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Advisory Editor: Mr. ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, of Baltimore. 

Managing Editor: Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., of Princeton College. 

Literary Editor: Prof. J. H. WRIGHT, of Harvard University. 

Editorial Contributors: Prof. ALFRED EMERSON, of Lake Forest Uni- 
versity; Prof. HAROLD N. FOWLER, of Phillips Academy, Exeter; 
Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton College; Prof. A. C. MER- 
RIAM, of Columbia College ; Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN, of Cambridge 
University, England; Mr. JUSTIN WINSOR, of Harvard University. 
The following writers have contributed or promised contributions : 







Miss I. F. HAPGOOD^ ^ Mrs. Z. NUTTALL, Dr. J. E. WHEELER, etc. 


M. E. BABELON, attache* au Cabinet des M^dailles, National Library, Paris. 
Dr. A. A. CARUANA, Librarian and Director of Education, Malta. 
L'Abbe" L. DUCHESNE, Professor of Christian Archseology, Catholic Institute, Paris. 
M. EMILE DUVAL, Director of the Muse'e Fol, Geneva. 
Dr. A. FURTWANGLER, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Berlin. 
Mr. ERNEST A. GARDNER, Director of the British School of Archseology, Athens. 

Prof. W. HELBIG, former Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, Eome. 
Dr. G. HIRSCHFELD, Professor of Archseology in the University of Koenigsberg. 
Dr. F.-X. KRAUS, Professor at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau. 
Comm. EODOLFO LANCIANI, Director of excavations and antiquities, Eome. 
Dr. ALBERT L. LONG, of Eobert College, Constantinople. 

Comte de MARSY, Director of the Soc. Franc, d' Arche'ologie, Bulletin Monumental, etc. 
Prof. ORAZIO MARUCCHI, member of Comm. Archseol. Commission of Eome, etc. 
Prof. G. MASPERO, former Director of Antiq., Egypt ; Prof, at College de France, Paris. 
M. JOACHIM MENANT, of Eouen, France. 
Prof. ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of the University of Strassburg. 
M. EMILE MOLINIER, attache* au Muse'e du Louvre, Paris. 

M. EUGENE MUNTZ, Librarian and Conservator of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 
A. 8. MURRAY, Keeper of Greek and Eoman antiquities, British Museum. 
J PIPER, Professor of Christian Archeology in the University of Berlin. 

RAMSAY, Professor in the University of Aberdeen. 

^RANZ v. EEBER, Professor in the University and Polytechnic of Munich, etc. 
SALOMON REINACH, attach^ au MusSe National de St. Germain 

BATT. DE Rossi, Director of the Vatican and Lateran Museums, Eome. 
R,Protof Archaeology in the Univ., and Director of Museum, Leipzig. 
ERT SEWELL, Madras Civil Service, F. E. G. S., M. E. A. S. 

nor and Members of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 

and it will aim to further the interests for which the Institute and the School were 
founded. It treats of all branches of Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, 
Early Christian, Mediaeval, and American, and is intended to supply a record of the 
important work done in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories : 
1. Original Articles; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and investigations 
in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Summaries of the contents of the 
principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) the Record of 
Discoveries, and (2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the former, a detailed account 
is given of all discoveries and excavations in every portion of the civilized world, 
from India to America, especial attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order 
to ensure thoroughness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are 
consulted and material is secured from special correspondents. In order that readers 
may know of everything important that appears in periodical literature, a consider- 
able space is given to careful summaries of the papers contained in the principal 
periodicals that treat of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, 
all important work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 

It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving a survey of 
the whole field of Archaeology, should be international in character, by affording to 
the leading archaeologists of all countries a common medium for the publication of 
the results of their labors. This object has been in great part attained, as is shown 
by the list of eminent foreign and American contributors to the five volumes already 
issued, and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only have 
important contributions to the advance of the science been made in the original 
articles, but the present condition of research has been brought before our readers 
in the departments of correspondence, and reviews of the more important recent 

The JOURNAL is published quarterly, and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 
pages royal 8vo, illustrated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous 
figures. The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings, or marks, post-paid. Vol. I, unbound or bound in 
cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be sent post-paid on receipt 
of $4 : Vol. II, containing 521 pages, 14 plates and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, un- 
bound for $4.50: Vol. Ill, containing 531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures; Vol. IV, 
550 pages, 20 plates, and 19 figures; Vol. V, 534 pages, 13 plates, and 55 figures; 
and Vol. VI, 612 pages, 23 plates, and 23 figures ; bound for $5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, Prof. 
A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. : all business 
communications, to the. Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 



Nos. 1-2. JANUARY-JUNE. 




(plates i-xi ; figures 1-6), . . by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 10 




v. ZET2 'HAlonOAITH2 (figures 14, 15), . . by PAUL WOLTERS, 65 


xin), .by GEORGE B. HUSSEY, 69 

n. REPORT ON EXCAVATIONS (figures 16, 17). 




by F. B. TARBELL and J. C. KOLFE, 108 


1. REPORT ON EXCAVATIONS, . . . by J. C. EOLFE, 112 

by F. B. TARBELL and J. C. KOLFE, 113 


YORK, by A. C. MERRIAM, 122 


Letter from Egypt, . . . . . by FARLEY B. GODDARD, 123 


ARCHEOLOGY, . . . 126 






AFRICA (Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Malta); ASIA (Java, Bur- 
mah, Hindustan, Afghanistan, Parthia, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, Phoe- 
nicia, Asia Minor, Kypros) ; EUROPE (Greece, Italy, Sicily, Spain, France, 
Belgium, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Montenegro, Sweden, Norway, Eng- 
land) ; AMERICA (United States), . by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 154 








by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 299 


ii. ARCHITECTS (plate xxi), . by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 307 


by W. E. PATON, 314 



ORIENT; AFRICA (Egypt, Algeria) ; ASIA (Hindustan, Afghanistan, Per- 
sia, Central Asia, Babylonia, Arabia, Palestine, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, 
Kypros) ; EUROPE (Greece, Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, France, Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary, Scandinavia, Denmark, Kussia, Roumania, Mon- 
tenegro, Turkey, Great Britain) ; AMERICA (United States), 

by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 321 

Archivio storico dell'arte Archivio storico lombardo JBullettino di archeologia 
cristiana Bullettino di paletnologia italiana Bulletin de correspondance hel- 
lenique 'E^Tj/tepls apxaioXoyiicfi Jahrbuch d. k. deut. archdologischen Insti- 
tute Journal asiatiqueMittheilungen d. k. arch. Instituts. Athen. Abth. 
Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archaeology Revue archeologique Revue des 
etudes grecques Rivista italiana di numismatica Rivista storica italiana t . 403 



by A. S. MURRAY, 437 

xxin Map of Plataia; figures 18, 19). 



by H. S. WASHINGTON, 448 


by H. S. WASHINGTON, 452 


by W. IRVING HUNT, 463 



C. H. Moore's "Gothic Architecture:" 

Letter by CHARLES H. MOORE, . . 476 

Letter by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 478 

OdysseuJ Feat of Archery, .... by HENRY W. HAYNES, 487 




AFRICA (Egypt, Tunisia) ; ASIA (Polynesia, Tartary, Hindustan, Persia, 
Armenia, Babylonia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, 
Kypros) ; EUROPE (Greece, Italy, Sicily), by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 504 


Archivio storico lombardo Bullettino di archeologia cristiana Bullettino di 
paletnologia italiana Jahrbuch d. k. deuts. archaol. Institute Journal asia- 
tique Mittheilungen d. k. deuts. archaol. Institute. Athen. Abth. Revue des 
etudes grecques Rivista italiana di numismatica, . . . . . . 596 



Discoveries at Anthedon in 1889 ; 

ii. Report on Excavations, 96 

in. Architectural Discoveries, . 101 

IV. Bronze Implements, 104 

Discoveries at Plataia in 1889 ; 

in. Inscriptions Nos. i-xn, 108 

Discoveries at Plataia in 1890 ; 

i. General Report on the Excavations, 445 

II. Detailed Report on the Excavations, 448 

in. Description of the Site and Walls of Plataia, 452 

rv. Notes on the Battlefield of Plataia, 463 

Discoveries at Thisbe in 1889 ; 

i. Report on Excavations, 112 

ii. Inscriptions Nos. i-xv, . 113 

Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown-Inscriptions, 69 


Afghanistan, 179, 331 Algeria, 171, 330 Arabia, 332, 529 Armenia, 
523 Asia Minor, 186, 197, 341, 540 Austria-Hungary, 248, 395 Baby- 
lonia, 180, 331, 524 Belgium, 247 Burmah, 175 Central Asia, 331 
Denmark, 396 Egypt, 157, 324, 507 England, 251, 398 France, 242, 
389 Germany, 248, 394 Greece, 198, 359, 554 Hindustan, 176, 330, 
521 Italy, 217, 372, 569 Java, 175 Krete, 569 Kypros, 190, 356, 
553 Malta, 172 Montenegro, 250, 397 Morocco, 172 Norway, 251 
Orient, 323 Palestine, 182, 333, 534 Parthia, 179 Persia, 331, 522 
Phoenicia, 185, 340, 538 Polynesia, 520 Roumania, 397 Russia, 396 
Sardinia, 382 Scandinavia, 395 Sicily, 240, 383, 595 Spain, 388 
Sweden, 250 Syria, 180, 531 Tartary, 521 Tunisia, 171, 519 Turkey, 
398 United States, 258, 401 Wales, 398. 

FOWLER (Harold N.). Summaries of Periodicals, . . 409, 414, 420, 599, 607 
FROTHINGHAM (Arthur L., Jr.). Introduction of Gothic Architecture into 
Italy by the French Cistercian Monks. 
I. The Monastery of Fossanova, . . ... . . .10 

n. The Monastery of San Martino al Cimino, near Viterbo, . . 299 
Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. 

n. Architects, 307 

Letter on C. H. MOORE'S Gothic Architecture, 476 

Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Tenth Annual Report of Archaeological Institute, 126 

History of Art, by W. H. GOODYEAR, 126 

Mission scientifique au Caucase, by J. DE MORGAN, . . . .128 

L'Art Etrusgue, by JULES MARTHA, 135 

Eighth Annual Report of American School at Athens, . . . .142 




La Capsdla argenlea Africana, etc., by G. B. DE Eossi, . . .143 
Development and Character of Gothic Architecture, by C. H. MOORE, . 145 
Les Archives des Arts, by EUGENE MUNTZ, . . . . -150 
Die Genesismosaiken in Venedig und die Cottonbibel, by J. J. TIKKANEN, 151 

Essays of an Americanist, by D. G. BRINTON, 152 

Monumenti storici ed artist-id degli Abruzzi, by V. BINDI, . . .488 
The Ruined Abbeys of Yorkshire, by W. C. LEFROY, .... 492 
Essai sur le Comte de Caylus, by S. ROCHEBLAVE, .* . . .499 
Die Dartstellung der Geburt Christi in der bildenden Kunst, by MAX 

SCHMID, 502 

Archaeological News, 154, 321, 504 

Summaries of Periodicals, 

403, 404, 405, 418, 425, 432, 433, 435, 596-9, 607, 610-12 
GEEMANO (Padre di S. Stanislao, Passionista). The House of the Martyrs 

John and Paul, recently discovered on the Coelian Hill at Korne (i), . 261 

GODDARD (Farley B.). Letter from Egypt, 123 

HAYNES (Henry W.). Letter on Odysseus' Feat of Archery, . . . . 487 
HUNT (W. Irving). Notes on the Battlefield of Plataia, . . . .463 
HUSSEY (George B.). The Distribution of Hellenic Temples, ... 59 

Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown-Inscriptions, 69 

MARQUAND (Allan). Reminiscences of Egypt in Doric Architecture, . . 47 
Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Les Sceaux, by LECOY DE LA MARCHE, 127 

L' Architecture grecque, by V. LALOUX, .134 

Handbuch der klassischen Altertums- Wissenschafi, by IWAN VON MULLER, 1 39 

Griechische Weihgeschenfce, by EMIL REISCH, 141 

Excursions archeologiques en Grtce, by CH. DIEHL, .... 489 

The Attic Theatre, by A. E. HAIGH, 490 

Catalogue of Greek Co ins, by BARCLAY V. HEAD, . . . .491 
Catalogue of Greek Coins, by WARWICK WROTH, .... 503 

Summaries of Periodicals, 407, 427 

MERRIAM (A. C.). The Inscriptions on the Obelisk-Crabs in Central Park, 

New York, 122 

MOORE (Charles H.). Letter on his Gothic Architecture, 476 

MUNTZ (Eugene). The Lost Mosaics of Rome of the iv to the ix century, . 1 
MURRAY (A. S.). A Vase of the Mykenai type in New York, . . .437 
PATON (W. R.). Comment on TarbelPs Study of the Attic Phratry, . . .314 
ROLFE (John C.). Report on Excavations at Anthedon in 1889, ... 96 

Architectural Discoveries at Anthedon in 1889, 101 

Bronze Implements found at Anthedon in 1889, 104 

Report on Excavations at Thisbe in 1889, . . . . '. '. .' 112 
Inscriptions from Thisbe, . . . H3 

An Inscribed Tombstone from Boiotia, . 121 


Archivio storico delFarte, ... ' 493 

Archivio etorico lombardo, . . AQA cng 

Bullettino di archeologia cristiana, .... [ 404 597 

Bullettino di paletnologia ilaliana, ....... 405* 599 



Bulletin de correspondance hellenique, 407 

'E<t>it)/j.pls apxaio\oyiK-fi, 409 

Jahrbuch d. k. archdologischen Institute, 414,599 

Journal asiatique, 418, 607 

Mittheilungen d. k. arch. Institute. Athen. Abth., 420, 607 

Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archceology, 425 

Revue archeologique, 427 

Revue des etudes grecques, 432, 610 

Rivista italiana di numismatica, 433, 611 

Rivista storica italiana, . 435 

TARBELL (F. B.). Inscriptions from Thisbe, . 113 

Reply to Mr. Paton's Comment on his Study of the Attic Phratry, . .318 
WALDSTEIN (Charles). General Report on the Excavations at Plataia in 

1890, 445 

WARD (William Hayes). Notes on Oriental Antiquities. 

ix. A Babylonian Cylindrical Basrelief from Urumia in Persia, . . 286 
x. Tiamat and other Evil Spirits, as figured on Oriental Seals, . . 291 
WASHINGTON (Henry S.). Detailed Report on the Excavations at Plataia in 

1890, 445 

Description of the Site and Walls of Plataia, 452 

WHICHER (G. M.). Review of The Athenian Pnyx, by JOHN M. CROW, . 130 

WOLTERS (Paul). ZETS 'HAIOnOAITHS, . . . . . .65 


I. Monastery of Fossanova. 
n.- " 
m.- " 




IX. " " " 

_. (( II 

it u n 


Exterior of Church. 
Portal of Fapade. 
Interior of Church, Central 


Interior of Church, Side Aisle. 


Interior of Chapter-house. . 
Interior of Hospital. . 
Ground-plan of Monastery. . 
Details of Church. 
Exterior and Interior of Pavil- 
ion in Cloister. 
Interior of Refectory and Details 

of Piers and Columns. . 
xii, xni. Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown-Inscriptions. 

XIV. Plan of Excavations at Anthedon. . . . . . 96-104 

xv. Bronze Implements from Excavations at Anthedon by the 

American School . . 104-107 

XVT, XVH. House of the Martyrs John and Paul on the Crelian HiH. -^ 

xvi. Ground-plan of the house 

xvii. 1. Fagade of the house on the Clivus Scauri. . 

2. Roman Arches adjoining the Claudium. 
xvin. Oriental Antiquities, . . . .' . . 

1. Babylonian cylindrical Basrelief from Urumia, 

in Persia 

2-4. Babylonian Seal-cylinders representing the con- 
flict between Bel-Merodach and Tiamat. . 
xix, xx. Cistercian Monastery of San Martino al Cimino, near Vi- 


xix. Interior of the Church . 

xx. 1. Interior of the Chapter-house. 

2. Ground-plan of the Monastery and Church. 
xxi. Porch of the church of Sant' Erasmo, at Veroli. . . 

xxii. Vase of the Mykenai type in the Abbott Collection, New York 

(Historical Society) 437-444 

xxiii. Map of Plataia, showing the Excavations made by the Ameri- 
can School. ... . 445-475 








1-6. Monastery of Fossanova. Architectural details, .... 38-42 

7. Middle Temple of akropolis of Selinous, 49 

8. Southern Temple of Karnak, 50 

9. Reed-bundle Column, . . . . . . . . \ 

10. Doric Column, I 53 

11. Eeed-bundle Column at Gournah (Seti I), .... J 

12. Egyptian Cornice, \ ?* 

13. Entablature of Selinous Temple C, / 

14. High-relief of Zeus Heliopolites, 66 

15. Votive Belief of Zeus of Heliopolis, 67 

16. Harbor and Foundations at Anthedon, 98 

17. Poros ff^Kufia found at Anthedon, 100 

18. Ground-plans of Byzantine Churches discovered at Plataia, . . 449 

19. Section of Aqueduct discovered at Plataia, 450 

20. Plan of House at Kahun, Egypt, 517 

21. Columns and Shafts found at Kahun, Egypt, 518 

22. Plan of the remains of the Temples at Lokroi, .... 574 

23. Group from Sculptures of western gable of Ionic Temple at Lokroi, 576 








THE JOURNAL is the official organ of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTI- 
STUDIES AT ATHENS, and it will aim to further the interests for which 
the Institute and the School were founded. It treats of all branches of 
Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, Early Christian, Mediaeval, and 
American, and is intended to supply a record of the important work done 
in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories: 1. Original 
Articles ; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists ; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and 
investigations in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Sum- 
maries of the contents of the principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY is published quarterly, 
and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 pages royal 8vo, illus- 
trated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous figures. 
The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings or marks, post-paid. Vol. I, unbound or 
bound in cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be 
sent post-paid on receipt of $4 : Vol. II, containing 521 pages, 14 plates 
and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, unbound for $4.50 : Vol. Ill, containing 
531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures ; Vol. IV, 550 pages, 20 plates, and 
19 figures; and Vol. V, 534 pages, 13 plates, and 55 figures; bound for 
$5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, 
Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. : 
all business communications, to the Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 

The Journal can be obtained from the following firms, as well as from 
the publishers in Boston, New York, and Chicago : 

Baltimore, J. Murphy &.Co., 44 W. Baltimore St. 
Boston, W. B. Clarke & Co., 340 Washington St. 
Damrell & Upham, 283 Washington St. 

Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 117-121 Wabash Ave. 
Cincinnati, Robert Clarke & Co., 61-65 West 4th St. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 West 23d St. 
B. Westermann & Co., 838 Broadway. 
Philadelphia, Robert M. Lindsay, 1028 Walnut St. 


Berlin, Mayer & Miiller, Franzosische Strasse 38-39. 
London, Trubner & Co., 57-59 Ludgate Hill. 
Paris, E. Leroux, 28 rue Bonaparte. 
Turin, Ermanno Loescher, 19 via di Po. 
Florence, Loescher & Seeber, 20 via Tornabuoni. 
Rome, E. Loescher & Co., via del Corso. 


It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving 
a survey of the whole field of Archaeology, should be international in 
character, by affording to the leading archaeologists of all countries a 
common medium for the publication of the results of their labors. This 
object has been in great part attained, as is shown by the list of eminent 
foreign and American contributors to the five volumes already issued, 
and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only 
have important contributions to the advance of the science been made in 
the original articles, but the present condition of research has been brought 
before our readers in the departments of Correspondence, and reviews of 
the more important recent books. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) 
the Record of Discoveries, and (2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the 
former, a detailed account is given of all discoveries and excavations in 
every portion of the civilized world, from India to America, especial 
attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order to ensure thorough- 
ness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are consulted, 
and material is secured from special correspondents. 

In order that readers may know of everything important that appears 
in periodical literature, a considerable space is given to careful sum- 
maries of the papers contained in the principal periodicals that treat 
of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, all impor- 
tant work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 

Among the original articles will appear the following : 
Dr. WILLIAM HAYES WARD, of New York ; 

i. Hittite Sculptures. 

ii. Oriental Antiquities. 
Professor WILLIAM M. RAMSAY, of Aberdeen, Scotland ; 

Antiquities of Phrygia. 
SALOMON REINACH, of Museum of Saint-Germain, France ; 

Terracottas in American Collections. 
Professor ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton ; 

Reminiscences of Egypt in Doric Architecture. 
Professor ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of Strassburg ; 

Three heads of Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, of the Hellenistic period. 
Professor F. B. TARBELL, of Harvard University, and 
Dr. JOHN C. ROLFE, of Columbia College ; 

Excavations and Discoveries made by the American School of Athens 

at Anthedon and Thisbe, in Boiotia. 
Dr. GEORGE -B. HUSSEY, of Princeton; 

i. Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown-Inscriptions. 

ii. Distribution of Hellenic Temples. 
Professor MARQUAND and Dr. HUSSEY ; 

Norms in Greek Architecture. 
Padre GERMANO, of the order of Passionists ; 

The early Christian Palace recently discovered under the church of 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo, at Rome. 
EUGENE MUNTZ, of the Beaux- Arts, Paris; 

The Lost Mosaics of Rome from the IV to the IX century (n). 
Professor A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., of Princeton ; 

i. Cistercian Monuments as the earliest Gothic constructions in Italy. 

ii. Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. 

in. Christian Mosaics. 

iv. Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo. 
v. Early- Christian and Medmval Monuments in Italy. 


London Athenaum. We have no hesitation in saying that no other periodical 
in the English language is so well fitted to keep the student who lacks time or 
opportunity to read all the foreign journals abreast of the latest discoveries in every 
branch of archaeology. 

Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. No comprehensive account of the most recent 
discoveries exists, and the new American Journal can do most meritorious work and 
fill a deficiency which, since the time of Gerhard's death, has been often deplored by 
every archaeologist who had not the good fortune to be at the fountain-heads. 

Philologische Rundschau. We may expect that the American Journal of Archae- 
ology will take an honorable position by the sidfe of those already existing in Europe. 

Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des Chartes. As we think it (the American Journal 
of Archaeology) is called upon to render real service, not only in the United States, but 
in Europe and in France, we take pleasure in announcing it here. The plan is vast 
and well conceived. 

Archivio di Letteratura Biblica ed Orientals (Turin). Periodicals are divisi- 
ble into three categories : some have no pretensions to be classed as learned ; some 
pretend to be but are not so in reality ; others, finally, pretend to be and really are* 
The periodical which we announce ( The American Journal of Archceology) belongs to 
the last category. 

New York Evening Post. The American Journal of Archaeology will not dis- 
appoint the hopes of the friends of the science in America. If not well supported, 
it will be because there is little real interest in America in classical and mediaeval 

Chicago Evening Journal. The American Journal of Archaeology is alike credit- 
able to the country and to the earnest and scholarly gentlemen who have it in charge, 
and we are pleased to know that it has already achieved an enviable reputation in 

London Academy. Mr. J. 8. Cotton, at the annual meeting of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund (London, Dec. 22, 1887), referred to the American Journal of Archae- 
ology and the American Journal of Philology, which he defined as being of a higher 
order of merit than any publications bearing similar titles in Great Britain. 

GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston, New York, and Chicago. 


Vol. VI. MARCH-JUNE, 1890. Nos. 1-2. 



SANTA CROCE IN GERUSALEMME. The earliest among the texts 
relating to the mosaic of Santa Croce dates only from the xv century, 
though it is well known that the church itself existed as early as the 
IV century. This text is thus given by Panvinio from the inscription 
in the chapel of St. Helena : Valentinian. Ill Imp. filius Constantii 
Caesaris, Arcadii et Honor iilmpp. nepos ex sororePlaeidia,filia magni 
Theodosii Hispani, in solutionem voti sui ac matris Placidiae et Ho- 
noriae sororis, opere vermiculato earn (capellam) exornavit. Inde quasi 
M. C. annis evolutis, titulus verae crucis, ab Helena Romam delatus, 
qui supra arcum majorem istius JSasilicae in parva fenestra, plumbea 
theca, muro lateritio clausus tamdiu latuerat, musivis litteris tamen ab 
extra id referentibus, quod illuc titulus staret, quaejam litteraeprae vetus- 
tate vix legi poterant } anno Domini MCCCCXCII . . . cum Petrus 
Gundisalvus de Mendoza . . . tectum Basilicae istius et musivas illas lit- 
teras fenestrae reparare faeeret, fabris bitumen quo litterae figebantur 
indiscrete diruentibus, aperto fenestrae foramine, contra eorum et Car- 
dinalis bene placitum, gloriosus titulus verae crucis, post tot annos ab 
Helena visibilis apparuit. 1 

* Continued from Vol. II, p. 313. 

1 De septem urbis ecclesiis, p. 217. It is also given, with variants, by SCHRADERUS, 
Monumentorum Itcdiae . . . libri quatuor, 1592, fol. 128 verso ; by CIAMPINI, De Sacris 
Aedificiis, p. 120 ; and in extenso by DE CORRERIIS, De Sessorianis praecipuis passionis D. 
N. J, C., religuiis commentarius : Roma, 1830, p. 83. 


Does the presence of an inscription in mosaic on the arch of triumph 
prove that this arch was entirely decorated with mosaics ? This is a 
question which it would be rash to decide in the present state of our 
knowledge. The essential point, for the present, is to know that the 
chapel of St. Helena did possess and still possesses a painting of this 
kind : Ecclesia S.Orucis in Hier. in nonnullis locis cum pulcherrima ca- 
pella e musivo a reverendissimo Bernardino liyspano ti. car. instaurata est 
cum imagine praedicti viri doctissimi ae saerarum cerimoniarum (sic) 
erudiss. It is thus that Albertini 2 expresses himself at the com- 
mencement of the xvi century. About fifty years later, Pompeo 
Ugonio devotes a few lines, not less eulogistic, to the mosaics of the 
chapel of St. Helena : JZ questa cappella fatta a volta, ornata di figure 
a Musaico, stimate delle piti belle die siano in Roma, le quali, come si 
dice, vifecefare Valentiniano Imperatore gia piu di mitte et cento anni 
fa. Queste al tempo di Alessandro sesto,fece rinovare Bernardino Car- 
vajale Spagnolo, Titolare del Luogo. 3 

The scholars of the following centuries, from Severano 4 to Nibby, 5 
do but repeat these assertions. The latter mentions, beside the res- 
toration of Cardinal Carvajal, works executed by order of Cardinal 
Albert of Austria in 1577, and entrusted, in all probability, to the 
skilful Florentine mosaicist Francesco Zucchi. The end of the inscrip- 
tion cited above would tend to prove that Carvajal was careful to have 
the original compositions reproduced : Inde vero vetustate murorum, 
aut inhabitantium incuria, fornice sacelli istius Hierusalem ruinam 
minanti, et musivis figuris operis Valentiniani, praeter canticum Am- 
bromanum quod in fronte descriptum fuit omnino deletis, Rmus Dnus 
Bernadinus Lupi Carvajal . . . et fornieem ipsum, ac figuras musivas 
denuo ad instar priorum refecit. 6 Even if the general design has been 
retained, it must be confessed that the details have been singularly 
modified. We know, for example, that in the modern mosaic St. Helena 
is resting her hand on the shoulder of Cardinal Carvajal. 7 

SANTA MARIA IN TRASTEVERE. Benedict III (855-58) caused to 
be executed at Santa Maria in Trastevere a mosaic, the subject of 

Opusculum de mirabilibus urbis Romae veteris et novae: ed. of 1515, fol. 82. 
3 Historia delle Stationi di Roma : 1588, fol. 207 verso. 

* Memorie sacre delle sette chiese, t. I, p. 622: he places the execution of these mo- 
saics in 426. 5 Roma neW anno 1838, parte mod. ; t. I, p. 203. 

6 DE CORRERIIS, De Seswrianix reliquiis commentarius, p. 84. 

7 BARBET DE JOUY, Les Mosa'iques chretiennes, etc.: p. 131. 


which is unknown : this is shown by a passage in the Liber Pontifi- 
calis : In ecclesia beatae Dei G-enitricis, semperque Virginis Mariae 
Dominae nostrae, quae ponitur trans Tyberim absidam major em ipsius 
ecclesiae, quae in minis posita, noviter, atque a fundamentis faciens ad 
meliorem erexit statum. Fenestras verb vitreis coloribus ornavit, et pic- 
tura musivo decoravit* 

Muratori affirms that this work was executed in 856. He opposes 
very energetically the opinion of those who claim that the words vitrei 
colores mean " paintings on glass." 

SAN MARTI NO Al MONTI. The church of San Martino ai Monti 
(SS. Silvestro e Martino), which was constructed by St. Symmacus 
and restored by Hadrian I, was adorned under Sergius II (844-47) 
and Leo IV (847-55), the nave with paintings, and the tribune with 
mosaics on a gold ground : (Sergius II) sanctorum Silvestri et Martini 
ecclesiam, quae . . per olitana tempora defeeta vetustate marcuerat, ruin- 
isque confracta diu antiquitus lacerata manebat, in meliorem pulchrior- 
emque statum a fundamentis perfecit. Absidam quoque ipsius aureis 
musibo perfuso coloribus ingenti amore depinxit. 10 (Leo IV) beati Sil- 
vestri et Martini ecclesiam, quam domnus Sergius praedecessor ejus 
noviter ab imis aedificaverat multis quidem pulchrisque decoravit ac 
depinxit coloribus. 11 

In the time of Pompeo Ugonio these works still existed in part, but 
they very soon disappeared : Le pitture del corpo delta chiesa essendo 
durate Jin' a nostri tempi, non ha molto, sono state, parendo hormai 
troppo vecchie, imbiancate, et il musaico delta Tribuna per la lunghezza 
degli anni si e totalmente consumato . . . La Tribuna, che, come si e 
detto, fit, da Leone IIII di musaico lavorata, in luogo del quale moder- 
namente sopra ilfregio della inscrittione di esso Leone, visono state fatte 
pitture communi. 12 The mosaic inscription of the tribune was still 
legible and was given by the learned Roman (fol. 254 rec.), confirm- 
ing the assertion of the Liber Pontificalis : 




8 In vita Benedicti III, ed. Duchesne, t. n, p. 147. 

9 Antiquitates medii aevi : Milano, 1739, t. n, Dissert. 24. 

10 Liber Pontificalis, in vita Sergii II, ed. Vignoli, \ in, p. 55 ; ed. Duchesne, t. II, p. 93. 

11 Liber Pontificalis, in vita Leonis IV, ed. Vignoli, \ in, p. 132 ; ed. Duchesne, t. II, 
pp. 131, 139. 1S Hist, delle Stationi di Roma, fol. 253 ver. 255 rec. 




