, like the game, is 
now a thing of the past. Strangely enough, the plant seems to 
have been entirely absent from the North Fork areas, at least I do 
not know of a single locality where it occurs. 

Two species of lichens, Alectoria fremontii and Alectoria ochro- 
leuca, principally the form sarmentosa of the latter species, were 
eaten by the Coeur d'Alene tribe. Both are extremely plentiful at 
all elevations. Boiled, or rather baked, in which latter condition 
they were mainly used, together with venison, they become some- 
what gelatinous in their consistency, and lose the bitter taste which 
they possess in a fresh state. 

Of fruits, they had huckleberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides princi- 
pally), raspberries (Rubus leucodermis and R. strigosus), black- 
berries (Rubus ursinus or vitifolius) and service berries (Amelanchier 
alnifolia). These fruits are gathered and used at the present time 
by the white settlers, but none are abundant in the region except 
the huckleberries and service berries, and these not every year. 
The Coeur d'Alene Indians draw no more native plant foods from 
these mountains. They are now mostly farmers, have large and 
fairly well-cultivated ranches, and find in the raising of the cereals 
and vegetables of civilization a far more bountiful supply of food, 
and much more palatable withal, than they ever obtained from the 
laboriously gathered camass of their mountain meadows. 



Professor Dr. R. Kobert has left Dorpat, Russia, and will, in future, be 
located at the Brehmenschen Liingciihcilanstalt in Gorbersdorf, Germany, 
where he will occupy the position of director. Dr. Robert's ten years as Pro- 
fessor of Pharmacology at the University of Dorpat have been eminently success- 
ful ones, and many expressions of regret have been heard from those with whom 
he was associated. 

Dr. Hans Hermatm Julius Hager recently died at Neuruppin, Germany, at 
the advanced age of eighty-nine years. We hope to furnish a suitable sketch 
of this eminent pharmacist in our next issue, written by one of his friends. 



"""MaThJS^:"} Editorial. l6i 

EDITORIAL. 

EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL CONGRESS. 

The General Pharmaceutical Association, of Belgium, has decided to hold the 
Eighth International Congress of Pharmacy in Brussels, August 14 to 19, 
1897. 

There will be six sections organized : 

(i) Legislation and questions of professional interest, Deontology and Phar- 
maceutical Education. 

(2) Practical Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacopceia. 

(3) Food. 

(4) Sanitary Matters, Public Health. 

(5) Microscopical, Bacteriological and Biological Researches. 

(6) Toxicology. 

The following questions have been suggested by the Committee of Organi- 
zation to be discussed at the meetings : 

(i) In the actual state of science, is it not advisable to enforce in all drugs 
and medicines a normal quantity of active principles ? 

(2) Is it not necessary to unify the modes of analysis of medicine and of 
their active principles ? If so, what are the best ways of doing so ? 

(3) As a question of public safety, what are the best regulations of the prac- 
tice of pharmacy ? 

(4) From a bacteriological point of view, what is the best system of analysis 
of drinking water? How far can the methods actually known, be relied 
upon ? 

(5) Has the chemist the right of preparing and selling organic essences and 
the substances employed in organotherapy ? Which are the best ways of insur- 
ing the chemist of the value of these substances, and also of serums ? 

(6) Show the best ways of encouraging the manufacture of new medicines ? 
Is it possible, in patents, to amalgamate the protection of private trade and 
public good? Would it not be preferable for the chemist to sell them and the 
doctor to presenile them under names more appropriate to their composition ? 

(7) Prepare the plan of a programme of pharmaceutical studies. 

In addition to these queries, the committee has offered a list of twenty sub- 
jects for papers, on which some six prizes will be awarded. Those who desire 
to take part in the Congress should send their names to M. Maurice Duyk, 
secretary, or Dr. Fernand Ranwez, president, 102 Chauss(5e de Wavre, Brussels, 
Belgium. 

AMERICAN MILK SUGAR. 

Previous to the year 1890, milk sugar from Switzerland was largely used in 
the United States. The establishment of a large number of " creanu-ries, " 
however, has changed this condition of affairs materially. After making but- 
ter and cheese, milk sugar is the only by-pro<luct. The vacuum pan appears 
to have made this substance available to such an extent that it not only 
largely supplies the demand at home, but it has become a factor in foreign 
markets. The milk sugar manufacturers of (lermany have petitione<l their 
Government for a protective tariff, not against the Swiss product, but against 
that from .America, which, the petitioners claim, will gain such a foothold that 
it will be difficult to exclude it. Consul Germain, at Ziirich, says that the 
export of Swiss milk sugar to America has almost ceased. 



i62 Reviews, {^"M^ll^J^'"^- 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Principles and Practice of Agricultural. Analysis. By Harvey W. 
Wiley, chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Volume III, Agricul- 
tural Products. Chemical Publishing Company, Baston, Pa. 1897. 

The third and final volume of this valuable work has recently been com- 
pleted, and occupies 665 octavo pages. The three volumes cover about 1600 
pages. Volume I deals with soils and their analysis ; Volume II treats of ferti- 
lizers, and Volume III of agricultural products. All are full of special informa- 
tion for the analyst, but the third volume appeals especially to the pharmacist. 
It first considers the operations of sampling, drying, incinerating and extract- 
ing, and then takes up the special processes involved in estimating sugars and 
starches, carbohydrates in crude or manufactured agricultural products, fats 
and oils, nitrogenous bodies, dairy products and miscellaneous agricultural pro- 
ducts. The citation of authorities throughout the work has been on a liberal 
scale, so that one has at his command a complete view of the whole subject. 
There is no other book like it in the English language, and its possession is 
almost a necessity to every one having to do with the analysis of organic sub- 
stances. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the 
Forty-fourth Annual Meeting, held at Montreal, Canada, August, 1896, also 
the constitution, by-laws and roll of members. Published by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. Baltimore. 1896. 

It is with considerable satisfaction that we note the publication of th^ Pro- 
ceedings some three months earlier than they appeared last year. It is to be 
hoped that ere long they may appear within three months of the adjournment 
of the meeting. 

The something over 500 pages of Report on the Progress of Pharmacy are a 
part of this volume, which will be of lasting value. Professor Diehl has made 
an excellent collection of abstracts, which are both readable and instructive. 

The original papers are an improvement over those which have appeared in 
some previous volumes, although, as many of them were not thought suffi- 
ciently well of by the members at the meeting to admit of their being more 
than read by title, it is a question whether they should not have been curtailed 
somewhat or omitted altogether. 

A Simple Method of Water Analysis, especially designed for the use 
of medical officers of health. By John C. Thresh, M.D. (Vic), D.Sc. (Lond.), 
D.P.H. (Camb.). J. & A. Churchill, London. 1897. 

What we took for a valuable work on water analysis for health officers and 
physicians came to an untimely end in our estimation before we passed the 
introduction. The claims for recognition by this book appear to be based on 
the use by the author of a prepared reagent, called a " soloid," whereby he is 
able to give the free ammonia, chlorine, nitrites, nitrates, hardness, absorbed 
oxygen, etc., in water, with a facility that is little short of magical. It is a 
kind of tablet medication applied to chemistry. 

The author apologizes for this mechanical method of conducting water 
examinations on the score of necessity, but it strikes us that the water had 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l JP/^^'i/rncie \f\1 

March, 18y7. / KCcieWS. IO3 

better be let alone rather than to be tested with reagents of which the 
so-called analyst can know nothing. A medical officer, with a case of ready- 
made reagents and this book, would be a dangerous man. We believe there is 
no better waj' to explain the character of the book than to quote the following 
test for nitrites : 

"Take about 70 c.c. of the water in one of the tubes, dissolve therein i 
soloid of compound potassium iodide, add a soloid of acid sulphate and dis- 
solve. Note whether any blue color develops within five minutes, and record 
whether faint, distinct, very distinct or dark blue. If no blue color develops 
in five minutes, nitrites are absent. The blue color, if produced, will be pro- 
portionate to the amount of nitrites present." 

H.\NDBOOK OF Structural Formulae, for use of students. By Henry 
Leffmann. P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Philadelphia. 1S97. 

Almost every one having to do with chemistry has felt the need of a book 
with the foregoing title. Dr. Leffmann has, in compiling such a work, done a 
real service to students, and, we might add, especially to those who are inter- 
ested in the relation between chemical composition and physiological action. 
Only alternate pages have been printed, in order to admit of the addition of 
new compounds and of notes. A table of elements and an index add to the 
completeness of the work/ 

Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the North 
Carolin.\ Pharmaceutical Association, lield at Moorehead City, July 22 
and 23, 1896. Raleigh, North Carolina. 1896. 

The two original papers are : " Guaiacol," by E. V. Howell, and " Expenses 
in Comparison with Purchases of Drugs, and Expenses in Comparison with 
Sales of Soda Water for a Period of Ten Years," by H. R. Home. 

Des AcanthaceES Medicinales. By Georges Dethan. These ; Ivcole 
Supcrieure de Pharmacie de Paris. 1S96-97. 

This is a complete illustrated monograph on the medicinal members of 
the natural order Acanthaceiu. The work is divided into two parts. In the 
first part, the author treats the members of the order in general, giving the 
geographical distribution, history, general morphological and anatomical 
characters, principles of classification, properties and uses. In the second 
part, the individual plants receive special treatment in regard to their 
morphology, anatomic structure, properties and uses. The whole comprises 
192 pages of valuable reading matter, with a complete index. 

On the Toxic Action of Dissolved Salts and Their Elkctrolstic 
Dissociation. By Louis Kahleuljerg and Ro<luey H. True. Reprint from 
Botanical Gazette, August, 1896. 

Native Drugs of Ceylon. By Professor Rodney H. True. Reprint from 
Pharmaceutical Review, January, 1897. Bassia longifolia constitutes the special 
subject of this interesting communication. 

Gf.nhkal Rf,im)rt on a Hotanical Survey of thk C<»i:rR i» .Alhnk 
Mou.NTAiNS IN Idaho DURIN<v thi: Summfr of 1895. Hy John \\. Lcilnrrg. 



1 64 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { ^ VaS S?^''"' 

Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. 5, No. i. Issued Janu- 
ary 25, 1897. A number of interesting subjects are discussed concerning the 
Coeur d'Alene region, notably, the mineral deposits, native food plants and 
forest resources. Some of these we shall take occasion to notice elsewhere in 
this Journal. 

Electro-Germination, Bulletin No. 43. Hatch Experiment Station of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College, January, 1897. 

This interesting coutribution shows that electricity exerts an appreciable 
influence upon the germination of seeds. As a result of experiment it has 
been found that at the end of twenty-four hours, over 30 per cent, more 
seeds were germinated in the treated lots than in the normal, at the end of forty- 
eight hours about twenty per cent., and in seventy -two hours six per cent. 

Calendar of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Besides 
giving information to members and others concerning the Society, this book 
contains many other valuable matters of interest to the pharmacist in general. 

Les Drogues Recemment Inscrites au Codex. Par le Dr. Louis Plan- 
chon. I. Les Strophanthus. II. Le Cascara Sagrada. Reprints from Bulletin 
de Phannacie du Sud-Est. 1896. These are illustrated contributions on the 
two drugs, from a French standpoint, and are a valuable addition to the subject. 

The Journal of Pharmacology is the title of the successor to the Alumni 
Journal of the New York College of Pharmac}'. The first number makes a 
good start with a contribution on "The Comparative Anatomy of the Roots of 
Rio Ipecac (Uragoga Ipecacuanha, Baill) and Carthagena Ipecac (Uragoga 
Granatensis, Baill)." By Albert Schneider, M.S., M D. 

Practical Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review of Reviews is the 
title of a new pharmaceutical journal ; it is conducted by Benjamin Lillard, 108 
Fulton Street, New York. 

The Physician's Vest-Pocket Formula Book. Fourteenth Edition. 
Published by McKesson and Robbins. New York. 1897. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, February 17, 1897. 

The fifth of the present series of Pharmaceutical Meetings was held in the 
Museum of the College at 3.30 p.m. Mr. J. W. England presided. The minutes 
of the last meeting were allowed to stand as published. 

The presentation of specimens was next in order, and the registrar called 
attention to the following, which were sent by Mr, E. M, Holmes, Curator of 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain : False Buchu, False Maranham 
Jaborandi, Drimys Granatensis (pepper bark). Adulterated Hellebore, Aracati 
Jaborandi, Ceylon Nux Vomica, Pilocarpus Microphyllus and Chinese Colo- 
cynth. On motion, it was ordered that an expression of thanks be sent Mr. 
Holmes for his donation. 

Prof. Remington reported the results of a large number of experiments in a 
paper entitled " Acetic Acid as a Menstruum and Solvent " (see p. 121). The 



Am. Jour. Pl)arm. 
March. 18tC. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



165 



paper was accompanied by samples of liquid preparations of various drugs, 
and in calling attention to these, Prof. Remington said that acetic acid as a 
menstruum was unsuited for some drugs, but that it could be used to replace 
alcohol in a number of instances. 

He also remarked upon the question of the cost of these solvents, and stated 
that an extract made with alcohol was six times as expensive as one made with 
acetic acid. 

The subject proved to be of special interest to the retail pharmacists present, 
and several of them reported favorably upon its use in making preparations of 
such drugs as sanguinaria, ergot and gentian. 

In connection with this subject, Professor Remington showed a convenient 
device for controlling the flow of percolates, which he recommended as much 
superior to the rubber tubing directed by the Pharmacopceia. The principle 
embodied was that of a valve regulated by a screw adjustment. 




The Micrometer Balance. 



A paper on "-Vnimoiiol " was ])resented by Mr. Geo. M. Reringer (see p. 150). 
Samples of ammonol from an original jxickage and ammonol made according 
to a formula, which the author proposed for the compound after examination 
of the manufacturer's product, were exhibited, and attention directed to the 
complete similarity in appearance of the two products The paper elicited 
considerable discussion, during which the frequency with which physicians 
directed ammoniated acetanilid was remarked upon. 

"A Chemical Analysis of Sage Hrush, .Artemisia Triilentata, Nutt." was the 
subject of a contribution, by Mr. (irifiith II. Maghee (see p. 1521. The flo>*cis 
and leaves were the parts examined, and in addition to the usual plant con- 
stituents, a bitter glucosidal principle was obtained, which was found diflicult 
to separate. 

The last paper on the programme was presented by Mr. Chas. II. LaWall, 
and was entitled, " I^stimalion of -Ash in Various Drugs" 1 see p. n;). This 
was the fust of a series of papers on this subject which the author inieuds to 



1 66 Obituary. {''^i^^S.-Xm^'^- 

present. Results of examinatious of more than loo samples, official and unoffi- 
cial, were tabulated. If completeness in the analysis of plants is at all desir- 
able, then the importance of such work is at once apparent, and to the 
future collaborators of materia medica such knowledge will prove extremely 
valuable. 

Professor Remington called attention to a new form of prescription balance, 
which is manufactured by the Micrometer Balance Scale Company, of Troy, 
N. Y., and is illustrated by the accompanying engraving. The arms are of 
unequal length and there is but one pan. The knife edges are delicately 
adjusted and the ordinary weights are discarded. The principal feature of the 
device is embodied in two graduated cylinders, in combination with a screw. 
The inner cylinder is rigidly attached to the arm, and by moving the outer 
cylinder either to or from the fulcrum, weighing is accomplished, the weight 
being read on the index. 

There being no further business, a motion to adjourn was affirmed. 

T. S. WlKGAND, 

Registrar. 



OBITUARY. 

Auguste Tread, the eminent French plant anatomist, died in Paris, October 
1 6, 1896. His most noteworthy papers pertained to the vascular system of 
plants. Under the auspices of the French Government he explored various 
regions of North America in 1848 and 1849, and many of the cactus species of 
European gardens, as well as the Yucca, which bears his name, were introduced 
by him. 

On August 9, 1896, /<9/z7^ C. Allen died at his home, 335 South Fifth Street, 
this city, in the ninetieth year of his age. He was educated as a druggist, 
having graduated with honor from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 
1829, He was elected a member of the College in 1829, and for many years 
was noted as being the oldest living alumnus. He was a direct descendant of 
Nathaniel Allen, one of the commissioners of Penn, for laying out Phila- 
delphia. 

Henry Bower, a well-known business man of this city, died at his late resi- 
dence, 130 South Twenty-third Street, March 26, 1896, aged sixty -three years. 
He graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1854, and after 
graduation, entered business as a chemical broker. Subsequently, he engaged 
in the manufacture of chemicals. Glycerin was one of the products made, and 
several years ago he received the Elliott-Cresson Medal from the Franklin 
Institute for the process for the utilization of crude glycerin. He was con- 
si lered an authority on subjects relating to the manufacture of chemicals, and 
was the author of a number of articles on these subjects. He was one of the 
Board of Managers of the Franklin Institute and a member of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. 

IleJiry Trimen, M.B., F,RS., F.L.S., died at Peradeniya, Ceylon, October 
i6th, in his nfty-third year. He was appointed Director of the Botanical Gar- 



All). Jour, Pharm.1 (Ihitunrv \f\n 

March, 1897. / UUllUar). lO/ 

den, Ceylon, in 1879, ^"^ held that position until July last, when he retired, 
on account of serious ill health. Dr. Trimen's administration was signalized 
by great success, for not only did the gardens at Peradeniya take front rank 
among the great botanical establishments of the world, but three volumes of 
the " Hand-book of the Flora of Ceylon " were completed, and the fourth and 
last volume was in course of preparation. The work entitled, " Medicinal 
Plants," he prepared in conjunction with Professor Bentley, while he was an as- 
sistant in the botanical department of the British Museum. He was also one of 
the authors of Trimen and Dyer's " Flora of Middlesex," and for a number of 
years editor of the Journal of Botany. 

Alfred Henry Mason ^ Ph.C, F.C.S.y F.R.M.S., died at his home in New 
York City, November 2, 1896. His illness was only of short duration, and by 
his death pharmacy lost one of its most active and efficient representatives. 
Mr. Mason was identified with a large number of societies and scientific bodies, 
and had served in many of these in an official capacity, and was equallv well 
known in professional and trade circles, not only in this country, but abroad 
as well. He was born at Newcastle-Under-Lyme, England, fifty-three years 
ago, and at an early age began his pharmaceutical career. In 1866, he became 
identified with the wholesale trade, and had been actively interested in this 
branch of business ever since. In 1892, he began his residence in New York, 
when he was appointed secretary of the firm of Seabury ^i Johnson, of that 
city. About a year ago he was elected secretary of the College of Pharmacy, 
and for five months previous to his death had been editor of the Alumni 
Journal. 

George Frederick Schacht, a pharmaceutical chemist of Clifton, Bristol, Eng- 
land, died at his home, December 26, 1896, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. 

Mr. Schacht was one of the best-known pharmacists in England, and, by his 
death, the cause of pharmacy has sustained a distinct loss, for he was not only 
an accom])lished practical pharmacist, but was earnestly devoted to the cause of 
pharmaceutical education. 

We quote the following from the Pharmaceutical Journal, of January 2, 1897 : 
"Asa pioneer of pharmaceutical advancement, Schacht will long be remem- 
bered as having originated the idea which led to the foundation of the British 
Pharmaceutical Conference, for his advocacy of provision being made for pro- 
vincial education, and of a compulsory curriculum. 

" He joined the British Pharmaceutical Society in 1S42, shortly after its organi- 
zation, and served it officially in one capacity or another during a number of 
years. He was also a member of the Bristol Pharmaceutical Association, and 
had long l>een actively engaged in connection with the University College of 
Bristol, of which institution he was treasurer at the time of his death." He 
was a corresponding member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Aionzo Robhins, Ph.M., a member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
died suddenly at his home in this city, December i, i.S9h. The decease<l had 
been in ill health for more than a year, but the immediate cause of his deatli 
was an acute attack of pneumonia. 

Mr. Robbins was lK>rn in Pottstown, Pa., about sixty-three years ago. He 



^o r)U:*^,^^A, / Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 68 Ubltuary. \ March, I897. 

graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1855, was elected a 
member in 1868, and in 1878 became a member of its Board of Trustees. 

After graduation he was engaged for the most part as a drug clerk until the 
close of the Civil War, when he engaged in the retail drug business for himself 
at Eleventh and Vine Streets, this city, where he remained until his death. 

Mr. Robbins took an interest in all matters pertaining to pharmacy, and was 
an occasional contributor to this Journai.. He did considerable work in con. 
nection with the formation of the pharmaceutical laws of this State, and when 
the Board of Pharmacy was appointed, became, on June 23, 1887, its first presi- 
dent. This position he held until May, 1895, when he resigned. 

No small share of credit was due him for his efiforts in helping to found the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, of which he was a member. He was 
also a member of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

He was a member of the Committee of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy for carrying on work for the Revision Committee of the 1880 Pharma- 
copoeia. His subject was fluid extracts, and he performed a large number of 
experiments for determining the most satisfactory formulae for these prepa- 
rations. 

Theodore George Wormley, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., a member of the Faculty 
of the University of Pennsylvania, died at his home, in this city, January 3d, 
1897, after an illness of about two months. 

Prof. Wormley was born at Wormleysburg, Pa., in 1826. His collegiate 
training began at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., where he spent several 
years, but left before the completion of his course in order to enter the Phila- 
delphia College of Medicine, from which institution he graduated in 1849. 

After graduation Dr. Wormley was engaged in the practice of his profession, 
first in Carlisle and then in Columbus, O., until 1852, when he was appointed 
professor of chemistry and the natural sciences in Capital University of that 
city, which position he held until July, 1865. In 1854 he received the appoint- 
ment of professor of chemistry and toxicology in Starling Medical College, of 
the same city, and retained the position until 1877, when, in June of the latter 
year, he was chosen successor of Dr. Robert E. Rogers as professor of chemis- 
try and toxicology, in the department of medicine of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, which position he held until his decease. 

During his professional career Dr. Wormley held many other positions of 
honor and trust, calling into account his abilities as a chemist and scientist. 
He was a member of a number of scientific bodies in this country and a Fellow 
of the Chemical Society of Ivoudon. 

His scientific papers were numerous, and quite a number of these were pub- 
lished in the American Journai, of Pharmacy. As long ago as 1870 a very 
valuable article of his, entitled "A Contribution to Our Knowledge of the 
Chemical Composition of Gelsemium Sempervirens," appeared in its columns. 
His last contribution to its pages was in 1894, on the subject of "Some Tests 
for Quinine." 

His most notable work was his book, " Micro-Chemistry of Poisons," which 
was extensively reviewed by Professor Maisch in the September, 1867, number of 
this Journal and needs no comment here, other than to say that its value 
as a standard authority is recognized throughout the world. 




Parthenium Hysterophorous. Flowering branch, three-quarters natural size. 
At side, flower heads about twice natural size. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



APRIL, 1897. 



PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHOROUS. 
By H. V. Arxy, Ph.G., Ph.D. 

The Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, in its issue of May 
30, 1885, called the attention of the pharmaceutical world to this 
♦' common weed of Jamaica," quoting from La Cronica Medico-Qui- 
rurgica, of Havana, the physiological experiments of Dr. Jose R. 
Tovar with a so-called alkaloid, which he named parthenine, ob- 
tained from the plant. Another reference to the body parthenine 
is found in Pharmaceutical Journal, June 26, 1886, where the inves- 
tigations of M. Guyet, as reported to the Societe de Thcrapeutique of 
Paris, are set forth. The next reference to the plant is found in 
Merck s Bulletin, October, 1888, where an alkaloid, discovered in 
the plant by Dr. Carlos Ulrici, and called parthenicine, is described. 

At this point the writer undertook an investigation of the plant 
as a graduation thesis, and as reported in Am. Jour. Pharm. (1890, 
p. 121) no evidences of an alkaloid were found. The alcoholic ex- 
tract, however, yielded a body which was supposed to be a glucoside. 

Believing that the plant, one of the most common weeds of 
Louisiana, may have a future, and realizing that its active princi- 
ple might prove interesting chemically, investigations were resumed 
with general results herein stated. 

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

Parthenium hysteroi)horous is a composite plant, sub-order 
Tubulifcra, with radiate heads, pistillate rays and sterile disc florets. 
It is a pubescent annual, having diffuse stem, pinnatifid leaves, with 
linear toothed lobes and {)r()minent nervature (Prontisf>iece). 

(169) 



I/O Parthenium Hysterophorous. {^^' llxiiXm^."^' 

Its heads are loosely panicled with involucre of five ovate scales, 
arranged in two rows, (Fig. i). There are in each head five ray 
florets in a single row, each resting within an oval chaffy scale which 
is hairy above, and which, on separating, usually divide in three 
portions. The ray florets are short, pistillate, ripening to smooth, 
compressed achenia, with pappus composed of oval scales {Fig. 2). 

The disc florets are tubular, five-toothed and sterile, having syn- 
genesious anthers producing pollen grains, which are prickled simi- 
larly to those of malva. Those nearest the ray florets are attached in 
pairs to each of the chaffy scales mentioned above {Fig. j). Each 




Fig. I. Parthenium Hysterophorous. Outer involucre, magnified twenty 
diameters. 

inner floret has its own chaffy scale, which is more narrow than 
those on the outer rim. The receptacle is conical and not very 
prominent. 

The plant commonly called Bastard Feverfew grows in the West 
Indies (where it is known as Escoba amargo), in Florida and in 
Louisiana. It has been introduced in Europe as Absinthe sauvage 
des Antilles. It attains the height of three feet, possesses a peculiar 
heavy odor, while the leaves and flowers have an intensely bitter 
taste. 

The anatomy of the active part of Parthenium hysterophorous is 
simple. The chaff is composed of longitudinally elongated cells in 



Am. Jour. Pharnj. 

April, 18OT. 



Partheniu m Hysterophoroiis. 



171 



single layers, through which pass branching fibro-vascular bundles, 
the prominent constituent of which are spiral ducts. The scales 
terminate in a mass of hairs composed of two to four cells, of which 
the terminal one is the largest. The cells of the corolla of the 
disc florets are more symmetrical than those of the chaff, the 
vascular system is identified by the spiral ducts. The walls of the 




Fig. 2. Ray floret, magnified about forty-eight diameters. 

anther cells possess reticulate markings which are quite character- 
istic. The pollen grains, as mentioned above, are prickled {^Ftg. ./). 
A cross- section of a leaf lobe shows the prominence of even the 
secondary veins. These project chiefly on the under side. The 
closed fibro-vascular bundle is bi- collateral. The lower half of the 
leaf is of spongy parenchyma, while the upper consists of a palisade 
layer {Fig. 5). The epidermis of the under side is interrupted by 



172 



Parthenmm Hysterophoroits. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1897. 



stomata and beset with several-celled tapering hairs {^Fig. (5).^; The 
important characteristics of the powder are the prickled pollen 




di^^etfrs. ^''^'' '^''' ^''''^' ^"^"^^"^ ^^ '^^^' magnified about forty-eight 

grains, the hairs and longitudinally striate tissue of the chaff, the 
tapenng hairs of the leaves, the reticulated anther walls and numer- 
ous spiral cells of various sizes {Fig 7) 



ApXS^'"} Parthenium Hysterophorous. 173 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 



The writer's analysis of the plant in 1889 showed, beside such 
normal plant constituents as starch, wax, gum and mineral salts, the 
presence of an active principle to which the bitterness of the plant 
is due. It was obtained from the alcoholic extract of the drug by 




Fig. 4. United anthers, magnified about 150 diameters. 

evaporation to dryness, solution in water and extraction by agitation 
of the aqueous liquid with chloroform, and is supposed to corres- 
pond to the parthcnine of Tovar, as well as to Uirici's parthenicine, 
all the products being in a more or less impure form. Tovar's origi- 
nal article has not yet been procured, despite efforts in that direction, 
and the reference in tlie Pkarniaccutical journal gives no inkling 




Fig. 5. Cross section of leaf, magnified about 600 diameters, p. /., palisade 
layer ; s. p., spongy parenchyma ; s, stomata ; x, xylem ; p, phloem. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April. 1897. 



} Parthenunn HysteropJiorous. 



175 



of the mode of preparation. Guyet's paper, as reported in full in 
La Cronica Medico- Qtiirurgica, of Havana, is a resume of the chemi- 
cal researches of Ulrici, with an account of the therapeutical proper- 
ties of the drug, as deduced by the author of the article. Ulrici 
obtained from the plant black shining scales, from an alcoholic solu- 
tion of which he separated, by means not stated, a white amorphous 
residue which crystallized in fine needles. 




Fif^. 6. Under surface of leaf, magnified about 600 diameters, s, stomata ; 
/j, hairs ; d, spiral ducts. 

He then dissolved another portion of the black scales in water, 
cleared of coloring matter by slight excess of potassa and extracted, 
with chloroform, a substance to which he assigned the formula 
C„H^NO.. 

Aferck's Builetiu, October, 1888, describes, without method of 
manufacture, the alkaloid parthenicine of Ulrici, without reference 
to the original article. As this statement is two years older than 



1/6 



PartJienhnn Hysterophorous. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1897. 



the researches of Ulrici published in Guyet's paper, it is presumed 
that the substance is a purified form of that to which was assigned 
the formula CjgHogNOg. It is described as follows : *' Large rectan- 
gular prisms, with pyramids on four lateral sides. It is odorless, 
very bitter, quite readily soluble in water — still more so, however, 
in hot water — in alcohol, ether and chloroform. It gives colored 
identity-reactions with sulphuric acid and with potassium bichro- 
mate." 




Fig. 7. Particles from powder, magnified about 200 diameters, c. h., chaff 
hairs; c, fragment of chaff; a, fragment of anther wall ; p, pollen grain ; d, 
spiral ducts. 

Such is the scanty knowledge of Tovar's parthenine and Ulrici's 
parthenicine. In neither case is that very important means of 
identity — the melting point — nor the color of stated reactions 
given. 

So the means of identification of the active principle isolated 
by the writer with the so-called parthenine and parthenicine are 
almost missing. 

On resuming the study of the plant, the first efforts were in 
estimating the loss of water in desiccation. 



^VpXiSr""'} Parthemum Hysterophorous. i77 

The following figures were obtained : 

Weight in Weight in 

Month of Grammes. C.rammes. Percentage 

Collection. Fresh. Dried. of Loss. 

April I34'66 30-3 77*49 

May 737- 150-5 79*5 

June 552*8 127-6 76*91 

July 885-9 177-2 79'99 

August 680-4 106-3 8437 

September 538*65 I55"9 7i'50 

In each case the sample was dried by hanging in a room ac- 
cessible to draughts of air for six to eight weeks. While, of 
course, owing to the complex structure of the drug and the vary- 
ing proportion of cellular and ligneous tissue, such data cannot 
be exact, it is, nevertheless, useful in establishing the fact that 
the amount of water in the fresh herb is somewhere between 70 and 
80 per cent. 

The average percentage of active principle was the next problem, 
and its extraction was performed by exhausting the drug with 
diluted alcohol ; distilling off the alcohol ; filtering the aqueous 
residue ; washing the filter with water until the filtrate was tasteless, 
and extracting the aqueous liquid by agitation with chloroform. In 
this way a slightly impure yellow amorphous mass was obtained, 
and the yield was as follows : 



25 grammes air-dried drug, collected in April, yielded . 



100 
100 
100 

75 
100 



" May, 
" June, 
" July, 
" August, 
" September, 



Per Cent. 

. 0-31 

. 0-84 

• I 03 

• i*I3 
. 066 

• 053 



It will be seen that the quantity of active principle in the plant 
gradually increases to the maximum in July, when it diminishes 
with the length of days until in October the plant is almost free 
from bitterness. 

The process of extraction described above was not satisfactory, 
as the product was invariably contaminated with coloring matter ; 
so other methods were tried. That used in the preparation of 
salicin — treatment of a decoction with lead oxide, removal of excess 
with sulphuric acid and neutralization of free acid with barium sul- 
phide — did not prove .satisfactory, as the lead oxide failed to remove 
all the coloring matter. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



178 Parthe7iium Hysterophorous. {^"aphusJ? 

The process followed with best results was treating an infusion 
with lead acetate, filtering and agitating the filtrate with chloroform, 
distillation of the chloroformic extract, thereby recovering the sol- 
vent. The residue, by crystallization once or twice from alcohol, to 
which a small quantity of water had been added, was obtained pure 
in well-formed crystals — some 5 centimeters long — melting at i68°- 
169° C. The yield of pure substance from drug collected in June 
and July was about I per cent. 

It proved soluble in 160 parts water, at 20° C; 5 parts 95 per 
cent, alcohol ; 2^ parts boihng alcohol; no parts ether, and in 
chloroform and acetic ether. It was soluble both in solution of soda 
and in ammonia water, the former solution turning red-brown on 
standing, the latter remaining colorless. It dissolved in concen- 
trated sulphuric acid without change of color, but the solution 
became green on the addition of a crystal of potassium bichro- 
mate. 

The aqueous solution was neutral to litmus paper. 

That it is not an alkaloid was shown by the non-appearance of a 
precipitate on addition of Mayer's reagent to its aqueous solution, 
as well as by its solubility in solution of soda. 

It failed to respond to tests for nitrogen, namely, heating with 
soda-lime and also heating with metallic potassium, and attempted 
conversion of the fused mass into Prussian blue by treatment with 
alkali, ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid ; while 
Schonn's test for sulphur gave negative results. 

The substance has been analyzed and the empirical formula de- 
duced therefrom, but this will not be stated until confirmed by an 
estimation of molecular weight and by analysis of derivatives. 

The substance not being an alkaloid, the name parthenin can be 
safely bestowed upon it. 

The rather superficial examination made by the writer in 1889 
suggested the glucosidal character of parthenin. Careful investiga- 
tion does not, however, confirm this surmise. As a glucoside, par- 
thenin should, under the action of a diluted acid, be converted into 
glucose and some other body. This, as experiment showed, does not 
occur, although the reaction was atternpted in two different ways. In 
the first method, several portions of parthenin were heated with 
diluted sulphuric acid for periods varying from boilingfor one minute 
to heating; on water-bath for four hours. The liquid in each case, after 



^"apXi^*'"'} Partheniiun Hysterophorous. 179 

its special method of heating, was agitated with successive portions 
of ether until the last ethereal portion possessed no bitter taste. 
The aqueous liquid after such extraction was carefully examined for 
glucose. Trommer's, Bottger's and the picric acid test were applied 
in each case with negative result. 

The ethereal extract on evaporation yielded a brown syrupy mass. 
Crystallization from alcohol and acetic ether was attempted without 
success. By treatment with a small quantity of water, the substance 
solidified to an amorphous mass, which was still yellow from con- 
tamination with a resinous substance that reddened with solution 
of soda. This body melted at about 1 70° C. and is supposed to be the 
original substance. Other portions of the residue, after careful 
washing with ether, melted at 170°. 

The second method was in boiling an alcoholic solution of parthenin 
with a small quantity of diluted sulphuric acid, addition of water, 
evaporation of the alcohol and extraction with ether. The aqueous 
residue gave no indication of glucose. 

Since not a glucoside, parthenin was expected to possess reactions 
similar to some of the proximate principles. Its solubility in solu- 
tion of soda suggested an analogy to santonin, and in that case a 
sodium compound, similar to sodium santoninate, might be produced. 

To this end, parthenin was treated with a diluted solution of soda, 
carbon dioxide passed in until saturated and the solution evaporated 
to dryness, the passage of carbon dioxide being continued to the 
end of the heating. The perfectly dry residue was treated with 
absolute alcohol, when the filtered alcoholic extract yielded on spon- 
taneous evaporation a yellow syrup, which, on addition of a small 
quantity of water, solidified to a brownish yellow mass, which gave 
the sodium flame and charred on heating, melting irregularly but 
not completely, until at red heat. This was sparingly soluble in 
water, and the aqueous solution, which was neutral, yielded a pre- 
cipitate with silver nitrate. 

An effort to obtain the product after the method used in the 
manufacture of sodium santoninate, dissolving in solution of soda 
and crystallizing the resulting product by concentration of the solu- 
tion, has not yet met with success. 

This somewhat sup)erficial effort seems to indicate rather clearly 
the formation of a sodium compound of parthenin, which can be 
converted into a silver salt. The investigation of this sodium com- 
f)Oun(l is still continued. 



i8o Parthenium Hysterophorous. {^"^- l^rl-Jm^"^' 

The fact being clearly established that parthenin is not a gluco- 
side, but rather a proximate principle somewhat akin to santonin, 
suggests a more practical method of preparation than by extraction 
with chloroform. A process in which the lead acetate dissolved in 
the cleared decoction was dissociated by addition of sulphuric acid, 
which would precipitate the lead as sulphate, was not attempted 
lest the acetic acid set free would react with the parthenin. This 
fear is groundless, and a practical process of extraction on these 
lines will be devised. 

On distillation of the drug with steam there passed over a minute 
quantity of volatile oil possessing the distinctive odor of the plant, 
and from which, on standing, there separated a stearopten possessing 
camphoraceous taste. As yet the quantities won have been too 
small for investigation, but attention will be turned to it during the 
coming summer. 

In conclusion, a few words as to the medical properties of 
parthenin. Tovar reported it as a remedy in facial neuralgia, 
and it also proved beneficial in a case of fever and anaemia 
where quinine failed. Guyet confirmed its efficiency in neuralgia, 
especially the cranial variety ; but he found it utterly without effect 
as antipyretic. In Jamaica the plant is used as a remedy for 
ulcerated sores and certain skin diseases, especially such as are of a 
herpetic or pustular character. The dose of Ulrici's parthenicine is 
stated as 0-05 gramme every hour in neuralgia, while gramme 
doses are used in intermittent fever. 

The subject is worthy of further consideration on the part of 
therapeutists, and to this end the writer proposes preparing during 
the summer considerable parthenin, which will be furnished in 
limited quantities to those physicians who will agree to conscien- 
tiously test its merits and publish the results, whatever they may 
be. 

The writer's thanks are due Miss S. E. Bres for the artistic sketch 
of the flowering branch. 

New Orleans, March 8, 1897. 



Formaldehyde is detected by dissolving o"! gramme of morphine hydrochlo- 
ride in I c.c. of concentrated sulphuric acid, and adding an equal volume of 
the solution to be tested, without mixing ; in the presence of formaldehyde 
I I : ous solution will become a clear red-violet color in a few minutes. 



^VpXi^^'""} Vie Shaddock or Grape Fruit. i8i 

THE SHADDOCK OR GRAPE FRUIT. 

By J. H. Hart, 
Superintendent of Botanical Department, Trinidad. 

The March, 1896, number of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
is especially interesting to me, and as I am a twenty-one-years resi- 
dent (constantly employed in botanical matters in the West Indies), 
I venture to make a few remarks on it. As a rule we look at pict- 
ures before the readin^^ matter, and I did so in the case of the shad- 
dock paper. Now, as I know the plant, the illustration No. i is 
certainly not a shaddock, but a grape fruit, or forbidden fruit, 
and as I find, page 123, paragraph 4, that the terms grape fruit and 
shaddock are interchangeable, this may explain. 

It is quite true that " no reliance ca?t be placed upon the cojnnion 
jiames of plafits or flowers, etc., etc.,'' and this sentence contains the 
gist of the whole controversy as to names. 

I know Jamaica well, having resided there eleven years, and know 
the districts of Macfadyen well, and the fruits in them. 

The home (English) botanist, however, makes the citron, lemon 
and lime one species. Macfadyen made them three ; and various 
other changes, etc. The true fact is, no two men can see alike. If 
asked to classify the citrus tribe, I should make Citrus inedica in- 
clude all the lemons and limes and their hybrids, which are legion. 

I should let Citrus aurantium represent the orange of the St. 
Michael's type (sweet orange), with all its varieties, and I would let 
Citrus deciimana cover all the shaddocks, grape fruit, or pumelows, 
etc., and their varieties, which are also very numerous. Citrus nobilis, 
or the tangerine and mandarin (also interchangeable names), appear 
to maintain themselves fairly distinct. These oranges are sometimes 
called "Portugal oranges" in Trinidad. We have one, however, 
imported from Grenada, W. I., that approaches the grape fruit in 
size ; at the same time, I recognize intermediate varieties between 
many of those mentioned. 

We have a sweet lime, a fruit with an orange skin, with a lime 
flesh, but with a distinct mixture of orange and lime in flavor. We 
have a lime, larger than a lemon, with none of the characters of a 
lemon. There is a sweet orange called the bergamot in Jamaica, 
which is very clear and distinct from that I recently received from 
Italy as bergamot ; and unless we agree to adopt special Horticul- 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 



182 Hermann Hager. {^^pTuiisJr 

tiira! names, I do not really see how the botanists can help out of 
the muddle, for muddle indeed is the classification of citrus. I had 
lately one of the finest shaddocks sent me I ever saw ; it was deli- 
cious in flavor and of a bright red. I have grafted plants on lemon 
and orange stocks, and have two fine unions growing freely. 

In Jamaica, shaddock is shaddock and nothing else ; although an 
old " nigger," to please a questioner, if asked : Is that shaddock ? 
pointing to a grape fruit, would say : yes, massa ! Shaddock, sa ' ! or 
vice versa. Shaddock, however, in the market, is shaddock, or the 
largest fruit of the citrus tribe. Grape fruit, or forbidden fruit, pre- 
sents as many characters as other varieties of citrus. Red flesh, white 
flesh ; sour, bitter, sweet ; but the one called grape fruit hangs in 
clusters like grapes (6 to 10 together), hence the name ; and there is 
evidence that the larger kind comes from the smaller. — " The Shad- 
dock from the Grape Fruit" (see Bulletin No. 9 of this department, 

p. 19). 

I must take exception to the statement, p. 126, << which are ex- 
tremely acid." The author should have stated that Jamaica 
oranges were extremely acid. Trinidad oranges and Grenada oranges 
are extremely sweet; but while you can get good oranges in Jamaica, 
there are truly many sour ones there. In both Jamaica and Trinidad, 
the wisdom of planting seedlings is being almost universally doubted, 
and my article 225, Bulletin, was especially directed to this point. 

Trinidad, January 26, 1897. 



HERMANN HAGER. 

By Fred. Hoffmann. 



On the gloomy afternoon of the 29th of January, 1897, ^ small 
company, consisting of a few relatives, of some townspeople, includ- 
ing several local pharmacists, and of the representatives of two 
pharmaceutical papers, followed a plain hearse to the graveyard of 
the town of Neu Ruppin, located a few miles northwest of the Ger- 
man capital. Such was the funeral of the Nestor of German phar- 
macy of our generation, Dr, Hermann Hager. Flowers and palms 
sent as a last tribute of gratitude and respect by his publishers, and 
by the editors of the Pharmaceutische Zeitung, and of the Pharma- 
ceutische Wochenschrift, in Berlin, covered the coffin and the grave, 



Am. Jour. FbariD. 
April, 1897. 



Herinaiin Ilager. 



183 



and a wreath of flowers had been sent by the President of the Ger- 
man Apothecaries' Association, Although less than two hours by 
rail from the German capital, not one representative pharmacist, no 
delegate from any of the national or metropolitan pharmaceutical 
societies, nor from the journal founded by Dr. Hager in 1859, and 
graced by his famous name ever since, attended his funeral. 

What a representative gathering would the funeral of such a man 
of national, nay, of world-wide reputation, have drawn together any- 
where in the United States ! The foremost representative men of 
American pharmacy hastened to Philadelphia to pay a last respect 
to Procter at his funeral in February, 1874, and to MaiscJi in Sep- 




tember, 1893. No such tender sense of gratitude and veneration 
seems to pulsate in the hearts and among the ranks of the repre- 
sentative men and members of pharmaceutical associations on this 
side of the Atlantic. A profession as well as a country honor them- 
selves by honoring the life work and the memory of their great men 
during their lifetime as well as at their demise, even if the saying 
should apply : " a man lives by his excellencies and not by his 
faults." It is the more gratifying that the Continental pharmaceuti- 
cal press has promptly and nobly offset this apparent show of a 
want of veneration for the departed master of German pharmacy by 
unanimous and warm-hearted obituaries. 



1 84 Hermmtn Hager. {'''^•l^tXm^'^' 

Hans Hermann Julius Hager was born in Berlin on January 3, 
1 8 16, where his father was an army surgeon. After having passed 
the elementary schools, he attended the high schools at Torgan and 
Brandenburg, and in April, 1832, entered upon an apprenticeship in 
the pharmacy of the town of Salzwedel. Then apprenticeship in 
German pharmacies included the performance of all the common 
handiwork, of keeping the store, the laboratory and the storage 
rooms in proper order, of cleansing and dusting counters, shelves, 
containers, utensils, oil-lamps, etc., of delivering medicines to 
customers, etc. Young Hager was by no means spared this hard 
ordeal. Little leisure time was left for study, and but very few 
pharmaceutical books were placed at his disposal, while his means 
were insufficient to purchase any. But bent upon study, and of an 
inquisitive mind, young Hager made good use of the few text-books 
of pharmacy accessible to him, among them, " Hagen's Treatise on 
the Art of Pharmacy," as well as of his old school-books. During 
the four years of apprenticeship he perfected his knowledge of Latin 
so much that he retained for life the ability to write fluently in 
Latin. He also closely applied himself to the study of French, of 
history and of natural philosophy. Incidentally he obtained a 
small treatise on chemical stoichiometry, which induced him during 
the last year of apprenticeship to elaborate a text-book of stoichi- 
ometry for pharmacists, which, however, never has been published. 

At the close of his apprenticeship Hager passed the obligatory 
examination with much credit, and subsequently served as assistant 
for some years in pharmacies in several towns. During these years 
he read all books accessible to him, and applied himself with much 
interest and assiduity to becoming familiar with the flora of the 
diluvial plains of Northern Germany. He then served for one year 
as army pharmacist in the garrison hospital in the capital of Silesia, 
Breslau, whither his father had been removed as army surgeon. 
Here young Hager found time and opportunity to attend lectures at 
the University on natural philosophy, chemistry and botany. After 
having passed his one year of army service, he had the good for- 
tune to obtain a place as assistant with an apothecary in the town 
of Perleberg, who was an accomplished pharmacist, a sympathetic 
man and the possessor of a good pharmaceutical library. Of this 
Hager made good use, so much so that in 1841 he ventured to 
apply to the highest examination board in medicine and pharmacy 



^VpXiST""'} Hermann Hager. 185 

in Prussia for permission to pass his State examination as apothecary 
without the customary preceding attendance of at least one year 
of university lectures. He was admitted and passed this ordeal 
with credit. 

Hager subsequently served two more years as assistant, always 
applying his leisure time to study in almost every branch of natural 
science. He also succeeded in obtaining the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy at the University of Jena, and, in 1843, he managed to 
purchase a pharmacy in the town of Fraustadt in the Prussian pro- 
vince of Posen. Here he attended to his comparatively small busi- 
ness most of the time with but one apprentice, married, raised a 
family and passed seventeen of the most studious and well-applied, 
and, perhaps, also happiest years of his life. 

Besides a good prescription business, Dr. Hager attended, with 
his apprentices, to the preparation of all galenicals and most phar- 
maceutical chemicals, including all metallic salts and solutions, even 
to the preparation of the few alkaloids then in use. With his sense 
of practical application and great skill he attained to perfect master- 
ship in the art and practice of pharmacy in every direction, as also 
in the performance of analytical and microscopical work and exam- 
inations, and accumulated a vast amount of knowledge and expe- 
rience in all branches of the theory and practice of pharmacy and 
of related application. 

While, during the years of assistanceship. Dr. Hager had occa- 
sionally contributed miscellaneous writings and some poetical efforts 
to local papers, he seems to have abstained from any contribution 
from the wealth of his knowledge and experience to pharmaceutical 
periodicals during the years of his activity as apothecary in Frau- 
stadt. Hut there he soon entered upon his successful career as a 
writer and author. His first publications of repute seem to have 
been an essay on *' Weather and Its Considerations," in 1845 ; his 
" Handbook of the Art of Dispensing," •* Cosmos Diluvialis," or the 
deluge, an historical study; "Treatise on the Manufacture of Min- 
eral Waters;" •• Commentary on the Pharmacopujias of Northern 
Germany" (1854); •• Manuale Pharmaceuticum ;" " Adjumcnta 
Varia ;" •* PharmacopoL-ia HomcLopatica." 

The success of several of these works, and the want of incitement 
as well a% of literary and scientific resources in the small town, in- 
duced Dr. Hager the more to dispose of his pharmacy, as he, in 



1 86 Hermann Hager. {^"Aprn/S""" 

1859, had commenced the pubhcation of a strictly scientific periodi- 
cal, the Pharmacculischc Centralhallc. Early in i860 he removed 
to Berlin, with a view to applying his entire time and labors to sci- 
entific and literary work. Henceforth his little private laboratory 
became the prolific starting point for the solution of many a scien- 
tific or technical problem in the practice of pharmacy, and of a vast 
amount of analytical and microscopical work. In 1864 Dr. Hager 
established, with his friend, Dr. E. Jacobsen, of Berlin, the Industrie 
Blatter, in which he inaugurated a fearless exposure of the nostrum 
fraud. Of these specialties he analyzed in the course of years more 
than any contemporary. He provided his two journals largely with 
material from his own pen and laboratory work. 

In Berlin Dr. Hager contracted the friendship of the brothers, 
Ferdinand and Fritz Springer, of the eminent publishing firm of 
Julius Springer, who henceforth became his publishers and life-long 
friends. Here he elaborated and published " First Lessons in the 
Practice of Pharmacy," *' First Lessons in Pharmaceutical Botany," 
"The Microscope," ''Commentary on the Prussian Pharmacopoeia," 
«' Latin-German Vocabulary to the Pharmacopoeia," and revised 
some of his former books for republication in new editions. In 
Berlin he also commenced the elaboration of his greatest and most 
enduring work, the " Handbook of the Practice of Pharmacy." 

Dr. Hager's increasing reputation drew more and more callers to 
his quiet home and study in the German capital. Being of a retir- 
ing disposition, and carefully estimating the value of time, he gradu- 
ally longed for a refuge Vv^here he could attend to and accomplish his 
life work in less disturbed solitude. He acquired a modest farmer's 
home, located m a rather isolated and unattractive place, called Pul- 
vermiihle, near the village of Fijrstenberg, a few miles distant from 
the old university city of Frankfort, on the Oder River. He re- 
moved thither in October, 1871. Here Dr. Hager enjoyed, for ten 
years in full retirement, a studious and active life, applying all his 
time and interests to research and literary work. During these 
busy years he continued his analytical work, edited his two journals, 
one in Berlin, the other in Dresden, translated the first Pharmaco- 
poeia of the newly consolidated German Empire, and in 1872 and 
1873 wrote a comprehensive commentary on this work. 

In 1876 he completed and published his " Handbook of the Prac- 
tice of Pharmacy," in two large volumes, to which he added a third 



"^""ApXiJ^t!"""} Hermann Hager. 187 

volume in 1 880. This master work fully represented the accumu- 
lated knowledge of the past, largely enriched by his own vast stock 
of theoretical knowledge and practical experience in all branches of 
pharmacy, and of analytical and microscopical application, and of 
the examination and estimation of drugs, chemicals and of foods. 
It at once superseded all similar older works and became the 
standard text and guide book, as well as an almost never-failing 
reference work for pharmacists and druggists far beyond the limits of 
the Fatherland. It made the name of Hager a household word in phar- 
macy and the drug trade all over the world, and, at least abroad, is 
still a widely used pharmaceutical reference book. 

During the remaining years of his residence in Pulvermijhle, 
Dr. Hager accomplished a great deal of analytical work for revis- 
ion and verification, elaborated a study on oil of turpentine and its 
detection as an adulterant of essential oils, and revised a number of 
his works for republication in new editions. In 1881 Dr. Hager re- 
moved, after the death of his only friend in his lonely retirement, a 
physician, to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, where he lived in strict retire- 
ment until 1896. Here he continued his customary laboratory and 
literary work, completed several revisions of his larger books and 
furnished various periodicals with occasional contributions. From 
the editorship of the Centrallialle and the Industrie Blatter \\^ had 
retired in 1879, allowing his name to be retained on the title-pages. 

Until 1890 Dr. Hager enjoyed excellent health and the full powers 
of his inquisitive and prolific mind and activity, always occupying 
himself with literary work or study, and in later years collecting 
minerals and conchyts ; but in this year he became a victim to influ- 
enza, and since then his health failed in consequence of occasional 
relapses of this malady. In anticipation of the approach of the end 
of his struggles, the octogenarian resorted, with the most sympa- 
thetic and affectionate companion of his life, his wife, in July, 1896, 
to the home of one of their sons, living in the town of Neu Rup- 
pin, near Berlin. Here he spent the last few months of his earthly 
life in peaceful meditation, kindly remembered by a few noble friemls. 
In December, Dr. Hager suffered a severe relapse of influenza from 
which he did not recover. On the 24th of January he (juietly tell 
asleep to eternal rest, from an active and most useful life, replete 
with superior work and generous efforts for his fellow-men, but 
devoid of public recognition and honors at home. His devoted 



1 88 Hermann Hager. {^'^•l^^llm''^' 

wife, who also suffered from influenza, on being informed, on the 
day of her husband's funeral, of his death, closed her eyes forever 
on the very same day. 

More than any other of his German contemporaries, Dr, Hager 
was, in the American sense, a self-made man. The stamp of the 
autodidact remained impressed upon his character, his labors and 
his .writings and imparted to them the charm and the force of orig- 
inality. He was a man of rare talents, with a keen and discrimi- 
nating intellect and an excellent memory. The style of his writings 
was lucid and attractive ; he also was a clever draughtsman, drawing 
with his own pen nearly all the sketches for the abundant illustra- 
tions of his works. Intense work was to him always a labor of love. 
Like most men of originality and genius. Dr. Hager was also bent 
upon critical reflection and upon an unreserved candid expression of 
his opinion. However stern and straightforward his intellectual 
powers and the courage of his honest conviction made him, his 
mind was as gentle and forbearing as that of a child. In his long 
and active career, by no means free from cares and disappointments, 
and in a profession replete with antagonistic and uncharitable 
elements, Dr. Hager has not been spared the cruel stings and even 
the calumnies of adversaries, particularly of those more fortunate in 
inheritance and patronage, and more successful in public position 
and honors, which favors he never sought by submission or flattery. 
Although a recognized master of his profession, a prolific and excel- 
lent writer, and expert in pharmacopceial work and a man of world- 
wide fame. Dr. Hager has never been called upon to participate in 
the elaboration or the revision of a pharmacopoeia ; nor has he ever 
received, from the Government or the State authorities, any public 
recognition or distinction for his eminent merits for the advance- 
ment and the reputation of German pharmacy ; whereas the pro- 
fession of many countries has paid its respects to the great master 
by enrolling his famous name in the lists of honorary member- 
ship in their national associations — first among them the American 
Pharmaceutical Association and several colleges of pharmacy in the 
United States. 

As long as pharmacy remains a distinct profession and retains its 
glorious history, the names oi Hermann Hager and F. A. Fliickiger^ 



»Amkr. Jour, of Phar. (1895), Vol. 67, p. 65. 



''"Vprn'iS}"'"} Estimation of Merit ho 1 . 189 

will stand foremost among the few bright stars in the galaxy of 
pharmaceutical master minds during the second half of the nine- 
teenth century. Hager has set himself the most enduring monu- 
ment by his life work and writings, and should the present or the 
succeeding generation of pharmacists erect some worthy memorial to 
the most deserving pharmaceutical author and mentor of his time, 
these words might well be inscribed with particular application and 

truth : 

•' Das Edle in der Menschenwelt, 
Es lebt im nienschlichen Geniiithe. 
Es ist nicht Macht, nicht Gut uud Geld, 
Es ist ein Herz voll Lieb' und Giite, 
Es ist ein Sinn voll Thatenkraft, 
Der zielbewusst das Hochste schafft." 

Leipzig, March, 1897. 



A BRIEF RfeSUME 0¥ ACETIC ANHYDRIDE IN OIL 

ANALYSIS, AND A MODIFICATION OF THE 

METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MENTHOL 

IN OIL OF PEPPERMINT. 

By Lyman F. Kebler. 

It is well known that the official requirements for some of the 
essential oils are not rigid enough, on the one hand, to detect all forms 
of adulterations or manipulated products, while, on the other hand, 
some of the qualitative tests are so exacting as frequently to dis- 
criminate very unfavorably against genuine oils produced in large 
quantities in the United States. Just where to draw the line at 
present is, in many cases, a difficult problem — a problem which 
will probably never be solved in some cases, for the ingenious adul- 
terator always aims to debase his goods in such a manner as to make 
the fraud difficult of detection. 

The chemical investigations of essential oils, during recent years, 
are contributing much toward laying the foundation on which to 
base analytical methods. In some cases simple and efficient pro- 
cesses for estimating certain valuable constituents have already been, 
formulated. Methods that are no more difficult of application than 
those commonly employed for determining the quality of fixed oils. 
In fact, some methods are common to both, as the one in which 
acetic anhydride is used. 



I90 Estimation of Menthol, {^""apSSt^'""- 

The value of acetic anhydride as a chemical reagent has long 
been known to organic chemists. But it was left for the genius of 
the late Dr. R. Benedikt^ to formulate a qualitative method embody- 
ing the well-known property of acetic anhydride. 

The method is based on the principle that alcohols and hydroxy 
acids on being heated with acetic anhydride, have the hydrogen 
atom of the hydroxyl group replaced by the acetyl group, thus form- 
ing compound ethers. 

The process, according to Benedikt and to Benedikt^ and Ulzer, 
is briefly as follows : from 20 to 50 grammes of the fatty acids are 
boiled with an equal weight of the acetic anhydride for two hours 
in a flask provided with an inverted condenser. The mixture is 
then transferred to a suitable vessel, about 600 c.c. of hot water 
added and boiled for half an hour. The mixture is then allowed to 
separate into two layers, the aqueous portion withdrawn and the oily 
layer treated thrice more in the same manner. The acetylized pro- 
ducts are then filtered in a drying oven to eliminate all moisture. 
From 3 to 5 grammes are carefully weighed off and dissolved in pure 
alcohol. In this alcoholic solution the acid and the ether values 
are determined as usual. The former is called the acetyl acid value^ 
the latter the acetyl value and the sum of both is termed the acetyl 
saponification value. 

The theory of the process can readily be seen from the following 
equations : 

C„H330H + (C,H30),0 = QeH3,O.QH30 + HQH3O2. 

Cetyl Acetic Cetyl Acetic 

Alcohol. Anhydride. Acetate. Acid. 

Q6H33O.QH3O + KOH ^ QeH330H + KQH3O2 

Cetyl Potassium Cetyl Potassium 

Acetate. Hydroxide. Alcohol. Acetate. 

Q7H32(OH)C02H-f (C2H30)20=^C,7H320.C2H30.C02H + HC2H3O2 

Ricinoleic Acetic Acetyl Acetic 

Acid. Anhydride. Ricinoleic Acid. Acid. 

C17H32O.C2H3O.CO2H ^ KOH = C17H32O.C2H3O.CO2K -L H2O 

Acetyl Potassium Acetyl 

Ricinoleic Acid. Hydroxide. Ricinoleate of Potassium. 



*i887, Ztschr.f.d. Chem. Ind., i, 149, communicated Feb. 26, 1886. 

21887, Mojiatshefte fur Chemie, 8, 47; 1892, Die Analyse der Fette und 
Wachsarten, zweite Auf , p. 113; 1895, Chemical Analysis of Oils, Fats, 
Waxes, etc., by Benedikt and Lewkowitsch, p. 127. 



^'VpXiSt"'"} Estimation of Menthol. 191 

CnH320.C2H30.CO,K -f- KOH = C,7H3,(OH)COoK + KQHjO, 

Acetyl Potassium Potassium Potassium 

Ricinoleate of Potassium. Hydroxide. Ricinoleate. Acetate. 

J. Lewkowitsch* has studied the above process very thoroughly, 
and is continuinfj his work at present. 

In 1894 F. B. Power- and C. Kleber proposed an analoj^ous 
method for estimating menthol in oil of peppermint. The method 
is briefly as follows : About 20 grammes of the oil are mixed with 
30 c.c. of normal alcoholic sodium hydroxide, in a flask provided 
with a reflux condenser and heated to boiling for one hour. The 
uncombined alkali is estimated by means of normal sulphuric acid, 
using phenolphthalein as indicator. F^ach cubic centimeter of the 
standard alkaline solution consumed represents 0156 gramme of 
menthol in the form of ethers. 

The contents of the above flask are repeatedly washed with 
water, to remove the alcohol present and the oily portion boiled one 
hour with an equal volume of acetic anhydride and 2 grammes of 
fused sodium acetate in a flask provided with an inverted condenser, 
the end of the condenser tube being so ground as to fit accurately 
into the neck of the flask. On cooling, the contents of the flask 
are washed with ample water, then with a dilute alkaline solution, 
the alkalinity removed by washing with water again, and the oily 
portion ultimately dried with calcium chloride and filtered. From 
8 to 10 grammes of the acetylized oil are treated as above for esti- 
mating the combined menthol. 

From the data obtained by the above procedure the total per 
cent, of menthol, free and in the form of ethers, may be calculated 
by the following formula : 



y^ = 



fl X 15*6 



.9 — {a — 0042) 



/^equals total menthol ; .S" equals grammes of acetylated oil used ; a 
equals the number of cubic centimeters of normal sodium hydroxide 
required for saponification ; and 0042 is a constant obtained by 



'1890, Proc. Chem. ^Ktety, 72 and 91; /. Soc. Chem. fnd., 9, 660. 

1890, y. Soc. Chem. InJ., e, 846; Chemical .Vualysis of Oils, Fats. Waxes, 
etc., 1895, by Bene<likt and Lewkowitsch, p. 129. 

'1S91, Pharm. h'uudsihau, !'»• 157; Circular of Infotmativu^ .\,' ,-, by 
Fritzsche Brothers, p. 1 1. 



192 Estimation of Menthol. { ^'"aS'S^''"'' 

subtracting^ the normal factor of menthol (0156) from the normal 
factor of menthyl acetate (0-198). 

The two following equations form the basis of the process : 

C,<,H„OH + (QH,0),0 = QoHi,O.QH,0 + HQH,©. 

Menthol. Acetic Anhydride. Menthyl Acetate. Acetic Acid. 

C.<,H„O.QH,0 + KOH = C,oH„OH + KaH30, 

Potassium Potassium 

Menthyl Acetate. Hydroxide. Menthol. Acetate. 

Being frequently requested to estimate the amount of menthol in 
peppermint oils on short notice, the writer has modified the above 
procedure so that the per cent, of this constituent can readily be 
estimated in three hours, while the original method requires the 
greater part of a day for execution. 

For Estimating the Combined Menthol. — Place from 10 to 12 
grammes (accurately weighed) of the oil into a suitable flask, add 
about 12 c.c. of normal alcoholic sodium hydroxide, connect the 
flask with an inverted condenser and boil for one hour. Retitrate 
the excess of alkali by means of standard sulphuric acid, using phenol- 
phthalein as indicator. Each cubic centimeter of standardized alkali 
consumed corresponds to 0-156 gramme of menthol as esters. This 
part of the process embodies the well-known principle of Koettstorfer. 

To Estimate the Total Menthol. — Place from 12 to 1 5 grammes 
(accurately weighed) of the oil into a suitable flask (the writer uses 
an ordinary Kjeldahl digesting flask), add an equal weight of acetic 
anhydride, 2 grammes of anhydrous sodium acetate, attach to a reflux 
condenser and boil the contents of the flask one hour. Allow the 
mixture to cool somewhat, transfer to a 250 c.c. separatory funnel, 
with successive portions of distilled water, using about 1 50 c.c. Agi- 
tate the funnel and contents well, set aside a few minutes, so that 
the mixture will separate into two layers. Withdraw the aqueous 
layer and wash again with 150 c.c. of water as above. Having re- 
moved the second wash water, add 50 c.c. of water, a few drops of 
phenolphthalein solution, and just enough of a 5 per cent, aqueous 
sodium hydroxide solution to render the contents of the funnel 
pinkish, after thoroughly agitating ; then add enough water so that 
the aqueous portion will amount to about 150 c.c; agitate well, 
allow the mixture to separate and withdraw the alkaline aqueous 
solution. Wash the oily layer again with 150 c.c. of water as above. 
Remove the water as completely as possible and transfer the acety- 



^"kSiS^^""} Estimation of Menthol. 193 

lized oil to a suitable flask, using a small amount of alcohol to 
transfer the last portions. To the oil in the flask add from 50 to 60 
c.c. of normal alcoholic sodium hydroxide, connect the flask to an 
inverted condenser and boil for one hour. Retirrate the excess of 
the alkaline solution by means of normal sulphuric acid. Each cubic 
centimeter of normal alkali combined corresponds to 0-156 gramme 
of menthol. 

On deducting the amount of menthol contained in the oil in the 
form of esters from the total menthol found, we have the amount of 
free menthol. 

The table on next page contains the results obtained by the 
above process for commercial menthol and a number of samples of 
oil of peppermint in connection with the specific gravities, boiling 
points and residues. The boiling points were determined with 
metallic bath. 

It requires only a casual review of the contents of the table 
to show that oil of peppermint is a most variable product. Then 
when we call to mind that normal Japanese oil generall)' con- 
tains about 75 per cent, of menthol, the variation is still greater. 
But it must also be remembered that an oil containing a high per- 
centage of menthol frequently does not possess the desired fine 
aroma so valuable in essential oils. The quality of the aroma is 
generally indicated by the amount of menthol esters. Yet, there 
may be some disturbing elements present, such as the sulphur com- 
pound, recently discovered,^ which will vitiate an otherwise fine 
aroma very materially. 

The writer has every reason to think that the oils examined 
above are genuine, excepting, of course, the sample marked " Un- 
known." This was highly adulterated with turpentine, as the boil- 
ing points clearly show. 

In e.xamining oil of peppermint it is necessary to determine: (i) 
the specific gravity, although this is only an indication ; (2) the 
boiling point, varying from a few degrees below 200^ C. to about 
230° C. (uncorrected), with some residue ; (3) the amount of men- 
thol. The combined menthol varies from 3 to 16 per cent. The 
total menthol may vary from 30 to 80 per cent. These data, in 
connection with the aroma and identity tests, will undoubtedly show 
the character of any oil of peppermint. 

'1896, C. Klcbcr, Phann. Kciiciv, 14, 269 ; Schimmci cV Lo. s :^ifHt-anttudl 
Report, October, p. 48. 





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^"AiXiS:"'"} Observations on Acacia of Commerce. 195 

It is hoped that the Pharmacopceial Committee will find it desir- 
able to introduce the boiling point of this oil, at least, into the next 
revision of the Pharmacopouia, if they do not see their way clear to 
admit a method for determining the per cent, of menthol. But the 
writer cannot see any reason why a simple method like the above 
should not be made serviceable, seeing that good acetic anhydride 
can be so reasonably secured. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON ACACIA OF COMMERCE. 
Bv J. Henry Schroeder, Ph.G. 

Of all the drugs sent forth into the commerce of the world, there 
is, perhaps, no single one of which there exist so many varieties as 
of acacia. A difference in the source of production is one cause 
for the variableness in quality of the commercial article. In some cases 
the quality of the gum is lowered by the season of collection, and 
a secondary grade is obtained by assorting the other varieties. 

The chemical literature relating to the exact nature of the 
gums of different species of acacia is only limited, and they have, 
so far, been subjected to little thorough stud\'. 

As their habitats vary greatly, they are usually known by the 
names of the localities where they are collected, or by the names of 
the ports from which they are shipped. 

For pharmaceutical uses the U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs that the 
gum of Acacia Senegal be employed. 

It was with a view of determining the presence of dextrin in the 
powdered commercial " gum arabic," that an examination of differ- 
ent samples was undertaken. 

It has been alleged that the high price of a good quality of gum 
has tempted those who handle the product, and that many of them 
have resorted to adulteration for pecuniary gain, dextrin being the 
substance usually employed for the purpose. While for merely 
technical purposes an addition of dextrin might not be a disadvan- 
tage, such adulterated gum is, of course, unfit for pharmaceutical 
purposes, especially for the preparation of emulsions. 

Observations were made during the work, which I think of suffi- 
cient interest to the pharmacist to report. 

Before submitting in detail the results of the examination, I desire 



196 Observatmis on Acacia of Commerce. {^"^'l^xiXm^^' 

to state that they are presented solely on account of the interest 
which they seem to possess for the practical pharmacist, with the 
consciousness that, considered as a scientific investigation, the 
important factor, completeness, is lacking. 

According to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, acacia is <* a gummy exu- 
dation from Acacia Senegal, Willdenow (nat. ord. LeguminoscB). 
Besides the description of the physical appearance of the gum, the 
following tests are also given : 

{a) Acacia should be soluble in 2 parts of water; it should yield a 
gelatinous precipitate with basic lead acetate, T. S., ferric chloride, 
T. S., or concentrated solution of sodium borate, and does not 
reduce alkaline cupric tartrate, V. S. 

(b) The powder is not colored blue (absence of starch), or red 
(absence of dextrin), by iodine, T. S. 

In addition to these tests, it may be of interest to refer to two 
others for the presence of dextrin. 

One, which is from Hager, Hartwich and Fischer's Commentar 
zur Pharm., B. II, p. 44, is as follows : 

"Three c.c. of a solution composed of 15 drops of solution of fer- 
ric chloride, 15 drops of saturated solution of potassium ferricyan- 
ide, 5 drops of diluted hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1-165) ^"<^ 60 c.c. 
of distilled water, are added to 6 c.c. of a solution of the suspected 
gum (strength of solution should be 20 per cent). If the gum be 
devoid of dextrin, it will be colored a pure yellowish-brown tinge, 
this color remaining permanent during eight to ten hours. If dex- 
trin be present, the color will change in about one hour to blue." 

The other test, which is evidently a modification of the above 
method, is described in El Memorandum} 

It seems to be erroneous, inasmuch as it contains potassium /^rr^- 
cyanide instead of potassium /^mcyanide, in presence of ferric 
chloride. Tlie sulphuric acid present in the solution does not 
prevent the precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide. This test seems, 
therefore, inapplicable. 

The foregoing are the tests upon which the examination of sam- 
ples of commercial gum arabic was based. 

While I was examining samples of the powdered gum in regard 
to their action upon alkaline cupric tartrate, V. S., I noticed that, 



^ Pharm. Jour., October 12, 1895, p. 322, and Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc.,^o\ 
44, p. 625. 



'^"aIj'hi'.'iSt"™} Observations on Acacia of Commerce. 197 

in every instance, a marked reduction was taking place. A ref>e- 
tition of the experiments verified this observation, I decided to 
apply the test to a sample of the whole gum. For this purpose the 
best gum (answering the Pharmacopaial description in physical 
appearance) obtainable was employed. One gramme was pulver- 
ized in a clean mortar, and dissolved in 10 c.c. of recentl}' distilled 
water. 

Just sufficient potassium hydrate solution wasadded to give an al- 
kaline reaction, and this solution heated with alkaline cupric tartrate, 
V. S., in a water-bath (boiling temperature), during twenty minutes. 
Here, too, a well-defined reduction was observed, though seemingly 
less prominent than that produced by an equal amount of the pow- 
dcred substance. When the test solution was heated, without the so- 
lution of gum, for an equal length of time, it remained clear. A like 
behavior of acacia is described in Hager, Hartwich and Fischer's C^;//- 
w/^;//fzr, as follows : "Acacia does not reduce Fehling's solution at 
6o°-70°, but has a i educing action after being boiled with the rea- 
gent," and " dried gum in solution reduces Fehling's solution at 
temperature of water bath." I have observed, however, that gum, 
not otherwise than air-dried, reduces Fehling's solution without 
being boiled, upon heating a solution for some time at watei bath 
temperature. 

The increased reduction by the powdered gum is probabl}' due to 
drying previous to powdering it. 

The iodine test for dextrin and starch was applied to each 
sample in powder and in the form of solution. When applied to the 
same powder it imparts to the powder only a light yellowish color 
of the iodine. If only traces of dextrin are present a dark red tint 
is produced. When a larger quantity of dextrin is present, the color 
produced by a few drops of the reagent is almost black. If starch 
and dextrin be present in the same sample, the}' can hardly be dis- 
tinguished. One minim of the official T. S. of iodine will produce a 
decisive tint in solution of dextrin in distilled water, in proportion 
of I of the former to 2,000 of the latter. The presence of gum 
does not interfere with this reaction. 

As commercial dextrin is not a product of definite comjxjsition 
and constant proportions, the delicacy of the iodine test may, of 
course, vary accordingly. 

As all the samples of gum gave negative results with iodine. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 



198 Observations on Acacia of Commerce. { '^'^Aprii." S 

traces of dextrin and starch were added to the sample under exam- 
ination ; the reagent in all cases gave prompt indication of their 
presence, showing that there was present in the original sample 
nothing to mask the reaction. 

The potassium ferricyanide reaction did not give satisfactory 
results. The test solution was prepared as above described from 
clear crystals of potassium ferricyanide, previously washed with 
distilled water to free it from any adherent ferrous salt, which might 
have formed by exposure to light. By reduction with the ferric 
chloride it produced a pure yellowish brown color, without a bluish 
shade, proving the absence of ferrous salt. 

(a) When diluted with distilled water, it remained unchanged 
during twelve hours. 

{b) A I per cent, solution of dextrin in distilled water caused 
almost immediate reduction and consequently a blue color. 

{c) The reaction with finely powdered gum arabic proved some- 
what less rapid than that with pure dextrin, but the blue color was 
produced within twenty minutes (powder free from dextrin by iodine 
test). 

{d) Powdered gum arabic, adulterated with dextrin, reduced the 
solution after a few minutes' time. 

[e) When a tear of the gum was dropped into the solution of 
potassium ferricyanide, the solution did not acquire a blue color 
within two hours; but after standing a few minutes the outer sur- 
face of the tear of gum was colored a decidedly bluish tinge. When 
a tear of the gum was powdered, and then some of the potassium 
ferricyanide solution added, reduction with formation of a blue color 
took place more rapidly, agitation increasing the action. 

Is it not possible that the drying of the gum or that other influ- 
ences cause a change to take place in the gum acacia, which might 
account for the reaction with alkaline cupric tartrate and potassium 
ferricyanide solutions ? 

In order to determine the quality of the commercial powdered 
acacia, the samples were obtained, as far as possible, from the source 
of supply of the market, though the majority were obtained in phar- 
macies in Ohio, Indiana, New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

All the samples were tasteless, and all reduced Fehling's solution, 
as described in the first part of this contribution. 



^'"kp^riiViSL"'' ! Proximate Analysis of Orris Root, 



199 



TABULATHD RESULTS OF EXAMINA TKJN. 



Sample. 


( 
Color of 
Sample. 


Color of 
Solution. 

Ver>' light. 


Dextrin. 
Nont 


Starch 


Color, when 

Heated with 

KUH. 


U. S. P 


Almost white. 


Amber. 


Gran, gum 


White. 


Very light. 


Nont 




Amber. 


Powder a ■ . 


White. 


Yellow. 


Xont-. 


\ i;i. 


.\mber. 


b. . . 


White. 


Yellow. 


None 


Nour. 


.\mber. 


c 


Gray. 


Dark brown. 


None. 