SAN PANCRAZIO. Baronius 13 and Bosio 14 relate that, in the old 
mosaic of the church of San Pancrazio, the following inscription was 
formerly to be read : it had already been copied in the Itinerary of 
Einsiedeln, but without any indication of the kind of work to which 
it belonged : 15 Ob insigne meritum et singulare B. Pancratii M. bene- 
faium, basilicam vetustate confectam, extra corpus martyris neglectu an- 
tiquitatis exstructam Honorius Episcopus Dei famulus, obruta vetustatis 
mole, ruinamque minante, a fundamentis noviter plebi Dei construxit, 
et corpus martyris, quod ex obliquo aulaejacebat, altari insignibus ornato 
metallis proprio loco collocavit. This inscription, according to the 
Itinerary, was in the apse of the church : it had doubtless disappeared 
long before the time of Baronius and Bosio, as the latter relates that 
he copied it, molti anni sono, in a collection of ancient inscriptions 
preserved in the Colonna Library. If this mosaic, even the subject of 
which we do not know, was in the tribune, it is rather strange that the 
above text was not put into metrical form, as this form was obligatory 
in apsidal compositions, and it would be difficult to find an exception 
to this rule during the entire Middle Ages. 

Padre Paolino di San Bartolommeo 16 tells us that the church still 
contained, in his day (1803), ancient frescos which seemed to date from 
the time of Honorius : Honorius ergofuit ille maximus instaurator, qui 
hanc aedificii molem, quam hodie videmus, . . . excitavit. Hoc luculenter 
apparet ex picturis veteribus, ecclesiae fulcris adhuc inhaerentibus, quae 
postea quam denuo fuissent firmata, et a Ludovico Card, de Torres 
restaurata, delapsa ex aliquibus calce, veteres illas picturas satis rudes 
ostentant, quas ad Honorii aevum jure referre possis. 

SS. SILVESTRO E MARTINO. In the subterranean church of SS. 
Silvestro e Martino (at present contained within the church of San 
Martino ai Monti) there is a mosaic representing the Virgin standing 
and a Pope kneeling by her side, which is attributed to the pontificate 
of St. Silvester. This mosaic, 80 centim. wide and about one metre 

13 Annales, sub anno 63S : cf. MAI, Veterum Scriptorum nova Oollectio, t. V, p. 146, note. 

14 Roma sotterranea: ed. 1632, p. 113. 

15 URLICHS, Codex urbis Romae topographicus : Wurtzburg, 1871, p. 63. 
16 De basilica S. Pancratii M. Christi disquisitio : Koma, 1803, p. 14. 


high, is completely ruined. The greater part of the enamel cubes have 
fallen from their sockets ; the background has no longer a definite 
color ; of the forms nothing but confused outlines remain. To com- 
plete the misfortune, this interesting relic is placed at the back of a 
niche closed by a dull glass, which protects it, not from the dampness, 
but from the light, and it is impossible to examine it closely. 17 

As early as the first half of the xvn century, in the time of Car- 
dinal Francesco Barberini, the state of the mosaic had already given 
rise to so much anxiety that the Cardinal, an enlightened lover of 
Christian antiquities, caused a copy of it to be executed, also in mosaic, 
which is now placed over the original ; but the execution was as faulty 
as the intention was praiseworthy. While respecting the external 
form of the model, the artist failed to give to his reproduction even 
a shadow of the character of or resemblance to the original. Still, 
we are obliged, in order to form an idea of the composition, attitudes, 
action, and costume, to consult this reproduction, executed with care 
if not with talent. We will supplement this with a contemporary 
description by the learned Filippini, General of the Carthusians. 18 
The Virgin is represented as a three-quarters figure, less than life-size, 
facing the spectator ; she wears a blue mantle with yellow fringe, 
which covers her head, and she has a gold nimbus with rays. With 
her right hand she blesses in the Latin form ; while her left hand rests 
on the shoulder of the Pope. On the right is an almost microscopic 
kneeling figure, robed in a yellowish mantle, and wearing a white tiara 
ornamented with a crown at its base. This is Pope Silvester, who 
turns toward the Virgin, raising his hands in adoration. The group 
has a gold background. 

In consequence of the age of the original 19 and the imperfection of 

17 1 am quite disposed to share the opinion of Filippini and the authors of the 
Beschreibung der Stadt Rom (t. in, part 2, p. 244), who consider this niche, made above 
the altar, to be primitive. In this case, the mosaic has neither been displaced nor 

18 Una effigie di Maria ch'era di mosaico, la quale, se ben in parte & disfatta, essendone 
state levate, come a bello studio, molte pietre del mosaico, non dimeno si discerne che stava in 
piedi, tenendo la mano destra in atto di benedire e la sinistra coperta. Appresso la spalla 
destra di San Silvestro, a lui vicino, inginocchioni co' I Regno Papale in capo e con le mani 
giunte, in atto d j orare (Ristretto di tutto quello che appartiene all' antichitd, e veneratione 
della chiesa de Santi Silvestro e Martino de* Monti di Roma: Eoma, 1639, p. 24). 

19 Imago B. Virginis pene erasa effluit tarn humidi loci intemperie quam aetate victa ( MONT- 
FATJCON, Diarium Italicum, 1702, p. 127). The same author speaks of musivi operis 
antiquissimi reliquiae hinc inde sparsae vetustate labuntur in dies (Ibid.). 


the copy, it would be rash to judge of the age of this mosaic by the 
characteristics of its style. All that can be affirmed is, that the figure 
of the kneeling Pope of such diminutive size and with his tiara, is a 
motive of the advanced Middle Ages rather than of the century of 
Constantine. Do the texts which relate to the history of the church 
furnish other data? The first among them, the Liber Pontificalis, 
tells us, in fact, that Pope Saint Silvester erected a church near the 
Baths of Domitian (or perhaps only changed a part of these baths 
into a church) : Hie (Silvester) fecit in urbe Roma Ecdesiam in 
praedium cujusdam Presbyteri sui, qui cognominabatur JEquitius, quern 
titulum Romanum constituit, juxta Thermas Domitianas, qui usque in 
hodiernum diem appellatur titulus Equitii . . . Ejusdem temporibus 
constituit Beatus Silvester in Urbe Roma titulum suum y in regione Illy 
juxta Thermas Domitianas, qui cognominantur Trajanas, titulum 8il- 
vestri. 20 This church, according to some of the Roman scholars, was 
dedicated to the Virgin. 21 It first bore the name of titulus Silvestri, 
which was afterward changed into that of 88. Silvester et Martinus. 
Then follows a complete silence with regard to it, and we hear of it 
no more until the xvn century. 22 At that time, in 1637, the subter- 
ranean building was brought to light, and Filippini published a very 
conscientious description of all its ornamentation, especially of its in- 
teresting paintings, now destroyed. Neither at this time nor since 
has it been possible to find a positive text in favor of the origin at- 
tributed to the mosaic. 23 The erection or the restoration by S. Sil- 
vester of the church bearing his name, is the only fact historically 
established. To this fact should be added, according to Filippini, a 

Lib. Pont., in vita S. Silvestri; ed. Duchesne, 1. 1, p. 170. 

21 Alcuni, conpia consideration, f anno giuditio che questa chiesafusse dedicata da San 
Silvestro alia gloriosa Regina del cielo, pigliandone argumento da una effigie di Maria 
(FILIPPINI, loc. dt). This seems like reasoning in a vicious circle. Viveva tra 
alcuni dei Religiosi del Carmine bastante notitia deW oratorio di San Silvestro, ma quanta 
al pubblico si poteva dir, che cosl di questo, come della chiesa da lui eretta, non restasse quasi 
piil memoria d'alcuna sorte, poiche, per lo spatio di tanti secoli giacevano occulii, come del 
tutto dimenticati, quando nel corrente anno 1637 ritornano in luce, e rimangono espostialla 
pubblica veneratione (FILIPPINI, p. 26). 

** NIBBY, Roma nell' anno 1838 ; pp. 543-44. 

23 FURIETTI is too positive when he says (De Musivis, p. 66) : Imperatori morem 
gerens D. Silvester Pontifex, in Domitianu Thermis, quas in Dei cultum sacraverat, Sal- 
vatoris Seataeque Virginia, nee non sui ipsius imagines de musivo pictas exhibuit, ut ex 
Philippine refert Cl. V. Boldettus. I do not know what this image of the Saviour can 
be, of which MARTIGNY, also, speaks in his Dictionnaire. 


very strong presumption based on a passage in the often-cited letter 
of Hadrian to Charlemagne. This passage is here given, though it 
appears to refer, in a general way, to the various churches built by 
S. Silvester, rather than to the sanctuary erected in the Baths of Do- 
mitian : S. Silvester et Constantinus Christianissimus imperator venerati 
sunt sacras imagines, et cum nomine Christianitatis palam coram om- 
nibus fideliter atque mirabiliter eas ostenderunt, et a tune usque haotenus 
sanctorum pontificum, videlicet Silvestri, Marci et Julii mirae magni- 
tudinis 24 sanctae eorum ecclesiae apud nos sunt depictae, tarn in musivo, 
quamque in ceteris historiis cum sacris imaginibus ornatis. 25 

Neither do the paintings of the subterranean church now almost 
completely effaced, but of which Filippini has left us a good descrip- 
tion help to decide the question. There are to be seen, among 
other figures, Christ between SS. Peter and Paul, Processus and Mar- 
tinianus, the Virgin between female saints (two different repre- 
sentations), then a lamb, palm trees, a colossal painted .cross (still 
intact), etc., etc. Even should we add to these sacred symbols the stag, 
which Filippini believes to have belonged to the pagan decoration of 
the edifice (wrongly, according to our view ; the stag being one of the 
favorite figures in Christian art), there still remains, for the date of 
the execution of these works, a period of several centuries, between 
which the historian would find it difficult to choose. Does it follow 
that the main feature of the mosaic, that is to say, the Virgin with- 
out the Pope, may not be ancient ? By no means. I have wished only 
to show what are the limits of the discussion, without, in the present 
state of the question, attributing the work either to the reign of Con- 
stantine or to the Middle Ages : this would be entering the domain 
of conjecture, which I desire to carefully avoid. 

S. SUSANNA " INTER DUAS LAUROS." Andrea Fulvio, in his An- 
tiquitatesurbis,the preface of which is dated in 1527, mentions briefly 
the mosaic of S. Susanna inter duos lauros or duos domos 26 A more 
detailed description of this work is given by Pompeo Ugonio, who 

24 The epithet mira magnitude surely cannot apply to this very small subterranean 
church. S5 LABBE, Saerosancta Concilia, t. vn. 

56 Templum S. Susannae inter duos lauros, aliter ad duos domos a Leone III conditum, 
ut in templi abside ex musivo apparet (fol. 33 verso). 

(Schedae) Aleandri in cod. Barberini 3011 in quo visuntur etiam S. Leonis et Caroli 
imp. imagines ex quodam musivo expressae. Vide el Bolland., t. II, Aug., p. 625. Bosius 
aliique habenl " marcuerat " quam Arringius, t. II, p. 101, omisit verba " dudum haec." 
SPON, Misc. 285 (MABINI, apud MAI, Veterum Scriptorum nova Collectio, t. v, p. 155). 


saw the work still entire. It will be interesting to quote the words 
of the learned Roman antiquary : Nella Tribuna vi sono d musaico 
dipinte nove imagini, le quali per havere in se qualche cosa degna di 
consideratione, riferirb ad una ad una, comeivisiveggono. Nel mezzo 
dunque di detta Tribuna, vi si vede V imagine di Christo nostro Salva- 
tore. Quelle che stanno a man destra sono la Madonna, etpoi S. Pietro, 
et poi Santa Susanna, et V ultimo Papa Leon Terzo, il quale rinovb 
questa chiesa, onde nella man destra tiene una chiesa, et in testa quel 
segno quadro che, come dicemmo nella chiesa di S. Cecilia, dinota che 
quel tale che il porta fusse ancora in vita. A man sinistra si vede S. 
Paolo, Valtro e S. Caio, 27 il terzo S. Gabino quello Zio, et questo Padre 
di S. Susanna. L y ultimo che armato quivi si vede, e Carlo Magno che 
rimesse Papa Leon III nella sedia, da alcuni seditiosi di Roma dis- 
cacciato. 28 Et debbe esserefacilmente questo musaico fatto in quel tempo 
che Carlo Magno era in Roma, dove Leone III lo incorond, et creb 
Imperatore, come piu chiaramente ne e fatto memoria in un' altrapittura 
che e in Later ano, nella sola Leoniana minor e, nella quale veggiamofin' 
hoggi dipinto a musaico Carlo cosi armato come e qul in Santa Susanna. 
Percioche quella sola ancora fu fatta da Leone III. Qui similmente si 
pud notare Vimagine di Carlo havere il segno quadro intorno alia testa, 
come di huomo che nel tempo nel quale questa opera sifece viveva. Le 
parole che nelfregio intorno, a pie delle dette imagini si leggono, et che 
fanno mentione della renovatione di questa chiesa fatta da Leone Terzo, 


CAVIT. 29 (Leo III) aedificavit ecclesiam cum absida de musivo, am- 
plissima et caticuminia mirifica atque camera decor ata, seu presbyterium 
et pavimentum marmoribus pulchris ornavit. 30 

This composition, therefore, is similar to those which we find in 
almost all apses after the fifth century : Christ, the saints, the donors. In 
the number of its figures as well as in the position given to the founders 

47 Pope Caius. This figure is reproduced in CIACCONIO'S Collection, Latin MSS., 
No. 5407, fol. 183, Vatican Library. 

* 8 Carolus dexteram extendit ad liberationem Leonis III Papae, quern a calumniis objectis 
tututus (tuitus ?) est. CIACCONIO'S Collection, loc. cit. 

"Historia delle Stazioni di Roma : Eoma, 1588, fol. 192 verso, 193 recto. Of. DE Kossi, 
Bullettino di Archeologia cristiana, 1884, p. 181. 

Liber Pontificalia, in vita Leonis III, ed.Vignoli, t. IT, p. 242 ; ed. Duchesne, t. n, p. 3. 


of the basilica, it is related to the mosaic of the oratory of San Venanzio, 
with this difference, that, in the latter, the half-figure of Christ floats 
in the clouds, while at Santa Susanna it is placed below in the midst 
of the other figures. Two drawings of Ciacconio's Collection (No. 5407, 
ff. 74, 96) have preserved the figures of Leo III and Charlemagne. 
Pope Leo, robed in a red tunic and a blue mantle, holds the church 
which he has rebuilt ; a pallium decorated with a red cross and shoes 
with a red trefoil complete his pontifical costume. His face is youth- 
ful ; behind his head is a rectangular nimbus in green, bordered on the 
left by a blue line. Charlemagne wears a very short blue tunic and 
a yellowish mantle, his blue nimbus is bordered on each side with 
white. The ground on which he stands is of a light green and shaped 
like a hillock. 31 In the drawing of folio 74, the Emperor is of much 
smaller size than the Pope, and appears to be placed in the second rank, 
but nothing indicates that this difference existed in the original com- 

A note in the same collection, after having substantially reproduced 
the description of Ugonio, informs us regarding the subsequent history 
of the mosaic : HOG autem opus dirutum fuit anno D. 1595 , inno- 
vante ciborium illustrissimo Card. Rusticucio Farnensi, vicario Papae, 
et egregie picturis et marmoribus variis ornante. Judging from 
another passage, the destruction was not complete, and several figures 
escaped the general ruin, temporarily at least : In opere vermiculato S. 
Susannae quod olim extabatj nunc proxime dirutum, visebantur inter 
alias imagines effigies Leonis III Papae ex unaparte etin altera Caroli 
Magni. 32 

des Beaux-Arts, 

31 Reproductions of Charlemagne and Leo III are given in ALEMANNI, De lat. 
parietinis, pi. i, p. 7 (ed. of 1756) ; CIAMPINI, Vet. Monim., t. n, p. 140. Charlemagne 
is here represented as smaller than Leo III, as in Ciacconio's drawing on folio 74 ; 
MONTPAUCON, Les Monuments de la monarchic francoise, 1. 1, pi. xxu, p. 276 ; SAN- 
TELLI, Oltraggiofatto a Leone III', Roma, 1815, pi. in, p. 15. 

32 According to ALEMANNI (De lateranensibus parietinis, p. 7), each figure was placed 
on a hillock : imagines singulae . . . singulis in collibus eminebant. 




The object of this series of papers 2 is to show that a group of monu- 
ments erected by the French Cistercian monks, and here for the first 
time fully described and illustrated, were the earliest structures in 
Italy in which the principles of transitional-Gothic architecture were 
carried out. In these works, as in no others in Italy, native archi- 

1 The following list of books referring to Cistercian monuments is given to facili- 
tate reference. 

LUBKE and VON QUAST in the Organ fur Christliche Kunst, 1853. ADAMY, Archi- 
tektonik, u, 2, pp. 363-91. M. DE MONTALEMBERT in Bulletin Monumental, vol. 
xvii, p. 130. ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, Etude sur I'Etat interieur des Abbayes Cis- 
terciennes et principalement de Clairvaux au XII* et au XI1& siecle: Paris, 1858. MAN- 
RIQUE, Ctsterciensium Annalium .... libri iv: Anison, 1642-59. JONGELINUS, 
Notitia Abbatiarum Ordinis Cisterciensis .... vn, 78 : Colonise Agrippinse, 1640. 
SCHNAASE, Geschichte der bildenden Kilnste im Mittelalter, v, passim. 

For FRANCE VIOLLET-LE-DUC, Diction, d' Architecture, I, n. L. ROSTAN, Etudes 
tfarch. comparee, Trois Abbayes de Vordre de Oiteaux, 1852. REVOIL, L J Architecture 
Romane du Midi de la France, 11, pp. 8, 9, etc. F. DE VERNEILH, L' Architecture Byzan- 
tine en France, p. 213. 

For GERMANY DOHME, Die Kirchen des Cister denser or dens in Deutschland ivahrend 
den Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1869 ; also his recent Geschwhte der deutschen Baukunst, pp. 
153-77 (Berlin, 1887) in the series of the Gesch d. deut. Kunst. WINTER, Die Ci*- 
tercienser des nordostlichen Deutschlands : Gotha, 1868-71. PAULTJS, Die Cisterdenser- 
Abtei Maulbronn, 1875. HEIDER, v. EITELBERGER und HIESER, Mittelalterliche 
Kunstdenkmale des oesterreichischen Kaiserstaates : Stuttgart, 1858. 

For SWITZERLAND RAHN, Die Mittelalterlichen Kirchen des Cistercienserordens in 
der Schweiz : Zurich, 1872. 

For ITALY MOTHES, Die Baukunst des Mittelalters in Italien, 1884 sqq. THODE, 
Franz von Assm und die Anfdnge der Kunst der Renaissance in Italien : Berlin, 1885. 
AGINCOURT, Histoire de VArt. Various monographs and other works whose titles 
are given in Note 8. 

For ENGLAND Monographs, especially those mentioned by SCHNAASE, op. eit., 
v, notes to pp. 175-6. 

* These papers are based upon three journeys made in 1881, 1887 and 1889, during 
which some forty monuments in Central Italy, either Cistercian or derived from 
Cistercian originals, were studied and photographed. 



tects were able to study the new style of the Ile-de-France, modified 
by Cistercian peculiarities but entirely or comparatively free from any 
Italian perversions. It will become evident, as these monuments are 
here published, that the churches and monasteries built by the Fran- 
ciscan and Dominican orders throughout Italy were not, as they have 
been commonly supposed to be, the earliest examples of the Gothic 
style in Italy; but that both these orders borrowed much from the 
earlier Cistercian buildings ; and that, furthermore, in doing so, they 
departed from the principles of Northern Gothic in various ways. A 
collateral to this is, of course, that it was not from Germany but from 
France that the most fruitful breath of Gothic influence came into 
Italy. The conclusion is that the Cistercian monuments are both ear- 
lier in date and purer in style. They have even a broader interest ; 
for, while they seem as advanced as contemporary work in France it- 
self, I believe that nowhere in the mother country can Cistercian mon- 
asteries of this date be found in as good preservation as those of Fos- 
sanova and Casamari with not only their churches and cloisters but 
their chapter-houses, refectories, hospitals, guest-houses, store-houses 
and other monastic buildings and dependencies, nearly all erected in 
the half-century that witnessed the transition from the Romanesque 
to the Gothic. It so fell out that this coincided with the period of 
greatest expansion of the order. To show how extensive and general 
was this Cistercian invasion of Italy, I append a genealogical tree of 
the monasteries founded in Italy, compiled from Janauschek, Origi- 
num Cisterciensium T. l. B In order to understand the architectural 
influence of the order, a further list should be added of Cistercian 
nunneries and of parish, collegiate, and monastic churches and even 
secular buildings, which followed the Cistercian style. 

This is not the occasion for a review of the recognized history and 
characteristics of the various schools of Italian Gothic. But it may 
be well to recall that the buildings mentioned in text-books as the 
earliest in which advanced transitional forms appear are : (1) S. Andrea 

3 1 cannot guarantee its perfect exactitude : a number of monasteries have doubt- 
less been omitted. I believe I could add a number to the list. For example, in 
the filiation of Fossanova, of which alone I have as yet made a careful study, I 
have added the monastery of Valvisciolo, founded in 1151, whose charter of founda- 
tion is in the possession of Mgr. Presutti in Rome, from whom I derived the infor- 
mation after having visited the monastery. In several cases, Janauschek places 
on the doubtful list institutions that were very probably in good monastic standing. 


atVercelli, founded in 1219, a work of Anglo-French transition by a 
foreign architect; (2) the upper church of S. Francesco at Assisi, fin- 
ished about 1253 by Fra Filippo da Campello ; (3) S. Francesco at 
Bologna, built between 1236 and 1245. Of these three churches, 
situated in such different parts of the country, that atVercelli was too 
near the French frontier to exercise much influence upon the develop- 
ment of Italian architecture ; the two other buildings are important, 
but not because of their age, for the Cistercian buildings which may 
have served as models for their architects had already been erected 
from thirty to fifty years. 

Neither is this the place for general considerations or conclusions, or 
for a comparative study of Cistercian monuments, which cannot be 
attempted until the architectural material has been brought forward. 
Still, a few introductory remarks may be deemed requisite to explain 
in general the position and condition of the subject. 

Although the Cistercian monuments in question have not been care- 
fully studied, enough has been known of some of them 4 to furnish 
ground for the general judgment (expressed by several writers, such 
as Thode and Ojetti 5 ), that Gothic architecture 'was introduced into 
Italy by the Cistercians, in contrast to the opinion of the majority of 
writers who favor Germany. This is but parallel to the judgment 
of Dohme for Germany, and of Kahn for Switzerland, founded on a 
broad study of the Cistercian monuments of their countries. Dohme 
remarks of the order that it is " the missionary of Gothic, i. e., of * 
French art on German soil." 6 But through lack of illustration and 
detailed scientific study, based upon a clear understanding of Gothic 
principles, the demonstration of this opinion has yet to be made. 

In support of such claims, the following facts should be remem- 
bered : (1) the Cistercian was the greatest of the monastic orders at 
the time when the passage was made from the Romanesque to the 
Gothic style ; (2) the order originated in France where this passage 
took place ; (3) it spread thence over the whole of Europe, carrying 

Fossanova, Casamari, Valvisciolo, Sta. Maria d'Arbona, Chiaravalle di Casta- 
gnola, Sta. Maria di Ferentino, are described or mentioned by MOTHES in his 
Saukunst des Mittdalters in Italien. Without illustrations or details, his text is also 
deficient in a perception of the distinctive interest and place of these Cistercian 

5 THODE, Franz von Assist, pp. 334, 339, 342-45, andpaswm. OJETTI, in La Mostra 
di Roma all' Esposizione di Torino, pp. 142 sqq. 
ie Kirchen des Cistereienserordens in Deutschland wdhrend des Mittelalters, p. 4. 


with it French ideas; (4) it developed a special and characteristic 
style of architecture and was the greatest building agency then exist- 
ing ; (5) it was not a congeries of independent institutions but a band 
of closely knit and interdependent monasteries, thus leading to unity 
in architecture as in life. This is sufficient to account for the fact 
that, although in France itself the importance of their share in the 
development of architecture may not be great, the Cistercian monks 
were nevertheless the principal agents for the propagation of the Gothic 
style in every other country of Europe. 

The order has long fallen, most of its monasteries are abandoned 
and in ruins, and no one has yet been found to construct a fitting 
memorial to the artistic worth of these monks of the twelfth century. 7 
Their monuments in France and England are still largely neglected ; 
Germany has been rescued from this reproach by Dohme (though in- 
adequately in the matter of illustration). As for Italy, it shall be my 
task to illustrate the monasteries of the central section of the penin- 
sula, which are of the greatest interest for the Gothic style, leaving 
those of the north and south for other students. The northern mon- 
asteries, under the influence of Chiaravalle and other early founda- 
tions, retained the Romanesque style ; those of the south were for 
the most part founded from Casamari and Fossanova, and therefore 
depend in their architecture upon these monasteries of the Roman 

I shall not begin by illustrating what is perhaps the earliest of the 
single transitional monuments, the church of Chiaravalle di Castag- 
nola near Jesi in the province of Ancona. The church alone remains ; 
all its ancient monastic buildings having been destroyed : besides, it 
never held an important place in the order. The best example would 
be a monastery of the same period whose historical importance and 
influence were great. There is, not far south of Rome, a monastery 
which retains more completely than any other in Italy its original 
style in all its various parts, and illustrates, in itself alone, the early 
Romanesque style and the development into Gothic through the vari- 
ous transitional stages. This is Fossanova, the eldest Italian child of 

7 An approach to such a memorial would doubtless have been the great work of 
the COUNT DE MONTALEMBERT, Les Moines de V Occident, had he lived to publish 
the volumes devoted to the Cistercian order. Many years were devoted by him to 
a study of the Cistercian monasteries over Europe, five hundred of which he visited. 


Clairvaux, 8 which was the main source of the colonies that filled Italy 
with the monastic reform. An examination of the genealogical tree 
given above shows that, of the Italian monasteries, eleven, mostly in 
Northern Italy, are derived from La FertS (1113), the first descendant 
of the head of the order, Citeaux (1098) ; three only originate from 
Pontigny (1114), and four from Morimond (1115) besides five di- 
rect from Citeaux or other sources. Thus, these three out of the four 
founders of the order (under Citeaux) had established but nineteen 
monasteries, while fifty-seven were founded from Clairvaux alone, 
when it had at its head St. Bernard, to whose influence the rise of Cis- 
tercianism in Italy is almost entirely due. 

From Clairvaux originated the four greatest monasteries in the 
peninsula Fossanova (1135), Casamari (1140) and SS. Vincenzo ed 
Anastasio (1140) in the States of the Church, and Chiaravalle (1135) 
in Lombardy. Of these the earliest, largest, and best preserved is 
Fossanova. 9 



The history of Fossanova by no means begins with the advent of the 
Cistercians : according to tradition, it dates back to the time of St. 
Benedict himself. Its church was then dedicated to S. Salvatore di 
Mileto, and it was inhabited by monks originally sent from Monte 
Cassino. It is recorded that among its monks was one who became, 

8 The following are some references to Fossanova, either historical or artistic: 
FERD. UGHELLUS, Italia, Sacra, 2nd ed. 1717-21, t. i. MANRIQUE, Cistertien- 
sium Annalium . . . libri iv; IX. 1. 7. JONGELINUS, Notitia Abbatiarum Ordinis 
Cisterciensis . . . : Colonise Agrippinse, 1640, vii, 78. MORONI, Dizionario di Eru- 
dizwne, etc., torn. 26, p. 18. TEODORO VALLE, Laregia e antica Piperno (Storia antica 
di Piperno) : Napoli, 1637-1746, n, t. 4. GIUSEPPE MAROCCO, Monumenti dello 
Stato Pontificio, etc. : Roma, 1833-37, xiv t. AMICO RICCI (Marchese), Storia deW 
Architettura in Italia, vol. II, p. 40: Modena, 1858. GIULIO PACCASASSI, Monografia 
del monumento nazionale di Fossanova presso Piperno : Fermo, 1882. Mostra della Cittd, 
di Roma all' Esposizione di Torino neWanno 1884, pp. 143-6. OSCAR MOTHES, Die 
Baukunst des Mittelalters in Italien : Jena, 1884, pp. 691-3. LEOPOLDUS JANAUSCHEK, 
Originum Cisterciensium Tomus I: Vindobonse, 1877. 

'Chiaravalle n6ar Milano was founded, according to the best authorities in the 
same year, and may dispute precedence with Fossanova : see JANAUSCHEK (op. tit., 
p. 39) for the date v or xi Cal. Aug. 1135, and for the different authorities for these 
and other dates. It is, however, built in the Romanesque style, and so are the 
great majority of monasteries founded from it, so that the entire group has no bear- 
ing upon the present question. 


in 827, Pope Gregory IV. Later, the monastery came under the 
patronage of the counts of Aquinum. 10 In course of time, a new 
church was built, and dedicated to Sta. Potentiana. This small and 
plain building is still standing among the later constructions, a soli- 
tary and mournful relic of those early days. Like other monasteries, 
it seems to have suffered from the decadence of the tenth and the wars 
of the eleventh century. An indication of returning power is given 
by an act of donation executed in 1028 by the Republican Government 
of the neighboring city of Piperno. It conveyed to the monastery a 
considerable tract of territory in this region, including two churches. 
Before St. Bernard made his triumphant journey through Italy in 
1137, Fossanova had been given to him by Innocent II. In October 
1135, it was formally united to the Cistercian order, being affiliated 
to Hautecombe in Savoy, which had been founded directly from Clair- 
vaux only a few months before. 11 It is suggested by Janauschek that, 
having been itself so recently established, Hautecombe would hardly 

10 These facts are given by PACCASASSI in his monograph on Fossanova mentioned 
in Note 8, and he refers to the works of VALLE (q.v.) and VALENTI-MAGNONI. 

11 The references to authorities mentioning these facts are given in full by JANAU- 
SCHEK, Orig. Cist., pp. 37-8. I will here quote him in full, with his references, usually 
confined to initial letters of authors, whose full titles it would be superfluous to give : 
FossA-NovA, FOSSA NUOVA ; olim Badia del For Appio. Hocmonasterium, in Loco Fori 
Appii ad Amasenumfluvium, in Campania et dioecesi Terracinensi situm atque tria milliaria 
Italica a Priverno distans, cujusnomen a FOSSA NOVA Uffenti aquas excipiente et in paludes 
ducente derivatur, peranliqua CASSINENSIUM sedesfuit, primum S. SALVATORI post S. Po- 
TENTIANAE nuncupata, quam a comitibus Aquinatibus exstructam esse et Greyorium IV P. 
M. olim in gremio suofovisse tradunt. Fama dein ordinis Cisterciensis in illas Italiaeplagas 
delata monachi quoque Fossae-Novae ejus severitatem tentarunt et ALTAE-CUMBAE (de linea 
Claraevallis) imperio se subdiderunt, id quod secundum tabulas et scriptores mense Oct. 
1135factum est (P. B. Bi. Pa [mense Sept.-]. W. V. Vi. Du. M. Bl. JO. J. JC. Bo. Ve. 
St. He. Na. F. Robertus, Miraeus, Oregorius de Laude, Lucentius, Lubin, Pirrus, Moroni, 
Camera; 1134: A. R. E. EM. SC. N. L. La. Si.; 1133: Morocco; c. 1140: Cibrario). 
Cui anno non obstanl quae Manriquius adferl, Altam-Cumbam, utpote panels mensibus 
ante Oct. 1135 ortam, novo coenobio colonos dare non potuisse, praesertim cum Statuto 
XXXVII capituli generalis a. 1134 coacti decretum sit, ut " nullus de abbatibus locum 
ad abbatiam fundandam accipiat, nisi prius sexaginta monachos professos habeat : " praeter- 
quam enim quod de numero incolarum Altae-Cumbae non constat, minime id agebatur, ut 
novum prorsus coenobium competenti monachorum coetu impleretur, sed ut Fossae-Novae 
fratres, quum Cisterciensium vivendi formam perspectam non haberent, AB UNO ALIQUOTVE 
Altae-Cumbae sodalibus accuratam legum et usuum ordinis nostri caperent cognitionem 
Illorum autem institutionem praeclaro effectu non caruisse, Fossae-Novae historia a GER- 
ARDO, primi abbatis Cisterciensis, temporibus loquitur, piis, doctis et ad summas ecclesiae 
dignitates provectis viris (quales tres cardinales CECCANI fuisse perhibentur) superbienlis, 
imo D. Thomae Aquinatis morte et sepulcro sanctificatae. 


have then contained the minimum of sixty monks required by the 
laws of the order before the foundation of another monastery could 
be undertaken. The inference is that the Italian Benedictine monks 
already at Fossanova remained and were placed under a French abbot 
named Gerard, who afterwards (in 1170) became abbot of Clairvaux 

The importance that Fossanova soon attained within the order is 
shown also by the fact that Godefroid, the favorite and secretary of 
St. Bernard, after being abbot of Clairvaux from 1-161 to 1165, was 
placed in charge of Fossanova. If the bulk of the monks were at 
first Italians, this appears not to have continued to be the case. The 
journeys of St. Bernard into Campania in 1137 and 1138 were a power- 
ful stimulus in the growth of the new institution, and the means of 
introducing colonies of French monks. The monastic buildings, how- 
ever, indicate that it was not until after the middle of the century that 
it was found necessary to replace the old Benedictine structures with 
new ones. During the disastrous conflicts of the years 1157 and 
11645, this region was thoroughly devastated, and beside the city of 
Piperno itself, burned in 1157, it is recorded that among other build j 
ings the church of Sta. Maria de Charitate near Piperno, which appears 
to have belonged to the monastery, was ruined by fire. 12 Fossanova, 
also, may have been partly destroyed and its rebuilding date from then. 

The old church of Sta. Potentiana was left in the midst of the 
new enclosure, probably as an oratory, and the new buildings arose 
in quite rapid succession during a space of well-nigh fifty years. 
From about 1150 to 1200 Fossanova grew until it merited, finally, 
to become the head of the order in Latium and Campania. All its 
colonies were then sent out : it founded the monastery of S. Stefano 
del Bosco in Calabria, in 1150; that of Valvisciolo near the neigh- 
boring Sermoneta, in 1151 ; that of Marmosoglio nearVelletri, in 1167; 
that of Corazzo in Calabria, in 1173 ; and, in 1179, that of Ferrara in 
the Terra di Lavoro, not far from Naples, the last and greatest of its 
children. To it belonged also S. Salvatore, Sta. Croce and S. Nicolo 
at Roccasecca, Sta, Maria della Ripa near Piperno, Sta. Cecilia and 
S. Bartolommeo at Sezze, SS. Pietro e Stefano at Sermoneta, and Sta. 

Chronicon Fonsaenovae, apud MURATORI, Scriptores Rerum Ital., t. vn. The author 
of the contemporary chronicle is Cardinal Giovanni da Ceccano. He belonged to 
the noble house of the Counts of Ceccano, three of whose members, monks at Fossa- 
nova during the xm century, became cardinals. 


Maria delle Canne at Sonnino all neighboring towns. In 1214, the 
monastery of S. Pietro di Tuezolo, near Amalfi, later a convent of the 
Capuchins, was made filia Fossae-Novae, and in 1 223 became a full 
monastery of the order, under its first abbot Nicolaus de S. Germano, 
from Fossanova. 13 It also owned, throughout this region, a great num- 
ber of granges, according to the custom of the large Cistercian estab- 
lishments : in them a part of the lay-brothers lived and attended to 
the interests of the monastery's large and varied property. It is re- 
ported that, at this time, over 800 monks resided in Fossanova and 
its granges. This must be an exaggeration, for in Clairvaux itself 
there were but 700 monks at the time of its greatest prosperity, in 
1154, the date of St. Bernard's death. There is better ground for the 
other statement, that when the abbot of the sister monastery of Casa- 
mari requested the presence of a large number of monks from Fossa- 
nova, on the occasion of a ceremony, excuses were made because, on 
account of sickness, only three hundred monks could be sent. 14 

The abbots of Fossanova wielded considerable influence not only in 
ecclesiastical but often also in State aifairs, and it became the custom 
for the popes of this time to make use of Cistercian abbots in diplo- 
matic matters. Thus, Abbot Jordanus was made a cardinal in 1188 
and sent on a political mission to Germany. Jongelin (op. cit., 1. vn, 
p. 79 sqq) gives a list of thirty abbots and other famous members of 
this monastery cardinals and other prelates. 

In 1179, when Frederick Barbarossa did penance for his long and 
bloody opposition to the papacy, during which so many monasteries 
had been burned and plundered, he made Fossanova the especial 
object of his bounty, endowing it with munificent gifts which came 
opportunely to aid in the reconstruction of its buildings ; and on his 
death-bed he expressed the wish to be buried in the Cistercian habit. 
The emperor is regarded as a great benefactor of the monastery. As 
a proof of the importance of the favors received from Barbarossa, 
Valenti-Magnoni reports the following inscription as existing in 
the mosaic-work over the church door : 

a * There is a dispute among authorities as to whether this monastery was placed 
in 1223 under the direction of Fossanova or of Chiaravalle : JANAUSCHEK, op. cit., 
p. 225. 

U PACCASASSI (op. cit.} makes these statements without bringing forward any 
arguments in their support. 






In 1187, the monastery had become so prosperous that Abbot Jor- 
danus was able to purchase, from Lanterius, Frederick's administrator 
in Campania, the castles or burghs of Lariano and Castro, in order to 
hand them over to Clement III. 16 The crowning event in this the 
formative period of the monastery's history was the visit of Pope Inno- 
cent III on June 19-20, 1208. This took place during the pope's 
triumphal journey through Campania, including Anagni, Ceccano, Pi- 
perno, Fossanova, San Lorenzo, Casamari, Sora, etc. The Chronicon 
Fossaenovae (ap. Muratori) tells us : Ad aurampost meridiem Dominus 
Papa cum omnibus ivit ad monasterium Fossaenovaej solemniter cum 
processione receptus, in refectorio cum conventu coenavit. Ferid quarta 
clarente die Dominus Papa dedicavit altar e majus jEcclesiae novae prae- 
dicti monasterii. 17 

The dedication of the church in 1208 does not imply that it had 
not been finished for some time : it was a mere incident in the trip, 
apparently unlike the ceremony by which the twin-church of Casamari 
was dedicated in 1217, when Pope Honorius seems to have made this 
the main reason for coming from Rome with his entire court. 

I shall not attempt to follow the history of Fossanova any further. 
Like all Cistercian establishments, it suffered from the rise of the Fran- 
ciscan and Dominican orders in the xm century, although its decad- 
ence did not set in until later, especially in consequence of the pesti- 
lence of 1 348 . Then it had, in the following century, its commandatory 
abbots. Among them was Peter, Cardinal Aldobrandini, nephew of 
Clement VIII, who restored the abbey between 1595 and 1600. Its 
reputation continued to the end. In a bull dated 1725, Benedict XIII 
accorded to Fossanova the first honors after Monte Cassino. In 1795, 
Pius VI decided to transfer the monastery to the reformed Cistercians, 
the Trappists of Casamari. The revival that ensued was short, for it 
was among the monasteries closed by order of Napoleon I. Its prop- 

15 This inscription no longer exists : it must have been in that part of the mosaic- 
work in the tympanum of the main portal whose cubes have now entirely disap- 
peared, having been originally enclosed in an oblong marble band. 

16 MoTHES, Die Baukunst des Mittdalters in Italien, p. 691. 

17 For the source of this quotation see Note 12. The armed escort that accompa- 
nied the Pope was commanded by the then Count of Ceccano. 


erty was confiscated, and it was completely deserted in 1812. Between 
that date and its final suppression it was colonized twice from the 
Certosa of Trisulti. 


The site in the heart of theVolscian hills, the Monti Lepini, is one 
that suited Cistercian ideas. In ancient times the consular road from 
Rome to Naples passed near by, and on the same site Appius Claudius 
is said to have built the Forum Appii. The region was then healthier ; 
but, in the Middle Ages, the uncovering of the low lands by the re- 
treating sea formed the Pontine marshes on the other side of the hills. 
The monastery is built in low and marshy land on the banks of the 
river Amasenus, which flows southward and soon reaches the marshes 
in the neighborhood of Terracina. The consequent unhealthiness is 
a characteristic rather sought than avoided by the Cistercians, who 
brought under culture in every country of Europe immense tracts of land 
hitherto unused or sterile. All around were stretches of bad land and 
forests in need of reclamation at the hands of these industrious monks. 
Southward stretches the narrow marshy plain bordered by hills that 
obstruct the view of the dismal Pontine marshes ; to the north and 
east the rugged hills rise and fall until they reach the long plain bor- 
dered on the opposite side by the Sabine hills, forming the highway 
to the kingdom of Naples. Four or five miles to the right is Piperno 
half hidden among thick olive groves ; and further, on the left, rises 
Sonnino on its nearly inaccessible peak. Thirty miles to the west is 
Sezze, the ancient Setia, rising above the marshes on the border of the 
hills. The digging of the canal or fossa to carry off toward the sea 
the water that accumulated in these low lands, probably gave to the 
site its name of Fossa-nova. 

days of June 1889 that I visited Fossanova, though familiar with its 
buildings from photographs which had been taken there by my order in 
1887. The monastic buildings (PL. vin-1) were once encircled by a 
high wall, but are now well-nigh entirely exposed to view. By its side 
flowed the river whose water was so necessary for running the mills 
attached to the monastery and for many other purposes. Approach- 
ing from the west, the main entrance -is reached ; a lofty structure that 
originally resembled, on a reduced scale, the fortified gateways of medi- 
aeval cities. It contained several rooms, in which formerly dwelt the 


door-keeper orportarius and his assistant. Its outer arch is pointed, 
that facing the interior is round : they retain most of their original 
features. Passing through its massive archway a broad expanse is 
reached. On the right is a long, modernized building which may 
have originally been a granary and storehouse or a workshop. On 
the left, at right angles with the gate and quite near it, are two build- 
ings which have partly preserved their architecture of the close of the 
twelfth century. This is especially so with the further of the two, 
whose walls of travertine with well-built windows and arcades gave 
promise of further interest within. Ten round arcades, now blind, 
were originally open and formed a porch with cross-vaults. The 
second story is still preserved, and rises in retreat from the porch : 
an old doorway led out on to the balcony over this porch. This build- 
ing, as well as the other, was in the possession of the local land-owner, 
whose steward was then absent so that it was not possible to study the 
interior. I believe this to be a guest-house or hospitium (or foresteria), 
where strangers were entertained. The other building may have con- 
tained the abbot's residence and an oratory, such as it was the general cus- 
tom to place near the entrance to large monasteries of the order. When 
guests arrived they were met by the abbot, who knelt before them and 
then led them to the oratory for prayer before conducting them to the 
guest-house. In the twin monastery of Casamari, the connection be- 
tween the gateway and the hospice was even closer, for there, perhaps 
through lack of space, they are united in one large two-storied con- 
struction. With the exception of these out-buildings, as well as the 
hospital and the old church of Sta. Potentiana, which are still private 
property, the monastery is declared by the Government a monument 
of national importance and placed in the charge of an official guardian. 
EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 18 The above unimportant structures 

18 The monastic buildings of Fossanova are said to be first described by F. PAOLO 
SPERANDIO, SabinaSagra e Profana: this description I have not read. A few lines 
are devoted to it in RICCI, Storia dell' Architettura in Italia. The two best descriptions 
are quite recent: that by PACCASASSI, often referred to. is useful on account of its 
historic data and some measurements: that by MOTHES in his Baukunst, pp. 691-3,. 
is more scientific ; but he identifies Fossanova with Sta. Maria de Charitate, which 
was burned in 1164, and says (p. 682) : Das Kloster war nicht ganz vernichtet; der 
sehr bald begonnene Ergdnzungsbau war bereits ziemlich weit forgeschritten, als 1173 der 
erwdhnte neue Oraben angdegt ward, nach dem das Kloster fortan Fossa nuova hiess* 
But, up to the time it received the name of Fossanova, the monastery appears to 
have been called S. Salvator de Mileto or in loco gui Meletum nominatur, as is shown 


hardly detain the eye, for directly in front rises the body of the mon- 
astery, its left end formed by a church, perfectly well-balanced and 
symmetrical in its proportions, simple and yet rich in its details 
(PLATE i), showing at every point both a mastery of constructive laws 
and a skill in effective details made subordinate to the general plan ; a 
church not Italian but French both in conception and in execution. 
Like all the other buildings in this group, it is constructed through- 
out of carefully-quarried and well-joined blocks of fine travertine 
stone, the favorite material of the Cistercian builders in this region. 
They everywhere used the local stone, and only when forced to do so, 
apparently, did they make use of brick, either wholly as at Chiara- 
valle di Castagnola, or in part, as at S. Galgano near Siena. 

by the donation of the year 1028 ( VALLE, St. di Pip.). Further on (p. 691), MOTHES 
returns to Fossanova : 1187 war Fossanuova bereits ziemlich vollendet, sehr mdchtig und 
reich, so doss Abt Jordanus in diesem Jahre dem Bailiff Lanterius aus Mailand, der fur 
Friedrich I Campanien verwaltete, die Rocca von Lariano und Castro abkaufen und dem 
Papst Clemens III ubergeben konnte. Jordan wurde Cardinal, ging 1188 als Legat nach 
Deutschland, kam 1189 zuriick und vollendete trotz aller Kampfe, Plilnderungen, Brand- 
schatzungen, etc., mit welchen Campanien in den Kampfen Heinrichs gegen Tancred heim- 
gesucht wurde seine Kirche Sanctce Marios Fluminis de Ceccano, so dass sie am 25/8, 1196 
feierlich consecrirt werden konnte. 

Here, again, Mothes makes a grave error : he identifies the church of Sta. Maria 
near Ceccano with that of Fossanova, and applies to the latter the long description 
of the consecration of the former in 1196 which is given in the Chronicon Fossaenovae ! 
But Sta. Maria near Ceccano, not on the river Amasenus but the larger Trerus or To- 
lerus and many miles distant from Fossanova, is still in existence. I visited and 
photographed it during the past summer, and shall publish it in this series. Conse- 
quently, Mothes has no foundation for dating the finishing of the church of Fossa- 
nova in 1196. 

MOTHES continues : Einzelne Theile der Kirche und des Klosters waren auch nach 
der Brandschatzung von 1164 brauchbar, so besonders der Untertheil des Ostgiebels mit 
3 runden Blendbb'gen zu ebner Erde und einem breiten JRundbogenfenster daruber, in 
welches beim Umbau ein ziemlich ungeschicktes Radfenster eingesetzt ward. Auf Tafel III 
ist nur die Sudecke dieses Ostgiebels rechts am Rand sichtbar, darunter aber ein altes Stuck 
vom Kreuzgang, von dem auch der ganze Westliche Fliigel (Taf. Illim Hintergrund) stehen 
blieb. Wdhrend diese dltren Theile in Ziegel ausgefuhrt sind, wurde alles Neue in Quadern 

The first point here made is that the fire of 1164 (which burned Sta. Maria de 
Charitate !) spared the lower part of the square apse with its four arcades as well as a 
part of the old cloister. These are said to be built of brick. I do not think that 
brick is used in the cloister : I am sure it is not in the apse. In my opinion, the 
apse was built all of a piece : the argument that the rose-window was opened later 
in the old round-headed window of the apse is groundless, for in early French tran- 
sition it was the rule to open them in this way. The only architectural plate given 
by Mothes (Tafel in) is a highly-colored view of the open cloister with one side of 


The church is cruciform in plan; over the intersection rises an 
octagonal dome-tower, otherwise its external construction is the exact 
counterpart of its internal forms. The central nave has twice the 
height and more than twice the width of the side-aisles, and it over- 
shadows them even more completely than in the average French 
church of the period. This is owing to the absence here of the two 
towers that rise on the fa9ade above the side-aisles in French transi- 
tional and Gothic buildings. The Cistercians were forbidden by the 

the church on the rt. and the arcades of the new cloister on the It. It contains a 
fatal error which is paralleled in the text. The relation of the church to the clois- 
ture is entirely wrong, and the south arm, instead of continuing along the side of 
the church, is broken where the transept is supposed to begin, and in the latter a 
developed Gothic door and window are interpolated. In reality, the entire four 
sides of the cloister remain substantially from the early period : only the vaults and 
columns on the north side were replaced. 

In speaking of the octagonal lantern on the central tower and the similar pointed 
covering of the pavilion in the cloister, MOTHES sees here a Norman influence : Em 
Vergleich mil den Thiirmen von Trani, dem Grab des Bohemund, einigen Tabernakeln 
jener Zdi und Gegend geniigt zum Beweis, doss hier normannischer Einfluss wirkte, welcher 
Beweis noch dadurch verstarkt wird, dass in der Normandie und in England einzelne An- 
wendungen desselben Princips vorkommen, wahrend in Siidfrankreich, dessen Einfluss auf 
Italienja so oft betont wird, mir kein Beispd bekannt ist. 

This Norman influence is seen by him with greater probability in the shafts and 
arches of the new part of the cloister : Auch die gestelzten Spitzbb'gen des Kreuzganges 
erinnern in ihrer Profilirung, noch mehr aber die sie tragenden Sdulchen durch ihre ver- 
schieden verzierten Schafte an Monreale, etc. 

The remainder of Mothes' text will be quoted in notes on the chapter-house, por- 
tal, fajade, ete. I shall notice only one further judgment of his. He sees " Lombard 
influence" in various details, such as the foliage from which the ribs spring in 
the chapter-house : he thinks its transverse arches also are " purely Romanesque : " 
he considers the profiles of the main portal to be " German Gothic : " the rose- 
window is " mixed Norman and Lombard." All this is according to the German 
method of fancying the most intricate and impossible situation. The architects of 
the transition were not, as our American architects often do at present, culling what 
they wanted from all the various styles then known. We may be thankful that 
they had some unity of style. Let me dispose of these points seriatim. (1) In gen- 
eral, all the forms and details to which he assigns these four separate origins are to 
be found in French monuments of the xn and xm centuries. (2) The so-called 
"Lombard" foliage in the chapter-house is found in early French especially 
Norman Gothic, and in many Cistercian churches, for example, in Germany. 
(3) The so-called "Romanesque" transverse arches are characteristic of French 
transitional buildings : Mr. Mothes will also find them imported into Germany in 
such typical transitional buildings as Limburg (1213-50) and Gelnhausen (parish 
church, c. 1220-50). (4) The claim that the profiles of the main portal are " Ger- 
man Gothic" is extremely amusing. It was probably suggested by Abbot Jordanus' 
visit to Germany in 1188. No German building in existence before 1250, to my 


statutes of the order to erect any towers save a low one over the inter- 
section. 19 

The facade at Fossanova, therefore, is simple and follows the lines 
of the roofs and side-walls. In its upper story, limited by the lines of 
the gabled roof with its decoration of dentils and a cornice-strip below, 
is an eight-sided oculus or ceuil-de-bceuf, which admits air and light 
into the space between the vaults and the rafters of the roof. In the 
upper part of the central section we notice the presence of a small 
crown-like aperture, which, according to Paccasassi's ingenious con- 
jecture, is a memorial of the munificence of the Emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa. But almost the entire space is occupied by a large wheel- 
window 20 of effective and symmetrical design, partly let into the fayade, 
partly standing out from it, while around it is a false arch whose mould- 
ings partly appear on the inner side of the fa9ade. The interest of 
this feature is the greater, independent of its intrinsic symmetry and 
beauty, from the fact that it appears to be anterior to the year 1208 or 

knowledge, has any similar system of profiles. Germany was the last country in 
northern or central Europe to adopt Gothic mouldings. Those of Fossanova can be 
paralleled in contemporary French or English buildings. (5) Finally, as to the rose- 
window, the Normans appear not to have employed it at all; so, only Lombard influ- 
ence is a possibility. 

There is a natural tendency, shown in many passages of Mothes, to manufacture 
a German influence over Italian transitional or Gothic buildings. The Italians 
were slow in adopting Gothic forms, it is true ; but, such as they were, they were 
quicker about it than the Germans, whose transitional period lasted until the latter 
half of the xm century. It is therefore very evident that, when Mothes speaks of 
German influence over an Italian transitional building of between 1170 and 1225 
or a Gothic church of between 1225 and 1260 or 1270, he does not adduce examples 
and proofs because he cannot. Supposing a form or detail in an Italian-Cistercian 
building to be found at the same time in a German-Cistercian edifice, for example at 
Maulbronn, it would be absurd to say it was of German origin, because both are French. 

In fine, Mothes adduces no facts to contradict the position, that the architecture of 
Fossanova is not purely French, with the possible exception of the late arm of the 

19 It is possible that the dome-tower over the intersection was built or rebuilt later 
than the body of the church. It is well known that according to the Cistercian 
laws, afterward relaxed, only wooden towers were at first allowed. When the tower 
was constructed, substantially as it was before the earthquake, the ribs may have 
been made in the vault that supported it. 

20 A distinction should be made between a wheel-window formed on the principle of 
spokes radiating from a centre, and a rose-window made up of circles and short arches 
imitating the outlines of the leaves of a widely expanded rose. The terms are usually 
employed indiscriminatingly. 


may belong even to the closing years of the xn century, and conse- 
quently antedates nearly all of the known rose-windows of similar 
style. In fact, I have yet to find one of so pure a Gothic style as 
early as this, even in the Ile-de-France. If it were possible to give 
here a comparative table of drawings of wheel- and rose-windows of 
the close of the xu and beginning of the xm century, two results 
would be plain : (1) the gradual development between 1150 and 1200, 
by the Cistercians, of the wheel-window as the main feature of the 
fa9ade ; and (2) the analogies between such developed Cistercian win- 
dows as this of Fossanova and those of the early Gothic cathedrals. 

The simpler Cistercian form of wheel out of which this grew is 
exemplified near by at the monastery of Valvisciolo founded from 
Fossanova in 1151. 21 This plain heavy church, with its simple square 
piers and low unribbed cross-vaults, bears upon its face the date of 
its construction, between 1151 and about 1170; so does the plain 
facade with a single round-headed doorway. One would be inclined 
to ascribe to a later date the fine wheel-window, were it not that it is 
so evidently far earlier in its forms than that of Fossanova. It has 
twelve instead of twenty-four spokes or radiating colonnettes, and the 
round arches they support do not, so much as at Fossanova, lose their 
circular shape in the point formed at their intersection : the entire 
work is heavier in its proportions and less delicate in the execution 
of details. An almost exact copy of the window at Valvisciolo is seen 
in another monastic church of this region, Sta. Maria de Flumine near 
Ceccano, which was dedicated in 1196, being then already finished. 
Other Cistercian examples may be found at Casamari (1151-1217), 
San Galgano near Siena (1201-48), Sta. Maria at Ferentino (1225- 
50), and Monte P Abate near Perugia (about 1200-25), which will 
be illustrated in succeeding papers. The most interesting, because its 
early date confirms the age of that of Valvisciolo, is in the fayade of 
the Cistercian church of Chiaravalle di Castagnola near Ancona. Its 
date, according to two inscriptions, is between 1172 and 1196, and its 
wheel-window is in every detail the counterpart of that of Valvisciolo. 

The wheel of Fossanova has a diameter of 5.50 met., and is formed 
of a hub comprising twelve arches of irregularly circular shape, which 
sustain the thrust of twenty-four slender colonnettes that radiate toward 

21 The buildings of Valvisciolo church, cloister, chapter-house, refectory, etc. 
will be illustrated in another article ; and a description of Sta. Maria at Ceccano 
will be added. 


the circumference, and, on reaching it, every other one is joined together 
by moulded round arches so intersecting one another as to produce the 
effect of a series of pointed arches, and this effect is increased by the use 
of independent frankly-pointed sub-arches joining each shaft. These 
colonnettes have no bases, and their capitals are delicately foliated after 
the style of the advanced transition. An irregular tooth-ornament 
decorates the moulding that immediately encloses the arches. The 
outer mouldings of the circle are sharp, bold, and projecting, and in 
their grouping and outline are similar to those of the portal below. 

A comparison with transitional and early-Gothic windows in France 
is interesting. The circular form was not used at all until late in the 
transitional period, and then only in the Ile-de-France and a few build- 
ings of Champagne. As soon as it there comes into use it develops 
in two general types. (1) The first is formed of a series of circles and 
low arcades on the principle of the rose : early examples are found in 
the cathedrals of Nantes (c. 1180-95), Laon (c. 1191-1210), and Char- 
tres (c. 1220-30). (2) The second is in the shape of a wheel with lines 
radiating from a centre. In the latter class, with which we are con- 
cerned, the form appears in embryo in such small and secondary roses 
as that of the west front of Senlis (end of xn) and then becomes fully 
developed in the great window of the main front of Notre Dame in 
Paris (1220-30) and, later, in those of the cathedrals of Reims (after 
1245) and Amiens (c. 1238). These, and others like them, are but 
the logical development of the type of Fossanova. In fact, at Notre 
Dame, which has the simplest of the group just enumerated, there can 
hardly be said to be any advance on Fossanova : perhaps there is even 
a loss of harmony in the proportions, through the enlarging of the 
hub. The main change is the use of trefoil arches. Here, also, there 
are, as at Fossanova, twelve inner and twenty-four outer arches, but 
the intersection is entirely instead of partially obliterated : the encir- 
cling mouldings do not project, as the window is entirely set into the 
front wall. It is surrounded by a projecting round arch resting on 
engaged colonnettes, in a way to show how closely the two forms were 
connected by architects of the transition. A simpler form of the same 
arch is found at Fossanova around the rose-window of the apse, and 
inside that of the fa9ade. 

It is possible that a careful study of this important feature of Gothic 
architecture would show that it was adopted from transitional Cister- 
cian churches into the general scheme of Gothic architecture. In this 


case, I believe its origin may be traced further, and that the Cister- 
cians may have borrowed it from Lombard architecture. The Cister- 
cian churches in France built at the close of the xn century, such as 
those of the monasteries of Senanque, Thoronet and Silvacane, do not 
seem to have made use of the wheel-window. On the other hand, 
there are strong arguments in favor of the idea that, in Italy itself, 
the simple oculus of the Latin basilica was developed into the wheel- 
window, being at the same time associated with the idea of the wheel 
of fortune (S. Zenone at Verona), a symbol of human life. Examples 
during the xi and xn centuries are not uncommon in Italy. Large 
and elaborate wheels are in the faades of S. Zenone at Verona, S. Rufino 
at Assisi, Sta. Maria Maggiore and S. Pietro at Toscanella, S. Ciriaco 
at Ancona, and the cathedral of Modena. A comparison of these 
with the earliest French examples (none of which are earlier than 
1175) leaves no doubt as to the priority of date of the Italian monu- 
ments. In this connection, it is interesting to notice the close resem- 
blance between the wheel- window of Fossanova and that of the cathe- 
dral of Modena (c. 1150-80), whose twenty-four colonnettes, however, 
rest squarely upon a strong inner circle. 22 

The lower part of the facade of Fossanova is divided into three sec- 
tions by the two pier-buttresses that rise as far as the gable roof. Two 
small round-headed windows are placed, one on either side, above the 
main portal. As in the generality of Cistercian churches, according 
to the rule of the order, there is but one doorway (PLATE n), whose 
numerous mouldings are in part recessed in part projected beyond the 
main wall. The pointed arch is surmounted by a gable of proportions 
similar to that of the roof above, with a like decoration of dentils. 
Enclosing the gable are wall-ribs forming a pointed lunette : similar 
lunettes are formed on the faces of the side-aisles, and the condition 
of the construction around and between them shows that a porch was 
here projected, or executed and at some time destroyed. We still see 
the first stones of the pear-shaped diagonal ribs of its vaults, similar, 
on a reduced scale, to those in the chapter-house, and the spring of the 

32 1 am not aware of any treatment of the origin, development, and various kinds 
of wheel- and rose-windows. VIOLLET-LE-DUC has an interesting article in his Die- 
tiannaire raitonne, vol. vm, p. 39, sgq., but he confines himself strictly to France. The 
subject seems one of real interest. In England the form was not used ; neither was 
t in the greater part of France or Germany. The suggestion of an Italian, and 
nore especially Lombard, origin for the circular window with tracery is merely ten- 
tative, as I have not as yet sufficient material to prove it satisfactorily 


plain but heavy double transverse arches that separated the three vaults, 
similar to those in the interior of the church. From the torn and rag- 
ged state of the masonry, and the fragments of the vaults buried in the 
fa9ade, there seems hardly any doubt that the porch was not merely 
projected but actually constructed, and, from the shape of its ribs, was 
evidently the latest portion of the church. Such a porch we find at the 
neighboring and almost contemporary Cistercian monastery of Casa- 
mari, and from it we can judge the porch of Fossanova to have been 
open and formed of three arches, two narrow pointed openings corres- 
ponding to the aisles, and a wide central opening which, at Casamari, 
is circular. 

The doorway is almost as important in its way as the wheel-win- 
dow, and deserves careful study. Its inner diameter is 2.60 met. ; its 
outer diameter about 6 met. The pointed arch is extremely low, and 
even less removed from the circular form than such earlier doorways 
as those at Chartres (c. 1140). The uprights are simple and have no 
Gothic features in the three recesses, each containing a slender shaft. 
The interest lies in the elaborate mouldings they support, whose pro- 
files can be studied in the phototype in PLATE 11. In the doorways 
of early-French cathedrals sculptured figures were so largely used to 
replace mouldings that it is not easy to find examples similar to this, 
and perhaps closer resemblances may be traced in early-English work. 
The mouldings are divided into four groups : their delicacy is such as 
often to require the most careful examination. Their profiles are in the 
pure Gothic style, and it is surprising to find it at so early a date as 
before 1208, and especially in Italy. Beside the corresponding por- 
tal at Casamari, which is even slightly richer, the only other Italian 
portals that seem to equal this in excellence are the two well-known 
ones in the upper and lower churches of S. Francesco at Assisi, exe- 
cuted nearly a half-century later. 