N..1U 


Yellowish-brown. 


1 


White. 


Very light. 


None. 


N ■ . I , ■ 


.\mber. 


e . . 


Yellowish. 


Yellow. 


None. 


None 


Amber. 


•' /• . . 


White. 


Light. 


Noue. 


None. 


— 


S • ' • 


White. 


Light. 


None. 


None. 


Amber. 


h . . . 


White. 


Yellow. 


None. 


None. 


.\mber. 




White. 


Light. 


None. 


None. 


— 




White. 


Light. 


None. 


None. 


— 


I . 


White. 


Light. 


None. 


None. 


— 


m . . 


White. 


Very light. 


None. 


None. 


Amber. 



These results seem to indicate that the cheaper grades of gum 
are most frequently employed in the preparation of the powdered 
article, and that adulteration with dextrine is not generally prac- 
tised. 

Of course, the samples examined were only such as are used in 
pharmacies ; and, no doubt, for technical purposes, one might be 
able to purchase gum wherein dextrin might be revealed. 

To all who have favored me with samples of the gum, ni)' sincere 
thanks are due. 

Cincinnati. O , March, 1897. 



PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF ORRIS ROOT. 
Hy S. Allen Ticker. 

Coutribulion from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia Colle>^e of 

Pharmacy. No. 162. 

What is known in commerce as orris root is the rhizome of Iris 
florentina, which has been deprived of its cortex and dried by expo- 
sure to sunlight. Orris root has a delicate aroma, and for this rea- 
son it finds extensive use in the manufacture of perfumes, floral ex- 
tracts and tooth-powders. F*or these purposes the prepared rhizome 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



2CX) Proximate Analysis of Orris Root. {^™aSi897 

is reduced to a granular form or a fine powder. It was on account 
of the extensive use of orris root, and because no statement of the 
effect of solvents on the article is given, that the writer undertook 
this proximate analysis. It is well known, however, that some of the 
proximate principles have been pretty thoroughly investigated by 
Dumas, Landerer, Fliickiger and Hager ; especially is this true of 
the volatile oil and its stearopten. 

A sample of the granular form of the prepared rhizome was 
ground to a very fine powder. Petroleum ether extracted wax and 
fat to the extent of 1-34 per cent. Ethyl ether afterward dissolved 
1-83 percent, of substances which were soluble in alcohol and ben- 
zole, but not soluble in acidulated water. This extract had a strong 
odor of orris root. The substances to which this odor was due 
were not soluble in water. The alcoholic solution of the extract 
gave precipitates with alcoholic solutions of ferric chloride and lead 
acetate. 

Absolute alcohol removed 4-13 per cent, of the weight of the 
rhizome. About three-fourths of the extract were soluble in water- 
This solution contained small amounts of glucose and sucrose. It 
gave a precipitate with lead acetate solution. 

The distilled water extract amounted to 14-02 per cent. This in- 
cluded 831 per cent, of glucose, 1-27 per cent, of sucrose and a 
small amount of substances precipitable by alcohol. The total or- 
ganic solids dissolved by water made alkaline with sodium hydrate 
were found to be 30-30 per cent. This extract consisted almost en- 
tirely of mucilaginous and albuminous substances which were pre- 
cipitated by acidifying with acetic acid and adding a large volume 
of alcohol. Water acidulated with hydrochloric acid extracted 
10-30 per cent, of organic matter. Starch was present to the extent 
of 16-85 P^^ cent. A cold infusion of the rhizome gave no precip- 
itate with gelatin for tannin. The sample of orris root examined 
contained 8-74 per cent, of moisture and 2-12 per cent of ash. The 
ash contained calcium, magnesium and potassium as carbonates* 
chlorides and phosphates. 

In addition to the foregoing percentages representing the extracts, 
starch, moisture and ash, 10-37 per cent, of cellulose and undeter- 
mined substances were present. 



"^"AiXiac"""-; Marrubiin and its Dichlorine Derivative, 201 

MARRUBIIN AND ITS DICHLORINE DERIVATIVE. 

By Harry Matusow. 
Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 163. 

This crystallizable principle, obtained from Marrubium vulgare, 
a plant belonging to the natural order Labiata;, was first isolated by 
Mein in 1855, and investigated by Harms, to whom the former pre- 
sented it for investigation. 

Harms (Archiv dcr PJiannacie, No. ^^i, p. 144, August, 1855), 
then, upon investigation, ascribed to marrubiin the following prop- 
erties : 

" Marrubiin forms stellate groups of colorless needles ; it melts 
at 148^ C, and at a higher temperature it breaks up with the 
development of an unbearable odor ; it is almost insoluble in water, 
easily soluble in alcohol — particularly in hot alcohol — and soluble 
in ether. Its taste is persistently bitter ; and it possesses a tend- 
ency to become colored when exposed to the air." 

The next investigator to take up the subject was Kromayer 
[Archiv der Pharmacic, No. 108, p. 258, 1861), who extracted the 
plant with boiling water precipitated the infusion with lead 
acetate, removed the excess of lead with hydrogen sulphide, and 
then concentrated the infusion to a syrupy consistence. He then 
obtained the crystals from the infusion by means of alcohol and 
purified them by treating with animal charcoal. 

Kromayer's results, which were published simultaneously with 
the process of extraction briefly described above, were as follows : 

" F'rom ethereal solutions it crystallizes in colorless rhombic 
plates, or thick, four-sided, double, gypsum-like crystals. 

" From alcoholic solutions it crystallizes in needles. 

'• The crystals are gritty between the teeth. On account of their 
sparing solubility in water, their bitter taste is not perceived until 
after being kept in the mouth for some time. 

" Alcohol or ether dissolves it readily. 

" The alcoholic solution tastes intensely bitter, and has a some- 
what acrid after-taste. 

" The alcoholic solution reacts perfectly neutral. Almost com- 
pletely insoluble in cold water and only sparingly soluble in hot 
water. 

"The hot-water solution of marrubiin tastes strongly bitter. 



202 Marriibiin and its Dichlorine Derivative. {'^'^Apri'ialG?""*' 

** On the addition of water to the alcoholic solution, the marru- 
biin separates as an oily liquid, and the mixture becomes milky; on 
adding some alcohol and allowing the solution to rest, the marrubiin 
crystallizes out in needles. 

**When heated on platinum foil, marrubiin melts to a colorless 
liquid ; more strongly heated, it gives off white fumes of a biting 
and irritating odor, and finally burns away completely without leav- 
ing any ash. 

♦* When heated in a glass tube closed at one end it distills over in 
oily drops without leaving a residue, developing at the same time 
mustard-oil-like, piercing fumes. 

" The melting point of marrubiin lies at i6o° C; on cooling it 
solidifies to a beautiful, radiating, crystalline mass. 

" Marrubiin is not a glucoside. Concentrated sulphuric acid dis- 
solves it rapidly, with a brown-yellow color. On the addition of 
water the color disappears with the separation of gray flakes. 

'' Concentrated hydrochloric acid, whether hot or cold, has no effect 
on marrubiin. 

" Cold concentrated nitric acid does not affect it, but on heating 
dissolves it with a yellow color. 

" Tannin does not precipitate a solution of marrubiin. 

" By the action of alkalies, cold or warm, marrubiin is not per- 
ceptibly affected. 

" Ammoniacal silver nitrate solution, on being boiled with mar- 
rubiin, is only slightly reduced. Marrubiin, consequently, is not an 
aldehyde-like body. 

" Marrubiin is not precipitated by metallic salts, namely, ferric 
chloride, when applied, did not produce any change. 

"In its properties marrubiin stands nearest to coumarin, C^gHgO^; 
to cinnamein (meta-cinnamein) = CgaHj^O^ = Q^^^O, C^gH^Og 
(benzoyl-cinnamate); and to styracin = C36H16O4 = CjgHgO, CigH^Og 
(cinnamyl-cinnamate)." 

In addition to the foregoing results quoted from him, Kromayer 
remarks that marrubiin is the first instance of a crystalline separated 
bitter principle from a plant belonging to the Labiatae, a family 
which is so rich in ethereal oils, and that all the characters of mar- 
rubiin indicate its intimate relation to the ethereal oils. 

In 1863 Harms published a second communication on the prop- 
erties of marrubiin, in Archiv der Pharmacie, No. 1 16, p. 141. 



Am. Joar. Pharm 



ApXi^"'"' } Marrubiin and its Dichlorine Derivative. 203 

In this case Harms obtained the bitter principle by treating the 
herb with three successive portions of hot water, evaporating the 
water extractions to a syrupy consistence, and treating them with 
alcohol; to the alcoholic solution he added a large quantity of 
sodium chloride and about one-third its volume of ether ; the whole 
was then agitated and the separated ethereal layer, when drawn off 
and allowed to evaporate spontaneously, left tabular crystals of 
marrubiin, which, after two re-crystallizations from alcohol, appeared 
pure. From 25 pounds of herb Harms obtained 2 grammes of the 
crystalline bitter principle. 

With reference to the properties of marrubiin, Harms says he 
found them, in general, to agree with those given by Kromayer. 

An elementary analysis, which Harms made on a portion of the 
crystals presented to him by Mein, yielded from 0-3 13 gramme of the 
principle, dried at 90°-ioo° C, 0240 gramme of H2O, or 8.52 per cent, 
of H. The carbon estimation, unfortunately, was lost, but it showed 
that the marrubiin contained more than 69 per cent, of carbon. 
Harms also stated that on recrystallizing marrubiin from hot solutions 
a portion of it assumes an amorphous form. On dissolving the amor- 
phous bitter principle in alcohol, and allowing the solution to stand 
at the ordinary temperature in the air, it goes over into its original 
form, and separates in a crystalline, wart-shaped mass. Marrubiin 
crystallizes easily — best when to a boiling alcoholic solution boiling 
water is added until it begins to become turbid, and the solution 
allowed to cool slowly. 

In the American Journal of Pharmacy for June, 1890, Hertel 
published the following experience : 

On making a fluid extract of marrubium, using diluted alcohol as 
a menstruum, it was noticed that, after standing for a week, a de- 
posit of well-defined crystals separated from the extract. The de- 
posit from 10 pounds of herb was nearly I ounce, the extract, 
however, still being as bitter as before. The slight yellow 
color of the needle-shaped crystals was removed by several recrys- 
tallizations from alcohol. The crystals still retained their slowly- 
developing but persistently bitter taste. When heated on platinum 
foil the crystals melted, then charred and finally volatilized without 
leaving any residue. They were quite soluble in chloroform, alco- 
hol and ether, and slightly soluble in water. The princijile is insolu- 
ble in benzin, is not colored by acids, docs not respond to I'^ehling's 



204 Marrnbiin and its Dichlorine Derivative. {^^'llx\iXm!^' 

test for sugar, nor to the alkaloidal group-reagents, and from its 
alcoholic solution is not precipitated by lead subacetate. It crystal- 
lizes best from cold alcohol. 

A menstruum prepared from 2 parts of alcohol and i part of 
water, with 5 per cent, of glycerin, yielded a fluid extract remain- 
ing free from crystalline deposit. 

The investigation of marrubiin was next taken up by Morrison, 
who published his results in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
July, 1890. Morrison obtained the marrubiin by extracting the 
herb with ether, and purified it by repeated crystallization from hot 
95 per cent, alcohol, and subsequent treatment with animal char- 
coal. Morrison describes the properties of marrubiin as follows : 

The crystals were insoluble in water and in solution of potassium 
hydrate, very sparingly soluble in boiling water and in cold alcohol. 

It is soluble in hot 95 per cent, alcohol, also in ether and chloro- 
form. The crystals melt at 152°-! 5 3° C. They were at first taste- 
less, but developed, when held on the tongue, a decided bitterness. 
The alcoholic solution was very bitter. Sulphuric or nitric acid 
gave a dark brown color ; hydrochloric acid produced no change, 
and ferric chloride produced no change. This principle reduced 
Fehling's solution by boiling in a water-bath, without first heating 
with an acid. On boiling it first with acidulated water, a peculiar 
aromatic odor was developed ; then on heating with Fehling's solu- 
tion, an abundant precipitate of cuprous oxide was produced, thus 
showing it to be an easily decomposable glucoside. 

The average of two combustions was : 

Calculated for 
Found. (C40H58O9.) 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

C 70*25 70-38 

H 8-42 8-50 

O 21*33 21*12 

The melting point of the marrubiin, obtained by Hertel, was also 
determined by Morrison and found to be i53-5°-i54-5° C. Morrison 
remarks that this marrubiin was evidently nearly pure, and states 
that the average ot three combustions made by him was : 

Per Cent. 

C 70-54 

H 9-08 

O 20*38 



^"'AiXi^*'''"*} Marrubiin and its Dichlorinc Derivative. 205 

Morrison further states that his results indicate the composition 
of marrubiin to be very close to that of absinthiin, C4yH;^^09. a crys- 
talline bitter principle obtained from wormwood, and described by 
Kromayer in Arcliiv dcr Pharmacie, No. 108, p. 120, but that it does 
not af^ree with all the properties described by Kromayer, who states 
that absinthiin melts at 120° to 125° C. 

Thus far I have reviewed the history of marrubiin, and described 
the investif^ations and results of preceding workers. I shall now 
detail my own experience with the extraction of marrubium, for the 
isolation and purification of marrubiin, and describe the properties 
of that substance as observed by myself. 

The herb was collected by the writer at Lawnside, N. J., in the 
months of July, August and September, 1896. It was carefully 
dried in a room, without exposure to direct sunlight. The herb 
was then finely ground, and trial extractions made with alcohol, 
benzol and acetone as menstrua, 500 grammes of the herb 
being subjected to the solvent action of each of the solvents named. 
Of the three different menstrua mentioned, acetone was found to be 
the most satisfactory one, extracting the largest quantity of the 
bitter principle and the least amount of foreign matter, with 
smallest quantity of menstruum. 

Two and a half kilogrammes of the herb were now 
extracted with acetone, the acetone being, from time to time, recov- 
ered from the extract, and used again as menstruum. When the 
herb was practically exhausted, the acetone was recovered from the 
extract, by distillation, and the thick, syrupy mass which was left 
was treated repeatedly with hot benzol. The benzol solution was 
allowed to stand for twenty-four hours for marrubiin and resinous 
matter to separate. The mother liquid was then poured off, and 
the residue treated with a fresh portion of hot benzol and allowed 
^to stand as before. This treatment was continued until relatively 
pure crystals of a yellowish color were obtained. The crystals were 
then repeatedly crystallized from hot alcohol, by solution and chill- 
ing, which, owing to the prevalent cool weather, afforded a rapid 
means of crystallization. They still retained a slight yellow tinge, 
which, however, was removed by treating them with animal char- 
coal. A portion of the syrupy mass obtained above, on distilling 
off the acetone, was treated repeatedly with hot alcohol, and allowed 
to stand ft)r twenty-four hours after each treatment, without previous 



2o6 Mamibim and its Dichlorine Derivative. {^^'l^xxXm^^' 

treatment with benzol, but without success ; the reason for this, I 
think, is the following : the crystals are accompanied in the extract, 
besides the coloring and other foreign matter, by what seemed to 
be a resinous substance, which was dissolved along with them by the 
alcohol, and separated with them from its solution, thus rendering it 
difficult for the bitter principle to crystallize ; hot benzol, on the other 
hand dissolved the crystals and the resinous substance at first, but 
when allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, retained the greater part 
of the resinous substance in solution, and deposited the crystals with 
only a small quantity of the resinous substance adhering. When 
these impure crystals were treated with a fresh portion of hot 
benzol, the marrubiin was dissolved, but the contaminating resin, 
for the most part, did not go into solution. From the 2J^ kilo- 
grammes of herb extracted about 20 grammes of purified crystals 
were obtained. 

These crystals melted at 154°-! 5 5° C, and on cooling solidified to 
a crystalline mass. 

When treated with strong sulphuric acid a dark brown color was 
produced. 

Strong nitric acid produced a similar reaction. 

Strong hydrochloric acid produced no change, even on heating. 

When Fehling's solution was heated with a hot-water solution of 
marrubiin on a water-bath for thirty minutes, it was not reduced. 

Fehling's solution, when heated on a water-bath for thirty minutes 
with a hot-water solution of marrubiin, which had previously been 
boiled with hydrochloric acid, was not reduced. 

The alcoholic solution of marrubiin has a neutral reaction. 

The alcoholic solution of marrubiin, when treated with alcoholic 
ferric chloride, was not changed ; alcoholic lead acetate produced no 
change ; alcoholic tannin solution produced no change ; ammoniacal 
silver nitrate solution, in the cold, was not reduced by a hot aqueous 
solution of marrubiin ; the same reagent when heated in a water- 
bath was not reduced ; but as the solution became more concen- 
trated, the marrubiin gradually separated from solution on the bot- 
tom of the tube. 

The alcoholic solution, as well as the crystals, had a persistently 
bitter taste. On the addition of water, the alcoholic solution be- 
comes turbid white. Marrubiin crystallizes in lustrous needles ar- 
ranged in star- shaped groups, from hot alcohol when not concen- 



'^''^Aprii".'!^"™'} Marrubiin and its Die Jilorinc Derivative. 207 

trated. From concentrated hot alcoholic solutions, it crystallizes 
in dull-white plates. 

It is soluble in acetone, ether, alcohol, chloroform, but most readily 
in hot benzol. 

It is insoluble in petroleum benzin and cold water, and only spar- 
ingly soluble in hot water. 

Marrubiin, when tested for nitrogen, by fusing a small quantity of 
it with a fragment of metallic sodium, agitating the heated mass 
with water filtering, and adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and 
hydrochloric acid in excess, did not give the characteristic blue 
precipitate or color of ferric ferrocyanide, (Fejj (F^ (CN)g)3, thus 
indicating the absence of nitrogen. 

The crystals obtained by recrystallization from hot alcohol, pre- 
vious to being treated with animal charcoal, melted at 158°-! 59° C. 
They were subjected to ultimate analysis ; the combustions were 
made in an open tube with copper oxide and a current of oxygen, 
the substance being, in all cases of combustion, previously dried in 
a desiccator over sulphuric acid for twenty-four hours. 

The following are the results of two combustions : 

(0 '^93' gramme of the substance yielded: 

•5113 gramme of COj = 72-19 per cent, of C. 
•1500 " " H20= 8-59 " " " H. 

19-22 " " " O. 



lOO'OO 



(2) -1659 gramme of the substance yielded : 

•4414 gramme of CO, = 72*57 per cent, of C. 
•1293 " '• HjO= 8-68 " " '* H. 

1875 •• •'. •• O. 



lOO'OO 



The crystals were then recrystallized six times from hot alcohol, 
and a second determination of the melting point gave the same 
result as that obtained in the previous case, viz.: 158^-159° C. 

They were, therefore, treated with animal charcoal in several suc- 
cessive applications, and the melting point, as proven by several 
trials, was found to be 154°-! 55° C. A combustion of the purified 
substance showed the following to be its percentage composition. 



2oS Marrnbiin and its Dichlorine Derivative. {^'^i^'^^^Xm^'^' 

which is practically the same as that previously obtained; -1654 
gramme of the substance yielded : 

•4372 gramme of CO., = 72*07 per cent, of C. 
•1305 " " H2O = 877 " " " H. 

19-16 " " " O. 



100 '00 

The average of the three combustions was : 

Calculated for 

Found. (C30H43O6). 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

C 72*28 72'14 

H . 8-68 8-62 

O 19*04 I9'24 



lOO'OO lOO'OO 



My results confirm Kromayer's, in general, excepting the melting 
point, which he determined to be 160° C. They also differ from 
the melting point stated by Harms to be 148° C. 

The melting point obtained by myself is nearest to the one ob- 
tained by Morrison. 

My results show that marrubiin is not a glucoside ; so they also 
differ in that respect, as well as in the matter of its formula from the 
results obtained by Morrison. 

Dichlorine Derivative of Marrnbiin. — A small quantity of marru- 
biin was dissolved in ether and dry chlorine gas passed into the 
ethereal solution, until no more of the gas was absorbed. 

The ethereal solution, which was of a yellow color, was divided 
into two portions, one portion being allowed to evaporate and the 
other poured into an excess of water. The portion poured into the 
water was stirred, the water poured off and the precipitated sub- 
stance washed with successive portions of water and carefully dried. 
When dry, it was found in the form of a yellowish-white, hard, wax- 
like mass, adhering to the sides of the beaker. The portion of the 
ethereal solution which was allowed to evaporate left a thick, oily, 
yellowish-brown substance, which, when redissolved in ether and 
allowed to evaporate several times and then washed repeatedly with 
water, assumed a form similar to the substance obtained by pouring 
a portion of the ethereal solution into water. 

A preliminary test for chlorine was made by heating a small por- 



'*^'"Ai,ri'i':iS^*'""*} ^^ote on Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 209 

tion of the thoroughly washed substance with chlorine-free calcium 
carbonate on platinum foil. The mass was allowed to cool, then 
dissolved in water by the aid of nitric acid, and silver nitrate, T. S., 
added. This reagent produced a white, curdy precipitate of silver 
chloride insoluble in nitric acid. 

To estimate the chlorine quantitatively, 0813 gramme of the 
chlorine derivative was intimately mixed with chlorine-free calcium 
carbonate, and heated in a glass tube, closed at one end, until the 
carbon was completely burned off. The tube was then broken, and 
it and the contents were introduced into a beaker. Water was 
added, and the whole warmed and complete solution of contents 
effected by the aid of nitric acid. The solution was filtered clear, 
the filter carefully washed, adding the washings to the filtrate, and 
then precipitated with silver nitrate. The precipitate was collected, 
washed with hot water and dried at 130° C. to constant weight. 
The weight of silver chloride so produced was -0425 gramme, 
which corresponds to 0105 gramme of chlorine, or 12-91 per cent, 
of the weight of the derivative taken. Assuming that one hydro- 
gen atom is replaced by every chlorine atom introduced, the for- 
mula of the derivative — admitting the formula for marrubiin to be 
CjoH^Og — would be CaoH^iCloOg. the theoretical amount of chlorine 
in which is 12-47 per cent. 

Marrubiin dichloride is a yellowish-white, hard, wax-like sub- 
stance, soluble in ether and alcohol, from which solvents, however, 
it could not be obtained in crystalline form, even after repeated at- 
tempts at crystallization. 

When heated it becomes transparent at 63° C. 



NOTK ON ointmp:nt of mkrcuric nitrate. 

By Josp:ph W. England. 

Probably no official ointment has been more carefully studied 
than has the familiar citrine ointment. To the physician its medi- 
cinal action is peculiar and full of interest. Through its free nitric 
acid, when applied to an epidermis more or less altered by patho- 
logical change, it rapidly penetrates the superficial tissue, and 
sharply stimulates the subdcrmal tissue to absorb the soluble mer- 
curic .salt, thus inducing a local, and possibly, to some extent, a con- 
stitutional alterative action. The danger of salivation from a too 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 



2IO Note on Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. {^'^•llr\imi. 

speedy absorption is such that many physicians dilute the ointment 
with fatty diluents in all cases, save those requiring strong stimula- 
tion. Whether the elaidin of the ointment is of any value in pro- 
moting absorption or not has not been determined. 

Not alone from the medical standpoint, however, has the ointment 
been of interest, but its making has been the fruitful source of much 
study by pharmacists. Under the title of ** Unguentum Hydrargyri 
Nitratis," an able paper by P. W. Squire, has been published in the 
PJiarmaceutical jfournal of London (February 27, 1897, 172), in 
which are given the results of experiments upon the nature of the 
fat, the relative quantity of nitric acid, and the manipulation used 
in making the ointment. Especial attention is paid to the differ- 
ences between the processes of the British and United States Phar- 
macopoeias. It is not necessary to here dwell upon these, save only 
in a general way. 

Regarding the fat to be used, Mr. Squire prefers the British 
Pharmacopoeia mixture of lard and olive oil, rather than the lard oil 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia. He says that with lard oil the 
oxidation takes place at a lower temperature than with lard and 
olive oil, the resulting product being somewhat darker; otherwise, 
he frankly adds, there is not much to choose between the two fatty 
bases. 

The relative quantity of nitric acid used in the B.P. process is 
considerably more than in the U.S.?., and while the U.S.P. treats the 
lard oil with a part of the nitric acid previous to the addition of the 
solution of mercuric nitrate, the B.P. directs that the acid solution of 
mercuric nitrate be added to the ointment base without any previous 
treatment with acid. The advantage of the first procedure over the 
second Mr. Squire admits, giving an alternative formula based on the 
B.P. formula, in which the fatty base is treated with half the nitric 
acid before the mercurial solution is added. 

Mr. Squire finds that the temperature at which effervesence takes 
place varies with the nature of the mixture of acid and fat. With 
nitric acid and lard oil the reaction is slight at 100° C. (212° F.) and 
brisk at 110° C. (230° F.) ; with nitric acid, lard and olive oil, the 
reaction takes place at 120° 0.(248° F.) ; with acid solution of 
mercuric nitrate and lard oil it occurs at about 90° C. (194° F.), and 
with acid solution of mercuric nitrate, lard and olive oil, at 95° C. 
(203° F.). The relatively higher temperatures of the first two in- 



^"^ April; Sr™ } ^ote on Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 21 1 

stances have no practical bearing if there be no mercuric salt 
present. 

The important practical point to observe is that the temperature 
be kept low after the addition of the mercuric solution, when the 
tendency to blacken increases as the temperature rises. This change 
will occur even if the ointment be kept at 100° C. (212° F.) for any- 
thing like an hour, and possibly in much less time. 

The interesting nature of Mr. Squire's communication suggested 
to the writer the advisability of reporting its data to American 
pharmacists, and also of making a few practical suggestions regard- 
ing the present U.S. P. process. 

The following formula is suggested for trial : 

Grammes. 

Red mercuric oxide 755 

Nitric acid 175" 

Lard oil 760' 

Heat the lard oil in a glass or porcelain vessel to 100° C. (212° F.), 
withdraw heat, and gradually add 75 grammes of nitric acid. When 
the reaction moderates, reapply the heat until brisk effervescence 
takes place, and then withdraw heat until active effervescence sub- 
sides. Then gently heat until effervescence ceases. (During the 
effervescence stir the mixture with a wooden spatula or paddle.) 
Allow the mixture to cool to about 60° C. (140° F.). Having dis- 
solved the red oxide of mercury in 100 grammes of nitric acid, with 
the aid of sufficient heat, add the solution gradually to the oxidized 
fat, and stir the product until cold. When nearly cold, add 50 
grammes of glycerin, and admix thoroughly. 

The advantage in using red mercuric oxide over mercury rests in 
the fact that small quantities of it are more easily weighed, and it is 
probably purer than commercial mercury. If it be desirable to employ 
red mercuric oxide for making the official solution of mercuric nitrate, 
it should be equally useful in making the ointment. The small 
quantity of water formed in the reaction is of no practical 
moment. 

In the U.S. P. process, no directions are given for stirring the 
fatty mixture during oxidation, and the inference is that such a 
practice is to be tabooed. As a matter of fact, a diligent stirring of fat 
and oxidizing material facilitates oxidation, and in the writer's opin- 
ion is of decided advantage in hastening the end- reaction. If the 



212 Aqua Pur a. {'"'^■iSrnJmi"'^- 

ingredients be not stirred during effervescence, there is a danger 
that the contents may be thrown from the container. 

The reaction between the fat and acid is sometimes slow in re- 
sponding, and when it responds it does so very quickly. For this 
reason the writer prefers to withdraw the heat on active effervescence, 
and then after the reaction is in operation, to heat gently until effer- 
vescence ceases, rather than to follow the official directions of heat- 
ing until effervescence ceases after the addition of acid with 
primary reaction. 

There is no apparent need of waiting until the temperature of the 
oxidized fat falls to 40° C. (104° F.) before adding the mercurial so- 
lution. Squire cools his product to 60° C. (140° F.), and this would 
seem to be a low enough temperature. 

The red oxide of mercury " lumps " slightly on adding it to the 
acid, but heat soon brings it into solution. 

Objection may be made to the addition of glycerin to ointment of 
mercuric nitrate, on the ground that nitro-glycerin may be formed. 
The objection is not well founded. The production of nitro-glycerin 
requires a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid over the 
quantity of nitric acid used in order probably to absorb rapidly the ' 
water formed in the reaction, as follows : 

C3H, (0H)3 + sNO^-OH .^ C3H, (N03)3 + 3H2O 

This condition does not obtain in this ointment. In addition, 
the fat present doubtless inhibits such a change. Further, the 
writer has followed the practice of adding glycerin to the ointment 
for three years past, and there has been no complaint of untoward 
therapeutic effects, as there would have been had any nitro-glycerin 
been present ; the latter is rapidly'absorbed by the skin. 



AQUA PURA. 
Bdilor American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Dear Sir : — In consideration of the condition of the drinking 
water supplied to the citizens of Philadelphia and some other cities, 
too, by their public works, it seems to me there is an excellent 
opportunity for the pharmacist to do a stroke of business as well as 
to assist his suffering fellow-beings to preserve their lives and en- 
joy a drink of pure water while still living. My suggestion is that 



^"aSiSt*""'*} Common Sense on the AlcoJiol Question. 213 

he constitute himself a purveyor of pure drinkinf^ water to his cus- 
tomers and neighbors by supplying them with filtered water. He 
can either sell this pure filtered water at a merely nominal price, 
say, 4 or 5 cents a gallon at his store, not delivered, or else give it 
away as an advertisement, and which, I think, would be more pro- 
fitable than the selling of postage stamps for a similar purpose. 

There are several good filters on the market that can be attached 
to the hydrant in the store, and need no attention except for clean- 
ing every two or three days, and a proper receptacle for the filtrate ; 
they will work on day and night alone. From this arrangement 
down to simple filtration through paper with a little magnesia, many 
ways of filtration will occur to the competent and skilful gentlemen 
for whose information and ultimate benefit this hint is intended. 

I fancy I can see an extensive and profitable application of this 
hint to the business of many pharmacists. 

A little admixture of plain carbonated water added to the filtrate 
would make it sparkle and be an improvement possibly. 

The highest-priced filter on the market that I know of, filtering 
about 10 gallons an hour when clean, can be put up for $25, per- 
haps less, and from this through an endless variety of filters and 
methods, home-made or otherwise, the outfit can be reduced to a 
very small sum, according to quantity of filtered water required or 
attention needed to keep the work continuously going on. 

Yours truly. 

Pro Hono Publico. 



COMMON SENSE ON THE ALCOHOL QUESTION.^ 

However temperate a man's own views may be on any such question 
as that of the use of alcohol, he is tempted to lean in his public 
utterances toward the contention of fanatics. He may not go to the 
extremes that they contend for ; indeed, he is almost sure not to. 
Hut he is apt to make statements by which they can strengthen 
their case with the public and especially with the legislators. It is 
refreshing to notice a recent exception in the case of Mr. Pellcw, of 
the department of chemistry of Columbia University, who recently 



^Editorial in New York Afedical Journal, March 8, 1897. 



214 Common Sense on the Alcohol Question. {^"Aj?ii?i897^™* 

concluded a course of lectures in the Museum of Natural History on 
the subject of the good and bad effects of alcohol. 

Mr. Pellew stated without reserve, and backed up his statement 
by citing the most careful observations and experiments of well- 
known investigators, that " there was no doubt that, even in health, 
a small amount of alcohol, if given in divided doses, could be 
burned up in the blood and serve as food, without producing any 
injurious effects." We are quoting from the Sun's report of Mr. 
Pellew's last lecture. He went on to say that in diseased condi- 
tions, where nutrition was impaired, alcohol could be given in 
greatly increased amounts without any intoxicating effect, and was 
then of enormous value. An ounce of it, he said, gave as much 
heat as seven or eight ounces of beef, and that without having to 
undergo the process of digestion and assimilation. In other words, 
it burned, " as in a lamp, without wasting the wick." 

On the other hand, the popular notion that alcohol will keep up 
the heat of the body under exposure to great cold was declared to 
be a mistake. Alcohol, said Mr. Pellew, actually reduced the tem- 
perature of the blood, but it was ot service to restore equilibrium 
after the exposure was over. The lecturer was not backward in 
depicting the horrors of drunkenness, to which, of course, no rea- 
sonable man can shut his eyes. He spoke of the dram-drinking 
habit as a nervous disease rather than a vice. He properly insisted 
that, in health, the only good effects of alcohol, ** except, indeed, its 
action as a ' scavenger of mankind,' " came from its moderate use. 

To show the astonishing amount of intemperance in the so-called 
temperance doctrines at present promulgated, Mr. Pellew read pas- 
sages from the books on " physiology " to which the law now re- 
quires the teachers and pupils in the public schools of the State of 
New York to devote a large proportion of their time. He pointed 
out the " absurd doctrines, not to say absolute falsehoods," which 
in many cases were thus crammed into the children's heads. The 
Sun's account concludes as follows : " In his opinion it is confusing 
to a child to learn that it is a sin to pick a pocket and to drink a 
glass of wine, and he suggested the state of mind of a Teutonic 
father or grandfather, when his young hopeful would read to him, 
from his school books, how the ' use of beer, more than of any 
other liquid, tends to make the drinker selfish, cruel and brutal.' " 



t^Airti'i^*^"''} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 215 

RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

SOME COLOR REACTIONS OF TARTARIC, CITRIC AND MALIC ACIDS. 

According to E. Pinerua [Annates de Chimie Aiialytique, 2, 66), the 
reagent for producing these color reactions is made by dissolving 
0'02 gramme of ^9-naphthol in i c.c. of sulphuric acid, specific grav- 
ity 1-83. 

The test is made by warming cautiously in a porcelain capsule 
005 gramme of the organic acid with 10 to 15 drops of the reagent. 

Tartaric acid, when thus treated, produces a blue color, which, 
under the gradual action of heat, becomes a pure green. If to the 
cooled mixture 15 to 20 times its volume of water are added, the 
green coloration passes to a reddish-yellow. 

With citric acid the color at first produced is an intense blue, 
which does not become green on the further application of heat, and 
the mixture becomes colorless or only slightly yellow on the addi- 
tion of 1 5 to 20 times its volume of water. If the citric acid contain 
only a small quantity of tartaric acid, the green color is produced 
by the latter. 

Malic acid, when treated like the others, produces a greenish-yel- 
low, quickly passing to yellow. The addition of water furnishes an 
orange color. All the reactions are produced quickly, and care and 
judgment must be used in applying heat. 

THE ALLEGED CONVERSION OF CINCHONINE INTO CINCHONIDINE. 

Messrs. B. H. Paul and A. J. Cownley [Pharmaceutical Journal, 
February 20, 1897) have investigated the alleged conversion of cin- 
chonine into cinchonidine and reached the following conclusions 
with reference to their experiments : An endeavor to corroborate 
Koenig and Hussmann's statement as to the possibility of convert- 
ing cinchonine into cinchonidine by the action of dilute potash was 
unsuccessful. The authors stated that if the supposition be made 
that the base obtained was really cinchonidine, it must be presumed 
that the cinchonine operated upon had not been sufficiently puri- 
fied. It is well known to quinologists that the cinchona alkaloids 
are very prone to form double compounds with each other, either as 
alkaloids when separating from various solvents, such as ether and 
alcohol — the latter having been used by the authors — or as salts 
from aqueous solutions. Cupreine, for instance, which they isolated 
from Remijia pedunculata, forms a compound with quinine, viz.: homo- 



Am. Jour. Pharui, 



2i6 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, {^^'l^xii 



1897 



quinine, which reacts whether as an alkaloid or as a salt, differing 
in many respects from either cupreine or quinine. 

ESTIMATION OF MORPHINE IN OPIUM AND ITS PRINCIPAL PREPARATIONS. 

Al. Grandval and H. Lajoux {Jour, de Pharui. et de Chini. [6], 5, 
153) recommend a process for the estimation of morphine which 
they claim is easy and rapid of execution, and yields a pure white 
morphine. 

Opium is estimated by taking 10 grammes, triturating in a glass 
mortar with 40 grammes of distilled water, until the drug is finely 
divided, throwing on a folded filter and washing the mortar with 40 
grammes of water, which are also poured on the filter. The mass is 
allowed to drain well, the filter and its contents are then returned to 
the mortar and triturated with 40 grammes of water added in seve- 
ral portions. The whole is then poured on a plain filter and washed 
with water until the washings are free from color and taste. The 
filtered liquid and washings are then evaporated on a water-bath to 
13 grammes; to this residue are added 13 grammes of 95° alcohol, 
and the mixture is allowed to stand a half hour for the sulphate 
and meconate of calcium to deposit ; it is then filtered through a 
small filter moistened with 60° alcohol, and the filter and precipitate 
are washed with alcohol applied drop by drop, so that not more than 10 
grammes of alcohol have been used when the washing is complete. 
The edges of the filter are kept from drying during the washing by 
covering the funnel with a watch crystal. Ammonia is next added, 
drop by drop, to the liquid until the odor is just apparent, and the 
whole is agitated for some minutes, then set aside for twelve hours 
in a cool place. The precipitate of morphine and narcotine is col- 
lected on a plain filter, previously dried at 100°, tared and moistened 
with alcohol of 60°. When the liquid has run through, the precipi- 
tate is washed with alcohol of 40° until the filtrate runs colorless, 
when not more than 25 c.c. should have been used. The filter and 
its contents are then dried at 100°, weighed and returned to the 
funnel, where 5 c.c. of ether are added in order to permit the mor- 
phine being moistened by the chloroform; then 10 grammes of 
chloroform are added, which dissolve the narcotine. Finally the 
morphine and filter are dried at 100^ and weighed. The morphine, 
being in the state of hydrate and crystalline, is not dissolved by the 
chloroform, which only dissolves morphine when in the state of 
anhydride. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. ) Fditorinl -t i -- 

April. 1897. / CilUUTiai. 21/ 

Extract of opium is assayed by dissolving: 5 grammes of the 
extract in 5 grammes of water, adding 5 grammes of alcohol of 95°, 
allowing to stand, and then transferring to a plain filter moistened 
with alcohol of 60°. The precipitate is washed with alcohol of 40^, 
there being required about 10 c.c; the operation is then conducted 
in the same manner as under opium. 

The liquid preparations of opium are assayed by slight modifi- 
cations of the process which readily suggest themselves. 



EDITORIAL. 

SUBSTITUTION. 



There has been a great deal said at the Natioual and the various State Pharma- 
ceutical .Associations about substitution, and it is probable that much more will 
be said this year than ever before. It is scarcely necessary, however, to waste 
nmch time on a subject in which the plain line of duty is so clearly marked 
out for the pharmacist. Certainly, every physician has a right to specify any 
particular manufacturer's preparation, and the patient has a right to receive it. 
If the pharmacist to whom the prescription is presented for compounding does 
not care to furnish the pro<luct of the specified manufacturer, he has a right 
to decline and to return the prescription. He has no right, however, to sub- 
stitute his own or anybody else's preparation for the one specified, even if he 
is sure the substitute is as good or, as he may think, better. 

It is only justice to Fairchild Brothers 6c Foster to give them credit for going 
to considerable expense to bring certain guilty parties to justice, who have been 
palming off, not only substitutes but poor substitutes, in prescription for their 
essence of pepsin. The pharmacist who does not wish to <lispense anybody's 
preparation but his own has a remedy ; he can visit the physicians in his local- 
ity, load them up with samples of his own manufacture, and perhaps convince 
them that they are the best. \i the same time it will pay him, morally, legally 
and financially, to supply just what is ordered. 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE NOSTRUM. 

We sincerely trust that certain nostrum manufacturers will not garble the 
preceding remarks and publish them as reading matter (i)aid for at double the 
advertising rates) in the newspapers; they are not intended for the patent 
medicine nabobs. 

Substitution, as already defined, is almost impossible in the sale of patent 
medicines, but at the same time the pro<lucts of the retail druggist are in many 
localities taking the place of nostrums. This has l)eeu l>rought about by the 
e<lucation of the public by the pharmacist as to the real nature of the numerous 
patent remedies whose virtues lie more in printers' ink than in intrinsic merit. 
To offset this disastrous warfare against their remedies, the nostrum manufac- 
turers resort fre<|uently to paragraphs like the following, which start in the city 
pai>ers and gradually find their way into those of ihc smallest country towns 



o n ^^-f/^vt/yJ f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

2l8 naitortaL. \ Aprii,i897. 

GET WHAT YOU ASK FOR. 

Certain Druggists Who Bring Keproacli 
Upon Tlieir Business by tlie Practice of 
Palming Oft" " Substitutes " on tlie Public. 

When a person goes to a drug store for a 
standard remedy and the druggist tries to palm 
off some other preparation of a pretended simi- 
lar nature, urging the customer to buy the latter 
concoction on the plea that " it is just as good " 
or "really better" than the standard remedy 
called for, it is proper to avoid that drug store 
ever afterwards. 

The profit to the druggist on the standard 
preparations is not large. The few remedies 
that the whole world recognizes as meritorious 
are prepared by able phj-sicians and chemists, 
with every facility of modern science at their 
command, from the formulas of the most learned 
physicians that this generation has produced. 
A tremendous amount of capital is invested in 
the laboratories where these remedies are made. 
They have gained their reputations by the great 
good they have done in curing disease and reliev- 
ing pain. It costs a great deal to keep up their 
necessary excellence. 

The unscrupulous and generally ignorant drug- 
gist referred to sees a chance to make a big profit 
by mixing together a number of cheap ingredi- 
ents, giving the mixture a name, and taking ad- 
vantage of the gullibility of some people, who 
seem to like to experiment with their health. 
These preparations are frauds, and are never 
advertised, because they will not bear the light 
of any public investigation. 

This appeared as reading matter in the Philadelphia Public Ledger^ and 
claimed to have been taken from the Boston Globe. 

What is the " standard remedy " spoken of? 

Evidently, from what follows, it is one which has been advertised. 

When a customer asks for one of these so-called standard remedies, the 
pharmacist will not go far astray if he undertakes a little missionary work, and 
either sends the patient to a physician or supplies him (after due recommenda- 
tion) with a standard preparation of his own manufacture, which, perhaps, has 
not been so extensively advertised, but which has real merit. The editor who 
admits such "stuff" and calls it reading matter should be waited on by the 
druggists of his locality and be enlightened as to the real facts of the case. 
Such notices have appeared quite frequently of late, and, no doubt, will con- 
tinue to appear unless some active measures are taken by pharmacists. They 
indicate the desperate efforts of the nostrum manufacturers to neutralize the 
warfare which is being waged by druggists in nearly every part of the country 
against the patent medicine ; but sooner or later the persistent aggressiveness 
of the 40,000 druggists in the United States will win. It is nonsense to talk of 
going back to the day of 33 or 50 per cent, profits on " patents, " nothing moves 
that way in this world, the process of evolution is seen in everything, and this 



^""aSiS^""""- } Reineivs. 2 1 9 

miserable patent medicine traffic cannot go backward, it must gradually grow 
into something which we trust will be better. 

A TESTIMONIAL TO PROFESSOR ATTFIELD. 

The retirement of Dr. Attfield from professional life is an event in the history 
of pharmacy which should be marked by an acknowledgment of his long 
labors and important services. 

Now some of his past pupils, who have been students personally, or students 
of one or more of the fifteen editions of his Manual of Chemistrj*, also a few 
of his public friends, have decided that the time has arrived for them to show, 
in some appropriate manner, the esteem and warm regard they have for him, 
and to ask fellow-students and their friends to join them in a scheme for this 
purpose. 

Just what form the recognition will take has not been settled. Those who 
are willing to join in this testimonial should address Mr. John Moss, 39 Tres- 
sillian Road, London, S. E., for circulars and other information. The cash 
contribution, if any, is not to exceed ten shillings. 

OHIO PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The pharmacists of Ohio have decided to hold their annual meeting this 
year in Cleveland, during the second week of June. Detailed information can 
be had of Lewis C. Hopp, Secretary, 19S Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

North Carolina and Its Resources. Illustrated. Issued by the State 
Board of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C, 1S96. 8vo., pp. 413. 

This handsomely illustrated volume opens with a historical and general 
sketch of the State, and then treats of climate, forests, flora, fauna, geology, 
economic minerals, gems and gem stones, agriculture, horticulture, education, 
etc., etc. North Carolina has long been known as a State rich in economic 
products, and this lx)ok will do much to extend the knowledge of these pro- 
ducts. The flora is especially rich in medicinal plants, and the supply of many 
native vegetable drugs has for years come from this State. The Welsl)ach and 
other incandescent lamps are dependent on the supply of monazite from 
McDowell and adjoining counties. 

Hiltmore, the famous estate of the Vanderbilts, receives careful consideration 
in this book, and it is shown to be a superior educator in agricultural matters 
to the farmers of the State. 

I/eaving the mountainous districts, as we approach the coast we find the 
turpentine industry of great importance. The annual value of the resinous 
products sold from the State aggregates over |i, 500 ,000, being, in fact, 
about one-third of the entire product of these commodities in the world. 
On the coast the fish industry is of considerable magnitude. On reading 
this book one is almost forced to the conclusion that North Carolina is able to 
produce, within her boundaries, everything necessary for the comfort and 
well-being of the human race, and therefore is capable of being a small world 
within herself. 



2 20 



,-, • ( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

Kevieivs, \ April, 1897 



DIE Fabrication der Kunsti.ichen Minerawasser und anderer 
Moi-ssiRKXDER Getranke. Voii Dr. B. Hirsch uud Dr. P. Siedler. Dritte 
ueu-bearbeitete Auflage. Druck uud Verlag vou Friedrich Vieweg uud Sohn, 
Braunschweig. 1S97. 

The whole subject of miueral waters is comprehensively treated under the 
following titles : A, Mineral waters in general ; B, half-natural mineral waters ; 
C artificial mineral waters ; D, mineral-water ingredients ; E, apparatus ; F, 
preparation of mineral waters ; G, calculation of analyses ; H, artificial medi- 
cinal waters not occurring in nature ; 7, testing of artificial mineral waters ; K, 
beverages ; L, laws, etc. In the first chapter the general subject is concisely 
and iuterestiuglv stated. The half-natural mineral waters are those which, on 
account of their'agreeable taste, are desirable for table waters, but it is found 
necessary to fortify them by a further proportion of carbon dioxide, and, in 
some cases, also by the addition of common salt. 

Much valuable information is given concerning the composition of natural 
mineral waters, and how the various acids and bases are combined with one 
another. Attention is called to the fact that many of these bases and acids do 
not ordinarily occur together in solution, but that their presence in the same 
mineral waters is made possible by carbon dioxide, and, in some cases, heat 
and pressure. 

That portion of the book devoted to mineral water apparatus and the prep- 
aration of artificial waters is very full. Much of the apparatus is figured in 
the beautiful manner of Vieweg & Son, and for which they have a world-wide 

reputation. 

The manufacture of carbonated waters is described in detail and fully illus- 
trated. The manufacturer, chemist and pharmacist will all find this book one 
of value. 

The Year-Book of Treatment for 1897. A critical review for practi- 
tioners of medicine and surgery. Lea Brothers & Co. , Philadelphia and New 
York, 1S97. 

The thirteenth issue of the " Year-Book of Treatment " has appeared, with 
but few changes in the staff" of contributors. Every branch of medicine has 
received careful attention in this summary. The conclusions regarding 
antitoxine are quite full, and the weight of evidence in favor of it as a remedial 
agent is overwhelmingly in the affirmative. The chapter on therapeutics of the 
year is chiefly in reference to new remedies, and contains much information of 
especial value to pharmacists. 

AnnuaIv of the Medical Sciences and Analytical Index. A yearly 
report of the progress of the general sanitary sciences throughout the world. 
Tvdited by Charles E. Sajous, M.D., Paris, and seventy associate editors. Five 
volumes. The V. A. Davis Company, publishers, Philadelphia, New York and 
Chicago. 

The editor states in the preface to Volume I that his aim has been to add to 
the practical value possessed by the previous issues. From a general examin- 
ation of the work, we can say that he has fully accomplished his purpose. 

Rapport dk Mis.sion a la Martinique ET a Guyane. Par Emmanuel 
Gcoffroy. Macon, France, 1897. 



J 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) Revitin C -> -> i 

April, 1897. / ixiuuiv:^. 221 

On account of the death of the author, the introduction to this report was 
written by Dr. E. Heckel, who clearly sets forth the object of the journey of 
exploration to Martinique and French Guiana ; this object was to find, if possible, 
in the French colonies, trees yielding caoutchouc or other substance that 
would take its place, and to determine if the Araucarias of Brazil were to be 
found in French Guiana. The author himself answered these questions in his 
conclusions, by stating that the search for the forests of Araucarias was com- 
pletely fruitless, and he did not believe they existed in that colony, as they are 
ver)- conspicuous trees, and could not have escaped the observations of Aublet, 
Guisan and others. On the other hand, the trees yielding milky juice coagu- 
lable by alcohol, the Balatas, were found in great abundance. They were, how- 
ever, in difficultly accessible regions, covered by water for two-thirds of the year. 
The most favorable time for collecting the product was thought to be the com- 
paratively short season while the ground was dry. 

Les Plantes Medicinales et ToxiguES DE LA GuYANE Fran^aise. Par 
le Dr. Kdouard Heckel. Macon, 1897. 

The I-'rench nation is giving more attention than formerly to its colonies and 
their products : and this volume of ninety-three pages is evidence of an effort 
to render available the medicinal plants of French Guiana. 

The descriptions of the various plants are arranged alphabetically, each 
having one or more common names, followed by the botanical name, natural 
order, part employed, its use and method of administration. Among those 
described are to be found some well-known representatives of our own materia 
medica, as for example, Phytolacca decandra and Ricinus communis ; the 
former is given as an introduced plant. 

No one interested in the science of applied botany can read this contribution 
without being greatly benefited thereby, and the author, who has published it 
with the sole object of rendering some service to this branch of science deserves 
the gratitude of many outside of his own country. 

Digest of Criticisms on the United States Pharmacopckia. Seventh 
decennial revision (1890). Published by the Committee. Part I, pp. 183. 
New York, 1897. 

The Committee has again been fortunate in securing the services of Mr. Hans 
M. Wilder in compiling this Digest. It is a valuable summary of nearly all 
the papers on the preparations of the Phannacopci.*ia to July i, 1S96. The book 
is not for sale, but copies may be obtained by remitting seven cents in postage 
stamps to Dr. Charles Rice, Bellevue Hospital, New York. 

A Rkcaixii.ation of the Atomic Weioiits. By I'rank Wigjik-sworth 
Clarke. New edition, revised and enlarged. Published by the Smithsonian 
Institution, 1897. 

The first edition of this work was j)ublishe<i in 1882. Since then, new matter 
has been constantly accumulating, and the result in most cases has been a 
slight lowering of the figures representing the atomic weights of the elements. 
Clarke's figures are in nearly every case lower than those of Meyer and Seul^erl, 
which was published in the I'.S.P. 1890. With hydrogen as 1,000, oxygen is 
given as 1588. 



222 Pharmaceutical Meeting. \^^' p^^x\\ml^' 

CoNTRim-TION II TO THE COASTAL AND PLAIN FLORA OF YUCATAN. 

Hy Charles Frederick Millspaugh, M.D. Field Columbian Museum, publica- 
tion 15. Botanical series, Vol. i, No. 3. Chicago, December, 1896. 

This is a valuable contribution to the botanical knowledge of the almost 
unknown country of which it treats. 

Proceedings ok the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Virginia 
Pharmaceutical Association, held at Hampton, Va., July 21 to 23, 1896. 

Several interesting papers add to the value of these proceedings. One paper, 
bv Geo. R. Barksdale, is devoted to a description of a new form of percolator, 
to which a stirrer is attached. 

Complete Price List and Catalogue of Parke, Davis & Co. Detroit, 
Mich., 1897. 

MI^JUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, March 17, 1897. 

The sixth of the present series of Pharmaceutical Meetings was held in the 
College Museum at 3.30 P.M. J. W. England presided. The minutes of the 
last meeting were allowed to stand as published. 

The chairman called for the presentation of specimens and the following 
were exhibited : A sample of 'the matrix of the diamond, which is a kind of 
blue clay, from Kimberly Mine, South Africa, presented by Mr. Chas. Bullock ; 
and two photographs, one of two beech trees which had grown together in 
several places, and the other of a birch tree, which was 17 feet in circumference, 
4 feet from the ground. The trees grew in Sullivan County, Pa., and the photo- 
graphs were presented by Mr. Chas. H. LaWall. 

The first paper, which was on the subject of " Parthenium Hysterophorous," 
by Dr. H. V. Arny, was read by Professor Trimble (see p. 169). The active 
principle, or principles, of this plant have heretofore generally been regarded 
as an alkaloid by investigators. However, an examination of the plant, in 1889 
by the author, gave no evidences of an alkaloid, but a substance was isolated 
which was then believed to be a glucoside. It was, therefore, with a view of 
clearing up the chemistry of the bitter principle of the plant that the present 
investigation was undertaken. 

The second paper presented was on a '* Proximate Analysis of Orris Root," 
by S. Allen Tucker (see p. 199). This analysis was undertaken for the purpose 
of ascertaining the effects of solvents on orris root, as it was believed that such 
knowledge would be found of service in determining the percentage of this 
root in tooth powders and like preparations. An interesting result of the 
analysis was the large amount of starch which was i6"85 per cent. 

A paper entitled "A Brief R6sum^. of Acetic Anhydride in Oil Analysis, 
and a Modification of the Method for Estimating Menthol in Oil of Pepper- 
mint" was read by Lyman F. Kebler (see p. 189). The author referred to 
the difficulties which have attended the examination of essential oils, but said 
that methods are being established which will render their analysis quite easy. 
Among other factors to be considered, he emphasized the importance of the 
boiling point. 



Am. Jour. Pharoj. 
April. 1897. 



Pharmacejitical Meeting. 



223 



uscocs roRMAiaeiYoc 

£^<J«ZSHB)E 



Replying to an inquiry in reference to the production of the esters of essen- 
tial oils, Professor Sadtler referred to a recent report of Schimmel and Co. on 
this subject, and mentioned some of the compound ethers which are being 
sold in concentrated form by that firm, 

"Some Observations on Acacia 
of Commerce " was the subject of a 
contribution by J. Henry Schroe- 
der (see p. 195). The chairman re- 
marked upon the great change in 
the character of acacia, and said 
that it did not possess the ad- 
hesiveness that it formerly had. 

Professor Ryan said that twenty 
years ago no gum but that of Acacia 
Senegal was sold, while the pres- 
ent supply is obtained from a va- 
riety of sources, and as a result 
much of it is of inferior quality. 
He advised care in buying the 
powdered or granulated gum, and 
said that he had examined a sam- 
ple of powder which contained 40 
per cent, of starch. 

Messrs. Boring and Procter also 
remarked on the unsatisfactory 
quality of the drug. 

The last paper on the pro- 
gramme was read by Harry Matu- 
sow, the subject being *• Marru- 
biin and its Chlorine Derivative" 
(see p. 201 ). This paper gave evi- 
dence of much careful work on the 
part of its author, and the import- 
ance of the study and classification 
of the active constituents of vari- 
ous plants cannot be overesti- 
mated. 

At the close of the consideration 
of the papers, a lamp, which was 
presented ))y Messrs. I'll Lilly & 
Co., of Indianapolis, Ind., and 
which is known as the Moffatt 
I'ormaldehyde (".cnerator, was cx- 
liibited. Professor Trimble de- 
scribed the method of using it, and 
its general coiislrurtion is illustrated by the accompanying drawing. The 
device is recommcndeil for disinfecting purposes, its usefulness in this respect 
Ijeing due to the conversion of methyl alcohol into formaldehyde gas. The 
amount of gas generated from one pint of alcohol is said to effectually disin- 




Am, Jour. Pharm. 



224 Notes and News.— Obituary. {""^vrixSm. 

feet a capacity of 3,000 cubic feet. A photograph of a battery of twelve 

generators was also exhibited. The generators are all connected with one 

large reservoir for containing the alcohol, and this form of the apparatus may 

be used for the disinfection of large spaces. 

An expression of thanks was voted Messrs. Bli Lilly & Co. for their present, 

and those who furnished papers. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos. S. WieGand, 

Registrar. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

Wild Garlic. —SXywvcQ. vineale is the most injurious weed at the present time 
in the INIiddle Atlantic States. From Pennsylvania to South Carolina and 
Tennessee, it is known to townspeople as disfiguring lawns ; to farmers and 
millers as a pest in wheat, and to dairymen and their customers as ruining 
dairy products when eaten by cows in the pastures. It is not native in this 
country, but was introduced at an early date from the Old World. One of the 
earliest authentic records of its presence in America is contained in Pursh's 
American Flora, published in 1814, in which it is said to be "in old fields ; 
common." — Circular No. p, U^iited States Department of Agriculture, Divisiofi 
of Botany. 

Sandahvood oil should not have a specific gravity less than 0*975 at 15°, and 
it should dissolve in 5 parts of alcohol of 70 per cent, by volume. The follow- 
ing process for its examination has been devised by A. J. Hendrix {four, de 
Pharm. et de Chim. [6] 4, 499) : Weigh into a flask of 10 c.c. capacity 2 
grammes of a solution of 3 parts crystallized phenol in i part of alcohol, add 
o"5 gramme of the oil and mix perfectly. Add 0*5 gramme- concentrated 
hydrochloric acid without shaking. At the intersection of the liquids there is 
formed in pure sandalwood oil a yellow coloration, changing to a bright red in 
a few minutes. With oil of copaiba the upper quickly becomes mauve -colored. 
With oil of cedar the upper liquid becomes cloudy, and a brownish color is 
developed at the intersection. 



OBITUARY. 



William Kline Mattern, M.D., Ph.C, died suddenly April 16, 1896, at the 
Coroner's private office, No. 632 Chestnut Street, this city. Death was caused 
by rupture of the pulmonary artery as a result of blood-poisoning. 

Dr. Mattern was in the forty -ninth year of his age, having been born at Here- 
ford, Jvehigh County, Pa., August 5, 1847. 

He came to this city in 1870, and graduated from the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in 1874. Since 1886 he had been engaged in the retail drug business 
at 2602 (iermantown Avenue. 

After having taken a course at Jefferson Medical College, he received the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1882. Dr. Mattern was officially connected 
with the Twenty-eighth Sectional School Board for several years, and, in 1895, 
was appointed a member of the Board of Education. 

In 1892 he received the appointment of Coroner's Physician, which position 
he had held since that time. 




\_/2^^^^^^-t:^:^t^---^:^-*r c:^^^^^^ 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MA]\ i8gj. 



MEMOIR OF ROBERT SHOEMAKER. 

Robert Shoemaker deceased on the 17th day of December. 1896, 
at his residence, 1 736 Green Street, in this city, at the age of 80 years. 

Notwithstanding^ the bodily infirmities which attend advanced 
aj^e, he continued his attention to business until November, when 
serious illness obliged him to retire. He was the oldest druggist in 
Philadelphia who continued actively in business up to the time of 
his decease. 

The ancestors of Robert Shoemaker came from Kriegsheim,a vil- 
lage on the right bank of the Rhine, about eight miles from the 
town of Worms. The family name was Schumacher, anglicized to 
Shoemaker after their arrival in America. 

In 1677 William Penn visited Kriegsheim, attracted by the rclig- 
ous persecution of Dissenters, whose religious views were somewhat 
in accord with those of the Friends, or Quakers as they were then 
called. 

Penn tendered to them an invitation to join his colony in Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1683 a part of the family emigrated, and were followed 
by others in the next three years. They settled near Philadelphia 
in the locality known as Germantown.and their names are associated 
with the early history of Germantown and the adjacent districts. 

Robert Shoemaker was the son of Richard M. and Sarah Shoe- 
maker. His mother's maiden name was Sarali Clever. He was 
born in Shoemakertown, Montgomery County, Pa., February 2. 
1817 ; his father conducted a country store at that place. His early 
education was acquired at Abington school, and at the school of 
Solomon Jones, in Cheltenham township. 

(225) 



Am. .Tour. Pharm, 



226 Memoir of Robert Shoemaker. {"""^-^^^l-xm: 

In 1 83 1 Robert was apprenticed to William Scattergood, a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, to learn the drug business. Many of 
the prominent apothecaries of this city were, at that period, mem- 
bers of this religious society. 

The store of Wm. Scattergood was at the corner of Second and 
Green Streets, Philadelphia. 

Tiie aptitude and ability of the young apprentice was shown by 
his purchase of the store in 1*837, when only twenty years of age. 

In 1837 Robert commenced the preparation of the plasters of the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia. While engaged in the manufacture of plasters, 
his attention was directed by the late Prof. William Procter to the 
value of the residuum liquid which had been allowed to run to waste. 
By his request and advice he prepared for him some glycerine from 
this waste liquor, which was presented by Prof. Procter as the first 
glycerine made in this city, if not in America (1846). 

Glycerine had not then come into use, medicinally or in the arts, 
and there was no demand for it. In 1848 the French medical jour- 
nals called attention to its use in pulmonary complaints. This notice 
of its use created a demand among the medical profession, and in 

1848 Mr. Shoemaker made the first glycerine that was sold in this 
market ; the quantity was small and the price was ^^4.00 per pound. 
The entire product sold in 1848 was 15 pounds. As the demand in- 
creased, importation of glycerine commenced, and the price fell. In 

1849 Mr. Shoemaker made about 200 pounds, the price averaging 
about $2.70 per pound.^ 

In 1852 his brother, l^enjamin H. Shoemaker, was taken into 
partnership with him, A specialty of the firm was the manufacture 
of spread plasters, which acquired a high reputation in the trade ; 
they were the first in this city to engage in this specialty. Adhesive 
plasters, spread on muslin, had been in use many years, but the 
apothecary had been obliged to spread all other plasters on sheep- 
skin, as the occasion required. 

During his apprenticeship Robert Shoemaker was denied the 
advantages of attending the instruction given by the College of 
Pharmacy. 

The lecture course was in the evenings, generally the most busy 
time with the apothecary. He was obliged to make good, as far as 
possible, the loss of this opportunity by self-instruction, and in con- 



' All interesting paper, by Mr. Shoemaker, on this subject will be found in 
the American Journai, of Pharm-acy, June, 1879. 



"""•May'iSj*""'} Memoir of Robert Shoemaker. 227 

sequence was not a graduate of the Collefre, a circumstance which he 
often spoke of with regret. 

After entering into business on his own account, he became a 
member of the College, and was made a member of its Board of 
Trustees March 27, 1843, and first vice-president 1869, continuing 
in that office up to the time of his death. In 1S94 the degree of 
Master in Pharmacy was conferred upon him by the College. 

After conducting business for nearly twenty years at Second and 
Green Streets, the firm removed, in 1856, to Fourth and Race 
Streets, and greatly enlarged their business. 

In 1864 two sons of Robert, Wm. M. and Richard M., were taken 
into partnership. In Januar)% 1866, Benjamin H. Shoemaker with- 
drew from the firm, and, taking an adjoining store, gave his atten- 
tion exclusively to plate and window glass, a branch of the business 
whith had grown to such large proportions as to make its separa- 
tion from the drug business of the firm desirable. The firm now 
consists of Richard M., Thomas E. and Benjamin H. Shoemaker, jr. 

His experience in business convinced Robert Shoemaker of the 
advantage to be derived from a meeting of those engaged in the 
wholesale drug and manufacturing business, and on January 22, 
1861, he signed the call for such a meeting, which eventuated in 
the founding of the Drug F^xchange of Philadeljjhia. 

He was president of this body from 1867 to 1870, and in 1890 
was made an honorary member, in recognition of his valuable 
services. 

He was one of the incorporators of the Consolidation Bank, and 
one of its directors from the time of its founding. 

For many years he was a member of the Fire Insurance Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia, and of the Delaware Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. 

After the failure of Jay Cooke, in 1873, he was appointed one of 
the trustees for the settlement of their affairs. 

He took great interest in public school education, was a director 
in the Cheltenham District, Montgomery County, for over fifteen 
years, giving active service in every detail pertaining to the welfare 
of the scholars and teachers, the school at Shoemakertown being 
named after him. 

Robert Shoemaker was married to hlizabcth Moore, daughter of 
the Rev. William Moore, of Philadelphia, November 25, 1837. 



/^ J • /I -J f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

228 Gelseniic Acid. \ May, 1897. 

She died February 26, 1857, leaving the following children: 
William M.. Richard M., Sarah C, Joseph M., Thomas E. and Ben- 
jamin H. Shoemaker, Jr. 

He was again married to Ann Summers, of Alexandria, Va., to 
whom were born the following children : James, Roberta, Mary and 
Ellis C. Shoemaker, and who survive him. 

Robert Shoemaker was a representative man in the drug trade of 
Philadelphia; conservative, yet progressive, he conducted business 
for sixty years with skill and good judgment, and with a conscien- 
tious regard to its close connection with the public welfare. 

The sharp competition in trade in his latter years did not disturb 
his broad views of honorable business methods. 

The benefit of his long experience and good judgment was often 
sought for by younger men, and the kindly manner in which he 
received such applicants gained for him their confidence and respect. 

As a member of the Episcopal Church, he took an active interest 
in the congregation of St. Paul's Church, Chelten Hills, near which 
he resided for many years. For a long time he was accounting 
warden of the church, and continued as such up to the time of his 
death. In the ground adjoining this church his mortal remains 
were consigned to rest. 

A life extending to four score years may not be marked by great 
events; but measured by the quiet and steady pursuit of duties well 
performed, and with a just regard of the interests of his fellow-men, 
and continuing to the end of his sojourn here, erects a monument 
to his memory in the esteem and affection of all who knew him. 

C. B. 

GELSEMIC ACID. 
By Virgil Coblentz. 

The following notes are intended to serve as a preliminary notice 
concerning investigations on the above subject, which have been 
carried on at intervals for some years. 

The subject was taken up at the suggestion of Professor Lloyd, 
who al.so kindly supplied the author with about 50 grammes of an 
unusually fine crystalline sample of undoubted purity. 

This principle was first isolated by Professor Maisch in 1869, named 
and fully described by Professor Wormley in 1870. Professor Worm- 
ley, in his investigation, simply restricted himself to applying various 



^'^MayViS;^''"''} Gelscmic Acid. 229 

color tests for the purpose of identifying:; the principle from the 
standpoint of a toxicologist. 

Dr. Chas. Robbins, in his work on " Ueber die wesentlichen 
Bestandtheile von Gelsemium sempervirens " (1876), published 
analyses and claimed that this so-called gelsemic acid of VVormley 
was not a distinctive new principle, but simply a,*sculin. This 
assumption was later contradicted by Wormley (Am. Jour. Phak., 
1872). 

At present, attention will be directed to Dr. Robbins' analyses of 
this substance, but two having been made, the results being as 
follows : 

(I) C = 5204 percent. H := 5 189 per cent. 

(II) C= 51-82 " H = 4-9S 

Dr. Robbins carried on his combustions in a s'mple bayonet tube 
with copper oxide, as was customary at that time. This being the 
case, the author questions the value of the analyses and formula 
deducted therefrom, even though the figures correspond within a 
reasonably close limit. 

Gelsemic acid is one of those few organic substances which, upon 
heating with copper oxide or any oxidizing agent, gives up only a 
portion of its carbon as carbonic oxide, the rest separating as a 
graphitic-like deposit on the sides of the combustion-tube, which 
cannot be removed even at the highest possible temperature. Some 
twenty combustions of gelsemic acid were made after various 
methods; in several instances two of these corresponded closely, but 
subsequent results did not justify that any reliance should be placed 
upon them. The various methods employed were : first, combus- 
tion with copper oxide in a bayonet tube; second, with copper 
oxide in an open tube with a current of oxygen; in the third 
method of combustion, lead chromate was employed ; the fourth 
method attempted consisted in mixing the gelsemic acid with 
powdered fused potassium bichromate in a platinum boat, and 
then burning in an open tube with copper oxide in a current of 
oxygen. 

In each of the above cases every possible device was attempted 
to avoid the separation of carbon in the tube, but without success. 
Finally, the well-known method of wet combustion with a mixture 
of chromic anhydride and sulphuric acid was attempted, a number 



230 



Ge hemic Acid. 



( .A.m.Jour. Pharm. 
I Ma> , 1897. 



of analyses beinsr made with no better success than before. A 
description of this latter method with apparatus is given here, since 
it has answered admirably in the analyses of various derivatives of 
gelsemic acid. 

In the combination flask (Fto^, i) from lo to 20 grammes of chro- 
mic anhydride are introduced, followed by the gelsemic acid which 
has been accurately weighed off in a small thin glass tube, this is 
placed in a nearly upright position in the flask, in order to avoid 
contact with the CrOg before the proper time. After securing all 
the joints of the apparatus, a slow current of pure oxygen gas is 
passed through the entire apparatus until practically all of the air 
has been removed, after which the current is regulated to about 20 



Pe.Oa. 



O ^ 




"■^ 
w^ 



Fig. t. 

bubbles a minute, which is continued throughout the entire combus- 
tion, unless the reaction becomes violent, when the current should 
be temporarily closed. By slightly shaking the flash the gelsemic 
acid is caused to spill out, and is distributed through the chromic 
oxide, then the concentrated sulphuric acid which is contained in 
the separation funnel is allowed to trickle over the mixture very 
slowly, regulating the flow according to the energy of the reaction. 
Finally, when the reaction is over, sufficient acid is added to make 
a bulk of about 20 to 30 c.c. The flask and contents are then cau- 
tiously heated, increasing gradually till just short of boiling tem- 
perature, which is kept up for a period of fifteen to twenty minutes. 
The gases given off pass up through a well-cooled condenser into a 
tube which is filled with spun glass, well covered with lead peroxide, 



^"-May'ia!^^"} Gelsemic Acid. 231 

which serves to retain any sulphur dioxide which is carried over 
with the mixed oxygen and carbonic oxide. After passing this tube, 
and before the latter is absorbed by the potash bulb, the gases are 
dried by passing through two calcium chloride tubes. It is scarcely 
necessary to note that in carrying out an analysis by this method, 
the greatest of care must be exercised in regulating the current to 
as slow a degree as possible. The analysis of acetyl and bromo 
derivatives of gelsemic acid by this method gave very close concord- 
ant results, whereas, as already mentioned, no reliable data could be 
obtained from the mother substance, owing to the fact that a small 
portion of the carbon escapes combustion. 

The complete analyses of the acetyl and brom gelsemic acid are 
not given here, as the author desires to complete some molecular 
weight determinations before assigning a definite formula. In this 
connection attention is called to the differences in the melting-points 
of gelsemic acid, and some of its derivations, and the same of 
icsculin: 

Melting-point of gelsemic acid is between . ... . 206 and 205*5^ C. 
" " iL-sculiu is 160° C. 

" acetyl gels, acid is iSo° C. 

" '* ** iesculin is . . 130- C. 

" " bromo gels, acid is 250^ C. 

" *' cesculin is . . . . 193-195^ C. 

Gelsemic acid readily neutralizes solutions of sodium and potas- 
sium hydrate, but fails to yield any definite crystalline salts. Vari- 
ous attempts were made to prepare salts with barium and magne- 
sium with no success. 

Attention is here directed to a peculiarity of the potassium gel- 
semium mixture, which, upon heating or igniting, becomes very 
voluminous, exhibiting the same phenomena as the *• Pliaroah's 
Serpent," which results on heating the sulphocyanate of mer- 
cury. 

From the various data obtained in the course of my investiga- 
tions, I hope, at a near future date, to be able to shed some light 
upon the constitution of this interesting substance, as well as to 
prove my surmise that gelsemic acid is a principle distinct from 
arsculin. 

New York, April 20, 1.S97. 



232 Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. { '"'•.Aia^y'is^T."'"- 

CONSIDERATION OF SOME RECENT SUGGESTIONS 

CONCERNING OINTMENT OF MERCURIC 

NITRATE. 

Bv Charlies H. La Wali.. 

The Pharmaceutical Journal, of February 27, 1897, page 172, 
contained an article by P. W. Squire, upon the processes now offi- 
cial for the preparation of ointment of mercuric nitrate, commonly 
called citrine ointment. 

Mr. Squire's experiments were mainly devoted to the considera- 
tion of the differences now existing between the quantities and 
manipulations directed by the U.S.P. and B.P. 

While he slightly favored the use of a combination of lard and 
olive oil (as is authorized in the B.P.) instead of lard oil (directed by 
the U.S.P.), Mr. Squire acknowledged the superiority of our process 
in previously acting on the fatty base with a portion of the nitric 
acid, instead of adding the mercury dissolved in the whole quantity 
of nitric acid, as the B.P. directs. His observations on the varia 
tions produced by the influence of different temperatures show the 
necessity of guarding against over-heating the compound after the 
addition of the mercuric nitrate solution. 

In commenting upon Mr. Squire's paper in the last number of 
The American Journal of Pharmacy (Vol 69, p. 209), Mr. J. W. 
England suggests some improvements on the present officinal pro- 
cess, which are offered for trial and discussion. 

Mr. England's improvements consist in (i) using a proportionate 
amount of red oxide of mercury in place of the metal ; (2) chang- 
ing the temperature to which the mixture should be permitted to 
cool before adding the mercuric nitrate solution ; (3) incorporating 
about 5 percent, of glycerin with the finished product when nearly 
cold. 

The reasons given for the substitution of red mercuric oxide for 
metallic mercury are: (i) because small quantities of the oxide 
are more easily weighed; and (2) because the oxide is probably 
purer than the commercial mercury. 

There are altogether six official preparations in which metallic 
mercury is directed by the U.S.R, so that a certain amount of 
dexterity ought to be acquired in the weighing of this elusive sub- 
stance by a pharmacist who does his own manufacturing. As to 



Am.jo^ur.pharm.j Oiutmoit of Mcrciiric Nitnitc. 233 

the relative purity of the two substances, the experience of a lar^e 
manufacturing establishment shows that the commercial metallic 
mercury is of far f^reater uniformity and purity than the " red 
oxide " of commerce. Many samples of the red mercuric oxide 
have been encountered, which yielded a brownish colored nitric 
acid solution and left an insoluble residue resemblin^^ brick-dust ; so 
that it would be better to use the metallic mercury in the prepara- 
tion of the official solution of mercuric nitrate, in order to ensure a 
satisfactory product. The purity of commercial mercury was, in all 
cases noticed, very good; 'in purifying 156 pounds only y^ 
pound of impurity was obtained, or less than i/< per cent. The 
use of the red oxide of mercury was suggested first in i862\ and 
more recently in 1886, by R. Rother, who " finds advantages in the 
use of mercuric oxide " without explaining what these advantages 
are. 

The suggestion as regards temperature is one of great importance, 
as experience has shown in the manufacture of a total of hundreds 
of pounds by the process outlined in the American Journal of 
Pharm.xcv, 1894, p. 523, that careful observance and control of 
temperature is essential for the production of a satisfactory product. 
The directions might be supplemented by advising the maintenance 
of the temperature at 60° C. until all reaction ceases, in order to 
obviate the development of the spongy condition so often noticed 
in this product. 

The addition of glycerin may be advantageous in some respects, 
but in the formula as proposed by Mr. Kngland, the addition of 50 
grammes of glycerin to 1,000 grammes of ointment of officinal 
strength, reduces the percentage of mercuric nitrate below that 
required by the U.S. P.; this, however, could be easily remedied by 
diminishing the quantity of lard oil by 50 grammes. 

It is well for those who have difficulty with officinal ])rocesses to 
suggest improvements for the same ; but in the case of citrine oint- 
ment, it is extremely likely that those who fail to produce a satis- 
factory preparation by the U.S.P. process would not succeed with 
any method. 

A final consideration, not to be altogether ignored, is the raising 
of the cost of manufacture of the preparation, which would happen 



* Am. Jour. Piiar.. 34, p. 344. 



/- 7 • ^ / Am. Jour. Pbarm. 

2:^1 (jClSejmUin. \ May.lSg?. 

were the oxide of mercury used in place of the metal. Calculations 
show that the finished product would cost about one and one-sixth 
times as much as it does by the present process. 
305 Cherrv Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



GELSEMIUM. 

analysis of root, rhizome and stem. 
By L. E. Sayre. 

In the January issue of this journal, af^ention was called to the fact 
that in the commercial drug gelsemium, which should consist of 
rhizome and root, were frequently found portions of the stem in 
varying proportions. It was stated on the authority of Gerald 
McCarthy, botanist of the North Carolina Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, that the stem was apparently collected and used ta 
adulterate the drug. 

It was further stated that the stem probably had no medicinal value^ 
but of this no definite statement could be made until an analysis, 
then in progress, was completed. Mr. W. V. Ingham, a pharmacy 
student of the University of Kansas, has made this analysis, and 
also made a comparison of the active constituents in the three 
parts of the plant mentioned. 

Since the time above referred to, gelsemium root has been ob- 
tained from different quarters, with a view of ascertaining the quality 
of the market's supply. As a result, it is safe to state that there is 
no difficulty in obtaining a drug free from stem from houses hav- 
ing an established reputation as dealers in crude drugs. The article 
supplied from several quarters was remarkably free from fragments 
of stem. 

For analytical purposes a supply of the stem was obtained, not 
only from the commercial drug, but from a living plant of six years' 
growth, cultivated in a nursery. 

Mr. Ingham, in order to perfect himself in the work, made a 
number of trial analyses of reliable powders of gelsemium, and thor- 
oughly studied the process of isolation and quantitative determina- 
tion of the active constituents. 

The report of his analysis is briefly stated as follows : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Ma.v, 1897. 



} The Structure of Lcptandra. 



23s 



Constituents. 



Ingrredient Ing^redient Ingredient 

Percentage in Percentage in Percentage in 
Rhizome. Root. Stem. 



Moisture 

Volatile oil 

Fixed oil 

Resins 

Gums 

Gelsemine alkaloid . . . 

Gelsemic acid 

Starch 

Ash 

Other organic acids ... 

Inert material, cellulose, etc. 
Total 



3'i 


5' 


3-S 


0-5 


04 


Trace. 


5-6 


74 


3'2 


4'4 


24 


3-8 


0-8 


07 


\\ 


0-2 


017 


— 


0-37 j 


i 03 


— 


6-8 ' 


7-6 


6-3 


26 


2'2 


2-7 


27 


2-8 


19 


27-17 


26-97 


22-S 


7283 
100' 


7303 


77-2 


i *''®* i 


lOQ- 



Dragendorffs method was followed except in the case of the ^else- 
mine and gelsemic acid, where a modified method was used. (See 
p. 332, Blyth, " Poisons; Effects and Detection," 1884.) 

The gelsemic acid was obtained in transparent needle-shaped crys- 
tals. The alkaloid was obtained only in the amorphous state, and 
in that state estimated. 

It would seem from the above analysis that the principles upon 
which the drug depends for its activit)' are absent or present only in 
small quantities in the stem, so that the admixture of any apprecia- 
ble amount of stem must correspondingly reduce the value of the 
drug as a medicine. 



THE STRUCTURE OF LEPTANDRA. 
By a. I». Hrhithaipt, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Botanical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. 

The official Leptandra consists of the rhizome and roots of 
Veronica virginica, Linne, belonging to the natural order Scrophu- 
lariacese, growing throughout the United States east of the Missis- 
sippi, being found in mountainous meadows in the South and rich 
woods in the North. 




Fig. /. Rhizome aud roots of Veronica virginica, L., natural size. 
The plant is an herbaceous perennial, having a simple, erect 
stem, from 2 to 6 feet high, bearing leaves in whorls, and termin- 
ated by a long-panicled spike of whitish flowers. 




Fig. 2. Cross-section of the root, magniaed lo diameters ; a, cortex ; b, 
central cylinder. 




^^S- 3' Cross-section \a\ of rhizome, magnified lo diameters; a, outer 
layer of bark ; b, middle layer of bark ; c, interrupted circle of sclerenchyma 
fibres ; d, inner layer of bark ; e, wood ; /, pith. 




Fi^, f. Cross-section (/>. ol rhi/ou.c. inaKuitit'l ii> «lianielcrs; a, outer 
layer of bark ; b, middle layer of bark ; <. internit.tfd rinlr <.f scU-riiu'hvnia 
fibres ; d, inner layer of bark ; e, wood ; J\ pith 




Fig. 5. Cross-section of rhizome, magnified 500 diameters ; a, epidermis ; 
b, cork or periderm ; c, hypoderma of collenchyma ; d, cortical parenchyma ; 
e, endoderniis ; /, sclerenchymatous pericycle ; g, phloem or bast ; //, xylem 
or wood ; i, parenchyma of pith. 




^^ 



Fig. 6. Cross-section of the root, magnified 500 diameters ; <;, epiblema or 
ej)i«lermis of the root ; b, exo<lermis or hypo<lernia of the root ; <*, cortical 
parenchyma ; </, endo<lermis ; f, parenchymatous ]HTicvcle ; /'. phUcni of the 
vasal bundles ; g^ xylem of the vasal bundles. 



240 Liquor Poiassce and Liquor SodcB. {^^Mayjg^?.^'"' 

The leaves, from four to seven in each whorl, are short-peti- 
oled, lanceolate and minutely serrate. 

The flowers are small and white, having a four-parted calyx and 
a tubular corolla, with two exserted stamens. 

The fruit is an ovate, two-celled and many-seeded capsule. 

The plant flowers in July and August. 

The rhizome, from 4 to 6 inches in length and i<( inch in thick- 
ness, is horizontal, somewhat bent and branched with short stem 
remnants or cup-shaped scars on the upper side, and beset with 
numerous long, straight and brittle rootlets. The rhizome is hard 
and breaks with a woody fracture, is almost inodorous, and has a 
bitter and feebly acrid taste. Internally it shows a blackish bark, 
and a hard, yellowish circle of wood enclosing a three- to six-rayed 
purplish pith. 

The roots, which may be several inches in length, are about 
y2 inch in diameter, somewhat longitudinally wrinkled, pur- 
plish- brown, and break with a short fracture. 

A transverse section of the rhizome shows a relatively thick bark, 
consisting of ordinary parenchyma, covered by a hypoderma of col- 
lenchyma and a thin cork, the whole being enclosed by a persistent 
epidermis. The inner layer of the bark shows a distinct endoder- 
mis, beneath which is found an interrupted circle of lignified fibres, 
constituting a sclerenchymatous pericycle. The wood is disposed 
in a single circle, and consists of ducts and lignified fibres arranged 
in more or less distinct radial rows. The pith is large, from three- 
to six-rayed, consisting of ordinary parenchyma. 

A cross-section of the root shows a very thick cortex, sharply 
marked off from the woody cylinder by a distinct endodermis. The 
cortical tissues consist of ordinary parenchyma covered by a strongly 
cutinized epidermis, beneath which is seen a single layer of exoder- 
mal cells. Immediately beneath the endodermis is found a single- 
layered parenchymatous pericvcle which encloses the wood bundles. 



LIQUOR POTASS^ AND LIQUOR SOD^. 

Bv John P. Batks, Ph.G. 

Coutribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 164. 
According to the United States Pharmacopoeia, liquor potassse is 
"an aqueous solution of potassium hydrate [KOH=55-99], contain- 



Am.Joar. Pbarm 



May'iS:""'} Liquor Fotasscd and Liquor SodcB. 241 

ing about 5 per cent, of the hydrate." The same authority de- 
scribes it as "a clear, colorless liquid, odorless; having a very acrid 
and caustic taste, and a strongly alkaline reaction." 

** To neutralize 28 grammes of solution of potassa should 
require about 25 c.c. of normal sulphuric acid (each c.c. of the 
volumetric solution indicating 02 per cent, of absolute potassium 
hydrate), phenolphthalein being used as indicator." 

The Pharmacopoeia also says : •• Solution of potassa should be kept 
in bottles made of green glass, and provided with glass stoppers, 
coated with paraffin or petrolatum." Desiring to ascertain the 
strength and purity of the preparation, as dispensed by wholesale 
and retail drug firms, six samples were procured and examined, two 
being purchased from the former and four from the latter ; all of 
the houses were in Philadelphia. 

Samples 2, 3 and 5 were colorless, while I, 4 and 6 had straw- 
colors. Sample 4 was translucent ; all the other samples were clear. 
All contained insoluble foreign matter except sample 2. 

All of the samples were odorless and decidedly alkaline to litmus 
paper. All gave a violet color to the non-luminous flame. Two 
pharmacists took the precaution to dispense the solution in colored 
glass bottles, and labelled poison. 

The writer also examined the samples for potassium, by acidifying 
the solution with acetic acid and adding sodium cobaltic nitrite. 
All of the solutions showed this base. Number 3 showed a small 
amount of calcium, when some of it was acidulated with acetic acid 
and mixed with ammonium oxalate; the other samples were free 
from it. Carbonate was found in samples i, 2, 3 and 5. 

By titrating with decinormal sulphuric acid volumetric solution, 
the samples were found to contain, respectively, 318, 8-74, 4- 10, 
374, 018 and 4-38 per cent, of absolute potassium hydrate. 

Attention is directed to sample No. 5, which showed about 
•018 j)er cent, of potassium hydrate as calculated from the acid used. 
But in view of the fact that the sample showed much carbonate, it is 
likely that the solution owed its alkalinity almost entirely, if not 
altogether, to potassium carbonate. 

Liquor sodit, or solution of soda, should be, in order to comply 
with the requirements of the United States Pharmacopcria *• an 
aqueous solution of sodium hydrate (NaOH =^ 3996), containing 
about 5 per cent, of the hydrate." The Pharmacopoeia also dcsig- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1897. 



242 Valuation of Liquor lodi Compositus. {^"^Mly! 

nates it as " a clear, colorless liquid, odorless, having a very acrid 
and caustic taste, and a strongly alkaline reaction." " To neutral- 
ize 20 grammes of solution of soda should require about 25 c.c. of 
normal sulphuric acid (each c.c. of the volumetric solution indicating 
0-2 per cent, of absolute sodium hydrate), phenolphthalein being 
used as indicator." 

The Pharmacopoeia recommends the solution to be dispensed in 
the manner ordered for liquor potassae. In order to determine the 
exact quality of the article as sold by manufacturing pharmacists, 
six samples were purchased and examined. Four of these were ob- 
tained at retail stores and two at wholesale houses. When the 
samples were subjected to the flame test for sodium, samples I, 
3 and 6 gave evidence of potassium. These behaviors were after- 
wards confirmed by means of the sodium cobaltic nitrite test. 
Sample 3 was translucent, the other samples were clear. Samples 
I, 3 and 4 had straw or yellow colors; the others were colorless. 
Sample 3 was the only one containing insoluble foreign matter. 
All were odorless and strongly alkaline to litmus paper. No. 3 
contained calcium. Carbonate was present in samples I, 2, 3 and 
5. Three pharmacists dispensed the samples in colored vials. Two 
of these vials bore poison labels. 

Upon titrating the samples with decinormal sulphuric acid volu 
metric solution, they were found to range from one-half to twice the 
official strength, as follows: 

1000, 4*47, 2-31, 5-25, 4-21 and 4-93 percent. 



VALUATION OF LIQUOR lODI COMPOSITUS. 
By Richard Hai. Compton, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 165. 

Lugol's solution is required by the United States Pharmacopoeia 
to be a 5 per cent, solution of iodine, dissolved in water by the 
addition of 10 per cent, of potassium iodide. The same authority 
directs that if " 1266 grammes of the solution be mixed with a few 
drops of starch test solution, it should require for complete decol- 
oration from 49 3 c.c. to 50 c.c. of sodium hyposulphite decinormal 
volumetric solution (each cubic centimeter of the volumetric solu- 
tion corresponding to o-i per cent, of iodine)." 



^"^'yilV.'i^'^} Valuation of Liquor lodi Compositus. 243 

Being desirous of knowing to what degree the retail dispensers 
were governed by the Pharmacopojial requirements for liquor iodi 
compositus, I obtained a few samples at different ])harmacies and 
estimated the per cent, of iodine by the official method. The 
results of my titrations indicated the following percentages for the 
samples: 496, 482, 4-72 and 4-17. 

As there is no test given under Lugol's solution for estimating the 
potassium iodide present, I have made some experiments for the j)ur- 
pose of devising one. The following was found to be the best of sev- 
eral methods tried, and can be recommended on the concordant 
results which it furnished : 

Take a definite amount (12-66 grammes) of the solution and 
titrate it according to the official method of estimating the iodine. 
The amount of the latter is thus obtained. Now titrate the residual 
liquid with decinormal silver nitrate volumetric solution, using potas- 
sium chromate as an indicator if desired, until all of the iodides 
which the solution contains have reacted with the silver nitrate and 
formed insoluble silver iodide. 

The iodides of the solution consist of the potassium iodide 
originally present and the sodium iodide produced in the reaction 
between the sodium thiosulphate and the free iodine of the sample. 
The volume of the solution of sodium hyposulphite is the measure 
of the free iodine of the sample, and therefore the equivalent of the 
volume of silver nitrate required to react with the sodium iodide 
which it forms. Hence, if the volume of sodium hyposulphite 
required to decolorize the iodine of the sample be deducted from 
the volume of silver nitrate required to completely precipitate the 
decolorized liquid, the remainder will be the volume of decinormal 
silver nitrate volumetric solution required for the potassium iodide 
that was present. Multiply the number of cubic centimeters so 
found by 00 1 65 56, the value of I c.c. of the silver nitrate solution in 
potassium iodide, to find the amount of potassium iodide. Then 
by proportion calculate the percentage amount of it. 

It was also found that practical results could be gotten by boiling 
the Lugol's solution after dilution with water until all the free 
iodine was expelled, and then titrating with standard silver nitrate 
solution, which indicated at once the amount of potassium iodide 
present. 



244 Starch and Strontium in Opium, {'''^£jri£?f'""* 

THE PRESENCE OF STARCH AND STRONTIUM SUL- 
PHATE IN OPIUM AND THEIR INFLU- 
ENCE ON ASSAYING. 
By Lyman F. Kebi^ER and Chari.ES H. LaWai,!.. 

Although poppy juice does not contain any starchy matter, yet 
the presence of this article in opium has been reported in a number 
of instances. According to the Pharmacographia, p. 47, Egyptian 
opium sometimes contains an abundance of starch. Mr. Mjoen,^ 
who has probably made the most exhaustive microscopic study of 
opium on record, reports that Persian opium is abundantly contam- 
inated with wheat and leguminous starch. More recently Mr. Jel- 
liffe,- in a report at the regular meeting of the New York College of 
Pharmacy, stated that from 5 to 10 per cent, of starch was found in 
the samples examined. 

We ourselves have found wheat starch in opium assayed dur- 
ing the past two years. Mr. Moerk kindly sent us six samples 
of opium from three to five or six years old and every one con- 
tained wheat starch. The amount varied from a trace to 8 
per cent., but it was always present. Why the starch is there 
and how it came to be there we can only surmise. In some 
cases it may have been added for gain, but from the small 
quantity present in some samples its presence may be accidental. 
Persian opium is exported to Constantinople, by way of Trebizond, 
and is there worked up into forms to imitate the Asia Minor opium. 
Here is probably the source of contamination with starch, since Per- 
sian opium contains much of this. 

Before leaving the question of starch, a few words about its esti- 
mation in this connection may not be out of place. There are two 
ways of arriving at approximate results — microscopically and chem- 
ically. The one is probably as accurate as the other. 

Microscopically, dry the opium, note moisture and reduce to a 
fine powder. Weigh out i gramme of the powder, introduce it 
into a mortar containing 2 c.c. of alcohol; with a pestle rub up the 
opium well, add 8 c.c. of simple syrup and mix intimately. Of this 
mixture prepare a slide and by means of an ocular micrometer, 
divided into square millimeters, count the number of granules in a 



' 1895, Arch. d. Pharm., 233» 533. 
' 1897, Am. Drug., 30, 41. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



Ma""!^*"'"} Starch and Strontium in Opium. 245 

square of 100 square millimeters. Should any worker be without 
a micrometer, the total number of granules in a field may be 
counted. Repeat the counting with successive drops three or 
four times, and take the average of the several countings. Having 
approximated the number of starch granules in the above mix- 
ture, prepare a syrupy mixture of the same starch as that con- 
tained in the opium, say a I per cent, mixture, and deter- 
mine the number of starch granules as above. If the number of 
starch granules is greater or less than those contained in the opium 
mixture, dilute the mixture or make a more concentrated one, as 
the case in hand requires. If the number of granules is the same 
in both mixtures, the per cent, of adulterant is readily calculated. 

When more than one kind of starch is present, the per cent, of 
adulterant is more difficult to determine. 




Fig. I. Epidermis of capsule, magnified 500 diameters. 

Chemically, the starch can be estimated as follows: PLxhaust 10 
grammes of the opium with cold water, place the residue into a flask, 
add 200 c.c. of alcohol containing 5 per cent, of potassium hydrox- 
ide, and boil vigorously on the water bath for about fifteen minutes. 
Filter while hot and wash the residue with hot alcohol, until the 
filtrate is nearly colorless. Dissii)ate the alcohol from the residue 
and introduce the latter into a suitable flask, add 200 c c. of water, 
16 c c. of hydrochloric acid (specific gravity ri6), attach to a reflux 
condenser and boil gently for three hours. Cool the contents of 
the flask, neutralize with sodium carbonate, filter and make up to a 
definite volume. In this estimate the reducing sugar by Fehling's 
solution, either volumetrically or gravimctrically. The weight of 
reducing sugar multiplied by 09 equals the amount of starch con- 
tained in 10 grammes of opium. 



246 



Starch and Strontium in Opium. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm 
1 May, 1897. 



By this process there is estimated as starch, the pentosans and 
other carbohydrate bodies, which will undergo hydrolysis when 
boiled with hydrochloric acid. We have reasons for thinking that 
starch estimations made in plant analysis by means of hydrochloric 
acid are frequently wide from the truth. 




Fig. 2. Epidermal tissue of leaf, magnified 500 diameters. 

Let us now turn our attention to the general microscopical appear- 
ance of the opium. On clarifying some opium with chloral hydrate 
the structure of the pericarp of the poppy was clearly brought 
out, as shown in Fig. i. In the same clarified material were 
found scalariform and spiral vessels. An abundance of calcium 



O&o- o 



G 






® c& 



& 



Fig' 3' Wheat starch granules, magnified 500 diameters. 

oxalate crystals and some wheat brand were found in several cases. 
Leafy epidermal tissue was also abundant on every slide. Fig. 2. 
The starch was brought out by the usual iodine reaction. Fig. j. 

All these substances that do not increase the yield of morphine, 
by our present methods of assay, must, in our opinion, be considered 



^'"'iay'".'!^""'} StarciL and Strontium in Opium. 247 

of minor importance, so long as it is only required of opium to con- 
tain a certain amount of morphine. Substances that do increase 
the yield of morphine are the ones that annoy the analyst. 

About a year ago^ one of us (K.) called attention to the fact that 
the amount of impurity associated with the crystallized morphine, 
as obtained by the U.S. P. process, was abnormally great. The 
situation has not changed for the better, at this writing. During the 
past few months some of the opium assayed, yielded unusually high 
results. The perplexing part in some cases was the fact that one 
duplicate contained a much larger amount of impurity associated 
with the morphine than that of the other duplicate. The amount 
of impurity was estimated by the ash method. This, of course, 
indicated that some inorganic substance or substances were influenc- 












Fig . 4. Crystals from alcohol-ether precipitate, magnified 500 diameters. 

ing the results. The ash was repeatedly examined, and in every 
case strontium was indicated. 

It has frequently been observed, and commented on,- that when 
the 10 grammes of alcohol are added to the 20 grammes of opium 
extractive, a turbidity frequently results. We now extracted 40 
grammes of opium, preparatory to making a 40 gramme, instead of 
the usual lO-gramme, assay. The customary proportions of alcohol 
and ether were added and the assay allowed to stand over night. In 
the morning, it was found that 16 per cent, of material had precipi- 
tated out. On igniting this precipitate, 193 per cent, was volatil- 
ized. The residue consisted of strontium, Fig, ^, calcium and 

* 1896, Am. J. PiiARM., 68, 257. 
' 1895,/. Soc. Chcm. Itid., 14. 464. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



248 Starch and Strontium in Opium. {^"MajsiS? 

pota.ssium sulphates. Since no effervescing was produced when the 
ash was treated with acid, there was probably no calcium meconate 
present in the original precipitate. 

Several experiments were now undertaken to ascertain the cause 
of the variation of the amount of impurity contained in the crystal- 
lized morphine. One case was sampled tv/ice, by two persons, each 
using different lumps. These samples were assayed in the usual 
manner with the following results ; average of duplicates : 

Morphine. Morphine, Crude Morphine Pure Morphine 

Crude. Pure. Moisture. in Dry Opium, in Dry Opium. 

Sample I . . .11-48 io-68 22-68 14-86 13-81 

Sample 2 . . . 10-83 10-43 i9"52 13*48 12-97 

The variation in the crude morphine is chiefly due to the impurity 
present, as is clearly shown from the fairly uniform results obtained 
for the pure morphine. 

These same samples were now assayed by both of us, varying the 
conditions of precipitation, such as temperature, time of shaking, 
etc., with results as follows : 



Sample i . . -^ L. 

iK. 

.K. 
Sample 2 . . ^^ K. 

U. 

The above results are average of duplicates. They show that 
ordinary variations in assaying influence the results very little, 
when referred to pure morphine. The greatest variations appear 
to be due to the sampling, and to the impurity associated with the 
morphine as obtained by the U.S. P., method of assay. The 
impurity contained in the crude morphine was estimated by the ash 
method. This method probably gives higher results than any other, 
and is perhaps the best, considering the present impurities in 
opium. 

In order to ascertain whether or no we had unconsciously lapsed 
into a trend, Dr. Squibb's chemist, Mr. Smith, kindly checked our 
work, and with his permission we append his results below in con- 
nection with our own. Mr. Smith employed Dr. Squibb's process 
as Joutlined in the Ephemeris, 3, p. 1 152, and the U.S.P. method 
with the lime water correction. We used the U.S.P. process and 



Crude 
orphine. 


Pure 
Morphine. 


Moisture. 


Crude Morphine 
in Dry Opium. 


11-48 


IO-68 


22-68 


14-86 


11-56 


I0-8I 


22-68 


14-96 


10-94 


1058 


22-68 


14-16 


10-96 


10-58 


19-52 


13*63 


10-90 


10-35 


19-52 


13*54 


10-84 


10-43 


19-52 


13*48 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1897. 



} Starch and Strontium in Opium. 



249 



applied a correction by means of the ash method. The results are 
given below : 



Crude 
Morphine 



Smith [ ^7-27 

\ 1678 



LaWall 



f 17-11 
I 17-04 



Pure 
Morphine. 

Sqiiibb's process .... 1613 

U.S.P. process i6i9 

16-09 

1603 



Ten cases of opium from one consignment were assayed under 
most favorable conditions, in reference to temperature, amount of 
washinfTs and time of shakin^r out the morphine. The first five cases 
were assayed one day, and the remaining five, two days later. The 
results were as follows : — 



No. Crude Pure 

Morphine. Morphine. 


Moisture. 


Crude Morphine 
in Dry Opium. 


I 


12-34" 




2052 


1553 


2 


1238 




20-35 


15-55 


3 


12-39 


11-36 


20-81 


15.65 


4 


12-33 




20*04 


15-35 


5 
6 


1234. 
12-65' 




19-58 
20-32 


15-34 
15-88 


7 
8 


12-78 
12-74 


1 1 64 


19-55 
I951 


15-89 
1583 


9 


1279 
1248, 


19-17 


15-82 


TO 




2079 


T5-75 



A glance at the above figures shows a uniformity in the quality of 
opium hitherto unnoticed in assaying large consignments. The 
additional circumstances of the presence of wheat starch in the 
opium, and strontium in the ash, would indicate a previous manipu- 
lation of a large quantity of opium, before packing it into cases for 
shipment. 

The perplexing part of this view lies in the fact that the yield of 
morphine is still .several per cent, higher than the hmit rec|uired by 
the custom house ; since it would be just as easy to reduce the mor- 
phine to 10 per cent., thus making an additional profit and still be 
above the legal standard. 

The question naturally arises, can starch or epidermal tissue, or 
rumex seed, or strontium sulphate, or the calcareous salts found in 
Turkey opium be classed as adulterants of opium in the true sense 
of the word ? We all know that the opium as it comes into the 
market is the concrete juice of the poppy, mixed with various and 
sundry substances, and to say that this or that is an adulterant of 



250 Pharmacopmal Preparations, {^""May^iso?*'""* 

opium, would require an explicit and comprehensive description of 
what is, and what is not, an adulterant. For an analyst to condemn 
a case of opium, on the ground that it contained starch, when the 
only requirement is a certain amount of morphine, would lay himself 
open to criticism. We, however, do think that a substance like 
strontium sulphate, which increases the apparent yield of morphine, 
oueht to be looked on as an adulterant of a fraudulent nature. 
305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 



ON THE PRESERVATIVES OF PHARMACOPGEIAL 
PREPARATIONS.! 

By WiIvIvIAM Martindai^e. 

In the work of compiling formulae for the use of medical prac- 
titioners and pharmacists, care is necessary to test the keeping prop- 
erties of the various solutions and preparations, and having prepared 
and kept a number of these preparations, I thought a few notes on 
them might prove interesting. They are purely pharmaceutical, 
and must not be considered as having bacteriological importance. 

The vehicle mostly used for the internal administration of medi- 
cines, of course, is water in some form or other, but distilled water 
alone is recognized by the Pharmacopoeia, and probably this, as 
frequently met with, is more defective from a standard of purity 
than most preparations in the Pharmacopoeia. It is even more 
prone to develop minute organisms than many of the spring waters 
that are to be met with, although these may contain inorganic salts, 
which render them unsuitable as solvents and vehicles in which to 
administer medicinal preparations. So much has distilled water ob- 
tained this evil reputation that a bacteriologist of eminence is 
reported to have said that one of the best incubating fluids was a 
certain manufacturer's distilled water. 

Various means have, therefore, been adopted for sterilizing it and 
rendering it aseptic for pharmaceutical use, such as keeping it in a 
cool place, and, of course, free from dust, and having it recently well 
boiled and cooled. The best and only method to be depended upon, 
however, care having been taken to select a good water for distilla- 
tion, as well as to refuse the first and last products, and to ensure 



^ Pharmaceutical Journal, March, 13, 1897. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 



Ma^ri^T.*''™'} Pharmacopaial Preparations. 25 1 

freedom from contamination afterwards, is to have it freshly dis- 
tilled ; in fact as regards the whole of the preparations of the Phar- 
macopoeia, they should be as freshly prepared as possible, and the 
use of preservatives should be avoided unless absolutely necessary, 
but from a practical point of view we cannot do without them. For 
example, the public demand for pills is now that they must be well 
preserved and look nice, although they may be insoluble. 

Alcohol — The most common preservative used officially is alcohol 
in one form or another ; it is true that it is not used solely as a pre- 
servative, but as a solvent ; it enters more or less into the composi- 
tion of nearly all our tinctures, liquid extracts, wines, and many of 
our official solutions. The germination of most of the micro-organ- 
isms occurring in aqueous solutions of vegetable and animal sub- 
stances is inhibited by the presence of 20 per cent, by volume of 
absolute alcohol, but it is inhibitory only, and in this proportion or up- 
wards ; it is in no way germicidal, as on evaporation the anaesthetized 
germs, if I may so term them, readily take up life and propagate. 
This applies to most of the volatile antiseptics, in fact, for organic 
tissues, such as strong mineral acids, alkalies and halogens. K.xcep- 
tions to this are carbolic acid, creosote, and weak solutions of corro- 
sive sublimate, which act probably by coagulating the albuminous 
substance of the microbe. Wines I have mentioned ; unless forti- 
fied, from their very origin, that of fermentation, they are too weak 
to prove of useful service in pharmacy, and in lact medical wines are 
anachronisms. 

Glycerin. — The abuse of alcohol has led those who take extreme 
views on this subject to endeavor to use other solvents and pre- 
servatives for pharmaceutical preparations. Among these, avoiding 
ethylic alcohol, whose physiological properties are too well known, 
they have selected glycerin, which is but another alcohol whose 
action physiologically is not so well ascertained, nor is it so inhibi- 
tory to the development of micro-organisms. Its strong solvent 
action on vegetable extractives, its non-volatility, and its stability in 
other respects would have rendered glycerin a useful pharmacopcL-ial 
solvent, but although it has been tried again and again and was 
made official, more especially in i)reparing some of the liquid 
extracts of the United States I'harmacopcL-ia, it has not met with 
general acceptance. It nevertheless has a curious preservative 
action over some inorganic compounds in preventing oxidation. 



252 Pharmacopoeial Preparations, {'^'^•I^Sa^^"'^' 

For example, black mercurial lotion can be preserved in its normal 
black color by the addition of 5 per cent, by volume of glycerin, but 
I find that 10 per cent, of mucilage of tragacanth will produce the 
same result, and have the advantage, from its viscosity, of holding 
mercurous oxide well suspended ; the addition of both these to the 
preparation would be an advantage. It has further been suggested 
that glycerin should be used to preserve sublimate solution, espec- 
ially the official liquor hydrargyri perchloridi, as it has been thought 
necessary that this solution requires preserving, from the chemical, 
not, of course, from the biological point of view. But both glycerin 
and alcohol added to this solution, especially if exposed to light, 
cause a reduction of the salt and deposition of mercurous chloride, 
as in the official solution of the Codex, which contains 10 per cent, 
of alcohol. Notwithstanding statements to the contrary, I find that 
a simple solution of mercuric chloride in distilled water, or even in 
spring waters containing supercarbonate of lime in solution, is more 
stable than it is with a preservative added, especially one of such a 
nature as chloride of ammonium in the official solution. This, as 
I showed so long ago as 1870,^ instead of being a preservative, forms 
a double salt in solution (sal alembroth plus an excess of chloride of 
ammonium), and the solution, if prepared with common water in 
place of distilled water, or even if prepared with distilled water and 
diluted, throws down a quantity of one of the white precipitates of 
mercury. To such an extent is this the case that I found in pre- 
paring a pint of the official solution with new river water in place 
of distilled water, that 27 grains of this precipitete was deposited, 
thus about one-fourth of the mercurial salt was rendered insoluble 
in preparing the solution, and more deposited on further dilution 
with the water. In fact, a time arrived when there was scarcely a 
trace of mercury salt in solution, and as this preparation is most 
largely used in hospitals where common water is always used to 
dilute the medicines, it leads to very discrepant results therapeu- 
tically. It has also been suggested that chloride of sodium should 
replace chloride of ammonium in the official solution, as this salt is 
largely used in making the sublimate tablets for the convenience of 
surgeon's use, but I have found that although sodium chloride helps 
these tablets to disintegrate readily it has no advantage, in fact it is 
detrimental to the keeping properties of the solution. I have here 

^ Pharuiaceutical Journal, [2] Vol. XI. p. 544. 



Am. Jour. Phariu. 



May'iw?^'"'"} Pharmacopixial Preparations. 253 

two specimens prepared in November, 1895, with water from the 
Brighton constant supply, which is a very calcareous water ; one is 
a simple solution of the perchloride, and the other has an equal 
weight of pure chloride of sodium added. The latter you will 
observe has deposited much more than the former, in which there 
is hardly a trace of deposit. This strongly illustrates ihe undesira- 
bility of tampering with solutions in order to make them, as we 
consider, more stable ; in fact, with few exceptions no preservative 
should be added to a pharmacopoeia preparation unless the label 
indicates boldly that it is there. While on the subject of mercuric 
salts, I should like to illustrate the importance of having our lime 
water of full strength, and well preserved. 

In making the yellow mercurial lotion of the B.P., which has 18 
grains of sublimate to 10 ounces of lime water ; if the lime water be 
only three-fourths, or from keeping, so low as one-half the pharma- 
copotial strength, a brick-red preparation, an oxychloride is pro- 
duced, rather than the yellow mercuric oxide. 

Acetic Acid. — Of other preservatives, which are also solvents used 
officially, acetic acid of varying strengths is employed, as in acetum 
cantharidis and acetum scillar. This, as I notice Prof. Remington 
recently points out,' was much employed in the pharmacy of the 
ancients, sometimes combined with honey to form oxymels, of which 
we have inherited both the vinegar and the oxymel of squill. Acetic 
acid has the disadvantage, however, unless in a very concentrated 
form, of growing micro-organisms abundantly, and the fungi and 
animalcula; developed in brown vinegar must be well known to all 
of you. Acetic acid, therefore, besides being incompatible with 
alkalies, is not a good preservative, although in some cases it may 
be a useful solvent. 

Sugar. — Of the preservatives used officially which are not sol- 
vents, this is employed most extensively, not only with us, but in 
France and in the United States ; in fact, so much is this the case in 
I'Vance, that Mr. Ince once remarked in this room that French 
pharmacy might be summed up in one word, "sugar." On account 
of its palatability it of course meets with favor, especially among 
children. It enters into the composition of all the syrups and 
lozenges, and most of the confections and powders, and is a useful 
preservative from oxidation of the ferrous preparations, such as the 

^American Journal of Pharmacy, March, 1897, p. 121. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 



254 Pharniacopmal Preparations. {^'^•i^^y:mi\ 

saccharated carbonate of iron, mixture of iron, Blaud's pill, and 
iodide of iron pill. It also preserves lime in solution, as in the 
well-known liquor calcis saccharatus, of a strength about sixteen 
times that of the official lime water ; if a pure marble lime be used, 
I find as much as 177 per cent, is dissolved, or 816 grains in a fluid 
ounce. This preparation is more conveniently made by using an 
equivalent weight of syrup, i.e., three ounces in place of two of 
sugar, and adding it to nineteen ounces of distilled water containing 
the lime in suspension. The «' caking " which is apt to occur is thus 
avoided. 

Salicylic Acid. — The well-known uses antiseptically of this for sur- 
gical purposes, although prohibited from being used for preserving 
wines in France, have rendered it servicable in preserving the offi- 
cial solution of hydrochlorate of cocaine, which contains ij^ per 
mille of the acid, with 10 per cent, of the cocaine salt. I find that 
this solution, even if diluted with four times its volume of water, still 
keeps free from fungoid growths. The use of this acid might be 
objected to in the solution, because salicylic acid forms with cocaine 
an indefinite compound rather than a salt, the so-called salicylate of 
cocaine ; but it appears not to throw the hydrochloric acid out of 
combination, and has proved very serviceable in preserving the solu- 
tion of this cocaine salt, which has a great tendency to develop 
fungoid growths. The salicylic compound appears to be allied to 
the benzoic compound, benzoyl-ecgonine. It forms a pasty mass 
which has not, that I am aware of, been studied. If any defence 
were needed for using a preservative, perhaps this official solution of 
cocaine is a typical case. The use of this solution of salicylic acid, 
11^ per mille, which is nearly saturated, as a vehicle, might be ex- 
tended to other solutions, for example, the official solution of sul- 
phate of atropine, but I have not found this solution, if made with a 
well-crystallized salt, prone to grow fungi. Its use, however, cannot 
be extended to the hypodermic injection of morphine ; if a solution 
of tartrate of morphine, I in 12, or even i in 20, be prepared in it, a 
crystallized salicylate of morphine separates; 16^ tartrate keeps 
well alone. 

Of the salts of morphine suitable for hypodermic injection, the 
tartrate seems to be now favored ; the acetate solution, prepared 
by dissolving pure morphine in just enough acetic acid, has till 
lately been mostly used, but it has the objection of possessing a 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 



MajyiS?*'''"'} Pharmacopmal Preparations. 255 

tendency to decomposition and becoming muddy and dark-colored. 
Still I have two solutions here over 18 years old, no extra sterilizing 
precautions were taken when made ; they are well preserved and 
are perfectly transparent, although they have slightly changed color. 
One is of the strength of i grain in 6 minims, which I advocated 
in a paper in 1870,^ the other is I grain in 12 minims. A small 
dose is generally preferred for hypodermic injection, but the strength 
of I grain in 6 minims is considered now to be dangerously strong 
in the hands of an unskilled operator. The more nearly saturated, 
however, the aqueous solution of any salt or crystalline principle is, 
the better it will keep ; in fact, it was a curious argument of an 
advocate for spontaneous generation that there was a debatable land 
between that of crystallization and the germination of organisms in 
these solutions — that is, between the growth of crystals and of 
organisms ; this applies widely in pharmacy, as we well know, in 
keeping syrups for example. A nearly perfect syrup consists of two 
parts of sugar and one of distilled water ; kept at a uniform temperate 
heat, this neither crystallizes nor grows fungi ; and our solid medici- 
nal extracts are preserved if they contain no excess of moisture. 

Further, these remarks especially apply to the official solutions of 
acetate and citrate of ammonium, which are much better kept in a 
concentrated form. 

The salicylic acid solution cannot either be used for preparing the 
hypodermic injection of apomorphine ; a I per cent, solution of the 
hydrochlorate of apomorphine prepared in it gives a quantity of a 
crystalline deposit. 

Hydrochlorate of apomorphine in aqueous solution rapidly devel- 
ops a green color; this has been attributed to the influence of 
ammonia in the atmosphere, but although a drop of solution of 
ammonia does develop the green color immediately, it is apparently 
not due to this alone. This salt is now prepared much purer than 
formerly, and it is also not so soluble. The official strength of the 
hypodermic injection, I grain in 50 minims, i.e., \ in 45.5 parts, of 
camphor water is not held in solution at 60° F. Dott gives the 
solubility in water as I in 50.89, Squire as I in 56 to 60. I find 
I part in 60 of boiled and cooled distilled water dissolves, 
but turns green within a few hours, but if acidulated with a trace of 
hydrochloric acid, say an equal weight of the official diluted hydro- 

^ Pharmaceutical Journal, [2] Vol. XI, p. 480. 



256 Pharmacopmal Preparations, {^'"mT/.-iIq'?^"'^' 

chloric acid, the color is preserved, but it is rendered less soluble. 
More than i per cent, solution, if acidulated, is not certain to keep 
free from crystals at the variable temperatures to which it may be 
exposed, and less than the quantity of acid I have named does not 
keep it free from color. 

Sulphurous Acid. — A trace of sulphurous acid, say one-quarter 
per cent., added to a 2 per cent, solution of the apomorphine salt, 
keeps the solution for a moderate time, but not indefinitely, and the 
use of such a deoxidizing agent is not desirable, as its action on the 
apomorphine salt is not clearly understood. Nevertheless, sulphur- 
ous acid is largely used as a preservative of such preparation as 
orange wine. 

Boric Acid. — Of the preservatives suggested for keeping apomor- 
phine injection, boric acid has been mentioned, but this I find, in a 
solution containing 2 per cent, of each, boric acid and hydrochlorate 
of apomorphine, forms an opaque white jelly, and even with i per 
cent, of each, a curious translucent jelly is formed, quite unsuitable 
for hypodermic injection. Boric acid has been recommended and is 
used largely for preserving solutions for hypodermic injection, but 
as a solution of it, i in 30 parts of water, which is nearly saturated, 
will itself develop some peculiar fungi, I can see little advantage in 
employing such a preservative pharmaceutically. Mr. Lee has 
mounted a specimen of a torula which has been grown in a satur- 
ated solution of boric acid in distilled water. 

Camphor Water. — The same remarks apply to camphor water, 
the favorite of Raspail, as to boric acid. It is a weak inhibitor, and 
it further has the disadvantage of the camphor being volatile. 
Camphor water is official as the solvent of atropine in the solution 
of sulphate of atropine, but oculists complain of the irritating action 
of camphor in the eye. 

Chloroform. — The addition of chloroform to vegetable infusions 
and other aqueous preparations of vegetable and animal substances 
was recommended by Mr. J. B. Barnes^ in the proportion of from 
one eighth to one-half per cent, by volume. The addition of chloro- 
form as an inhibitory in suspended pharmaceutical operations is of 
great service, and it has the advantage that by gently warming the 
solution for a short time it can be easily dissipated, but it has also 
the disadvantage that the chloroform evaporates too easily for pro- 
* Pharmaceutical Journal, [3], Vol. V., p. 441. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 



MayriS:.*''"} Pharmacopaial Preparations. 257 

longed preservation, yet I have tried the experiment of preserving 
fruit (damsons) in stoppered bottles, adding about one three- 
hundredth part of their weight of chloroform to them. The preser- 
vation was complete, but the flavor of the chloroform was not dis- 
sipated by even baking the fruit in pies. 

Hydrate of Chloral has been used as possessing similar prop)erties 
to chloroform, being more readily soluble and less volatile, but its 
taste is nauseous. 

Carbolic Acid. — The odor and flavor of this most powerful anti- 
septic is against its use for internal administration, excepting for 
hypodermic injections ; it is the best preservative for ergotin in 
aqueous solution. Boric acid in this solution fails ; Mr. Severn 
kindly infected for me three solutions of ergotin with Pcnicillium 
glaucum\ No. I, without preservative added, developed in forty- 
eight hours ; No. 2, with I per cent, of phenol added, is undeveloped 
yet, after five days ; No. 3, with 2 per cent, of boric acid, developed 
on the side of the bottle, just above the surface of the liquid, in 
seventy-two hours. Creosote also, although one of the best preserva- 
tives, as its name indicates, is not admissable, on account of its odor. 

Cherry Laurel Water. — This is recommended in France for pre- 
serving hypodermic injections. So, also, are the distilled waters of 
meadow sweet and eucalyptus. I am not aware that 

Formaldehyde has been much used pharmaceutically, although it 
has, I understand, been used for milk preserving for some time. Its 
peculiar action on gelatin in rendering it insoluble would tend to 
prove that it was not desirable for internal administration, as it 
might seriously interfere with digestion. 

Ilvpophosphorus Acid. — This and citric acid tLte employed com. 
mercially to prevent the change of color of the ferrous syrups ; as 
traces only are needed, it may be considered a venial offense. But 
preservatives are sometimes used, or are added even officially, which 
are often disadvantageous. For example we have two arsenical 
solutions official, one acid and the other alkaline. A simple solution 
of arsenic anhydride in water of the same strength, colored if desired, 
is perfectly stable. It would be compatible with both acids and 
alkalies, and might take the place of both the official solutions. 

Carbonic Acid. — This in solution in water is inhibitory to organic 
growths, and is largely used in preparing carbonatetl waters and 
" Fluid Magnesia,'" but otherwise it is not of much service. 



258 Pharmacopceial Preparations. {'^'^i^^l?^^''^' 

Benzoic Acid. — For preserving lard and some official ointments, 
the melted fats are macerated with powdered benzoin, by which 
means they obtain an agreeable odor and become impregnated with 
benzoic acid. Both these tend to preserve the fats from becoming 
rancid. But in using these fats for preparing the ointments of the 
alkaloids, apparently some change takes place ; they become dis- 
colored, and in the case of cocaine we know, as I have before men- 
tioned, a comparatively inert compound of benzoyl-ecgonine, etc., 
is formed, so that the use of benzoated lard is to be avoided for pre- 
paring these ointments. 

Paraffin Basis. — Where quick absorption is not required, the pre- 
servative action of the soft paraffins renders them all that can be 
desired, as also is oil of theobroma for suppositories. 

Aromatic Waters and Essential Oils. — The oils of clove, cinnamon, 
peppermint, and many others are preservatives; so are their aqueous 
solutions, but I can only mention them. 

Heat and Cold. — A gentle heat assists the incubation of nearly all 
micro-organisms ; a greater heat, that of boiling water for example, 
is a sterilizer; whereas a still higher temperature is a disorganizer, 
and is destructive to all organic growths. Cold, on the contrary, 
the freezing point of water and below, as a rule, is only inhibitory 
to the development of the lower organisms, their vitality is but sus- 
pended, and they spring into life again with the first application of 
a gentle warmth. It may appear irrelevant to my subject, but the 
important bearing preservatives have on our food supplies, including 
frozen meat, makes them of great importance commercially. In 
fact, in viewing the pharmaceutical aspect of preservatives, I have 
but touched the fringe of the subject of their utility. Without the 
aid of boric acid and other preservative, many of our articles of daily 
food would be at famine prices. In such a condensed population as 
that of London, it would now be almost impossible to supply the 
necessary quantities of butter, milk and fish in a fresh condition. 
We have long been dependent to a great extent on the importation 
of flour and corn. The same has now become the case in regard to 
our animal food products. 



"^"■ia"/;!^"™} Camphor in China. 259 

THE PRODUCTION OF CAMPHOR IN CHINA.^ 

By Augustine Henry. 

The camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora, Nees et eberm, is 
indigenous to Japan, Formosa and the central and southern provin- 
ces of China. It has been known to the Chinese from ancient times, 
but apparently until 300 or 400 years ago only as a valuable timber 
tree. 

The camphor first in use was undoubtedly the Malay camphor, 
and as Hanbury says (** Pharmacographia," p. 51 1), " at what period 
and at whose instigation the Chinese began to manufacture camphor 
from the camphor laurel is not known." Hanbury further states 
that •' The camphor of European commerce is produced in Formosa 
and in Japan, and we have no evidence that any is now manufactured 
in China, although very large trees, often from 8 to 9 feet in 
diameter, are common ; for instance, in Kiangsi, a camphor wood is 
an important timber in the Hankow market." The latest references 
to camphor production (" Index Flora: Sinensis " II., p. 371) further 
would confirm this, viz., '• Kwangtung, common around Pakhoi, but 
not utilized" (Playfair). Again, " Dr. Henry states that the wood 
is much used in Central China, but no camphor is extracted." 

Until a few years ago, then, no camphor was produced on the 
mainland of China, but it is interesting to note that the camphor 
industry has been started in China, and that there are signs that it 
will become important. This is all the more noteworthy, as For- 
mosa has become Japanese territory, and it seemed likely that 
camphor would become an entirely Japanese article, not a desirable 
contingency in view of the fact that the Japanese Government is 
striving to establish a monopoly in the production of camphor in 
P'ormosa, and has no doubt in contemplation the creation of a large 
revenue by enhanced prices in the future. 

For a history of the vicissitudes of the camphor trade in For- 
mosa itself the reader is referred to the •• Chinese I. M. Custom, 
Decennial Reports'' for 1882-91, pp. 439, 466. hn passant, this is 
a most valuable work for all questions connected with Chinese com- 
merce, the history of the treaty ports, etc. It is replete with infor- 
mation of all kinds, and is illustrated with maps, plans, and diagrams. 

* Pharmaceutical Journal^ March 6, ii>97. 



26o Camphor in China, { ^'"•£y?il?7"'""'- 

GROWTH OF THE CHINESE CAMPHOR INDUSTRY. 

The growth of the camphor industry on the mainland of China 
is shown by the following facts taken from various China Customs' 
Yellow-books. From the ** List of Chinese Medicines," miscel- 
laneous series, No. 17, which gives details of the trade in drugs of 
all kinds for the year 1885, it appears that camphor was unknown 
as a product of the mainland, except in the single province of 
Chekiang, there being the small export that year from Ningpo of 
25 piculs. Ningpo exported 32 piculs in 1889, 40 piculs in 1890, 
and none since, apparently. The Customs' "Trade Reports," for 
the different years show the gradual appearance of camphor pro- 
duction in other parts. Kowloon exported 88 piculs in 1888, 106 
piculs in 1892, 87 piculs in 1893. This was conveyed in junks, and 
its provenance is doubtful, but it was perhaps from the province of 
Kwangsi. Canton exported 122 piculs in 1893, 37 piculs in 1894, 
and 237 piculs in 1895. This is Kwangsi camphor. The Pakhoi 
Trade Report for 1894 states that the first record of the article was 
in 1892; in 1893 ^^^^ export was 23 piculs, which increased to 128 
piculs in 1894, and '* it comes from Lu-chuan, near Yii-linchow, and 
is likely to grow in importance, as plantations in that and other 
places in the neighborhood are coming to the bearing age." In 
the Pakhoi Trade Report for 1895, the export is given as 596 
piculs, and the writer says that this gratifying increase is due to the 
extended cultivation in Kwangsi. In Formosa, only old and 
enormous camphor trees are utilized, and I am inclined to doubt 
the existence of camphor plantations in Kwangsi ; the camphor 
produced is more likely to be from old forest trees. The Chinese, 
at any rate, did not plant any trees with a view to the manufacture 
of camphor. 

EXPORT OF CAMPHOR FROM CHINA. 

In 1895 the exports of camphor from different Chinese ports was : 
Foochow, 187 piculs ; Amoy, 668 piculs ; Canton, 237 piculs ; Kow- 
loon, 68 piculs, and Pakhoi, 596 piculs. In the Fukien province 
there are large forests and camphor trees abound. Some years ago, 
a party of Japanese went into the interior of Fukien to manufacture 
camphor, but nothing came of this attempt. The Foochow export 
is probably the product of this province, but that of Amoy is doubt- 
ful, as it maybe Formosan camphor smuggled over to the mainland 
in junks. The export of the other three ports is produced in the 



"""-Ma^iS^""- } Editorial- Reviews. 26 1 

Kwangsi province, and this will probably grow into large figures, if 
camphor continues high enough in price to encourage the Chinese 
in its manufacture. 

To sum up, the production of camphor on the mainland of China 
is an affair of the last few years. It began in Chekiang, but has 
practically ceased in that province. In Kwangsi it commenced a 
short time ago, and promises to develop irto importance. The 
Fukein product is only trifling so far. 



EDITORIAL. 

EDSON SEWELL BASTIN. 

On the morning of April 6, 1897, Edson S. Bastin passed away, after an ill- 
ness of several months. His funeral took place at Merchantville. on the 9th, 
and was largely attended by members of the College and students. 

The Board of Trustees was in session when the sad news reached them, and a 
series of resolutions were directed to be drawn up for approval at a subsequent 
meeting. Two days later a special meeting of the College was held, and 
appropriate resolutions were directed to be drawn up to express the sentiments 
of that body. 

It is merely desired to record the foregoing facts at the present time ; a 
memorial will be prepared and published in a subsequent number of this JouR- 
N.\L. It is but justice to say, at this time, that while Professor Bastin's occu- 
pation of the Chair of Botany and Materia Medica in this College was short in 
duration, it was long when measured by results accomplished. More than that, 
he won the respect, confidence and admiration of every one with whom he 
came in contact during the short four years he was with us. 

THE AMERICAN MKDICAI. ASSOCIATION. 

The fiftieth annual meeting of the Association will be held this year in 
Philadelphia, during the first week in June. As the Association originated in 
this city fifty years ago, more than ordinary efforts will be made to have a 
notable meeting. Elaborate preparations have already been made by the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements for the extraordinary attendance which is anticipated. 
The section on Materia Medica ind Therapeutics has been invited to hold its 
sessions at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

DBS ACANTHACKES Medicinales. Par Georges Dethan. Deuxieme Edi- 
tion. Paris : A. Malone, 1897. Pp. 192. 

Two months ago we briefly reviewed the first edition of this work, which was 
issued as a thesis which had been presente<l to the Ecolc Sup<^rieure de Phar- 
macie dc Paris. The present edition has been revised, corrected and enlarged. 

Oh NERVATIONS ET E.KPERIENCKS SUR l/OUVERTL'RK DKS FI.El'RS OS 

I/(EvoTHERA LAMARKiANA. SKR . Par M. Louis PlanchoH. Reprint from the 
/>'w//<7/n de la Sjci<5t<5 botanifjue de I'rance, November, 1H96. This is a close 
study of the process of opening of the flowers of renothera, and it throws much 
light on the subject in general. 



262 Examination Questions, {^'^•yLZ]\l^^''^' 

Viola tricolor, L., in morphilogischer, anatomischer und biolo- 
GISCHER Beziehung. Vou Henry Kraemer. Universitats-Buchdurckere's 
von Jh. Aug. Koch, Marburg, Germany, 1897. 

Professor Kraemer has carefully worked out the life history of this interest- 
ing plant, and at the same time has added to the value of the work by an elab- 
orate series of illustrations. The results are presented in twelve sections, the 
last being a short account of what is known at the present time of the chem- 
istry of the plant. As pointed out by earlier investigations, salicylic acid is 
the most interesting compound ; it exists partly as a methyl salicylate, and 
partly in combination with various inorganic salts. A valuable biblio- 
graphical index completes the work. 

On the Constituents of the Sap of the "Silky Oak," Grevillea 
RoBUSTA, R. Br., and the presence of Butyric Acid therein. By Henry 
G. Smith, F.C.S. Read before the Royal Society of New South Wales, October 
7, 1896. In a previous communication on the timber of this tree, the author, 
in conjunction with J. H. Maiden, has pointed out the presence of a deposit of 
aluminum succinate. Now, having demonstrated the presence of butyric acid 
in the sap, he is led to believe that the succinic acid is derived from butyric 
acid by natural oxidation in the tree. 

The Dyeing Properties of Aromadendrin and of the Tannins of 
Eucalyptus kinos. By Henry G. Smith, F.C.S. Reprint from the Journal 
0/ the Society 0/ Chemical Industry, November 30, 1896. 

Ueber Flechtenstoffe. Von Dr. O. Hesse. Reprint from Berichte d. 
dent. chem. Gesellschaft, 30, 357. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS OF THE PHILADEL- 
PHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, 1896-97. 
first y'ear examination, 
pharmacy. 
A — Crystallization, (i) Describe the method of obtaining crystals by depo- 
sition from supersaturated solution. (2) Define pellicle. (3) Water of crys- 
tallization. (4) Interstitial water. (5) Efflorescence. (6) Deliquescence. (7) 
Mother liquor. (8) What is intermediate crystallization ? 

B— Syrups, (i) Define syrups. (2) Name five methods for official syrups. 
(3) What kind of sugar is best adapted for making syrups, and give the reasons 
for preferring this kind of sugar. (4) Describe a method of preserving fruit 
juices in bottles, and state the causes which lead to the decomposition of solu- 
tions containing organic matter, if not protected. 

chemistry. 

C—Hnlo^ren Group, (i) Enumerate the elements belonging to the Halogen 
group, and briefly describe the physical appearance of each of them. (2) Give 
the formulas of their hydrogen compounds, and state which of them are official 
compounds. (3) Write a chemical reaction for the production of one of these 
elements and a chemical reaction for the production of one of the hydrogen 
compounds above mentioned. 

D— Phosphorus, (i) Describe the element phosphorus in its several forms 



'^"'■MayViS:^'"} Examination Questions. 263 

(2) From what sources do we obtain it, and what are its practical uses? (3) 
Give the chemical formula for hydrogen phosphide, and state how it is obtained. 

BOTANY. 

E—y\) In what group of plants are the sporophyte and gametophyte gen- 
erations nearly equal in development ? ( 2) In flowering plants, what two 
kinds of spores are produced, and in what organs are they borne respectively? 

(3) In most of the higher plants, into what organs are root and shoot differen- 
tiated? (4) Define the terms sporophyll and hypsophyll, and give examples 
of each as they occur in the flowering plant. ( 5) What are the microsporangia 
and macrosporangia commonly called, respectively, in the flowering-plant? 
(6) What peculiarities in the leaf venation and in the numerical plan of the 
flowers enable us, usually, to distinguish a monocotyl from a dicotyl ? (7) 
Name examples of each of the following kinds of fruits : a syconium, a drupe» 
a legume, a pepo, and an akene. 

F^Materia Medica. (8) Describe Uva-ursi as to the following points: 
length, shape, surfaces, venation, margin, texture, taste, a medicinal constitu- 
ent, and the chief use of the drug. (9) Name two official leaves which possess 
internal glands. (10) State the important structural diff"erences between Ger- 
man and Roman chamomile. 

COMMITTEE. 

G — Glyurifi. 1 n Name three principal reasons showing its value in phar- 
macy. (2 1 What official class of preparations contains glycerin as a base ? (3) 
What is glycerin, and what is its principal use? 

H — Chctnical Terms. Write concise definitions of each of the following 
chemical terms : ( i ) matter ; (2 ) elements ; ( 3 ) atoms ; ( 4) atomic weight ; (5) 
equivalence or valence; (6) molecules; (7) molecular weight; (S) equation ; 
(9) chemical reaction ; ( 10) acids. 

/ — Prohlem. A laboratory formula called for 85 kilos of 50 f)er cent, ortho- 
phosphoric acid. How much of the U.^^.P. phosphoric acid (85 per cent.) 
would be required to take its place in the formula? Show the figures used to 
obtain your result. 

K—The Flower, (i) Define the term sporophyll. ( 2 ) State what tvo kinds 
of sporophylls occur in the flowers of most of the higher plants. (3) State 
what they are commonly called, respectively, and what is the function of each. 
• 4 ; State, also, what other modified leaves the flower may possess. 

OPERATIVE PHARMACY. 

(/) Specific Gravity. 
Determine the specific gravity of the licjuid contained in the four-ounce 
bottle ; put all calculations on the ^^heet of paprr, with v«)ur iiaine and exam- 
ination numl>er. 

'-') I'ercolation. 

Percolate 100 grammes of gentian, with 500 c.c. of water. Label the per- 
colator with your name and examination number. 

(j) Granulated Salt. 
Aci<l Salicylic ... . 7 gni. 

Soiiiura Carlx)nate C. I' . . 6*5 gni. 

Distilled Water q. s 

Make Sotlium Salicylate. Put in the widc-nioulh bolllc. 



264 Examination Questions. {'"'"May.'ifQ?.^'"'' 

PHARMACOGNOSY. 

In this branch each student was given specimens of ten official vegetable 
drugs, and was required to give the official name and common names, if any, 
and also describe the chief characteristics of each specimen. 

SECOND YEAR EXAMINATION. 
PHARMACY. 

A—^i) What is the official name for Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide? (2) 
What is the synonym ? (3) What is the official description ? (4) Give a brief 
outline of the process for preparing it. (5) What are its uses? 

^_(i) What is the official name for Solution of Ferric Chloride ? (2) What 
is the official description ? (3) Give a brief outline of the process for preparing 
it. (4) If the finished solution has a blackish tint, what is it due to ? (5) How 
may this be removed ? 

C—{\) What is the official name for Ether? (2) What is its specific gravity ? 
(3) How is it made on the large scale? (4) What are its physical properties 
and uses ? (5) Is Ether vapor heavier or lighter than air ? 

D—{i) Explain the natural changes which occur in the pulpy constituents 
of unripe fruits during ripening. (2) Have fleshy roots any of the constituents 
of unripe fruits? If so, name them. (3) Explain the reasons for adding 
ammonia-water to preparations of glycyrrhiza and senega. (4) How do acids 
and heat affect the constituents of fleshy roots ? 

^_\Vhat are the essential points of diff"erence between a volatile oil and a 
fixed oil ? By what test may one be distinguished from the other ? What is 
oleic acid ? How is it prepared ? What are its uses in pharmacy and medicine ? 
Describe the manufacture of Soap ? What is Sapo Mollis ? How is it prepared ? 
What is Castile Soap chemically ? And what useful by-product results from 
the manufacture of Soap ? 

CHEMISTRY. 

-F— (i) Give the reactions for the production of Sodium Carbonate by the 
Leblanc process? (2) Give the reactions for the production by the Ammonia- 
Soda and Cryolite processes? (3) State what are the by-products in each of 
these processes and which of them are of value. 

G — (i) Describe the metal Copper and state from what ores it is obtained. 
(2) Describe Cupri Sulphas U.S. P. What is the change of appearance effected 
in it by prolonged heating? What is the result of the addition of aqua ammo- 
nia to copper sulphate solution ? (3) Mention the more important alloys of 
copper, stating the several components of each. 

H—{i) How is the metal Aluminum obtained? (2} Give the chemical 
{ormula. of A lumen U.S. P. (3) Describe silicate of aluminum and state its uses. 

/ — (i) Describe the more important tests for the detection of Arsenic. (2) 
How would you distinguish Arsenic from Antimony in these tests ? (3) Describe 
Acidum Arsenosum U.S. P.; give its chemical formula and its common name. 

K — (r) Enumerate the several varieties of glass and state their approximate 
chemical composition. (2) What is " soluble glass ? " (3) Mention some of the 
materials used in coloring glass ? 

MATERIA MEDICA AND BOTANY. 

J^ — Tissues, (i) Enumerate the different kinds of tissues found in plants. 
(2) Define meristem and state how its cells differ from ordinary parenchyma 



^""May?!^!^} Exaviitiat 10)1 Questions. 265 

cells. (3) In what parts of an ordinary' tree, such as the elm, for example, does 
meristem occur? (4) State how the wall of an ordinary parenchyma cell, 
that of an ordinary epidermal cell, and that of an ordinary wood fibre differ 
from each other in their chemical and physical properties. 

M—The Structure 0/ Stetns, Roots and Leaves. (5) In what respect does 
the growing tip of a Fern stem differ from that of a Dicotyl stem? (6) 
What three layers are recognizable at the growing tip of a Dicotyl stem, and 
into what regions do these layers develop, respectively, as the stem matures? 
(7) What kind or kinds of vasal bundles are characteristic in each of the follow- 
ing organs : the root of vSarsaparilla. the trunk of a Pine, the stem of Lyco- 
podium, the rhizome of Aspidium, and the stem of the Pumpkin. (8) Define 
the terms centric, bifacial, and iso-bilateral as applied to leaves. 

A — Root and Rhizome Drugs. 1 9 1 Write the official name, the comtnon 
name, the natural order, botanical name, the name of the country from ichich 
derived, the most iviportant chemical constituent, and the most itnportaut 
medicinal property of each of four official root-drugs. ( 10^ Write the oflficial 
names of two root-drugs which contain milk-tissue. (11) Name two official 
root-drugs that owe their activity to poisonous alkaloids, giving also the name 
of the alkaloid in each case. 112^ Name two root drugs and one rhizome drug, 
all of which are official and all characterized by an intensely bitter taste. 

O — Root and Rhizome Drugs. (13) State the sources of each of the follow- 
ing principles, giving the official name of the drug in each case : Leontin, 
Cheleryihrine, Sylvacrol, Atropine, Chrysophan, Ilmetine, Pelosine, Filicic 
Acid, Jervine, and Aristolochine. (14) Name four official drugs belonging to 
the groups of Roots and Rhizomes that are powerful narcotic poisons. (15) 
Describe the structure of Belladonna Root. (16) Write the official names of 
each of the following drugs : Pinkroot, Blue Cohosh, Mayapple, Cranesbill 
and Marshmallow. 

P— Barks, Woods, etc. (17) Name three official barks, each of which 
possesses three layers, and three others, each of which consists of the inner 
layer only. (18) What official bark is very tough and flexible, has silky bast- 
fibers, is very sternutatory when powdered, is acrid to the taste, and is capable 
of producing a blister when moistened and applied to the skin? (19 Name 
two official barks which have short and rigid bast-fibers, two which possess 
long and flexible ones, and two that possess none. (20) Name an official bark 
that '\% febrifuge, one that is pectoral, one that is taenifuge, one that is cathartic, 
and one that is demulcent. 

SPECIMENS FOR RECOGNITION. 

(I) Acidum sulphurosum. (2) Plumbi oxidum. (3) Sodii hyposulphis. 
(4) Alumen. (5) Plumbi .\cetas. (6) BelladonniL- radix. (7) Podophyllum. 
IS) Aspidosperma I (Quebracho). (9I Eriodict} on (Verba Santa), i loi Stroph- 
anthus. (11) Pulvis rhei compositus. 112) Aqua chloroformi. (13) Spiritus 
juniperi compositus. (14) Emulsum chloroformi. (15) Tinclura calumb;i;. 

SENIOR EXAMINATION. 
THEORY AND PRACTICE OP PHARMACY. 

Put down on your paper all the figures used in making your calculations. 
A — How many fluid ounces are there in a kilogramme of each of the follow- 



266 Examination Questions. {^'"Ma?!"i£?.*''""* 

ing official liquids? (i) Water. (2) Hydrochloric acid. (3) Ether. (4) 
Syrup. (5) Diluted Alcohol. 

^_Give the unabbreviated official name ; ingredients in preparing ; describe 
the appearance of— (i) Compound Infusion of Gentian. (2) Fluid Extract of 
Ginger. (3) Soap lyiuiment. (4) Compound Syrup of Rhubarb. (5) Spirit 
of Peppermint. (6) Emulsion of Chloroform. (7) Compound Extract of 
Colocyuth. (8) Plummer's Pills. 

(f__Give the English name, ingredients, and brief outline of process of the 
following : (i ) Calx Sulphurata: (2) Argenti Nitras Fusus. (3) Ferri et Strych- 
nin^e Citras. (4) Emplastrum Plumbi. (5) Pilulse Ferri Carbonatis. (6) 
Unguentum Aquae Rosae. ( 7) Pulvis Purgans. (8) Spiritus Glonoini. 

D—{\) What is Monsel's Solution? (2) How is it prepared? (3) What 
are its uses? (4) What antidote is prepared from it? (5) How is the anti- 
dote made? (6) How is the antidote administered ? 

E—{\) How is Chloroform prepared? (2) What is its specific gravity? 
(3) What are its uses? (4) What is the official test for purity? (5) How is it 
preserved? (6) Is its vapor inflammable? (7) Name three official prepara- 
tions in which Chloroform is used. 

F—{\) What is Copaiba? (2) What are its constituents? (3) What official 
preparation is made from Copaiba ? (4) Give the process for this preparation. 
(5) How is this preparation administered ? (6) What is the dose ? 

G—{\) What is Chocolate? (2) How is it made? (3) What is the official 
name of the fatty constituent ? (4) What is the English name of this con- 
stituent? (5) How is this constituent prepared? (6) What are the pharma- 
ceutical uses of this constituent ? (7) What is its melting point? 

H — ( I ) Describe the apparatus for making Compressed Pills. (2) What are 
the advantages of Compressed Pills ? (3) What are the disadvantages ? (4) How 
are Tablet Triturates made ? (5 ) How are Tablet Saturates made ? 

/—Criticise the following prescriptions. Write out the English name of 
each ingredient ; state how you would compound each, and if any incompati- 
bility would be developed in either ; state what it is, and what would be the 
proper procedure. 

R Chloral Hyd gr. xl 

Camph. Pulv gr. x 

Syr. Zingib • f ^ij 

AquiE ad f ^ij 

M. ft. Solutio. 

S. A teaspoonful every three hours. 

R Ferri et Quin. Cit 

Amnion. Carb. aa^j 

Sp. Ammon. Arom ^iv 

Tinct. Opii ^ij 

Aqu£e ad ^ viij 

M. ft. S. One teaspoonful three times a day. A. 

A'— Criticise the following prescriptions. Write out the English names, 
with ingredients and quantities ; state whether you would compound them as 
written, or what course you would pursue upon receiving them. 



^^Miy'i^*'"'"'} Examination Questions. 267 

R Quinin. Sulph ■ • • gr. j 

Ext. Xucis Vomicae gr. v 

Morph. Sulph gr. viij 

M. ft. pil. No. X. 

Sig. One pill every three hours. 

R Potass. Permang • • .tJ 

Alcohol • oj 

Glycerin ... • oU 

M. ft. 

Sig. Use as directed. X. 

CHEMISTRY. 

A — (i) What are the native sources of Borax ? Give the chemical formulas 
for Sod a Boras and for Acidum Boricum. (2) How would you prepare Borax 
from Boric Acid ? 13) How would you prepare Boric Acid from Borax? (4) 
Give the most characteristic tests, both physical and chemical, for both these 
compounds. 

B — (i) Describe the metal Sodium. (2) Give two of the methods used for 
its production. ( 3 ) Give the formulas of Sodii Chloridum, Sodii C/itoras, Sodii 
Hyposulphis, Sodii Phosphas, and Sodii Ilypophosphis. (4) What are the 
analytical tests for vSodium and its Salts? 

C — ( i) What are the chief ores of Zinc, and how is the metal obtained from 
them ? Describe the metal, and enumerate its properties, both physical and 
chemical. (31 Mention the uses of Zinc, and state which alloys of it are of 
practical value. (4) Give the names and formulas of the official Salts of 
Zinc. 

D — (i) Give the formula of ^r/^/«;// Chromicum. '2) Give the formula of 
Potaasii Bichtotnas, and of the normal Potassium Chromate, and explain the 
chemical difference between these formulas. (3) What takes place when an 
excess of Sulphuric .\cid is added to a concentrated aqueous solution of Potassium 
Bichromate ? (4) What takes place when an alkaline hydrate solution is added 
to a solution of Potasii Bichroinas ? (5) What pigments may be formed 
from Potassium Bichromate ? 

E — (1) Write the chemical formulas o{—Ferri Chloridum, Ferri Oxidum 
Hydralum, Ferri Sulphas, Ferri Ilypophosphis, Potassii Ferrocyaniduni, Frrri 
Lactas. (2) Slate by what tests Ferrous Salts can be distinguished from Ferric 
Salts? (3) State how a Ferrous Compound can be converted into a Ferric 
one? 

/*— (i) Give the general formulas for the Paraffin, the Olefine, and the Ben- 
zene series of Hydrocarbons. (2 1 State the occurrence in nature or conditions 
of artificial formation of each of these series. (3) How could you distinguish, 
by chemical tests, between these three series? 

G — (I) Name an official compound belonging to the class of Triatomic 
Alcohols. (2) State the source of the compound and how it is prepared from 
the naturally occurring products, i 3 1 Write the reaction for its production 
from one of these snl>stance8. (4) Name the other products of the reaction 
just referred to. 

//— <i) Write the graphic formulas of Alcohol, Chloral, Acidum Car- 
bolicum, Acidum Bcnzoicum, and Acidum (,'allicum. 



268 Examination Questions. {^"""Mayyis^T.*''"'- 

/__(!) What is Phenol? (2) Name such ofi&cial compounds as belong 
to the class of Phenols, and write their graphic formulas. (3) What is a Phenol- 
Acid? (4) Name such official compounds as belong to the class of Phenol- 
Acids, and write their graphic formulas. 

A'— (i) Name the compounds indicated by graphic formulas, and where 
official give both chemical and official names. . 

(I) (2) (3) (4) (5) 

CO OH CH, CH, C.NH.C2H3O C.NH.C2H3O 

I I I ' ^\ //\ 

CH OH CO CH OH HC CH HC CH 

I II I II I II 

CH OH CH., CO OH HC CH HC CH 

I " %/ %/ 

CO OH CH C.OC2H5 

MATKRIA MEDIC A. 

(i) Name and describe the different forms of Proteid that may exist in a 
cell. 

(2) State how a wall of a cell may vary in composition. 

(3) What are the distinctive characteristics of Meristem Tissue? 

(4) Describe the characteristics of Epidermal Tissue and name its varieties. 

(5) Under what circumstances is the Epidermis not cutinized ? 

(6) Describe the structure and state the use of a Stoma. How are Stomata 
distributed on the plant ? 

(7) Describe the usual form or shape of Chloroplast and their mode of 
increase. 

(8) What relation does Chlorophyll bear to Chlorophyll-Bodies, and of what 
use to the plant is Chlorophyll ? 

(9) What are Conjoint Fibro -Vascular Bundles ? 

(10) What kind of bundles are characteristic of the following stems: The 
Fern, the Lycopodium, the Equisetum, the Monocotyl, and the Dicotyl? 

(11) Write such a description of Aconitum as would serve for its certain 
identification. 

(12) Name one of the most important structural characteristics of each of 
the following drugs : Taraxacum, Senega, Rheum, Cimicifuga, and Cinchona 
Calisaya. 

(13) How, without aid from the senses of taste and smell, may Serpentaria be 
distinguished from Spigelia ? 

(14) By what chemical test may Guaiac Wood be readily recognized ? 

(15) By what simple test may chips of Red Saunders be readily distinguished 
from those of Logwood ? 

(16) By what s mple means may Granatum be easily distinguished from other 
drugs? 

(17) Name three official barks which are destitute of bast-fibers. 

(18) Name three official barks that consist of the inner layer only. 

(19) In the botanical classification of fr aits, to what group do each of the 
following belong : Colocynth, Prunum, Foeniculum, Piper Nigrum, and Car- 
dauiomum ? 

( 20) Name three official seeds that are albuminous and three that are exal- 
buuiiuous. 



^"'May?ir97*'"*} Examination Questions. 269 

(21) Write the botanical name and natural order of Crocus, and state what 
part of the plant is official. 

(22) Name an acid and three important alkaloids found in Opium. Name au 
acid and three important alkaloids found in Cinchona. 

( 23) Write the botanical name and natural order of the plants from which each 
of the following drugs is derived : Elaterium, Manna, Opium, Guarana, and Zea, 

(24) Name the source of each of the following alkaloids : Thebaine, Emetine. 
Pelosine, Chelerythrine, Cornutine, Menispine, and Hygrine, 

(25) Name the source of each of the following non-alkaloidal principles : 
Meconic Acid, Rottlerin, Chrysophau, Cathartic Acid, Saponin, ^Elaterin, and 
Rhamnoxanthin. 

(261 Name five official drugs that are powerful hydragogue cathartics. 

(27) Name three powerful drugs that act as tonics to the heart, strengthen- 
ing its beat ; and three that powerfully depress the heart's action. 

(28 I Define the terms Cholagogue, -Antiseptic, Antiperiodic, Mydriatic, and 
Anthelmintic. 

(29) What are the most marked symptoms of opium poisoning, and what 
treatment is indicated ? 

(30) Name two powerful official drugs which, in medicinal doses, stimulate 
the respiratory function. 

COMMITTEE. 

A — ( I ) A solid body weighs 50 ounces in the air and 30 ounces in water. 
What is its specific gravity? (2) What is the volume of the body? (3) What 
is the weight of an equal volume of water? (4) What would it weigh if it 
were immersed in official Glycerin ? (5) If two avoirdupois pounds of official 
Sulphuric Acid were poured into a measure graduated to show fluid ounces, 
to what number would it be filled? 

B — Asii/utida. (i) Give botanical name, natural order, and habitat of the 
plant which yields Asaftetida. (2) Describe the characteristics of the natural 
order to which the plant l>elongs. (3) What appearance does the drug present 
in commerce? (4) Why does it form an emulsion when mixed with water? 
(5) What are its chief constituents, and to what is its odor due? (6) Name 
three official preparations of Asafcctida. (7) Give the dose of Asafcutida. 

C— Materia Medica. — Belladonna Root, (i) Enumerate the characters by 
means of which Belladonna Root may be distinguished from any other official 
root. (2) What is the important alkaloid of Belladonna? (3) What is the 
most characteristic constitutional effect of Belladonna or of its alkaloid ? (4) 
What is the dose of Belladonna Root? (5) Name the official drugs which in 
physiological action are closely related to Belladonna. 16) Why is the official 
name Belladonna Radix and not Belladonna ? 