Supported on two consols is the lintel of the doorway, every inch of 
which is covered with a pattern inlaid in mosaic cubes, the design of 
interpenetrating circles being borrowed from the church pavements so 
general at this time, especially in the Eoman and southern provinces. 
In the middle was an oblong space, once full of mosaic cubes. It 
probably contained the inscription of the Emperor Frederick I already 
mentioned. Above the lintel the tympanum is filled with a semi- 
wheel with eight radiating colonnettes supporting intersecting arches 
like those of the great wheel-window above. Both background and 


arcades are covered with the most delicate decoration in mosaic, now 
sadly injured. This mosaic-work appears to have proceeded from 
the hand of a Roman artist or decorator (called in by the Cistercians), 
and to be a concession to local taste, as the order was averse to the use 
of color in decoration. It is well known that several families of Roman 
mosaicists and sculptors worked in this region at about this time : that 
of theVassalletti has left traces at Segni and Anagni ; that of Paulus 
at Ferentino ; that of the Cosmati at Anagni. In this connection it 
is interesting to instance the doorway of the cathedral of Civita Cas- 
tellana, the tympanum of whose main doorway is occupied by a semi- 
wheel of nearly the same design and decoration in mosaic. The date 
is about 1180, and it is a signed work by two of the Roman artists of 
the school of Cosmas, Laurentius and his son Jacobus. The princi- 
pal difference is, that both tympanum and arcades are round instead 
of pointed. In Rome itself there is proof of the cooperation of the 
Roman Schools and the Cistercians, and of their mutual influence, in 
such buildings as Sta. Sabina, Sta. Croce, San Sisto, etc. 

The other external features of the church can be dismissed without 
much comment. A narrow and simple round-headed window, as in 
early French transitional buildings, is cut in each bay, both in nave 
and aisle, and opposite each internal pier the thrust is received by a 
rather heavy buttress-strip, quite devoid of decoration save string- 
courses at top and bottom of both main and side aisles. The octagonal 
dome-tower consists of two stories, each lighted by eight double win- 
dows, surmounted by a narrow lantern. It is a modern reconstruc- 
tion, dating only five or six years back, and said to vary from the 
model only in the greater height of the lantern. It had been several 
times injured by lightning, and the last time so severely that, when the 
Italian Government declared Fossanova a national monument, it was 
necessary to rebuild the tower to prevent damage to the church. It 
had been previously rebuilt or repaired in 1595. In 1157, the 
Chapter General of the order forbade the building of a stone tower 
over the intersection the only place where a tower was allowed 
and prescribed that they should be of wood and low : it was not until 
1274 that this restriction was removed. 23 The tower at Fossanova is 
but one of many instances in which this rule was disregarded. 

The square apse is plain and has merely an ceuil-de-bceuf under the 
gable, and, below, a small rose-window of eight divisions set in the 

23 DOHME, op. cit., p. 27. 


curve of a round-headed false window whose colonnettes rest upon a 
projection corresponding to the level of the vaults of the aisle. Just 
above the ground-level spring three circular blind arches. These two 
lower stories of the apse are thought by Mothes to remain from an 
earlier building burned in 1164 : this supposed fire is also thought to 
have spared part of the cloister. In Note 18 are given reasons which 
seem to show that there is no ground for such an opinion. The church 
was built at one time and there are no traces of a fire. 

INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. The rugged and stern simplicity, the 
opposition to the superfluous and the showy, exemplified in the life and 
the works of the Cistercians this is the ideal that is carried out in stone 
in the massive and plain interior (PLS. in, iv). It embodies the spirit 
of pure constructiveness, it has unity, it has simplicity and grandeur ; 
more subtle is the charm of the symmetry and harmony of all its 
parts. There are no paintings on the walls, and no sculptures, for they 
were forbidden by the rules of the order ; there is no mosaic pave- 
ment, for against any such the ruling was so strict that the Abbot of 
Gard was forced to tear up one he had laid down in his church at 
about this time. The walls, therefore, are without decoration, and 
this lack is not compensated by architectural richness. In Cistercian 
churches there was no need, for the use of the congregation, of those 
triforium-galleries that form so important a feature of the transitional 
buildings of the Ile-de-France ; and therefore we do not find them at 
Fossanova. The small plain round-headed windows that occupied a 
corresponding position, between the summit of the stone vaults and 
the slanting roof, have been closed, but their traces remain above 
the main arches, and in the twin church of Casamari they are still 
open. As compared with the different styles of interiors that had 
hitherto been seen in Italy, this differs radically on almost every 
point : in its high narrow nave, its heavy and elaborate piers, its en- 
gaged members leading the eye upward at every bay, and, in general, 
its structural effect. It must have exercised the strongest influence 
upon Italian artists : that it did, can be proved by buildings still extant. 

Further points of difference from the contemporary transitional 
churches of the Ile-de-France are piers in place of columns or of an 
alternation of columns and piers ; somewhat heavier transverse ribs ; 
the absence of arch-mouldings, and, in general, a greater simplicity 
of profiles ; a somewhat greater width of the central nave, as com- 
pared to its height and to the width of the side-aisles ; a larger 


proportion of solids to voids, a Komanesque characteristic retained 
because no flying buttresses were yet introduced to receive the thrust 
of the vaults. 

The cruciform ground-plan is simple (PL. vm-2) : it is the one usually 
adopted by the Cistercian monasteries founded from Clairvaux and 
Morimond. 24 The apse is square and composed of a double bay ; a 
form which is characteristically Cistercian and was one of the features 
adopted from them by the Franciscans and Dominicans. On either 
side extends a transept, containing in each wing two oblong side- 
chapels : this also is to be found in almost every church of the order, 
although occasionally the number of chapels is increased to six. This 
peculiar though simple arrangement of apse and transept was first 
pointed out by M. de Montalembert, in 1851, as being a Cistercian 
trait. 25 This is especially true of the churches of monasteries that 
carry back their genealogy to Clairvaux and Morimond, including the 
greater number of monasteries of Italy and Germany. The reason 
for the use of such a form may have been both theoretical, from a 
love of simplicity, and practical, from a desire for economy. Its 
wide adoption seems to have been caused by the fact that both the 
above parent monasteries originally had square-apsed churches. On 
the contrary, Pontigny, whose church had a semicircular choir with 
radiating chapels more in accord with the Gothic ideal, favored the 
building of churches on the same model, such as Sta. Maria di Falleri 
(1143) and San Martino nearViterbo (1207), which were, with San 
Sebastiano near Rome, the only foundations of Pontigny in Italy. 
But the influence of Pontigny in favor of radiating chapels seems to 
have been felt in such churches as San Francesco at Bologna (1237- 
45), which contests with San Francesco at Assisi the honor of being 
the first example of Northern Gothic erected by the Franciscan order ; 
such, at least, is Thode's opinion (op. cit. y p. 334). In Germany, on 
the other hand, while the square apse was retained, an attempt was 
usually made in the churches of the end of the xm and of the xiv 
century to add a richness more consonant with the Gothic style by the 
multiplication of apsidal chapels grouped in various ways. Such 

24 This is all the more singular, since the plans of Clairvaux extant show a semi- 
circular apse with radiating chapels. As the church was long ago destroyed we can 
only conjecture that the original apse, of the early xn century was square, and was 
replaced, in the succeeding century, by one of semicircular form, retaining the square 
chapels in the transepts. 25 Bulletin Monumental, t. xvn. 


was not the case in Italy, where the simple semicircular Latin apse 
was never much changed, even under Gothic influence. In adopting 
the square apse, no necessity was felt to change its simplicity. Of 
the more than a hundred churches built by the Franciscans and Do- 
minicans in Italy during the xui century, which I have had occasion 
to study in Central Italy alone, nine-tenths had the simple square 
apse of the Cistercians. From the great Sta. Croce and the beautiful 
Sta. Maria Novella it seems to have passed into Brunelleschi's con- 
sciousness, for it is this form which he adopts for San Lorenzo at 
Florence. In his Franz von Assisi, Thode gives some representative 
ground-plans of Franciscan churches of this Cistercian type and very 
correctly recognizes whence they were copied. 

In England, with the spread of monasticism, the square apse became 
so popular that it finally was the prevailing form for the termination 
of all churches, and is now one of the most striking characteristics of 
English Gothic cathedrals. In fact, it is claimed that the square apse 
was used in England before the advent of the Cistercians. Two 
English churches are mentioned as having square apses erected during 
the last years of the xi century ; these are the cathedrals of Old Sarum 
(1092) and Ely (1082-1100). This is considered by Willis sufficient 
proof that " we do not owe the square form of our English chancels 
to the Cistercian monks." 26 It is in harmony with the small artistic 
influence exerted by the Cistercians in their native land, that but few 
traces of this form can be found in France outside the churches of the 
order. However, among conspicuous examples .are the transitional 
abbey-churches of La Rgle, La Souterraine, and La Couronne, the 
church of Vernouillet and the cathedral of Laon. 27 

It is, therefore, possible to trace the form of the square apse, with 
four or six square side-chapels in the transept, from the beginning of 
the xn to the end of the xv century. But can we go further back ? 
Did the Cistercians, in their search after the simplest forms in archi- 

^Facsimile of the Sketch-book of Wilars de Honecort, published by M. J. B. A. Lassus, 
translated by Rev. Robert Willis : London, 1859, pp. 80-86. On pi. xxvn is the 
ground-plan of a church by de Honecort described as " a square church which was 
designed for the Cistercian order." In connection with it is some interesting matter 
regarding the use of the square apse, and some correspondence of Mr. Willis with M. 
de Montalembert, the famous author of Les Moines d' Orient et d' Occident, with the Eng- 
lish archaeologist J. H. Parker, and with Schnaase and Lassus. 

87 The square apse of Laon replaced, in the xm century, the original semicircu- 
lar end. 


tecture, invent it, or did they merely adopt it from previous buildings? 
A decided answer seems difficult. In Italy alone there would appear 
to be several examples previous to the Cistercians. The square apse 
of a semi-Byzantine church of the VI or vn cent, in Venice, San Gia- 
como al Bialto 28 would have had no influence, being in the form of a 
Greek cross and without side-chapels. In closer relationship stands 
the cathedral of Troina in Southern Italy, said by Mothes 29 to have 
been finished as early as 1080, whose square apse is flanked by square 
chapels. Doubtless, further search would secure other examples appar- 
ently anterior to the Cistercians, although the possibility of a restora- 
tion might always remain. Mention has also been made above of the 
claim of its use in England prior to the Cistercians. 

Returning to Fossanova the face of the apse is but slightly deco- 
rated ; above is a small, eight-lobed rose-window with mouldings simi- 
lar to those of the fagade. It is framed by a strongly-marked round 
arch supported by engaged columns defining the outline of the recess. 
Below are three recessed windows corresponding to those on the ex- 
terior ; they are now closed but may have been originally open. One 
of them, through some early restoration, was made pointed; the other 
two remain round-headed. Over the intersection rises an octagonal 
cross-vault, of domical shape, with an opening in the centre which 
communicates with the octagonal tower it supports. This vault is 
ribbed with both diagonal and longitudinal ribs of simple outline, 
which seem to indicate this vault to be later than the body of the 
church. The body of the church is composed of a wide and extremely 
lofty nave, flanked by low and narrow aisles, each formed of seven 
bays divided by piers. The measurements of the church, for the great 
part as given by Paccasassi, are as follows : greatest length inside, 64.50 
met.; outside, 69 met. ; greatest internal breadth, 29 m. ; length of apse 
(int.), 12.40 m. ; width of apse (int.), 8.90 m. ; width of nave, between 
piers, 8.50 m., between axes, c. 10 m. ; width of aisles between wall 
and piers, 3.50 m. ; height of engaged pilasters supporting vaults, 20 
m. ; total height to vaults, about 26 m. A cross-section is given in 
PL. ix-1, and a longitudinal section in PL. ix-2. The relation of the 
width of the nave to its height is about as 1:3, a proportion nearly 
equivalent to the average in French buildings. 

It seems singular, while the church is so far advanced in transition 

88 Hv*acn,AltchristUche D&nkmaler, pis. 38, 39. Op. eit., p. 524, fig. 133. 


in certain points, that on the cardinal question of vaulting it should 
lag so far behind. The vaults of the body of the church, both nave 
and aisles, are unribbed and merely groined ; it is only in the apse, 
which in Cistercian churches seems often to have been left to the last 
or to have been made over later, that we find ribs, whose introduc- 
tion at Fossanova might therefore be in about 1200 or a trifle earlier. 
Still, though unribbed, these vaults are of an advanced design. They 
are sexpartite, being divided not only by intersecting diagonal groins 
but by a groin curving downward at its ends, at right angles with 
the axis of the church, while there is also, at right angles to this, a 
straight groin across the centre along the axis. This kind of vaulting 
was employed in the Norman churches of the twelfth century, all these 
groins being ribbed except that along the axis, thus forming the well- 
known sexpartite vault employed in the transitional and early-Gothic 
churches in France before the introduction of quadripartite vaults. The 
vaults are divided and framed by heavy transverse arches, double and 
pointed : they are low, and resemble in this respect those of some tran- 
sitional Burgundian churches, as, for example, that at Souvigny, not 
to mention French Cistercian churches like Silvacane. This adds to 
their effectiveness. These double transverse arches are supported by a 
pilaster and a half-column engaged in the main wall : the pilaster rises 
from the floor and forms an integral part of the piers of the nave ; while 
the engaged column ends, about half-way down the pier, in a consol, 
a peculiarity common to many Cistercian and a few other churches. 
The verticality of these lines is interrupted at two points by a simple 
cornice : the upper cornice frames the arches of the nave ; the lower 
marks the spring of these arches and forms a simple plinth for their 
side engaged columns. The abaci of the supports of the transverse 
arches have the same profile, which resembles, though it is even sim- 
pler, those in the transitional churches of Mouzon, Senlis, and in 
other French churches. The presence of ribs in vaults of the xu 
century is considered to be a necessity if they are to be regarded as 
transitional vaults. All unribbed vaults are dubbed pure Roman- 
esque. Leaving this question for a moment, let us examine the other 
characteristics of vaults of the transitional buildings of the Ile-de- 
France. They are separated by pointed transverse arches resting on 
engaged shafts : their wall or longitudinal ribs are also pointed : the 
vault itself is not quadripartite but sexpartite : it is also decidedly 
domical, for the key of the vault is considerably higher than the sum- 


mit of either the longitudinal or the transverse arches : the masonry 
is twisted, because the wall-arch springs from a point above that of 
the transverse arch, and of the groins and their diagonal ribs. All 
these characteristics of advanced transition are present in the vaults 
of Fossanova, and the pressure is so well distributed as to render the 
use of flying buttresses unnecessary, although thick walls and heavy 
piers are still required. 

There is a marked simplicity in the main arches of the nave (PL. in). 
They are totally devoid of external mouldings, and this point of differ- 
ence between Fossanova and the transitional churches of the Ile-de- 
France is in harmony with the Cistercian dislike of the unreal and the 
artificial, and their love of constructional beauty. The necessary relief 
and play of light and shade is here, but it is given by the sub-arches 
supported on engaged columns. This feature might be thought to be 
of Italian origin, for it is to be found both in internal and external 
constructions of the earlier part of the century in various parts of 
Italy. Such are the interiors of San Zenone at Verona, in the north, 
Sta. Maria di Castello at Corneto, San Sisto at Orvieto, and of the 
churches at Toscanella in the States of the Church, and the porch of 
S. Erasmo atVeroli in the same region as Fossanova. It is, how- 
ever, found in early-French Cistercian churches ; such as Silvacane 
and Thoronet, and is a feature too obvious to belong to any special 
school, being found, in fact, in the Romanesque buildings of every 
country. It lies at the base of the arch-mouldings of most of the con- 
temporary constructions of the Ile-de-France, in which the corners are 
cut and decorated with torus-mouldings. A longitudinal section is given 
in PL. ix-1, a cross-section in PL. ix-2. The piers are massive and 
short for their height, if viewed in themselves, but standing in a per- 
fectly harmonious relation to the entire structure : they are formed by 
the intersection of two parallelograms in each of whose faces a column 
is engaged. Their bases are simple but high : those of the engaged 
columns rise in a triple step, above which are Ionic mouldings. The 
capitals are of good proportions and of simple transitional floral de- 
sign, almost every pair differing somewhat in details. With the ex- 
ception of the over-curling knops at the corners and an occasional leaf 
in capitals that have a double row of leaves, the design is in very low 
relief and is almost entirely surface decoration. Many similar exam- 
ples could be given from contemporary French buildings, but to one 
familiar with this period of architecture the parallelism is too evident 
to require demonstration. The main designs are given in PL. ix-3. 


The view down the side-aisles (PL. iv) gives a different impression 
from that of the centre of the church, being more sombre and massive. 
It is more decidedly French, and one is reminded very strongly of 
Laon, and slightly of St. Leu d'Esserent, Souvigny, and Autun. Far 
heavier in proportion than those of the nave are the double transverse 
arches, owing to the lowness and narrowness of the aisles ; more sol- 
emn and full of perspective is the long line of piers with their engaged 
columns rising from the ground. The low vaults are built on the same 
plan as those of the nave. 

Although the church has been more than once restored, nothing has 
been done to change the structure : the principal alteration seems to have 
consisted in closing the three windows in the apse and the line of small 
windows in the nave under the clerestory. The date of these altera- 
tions may be 1595, when the tower and the high altar were thrown 
down by lightning and great damage was done to the entire structure. 
This is recorded by the following inscription on the first pilaster to 
the left : 



The ancient arrangement of the choir and the style of the campanile 
before it was overthrown, are described by Valle in his history. 

In 1812 the monastery was deserted, in consequence of Napoleon's 
confiscations, and the church was turned into a stable for buffalos. On 
being given, in 1826, by Leo XII to the Certosa of Trisulti, the church 
was repaired and afterwards restored to worship in 1845, when monks 
were sent there from Trisulti : a considerable sum was then spent on 
the buildings. In 1874, it was declared a national monument, and 
since that time the central tower has been rebuilt and the church and 
monastery put in good repair. 

NIGHT-CHOIR AND SACRISTY. Before leaving the church we must 
mention two small chambers attached to the right arm of the transept, 
adjoining the monastery and communicating with both : one is the coro 


ddla notte where the monks gathered to chant the service at night, the 
other is the Sacristy. 

MONASTIC BUILDINGS. Passing from the church to the monastery 
we find the following constructions of the early period to examine : 
(1) Cloister; (2) Refectory and its dependencies, such as kitchen, 
storeroom, wine-vaults or cellar ; (3) Chapter-house and its annexes ; 
(4) Dormitories for the monks and lay-brothers, the corridors and stair- 
ways; (5) Hospital or Infirmary ; (6) Guest-house and Chapel of St. 
Thomas Aquinas; (7) Old Church of Sta. Potentiana; (8) Great Court 
with cemetery and garden. 

CLOISTER. At the corner of the nave where it joins the transept 
is cut a doorway through which, by descending a few steps, the ST. E. 
corner of the cloister is reached. The two engaged columns in this 
doorway are divided in the centre by a triple moulding, as at Casa- 
mari. Another interesting round-headed doorway leads into a cor- 
ridor from the E. end of the s. arm of the cloister : it is decorated with 
the Norman zigzag, and is thoroughly Romanesque. 

The cloister is a remarkably perfect example. When Ricci wrote, 
nearly fifty years ago, his history of Italian architecture, he mentions 
the cloister as having a second story of the same style (Note 2). This 
no longer exists. It must have been remodelled at the time of the last 
restorations. There remain, on the second story, two fine pointed win- 
dows above the chapter-house ; and the three round-headed windows 
on the north side belong to the refectory. 

The lower story is still complete, though it is disfigured at points, 
on the side next the church, by the addition of heavy buttress-piers. 
The cloister is not exactly square : it measures 23.65 met. in length 
by 19.10 met. in width, and forms the centre of the monastery around 
which are grouped all the other buildings. It belongs to two distinct 
periods of architecture which are even more widely separated in style 
than in date. It was first built, toward the middle of the century, in a 
simple but refined style, comparable but superior to the latest part of 
the cloister at SS. Yincenzo ed Anastasio near Rome, whose date is pre- 
sumably 1140 to 1150. At the close of the century, the south side 
was rebuilt in a rich architecture that reminds of some cloisters of the 
South of France and of Sicily ; but even in this section traces of the 
old style remain in the main wall. The old sides (N., E. and w.) are 
covered with fine barrel- vaults interrupted by slight transverse arches. 
The arcades are composed of low round arches supported by coupled 


colonnettes. The arches are narrow and entirely without mouldings. 
They are not divided into groups by external false arcades, as in some 
Cistercian cloisters in France of this period. The capitals are quite 
plain, none having any foliated design, and are surmounted by a thin 
abacus : their two principal types, shown in PLATE xi-2 are modifi- 
cations of the cubic form, and were used by the Cistercians before they 
began (about 1 1 50) to adopt foliage. The shafts also are plain and meas- 
ure exactly one metre without their bases, which are a simple modifi- 
cation of the Ionic form and rather high in proportion : the diameter 
of the shafts is 17 cent., and they are raised upon a parapet about a 
metre in height. Attached to the w. side is a well, covered with a 
pavilion formed by four square piers supporting pointed arches. It 
is ancient, but of later date than the new cloister. 

Of far greater interest is the newer south side, opposite the Refectory. 
An internal view is given on PLATE v. Its vaults are groined and 
separated by transverse arches delicately moulded resting on engaged 
columns which on the outside spring from the ground and on the inside 
wall, next to the refectory, rest upon consols. There are five bays : 
four open out onto the open court through four pointed arches supported 
by coupled colonnettes, while the central one has but a single wide round 
arch leading into a tempietto that formerly contained the fountain used 
for ablutions on entering and leaving the refectory. These bays are 
divided by heavy buttress-piers in which columns are engaged. Each 
one has a small opening or oculus in the wall, above the arcade, alter- 
nately octagonal and similar to a Maltese cross. The affiliations of 
this side of the cloister are varied. In the south of France, a similar 
style is to be found in the well-known cloister of Moissac, which Yiol- 
let-le-Duc gives as typical of the best Cistercian style of the close of the 
xii century ; another example is that of S. Trophime at Aries. In 
Italy, the closest resemblances are to the Norman cloisters of Sicily, 
especially that of Monreale, which is contemporary. But, notwith- 
standing that these are among the most famous constructions of their 
kind, this one at Fossanova appears to me to surpass them all in beauty 
and symmetry. The combination of strength and massiveness with 
elegance and profusion of rich details is somewhat unexpected in a 
Cistercian building of this date. 

The vaults are oblong but unribbed, but this does not appear to 
be any indication of an early date, for the details of the construction 
are advanced. The transverse arches differ in outline from those of 


the chapter-house, and consist of three tores defined by simple concave 
mouldings, all springing from a solid floral bed that surmounts the 
abacus of the supporting engaged columns (Fig. T). These supports 
have capitals of bold and schematic forms, in contrast to the highly 
worked shafts of the arcades a contrast in accord with their different 
position, use, and size. The projecting mouldings of the small arches 
remind of those on the outside of the corresponding arcades at Mon- 
reale and the Eremitani at Palermo, though more detailed and Gothic. 
They are divided into two sections ; the inner ending in a point over 
the abacus, the outer terminating in a rosette-consol above, except where 
it ends in a lower consol, next to the transverse arches. The gems of 
the cloister are the 24 free-standing colonnettes (besides which there 
are 28 engaged shafts). PLATES v, xi-2 will show the delicacy 
and artistic taste shown in the composition and execution of both 
shaft and capital. Hardly any two are alike. Some have been sadly 
injured both in capitals and bases, a danger to which they were the 
more exposed on account of the sharpness of the pro- 
files and the extreme projection of knops, flowers, and 
leaves. All the decorative forms are mostly Gothic. 
A number of the shafts are composed of four colon- 
Sedion of trans- nettes en g a g e( l in a central mass which is sometimes 
verse arches. plain, sometimes decorated with sharply projecting 
dents de scie, or with flowering creepers whose leaves 
and flowers then encircle in more exuberant fashion the capital itself. 
At times, the four engaged shafts are straight, at times, they twist 
around the central mass in the middle section, at times, the twist ex- 
tends from capital to base. Greater elegance and apparent length is 
given to the shafts in this side of the cloister by the lesser height of 
the bases and the close union of the shaft with the capital which is but 
its gradual expansion. 

Great decorative use is made of colonnettes set against rather than 
engaged in the piers. This is done with especially happy effect in the 
pavilion or tempietto that is entered from the middle bay. It is square 
in form, measuring five metres. Its three other sides are formed by 
two round arches sustained in the centre by a single heavy column, 
while at the four corners are square piers against which colonnettes are 
set in pairs to support the arch-mouldings. These arches bear a 
high conical roof that supports a lantern consisting of eight colonnettes 
on which rests a small conical roof (PLATE x) : a similar arrangement 


crowns the summit of the octagonal tower over the church. Regard- 
ing the pavilion, Mothes remarks (op. tit., p. 692) : " It must also be 
noticed that this roof is not placed over a vault but forms itself the 
vault. A comparison with the towers of Trani, the tomb of Bohe- 
mund, and some ciboria of the same period and region, is sufficient to 
prove that Norman influence was here at work, and this is strength- 
ened by the fact that in Normandy and in England several applica- 
. tions of the same principle occur, while in Southern France, whose 
influence on Italy is so often proclaimed, I know of no examples of 
it." This quotation embodies Mothes' principal argument for the 
presence of Norman influence at Fossanova. The fluted column oppo- 
site the entrance, with its capital, and the shaft on the right, are res- 
torations made in 1600 by Cardinal Aldobrandini, according to this 
inscription carved in a stone let into the pavement : PETRVS CARD. 

ENDATARIVS RESTAVRAVIT | AN IVB. M. D. C. At the time of this 

restoration, the original fountain was replaced by the present table, 
and the shafts supporting the transverse arches of the cloister near the 
entrance were replaced by the present octagonal shafts. The use of 
round arches in the pavilion is rather unexpected, and is doubtless 
owing to the form of roof they support. 

REFECTORY. Opposite the pavilion is the entrance to the Refec- 
tory, through a fine large doorway flanked by two small windows and 
reached by a few descending steps. It is a lofty hall, but rather dark 
and gloomy owing to the stern plainness of its architecture and the 
closing of many of its windows (PLATE xi-1). It is about 30 met. 
long by 20 in width, and projects far beyond the body of the monas- 
tery. Its plain gable roof is supported by five heavy pointed trans- 
verse arches, plain and without any mouldings. "With one exception 
these arches rest on engaged pilaster strips that terminate in corbels. 
It was originally lighted by sixteen windows, but all but ten are now 
closed up. Paccasassi (op. tit., p. 12) speaks of records that mention 
large tables made of walnut and supported by marble columns, which 
filled the hall. The pulpit also has disappeared. According toValle 
(op. tit.} it was of marble with a decoration in mosaic, and we may sup- 
pose it to have been executed by the same Roman artist who decorated 
the main portal with mosaic-work. The semicircular base upon which 
the pulpit rested still remains, projecting from the right wall, and con- 
sists of a remarkably rich group of projecting mouldings in boldly over- 


hanging series. It is reached by a staircase. The windows are all 
round-headed and simple. On the right, however, encircling two win- 
dows, are two wide and heavy arcades with three groups of mouldings 
that relieve the barenness of the interior. There is some delicate work 
in the capitals also, though the foliage is slightly more primitive than 
in the cloister and even than in the church. 

The date of the Kefectory is considerably later than that of the old 
cloister. That it is slightly posterior to the Hospital is shown by the . 
greater detail in its supporting pilaster-strips and the foliage of its capi- 
tals, even though the Hospital have pointed instead of round-headed 
windows. It was probably built between 1160 and 1170, and only 
slightly antedates the church, where similar capitals are employed. 

Next to the refectory are the kitchen and the calef actor ium, where 
the monks came to warm themselves in winter, as no fires were allowed 
in the dormitory or the other parts of the monastery. 

CHAPTEK-HOUSE. The Chapter-house is entered through a sim- 
ple round-headed door in the centre of the western arm of the cloister : 
its floor is reached by descending four steps. On either side of the door 
are two simple round-headed windows separated merely by a short col- 
onnette. Both door and windows belong to an earlier period than the 
hall itself, and form part of the early cloister, as noticed above. The 
Chapter-house is nearly square, measuring 10.70 met. in length and 
11.45 in width. Its vaults are supported by two piers or, more ex- 
actly, bundles of shafts, which divide it into six compartments. Oppo- 
site the entrance are three good-sized pointed windows, one opposite 
each vault. A stone seat for the monks encircles the whole interior 
and belongs to the original construction. 

This interior is, in every detail, a perfect example of early Gothic, 
and is in this respect by far the most important part of the monastic 
buildings. Aesthetically, it is worthy of high praise for harmony of 
line and combined delicacy and boldness of effects. The two piers are 
composed of eight shafts, each with a diameter of 17 cent., grouped 
around a central mass whose octagonal shape is concealed on four 
of its angles by minute shafts that fill the interstices, while the other 
corners are left exposed. This arrangement gives an air of lightness, 
increased by the fact that the shafts are but slightly engaged in the 
mass (Fig. 2). Of these shafts four support the diagonal ribs, two the 
transverse and two the longitudinal arches : they measure 2.35 met. 
in height, without bases, and their capitals are 50 cent. high. A sym- 


metrical base, carefully moulded, corresponds in height to the abacus 
of the capitals. The vaults are oblong and only slightly domed, and, 
as Mothes justly remarks, the rosettes of their keystones are very beau- 
tiful and delicate. Two peculiarities are at once noticeable in the three 
vaults near the windows. The imposts on the outer wall, and conse- 
quently the spring of all the arches and ribs on that side, are placed 
at a greater height. The diagonal ribs, therefore, do not intersect at 
the summit of the vault. In the second place, in order to secure this 
result, these outer bays are wider than the others and their longitudi- 
nal arches are semicircular, whereas those of the other bays are pointed, 
like the transverse arches. This is shown in PLATE vi. The evident 
reason for this was that the architect wished to have more wall space 
for the windows. An examination of the profiles of the capitals and 
bases, and especially of the transverse, longitudinal and diagonal ribs, 
will show very clearly that they all belong to the late-transitional types 
that were in vogue in the Ile-de-France between 1 1 50 and 1210. They 
approach more closely, however, those executed during the last part 
of this period. The strongest resemblances are, for example, with those 
parts of Laon, Senlis, and Notre Dame of Paris that date from 1170 
to 1 200. 30 A comparison with these and similar buildings shows that 
the architect of this Chapter-house of Fossanova was fully abreast with 
the times, and that his work is equal in beauty and skill to the fore- 
most French constructions. 31 He does not rest his ribs directly on the 
abacus of the piers ; neither does he use circular bases projecting be- 
yond it, as is frequently done in French and English transitional struc- 
tures. But he gives strength to the ribs by making them spring from 
a solid bed of slightly decorated stone- work, after a fashion that is seen 
in transitional Cistercian buildings in Germany, and here and there 
in French work, for example, in the choir-aisle of the Abbaye aux 
Hommes (St. Etienne) at Caen, whose foliated capitals are also so 
similar to these at Fossanova as to seem made after the same model : 
they are on the same plan as the capitals at Laon, though the foliage is 
richer and more advanced. 