D—{i) Name five official Tixexl Oils, giving the Latin and English titles. 
(2) Describe briefly the processes for making the fixe<l oils of commerce used 
medicinally. (3) Name five official volatile oils, giving both Latin and I-inglish 
titles. (4) Descrilje briefly three processes by which volatile oils are procured. 

/t — (I) Give Symbol, Ivcjuivalence and Atomic Weight of the metal .M.ignc- 
sium. (2) What two kinds of Magnesium Oxide are official, and how is each 
made? Whatistheessentialdifl"ercnccin chemical reaction with watert>et ween the 
two? (3) Which variety of Magnesium Carbonate is the official? (4) Give 
the chemical reactions that take place in making Liquor Magnesii Citratis. 



270 Examiyiation Questions. {^'^•i^^S^^^'^' 

F—{ I ) Give the antidotes for the following poisons : Arsenic, Corrosive 
Sublimate, Oxalic Acid. (2) What antidote would you administer for a corro- 
sive liquid of unknown identity ? (3) For what class of poisons are antidotes 
usually unavailing ? In such cases how may the patient's life be saved ? 

G—Strophanthus. (i) Give its official name ; botanical name. (2) To what 
region is it indigenous? (3) What is the active principle of Strophanthus ? 
(4) What is the dose of Strophanthus ? (5) What preparation of Strophan- 
thus is official? (6) Give the dose of this preparation. (7) What are the 
medical properties of Strophanthus ? 

H — The molecular weight of Crystallized Alum is 946.46, and that of abso- 
lutely dry Sodium Carbonate is 105*85. How much of the Sodium Carbonate 
would be required for one kilogramme of Alum in the manufacture of Alum- 
inum Hydrate? 

/—Complete prescription No. i by inserting the quantities of the several 
ingredients, the patient being an adult and suffering from a mild dropsical 
condition. 

Write out, in an unabbreviated form, what you would dispense in prescrip- 
tion No. 2. 

I. 

JR Potass. Acetat 

Infus. Digitalis . 

Ext. Tritici Fluid 

Spt. ^ther Nit 

Infus. Buchu 

M. Sig. Take a tablespoonful three times a day for four days. 

2. 

B Pot Chlor 5j 

Aq. Chlor f^iv 

Spt. Syr. Nig f^^ij 

Syr. Zingib q. s. ad ^ viij 

M. Sig. Tablespoonful every two hours until relieved. 

A%- (i ) Write a metric prescription for 100 pills, each to contain one-eighth 
grain Morphine Sulphate, one-sixtieth grain Strychnine Sulphate, and one 
twelfth grain Arsenous Acid, with the quantity of a suitable excipient, expressed 
metrically, to make one-grain pills. 

(2) Translate the following prescription, giving the equivalents in apothe- 
cary's system : 

GERMAN PRESCRIPTION. 

H Chloroform ^o. 

-i?£theris 5o' 

01. Sesami i^o* 

M. ft. Iviniment. 
S. Use externally. 

SPECIMENS. 

The following specimens were placed before the senior students for recogni- 
tion during the several examinations : 



^'"May'i?^*'''"} Examination Questions. 271 

Pharmacy. Chemistry. 

Aqua creosoti, Aqua destillata, 

Spiritus £etheris nitrosi, Aniylum, 

Spiritus a;theris compositus, Sodii salicylas, 

Ceratum plumbi subacetatis, Naphtaliuum, 

Pulvis ipecacuanhiE et opii, Sodii bicarbonas, 

Extractum sennae fluidum, Sodii acetas, 

Tinctura benzoini composita, Saccbaruni lactis, 

Syrupus ferri iodidi, Mangani dioxidum, 

Extractum cinchonae fluidum, Potassii nitras, 

Tinctura calumbae. Benzinum. 

Materia Medica. Committee. 

Bryonia, Tinctura cardamomi composita, 

Stillingia, Linimentum chloroformi, 

Geranium, Extractum ergotae fluidum, 

Calamus, Extractum gentianae fluidum, 

Euonymus, Potassii bicarlx)nas, 

Salvia, Zinci acetas, 

Cheuopodium, Ammonii chloridum, 

Conium, Senega, 

Pbysostigma, Guaiaci lignum, 

Colchici semen. Cascarilla. 

OPERATIVE PHARMACY. 

(/) Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 

Mercury 25 gm. 

Nitric Acid 2* c.c. 

Nitric Acid 3' c.c. 

Lard Oil 30* cc. 

Make Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate by the official process. 

{2) Pills. 

Ferric Citrate 3. gni. 

Cinchonine Sulph i. gni. 

Oil of Caraway 15 Drops. 

Mix; make 15 pills. 

Write in English, upon the label, all the ingredients and quantities used in 
making the pills, and put the lal>el on the bottom of the 1k)x. 

(j) Suppositories. 

Ext. Belladonna Leaves .50 gm. 

Tannic Acid "50 gm. 

Oil of Theobroma 6 00 gm. 

Make 6 suppositories, by rolling. 

{4) Prescription. 
Put up a prescription, secundum artem, each teaspoonful dose of which shall 
contain five minims each of Tincture of Guaiac and Spirit of Nitrous Ether, with 
sufficient water to make two fluid ounces. Write upon a separate label the 
contents of the bottle, and attach it. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



272 Commencement Exercises. {^^'-^ty,^'. 

(5) Plaster. 

Spread a breast-plaster, about 6 inches in diameter. Soap plaster will be 

found in the dipper. 

ANALYTICAI. CHEMISTRY. 

{Students of the second-year class were also given this examination.') 
The examination in this branch consisted in the examination of a compound 
powder for metals and inorganic and organic acids. 

VEGETABLE HISTOLOGY. 

{Students of the second-year class were also given this examination.) 
(i) To which of the following plant types does the specimen belong : The 
Fern, the Monocotyl, the Gymnosperm, or the Dicotyl ? (2) Which of the 
following organs does it represent : a root, the petiole of a leaf, or a stem ? 
Give the reason for your conclusion. (3) Make a diagram of the cross-section 
and locate such of the following parts as are represented : the epidermis, the 
periderm, the pith, the cambium zone, a medullary ray, the xylem of a bundle, 
the endodermis and the pericycle. (4) Enumerate the tissues which you find 
present. (5 ) Is starch present ? What test did you employ to determine? In 
what parts of the section is it most abundant ? (6) What tissues are lignified ? 
In what part of the section were the lignified tissues most abundant ? Describe 
your method of testing for lignified structures. (7) What varieties of secretion 
tissue do you find, and how are they distributed ? (8) If milk tissue is present, 
state which variety it represents and how it is distributed. (9) For clearing 
sections of starch and proteid matters, what reagents may be employed ? (10) 
Suppose you find crystals in a cell, bv what means could you tell whether they 
are protein crystals or mineral crystals ? Having determined that the crystals 
are inorganic, how could you tell whether they are composed of calcium car 
bonate or of calcium oxalate ? 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 

The exercises connected with conferring the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy 
were held at the College Building, Wednesday evening, April 14, at 8 o'clock. 
Prayer was offered by Rev. B. L. Agnew, D.D. 
President Bullock conferred the degree upon the following : 

Xante. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Althouse, Harry B., Pharmacy journals., Pennsylvania. 

Anderson, Ralph Samuel Lloyd, Progress in pharmacy^ Pennsylvania. 

Baker, Newton Claire, Arsenic and its preparations, Pennsylvania. 

Bartholomew, Claude Lafayette, Antipyrine, Pennsylvania. 

Bates, John Phillips, Liquor potasses et liquor sodcs, Pennsylvania. 

Breithaupt, Alphons Peter, Structure of leptandra, Pennsylvania. 
Brumbaugh, Albert Sylvester, Digestive value of Carica papaya, Ohio. 

Clapp, Samuel Clarence, Kola nut, Pennsylvania. 

Clark, Edward B., Glycerinum, Pennsylvania. 

Cloud, Norman Henderson, Copaiba, Pennsylvania. 

Codori, Simon Jacob, Jr., Cinchona bark, Pennsylvania. 
Compton, Richard Hal, Valuation of liquor iodi cotnpositus, Texas. 

Cooper, Morris, Testing in retail pharmacies, Pennsylvania. 



All). Jour, riiarm.l 
May. 1897. / 



Covuncncemcnt Exercises. 



273 



Same. Subject 0/ Thesis. State. 

Cope, Edward Kreidler, Opium and its us^s, Pennsylvania. 

Criswell. Edward Ott, Cascara sagrada, Pennsylvania. 

Deibert, William Henry, Tasteless Cascara sagrada compounds, Pennsylvania. 



Eschbach, Clarence Derbie, Syrupus acidi hydriodici, 

Farley, Levi James, / 'egetahle histology. 

Few, Colin Spangler, Olive oil, 

Garrison, Joseph Miller, Jr., Value of pharmacognosy, 

Gessford, Otice Eugene, The pharmacists, 

Godfrey, Swain Townsend, Coal, 

Godshall, Samuel R., Acidu)n a'/ticuui dilutum, 

Goodfellow, Charles Rumney, PhatDiacists and their imitators, Pennsylvania. 

Gross, Paul Herbert, Oliie oil and its product ion, Pennsjlvania. 

Harry, Hamilton Maxwell, Camphor, 

Heim, Christian, Liquor plumbi subacetatis, 

Hildebrand, Howard Ovid, Coca, 

Horst, Harry Lewis, The pharmacy of brewings 

Howell, Harry Field, Cocaine^ 

Hukill, Oscar K., Phartnaceutical education, 

Ingling, Howard Edgar, Cinchona, 

Opium, 

The relation of the druggist to the 
physician. 

Koumys, 
Kessler, Lawrence Anthony, Assay of spirit us tether is nittosi, 
Kirlin, Charles Coleman Hagenbuch, Attar or otto of rose, 
Kramer, George Henry, Syrupus ferri iodidi, 

Gossypium herbaceum. 

Sulphuric acid. 

Ergot, 

Opium, 



Jefferis, David Strode, 
Jennings, Isaac Astor, 

Johns, Frank James, 



Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsvlvania. 



Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Arkansas. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 



Laughlin, Albert Russell, 

Lenhart, linos Samuel, 

Levan, Walter, 

Lewis, Daniel William, 

Liebert, Charles Frederick, Concentrated infusions, 

I^ngshaw, Thomas I-Hmer, Poisons and their antidotes 



Luhr, Frederick A., 
Lukens, Charles Baker, 
McGehee, Hanford Bell, 
McNeil, Thomas Hunter, 
Matusow, Harry, 
Metzlcr, Claude Dallas, 
Morgan, Clayton ICdward, 
Mueller, Charles August, 
Nel)el, Charles William, 
Parry, I'dward, 
Parry, William Hough, 
I'earce, Samuel Rol>crt, 
Peiffer, Charles Oscar, 
Praul, Walter I'rancis, 



Cascara sagrada. 

Hydrogen dioxide, 

Ointments, 

Kola , 

Kalmia latifolia, 

/belladonna, 

Adulteration, 

Abstracts, 

Ointments and cerates. 

Powdered extract of liiorue. 

Medicated waters. 

Camphor, 

Acacia, 

Rheum, 



Punt, Arnold Anthony Joseph, Density of solutions, 
Reese, John Bull, Cinchona, 

Riebcn. Ernest, Stramonium, 



Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 
Russia 

Pennsvlvania- 
Massachusetts- 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Wales. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsvlvania. 



274 



Commencement Exercises, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1. May, 1897. 



Xamf. 
Roth, Fraus Jobau 
Seipel, Harry Bertram, 
Smiley, Laura Marguerite, 
Stommel, Henry Aloysius, 
Streeper, Austin, 
Tobias, Isaac Herbert, 

Troxell, John Isaac Peter, 
Weitzel, Sue C, 



Subject of Thesis. 

Arsenic and its compounds , 

Zingiber^ 

Podophyllum, 

Liquorice in pharmacy, 

Cinchona barks, 

Preservative for syrup of ferrous 

iodide. 
Ergot, 



Veratrum viride, 
Wentzler Hartman Gotthard, Percolation of every tincture of 

U.S.P, 
Wetzel, Samuel, Belladonna, 

Wilson, Oliver Fawcett, Solid extracts by acetic acid. 
Winger, John Bowman, Gelatin capsules. 



stale. 
Sweden. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 



STATES AND COUNTRIES REPRESENTED BY THE GRADUATING CI^ASS. 

Arkansas i Pennsylvania ... 58 Virginia 2 

Massachusetts i Russia i Wales, i 

New Jersey 4 Sweden i — 

Ohio 3 Texas i Total, 73 

Special certificates for a two years' course in general, applied and analytical 
chemistry were awarded to : 

Bertha Leon DeGrafFe, New York. 
Freeman Preston Stroup, Pennsylvania. 
S. Allen Tucker, Pennsylvania. 
W^m. Clements White, Pennsylvania. 

The degree of Master in Pharmacy was conferred on the following : 

Virgil Coblentz, New York. 
John Uri Lloyd, Ohio. 
Charles T. George, Pennsylvania. 
Jacob H. Redsecker, Pennsylvania. 
Lucius Elmer Sayre, Kansas. 

The following members of the class attained the grade of Distinguished : 

Albert Sylvester Brumbaugh. 
Harry Matusow. 
Clayton Edward Morgan, 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The Maisch Memorial Prize of a Zentmayer microscope, offered by the 
family of the late Professor Maisch, for original histological work oh American 
plants, was awarded to Alphons Peter Breithaupt. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, consisting of a gold medal and 
certificate, for the highest general average in operative pharmac}', specimens 
and committee examinations, offered by Mrs. Rebecca T. Webb, was awarded 
to Albert Sylvester Brumbaugh. 

The Chemical Prize of $25 in gold, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
for original quantitative analysis, was given to Harry Matusow. The following 



'^"■Ma^iS?.^""-} Alumni Association, 27^ 

graduate received honorable mention in connection therewith : Lawrence 
Anthony Kessler. 

The American Joirnal of Pharmacy Prize of ^■2^, offered by Prof. 
Henry Trimble, for a paper (not intended for a thesis) involving original work 
in the Chemical Laboratory, was awarded to Harr^- Matusow. 

The John M. Maisch Prize of ^20 in gold, offered by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, of 
Lebanon, Pa., for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Claude 
Dallas Metzler, with honorable mention of John Phillips Bates and Albert Syl- 
vester Brumbaugh. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize of ^25 in gold, offered by Prof. Joseph 
P. Remington, for the best examination in op>erative pharmacy, was awarded 
to Clayton Hdward Morgan, with honorable mention of the following gradu- 
ates : Kuos Samuel Lenhart, Alphons Peter Breithaupt, Oliver 1-awcett Wilson, 
Richard Hal Compton and Albert Sylvester Brumbaugh. 

The Robinson Chemical Prize of a gold medal and certificate, offered by Mr. 
James S. Robinson, of Memphis, Tenn., for the best examination in general 
and analytical chemistry, was awarded to Clayton Hdward Morgan. 

The valedictory address to the graduating class was delivered by Professor 
Joseph P. Remington. 

The farewell supper of the professors to the graduating class was given in the 
Museum of the College, Tuesday evening, April 13th. The officers and trustees 
of the College were present, together with some other invited guests. Professor 
Remington, as Dean of the Faculty, was master of ceremonies, and after the 
)netiu was disposed of speeches were made by the President of tlie College, 
members of the faculty, some of the trustees, members ol the class and invited 
guests. 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA 
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The Thirty-third Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy convened in the Auditorium of the College Build- 
ing, 145 North Tenth Street, on Monday afternoon, April 12, 1S97. 

President Dr. J. Louis D. Morison, '88, presided, and called the meeting to 
order at 2.30 p.m., 22 members being present. 

The President read his address, in which he said : "With the close of the 
exercises attending the reception to the seventy-sixth graduating class lo night, 
we shall have rounded out nearly a third of a century of existence as an active 
organization ; and while the past year has not shown any very conspicuous evi- 
tlences of activity beyond that of mere routine work, yet I am happy to say we 
are still quite healthy. Notwithstanding the fact that there has been observcil 
at times slight symptoms of inertia of the interest in the work of the Association 
which, during the past year has, at times, seemed to flag, I am by no means con- 
vince<l that she is, therefore, losing her vitality as an organization. " I le advised 
the infusion of more new blood into her veins by every member giving to the 
.Association a more lively interest, and he did not share with some lh«- n 

that because the .Association has relinquished its interests in the <Jni//< 
therefore, no important work to do. On the contrary, he felt there never was 
a time in its history when its field for work was larger and more full of promise 



2;r) Alumni Association. {^'^ii^ylmi':''^- 

than it is to-day, and the advent of the session of 1897-98 will see our College 
doors thrown open to receive for the first time in her history three distinct 

classes. 

He recommended the publishing of the A1.UMNI Report twelve times a year, 
and believed the question was already uppermost in the minds of very many of 
the active members, and urged the advisability of giving to this important mat- 
ter early and earnest consideration. 

He also advised the holding of the Alumni Social Meetings in the future in 
the evenings instead of the afternoons, as heretofore. 

In closing, he expressed what he believed to be the sense of the meeting, and 
that was the profound sorrow felt by all at the death of Prof. Edson S. Bastin. 
" By his untimely departure we sustain the loss of an honored member and the 
College a valued and distinguished teacher ; and while we lament the passing 
away of Edson S. Bastin, we, at the same titne, rejoice that it was our great 
privilege to have had him in Our midst, for, by his genius and indomitable 
energy, there has been added to our College a microscopical laboratory second 
to none in any teaching institution in the country— a work that will ever remain 
a glorious monument to his memory. 

The Secretary, Wm. E. Krewson, '69, presented his seventeenth annual 
report as Secretary, in which he reviewed the work of the Association for the 
past year, but regretted that the Association had not been more active. 

During the year sixty-five members have been added, seven who paid the 
required fee and fifty-eight who were members of the College Review Quiz 
Classes. 

The membership now numbers 2,749, after deducting those who died during 
the year, making a net gain of thirty-nine new members for the year. 

The report of the Memorial Committee showed that twenty-six of the active 
members had died during the year ; also eleven of our graduates who were not 
active members. 

The Secretary also reported that two of our honorary members had died, viz : 
First Vice-President Robert Shoemaker and Prof. Edson S. Bastin. 

Twenty of the members had procured the Alumni badges during the year, 
making a total of 285 members who had procured the badge. 

The Secretary suggested the dispensing of the Social Meetings altogether 
or the holding them in the evenings ; also to petition the Committee on Prop- 
erty of the Board of Trustees to have the College Museum open every day for 
the use of the students and pharmacists who might wish to avail themselves of 
visiting it, and have a suitable person in charge to care for the room and its 
valuable collections. 

He also suggested the publishing of the Alumni Report each month in 
the year. 

The Treasurer, Wm. Lincoln Cliffe, '84, reported that he had received from 
all sources during the year 12,658.83, which, added to the balance in the treas- 
ury at the commencement of the year, made a total of $2,925.77. The disburse- 
ments amounted to $2,849.37, leaving a balance in the treasury of I76.40. 

John Tri Lloyd, of Cincinnati, O.; Dr. Edward Robinson Squibb, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and Dr. Chas. Rice, of New York City, were unanimously elected 
as liDuorary members of the Alumni Association. 



^'"Ma?!"*!^?*'™} Alumni Association. 27J 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year, vi/ 

President, Harry L. Stiles, 'S5 ; First Vice-President, James L. I'cirry, '91 ; 
Second Vice-President, F. Wm. K. Stedem, '82 ; Treasurer, Wm. Lincoln 
Cliffe, '84 ; Secretary, Wm. ¥,. Krewson, '69 ; Corresponding Secretary, Theo- 
dore Campbell, '93. Board of Directors, for three years : Henry Trimble, '76 ; 
David H. Ross, '78; Wm. N. Stem, '73 ; Dr. J. Louis D. Morison, "88. 

John H. Hahn, '81, was elected to fill the vacancy of two years caused by the 
election of Theodore Campbell, '93, as Corresponding Secretary. The present 
Recording Secretary', Wm. E. Krewson, was re-elected for the eighteenth time. 

The Thirty-third Annual Reception to the seventy -sixth graduating class was 
held on the evening of the same day in the College Auditorium, and was one of 
the most successful ever held. The hall was beautifully decorated with the 
College colors and the American flag. 

An interesting concert programme was rendered by Bastert's Parlor Orchestra. 
The President, Dr. J. Louis D. Morison, presided, and made a few introductory 
remarks and welcomed the new members. 

The Secretary called the roll of those elected during the year. 

The annual class oration was delivered by Howard Ovid Hildebrand of York, 
Pa. 

The reciting of the poem dedicated to the seventy-sixth graduating class was 
rendered by Samuel R. Godshall, of Soudertown, Pa. 

Samuel Clarence Clapp. Jr., of Milton, Pa., gave the history of the Class of 
1897, and Harry Lewis Horst, of Lock Haven, Pa., foretold the future of the 
Class of 1S97. 

The Alumni gold medal was presented to Clayton Edward Morgan, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., a son of our fellow member of the Alumni Association, Frank V.. 
Morgan, of the Class of '81 ; and it was presented in a very pleasing manner 
by Dr. Clement B. Lowe, '84. The eight prize certificates for the highest 
general average in each of the branches were awarded to the following 
students, viz. : 

CERTIFICATES. 

Pharmacy —John Phillips Bates, Mansfield, Pa. 

Chemistry — Walter Francis Praul, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Materia Medica — Harry Matusow, Minsk, Russia. 

General Pharmacy (Committee)— Samuel Robert Pearce, Manasquan. N. J. 

Operative Pharmacy — Oliver Fawcett Wilson, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Analytical Chemistry — .Mbert Sylvester Bruml)augh, Mansfield. (). 

Pharmacognosy (Specimens) — Claude Dallas Mct/.ler, Harrisonville, Pa. 

Microscopy (Vegetable Histology i -Miss I^ura Marguerite Smiley, Philadel 
phia. Pa. 

The Testimonial Prize certificates to the undergraduates receiving the high- 
est general averages in the first- and second-year class examinations were 
awarded to Mclvin William Bamford, of the first-year class, of Reading. Pa . 
and to George Carll Keen, of Vinelaiid, N. J., of the second year class. 

The Lust named certificate was awarded for the first time this year, it l>cing 
the first examination for second course slmlenls under the new curriculum. 

W. E. K. 



278 Minutes of College Meeting. { 



Am. Jour. Pharin. 
May, 1897. 



MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 

COLLEGE. 

The aunual meeting of the members of the College was held March 29, 1897. 
Wm. J. Jenks, Second Vice-President, presided. Xhe minutes of the meetings of 
the Board of Trustees for January, February and March were read and adopted. 

The next in order was the presentation of the annual reports of officers and 
permanent committees. 

The following was submitted by the Editor of the American Journai, of 
Pharmacy: 

This report covers the issues from April i, 1896, to March i, 1897, inclusive. 
During that time there have been published 708 pages of reading matter, an 
increase over that reported last year of 66 pages ; the average for each of the 
twelve numbers being 59 pages against an average of 53>^ pages last year. 
This is the greatest number of pages ever issued by the Journai^ in one year. 

The number of original papers published during the year was 83, an increase 
of nine over last year ; these occupied 397 pages, against 374, 297 and 159 in 
each of the immediately preceding years. These papers were prepared 
expressly for the Journal, and the number given does not include those read 
before other societies, abstracts, translations or editorials. 

The number of authors contributing were 51, of whom i6 were members of 
the College and 35 were non-members. 

Illustrations were published in every number of the Journal, and amounted 
to a total of 89 during the year, making an average of 7*4 for each issue, against 
a total of 76 last year, averaging 63 for each issue. 

No difficulty has been experienced during the year in securing original mat- 
ter for publication; in fact the more serious question has been, how to utilize 
all that is offered without considerably enlarging the size of the Journal. 
The latter alternative may be better considered in connection with the Report of 
the Committee on Publication, 

The Publication Committee reported the regular issue of the Journal 
during the year. There was a gain in the number of new subscribers, and the 
character of these was such as to give decided encouragement to the committee. 
The financial part of the report was likewise gratifying in character. 
The following was presented by the Librarian : 

Philadelphia, March 29, 1897. 

The Librarian respectfully reports that, during the past year, there have been 
added to the library 440 volumes, besides the various periodicals which are 
received in exchange for the American Journal of Pharmacy. There 
has been expended I430.71 for books, and for binding, $68.90. 

The library has been consulted by very many of our students, and by sev- 
eral parties who were referred to our books for information not to be found 
elsewhere. 

T. S. WiEGAND, Librarian. 
The Curator submitted the following : 

Philadelphia, March 29, 1897, 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Gentlkmen :— Your Curator would respectfully report that the Museum is 
in a good condition and has received a number of valuable accessions during 



^"■.Miy'iS?*'"'} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 279 

the year. Among those who contributed were Prof. J. W. Tourney, of the 
University of Arizona ; Mr. J. H. Maiden, of Sydney, New South Wales ; Prof. 
Alfonso Herrera, of Mexico; Mr. J. Bosisto, of Melbourne, Australia, and Mr. 
\\. M. Holmes, of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

The need exists for more shelf room in the Museum, and this will be imper- 
atively required, if a certain promised collection of drug products — which is 
extensive and valuable — is secured. 

There is another matter that should be referred to. While the College is 
rich in its splendid herbarium, in its collection of plants and plant-products, 
in its collection of chemical and pharmaceutical products, it lacks one thing, 
and that is a collection of minerals representing the origin of the elements 
and of the inorganic chemical compounds — not a geological collection, but a 
collection of raw material — so to speak — that will exhibit to the pharmaceu- 
tical student the primary source of his elements and inorganic chemical 
compounds. Such a collection need not be very expensive, and would add 
much to the value of the Museum. Your Curator would therefore respectfully 
suggest that, as soon as the condition of the treasury will permit, that such 

a collection be bought. I am, 

Yours respectfully, 

J. W. England, Curator. 

The various reports having been presented and accepted, the next matter of 
business was the annual election of officers. The death of Mr. Robert Shoe- 
maker having left void the office of First Vice-President, the order of succes- 
sion was accorded to Mr. William J. Jenks, Second Vice-President, and he was 
thereupon elected to the position made vacant by Mr. Shoemaker's death. Mr. 
Howard B. French having been elected to succeed Mr. Jenks as Second Vice- 
President, the total number of officers elected was as follows : 

President, Charles Bullock ; First Vice-President, William J. Jenks ; Second 
Vice-President, Howard B. French; Treasurer, James T. vShinn; Corresponding 
Secretary, Dr. A. W. Miller ; Recording Secretary, William H. Thomj)son ; 
Librarian, Thos. S. Wiegand ; Curator, Jos. W. luigland ; Editor, Prof. Henry 
Trimble; Publication Committee, Henry X. Rittenhouse, et. al., Editor H. 
Trimble, ex-otf'icio . Trustees for Three Years, Wallace Procter, Gustavus Pile. 
W. Nelson Stem ; Trustees for Unexpired Terms, F. W. F:. Stedem, Richard M. 
Shoemaker. 

.\s the annual meeting of the American Medicil Associatioti will be held in 
Philadelphia in June, Professor Remington moved that an invitation be ex- 
tended to the Association to hold the sessions of the section on Materia Medica 
al this College, and it was so ordered. 

On motion, the meeting adjourne<l. 

Wii.i.i AM B. Thompson, Sfcrctaty. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Pnii,Ai)Ki,i'HlA, April 20, 1897. 
The regular Pharmaceutical Meeting of the present series was held in the 
Museum of the College at 3.30 p.m. Dr. C. B. Ix>we presided. The minutes 
of the previous meeting were allowed to aland as published. 



28o Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^^'^i^^y'Jm''^- 

The first paper presented was on " Observations on Some Recent Suggestions 
Concerning Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate," by Charles H. lyaWall. This 
paper furnished the occasion for an interesting discussion, during which several 
important practical points were brought out. 

In reference to the permanence of Citrine ointment, Mr. F. W. E. Stedem 
said that he had kept it for more than six months without any apparent 
change having taken place. He also remarked that by thorough oxidation of 
the oil previous to the addition of the mercuric nitrate solution, granulation, 
which so often occurs, was prevented. 

Mr. LaWall believed that the variability in quality of this ointment was 
largely due to difference in manipulation. He also spoke in reference to its 
keeping quality, and said that this property was enhanced by heating the 
mixture after addition of the mercuric nitrate solution, until effervescence 
ceased. 

The next paper, which was on a comparative analysis of the root, rhizome 
and stem of "Gelsemium," by L. E. Sayre, was read by T. S. Wiegand. 
The results showed that the constituents upon which the therapeutic value 
of the drug depends were not present in the stem, and the author, there- 
fore, concluded that an admixture of this part of the plant must reduce the 
value of the drug. 

With reference to the use of gelsemium as a remedial agent, Mr. W. L. Cliffe 
said that other drugs possessing similar properties appeared to be more fre- 
quently prescribed. 

Dr. Lowe considered it valuable in cases of facial neuralgia, but did not favor 
its use where aconite was indicated. 

An interesting contribution on "The Presence of Starch and Strontium Sul- 
phate in Opium and their Influence on Assaying," prepared by Lyman F. 
Kebler and Charles H. LaWall, was read by the former. 

The authors stated that starch had been found in opium in a number of 
instances, they themselves having found wheat starch in opium assayed during 
the past two years. The amount found by them varied from a trace to 8 per 
cent. But as this substance does not influence the results in assaying they 
(juestioned whether or not it could be regarded as an adulterant in the true 
sense of the word, since the only requirement for opium is that it shall contain 
a certain amount of morphine. 

A matter for more serious consideration was the presence of strontium sul- 
phate in opium, which substance, even in the most carefully conducted assays, 
according to the U.S. P. method, was found to increase the percentage of 
crude morphine. 

For correcting the results the authors recommeded the ash method as prob- 
ably being the best, considering the present impurities in opium. 

In addition to the consideration of the papers, a number of subjects possess- 
ing particular interest for the retail pharmacist were presented for discussion, 
and altogether the meeting was one of the most profitable of the present series. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, 
Registrar. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, iSgj, 

THE ROOT OF PHYTOLACCA DECANDRA. 
A Contribution to the Knowledge of its Chemical Constituents. 

PART II. 
By George B. Frankfortek and Francis Ramaley. 

This plant was recorded as emetic by Griffith/ in 1833, and as 
cathartic by Allen- the following year. The latter writer remarks 
that it is difficult to administer without producing emesis, and that 
large doses are followed by narcotic symptoms. 

The earliest record of chemical investigation, fourd by the writers, 
that would seem to be of present interest, is by C. Reichel.^ He 
studied the pharmacology, therapeutical properties and chemical 
composition of the root of Phytolacca drastica, a Chilean species, 
but related to our own. Of organic substances there were found : 
resin, wax, coloring matter, proteids and malates. 

P2. Donelly,^ in 1844, published an analysis of Phytolacca 
decandra. This is interesting because it is the first analysis of 
which any record could be found. The following is a summary of 
the results : 



^Griffith, R. E. On the Vegetable Kmctics of the United States. Joi k. 
rini.A. Com., of Pharm.,4, 276, 1S33. 

'All^n, John C. Remarks on the Vegetal)le Cathartics of the I'uited Stairs. 
Jour. Phila. Coix. of Pharm., 5, 205, 1834. 

^Keichel, C. Phytolacca Drastica. Chnn. Centrbl., b&i, 1836. 

^Donelly, E. On Phytolacca Decandra. Am. Joi r. Piiarm., 0. 165, 1S44. 

(28l) 



2Z2 Root of Phytolacca Decandra. { '"/une'iSr'"- 

Woody fibre 66*500 

Starch 20*000 

Tannin, gum and saccharine matter 5 "375 

Gum resin 2*625 

Potassa • 2'ooo 

Iron "875 

Fixed oil "500 

Silica and carbonaceous matter 1 'ooo 

98-875 

In the Chem. Centrbl. for 1849 a short note states that, accord- 
ing to Landerer,^ all parts of the Phytolacca decandra, when fresh, 
have an emetic and purgative effect, which disappears on cooking. 
In Greece the young shoots and leaves are eaten as greens. They 
are employed as a vermifuge. 

An account by C. H. Cressler^ records the fact that the inhalation 
of the powdered root produces soreness of the throat and chest, 
severe coughing and inflammation of the eyes. 

Terreil,' in 1880, described phytolaccic acid which he obtained 
from the fruit of P. decandra and P. Kaempferi. The acid is uncrys- 
tallizable and dries without alteration. It forms a translucent, 
gummy syrup, yellow-brown in color,. not deliquescent; easily solu- 
ble in water and alcohol, scarcely in ether. The watery solution 
has an acid reaction. It can be heated to boiling without change, 
but on addition of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, is converted into 
a gelatinous mass, easily soluble in weak alkalies, ammonia, etc. 

Balland examined the berries of P. dioica. He determined the 
percentages of water, wax, sugar, gum, etc. There was 2 6 per 
cent, of an organic undetermined acid, which was thought to be 
similar to the phytolaccic acid of Terreil. 

\Vm. F. Pape^ found in the root of P. decandra a dark-brown fixed 
oil, tannin, gum, starch, sugar, resin, organic acid and coloring mat- 
ter. The ash contained potassium, iron, calcium, chlorine, sulphuric 
and phosphoric acids. Crystals of potassium nitrate were obtained 
from an alcoholic extract of the root. Tests with iodo-hydrargyrate 



^Landerer. (Quoted in an editorial note.) Phytolacca Decandra als Heil- 
iiiittel. Chcm. CentrbL, 831, 1849. 

''Cressler, Chas. H. Poke Root. Poisonous eflfects from inhalation of the 
powder. Am. Jour. Phakm., 47. 196, 1875. 

"^Terreil, A. Compies rendus, 91, S56-58, 1880. 

"Pape Wm. F. On Phytolaccae Radix. Am. Jour. Pharm., 53. 597, 1881. 



^'"w.-rsS:""*^} Root of Phytolacca Decandra. 283 

of potassium and with iodine solutions indicated the probable pres- 
ence of an alkaloid. 

\V. Cramer' found the juice of the berries to contain gum, sugar, 
malic acid and coloring matters. 

An elaborate investigation of the root was made by Edmond 
Preston, Jr.^" He found traces of hydrochloric, phosphoric and sul- 
phuric acids, with 5-5 per cent, of potassium hydroxide. A small 
amount of free acid was found; this had the characteristic odor of 
the root ; its potassium salt was decomposed with effervescence on 
treatment with acids. From the purified aqueous extract of the 
root there was obtained a small quantity of nearly white crystals, 
which in solution gave precipitates with the usual alkaloidal rea- 
gents. The crystals were entirely dissipated when heated on plat- 
inum foil, and when treated with strong mineral acids simply dis- 
solved, giving no characteristic color test. "An alcoholic solution 
of the crystals neutralized with dilute hydrochloric acid on concen- 
tration yielded nearly colorless acicular crystals, moderately soluble 
in alcohol, quite soluble in water and possessing a strong, acrid 
taste." It was concluded that the crystals were those of an alka- 
loid and of its hydrochloride. For this alkaloid the name •• phyto- 
laccine " was proposed. 

Coscera^' found that tender shoots and leaves show slight, and 
the roots more, toxic qualities. The same parts of the plant, at time 
of fruiting, have a marked emetic and purgative action. He 
obtained what he considered a glucoside by the following means : 
The root was extracted by 90 per cent, alcohol ; the filtrate, on 
cooling, showed the substance as a white powder, insoluble in 
ether, scarcely in absolute alcohol, somewhat in 50 per cent, alcohol, 
readily in water. It was also soluble in dilute acids. The substance 
reduced alkaline copper sulphate only after heating with dilute sul- 
phuric acid. 

In an alcoholic extract of the root ** a fen- cr)stals " were found by 
Partee," but these were not investigated. He also obtained some 

*Cramer, Walter. Phytolacca Bacctt. Am. Jour. Piiakm.. a:». 59H, 1H81. 

^'^Prfslon, luimomi, Jr. The Root of Phytolacca Decandra, I.imu'. Am. Toir. 
Pharm., fto, 567, 1884. 

^^Coscfra, .\. Heitriige /ur cliemische-toxischc-K-cntmss von I'hylolacca 
nccan<lra. L. Review in Chem. C^ntrhl., pp. 576, 643, 808, 18S7. 

^^/*arlce, H'fu. .1. Analysis of Poke Root. Am. JoiR. Pharm.. 00. 123, 

JSSS. 



Am. Jour. Pharn . 



284 Root of Phytolacca Decandra. {^""jSeriS?" 

acicular crystals from the absolute alcohol extract. The residue 
from the ether extract contained a wax, melting at 109°. The other 
substances found were : gum, glucose and tannin, with indications 
of a possible glucoside. 

The investigations of Haverland^^ were directed to the fruit of 
Phytolacca. This investigator found phytolaccic acid, with small 
quantities of acetic, citric and tartaric acids. Phytolaccin, which he 
found in seeds on analysis, was found to be a non-nitrogenous body 
related to the tannins, and containing 65 95 per cent, of carbon, 
28-15 per cent, of hydrogen, and 5-9 per cent, of oxygen. 

A substance obtained from the root, and suggested as being a 
saponin, was described by Trimble^^ in 1893. It was precipitated 
by water from the alcoholic percolate. Solutions frothed on 
shaking. The taste was slightly bitter and acrid. Analysis indi- 
cated the formula ^^^^f^2%' 

The latest contribution to a knowledge of the chemical properties 
of the root is by one^^ of the present authors. A complete quantita- 
tive analysis of the ash was made, and the gases given off during 
destructive distillation of the root were investigated. As the results 
have been so lately published it is unnecessary to summarize them here. 

In the foregoing account reference has been made to investiga- 
tions on the fruit of Phytolacca only when it seemed that these 
might throw light upon the constituents of the root. It will be 
sufficient here to mention the investigations of Bischoff^^ and 
Macagno/' which were directed to the coloring matter of the fruit, 
and those of Claussen^^ on the active principle of the seed ; and of 
Eberhardt,^^ who examined the root but made no quantitative analy- 
sis and whose work was mostly corroborative of previous results. 

^^Haverland, Franz. Beitrage zur Kentniss der in den Friichten von Phyto- 
lacca Decandra euthaltenen Bestandtheile. Inaug. Dissertation. Erlaugen. 1892. 

'♦ Trimble, Henry. A Proximate Principle from Phytolacca Decandra. Am. 
Jour. Pharm., 05, 273, 1893. 

^■'Frankforter, Geo. B. A Chemical Study of Phytolacca Decandra. Am. 
Jour. Pharm., go, 134, 1897. 

^^Bischojf.H. Inaug. Dissertation. Tiibingen, 1876. Ueber den Farbstoffe, etc. 
Ivandwirthsch. Versuchsst., 33, 456-61, 1878. 

^^Macagno.J. In atti R. Stazione chemico-agraria di Palermo, 47, 1886. 
Chem. Centrbl., 123, 1886. 

'"^Claussen. In Husemann-Hilger's " Pflanzenstoffe," p. 531, 1882. 

^^Eberhardt, E. G. Chemical Examination of Poke Root. Lilly's Bulletin^ 
No. 23, p. 3. 1893. 



'""•/unl'iSr'"} Koot of Phytolacca Dccandra. 285 

It is to be noted that the •' phytolaccin " of Claussen was 
described five years before the '♦ phytolaccine " of Preston. Should 
the latter's discovery be confirmed, it would be necessary to rename 
the substance described by him. 

The authors desire, at this point, to express their thanks to Mr. 
C. P. Berkey, instructor in mineralogy at this University, for his 
careful examination of the sugar crystals, and to Dr. Wm. Trelease 
and Mr. John S. Wright, for assistance in securing the literature on 
the subject. 

RECORD OF INVESTIGATIONS. 

The work of investigation was begun in October, 1895, and has 
been carried on more or less continuously since that time. Two 
proximate analyses were made. Besides these, various quantities of 
the root were extracted in different ways for certain of the constituents. 
Three partial analyses were also made. Air-dried material was 
used. This was obtained from three different wholesale houses and 
personally garbeled before grinding. The latter process is an 
extremely unpleasant task when done with a hand-mill, for the 
inhalation of the dust produces, as has been noted in the historical 
summary, most severe inflammation of the membranes of the nose 
and throat. 

Most of the substances previously reported were found in the 
present investigation. Preston's phytolaccine was, however, not 
obtained, nor could the presence of tannin or of chlorides be shown. 
The crystallized sugar which was found is undoubtedly the " glu- 
coside " of Coscera and the *• few crystals " of Partee. The " acicular 
crystals" of the latter were probably potassium nitrate. The large 
amount of potassium in the root is easily recognized. Its character- 
istic flame is observed when a splinter of the root is held in the 
Hunsen flime. 

The percentages extracted by the various solvents were as follows : 

Petroleum ether . . '627 

Sulphuric ether . . 'loo 

Absolute alcohol . 1 1 734 

Cold water . >^^32 

Dilute sulphuric acid . ^-'^'i^ 

Dilute alkali 4744 

kemovec! by potasftiuin hypohroiniie . r2o6 
Residue of cellulose . 

100*407 



286 Root of Phytolacca Decandra. {^'"•/un"e':-i897"'"' 

Great care was taken that the extraction by each solvent should 
be complete. The petroleum ether extract was of light amber tint ; 
the ether extract was of a burnt sienna color, and probably contained 
little else than coloring matter. All the other extracts were of 
about the same rich reddish-brown tinge. The water extract showed 
an acid reaction. 

A summary of the analyses may be given in tabulated form. 
When two or more determinations have been made the results have 
been averaged : 

Oil and wax '627 

Resin I'oio 

Non-reducing sugar calculated as sucrose 9*457 

Reducing sugar calculated as dextrose *435 

Proteids i*944 

Amido-compounds (calculated as asparagin) 1*634 

Free acid calculated as formic '360 

Combined organic acid calculated as potassium formate .... 1*891 

Starch 11*677 

Calcium oxalate 6*225 

Nitrates calculated as potassium nitrate 2*408 

Cellulose 16*378 

Lignin, etc 3*206 

Gum, coloring matter, ash, moisture and undetermined .... 42*748 

100 000 
The oil is non-volatile, of a brownish color and readily saponifi- 
able with cold, fixed alkalies. The wax is light yellow in color. It 
was not studied. The resin found in the alcohol extract was dark 
brown in color, and of a very bitter taste. 

The sugar can only be crystallized with great difficulty and best 
from absolute alcohol, as the various other substances soluble in 
alcohols of less concentration seem to interfere with the crystalli- 
zation. In one analysis 26 per cent, of crystallized sugar was 
obtained. It can generally be had only in much smaller quantities. 
This crystallized sugar is completely soluble in large excess of 
hot absolute alcohol. From such a solution it is sometimes obtained 
in a very fine crystalline powder. From thick, syrupy water solu- 
tions prismatic crystals can, with difficulty, be obtained. These 
crystals are clear, colorless, transparent prisms, belonging to the 
orthorhombic system. Their most common forms are represented 
in the accompanying figure. The longer lateral axis is in nearly all 
cases cut by pinnacoid planes, so that the crystals, when seen from 



Am. Joar. Pharm. 

June. 1897. 



} Root of Phytolacca Decandra, 



287 



above, are almost perfectly hexagonal in outline. The lengths of 
the lateral axes are i and -767. Since only prismatic crystals were 
found, the length of the vertical axis could not be determined. 

The commonest forms are shown in the accompanying figure. 

The sugar began to melt at 146°, and was completely melted at 
153°. It boiled at from 180° to 185°, turning brown. Warmed 
with sodium hydroxid solution, it turned yellow. When warmed 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, charring did not take place, though 
there was a brown coloration. 



r<- 




> 




^: 


>1 












» 







^ 



Sugar Cry.stals from Phytolacca Uecaiulra. 

Polarization of a clear solution showed 87-6 per cent, sucrose. 
The reaction with Fehling's solution indicated 4 4 per cent, anhydrous 
dextrose. Polarization was not affected by warming the solution nor 
by allowing it to stand in the tube for some hours. 

Proteids were determined in the alkali extract by KJcldahl's 
method. 

Amido-compounds were determined by the use of potassium hy- 
pobromite, the nitrogen evolved measured and calculated to aspara- 
gin. 

The water extract of the root had a decidedly acid reaction. Two 



288 Root of Phytolacca Decandra, { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1897. 



grammes of the drug were extracted with 200 c.c. of cold water, 
and the filtered solution titrated against a standard alkali solution. 
By this means the percentage of free acid, calculated as formic acid, 
was determined. 

On distilling a 90 per cent, alcohol extract of the root a small 
quantity of the acid was obtained. This was exactly neutralized 
with fixed alkali and brought to dryness on the water bath. When 
the alkali was added the solution became light yellowish in color. 
The dry salt was distilled with phosphoric acid, to obtain the organic 
acid in the free state. It distilled between 98° and 100°. 

The acid responded to the ferric chloride test for formic acid. 
Neutralized solutions slowly reduced silver nitrate, but without the 
appearance of a mirror. The potassium salt crystallized in beautiful 
stellate tufts. The free acid was found to be soluble in water and 
weak alcohols, somewhat soluble in 95 per cent, alcohol, and almost 
insoluble in absolute alcohol. It was insoluble in ether, benzene, 
petroleum ether, etc. The taste and smell of the acid were similar to 
those of formic acid, though not quite identical. It is, however, 
possible that impurities were present. 

When the dry root was distilled with steam the distillate had 
only a very slight acid reaction. This may, perhaps, be accounted 
for on the supposition that the acid was, in this case, neutralized by 
carbonates in the root with which it came in contact in a not too 
dilute form. When the root was distilled with dilute sulphuric acid 
the free acid was readily obtained. 

Careful examination of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the root 
failed to reveal even traces of the following acids : acetic, citric, 
malic, tartaric, benzoic and salicylic. The first four named acids 
were tested for with particular care, since they have been found by 
various investigators in the fruit of the same plant. Although cal- 
cium oxalate was found to the extent of 6 per cent., no free oxalic 
acid or soluble oxalates were discovered. Phytolaccic acid may or 
may not be present. From the descriptions given by its discoverer 
it would appear that the acid he described was by no means 
pure. 

It has seemed proper to calculate the acids in combination as 
potassium salts, since such a large amount of potassium is present. 
It is certainly reasonable to suppose that the salts exist as such in 
the root. 



'"""juii?!^"'"} Koot of Phytolacca Decandra. 289 

A portion of the dilute sulphuric acid extract was heated in a 
closed tube at 120°. The percentage of glucose was determined, 
and from this the amount of starch calculated. 

Potassium nitrate crystallized from the alcohol extracts. Under 
the most favorable conditions a little less than i per cent, was ob- 
tained by careful crystallization. 

After extracting the root with 90 per cent, and with 60 per cent, 
alcohol, an extract made with cold water was, after drying, 6-6 per 
cent, by weight of the dry root. The extract has a strong cathartic 
action, this property being tested by two persons. It is to be noted 
that the 95 per cent, and 60 per cent, extracts also possessed the 
same property, but to a less extent. These extracts, when strongly 
heated, emit an odor of popping corn. 

A quantity of the root, first exhausted with water, was percolated 
with 95 per cent, alcohol. The tinctures frothed on boiling. On 
cooling there was deposited a whitish powder, the particles usually 
somewhat spherical in shape, each one with a short appendage. 
This substance is nearly insoluble in water, but rather soluble in 
alcohol.' This may be the proximate principle described by Trim- 
ble. Only a small quantity was obtained. It has not been further 
examined. 

Extended investigations were made to establish the presence of 
an alkaloid or glucoside. Although the examination was quite thor- 
ough, no substances of this nature were isolated. Further investi- 
gations will, however, be made as soon as fresh material is obtain- 
able. 

Tests were made for the alkaloids and the glucosides commonly 
occurring in plants, but with negative results in every case. \'ari- 
ous methods of extraction were employed; e.g., treatment of the 
aqueous extract with alcohol and with metliyl and amyl alcohol ; 
also with acidulated water and acidulated alcohols. 

In purified aqueous extracts, precipitates were thrown down with 
some of the usual alkaloidal reagents, but not with picric acid or 
phosphomolybdic acid. 

Attempts were made at every step to obtain the substance in 
crystalline form, but always without success. Purified extracts, acid 
and alkaline, were shaken with various solvents, as ethyl acetate, 
chloroform, ether, petroleum ether, and benzol. In many cases 
tests applied to the dissolved residues indicated the presence of an 



290 Verba Del Polio. {'^'^i^^l^.T'^- 

alkaloid from both the acid and alkaline solutions. From this we 
are led to infer that the alkaloid — if one and only one be present — 
exists in the root as a salt, and also in its basic condition. 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 



VERBA DEL POLLO. 
By Ai^fonso Herrera, of Mexico. 

Several plants of the family Commelinaceae are known in Mexico^ 
by this name, and are to be found in cold as well as in warm and 
temperate regions. They grow on the sandy banks of rivers and 
brooks, and flourish from July until September. 

Hernandez calls them Matlaliztic prima, secunda, texcocana,. 
tercia, asphodelea, and coapatli. According to this author, the Aztecs- 
used this plant to cure fevers, headaches, tumors and hemorrhages) 
and to give relief in child-birth. The hemostatic properties of the- 
Verba del Polio were therefore known to the Indians, but this- 
precious plant was forgotten, together with many other good andl 
useful products of the conquered country. 

Almost three centuries later, Alzate made known to his country- 
men the remarkable activity of this plant in stopping the blood from* 
wounds, but his efforts were useless, for the plant remained unnoticed 
until 1863. at which time we began to read about it in the works of 
Hernandez and Alzate ; we repeated the experiments of these illus- 
trious authors, induced physicians to use it, and began to seek for 
its active principle. 

A short time afterwards, Mr. Touraine read the work of Padre 
Alzate, and, on trying the efficacy of the drug as a hemostatic, he 
met with great success ; the results of his experiments and investi- 
gations he laid before the Academia de Medicina de Mexico, on Feb- 
ruary 21, 1866; the paper was published in the Gaceta Medica, 
Vol. II. He asserted that nobody had studied the plant since 
Alzate's time, and he suggested for it the name Tradescantia erecta ;, 
the president of the Academy, Dr. Jimenez, observed that we had 
attracted his attention to the subject in the year 1863, and its 
extract had been applied to a number of patients with success. 

Synonyms. — Commelina tuberosa, Linn. Sp. PL Ed. I, page 41 ;. 
C. B. Clarke, in D. C. Monogr. Phanerog. HI, page 149 ; Andr. Bot. 
Rep., t. 399; Schnizl Iconogr., t. 48. Commelina parviflora, Reichl.. 



^"■j-iT.iS^"'"'} y^rba Del Polio. 291 

Fol. Exot. II, p. 17, t. 142, non Link. Commelina undulata, Lodd. 
Bot. Cab , t. 1553, non R. Br. 

Matlaliztic, Coapatli, Zoyol, Xochitl, Yerba del Polio, Rosilla. 

Habitat. — Valle de Mexico, Orizaba. 

Analysis. — The juice obtained by a simple pressure of the fresh 
plant has an acid reaction towards litmus paper. We have obtained 
some perfectly neutral liquid of a peculiar odor by placing the juice 
in a retort and distilling by means of a water bath, then adding to 
the bath calcium chloride in several portions, to increase the boiling 
temperature, and collecting the different fractions which came over. 
When but little juice remained in the retort its odor was found to 
have changed, and it possessed a strongly acid reaction ; when this 
acid liquid was neutralized with bases, salts were obtained which 
were found to be acetates. 

Another portion of the juice was heated to 80°, when a precipi- 
tate was formed which was found to be vegetable albumin. The 
liquid, filtered from the albumin, was concentrated to half its 
volume and treated with alcohol 33° Cartier, when a cheesy precipi- 
tate separated, which was found to be of an albuminoid nature. 
The residual liquid, after separation of this precipitate, was concen- 
trated anew to remove alcohol, reduced to a small volume, and set 
aside for a while; potassium chloride separated as a result of this 
treatment, and on further concentration, more of the same salt sepa- 
rated, mixed with e.xtractive matter. 

An e.xtract of the juice was obtained by evaporating the latter 
on a water-bath. It was partly soluble in water; when treated in 
the same manner as the juice, similar compounds were obtained. A 
small amount of ammonium acetate was also found in the extract, 
due, no doubt, to the pre-existence of acetic acid in the plant, and to 
the formation of ammonia from the proteid principle on the applica- 
tion of heat. 

We obtained also a product neutral to litmus paper — smelling like 
the liquid produced by distilling the juice — by distilling the dry 
plant with simple water. If distilled with lime it afforded a liquid 
smelling like the foregoing, but reacting alkaline towards litmus 
paper. On saturating this alkaline liquid with acid an ammonium 
salt was obtained. 

Ammonia may be obtained even in an ordinary temperature by 
wetting the powdered plant and mixing it with lime or the carbon- 



292 Verba Del Polio. {^"/une^iSr"'"- 

ate of potassium or sodium. The dried plant also yielded chloro- 
phyll when treated with ether. 

In short, the Verba del Polio contains the following principles : 

hi the juice, acetic acid. 

Ifi the extract, ammonium acetate, potassium chloride, albumi- 
noids, vegetable albumin, chlorophyll, extractive and cellulose. 

In his paper about this plant, Padre Alzate owned that he 
believed the hemostatic influence of a mucilaginous plant could 
never be accounted for. Mr. Touraine proposed to seek and isolate 
the active principle. Some four years ago we determined to solve 
the problem, and undertook a series of experiments, that were too 
long to enumerate, since there are no fixed rules for arriving at an 
absolutely correct result, and determining certainly which one of 
these principles is the active one. 

We can assert from the present moment, with regard to the 
extract, that it is not the extractive, chlorophyll, ammonium ace- 
tate or vegetable albumin. There remain the potassium chloride 
and the proteid principle, though it may be questioned if either of 
these has any hemostatic properties. We have seen, however, that 
the wet powder of the plant and the solution of the extract are 
most active hemostatics, and the analysis points out no principle 
worthy of notice in this connection but these two, so that it seems 
rational to attribute the hemostatic properties to them. 

If it is the proteid principle and potassium chloride which act, 
in what manner is it ? The question is rather difficult to solve, 
since proteid principles are of a very complex nature, and their 
molecules stand in such unstable equilibrium that the slightest 
modification in the conditions of their existence suffices to decom- 
pose them. Such are the albuminoid principles of Commelina, of 
blood, and of animal cells. We have observed in the analytical part 
with regard to the Commelina, that an elevation of temperature, the 
presence of alkali hydrates or their carbonates suffice to alter it, 
heat transforms it into an insoluble principle and a small quantity 
of ammonium acetate. 

We need say nothing about blood, for its composition and alter- 
ability are perfectly well known, except to make the following 
quotation from Mialhe : " The three principal liquids of the animal 
economy, chyle, lymph and blood, are, when normal, alkaline." 

With regard to contractibility of capillary vessels, we will quote 



'"'"•/uZ.iS':"'"} ^>^^^ ^'i Polio. 293 

from Bcclard's Physiology : *• Pourinfj cold water on the natatory 
membrane of a frog, the calibre of its capillary vessels diminishes to 
a half or three-quarters of its normal size at least. Common salt 
produces the same effect. This contractibility can also be made 
evident by acid or diluted alkaline solutions." 

Taking all these facts into consideration, we will hazard a theory 
which, though in no way invulnerable, might perhaps help us to 
explain a physiological fact. Applying on a broken vessel the pow- 
der of the plant, in a cataplasm, or a concentrated solution of the 
extract, the proteid principle of the herb mixed with the blood 
whose alkali reacts upon the former and affords a separation of am- 
monia ; this reacts upon the vessels, irritating their tissue and con- 
tracting them, as Bcclard observed ; for it constitutes a very dilute 
alkaline solution, and has hemostatic properties sufficient to produce 
a complete obliteration of the vessels. 

Mr. Touraine affirms to have seen this contraction of the vessels 
in several physiological experiments, and we have made similar 
observations, although not quite so certain of the results. 

When we used the powder of the plant or the solution of the 
extract, the potassium chloride added its own action to that of the 
ammonia, and substituted the sodium chloride, whose action has 
been observed by Bcclard. 

Internally, Commelina cures metrorrhagia, which fact might be 
explained by the aforesaid chemical reactions; the proteid principle 
enters the current of the circulation. We will copy Hernandez 
according to the text, for it is both elegant and clear, and leaves no 
doubt about the latter application we have mentioned. With 
regard to the Matlaliztic texcocana, he says : '• Radix discutit 
tumores praeter naturam a causa calida ortos, tusa, atque applicata, 
aut devorata, duarum drachmarum mensura, humore impetum 
cocrcet, sanguinis redundantiam reprimit destunujue refrigerat.'* 

Therapeutic Uses. — The most distinguished physicians of Mexico 
use the extract of Commelina as a kind of a hemostatic in the treat- 
ment of metrorrhagia and hemoptysis, administering it in pills in 
the latter case, and in injections in the former. They employ it, too, 
as an active remedy against leucorrhcca, and as a general hemostatic 
in capillary hemorrhage. 

Posology — The extract is to be given in pills of I or 2 grains, 
which shall be taken to the number of twenty-four to forty-eight a 



294 ^^'^^^ ^^ ^^^'^^- {^"juZ-ifr"' 

day. Injections are made by adding from i drachm to i ounce 
to a pound of water. In wounds, cataplasms may be made from the 
powder of the plant, or a concentrated solution of the extract may 
be applied by means of lint. 

We copy from the proceedings of the Academia de Medicina de 
Mexico, session of February 21, 1866: "■ Dr. Lucia has repeatedly 
used Commelina to cure metrorrhagia, and always with success. Dr. 
Villagran has also used the extract in injections, the dose being a 
drachm to a pound of water, to cure metrorrhagia, and has always 
obtained the most satisfactory results. He has lately used it in an 
instance of cancer in the stomach, and has attained most unexpected 
success. Dr. L, Jimenez has also been fortunate in the use of injec- 
tions of extract in two cases of uterine cancer, and in leucorrhoea 
accompanied with chlorosis. Dr. Miguel Jimenez has used the ex- 
tract since the year 1864, and has made many experiments with the 
plant which prove its activity as a hemostatic. The greatest results 
are obtained according to this physician by the dose of a drachm in 
a pound of water. Its utility is incontestable in uterine cancer, but 
it is also useful in other forms of hemorrhage. Dr. M. Jimenez 
remembers an instance of hemoptysis in which he was surprised by 
the good results obtained with this medicine, for it prolonged the 
life of the patient in an unexpected manner. He has also used it to 
cure hemorrhoidal flux with success. He has failed, however, in 
some other cases of hemoptysis, on account, perhaps, of the patient 
vomiting, which prevented the action of the remedy." 



RIEGLER'S METHOD FOR ESTIMATING SUGAR IN 

URINE. 

By Henry C. C. Maisch, Ph.G., Ph.D. 

This method, as described on p. 228 of the American Druggist, 
estimates the amount of sugar contained in urine indirectly by means 
of Fehling's solution. The reaction on which this depends is the 
liberation of nitrogen when Fehling's solution is brought in contact 
with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. 

The manner of applying this test is to boil the urine and Fehling's 
solution, and, after connecting the apparatus, the phenylhydrazine 
solution is added. In other words, the balance of the Fehling's 



■^"•jun"e"iS^"'"} Sugar in Urine. 295 

solution remaining after the reduction with urine, reacts with the 
phenylhydrazine hberating the nitrogen. 

In theory, and then only with pure solutions, this method for the 
•estimation of sugar is good; but I do not consider the method of any 
great utility with urine, basing my opinion entirely on theoretical 
grounds and experiments carried on with Fehling's solution itself. 
In handling a solution as complex as the urine, we must not forget 
that there are a number of compounds present, or might be present, 
which have more or less of a reducing action on Fehling's solution. 
Bodies of this character are uric acid, creatinine, allantoin, nucleoal- 
bumin, lactic acid and biliary coloring matters, consequently, all 
probable constituents of urine. These compounds, however, are 
usually present in such small quantities that their presence becomes 
of especial importance where the percentage of sugar is small, and 
just in a case of this kind it is of the utmost importance to have a 
method which can be used in all cases without fearing that by the 
action of the reagent on other constituents of the urine a smiilar 
reaction might be brought about. This, to my mind, is the most 
serious objection to this method — in fact, to all the methods using 
the copper salts. 

In my laboratory practice I have repeatedly proven to my own 
mind the statement just made in reference to Fehling's solution. I 
recall one case especially. The urine was furnished me with the 
statement that it showed Fehling's reaction rather strongly. It was 
from a lady looking forward to an early confinement, and a careful 
examination, with the elimination of all possible errors, was abso- 
lutely necessary. I found that the Fehling's test and the Roett- 
ger's test were both strongly reduced; but on subjecting the urine to 
the action of yeast, no fermentation took place and no difference \\\ 
specific gravity, as by the Roberts method, was observed. Making 
t:xaminations daily, I found that in about three or four days this appar- 
ent sugar reaction had entirely disappeared. This lady had been suf- 
fering from headache and had used one of the many headache remedies 
found in the market at the present time. This "sugar" reaction 
was very likely caused by one of the conjugate glycuronic acids. 

At the present time I do not depend entirely on Fehling's test or 
lk)ettger's test, but run through the principal chemical tests, and in 
cases of uncertainty I use the Roberts differential specific rravit\ 
method for the quantitative estimation of glucose. 



296 Strontium in Plants. {^"^/u^n^'if^""' 

One of the reactions on which I depend to some extent is that of 
Rijbner, and also its modification by Penzoldt; but even here the 
question will arise whether or not the same reaction is given by 
other compounds. RiJbner uses 3 grammes lead acetate to 10 c.c. 
urine, filters, and adds ammonia water until a permanent precipitate 
is formed and then warms to about 80° C. The presence of sugar is 
indicated by the precipitate becoming pink or red, depending on 
the percentage. Penzoldt uses the subacetate of lead in place of the 
neutral acetate, and proceeds as in the original reaction. 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF STRONTIUM IN PLANTS. 

By Henry Trimbi^e. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 166. 

Some months ago a number of barks were received from Dr. H. 
N. Ridley, of the Botanic Gardens at Singapore. They were 
chiefly barks representing the several species of the genus Castan- 
opsis in that locality, and two species of oaks. The primary object 
in examining these barks was to learn the character of their 
tannins, but that is reserved for a later article. 

In examining the ash of these barks a slight precipitate was 
noticed for strontium in the first one ; this was passed by as 
being a small quantity of calcium, which was the most abundant 
constituent in the ash. But the ash of other samples also yielded 
precipitates indicating strontium, some of them in such quantity 
that the precipitate was washed thoroughly, treated with a few 
drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the flame test applied ; 
the result in every case was a distinct strontium flame. The stron- 
tium precipitate was gotten by three methods, viz.: precipitating 
with very dilute sulphuric acid, precipitating with an alkaline solu- 
tion of potassium chromate, and, finally, by precipitating with solu- 
tion of calcium sulphate. 

The samples of Castanopsis were from the following : C. Walli- 
chiana, C. Curtisii (two samples), C. Javanica, and C. Hulettii. The 
oak samples were from Quercus hystrix and Q. discocarpa. The 
Quercus hystrix was probably the richest in strontium of all the 
samples. None of them contained more than traces of the stron- 
tium salt. A sample of our American Castanopsis, C. chrysophylla. 



^"•ju°n"e':i^"'"} Strontium in Plants. 297 

from California, failed to show a trace of strontium, and yielded 
only about one-half the amount of ash that was obtained from the 
East India samples. One sample of Rhizophora, from a number 
recent!)* received from Sinf^apore, also indicated the presence of 
strontium. A letter from Dr. Ridley states that little, if any, stron- 
tium occurs in the soil of Singapore. 

It is such a natural conclusion that strontium may replace calcium 
in plants, that the foregoing statement concerning its existence in 
plants may appear almost unnecessary. It was found, however, that 
most authors, in speaking of the ash constituents of plants, were 
either silent on the subject of strontium, or else referred to the one 
case where it has been found in seaweed. Dr. Emil Wolff, in his 
Aschcn-Analyscn, among some thousands of results, does not appear 
to mention strontium, not even among the seaweeds. Roscoe ^^v: 
Schorlemmer {Treatise of Chemistry, Vol. II, Part I, p. 213) state: 
" Strontium has also been found in sea water and in the ashes of 
Fucus vesiculosis." 

Ebermayer {^Pliysiologischc Chemie der Pflanzen, p. 715) mentions 
strontium with some other metals as occurring in traces in a few 
plants, but he gives no definite information. Sachs {Lectures on the 
Physiology of Plants, p. 383) merely states that strontium may 
replace calcium in the fungi. Sorauer {A Popular Treatise on the 
Physiology of PI ants, \i. 36) calls attention to the fact that strontium 
has been discovered in several seaweeds. Goodale {Physiological 
Potany^ p. 256) mentions strontium with some other metals as 
occurring in Fucus. 

Messrs. Kebler and La Wall, in the May number of this Journal, 
p. 244, pointed out the presence of strontium in opium. It was 
looked on as an adulteration, although we must admit the possi- 
bility of it occurring naturally in opium. 

It may be that the writer has failed to discover all the literature 
relating to this subject, and he is free to admit the possibility of it, 
since the literature concerning the ash constituents of plants is very 
voluminous. Any information bearing directly on this subject will 
be thankfully received. 

David Hooper, who has held the post of Quinologist to the Madras Govern- 
ment, at Ootacamund, India, for the past twelve and ? half years, has l)eeu 
appointe*! to the Curatorship of the Kconomic and Art Sections of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 



298 Alexandria and India Senna. {^""•/uXifo'^'"'"' 

alp:xandria and india senna. 

METHOD OF DISTINGUISHING THEM IN POWDER. 

By L. E. Sayre, 

Member of Research Committee C, Revision Committee of United States 

Pharmacopoeia. 

The question of distinction and identification of the two sennas, 
Alexandria and India, was the subject of a recent preliminary paper 
by the author. Since the appearance of this, more careful and elabor- 
ate work has been done upon the same subject, the results of which 
are embodied in the present article. Some criticisms having been 
made upon this early work, due attention will also be paid to the 
disputed points in the endeavor to arrive at as truthful conclusions 
as possible. To aid in this, a series of photomicrographs have been 
carefully made, and are here reproduced. The accuracy of the 
drawings may be the subject of dispute, owing to the large personal 
factor that enters into their preparation, but the appearances shown 
by a photograph admit of no misconstruction, provided they be 
truly representative. It is unnecessary to state that in the present 
instance all reasonable precautions have been taken to show in a 
few reproductions as representative appearances as could be found 
in such limited areas. As contributing to a truthful understanding 
of the results obtained, a brief outline of the methods employed is 
given, and this is followed by the interpretations and conclusions. 

While the true character of the tissues has been made the subject 
of careful study, the fact has constantly been borne in mind that the 
object of the whole matter is to secure a sijnple and accurate test 
for senna powders that shall be applicable to the uses of those for 
whom it is intended. It has been recognized that no one feature is 
found constant throughout the extent of the leaf, and that before 
any appearance can be pronounced representative, due care must be 
exercised by taking a sufficient number of observations. It is 
believed that all precautions have been taken in this investigation^ 
and that the test proposed will prove reliable and sufficient. 

Methods. — The photomicrographs of the epidermis were made 
from thin sections cut directly from the surface of the leaf, and sub- 
jected to no more treatment than was necessary to mount them in 
plain glycerin. The negatives were all made from these sections in 
a vertical camera of fixed length, attached to a Van Heurck micro- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1W7. 



Alexandria and India Senna. 



299 



scope whose optical parts were a Zeiss 8 mm. apochromatic objec- 
tive and a No. 2 projection eye-piece. The source of illumination 
was the arc light, the crater of which was carefully focussed upon 
the object by the condenser. The actual magnification, measured 
by projecting the image of a stage micrometer upon the ground 
glass of the camera, is 240 diameters. No retouching or other 
alterations of the negative have been made. The drawings of parts 



.-C 




1 



Fig. I. India seuna, under side of leaf; a, epidermal cell ; b^ stomata ; r, 
hair ; d, hair scar ; e, ncbenzellen. 

found in the powder were all made by the camera lucida under like 
conditions of preparation and magnification. The amplification 
here is 200 diameters. 

At the commencement of the work, in order to find some point 
of characteristic importance, the parts were thoroughly studied in 
their natural relations by means of sections, and the app>caranccs 
there observed were then made the object of study in the powder. 



300 



Alexandria and India Senna. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1897. 



Commencing in this manner with the ordinary epidermal cells, the 
following results were obtained: The size and shape of the epider- 
mal cells are extremely variable (see Figs. 6 and 7), and are, as was 
stated in the former paper, little to be depended upon as a means of 
identification. However, no mistake was made in ascribing some- 
what larger cells to the Alexandria variety, as the following table 
of careful measurements will show: 



Tabi,e I. 



India Senna. 
Lower side of leaf. 
Long diameter. Short diameter. 
13 X 10 

13 X 8-5 

13 X 7 

15 X 12 



Av., 13-5 



9-38 



Alexandria Senna. 
Lower side of leaf. 
Long diameter. Short diameter. 
145 X II 

17 X 10 

10-5 X 9 



Av., 14 



10 



Tabi,e 2. 



India Senna. 
Taken at random with two-thirds 
objective. Some long and 
some short diameters. 

I '4 
1-6 

15 

1*2 
12 



Alexandria Sejina. 
Two-thirds objective 
diameter, taken at random. 
2-2 
17 
i'4 
1^5 
1-8 
1-6 



Av., 1-38 



Av., 17 



Tabi,e 3. 



India Senna. 
Adjacent cells of upper side 
of leaf, two-thirds objective. 

17 
1-8 
0-6 
15 

Av., 1-4 



Alexandria Senna. 
Adjacent cells of upper side 
of leaf, two-thirds objective. 

I "9 
1-8 

1*5 
2*3 
r6 
0-6 
07 



Av., 1-48 



Am. .Tour. Pliarm. 
June, 1»<7. 



Alexatidria and India Senna. 



\o\ 



AVERAGES EXPRESSED IN MICRON! ILLIMETERS. 
T.\BLE I. 



India Senna. 
Lower side of leaf. 
38-61 X 26-815 

India Senna. 
Average diameter, 4002 

India Senna. 
Upper side of leaf, 40-6 



Tablk 2. 



Tablk 3. 



\r- 



Alexandria .Senna. 

Lower side of leaf. 

4004 X 286 

Alexandria Senna. 
Average diameter, 49-3, 

Alexandria Senna. 
4309 



.-o/ 




fi^. 2. India Aenna, upper side of leaf; a, epidermal cell ; />, stomata ; r, 
hair (scarcely in focus) ; e, uebeuzellen. 

Nevertheless, it is not to be denied that sections of epidermis 
may be found in which the India senna may exhibit the larger 
cells. A series of about forty measurements, made by a student in 
the school here, .showed that while the larj^cst cells are found in 



\02 



Alexandria and India Senna. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1897. 



the Alexandria senna, the average size of the cells of the India 
senna may be somewhat greater than those of the Alexandria 
senna. Likewise, the cell walls alone will not serve as a point of 
differentiation, owing to the same lack of uniformity. As regards 
the shape of the cells, no distinctive value whatever can be placed 
upon it, owing to the great variability present. The same may also 
be said concerning the arrangement of cells around the hairs. The 




Fig. J. Alexandria senna, under side of leaf ; a, epidermal cell ; d, stomata ; 
c, hair (scarcely in focus) ; d, hair scar ; e, nebenzellen. 

distinction here made by Schneider does not hold, as a rule, although 
a small majority of cases may be found to accord with the state- 
ments made by this authority .^ 

In thirty cases, the stomata of Alexandria senna showed sixteen 
with two neighbor-cells (nebenzellen) and fourteen with three. 
Forty stomata on the epidermis of India senna exhibited twenty- 

' Americati Druggist, April lo, 1897, p. 195. 



Am. Jour. Fharm. 
June. 18»:. 



} 



Alexandria and India Senna. 



303 



two with two nebenzellen, fifteen with three, and three with four. 
These results seem to eliminate the epidermal cells from further 
consideration, but more of value may be expected of the stomata. 
Exception will have to be taken, however, to the statements made 
by[^ Schneider concernincr the number and size of the neighbor-cells 
(nebenzellen). That the India senna usually possesses two, and 




Fig. 4. Alexandria senna, upper side of leaf; a, epidermal cells ; h, stomata ; 
<", hair (in focus) ; d, hair scar ; e, nebenzellen. 

the Alexandria senna a larger number, is easily disproved by the 
accompanying figures. 

Likewise the statement that when two are present in the 
Alexandria senna they are of equal size, cannot be confirmed by 
examination. (See Figs, j; and ./.) Hut whatever number may obtain 
in either case, it is so inconstant a character as to be of no value 
as a discriminating factor. There is, on the contrary, a point of 
great distinctive valuj to be found in the size and shape of the 



304 Alexandria and India Senna. {^•^jire'-iSr^'"'- 

stomata themselves, a feature that was overlooked in the prelimi- 
nary paper. Here it will be noticed that almost invariably the 
stomata of the Alexandria senna are smaller and much rounder 
than those of the India. References to Figs, i and 4. will make 
this clear. Measurements of a considerable number of stomata in 
each case gave the following ratio between the longer and shorter 
diameters : In Alexandria the shorter diameter bore a ratio to the 
larger of 0-84 to I ; in the India, of 0-6 to I. 

Occasionally stomata of a rounded form may be found in the 
India senna, but they do not look like the Alexandria and are 



e^ 




Fig. 5. Alexandria senna, showing number of hairs in a limited area ; 
d^ hair scars ; e, nebenzellen. 

larger. At the present state of the investigation, this character 
represents by far the most characteristic difference between the two 
species and, together with the number of hairs, affords the best 
means of detecting a mixture of the two in powdered form. 

The opinion reached by the author in the former paper, that the 
number of hairs shown by the two species is a valuable means of 
distinguishing them apart, is, after yet more careful research, again 
advanced. It would seem at first sight that the test proposed by 
Schneider, i. e., estimating the number of hair scars upon the epi- 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1897. 



} 



Alexandria and India Senna. 



305 



dermis, would be more accurate than counting the free hairs in the 
powder ; but it is really unreliable, because the distribution of the 
hairs is not uniform. This objection does not apply to the countin;^ 




Fig, 6. Alexandria senna, No. 60 powder ; /», stomata ; c, hairs ; </, hair 
scars ; r, nebenzellen. 

of the free hairs, for by powderinfj the leaves and shaking the pow- 
der up in a liquid, the distribution is made comparatively uniform. 



3o6 



Alexandria and India Senna, { 



Am. Jour. Pbartn. 
June. 1897. 