30 The drawings here reproduced are not mechanical reductions, so that their per- 
fect proportions cannot be guaranteed in minute details. 

31 For details of these French transitional structures reference may be made to the 
excellent work just published by Mr. CH. H. MOORE, Development and character of 
Gothic Architecture. Older authorities are VIOLLET-LE-DUC, Dictionnaire de I' Arch. 

francaise, under articles Profits, Chapiteaux, Arcs, etc. ; PALEY, A manual of Gothic 
Mouldings, 4th ed., 1877. 


The abacus (Fig. 5] of the clustered free and engaged piers is three- 
stepped, the upper step having a strong projection and greater thickness : 
the outline of the abacus is almost identical with that in the north tri- 
forium- of Notre Dame of Paris. 32 The body of the capital is circular 
and bell-shaped, and varies from the usual transitional style merely in 
the addition of a delicate surface-decoration of parallel pointed leaves 
of some fresh-water plant. The sturdy and strongly curling leaves 
that encircle the bell are arranged in a double row, those of the four 
shafts that support the diagonal ribs uniting near their tips with the 
corresponding leaves on the shafts of the transverse ribs (PLATE xi-3). 
There is uniformity throughout the capitals, in contrast with the variety 
in the capitals of the cloister and even of the church, none of which, 
however, are like these of the chapter-house. 

The profiles of the mouldings of all the ribs, as they are combined 
FIGURES 2-6. Chapter-House. 

- -~ .-! =J 

2. Section of pier 3. Section 4. Section of 5. Pro- 6. Section of mould- 
at base. of diago- transverse file of ings above capital, 

nal ribs. arches. abacus. 

before disappearing in the bed over the abacus, are given in Figure 6. 
This combination is that of a pear-shaped moulding (Fig. 3} for the 
diagonal ribs with transverse arches consisting of a flat moulding flanked 
by two torus-mouldings from which it is separated, by scotias. This 
is found in almost the same form but in an earlier stage at Senlis (end 
of xn cent.), on which it advances by the additional richness of the 
double moulding between the ribs and the further projection and re- 
duction in width of the pear moulding, which is thus brought into 
more harmonious relation with the rest. The disadvantage of having 
a heavier profile for the diagonal than for the transverse ribs led at 
Notre Dame to the suppression of the pear moulding and the adop- 
tion of the triple rib in its place, making it equal in form to the trans- 
verse rib. The profile, given in Fig. 4, of the transverse before they 
partially coalesce with the diagonal arches shows an elaboration that is 
not found in such arches when they are used in the main naves of 
38 MOORE, op. cit., fig. 117. 


transitional churches, and approaches very closely to the profile of the 
arcades of the naves of Notre Daine at Paris and S. Pierre at Caen, 
dated by Viollet-le-Duc shortly after 1200. 

For these reasons, as well as on historical grounds, it seems highly 
probable that this Chapter-house was already finished at the time of 
Pope Innocent's visit in 1208, even with due allowance for the time 
required to introduce such a style from the Ile-de-France, where simi- 
lar work had been done between 1170 and 1200. As a slight confir- 
mation of this date, I may mention that a very similar form of the 
pear-shaped moulding is used, in this vicinity, in a building erected 
in the Cistercian style and clearly dependent on Fossanova. This is 
the church of Sta. Maria de Flumine near Ceccano, more than once 
mentioned : it was already finished and dedicated in 1196. 

DORMITORIES. Leaving the Chapter-house, we will investigate the 
rest of the monastic buildings around the cloister. Two old corridors 
and some small rooms are all that remain of the old work. As was 
the custom in Cistercian establishments, the lay-brothers had a dor- 
mitory in a part of the building separate from the regular monks; so, 
the long arm that ran in a line with the faade of the church was de- 
voted to their large dormitory, and the corresponding arm parallel with 
the rear of the church was occupied by the monks. No separate cells 
were allowed; the whole second story contained a single long hall. 
For this reason, this part of the monasteries has always been made 
over when the luxury of separate cells was allowed by the order. The 
external walls, therefore, are all that remains of the main body of this 
part of the building : they are propped at intervals by heavy buttresses, 
and here and there, are windows, irregularly placed, some round 
others pointed, in the old style. 

We now pass out, through the old corridor on the east side, into the 
great rear court and turning to the south we find a separate enclosure 
within which stand the buttressed enclosing walls of the hospital. 

HOSPITAL (PLATE vn). Three kinds of infirmaries or hospitals 
are to be found in large Cistercian monasteries : that for the monks, 
that for the lay-brothers, and that for the poor. The isolated position 
of the hospital at Fossanova and its unusual size would seem to indi- 
cate that this was a general infirmary or valetudinarium. It is still 
private property, not having been included in the buildings of the 
monastery that were declared to be of national importance. Conse- 
quently, it is ruinous : the roof fell in at some early date and nothing 
remains of it but the nine immense pointed transverse arches which 


formerly supported the gable roof and divide the interior into ten bays. 
They still stand intact, as is shown in the PLATE, a sufficient proof of 
the architect's skill : opposite to them, on the exterior, is a corres- 
ponding number of buttresses. I was not able to obtain a key from 
the owner's agent, so that I cannot give the dimensions or sundry de- 
tails of this hall, but base my remarks mainly on the photograph 
which was taken for me two years before. In height it appears to 
equal the church and does not fall far short of it in length. There are 
no traces visible of the internal arrangements, the entire surface being 
covered by a thick undergrowth. There were two stories of windows. 
In each bay there are, above, a narrow slightly pointed lancet-window 
whose base is on a level with the consols of the transverse arches, and, 
below, two small square-headed openings. The transverse arches are 
without mouldings [and rest upon simple consols with mouldings of 
circa 1150-75. There is an obvious similarity in style between this 
building and the dormitory, whose roof shows us what that of the in- 
firmary must have been. Here the windows are pointed and narrower ; 
but this suggestion of a slightly later date is contradicted by the more 
advanced detailed work in the consols and windows of the dormitory. 
The two must be nearly contemporary. 

The Italian Government did well to declare Fossanova a national 
monument, but if it wishes to preserve the entire group of monastic 
buildings, so precious in their collective interest and their relation to 
one another, it should certainly and without delay expropriate the hos- 
pital, the church of Sta. Potentiana, and the ancient buildings near the 
entrance. 33 

church is a large open space enclosed by the high encircling walls of 
the monastery. Here was the vegetable garden and the orchard, and, 
by the side of the church, the cemetery. The only buildings connected 
with this court are the old church and a building which was apparently 
the second hospice or guest-house (beside that near the gate). The 
main structure belongs to the middle of the xn century or a little later, 
and consists of two stories with plain round-headed windows. Unlike 
the other buildings, it is constructed of small and irregular stones poorly 
put together. An addition was made to the front, perhaps in the xin 
century. Here St. Thomas Aquinas stopped in 1274 on his way to 

33 1 made a complaint to the Ministry, through a friend, and have been informed 
that steps were taken at once to have the hospital expropriated. 


the Council of Lyon, and here he suddenly died, not without suspicion 
of poison administered by some creature of Charles of Anjou. The 
room which he occupied has been converted into a chapel. He was 
first buried in the cloister and finally in the church. 

The width of the front is about 6.25 met. Attached to it is the old 
church of Sta. Potentiana. Originally an open colonnade extended 
from its south wall along the side of the old church, against which it 
rested. Four simple square piers and three plain round arches con- 
necting them still remain. The length of this open gallery appears 
to have been about 22.25 met., and it was probably covered with a 
slanting wooden roof. It seems to belong to the earlier constructions 
of the monastery. 

OLD CHURCH OF STA. POTENTIANA. When the Cistercians came 
to Fossanova, they found this simple old church still in use, built 
several centuries before, probably in the vin or ix century. It could 
hardly be earlier in date, for it was erected to take the place of the 
original church of San Salvatore, built in the vi century, which had 
become too small or too old. Its style confirms this date, in so far as 
can be judged from the exterior. No view of the interior is now pos- 
sible, for it is packed full of hay and kept locked. The exterior is in 
a plain and homely pre-Romanesque style ; the apse was doubtless de- 
stroyed when the adjoining hospice was erected across its north end. 
It contained but a single nave covered, apparently, with a wooden roof, 
and it had no transept. On either side are rows of seven windows, 
round-headed above and square below. Its length is about 24 met. 

To conclude. These buildings were erected by the hands of French 
architects ; Cistercian monks, who emigrated from their native land. 
They belong to different periods and styles, showing either that new 
architects were constantly employed who introduced the latest struc- 
tural changes evolved in the mother country, or that the same group 
of architects by journeys to their native land kept abreast with the 
times. At all events, these buildings faithfully reflect the architec- 
tural changes that took place in France between about 1140 and 1200, 
apparently very shortly after the time that these changes occurred. 
They may be grouped as follows : 

I. The old Cloister, with its barrel-vaults ; a little later than that of 
SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio ; earlier than those of Yalisciolo, Casa- 
mari, etc. Date, c. 1140-50. 


ii. The Hospital and Refectory, Hospices and body of monastic build- 
ings. Date, c. 1150-70. 

in. The Church, except ruined porch and vaults over intersection, 
etc., may be considered to have been built between 1170 and 1 200, 
the portal and rose- window belonging to the last part of the con- 
struction and approaching the style of the Chapter-house. 34 

iv. The Western arm of the Cloister, notwithstanding the lack of ribs 
to its cross-vault, which may be attributed to Cistercian simpli- 
city, 35 appears to belong to the same date as the Chapter-house. 
This is shown by the advanced foliage of its capitals and the 
profile of its transverse arches. The presence, in each bay, of 
an oculus like that on the fayade, and the similarity of the foli- 
age on the capitals to that of the main portal leads to the selection 
of some date between 1185 and 1208 for both Western Cloister 
and Chapter-house. 

It would be possible to bring forward further proof in favor of these 
approximate dates, especially from other Cistercian buildings. The 
entire demonstration cannot be made until I have published all these 
monuments, as I expect to do, seriatim. 

The architectural influence of Fossanova was felt far and wide 
through this region, and was not only reflected in the monasteries 
founded by it, enumerated on pp. 16-17, but also in cathedrals and other 
churches and even in secular buildings. Such are : at Piperno, the 
Cathedral and Communal Palace ; at Sezze, the Cathedral ; at Sermo- 
neta, the Cathedral, S. Nicolo and S. Michele ; at Amaseno, the church 
of S. Lorenzo ; at Ceccano, the church of Sta. Maria de Flumine. These 
buildings were, for the greater part, built between about 1170 and 
1250. It is not always easy to determine the relative share of Fos- 
sanova and of Casamari, the other great Cistercian monastery of the 
region : both were built in the same style and often worked together. 
Their influence extended from the centre of Tuscany to the end of 
Sicily. Fossanova had colonies in Apulia, Abruzzi, Calabria, Terra 
di Lavoro and Sicily ; Casamari's foundations were even more nu- 
merous and wide spread. 

Princeton College. 

84 The difference in the transverse ribs is, that in the Chapter-house they are 
moulded while in the porch they are still plain. 

85 Ribs were not required for structural purposes in these vaults. 


If we examine the characteristics of Doric Architecture with a view 
to their origin, we cannot fail to reach the conviction that a large ma- 
jority of them may be traced to Egyptian prototypes. This may sur- 
prise us at first, since the general aspect of the two styles of architecture 
is very different. The Egyptian temple is heavy and grand, impressing 
us by the massiveness of its walls and pylons, the number and size of 
its columns, the extent and multiplicity of its divisions. It consists 
of a succession of courts and halls, terminating in the sanctuary, which 
is enshrouded in darkness. On the other hand, the Greek temple is 
relatively light and graceful, more compact in form, with a central and 
better-lighted sanctuary, inviting the eyes of the people to rest upon 
the life-like statue of the divinity within. And yet, not only the general 
disposition of the Doric temple but those puzzling and apparently un- 
meaning forms which have given rise to so many wild hypotheses are 
to be found in their natural relations in Egypt, where their significance 
is clear. In its most complete form, the Greek temple is found within 
a sacred enclosure, a temenos, which was entered through more or less 
imposing propylaia. There is nothing strange or inappropriate in 
thus separating the religious from the non-religious structures, and the 
Greeks might naturally have done this without foreign influence. Yet 
we may remark that the Greek temenos * containing its sacred olive 
or oak or willow or myrtle or laurel, its sacred springs, and its altar 
for burnt-offering in front of the temple may still be an echo of the 
Egyptian temenos with its sacred tamarisks and acacias and lotus 
flowers, 2 its sacred lake, 3 and its altar in front of the temple. 4 

On approaching the Doric temple, we are struck with several features 
of apparently non-Egyptian origin the krepidoma or stepped base 
upon which the temple stands, the peripteral columns surrounding the 
temple-cella, and the gable roof. If we look to the Orient for the 

1 BOTTICHER, Die Tektonik der Hellenen, Bd. n, $ 41, 44, 48. ' 

2 WILKINSON, Ancient Egyptians, vol. m, pp. 349-51. 
'PERBOT and CHIPIEZ, Egypte, p. 351. 
*PRISSE\D'AVENNES, Histoire de I' Art egyptienne, pp. 409-10. 



origin of the krepidoma, we might suppose it to be a reminiscence of 
the terraced pyramids of Babylonia and Assyria. 5 But none of the 
distinctive features of these temple-bases 6 are reproduced in the Greek. 
In the Babylonian type, the successive stages are of different forms and 
are not superposed upon a central axis. In the Assyrian type, the 
ground-plan is square, and the ascent to the temple-cella is by means 
of a spiral ramp. An arched base appears, in one Assyrian relief, as 
the lowest stage of one of these terraced pyramids. 7 Neither is there 
anything in the Doric krepidoma to suggest the panelled decoration 
or the coloring by which Mesopotamian temple-bases were character- 
ized. But in Egypt we find closer analogues. There are many in- 
stances of a sacred structure set upon a plinth and reached by a flight 
of steps in front. Such are the little chapels over tombs at Sakkarah, 
and the little temples at Elephantine. 8 Nor do we need to look out- 
side of Egypt for the stepped pyramidal form, for it is found in the 
mastaba-pyramids of the ancient empire. 9 So far as the krepidoma is 
concerned, then, it is not necessarily a reminiscence of non-Egyptian 
forms. As for the peripteral character, this does not remind us of the 
ordinary disposition of the Egyptian temples, which are surrounded 
by heavy walls. However, Egypt, as early as the xvni dynasty, was 
not without examples of peripteral temples, such as those at Elephan- 
tin6 and El Kab, 10 and was acquainted with the form in antis and 
prostylos, as these same examples show. Moreover, the sanctuary in the 
larger Egyptian temples was usually surrounded by a passage-way, cor- 
responding to the Greek pteroma. It has been customary, ever since the 
days of Yitruvius, to see in the peripteral huts of Lykia the prototypes 
of the Doric temple. 11 But, if we set aside its peripteral character, what 
a gigantic effort of the fancy is required to evolve from the Lykian 
hut all the other peculiarities of Doric architecture ! Even when we 
mention the gable roof, a form of structure unnecessary under cloudless 
southern skies, but practically universal in more northern climates, it 
is not to Assyria that we look for prototypes, for ruins and basreliefs 

5 This is suggested by REBER, History of Ancient Art, p. 220. 

6 PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Assyrie, c. iv. 7 Ibid., fig. 34. 

8 PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Egypte, figs. 190, 230. 

9 The stepped pyramid of Sakkarah is considered by Mariette to be the oldest 
building in the world : MARIETTE, Itineraire de la Haute-Eyypte, p. 77. 

10 MASPERO', L' Archeologie egyptienne, p. 66 ff. 

11 This theory is given in detail in HITTORF and ZANTH, Architecture antique de la 
Sidle, liv. VT. 


there show us horizontal-roofed structures and but one example of the 
gable roof, and that on a basrelief representing an Armenian temple. 
But the Egyptians of the xn dynasty were acquainted with the gable 
roof, as may be inferred from the gabled ceilings in some of the tombs 
at Beni-Hassan 12 and from the pyramidal-roofed chapels of the Abydos 
tombs of the same period. 13 We are not, then, compelled to assume 
either an indigenous or an Asiatic origin for Doric architecture, since 
all of its essential elements may have come to Greece from Egypt cen- 
turies before the primitive Dorians emigrated from their mountain 
homes in Thessaly. 

In considering the elevation of the Doric temple, we may notice, as 
a peculiar and unnecessary characteristic, the inward slant given to 
the walls and to the peripteral columns. Structurally, there was no 
necessity for this ; nor does there seem to have been sufficient optical 

FIG. 7. Middle Temple of akropolis of Selinous. 

ground for such a peculiarity. We may notice, also, that it is found 
in the older Doric temples, but does not occur in the Ionic buildings. 
Are we to suppose that the more refined lonians were not endowed 
with as keen vision as the ruder Dorians, and that they built perpen- 
dicular walls and set their columns vertically because their visual sense 
was dull ? We cannot believe it, though an ancient Egyptian might. 
He was trained to see the walls of temples slant inward, as the sur- 
faces of a truncated wedge. This made his structures models of solidity, 
and the Dorians perpetuated the tradition in peripteral buildings, where 
it had not the same significance. The inward slant in columnar struc- 
tures supporting architraves was a source of weakness, not of strength, 
and it consequently diminishes in the more fully developed style. 

12 Monumenti deW Institute, vol. n, pi. 45 ; PROKESCH, Erinnerungen aits Aegypten 
u. Kleinasien, n, p. 21. 

"PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Egypte, figs. 160-2. 



In their ground-plan, also, the earlier Doric temples resemble the 
Egyptian more closely than do the later ones. If we compare the 
ground-plan of Selinous Temple C (Fig. 7) with the plan of the ancient 
granite temple at Karnak, 14 we find a similar elongated cella with its 
triple division into pronaos, thesauros and adyton. The ratio of the 
shorter to the longer sides is nearly the same, both are entered from 
one end only, and they lack the columns and antae in front. As it 
is possible, however, that the closeness of this resemblance may be due 
to the restorations made at Karnak by Philip Arrhidaios, it is more 
to our purpose to observe that Doric temples preserve a reminiscence 
of the outer courts (Fig. 8) of the Egyptian temples, as well as of the 
innermost sanctuary. Of the Egyptian peristyle-court we find a close 
copy in the peristyle-court in front of the megaron of the royal palaces 
at Tiryns and Mykenai ; and the vestibule (aWovo-a SCO/JLCLTOS) of the 
megaron seems to correspond to the Egyptian hypostyle-court. And in 



FIG. S.^Southern Temple of Karnak. 

Doric temples may we not see a reminiscence of the peristyle-court in the 
peristyle encircling the cella ? The necessity of a peristyle-court had 
disappeared with the growth of the democratic spirit. The sanctuary 
of the divinity is brought into the very centre of the court of the peo- 
ple. This disposition was also more practical in a rolling country 
where temples were set on constructed bases. Why did the thrifty 
Dorians build useless rows of expensive columns around their tem- 
ples, unless some significance such as this lay buried deep in their 
religious traditions ? The Egyptian hypostyle hall, with its forest of 
columns, was still more non-essential to the Greeks, and could well 
be omitted, being a separate, distinctly marked part of the temple 
organism. But even this, according to the hypothesis we have ven- 
tured to propound, leaves a reminiscence of itself in the unnecessary 
row of columns in front of the pronaos, as is seen especially in Selinous 

14 Description de Vfigypte, vol. in, pi. 21. 


Temples (7, S. 15 That this identification is correct would seem to be 
substantiated by the unnecessary elevation of the pronaos above the 
peristyle, and of the inner divisions of the cella above the pronaos. 
Thus, at Selinous Temple C, we proceed from the peristyle up two steps 
to the pronaos, then four steps to the thesauros, and again one step 
to the adyton, as in the temple of Khons at Karnak we mount four 
steps from peristyle to hypostyle hall and one step to the sanctuary. 

In methods of workmanship we find among the early Greeks many 
points in common with the Egyptians. Mr. J. T. Clarke writes in 
the American Journal of Archaeology (vol. n, p. 278) : The Egyptian 
origin of many of the methods of quarrying, cutting and lifting large 
blocks of stone, in use among the Greeks, becomes more and more cer- 
tain as our acquaintance with the architectural remains of these coun- 
tries increases. To take one instance among many: the peculiar method 
of employing the lewis, observable in early Hellenic buildings (witness the 
temple ofAssos), is the same as that which appears upon Egyptian re- 
liefs, and is recognizable among the debris of Egyptian quarries. We 
may add to this the similarity in the mode of bonding stones by means 
of clamps, 16 of laying the trapezoidal blocks in horizontal courses, 17 of 
the use of a projecting socle with or without an ornamental base- 
moulding, 18 of the inward slant and diminution of the cella-walls, 
and, finally, the covering of the stone with stucco to secure a surface 
for polychromatic decoration. 

Of all the points of resemblance between Greek and Egyptian archi- 
tectural peculiarities, more attention has been bestowed upon the chan- 
nelling of the columns than upon any other, until it has become almost 
a commonplace of the text-books to assume that the polygonal chan- 
nelled shafts of Beni-Hassan are the prototypes of the Doric, and yet 
the channelling is almost the only peculiarity which these two modes 
of support have in common. The polygonal shaft is evolved from 
lithic antecedents, 19 the simplest form of which is the square pier : it 
has an abacus but no capital. The Doric column differs essentially 

15 In the absence of an appropriate name for these columns, may we not venture 
to call them the hypostyle columns ? 

16 DURM, Baukunst der Griechen, p. 43. " Ibid., p. 46. 

18 Of. PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Egypte, n, figs. 131, 132 ; DURM, Bank. d. Or., p. 56. 

19 W. S. PRATT, The Columnar Architecture of the Egyptians, in Proc. of Amer. Acad. 
of Arts and Sciences, vol. xv, p. 313 ff. Mr. Pratt proves conclusively that the Doric 
column is not derived from the polygonal shaft at Beni-Hassan, but hastily rejects as 
absurd a suggestion of its derivation from the commoner type of Egyptian column. 


from this. It has a strong tapering character, diminishing toward the 
top : the polygonal shaft has a very slight diminution. 20 The column 
has an entasis, which gives it a curvilinear profile : the polygonal shaft, 
so far as we know, has no entasis. The column has a neck with incised 
annuli, and a capital consisting of a strongly curved echinus with raised 
annuli : the polygonal shaft has neither neck nor annuli nor echinus. 
All of these peculiarities betray the ultimate though not immediate 
derivation of the Doric column from wooden prototypes, and are found 
in the Egyptian so-called lotiform columns, 21 which may be more prop- 
erly named reed-bundle columns. As we know that reed-bundle col- 
umns are used to this day in Egypt, Mesopotamia and India, 22 we find 
here a natural explanation for this class of columns. The strong dimi- 
nution is accounted for by the natural tapering of the reeds ; the an- 
nuli are bands by which the bundle of reeds is bound together ; the 
echinus of the capital and the entasis of the shaft represent the natural 
yielding of the bundle of reeds, which would be found just above the 
points where they are held together, when sustaining the weight of a 
heavy entablature (Fig. 9). Professor Lepsius 23 emphasizes the deri- 
vation of the Doric (Fig. 10) from the reed-bundle column of Egypt, 
but believes that the one feature of channelling was borrowed from 
the polygonal shaft. But, if we may trust the apparently careful 
drawing in Prisse d' Avennes of the details of the temple at Gournah 
(he calls it Menephtehum) (Fig. 11\ we see that the Egyptians them- 
selves, by the time of Seti I, had begun to channel the reed-bundle 
column. It should not surprise us, therefore, that the Greeks did 
the same. The inner order of columns of the temple at Gournah are 
decorated with sculptured figures, suggesting to our minds the co- 
lumnce ccelatce of Ionian architecture. We make a further observation 
in connection with this temple. The columns have bases, but the 
intercolumniations are filled in with blocks of stone up to the level of 
the bases of the columns. This diminishes the effect of the huge bases 
and suggests the improvement made by the Greeks in omitting the 
bases altogether. 24 

The Ionic capital is less directly but no less truly of Egyptian ori- 

80 PRATT, ibid., pp. 323-4. 

11 PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Egypte, figs. 76, 78. p RATTj M<> p< 346 . 

* 3 Annali d. Inst. Arch, di Roma, 1837, and Abh. Berl. Akad., 187 1. 
24 It is highly probable that the earliest Doric columns were provided with bases : 
See CLARKE, A Doric Shaft and Base found atAssos, AJA, u, p. 267. 


gin, having been derived, as Professor W. H. Goodyear has shown 
(AJAj m, p. 271 ff.), from a conventional lotus-flower, which, as a 
decorative form, had spread in very early times from one end of the 
Mediterranean to the other. Even the Corinthian capital may be best 
explained as a variation of the Egyptian calyx-capital, in which the 
Greek acanthus has been substituted for Egyptian floral decoration. 25 

FIG. 10. 
Doric Column. 

FIG. 11. 

Reed-bundle Column at 
Goumah. (Seti I). 

FIG. 9. 

Reed-bundle Column. 

In every instance, the Greek capitals exhibit forms which, as such, 
may attract our attention as more beautiful, geometrically more exact, 
and artistically further advanced ; but the naturalistic starting-point 
is found in Egypt. 

It is sometimes admitted (as by Reber in his History of Ancient Art) 
that the Greek column is of Egyptian origin, while it is still main- 

85 This was suggested, in 1803, by QUATREMERE DE QUINCY, De I' Architecture 
egyptienne, p. 251. 



tained that the entablature is not. But it is not difficult to discover 
in the Greek entablature some reminiscences of an Egyptian ancestry. 
The Egyptian entablature consisted of architrave and cornice. Let 
us assume that the earliest Greek entablatures consisted of these two 
members only, and that the separation of frieze and cornice was a later 
development. We may then see in the Greek entablature a distinct 
reminiscence of an Egyptian prototype. The Egyptian cornice con- 
sisted of three elements : a torus-moulding, above which was a scotia 
or concave member, and above this a flat corona (Fig. 12). In the 
Greek entablature, the round torus-moulding is replaced by a square 

FIG. 12. Egyptian Cornice. 

FIG. IS. Entablature of Selinous Temple C. 

fillet, but the change had not been completely established when 
Selinous Temple C was built, for the square fillet here has a round 
moulding embedded in its central line (Fig. 13). The Egyptian scotia, 
which gave a horizontal line of shadow below the corona, is replaced in 
the Greek entablature by the triglyphal frieze. This retains the like- 
ness of its ancestry in presenting a division into triglyphs and metopes, 
similar in form and color to decorations of the Egyptian cornice, and 
resembles it, also, in the horizontal line of shadow resulting from the 
overhanging cornice. It diverges from its Egyptian prototype in sub- 
stituting an acute angle for the curved scotia. Even this substitution 
had not been completely made in Selinous Temple C, where the upper 


part of the triglyphs are slightly but distinctly curved. The chief ele- 
ment in the Greek cornice, the corona, resembles the crowning member 
of the Egyptian. It may be objected, that it is simpler to suppose the 
Greek entablature a mere translation into stone of preexisting wooden 
forms of construction. But, as a matter of fact, the actual ceiling- 
beams, of which the triglyphs are supposed to represent the decorated 
ends, do not correspond, either in position or arrangement, with the 
triglyphs. Again, the triglyphal frieze, if a translation of wooden 
forms, presupposes the previous existence of a horizontal ceiling. But 
the earliest Greek temples seem not to have been horizontally ceiled, 
for roofing-tiles painted on both sides, found at Selinous Temple S, 
indicate a gable, not a horizontal ceiling. The mutules, also, which 
correspond more nearly, in their position above the frieze, to the actual 
ceiling-beams, preserve by their form the suggestion of a sloping roof, 
even on the short sides of the temple, where that suggestion has no 
corresponding structural significance. So that they who assume an 
indigenous origin for the triglyphal frieze may be forced to admit that 
it is not an immediate translation into stone of previous wooden con- 
struction, but is composed in a purely decorative manner. Assuming, 
then, the fundamentally decorative character of the triglyphal frieze, 
we find several points of correspondence with its Egyptian ancestral 
form. The continuous row of leaves, which ordinarily decorates the 
Egyptian cornice, is frequently broken into successive groups, each 
composed of three leaves, corresponding to triglyphs, while the other- 
wise decorated intervening spaces may be compared to metopes. In 
Egyptian, Assyrian, and Phoenician industrial art, many instances may 
be found of this metopal method of decoration. When this arrange- 
ment occurs in architecture, the decoration at the temple corners is made 
in Egypt by a group of three leaves, as in Doric by the corner triglyph. 
Again, the leaves are incised and have curvilinear termini, as have the 
grooves of early Doric triglyphs : in Egypt, the leaves were painted blue, 
the color invariably used for Doric triglyphs. A general correspondence 
between the Doric frieze and the Egyptian cornice was observed at the 
end of the last century and was rejected, as a mere superficial resem- 
blance, by QuatremSre de Quincy. It was more thoroughly recognized 
by Hans Auer in a careful series of papers on the significance of trig- 
lyphs. 26 To the same writer we are indebted for having noted the fol- 

Zeitschrift f. bild. Kunst, 1880. 


lowing correspondences between the proportions in Egyptian and Doric 

i. Egyptian. (1) The height of the columns varies from 4-4 J lower 
diameters in the monuments of the earliest period to 6-6 f in the latest : 
when Egyptian architecture was most flourishing (Karnak and Luxor), 
the prevailing norm was 5-5J 1. d. (2) The intercolumniation varies 
from 1 and 1 J to 2 lower diameters : in the middle period it is almost 
regularly 1J. (3) The height of the architrave including the torus 
moulding varies from f-f 1. d., that of the entire cornice from 1 J to 
If 1. d. The axenweite, or distance from centre to centre of the col- 
umns, compared with the entire height of the order, varies from 1 :2f 
to 1:3}. 

ii. Doric. (1) Columnar height in lower diameters : 4^ Corinth, 
5.48 Parthenon, 5.68 Theseion, 6-6J Portico at Delos and Stoa at 
Athens. (2) Intercolumniation: 1J Corinth, .98-1.1 Old Parthenon, 
1.26 New Parthenon, 1.64 Theseion, 2-2| Delos. (3) Height of archi- 
trave in lower diameters : i Corinth, f Old Parthenon, ^ New Par- 
thenon, TIT Theseion, f Stoa at Athens. The normal height of the 
entablature, with or without the kymation, is 2 lower diameters. The 
average norm for the relation of the axis-distance to the height of the 
order is 1:3. 

These proportions hold for the reed-bundle order of Egyptian archi- 
tecture and not for the polygonal columnar system, an interesting fact 
in discussing the origin of the Doric column. It may also be observed 
that the line of development in Greece is the same as that in Egypt. 

Before leaving the entablature we may remark that it is not easy 
to see the exact historical significance of the regulae below and the 
mutules above the frieze with their trunnels or guttce. If of Egyp- 
tian origin, are they to be connected with the dentils, such as those 
which appear over the architraves at Beni-Hassan, or with the pen- 
dent lotus-buds which hang from the wooden royal pavilions, 27 or with 
the decorations which sometimes adorn the architraves ? 28 None of 
these suggestions seem to be satisfactory; so, we leave the problem 
of their origin undetermined, remarking merely that the modern 
wooden-peg and the ancient rain-drop hypotheses do not give us any 
further light. 

There is a structural peculiarity in Doric architecture which has 

* 7 PRISSE D' AVENNES, Plates, Constructions en bois. 
S8 QuATREMERE DE QuiNCY, Arch, egypt., pi. 7, figs. 46, 49. 


received considerable attention, especially from English observers 
the curvature of horizontal surfaces. 29 It is found in the rock-cut base 
of the archaic temple at Corinth, and on both base and entablature of 
the Poseidon temple at Paestum, as well as in the more refined build- 
ings at Athens the Theseion, the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and 
the temple of Zeus Olympios. It would seem as if we might admit 
that at least this peculiarity was developed by Greek rhythmical sense, 
for it is nothing short of a generalization, through the whole structure, 
of the columnar entasis. But even here the Egyptian architect had 
set the fashion. Rosellini, in describing one of the tombs at Beni- 
Hassan, 30 calls attention to the fact, that the surfaces of the gable- 
ceiling are not flat but are slightly curved, and Pennethorne 31 has 
observed and measured the curvature of the architraves of the inner 
court of Medinet Abou. 32 

Painted ornaments and sculptured mouldings also exhibit a strong 
Egyptian imprint. We do not need to look so far back as the painted 
walls at Tiryns and the sculptured ceiling at Orchomenos for reminis- 
cences of Egypt in Greek decorative design. The spiral and square 
maeander, the palmette and rosette, and the star upon a blue ground, 
are well-known Egyptian motives. 33 Similarly, the astragal and the 
egg and dart, the heart-ornament and the ox-mask, may be traced back 
to the earliest dynasties of the Egyptian empire. 34 

Our aim has been, to merely point out the many indications of rela- 
tionship between Egyptian and Doric architecture, not to determine 
the exact historical relation between them. But we may here recall 
the fact, that Thothmes III conquered the Greek islands 35 and that, for 
the two centuries from the reign of Seti I to that of Rameses III, Pe- 
lasgian tribes invaded Egypt, and with them were Achaians, Lykians, 
Etruscans (Tyrseni or Tyrrheni) and Siculi ; x and that, during the 

29 PENROSE, Principles of Athenian Architecture; PENNETHORNE, The Geometry and 
Optics of Ancient Architecture. 

30 Mon. Civ., vol. i, p. 70, quoted by LEPSIUS, loc. cit., p. 89, Note 1 . 

91 Op. cit., pt. in, ch. ii. 

38 At Medinet Abou, the curvature of the architrave is horizontal, instead of verti- 
cal as in Greece. 

33 PEISSE D'AVENNES, Plates, Ornamentation des Plafonds. 

34 DIEULAFOY, L'Art antiq. de la Perse, pt. 3, p. 61. 

35 MASPERO, Histoire ancienne des peuples de V Orient, p. 206. 

36 The famous inscription from Karnak, recording the conquest of Menephtah over 
the Lebu, Kehak, Mashuasha, Tulsha, Leka, Akaiouasha, Shardana and Shakalasha, 


reign of Menephtah, they settled there, until the king complained 
" They have established themselves; the days and months roll by and 
they still remain." 37 We then find the palaces of Achaian princes and 
the Mykenai type of art saturated with Egyptian influence. Through 
such monuments in the Peloponnesos and in the Greek islands, the 
Dorians, from the first moment of their conquest, came into contact 
with semi-Egyptian architectural and decorative forms. Through the 
Phoenicians, also, they received an inspiration of similar character, 
until, in the seventh and sixth centuries, direct relations with Egypt 
were fully established. 

To summarize our results we have found reminiscences of Egypt 
in Doric temple-architecture in the temenos with its sacred trees and 
springs and altar ; we have seen that the temple-base, the peripteral 
supports, and the gable roof, are not necessarily non-Egyptian forms ; 
we have found that the Greek preserves the Egyptian methods of 
construction, even to the use of slanting walls and stuccoed columns ; 
that the temple-plan shows reminiscences of the peristyle and hypo- 
style halls, as well as of the sanctuary ; that the diminution, entasis, 
echinus, and annuli of the Doric shaft may be best explained upon the 
hypothesis of an Egyptian origin, and that the Ionic and Corinthian 
capitals became intelligible in the same way ; that the Doric entabla- 
ture, by both the form and the color of its triglyphal frieze, betrays 
its relationship to the Egyptian cornice ; and that the ordinary details, 
whether sculptured mouldings or painted ornament, are mere varia- 
tions of well-known Egyptian forms. 


Princeton College. 

has been variously interpreted. De Rouge", Chabas, Lenorrnant, Masp^ro, Curtius, 
and Brugsch favor a combination of Libyan with northern peoples. On the other 
hand, Unger, Duncker, Hals' vy, and Wiedemann interpret them all as Libyan tribes. 
SeeWiEDmiAmx,AegyptischeGeschichte, 13 Kap., 37. 
37 LENORMANT, Histoire ancienne de I' Orient, vol. u, ch. rv, 6. 


The following paper 1 has the special purpose of measuring the 
reverence paid to each Greek divinity by means of the number of 
temples dedicated to its worship ; and, secondly, of showing in what 
parts of Hellas temples were most numerous, and what deduction 
can be drawn therefrom in regard to the relative size of Greek 
towns. Many shrines and temples have undoubtedly vanished with- 
out leaving any tradition of their existence, so that, on this account 
alone, data about Hellenic temples are necessarily incomplete. Most 
of the temples with which we are acquainted lie scattered through the 
whole volume of Greek literature ; thickly sown in some places, in 
others, again, so sparsely that the labor of collecting them would 
hardly be repaid by the greater exactness of the results. 

An average has been sought by examining representative records 
of three general classes. First, the ancient geographers : they, espe- 
cially such as are animated by an antiquarian spirit, give the best and 
fullest information. Second, historians, who often notice, rather by 
chance than otherwise, a shrine or temple because it was the scene of some 
action they describe. Finally, inscriptions, especially public decrees, 
usually contain a clause directing that they shall be set up in some 
shrine, where they would be more secure than elsewhere. The chief 
source of information has been Pausanias. He mentions perhaps three 
times as many temples as any other ancient writer, and consequently 
our knowledge of most Greek temples represents them as they stood 
in the light of the second century A. D. But Pausanias does not ex- 
tend beyond Greece itself, so, in order to fill out the picture for the 
colonies, Strabo has to be put under contribution, and this especially 
for his native country, Asia Minor. The authors termed collectively 
Geographi Minor es, and theDe Urbibus of Stephanos of Byzantion add 
a few temples not mentioned by Pausanias and Strabo. The historians 
Herodotos, Thoukydides, and Xenophon supply almost nothing, but 
Polybios and Diodoros give a considerable number not mentioned by 

x The preparation of this paper was suggested to me, while Fellow in Archaeology 
at Princeton College, by Professor Marquand. Although the collection of materials on 
which it rests is not exhaustive, it is believed to be sufficient to justify its conclusions. 



the others : Diodoros does so especially for his native country, Sicily. 
The inscriptions that have been put under contribution are those con- 
tained in the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, the Corpus Inscriptionum 
Atticarum, and in the publications of the French and German Schools 
at Athens. From these various sources there have been gathered no- 
tices of over 1300 temples and shrines, of which certainly 1280 are 
attributed to some divinity. These are probably quite sufficient to 
show how Greek temples were distributed among the various divini- 
ties. As a second object the same collection may be used, though with 
less certainty, to show how the temples were scattered over the Greek 
world, and in what spots they were specially numerous. 

First, then, in regard to the divinities to whose worship Greek tem- 
ples and shrines are usually consecrated. APOLLON stands at the head 
of all. Artemis and he together have more shrines than any other 
three divinities. Apollon is held in special honor in the Greek Islands 
(chiefly Krete, Delos, Rhodos), which devote twenty percent of their 
temples to him. The coast towns of Asia Minor, more particularly 
those of the Troad, come next in preferring him, and after them North- 
ern Greece ; but the Peloponnesos has more temples of Artemis, and 
also of ATHENA, who comes third in rank. Besides receiving the greatest 
number, Apollon also seems to have had the richest shrines, and no 
other god could show such treasures as were preserved at Branchidai, 
Delos, and Delphoi when these towns were in their glory. ARTEMIS 
is the second in general favor, although Athena has rather more tem- 
ples in the Islands (except Krete) and in Northern Greece. The wor- 
ship of Artemis is most prevalent in Arkadia, Elis, and Achaia, where 
hunting was better than in other parts of Greece and agriculture less 
good. Ephesos may have been her most famous shrine, but Lydia as 
a whole seems to have given equal honor to Athena. ZEUS, the fourth 
deity, is mostly represented in the Doric Islands. Sicily, Krete, and 
Rhodos give him about fifteen percent of their temples ; and he is there 
second only to Apollon. Karia comes next after the Islands, but the 
Ionic and Aiolic parts of Asia Minor are less favorable to him. On 
the mainland of Greece, Boiotia, Arkadia, and Lakonike" give him 
many shrines ; but Messenia only one, and Phokis none at all. APHRO- 
DITE, the nfth, has most of her shrines in Argolis, Arkadia, and Attika. 
She v is but slightly represented in the Islands (except the half-Hel- 
lenized Kypros), and rarely also in Lakonik6, Messenia, and Phokis. 
DEMETER, the sixth in degree of favor, has her home in Boiotia, Arka- 


dia, and Attika ; though her temples are also sparsely found in Ar- 
golis and the district around Korinthos. DIONYSOS comes next after 
Demeter in number of shrines, and, besides this, he is worshipped in 
much the same localities, as might be expected from his connection 
with the mysteries. ASKLEPIOS, the eighth, closely follows Dionysos, 
but belongs almost wholly to the Peloponnesos, especially to Lako- 
nike 1 , Messenia, and Arkadia. In Boiotia, he seems to have had no 
shrine at all, and is only slightly represented in Phokis, Krete, and 
Attika. POSEIDON is worshipped chiefly in Achaia and Argolis, but 
in general his worship is widely scattered. HERA, the tenth, is honored 
in Argolis and the district of Korinthos, as well as in the Italic col- 
onies. KYBELE is naturally frequent in Lydia and Mysia, but sporadic 
and at distant intervals in Greece. HERAKLES, the twelfth, is mostly 
honored in Boiotia, where he is quite as frequent as any of the greater 
deities. His cult seems altogether absent from Argolis (precinct of 
Hera), and is very rare elsewhere. EILEITHYIA is found chiefly in Ar- 
golis, Achaia, and Krete. Less than one percent of all the temples 
belong to the DIOSKOUROI, who have shrines in Argolis, Arkadia, 
and Lakonike 1 . TYCHE prevails in Korinthos and Argolis, and usu- 
ally represents the Roman Fortuna. HERMES occurs several times 
in Boiotia and Arkadia, but is otherwise very rare. PAN is honored 
in Arkadia and Attika ; KORE in Italy and Sicily, but elsewhere her 
shrines are much scattered, and she is in most cases counted with 
Demeter, since they often have a temple in common. ARES is found 
to prevail in Argolis and Attika, PLOUTON in Elis, the MOIRAI in Lako- 
nik, GE in Attika and Lakonike". The other gods, goddesses, and 
heroes are too rare to merit separate mention. Foreign gods repre- 
sented by Isis, Sarapis, Atargatis, Men, and several others have not 
been counted. Their shrines are about ^th of the whole number in 
the late period to which our sources belong. In regard to rank, thirty- 
four percent of all the shrines and temples belong to secondary divini- 
ties ; sixty-six percent to the twelve greater gods. The minor heroes 
(excluding Herakles by this term) are found to be very frequent in 
Lakonike and Attika. Sparta has some twenty-eight heroa, and 
Athens sixteen, but in the other states they are comparatively rare. 

In regard to the sex of the divinities, just the same number of tem- 
ples and shrines belong to goddesses as to gods. Of the twelve greater 
deities, more belong to goddesses : namely, fifty-seven percent to forty- 


three. 2 In the hero-class it is found that almost all are male ; and 
shrines of heroines, such as Helena and Kassandra, are quite rare. 

Our second point was to consider the distribution of shrines and 
temples over the districts and towns of Greece, and the indications 
thus given of their population. In view of our lack of information 
about the size of most of the smaller towns, the number of shrines 
becomes almost the only available basis for conjecture as to their 
relative magnitude, and this, owing to the lateness of our sources, 
chiefly for the period immediately before and after the Christian era. 
Against the accuracy of this proportion it may be urged that we are 
not acquainted with the whole number of temples ; that they often exist 
long after the population of the town has greatly decreased. Some 
temples are situated on uninhabited mountains or in very secluded spots ; 
and others, like the temple of Artemis at Ephesos, seem to absorb all 
the religious energy of the community and leave no room for the growth 
of minor shrines. Temples were sometimes built in obedience to ora- 
cles or dreams, and in such cases would seem to be not at all dependent 
upon population. 

These objections are to some extent valid, but, though they impair, 
do not entirely destroy the truth of the proposition, that, in general, 
the number of temples is in proportion to the number of people. We 
have no detailed account of the temples in Asia such as there is for 
Greece, so that only in the mother-country can any argument as to 
population be safely drawn from the number of known temples. Pau- 
sanias has given us the names of so many shrines that it is probable 
we have almost all of those above a certain size in the districts over 
which his guide-book carries us. He occasionally mentions a temple 
in ruins ; and, no doubt, the name clung for a long time to the site 
after the worshippers were gone. Consequently, the number of temples 
is more strictly related to the population of a town at a period somewhat 
before the time when Pausanias visited it. If a town had been burnt 
or razed, then the temples would date back to its most flourishing period 
since that catastrophe. Thus, our list of Greek temples would seem 
to show that it represented the condition of Greece rather before the 

* This excess of shrines dedicated to goddesses may show that the majority of wor- 
shippers were women, at least in this late period of Greek history to which Pausanias 
and Strabo belong. The extent to which the convenience of women was consulted 
in religions matters at this time is illustrated by the objection which Vitruvius (m.2) 
had to the so-called pycnostyle temple; viz., that women had to let go each others 
arms in passing between its crowded columns. 


Christian era, perhaps as much as one or two centuries before, inasmuch 
as temples to the emperors and to various foreign gods were presum- 
ably the only new ones built after the beginning of the empire. 

Taking the statistics for the various districts of Greece, Lakonik 
is found to be in the front with 155 temples and shrines ; next come 
Arkadia with 145, Attika with 133, Argolis with 116, Boiotia with 
70, Achaia and Korinthos with about 68 each, and then, in order, 
Elis, Messenia, Phokis, Lokris (including the smaller Greek states), 
and Thessaly. The importance of Lakonik6 and Arkadia is to be ex- 
pected, on account of their large size and the great number of towns 
they contain. Then, too, they were more remote from attack by land ; 
and, during the conquest of Greece by Macedon and Rome, Sparta and 
the larger Arkadian towns resisted just enough to make terms with the 
conquerors, but not enough to enrage them. Thebes and Korinthos, 
on the other hand, had been entirely destroyed ; and Athens had been 
greatly injured when stormed by Sulla. 

The number of temples in the larger cities of each Greek state is as 
follows : Sparta 84, Athens 71, Argos 36, Megalopolis 32, Megara 26, 
Sikyon and Hermione 23 each, Patrai 20, Tegea 19, Korinthos, Troi- 
zen, and Olympia 17 each, Thebes and Mantineia 16 each. Only the 
acropolis of Thebes was inhabited during this period, and the city 
itself had shrunk more than any other capital in Greece, whereas Leba- 
deia and Tanagra had risen to be important towns. As if in confir- 
mation of this historical tradition, the number of their temples places 
them second and fourth among the towns of Boiotia. Megara, to judge 
by its temples, was then the fifth city in Greece ; a position it probably 
owes in part to the favor of Hadrian. Sikyon may have grown in popu- 
lation at the expense of Korinthos, as it did in territory ; since, accord- 
ing to the number of its shrines, it was larger than its neighbor, although 
Korinth was the seat of the Roman government in Greece. Strabo 
(377), in a passage where he is evidently speaking of the Peloponne- 
sos, calls Argos the city next in rank to Sparta. Megalopolis he con- 
siders the largest city in Arkadia ; and this must have been especially 
true at a somewhat earlier period than that for which he writes. Next 
after Megalopolis came Tegea, but Mantineia and the other Arkadian 
towns he describes as already falling in ruins. In Argolis, both Her- 
mione and Troizen are described (373) as very considerable (ov/c ao-rjfjLoi) 
cities. In regard to the size of the smaller cities of Greece, we are in 
most cases left without any historical statements ; so that the number 


of temples they contain is almost the only clue there is by which to 
determine their relative importance. By the number of temples a city 
contains, erroneous impressions as to its size may perhaps also be cor- 
rected. Thus, Delphoi and Eleusis, on account of their fame and im- 
portance in Greek history, might be considered large towns ; but the 
few temples they possessed point to a very small resident population. 

In regard to the Greek Islands and colonies, our information about 
the temples is far less complete. Such as it is, it shows Sicily at the 
head, with Krete next, though at some distance below. After these 
two islands come Aigina, Rhodos, Euboia, Delos, Lesbos, and Samos, 
in this order : but probably Aigina owes its high position to the fact 
that it alone is described by Pausanias, while the others depend on less 
thorough sources. Of the cities in Asia Minor, Smyrna leads, and after 
it comes Pergamon, followed by Kyzikos, Halikarnassos, My lasa,Mile- 
tos, Teos, Erythrai. It is from Tacitus (Ann., iv.55) that we obtain 
the best view of the condition of these towns under the Empire. He 
relates an occurrence of A. D. 23, when eleven of them sued for per- 
mission to erect a temple to Tiberius. Tralleis, Laodikeia, Ilion, and 
some others, were immediately rejected as too small, when the dispute 
was referred to the senate. Halikarnassos, Pergamon, Ephesos, and 
Miletos were passed over with greater hesitation ; and finally, after 
setting aside Sardeis, the coveted honor fell to Smyrna. Kyzikos did 
not compete, as belonging in another province, although Strabo (575) 
says it was among the first cities of Asia. If the colonies be rated by 
larger districts, Lydiais found to have some 50 temples, Mysia 40, Karia 
32. The rest of Asia Minor supplies 38, colonies north of the Black Sea 
12, Thrace, Makedonia, and Epeiros 38. 

In conclusion, it may be well to point out what seem to be the chief 
result of these statistics. The importance of Apollon, Artemis, and 
Athena is especially to be noticed ; and, in comparison, the inferior 
position of Zeus, their nominal ruler, and of Hera, his queen. Out- 
side of the twelve greater gods, Apol Ion's son Asklepios receives the 
most honor. Without laying stress on the exact number of temples 
in any district or town, it may be safely concluded that their distribu- 
tion throws some general light on the obscure movements of the Greek 
people which took place after their loss of freedom. 

Princeton College. 


M. H. Bazin published in the Revue ArcMologique, in 1886, 1 a re- 
markable marble relief, which was found at Marseilles in 1838 and 
is now in the Musee Calvet at Avignon. 2 This monument (Fig. 14) 
measures about half a metre in height and presents in very high relief 
(almost sculpture in the round) a stiff figure of a divinity standing 
upright with right hand raised and left hand formerly stretched for- 
ward ; to the right and left of the figure are two small standing bulls. 
Bazin thinks there can be no doubt that we have here a Roman copy 
of a very old Greek statue, and he believes, on account of the broad 
and heavy forms, that the original belonged to the art of Ionia. The 
divinity certainly stands in a stiff, archaic fashion, and the peculiar 
costume also impresses us as archaic, or, better still, as strange. A 
broad garment, flowing down to the feet, covers the body ; over this, 
enclosing the body like a coat of mail, and giving to it the appearance 
of a herma, is a covering which in turn is ornamented with a central 
herma and six busts arranged in three bands ; below this sheath, upon 
the garment, is a lion-head. Around the neck is a heavy necklace 
formed of dolphins ; the hair is arranged in peculiar locks, which 
remind M. Bazin of coins of Juba from Mauritania, and which resem- 
ble also other representations of barbarians, especially Egyptians. The 
head is crowned with a flaring kalathos. 

The late character of all this decoration has not escaped M. Bazin, 
but he considers it the arbitrary work of the copyist. He believes 
the type of the statue to be old and genuine, and that it represents 
Artemis Diktynna, who swings in her (now destroyed) right hand a 
knife, about to slay the bulls which stand beside her. He considers 
that this substantiates the meaning of the name Artemis given by 
Robert, 3 and proves, furthermore, that it was Diktynna, and not the 
Ephesian Artemis, who was brought by the Phokaians from their 
mother-country. It is unnecessary to examine here the further con- 

1 Troisteme serie, viu, pi. 26, p. 257. 

"STARK gave a brief notice of it in the Arch. Anzeiger, 1853, p. 365. 
3 PREFER, Oriechische Mythologies, i, p. 296, 2; STTTDNICZKA, Kyrene,p. 154, 77. 
5 65 


sequences drawn by M. Bazin. So far as I am aware, only Robert 4 
has expressed his agreement with Bazin ; and the only objection raised 
has been by Paris, 5 and in this case only to the appellation Diktynna, 
since he prefers to see in it the Ephesian Artemis, as did Stark (see 
Note 1). 

In my opinion, this interesting monument requires an entirely dif- 
ferent explanation. This is made possible by means of the relief 

FIG. U. High-relief of Zeus Heliopolites, fvund at Marseilles in 18'38. 

figured in the Gazette Archeologique (n, pi. 21) and very properly 
interpreted (pp. 78 ff.) by F. Lenormant (Fig. IS). It is sculptured 
upon the right side of a votive-stone, which was found at Mmes in 
1752 and is still kept there. Upon the opposite side is a shield and 

'PRELLER, Op. ciL, i, p. 297, Note; p. 318, Note 1. 
6 DABEMBERG, Dictwnaire des Antiquites, n, p. 152. 


sword in relief; the back is unsculptured ; the front bears the inscrip- 
tion J(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) Heliopolitan\_o'] et Nemauso C. Julius 
Tib(erii) fil(ius) Fab(ia) Tiberinus, p(rimi) p(ilaris), domo Beryto, votum 
solvit. The figure is not so well preserved as the one first described, but 
corresponds to it in all essential particulars. Instead of the two bulls, 
one animal is here represented, placed behind the divinity and at his 
feet, though so destroyed as to be hardly recognizable ; 6 and the chief 

FIG. 15. Votive Relief of Zeus'of Heliopolis, found at Nimes in 1752. 

ornamentation of the figure consists of rosettes instead of busts. The 
attribute which the divinity holds in his left hand is not sufficiently 
clear ; that in his right seems to be a small staff. In explanation, 
Lenormant cites the passage of Macrobius (Saturn., I. 23. 12) which 

6 STUDNICZKA (Archaologisch-epiyraphische Mittheilungen, viu, p. 61) explains it as 
a bull, and this explanation is probably correct. 


gives a description of the statue of Zeus in Heliopolis : Simulacrum 
enim aureum specie imberbi instat dexter a elevata cum flagro in aurigae 
modum, laeva tenet fulmen et spicas, quae cuncta Jovis solisque con- 
sociatam potentiam monstrant. From this, there can be no doubt that 
the stone at Nimes represents the Zeus of Heliopolis/ and that the 
same explanation applies to the relief from Avignon, with which we 
began. That which Bazin considers the remnant of a raised knife is 
now seen to be the whip ; in the (now lost) left hand, we may presume, 
were ears of corn and the thunderbolt. The question of establishing 
the relationship of the six busts must be left to those who can exam- 
ine them upon the original, as the details in the illustration are not 
definite enough to be accurately studied. One point the relief from 
Marseilles teaches us clearly : the Zeus of Heliopolis was certainly 
youthful and beardless, and the testimony of Macrobius is thoroughly 
substantiated, which Lenormant was inclined to question (p. 81), since 
he believed he saw in the much injured relief from Nimes traces of 
a bearded head in profile. At the same time, the interpretation which 
Imhoof-Blumer and Studniczka have given to several coins and en- 
graved stones 8 is assured, and a new parallel to the breastplate relief 
from Carnuntum (Studniczka, pi. 2, p. 61) is afforded us, which sur- 
passes all hitherto known representations of Zeus Heliopolitanus, 
through its good preservation and rich relief decoration, a more accu- 
rate description of which will, it is hoped, advance our knowledge of 
the characteristics of the divinity. How these results affect the gen- 
erally received view, that this Zeus is identical with Hadad, I must 
leave to the investigation of those who are better informed. 

German Archaeological Institute, 
Athens, April 6, 1890. 

7 CP. ROSCHER, Lexikon der Mythologie, i, 2, p. 1987 (DEEXLEE) ; p. 2900 (ED. 
MEYEE) ; OIL, in, Supplementum, pp. 1313, 7280. 

*Arch<U>logisch-epigraphische Mittheilungen, vin, p. 62. The illustrations there 
cited are not accessible to me. DEEXLEE (p. 1993), on account of the beardless 
character of the representations, seems to be not quite sure of the interpretation. 





The following notes are limited to the consideration of a very hum- 
ble class of the monuments of Greek art. Of the marbles on which 
crowns are figured not one is noticed by a contemporary author; and 
there is probably not one made by a known artist. The crown, or 
wreath of honor, was doubtless developed from a badge of priestly 
office or a mere ornament, and became a reward conferred by the 
highest civic authority before the date of the earliest of these reliefs 
as yet known. From the beginning of the fourth century before our 
era until the beginning of the fourth century after it, there is now 
available a tolerably continuous series of such reliefs. 


The crowns are cut upon the flat surface of the marble, and the relief 
is almost always less than one cm. high. Sometimes the crown is quite 
without relief, and only the outline is incised on the marble with a 
sharp point. The koilanaglyphic method, too, is often employed for 
these reliefs : i. e., the material is cut away from around the crown so 
as to leave it projecting in a slight depression, but not raised above 
the general level of the stone. When several crowns occur on the same 
monument or the same block of stone, they may be upon three sides 
of it ; but more usually they occupy the face alone. When there are 
several on one side, they are placed at equal distances from each other 
in vertical or horizontal rows. The more usual arrangement is, how- 
ever, the latter ; and, when two or three crowns occur by themselves, 
they are almost invariably placed side by side, not one below the other. 

* The collection of the material for this paper was encouraged by the following 
remark in BATJMEISTER'S Denkmaler, p. 795 : Dauber Krauze seit Paschalius [^1625], 
'De Coronis' (Leyden, 1680) nicht mefir ausfuhrlich gehandelt warden ist, so verdiente der 
Gegenstand, namentlich mil Rucksicht auf'aasin den Denkmdlernvorliegende Material, eine 
emeute Untersuchung. 



The great majority of these crowns appear as though the original 
wreath had been made out of two pliable sprays or branches. The 
lower woody ends of these branches are loosely twisted so that one 
makes a complete revolution around the other, and the tips are then 
brought together so that the whole forms, approximately, a circle. The 
fillet (taenia) seems to have been the chief, as well as earliest, adjunct 
of the crown, and emphasized its religious association. Thus, proba- 
bly in consequence of the sacred character of the national games, 
crowns given for victory in them are represented in the reliefs as bound 
with a fillet. On the other hand, crowns conferred on ordinary occasions 
by the State are always without the taenia. A few crowns awarded 
to the dead, as for instance the crown given to some who died in the 
Lamian war (CIA, n, 1681 ; PLATE xn-2 J ), arid, according to Bockh, 
certain crowns given by religious associations are, like crowns of vic- 
tory, also adorned with fillets. Even for crowns of victory the fillet 
seems to lose its significance, and is sometimes omitted in the Roman 
imperial period (Bull, de corr. helUn., x, 383 ; PL. xu-3, in part). 
The figured crowns differ greatly in their position. Some hang down, 
so that the tips of their sprays are below the twisted stems (PL. xn-2, 7, 
etc.) and so appear as if suspended against the stone ; others stand erect, 
the tips of the sprays thus being uppermost (PL. xu-3, 5, 6) and the 
stem-ends downward. In the minor details of the carving there are 
naturally many differences. The number of leaves that a crown may 
have varies from twelve up to sixty or more. If the relief is low, the 
leaves are represented in outline as if they rested flat on the stone. 
When the relief is higher the leaves are sometimes shown in perspec- 
tive, some being turned sidewise, or certain leaves may be represented 
as slightly curled. If the crown has many leaves, they may be more or 
less bunched together, and thus conceal the stem. In the more care- 
fully designed wreaths, however, the stem is usually visible through- 
out its length, or is concealed at only one or two points by leaves 
lying directly upon it. A type peculiar to crowns of small size is that 
in which the leaves appear in groups of three at every node of the stem 
(PL. xn-lOa, lie; xni-27). Here the group or whorl is represented as 
if flattened out so that the middle leaf of the three masks the stem. 
When the leaves are all separate from each other and the stem is visi- 
ble in its entire length, more leaves are usually cut on the outside of 

1 The crowns figured on PLATES xn, xm are phototype reproductions made from 
squeezes of the reliefs. In every case the reduction is to th of the actual size. 


the branch than on the inside (PL. xm-17, 19), in order that all the 
leaves may be at about the same distance apart. In case the leaves are 
strictly opposite, those on the inside of the branch are made to diverge 
more from it than those on the outside (PL. xn-3, xm-23). A special 
class of crowns (to be considered further on) have leaves standing out 
from the circumference of a circle like the rays of composite flowers 
(PL. xii-116-d; xm-25). Certain laurel crowns are arranged with 
three leaves and two berries at every node of the stem (PL. xiu-27). 
Ivy displays its usual cordate leaf, and sometimes a bunch of berries 
near the tips of the sprays (PL. xii-13a, e xni-21, 26a). The divided 
leaf identified as parsley or wild celery is represented in the crowns 
won in the Nemean games (PL. xn-3). The peculiar club-shaped 
foliage of a crown awarded for victory in the Isthmia is probably 
intended for pine (PL. xn-1). The presence of fruit or berries scat- 
tered among the leaves of a crown as well as ravelled threads at the 
ends of taeniae, is subject to no rule, and probably depended on the 
elaboration desired in the wreath, as well as on the ability of the artist. 
The same holds true of the carving of a midrib on some of the leaves. 
Such midribs are made in various ways : as by a single groove or by 
two small grooves leaving an elevation between them, or by a ridge 
sloping away on each side toward the margin of the leaf. The tips of 
the branches where leaves from opposite directions meet, are often 
finished in a rough manner. Sometimes a mass of small carelessly- 
made leaves are crowded together in confusion (PL. xn-9, 14e, g). 
Again, the terminal leaves may be made so that their ends touch each 
other and inclose a vacant space (PL. xm-23, 30a). The stems of the 
sprays do not usually touch at their tips but sometimes they unite in a 
sort of button (PL. xm-19), or they may join each other so as to form 
a circle (PL. xn-3, 66, 8). 