The objection that fragments may be counted as whole hairs is 
easily overcome by choosing some readily distinguishable part of 
the hair, such as the tip, and using only it as the unit of estimation. 
From the results obtained in the latest series of experiments the 
following test appears sufficient to distinguish either senna alone, 
or a mixture of the two, and it is therefore proposed for these pur- 
poses : Take a portion of the No. 60 powder and place it in a small 
homoeopathic vial, and add to it twice its volume of a mixture 




Fig. 7. India senna, No. 60 powder ; b, stomata ; c, hair ; d, hair scar ; 
e, nebenzelleu. 

of water and glycerin in equal parts. Thoroughly shake this mix- 
ture, and while still turbid with the suspended powder, place a drop 
on each of several glass slips, and cover with cover glasses. If air 
bubbles or too great opacity exist, heat to boiling over an alcohol 
lamp. Search for hairs showing the tips present, and if they appear 
abundant, one to four in each field of a i^-inch objective, Alexandria 
senna is present. To further confirm this, examine several frag- 



""""•jun^eVig^""} Spirit of Nitrous Ether. 307 

ments of the normal epidermis for the stomata. If many are found 
that are quite round in outHne (b. Fig. ^), the presence of Alexan- 
dria senna is assured. As confirmatory to this, the number of hair 
scars upon the epidermal fragments may be employed. These 
should be found frequently at a distance of from two to five epider- 
mal cells apart. A sample of India senna, on the contrary, will 
exhibit few hairs, often none in the field, and the great majority of 
the stomata will be found with the long diameter much longer than 
the short one {b. Fig. /). The hairs should not frequently be closer 
than five epidermal cells apart. In simple powders the mere 
number of hairs present will at once distinguish between the two 
sennas, but in cases of mixture of the two, the shape of the stomata 
will have to be examined. Many of the elongated oval form always 
indicate the presence of India senna. 

However good a test may be theoretically, it is of no value unless 
it works practically. The only way to tell whether it will do this 
or not, is to put it in practice under conditions which will represent, 
as nearly as may be, those of its usual employment. In this par- 
ticular instance the test proposed was given a thorough trial in the 
hands of eighteen students of representative abilities, and in no case 
did it fail to work, either with simple powders or mixtures. 



ASSAY OF SPIRIT OF NITROUS HTHFR. 
Bv Lawrence A, Kessler, Ph.G. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. No. 167. 

My attention was attracted to this subject by a series of papers 
which ap]:)eared in the American Druggist and Pliarmaceutieal 
Record. To the number of that journal for December 25, 1895, 
Professor David Walker contributed an article in which he pro- 
posed a rapid method for the volumetric assay of spirit of nitrous 
ether. His process of assaying was based on the measurement of 
the iodine liberated from potassium iodide, through the decomjx)- 
sition of spirit of nitrous ether by the United States Pharmacopcria 
process of assay. 

The proposed test was made by carciuUy measuring 5 c.c. of 
spirit of nitrous ether into a 4-ounce ICrlenmcyer flask, from a 
pipette ; this was followed with 10 c.c. of 6 per cent, acetic acid and 



308 Spirit of Nitrous Ether, {^^jfreyiSr*''"'- 

10 c.c. of potassium iodide test solution. The mixture was occa- 
sionally agitated during ten or fifteen minutes, a few drops of starch 
test solution added, and the mixture titrated with decinormal sodium 
thiosulphate volumetric solution, until the bluish-green color was 
discharged. The mixture afterwards assumed a dark color ; but 
if the time of maceration does not exceed fifteen minutes, the num- 
ber of cubic centimeters required to first discharge the color will 
give nearly or quite as accurate results as the nitrometer. Prof. 
Walker also said: " While the titration process may not be quite as 
accurate in its figures as the modified Allen method, it involves 
much less expense, and the results are sufficiently accurate for prac- 
tical purposes." This last claim Prof. Walker seemed to have sub- 
stantiated by the figures of a table which he gave to show the 
results of the assay of ten samples by the two methods. 

On January 25, 1896, the same journal published a letter from 
Mr. Peter MacEwan, of London, England, in which that gentleman 
directed attention to the fact that the method proposed by Professor 
Walker had been suggested by Mr. D. B. Dott a dozen years ago, 
and had to be abandoned on account of the fallacious results, for 
whenever the nitric oxide liberated by decomposition of the ethyl 
nitrite comes in contact with the air of the flask, nitrogen tetroxide 
is formed. This at once decomposes more of the alkaline iodide; 
indeed, decomposition might go on indefinitely if the supply of air 
and iodide were large enough. Mr. Dott endeavored to obviate 
this objection by various means, such as working with an open dish 
in which carbon dioxide was simultaneously generated, but with 
modified success. It was his knowledge of the difficulties of this 
method which led Mr. A. H. Allen to effect the reaction in an air- 
free space and estimate the nitric oxide instead of the iodine; the 
method was adopted by many chemists, and simultaneously indirect 
estimation through the iodine factor was deservedly forgotten. A 
man who knows all the worries of the latter process may get fairly 
accurate results, but the novice or careless worker may return a 3 
per cent, ethyl nitrite spirit as containing anything between that 
and, say, 30 per cent., because he is never sure about the end point. 

Professor Walker defended the utility of the titration method in a 
reply to Mr. MacEwan in the issue of February 10, 1896, and stated 
that further investigation had shown that five minutes' maceration 
was ample for the completion of the reaction. As stated at the begin- 



"^'"jlaT;!^""} ^//r/V of Nitrous Ether. 309 

ning of this article, my attention was attracted by the controversy 
referred to, and I undertook some experiments with the titration 
method as proposed by Professor Walker, in order to ascertain if it 
could be placed in the hands of pharmacists as a practical method. 

In the first set of titrations, sufficient decinormal sodium thio- 
sulphate volumetric solution was added to discharge the bluish- 
green color, so that it did not return in thirty seconds. The reason 
for adopting this plan was to afford the operator proof that decolor- 
ation had been effected. The color quickly reappeared after decolor- 
ation on account of the liberation of iodine by the nitrogen tetroxide, 
as pointed out by Mr. MacEwan. This reaction is also, of course, 
going on from the time the materials are mixed, and even during 
titration, so that iodine is being alternately liberated and titrated. 
The tendency of the method must, therefore, be toward high results, 
for the same iodine is repeatedly taken into account. The rapidity 
with which the volumetric solution of sodium thiosulphate is added, 
as also the quantity added at a time, influences the amount required 
for decoloration. The more rapid the addition of sodium thiosul- 
phate and the larger the portion added, the less the total quantity 
required for the first decoloration. 

The following figures show the amounts of decinormal sodium 
thiosulphate volumetric solution required for the titration of the 
iodine liberated by portions of 5 c.c. of a few of the samples of spirit 
of nitrous ether examined : 



c.c. of V. S. Re«iuircd. 
247, 23-1, 14-4, 140 
142, 161, 10-2, 107 
205, 20-2, 18-9, 19-4 
28-2, 283, 322 

r 30-4, 30-8, 33-6, 345 

U53. 37*3. 373. 3»*o 
25"2, 273 
24'6, 206 

The titrations were conducted as nearly alike as jx)ssible. The 
figures for sample 5 also show the effects of the time of maceration. 
After concluding that the titration method was not trustworthy, 
even when conducted under the conditions and restrictions proposed, 
I made a scries of tests with the nitrometer according to the United 
States Pharmacopa'ia process of assay. Two difficulties were 



Simple 


Minutes 


No 


Macerated. 


I 


15 


2 


15 


3 


15 


4 


15 


5 


15 


5 


10 


5 


5 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



310 Spirit of Nitrous Ether. {^"^'.'^Z'i^'. 

encountered in this method. One of these difficulties attended the 
assaying of samples of the spirit which were acid in reaction ; it 
consisted of a decomposition between the acid spirit and the potas- 
sium iodide, with evolution of nitrogen dioxide before the normal 
sulphuric acid was added. Spirit of nitrous ether is usually acid; of 
the sixteen samples examined during the course of this work, not one 
was neutral, but most of them were very acid. To overcome the 
difficulty referred to, the sample to be assayed was neutralized by 
mixing it with one-fifth its volume of an alcoholic solution of potas- 
sium hydrate. Six c.c. of this mixture instead of 5 c.c. of the origi- 
nal sample were then taken for each estimation. 

The following figures show the results which were obtained by 
the official method on the same sample, before and after neutral- 
izing : 

Sample A. Acid. Neutralized. 

(i) 5 C.C. gave 22"o C.C. NO and 2i'o c.c. NO. 

(2) 5 " " 24-0 " " " 20-4 ''- 

(3) 5 " " 24-4 " " " 20'4 " 

The other difficulty encountered in the official assay process was 
the displacement of air from the aqueous solution of potassium 
iodide when this liquid was let into the burette of the nitrometer 
containing the spirit on top of the brine. Any inaccuracy which 
might arise from this cause could be prevented by raising the level 
tube and then opening the stopcock so the air could pass out. But 
this could not be done unless the sample was free from acid, on 
account of the premature reaction which takes place between the 
potassium iodide and the spirit in the presence of acid. To obviate 
this difficulty, I tried using a saturated alcoholic solution of potas- 
sium iodide in place of the aqueous solution, as directed by the 
United States Pharmacopceia. The results were satisfactory, as but 
little or no air bubbles collected in the burette. In order to supply 
the required amount of potassium iodide, which is not so soluble in 
alcohol as in water, 20 c.c. of a saturated alcoholic solution were 
used instead of the 10 c.c. of aqueous solution of potassium iodide. 

Three samples were neutralized with the alcoholic solution of 
potassium hydrate, and submitted to the official method of assay 
with the nitrometer, the alcoholic solution of potassium iodide being 
used in place of the aqueous solution ordered by the Pharmacopceia. 
The results were as follows : 



'^'"■jiinMST*''"} Red Mercuric Oxide. 311 

Sample. 

( (i) 5 c.c. gave 21-6 c.c. NO. 

c 

D 

The displacement of air from the aqueous solution of the potas- 
sium iodide might also be overcome by boiling the solution and 
allowing it to cool out of contact with air just previous to use, but 
this method was not tried. 

The quality of the spirit of nitrous ether dispensed is remarkably 
poor. 



• (2) 5 c.c. 


" 21-6 


( (i) 5 c.c. 


" 50-0 


C ( 2) 5 c.c. 


" 500 


• (I) 5 c.c. 


" 47-0 


U2) 5 C C. 


" 472 



NOTE ON RED MERCURIC OXIDE. 
By Joseph W. England. 

I have read with interest Mr. Charles H. La Wall's paper on the 
" Consideration of Some Recent Suggestions Concerning Ointment 
of Mercuric Nitrate," as published in the current issue of the Amkki- 
c.\N Journal of Ph.akmacy. 

It will be recalled that I urged the use of red mercuric oxide in 
place of metallic mercury, in the making of citrine ointment. This 
practice was suggested as an alternative, and not as a substitute for 
the official formula. The average pharmacist always has red mer- 
curic oxide in stock ; he does not always have metallic mercury, 
and it was thought to be directly on the line of increased convenience 
to urge the substitution of the oxide, in proportionately larger 
quantity, for the metal, when occasion required. 

To the use of red mercuric oxide in place of metallic mercury for 
this purpose, Mr. La Wall says: "As to the relative purity of the 
two substances, the experience of a large manufacturing establish- 
ment shows that the commercial metallic mercury is of far greater 
uniformity and purity than the red oxide of commerce." 

This statement does not accord with the writer's information. A 
letter from one of the leading firms of manufacturing chemists says : 
•• We would state that our red mercuric o.xide conforms strictly to 
the requirements of the United States Pharmacopaia, and we regard 
it as equal in purity to metallic meicury." 



12 



Red Mercuric Oxide. {'"^jSe^isy^T"''""- 



Another firm of manufacturing chemists, equally as prominent, 
writes : *' Our analysis shows that red mercuric oxide contains 997 
per cent.'HgO, and 0-3 per cent, of SiO^. The silica is, no doubt, 
derived from the vessels in which the mercuric oxide is manufac- 
tured. Commercial metallic mercury varies between 99 and 100 
per^cent., while the distilled mercury is pure." 

Another prominent chemical firm writes : " We would state that 
our levigated mercuric oxide conforms to all the requirements of the 
U.S.P. 1890, save as regards absolute freedom from HNO3; it con- 
tains very small traces of the latter. It conforms strictly to all the 
requirements of the Ph.G. iii, also, in regard to HNO3. There is no 
doubt that the U.S.P. is hypercritical in the case of red mercuric 
oxide, as it is also in several other instances ; for the faint traces of 
HNO3 that our levigated grade contains are not known to interfere 
with any of the chemical applications of the preparation, and cannot 
possibly have any influence on the therapeutic action of the medi- 
cament. To provide an oxide absolutely free from HNO3, is practi- 
cally impossible commercially, and there is no necessity for the 
preparation." 

Now, the point the writer would make is this : If the statements 
of three of the leading chemical firms of the country, regarding 
the purity of their red mercuric oxide, be true, then there should be 
no difficulty whatever in the pharmacist procuring an oxide that 
could be used as a substitute, if necessary, for metallic mercury in 
the making of ointment of mercuric nitrate. 

Further, the writer recommended the addition of glycerin to the 
finished ointment, not to prevent sponginess — that is a condition due 
to the application of insufficient heat — but to prevent the hardening 
and ultimately friable condition that obtains in the ointment on 
long standing. Regarding the criticism that the addition of 50 
grammes of glycerin to 1,000 grammes of ointment of official 
strength reduces the percentage of mercuric nitrate below that 
required by the U.S.P., there is this to say : that the resulting differ- 
ence in strength is of no practical moment therapeutically , as phy- 
sicians almost invariably — save in those cases requiring great stimu- 
lation — dilute the ointment they prescribe — oftentimes in equal pro- 
portions — with lard or other fatty diluent. 

The final criticism of increased cost is hardly worth consideration. 
The alternative use of 75-5 grammes of mercuric oxide (costing 



-^"•jlme^iSJ''""} A Sample of Scammony. SIJ 

about 6 cents an ounce avoirdupois) as against 70 f;rammes of 
metallic mercury (costing about 5 cents an ounce, avoirdupois), to 
make the official quantity of ointment, or a little over 2 pounds, 
is of no practical moment whatever. 

A sample of the ointment made on March 17, 1897, t>y the use 
of red mercuric oxide, is presented to this Pharmaceutical Meeting. 
While it has slightly darkened in color, it has retained its smooth- 
ness, and has undergone no hardening whatever. 



NOTE ON A SAMPLE OF SCAMMONV. 
By I. \V. Thomson. 

Some time ago a parcel was handed to me, marked •• Scammo- 
nium," accompanied by a statement that it contained 84864 per 
cent, of scammonium, and, that there might be no mistake, gave 
the chemical formula, which is generally accepted as representing 
that body Cf^H-^Oig. It was said to be of German origin. 

A very cursory examination of the sample so completely belied its 
certificate of character, that I concluded it could hardly claim more 
than a very remote relationship with scammony. 

Having mentioned the circumstance to Mr. Hill, he suggested 
that I might exhibit the sample and submit the result of my exami- 
nation of it at an evening meeting. 

The sample consists of irregular broken pieces, apparently por- 
tions of a cake, about half an inch in thickness, greenish-black, 
hard and horny, breaking with a resinous fracture, and very diffi- 
cult to powder. On submitting it to a systematic examination, the 
following results were obtained : 

Per Cent. 

Soluble in ether 0*4 

** '* alcohol 2*0 

" " water 42'6 

Starch and a little cellular tissue . 43*0 

Moisture . ... i2'o 

lOO'O 

It yielded 212 per cent, of ash, of which 093, equal to 436 per 
cent, was soluble in water. The ash contained K, Mg, Ca, Fc, and 
Si, as carbonate, sulphate, and a trace of chloride. 

The water-soluble portion was evidently gum, apparently gum 



314 Siimbul in England. {^"jS/.-ifs""'^"- 

arable. The insoluble portion consisted very largely of starch, with 
a small quantity of cellular tissue. 

So far as I know, the specimen is unique, and the Germans must 
think us very gullible when they attempt to foist such an article 
upon us as scammony. — Pharmaceutical yournal, March 20, 1 897. 



THE CULTIVATION OF SUMBUL IN ENGLAND.i 

By E. M. Holmes. 

The sumbul root of commerce has of late years been of very 
inferior quality compared with the fragrant root imported twenty- 
five years ago or more, and usually consists of smaller and more 
cylindrical pieces, with only a very faint musky odor. The structure 
is also much firmer, and the resinous parts are usually blackish and 
cirty, in strong contrast to the paler non-resinous portions. The 
upper or rootstock portion, which is marked with rings like the true 
sumbul, is evidently often branched, which I have never seen in the 
true sumbul, in which the upper portion usually tapers to a rounded 
fibrous apex. 

The sumbul of the present day is, therefore, probably derived 
from a different plant with a more cylindrical root, branched near 
the apex, and having a firmer substance. It was suggested some 
years ago by Dr. J. E. Aitchison (7m;25. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Bot., p. 69, 
pi. 20-21) that it might possibly be derived from Ferula suaveolens, 
which has only a faint musky odor. He states that the root is 
scented, and is one of the kinds of sumbul exported from Persia to 
Bombay by the Persian Gulf (/. c, p. 69). 

It seems to be desirable, therefore, that the true sumbul should 
be cultivated to meet a trade desideratum. The use of an inferior 
drug will otherwise probably lead in time to the entire disuse of the 
drug. Under these circumstances my own experience in the culti- 
vation of the true sumbul plant may prove interesting to some of 
the readers or the Pharmaceutical Journal. 

Some years since, one of our corresponding members, M. Andrew 
Ferrein, of Moscow, sent me some young plants of Ferula foetidissima, 
and with them two young plants of F. sumbul. They arrived in 
autumn, packed in husks of buckwheat, like ordinary bulbs. The 
fleshy roots at that period of the year appear to lose all the small 



' Pharmaceutical Journal, April 24, 1897. 



i^ 



2 



c 

E 
cr 

c 



o 
o 



If. 




^A^*^ 

"^^> 



3i6 Sn nib III in England. {-^ 



m. Jour. Pharri' 

June, 1897. 



rootlets, and will then bear digging up and transplanting without 
injury, the tuberous root sending out, in the following early spring, 
new rootlets. 

Tn February, or, in late winters, in March, as soon as the ground is 
ao longer hard from continued frost, the sumbul plant sends up one 
or more young leaves. These may be a little injured if exposed to 
hard frost, although not injured by white frost, but as a rule new 
leaves come on, and the plant stands our winters as well as most 
indigenous plants oi the same natural order. The fully developed 
leaves appear in April, and continue to grow until July, when they 
turn yellowish and gradually wither. The root increases in size 
every year, retaining its oval form, presumably, until it attains a 
sufficient reserve of nutrition to enable it to throw up a large fruiting 
stem. The inflorescence of the specimen that flowered in the Kew 
Gardens some years ago attained a height of about 8 feet, and 
the plant then died. 

To secure the healthy growth of the plant, it is necessary to give 
it plenty of water, and a little weak manure water, during the grow- 
ing season, from April to July. A mulch of well-rotted manure 
around the plant in the autumn, taking care to protect the crown by 
a covering of clean sand, also helps its growth. My plants, which 
are now about six years old, have not flowered, but the root of one, 
which I took up a few days ago for transplanting, measured about 
6 inches long by 3j^ broad, and had a strong, persistent musky 
odor where injured, exuding abundance of white, milky juice. The 
roots are somewhat twisted, and spread nearly horizontally below 
the ground. It is obvious from the shape that such a root might 
furnish two tapering and one cylindrical sections of the thickness of 
the old-fashioned, but that it could not furnish the cylindrical pieces 
2 or 3 inches long, of small diameter, that occur in the drug 
of the present day. Provided that good seed could be obtained, 
there is little doubt that sumbul might be cultivated in temperate 
or mountainous districts in the colonies, or in ordinary gardens or 
fields in this country without any difficulty. 

The chief difficulty in obtaining good seed is due to the fact that 
in this country the fruit are apt to be ruptured by the rains. In their 
native country, the fruits are produced in the hot weather. In this 
country, therefore, it is necessary to protect the ripening fruits from 
rain. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. > 



juXi^!"'"} Proprietary Preparations. 317 

THE ETHICS AND ECONOMICS OF PROPRIETARY 

PREPARATIONS.' 

Dr. Charles Rice, a member of the Committee of Revision of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, and the chemist of the New York 
department of public charities, has lately thrown a good deal of 
the light of common sense on the question of the advisability of 
using proprietary preparations. What he says is in the form of a 
report to the committee on the apothecary's department of the 
medical board of Bellevue Hospital, made in compliance with a 
request from that body. The report was adopted by the medical 
board on April ist,and has been approved by the board of commis- 
sioners. 

Dr. Rice defines a proprietary article as one of which some person 
or persons have exclusive control of the production, sale or use — 
of all three of these features in some cases, of one or two of them 
only in others. He divides such articles into natural and artificial 
products, and again into these three classes : (i) Products of nature 
prepared under patents and mostly sold under copyrighted names. 

(2) Products of nature that have never been made under patents or 
are no longer so made, but are sold under copyrighted names. 

(3) Artificial preparations sold under copyrighted names. As regards 
patented articles, it is a principle in patent law, says Dr. Rice, that 
a product of nature cannot be patented ; hence no patent is granted 
on any chemical substance of a definite and constant comj^osition, 
even though it may, at the time when the patent is applied for, not 
yet have been found occurring ready-formed in nature. Hut any 
process, not previously known or used, by which such a product can 
be formed is patentable. Certain articles that are made by patented 
processes may also be made by processes that are not patented, and, 
as it is impossible for the purchaser to distinguish by which process 
they have been made, nobody, says Dr. Rice, would think of raising 
any objection against their use in medicine. As an exam[)le, he 
mentions salicylic acid, which, in the form of methyl salicylate, 
exists in oil of wintergreen and some other volatile oils, from which 
the acid may readily be prepared ; but as these oils would be utterly 
inadequate to supply the demand, more than 95 per cent, of the 
salicylic acid used in medicine is produced by a process that was 



* Editorial in the New York Medical Journal, May 22, 1897. 



3i8 Proprietary Preparations, {^"^ji^neaS"'"^* 

patented in 1874, but on which the patent has now expired. A 
patent, says Dr. Rice, not only does away with all secrecy — which 
is usually considered the objectionable feature of a proprietary article 
— but it commonly acts also as a sort of guarantee of the uniformity 
of the product in composition, strength and purity. 

Dr. Rice thinks that if all these points are taken into consider- 
ation, it will probably be conceded that, if an article is protected by 
a patent alone — the feature of a copyrighted name being disre- 
garded — it becomes practically impossible to separate patented sub- 
stances into classes of which one may, and the other may not, be 
used without a violation of ethics, and, therefore, none of these 
articles should be rejected for the reason alone that they are 
patented. He then proceeds to consider the three classes of pro- 
prietary articles previously mentioned. • 

As to products of the first class, inasmuch as copyrights on 
names never expire, whereas a patent has a definite term of years 
to run, it is evident, says Dr. Rice, that the proprietors of the copy- 
rights would have a perpetual monopoly unless, after the expiration 
of the patents, other producers should put the same articles on the 
market under new names not copyrighted. All these bodies — such 
as antipyrine, aristol, phenacetine, salol, salophene, sulphonal, trional, 
and vanillin (the last-named substance being now sold only under 
its proper chemical name) — will undoubtedly. Dr. Rice thinks, be 
rescued from their present monopolistic control, when the patents 
on them have expired. There is no secret whatever about them, he 
says. They are definite chemicals of known composition and prop- 
erties, and, since some of them have been found to have real thera- 
peutical value, no objection, it is believed, will be raised against the 
whole class. 

Dr. Rice next considers the products of nature which have never 
been, or are not now, made under patents, but are sold under 
copyrighted names, familiar examples of which are antifebrine 
(acetanilid), dermatol (bismuth subgallate), formalin or formol 
(formaldehyde), pyrozone (hydrogen-dioxide solution), diuretin 
(sodium-theobromime salicylate), and lanolin (hydrous wool fat). 
The owner of the copyrighted name, he remarks, usually professes 
that his product is "purer" or more "refined" than the article 
found on the market under the common name, and this pretension, 
he says, is true in some instances, particularly in those articles first 



"^"juDMoS*™*} Proprietary Preparations. 319 

put on the market under copyrighted names, although at present 
the best grades of the several articles sold under their common 
names appear to answer every purpose. These products, he thinks, 
are unobjectionable, but he says it seems preferable, as it is certainly 
more economical, to order them under their common names, espe- 
cially acetanilid, bismuth subgallate and formaldehyde. 

His third class preparations that are not products of nature, sold 
under copyrighted names, Dr. Rice divides into three groups. The 
first group, which he considers unobjectionable, comprises prepara- 
tions the origin and composition of which are not kept secret, such 
as ichthyol, creolin, Mellin's food, malted milk, etc. The second 
group, which he thinks to be of doubtful value, includes all the 
preparations of the class that do not belong to either the first or 
the third group, which last, by far the largest, consists of the " se- 
cret nostrums," such as '* soothing syrups," " female regulators," 
" blood purifiers," etc. 

Incidentally, Dr. Rice justly complains that for years the name of 
Bellevue Hospital has been taken in vain by a number of persons and 
firms without any authority whatever. It is a common occurrence, 
he says, for samples of proprietary medicines, foods, mineral waters, 
plasters, etc., to be sent to the hospital or to members of the house 
staff for " trial," whereupon the subsequent advertisements of the 
articles in question often assert that the latter are ♦• used in l^ellevue 
Hospital," leaving the impression upon the mind of the reader that 
the article or articles have been used with the sanction of some 
member of the medical board. It is probably impossible, says Dr. 
Rice, to find a remedy for this evil, from which many other institu- 
tions of repute likewise suffer. To publish a denial of such false 
assertions, he thinks, would only aggravate the evil. The utmost 
that can be done appears to be to caution the medical staff against 
any entanglements with the agents of the interested parties, or en- 
couragement of them. 



The existence of philippium is claimed by M. Marc Delafontaiuc, in the 
Chemical News for May 14, 1897. Its chief characters arc dcacril>e<l. Ita 
symbol is Pp., and its atomic weight 80, 120 or 160, according to whether the 
oxide is FpO, PpjO^, or PpOj. 

Philippium is more closely allied to cerium and terbium than to any other 
of the yttrium and cerium metals. It is to yttrium what cerium is to lantha- 
num. 



320 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^""ju^e'iS:*'''"" 

RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

PAS5I0X FLOWER, PASSIFLORA INCARNATA, IN FPILEPSY AND OTHER 

NEUROSES. 

S. D. Bullington, M.D. (Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery, March, 1897), reported some very favorable results from 
the administration of the fluid extract of passion flower, either 
alone or in conjunction with other medicines, in a number of cases 
of nervous disorder. 

A case of epilepsy of twenty-six years' standing showed marked 
improvement after treatment with this drug, although, of course, it 
was not hoped to effect a cure in a case of so long standing. 

Various cases of insomnia, hysteria and neurasthenia were like- 
wise treated with the drug with satisfactory results. 

The author stated that the fluid extract, mixed well with water 
or simple elixir, was pleasant to take, and an admirable substitute for 
•bromide. 

Another feature in its favor was that no ill effects seemed to 
follow its use, either temporary or continued. 

COMMERCIAL GINGER AND ESSENCE OF GINGER. 

VV. S. Glass [Pharmaceutical Journal, March 20, 1897) examined 
samples of Jamaica, Cochin and African ginger, with a view to 
obtaining a satisfactory essence. His results are given in the follow- 
ing table, the percentages of oleoresin obtained by three other 
writers being also given for comparison : 

Author Thresh. Siggins.* Riegbl. 



Jamaica 
Cx:hiii . 

African 



' Am. Jour. Pharm.. Vol. 60, p. 278. 



Moisture. 


Ash. 

5-3 


Kxtract 

or 

' Oleoresin. 


Extract 

or 

Oleoresin. 


Extract 

or 

Oleoresin. 


Extract 

or 

Oleoresin. 


9'33 


5-00 


3 "290 


5 '00 


5 


I I "00 


4-6 


4 33 


4*965 




— 


8-00 


5*5 


6-33 

I 


^ojs 


(A 6-17 
1^ 7-00 


— 



The extract was prepared by exhausting the drug with ether and 
evaporating at a low temperature. The African variety required 
most ether and yielded the highest percentage of extract; but, as 



Am. Jour. Pharm 



janeViS:""} Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 321 

stated by the author, this variety was unsuited for many pharma- 
ceutical purposes on account of its brown, coarse appearance. 

For the preparation of a soluble essence possessing all the flavor 
of the ginger it was recommended to add 3 drachms of powdered 
pumice-stone to i fluid ounce of the essence, and shake occasionally 
during twelve hours. Then add gradually 3 fluid ounces of distilled 
water ; allow the mixture to stand six hours and filter. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC WEIGHTS. 

The fourth annual report of the Committee of the American 
Chemical Society on Atomic Weights, has recently been published 
{^joiir. Ai/nr. Chcm. Soc., i<)^ 359)- The chairman. Dr. V . \V, 
Clarke, gives the following illustration of the practical value of a 
correct knowledge of atomic weights in the commercial world : 
'•There are two rival values for the atomic weights of chromium. 
One, 525 approximately, based on the old work of Berlin, is still 
used by European analysts. The other, 5 2- 1, dep>ends upon later 
and more accurate researches, and is used in this country. Mr. 
William Glenn, of the Baltimore Chrome Works, informs me that 
that establishment imports chrome iron ore by the shipload, the 
value being determined by a volumetric assay, in which the atomic 
weight of chromium is involved. It is assayed in Glasgow, with the 
older value for chromium, and in Baltimore with the modern datum. 
A cargo amounts to about 3,500 tons, and the difference in price 
due to the difference between 52-1 and 525 for chromium amounts 
to about S367.50 per shipload." 

The following are the recalculated atomic weights according to 
the best authorities, compiled down to January i, 1897: 

Aluminuai . . 

Antimony ... 

Argon 

Arsenic 

Barium 
Bismuth . 

Boron 

Bromine . 
Cadmium ... 

Calcium 

CarlK)n 

Cerium 

C;esium 



H - I 


0-16 


2691 


2711 


119-52 


1 20-43 


(?) 


l?^ 


74 44 


750' 


13639 


13743 


.^ ■.''.•; I 


20S1 1 


I, ,>'j 


1 095 


79 34 


7995 


1 1 1 If) 


M I 95 


3976 


4OC17 


ir92 


12 01 


139-10 


Mm- 20 


131-89 


•32 «9 



322 Literature Relating to Pharmacy, {'^'^-IT^-J^T''^^ 

H = I O = i6 

Chlorine 35'i8 35"45 

Chromium 51*74 52*i4 

Cobalt 58-49 58-93 

Columbium 93*02 9373 

Copper 63-12 63-60 

Erbium 165-06 166-32 

Fluorine 18-91 19-06 

Gadolinium I55'57 156-76 

Gallium 69-38 69-91 

Germanium 71 '93 72*48 

Glucinum 901 9*08 

Gold 195*74 197*23 

Helium (?) (?) 

Hydrogen i-ooo i*oo8 

Indium 112-99 113*85 

Iodine 125-89 126-85 

Iridium 191-66 193*12 

Iron 55-60 56-02 

Lanthanum i37*59 13S-64 

Lead 205*36 206-92 

Lithium 6*97 7*03 

Magnesium 24-10 24-28 

Manganese 54-57 54-99 

Mercury 198-49 200-00 

Molybdenum 95*26 95*99 

Neodymium 139*70 140-80 

Nickel 58-24 58-69 

Nitrogen 13-93 14-04 

Osmium 189-55 190-99 

Oxygen 15-88 16-00 

Palladium 105-56 106-36 

Phosphorus 30-79 31-02 

Platinum 193-41 ^^ 94*89 

Potassium 38*82 39*ii 

Praseodymium 142-50 143*60 

Rhodium 102-23 103-01 

Rubidium 84-78 85-43 

Ruthenium 100-91 101-68 

Samarium 149*13 150-26 

Scandium 43-78 44-12 

Selenium 78-42 79-02 

Silicon 28-18 28-40 

Silver 107-11 107-92 

Sodium 22-88 23-05 

Strontium 86-95 87-61 

Sulphur 31-83 32-07 

Tantalum 181-45 182-84 

Tellurium 126-52 127-49 



I 



"""^•june' iS^""'} Editorial— Reviews. 325 

H ^ I O = 16 

Terbium i5S"8o 16000 

Thallium 202'6i 20415 

Thorium 230*87 232 63 

Thulium 169-40 170-70 

Tin iiS'i5 11905 

Titanium 47*79 48*15 

Tungsten 183*43 184*83 

Uranium 23777 23959 

Vanadium 50*99 5i'38 

Ytterbium 171 88 I73"i9 

Yttrium ... 88*35 8902 

Zinc 64*91 6541 

Zirconium 89*72 9040 



EDITORIAL. 

NEW PROFE.SSORS IN THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

When it became necessary to fill the vacancy in the chair of Botany and 
Materia Medica in the College, caused by the death of Professor Bastin, 
it was decided by the Board of Trustees to create two new chairs in place of 
the old one. Dr. Clement B. Lowe, already an Instructor in the College, 
was accordingly nominate<l to occupy the chair of Materia Medica, and Pro- 
fessor Henry Kraemer, Professor of Botany, Pharmacognosy and Materia 
Medica in the Northwestern University, of Chicago, to fill the chair of Botany. 

Both men are amply qualified, by education and experience, to fill the posi- 
tions they have been selected to occupy. Dr. I^^we is a graduate of Bucknell 
University, of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and of the Jefferson 
Medical College. He conducted a pharmacy for a num])er of years, and has 
been Instructor and Quiz Master in the College for over ten years. 

Professor Kraemer is a graduate of Girard College, of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, of the School of Mines, Columbia College, New York, 
and of the University of Marburg, Germany, where he received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. His thesis for this degree was an elaborate study 
of Viola tricolor. He likewise had several years' e.xperience in the retail 
drug business. In addition to his lectures on ijotany, Professor Kraemer will 
conduct the Botanical Laboratory so successfully organized by Professor Bastin. 

Dr. J. L. D. Morison will become Instructor in Materia Medica, in addition to 
his present position as Assistant in the Botanical Laboratory. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

HiNFi HKi,*N(; IN DAS Stidu'M i»kk Alkaloidk. mit besondercr Itcruck- 
sichtigung der vegetabilischen Alkaloide uod dcr Ptomaine, Von Dr. Icilio 
Guareschi, (). (). Professor an dcr konigl. Universitiit Turin, und Director dc« 
pharmaceutisch-cheniiftcben und toxicologischen Institut*. Mil Genehnngung 
des Verfassers in deutscher Bearbeitung herausgegeben von Dr. Hermann Kuu/.- 



E>^„. •^^,,_ f Am. Jour. Pharra. 

324 KeVteiVS. { June,1897. 

Krause, Dozeut fiir allgemeine uud pharmaceutische Chemie an der Universitat 
Lausanne. Zweite Halfte, Berlin, 1897. R. Gaertner's Verlagsbuchhandlung, 
Hermann Heyfelder. 

The first half of this valuable work was reviewed in this Journai, for February 
of this year. It may be well to repeat what was pointed out at tliat time, in 
regard to the sections into which the whole work is divided, viz : 

I. Bases of the Open Chain Series. 

II. Bases of the Closed Chain Series. 

III. Metal Amines. 

IV. Alkaloids in the Narrower Sense. 

V. Ptomaines and Leucomaines. 

The first half, in addition to the historical introduction, included all of the 
open chain series and a part of the closed chain series. The second half covers 
all the remaining sections, in addition to completing the consideration of the 
closed chain series. The fourth section is one of the most important in the 
whole work, since it very fully considers the natural alkaloids, their distribu- 
tion in the vegetable kingdom, method of extraction, estimation, etc. It also 
contains a tabular list of the alkaloids, with their sources, according to natural 
orders, and their formulas ; this section is also enriched by a number of para- 
graphs from the pen of the translator. As now completed, the book consists of 
657 large pages, including an index. It is an indispensable work to every one 
who has to do with the alkaloids in any of their varieties. 

Reagents and Reactions known by the names of their authors. Based 
on the original collection by A. Schneider, revised and enlarged by Dr. Julius 
Altschul for the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle. Translated from the German 
by Richard Fischer, Instructor in Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin. 
Pharmaceutical Review Publishing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1897. 

The difficulty experienced by many chemists in determining the nature of a 
reagent when, as is frequently the case, the name of the author only is given, 
is reason enough for issuing a work like this. The list as now published is 
very complete, and occupies 82 pages. There is an index of subjects given at 
the end which will materially assist locating certain tests. The pamphlet is 
well printed, and appears to be remarkably free from errors. 

Warner's Pocket Medicai. Dictionary of To-Day, comprising the pro- 
nunciation and definition of 10,000 essential words and terms used in medicine 
and associated sciences. By William R. Warner. Philadelphia : William R. 
Warner & Co. 1897. 

The foregoing title sufficiently explains the scope of this work. By omitting 
the very common terms, whose meaning is obvious or known to everybody, the 
author has been able to gain space and so keep the book down to his original 
intention, thereby making it strictly a pocket dictionary. It is a very complete 
list of words and their definitions, which are especially desired by both phy- 
sician and pharmacist. 

Formaldehyde. By Eli Lilly & Co. Indianapolis. 1897. 

This pamphlet is devoted to a description of the chemistry of formaldehyde, 
its use as a disinfectant, and its generation in the Moffatt Formaldehyde Lamp, 
which was fully described and illustrated in the April number of this Journal. 



I 



"^""jine^i^f""*} PJiarmaccutical Associations. 325 

The Pharmacologist is the title of a quarterly journal devoted to Materia 
Medica, Pharmacy and Therapy. It is edited by F. E. Stewart,'M.D., Ph.Cf. 
and published by Trederick Kimball Stearns, of Detroit, Mich. ^ The first 
number, recently issued, is full of interesting matter. It contains comments 
and editorials on a variety of subjects, and two original communications, 
one on .\conite and another on Diastatic Ferments. 

Semi-Annual Report of Schimmei, & Co. i Fritzsche Brothers. 1 
Leipzig and New York, April, 1S97, 

This number is superior in many respects to its predecessors. After the usual 
information in regard to a large number of oils, the following novelties are 
noted : Cardamom oil, Bengal Schinus fpepper-tree 1 oil;Valerian oil, Mexican; 
camphor-wood oil, Venezuelan; and golden-rod oil, Canadian. 

The latter half of the Report is devoted to a list of essential oils, giving their 
botanical origin, the part or products of the plant from which the oil is ob- 
tained, the yield and the physical constants and principal chemical constituents 
of each oil. This is especially useful for reference. A map is appended, show- 
ing the producing districts of oil of peppermint (menthol) and camphor in 
Japan. 

Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniai, Meeting of the Pharma- 
ceutical Association of the State t)F Soith Carolina. 

The twentieth annual meeting of this association met in Columbia. S. C, 
November ir, 1S96. A goo<i number of original communications in the form 
of addresses were delivered. 

Strophanthfs ; a Clinical Study. By Reynold W. Wilcox. M.I>., 
LL. D. VromXh^ American Journal 0/ the Medical Sciences, May, 1897. 

The author is of the opinion that the variety Komb^ is a distinct species. The 
present report is confined to a clinical study of the tincture made from Stro- 
phanthus Komb^*; the author reserves for another occasion the presentat on of 
similar studies upon what he believes to be four absolutely independent species 
of strophanthus. 

ZuR PrI FUNG DES Chinins. Von O. Hesse, from Archiv. der Pharm., i«5 
114, 1897. This is a subject on which Dr. Hesse is especially well fitted •«> 
speak. 

Natural History Charts and Ili.u.strations. By John W. Harshl)erg«., 
Ph.D. Reprinted from Education, .\pril, 1897. Dr. Harshberger gives some 
valuable suggestions on the best means of conducting a short course ou l>otany. 



PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The twentieth annual meeting of this .XHSOciatiou will be held in the Kilta- 
tinny Hotel, Delaware Water Cap, commencing Tues<lay, June a2<l. «t ^ v> 

P.M. 

The Del iw.irt W.iit-r « ..ip !•> ?»«j delightfully situated, and »o easily ri-,»riied. 



^26 Pharmaceutical Associations. {^^"zw\^,\m^.^' 

especially by members living in the eastern part of the State, that a large 
number will no doubt avail themselves of this opportunity for a few days' recre- 
ation and enjoyment. 

The Trunk Line Association has granted permission to the railroads running 
to the place of meeting to sell tickets at a rate of two cents per mile. Orders 
for these tickets can be had on application to the Secretary, J. A. Miller, Harris- 
burg, Pa. The hotel will furnish entertainment at $2.65 per day. 

The Entertainment Committee will have a programme ready at the time of 
the meeting that will please everybody. 

NEW YORK STATE PHARMACEUTICAL. ASSOCIATION. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of this Association will be held at Manhattan 
Beach, commencing Tuesday, July 13, 1897. The Committee on Pharmacy and 
Queries is very desirous of presenting a large number of papers on topics of scien- 
tific, technical and trade interest, and is making direct appeals to the members 
who have occasionally demonstrated their ability to prepare papers on subjects 
of interest to the pharmacists of the State. A list of queries has been pre- 
pared, which embodies suggestions that should appeal to every working 
pharmacist in the Association. 

The meeting promises to be a splendid success so far as social features are 
concerned, and the Committee on Pharmacy and Queries is determined to 
make the pharmacy section of the meeting an interesting and valuable feature 
of it. With this object in view members are urged to select one or more sub- 
jects from the list of queries and prepare papers thereon. Albert H. Brundage, 
Ph.G., M.D., Chairman, 1153 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, should be addressed on 
all matters relating to papers and queries. 

THE ARKANSAS ASSOCIATION OF PHARMACISTS. 

The Association met in annual session on May nth, 12th, 13th, in Little Rock. 
The attendance was not large, but was very enthusiastic, and the meeting was 
a very entertaining and successful one. Ten new members were added to the 
list, which now numbers 175, consisting of many of the most influential phar- 
macists in the State. 

President Sparks read his annual address, which was referred to a comfnittee 
on distribution. The treasurer's report showed a balance on hand of $293.91. 
The president appointed a committee of three, consisting of Dr. Bond, Mr. R. 
B. King and Dr. John W. Morton, to convey the fraternal greetings of the 
Association to the Arkansas Medical Society, which was in session in this city. 

During the session a number of interesting papers were read, among which 
were the ' ' Future Supply of Coal," by Mr. R. B. King, of Helena. This paper, 
which shows that there can be no dearth in the coal supply of the world, was 
referred to the Committee on Publication. Mr. Ginnochio treated the " Influ- 
ence of Moisture on Drugs" very instructively. 

The report of the Secretary of the Arkansas Board of Pharmacy was read by 
Dr. Bond. It showed a registration of 28 during the last year, and a total regis- 
tration of 921. Graduates of reputable Colleges of Pharmacy and licentiates 
of some of the State Boards are occasionally recognized by our Board. 

The query box afforded much interesting and instructive discussion. 



^""june'i^^*'" } Pharviaceutical Meeting. 327 

A display of chemicals made by Mr, Germain, of Fort Smith, attracted much 
attention, particularly the dry chemicals. The prize for Pharmaceutical display 
was awarded to him. 

The special committee appointed to convey the fraternal greetings of this 
body to the Medical Society reported they had been received in a very cordial 
manner, and invited to address that body, which invitation was acceptetl, and 
much gratification was expressed by the physicians for the visit and the 
address. 

The following gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuing year : 

Mr. J. F. Dowdy. Little Rock, President. 

Dr. H. C.Johnson, Van Buren, First Vice-President. 

Dr. J. W. Morton. Fort Smith, Second Vice-President. 

Mr. John B. Bond, Jr.. Little Rock, Secretary. Re-elected. 

Mr. J. A. Jungkind, Little Rock, Treasurer. Re-elected. 

Mr. Dowdy, being elected president, made a vacancy in the Executive Com- 
mittee, which was filled by the election of Mr. Shachleiter. 

After some discussion, it was agreed that the next meeting should be held in 
Little Rock on the second Tuesday in May, 1S98. 

On motion of Dr. Bond, it was ordered that the president, secretary and 
treasurer should compose the Publication Committee. 

No further business appearing, the new officers were severally installed, and 
the meeting adjourned. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

PHiL.\nKLPHi.\, May 18, 1S97. 

The last Pharmaceutical Meetingof the present series was held in the Museum 
of the College at 3.30 p.m. Mr. F. W. K. Stedem presided. The reading of 
the minutes of the previous meeting was omitted. 

.\n interesting paper on "Verba del Polio," by Prof. Alfonso Herrera, of 
Mexico, was read by Prof. Henry Trimble (see page 290). 

The usefulness of this plant as a remedy in medical practice, and as affirmed 
by the writer, dates back to the time of the A/.tecs, it having been eniplove<l 
by them in the treatment of several diseases. But when their power was over- 
come it was forgotten, together with other useful pro<lucts of their countrv. 
Nearly three centuries elapsed before it again attracted the attention of investi- 
gators, and It has been only within the latter half of this century that anv con- 
siderable study has l>een given to it. It is valued chiefly as a hemostatic, 
although, as stated by the writer, there seems to be some difficulty in determin- 
ing to what constituent this property is due. 

"On the Occurrence of Strontium in Plants" was the subject of a somewhat 
timely paper presented by Prof Henry Trimble (sec page 2961. 

The author had discovered strontium in a number of samples of bark from 
different species of Castanopsis growing at Singapore, ln<lia, while a sample of 
American Cr».stanop)sis growing in California gave no indication of the presence 
of this metal. Two samples of oak and one of mangrove from India aUo con- 
taineil strontium. A comparison of the data so obtainc<l led the writer to 
believe that the presence of strontium salts in the samples from Singapore was 
•lue to the composition of the soil in that country. 



Am. Jour. Pharro 



328 Pharmaceutical Meeting, {'^^'jnne',mil 

Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler referred to the use of strontium hydrate in sugar 
refining, and to the objectionable feature of its cost when first suggested for 
this purpose, on account of the limited supply of the minerals of strontium. 
The discovery of other mines since then had had their influence in decreasing 
the cost of the metal, and in regard to its occurrence in India he thought it 
probable that the government or mining reports would give some information. 

Professor Trimble replied that the government officials reported only a trace 
oi strontium salts in the Singapore soil. 

A paper, entitled a "Note on Red Mercuric Oxide." was contributed by Mr. 
J. \V. England (see page 311 ). This was intended as a reply to the criticisms 
presented by Mr. Charles H. LaWall, at the meeting last month, on citrine 
ointment. The principal remarks of the author were on the question of the 
relative purity of red mercuric oxide and metallic mercury, and the advisability 
of substituting the former for the latter in the formula for citrine ointment, as 
a matter of convenience. His information in regard to the purity. of these 
substances did not accord with Mr. LaWall's statement concerning them, and 
in evidence of this, extracts from letters from three firms of manufacturing 
chemists were presented. 

Mr. Lyman F. Kebler casually made reference to a subject which had recently 
been brought to his notice. He said that a resinous substance, which had been 
applied to the trunks of some of the trees in the public squares of this city 
to serve as an obstruction to insects, had been found to be harmful to the trees. 
In experimenting with solvents with the object of removing it, he found ace- 
tone to answer the purpose most effectually. 

Some specimens and other objects added to the interest of the meeting as 
follows : 

A curious specimen of a growing plant of Japanese cultivation was loaned by 
Mr. Howard B. French. It belonged to the natural order Coniferse, and 
in outline strikingly resembled a fowl, the fictitious name "Ibis firma" being 
significant of this. 

A copy of letters patent, which was an elaborate and formidable document, 
granted during the reign of George II of Bngland, for a medicine "Oleum 
Anodinum," was presented by Mr. Chas. Bullock. 

Professor Trimble called attention to a large specimen of canaigre root, show- 
ing the influence of cultivation, and to one of natural growth, much smaller in 
size, both of them having grown at Rialto, California. 

Among the samples was one of calcium carbide, presented by Mr. J. O. 
McHenry, of this city. 

An improved attachment for the " Moffatt Formaldehyde Generator," pre- 
sented by the agents, Messrs. Eli Lilly & Co., of Indianapolis, Ind., was 
exhibited. 

The chairman believed in the efficacy of the apparatus as a disinfecting 
agent, but said that, in order to insure the generation of the gas, it was neces- 
sary to carefully adjust the wick. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos. S. WiEGand, Registrar. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, iSgy. 



THE CALIFORNIA MANNA.' 
By John Uri Li.oyd, Ph.M. 
MENTIONED BY FATHER PICOLO. [IVit/i a sunimary.) 
Query by Prof. Fllickiger : 

" What was the manna mentioned by one Father Picolo in CaH- 
fornia and alluded to by Proust, in Ann. d. Chvn., 57 f 1806), p. 145 ?" 
Answer by John Uri Lloyd. 

Dear Prof. FlCckiger : — I find, on reference to the paper citedi 
that the statement is as follows : 

Proust. Ann. d. Chim., 57, p. 145. On the Suf^ar of the Grape. 

The manna seems to abound in America, accordinj^ to the 
reports of travellers. Herera says : '• It falls in the season in the 
quantity of a dew, which congeals like sugar, and which is so whole- 
some that it is named Manna. Father Picolo, one of the first 



' When Prof. Fliickiger visited America (July, 1894) he hoped to obtain his- 
torical data that would enable him to give the records of several interesting 
American productions. In this he failed, and he then associated in his behalf 
the services of the author of this paper, .\fter much of the work hid K.-.n 
done, the death of Prof. Fliickiger interrupte<l the investigation 

These papers (some of them) passed into possession of Prof. IM. Schner, of 
the Strasburg University, who translated into Gennan the accompanying work 
by Professor IJoyd on .American Manna, for the patfes of t}je /irti,htt- Jrr 
detilschen pharmaceulischen Gesellscha/t. 

We present herein, with the kr. ' ' ' ■ iii 01 rroj, ' ihc 

author, the original i)apcr on .\t: litor Am. J" 

329 I 



330 California Manna. { ^'"juT/jSr^'- 

spiritual conquerors of California, assures us that it exudes in con- 
siderable amounts from the shrubs (arbrisseaux) in April, May and 
June." 

It will be shown hereafter that this is not a literal abstract from 
the original source, where the word roseaux is used instead of the 
word arbrisseaux. 

In tracing this subject, first the biography of Father Picolo 
presents itself as follows : 

BIOGRAPHY OF FRANCOIS MARIE PICOLO." 

Abstracted from Bibliotheque des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de 
Jesus, Liege A. Lyon, 1872, p. 1957. 

•' Picolo, Francois Marie, a Sicilian Jesuit, was born in Palermo, 
March 24, 1654, entered the Society of Jesus in 1673, and made the 
four vows in Mexico in 1689. He founded the Mission of Jesus of 
Carichic, where he resided for fourteen years, and afterwards united 
with Father Jean de Salvatierra in order to open the missions in 
California. 

" After a stay of forty years with the missions, he received the 
reward of his toil on February 22, 1729." 

His writings, as far as known to me,^ are contained in the follow- 
ing communication : 

" Memoir, with regard to the conditions of the missions lately 
established in California, by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus ; 
presented to the Royal Council of Guadalaxara, in Mexico, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1702, by Father Francois Marie Picolo, of the same 
society, and one of the original founders of this Mission." 

This memoir of F. M. Picolo is reprinted literally in W. I. Kip's 
Historical Scenes from the old Jesuit Missions, New York, 1875, 
which is an abstract of American topics from the following work : 

" Lettres Edifiantes et cnrietcses, ccrites des Missions Etrangcres, 
in ^7 volumes, containing the letters of the Jesuit missionaries from 
about 16 jo to ly^oy this collection being purchased by W. L Kip 
from the library of the Bishop of Durham. 

Speaking in Chapter II, Missions in Lower California, 1702, he 
states, p. 57, in the months of April, May and June, a kind of maiina 



' Thanks are extended St. Xavier's College, Cincinnati, for library courtesies, 
thus enabling this biography to be presented. 
■• J. U. L. 



^""•/.Sy^ST""^-} California Manna. 331 

falls with the dew, ichich congeals and hardens on the leaves of the 
reeds* {roseaux) from which it is gathered. I have tasted tt. 
It is a little darker than sugar, but has all its szceetness.'* 

Endeavoring to identify Father Picolo's manna, the following 
reference to manna-like bodies (false mannasj was noted in the U. S. 
Dispensatory, 17th Ed., Philadelphia, 1894, p. 850, which, however, 
are not the same manna as that of Picolo. 

" American False Manna. A substance resembling manna, of a 
sweet, slightly bitter, and terebinthinate taste, and actively purga- 
tive, exudes from incisions in Pinus Lambertiana of Oregon, and is 
used by the natives." (Nar. of U. S. Expl. Exp., v. 232.) 

•' M. Berthelot has abstracted from this product a peculiar saccha- 
rine principle which he calls • pinite.' " (See A. J. P., vol, 28, p. 157.) 

The strongly cathartic properties of this manna of the pinus and 
its resemblance to manna are emphasized in the following descrip- 
tion of this substance : 

I. Wilkes, Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Exped., Philadelphia, 
1850, Vol. 5. 

P. 232. Speaking of the Pinus Lambertiana, w'hich they found 
frequently when crossing the Umpgua Mountains in Southern Ore- 
gon. " Some of the sugar produced by this tree was obtained ; it 
is of a sweet taste, with a slightly bitter and piny flavor ; it resem- 
bles manna, and is obtained by the Indians by burning a cavit}* in 
the tree, whence it exudes. It is gathered in large quantities. 

" This sugar is a powerful cathartic, and affected all the party who 
partook of it ; yet it is said that it is used as a substitute for sugar 
among the trapi)ers and hunters." 

II. John S. Newberry, botanist in charge of the U. S. Pacific R. R. 
Surveys, California and Oregon. Botanical Report, 1855, p. 44. On 
the Pmus Liimbertiana, the Sugar Pine. 

" The resin of the sugar pine is less abundant than that of the 
P. ponderosa ; is white or transparent like that of P. strobus. 

"That which exudes from partially burnt trees, for the most part, 
loses its terebinthine taste and smell, and acquires a sweetness 
nearly equal to that of sugar. 

♦•This sugar gives the tree its name, and is sometimes used for 



« Roseaux, iu the original Lettrts idifiantes, etc., Tome V, p. 264. Kip't tr«n»- 
Ution, ia literal, as we have verified from the original letter— J. T. L. 



332 California Manna, {^""/uiy'is^g?.^'"' 

sweetening food. It has, however, decided cathartic properties, and 
is oftener used by the frontier men as a medicine than a condiment. 

•♦Its resemblance in taste, appearance and properties to manna 
strikes one instantly ; and but for a slight terebinthine flavor, it 
might be substituted for that drug without the knowledge of the 
druggist or physician, its physical and medical properties are so 
very like." 

It is not possible that Father Picolo refers to the sugar from 
these trees, as he failed to record any cathartic properties as an 
attribute of his sugar ; furthermore, the manner which he describes 
of collecting the sugar hardly conforms to the description just given 
as to the manner of collecting it from these trees. It is most prob- 
able, according to his brief statement on the subject (for he men- 
tions it as occurring *' on the leaves of the reeds "), that high trees 
carrying sugar in their sap are out of question, although such sugar 
trees were not unlikely to have been met by him. For example, 
also, {white maple, Acer macrophyllum, see appended list of refer- 
ences, No. 8). 

Only reed grasses are likely to come into consideration with the 
manna of Picolo, and of these we have recorded as follows : 

(i) Manna grass, Glyceria. This seems to be out of the 
question, as text-books on botany (Gray, etc.) state that the 
name, denoting sweet, is given in allusion to the taste of the grain. 

(2) Phragmites communis, Trin. Described by U. S, Geological 
Exploration of the 4.0th parallel. C. King, 5th vol. Botany. S. 
Watson, p. 390. 

*' Found from Florida to Canada and westward to the Pacific. On 
the banks of fresh-water streams and springs from the Truskee to 
the East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, 4-6000 feet altitude. Sugar 
is said by Durand and Hilgard'^ to be extracted from the stalks of 
this grass by the Indians, but the scanty juice is not at all 
saccharine. 

"A sweet secretion, however, is sometimes formed upon it in con- 
siderable quantity by aphides, as well as upon the leaves of cotton- 
ivood and other trees, and is collected by both the Utes and 
the Mormons." 

If this is correct [there is no higher authority to be found than 

^Pacific R. R. Surveys, Bot. Rep. By Durand and Hilgard, Washington, 
D. C, iSs5. P- 15- 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July, 1897. 



California Manna. 



333 



Sereno Watson], the " manna " observed to form on these plants is 
the secretion of an insect and not an exudation from the plant. 
Phragmites communis, thus far, comes nearest the plant described by 
Father Picolo. 




All the plants cited before were found to occur in locations alto- 
gether different from the locality where Father Picolo made his 
observations, which' does not, however, preclude them from his 
territory. 

(See accompanying^ map.) 



334 California Marina. {^°'•/u^^•lS^'"■ 

Father Picolo's range of observation never extended north of 
Lower Cahfornia, and, on the other hand, the information we have 
of this Cahfornia (which is really a part of Mexico) is rather scant. 

The following publications present two sources of information on 
Lower California : 

First : J. Ross Browne, Resources of States and Territories West 
of the Rocky Mountains, New York, i86g, zvith an appendix, p. 6jo, on 
Loivcr California, and with an historical addition, a Sketch of the Settle- 
mcjit ajid Exploration of Lower California, by Alex, S. Taylor. 

The Description of Lower California by J. Ross Browne, contains 
the following passage : 

Page dj7, " Fields of sugar cane are too common to excite remark, 
and the manufacture of sugar is one of the most important interests 
of the southern part of the peninsula. * * ^^^ The cane fields extend as 
far as the eye can reach from San Jose." (This place is situated at 
the extreme southern coast.) " Sugar mills in Comondu * * * sugar 
exported in Purisima." This does not refer to the manna under dis- 
cussion, and it will be mentioned later that this sugar cane is not 
indigenous, but was imported by later settlers. 

Second: Encyclopcedia Britannica, ninth ed. On California; 
makes mention of Lower California also, introducing it as follows : 

" The interior of Lower California is chiefly known to us as to its 
physical and geological structure, from a reconnoissance made by 
Messrs. Gabb and Lochr of the State Geological Survey of California, 
in iSdy. '* This exploration was set on foot in order that some 
information might be obtained relative to the value of a concession 
made by the Mexican Government to an American company. This 
grant was expected to lead to a settlement of the country, but the 
whole thing turned out a failure." 

The work referred to, The State Geological Survey of California in 
i86y in charge of Messrs. Gabb and Loehr, is unfortunately not at our 
command, and may possibly name that " reed " which yielded sugar, 
as observed by Father Picolo. 

However, the first-named book, by J. Ross Browne, in its second 
part, A Sketch of the Settlement and Exploration of Lower California, 
by Alex. S. Taylor, that appeared in 1869, makes mention of the 
exploration of Lower California that had taken place in 1867 by 
Messrs. Gabb and Loehr, under the direction of Mr. J. Ross Browne, 
the results of which, however, were not then published. 



''"'•juTiS^""'} California Manna, 335 

Mr. J. Ross Browne, however, gives a general outline of this 
exploration, based on detailed letters he received from Mr. Gabb 
while on his exploring tour. 

P. 66, a description of vegetation in Lower California is given, 
which may be condensed as follows : 

''Agaves (century plant) are also abundant, may be useful in the 
future to extract spirits from the root. * * * Acacias, palms 
with edible fruits, conifers, oaks, wild plums, cottonwoods, syca- 
mores, willows, elder. The Arabian date palm, introduced by mis- 
sionaries, is thriving, llie sugar cane has been cultivated for more 
than a century, and yields a su^ar as strong and as sweet as that 
of Peru, and very abundant in juice." 

P. 82. Letter of Mr. Gabb to Mr. J. Ross Browne, May, 1867: 
•* At Santiago, there are extensive plantations of sugar cane, and a 
sugar mill was in active operation. The process throughout is of 
the most primitive kind, but the result is a very palatable sugar 
moulded into cakes somewhat like maple sugar, and known as 
panoche." " Sugar industry ^ ^ ^ also at Todos Santos." 

P. 143 of J. Ross Browne, Sketch and Settlement of Lower Cali- 
fornia. Report of Dr. Jo Jin A. Veateh on Garros or Cedros Island, 
p. 152, Soil and Productions, pine trees. 

"The two interesting species of Rhus (R. Lentiana and R. 
Veatchiana) form marked features in the island flora, the former for 
the delicious acid exudation of its fruit." - * 

••A beautiful, yellow-flowered agave or aloe plant, about 12 feet 
in height, with a stem from 4 to 6 inches diameter at the base, 
branching and spreading at the top and terminating in a profusion 
of golden blossoms, was tolerably abundant. The flower cups were 
filled with a fragrant, sweet liquor." 

The same book of J. Ross l^rowne points to a third source of infor- 
mation on Lower California ; this, however, was not obtainable in 
the original. 

P. /j;j, Extracts from a history of Old or Lower California. A pos- 
thumous work written originally in Spanish by Padre Franc. }av. 
Clavijero, of the Society of Jesus. Translated into Italian, I 'entce, 
l'jSg,and back again into Spanish by Nicolas (iarcia de San /V- 
cente (Juan R. Navarro, editor), iSj2, was translated into Knclish 
BV A. G. Rand.all. Secretary and Translator of the Lo7c'er California 
Company's Exploring Expedition^ San Erancisco, May, iSOj. 



336 California Manna. {'^'^i^xyAm:"'^' 

P. 164 of J. Ross Browne's Book, loc. cit., says, as bearing on our 
subject : 

" In some parts there grows, near running streams, reed grass, of 
the thickness of the little finger. 

"This LITTLE reed is the only plant in California in which 
MANNA IS FOUND. At the present time there are large growths of 
this imported from abroad." 

Biography of Francisco Javier Clavijero. Taken from Biblio- 
theque de la Compagnie de Jesus. Tome II, Bruxelles and Paris, 
1891, p. 1210. 

Francisco Javier Clavijero, born in Vera Cruz, on the 9th of Sep- 
tember, 1 73 1. Was received in the province of Mexico, February 
13th, 1748. He taught rhetoric in Mexico, philosophy at Valla- 
dolid and at Guadalaxara in New Spain. He was exiled and 
depoited to Italy, and died at Bologna April 2, 1787. 

Historia de la Antigua a Baya California. Obra posthuma del 
padre Francisco Javier Clavijero de la compaiiia de Jesus. 

[Note. — Some time after this paper was placed in the hands of 
Professor FlUckiger, the following information was found in the 
Lloyd Library, and a copy at once forwarded to Prof. Ed. Schaer, 
Strasburg, for the purpose of supplementing the present paper. 

From the U. S. Agricultural Report for 1870, Food Products of 
the North American Indians, p. 423, "Bent grass (Arundo phrag- 
mites)" (which is a synonym for Phragmites communis, Trin.). 

"This species of reed, which grows abundantly around St, 
Thomas, in southern Utah, during the summer months, produces a 
kind of white, sweet gum. The Utah Indians cut down the reeds 
and lay them in piles on blankets or hides, and let them remain for 
a short time to wilt, when the bundles are beaten with rods to 
release the gum. The small particles so detached are pressed into 
balls to be eaten at pleasure. It is a sweet, manna-like substance." 

In the returned manuscript we find a foot-note by Professor 
Schaer, giving the substance of the foregoing quotation, which Pro- 
fessor Fluckiger had gathered from the same authority while he 
was in Brooklyn.] 

SUMMARY. 

Sugar and two kinds of" manna " are described in Western litera- 
ture. 

1st, Sugar. Sugar was derived from the sugar cane, which wa 



^"/ui^riS?.'^^"} California Manna. 337 

introduced into Lower California at least one hundred years ago. 
This was not '* manna." 

2dL, Father Picolo s Manna. Father Picolo observed a saccharine 
deposit on a species of grass that he called reeds (roseaux) and not 
shrubs (arbrisseaux) as Proust recorded the word. Of the plants 
likely to have yielded this manna, the reed grasses only are to be 
considered. Of the reed grasses, Phragmites communis undoubtedly 
answers all the conditions that are cited by Father Picolo, and in 
my mind this plant is the origin of Picolo's Manna. This manna 
is (or was recently) still collected by the Indians. 

3d, Manna of tJie Finns. This is \'ielded by Finns Lambertiana of 
Oregon, and is cathartic as well as sweet, but no evidence e.xists to 
indicate that Picolo had any knowledge of its existence. 

Finally, I would decide that without question Father Picolo 
described, as he saw it, the saccharine deposit on Fhragmites com- 
munis, which, according to Watson, is caused by aphides. 

REFERENCES ON THE SUBJECT OK FATHER PICOLO'S MANNA. 

( I ) Proust, Ann. d. Chimie, 57 (1806), p. 145, mentioning Father Picolo and 
his manna; this occurnng on "arbrisseaux " shrubs. 

(2j Bibliothlque des Ecrivains de la Co}npai:nii- de Jisus, Li^ge & Lyon, 1877, 
p. 1957. Biography of Father Picolo, and mentioning his " Memoir." 

(3) Letlres edifiantes et curicuses, ecrites des Missions HrangereSy in 47 vol- 
umes, containing the letters of the Jesuit missionaries from about 1650-1750. 
Translated from the Spanish, Vol. V, p. 264. Containing the memoir of Father 
Picolo. mentioned under 2 in French, manna occurring on "roseaux" reeds. 

(4) W. I. Kip, Historical Scenes from the old Jesuit Missions, New York, 
1875, p. 50. Containing the "memoir" of Father Picolo, literally translated 
into Knglish. 

(5) U. S. Dispensatory, seventeenth edition, Philadelphia, 1894, p. 850. On 
American False Manna, From Pinus Lambertiana, Sugar Pine. Points to 
Reference No. 6. 

(6) Wilkes, Narrative of the U. S. Expiorinff Expedition, Philadelphia, 
i^5<^. Vol. \, p. 232. On Pinus Lambertiana. The sugar has strongly cathar- 
tic properties. 

(7) John S. Newberry, botanist in charge of the U. S. Pacific R. R. Sur- 
veys in California and Oregon, 1855. liotanical Report, p. 42. Describiug 
Pinus Lambertiana and corroborating statement in Reference No. 6. 

(8) J. C;, Cooi'EK, botanist in charge of the V . S. Pacific R. R. Survey Route 
near the 47th and 48th parallels, explored by L L Stevens, 1853-55. liotanical 
Report, No. i, p. 28. Mentions White Maple, Acer macrophyllum, as contain- 
ing sugar in its sap. 

(9) Asa Gray and others. Botany. Manna grass, sweet principle is con- 
tained in the grain. 

(10) Skreno Watson, botanist in charge off. S. Geological Fxploration of 



338 Corrosive Sublimate in Calomel, {^"-AT/'S^""- 

the 40th pirallel, under C. King, 5th Vol. Botany, p. 390. On Phragmites 
communis. Reed-sap not saccharine. Aphides cause sweet secretions on its 
leaves and those of cottouwood and other trees. 

(11) DURAXD AND HiLGARD, Pacific R. R. Survey. Botanical Report, 
Washington, D. C , 1855, p. 15. The Indians are said (by D. and H.) to extract 
sugar from Phragmites communis. This seems to be contrary to the statement 
in Reference 10. 

(12) J. Ross Browne. Resources of States and Territories west of the 
Rocky Mountains, New York, 1869, («) with an appendix, p. 630, on Lower 
California, and with an historical addition, [h) A sketch of the settlement and 
exploration of Lower California, by Alex. S. Taylor. In 12 (a) it is mentioned 
that sugar cane abounds in Lower California ; 12 [b) contains further references. 

(13 ) Encyclopcsdia Britannica, 9th ed. On California, also on Lower Califor- 
nia, points to Reference No. 14. 

( 14) Gabb and Loehr, with the State Geological Survey of California in 1867. 
The original was not accessible. A brief excerpt is contained in Reference 12 
ib), p. 66. 

(15) Report of John A. Veatch, On Carros or Cedros Islaiid. Original not 
accessible. Brief excerpt is to be found in Reference 12 [b), p. 152. Mentions 
an "agave," which contains a sweet liquid in its flowering cups. 

(16) Extracts from a History of Old or Lower California. A posthumous 
work, written originally in Spanish by Padre Franc, favier Clavijero, of the 
Society of Jesus. Translated into Italian, Venice, 1789, and back again into 
Spanish by Nicolas Garcia, de San Vicente (Juan R. Navarro, editor), 1852. 
Was translated into English by A. G. Randall, Secretary and Translator of the 
Lower California Company's Exploring Expedition, San Francisco, May, 1867. 
Original not accessible. An abstract to be found in 12 {b), p. 164. It states 
that there is a reed growing in Lower California near running streams that 
yields manna. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE IN CALOMEL.^ 

BY IvYMAN F. KEBI^ER. 

The 1890 U.S.P., among other requirements, describes calomel as 
** A white, impalpable powder, showing only small, isolated crystals 
under a magnifying power of 100 diameters. Insoluble in water* 
alcohol or ether. In contact with calcium hydrate T. S., the salt is 
blackened. If i gramme of the salt be shaken with 10 c.c. of water 
or alcohol, the respective filtrates should not be affected by hydrogen 
sulphide T. S. or silver nitrate T. S. (absence of mercuric chloride^!' 

Several years ago the writer received a sample of calomel that 
gave a prominent yellow coloration when treated with lime-water. 
Yellow wash instead of black wash, if you please. The question 
immediately arose — is it possible that any manufacturer will put such 
a valuable medicinal agent as calomel on the market containing 
such an apparent quantity of corrosive sublimate ? Further exami- 

^ Presented at the meeting of the Penna. Pharm. ^55^?^., June, 1897. 



^'"■ju'i"-!^.*''"-} Corrosive Sublimate in Calomel. 339 

nation showed that the calomel contained an appreciable quantity of 
this poisonous af^ent. Other makes were secured and all developed 
a fjreater or lesser yellowish coloration when treated with lime- 
water. The various available products were then critically exam- 
ined according to the U.S. P. requirements, with the following results: 
The color varied from a white to a decided cream. Isolated broken 
crystals were present in all material examined. Minute traces of 
mercuric chloride were indicated in every instance. 

Since examining the above samples the writer has watched the 
quality of this article with much interest ; but thus far all efforts 
have failed to find a calomel absolutely free from corrosive sublimate 
when the U.S. P. tests were rigidly applied. In two cases, however, 
both the silver nitrate and the hydrogen sulphide failed to give 
absolute evidence of the mercuric chloride, but a transitional yellow 
was developed with even these when treated with lime-water. One 
of these was a beautiful crystalline (plates) product of Japanese 
origin, the other an old sample found in the laboratory. 

Several questions arise in this connection. First, the yellowish 
coloration, and second, the relative solubilities of mercurous chloride, 
silver chloride and mercurous sulphide. 

It is well known that the color of the various compounds of mer- 
cury is readily modified. In precipitating mercuric mercury with 
hydrogen sulphide, the resulting product frequently varies in color 
from white to black. The writer on several occasions has repeatedly 
washed calomel with water, to remove the soluble mercury com- 
pounds, but in every instance a yellowish coloration was develojjed 
at the point of contact, when the washed calomel was treated with 
lime-water. This would suggest the conclusion that calomel 
develops a transitional )'ellowish coloration at the point of contact 
when treated with lime-water. 

The second question, viz.: the relative solubility of the above- 
named compounds, is an interesting one. We are informed by the 
Pharmacopoeia, and other standard works, that calomel is insoluble. 
Silver chloride and mercurous sulphide are generally considered 
insoluble. According to A. M. Comey's •• Dictionary of Chemical 
Solubilities " calomel and silver chloride are nearly or almost insoluble 
in water, while mercurous sulphide is insoluble. 

V. Kohlrausch' and F. Rose, calculating from the electrical c«>n- 

» 1893, Ztschr. phys. Chrm., fJ, 241. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



340 Corrosive Sublimate in Calomel. {^"""/vliy^isS 

ductivity of calomel in water, at 18° C, have found that I litre 
of water dissolves 3-1 mg. of mercurous chloride. The same authori- 
ties,- by'the [electrolytic method, have found that i litre of water, 
at iS° C, dissolves 1-52 mg. of silver chloride. The difference of the 
relative solubilities of silver chloride and mercurous chloride is 1-58 
mg. per litre. According to these experiments, there would be 
formed a certain amount of silver chloride, when a saturated aqueous 
solution of calomel is treated with silver nitrate. When we remem- 
bered that one part of silver can be detected in 800,000 parts of 
water, it can readily be seen why calomel is so often reported as 
containing corrosive sublimate. 

Then aeain, if mercurous chloride is soluble at all in water, and 
mercurous sulphide is insoluble in the same menstruum, it naturally 
follows that hydrogen sulphide will produce a reaction with a satu- 
rated aqueous solution of calomel. 

According to the writer's observations, calomel is nearly as soluble 
in alcohol as in water, but is insoluble in ether ; at least, an alcoholic 
solution of calomel frequently gives a reaction with hydrogen sul- 
phide, while an ethereal solution will not leave a residue when 
evaporated in a pure atmosphere. 

While it is impossible to countenance any laxness in a matter of 
this kind, still the writer is of the opinion that the official require- 
ments are slightly too rigid. As the matter now stands, the analyst 
must practically take it upon himself, if he reports favorably on any 
material submitted, or he must reject every sample submitted 
to him. Calomel does occasionally contain corrosive sublimate, and 
it is necessary to keep a strict surveillance over this product. But 
according to the most rigid tests, with the above noted exception, 
all calomel examined by the writer during the past few years has not 
contained over ^^^-^^^^^ of i per cent, of corrosive sublimate. 

305 Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 



Volatile oil of lavage, according to E. Braun {Archiv der Pharm., 235, i), 
contains {a) a terpene, CioHj^,, resembling limonene, but not giving crystalline 
compounds with the halogen acids ; {b) cineol, CjoHiyO ; {c) isovalerianic acid ; 
{d) acetic acid, as an oxidation product ; [e) benzoic acid. The oil commences 
to boil at 170°, and begins to decompose at 200° C. 

M893, Thid., 12, 242. 



"^"■/uiy'-iS?"""*} ^oot of Kalmia Lati folia, 34 1 

ANALYSIS OF THE ROOT OF KALMIA LATIFOLIA. 

By Harry Matusow, Ph.G. 
Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. Xo. 168. 

This plant is a well-known evergreen of the natural order Eri- 
caceae, and is known under the various synonyms of laurel, mountain 
laurel, broad-leaved laurel, calico bush and spoonwood. It inhabits 
all sections of the United States, from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
Mississippi River, being especially abundant on the sides of hills 
and mountains. It is a shrub, from three to ten feet in height, and 
bears beautiful flowers. 

The leaves of the plant are said to possess poisonous properties, 
due to andromedotoxin, which is found in a number of plants belong- 
ing to the EricacecTc. As far as was learned, the root has not been 
previously examined ; so in order to ascertain its constituents, a 
quantity of the root was collected by the writer at Lawnside, New 
Jersey, in July, 1896. The root was well cleaned,' allo^ved to become 
air-dry and afterwards reduced to fine powder for proximate analysis. 
The results may be outlined in the order of their succession as 
follows : 

Petroleum Ether Extract. — This amounted to -34 per cent, of the 
weight of the root. It consisted of caoutchouc, wax and a resin- 
like substance. The last had a dark brown color, and was insoluble 
in hot aqueous solution of potassium hydrate. Alcoholic solution 
of potassium hydrate dissolved it. From the solution so obtained 
diluted sulphuric acid precipitated a white substance which was 
soluble in alcohol, and gave precipitates with alcoholic solutions of 
ferric chloride and lead acetate. 

EJher Extract. — Ether dissolved -89 per cent, of the root. Only 
a small quantity of the extract was soluble in water. The water 
solution was neutral in reaction. Treatment with I'ehling's solution 
and acid showed the absence of glucosidcs. The common alkaloidal 
reagents failed to indicate the presence of alkaloids. That part of 
the extract which was insoluble in water was completely soluble in 
alcohol. The solution was acid in reaction. Water precipitated it. 
as did also alcoholic solutions of ferric chloride and lead acetate. 
The solution contained resin and phlobaphene. A portion of the 
alcoholic solution was evaporated to dryness, and the residue treated 
with potassium hydrate solution at the water-bath temperature. The 



342 Root of Kalmia Latifolia. { ^"^/u^i^^^sg'^^'"'- 

solution was filtered off from the undissolved portion, and when 
treated with diluted sulphuric acid in excess, it deposited a floccu- 
lent precipitate of resinous matter which showed no color reactions 
with strong mineral acids. The filtrate from the fiocculent precipi- 
tate was shaken with chloroform in a separating funnel. The 
chloroformic layer was separated and evaporated. The following 
tests were applied to the residue: 

Strong sulphuric acid — one drop produced a red color, which 
became more pronounced on warming. Strong nitric acid — a few 
drops produced a red color which intensified on warming. 

Strong hydrochloric acid, even when warmed, produced no change. 

These reactions correspond, except in the case of hydrochloric 
acid, with those obtained by previous investigators of the leaves of 
this plant, and ascribed by them to andromedotoxin. 

Absolute Alcohol Extract. — The extract amounted to 3 68 per 
cent. It was of a dark brown color and had a porous character. 
Water dissolved an "amount equal to 1-48 per cent, of the root. The 
residue consisted of phlobaphene. The water solution was acid in 
reaction. It contained a small amount of tannin, which reacted as 
follows : 

Lead acetate, flesh-colored precipitate. Ferric chloride, brownish 
precipitate. Ammonia ferric sulphate, brownish-green precipitate. 
Gelatin, flesh-colored precipitate. Bromine water, yellow precipitate- 
Calcium hydrate, reddish precipitate. 

These reactions were confirmed by tests apphed to a cold-water 
infusion of the original root. They indicate a tannin similar to that 
of the oak barks and to the one found in the leaves of Kalmia latifolia, 
as described by DeGraffe in this Journal for June, 1896. The alco- 
holic solution of the phlobaphene gave the same reaction with ferric 
chloride as the tannin. Traces of glucose and saccharose were 
present. Alkaloids, glucosides and neutral principles v/ere not found 
after a complete system of application of immiscible solvents to both 
acid and alkaline water solutions of the extract. 

Water Extract. — Cold water extracted 3-2 per cent, of organi'c 
matter from the root. This comprised -92 per cent, of mucilage and 
albuminous matter, a trace of glucose and nearly I per cent, of 
saccharose. 

Alkaline Water Extract. — Water made alkaline with sodium 
hydrate dissolved 544 per cent, of organic solids. The extract 
showed 98 per cent, of mucilagre and albuminous matter. 



"""•/uTiSS""^-} ^'otcs on Opium Assaying. 343 

Acidulated Water Extract. — The root yielded 117 per cent, of 
organic solids to water acidulated with hydrochloric acid. Pararabin 
was present. The next treatment was with boiling acidulated water, 
but the e.xtract was not worked. 

Starch. — This constituent was determined on a separate portion 
of the original root. Two determinations were made; one showed 
1 1 38 per cent., the other 1 1-43 per cent. — an average of 1 1-40 per 
cent. 

Treatment of the residue from the boiling with acidulated water 
with chlorine water, produced a loss which indicated 20 1 8 per cent, 
of lignin. 

The residue from this treatment was ignited. The loss indicated 
47-40 per cent, of cellulose and allied substances. Moisture was 
found in the root to the extent of 5-06 per cent. The amount of 
ash was 124 per cent. A qualitative analysis of the ash showed 
the presence of the following : 

Water dissolved 16 16 per cent, of the ash. The solution con- 
tained aluminum and potassium combined with hydrochloric and 
sulphuric acids. Hydrochloric acid dissolved 33- 14 per cent, of the 
ash. The solution contained calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron 
and manganese combined with phosphoric acid. The remainder of 
the ash consisted of adhering soil. 



NOTES ON OPIUM ASSAYING.' 

BY FRANK X. MOERK, PH.C,. 

For several years past the writer has adopted certain procedures 
in as.saying gum opium, the results of which were expected to assist 
in perfecting this assay process. 

The sample of gum opium received for analysis is weighed and 
dried for about twelve hours at 80-85^ C; drying is facilitated by cut- 
ting the sample into pieces about the size of cherries before weigliing. 
The loss in weight is noted, and the partly dried opium is coarsely 
powdered and thoroughly mixed ; of this, 2 grammes are taken lor 
the residual moisture estimation, and 8 grammes for the morphine 
estimation, according to the US. P. The latter quantity, as a ruk\ 
corresponds very closely to 10 grammes moist opium ; the exact quan- 

^Read at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical A»»*»cialion. June 
32, 1897. 



344 ^otcs on Opium Assaying. { '"^^jj?;:i8?7.^'"- 

tities of moist and perfectly dry opium are, however, to be calculated 
from the loss sustained in drying. This procedure enables a uni- 
form sample from which concordant results can be obtained when 
assayed at some subsequent time, and calculated to opium contain- 
ing the original quantity of moisture. 

In powdering the partly dried opium in glass or iron mortars, 
electricity is developed and there is difficulty in avoiding loss from 
particles being thrown about; this phenomenon was not noticed 
when using wedgewood mortars. 

The crude morphine obtained by the U.S.P. process was first 
weighed on counterbalanced filters and again after transferring to a 
watch-glass ; it will be noticed that there is, in the majority of cases, 
a difference due to but a few milligrammes. In transferring, a camel's 
hair pencil has to be used with some force to remove all of the 
morphine from the filter, and this generally results in loosening some 
of the fibres of the paper, which then contaminate the morphine. 

The purity of the morphine is an important matter ; for its deter- 
mination, several methods are in use, as the solubility in lime-water, 
the solubility in alcohol and the ash method. If we look into the 
question of the impurities which can be present in crude morphine, 
there may be other opium alkaloids, particularly narcotine, sulphates 
of calcium and strontium, phosphates of calcium and magnesium, 
meconates of potassium, calcium and magnesium, and generally a 
little coloring matter ; this does not exhaust the list of substances 
that are possible, or even of those that have been found, but it is 
sufficiently comprehensive to allow some reflections upon the prob- 
able accuracy of these several methods of correction. The alcohol 
method will give as morphine everything soluble in alcohol, hence, 
narcotine and coloring matter will be returned as morphine ; it 
reveals the ash-yielding constituents, particularly if absolute alcohol 
be used ; and if, after weighing the insoluble matter, this be ignited 
and weighed, the factor for calculating ash into impurity can be 
obtained and compared with the present factor, which is simply 
theoretical. The objection to the alcohol method has been the 
expense and the difficulty of filtering out the very fine precipitate. 

The lime-water method was the one first proposed for ascertaining 
the purity of the morphine and was particularly recommended as a 
means of detecting narcotine. After Stillwell proposed the alcohol 
method Squibb, in a series of experiments, obtained almost identical 



^"jiri^""-} -^^otes on Opium Assaying. 345 

results in comparing these two methods. The ash obtained by 
igniting crude morphine, was considered to be pure calcium oxide or 
carbonate (depending upon the temperature of ignition), derived 
from calcium meconate, until the writer in Am. Jour. Pharm., Sep- 
tember, 1894, proved that the ash was a very complex mixture, and 
this has since been verified by Mr. L F. Kebler. The writer also 
raised the question as to the effect of lime-water upon this complex 
mixture of salts, giving rise to the ash ; experiments made since that 
time enable me to say that the lime-water solution, even after repre- 
cipitation of the morphine, is always more or less colored ; the 
reprecipitated morphine dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid frequently 
yields a pink to rose-red colored solution, due to some foreign 
organic substance which requires several reprecipitations for its 
elimination ; in dissolving crude morphine in lime-water I have 
observed that, if perfect solution does not result, a fine white precipi- 
tate deposits at first, which, in the course of the half hour allowed 
for the solvent action of the lime-water, changes to a yellow floccu- 
lent precipitate ; o 050 gramme of a precipitate (obtained from the 
mother-liquor of an opium assay), allowed to stand for half an hour 
with 10 c.c. lime-water, then filtered, and washed first with lime- 
water, then with distilled water, dried at 50-55° C, and weighed, 
showed an increase in weight of 0004 ; it had also changed in 
appearance as just described. These experiments confirm my pre- 
vious supposition of the chemical change taking place by the lime- 
water solution, but I had rather expected a decrease in the weight, 
because of the presence of potassium meconate, and its possible 
reaction with lime-water to form calcium meconate and soluble 
potassium hydrate ; but the insoluble part in lime-water gave appar- 
ently as good a test for potassium salts with platinic chloride as did 
the original substance. An interchange between magnesium meco- 
nate or phosphate and calcium hydrate, because of the formation of 
insoluble calcium meconate or phosphate and insoluble magnesium 
hydrate, will cause an increase in weight and seems probable. F'rom 
these experiments, we must say that all of the organic matter is not 
revealed by this test, and that the ash-yielding substances arc, at 
least in part, chemically changed ; so that this correction can also 
not be considered an accurate one. 

The ash method will not reveal organic matter, and based upon 
the assumption that the ash consists entirely of calcium oxide or 



346 Notes on Opium Assaying. {^"^-/uT/.-S""^ 

carbonate derived from calcium meconate, and to which the ash is 
calculated by the use of factors (4-55 for calcium oxide and 2-56 for 
calcium carbonate), despite the fact that considerable potassium 
carbonate is present (which should require a different factor), and 
disregarding entirely that the sulphates and phosphates of the 
metals present sustain comparatively little loss by ignition (the 
factor for which cannot be foretold), the result being that the 
correction based entirely upon the weight of the ash will be too 
high unless counterbalanced by the presence of foreign organic 
matter, an assumption which cannot be proven at the present time. 

A number of comparisons of the lime-water and ash methods 
have been published and agreed very well. Any difference between 
the corrections could be allowed for from the above statements. In 
May, 1896, Mr. L. F. Kebler published in the American Journal 
OF Pharmacy a series of comparisons in which some new possibili- 
ties were brought forward. Of the seventeen samples reported, one 
yielded no ash and no correction by either method ; 07ie the same 
correction by both methods ; seven a higher correction by the lime- 
water method with the percentage of ash normal, i. e., below either 
correction ; Jive a higher correction by the ash method, with the 
percentage of ash normal; and three di higher correction by the ash 
method, with the percentage of ash abnormal, i. e., greater than the 
lime-water correction. To explain these results it must be admitted 
that in some cases there is an iash-yielding substance which is solu- 
ble in lime-water, whi)st in other cases there must be present some 
organic impurity which is not soluble in lime-water, and of course 
yields no ash. 

While not one of these methods of correction can be considered 
satisfactory, the writer has given preference to the lime-water 
method as involving on the one hand less change during the man- 
ipulation, and on the other hand because of the easier filtration of 
the solution, and the possible reprecipitation of the morphine ; care 
must be taken, by keeping the funnel covered with a watch-glass to 
prevent the formation of calcium carbonate if working near a flame. 
In the assays to be detailed, the lime-water correction was used ; 0-5 
gramme of the well-mixed crude morphine was weighed into a 
flask and thoroughly moistened with 5 c.c. lime-water before adding 
the remaining 45 c.c. ; rotate the contents of flask repeatedly during 
half an hour, and then filter the solution through counterbalanced 



^"•jii?:i£7.*'"^'} yotes on Opium Assaying. 347 

filters (7 centimetres), rinsing the precipitate in the flask upon the 
filter by the use of small portions of the filtrate ; wash the flask and 
filter with 5 c.c. lime-water, added in portions of i c.c. After the 
last c.c. drains off, set aside the filtrate and washings and wash the 
filter with 5 c.c. distilled water applied in portions of i c.c. ; after 
draining press the filter between bibulous paper and dry at 50-5 5 ^ C. 
to constant weight ; this weight is then calculated to entire weight 
of crude morphine, and, subtracted from the weight of the crude 
morphine as weighed on a watch-glass, gives the weight of the pure 
morphine, which is then calculated to 100 parts of opium. 

The lime-water solution of the crude morphine is thoroughly 
agitated after adding 6 c.c. ether (just enough to saturate the solu- 
tion, and for the purpose of rendering the precipitation of morphine 
as complete as possible; morphine, particularly in presence of 
foreign organic matter, is less soluble in water saturated with ether 
than in pure water); 0150 gramme ammonium chloride is next 
added and agitation continued for ten minutes before setting aside 
for 10 to 12 hours, or over night (the 55 c.c. lime-water require 
0140 gramme ammonium chloride for neutralization, so that there 
is but a slight excess added) ; filter through counterbalanced filters 
(7 centimetres) ; rinse the flask several times with a little of the 
filtrate to remove the remaining morphine crystals, and then wash 
the morphine and filter with 15 c.c. distilled water, applied in por- 
tions of I c.c; dry the filter as above described, at 50-55° C, and 
weigh. The combined weights of the recovered morphine and of 
the correction subtracted from 0500 gives the loss sustained in the 
purification, and represents chiefly the morphine remaining dis- 
solved in the 55 c.c. of mother-liquor. 

In looking over these results it will be seen that the impurity m 
the crude morphine does not depend so much upon the length of 
time in which the assay is allowed to stand as upon variations in 
the samples of opium (the assays standing 15 hours, for instance, 
illustrate this point) ; it has previously been proven that in any given 
sample of opium the impurity increases with the time allowed for 
precipitation. 

Believing that the great difference in the quantity of the impurity 
was due to variation in the ash-yielding constituents, a number of 
the samples of opium, kept in the partly dried condition, were ex- 
amined. Two grammes of the sample were dried at lOO^ C, then in- 



148 



Notes on Opiiun Assaying, 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1897. 



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July, 1897. 



} 



Notes on Opium Assayitig. 



349 



cinerated for total ash ; this, macerated with loc.c. water for one-half 
hour, filtered, and filter and contents washed with water, i c c. at a 
time, until the filtrate measured 20 c.c; the filter, with insoluble 
portion of the ash, was dried, ignited and weighed, the difference 
between that and the total ash giving ash soluble in water. The fig- 
ures are in terms of percentage and relate to perfectly dried opium ; 
for convenience of comparison the percentage of impurity in the 
crude morphine is appended. The figures in the last column are 
results of another series of experiments, to be mentioned a little later. 



Number. 


Moisture. 


ToUl .\sh. 


Soluble Ash. 


Insoluble 
Ash. 


Impurity iu 

Crude 
Morphine. 


Ash of 
Dregs. 


8 


5*oo 


6-37 


3"2t 


316 


0"20 


2-68 


TO 


522 


55t 


2*95 


=•56 


0'20 


2-56 


14 


4-90 


6-6S 


350 


3-iS 


I4"20 


2-92 


15 


527 


5-36 


3 >7 


219 


I3'20 


1S7 


16 


5-65 


7-15 


360 


3-55 


lo-oo 


2-94 


17 


5-05 


5 "53 


3"53 


2"00 


10 60 


X 79 


18 


495 


759 


31: 


442 


10 80 


371 


19 


3'47 


5-36 


329 


207 


470 


rSi 



There is no clue here for an explanation, as comparison of No. 8 
with Nos. 15, 18 and 19 will prove, unless it were by quantitative 
analysis, which the quantity of ash did not permit. The aqueous 
solutions, excepting Nos. 8 and 15 and all of the insoluble ashes 
moistened with water, gave j)ink or red colorations with phenol- 
pthalein, but a single drop of a very dilute sulphuric acid dis- 
charged the color; the insoluble ashes were mixed with water and 
titrated with dilute sulphuric acid using methyl-orange as indicator, 
but the results were as conflicting as the above ash determinations. 

As a further probable explanation was based upon the acidity of 
the aqueous opium infusion dissolving some of what in the preceding 
table is called insoluble ash, and the addition of ammonia afterwards 
reprecipitating this, a series of experiments were made, in which 2 
grammes were extracted with water, as in the official assay, to make 
64 c.c. filtrate ; the dregs were dried and ignited, and the results, 
representing percentage of ash left in the dregs of perfectly dried 
opium, are found in the last column of the preceding table. The 
determination with No, 8 was nude last, and was sufficient to shatter 



350 Processes and Laboratory Notes. { ^'^ j-Sy'ifo^^"*""' 

conclusions based upon the other seven samples ; it will be seen 
that there is a decrease of from 02 1 to 0-71 per cent, between the 
insoluble ash and the ash of the dregs, in the case of those samples 
yielding an impure crude morphine, whilst No. 10, yielding a pure 
morphine, showed no decrease. 

While these experiments were going on, I also tried in various 
ways and with different indicators to determine the acidity of the 
opium or opium infusion directly, but these efforts were fruitless. 

The loss in the reprecipitation of the morphine varies from 0033 
to o 0635 gramme., and while all of this may not be morphine, owing 
to the influence of the lime-water upon the impurities in the crude 
morphine, it opens up the question of the morphine left in the mother- 
liquor in the assays proper. When it is remembered that this opera- 
tion was carried out so as to minimize the loss, that the use of alco- 
hol and of larger quantities of ether in the assays will necessarily 
cause greater loss, and that the morphine actually weighed must be 
subjected to a correction which itself is arbitrary, one can realize 
that much work will yet have to be done before a satisfactory or 
accurate opium assay process is arrived at. Of the two problems 
to be solved, the one disclosing accurately the quantity of morphine 
in mother-liquors is considered the more difficult ; in fact, the solving 
of this will practically also solve the purity of any isolated morphine. 



ANALYTICAL PROCESSES AND LABORATORY NOTES. 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

ASSAY PROCESSES FOR KOLA, GUARANA AND COFFEE. 

A method for the estimation of caffeine in kola, guarana and 
coffee, which obviates the use of the Soxhlet extraction apparatus, 
has been used with success during the past year. The results agree 
closely with those obtained by the long and tedious processes for- 
merly employed, and can be obtained within a much shorter space 
of time. It resembles closely the process recently suggested by Dr. 
Keller for the determination of caffeine in tea. The directions are 
as follows: Into a separatory funnel of convenient size, place 5 
grammes of the drug and 5 c.c. 10 per cent, ammonia water. Allow 
the mixture to stand for thirty minutes, then shake out the alkaloid 
with chloroform, using three portions of 20 c.c. each. 



"^ "" jaT/.iS^""" } Processes and Laboratory Notes. 3 5 i 

If emulsification occurs, add powdered magnesium carbonate in 
small quantities until separation takes place. Transfer the mixed 
chloroform washings to a tared flask, recover the solvent in the cus- 
tomary manner, and weigh the residue, which consists of fat and 
alkaloid together. 

Dissolve the fat with warm ether, using successive fractions of 
20 c.c, until the ethereal washings leave no perceptible residue upon 
evaporation of a small quantity. With careful manipulation, the 
ether can be decanted each time without loss of caffeine ; but as a 
precautionary measure, the ethereal washings may be filtered, the 
filter washed well, first with ether and then with chloroform, trans- 
ferring the chloroform washings back to the flask for evaporating 
and weighing. The residue in the flask is almost pure caffeine, and 
the difference between the weights of the first residue and the last 
is the amount of fat present in the drug. 

In the case of kola, the ether also removes the theobromine, 
which is usually but a small percentage and may be ignored. 

The following comparative results have been obtained : 

KOLA NUTS. 

No. I, Exhausted with chloroform in Soxhlet i •39 per cent, caffeine. 

No. 2, Exhausted by the foregoing process 137 " '* 

No. 3, " " " " . . 1-48 " 

No. 4, " '• " " i'43 " *' 

No. 5, *• •• " " I 40 " 

GUARANA. 

No. I, Exhausted with chloroform in Soxhlet 4 32 per cent. 

No. 2, Exhausted by the foregoing process 4'68 " 

No. 3, " " " " 462 '• 

In assaying the fluid extracts of the drugs above mentioned, how- 
ever, the Lloyd ferric hydrate process gives the most satisfactory 
results. 

ESTIMATION OF ALKALOIDS IN WHITE HELLEBOKL. 

In answer to query No. 48 of the proceedings of this Association 
for 1896, the following results are submitted. The well-known gen- 
eral assay process of Dr. Keller was used with satislactory results, 
the details being as follows : Place in a dry flask — 

White hellel>ore . logrammcR. 

Chloroform . . 

ivther 

10 per cent, ammonia water . . 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



352 Processes and Laboratory Notes. {^'"•juT.'iS: 

Shake vigorously, and allow to stand for six hours or over night, 
then add 5 c.c. 10 per cent, ammonia water, shake well and pour off 
50 grammes of the clear solution (representing 5 grammes of the 
white hellebore). Transfer the solution to a separatory funnel and 
shake out the alkaloid with acidulated water, using three fractions of 
20 c.c. each. Place the aqueous washings in a separatory funnel, and, 
after rendering alkaline with ammonia water, shake out the sepa- 
rated alkaloid with a mixture of chloroform 3 volumes, ether i 
volume. Transfer these washings to a tared flask, recover the 
solvent, if desired, and weigh the residue, which is the total amount 
of alkaloid in 5 grammes of the drug. 

The results shown below were obtained by the foregoing process, 
using the commercial drug in the form in which it is sold for an 
insecticide. Five different samples assayed respectively : 

No. I, 1-20 per cent.; No. 2, 1-24 per cent.; No. 3, 1-25 per cent.; 
No. 4, ri2 per cent.; No. 5, i-i8 per cent, alkaloids. 

A sample of the whole drug was also ground and assayed. This 
yielded 1-75 per cent. — a somewhat higher yield, which should be 
verified by assaying numerous different samples before accepting it 
as a standard. The results as obtained show the commercial 
drug to be uniform and about i per cent, would be a fair limit for 
the minimum allowable yield of alkaloids by this process. 

ARE C. p. CHEMICALS CHEMICALLY PURE? 

In answer to query No. 44, requesting information upon the sub- 
ject, it is difficult to give a definite reply. The term Chemically 
Piire^ commonly abbreviated C. P., is used with such frequency when 
applied to inorganic compounds, that it loses its force in a great 
degree. To comply with this description accurately, a chemical 
should be absolutely free from all foreign compounds, an ideal 
requirement seldom found in practice. As generally applied, it has 
come to mean simply a very high degree of purity, such as is re- 
quired for analytical reagents, and, according to this interpretation 
of the term, the quality of most C. P. chemicals sold, is in accord- 
ance with the description. As an illustration of this accepted mean- 
ing, sulphuric acid may be mentioned. This acid is listed as " C. P.," 
and also " C. P., free from arsenic." The latter commands the higher 
price, thus indicating a degree of purity higher than " C P." 

Some cases have been observed in which the term was clearly 



^"''juiy'.i^'^''^} Processes and Laboratory Notes. 353 

misapplied. Among these were " C. P. chemicals for photographic 
purposes," as sodium thiosulphate and sulphite containing iron and 
zinc; also sodium carbonate containing large quantities of chlorides 
and sulphates. Fortunately, instances of this kind are rare, and, 
with the exception of one manufacturer who evaded the question 
by claiming that C, P. meant commercially pure, it has been found 
that chemicals when designated C. P. conform to these requirements 
as closely as is practicable. In this connection, the fact that even the 
U.S. P. is somewhat inconsistent in its requirements for the purity 
of certain chemicals may be new to some persons. The require- 
ments of the U.S P. for the purity of carbonate and bicarbonate of 
sodium allow a limit of chlorides and sulphates in each case. In 
benzoate, salicylate and other salts of sodium, which are 
made from one of the first-mentioned bases, absolute free- 
dom from chlorides and sulphates is required, with no apparent 
reason for such an increase in the standard of purity ; the result 
being that the salts of sodium, such as those mentioned, are found, 
in most cases, to contain traces of chlorides and sulphates, even 
when labelled U.S. P. The fulfillment of such increased requirements 
generally means an increase in the cost of the compound, with no 
practical benefit resulting therefrom. 

In criticising the quality of C. P. chemicals, care should be taken 
not to overstep the bounds of reason, as in a certain case where a 
bottle of C. P. ferrous suli)hate was returned after some weeks as not 
answering the tests for a pure salt. As the bottle was only partly 
filled, and loosely stoppered, the complaint was unreasonable. It is 
easier to find fault with an article than it is to make excuses for 
any deficiencies discovered ; but, for the interests of commercial har- 
mony, let us avoid being hypercritical. For use as reagents, chemi- 
cals should be required of the highest standard possible, but for pre- 
scription u.se it is unnecessary to require conformity to a standard 
of purity which raises the cost of the compound without increasing 
its practical value. 

A chart of the Mineral Products of the t'uited. States from 1S87 to 1896 
inclusive, has recently been issued by the U. S. Geological Survey. The pro- 
ducts are divided into two classes, metallic and non-mt-tallic. The >;raiul total 
in value of both metallic and non-metallic products amounted in 1S87 to J520,- 
714,474, and gradually rose to 1:648,670,798 in 1892, when it droppct! off some 
|74,QOo,ooo in 1893, the values thereafter being somewhat variable, and in 1896 
they had risen to 5611,510,700. 



354 North American Conifer ce. {'^'^zXAm^"'^ 

A CONTRIBUnON TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOME 
NORTH AMERICAN CONIFER^.^ 

By Edson S. Bastin and Henry Trimble. 

{Concluded from page p/, of this Volume.') 

TSUGA MERTENSIANA, CARR. 

DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTERS. 

This species is known as Western hemlock or Californian hemlock 
spruce. It was first named and described by the Russian botanist, 
Bongard, who gave it the name Pinus Mertensiana, and the locality 
Sitka, in Alaska. It occurs, however, on the Pacific Coast, from the 
vicinity of San Francisco through Oregon to Alaska. 

While similar in appearance to our Eastern species, it is, when 
fully developed, a tree of much larger size, sometimes attaining a 
height of 200 feet. It is also straighter grained, and has a redder 
and usually thicker bark, but the most distinctive difference, per- 
haps, is in the fruits and seeds, the scales of the cones being more 
elongated, and the wings of the seeds being relatively longer and 
straighter. 

MICROSCOPICAL STRUCTURE. 

The barks of the Eastern and Western species are the only ones 
that have been examined microscopically. They showed, as might 
have been expected, a great similarity in structure, though there 
appeared to be some characters which we may rely on for distin- 
guishing them. In both it was seen that cOrk formation begins 
early, and, in all cases, where the bark was taken from stems more 

^ The death of Professor Bastin has necessarily brought the publication of 
this series of papers to a close. As there was sufficient material left by him to 
nearly complete the structural description of the Tsuga, it was thought the 
publication of this paper, by completing the genus, would make a more accept- 
able ending. Professor Bastin was working on the structure of Tsuga Caro- 
liniana until shortly before his death, but it is to be regretted that the drawings 
were not completed. As all the originals of the illustrations in this series of 
papers were from his pen, no attempt has been made to have the few remaining 
ones of this genus completed by others. 

A number of reprints have been prepared, and copies will be mailed to any 
one applying for them, until the supply is exhausted. 

It is the hope and expectation of the surviving author to continue the 
chemical work on this natural order, as a large number of samples have been 
collected, much work has been completed, and the results will be published as 
rapidly as possible. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July. 1897. 



} North Avierican Conifer cp. 



355 



than two years old, the secondary cork formations had invaded the 
inner layer of the bark and bands of cork were observed crossing 
at various angles the medullary rays. The cork in both was colored 







C^L 



I-IO. 57. 

^^S- 57' — Small portion of cross-section of bark of Tsuga Mtrtetisiana, mag- 
nified about 50 diameters, c, r, c, bands of secondary cork ; </, intervening 
dead tissues, composed of sieve and parenchymatous elements, and, like the 
other species, rich in tannic, resinous and coloring matters; j, j,7group9 of 
stone cells ; w, ;//, relatively large, fusiform me<lullary-ray cells ; b, band of 
large parenchymatous cells ; cr, crystal cell ; ca, cambium cells. 



356 



NortJi American Conifer cb. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July. 1897. 



a deep purple, and this coloring matter was bleached out with diffi- 
culty, even by Labarraque's solution. This coloring matter appeared 
to be different in character from the reddish-brown coloring sub- 
stance found in the tissues between the bands of cork, for not only 
was the latter a different shade of red, but it bleached more 
readily. 



C/r- 




FlG. 58. 

^^^- 5<^.— Small portion of longitudinal-tangential section of bark of Tsuga 
Mertcnsiaiia, magnified about 75 diameters, s, cluster of stone cells ; cr^ crys- 
tals of calcium oxalate ; w, m, medullary rays ; r, oleo-resin cell. 

Tests for tannin showed in Tsuga Mertensiana that the white or 
colorless younger portions of the bark contained but little of it, 
while the older portions, particularly the dead sieve and parenchyma 
tissues between the bands of secondary cork, were observed to be 
particularly rich in it. 

Stone cells of large size, and often quite irregular, occurred, either 



^"•/uiy'-iS^""'-} ^orth American Cottifenr. 357 

isolated or clustered in groups of several or many, throughout all 
except the youngest portions of the inner bark. They were quite 
numerous, but distributed without apparent order. They were 
marked with numerous very fine pore-canals, and very numerous 
and fine concentric lines. Although abundance of starch was found 
in the bark of Tsuga Canadensis, none was observed in the bark of 
T. Mertensiana. It is possible, indeed probable, that a sample of 
the latter collected at some other season of the year would show the 
presence of starch. The medullary rays in both barks were 
observed to be composed of single rows of cells, and these were 
radially elongated and of large size as compared with those of 
adjacent tissues; but those of T. Mertensiana were, on the average, 
larger, and the rays in this species, as seen in a longitudinal-tangen- 
tial section were composed, on the average, of a larger ^number of 
cells. 

These differences in the medullary rays are, perhaps, the most 
constant ones between the two barks. In both barks an abundance 
of calcium oxalate crystals was observed. (See Fi^. jj) They 
were mostly in the form of long prisms, and were contained in rows 
of elongated cells of narrow diameter, which traversed the bark in 
the direction of its length. The crystals were frequently associated 
in the contaming cells with resinous and coloring matters. In form 
and arrangement they did not differ in the two barks, but appeared 
to be rather more abundant in the Pacific Coast species. 

Oleoresin cells appeared to be about equally abundant in the two 
species. Those that did not also contain crystals were isolated or 
in rows of two or three, and the cells were shorter and broader 
than the crystal cells, though they were not usually so large as the 
parenchyma cells, with which they were associated. They were 
scattered through the inner bark without apparent order. Besides 
the oleoresin cells proper, just described oleoresin, was seen to occur 
in many cells not especially devoted to secretions; this was particu- 
larly true of the cells in the older portions of the bark. 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 

The constituents of Tsuga Mertensiana do not appear to have 
been investigated. The work for this paper was mostly confined to 
an estimation and examination of the tannin in the stem bark. The 
sample used in the investigation was collected by Professor F. K. 



358 North American Conifer ce, {^'"jj^y^?^!™- 

Lloyd, of Forest Grove, Oregon. The following results were 
obtained: 

Per Cent, 

Moisture 5'76 

Ash iu absolutely dry substance 1*42 

Tannin in absolutely dry material ii'37 

A quantity of the tannin was prepared, purified and submitted, 
after drying at 120° C, to elementary analysis, whereby the follow- 
ing percentages were obtained: 

Per Cent. 

Carbon 59'ii 

Hydrogen 4'93 

Oxygen - 35*96 

$100 '00 

These results and the qualitative reactions indicate that the tan- 
nin of Tsuga Mertensiana is identical with that from T. Canadensis, 
and, therefore, with that from the bark of a large number of species 
of oak. 

ECONOMICS. 

The wood of Tsuga Mertensiana is pale, tough and soft, and is 
often used for building purposes. The bark of the roots yields a 
strong fibre that is said to be employed for seines and nets, prob- 
ably by the Indians. Authorities differ somewhat in regard to the 
resin, Kellogg stating that it yields a considerable quantity, while 
others report the resin as scarce. The bark of the trunk, with its 
rich percentage of tannin, has always been in demand for making 
leather. 

TSUGA CAROLINIANA, ENGELM. 

DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTERS. 

The Carolina hemlock is found along the Allegheny mountains 
from southwestern Virginia to South Carolina. It has been found 
at an elevation of 4,200 feet. It does not occur very abundantly, 
and, because it is said to be a rather handsomer tree than T. 
Canadensis, it is cultivated somewhat at the North. 

Carolina hemlock is not a very large tree ; its height is given 
by different authorities as 40 to 80 feet. The wood is brownish 
in color, soft and brittle. The cones and leaves resemble those 
of the common hemlock, but both are a trifle larger. 



^'"■/u'ly'iS^*""''} ///^^^/ Poiuders of Commerce. 359 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 

The specimen used in this investigation was obtained from the 
Highlands Nursery, near Kawana, North CaroHna. No pubHshed 
record can be found of an examination into the composition of any 
part of this tree. The leaves, the stem bark and the root bark were 
partly examined with the following results : 

Ash in absolutely Tannin in absolutely 
Moisture. dry material. dr\- material. 

Leaves 7*07 

Stem bark . 8*22 

Root bark . 5-95 

The ashes of these several parts contained potassium and calcium as 
phosphates and carbonates, and silica ; besides these, the ashes of 
both barks contained sulphates. No further investigation was made 
of the tannin, but it is safe to predict its identity with that from the 
other species. 

ECONOMICS. 

On account of the scarcity of this tree, it does not appear to have 
been put to any practical use, although a comparison indicates that 
it could be applied to all the uses now possessed by the common 
hemlock. 



270 


452 


I "44 


18-35 


2-20 


17 02 



INSECT POWDERS OF COMMERCE.^ 
By Georce Reynolds Durr.\nt. 

During the past quarter of a century at least twenty eminent 
chemists, pharmacists, and microscopists have devoted some atten- 
tion to the physical characteristics, chemical constituents, and toxic 
properties of the insect powders of commerce. In the earlier part 
of this period the references were exclusively to the powder from 
the flowers of Crysanthemum caucasicum, or Persian variety, which 
gradually gave way to the Dalmatian kind produced from the 
flowers of the Crysanthemum cinerariiufolium, and it is possible that 
the Dalmatian replaced the Persian variety because the latter was 
the first kind to be grossly adulterated ; at least it is true in my 
experience that both kinds are equally useful if equally free from 
sophistication. 

A careful study of the whole of the subject is more likely, in the 
absence of much personal experiment and thought, to confuse the 

' Jiiarfnaceudcal Journal, June la, 1897. 



360 Insect Powders of Commerce. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1897. 



reader than to provide him with such information as will enable him 
to distinguish the true powder from sophistications, which are still 
as common, although changed in character, as they have been at any 
time since the Persian powder gave way to its honester rival. To 
any one who has worked on this subject for a few years, the last 
paragraph may appear to be superfluous, but it is evident that there 
is still a plentiful lack of knowledge on the part of the majority of 
buyers, or it would be impossible to account on any other hypothesis 
for the enormous amount of grossly sophisticated insect powder which 
is sold as genuine every season.^ 

The object I have had in view in recording the results of several 
years' attention to this subject, is to provide a ready means of quickly 
and cheaply ascertaining if a given sample of insect powder is what 
it is represented to be by the seller, but before proceeding to this 
part of the subject, it will be profitable to briefly set forth the 
results of the work of other investigators. These references will 
not be by any means exhaustive of the subject, but will include 
most of the literary notices which have come within my own knowl- 
edge. 



^ While engaged in preparing this paper for the press, a curious confirmation 
of my contention has been supplied by a correspondence with a provincial firm 
of dealers in insect powder. I have no reason to doubt the bona fides of the 
firm, and must therefore conclude that such large sellers of insect powder as 
they claim to be are yet profoundly ignorant of the characteristics of true 
insect powder. I fear my charity is not sufficiently broad to give credit for 
good faith in this firm's opinion on the Loudon trade in insect powder ! The 
following short extracts are reproduced from this correspondence : In reply to 
my request for samples and quotations, '* Thank you for your enquiry, and are 
sending samples of insect powder from closed flowers, 100 5. per cwt., and from 
half open flowers at 75 j. per cwt." 

My reply to this quotation expressed regret at the misleading description, as 
both samples were grossly adulterated, which drew a most indignant letter. 
" In reply to your letter, we think the party conducting the analysis must have 
made some miscalculation, as we are direct importers from Austria, and have, 
from the grinders there, the fullest assurance of its genuineness, and that the 
' closed ' and ' half-closed ' are from flowers of that description and from flowers 
only. We have sold the same article for seven years, and our sale has greatly 
increased. As regards the London price for insect powder, the import offered 
in Loudon is second rate, both in quality and quantity, and consists only of odd 
lots that have passed through several dealers' hands. We write strongly on 
this subject because we should not have been able to advance our trade in this 
article to its present state if we had been capable of misdescription ! " 



""'"iuiy'iS^"'"} ^'^-^^^'^ Powders of Comvtcrce, 361 

It will be found that the hterature of the subject divides itself 
into the foUovvinfr sections : 
{a) Toxic constituents. 

(b) Microscopic appearance. 

[c) Adulterations. 

It is intended to keep this division of the subject so far as may be 
possible and convenient. 

So far back as 1863, Hanaman Roch (National Dispensatory) 
attributed the insecticidal value of the povsdeied flowers of Crys, 
caucasicum to a volatile oil. Some years after, in the seventies, 
Semenoff appeared to be practically in agreement with this state- 
ment, but treated the matter more broadly, if less definitely, by 
substituting "volatile substance " for the more definite, if less ac- 
curate, "volatile oil." Immediately after in (1876), Jousset de 
Belle^me stated that, in his opinion, the active toxic principle was a 
crystalline alkaloid. In 1877 this la.'t statement was corrected by 
R. Rother {Druggists' Circular and Chem. Gazette), in a paper giv- 
ing the results of a very systematic and practical investigation ; the 
conclusions at which this writer arrived are as follows : There is 
no crystalline alkaloid ; there are (^) an oleoresinous greenish-yel- 
low acid, •' persicein ;" {b) another acid body, " persiretin," both 
inactive; {c) active principle, a glucoside converted by boiling into 
" persiretin " and glucose. These constituents are all soluble in 
ether alcohol, benzine and petroleum ether, and insoluble in chloro- 
form. With the latter part of the statement, referring to the solu- 
bility of all the constituents of any value in ether, etc., I can cor- 
dially agree. Very shortly after the appearance of this article by 
Rother, a notice appeared in the Bulletin Soc. Chun, by G. Dal Sie, 
in which he claims that the active toxic principle is to be found in 
a volatile acid existing in the flowers in a free state. M. Finzclberg 
(Pliarui, CentralhalU\ 1880) proved that a concentrated tincture of 
the flowers had definite insecticidal properties, and this statement 
has been confirmed by my own ex|:erimcnt.s on flies. O. Tester 
{Phann. lourn. [3]. XII, 359, states that the active principle is a 
soft resin. At the British Pharmaceutical Conference, lS88,apa|x:r 
was read by William Kirkby on the microscopical characteristics of 
the flowers of C. caucasicum and C. cincrari-efolium. The paper 
was valuable so far as the subject was treated, but it was less com- 
plete than the author intended, inasmuch as sophistications were net 



362 Insect Powders of Commerce, {'''^- inxlim""^' 

taken into consideration. Although the paper itself was thus 
limited in scope, the discussion which followed covered the whole 
ground. Mr. Robinson expressed his incredulity at the presence of 
any toxic agent, but this bold skeptic was crushed by the President, 
assisted by Mr. Howie and Mr. Martindale. 

In the Pliarm. ZeitscJir.fur Ricssland, 1890, E. Hirschsohn states 
that the active principle is neither a volatile oil nor an acid resin ; 
this statement is neutralized by F. Schlagdenhauffen in an article in 
the Pharm. Zeitung, 1892, in which he states that he found the 
toxic properties to be {a) yellow volatile oil, and {U) uncrystallizable 
soft resinous mass, pyrethrotoxic acid very soluble in ether. It 
seems to me that the average buyer of insect powder, after careful 
consideration of the foregoing evidence by so many able men, would 
remain more or less doubtful as to the properties and characteristics 
for which he ought to look in deciding upon the value of the various 
qualities to be found in the insect powders of commerce. The 
results of my own work on this part of the subject may be briefly 
stated as follows : 

The toxic properties are due to — 

{a) A volatile oil amounting to 05 per cent, in picked specimens 
of closed flowers, and much less in open flowers. 

{b) A soft acid resinous body, this is the principal source of the 
toxic effect. It is found to the amount of 48 per cent, in selected 
closed flowers, less than 4 per cent, in half open flowers, and still 
less in flowers that are fully open ; the whole plant, apart from the 
flowers, contains mere traces of resin. 

The fine dry powder, after exhaustion with ether, has no decided 
toxic properties, but numerous experiments on beetles convince me 
that this exceedingly fine powder contributes something to the 
insecticidal properties by its physical action, perhaps by its effect on 
respiration, reducing the vitality of the insect, and also by impeding 
locomotion, and preventing a speedy retreat from noxious surround- 
ings, and a safe return to the customary lodgings. The toxic proper- 
ties of the volatile oil and resin may be proved by isolating them 
and mixing them with an inert powder, whose physically deterrent 
equation has been ascertained by experiment on beetles. I believe 
no vivisection license is required for this. 

Having referred to the toxic constituents of, and the proportions 
in which they exist in, genuine powder of the flowers of C. cinerarise- 



^""'juTy';-!^""'} Jfistxt Poivdirs of Commcrcc. 363 

folium, it is very important to mention the fact that chlorophyll, in 
its green unchanged form, is not found in selected dried, closed 
insect flowers, as this fact has an important bearing on one (and I 
think the most prevalent) form of sophistication to be found in the 
present insect powders of commerce. 1 cannot fully explain why it 
is that insect powder from half-open, and from flowers that are fully 
developed, should show a certain amount of chlorophyll coloring in 
the ether extract, but it may possibly be that less care is taken in 
collection of these than is the case with the more valuable closed 
flowers. But whatever may be the cause, the fact remains that 
insect powder ground from selected closed flowers is sensibly free 
from chlorophyll, whereas traces of it (less than 05 per cent.) will be 
found in powders prepared from mixed and half-open flowers, and 
in the foreign-ground insect powders it often amounts to from 50 to 
80 per cent, of the total ether extract. Samples have been recently 
examined by me yielding 6 per cent, of ether extract, of which 
more than two-thirds was owing to chlorophyll. It will therefore 
be seen that any estimate of the value of insect powder based upon 
the percentage of ether extract would be quite fallacious unless the 
chlorophyll be also determined and deducted from the total. 
Microscopical examination is useful in distinguishing the grosser 
forms of admixture, such as powdered quassia and the woody tissue 
of the leaves and stems of the plant, but this latter form of sophisti- 
cation can be determined by the method given further on. [For 
full particulars of the microscopical appearance of true insect 
flowers, the reader is referred to the paper by Mr. William Kirkby, 
F.R.M.S. {Proc. Brit. Pliann. Con/., 1888).] 

Adulterants — In using the term adulterants as applied to our sub- 
ject, it is intended to imply the presence in insect powder of any- 
thing but the flowers of i\. cinerariiufolium. Adulterators of insect 
powder have for their first object the cheai)ening of the article sold, 
and occasionally they have a second object, /. <•., to improve its color. 

The first object has been achievec in the past by the addition of 
powder of quassia, aloes, senna and Hungarian daisy, and the artistic 
eye of the ignorant buyer has been satisfied by the addition of the 
powder of fustic, turmeric and chrome-yellow. The presence of 
quassia, fustic and turmeric may be detected by the aid ol the 
microscope, and chrome-yellow (salt of lead) chemically. The pres- 
ence of the lowdcr of Hungarian d.iisv is more difTicult to detect 



364 Insect Pozvders of Commerce. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1897. 



microscopically, but it yields lO per cent, of ash, whereas true insect 
powder yields but 65 per cent. On this point the reader is referred 
to an extract from a paper by J. Schrenk (American Journal of 
Pharmacy, 1889) in the "Year Book," 1890. 

It is hoped that it will not be difficult to accept my contention 
that by the term insect powder it is intended by both buyers and 
sellers that powder of the flowers of the C. cinerarisefolium is under- 
stood, at least so far as transactions in the open market are con- 
cerned. Owners of proprietary insect powders have a right to com- 
pound them as they please, and this right has been freely exercised 
by the use of powdered quassia, colocynth, etc., as well as by the 
addition of various coloring agents. Although powdered quassia 
mixed with powdered insect flowers must be considered to fall 
under our definition of adulteration, it is quite possible that a small 
proportion is useful in insect powder, increasing or broadening the 
base of its usefulness. The same remarks apply to other admix- 
tures, such as powdered bitter apple, and the only criticism to be 
made on this point is that if powdered quassia or other powders 
having insecticidal properties be added to insect powder, let it be 
done with the knowledge of buyers and at the proper price. 

The adulterants just referred to are for the most part things of 
the past, with the exception of added coloring matters, which are 
still very commonly used to meet the too general want of knowl- 
edge of the proper appearance of true insect powder. At the pres- 
ent time the insect powders of commerce may be divided into the 
following classes: 

(i) Ground from closed {a) wild, or {p) cultivated flowers of C. 
cinerarisefolium. 

(2) Ground from half-open or mixed half-open and open flowers. 

(3) Ground from damaged flowers. 

(4) Foreign-ground, divided into grades of badness under the 
meaningless terms: "closed flowers," " half-open flowers," etc., etc. 
Of these sorts there appears to be as many as there are of hens* 
eggs, which embrace all the kinds between "new-laid" at the top 
of the list, and "political" at the bottom. The English-ground 
insect powders do not always justify the description given, but in 
my experience, the foreign-ground specimens never do, and it is 
with much satisfaction that it is noted that a ready method of dis- 
tinguishing "foreign-ground" is to hand. 



^'"■jub-'iSJ"'"-} ^''-f^^^ Pozi'dcrs of Commerce. 365 

It will be seen from the remarks made on the toxic constituents 
of the flowers of C. cineraria^fohum that the following statement 
embraces the results of my own experience as well as that of the 
majority of laborers in the same field : 

That the value of insect powder is in direct pro})ortion to the 
combined amount of essential oil and soft acid resin, and in inverse 
proportion to the amount of chlorophyll, both statements to be read 
together. 

Jt has not been my good fortune, up to the time of writing this, 
to have met with one sample of 'foreign-ground" insect powder 
that was not grossly sophisticated. 

A perfect sample of insect powder should pass a sieve having at 
least eighty meshes to the linear inch ; the particles would be, there- 
fore, approximately -^^ of an inch in greatest magnitude. (The 
powder has been passed through a sieve with 100 meshes to a linear 
inch, but 90 is the more usual number.j The powder should yield 
5-25 per cent, of combined essential oil and soft resin ; chlorophyll 
should be absent, or present in the merest trace. 

The following simple method of testing the value of insect powder 
should be adopted by all chemists who wish to sell a genuine pow- 
der, or, to put the matter on lower grounds, who wish to increase 
their sale of this really important commercial product. Place ICXD 
grains of the powder to be tested in the cylinder of a glass syringe 
(l oz.). The powder should be pressed down compactly on to a 
piece of absorbent cotton, to act as a filter. Moisten with ether 7-35. 
Close the top of the syringe, and macerate for thirty minutes ; perco- 
lation may then proceed ; the powder being repercolated with the 
same fluid four times, and finally washed through with sufficient 
ether to make up one fluid ounce. The resulting percolate should 
be of a rich yellow color ; if a pronounced green color be the result, 
the sample may be discarded at once. 

In the absence of much green coloring matter, the fluid may be 
carefully evaporated (temperature not exceeding 200° F.), and the 
residue weighed in a tared watch-glass. The resulting soft mass 
should not weigh less than 3-75 grains, and in the finest samples 
reaches 55 grains, and should have the pleasant and characteristic 
odor of the flowers.^ At the present time the price of insect powder 

* Exactness may require the determiuation of the chlorophyll. If an appre- 
ciable amount be present, this may be ilone by l>oiling the residue in dilute iul> 



366 Liquefaction of Fluorine. {^"^-/u^y?!!'?""^' 

varies between S^., and 2s. 2d. per lb., the highest price represent- 
ing the value of English-ground powder from closed flowers and the 
lowest powder " foreign-ground " from the whole plant. This 
ground whole plant appears to be the principal sophistication, 
apart from the coloring matter, found in commerce at the present 
time. 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Charles Umney 
for very fine specimens of the dry flowers of C. cinerariaefolium. 



THE LIQUEFACTION OF FLUORINE.^ 
By H. Moissan and J. Dewar. 

The physical properties of a large number of mineral and organic 
compounds of fluorine indicated, theoretically, that the liquefaction 
of fluorine could only be accomplished at a very low temperature. 
Whilst the chlorides of boron and silicon are liquid at ordinary 
temperatures, the fluorides are gaseous, and very far from their 
points of liquefaction. This is also true with the organic com- 
pounds; chloride of eth} 1 boils at -f 12° C, and the fluoride of 
ethyl at 32°.^ Chloride of propyl boils at -f- 45°, and the fluoride 
of propyl at — 2°.^ 

Similar observations have been made by Paterno and Oliver!/ 
and by Vallach and Heusler.^ 

phuric acid and volumetrically determining the converted chlorophyll as glu- 
cose with a suitable copper solution. For my own purposes I should unhesi- 
tatingly reject the sample rather than take this unnecessary trouble, unless a 
fee were attached to the operation. 

' M. Moissan brought all his apparatus for the production of fluorine to the 
Royal Institution on the occasion of his lecture there on Friday, the 28th of 
May. The next day the writer had the good fortune to witness in the labora- 
tories of the Institution, by M. Moissan and Professor Dewar, some of the 
experiments which resulted in the liquefaction of fluorine. These experiments 
mainly owed their success to the unrivalled appliances for the production of 
intense cold possessed by the Institution, and the skill and experience of Pro- 
fessor Dewar and his assistants in preparing a special apparatus suitable for the 
examination of, and experimenting with, fluid fluorine, and in the manipula- 
tion of large quantities of liquid air. — W, C. 

■^H. Maissan, " Propriet^s et Preparation du Fluorure d'ethyle," ^«^/. de 
Chim. etde Phys., Series 6, Vol. X[X, p. 266. 

•' Meslans, Comptes Rendus, Vol. CVIII, p. 352. 

* Paterno and Oliveri, " Sur les trois Acides Fluobenzoiques Isomeres, et sur 
les.\cides Fluotoluidique et Fluoanisque," GazeiLa ChUnica Italiana, Vol. XII, 
p. 85, and Vol. XIII, p. 583. 

'Vallach and Ileusler, Annales de Liebig, Vol. CCXLIII, p. 219. 



^'"■j'uTy'iSj*'''"} Uque faction of Fluorine. 367 

Gladstone's experiments on ato-nic refraction'"' can well be com- 
pared with these facts. 

In fact fluorine by certain of its properties resembles oxyf^en, 
though at the same time it is distinctly at the head of the chlorine 
group. 

The conclusion to be drawn from these observations appears to 
be that fluorine can only be liquefied with great difficulty. One of 
us showed that at a temperature of — 95", at the ordinary pressure, 
there is no change at all." 

In the new experiments which we now publish, fluorine was pre- 
pared by the electrolysis of fluoride of potassium in solution in 
anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The fluorine gas was freed from vapors 
of hydrofluoric acid, by being passed through a serpentine of plati- 
num, cooled by a mixture of solid carbonic acid and alcohol. 
Two platinum tubes filled with perfectly dry fluoride of sodium com- 
pleted the purification. 

The apparatus used for liquefying this gas consisted of a small 
cylinder of thin glass, to the upper part of which was fused a plati- 
num tube. This latter contained in its axis another smaller tube, 
likewise of platinum. The gas to be liquefied enters by the annular 
space, passes through the glass envelope, and escapes through the 
smaller inner tube. This apparatus was fused to the tube by which 
the fluorine was supplied. 

In these experiments we used liquid oxygen as the refrigerant. 
It was prepared according to the method already described by one 
of us, and this research, we may remark, required several litres.* 

The apparatus being cooled down to the temperature of quietly 
boiling liquid oxygen (183^), the current of fluorine gas passed 
through the glass envelope without becoming li(juid. Hut at this 
low temperature it has lost its chemical activity, and no l<>n'.:tfr 
attacks the glass. 

If we now make a vacuum over the oxygen, we see, as soon as 
rapid ebullition takes place, a liquid collecting in the glass envelope, 



"J. H. Gladstone and G. Gladstone, "Rerraction and Dispersion of Fluoben- 
zine and .Mlied Compounds," Phil. Mag., Series 5. Vol. XXXI. p. i. 

\\. Moissan, " Nouvelles Recherches siir h* Fluor." An^t. iff Chim. et de 
Phys., Series 6, Vol. XXIV, p. 224 

"J. Dewar, "New Researches on Liquid .\ir, ' Royal Inslilulion ol Ureal 
Britain, 1896, and Proc. /Coy. Inst., 1S93. 



368 Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { ''"' ju'iyrisT '""' 

while gas no longer escapes from the apparatus. At this moment 
we stop with the finger the tube by which the gas had been escap- 
ing, so as to prevent air from entering, and the glass bulb soon 
becomes full of a clear yellow liquid, possessed of great mobility ; 
the color of this liquid is the same as that of fluorine gas when 
examined in a stratum one metre thick. According to this experi- 
ment, fluorine becomes liquid at — 185°. 

As soon as this little apparatus is removed from the liquid oxy- 
gen the temperature rises, and the yellow liquid begins to boil with 
an abundant disengagement of gas, having all the energetic reac- 
tions of fluorine. 

We took advantage of these experiments to study some of the 
reactions of fluorine on bodies kept at extremely low temperatures. 

Silicon, boron, carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, and reduced iron 
cooled in liquid oxygen and then placed in an atmosphere of fluor- 
ine, did not become incandescent. At this low temperature fluorine 
did not displace iodine from iodides. However, its chemical energy 
is still sufficiently great to decompose benzine and essence of tur- 
pentine with incandescence as soon as their temperatures rose to 
— 180°. It would thus seem that the powerful affinity of fluorine for 
hydrogen is the last to disappear. 

There is still another experiment we ought to mention. When 
we pass a current of fluorine gas through liquid oxygen, a flocculent 
precipitate of a white color, which quickly settles to the bottom, is 
rapidly formed. If we shake up this mixture and throw it on a fil- 
ter, we separate the precipitate, which possesses the curious prop- 
erty of deflagrating with violence as soon as the temperature rises. 

We intend to follow up the study of this body, as well as that of 
the liquefaction and solidification of fluorine, which demand further 
experiments. — Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXIV, No. 22, p 1202, 
through Chemical News, ]\i^Q. 11, 1897. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

A REACTION FOR DISTINGUISHING «-NAPHTOL FROM /9-NAPHTOL. 

E. Leger {your, de Pharm. et de Cliim., [6], 5, 527), distinguishes 
/znaphtol and ^9-naphtol by adding to saturated aqueous solutions of 
each a solution of sodium hypobromite. The solutions of naphtol 
are prepared by rubbing the respective compounds in a mortar w/th 



"""iur/iS:^""} Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 369 

water, since by simply shaking in a test tube the naphtol frequently 
does not become moistened. The solution of sodium hypobromite 
is made by adding 30 c.c. of soda solution, 36° B. to 100 c.c. of 
water, and adding 5 c.c. of bromine. 

To make the test, one takes of either naphtol solution 10 c.c, to 
which are added two drops of the sodium hypobromite solution. 

(1) With the ^/-naphtol the reagent produces a violet color and 
precipitate. This reaction is so delicate that if the solution of a- 
naphtol is diluted with nine volumes of water the color is readily 
distinguished. 

(2) The solution of ^if-naphtol is turned yellow by the reagent, 
then greenish and finally back to yellow. 

It will be seen that this test is only applicable in a mixture of the 
two to a detection of ^t-naphtol. That fact, however, does not les- 
sen its value materially in this country, where it is chiefly desired 
to prove the freedom of ^^-naphtol from the a-variety. 

ASH OF PINEAPPLE. 

J. J. Bowrey {^Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, 3, 
236), gives the following composition of the ash of the pineapple, 
and draws conclusions concerning its cultivation: 

Per Cent. 

Potash, K,C) . . 4942 

Potassium chloride, KCl 088 

Sodium chloride, NaCl . 1701 

Magnesia, MgO 8'So 

Lime, CaO . 1215 

Phosphoric acid, P/J 4 oS 

Sulphuric acid, H^SC), . trace 

Silica, SiOj .; : 

Ferric phosphate . . . 293 

9929 

Judging from this analysis, potash is the most important mineral 
substance which the pineapple requires. Of course, phosphoric 
acid is also necessary, and so are lime, magnesia and iron ; but it 
must be a very rare soil which does not contain iron and magnesia 
in ample quantity, and usually there is enough lime also present. 
It is difficult to make suggestions respecting manuring in total ig- 
norance of the nature of the soil to be manured. But certainly no 
harm can be done and probably much good by adding {)hosr)horic 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 



3;o Literature Relating to Pharmacy, {"^"'•/u'ly^S' 

acid and potash to the soil, the former is best appHed as " basic 
slag" or "Thomas slag;" 5 to 10 cvvt. per acre will supply 
phosphoric acid for three to four years. The potash can be obtained 
as chloride for about £Z per ton. From 50 to 100 pounds per 
acre would be a dressing for a year. The pineapple also needs 
nitrogen for its growth , this might be supplied as nitrate of soda, 
at ^10 per ton, giving 100 pounds per acre when the plants have 
started to grow rapidly. 

COLLECTING JUICE OF PAPAW. 

F. B. Kilmer, in Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaicay 
4, 68, describes the method to be followed in collecting the juice 
from the fruit of Carica papaya in the Island of Jamaica. Cut 
an incision lengthwise of the fruit, not over ^ of an inch in 
depth ; if it is made much deeper the milk is apt to be carried into 
the fruit and not run outside. The milk will run quite freely for a short 
time, but soon coagulates so that it will no longer run. To catch 
the milk that drops and flows I place under the tree tin pans made 
in such a way as surround the trunk of the tree and catch the drip- 
ping milk. 

I found it well to tap the fruit early in the morning, before the 
sun was very high, as it quickly dried the milk and stopped the 
flow. After the flow had ceased it was found to be a good practice 
to brush off all the coagulated milk into the pans and make a fresh 
incision, when another, but smaller, yield was obtained. The scor- 
ings should be made about ^ inch apart all around the fruit. The 
time to tap the fruit is before it is ripe, and when it is green 
and full. The yield is much larger just after a rain storm or a spell 
of wet weather. Still, you can tap a green fruit at any time and 
obtain more or less of the white milk. This milk must be dried 
the same day that it comes from the tree, and must be dried in the 
sun. Artificial heat will not do. It can be dried right away on 
the tin pans, spread out thin, or spread out on sheets of glass. It 
will dry in an hour or so in the sun. Any amount of exposure to 
the sun will not harm it in drying, but artificial heat destroys it. If 
it should so happen in gathering that, owing to stormy weather, it 
cannot be dried in the sun the day it is gathered, you can mix it 
with some naphtha or benzine, turning it into a sort of milk. 



^"•/u'iy?iSr°''} Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 371 

CUTCH EXTRACTION. 

When commercial cutch enters the domain of pharmacy it be- 
comes catechu ; but whether cutch or catechu, it is a substance of 
rather uncertain origin and of very variable composition. The fol- 
lowing, from the Indian Pliarmacologist, -♦ 7, January i, 1897, indi- 
cates that there is still much to be learned about this substance- 
" One of the most recent issues of the Agricultural Ledger series 
contains a brief account of the examination of a sample of Burma 
cutch received by a Glasgow firm through Dr. Watt. It is interest- 
ing if only for the fact that it brings out strongly the divergence 
that sometimes exists between chemical analysis and commercial 
opinion. Dr. Watt suggested that cutch should be manufactured in 
India by the superior European method of extracting dyes from 
timber. Twenty tons of the Acacia Catechu timber were procured 
here and shipped to Glasgow. Dr. Watt saw the timber before it 
was shipped and considered it to be of average quality. The tim- 
ber was treated by the vacuum process, and the resulting product 
was described by Dr. Watt as a cutch of great purity and very good 
appearance. A chemical analysis by Dr. Leather showed that the 
cutch thus produced contained 6 58 per cent, of crude catechin and 
78-20 per cent, of catechu tannin. At the same time a sample was 
submitted to the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce for professional 
opinion, and this was completely opposed to the conclusion of the 
chemist. Commercial opinion described it as ' very inferior to that 
imported from Rangoon.' The sample was described as overboiled, 
and would fetch only Rs. 3 a maund as against Rs. 8 for the best 
brands of Burma cutch. Clearly the commercial expert who re- 
ported on the sample made a mistake in his identification of it. lor 
he reported that it was shipped to the Calcutta market in 2-ounce 
tins for mixing with paints, 'and in this form it has a special value* 
but for medicinal purposes, or for bazaar use, that is, for mixing with 
pan, it has no .sale.' 

" Dr. Watt, in a brief note on this curious divergence of opinion, 
says that the only explanation is that trade opinions arc based 
mainly upon external appearances. The sample is unlike the ordi- 
nary article met with in the market, and probably bears some resem- 
blance to an inferior grade known to dealers. • As a general rule, 
the commercial expert is lost if carried out of the field of compara- 
tive valuations. Me knows little or nothing of chemistry.' That 



3/2 



Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^"'•/u°y:-i?9*^^'"'- 

is true, of course, but the trade opinion shows that cutch prepared 
by the vacuum process, though pronounced by chemical examina- 
tion to be of great purity and good appearance, will not, for the 
present at least, secure anything like a good price in the market." 

THE ALKALOIDS OF VERATRUM. 

George B, Frankforter, in Minnesota Botannical Studies, Bulletin 
No. 9, May 31, 1897, gives ^"^ elaborate review of the veratrums, but 
especially mentions V. viride, which is the only one occurring in 
Minnesota. Its general range in North America, under the popular 
name of Hellebore, is a broad one. 

The substance commonly known in pharmacy as veratrine, varies 
widely in its composition, chemical, physical and physiological prop- 
erties. The introduction of the so-called "■ Merck veratrine " has 
changed matters somewhat, although samples of the Merck alkaloid 
have been found to vary considerably in their general properties. 
One of the chief causes of this exceptional variation is the extreme 
difficulty with which the alkaloid crystallizes, thus almost excluding 
the most important means oi purification. Another, and perhaps 
the most important reason for this wide variation, lies in the fact 
that almost every one of the early investigators of the *' veratria " 
has given the name to a different alkaloid, or to a mixture of 
alkaloids. 

The foregoing introduction is followed by a concise history, be- 
ginning in 1 8 19 with the work of Pelletier and Caventou on Vera- 
trum sabadilla and following it step by- step down to Salzberger, 
who in 1890 made an exhaustive examination of Veratrum album. 

Then follows the •* experimental part " in which the author oper- 
ated on a sample of crystallized veratrine which was of a light gray 
color, and appeared, when highly magnified, in imperfect granular 
crystals. It was slightly soluble in water, very soluble in methyl, 
ethyl and amyl alcohols, and in ether, acetone, chloroform and car- 
bon disulphide. Its melting point after repurifying was 146 to 
148° C, and its identity with that described by Merck and Ahrens 
was established by elementary analysis, as well as by the melting 
point of the gold double salt. The formula was made out to be C30 
H,„NO,H,0. 



Am. Jour. Phaim. 1 ZT /,/-.*..-. / ^ « -. 

July, 1897. ; hititorial. ^ 373 

The following iodine compounds were prepared and studied : 

Veratrine tetraiodide, C3..H^.,NO.,l4. jH-^O 
triiodide, C3,H,.>'OJ, 
" monoiodide, C3._.H,,,X0yI 

Other compounds were prepared and investigated as follows: 

Chloralhydroveratride, C CI, CH (OC,,H,.,NO0,, 
Veratrine methyliodide, C;,,H«,,NOyCHJ. 

uiethylhydroxide, C;,H,,XO,CH,,OH. 

methylhydroxyhydrochloride. C3,,H,.,N0.,CH .OH. HCl. 

eth}lbroraide, C,,H,,,NO,C,H.Br. 

allyliodide, C,.,H,.jNO<,C,H5l. 

The author concludes with the statement that the structural for- 
mula of veratrine is still a mystery. From the odor of picoline by a 
destructive distillation, and the isolation of ^^ Picoline by Ahrens, it 
is evident that veratine is a pyridine derivative, resembling in many 
respects nicotine. Whether both cevadicand tiglic acids are present, 
remains for future experiments to determine. The work of Schmidt 
and Koppen indicates the presence of both acids, while the careful 
researches of Wright and Luff would indicate that these isomeric 
acids are converted into each other by special reagents. Assuming 
that but one acid is present, the following formula may be assigned 
to veratrine : 

fOCHj 

! OOCCH (CH3) CH3 

[nh,c, 

Experiments at present are being conducted along this line, with 
the hope of throwing more light on the structure of this important 
compound. 



EDITORIAL. 

THE AMKRICAN MKDICAI. ASSOCIATION. 

The Jubilee Mcetinj< of this Association, held in Thiladelphia, June 1104. 
inclusive, was a notable one in many rcj-pects. Not only whstlic atln dMicc 
of 2,500 members unusual, but the deluj^e of paptrrs j)res<rntcd in the various 
sections attested the industry of the members during the past year. The founder 
of the .\ssociation. Dr. N. S. Davis, of Chicago, and one of the first secretaries. 
Dr. .Alfred Slille. of Philadelphia, were both pretenl at the meeting. The 
former delivered an address entitled : " \ Brief Ilihtory of the Origin of the 



374 Editorial. {*'"jX';-,?£''""- 

Americau Medical Association." This address is uot 011I3' very interesting, but 
it is a document of considerable historical value, for Dr. Davis is almost the 
onlv one who can speak with authority on this subject. He first briefly out- 
lined the earl}' history of the country, and called attention to the fact that, 
springing as it did from a few States, which had achieved independence, the 
Government was confronted with many difficult problems, the one of educa- 
tion by no means being the least; but it w^as decided to leave that important 
subject to the regulation of individual States. 

Our educational historj' as an independent people commenced thus, during the last half 
of the last quarter of the eighteenth century, in a new and sparsely populated country, 
extending from Maine to Florida, with only four medical schools organized, all as depart- 
ments of literary colleges or universities, and all attracting annualh' attendance of less than 
300 students, of whom not more than fifteen annualh' received the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine, and no two of them controlled hy the laws of the same State. And it must be noted, 
also, that a very large majority' of those who entered upon the practice of medicine at that 
time gained their education in the office of some established practitioner, and were licensed 
b\- the censors of medical societies, the judges of courts, or even by the certificates of their 
preceptor, without ever having spent a da3'^ in a medical college. 

After thus outlining the early history, the speaker came to the years 1846-47, 
when the Association was organized, when it was found that colleges had mul- 
tiplied until thirty were in existence, with an annual attendance of 3,500 stu- 
dents, of whom uot less than i,ogo received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
This rapid increase in the number of colleges necessarily led to the most active 
rivalry. 

So potential was the question : " In which school can I obtain the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine for the least expenditure of time and monej'?' on the several medical schools, that, 
although the three medical schools originalh' organized in Philadelphia, New York and Boston 
had been founded on the same basis or curriculum as the University of Rdinburgh, requiring 
a good academic education as a preliminary for entering the medical course, then from three 
to five years of medical study, with annual college terms of not less than six months, long 
before the number of our medical schools had reached thirty, all preliminary' requirements 
had been abandoned, the term of medical study limited to a nominal three j-ears, and the 
medical college instruction to two annual repetitional courses of from twelve to sixteen weeks 
each. Under this inadequate and unsystematic medical education it really cost less in time 
and money to obtain the degree of Doctor of Medicine than it had previousl}' cost to serve 
an apprenticeship in the office of a respectable practitioner, and obtain a license from the 
censors of a local medical society. 

Such a deplorable condition naturally led to a desire on the part of many for 
reform, which, it was said, could only be effected by organization. As early as 
1835 the faculty of the Medical College of Georgia urged, through the medical 
press and by correspondence, the holding of a National Convention. This and 
several other attempts failed, until, in 1846, Dr. Davis and a few associates 
effected organization in New York, and arranged for meeting in Philadelphia 
in May, 1847. 

The speaker then detailed the business of the first meeting, named the 
officers of that meeting, and concluded as follows : 

Such is a brief history of the origin, objects and organization of the American Medical 
Association, which, with the exception of the first two years of the great war for the preser- 
vation of the Union of these States, has held its regular annual meetings in all the important 
parts of our widely-extending country, still adhering tenaci nisly to the fundamental princi- 
ples on which it was founded. And I am most happy to add that every leading object sought 
to be acconii)lishe(l by its founders has been substantially obtained ; that is, universal, free 
and friendly, social and professional intercourse has been established ; the advancement of 



July. 1897. / I\et'lCu.'S. 



375 



medical science and literature in all their relations has l)een promoted, and the long agitated 
subject of medical education has reached the solid basis of a fair academic education as a 
preparatory, four years of medical study, attendance on four annual courses of gnided medi- 
cal college instruction of from six to nine months each, and licenses to practice to be granted 
only by State Boards of Medical Examiners. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Standard Manlal of Soda and Othkr Reverages. By A. I^mil 
Hiss, Ph.G. G. P. Kngelhard & Co., Chicago. 1897. 

Quite recciitl}' we reviewed iti this Journal. The Statidard Formulary, m 
which the atJthor of the present work was associated in joint authorship with 
iMr. A. E. Ebeil. The Standard Manual is, therefore, a fitting companion to its 
predecessor. 

Chapter I is devoted to historical considerations, and is a compact statement 
of the growth of the enormous industry in which *' soda water" is the founda- 
tion. 

The second chapter is made up of such general directions as making carbon- 
ated water, discharging thegenerator, aii<l all theother manipulations connected 
with making and dispensing beverages. The remainder of the book, amounting 
to nine-tenths, is devoted to formulas, in which nearly every conceivable, and 
some inconceivable, " soda water " beverages receive attention. " In the soda 
water drinks, all spirituous preparations have been omitted, except in certain 
well-known standard articles, and in the formulas received '"rem special 
cotitributors.'' 

Flowers of Field, Hill and Swami*. By Caroline A. Creevy, author of 
Recreations in Botany. The foregoitig is the title of a book recently published 
by Harper ^i Brothers, New York. 

It is a botanir-al work, intended to instruct persons who have no technical 
knowledge of botany in the art of classifying and naming many of our common 
Maslern flowering plants. 

Such works, when properly presented, are of great benefit. Tliey appeal to 
])er»ons who are interested in flowers, but who are deterred fiom taking up the 
study of botany on account of the dreaded "technical names" which in such 
cases are administered in a palatable form. 

It is a matter of great regret that a book indicating such a large amount of 
j)ainstaking work on the part of the author, and re])resenting sucli a hi^ h 
degree of typographical skill, should be matred by so many inaccuracies in the 
illustrations which accompany the descriptions of many of the plants 

Written descriptions are often ambiguous because of their great latitude ; but 
in illustrating a p'ant it shoul 1 be remeinbeied that the i>ersons recci ■ 
instruction are apt to look upon a cut as an abM>lute likeness of the \\ 
whereas, in many cases, a do/en illustrationH would l)e necessary lo f^ive an idea 
of the variety of forms assumed by a single species under • ' 

In the present work some of the cuts are not of typual : 
mal species, l)eing probably taken from a single herbarium s|)ec men in nunv 
instances. The illustrations of spearmint, on page u^. and bti- 
71, might l)e transjmsed to a<1vantage, as neither i>> .orn.t 
change would l)e an improvement tipou accuracy. 



, Z?^^,-^,- r Am. Jour. Pharni. 

376 AevteiK'S. { juiy.isg?. 

The frontispiece shows Hepatica triloba, or liverleaf, in a most luxuriant 
state, with numerous flowers and fully-developed leaves at the same time ; the 
early spring leaf-buds, which invariably accompany the typical specimen, being 
entirely absent, while the previous year's leaves, which in nature are usually 
flat on the earth and covered up, are erect and flourishing in appearance. 

Oxalis corniculata, var. stricta, yellow- wood sorrel, as seen on page 182, is a 
midsummer form of the plant, very diff"erent from that commonly observed 
and almost unrecognizable, 

Lysimachia quadrifolia, four-leaved loosestrife, page 337, is another illus- 
tration very misleading in its character. Instances multiply rapidly, but the 
following are all liable to similar criticism : Hypericum perforatum, St. Johns- 
wort, page 237 ; Campanula rotundifolia, harebell, page 291 ; Apocynum 
androsoemifolium, dogsbane, page 5 21, and Linaria canadensis, blue toad-flax, 
page 421. 

The work contains descriptions of a very large number of plants, the arrange- 
ment being upon a novel basis, and one of doubtful advantage, i. e.^ the charac- 
ter of the habitat, such as "banks of streams, in swamps, in w^ater, in low 
meadows, along waysides and in dry fields, escaped from gardens, weeds, open 
dry woods, deep cool woods, etc." 

In nature no boundaries exist that will allow of certain classification of 
plants in general in this manner, and it is to be feared that the person who 
attempts to classify plants by this book will not care to go further into the 
science. Charles H. LaWai.1.. 

Notes on the Plants Used by the Ki.\math Indians of Oregon. By 
Frederick V. Coville. Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. 
5, No. 2. Issued June 9, 1897. 

While engaged in a botanical survey of the plains of southeastern Oregon, 
in the summer of 1896, the author spent three days, August 21st to 23d, at Fort 
Klamath and the Klamath Indian Agency, where he was ena )led to secure 
information as to the principal plants used by the Klamath Indians. Most of 
the information was obtained from Joe Kirk, an educated Klamath Indian, and 
from White Cindy, a Klamath medicine woman. The Government agents living 
at the fort also furnished much information. A large number of plants, covering 
nearly the whole range of natural orders are given. Two lichens are repre- 
sented ; one, Alectoria fremontii, as a famine food; and the other, Evernia vul- 
pina, on account of its yellow dye. Equisetum hyemale is used to smooth arrow 
shafts just as a carpenter uses sand-paper. A number of the Pinaceae are used 
for various purposes. The seeds of Pinus Lambertiana are used as food, but no 
mention is made of the sugar, which is used as food or medicine by the California 
Indians. Some of the pines are used as twirling sticks, to produce fire by 
friction, although the sage brush,- Artemisia tridentata, is said to be better for 
this purpose. These illustrations will serve to give an idea of the scope of 
this work, which, however, is only a pamphlet of 32 pages. Nevertheless, 
it is full of valuable information. 

Minnesota Botanical Studies. Bulletin No. 9, Parts X and XI. Geo. 
logical and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. Conway MacMillan, State 
Botanist. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) P/^,i\ <- ,e -tTT 

This large bulletin of 342 pages and 42 plates is full of interesting matter 
relating to botany. 