Besides the crowns in relief, Greek art supplies several instances of 
wreaths painted on marble. The general principle that decoration in 
color preceded carving might warrant the supposition that crowns were 
usually painted in the early periods, and so have been lost to us. The 
painted crowns that survive (CIA, n, 2541, and ' ' KQ^vaiov ', vm, 403) 
seem, however, to be not earlier than the Macedonian period. This 
fact, taken together with the comparative rarity of inscriptions which 
mention crowns before the time of the earliest crown-relief (388 B. c.), 
may be taken as evidence against a general prevalence of painted 
wreaths during earlier periods. 


The crown occurs in general on two classes of monuments. The 
first class comprises those which are erected by some civic body or 
religious association which inscribes its honorary decree on it and 
accompanies the inscription with a representation of the crown it gives. 
Sucli crown-reliefs may from their source be termed public, to distin- 
guish them from the private crowns of the second class, in which the 
interest lies not so much in the public giver as in the private re- 
ceiver. This second class consists of the monuments of persons who 
had their crowns carved in order to record more specifically the honors 
they had received. Sepulchral steles, monuments dedicated to com- 
memorate victory in the games, and many of those set up for the suc- 
cessful performance of all sorts of civil, military, and sacred duties, 
come under the second head. At times, both public and private crowns 
are figured upon the same stone. Thus, in addition to the crowns 
mentioned in an inscribed decree, other crowns may be sculptured 
which had been received at other times by the person honored and 
have no relation to the decree itself. Both classes of wreaths are 
only another evidence of the vivid plastic sense of the Greek people. 
The information which the figure of the crown conveyed to them could 
have been as well told in words, and, indeed, is often set forth in a 
brief inscription placed in or just above the crown ; but it was sought 
to display the honor in material form to the eye. Public crowns bear, 
as their inscription, an abridgement of the decree conferring them. 
Often the name of the giver only is stated ; but, when several persons are 
honored in the same decree, the crown of every one bears his name, and 
in some cases the name is preceded by the occasion of his receiving the 
honor for the most part simply the name of an office or a title. Thus, 
a full presentation of all three elements would be : o &}//,o9 rbv Koo-fjurj- 
rrjv Seo^aptv 'Ecrrtatou. The crowns of a private monument, since 
they usually belong to but one man, contain only the name of the giver 
and the cause of the honor, in this case generally expressed by a causal 
participle, as : ol tV-Trefc iTrTrap^rfaavra. These three terms of a crown- 
inscription giver, cause, receiver are, however, rarely all present to- 
gether. Any one of them, or all, may be omitted ; they may be placed 
within the crown or just above it; and they may occupy different orders 
in regard to each other. Crowns of victory are characterized by another 
set of terms, the name of the games and the particular event in which 
the victory was won. Thus, ' Kpfydpaia ra ev 'flp&>7r< irv^^v is an 
example of the typical elements of such crown-inscriptions. In the 


case of public crowns, the material of which the crown is to be made 
is usually stated in the accompanying decree ; but in private crowns 
it must be inferred from the shape of the leaves or the character of the 
giver. When the material is mentioned in a decree, it is usually gold. 
Often, too, its value is added, as 1,000, 500, 300 drachmai. Olive or 
thallos stands second in point of frequency. This was given chiefly at 
Athens, and then by small civil corporations and by religious associa- 
tions, rarely by the boule and demos, unless to inferior personages or 
for trifling services. Ivy crowns usually have some connection with 
the worship of Dionysos. Laurel or, as it is often called, the " crown of 
the god " is given at Delphi, Rhodes, and other Doric centres. Myrtle, 
poplar, and grape-vine crowns seem to have been conferred very rarely, 
and complete the short list of materials mentioned in the inscriptions. 

Any general description of figured crowns would be incomplete, if 
no effort were made to introduce a chronological standard by which 
some of the variations which have been noted might be placed in their 
order of succession. With the object of studying changes of form, a 
number of crown-reliefs found on the mainland of Greece are classified 
in TABLE i (pp. 89-91). First come reliefs that can be dated more or 
less exactly by some historical reference contained in the inscriptions. 
The others are such as furnish no historical data and are therefore 
grouped in classes based on differences in the shapes of the letters 
alpha and sigma. 2 These latter classes, since they somewhat overlap 
each other in time, can be expected to indicate only general tendencies. 
In the narrow column which contains only letters, P denotes that the 
crown has a pendent position, E that it is placed erect, V that it is a 
crown of victory : the next column on the right gives the diameter of 
the crown in millimeters, measured from the stem of one of the sprays 
to the stem of the other : the third column gives the diameter of the 
crown in terms of the height of the letters of its inscription. 

It will be noticed immediately, on inspecting the table, that the 
erect wreaths contained in these classes belong exclusively to a period 

8 The general periods in which these forms of alpha and sigma were used are thus 
briefly given by KEINACH, Epigraphie Grecque, pp. 204-7 : U alpha w'a la barre mediane 
brisee que dans la deuxi&me moitie du second et au premier si&cle av. J. C. . . . Ce n'est que 
vers la fin du I* si&cle ap. J. C. que la forme A reparait avec frequence, pour dominer de nou- 
veau a Vepoque de Trajan et d'Hadrien, sans jamais exclure complement la forme brisee. 

Le sigma a branches paralleles . . devient frequent vers 110 av. J. C. et predomine depuis 

le commencement du l er siede Les formes lunaires du sigma ne commencent d 

prevaloir qu'a la fin du l er siede avant noire e*re. 


later than the Christian era and to the ZA and C groups. Among the 
earlier dated crowns and in the 3 groups there is no such erect wreath 
to be found. The cause of this alteration in the position of the wreath 
seems not to be fully ascertained, but a comparison with wreaths rep- 
resented on coins appears to throw some light upon it. The reverse 
of some of the earliest Attic coins bears a pendent wreath above the 
owl. On coins of the period 406-393 B. c. the erect wreath begins to 
make its appearance; and on the series of 220-197 B. c. the wreath 
has only the erect position. Probably the motive for this change in 
the manner of placing the wreath on the coins was merely artistic. 
The owl, the amphora, and other symbols seemed better supported if 
the wreath about them was erect, or, in other words, closed below. On 
certain coins of Sikyon the wreath is placed on its side, and has the 
opening in front of the flying dove, as if to avoid impeding its flight. 
Thus, the position of the wreath on coins may at first have been the 
natural one of suspension, and may have been altered later, to com- 
ply with the dictates of taste. On the other hand, in the case of the 
reliefs, the letters inclosed in the wreath would not appear to need any 
support, and hence the realistic placing of the wreath would naturally 
be retained much longer. The change in reliefs to the erect position 
of the wreath seems to correspond in point of time to the archaistic 
tendency of the second century A. D., and may perhaps be traced to the 
influence of the representations on coins. For, since the obverse in 
coins of the best period retained archaic types of human feature, it 
may have been supposed that the erect crown on the reverse was also 
quite as archaic. Thus, the carvers of these archaistic wreaths passed 
over all the reliefs of the fourth century B. c. and took as their model 
certain wreaths which they supposed to belong to the fifth century, and 
which were, in fact, stamped on Attic coins that bore heads of 
Athena derived from the fifth century or even earlier. 3 Besides the 
erect wreaths enumerated in the above classes, a large number of others 
have been found at Teuchira in the Cyrenaica and are published by 
Pacho, Voyage dans la Marmarique et Cyrena'ique and in the CIG, 
5249, 5254-5356. It is believed that their system of dates can be 

3 Should this theory of archaistic crowns appear untenable, the erect position in the 
late reliefs may be explained as due to the increased size of the letters contained in 
the crown. The letters would thus have had the same influence in inverting the 
crowns of the reliefs as did the owl and amphora much earlier in the case of the 
crowns on Attic coins. 


referred to the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, and most of them 
have the C-shaped sigma. Le Bas (in, 358) publishes an erect wreath 
from Mylasa with the letters Z A, and in the Annali of 1865 (pp. 97, 99) 
certain victories won in the second half of the second century of our 
era are recorded within erect wreaths. A very small erect wreath 
ornaments the pediments of certain steles, such as Arch. Zeit., 1878, 
p. 98, belonging to 181-85 A. D., and 'AlfyWoi/, m, 529 ff., of the 
time of the Antonines. 

In the size of the wreaths there is no regular progression. The ear- 
liest are generally about 18 or 19 cm. in diameter, but among them 
are some as small as 14 cm. or even 11 cm. During the second and 
first centuries B. c. the wreaths are much smaller, averaging not above 
11 cm. in diameter. This change is due, at least in part, to the con- 
fined space in which the crowns of this time are placed. CIA, n, 1217 
(PL. xn-9) and Mittheil., vin, 211 (PL. xn-8) are good examples of 
crowding of this kind ; though they belong to an earlier period. Late 
crowns of the time of the Roman Empire exhibit many irregularities, 
but show a general tendency to increase in size, and, consequently, in 
this particular approach the earliest reliefs. 

But, although the diameter of crowns does not show any regular 
rate of change, a fondness for enlarging and crowding the letters is 
noticeable in the later crowns. Many cases occur where there are 
letters of one size outside the wreath, and of another size within. In 
such cases, it is evident that the size of the letters within the wreath 
is governed by the stone-cutter's desire to harmonize the letters and 
the wreath inclosing them, and not by any general rule prescribing 
the size of letters in inscriptions. If this feeling for proportion in 
size given to letters within a wreath was maintained when the letters 
outside were too large or too small to accord with the wreath, it was 
doubtless observed also when the letters without happen to be of the 
same size as those within. A means of expressing this proportion of 
size of letter to size of wreath is to divide the diameter of the wreath 
by the average height of the inclosed letters ; and it is this ratio which 
is given in the last column of the table. Two exceptional cases ought, 
however, to be mentioned, before the general aspect of the column is 
considered. The first of these is Mittheil., vin, 211 (PL. xn-8), where, 
owing to lack of space, four crowns are made in such a way that their 
stems intersect, and thus some crowns lie partly over others. The 
other case is CIA, n, 1158 (PL. xm-30). Here the unusual size (35 


to 40 mm.) of the letters outside the crowns seems to have required 
large letters within, also. Moreover, the letters are not collected near 
the centre of the wreath, but are extended so that each word runs com- 
pletely across it, and a line of six letters and one of nine or ten letters 
are thus made to fill equal spaces. Passing by these two exceptions, 
the dated crowns show a pretty regular diminution of the ratio from 
the upper end of the column downward. The ratio averages about 
20 in the fourth century B. c., and a little over 10 in the second cen- 
tury, A. D. A considerable change seems to have taken place during 
the interval which separates the crown of 282/1 B. c. from that of 
about 150 B. c. An inspection of the ratio with reference to the letter- 
groups shows that in the ^A class the ratio averages about 20, and 
never falls below 16 : in the other classes, it averages about 14 and 
nowhere rises above 19. 

Peculiarities in the shape of the wreaths are too various and irregu- 
lar in their occurrence to admit of illustration by a table of measure- 
ments. A wreath of the -earlier period, carelessly made but still quite 
characteristic, is one without any stem and having its exterior leaves 
strongly divergent. In such crowns the place of the stem is occupied 
by a course of leaves, so that any radius drawn within the wreath is 
almost certain to cut at least three leaves. CIA, n, 1596 (PL. xin-24) 
of about 350 B. c. and three other wreaths of the dated group ending 
with CIA, n, 1291 (PL.-XIH-28) of 282/1 B. c. show this form, as well 
as sixteen examples in the 3 A group; but in the other letter-groups 
it has no representative. A wreath having no stem but with many 
leaves is found in the latest period also, as CIA, in, 1108, and in, 
1177 (PL. xn-4), of 212-21 A. D. Here, however, the leaves are not 
divergent but cling closely together and give the wreath a ring-like 
appearance. This peculiar form seems characteristic of late wreaths. 
It is well shown in CIA, in, 91 (PL. xn-5), where, though the stem is 
visible, the leaves are crowded together, so that their points seem to 
rest upon concentric circles. A reduction of the stem of a crown to 
an actual circle occurs quite early, as in MittheiL, vni, 211 (PL. xn-8) 
of 325/4 B. c. ; but rigid regularity in the arrangement of the leaves and 
the similarity in shape of all of them (PL. xn-6; xin-22) are certain 
indications of decline in artistic spirit. The leaves are first subjected 
to a geometric regularity in those wreaths in which they are arranged 
in groups of three. This peculiar arrangement seems to belong to the 
last two centuries before our era. Among the dated crowns it is 


represented by 'A^z/atoz/, v, 522 (PL. xn-10) of 147 B. c., and by CIA, 
n, 465, 467 (PL. xn-lle), 481 of 48/2 B. c. The ZA class supplies two 
instances, ^A only one that is quite certain. The custom of repre- 
senting laurel with groups of three leaves and two berries at every node 
of the stem, as seen in CIA, n, 552, of about 125 B. c. (PL. xin-27), 
seems to belong to much the same period. The earlier laurel crown 
in CIA, n, 115 (PL. xm-176) of 343/2 B. c. is without these groups of 
three leaves, and differs from the olive wreath placed next it on the 
same stone (PL. xin-1 7 a) merely in having its opposite leaves cut a trifle 
broader. At a later date still than the groups of three leaves, there 
appears in the reliefs a type of wreath in which the leaves are placed 
exactly opposite each other as far as the tips of the sprays. CIA, 11, 
482 (PL. xin-31), and, better, MittheiL, in, 144 (PL. xn-6) are crowns 
of this form. ZA supplies two instances, and again ^ A but one (CIA, 
n, 1347). The earliest crowns show an opposite arrangement of leaves 
near the butt-ends of the branches, but this system usually becomes 
alternate or irregular near the tips of the branches by the insertion of 
an extra leaf or leaves on the outside (PL. xm-17a, 19). In another 
form exhibited in wreaths of this early period, the exterior leaves are 
made rather longer than those inside, so that the opposite arrangement 
can be continued close to the tips of the branches (PL. xin-18, 23). The 
tips themselves in most of the early crowns bear smaller leaves than 
the other portions of the branch and the quantity of foliage near the 
tips is usually diminished, thus avoiding the ring-like appearance of 
the later examples. 

Many crowns are distinguished in the accompanying inscription by 
the statement that they are of gold, and the question naturally suggests 
itself, whether there is any peculiar artistic mode of representing a 
crown of gold. In general, this must be answered in the negative. 
During the early period, the crowns which are recorded as of gold 
differ as much among themselves as from those which are stated to be 
of olive. Their similarity is best observed on such ephebic decrees as 
CIA, n, 470 of 69/2 B. c. and n, 482 of 39/2 B. c. In the former 
decree (PL. xn-13, 14) there are two rows of crowns across the face of 
the stone. The upper row contains five crowns, of which the three 
inner ones are, according to the inscription, of gold while the two at 
the extremities of the row are stated to be of ivy, and are, in fact, 
sculptured with ivy leaves. The lower row contains seven crowns, 
all stated to be of olive ; but, except in size, these are exactly similar 


to the three inner crowns of the upper row. In (714,11, 482 (PL. xm-31) 
even the difference in size is absent. The gold crown conferred upon 
the epheboi is exactly like the olive crowns given to their officers and 
instructors. In a somewhat earlier class of ephebic monuments the 
case seems to be different. Certain wreaths which have no leaves on 
the inner side x)f their branches, and whose leaves often project like 
rays, seem to be especially intended to represent gold crowns. Of 
this type are CIA, n, 594 of 127 B. c., n, 467 of about 100 B. o., and 
11,471 of just before 69/2 B.C. In the first (CL4,n, 594=PL.xm-25) 
there is but one wreath, and this is ray-leaved, and is shown by its 
inscription to be a gold crown : in CIA, n, 471 (PL. xm-15 gives the 
upper row only) the upper row contains five crowns. The first is a 
ray-crown whose title shows that it was given by the boule and demos 
to the epheboi; and the resolution according a crown of gold forms 
part of the inscription above. Similar ray-crowns given by both 
boule and demos and by the epheboi to the kosmetes (Dionysios), are also 
stated to be of gold. The fourth crown given by the demos to the 
kosmetes and epheboi jointly is of ivy, and in the inscription above it 
is mentioned, among the honors of the epheboi, a crown given by 
the demos in recognition of a sacrifice to Dionysos. The last crown 
in the upper row, given by the boule and demos to the epheboi, has 
olive leaves, but the material of it is not mentioned in the inscription. 
On the other hand, a gold crown, given to the epheboi by the demos 
of the Salaminians, is mentioned in the inscription, but is not distin- 
guished in any way in the relief. In the lower row there are five olive- 
leaved crowns, all expressly set forth in the decree as of olive. In 
another ephebic inscription, CIA, n, 467 (PL. xn-11 gives the upper 
row only), the decree provides that gold crowns shall be given by boule 
and demos to the epheboi and to the kosmetes, and wreaths of olive to 
every one of the seven inferior officers. In the plastic representations of 
these crowns, those of the epheboi and the kosmetes have ray-leaves, but 
all the other crowns olive leaves. Besides these two ray-leaved crowns, 
the upper row contains a third ray-leaved erown given to the epheboi 
and kosmetes jointly by the demos of the Salaminians. Although this 
crown is not mentioned in the decree, it must, from the analogy of 
other crowns given by this demos, have been of gold. In CIA, n, 469 
(PL. xin-29 gives an example from each row) of about 100 B. a, one of 
the gold crowns given to the kosmetes, although not rayed, has no leaves 
on the inside of its branches, but the olive wreaths of the inferior 


officers have leaves on both sides of the stem, as on the natural branch. 
Two crowns in CIA, n, 955 (PL. xn-12) present another case in point. 
The crown on the left (the place of distinction) has leaves only on the 
outside, but the crown on the right has leaves on both sides. Here, 
as in many other cases, the rayed-crowns are not distinguished by the 
inscriptions as gold crowns. From the several ephebic decrees exam- 
ined above, however, it seems clear that at least during a certain period, 
perhaps limited to the first half of the second century B. c., there was 
an effort to distinguish crowns of gold from wreaths of olive by dif- 
ferences in their artistic representation. It is highly probable that, 
if the material of all rayed crowns were known with certainty, every 
one of them would be found to represent a crown of gold. 


Crown-inscriptions offer no such characteristic variations as the 
crowns to which they refer. Their peculiarities pertain to the field 
of epigraphy ; but a cursory examination and classification of them 
may be of interest. As a basis for this, a table of crown-inscriptions 
is presented (TABLE n, pp. 91-95). Many of the inscriptions re- 
ferred to in TABLE i are repeated, and the same division into classes 
is again used. The remarkable increase in the number of the ZA 
class in the latter table is probably due in some measure to inex- 
actness in the copies used for the CIG. The third column in this 
table gives the initial letters of the words giver, cause, receiver ; and 
places in brackets those of them which are inclosed in the crown. 
Thus g\_cr~\ denotes that in the crown in question the name of the giver 
is outside the wreath, while the cause and the name of the recipient 
are within. Such collective words as boule, epheboi, epimeletai, are 
classed under receiver and not as cause, when any doubt arises as to 
which use the word has. A dash in the last column of the table shows 
that some word does not terminate at the end of its line, but is in part 
carried over to the line below. 

An inspection of TABLE n shows that the placing of the terms with 
reference to the wreath falls into two classes. Either all the terms are 
inside the wreath, or some are within and others are without. The 
crowns of a certain Kassandros (Arch. Zeit., 1855, p. 33) and crowns 
in CIA, n, 1213, n, 480, Bull, de corr. hellen., iv, 516, and Le Bas, 
n, 1338, where the giver is placed above and the crowns themselves 
are left empty, seem to be almost the only exceptions to these two 


divisions. Examples in which some of the terms lie outside the wreath 
are much more rare than those in which all the terms are inside. Terms 
outside are found mostly in the public and, consequently, dated in- 
scriptions. They seem to begin about 150 B. c., are rare in the 3 A 
class, more frequent among the 3A and ZA classes, but are wholly 
lacking, later, in the ZA and C classes; although one instance occurs 
among the dated crowns as late as about 100 A. D. Most of these 
terms outside of the crown belong to Attic ephebic inscriptions. A 
count of the whole TABLE shows that there are 182 instances of a 
single term inclosed in the wreath ; or, to represent the number of 
terms inside and outside of the wreath by numbers and their position 
within or without by brackets, there are 182 instances of [1], 51 
of [2], 12 of [3], 15 of 1[1], 5 of 1[2], and 6 of 2 [1]. In respect 
to the kind of term found outside, the following may be stated. The 
receiver when present is never outside the wreath ; the cause is rarely 
outside (7 cases) ; but the giver somewhat more often (19 cases). 
Crowns that have but one term occur as often in the earliest as in the 
latest periods. Most of them are private inscriptions, and the mor- 
tuary crowns from Smyrna and the Cyrenaica constitute a large part. 

Many of the earliest crowns that are at present known are not 
explained by even a single term. From this, the first step of ad- 
vance was naturally the insertion of one term, the name of the giver. 
The latest crowns also contain only a single term ; but with the dif- 
ference that this term is not restricted to the name of the giver, but in 
many instances stands for the receiver. The occurrence of two terms 
is, generally speaking, contemporaneous with that of three terms, and 
often both cases are found on the same stone. They occur chiefly in 
Attic ephebic inscriptions ; and, like the cases where terms are placed 
outside the wreaths, are only another evidence of that general fondness 
for prolixity and accumulations which these inscriptions exhibit. 

In crowns of victory one term, the name of the games, is always 
present, and sometimes the name of the special event is added as a 
second term. There are but three instances of a separation of these 
terms. CIA, u, 1318, 1319 place the games outside, and the event 
inside, the crown ; CIA, in, 115, on the contrary, places the event out- 
side and the games within. During the Roman imperial period, the 
name of the town at which the games were celebrated is sometimes 
added, presumably for the reason that games of the same name were 
celebrated in more than one place. Examples of this are CIG, 5916, 
V E</>6(701/| 'Afyuai/ejta a ; 5915, 'OXi^Trm ev 


To return to the ordinary crowns ; the three terms giver, cause, 
receiver are regularly in this order, and, as any of them can be omit- 
ted, the following cases occur in which the terms do not deviate from 
the regular order, gcr, gc, gr, cr, c, g, r. In regard to frequency, g 
stands at the head with 122 instances ; then r with 51 ; gr with 38 ; 
gc with 17 ; gcr with 15 ; c with 9 ; and cr with 4. Besides these 
cases of regular order, a few irregularities are found : there are 6 cases 
of grc, 6 of rg, and one of re. The exceptional form grc occurs four 
times on certain Parian inscriptions ; here the term c is represented 
usually by the phrase Koafiicos jSiaxravTa, so that this order seems to 
be rather a local peculiarity. One of the instances of rg is from a 
sepulchral inscription at Smyrna, but all the other exceptions to the 
usual order are Attic. 

Two bodies may act in unison in bestowing a crown ; as in Bull, de 
corr. hellen., IV, 433, where the words o Sayito? | /cal ol \ 'Pco/jLaioi appear 
in one of the crowns : ol tyrjftoi, \ical ol veoi, CIG, 3112, is another 
example. A psephism of the boule and demos is also often represented 
by one crown. More rarely such a decree has two crowns, one inclos- 
ing r)/3ov\ri, the other o 77^09, as in MittheiL, vin, 211 (PL. xn-8) and 
probably in CIA, n, 1347. The form in which both words are used 
in a single crown is especially frequent in ephebic decrees, but it 
occurs as early as the votive inscription relating to Demetrios Phale- 
reus CIA, n, 1 21 7 (in part PL. xn-9). When both words belong to one 
crown, they may stand inside or outside of it, according to convenience. 
The custom, however, is to place them within; for, putting aside 
the cases where the position varies on the same stone, the words 
boule and demos occur 25 times inside the crown, out of a total of 32 
examples. Sometimes the two words are joined by the copula icai, but 
the omission of it seems to be the older and the Attic usage. CIA, n, 
1217 (315/12 B.C.), n, 338 (soon after 281 B. c.), and thirteen other 
examples of 77 (3ov\r) 6 77/409 include eight inscriptions belonging to the 
^ A class. On the other hand, the earliest approximately dated exam- 
ple of 77 fiovKrj KOI o %>9 is CIG, 2270 (soon after 167 B. c.); and, 
of sixteen other instances of it, only two belong to the ^ A class ; while 
three cases of the C-shaped sigma occur among them. Moreover, more 
than half of the cases of 77 /3ov\rj /cal 6 77/409 are supplied by Paros, 
Aigina, and other islands; while 77 /3ov\rj 6 77/409 is confined to Attika. 

When the demos alone is the giver, o 77/409 is placed with great reg- 
ularity within the wreath. In only 14 cases out of 155 does it lie 


outside, and here its position can almost always be explained by analogy 
with other crowns in the same row. Boule as giver stands within its 
crown in 34 cases out of a total of 45. Of the other divisions of the 
Athenian State, ol Trpvrdve^ and 17 vXij vary in their position, ol 
QvKircn, and ol ^^brai, though occurring but rarely, are always in- 
scribed within the crowns conferred by them. Other associations, also, 
whether religious or civil or military, when they bestow crowns place 
their names within, as a rule ; but such associations are too numerous 
to call for separate notice of every one. 

In crowns of early periods, the name of the giver is always in the 
nominative case, the cause and the receiver in the accusative. The 
verb understood is probably to be supplied from the common formula 
in decrees, a-refyavwa-ai avrov Xpvaw <TTe<$>dvu)) but sometimes the verb 
is expressed. Thus, in several crowns from Paros (CIG, 2380, 2381) 
and in one from Lydia (Bull, de corr. helUn., xn, 473), a complete 
sentence, rj (3ov\rj KOI 6 &}//,o9 arefyavol . . ., is brought within the 
crown. The verb eru/jurja-e is used in <7J6r, 1942, and Bull, de corr. 
hellen., rv, 68, but the verb is omitted in far the greater number of 
crown-inscriptions. The nominative case of a proper noun placed 
within a crown denotes the receiver in CIA, n, 1334 and Bull, de 
corr. hellen., in, 388, as express statements to this effect are added. 
The nominative, in crowns figured on a large number of sepulchral 
monuments found in the Cyrenaica, probably stands also for the 
receiver. A nominative, presumably for the receiver, is found in 
late ephebic inscriptions, as CIA, m, 1042, in dedications to Apollo 
vir aicpais, as MittheiL, m, 144, and in certain late crowns containing 
titles of various magistrates, as CIA, m, 91 (PL. xu 5) 7roXe|yLta/j%|o5, 
and in, 1108. The earlier instances of these nominatives come from 
the Islands, but their occurrence extends over both the ^ and C forms 
of sigma. Crowns connected with the name of a god, such as Arch. 
Zeit., 1878, p. 98, where a small empty wreath separates the words A uop 
lepd, or where a wreath incloses the word Zeu? (Le Bos, m, 2702), or 
dyaOr) TVXV (^e Bos, in, 2431), belong to a very late and peculiar 
type of crown-inscription. The meaning of the crown is uncertain, 
but probably it is used as a sign of consecration. A genitive case 
in or just above a crown, if it is a proper noun as in Curtius' Samos 
(p. 34) ^d^/jiov, Ti/jLwvos, K. r. X. denotes the receiver of the crown. 
The name of an assembly, if in the genitive, belongs presumably to 
the giver, as yepova-ias, CIG, 4152c, and certainly VTTO rov &TJ/JLOV, 


Le Bos, n, 1338. When a crown-inscription consists of a noun in 
the dative case, it is naturally to be understood of the receiver. The 
few cases that occur are late and for the most part from near the out- 
skirts of Greek civilization : a-rpar^y^a-avrij CIG, 2097 (Tauric 
Chersonese), 5053 (Nubia), Bull, de eorr. hell&n., xn, 483 (Phrygia), 
CIG, 3614 (Troad). These irregular nominatives and datives show 
that the original function of the crown-inscription is becoming ob- 
scured. In a small class of equally late inscriptions, the words within 
the crown lose still more their proper function of explaining the crown 
to which they belong. Thus, in <7ZA, in, 1177 (PL. xn-4a, 6), the 
lines of the crown-inscription are to be read across from one crown to 
the other. In MittheiL, m, 144 (PL. xn-6a), one of the crowns con- 
tains a date. Bull, de corr. hellen., vn, 132 gives a case where the 
last two words of the phrase vecofcopo? \ rov 'A|7roXX|ft>z>o9 are inclosed 
in a wreath. Perhaps the most peculiar case of irrelevancy in a crown- 
inscription is Le Bas, in, 722. In this, a sepulchral inscription from 
Asia Minor, the lines of the text run across the crown and lie also on 
both sides of it, so that the sentence, 09 av avv^et,, Oijoret \ efc TO rafuov 
Sijvdp\ia xfaia, has the words avvgei,, ra^lov and the letters -\t,a in- 
closed within the crown. 