The following are the contents : 

"Contributions to a Knowledge of the Lichens of Minnesota." II. "Lichens 
of Minneapolis and Vicinity." By Bruce Fink. 

"A Rearrangement of the North American Hypomycetes." By Roscoe 
Pound and Frederic E- Clements, 

"On Some Mosses at High Altitudes." By J. M, Ilolzinger. 

"The Forces Determining the Position of Dorsiventral Leaves." By R. X. 
Day. 

"On the Genus Coscinodon in Minnesota." By J. M. Holzinger. 

" Observations on the Ferns and Flowering Plants of the Hawaiian Islands." 
By A. A. Heller. 

" The Phenomena of Symbiosis." By Albert Schneider. 

" Observations on the Distribution of Plants Along the Shore at Lake of the 
Woods." By Conway MacMillan. 

" The Alkaloids of Veratrum." By George B. Frankforter. 

The last article is given in abstract on page 372 of this Journal. 

A Series OF Papers on the Origin and Chemical Composition of 
Petroleum. Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 5, 
1S97. 

This interesting series has been reprinted from the Proceedings of the 
Society, and bound together, so as to make a comj)act pamphlet for reference. 

The following are the subjects and authors : 

" The Genesis and Chemical Relations of Petroleum and Natural Gas." By 
Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph.D. 

" On the Nature and Origin of Petroleum." By S. F. Peckham. 

"A Suggestion as to the Origin of Pennsylvania Petroleum." By David T. 
Day. 

"On the Genesis of Natural Gas and Petroleum." By Francis C. Phillips. 

" On the Occurrence of Petroleum in the Cavities of Fossils." Hy Fr.uiris C. 
Phillips. 

" On the Composition of American Petroleum." By Charles F. Mabcry. 

The discussion which followed the reading of these papers is also included in 
the pamphlet. 

A Review ok Recent Synthktic \V»ikK in thk Class of Cardohv- 
dratES. By Helen Abbott Michael. 

This is a lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, and reprinted from 
the Institute's y<>«;;/j/. It is a valuable summary of the present knowledge of 
the sugar group. 

Si'R LK Dosage dk la Cafeine. Thesis presented to the A'rn/^ Supt-rieun- 
de Phatvtacie de Paris. By Eugene Tassilly. The author haa examined acme 
of the methods already proposed, and offered one which he thinks po«w< 
advantages of all the earlier processes, ami, at the same time, avoids t; _ 
advantages. A summary of the literature on the subject is given from 187a to 
the present. 

QUKLyLRS OXYDKS DoUHLES CrI.STALLISES OBTKNUS A HaUTK TKMPERA- 



37S Pkarm.iceutkal Association. {^^jaiy.'is??^''"- 

TURK. Thesis presented to t\iQ: Ecole Supcrieure de Pharmacie de Paris . By 
M. Dufau (Louis-Emile-Ren6). 

Bur<LETiN. Vol. II, No. 7. Imperial University, Cotlege of Agricutture, 
Tokyo, Japan. 

This number, like its predecessors, is full of valuable matter relating chiefly 
to physiological botany. The first article is a continuation by Dr. Loew, of the 
stud}' of living protoplasm. We have also received one of the articles, as a sepa- 
rate, "On the Formation of Asparagiue in Plants under Different Conditions." 
By U. Suzuki. Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. i, has also been received. Its 113 pages 
are devoted entirely to an exhaustive consideration by Professor Dr. Dire Kitao, 
to the one subject — "Ueber die Wasserbewegung in Boden." 

Papain ; the vegetable pepsin, its origin, properties, and uses. Lehn & 
Fink, New York. 

Antitoxins, The G. F. Harvey Company. An illustrated pamphlet, 
giving much historical matter and considerable clinical data on the use of this 
important remedy. 

The Action of Taka-Diastase in Various Gastric Disorders. By 
Julius Friedenwald, A.B., M.D. Reprinted from the New York Medical 
Journal, for May 29, 1897. 

Report of Proceedings of the Ili^inois Pharmaceuticai, Association. 
Seventeenth Annual Meeting, 1896. 



PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The twentieth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion convened in the parlor of the Kittatinny House, Delaware Water Gap, 
Pennsylvania, on Tuesday, June 22, 1897. 

The first session was called to order by President Joseph P. Remington, at 
4.48 P.M. About seventy-five persons were present. The Secretary was asked 
to read a letter of welcome, which had been received from the chief burgess of 
the borough of the Delaware Water Gap, Mr. E. R. Johnson. The President 
asked Mr. M. N. Kline to reply to this courtesy. The routine of business was 
then begun by the Secretary acknowledging the receipt of the credentials of 
delegates from the following bodies: Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association, New Jersey Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, Maryland Pharmaceutical Association and the Proprietors' Association. 
The President then delivered his address. It was referred to a committee for 
consideration. 

The reports of the Committee on Entertainment and of the Secretary were 
then presented ; they were referred to the Committee on Publication. The 
report of the Treasurer showed a comfortable balance, and that the association 
had at the time of the report 312 members in good standing. It was referred 
to an auditing committee appointed by the chair. The report of the Executive 
Committee stated that the project of holding a joint meeting of the Pennsylvania 
and Maryland Pharmaceutical Associations had met with favor. The chair- 
man of this committee reported two applications for membership which had 



^'^'juiV.'i^""''} Pharmaceutical Association. 379 

been made since the last meeting, also seven deaths among members. The 
report was referred to the Committee on Publication. The President then 
appointed committees on nominations and place of next meeting. It ua> then 
voted to adjourn until 9.30 the following morning. 

The second session, which met on Wednesday morning, was mainly occupied 
by the reading of reports of committees and of delegates to pharmaceutical and 
medical associations. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 
President, J. H. Redsecker ; Vice-Presidents, J. H. Knouse and W. L. Cliffc ; 
Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger ; Secretary, J. A. Miller ; Executive Committe. G. 
W. Roland, C. L. Hay nnd W. F. Horn. The Committee on Adulteration 
reported that they had been successful in securing a new law against this prac- 
tice. Under the old law it was difficult to conduct prosecutions, owing to the 
wording of the Act ; in the new law this was thought to have been overcome. 
The committee reported that comparatively few adulterations had presenteil 
themselves during the past year. Attention was directed to the fact that if 
pharmacists insist upon jobbers supplying goods which meet the standards of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia and the National I-ormulary, without regard 
to brands, they will get them, and without additional cost. President Reming- 
ton advised the Association, when it undertook a prosecution, to select some 
article upon which it would undoubtedly win the case, and not one upon which 
the Association might be liable to defeat by the lawyers proving that the 
impurity or adulteration was as good for the purpose as the article said to be 
adulterated. He cited the contamination of carbolic acid with cresylic acid as 
an illustration of an impurity which was of ecjual or greater value as a disin- 
fectant than the substance with which it was mixed. 

The next report was that of the Committee on Botany. It was chiefly con- 
fined to an enumeration of plants and trees of that part of Pennsylvania east 
of the Susquehanna River. The committee suggested the adoption, as far as 
possible, of the proper scientific names for plants, as their meanings are usually 
sufficiently specific to distinguish one plant from its congeners. The report 
directed the attention of pharmacists to the deforestration of our immense nat- 
ural woodlands and the changes in meteorological and climatic conditions 
which follow the destruction of forests. It suggested that an effort be ma<le to 
mitigate the evil by enacting and enforcing suitable laws. 

The principle issue of the report of the committee to attend the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association, was a ({uestion as to the legitamacy of phar- 
macists buying phenacctiHi through oiher channels than the authorized agents, 
who charge much more for what is represented to be the same article and sold for 
less by the unauthorized dealers. This feature of the report elicited considerable 
discussion, and it was made apparent that the Association objected to the pro- 
tection which the present copyright laws give to manufacturers who try to sell 
a well-defined and well-known chemical under a fancy name. To overcome 
this state of affairs, V. W. E. Stedem moved that ': " -ocialion se. 
co-operation of the .\merican Pharmaceutical Ass' 1 an«l the A: 

Medical Association in an effort to have the copyright laws of the United States 
on tlefinite chemical compounds revise<l. It was stated that the Pennsylv 
State Mrd'cal Society has pledged itself to co-operate with the Viti.t . ,ti M. .. 
cal Association for the repeal of such copyright laws. 

The committee on time and place of meeting, announce<l thitt ihr next annual 



38o Pharmaceutical Association. {^"'•ju'iy'i?^^''"' 

meeting will be held at Buena Vista Hotel, Franklin County, Pa. The time 
will be reported later, as it will be a joint meeting with the Maryland Pharma- 
ceutical Association, which will convene in its own State, just across the Mason 
and Dixon line. F. B. Flemmings, of Shippensburg, was appointed local sec- 
retary. The delegates to the State Medical Society reported that samples of 
about 2,000 preparations had been exhibited before the meeting of this body in 
Pittsburgh. It was evident that this committee, of which Prof. Louis Emanuel 
was chairman, had done a great work toward attracting the attention of the 
members of the foregoing society to the preparations of the United States Phar- 
macopceia and the National Formulary. Prof. Emanuel proposed that a com- 
mittee be appointed to consider the feasibility of establishing a literary bureau 
from which printed matter on National Formulary and other preparations 
might be drawn for distribution among physicians, for the purpose of combat- 
ting the advertisements of copyrighted articles. This, and the other consider- 
ation of copyrighted articles, were referred to a committee composed of Messrs. 
Stedem, George, Emanuel, Redsecker and Kennedy. During the discussion 
which followed the last report, F. W. E. Stedem proposed a mixture of the 
spirit of orange of the National Formulary, and glycerin in equal quantities, 
as a vehicle for bromoform ; its advantages are pleasant taste and solvent 
power on the medicament. Prof. Emanuel moved that Prof. Beal's ideal phar- 
macy law, which was distributed among the State associations and boards of 
pharmacy, by the American Pharmaceutical Association, be referred to the 
Committee on Legislation. It was so ordered. The auditing committee approved 
the treasurer's report. The presentation of papers then followed. 

"The Flora of Bushkill Falls" was the title of a paper read by Adolph W. 
Miller, M.D., Ph.D. This contribution was an account of a botanizing tour 
made by the Philadelphia Botanical Club and the Torrey Botanical Club, of 
New York, through the district of Bushkill, Pike County, Pa., on May 28th last. 
Dr. Miller was one of the party which explored this rich region. He called 
particular attention to the following plants : the American yew, the gold 
thread, Rhododendron maximum, R. nudiflorum, R. cauescens, Kalmia latifolia, 
K. angustifolia, Vacineum stamineum, Cypripedium hirsutum (formerly called 
C. pubescens), Orchis spectabilis, Cystopteris bulbifera, Camptosorus rhizo- 
phyllus, Osmunda struthiopteris, many forms of the Napoleon flower, and 
Scrophularia leporella (recently separated from S. nodosa by Bicknell). 

Attention was also called to the abundance, in the neighborhood of the Tarax- 
acum erythrosperma, Andrz, which, until quite recently, was included in the 
official species, the Taraxacum officinale, although it was described as early as 
1821, by Anton Andrzejowski, whose name is attached to it. It differs in many 
particulars from the official plant, notably in the color of its achenes, which 
are crimson, bright red or reddish-brown, whence it received the title " erythro- 
sperma." Its pappus is slightly tawny, or dirty white in color ; its leaves are 
far more deeply divided into narrowly triangular segments, and the whole plant 
is rather smaller in size than the Taraxicum officinale. While a head of the 
latter may be made up of 160 to 170 individual florets, one of the red seeded 
species does not contain more than 70 to 80. The head itself is smaller, being 
scarcely an inch in diameter, and the fruiting receptacle is rarely more than 
one-quarter inch broad. There seems to be also a slight difference in the color 
of the head, that of the Taraxacum erythrosperma being rather more of a sul- 



^"■yuiy'iS-"'"} Pharmaceutical Association. 381 

phur or lemon-yellow color than the other. The inner bracts of the involucre 
are nearly all furnished witli a peculiar corniculate appendage, half a line or 
so below the whitish tip, and the outer ligules of the head are somewhat 
purplish on the external surface. A specimen of the T. erythrosi>erma pre- 
sents a much more matted, or interlaced apf>earance in its growth than the 
taller species. As the T. officinale ' Weber ' is undoubtedly an introduced plant 
from Europe, it is just possible that the T. erythrosperma is a native of America. 
Appended to the paper was a list of 275 plants, most of which were found in 
bloom. The next paper was "On the Presence of Corrosiue Sublimate in 
Calomel," by Lyman F. Kebler. It is printed in full on page 33S of this issue. 

In reply to the query: Should drug store experience in pharmaceutical edu- 
cation precede or follow college training / Theodore Campbell presented a paper 
in which he earnesth' urged ever}- druggist to see that his clerks have not less 
than one year of experience in the store before attending lectures at a college 
of pharmacy. The author showed that a clerk who has had such experience 
will be better prepared to receive the college instruction, and that drug store 
training previous to attendance at college qualifies a person to open a store and 
conduct the business in all its phases immediately after graduation from a college. 

William B. Thompson contributed a paper entitled "A Pertinent yuery," 
which was, in effect, a presentation and discussion of the question as to whether 
the practice of pharmacy may rightly be regarded as a profession. His argu- 
ments were convincing, and left little doubt that he who fills the various 
requirements of this calling is justly entitled to a professional standing. 

Another paper by Mr. Thompson was on the subject of " Chlorinate<l Lime 
in Zinc Containers." In this he stated that the method of packing chlorinated 
lime in cans made of sheet zinc had been employed a sutTicient length of time 
to thoroughly test its merits. He observed that the article stored in this man- 
ner preserved its condition unimpaired for a reasonable period. 

Wm. Mclntire suggested that the package be labelled with the date of pack- 
ing and the strength of the substance at that time. 

The query: should druggists study nitdicine f was answered in the affirma- 
tive by W. H. Keed. The ethical relations of the professions of pharmacy and 
medicine as such, and as they were formerly practiced, were first defined by the 
author. He then considered the complications of the two classes as they now 
exist, and favored the adoption by druggists of measures adapted to the changed 
conditions brought about by modern business innovations. 

He said that druggists were protected by legal enactments only in the dis- 
pensing of poisons and compounding of prescriptions ; and he believed that 
not more than one-fourth of the present drug stores could subsist on this kind 
of patronage alone. He also sai<l that the average drug store now without the 
aid of a physician is not a success financially. He, therefore, rccommentled 
the practice of medicine in connection with that of pharmacy, under certain 
conditions, l>oth as a means of success and to meet the <lcmnn<ls of certain 
classes of patrons, namely, those affected with disorders of a tr.msient iialuic. 
and those with limited means. 

The writer furthermore l)elicvc<l that where he is legally qu«hhe»l, the drug- 
gist is as morally justifie<l in practicing medicine in connection with pharmacy 
as the physician is justifietl in supplying his patients with drugs, and thereby 
injuring the business interests of the pharmacist. 



382 Pharmaceutical Association. { ^'''•/uuriS'T^'^'- 

Another reason which he advanced for druggists studying medicine, even 
though they did not intend to practice it, was that a medical training would be 
of inestimable value to them in the practice of general pharmacy. 

Under the head of " Rocks and Shoals of Pharmacy," Prof. C. B. Lowe pre- 
sented some common-sense doctrine, which was particularly intended for 
young men beginning the drug business. Of the hindrances to success in this 
business, he considered the following : Immorality, insufficient capital, extrava- 
gance in fitting up the store, purchase of large quantities of stock ahead of the 
demand, or purchase of stock on account of its cheapness, too early marriage, 
insufficient education, lack of business methods with regard to the workings of 
the store, carelessness in financial details, want of politeness, neglect of health, 
neglect of certain kinds of advertising, and finally, lack of pharmaceutical 
literature. 

" Cold Cream " was the subject of a paper by F. W. E. Stedem. 
It was as follows : "Since the last revision of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia, many complaints have been made by physicians as to the deterioration 
of ointments of metallic oxides and other medicinal substances, when made 
with unguentum aquae rosae as the unction vehicle. The cause of these rapid 
changes is due to admixture of a small per cent, of borax, which has been 
added because of its saponifying the oil of almond partially, and thereby hold- 
ing the rose water in suspension all the more readily. My experience with both 
formulas has led me to the firm conviction that the change to the use of borax 
was a ver\' unwise one, for many reasons. The first objection is illustrated in a 
series of ointments of various mercurials in daily use, and the results are, on 
inspection, obvious. These preparations were made on INIay lo, 1897, a little 
over a month ago, and in all cases one w^ould be unable to recognize the mix. 
tures. The preparation of ointment of yellow oxide of mercury is particularly 
objectionable, and its unsightliness is not the least of its failings. This oint" 
ment is frequently ordered by physicians for use on the eye, and when made 
with official cold cream, is totally unfit for use, because of the terribly irritat- 
ing properties of the reduction product. It is not the desire of the writer to 
prolong the line because of its length, beyond submitting these specimens, 
including an ointment of yellow oxide of mercury, a dilution of ointment of 
nitrate of mercury, and an ointment of red oxide of mercurj-. It is a question 
as to whether the change from the Pharmacopceia of 1880 was not made in 
deference to a demand from those who are simply unwilling to work hard in 
an effort to get a good or fit preparation. There is no difficulty iu making a 
good and sightly mixture by the old process when worked right and long 
enough. It would be much better to drop the preparation entirely from the 
Pharmacopceia than to continue it and make it necessary for us to keep both 
preparations in stock, for the reasons given before." 

This paper was commented on at length ; other members reported trouble 
from the same source, and also dissatisfaction with the changes which had been 
made iu some other official preparations. Prof. Moerk mentioned the discolor- 
ation which happens when resorcin or hydroqinone is mixed with official cold 
cream or other substances which contain alkaline bodies. The paper was 
referred to the Association's committee on the revision of the United States 
Pharmacop<jeia. 



^"''jX'mi^'"'} Pharmaceutical Association. 383 

Prof. F. X. Moerk then read an interesting contribution entitled " Notes on 
Opium Assaying ;" see page ^44 of this number. 

"Analytical Processes and Laboratory Notes," by C. H. I, aWall followed. 
This paper may be seen in full by referring to page 350. 

The Committee on Membership reported thirteen new members. The Secre- 
tary read a telegram bearing fraternal greeting from the Colorado Pharma- 
ceutical Association, which was in session at the time. He returned the cour- 
tesy on behalf of the Pennsylvania Association. 

The Committee on Legislation reported that the pharmacy law known as an 
act to regulate the practice of pharmacy, sale of prisons, etc., approved May 
24, 1887, and subsequently amended in June, 1891 and June, 1S95, upon being 
tested as to its efficiency to meet the requirements and purposes for which it 
had been enacted, failed to withstand the crucial test of the courts. The first 
section was declared unconstitutional by the Superior Court on January 29, 
1897, on account of the so-called unlimited widow's clause, which decision, on 
an apf>eal, was sustained by the vSupreme Court on May 7, 1897. Tlie com- 
mittee at once began work to secure the speedy enactment of a new law, which 
would be free from the objections that had brought such disastrous results to 
the former law. With this object in view, a bill was introduced in the House 
on March i, 1897, and one of like import was introduced in the Senate on 
March 15, 1897. This latter bill passed second reading in the Senate, The 
House bill met with a formidable resistance, and was amended in such manner 
as to require compulsory registration of physicians as pharmacists without the 
semblance even of an examination by tlie pharmacy board. This provision met 
with a determined opposition, and its advocates were notified that the pharma- 
cists of the State would never accept legislation of that character, but would 
demand and insist upon the enactment of such legislation as would place them 
on a parity with the laws governing the medical profession. Some 12,000 to 
15,000 circulars and reprints of bills, including petitions to be signed and for- 
warded to the members of the Senate and House, were mailed to llie druggists 
throughout the State, with the gratifying effect of arousing an almost united 
sentiment in favor of the original measure and against the proposed amend- 
ment ; and the committee had the satisfaction of the prompt passage bv the 
House of the bill without the objectionable amendment. The bill was next 
passed by the Senate, but with a further slight amendment, which the committee 
feels sure will be accepted and promptly concurred in by the House. The fol- 
lowing is a copy of the bill : 

An net supplementary to an act entitled An act to re{(u1ate the practice of pharmacy nnd 
sale of poisons and to prevent adulterations in drugs and medicinal preparations in the State of 
Pennsylvania, approved the twenty fourth day of May .\nno Domini one thiMi - Mt hun- 

dred and eighty-seven, further rcgtilating the practice of pharmacy, the c<.; ng und 

dispensing of prescriptions and the sale of drugs, chemicals, medicines and puiiH>us. and pro- 
viding a penalty for the violation thereof. 

Section i.— Be it enacte<l by the Senate and Hou.se of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania in (#eiicral .Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the same. That 
hereafter no person whosoever shall, directly or indirectly, open or cany on In the State of 
Pennsylvania any retail drug store or chemical store, or comiraund or dispense ii: ,)f 

prescriptions of physicians, or engage in the busiiieKS ut sriling at retail niivdt ,|. 

cals, poisons or medicines without having obtained ■ ' ,^. 

tion so to do frum the State Pharmaceutical Hxaintniii. ,,ly 



384 Pharmaceutical Association, {^"^i^xylS:^"^' 

registered bv said board. Any person who shall violate or fail to comply with the provisions 
of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction before anj' court shall be pun- 
ished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ; Provided, however, that nothing in this act 
contained shall in any manner whatever be taken or construed to prohibit any practitioner of 
medicine from supplying to his patients ?uch articles as he may deem proper, nor to interfere 
with the making and dealing in proprietary medicines, nor to prevent storekeepers from 
dealing in and selling the commonly used medicines and poisons as now permitted by the 
sixth section of the act to which this is a supplement. And provided, also, that the legal rep- 
resentatives of any deceased registered pharmacist may, for the purpose of administration of 
his estate, be permitted by the Orphans' Court of the proper county to continue the business 
for not exceeding one year under the management of a duly registered pharmacist. 

Section 2.— The term commonly used medicines and poisons relating to storekeepers is 
defined as simple and harmless household remedies which can be handled with safety by the 
uneducated, as essence of ginger, peppermint, Hoffmans anoydyne, castor oil, sweet oil and 
drugs of like character, and to exclude all dangerous and highh' concentrated remedies, 
alkaloids, fluid and solid extracts, and drugs, such as opium, morphine, cocaine, chloral 
hvdrate and drugs of like character, and poisons in the same case to mean only such well 
known drugs and chemicals as are used by farmers and truckers as insecticides, as Paris 
green, royal purple, powdered hellebore, sulphate of copper and drugs of like character. 

A bill already referred to in this report and known as the "Adulteration 
Bill," was signed by Governor Hastings on May 25th last. It is : 

An act to prevent the adulteration, alteration and substitution of drugs and medicinal 
preparations; and providing penalties for violation thereof. 

Section i. — Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby- enacted by the authority 
of the same, That no person shall within this State manufacture for sale, offer for sale or sell 
any drug which is adulterated within the meaning of this act. The term drug used herein 
shall include any medicinal substance or any preparation authorized or known in the Phar- 
macopceia of the United States or the National Formulary ox the American Homcepathic Phar- 
macopieia or the American Homcepathic Dispensatory. A drug shall be deemed to be adulter- 
ated within the meaning of this act, 

I n If any substance or substances have been mixed with it so as to depreciate and weaken 
its strength, purity or quality. 

(21 If any quality, substance or ingredient be abstracted so as to deteriorate or affect injuri- 
ously the quality or potenc\- of the drug. 

(3) If any inferior or cheaper substance or substances have been substituted in whole or 
part for it. 

(4) If it is an imitation or is sold under the name of another drug. 

(5) If the drug shall be so altered that the nature, quality, substance, commercial value or 
medicinal value of it will not correspond to the recognized formulae or tests of the latest edi- 
tion of the National Formulary or of the Phartnacopceia of the United States or the American 
Honuepathic Pharmacopoeia or the American Homcepathic Dispensatory regarding quality or 
purity. 

On complaint being entered the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board is hereby empow- 
ered to employ an analyst or chemical expert, whose duty it shall be to examine into the 
so-called adulteration and report upon the result of his investigation, and if said report justifies 
such action, the board shall duly cause the prosecution of the offender as provided in this law. 
Whoever violates any of the provisions of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction shall be fined a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars nor less than fifty dollars, 
or undergo an imprisonment not exceeding ninety days nor less than thirty days, or both. 

Section 2.— All laws or parts of inconsistent laws herewith are hereby repealed. 

A vote of thanks was extended to the Committee on Legislation and to the 
members of the Legislature who had worked for and supported the measures. 

The officers for the coming year were installed at the last session, on Thurs- 
day evening. The entertainment provided for the meeting by the committee 
in charge was of an interesting character, well attended and much enjoyed by 
all present. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, 1897. 



MEMOIR OF EDSON SEWELL BASTIN. 

Death at best is a sad subject, but it becomes doubly so when, as 
was the case with Professor Bastin, the victim is cut down in the 
very zenith of his strength and usefulness. Beginning as a pioneer 
in what was then the far West, he naturally reached his full scientific 
development later than those who start surrounded with every edu- 
cational facility, and who need to give no thought to the financial 
questions which usually attend the attainment of an education. 
But what he lost in time he gained in having a broader and more 
practical knowledge, which enabled him to more than make up in 
later years what he lost in early life. 

The subject of this memoir was born May 29, 1843, >" the south- 
ern part of Ozaukee County, Wis., on the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan, near what was then the village of Milwaukee. His parents, 
probably of remote French ancestry, had come there from north- 
ern New York some time previously. His father was a strong- 
resolute and daring man, with rather a restless temperament. His 
mother was sought for in that sparsely settled district by the neigh- 
bors in times of sickness; their ailments she relieved to the best of 
her knowledge and ability by the use of medicinal herbs, gathered 
and prepared by her own hands. 

The boyhood of Professor Bastin was divided between farm work 
in summer and attendance at the district schools in winter. The 
family afterward moved to Wauwatsa, Wis., and then to Wau- 
kesha, in the same State. 

(385) 



386 Memoir of Edson Sewell Bastin. {'^'^-^^^^^x'^mi^- 

The rugged life on a pioneer farm developed the latent energies 
of the boy, and he became self-reliant and fearless. He would en- 
gage in hunting in the depths of the forest, either day or night, and 
he was as successful in that important part of the pioneer's life as 
he was in the numerous other duties. His mother died when he 
was but twelve years of age, and his father was killed by accident 
some ten years later. 

In 1859, while in his sixteenth year, he entered Carroll College, 
at Waukesha, Wis., and remained there until 1862, when the war 
spirit took possession of him, as it did of many others at that time. 
He entered the Twenty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry, which regiment 
became attached to the Army of the West, and engaged in the 
Arkansas campaign. This regiment experienced long, severe 
marches, much sickness and other privations, with the tedium unre- 
lieved by the presence of the enemy until they reached Helena, 
Ark., where a battle was fought and won on July 4, 1863, and in 
the same year Little Rock was captured. 

Soon after this, partly on account of illness, which unfitted him 
for field duty, and partly because of his clerical abilities. Professor 
Bastin was detached from his company and employed as a clerk at 
headquarters. After a year's service in this capacity, he was, in 
1864, commissioned captain of the Fourth Arkansas Cavalry; this 
appointment was the result of a competitive examination. The 
young captain was, from this time to the end of the war, engaged 
actively in scouting and picket service, in which he won a high 
reputation for ability and bravery, and, through the voluntary re- 
commendations of his superior officers, he was offered a cadetship 
at West Point. He, however, had no taste for military life in times 
of peace, and declined the honor. Instead of this, he entered 
Chicago University as a student, where he graduated in 1867. 

Following this, he took a course of some three years in the same 
institution, in theology, which course he completed in 1870, with the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity. His character at this time can 
best be understood by the following extract from an address at his 
funeral by one of his classmates, the Rev. Dr. John Gordon : 

I became acquainted with Professor Bastin while in his senior year in the 
old University of Chicago, and was associated with him for four years in the 
class-rooms of the college and Theological Seminary. He first impressed me 
as bemg somewhat cold in manner, but on better acquaintance I found this 



^'"AugTtT^'" } Memoir of Edson Sewell Basiin, 387 

was simply his natural reserve, and that he possessed a warm and tender heart, 
which bestowed its affection more and more as the years went by. 

Asa student he was respected by professors and classmates because of his 
deportment, faithfulness and sincerity. He was always well prepared for reci- 
tation or examination, and never did things in a slip-shod manner. The testi- 
mony of his students in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to his exacting 
demands for honest work from them fittingly expresses his own early convic- 
tions and habits when a student. 

Professor Bastin was a modest, unassuming young man, and never, until to- 
day, did I know that he had served in the army during the late civil war. His 
record as a soldier is one of which any man might justly be proud, and yet 
during all my four years' acquaintance with him I never heard him speak of 
the war. 

We now come to a turning-point in the life of Professor Bastin, 
where, instead of following the ministry, for which his education had 
prepared him, he became interested in the natural sciences, particu- 
larly the science of botany. This subject had been studied by him 
in a variety of ways from his early youth, and the writer has heard 
him speak of the observations he made on the flora of Arkansas, 
while doing duty as a soldier there ; consequently, " true as the 
needle to the pole," when in 187 1 he was deciding on his life-work 
he came back to this same subject. He selected the drug busi- 
ness as a means to the end which he wished to accomplish, and for 
the next few years, while engaged in the duties of apothecary in 
Chicago, he gave much time to the study of botany and its allied 
sciences. In 1873 he married Christina Hoyd, and shortly after dis- 
posed of his drug business. His reputation won in the civil war 
secured for him an appointment as United States Marshal, and he 
moved with his wife to the scene of his duty in Indian Territory. 
The experience in this lawless region was of the most thrilling 
character, and often exposed him to great danger, but his cool 
judgment, thorough horsemanship, as well as his ability to use fire- 
arms to the greatest advantage, brought him safely through evciy 
conflict. His wife, however, could not endure the nerve strain of 
such an exciting life, and after nearly a year of service he returned 
to Chicago, where he accepted, in 1874, the position of registrar in 
the University of Chicago. In this institution he almost immc 
diately commenced teaching, first as Instructor in Hotany, and two 
years later, in 1876, as Professor of Botany and Geology. In this 
same year he was chosen to lecture on botany in the Chicago College 
of Pharmacy, and for a short time conducted a class in analytical 



388 Memoir of Edson Sewell Bastin, {'''\i^lif',l^!!^ 

chemistry, a fact which points to his broad knowledge of nearly all 
branches of science. Soon, however, he was assigned to the chair 
of Materia Medica and Botany. In 1878 he met a sad loss in the 
death of his wife, who left him one son, Edson S , only three months 
old. 

In 1883 he resigned from the Chicago University in order to give 
his whole time to the College of Pharmacy, and in the same year he 
was married to Ellen Beardsley Reed. 

During the next several years the world commenced to see some 
of the results of Professor Bastin's labors. He first established a 
botanical and microscopical laboratory, then issued, in 1887, his 
first book, the '• Elements of Botany," which in 1889 appeared in a 
second edition, enlarged and entirely rewritten, under the title of 
" College Botany." It has been adopted by a large number of insti- 
tutions not connected with pharmacy. 

In 1890, after having resigned his position in the Chicago College 
of Pharmacy, Professor Bastin entered upon his duties as Professor 
of Botany and Materia Medica in the school of Pharmacy in North- 
western University. Here he organized his second botanical and 
microscopical laboratory, which was a model of completeness. In 
May, 1 89 1, he was again left desolate by the loss of his wife, ^nd in 
August, 1892, he was married to Abbie Beardsley, who, with two 
little daughters, survives him. 

Up to this time Professor Bastin's writings had been largely con- 
fined to his text-books; but in 1892 several papers appeared in The 
Apothecary from his pen, viz.: " The Flora of the South Shore of 
Lake Michigan," and " Starches in Root Drugs." He also published 
contributions on " Plant Hairs," " Notes on Vegetable Histology," 
*' Plant Crystals," and '« Detection of Stem Admixtures in Root 
Drugs." 

In the autumn of 1893, Professor Bastin was called to the chair 
of Botany and Materia Medica in the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. This position gave him the opportunity to carry on the 
research work which it had long been his aim to do, and he 
entered upon his duties with an immense amount of enthusiasm. 
Notwithstanding the interruption and distraction necessarily accom- 
panying the moving of his family to a new city, he had in one year 
established the third botanical and microscopical laboratory organ- 
ized by him, he had conducted two large classes through a college year 



"^"Aur^'j^""} Memoir of Edson Scicell Basiin. 389 

of instruction, had published his important work, " Laboratory 
Exercises in Botany," containing several hundred illustrations from 
his own pen, and finally, he had made several contributions to the 
American Journal of Pharmacy. The few succeeding years were 
no less active ones ; during 1895 he published no less than nine 
illustrated papers on our local medicinal plants ; one of these, *• Vera- 
trum Viride," contained a plate in colors, the original being from his 
brush. His research work during 1896 was devoted to the structure 
of the " North American Conifer.ne." This series of papers was pub- 
lished in joint authorship with Henry Trimble, and was only partly 
completed at the time of Professor Hastin's death. All the draw- 
ings were from his pen. He was also engaged in preparing an 
elaborate work on materia medica, and he had mounted a great 
many sections of drugs for the purpose of making drawings from 
them. His inability to make rapid progress with this work was a 
great trial to him, and he persisted in it at intervals until March 18, 
1 897, when, after mounting two sections, he laid down his work forever. 

Death came to his relief on April 6, 1897, the immediate cause 
being cerebral hemorrhage. He had not been well since the pre- 
vious summer, but he continued to attend to all his teaching duties 
until the middle of December. What at first appeared to be nervous 
prostration, developed into exophthalmic goiter. His tremendous 
will-power kept him on his feet almost tc the last, and as late as 
February he delivered one lecture, but it was like the last flaring 
up of a flickering light. 

Professor Hastin was a member of several scientific societies, viz.: 
The Chicago Academy of Science, The Evolution Club, the Illinois 
Microscopical Society, The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and the Royal Microscopical Society of London. 
A short time before his death he was elected a member of the 
American Philosophical Society. He was also a member and 
trustee of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

In studying the character of this man one cannot but be impressed 
with the wide range of exp>erience he covered in 54 years, yet no 
one can say that he was not a master in every station in which he was 
placed. Whether as student, soldier, teacher, author or artist, he was 
a man, and a thoroughly honest one. His strict honesty with him- 
self caused him to expect honesty in everyone else. An anecdote 
will best illustrate how binding he considered his own promise. 



390 Memoir of Edson Sezucll Bastin. {'^^Ai^L't.Tso'':'"- 

When he first came to Philadelphia he arranged for the publication 
of his book on Materia Medica, which was unfinished at the time of 
his death. It was afterwards shown very clearly to him that he 
could, with great advantage, give the publication to another firm, 
and he expressed his desire to do so but for his promise; and when 
asked : " Is there no way out of it?" the prompt reply was : " Yes, 
there is a way out of it, but there is no honest way out of it." It is 
almost unnecessary to add that the question of publication was con- 
sidered settled from that time. 

As a teacher, Professor Bastin was noted for his conscientious 
thoroughness; no amount of labor was too great for him to under- 
take in the interest of his students. He was an earnest advocate of 
the practical study of the natural sciences. When asked, during his 
preliminary visit to the College in 1893, if he would be willing to 
establish a laboratory for the practical study of materia medica and 
botany, his reply was that he would 'not be willing to undertake to 
teach those branches in any other way. In his ''College Botany" are 
some introductory paragraphs, entitled, "A Word to the Student," 
a few sentences of which should be read and re-read by every one 
engaged, or about to engage, in the study of botany. He says : 

Remember that the study of botany is primarily the study of 
plants, and not the study of books about plants. If you study 
the book only, you will almost certainly find it dry and unprofit- 
able, but if you use it as a guide to the study of plants, and 
study it PLANT IN HAND, verifying- its descriptions by obser- 
vations of your OAvn, you vs^ill find the work not only profitable, 
but intensely interesting. 

These {^\m sentences say more than whole volumes could be made 
to say against the entire race of "Quiz Compends," "Aids," 
"Lecture Notes," " Home Studies," and all the other " short cuts" 
which are devoured but not digested by the great army of unpre- 
pared applicants for State Board Certificates. Professor Bastin's 
method of studying botany was either in the field, or with the micro- 
scope, but always with the plant or drug in hand, and his method of 
imparting instruction was the same. It remains but to speak of his 
domestic life, which, by those who knew, has been declared to have 
been an ideal one. He was especially fortunate in his matrimonial 
alliances, which caused the losses to bear more heavily upon him. 
He brought into his family the enthusiasm which he himself possessed 



^"Au^Jt.^^!"'} Heloderma Siispectiim, Cope. 391 

for the study of nature, and thereby drew the members into sym- 
pathy with him and his busy Hfe. His funeral was from his resi- 
dence in Merchantville, N. J., and was largely attended by his 
students and college associates. The burial was in the beautiful 
and historic cemetery of Colestown, a few miles distant. H. T. 



RESEARCHES IN REGARD TO THE VENOM OF THE 
HELODERMA SUSPECTUM, COPE. 

From the Physiological Laboratory of the Caroline Institute, Stockholm, 

Sweden. 

By C. G. Santesson, Professor of Pharmacology. 

Having had the opportunity to examine the saliva from three 
lizards of the above-named species, Heloderma suspectiun, Cope, 
which were caught in Arizona and sent alive to the Zoological Insti- 
tute at the Stockholm High School, and thinking that any new 
information in regard to this wonderful species of animals might 
possibly interest American readers, especially since the question of 
its poisonous nature has been enthusiastically discussed in American 
papers, I venture to submit for their perusal a short account* of the 
results of my experiments in this line. 

Before beginning to relate the results of my own experiments, 
I must, however, call attention to several features in the discussion 
carried on in America, adding a few remarks of my own. 

The fact that the anatomical structure of the heloderms suggests 
the probability of their being to a certain degree poisonous has 
been pointed out by Cope.^ Numerous experiments made on ani- 
mals by Sumichrast,^ Houlenger,* J. Fayrer, in the Zoological 



* My studies on this subject have been more completely published in German 
in a treatise with the title : " Ueber das Gift von Helo<lerma suspectum Cope, 
einer giftigen Hidechse, " No. 5 of the festival volumes ot Xordiskl Mtdidnskt 
Arkii\ dedicated to Prof. Axel Key, March, 1897. 

' Cope : I^oceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
^^^^7, P- 5 ; »ce also a postscript to an article by Shufeldt, The American Naiu- 
ra/ist, Vol. 16 I 1882 j, p. 907. 

'Cfr. letter to Bocourt : Comp. rend, de I'acad, des sciences, t. 80 (1875), p. 
676 ; furthermore, Sumichrast : liulleiin de la soc, tool, de France, Vol. 5 
(1S80), p. 178. 

♦ Boulenger : Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1881, p. 631 \ 
gives an account of Payrer's observations 



392 Heloderma Snspectum, Cope, {^'"Augusl'^iSr- 

Gardens, London,'* of Weir Mitchell and Reichert,^ and Garman/ 
have shown that the secretion from the salivary glands of the helo- 
derms is more or less venomous. Frogs, hens, doves, guinea-pigs 
and rabbits always died of it, the two last-named kinds of animals 
generally very quickly. Cats and dogs did not die, but showed 
local effects of the poison (pains, swelling, extravasations, etc.). Two 
experimenters are said to have arrived at entirely negative results, 
viz.: Irwin, U. S. A., about whose experiments (made in 1867?) I 
have no explicit knowledge, and Yarrow,^ who discovered no positive 
residts worth mentioni?ig, neither after bites nor after subcutaneous 
ifijections, the animals always recovering soo7i. 

In regard to this last-named research, I beg to call attention to 
the possibility for individual variations to exist in the venomous 
nature of the heloderms, some individuals always or periodically 
being in a much smaller degree venomous. 

The accounts of the influence of heloderma bites on man are of 
the greatest interest, as for instance the misadventure of Shufeldt^ 
In spite of the severe pains, swelling, etc., after the bite, this investi- 
gator still regards the animal to be harmless, and points out the 
fact that even the bites of men or cats may sometimes have a 
poisonous effect, although neither men nor cats are classified among 
the specifically poisonous animals. It seems to me that Shufeldt here 
mixes up two quite different things ; the bites of men or of cats can 
certainly not be said to be specifically poisonous (as for instance is 
the case with snake-bites); but, on the other hand, they may very 
easily cause bacterial infection or " blood-poisoning." The symp- 
toms observed by Shufeldt much resemble those brought about by 
the bite of our common viper {Vipera berus), i. e., they resemble a 
slight specific poisoning, but not " blood-poisoning." It may, 
besides, be pointed out that an animal is not *' harmless " because it 
does not kill. The bite of our above-mentioned viper does not, as a 
rule, kill grown-up persons, and still everybody looks upon it as a 
specifically venomous animal, and so it is, beyond all question. 

• Short notice in the American Naturalist, Vol. 16 (1882), p. 842. 

•' Weir Mitchell and Reichert : The Medical News, Vol. 42, No. 8, Feb. 24, 
1883, pp. 209-212. 

' Garman : Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., Vol. 22 (1890), pp. 
60-69. 

® Yarrow: Forest arid Stream, New York, June 14, 1888, p. 412 and sue. 

'•♦ Shufeldt : The American Naturalist, Vol. 16 (1882), p. 907 and sue. 



""""Ai^SstjS^""} Helodenna Suspectum, Cope. 393 

There is another account of a person bitten by a heloderma, which 
is perhaps not so well known by our American readers. Mr. J. 
Stein, of Mexico, who once sent two heloderms to Fischer for 
anatomical and histological examination of their poison apparatus,^^ 
was on one occasion deeply bitten in a finger by one of them. The 
finger and the whole arm szvelled up considerably, causing the most 
violent pain, and his general condition was greatly disturbed. For a 
long time afterwards the skin of the arm had a yellow, parchment- 
like appearance. Short as it is, this description of the specific local 
effect of a poison could scarcely be clearer. In accounts of death as 
a consequence of heloderma bites, it may, perhaps, not be worth 
while to place too great confidence. 

Even the experience hitherto gained seems decidedly to show 
that the heloderms are specifically venomous, although their bites 
are less dangerous than those of poisonous serpents, and generally 
not fatal to men. 

The heloderma on whose venom I have made the most of my 
experiments (from October, 1895, ^i^^ February, 1896) was a female 
H. susptctum (Cope), 40 centimeters long, in good health. It could 
not be induced to bite animals, was sluggish and good-natured. The 
venom was gained in the following manner : With a pair of long, 
crooked tongs, I took a clean, dry sponge, about as large as a wal- 
nut, and forced the animal to bite it. When I had sufficiently 
irritated the reluctant animal, it would seize the sponge, and I then 
generally succeeded in pressing it into the animal's mouth. The 
venom in the sponge was then drawn out by means of a little quan- 
tity of 06 per cent, solution of common culinary salt. The fluid 
thus obtained was turbid, slimy, slightly alkaline, having an aro- 
matic smell not at all unpleasant. Some simple preliminary tests 
showed that the fluid contained protein substances ; these could 
almost completely be precipitated by alcohol in excess, the fluid 
having first been rendered slightly sour by the addition of acetic 
acid. If, after thus having acidified it, the fluid was instead boiled 
for a short time, a part of the albumen coagulated, while the rest 
remained in solution. 



**J. O. PiAcher: *'Antttoni!sche Notizen T'et>€r Ifetoder^na 'u^ t unnn '.' 
Verhandl. d. Verens J. natup-u tssemsch. I'nterhaltung zu HamI >3, 

pp. 2-16. 



394 Heloderma Suspectum, Cope. { ^""aJ^IJ^I^s^!'"' 

The poisonous liquid drawn out of the sponge by means of the 
weak solution of salt was afterwards subcutaneously injected into 
frogs, white mice and rabbits, which all died of it. By special 
experiments, I convinced myself that there was no other poison in 
the sponge, syringe, canula, etc. The common symptom was a 
paralyzation of the nervous system^ setting in gradually after a short 
lapse of time and ultimately causing death. Convulsions were not 
observed in rats, and in rabbits only in a very sHght degree towards 
the end (suffocating convulsions slightly indicated). In frogs the 
poisoning lasted from 57 minutes to several hours, a day and a 
night, etc.; in rats 56 to 85 minutes ; a little rabbit lived 112 minutes. 
The frogs died of paralyzation of the heart ;^^. the animals, on the 
contrary, seemed to die of the gradual paralyzation of the nervous 
system and the centres of respiration. If, on prolonged irritation of 
these latter systems, the heart had been primarily paralyzed, signs 
of acute inner suffocation, accompanied by dyspnoea and violent con- 
vulsions should have appeared, as was the case in the experiments 
of Weir Mitchell and Reichert (see note 6) ; but such was not 
the case to any degree worth mentioning. The difference between 
the results of these investigators and my own surely depend chiefly 
on their having, as a rule, used much greater doses than I did ; they 
have, therefore, obtained a sudden paralyzation of the heart, while 
my experiments have brought about very gradual paralyzation of 
the nervous system. 

On account of the way in which I collected the poison, I cannot 
say how great the doses were. The quantity of saliva taken 
amounted on one occasion to about 0-3 gramme, but surely both 
the quantity and the toxicity varied much on different occasions. 
That the poison is effective in very small quantities was proved by 
the following experiment: r8 milligrammes of dried poison was dis- 
persed in a little water, only partly dissolved ; was filtered and in- 
jected into a frog. The animal grew very weak and languid, but 
was, however, not totally paralyzed ; did not completely recover 
until after a week. The poisonous part of this dose was certainly 
not more than a fraction of i milligramme. 

A more minute examination of the development of the paralysis 

" Frogs can, as a rule, hardly die from paralyzation of the respiratory organs, 
since they breathe so sufficiently through their skin that they can lie alive for 
weeks without lung respiration and afterwards recover. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 



Au'grt-.?^"} Helodcrma Suspectum, Cope. 395 

in frogs showed that the central nervous system, the brain and the 
spinal cord were first affected by it, but afterwards it also attacked 
the termini of the motor-nerves in the muscles, producing a com- 
plete curare effect, while the irritability of the muscular tissues re- 
mained unaffected. 

In the heart of a frog observed in situ without opening the 
thorax, the rate of pulsation after subcutaneous injection of the 
poison was observed at first to increase a little, then gradually to de- 
crease until it stopp>ed entirely. Shortly after the heart had stopped, 
or while the auricles were still beating slightly, the ventricle (after 
opening the thorax) usually seemed contracted and stiff, surely in- 
dicating a direct effect of the poison on the muscular tissues. 

Weir Mitchell and Reichert have not observed any local effect of 
the heloderma venom. Probably this depended upon the hasty 
death of the animals on whom they experimented. In several ex- 
periments on frogs, I have discovered cedema, small extravasations, 
discoloring and fragility of the muscular tissues, etc., at the place of 
injection (mostly in the walls of the lymph-sinus of the thorax and 
abdomen). In a rat I once observed a greenish-brown discoloring 
of the tissue around the place of injection. Furthermore, in many 
accounts of former experiments on animals, and also in accounts of 
cases in which people have been bitten (Shufeldt, Stein), we read of 
more or less marked local effects of the poison. Local gangrene 
is, however, not mentioned, and, as a rule, the local effects have 
soon disappeared. 

On mucous membranes (the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
the conjunctiva) the heloderma poison does not seem to have any 
injurious effect. 

By means of some special e.xperiments, I have furthermore tried 
to discover how the poisonous part of the heloderm saliva is affected 
by alcohol and boiling. If to the poisonous fluid, which has been 
rendered a trifle sour by the admixture of acetic acid, alcohol is 
added in excess, all the poison may be precii)itated, in case the pro- 
cess is carefully carried out. If the alcoliol is then filtered off from 
the poison and allowed to evaporate, and if the residues, after the 
evaf>oration of the alcohol are dispersed in acid water, the liquid thus 
obtained is uneffectivc. Thus, poisonous alkaloid substances, which 
ought to have dissolved in alcohol and then in acid water, «Yfr not 
to be found. 



396 Heloderma Suspectunt, Cope, { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August. 1897. 



The alcoholic precipitate was again partly dissolved in water 
(after the alcohol had been removed), and this solution always had 
a fatal effect, accompanied by the usual symptoms, sometimes so 
suddenly (a frog died in fifty-seven minutes) that there is all reason 
to suppose that the whole of the poison had again been dissolved. 
From this the important conclusion may be drawn that the poison 
probably does not, or at least only to a small degree, belong to the 
group of common albuminous substances {albumin, globulin), which 
soon become so altered in alcohol that they cannot be again dis- 
solved in water. On the contrary, the venomous principle ought, 
probably, to be looked for among the nuclein substances, the albu- 
moses (albuminoses?), the peptons, the mucoid substances, etc. 

If the poisonous liquid rendered slightly sour by acetic acid is 
boiled, coagula are formed, as before mentioned. These are not 
poisonous if well washed with water ; but if not washed, a more or 
less considerable amount of the venom is liable to adhere to them, 
and this venom may afterwards be soaked out of the coagula, and it 
is then even able to cause fatal poisoning. That which is coagulated 
by boiling and is insoluble in water probably consists of common,, 
harmless albumen. Thus it may be seen that the poison, when 
boiled with acid, remains in solution. On the contrary, with alco- 
hol it may be precipitated from this solution, but may again be dis- 
solved in water. These circumstances also point out that the 
venom is not an albumin or a globulin, but belongs to the latter of 
the above-named groups of protein substances. The fact that the 
poison is not destroyed by boiling shows that it is not an enzym {an 
unorganized ferment), as these are usually conceived. 

When the poisonous solution is brought into a slightly sour reac- 
tion by means of a small quantity of acetic acid, there is no pre- 
cipitation. Consequently, true mucine is not present in any great 
quantity. 

Since the supply of material which I was able to obtain was very 
small, it was rather difficult to determine the chemical nature of the 
venomous substance or substances. I therefore applied to my col- 
league, K. A. H. Mbrner, Professor of Medical Chemistry in Stock- 
holm, who had the kindness to undertake this work, while I myself 
made the experiments on animals required for these tests. 

The poisonous solution, rendered a little sour by acetic acid, was 
precipitated by alcohol in excess; this precipitate was dissolved in 



I 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 



Augim.iaf:^"} Heloderma Suspect urn. Cope. 39; 

water and was again precipitated by acetic acid and brought to a 
tolerably strong sour reaction. In this precipitate there was found 
phosphorus, organically bound ; here there was, therefore, undoubt- 
edly, some nucleimferous protein substance present. 

But was this substance poisonous? From another quantity of the 
poisonous secretion, the nuclein substance was again isolated, dis- 
solved in water with a little soda, and injected into a frog. The 
animal soon grew weak, bled continually, though slowly, from a 
small wound on one of its lips, and died after three days. On dis- 
section, I found a great number of small extravasations of blood in 
the muscles of the thorax and even some in other places. We see 
here (at least partially) the characteristic effects of nuclein sub- 
stances on the blood (diminished coagulating power, extravasations). 
If a stage of increased coagulating power had preceded, I do not 
know. If the solution of heloderm poison is directly applied to 
defibrinized blood (of a rabbit), the blood-corpuscles seem to take a 
spherical form, which reminds us of the effect of the snake-poison 
globuiiues^^ of Weir Mitchell and Reichert. 

The solution from which the above-named poisonous nuclein sub- 
stance was removed by precipitation with acetic acid did not contain 
any albumin which coagulated on boiling. On the other hand, 
Millon's reaction showed the presence of some protein substance. 
With sulphate of ammonium in. substance, a considerable downy 
precipitate of albutnoses was obtained. After these had been filtered 
off, the liquid (the filtrate) gave no '' biuret-rcaction ;'' consequently 
true peptons were not present. In the liquid from which the nuclein 
substances had been removed, albumoses could still be displayed by 
means of ordinary culinary salt and acetic acid ; these called forth a 
turbidness which disappeared on boiling and reappeared when 
exposed to cold. 

From another sample, the albumoses were isolated in the above- 
described manner with neutral sulphate of ammonium in substance, 
were then separated as much as possible from the ammonium salt, 
were dissolved in water and precipitated with alcohol. The latter 
treatment was repeated once more, and at last the new alcohol pre- 
cipitate was dissolved again in water. This solution of albumoses, 
which still contained some sulphate o( ammonium, was injected into 

" Weir Mitchell and Reichert : '* Re«c*rchc» upon the Venom of Poihonout 

Serpents," Washington, 1886. 



398 The Pharmacist and the Microscope, {^*"iSt,%'"' 

a frog. The frog soon grew weak, almost paralyzed, but did not 
die. On the contrary, it gradually recovered, but after ten days 
was not yet quite normal. It was then killed ; no extravasations 
were visible. (With a larger dose of sulphate of ammonium injected 
into another frog, it was shown that this salt called forth quite dif- 
ferent symptoms.) 

From the experiments here related, it may be seen that the prin- 
cipal venomous elements of the heloderm saliva consist partly of nucle- 
iniferous substances and partly of albumoses. 

By special experiments it was at last shown that aqueous extract 
from the poisonous glands of the heloderma and the blood of that 
animal possessed poisonous qualities. 

Consequently, my observations most decidedly support the asser- 
tion of the majority of experimenters, especially Weir Mitchell and 
Reichert, that the heloderms are specifically poisonous animals, even 
if, as a rule, they are not aggressive towards men, and, on account 
of their sluggishness, only seldom do any harm. A heloderma is, 
at all events, an individual to be suspected, even if it does give but 
very little reason for the name " horridum." As a playmate for 
children (Cfr. Weir Mitchell and Reichert, note 6), it is certainly 
not suitable. 

Stockholm, June, 1897. 



THE PHARMACIST AND THE MICROSCOPE.^ 
By Henry Kraemer. 

The topic of " The Microscope in Pharmacy " is by no means a 
new one. In this country for at least the past twenty years it has 
been a theme upon which comparatively many have written. Upon 
looking over some of these papers one is struck with the loyalty of 
the authors to the microscope, in describing its construction, uses 
and even possibilities. Nevertheless, one cannot but feel that the 
situation has been viewed in most cases from some other stand- 
point rather than the practice of the profession of pharmacy. The 
idea that seems to pervade the atmosphere is that all that is neces- 
sary for the pharmacist is to procure the necessary apparatus (mi- 
croscopes, reagents, etc.) and books and to follow the directions 
given. One furthermore receives the impression that, because 

' Presented at the New York State Pharm. Assoc, July 13, 1897. 



Am. Joar. Pharm 



A^si i5l^^°} The Pharmacist and the Microscope. 399 

vegetable drugs possess characteristic structures, therefore, the 
pharmacist ought to use his microscope in determining all of the 
drugs that he buys. The result of this kind of writing has, to 
some extent, hindered our progress in practical pharmacognosy in 
this country. 

ONE MUST BE T.\UGHT. 

To possess a microscope and not know how to use it, or to think 
one knows how to use it, and spend one's time by one's self in en- 
deavoring to interpret what is revealed there, is both money and 
time wasted. In order to obtain results that are reliable in using a 
microscope for any purpose, one must know how to use the instru- 
ment and understand the structures in the department (say botany) 
where it is to be used. This necessary knowledge can come only by 
being instructed properly. Of all the instruments yet devised in 
the prosecution of scientific research, there is none that requires 
that its user shall be better taught in the foundation and guiding 
principles of the science in which he engages, than the micro- 
scope. It is extremely unprofitable for any one to have the idea 
that he can teach himself the use of the microscope in the science 
in which he proposes to apply it. It looks very inviting to see a 
good illustration and to read of sectioning, mounting and examin- 
ing a drug with the microscope. It is another thing to do the work 
and see the points. Experience teaches us that a beginner finds no 
help in the illustrations of books. What the beginner needs in 
doing microscopical work are not illustrations or facts, but ability to 
use his hand, eye and brain rightly. One must be taught, i. e., guided 
to knowledge. Time must first be consumed under a competent 
teacher in mastering the construction of the instrument and in be- 
coming familiar with the methods of doing microscopical work and 
in learning the foundation and guiding principles of morpholog)- 
(both outer and inner) of the plant kingdom. After this is accom- 
plished the student will find books helpful. Now he can use his 
hands properly, see with his eyes correctly and interpret with his 
brain rationally. The more knowledge that is gained by personal 
observation the stronger and more self-reliant will the student be- 
come. 

A broad botanical or even biological university training is the 
best foundation and is necessary to accomplish the best work witli 
the rnicroscope. It cannot be said, however, that this is absolutely 



\iii. Jour. Pharm. 



400 The P/mrjnacist and the Microscope. {^"i^S.is^^ 

necessary in the prosecution of the microscopical work by the phar- 
macist. It is necessary for him, however, to have mastered the 
foundation principles of physics, botany and chemistry in order to 
get the results that are of practical value to him. Some of our 
schools and colleges of pharmacy are now prepared to give their 
students a good start in this direction. The student must not be 
dismayed, but, on the contrary, expect "to make haste slowly" at 
first. He must exercise patience in learning to section drugs and 
work persistently under a competent instructor until he understands 
the principles of his subject. Nature does not unfold herself unless 
you work patiently and incessantly at her. When one problem is 
well worked out, the next is easier, so that by the time the student 
is master of his subject, results come comparatively easily. 

TIME AND PLACE FOR USE OF THE MICROSCOPE. 

Having shown that instruction is necessary in order to secure 
reliable results from the use of the microscope in pharmacy, the 
illusion that the microscope is necessary on all occasions must be 
dispelled. While it is an indispensable instrument sometimes, it 
does not follow that it must be used always, any more than because 
an axe is used to chop down a large tree, that therefore an axe is 
necessary to break up every piece of wood. The microscope has its 
time and its place for use by every one who is accustomed to using it 
in his special line of work. It is as superfluous for the educated 
pharmacist to use his microscope in the examination of each lot of 
nux vomica or calumbo that he buys as it would be for the field 
botanist to require to make a microscopical examination before he 
could determine, say, Castanea dentata or Quercus alba. In fact, it 
bespeaks lack of knowledge in the botanist. It likewise reflects on 
the professional pharmacist who wishes to make sections of those 
drugs which are so characteristic in a crude condition, and which by 
experience he ought to distinguish at once. The microscope is to be 
employed only when more refined tests are necessary. 

APPLICATIONS OF THE MICROSCOPE IN PHARMACY. 

Upon the completion of a proper laboratory course, and being 
well grounded in the various sciences necessary for the use of the 
microscope in pharmacy, we must also recognize that .in the use of 
the microscope there is a training of the eye (a sharpening of it, so 
to speak), so that the trained eye, with the other senses (educated 



^"iug,mt.^85^f'"} The Pharmacist and the Microscope. 40 1 

too), are all to be employed where necessary in determination of 
drugs. Now, there are times when the use of the microscope alone 
is essential, whereas at other times it is rather a convenience in the 
practice of pharmacy. Some of the applications of the microscope 
in pharmacy are the following : 

(i) Examination of Some Crude Drugs. — While appearance, 
odor, taste, etc., are generally sufficient aids in determining most of 
the commercial crude drugs one from another, still there are 
instances where a microscopical examination is desirable and neces- 
sary. This is especially so when certain drugs occur in relatively 
small pieces, or when two or more drugs that possess similar charac- 
teristics are supposed to be intermixed or incorrectly labelled. The 
microscopic structure will generally enable one to quickly dispose 
of such doubtful cases. The following crude drugs of the U.S.P. 
require not infrequently a microscopical examination for their 
accurate determination, especially when they do not appear in the 
forms usually seen in commerce : 

Mexican sarsaparilla from Honduras sarsaparilla. 

Belladonna,' radix (the horny kind) from Inula. 

Belladonna folia from Stramonii folia. 

Serpentaria,' from Spigelia. 

Granatum from Xanthoxylum. 

There are a few cases in the examination of crude drugs where 
microscopical examinations have been advocated, and while some- 
times necessary, the quality and nature of adulterant may frequently 
be told by the eye alone, as Crocus, etc. 

(2) Examination of Powdered Drugs. — In recent years powdered 
drugs have been introduced to such an extent that in many retail 
pharmacies few crude drugs are to be found. Drugs in the powdered 
condition may be obtained pure, but adulteration is more easily 
effected. The reason for this is owing to the inability of the average 
pharmacist in detecting it. We notice that some State Boards in 
their examinations give the candidates very few, if any, crude drugs 
for determination. In time there can be no doubt but that the 
candidates for the State Board examinations will be required to 
identify powdered drugs and pronounce on their quality. This 
is desirable for the sake of the profession of pharmacy, and in accord 

* The microscope is not neceMary here, as will he shown in an article to be 
published later. 



402 TJie Pharmacist and the Microscope. {"^""auS.^S^""'' 

with the spirit of the State Boards in giving the candidates as practi- 
cal examinations as may be possible. The microscope must, in this 
province, be used, as only by means of it can one determine most 
of the powdered drugs and pronounce on the quality of all. By 
means of the microscope, drugs of different origin may readily be 
determined, as the various sarsaparillas, sennas, ipecacs, etc. 

(3) As a Preliminary Step in the Study of Plant Constituents, — 
The microscope is of undoubted service as a preliminary step in con- 
ducting chemical examinations of drugs. The nature of inorganic 
substances (as CaC03, CaC204, Si02, etc.) may readily be detected. 
The nature of some carbon compounds (as starch, sugar), and active 
principles (as oils, resins, tannins or other substances) may be 
detected qualitatively. 

(4) In Determining the Relative Value of Drugs. — It not infre- 
quently happens that two drugs of different origin or habitat are 
used in medicine, and that the cheaper contains the larger percent- 
age of active principles. A chemical assay may be resorted to ; but 
when purchasing a small quantity of a drug this might not pay. 
By means of the microscope, however, an approximate comparison 
may be instituted, even quantitative results may be obtained, as 
has already been shown, and will be further demonstrated in a 
forthcoming paper. This applies not only to powdered, but also to 
crude drugs. The following instances may be cited : 

(«) Gingers. — The African ginger is cheaper than the Jamaica 
ginger, but the former contains more secretion cells, which are 
about the same size in both. Hence, the African, though cheapest, 
assays a higher percentage of oleoresin. 

(^) Biichus. — The short buchu is cheaper than the long buchu, 
but resembles the former, and contains much larger and more 
numerous secretion reservoirs than the latter; hence the "short 
buchu" assays more oil than the other. 

(5) /« Determining Loss of Active Principles. — It is possible in 
some cases, without resorting to a chemical assay, to determine 
whether the active principles have been removed. This is notably 
so in drugs that contain alkaloids, secretion reservoirs or secreting 
hairs, as cinchona, ginger, cloves, or any labiatae. 

(6) In Determining Identity and Quality of Spices and Foods. — 
Since the introduction of spices in a powdered condition into the 
household there has been the most flagrant kind of adulteration 



^"AuguJt.VS?!""} Tfi^ Pharmacist and the Microscope. 403 

practised. In many cases the microscope is the only satisfactory 
means for determining the purity and nature of adulterant. 

A few illustrations may be given : 

{a) Pepper is adulterated with mustard hulls, wheat flour, etc. 

(b) Bermuda Arrowroot with other arrowroots and starches. 

(c) Tea with the leaves of Salix alba, Sambucus nigra, etc. 

(7) In Determining Unknoivn Drugs. — It often occurs that a 
pharmacist receives for identification samples of drugs that are un- 
known to him. It may be that they are common indeed and in- 
digenous to this country. The microscopic exammation at once 
gives one a start. The compound microscope is, indeed, playing a 
very important part to-day throughout systematic botany. Certain 
groups or families or genera are found to possess a certain charac- 
teristic inner morphology, and this is the key to the solution. It 
may be that the arrangement of the elements of the fibro-vascular 
bundle is peculiar, or that the shape of the element (root, stem, 
etc.) is characteristic, or the identification may be based on the 
nature of secretion cells, or form and nature of hairs, etc. In leaves 
the habitat may sometimes be determined by reason of the structure. 

(8) In Biological and Sanitary Analysis. — The advancing phar- 
macist is taking upon himself the study of these branches, which 
are more or less directly related to medicine, and for which there is 
evidently a growing demand. He is making the biological as well 
as chemical analysis of water and reporting on the condition of 
sputum, urine, etc., of the patients of the physician. In all this 
kind of work the microscope is necessary. 

(9) For Other Practical Purposes. — Recently some one wished to 
examine the number of meshes in some sieves. The compound 
microscope was recommended for the purpose, the principle of the 
method followed being the same as that used in measuring the 
lengths of cells, etc. 

The microscof)e may be used in detecting forgery, in determining 
the writing on soiled labels ; also in ascertaining the kind of writing 
paper, labels, etc., that are purchased, etc. 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE USE OF THE MICROSCOPE, 

From what has preceded it is seen that the microscope has a 
very important bearing on the practical work of the pharmacist. 
It would not be proper in an essay of this kind to fail to record the 



404 The Pharmacist and the Microscope, {^"^kl^^x^^^^i!^- 

influence of the microscope in the training of the pharmacist. The 
use of the microscope does for him — as it does for all — an infinite 
amount of good that must not be overlooked. It makes better ob- 
servers of all. The early workers with the microscope often re- 
marked that it enabled tJie zvorker to see with the naked eye after- 
wards structures that were invisible to him before he used the instru- 
ment. By means of the simple lens one is enabled frequently to 
make out those characteristics of a drug that he has seen with the 
compound microscope. Finally, with the naked eye alone, one can, 
by experience, obtain results in determining the quality of drugs 
that are based on structure and not on ephemeral external charac- 
ters. 

RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE MICROSCOPE. 

We must not be discouraged by reason of the sceptic and his 
oft-repeated question : *' What is the use?" The sceptic is as use- 
ful in treating this subject as he is in other problems. In the ap- 
plied sciences this question is ever before the student. The pure 
scientist, in his pure science, need pay no attention to the query. 
But the business and professional man feels it necessary to devote 
his energies to those things only that will bring forth useful fruits. 
There is, however,an insurmountable difficulty in following the applied 
sciences ; one cannot predict what scientific fact or discovery will be 
the basis or part of a principle in the construction of some useful 
invention. Hence we find it necessary to take in more than we can 
use practically, and are silenced for the time sometimes by the ques- 
tion : '• What is the use ?" Nevertheless, we are safe in recording 
some of the results that accrue to the educated pharmacist from his 
use of the microscope. The benefits are two-fold, viz.: to the phar- 
macist and to the public. 

(i) To the Pharmacist. — The pharmacist is able to dispense drugs, 
foods and spices, the purity of which he can guarantee. This 
means to him and for him : 

(a) The most efficient of co-operative work with the physician. 

{b) The building up of a good pharmacy, the name of which shall 
endure. 

{c) The establishment of confidence in him by the best physi- 
cians and the public. To have a good custom one must sell good 
drugs. 



'""iSi.^iS^';'"'} The Pharmacist and the Microscope. 405 

(^) The pharmacist receives the value of his money for his pur- 
chases. He does not pay a high price for an inferior drug, as a 
Honduras price for a Mexican or other sarsaparilla. 

(e) The conscience of the pharmacist is clear, as he knows what 
he is selHng. 

(/) It is also an advertisement to the pharmacist, and he may 
judiciously utilize it in the building up of his estate here. 

(2) To the Public. — The public receive in return pure drugs, foods 
and spices. This means to them : 

{a^ Confidence in the pharmacist, which sometimes may prolong 
and even save life. 

(b) Satisfaction in the goods for the money paid. 

ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE USE OF THE MICROSCOPE. 

(i) It requires an educated person to use the microscope to any 
advantage. A mere merchant could not use it with profit. It 
requires that one shall have spent time and money in acquiring a 
proper education. Hence, they who have never been instructed by 
a competent teacher cannot practically avail themselves of the bene- 
fits of the use of the microscope. 

(2) The cost of the outfit, being at least $25, makes some per- 
sons, who might use it profitably, think too long about purchasing 
a microscope. 

(3) Time must be given to the use of the microscope. Many 
pharmacists feel that if there is any time to spare it ought to be 
given to *' resting up" or waiting for the next rush of business. 

(4) It takes " nerve " or backbone for one to go to college, to buy 
a microscope, to give the time that is necessary for securing results 
and to believe that all will pay in the end. 

(5) The merchant who wishes to purchase his goods at the lowest 
price, regardless of quality, does not care to be able to know 
whether the guarantee of the seller for purity is correct. He would 
rather sell impure and adulterated goods with the clear conscience 
of wilful ignorance. 

CONCLUSION. 

A good education is necessary for a professional pharmacist, and 
he alone who is taught properly can use the microscope advan- 
tageously. 

The microscope may be utilized in so many practical ways by the 



4o6 The Tannin of Castanopsis. {^^ASM^^sor' 

educated pharmacist that the receipts far outweigh the cost and 
time. The Hght in the sky is already appearing, the clouds are 
rising higher and higher on the mountain side, and the practical 
pharmacists are ascending one by one to higher flights than where 
they rested yesterday, and they follow those who it sometimes may 
seem are working in the clouds, yet who, nevertheless, when the 
light shines, are seen to be laboring for the benefit and the future of 
pharmacy. 

THE TANNIN OF CASTANOPSIS. 

By Henry Trimbi^e. 

In the June number of this Journal, p. 296, attention was 
called to the presence of strontium in the bark of several species of 
castanopsis received from Dr. H. N. Ridley, of the Singapore Botani- 
cal Gardens, India. These barks have also been examined for tan- 
nin; and the results are now tabulated along with those from two 
species of oak also from Singapore, and two samples of the one 
species of our native castanopsis, C. chrysophylla. The results on 
one sample of the latter were published in the Garden and Forest, 
8, 293, July 24, 1895 \ the editor, Professor C. S. Sargent, adding 
some remarks concerning the genus, which, by reproduction here, 
will throw additional light on the subject. 

As is well known, the bark of Quercus densiflora, of California, is popularly 
considered the most valuable tanning material produced in the Pacific States of 
North America. This oak is the only American representative of a peculiar 
group of trees which inhabit southeastern Asia, and are intermediate iu botanical 
characters between the true oaks and the chestnuts. 

There is another genus, Castanopsis, which is also intermediate between the 
oaks and the chestnuts, and also of southeastern Asia, but, curiously enough, 
with a single representative in Oregon and California, Castanopsis chry- 
sophylla, a very beautiful tree, which the Californians call the gold-leafed 
chestnut, from the bright golden scurf which covers the lower surface of the 
leaves. Some botanists treat Castanopsis as a section of Castauea, while others, 
like Dr. King, of Calcutta, who made a special study of the genus, although 
finding no very good characters by which it can be distinguished from one of 
the Asiatic sections of Quercus, maintain the genus for the purposes of conve- 
nience. The relationship of this tree to Quercus densiflora on one hand, and to 
the chestnut on the other, suggested that its wood and bark might contain 
valuable tanning properties. 

The result of a comparison of the American Quercus and Castan- 
opsis, was to show that the tannin of Castanopsis chrysophylla is 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August. 1&97. 



The Tannm of Castanopsis. 



407 



identical with that from Quercus densiflora, and, therefore, with all 
the other species of oak which have hitherto been examined by me. 
Since chestnut tannin is identical with gall tannin, and that from the 
oak is quite a different substance, the result from a chemical stand- 
point, placed the Castanopsis chrysophylla with quercus. 

The natural sequence of this investigation was a desire to examine 
the several species of castanopsis of India, where all the other mem- 
bers of the genus grow, and through the kindness of Dr. Ridley this 
has been possible. It is to be regretted, however, that only the 
percentage amount of tannin and some general characters can be 
given at this time, since there was not sufficient material to admit of 
a final decision in regard to the composition of the tannin. The 
attempt was made to purify two lots of tannin from these barks, but 
it is only safe at present to state that the indications point to the 
presence of oak tannin in all the Indian species. An additional 
liberal supply of the bark from the American species was also 
received from Miss Alice Eastwood, of the California Academy of 
Science, collected by Dr. Geo. McCowen, Ukiah, California. 



Castanopsis Wallichiana . . . 
Curtisii (old tree)* . 
" (young tree)- 

" Javauica 

Hullettii 

Quercus hystrix ... 

** discocarpa 

Castanopsis chrysophylla . . . 

Quercus densiflora 



--^. ,„_^ Aah in absolutely Tannin in 

MOisiure. dry sample. absolutely dry sample. 



894 


4-40 


5 "37 


8-53 


2-03 


1 6 07 


6-8i 


441 


721 


693 


461 


806 


651 


377 


673 


7 'CO 


6-20 


8 60 


727 


3'93 


528 


4272 


370 


iS 92 


i'>'43 


061 


8-58 


10-31 


2 46 


16 12 



' Collected In Penang. 
* Singapore. 



The two specimens of Castanopsis chrysophylla were quite different 
in character; the one showing the large i>crccntagc of moisture was 



4o8 Resume of Recurrent lopics. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August. 1897. 



taken from a shrub, and was received while in the moist green state, 
a condition favorable to a large yield of tannin ; the other was 
apparently from a much older tree, and apparently much of the 
tannin was changed to an insoluble red coloring. The low ash can- 
not be accounted for. 

In connection with this the following description of the Indian 
species by Dr. Ridley may be of interest. 

Castanopsis Wallichiana. Nuts commonly eaten. If there are not two 
species mixed under this name, the leaves are very variable. 

C. Curtisii, King. Native name, " Berangan Janthong." One from the type 
tree in Penang, marked " old tree," the other marked " young tree," brought 
by a native collection from our forests here ; though the collector persists it is 
Curtisii, I have never myself seen this species in Singapore. 

C. Javanica, King. Native name, "Berangan Gajah." I think two species 
may have been placed under this name by Dr. King. The fruits of the sample 
sent are very large ; nuts single, oblong, about three inches in length; they are 
purgative when eaten. 

C. HuUettii, King, Native name ** Berangan Papan, i. e., plank chestnut. 
A big tree, nuts bitter, not eaten, 

Quercus hystrix. Native name, "Mempening." A very common oak in 
Singapore, 

O. discocarpa, from Penang, I hardly see why this is not a Castanopsis; the 
fruit is just that of one. 



RESUME OF RECURRENT TOPICS. 

By W11.1.1AM B, Thompson. 

The Gradations of Chemistry. — In the classification of the various 
branches of this science (and the divisions are very numerous, as 
well as comprehensive), it will be observed that some attach natur- 
ally to therapy and others to that of pharmacy. In a general 
sense we may say that the physician who fails to give full consid- 
eration to biological and physiological chemistry cannot be correct at 
diagnosis. Whilst, on the other hand, the pharmacist who omits to 
comprehend the relations of toxicological and pharmaceutical chem- 
istry cannot proceed intelligently in applying knowledge to his art. 
A pharmacist appreciating the aids to the pursuit of his business 
could wisely adopt as a special study one of the many divisions of 
chemical science. Practice in this might, in time, be made remun- 
erative. Apart from the utility, it is a most enticing and absorb- 
ing theme, and furnishes the key which unlocks some of the most 
profound and amazing mysteries of the material world. A taste of 



^Vugus-t.^b^/"'} Resume of Recurrent Topics. 409 

this knowledge begets a thirst for more. Chemistry' might be 
selected by choice and made an auxiliary to business, and to busi- 
ness titles, a deserved or earned title being more worthy than an 
assumed one. Once rescued from the commercial slough by the 
absorption of its numerous allied sciences, pharmacy ought to rise 
again to its true sphere and mission. 

Herbs and Simples. — In the earlier days of medical and domestic 
practice, when vegetable substances were chiefly in vogue as reme- 
dies, there was quite an original subdivision according to their prop- 
erties — suggestive, sensible properties. For instance, there were 
the so-called five great aperitive roots — smallage, or celery; fennel, 
parsley, petty-whin, and asparagus — the title aperitive having the 
same derivation as our modern word aperient, the latter being con- 
sidered more in euphony. Then there were the four lesser cold 
seeds — succory, or chicory; lettuce, purslane, etc., — and the four les- 
ser liot seeds — celery, parsley, bishop weed and wild carrots. Next, 
the four greater cold seeds, of which the pumpkin is a type, and the 
four greater hot seeds, and so on. It will be noticed that these dis- 
tinctions were not medical in any sense, but based on the plainest 
descriptions, hot and oold, our present pungent carminatives consti- 
tuting the former, and the mucilaginous and saccharine the latter. 
Many of these were in established repute, and the observations upon 
their properties are so specific as to convince us that the effects were 
based upon absolute demonstration. With a large class of [x^rsons 
there yet lingers a strong predilection in favor of vegetable medi- 
cines. If we except the tonic varieties, their reasonable use can 
never be harmful. Can we say as much for the minerals? We 
cannot, however, revive the faith that once existed, and these sub- 
stances are now the drug-store stock of indefinite age, and often 
indistinguishable. 

Artificial Peptic Action on Food Substances. — That food may be 
partially digested, or pre-digested or peptonized by artificial pro- 
cess, and yet preserve such elementary state or condition as adapts 
it to the needs of the human body, is an open and debatable cjues- 
tion. If the primary digestion only produces so-calied peptones, 
and true peptones (which have never been isolated or identity cstab. 
lished) are inseparable from the acting function of the human slom. 
ach or the animal chemistry o( foodconversion, then wc arc some- 
what at sea without a chart, for wc Cctnnoi produce j)cptoncs arti- 



4IO Resume of Recurrent Topics. {'^'^ki^^C^i^' 

ficially. It is quite a simple process to cause the animal ferments in 
certain favorable media, and, under the influence of heat, to act 
upon substance, and also to change the molecular or physical char, 
acter of such substance; but it is a wide stretch of assertion to say 
that this altered condition is an exactly similar result to that change 
which food undergoes in the animal alimentary receptacle. This 
subject is, perhaps, more of a physiological than of pharmaceutical 
import; but as articles which come under this category are offered 
to the public for self-use and adoption, the knowledge of the apothe- 
cary is often sought in explanation of many things the lay commun- 
ity do not understand. It never meets the question of scientific 
adaptation, to merely say, *'0h, such articles are popular and sell 
largely." We all know how popularity may be secured through 
the free medium of printers* ink. If there is that which should be 
or can be understood, let us have the true knowledge to either 
guide our judgment or correct our errors. 

Chemistry as Applied to Industrial Arts. — The thought occurs that, 
when knowledge in special branches of science becomes an applica- 
tion to industrial pursuit to art and to trade, there should arise, 
in this country, a national spirit to foster and encourage technical 
education in these arts, etc., etc. Take the production of chemicals 
of the synthetical class, for instance, as an applied industry, and also 
consider the science with non-general adaptations. There must 
exist a constant need of educated knowledge and skill in the depart- 
ments of work and labor. This want is likely to increase by natural 
growth, but could be vastly extended by a systematic encourage- 
ment. The pharmaceutical student who imbibes a taste for, and 
inclination to pursue the study of this fundamental rather than col- 
lateral branch of science, and to make of it a special vocation, has 
very meagre stimulus here. How can we avoid seeking the neces- 
sary aid of foreign talent when we have, comparatively at least, 
none of our own ? We have never promoted enlarged and liberal 
views on this and many other subjects of national economic import- 
ance. The student in chemistry, out of his novitiate, seeking to 
apply his knowledge, finds but limited opportunity open, and he 
must search and hope with discouraging result. A self-constituted 
committee of patrons, or patronage composed of manufacturers and 
others whose capital is embarked in the application of chemical 
science, either wholly or partially to the operations of industrial 



^^AugusMS^'"} The Normal Urine. 411 

arts and trades, or those who regard the aid of this special science, 
should ally themselves in some movement or purpose having the 
education of the American youth in view. Beyond the pale of com- 
merce there is indeed very little conception of the vast inroad which 
German manufacturing chemists have made upon our industries. 
We are paying a very expensive tribute to their foresight in foster- 
ing a talent among their own people, which we neglect or overlook 
in ours. We are paying large annual sums to foreign firms and 
corporations for products which we can, and should make. In no 
region are crude materials so abundant as in our own country. A 
utility of these would add to our national wealth — give employment 
to our educated labor — instead of contributing to foreign capital. 
We need, now, urgently, ev^ery possible advance of occupation 
availed of in this country; our hands stand ready reaching for 
employment. In this also, we have involved a most serious social 
problem, a growing condition which will require adjustment in the 
not distant future, when it may require more wisdom to adjust 
than the present need demands. 



THE NORMAL URINE.' 
Bv Charles Platt. 

The various compilations current as "Text-books of Urine Analy- 
sis" differ materially in their statements as to the average compo- 
sition of a normal urine. In many cases, indeed, the authors have 
not even attempted to reconcile their "totals" with the figures given 
for individual constituents; but aside from this, which is, of course, 
the result of carelessness on the part of the compiler, we find great 
variations in the original figures, due not so much to errors of deter- 
mination as to failure to secure representative samples for analysis. 
Normals determined for one nationality, or for one class of one 
nationality, are commonly applied indiscriminately to all without 
regard to fundamental differences in conditions. For instance, the 
average American's habit of life is not that of the German student, 
and yet it is a fact that the majority of figures given in our text- 
books have originated with the observations of German professors, 
working in conjunction with their student assistants. 

In view of this laxity in text-book statement, the utiiLt u.i^ i-i 

^Jour. Amer, Chevt. Soc, 19, 389. 



412 



The Normal Urine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1897. 



several years made careful records of all urine analyses with due 
attention to the age, sex and health of the individuals supplying the 
samples, and these figures (in all cases compared with and in some 
cases averaged with those of foreign observers) are now given in 
the following table : ^ 

The Normai. Urine. 

Color Pale amber, straw-yellow. 

Appearance Clear or with faint cloud of mucus. 

Odor "Aromatic." 

Reaction Acid. Acidity in 24 hours equivalent to 

2-4 grammes oxalic acid. 
Specific gravity at 15° C. . . Range for adults, i'oi5-i*025. 

Averages: Man, i'02o; Woman, i*oi8. 
Quantity .... , . . . . 1 100-1600 c.c. in 24 hours. 

Averages : Man, 1450 c.c. (22 c.c. per kilo 
of body-weight) ; woman, 1250 cc. 



Averages for adults. 
Man. Woman. 



Normal urine. 
Gram.mes. 

Total solids 45*0 -65*0 

Urea 20*0 -50*0 

Uric acid o'3 - 08 

Creatiniu 0*4 - i'3 

Hippuric acid 0*4 - i*o 

Xanthine, sarcine, etc o'ooi-o'oio 

Oxalic acid 0*020-0 '030 

Glycero-phosphoric acid o*oiC)-o*o2o 

Propionic, valeric, caproic and buty- 
ric acids o*oo8-o*o8o 

Phenol, cresol, etc o*oo5-o*02o 

Sulphur dioxide in ethereal sul- 
phates o*090-o*5oo 

Indoxyl sulphuric acid (calculated as 

indigo) 0005-0019 

Thiocyanic acid o-ooi-o-oo8 



Grammes 
urine in 
24 hrs. 


Grammes 
per kilo- 
gramme 
of body- 
7veight. 


Grammes 
urine in 
24 hrs. 


60 "O 


o'9i 


51-0 


34*o 


0-51 


30-0 


0-6 


0*009 


0-5 


0-9 


0-014 


0-8 


07 


o-oio 


0-6 


0-005 


— 


— 


0-025 


— 


— 


0015 


— 


— 


0-040 


— 


— 


Q-OIO 


— 


— 



0-250 — 

0-008 — 

0-005 — 



- Authors consulted : J. Vogel, l,oebisch, Kerner, Dalber, Hammarsten, Neubauer, Pfluger, 
Voit, Salkowski, Liebermann, Brieger, Hoffmann, Dragendorff, Munk, Hoppe-Seyler, Yvon 
and Berlioz, I^ehmann, Uhle, Ranke, Furbriuger, Geschleiden, Moritz, von Jacksch, Planer 
and Morin, Magnier, Robuteau, Gautier, Becquerel, M6hu, Halliburton, Charles, Parkes, 
Black, Bence-Jones, Tidy and Woodman, Beale, Parrot, Breed, Oliver, Thudichum, Weidner, 
Purdy, Tyson, Griiner, Jaff6, Rankin, von Franque, Oppenheim and Meyer. 



Am. Joar. Pharm. ) 

August. 1897. / 



The Nor)fiai Urine 



413 



Averages for adults. 



Man. 



Grammes 

Xormal urine. urine in 
Grammes. 24 hrs. 

Paraoxyphenylacetic, paraoxyphen- 

ylpropionic, dioxyphenylacetic, 

and paraoxyphenylglycollic acids ooio-o'030 o'020 

Bile salts o*o -o"oio oooS 

Urobilin, urochrome, etc o"o8o-o*i4o 0*125 

Carbohydrates o"oi4-o'075 0*044 

(Reducing power of normal urine 
equivalent to an average of three- 
tenths of one per cent, glucose. ) 
Sarco-lactic, succinic, glycuronic and 
oxaluric acids, acetone, inosite, 
cystin, taurin, urorubinogen, uro- 
rubin, pigment of Giacosa, sca- 
toxylsulphuric acid (often in con- 
siderable amount), scatoxylglycu- 
ronic acid ; nephrozymase, pepsin, 
and other ferments ; pseudoxan- 
thine, paraxanthine, heteroxan- 
thine, guanine, adenine, etc.; py- 
rocatechin, hydroquinone, proto- 

catechuic acid, etc traces — 

Chlorine 50 -lo'o 7*3 

Phosphorus pentoxide 2*0 - 3*5 3*0 

Sulphur trioxide . . 15 - 30 2'2 

Potassium oxide 25 - 35 3*0 

Sodium oxide 4*0 - 6'o 4*5 

Ammonia . 0*5 - o*8 0*72 

Calcium oxide 02 - 0*4 0*30 

Magnesium oxide 03 - 0*5 0*40 

Iron u'ooi- o'oio 0*007 

Silicic acid, carbonic acid, hydrogen 
peroxide, nitrates, nitrites and 
metals : c. r.. manganese and cop- 
per . traces — 

Gasks' in Normal Urine. 

/n ICO fr'/w "ir- 

of i-.l'. 

Carbon dioxide '>5'4'> 

Oxygen 2-74 

Nitr<n'«-!i 3i'b<) 

100 'OO 

Chemical Laboratorv, 
Hahnf.ma.sn Mkdical College, Philadelphia. 

' Morin, after Locbiach. 



Grammfs 
pf-r kilo- 
gramme 
of body^ 
•weight. 



Woman. 



Grammes 
urine in 
24 hrs. 



0110 


60 


0-045 


25 


0-033 


1*9 


0045 


2-S 


006S 


40 


O'OIO 


0-6 


0*0045 


0-28 


0*0066 


035 



^ urin4. 

c c. 

15-957 
0658 

7 775 
24 ".^QO 



414 Official Primus Virginiana. {^\i^liS^^J^ 

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE OFFICIAL PRUNUS 

VIRGINIANA, TO DISTINGUISH IT FROM 

BARKS COLLECTED AT OTHER 

SEASONS.! 

By Grace E. Cooi.ky. 

A contribution to the work of Research Committee C, of the Revision 

Committee U.S. P. 

The U.S. P. prescribes that wild cherry bark be collected irt 
autumn, when it yields the greatest amount of hydrocyanic acid. 
This investigation has failed to furnish any distinctive histological 
mark of the bark collected in autumn, and the results have tended 
to the belief that the suitable test is a chemical one, not readily to 
be found by the use of the microscope. 

The following results are presented with tests which are found 
accurate, so far as they have been applied. 

The researches of Fischer^ have shown us the phases which 
starch undergoes in the bark and wood of most trees during the 
year. These have been verified with regard to Prunus serotina, and 
give us an easy means for rejecting all barks collected in summer 
and winter, for they contain no starch at all, or very little. During 
September and late summer the starch is being stored up in the 
bark, and reaches its maximum amount in October and the first 
days of November, just after leaf-fall. At this time all the cells of 
the medullary rays, and the bast parenchyma, as well as the chloro- 
phyll-bearing cells, are crowded with starch, which occurs in Pnmus 
serotina, in small round grains. This gradually disappears, first 
from the parenchyma of the bast, and last from the medullary rays. 
By the last of November the bark is nearly, if not quite, free from 
starch, and remains so during the winter. During the last days of 
February, or early in March, a process of starch regeneration 
begins. In specimens collected March 2ist the parenchyma cells of 
the bast contained a few scattered grains, and there was a little in 
those cells of the medullary rays which lay close to the wood. 
Specimens of April 6th showed an increase in all the cells of the 
bark, and April 2 1st, the maximum was nearly reached, for the bast 
parenchyma and medullary rays, as well as the green cells, contained 

^ Jour. Pharmacology, 4, 167. 

^ Dr. Alfred Fischer, PhysiologiederHolzgewdchseJahrbucherfiir Wiss. Bot.y 
1891, vSec. 73- 



^"ii^i^t.^sS^"-} Official Prunus Virginiana. 415 

much starch. At this time the bud scales were open far enough to 
disclose the leaves, which were, however, still folded closely together. 

Bark collected in May contained very little starch ; in some 
samples none appeared to be present, and in others a very little 
could be made out by the use of dilute iodine, when the specimen 
was heated. Collections of August 5th exhibited no starch in the 
cells of the bark. 

The seasons of maximum amounts of starch in the bark are, then, 
autumn and spring, and if the bark, whether powdered or whole, 
contains much starch in all the parenchymatous cells, we are sure 
the collection was made shortly after the time of leaf-fall in autumn 
or before the leaves unfolded in the spring. A test based upon the 
presence of starch cannot exclude the spring collection, and spring 
is the time when the bark is least valuable, so far as the amount of 
hydrocyanic acid which it may yield is concerned. 

To distinguish between the collections of spring and autumn, I 
have found the following color test for tannin applicable to those 
samples of Prunus serotina which I have been able to obtain. The 
amount of tannin in barks collected in spring is noticeably greater 
than that found in the collections of the autumn. I hesitate to sub- 
mit the following as an authentic test, because I have not made 
extended tests for amounts of tannin to be found in the bark 01 
Prunus serotina throughout the year, and because the reasons for the 
periodicity in amount and the phases of its fluctuation in plants 
have not, so far as I am aware, been fully made out. It seems a 
matter of observation that when great activity of growth is going 
on, tannin appears in greater amounts than usual. This observation 
seems to receive support in the case of Prunus serotina, as a much 
greater amount of tannin seems present in the bark during the active 
growth of spring than in the autumn. 

The following test shows this to be the case : 

Upon the surface of distilled water in a watch-glass, sprinkle a 
little of the powdered drug, which will spread, forming a thin film. 
Let it stand ten seconds, and then drop into it one drop of a I per 
cent, solution of ferric chloride. If the bark was collected in the 
spring, a cloudiness will appear in the water from the greenish pre- 
cipitate, which is immediately formed. If the bark was collected in 
autumn, there will be no noticeable precipitate under twenty seconds. 
Powders of Nos. 20 and 50 exhibit this test equally well. 



4i6 Burdock as a Vegetable. { ^"iigus^Sl^'"- 

Tests for hydrocyanic acid and emulsin, though successfully 
carried out upon bitter almonds as first tried by Guignard,^ failed of 
results when tried with the barks of Primus serotina. 

Wellesley, Mass., May, 1897. 



BURDOCK AS A VEGETABLE.^ 
By Ixazo Xitobe. 

The well-known definition of a weed by Emerson as " a plant 
whose virtues have not yet been discovered," is confirmed by the 
better agricultural authority of Schwerz, according to whom " a 
weed is a plant of which the direct uses are unknown to man." 
Both the poet-philosopher and the scientific farmer implicitly 
admit, I think, that as man brings more and more of nature under 
his control — in other words, as he brings more and more plants 
under cultivation, many of them, hitherto scorned as weeds, must 
cease to be considered as such. I have often seen ridiculed the 
Chinese custom of eating birds' nests, bears' claws and other in- 
comprehensible delicacies, but I cannot help admiring the power of 
pantophagy on the one hand and the refinement of culinary skill on 
the other, which can convert into means of human enjoyment things 
apparently worthless and revolting. If, as philosophers say, civili- 
zation consists mainly in bringing natural forces under man's sub- 
jection, China must be given a high place in the scale of civilization 
from a culinary point of view. 

Is it not a real triumph of art to extract food for man from so 
coarse and ugly a weed as burdock ? Most books on botany in the 
English tongue describe burdock. Lappa major or officinalis, as a 
pestiferous weed, and many an agricultural bulletin gives careful 
instruction how to destroy it. Perhaps the only use that has been 
made of Lappa in America is for medicine. The root contains a 
bitter principle, a resin and tannin, and it is said to have an aperient 
and diuretic effect. It also has some reputation as an alterative in 
constitutional blood diseases, and the readers of Garden and Forest 
may have used the so-called *' burdock tea." In Germany, where 
the three species, L. major, L. minor, L. tomentosa, are widely 

^ Guignard. Sur. la localisation dans les plantes, des principes qui fournsi- 
sent I'acide cyanhydrique. Comptes rendus, 1890, p. 249. 
' Garden and Forest, 10, 143. 



^""iZl'S^^r-} Burdock as a Vegetable. 417 

spread, they were formerly much used as medicines under the name 
Radix Bardana2, and they are even now regarded by some as good 
blood purifiers. Perhaps from the burr of the seeds the plant has 
the repute of power to stimulate a rich growth of hair, and an 
extract for this purpose is made from the roots. The peasants from 
the south of England use the roots as an antiscorbutic, and the 
leaves are employed in making a green elder ointment for the use 
of farriers. 

All these medicinal uses are not to be despised, but they are un- 
important when compared to the value of the plant as an edible 
vegetable ; since the kitchen is more important than the drug store, 
the cook is nearer our hearts than the apothecary. Even in Eng- 
land the alimentary value of burdock was not always despised. 
Sowerby writes in his " Useful Plants of Great Britain :" " The 
stalks of the burdock-, cut before the flowers open and stripped of 
their rind, form a delicate vegetable when boiled, similar in flavor 
to asparagus. In the raw state they may be eaten with oil and 
vinegar as salad. They were sometimes candied with sugar in the 
time of Bryant, as those of Angelica are. They are slightly laxa- 
tive, but are perfectly wholesome. The roots of the plant are 
mildly diuretic and diaphoretic, and have been used with advan- 
tage in gout, rheumatism and calculous com])laints. The decoction 
of the root is generally employed, but the seeds and leaves possess 
nearly the same properties, though the latter are slightly purgative. 
The bruised leaves are applied by the peasantry in some districts, in 
cataplasms to the feet, as a remedy for hysterical disorders." 

In Japan, burdock grows wild in several places, but it is also ex- 
tensively cultivated as a vegetable. Every one knows and eats '• Go- 
bo," the usual appellation for this plant, although a more refined and 
almost obsolete name is •' kitakisu ;" sometimes it is called " Uma 
(horse)-fuki (Nardosmia) " It is familiar to the Ainu under the 
name of •• Seta (dog) koroki (Nardosmia)." Both the Ainu and 
the Japanese j)refixes, •• seta " and " uma," when applied to plants, 
seem to have much the same sense as the English " dog," m d(»g- 
wood, dogbane, etc., and the •• horse " in horse-radish, horse-chest- 
nut, horse-mint, etc. The Ainu use it as food as well as medicine. 
They boil the tender shoots with beans, and the roots are put into 
soup. F'or medicinal uses the young leaves are softened by rolling 
them between the palms, and applied to skin eruptions. The Jap- 



4i8 



Burdock as a Vegetable. 



/Am. Jour. Pharna. 
t August, 1897. 



anese esteem Lappa for similar purposes. It is used in many pre- 
parations for its medicinal properties, which they believe — at least 
the old-fashioned empirics believe — consist in counteracting the 
action of some kinds of poisons. Grated and made into pulp, the 
roots are applied as a poultice in eruptions of the skin. But by 
far the more important use is made in the kitchen. As regards this 
plant we have outstripped the pantophagous Chinese, for they have 
not raised the plant to the dignity of a market vegetable. " When 
young," says a Chinese book on botany, "■ the tender leaves of the 
Lappa are cut and eaten as greens ; the roots may be boiled or 
steamed and eaten, but people nowadays rarely use the plant." 
Among the Japanese, however, it has been under cultivation for 
years, and possibly for centuries. It enters the kitchen of every 
household, not being ostracised from the menu of the most high- 
toned restaurant. Thousands of acres are devoted to its culture. 
Official statistics for 1888 give the total production of Lappa in the 
country at about 72,000,000 pounds, valued at 422,134 yen. The 
roots average 350 grains in weight. 

The production of so large a quantity is not at all to be wondered 
at when we recollect that Lappa ranks high in the scale of nutritive 
plants. In the amount of nitrogen it stands higher than potatoes, 
beets, carrots or turnips ; in fact, few roots or tubers approach it. 
I append here its chemical composition, as compared with some 
other commonly used vegetables : 



H2O N ; Ash K2O NaaO CaO iMgOPoOs 



Potatoes ! 750 

Sugar Beets 815 

Turnips i 720 

Carrots \ 850 

Burdock 1 738 

I 



3*4 
1-6 
1-8 
2*2 

5-6 



9*5 
7'i 
6-4 
8-2 
10-5 



5-8 
3-8 
29 
3"o 
4*3 



0*3 
0-6 
0-6 
1*7 

0"2 



03 
0-4 
07 

0*9 
I"I 



0-6 

0"2 

0*4 

20 



I 6 
0-9 
0-8 
i"i 
0-9 



so. 



0-6 
03 



0*5 
07 



sio, I a 



0"2 
0"2 
O'l 
0*2 
01 



0*3 
0*3 
0*3 
0-4 



So important a crop as burdock has, of course, many varieties de- 
veloped, but the best known among them are few in number. They 
are usually named from the localities where they were first devel- 
oped or where they thrive best. A variety known as the Takino- 
zawa, raised chiefly near Tokyo, has a slender root, about 4 feet 
long, and is of very fine quality. In the vegetable market of Tokyo it 
commands a respectable price. TheOwura varietv,named from a small 



I 



"'"ii^Hrt.?^"} Burdock as a Vegetable, 419 

place in the province of Shimosa, where they produce only about 
2,oco roots a )'ear, attains the huge size of i ^ feet in circumference, 
and 2Y2 feet in length ; this kind is sold at the rate of about 20 sen 
(a sen being a hundredth part of a Japanese dollar) apiece. In its 
form this variety is like the beet. The two kinds most popular in 
the markets of Kyoto are the Yamato and the Horikawa ; in fact, 
these seem to be only different names of the same variety. 

In raising Lappa much attention is naturally devoted to the right 
selection of the soil. It is a common belief among cultivators that 
that a light sandy soil is specially adapted to it, and it is true that 
roots grown from such soil are long and slender, but they are prone 
to be hollow at the centre and rather tough at the rind. A stronger 
and deeper soil, say clayey loam, seems to impart firmness to the 
root and a better flavor. To gain the most satisfactory results, the 
soil must be plowed deep and finely pulverized, or else an undue 
amount of labor will be required in harvesting the roots. Indeed, 
digging burdock is a proverbially hard task ; it has become almost 
a fine art to do it well. Many an old writer recommends digging 
the soil to the depth of some 4 or 5 feet, and then putting in green 
leaves, stalks, turf, and so forth, in a layer a foot deep, and cover- 
ing that with the earth that was excavated. The surface must 
then be well hoed in both directions. So much care, however, is 
only necessary when exceptionally fine specimens, for show or 
otherwise, are aimed at. One peculiarity of I^ppa is that it is not 
adapted to rotation ; that is, it thrives better if planted continuously 
on the same soil ; in new land the roots are likely to become forked. 
It is also grateful for good manures — compost, night-soil, and espe- 
cially to rice-bran — but if compost is applied it must be well decom- 
posed, or else the roots will throw off too many branches. 

When the soil is properly prepared seeds are planted in rows 3 
feet apart, five or six seeds being placed every 6 to 8 inches in a 
row. In Owura, the usual time for sowing is the early part of May 
or late in April. Hefore the early part of June the young plants 
are thinned out, leaving but one in the hill. Very often liquid 
manure is applied two or three times before the roots are harvested 
late in December. Another method is to plant the seeds in Au- 
gust, so as to have the vegetable ready for spring use, in which case 
they are sown more closely, since they do not grow as vigorously as 
those planted in spring. Lappa is a slow grower, and takes over 



420 Brimstone in Sicily. {^"^Airustfisgr- 

220 days to mature. Seeds retain their vitality for five years, and 
many a gardener asserts that the best crop is obtained from those 
three years old. They say that new seeds produce roots which 
throw off too many branches and flower-stalks. This statement, 
however, is not always verified. For keeping and marketing, the 
vegetable may simply be left where it was grown, or kept buried in 
the earth like beets or turnips. 

I am aware that a discourse on burdock will be of little interest 
to Americans unless it contains some information regarding the 
mode of using it, but it must be remembered that Japanese cuisine 
differs widely from the American. I need only state in general 
terms that, after their skin is scraped or peeled off, the roots may 
be sliced into long strips or cut into pieces of less than an inch in 
length, and boiled with soy, salt or Spanish pepper, to impart savor 
to them ; or, if boiled alone, they may afterwards be browned in 
sesame oil, which of itself will flavor them. Another common way 
of cooking them is to scrape off the outer skin and cut them into 
pieces about 2 inches long, then, when they are boiled soft, to take 
them out of the pan and mash them; then make them into cakes 
much as you treat oyster-plants. A kind of salad, though not un- 
cooked, is also made of them. A rather unique and more elegant 
process consists in stuffing the roots with sea-eel, and boiling them, 
after dipping them in a preparation containing soy and pepper. 
Slices of Lappa fried and eaten with some condiments form one of 
the commonest dishes with us. The roots are sometimes pickled 
in miso. There are many other ways of preparing this valuable 
vegetable for table use, but a longer description would be interesting 
or amusing only to the curious. Each country has its own taste and 
national cookery. 

BRIMSTONE IN SICILY.^ 

Through the courtesy of Messrs. Ferd. Bailer & Co., of this city, I 
am enabled to submit the following statistics of Sicily brimstone, 
which, at this time, when the Anglo-Sicilian sulphur trust is en- 
deavoring to absorb the business, will be of special interest. The 
currency quoted is not the gold lire to be estimated at 5-18 to the 
dollar, but that of paper, the average value of which for the period 
covered was about 5 50 to the dollar. 

' Consular Report, Vol. 54, page 202. 



Am. Jour. Pharai. 
August, ley?. 



Brimstone in Sicily. 



421 



Exports from Girgenti, Licata, Catania, Termini and PlaU* mo. 



January to December. 



To— 



(ireat Britain 

South of France 

North of France 

Holland 

Belgium 

Germany : 

Hlbe 

Baltic 

Aiistria-TIungary 

Russia 

Sweden and Norway and Denmark . 

Spain 

Portugal 

Italy 

Greece, Turkey, and Balkan States . 
Morocco. Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli . 

South Africa . . 

United States and Canada 1 Atlantic) . 

ITnited States ( Pacific* 

South America 

Asia 

Australia 

Other countries 



Total «63.i53 '49.996 »37.220 



•Tons of 13 Sicilian cantars. 




Production, exports, stocks, and prices 0/ Sicily brimstone. 



Description. 


1896. 


1895- 

Tons. 

342,150 
356.i'^4 


1894. 


1893. 


189a. 


1891. 


rroduction,* official 


figures (in tons 


Tons. 
. . . . 


Tons. 

355.023 
335.548 


Tons. 

363.414 
347.304 

I '5. 235 
50.5 > 2 
38.077 


Tons. 

362.948 
309.912 


Tons. 
336975 


I'ixportst ... 


end 


of Decem- 


400.082 

78.987 
S8.415 


»93.620 


Visible stocks at the 
her at— 
Girgenti . . . 
I icata 


85.3' I 
61.785 
49.«54 


78^12 
50.028 
53.>^46 


I02.7tl 

30.385 
33.423 


65 MO 
17.69a 


Catania . . . 


42.V)0 

4.S92 

200.5f>9 


33.077 


Terminit .... 

Palermo .... 

ToUl . . . . 


I the 
1,000 

onds 


31st of De 
kilograms. 




i:.4<*^ 

2I3.6^S 


2- ■ 




/.ire. 

81.00 
75-50 


U5.969 


Prices at f'.irgenti ot 
cemher, per ton of 
first co^t : 
Best unmixed sec 
Best thirds . . . 


Lire. 



.0 


Lire. 

55-00 
52 20 


Lire 


Lire. 


life. 

I2V0O 

11890 







>iis ot 13 



•Quantities csrried by rail fiom the stations in the ii.teritir to' 
cantars. during the financial year July to June, isys-v'-*- aga>a»t ■''' 

V In the exports for the years 1891. 189a and 1^93. thos* from Termini and Palermo are not 
included, which, during iS«>4 to 18-^. amounted to6.rx» to 13.000 tons per annum. To calculate 
the total consumption, io.c<» tonshave to be added, representing the estimated yearly con- 
sumption in Sicily. 

: Stocks at Termini for the years prece<ling ts« ■»'' wanting, but were probably smaller. 

\ Since the tat of Octot>er, ^89^ the export duty of 1 1 lire per 1.000 kllocram* was abollaheU 



422 Brimstone in Sicily, { 



Am. Jour. Phflrm. 
August, 1897. 



After a careful study of the above figures, I think the readers of 
this report will recognize the truth of the following deductions : 

(i) The exports of sulphur from Sicily in 1896 were 44,00c tons 
in excess of 1895, ^^ which 31,000 tons were exported from January 
to July. This increase is to be attributed to the exceedingly low 
prices which prevailed toward the close of 1895 ^^^^ the beginning 
of 1896, at which figures the working of a majority of the mines was 
unprofitable. The increase of 13,000 tons in the last six months of 
1896 is undoubtedly due to the sudden advance in prices, which in- 
duced consumers to lay in heavy stocks in anticipation of a further 
rise. These i^tocks, however, cost them relatively low prices. 

(2) By reference to the table of exports, stocks and prices for 
1 891-1896, it will be observed that, although prices steadily declined 
during those years, the production, as estimated by the mining bu- 
reau, frequently increased and never decreased. Stocks show a con- 
stant increase. These facts unquestionably prove that the cost of 
production has diminished, cheaper transportation has been gained 
by the construction of roads and railways, and improvements have 
been made in mining and smelting. It follows, therefore, that pro- 
duction at the lower prices has continued steadily, because it was 
found profitable. 

(3) The increase of exports during these years is natural, because 
the large production had to be sold, and this was made possible by 
the fall in prices. 

(4) The Italian Parliament abolished the export duty of 8^. 6d. 
($2.06) per ton with the object of favoring exports, since this duty 
increased the cost to the foreign consumer. The artificial advance 
which the Anglo-Sicilian sulphur trust wishes to establish is, there- 
fore, in opposition to all the above facts, although the latter are re- 
sponsible both for the decline in price for several years and the abo- 
lition of the export duty. 

(5) It is stated that the production in 1896 shows an increase, and 
although the statistics are not yet published, there is the best au- 
thority for estimating it at about 385,000 tons. That there really 
was an increase is confirmed by the following facts : There were 
shipped, in 1896, 44,000 tons more than in 1895, but nevertheless the 
visible stock in the ports of Sicily on the 31st of December, 1896, 
was only 18,000 tons less than on the same date in 1895. The dif- 
ference of 26,000 tons must, therefore, come from an increase of pro- 



^"^uguJt.^S?:'"-} American Medicinal Flora. 423 

duction, which, in part at least, belongs to 1S96, as some of this 
quantity may be sulphur stored in the mines in 1 895, and not shipped 
promptly. Further, the quantity carried by rail from the stations 
in the interior to the ports was larger in the fiscal year 1895-96 than 
in 1894-95. 

(6) Everything points to an increased production for 1897, and if 
the present prices check the consumption, stocks must necessarily 
increase during the year. 

(7) Should Sicilian brimstone be partly replaced in the United 
States by pyrites for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, this will di- 
minish our imports, which have been from 100,000 to 125,000 tons 
per annum, or 25 to 30 per cent, of the total production of Sicily. 

(8) For the above reasons, it seems more than doubtful that the 
Anglo-Sicilian sulphur trust can succeed in maintaining the prices 
at the present artificial point for any length of time. Its capital is 
^^750.000 ($3,649,885) and it has purchased its brimstone at about 
65.?. ($1 5.80) per ton free on board Sicily, plus all the other expenses. 

Chas. M. Cau(;hv, 

Consul. 
Messina, March 29, 1897. 



STUDY OF THE AMERICAN MEDICINAL FLORA. 

The Sub-Commission of the Pan-American Medical Congress, 
appointed to study the medicinal plants of the United States, has 
entered into an association with the Smithsonian Institution for that 
purpose. The attention of our readers is called to the respective 
circulars issued by these organizations, which wc print below : 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, I). C, 

May 28, 1897. 

Dkar Sir : —The Smithsonian Institution has undertaken to brinj; tojjether 
all possible material bearinj^ on the medicinal uses of plants in the Tnitcd 
States, .\rrangements have Ix^en made with a hotly representing the Pan- 
American Medical Conj^ress, the Sub-Commission on Medicinal Tlora of the 
United States, to elaborate a report on this subject, and the material when 
received will l>c turned over to them for investijjation. 

The accompanying^ detailed instructions relative to specimens and notes have 
been prepared by the Sub-Commission. 

All packaj^es and correspondtrnce should l)e adtlriss» ,1 i., •' r- >-:.....».. ..;^ii 
Institution, Washington, I>. C, and marked on the uuti>i<Ic /f, 

for the U. S. National Museum. 



434 Ainericmi Medicinal Flora. {'''^d^lC^m!^■ 

Franks which will carry specimens, when of suitable size, together with 
descriptions and notes, free of postage through the mails, will be forwarded 
upon application. Should an object be too large for transmission by mail the 
sender is requested, before shipping it, to notify the Institution, in order that a 
proper authorization for its shipment may be made out. 

Respectfully, 
(Signed) S. P. Langi^ey, Secretary. 

INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS. 

The Pan-American Medical Congress, at its meeting held in the 
City of Mexico, in November, 1896, took steps to institute a system- 
atic study of the American medicinal flora, through the medium of 
a General Commission and of special Sub-Commissions, the latter 
to be organized in the several countries. The Sub-Commission for 
the United States has been formed, and consists of Dr. Valery 
Havard, U. S. A., Chairman ; Mr. Frederick V. Coville, Botanist of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture ; Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, Curator 
of the Botanical Department of the Field Columbian Museum, 
Chicago; Dr. Charles Mohr, State Botanist of Alabama; Dr. W. P. 
Wilson, Director of the Philadelphia Commercial Museums; and 
Prof. H. H. Rusby, of the New York College of Pharmacy. This 
Sub- Commission solicits information concerning the medicinal 
plants of the United States from every one in a position to accord 
it. The principal points of study are as follows : 

(i) Local names. 

(2) Local uses, together with historical facts. 

(3) Geographical distribution and degree of abundance in the 
wild state. 

(4) Is the plant collected for market, and if so — 
[a) At what season of the year ? 

ip) To how great an extent ? 

{c) How prepared for market ? 

{d) What is the effect of such collection upon the wild supply? 

{e) What price does it bring ? 

(/) Is the industry profitable ? 

(5) Is the plant, or has it ever been, cultivated, and if so, give all 
information on the subject, particularly as to whether such supplies 
are of superior quality, and whether the industry has proved profit- 
able? 

(6) If not cultivated, present facts concerning the life history of the 
plant which might aid in determining methods of cultivation. 



^"•ug"siT^'"} Amenca?i Medicinal Flora. 425 

(7) Is the drug; subjected to substitution or adulteration, and if so, 
give information as to the plants used for this purpose? 

While it is not expected that many persons will be able to con- 
tribute information on all these points concerning any plant, it is 
hoped that a large number of persons will be willing to communicate 
such partial knowledge as they possess. 

It is not the important or standard drugs alone concerning which 
information is sought. The Sub-Commission desires to compile a 
complete list of the plants which have been used medicinally, how- 
ever trivial such use may be. It also desires to collect all obtain- 
able information, historical, scientific and economic, concerning our 
native and naturalized plants of this class, and, to that end, ihvites 
the co-operation of all persons interested. Poisonous plants of all 
kinds come within the scope of our inquiry, whether producing dan- 
gerous symptoms in man, or simply skin inflammation, or, as •• loco- 
weeds," deleterious to horses, cattle and sheep. In this respect the 
general reputation of a plant is not so much desired as the particu- 
lars of cases of poisoning actually seen, or heard from reliable 
observers. It is believed that much interesting knowledge can be 
obtained from Indians, Mexicans and half-breeds, and that, conse- 
quently, Indian agencies and reservations are particularly favorable 
fields for our investigation. Such knowledge will be most acceptable 
when based upon known facts or experiments. 

In order to assist in the study of the habits, properties and uses 
of medicinal plants, the Sub-Commission undertakes to furnish the 
name of any plant specimen received, together with any desired 
information available. 

Owing to the diversity in the common names of many plants, it 
will be necessary for reports, when not furnished by botanists or 
others qualified to state the botanical names with certainty, to 
accompany the same with some specimen of the plant sufficient for 
its identification. While the Sub-Commission will endeavor to deter- 
mine the plant from any portion of it which may be sent, it should 
be appreciated that the labor of identification is very greatly 
decreased, and its usefulness increased, by the possession of com- 
plete material, that is, leaf, flower and fruit, and in the case of small 
plants, the underground portion also. It is best to dry such speci- 
mens thoroughly, in a flat condition under pressure, before mailing. 
While any convenient means for accomplishing this result may be 



426 American Medicinal Flora. {^'"XuJusi.^sS''"* 

employed, the following procedure is recommended : Select a flower- 
ing or fruiting branch, as the case may be, which, when pressed, 
shall not exceed i6 inches in length by lo inches in width. If the 
plant be an herb 2 or 3 feet high, it may be doubled to bring it 
within these measurements. If it possess root leaves, some of 
these should be included. Lay the specimen flat in a fold of news- 
paper and place this in a pile of newspapers, carpet felting, or some 
other form of paper which readily absorbs moisture, and place the 
pile in a dry place under a pressure of about 20 to 30 pounds, suffi- 
cient to keep the leaves from wrinkling as they dry. If a number 
of specimens are pressed at the same time, each is to be separated 
from the others by three or four folded newspapers or an equivalent 
in other kinds of paper. In twelve to twenty-four hours these papers 
will be found saturated with the absorbed moisture, and the fold con- 
taining the specimens should be transferred to dry ones. This change 
should be repeated for from two to five days, according to the state 
of the weather, the place where the drying is done, the fleshiness of 
the specimens, etc. The best way to secure the required pressure 
is by means of a pair of strong straps, though weights will do. The 
best place for drying is beside a hot kitchen range. When dry the 
specimens should be mailed between cardboards or some other light 
but stiff materials which will not bend in transit. 

It is a most important matter that the name and address of the 
sender should be attached to the package and that the specimens, if 
more than one, should be numbered, the sender retaining also speci- 
mens bearing the same number, to facilitate any correspondence 
which may follow. The Sub-Commission requests that, so far as 
practicable, all plants sent be represented by at least four specimens. 
(Signed) H. H. Rusby, M.D., 

Chairman of the General Commission, 
New York College of Pharmacy. 
Valery Havard, M.D., 
Chairman of the Sub-Commission, 
Fort Slocum, Davids Island, New York. 



The death of Prof. Dr. Pieter Cornelio Plugge, of Groningeu, Netherlands, 
has been announced. He held the chair of Pharmacy and Toxicology in the 
University of his native town. His death occurred June 30, at the Royal 
Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java, whither he had been sent by the Dutch 
Government on a scientific mission. 



^"Xjgrt.r^!'" } Ediloriorl. 4^7 

EDITORIAL. 

NOTABLE PHARMACEUTICAL GATHERINGS DLKING AUGUST. 

The month of August, this year, will witness the assembling of a larger num- 
ber of pharmacists in various parts of the world thau is usual during so short a 
time. 

Early in the month will be the British Pharmaceutical Conference at Glasgow, 
Scotland. This body is noted for the large amount of scientific work it can 
accomplish in a short time. The Eighth International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gress will follow, at Brussels, Belgium, on the 14th. The scope of this assembly 
was sufficienth' set forth in the March number of this Journ.\l, page i6r. 
The American Pharmaceutical Association has appointed the following dele- 
gates : Prof. Joseph P. Remington, of Philadelphia, and Mr. Louis Dohme, 
of Baltimore, with Dr. Frederick B. Power, of London, and Mr. Adolph Meyer, 
of New Orleans, as alternates. 

Of the associations not strictly pharmaceutical, we will have the meeting of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at Detroit, on the 
9th ; that of the American Chemical Society at the same place during the same 
week ; and on the 19th the Twelfth International Medical Congress, at Moscow, 
Russia. This last has issued a formidable programme of 7 1 pages, in the French 
language, and containing some hundreds of titles of papers to be presented from 
physicians and others, from all over the world. If i per cent, of the promises 
should be redeemed, it would still scarcely be possible to have them all read 
during the eight days that the fifteen sections of the Congress will be in 
session. In addition to the papers, ten addresses have been promised ; these are 
to be delivered before the general assembly. 

Returning to the strictly pharmaceutical meetings, we will have that of the 

American Pharmaceutical Association at Lake Minnetonka, Minn., from the 

24th to the 31st, inclusive. The following programme has been adopted by the 

Council : 

Tuesday, August 24th. 

Council Meeting 11.00 A.M. 

First General Session 2.30 P.M. 

Meeting of the Nominating Committee ... 6.(0 P.M. 

Reception and Promenade Concert S 30 P.M. 

Wednicsday, August 25th. 

Second General Session . . 10.00 A.M. 

Commercial Section ... 230 P.M. 

Travellers' Entertainment . S. 30 P.M. 

Thursday, -Vugust vaw. 

Scientific Sertiou . 10.00 A.M. 

•• 2.30 P.M. 

«• S.30P.M. 

i-KII> \ \ , .\UgllSl 2~\.\X. 

Section on Phaiiii.iccutical Education and Lcgi»Iation iooo.\.M. 

•' 2.30 P.M. 

• • «• •♦ " 8.30 P.M. 



428 Reviews. {'^"August 559^™ 

Saturday, August 28th. 

Third General Session ( Final Business) . . 10.00 A.M. 

Boat Ride ( " Session) 4.C0 P.M. 

Lectures by President Northrup and Prof. F. J. Wulling, of 

the University of Minnesota 8.00 P.M. 

Sunday, August 29th. 
Devoted to rest. 

Monday, August 30th. 

Trip to Taylor Falls and Dells of St. Croix. 

Tuesday, August 31st. 

Trip by cars and carriages through the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. 
Paul). 

Evening, Banquet. 

The arrangements about transportation have not yet been completed. It is 
understood, however, that a one-fare rate has been secured from Chicago and 
St. Louis. Members desiring to start from either of those cities should address 
Mr. A. E. Ebert, of Chicago, or Prof. H. M. Whelpley, of St. Louis. Professor 
Caspari, of Baltimore, is arranging for a lake trip of three days from Buffalo to 
Duluth ; those desiring to go by water should address him. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

An Ii.i,ustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and 
THE British Possessions, from Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern 
Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the One 
Hundred and Second Meridian. By Nathaniel Lord Britton, Ph.D., and Hon. 
Addison Brown. In three volumes. Vol. II. Portulacacese to Meuyanthaceae, 
Portulaca to Buckbean. New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1897. 

The first volume of this illustrated flora was reviewed in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, November, 1896, p. 630, the second volume contain- 
ing the work in the sequence of the Naturliche PJianzenfaviilien, by Engler 
and Prantl, to the buckbean family, has now been issued. The publishers are 
to be congratulated upon the prompt publication of a work requiring so much 
original labor of authors, artist, engraver and printer. This volume contains 
647 pages, and the binding, typography, illustrations, descriptions, biblio- 
graphical references and the other excellent features of the preceding volume 
have been fully maintained. 

The second volume contains figures of 1,467 species. In most instances 
these are good representations, but in a few we are disappointed. The magni- 
tude of the author's undertaking is such that the students of our flora will 
willingly overlook these minor defects. 

As was to have been expected, the adherence to the Rochester rules of 
nomenclature has presented us with a number of new binomials for our old 
friends, as, for example, our common apple becomes Mains mains (L. ), Britton 
and American Wistaria (the erroneous spelling Wisierea'xs persisted in), be- 
comes Kraunhia frutescens (L.) Greene. The rigid enforcement of the law of 
priority is illustrated on page 358, where Polygala viridescens L. replaces the 
familiar P. sanguinea L., both having been used by Liunaeus, on page 705, 



Ail. Jour. I'iiariij. ) I?mtt/"'iie >« «^/^ 

Species Plantarum, 1753. It is our intent to more carefully note the changes 
necessitated in the names of medicinal plants, upon the completion of Volume 
III. 

A cursory examination of the volume exhibits great freedom from typo- 
graphical errors and comparatively little for criticism. On page 345 we are in- 
formed that Oxalis acetosella "yields the druggists' salt of lemon." The 
modern methods of manufacturing the oxalates have displaced such a primitive 
source. 

The distribution of plants is generally accurately given. The existence of 
Ilicioides mucronata (L. ) Britton, (Nemopanthes fascicularis, Raf. 1, in New 
Jersey, has, however, escaped attention. 

The authors have aimed to incorporate the most recent contributions and 
studies of the different genera and orders. Consequently some very recently 
described plants are figured here. Of these may be mentioned as examples 
Potentilla littoralis, R3'dberg, 1S96 ; Crataegus Vailia;, Britton, 1S96 ; Prunus 
Gravesii, Small, 1897; Viola atlantica, Britton, 1S97. The treatment of many 
groups show critical study on the part of the authors. Several entirely ne\s 
species are described, and a very general tendency through the volume is to 
elevate well-marked varieties of previous authors to specific rank, and a number 
of species discarded in Gray's Manual have been revived. 

Another commendable feature of the work is the introduction of many 
foreign plants that have escaped from cultivation, or otherwise become distri- 
buted in waste places. This renders the book especially valuable to the 
botanists in our seaport cities, who collect on the ballast grounds. 

It is an up-to-date book, and a most valuable contribution to the literature of 
systematic botany, and we eagerly await the appearance of the final volume. 

G. M. B, 

Die Xkukn Arzneii)R(>(".en .\us dkm Pflanzenrhichk. Von Or, Carl 
Hartwich, Professor der Pharmakognosie am Eidgenossichen Polytechnikum 
in Ziirich. Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1S97. Prcis, M, 12, 

During the past several years, the additions to the list of medicinal drugs 
from the vegetable kingdom has been so rapid that in self-protection one is 
driven to devise some kind of a system by which to keep track of them. The 
author prepared for his own use an alphabetical list of such new drugs, with a 
brief statement concerning each of them, and a number of references to the 
literature of the subject. The result was so satisfactory that he decided to 
elaborate the same and publish it. We have, in conscfjuence, a book of some 
469 pages, filled with matter which is not only compactly printed, but, what is 
more important, compactly stated. Any one interested in new plant drugs, if 
he has only a moderate familiarity with the German language, will find ihir 
book of the greatest value. 

An introduction of twenty-three pages gives a general view of the subject, 
and points out the rapidity and extent to which new plant drugs have l)een 
recognized by the various pharmacop«Lias. Following this is the »|>ecial part 
which constitutes the great bulk of the work, and which consists of short 
notices of new plant <lrugs, arranged in alphal>etical order. The names and 
synonyms of each are given, then follow short descriptions, habitat, use*, 
chemical composition, etc , not always in the same order ; the latter feature has 



I?^^.^^^r,,r i Am. Jour. Pharm. 

430 KeVieWS. \ August, I897. 

some advantages, since it renders this part more readable, and does away with 
what would tend towards a tabular presentation of the subject. A few lines of 
references are finally added, and enough is before one concerning a drug to 
enable him to have an intelligent idea about it, or to prosecute his studies 
further elsewhere. 

An appendix of some 30 pages follows the special part, and includes some of 
the very newest drugs. This is followed by a literary index of books and 
journals used in the references. The author was somewhat in doubt about 
arranging the subjects in alphabetical order, but he had found it best for his 
own use, so he allowed it to stand ; but in order to make the work more com- 
plete he added an index of the plants, arranged according to the natural 
system. Finally, there is a very complete general index. 

There is no doubt but this work will facilitate the study of plant drugs, and 
aid in bringing some of them more prominently before the two professions of 
pharmacy and medicine. 

Onthk Presence of a True Manna on a *' Blue Grass," Andropogon 
ANNULATUS. By R. T. Baker, F.L.S., and Henry G. Smith, F.C.S. Reprint 
of paper read before the Royal Society of New South Wales, December 2, 
1896. 

In addition to identifying this substance as a true manna, the authors have 
made quite a study of it from botanical, chemical and economic standpoints. 
The paper is illustrated by two full-page plates, and a bibliography of the litera- 
ture of eucalyptus manna and lerp has been appended. 

Report of the Committee Appointed by the Nationai, Academy of 
Sciences upon the Inauguration of a Forest Poi^icy for the Forested 
Lands of the United States, to the Secretary of the Interior. 
Washington. Government Printing Office, 1897. 

This report is the result of the appointment of a committee by the president 
of the National Academy of Sciences, on the request of the Secretary of the 
Interior. The report is an exhaustive one, and after discussing the whole sub- 
ject of forestry in the United States, the results are condensed into conclusions 
and recommendations that are easily comprehended. A number of bills are 
offered for presentation to Congress to enable the recommendations to be car- 
ried out. The committee is composed of the following well-known experts : 
Charles S. Sargent, Henry L. Abbott, A. Agassiz, Wm, H. Brewer, Arnold 
Hague, Gifford Pinchot, Wolcott Gibbs. 

UiCRKR IsoMERE Menthyi^amine und Menthene. By D. T. Werner. 
Inaugural Dissertation. Gottingen, 1897. 

This is the result of a careful study of the properties of dextro- and laevo-ro- 
tary menthylamine. 

The Nationai, Confectioners' Association of the United States. 
1897. This Association has done a good work in compiling, in a neat volume 
of 186 pages, all the " pure food and pure candy laws " in force in the United 
vStates, April i, 1897. There is great lack of uniformity among the different 
States ; many have no food or candy laws, others have both, and a number 
hold that candy is a food, and therefore apply the provisions of the pure food 
law to it. 



"""iugu.".*;?^'™ } College Meeting.— Obituary. 43 1 

Report OF THE Fifteenth Annual Procekdings OP THE Louisiana State 
Pharmaceutical Association, held at New Orleans, May 11 to 13, 1897. 

Two ori^iual communications were received and read at this meeting?, viz.: 
" Does a College of Pharmacy Education Possess any Advantages over that 
Gained by Long Practical Experience?" by Dr. T. A. Quayle; and ** How to 
Increase our Membership," by Leon Barthet. A number of interesting reports 
were also presented. The Association is doing a good work by endeavoring to 
intro<luce the National Formulaty^ and thereby have physicians prescribe the 
preparations contained in it. 



MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE MEETING. 

The quarterly meeting of the College was held June 28, 1S97, with President 
Bullock in the chair. The minutes of the Boaru of Trustees for April. May 
and June were read and adopted. 

A communication from Chairman Beale, of the Section on Pharmaceutical 
Education and Legislation, of the American Pharmaceutical Association, was 
presented. Itconsisted of a list of interrogatories bearing upon the construction 
of a uniform pharmacy law for all the States. This document was deemed al- 
together too voluminous and comprehensive to be properly considered in the 
limited time at the disposal of the College, and action upon it was postponed. 

Mr. E. >L Boring offered a resolution, which appeared to involve a modifica- 
tion of the charter, and the spirit of which resolved itself into two queries, 
whioh the Secretary was directed to submit to the College Counsellors for an 
opinion. These queries were as follows : 

"Can the College restrict the eligibility of members to serve in the Board 
of Trustees to such only as do not receive emoluments for service rendered the 
College ?" 

" Should the Board of Trustees deem it desirable to elect one or more of the 
faculty associate members of the Board without voice unless requested, and 
also without vote, can it do so ?" 

The chairman appointed the following delegates to the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association: Samuel P. Sadtler, F. W. E. Stedeni, Josiah C. 
Peacock. 

William B. Thomp.son, Stctetaty. 



OBITUARY. 



I*fo/. Dr. Karl Rcmii^ius Fresen ins.— On the nth of June Profewor I tvsv- 
nius, the noted chemist, <iied at Wiesbaden, (icrmany, in th'e seventy ninth 
year of his age, of heart disease. 

He was born at Prankfort-on-the-Main, December 28, 1818, an<l ol.ta:mil his 
education for the most part in the schools of that city. In li'^ft he was appren- 
ticed as an apothecary, and while pursuing this vocation attended Iccluieft on 
chemistry and physics. Later he l>ecame a student at the I'niversity of Bonn, 
and, in 184 1, went to (^iessen as assistant in Liel>ig's laUiratory. In 1843 he ac- 
cepted a position as private instructor in chemistry at the University of Oie«- 
acn, where, however, he remained only two yeara, when he was callc<l lo 
the Agricultural Institute of Wiesba<len as profeasor of the natural sctcacea. 



432 Notes and News. {^"ku'Slls^iS:^"" 

Here, in 1848, he established his famous private laboratory, to which was added, 
in 1862, a pharmaceutical department. 

As is well known, Professor Fresenius devoted his attention chiefly to the 
subject of Analytical Chemistry, and his " Anleitung zur qualitative chemi- 
schen Analyse" and "Anleitung zur quantitative chemischen Analyse " have 
gone through a number of editions, and have been translated into almost every 
living tongue. In addition to his other literary labors, he was editor of the 
Zeiischrift fiir analytische Cheniie since 1862. 

In recognition of his services as a scientist, numerous honorary titles and 
orders of distinction were bestowed upon Professor Fresenius by various 
societies and scientific bodies, both in Germany and in other countries, and in 
1893 he was elected an honorary member of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. 

Prof. Julius von Sachs. — On the 29th of May Professor von Sachs, the 
famous botanist, died at Wiirzburg, Germany, where he had resided since 1868. 
He was born at Breslau, in 1832, and his life was enriched by labors which have 
had a distinct and decided influence on the advances made in recent years in 
scientific botany, particularly plant physiology and the principles of causality 
as applied to plant life. 

Professor Sachs was a voluminous writer, and of his works the following 
maybe mentioned: "Botanical Experimental Physiology," "Text Book of 
Botany," "History of Botany" (from 1600 to i860), and "Lectures on Plant 
Physiology." He was not only distinguished as an author, but was an accom- 
plished lecturer, and had devoted the greater part of his life to teaching. For 
twenty-nine years he had been Professor of Botany at Wiirzburg, and for a time 
during the early part of his scientific career was assistant to Purkinje at Prague. 



NOTES AND NEWS, 

Professor J. B. Nagelvoort has resigned the chair of Pharmaceutical Chemis- 
try in the School of Pharmacy, Northwestern University, and is at present in 
Amsterdam, Netherlands. Some of his contributions on pharmacy in the 
Ijnited States have recently appeared in the Pharniaceutisch Weckblad of 
Rotterdam. 

The Hanbury Medal has been awarded for this year to Dr. John B. De Vrij, 
of The Hague. He was born in Rotterdam in 1813. The President of the 
British Pharmaceutical Society, in announcing the award, said : " It was interest- 
ing to note that in this year of the Diamond Jubilee the award was made to a 
gentleman who, although not an Englishman, had an order conferred by Her 
Majesty, he being a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire, that dis- 
tinction having been given him for work done in connection with cinchona 
cultivation in India. It was also interesting to remark that the first paper pub- 
lished by Dr. De Vrij was written about four years before Her Majesty came to 
the throne. Since that time he had been an indefatigable worker in original 
research connected with the chemistry and natural history of drugs, partly in 
connection with cinchona. He began life as a pharmacist, and had been con- 
nected with pharmacy ever since." 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, i8gj. 



CAN NORTHERN SENEGA, SOUTHERN SENEGA, EUO- 

NYMUS AND QUILLAJA HE DISTINGUISHED 

FROM ONE ANOTHER IN THE POWDERED 

STATE BY THE MICROSCOPE? 

By L. E. Savrk, 

Member of Research Committee C of the Revision Committee of the U. S. P. — 

Preliminary Paper. 

This is the question which the present investigation endeavors to 
answer. As usual, the structural elements of the different druqs 
were studied in their fixed relations by means of sections, and their 
subsequent conduct and appearance after powdering observed. In 
general it may be stated that while it is quite easy to recognize the 
differences between the senegas and the other drugs, no point of 
distinction could be established for the two senegas. This is easily 
understood when it is observed that the two varieties of the one 
drug have present the same elements in relatively equal propor- 
tions, while each of the others possesses characteristic elements not 
present, or differently represented, in the other drugs. 

The sections of senega, both northern and southern, are easily 
distinguished by the marked difference in the thickness of the routs 
and in the arrangement of the tissues, but we are not surprised to 
find the powders appearing very much the same under the micro- 
scope. In passing through the mill and the sieve, characteristic 
arrangements are destroyed and points of distinction obliterated. 
Owing to this fact it is the author's opinion that no satisfactory 

(433) 



434 



Senega, Euonymus and Quillaja. {t™p{Lmber,Y89™" 



microscopical test can be established for distinguishing either 
senega from the other. 

In detail it may be observed that the No. 60 powder of senega 




Fig. I. Cross-section Senega (Northern variety); a, cork cells; b, paren- 
chyma ; Cy woody tissue ; d, tracheae. 

shows mainly the suber and the parenchymatous tissues in tolerably 
regular masses, while the woody centre is but rarely observed. The 
soft parenchyma is sometimes broken longitudinally and sometimes 




Fig. 2. Longitudinal section Senega (Northern variety), a, cork cells ; b, 
parenchyma ; c, parenchyma ; d, woody cells ; <?, tracheae. 

transversely, so that we get appearances characteristic of the sec- 
tions made in these two directions. 

As might be supposed from the appearance of the sections, no 
difficulty exists in distinguishing apart the powders of senega and 



Am, Jour. PHarm.) 
September. 1897. j 



Senega, Eiiaiiymus and Quillaja. 



435 




Fig. ^. Cross-section Senega (^Southern variety); a, cork cells; ^, paren- 
chyma ; Cy woody centre ; d, trachea.-. 

quillaja. In the latter druj^ are found elements not at ail repre- 
sented in the senega. Attention is called to the strongly marked 
medullary rays, to the sclerotic tissue, to the bast fibres, and more 



--a 



■ 



Fig. 4. Longitudinal section Senega (Southern variety 
parenchyma ; f, parenchyma ; d, woody cells ; ^, trsche;u. 



,/ r.irl: CClli ; b^ 



436 Senega, Euonyinus and Quillaja. { \™p£Sbefff897^" 

particularly to the numerous and easily observed prismatic crystals 
of calcium oxalate. Any or all of these clearly mark the powder of 
quillaja, and would at once betray its presence in the powder of 
senega. 




Fig. s- Cross-section Quillaja ; a, parenchyma ; b, medullary rays ; c, bast 
fibres. 

Again, in the case of the powder derived from the root bark of 
euonymus, we encounter elements that serve as points of distinction 
between it and the other drugs here considered. In this instance 




Fig. 6. Longitudinal-radial section of Quillaja ; a, sclerotic cells ; b, medul- 
lary rays ; <:, bast fibres ; d, cork cells. 

the most marked characteristic is the fragment of large-celled sub- 
erous tissue, which so frequently exhibits a concentric arrangement. 
In addition, the fragments of cortical parenchyma, crossed by the 
narrow remains of medullary rays, appear numerously and distinctly 




Fig. 7. Longitudinal-tangential section of Quillaja ; a, sclerotic cells ; b^ bast 
fibres ; c, crystal ; d, medullary ray. 



iStimS^r.'lIK'} Scjiega, Euonymiis and Quillaja. 



437 



before the observer. The bast cells would also serve to distinguish 
euonymus from senega. 




-d 



Fig. 8. Euonymus bark of root ; a, suber ; b, parenchyma ; r, crystal ; t/, 
medullary ray. 

After having established these points of difference between senega 

and its adulterants, numerous samples of powdered senega were 

examined, but no adulteration was discovered. It would appear 

a 




m} 



,'C'- 



FifT. g. Senega powder magnified 75 diameters ; a, suber ; b, parenchyma ; r, 
tracheie (rarely found in No. 60 powder). 

from this that powdered senega is not difficult to secure m the 
pure condition. 

The drawings accompanying this arc supposed to be sclf-cxplana- 



438 



Senega, Euonymus and Qiiillaja. { "^s^pfember, isSt! 




Fig. 10. Powder of Quillaja magnified 75 diameters; a, medullary ray; by 
bast ; c, crystals of calcium oxalate ; d^ sclerotic tissue. 




Fig. II. Powder of bark of root of Euonymus magnified 75 diameters ; 
a, medullary ray ; b, bast ; c, suber. 

tory, and show the appearance of the drugs under consideration in 

as nearly a representative manner as possible.^ 

*This preliminary paper, containing the brief text to accompany the draw- 
ings, is published at this time mainly to complete the record of the year's work 



as a member of the Committee of Research. 



Iv. E. S. 



^s'^^ptembe^^fs^ } Gelseviic Acid. 439 

GELSEMIC ACID.^ 
Bv Virgil Coblentz. 

This principle was first isolated by Professor Maisch, in 1869, 
later named and fully described by Professor Wormley in 1870. 
The latter author restricted himself to the application of various 
color tests and the deportment of this substance to different reagents, 
with the view of its identification from the standpoint of a toxi- 
colof^ist. 

Dr. Chas. Robbins, in his work " Ueber die wesentlichen bestand- 
theile von Gelsemium sempervirens"(i876), describes this principle 
as occurrinfT in needle-like crystals, which separate in stellate 
groups, possessing acid characters and forming salts with alkalies, 
all of these salts being insoluble in water except those of the alka- 
lies which are readily soluble and crystalline. As regards solubili- 
ties, the same author claims that gelsemic acid is readily soluble in 
chloroform and ether, and soluble I part in looo of water. A 
number of color reactions given by Wormley were reviewed by Rob- 
bins. These will be taken up later with criticisms and comments- 

The material for the following investigations was supplied by 
Professor J. U. Lloyd, who assured me of its purity and genuineness. 
The crystals were white, when viewed in mass, of a slight yellowish 
cast ; they were of the hexagonal system and varied in length from 5 
to 10 mm.^ 

The melting point of gelsemic acid, which, to my knowledge, has 
not been published, at least not by the above-named investigators, 
is 206° C. (corrected). 

When heated between 1 10° and 115^ C. for five hours in a tube, 
through which a currrent of dry carbonic anhydride was passed, no 
appreciable loss in weight occurred ; in the upper portion of the 
tube a slight sublimate was noticeable. This may account for Dr. 
Robbins' two molecules of crystal water. However, the solvent 
employed in crystallizing may account for differences. When 
heated in open air gelsemic acid takes on a deep lemon-yellow 
color. 



' Read at the im-fUii^ of the .Amcruati i'iiartu.ii ruiual A?>>m. i.iliuti, x^r, . 

' Made from Gelsemium sempervircus by means of neutral solvents only, 
no aciils or alkalies l>cinj? employed. Purified by repeate<l crystallizationt 
from alcohol. — ^J. U. L. 



440 



Gelsemic Add, 



SolMtUih'. — G. A. is soluble i p. in 1490 of distilled ^*ater at 30^ C. 
" *« •' I p. " 415 of abs. ether " 22^ C. 
" " ** I p. " 135 of chloroform " 24° C. 
Readily soluble in hot alcohol and glacial acetic acid. 
The above figures show the average of three careful determina- 
tions each. 

Coler Tests. — The reagents employed were r.rs: tested for such 
impurities as might influence the color reaction. 

(i) With cone. H.SO^ = pale yellow, disappears on standing. 

(2) With cone. H^SO^ n-armed = deep yellow. 

Professor Wormley obtains a yellow to red-brown color with 
above. 

(3) With cone. H.SO^ and trace of HNOj = blood red, quickly 
tades. 

(4) With cone. HjSO^ and K.Cr,0- = to yellow, pale violet, 
changing to green. 

Dr. Robbins obtains no reaction vnth 4. 

(5) With cone. H^O^ and ammonium molybdate = yellow : on 
standing from ten to twent}* minutes =: intense blue (hastened if 
warmed). 

The reaction 5 is ver\' delicate and characteristic. 

(6) With cone. HNO- = yellow ; if G. A. is in excess = reddish 
color; to this add NH^OH in excess = intense blood-red color. 

Above test of Wormley is sensitive to 0-00002 gm. 

Ri actions in Solution. — (1) G. A. is readily soluble in diluted 
aqueous solutions of the caustic alkalies : the resulting solution is of 
a pale yellow color when \iewed by transmitted light ; by reflected 
light it exhibits an intense bluish-green fluorescence, i part in 
1,000,000 being distinctly fluorescent. This is destroyed by addition 
of acids. 

(2) An aqueous solution of G. A. liberates iodine from iodic acid 
(HIO,). 

(3) An aqueous solution of G. A. on addition of ferric chloride 
gives a green-colored solution. 

(4) Lead acetate and mercuric chloride both produce, with aque- 
ous solutions of G. A., yellowish precipitates called by Robbins 
*' gelsemates." These precipitates proved to be a mixture of basic 
hydroxides of the metal and unaltered gelsemic acid, the latter 
being readily removed by washing with hot water or alcohol. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, \ CZfiUfmir Ari^l tMt 

(5) When silver nitrate is added to an aqueous solution of G. A., 
at first a yellow precipitate is produced, which quickly changes to 
black. Solutions of auric and platinic chlorides are reduced at 
once. 

(6) Fehling's solution, or a concentrated solution of copper sul- 
phate, gives a brownish-red precipitate of suboxide on standing, or 
immediately on heating. 

(7) The addition of freshly.prepared chlorine water to an aqueous 
solution of G. A. produces a red coloration which disappears on 
warming. 

(8) The addition of Lugol's solution produces a brown precipi- 
tate, which consists of a mixture of free iodine and gelsemic acid. 

Analytical. — Dr. Robbins assumes gelsemic acid to be a gluco- 
side, after boiling its aqueous solution with diluted sulphuric acid, 
and heating with Fehling's solution. In the above cited reactions 
we find that gelsemic acid is a strong reducing agent, reacting even 
in cold solution, so this test is indeed, under the circumstances, 
fallacious. 

To ascertain whether this principle is a glucoside or not, samples 
were boiled for twelve hours with diluted, also concentrated, hydro- 
chloric acid, also with diluted sulphuric acid, finally; a sample was 
heated in a sealed tube with 5 per cent, alcoholic hydrochloric acid 
at iio°C. All gave negative results, the gelsemic acid remaining 
unchanged, and the solution failing to give any reaction for sugar 
with phenylhydrazine. Other sugar tests cannot be applied, because 
of the above-mentioned reducing properties of this principle. 

Robbins as well as Wormley calls attention to the acid prop)erties 
of G. A. The former states that the salts, with exception of the alka- 
lies, are insoluble in water, while the latter are crystalline. Robbins 
assumes that the precipitate obtained by adding a salt of a metal to 
solution of G. A. was a compound of the latter with a metallic base. 
I have already stated that these precipitates consist of a mixture of 
basic hydroxides and free acid. 

I endeavored to obtain salts of G. A. with the alkalies by 
cautiously neutralizing aqueous and alcoholic solutions of this princi- 
ple with alkali carbonates and hydrates. The resulting solutions were 
concentrated at the lowest possible temperature, and set aside for 
some weeks, with the result that nothing more than amorphous 
crusts could be obtained. 



442 Gelsemic Acid, { ^sTpfembef.X^- 

The dry sodium salt (so-called) when heated becomes very volu- 
minous, a phenomenon similar to the " Pharaoh's Serpent " pro- 
duced on heating mercury sulphocyanide. 

I next attempted to produce a salt with the alkaline earths, by 
boiling gelsemic acid with freshly-precipitated barium carbonate and 
water, also magnesium carbonate and water for several hours. The 
filtered solution was neutral, but upon concentrating, the carbonated 
alkaline earth gradually separated and the solution assumed an acid 
reaction. No crystals separated from the solution upon standing. 

From the above it will be seen that this principle possesses very 
feeble acid properties and that its compounds are of an exceeding 
unstable character. 

Attempts were made to produce salts by double decomposition 
between the sodium compound of G. A. in solution, v/ith salts of the 
metals, but the precipitates obtained were of the same character as 
those mentioned under test 4. 

Lassaigne's test for the presence of nitrogen was made with nega- 
tive results, confirming Robbins' test. 

Robbins, after making two combustions of gelsemic acid with cop- 
per oxide in a simple bayonet tube, as was customary at that time, 
and comparing his results with the older aesculin formula of Rochle- 
der, comes to the conclusion that his gelsemic acid is identical with 
aesculin, reinforcing his opinion by comparing the fluorescent prop- 
erties of both and their reducing powers on Fehling's solution. It 
is true that aesculin and gelsemic acid resemble each other in some 
particulars, such as fluorescence and reducing powers, but, as will be 
shown later, it will be seen that the latter is a distinctively different 
principle. 

Tne two combustions of Robbins resulted as follows : 

I. C = 5204 per cent. H — 5-189 per cent. 

II. C = 5182 per cent. H = 4-98 per cent. 

The older formula of Rochleder for aesculin contains C 51*57 per 
cent, and H 4-87 per cent. 

The later accepted formula contains C 5294 per cent, and H 
470 per cent. 

The results of Robbins' analyses and the above formula corre- 
spond quite closely. However, the suuthor questions the accuracy of 
the (Robbins) analyses and the formula deduced therefrom. 

The greatest difficulty was experienced in obtainmg concordant 



Am. Jour. Phariu.) /^x'/cm »'/- J^i.-/ . . -. 

September. IW. / UtlStmiC Acld. 443 

results in combustions of gelsemic acid, for this principle is one of 
those few organic substances which upon heating with copper oxide 
or oxidizing agents tends to give up only a portion of its carbon as 
carbon dioxide, the rest separating as a graphitic-like deposit on the 
sides of the combustion tube, which the highest possible tempera- 
ture cannot remove. Over twenty combustions were made after 
various methods; in several instances, even with cupric oxide alone, 
two of the combustions would correspond quite closely, but subse- 
quent results did not justify that any reliance be placed upon the 
figures. The various methods employed were : First, combustion 
with copper oxide in a bayonet tube; second, with cupric oxide in 
an open tube in a current of oxygen; in the third method, lead chro- 
mate was employed ; the fourth method attempted consisted in 
mixing the gelsemic acid with powdered fused potassium bichromate 
in a platinum boat, and then burning in an open tube into cupric 
oxide in a current of oxygen ; as fifth attempt, the method of wet 
combustion with a. mixture of chromic anhydride and sulphuric acid 
was attempted, passing the gases through a spiral cooler, then over 
lead peroxide to remove sulphur dioxide, finally over calcium chlo- 
ride, into the potash absorption apparatus (see American Journal 
OF Pharmacv, May, 1897, p. 228). This method, although requiring 
the greatest care to prevent the contaminating gases from passing 
over, gave very good results in the analysis of some of the deriva- 
tives of gelsemic acid, while with the mother-substance discordant 
results were obtained. Finally, as last resort, a mixture of lead 
chromate 3 parts and red lead (mennige) i part was tried, the com- 
bustion being carried on in an open tube in a current of oxygen. 
The two above-mentioned ingredients were reduced to a fine pow- 
der, well mixed, moistened with water, granulated and sharply 
dried at 150° C. This mixture was introduced into an open com- 
bustion tube and heated to dull redness in a current of oxygen, then 
on cooling the well-dried sample of gelsemic acid, which had pre- 
viously been mi.xed with an ignited mi.xture of equal parts of pow- 
dered lead chromate and lead oxide, was introduced, and the com- 
bustion carried on slowly in a current of oxygen, bringing the tube 
finally to a bright red heat. No traces of separated carbon could be 
found on the sides of the tube after combustion. 
The analyses resulted as follows : 



... rZfiJ<:pi^ir Ari^ f Am. Jour. Pbarin-, 

444 LreiSeiniC J-LCIU. \ September, ] 897. 

I. 0*2432 gramme substance yielded 0-5582 gramme of 002=62*59 per cent. C. 

0*0988 '* ** H,0= 4*51 " " H, 

11.0*1140 " ** " 0*2610 '• " CO.,=62*45 " " C. 

0-0470 •' " H20= 4-58 " " H. 

111.0-2926 " " " 0*6739 " " C02=62-8i - " C. 

" 0*1166 " " H30= 4*42 " *' H. 

From the average of the above analyses the formula QgHj^Og was 
deduced, the percentage of carbon would be 63-16 and of hydrogen 
4-45. Thus for comparison : 



Calculated. 


Found = I. 


II. 


III. 


C = 63*16 


62-59 


62*44 


62*81 


H= 4"45 


4'5i 


4-58 


4*42 



A molecular weight determination (which would be of great as- 
sistance here), after the method of Beckmann (kryoscopic), was 
found impossible because of the insolubility of gelsemic acid in the 
cold solvents employed in these determinations, with the exception 
of phenol, which, however, gave abnormal results, due probably to 
molecular action between the two. 

Action of Phosphorus Pentachloride. — Gelsemic acid was cau- 
tiously fused with a slight excess of phosphorus pentachloride ; to 
the mass water was added slowly, the tube being kept well cooled 
with ice. After standing a few hours a white mass separated,, 
which, after thoroughly washing, was taken up into as little hot 
alcohol as possible, filtered and again precipitated in an excess of 
water. This operation was repeated several times in order to re- 
move a non-crystallizable impurity which was comparatively in- 
soluble in alcohol ; finally the product was recrystallized twice from 
alcohol. This chloro-derivative of gelsemic acid melts at 190° C. A 
chlorine estimation was made after Carius. 00615 gramme of 
substance yielded 00616 gramme of AgCl, which corresponds to 
2476 per cent, of chlorine. The theoretical replacement of two 
hydroxyl groups by chlorine would give us 25 per cent, of the lat- 
ter. This proves conclusively that we have replaceable hydroxyl 
groups present. 

Thus, 

C13H9 (OH)A = Q3H, {C\\0,, 

Calculated, CI = 25 percent. Found CI = 24*76 per cent. 

Action of Acetic Anhydride. — Gelsemic acid was heated with 
acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate in a flask with reflux 



^^pt'emb^r'Sr"} Gelsemic Acid, 445 

condenser for several hours, then the reaction's product was poured 
into an excess of water, the precipitate formed thoroughly washed, 
<lried and crystallized from alcohol. This compound forms needle-