Crown-inscriptions in which a word is divided next call for notice. 
This division of words has a somewhat close relation with the ratio 
between the size of the crown and the size of the inclosed letters. For, 
where a word is placed in an inclosed space, the number of lines it 
occupies must largely be controlled by the size of its letters, and by 
the amount of space in which it can extend itself. Consequently, when 
the ratio, considered above, shows a tendency to decrease, the number 
of divided words ought at the same time to increase. From the last 
column of the dated crowns of TABLE n, it can be seen that before 
200 B. c. the division of a word is merely sporadic. During the last 
two centuries before our era it shows considerable increase, and under 
the Roman Empire becomes almost an established rule. Among the 
classes of sigma, the frequency of divided words is as follows : 65 
crown-inscriptions of the ^ class give 9 with divided words, 95 of 
the 2 class give 49, and 17 of the C class give 13; making 14, 
52, and 76 per cent, respectively for the three s^wa-classes, In 
these instances of the division of a word, the general rules for the 
separation of syllables in Greek are pretty strictly followed. A single 
consonant (including a mute + a liquid) goes with the following vowel, 


as <7Tparr)ryri\<ravTa, Ar)/j,rj rpios. The exceptions to this rule are only 
21 against 275 cases of accordance with it. Many of the crown-in- 
scriptions consist of the words 6 Sijpos, and the usual method of divi- 
sion is then 6 877(^09 (twice, however, o | Srjyu,|o9 and 6 $fj/Ji\o<;, and once 
o | &7/A09). Where two consonants occur at the point of division, one 
goes with the preceding, the other with the following vowel, as ap\%ov- 
ro9. This is found in some 57 cases, but to this rule there are 20 ex- 
ceptions. A mute and a liquid are left undivided in 25 cases out of a 
total of 26. Such barbarisms as Aa//,7rr/>|eG>9 (MittheiL, in, 144 ; PL. 
xii-6a), \\vea (CIA, in, 1297), TT azm-9 (CIG, 3112) belong, as 
might be expected, to a rather late period ; though such divisions were 
necessarily common enough in the early o-roL^rjBov inscriptions. 


A wider field for investigation than the inscriptions, or even than 
the forms of the crowns themselves, is found in the order or system 
of placing the wreaths on the monuments. This arrangement is the 
question first determined by the stone-cutter on beginning his work. 
Although the results given below may seem meagre and uncertain, 
this is not the least important side from which to study the subject in 
hand. As has been stated, the usual arrangement of crowns on the 
monuments is in straight lines. Fourteen crowns ranged in two hori- 
zontal rows of seven each, and eight in two vertical rows, constitute 
extreme examples of this system. Besides this linear arrangement, 
there occur a few instances of crowns placed in other relations. 
This is shown, especially, when there is an uneven number of wreaths, 
and they are ranged in two vertical columns, with the odd wreath be- 
low the others, thus 8 ? as in Bull, de corr. JielUn., in, 388 and CIA, 
n, 1334. A peculiar arrangement of four crowns 8 is found in CIA, 
in, 916, and of seven crowns in CIA, n, 329. The quincunx o 
seems to occur in but a single example, and this dates from the Koman 
period. The geometric arrangement of the wreaths, and probably 
often their number, was to a great extent determined by the shape of 
the stone and the amount of space left after the inscriptions had been 
cut upon it. When, however, the crowns are bestowed by different 
corporations, or received by different persons, there arises a new 
question concerning the mutual relations of the crowns within their 
geometric figure. In most cases where this figure, so to speak, has 
been preserved entire, and information concerning every crown is 


accessible, the most important crowns seem to occupy the most promi- 
nent positions. Two positions may be considered prominent in this 
sense either the left-hand extremity of a row of crowns, or the middle. 
The importance of a crown may be derived from its giver. Thus, 
in 'AQijvaiov, v, 522 (PL. xn-10, in part), two crowns given jointly 
by the boule and the demos of Athens precede two given by the demos 
of Troizen. In Mittheil., vm, 211 (PL. xn-8), two crowns given by 
the demos come before two given by the boule. In CIA, n, 562, the 
crown given by the boule is above one given by the phyle. Again, in 
CIA, n, 420, a crown given jointly by the boule and the demos stands 
before one given by the demos alone. In CIG, 2140 a 1 , a crown con- 
ferred by the boule and demos jointly, precedes one given by certain ol 
etc rov yvjj,va(7iov. Where the giver is the same but the recipients are 
different, the relative importance of the latter may determine the order 
of precedence of the crowns, as in Curtius' Samos, p. 34, where the 
crown received by the demos of the Samians stands before those of 
Samian dikasts. On this principle, the upper row of crowns in many 
ephebic inscriptions is reserved for the epheboi and kosmetes, the lower 
row for the inferior functionaries. The service rendered may also give 
special importance to a crown, when for two or more crowns both giver 
and receiver are the same. Thus, a crown containing 6 SrHio^a-TpaT^- 
yrjo-avra precedes one containing o &5//.09 1 TroX/ra? | \VTpcoo-d\fj,6vov in 
CIG, 2375 ; and in a monument erected at Athens to an arrhephoros 
(CIA, in, 916) her crown for the performance of this duty precedes 
that given for services in the Eleusinia and Epidauria. In the ephebic 
inscriptions, the material of the crown influences its position, a condi- 
tion perhaps due to the scarcity of gold during this period. CIA, n, 
471 (PL. xni-15) is a good example. In the upper row of crowns the 
following order is found : (1) a gold crown given by boule and demos 
to the epheboi (2) a gold crown by boule and demos to the kosmetes 
(3) a gold crown by the epheboi to the kosmetes ; (4) an ivy crown ; (5) 
an olive crown. In CIA, II, 465 and 469, a similar arrangement seems 
to have prevailed, but the information contained in the inscriptions is 
not sufficient to verify the supposition. 

Hitherto, only crowns placed at the left-hand or at the upper end 
of a row have been examined. CIA, n, 470 (PL. xn-13) is a case 
where the more important crowns are placed in the middle of the 
line. In the upper row the crowns are in the following order : (1) 
an ivy crown given by the boule and demos to the kosmetes and epheboi; 


(2) a gold crown by the boule and demos to the epheboi; (3) a gold 
crown by the boule and demos to the kosmetes; (4) a gold crown by the 
demos of the Salaminians to the kosmetes; (5) an ivy crown by the boule 
and demos to the kosmetes and epheboi. On the same principle, in CIA, 
n, 467 (PL. xn-11), an ivy crown begins the line, and an olive crown 
concludes it ; while three gold crowns are placed between them. In 
CIA, n, 329, a crown by the demos to the prytaneis stands between two 
crowns awarded by less important bodies. CIA, n, 454 and Bull, de 
corr. helttn., IV, 175 seem other examples of this central position of 
the important crown; and the general principle is also applied in 
arranging the crowns on the monument described in Mittheil., ix, 49. 

When several crowns are equally important, they may be arranged 
in various symmetrical positions. In CIG, 2270, five crowns given 
by the boule and demos for services to the State are arranged so as to 
form the four corners of a rectangle, as well as the middle point of its 
upper side. The middle points of the other sides and the centre of the 
rectangle are composed of crowns received for priestly services. In 
Bull, de corr. hellen., vn, 469, two crowns given by demoi form the 
extremities of the upper row ; but the centre of it and the entire lower 
row are crowns given by an association of certain traders and ship- 
pers. In Bull, de corr. helttn., ix, 268, in a long list of services for 
which crowns were given, an embassy is placed at each end of the up- 
per row and at the centre of the lower one. The quincunx, mentioned 
above, has in its centre a crown given by the demos of the Athenians, 
and, around it, four crowns given by the demoi of several islands. 

Thus far, importance in general estimation has been considered. 
But, when any corporation erected a monument on which were cut 
crowns given by them, as well as those given by others, they often put 
their own crowns in the most prominent place. Thus, in the inscrip- 
tion in honor of Demetrios Phalereus (CIA, 11, 1217), Athenian gar- 
risons stationed at Eleusis, at Panakton, at Phyle, place their crowns 
even before those of the boule and demos. In CIA, u, 1158, the boule 
places several crowns given by itself to certain individuals before a 
crown given by the demos to the boule. Another exceptional arrange- 
ment occurs in cases where a crown of the boule stands before an ex- 
actly similar one of the demos. Thus, in CIA, n, 1347, a crown con- 
tains TI f3ov\r) | Seopevris OlrjOev \ elTrev, and immediately below it is 
another inclosing 6 Sfjpos \ Seopevr)? \ Olr)0ev elnrev. So, also, in CIA, 
n, 1530, the two crowns 77 ftov\r), o 877/109 probably have this relative 


position, because this was the order in which the resolutions for them 
were passed. In Annali, 1865, p. 97, the crowns of victory are 
arranged in the order in which they were won. Thus, first come 
the games for children (-TraiSe?), then, those for youths (ayeveioi), 
finally, the contests called lepai. Besides such cases, there is little 
other evidence that the chronological order was ever preferred to that 
of their relative importance. Often, indeed, there seems to be no 
possible clew for explaining the order, but in such cases this is for 
the most part due to lack of information concerning the crowns, or to 
their incomplete preservation. Thus, it seems difficult to explain the 
order of victories recorded in 'E^yitep^, 2558, or in CIG, 5919. In 
the latter instance, however, certain victories Sia Trdvrwv are observed 
to form the first and the last of the series. In Annali, 1865, p. 99, 
the uppermost crowns are for games won in Greece, next comes one 
for a victory in Italy, and at the end are those won in Asia. On 
other monuments bearing crowns of victory the four great games, 
Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, Nemean, occur thus, in the order of 
their rank. Examples are CIA, n, 115, 'OXv/wria HvOia, from the 
year 343/2 B. c. ; CIA, in, 758a gives the first three and a vacancy 
is left at the end, to be filled, doubtless, by Ne/^ea. In honorary 
inscriptions at Athens, there is a tendency to place the crowns won 
in Attic festivals in prominent positions. On the base of the monu- 
ment of Nikokles (CIA, n, 1367), sixteen crowns form a single band 
around three sides of the stone : on the face are six crowns won in 
the Pythia ; but between the third and fourth, and exactly in the 
middle of the face, are placed crowns from the Panathenaia and Lenaia. 
In CIA, n, 1319, the Eleusinia, Panathenaia, and Delia are all placed 
above such Doric festivals as the Olympia, the Soteria at Delphi, and 
some games held at Dodona ; but a great part of the stone is lost. So, 
also, in the case of some victories won at Ephesos (CIG, 5916), local 
interest probably causes the Epheseia to precede the Hadrianeia and 

As a conclusion to this paper, a brief summary of its results may 
be of service. (1) In regard to the form of the wreaths, it has been 
shown that only the pendent crown belongs to the better periods of 
Greek art, and that the erect crown, on stone monuments at least, first 
appears in the time of Trajan or of Hadrian. The influence of repre- 


sentations on coins has been suggested as a theory to account for this 
change of position ; and a tendency to crowd and enlarge the letters in 
the later reliefs has been noticed. Certain varieties of form in stem 
and leaves are found to belong to fixed periods ; and a peculiar ray-like 
arrangement of the leaves has been shown to denote a crown of gold. 

(2) An investigation of crown-inscriptions has shown that these 
consist of one, two, or even three terms placed regularly in the order 
of giver, cause of the gift, and receiver. Instances where some of 
the terms are found outside the crown belong mostly to the second 
or first century before our era, and instances of three terms have been 
shown to belong to the same period. The use of a verb in a crown- 
inscription, as well as certain ambiguities that might arise from the 
use of the nominative and genitive cases of nouns, are of only sporadic 
occurrence. The division of words in a crown-inscription increases 
with the advance of time, but in all periods is carried out with con- 
siderable attention to the syllables of the word divided. 

(3) In the arrangement of crowns on the monuments, two positions, 
either the left-hand extremity or the middle, have been found to give 
special emphasis to the crowns placed in them. Moreover, the wreaths 
which occupy these positions are usually the most important by reason 
of the rank of their giver, or the value of the service for which they 
have been conferred. 

American School of Classical 

Studies at Athens. 











or erect). 

CIA, n, 1185 

about 378/7 B.C. 




n, 51 





n, 72 





n, 1174 





n, 1596 

about 350 




11, 1156 





n, 872 





n, 121 





n, 165 

soon after 335 




n, 166 

(C C( (I 




Mittheilungen, vm, 211 





CIA ii 1681 





ii, 1187 




" 23 

n, 1217 





n, 243 





ii, 611 





ii, 613 





n, 1350 





n, 300 





n, 1158 

about 285/4 




n, 1291 





n, 1642 

about 150 




ii, 550 

soon after 150 




'A&yraiov, V, 522 





CIA, u, 594 





ii, 552 

about 125 




n, 465 

just before 100 




ii, 469 

about 100 




n, 467 

< (( 


.085, .070 


n, 471 

just before 69/2 


.100, .080 


n, 470 



.120, .095 


n, 481 





n, 482 





Mittheilungen, m, 144 

about 100 A. D. 




CIA, m, 735a 




m, 1108 





Bull, de corr. hellen., x, 383 

after 117 




CIA, m, 91 




m, 1177 









or erect). 






or erect). 




014,11, 149 




CIA, n, 1367 




n, 219 




n, 1400 




n, 229 




n, 1449 




n, 298 




n, 1530 




n, 326 




'E<^. '84, p. 187 




n, 420 




RANGABE, 1148 




n, 513 




B. c.h.,iu, 485 




n, 568 




vn, 471 




n, 604 




* I. 




n, 1334 








n, 1342 








n, 1347 








n, 1351 









CIA, n, 624 




CIA, n, 1358 




n, 955 




'Ecimt. 915 




n, 1357 









GIG, 2140ft 1 




'A^vatov, VIII, 294 




23226 20 








CIA, n, 13886 




m, 115 








m, 916 








LE BAS, n, 1707 










CIA, n, 2169 




CIA, in, 3098 




* The place of publication of crowns marked with Roman numerals 
is at this time unknown to the writer : a short description of these 
crowns is therefore added, to assist the reader in their identification. 


I. Athens, near the Central Museum, on the face, two crowns 
inclosing 77 /3ov\ij, 6 Si)fj,os, on the right side, another crown 
inclosing ol Srj/jLorai. 
II. Athens, Akropolis, crown inclosing M.vijo~i6ov \ ol STJ/JLOTCII,. 

III. Athens, Central Museum, three crowns inclosing M[o]Secrroi;, 
3>i\i7r\Trov, and ' Ai/rto%ou, respectively. 

IV. Athens, southern side of the Akropolis, two crowns, one of 
which incloses o 77/1,09 \ 6 KoXo<ft>i>t&>z> | /cal TroXtretat. 

V. Athens, southern side of the Akropolis, two crowns inclosing 

o &)yu-o[9 and ol ^J^Xerat. 

VI. Athens, southern side of the Akropolis, three crowns, each 
on a different side of the stone, inclosing respectively A^Xta, 

VII. Athens, Central Museum, crown inclosing TOV Sfjfjiov TOV 
and, above, TO /coivbv 

VIII. Eleusis, two crowns inclosing . . 
cov and 77 @ov\r) \ 6 



IX. Athens, Central Museum, parts of three crowns, one incloses 

. . . ewo9 (PL. xm-16). 
X. Athens, Central Museum, crown inclosing 

XI. Larissa, two crowns marked respectively c . 









n, 1185 

about 378/7 B. c. 


n, 1174 



n, 1596 

about 350 


n, 1340 


n, 1341 



n, 1156 

about 344/3 

n, 872 



n, 562 



n, 121 








CIA, u, 165 

soon after 335 


ii, 166 

" " " 


ii, 1216 


= gcr] 

ii, 1186 



Mittheilungen, vin, 211 



CIA, n, 1187 



n, 1217 



n, 611 



ii, 1350 



ii, 300 



ii, 1158 

about 285/4 

>1 [gr] 

n, 311 



n, 1291 


.c], [gc] 

n, 338 

. soon after 281 

[gr], [gcr] 


n, 331 
Bull de eorr. hellen., iv, 47 

about 272 
soon after 168 

CIG, 2270 

" " 167 

Vl, frl 

Bull de eorr. hellen., iv, 1 64 


= oj' L J 


CIA, ii, 550 
'A07?i/aioi/, V, 522 

soon after 150 


g C ] 

OI4,ii, 594 


. J 


_ __ 

ii, 552 

about 125 

5 rl 

ii, 465 

just before 100 

ii, 595 

(( (( H 

? r 1 


n, 469 
ii, 467 
ii, 471 
CIG, 23496 

about 100 

just before 69/2 
about 70 

!gcr], [gr] 
g[cr], gc[r] [gr] 
^c[r], g[r], [r] 

CIA, n, 470 
n, 481 


?[cr], gc[r], g[r] 

n, 482 
Bull de eorr. hellen., vi, 495 

about 7 A. D. 

?[ 1 gc[r] 

CIG, 5249 

24 B. c.-36 A. D. 




































CIG, 5331 

24 B. C.-36 A. D. 




















c t 


Bull, de corr. hellen., ix, 273 
Mittheilungen, m, 144 

70-80 A. D. 
about 100 





CIA, in, 735a 



m, 1108 



m, 91 

after 117 

c" corr. hellen., ix, 268 



CIA, m, 1042 

about 175 



m, 1177 











CIG, 1687 


CIA, n, 1312 


CIA, u, 149 


n, 1331 

n, 157 


n, 1334 


n, 209 


n, 1342 


n, 218 


n, 1344 


n, 219 


n, 1345 

n, 220 


n, 1346 


n, 298 


n, 1347 


n, 326 


n, 1351 


n, 331 


n, 1352 


n, 369 


n, 1355 


n, 400 
n, 420 
n, 513 
n, 568 

[gcr], [gr] 

[g r J 

n, 1431 
n, 1449 
n, 1530 
n, 1968 


n, 587 
n, 861 
n, 869 



fcrl [gcr] 

'E<^/M., No. 995 
1884, p. 187 
RANGABE, 1148 
Hermes, vm, 417 


n, 987 

. c. h., in, 62 


n, 1199 

m, 372 



3 A CLASS Continued. 









B. c. h., in, 388 


Mittheil., xni, 389 


in, 485 


vii, 69 




x, 102 




xm, 370 




Mittheil., yi, 360 


= ^ 

xm, 339 





OI4,n, 454 




B. c. h., iv, 173 


n, 624 


iv, 213 


n, 1358 


iv, 285 


n, 1388 
n, 1419 
B. c. h., m, 372 


iv, 433 



CIG, 1942 


CIA, m, 1297 




g 1 '] 

LE BAS, n, 1707 




m, 13 



m, 14 




m, 50 





m, 117 





'A^i/atov, VIII, 403 
B. c. h., n, 489 
iv, 176 

; g cr] 



iv, 285 




iv, 447 




iv, 516 




xm, 412 

Mittheil., i, 237 






xi, 278 

= c/ 


014, n, 473 

n, 874 


xii, 245 
xiv, 100 


n, 4776 

Bullett., 1873, p. 226 


n, 1359 


P.Sch.Ath. i p.26 No.9 


n, 13886 
m, 916 

!gc], [c] 

CONZE, Lesbos, p. 12 


2A CLASS Continued. 





AeXrtov, 1888, p. 183 





ere, 259 


Ore, 3240 























.g C 1 


r n 



CIA, u, 329 

[gcr], [gr] 



n, 1197 




in, 835 




in, 852 

K] [g] 



in, 921 




in, 95a 




LE BAS, n, 1706 






CONZE, Imbros, p. 93 
Annali, 1842, p. 144 





E.c.h.,iv, 175 




vn, 278 

[rg], fe] 



vii, 469 




vn, 470 




xi, 473 



Mittheil, xn, 251 




xii, 370 

[g 3 



xin, 74 




xm, 80 



CIO, 2381 



CIA, in, 92 




in, 740 

r J 


m, 1203 




in, 3926 
LE BAS, n, 1697 
in, 235 


C J 



B. e. h., iv, 68 

; g rc] 



xi, 483 





In the winter of 1888-9, the Director of the American School at 
Athens decided to conduct excavations at one or two ancient sites in 
Boiotia, and invited me to take charge of the work. As early in the 
spring as the weather permitted, work was begun among the ruins of 

Anthedon is first mentioned by Homer (Iliad, n. 508), who speaks 
of it as the furthest town in Boiotia. The pseudo-Dikaiarchos (Bio? 
'EXXaSo9, 17) tells us that it was situated on the shore of the Euripos, 
70 stadia from Chalkis and 160 from Thebes. Pausanias (ix. 22.6) 
adds that it lay on the left side of the Euripos (as he came from the 
eastward) at the foot of Mt. Messapion. This is all the information 
that the ancient writers give us about the location of the town, but it 
is enough to identify, as the ancient site, the remains on the shore of 
the Euripos, about a mile and a half to the north of the little village 
of Loukisi, and this identification has never been questioned. The 
remains consist of a city- wall " of the most regular kind of masonry," * 
an acropolis hill with remains of fortification-walls, the foundations 
of two breakwaters enclosing a small harbor, and " part of the plat- 
form of a great public building, thirty-four yards long, founded in 
the sea." 

About the city itself our information is scanty. The pseudo-Dikai- 
archos (I. c.) tells us that it was a town of no great size, and that it had 
an agora surrounded by a double stoa and planted with trees. Strabo 

* For the plans which accompany this article, I am indebted to Mr. Kobert Weir 
Schultz, of the British School at Athens. Mr. Schultz visited Anthedon with me 
after the excavations were completed, and was on the ground less than a day and a 
half. For this reason his plan, though rendering accurately the appearance of the 
foundations as a whole, does not attempt to give the exact dimensions and levels of 
the remains. The walls are rougher at the edges in some places than might be 
inferred from the plan. 

1 LEAKE, Travels in Northern Greece, vol. n, p. 272. 


(Geog., 404) and Athenaios (i. 56, vn. 47, 99, xv. 24) give us no addi- 
tional information of importance. Pausanias (I. c.), however, tells us 
that " somewhere about the middle of the city " there was a shrine of 
the Kabeiroi, and, close by, a temple of Demeter and Kore, contain- 
ing their statues in white marble. On the land-side of the city, accord- 
ing to the same authority, lay a temple of Dionysos, containing a statue 
of the god. There were also at Anthedon the tombs of the sons of 
Iphimedeia and Aloeus, slain by Apollo, and near the sea the so-called 
Leap of Glaukos. The last, as Mr. Buck has suggested, " was proba- 
bly a natural cliff like the numerous Lover's Leaps on our eastern 
coast." If so, it can only be the steep cliff on the seaward side of the 
acropolis. Ovid refers twice to Anthedon (Met., vn. 232-3, xm. 903 
ff.) in connection with Glaukos, and Stephanos of Byzantion (EOvi/cwv, 
s. v. 'Ay OyStov) quotes Lykophron (Alex., 754) for the statement that 
it was founded by Thracians. Finally, we know from inscriptions 
(Larfeld, Sytt. Imcr. Boeot., 15, 181, 274) that in the last years of the 
fourth century B. c. and toward the end of the third, Anthedon was 
a member of the Boiotian League, a fact which was further testified 
to by one of the inscriptions unearthed by us. As to the name of the 
town, it seems natural to connect 'AvOrjScov with av8o<$. Stephanos 
of Byzantion (1. c.) tells us that the place got its name Sia TO Tracrwz/ 
dvOTjpordrTjv elvau, a view which a visitor to Anthedon in late Feb- 
ruary or early March would certainly be inclined to favor. 

Our work at Anthedon began March 5, and continued for three 
weeks, during which time only one day was lost through bad weather. 
The number of men employed varied from fourteen to thirty-five, the 
average being about twenty-five. Mr. Carl D. Buck remained with 
me during the greater part of the three weeks, and by his suggestions 
aided me much. Through the kindness of Mr. Ree, director of the 
English company which is draining Lake Copais, we were allowed, 
without charge, to use one of the company's buildings half-an-hour's 
walk from the acropolis of Anthedon. With the aid of the sketch- 
plan given by Col. Leake (I. c.), we were able to trace the course of 
the city-walls over their whole extent. We found rather more remains 
of the walls than Leake had indicated, and at one point traces of a 
tower. Leake's plan seems inaccurate in some respects. The depth 
of the town from north to south is greater than would be inferred 
from it, and a comparison of the accompanying sketch of the harbor 


with his plan will show that he did not accurately give the relative 
positions of the breakwater and the " public building" (Fig. 16). 

We were disappointed to find that nearly the whole area of the city 
was planted with grain, for, as the only point at which a building 
could confidently be looked for was at the platform by the sea, we 
had counted on doing a great deal of experimental digging ; but, 
while we should not have hesitated to dig through grain fields if we 
had had undoubted indications of important remains, it seemed hardly 
justifiable to do so on an uncertainty. Work was begun at the plat- 
form already mentioned. There were visible, besides the platform, an 
outer foundation-wall of poros blocks, with a few blocks of an upper 
course of a rough conglomerate. The wall was well built and the 
blocks were regular. Four trenches were dug inward from the sea 
at different parts of the platform. All these, at a depth of 0.56 m., 

FIG. 16. Harbor and Foundations at Anthedon. 

ran into a second foundation-wall composed of large regular blocks of 
poros. The average size of the blocks is as follows: length, 1.20 m.; 
breadth, 0.80 m. ; thickness, 0.47 m. The wall, which is evidently of 
Greek workmanship, runs nearly east and west, parallel to the outer 
wall and to the sea. Eight days were spent in the work at this place, 
and the foundations of a very extensive structure, or combination of 
structures, were laid bare (PLATE xiv). During this work there were 
found : near the junction of the walls e and e', the top of an inscribed 
stele of poros, and, close to the most southern wall w, an inscribed basis 
of blue limestone ; near the stele, a small Doric capital of poros, 0.36 
m. in diameter, with twenty channels and with a dowel-hole in the top ; 
in the part of the structure furthest from the sea, considerable remains 
of a Roman mosaic pavement with a rather complicated and pretty 


pattern in several colors ; besides various small objects of no special 
interest or value. 

As the space included in these foundations was so great, and the exca- 
vations so barren of epigraphic results or of sculpture, it was deemed 
best to do only so much work as was necessary to show the ground- 
plan clearly, without attempting wholly to explore the interior. 

The work at Anthedon was, as has been said, merely experimental, 
and confined to a comparatively small area. Our next trial was made 
on the acropolis, a hill near the sea and the eastern wall of the city. 
It descends abruptly into the sea in rocky cliffs, and on its brow are 
considerable remains of fortification-walls of regular masonry. The 
top of the hill consists mainly of bare or scantily covered rock, but 
on the side toward the sea there is a level terrace with a considerable 
depth of soil. Across this terrace a trench was dug from east to west, 
and two others were made at right angles to the first ; but nothing 
was found except two walls roughly built of small, irregular stones. 

The third trial was made on a hill just outside the city- walls to the 
southeast, between them and the dry bed of a stream. Excepting 
the acropolis, this is the most considerable elevation in the immediate 
neighborhood of the site, and it commands an extensive view, includ- 
ing the acropolis and the greater part of the area of the city. Surrep- 
titious digging for tombs, which has been carried on to a great extent 
at Anthedon, had previously been done there, and the ground was lit- 
tered with fragments of pottery. A small portion of a fairly good 
wall, running about east and west, projected above the surface of the 
ground on the southern side of the hill. It seemed a promising place 
at which to look for the temple of Dionysos. Three trenches were dug 
into the northern side of the hill, and the wall mentioned above was 
followed. As this proved to form part of a foundation, work was 
abandoned in two of the three trenches, and the men were transferred 
to the walls, which in the course of the day were completely laid bare. 
The foundation seemed to be that of a very small temple, with some 
irregularities of structure, built of well-cut blocks of the local poros. 
Though trenches were dug in all directions about the walls, nothing 
was found except a small Doric unchanneled capital (0.36 m. in di- 
ameter) and a long unchanneled drum, both of poros. 

Meanwhile, in the trench which had been continued, we found, at 
a depth of only 0.28 m., a collection of over twenty-five bronze imple- 
ments and small ornaments, together with a great quantity of sheet 



bronze and bronze slag. Four men were kept at work the rest of the 
day at this point, but found nothing more except some small rough 
vessels of unpainted clay, and, at a considerable distance, some By- 
zantine graves. The bronze implements were taken to the National 
Museum at Athens. 

We decided next to make an attempt to find the temple of the Kabei- 
roi, which Pausanias (I. c.) says was in the middle of the city. A very 
long trench was dug from the southern slope of the acropolis toward 
the southern city-wall, with two shorter ones at right angles to it. 
These trenches ran for their whole length through a grain field, the 
owners of which received compensation. In the upper part of the long 
ditch, bed-rock was very soon reached ; in the lower part, the depth 
was about a metre. A great many tombs were found, but no walls 
of any other kind. In the upper part of the trench, on the south- 

FIG. 17. Object in poros found at Anthedon, perhaps a 

ward slope of the acropolis, we found an object in poros which is 
reproduced in Figure 17. It is 0.58 m. long, 0.38 m. wide at one 
end and 0.265 m. at the other. The four cavities, A, B, C, D, have the 
following dimensions : 

A, 0.39 m. by 0.095 m. ; depth, 0.07 m. ; capacity, 1.5 litre. 

-B, 0.135 m. in diameter; " 0.074 m. ; " 0.725 " 

C, 0.13 m. " " " 0.065m.; " 0.5 " 

D, 0.125m. " " " 0.06 m.; " 0.425 " 

In many ways it resembles the art] KM para which have been found 
in different parts of Greece and Italy. It differs, from any of those 
I know, in its small size, in having the rectangular cavity A, and in 
the small size of the three circular cavities. It bears no inscription. 
It is finished smooth except on the bottom, which is left rough. It 


is now in the church-yard at Loukisi, where were deposited the less 
important objects found at Anthedon. Further down in the same 
.trench was what appeared to be a very small tomb, made of two 
pieces of stone hollowed out into a double coffer. It is 1.40 m. long 
by 0.80 m. wide, and 0.19 m. deep. It somewhat resembles a cof- 
fered ceiling-piece, except that it is made of two pieces of stone. 

The fourth and last trial was made at a low hill some distance east 
of the city, beside the road to Chalkis. Here there had been found 
a sacred boundary-stone of rough conglomerate, not in situ, but in a 
' Byzantine grave ; and there were visible above ground two architec- 
tural fragments, a small Doric frieze-block of poros, with triglyphs, 
and a small poros cornice-block with denticular ornamentation. There 
were also, projecting from the surface, some good walls, which, how- 
ever, proved to be tomb- walls. At this point a great many trenches 
were dug in all directions, but no trace of a temple-foundation was 
found. A number of architectural fragments were brought to light, 
some of which showed traces of blue and red. Of these, a Corinthian 
capital, rather prettily ornamented but evidently of late workmanship, 
was taken to the museum at Thebes. In one of the trenches, at a depth 
of 0.81 m., were found two dedications to Artemis Eileithyia, and what 
may perhaps be a fragment of a third dedication to Artemis. A great 
many Byzantine graves were found, one of which was covered by a 
large inscribed stele of marble, now in the museum at Thebes. At 
a depth of 2.60 m., was found a grave which was cut in a circular 
shape in the virgin soil. In this grave were glass beads, bits of bronze, 
and fragments of terracotta figurines, besides a number of small ob- 
jects of gilded terracotta with bronze eyelet-holes, which had evidently 
formed a necklace. T.hey consisted of pear-shaped and crescent-shaped 
pendants, beads, and small button-like disks, two of which bore well- 
executed heads. 



Between the outer wall and the water's edge lies an extensive plat- 
form of poros blocks. This platform, which projects beyond the wall 
for some distance, is at present 48.50 m. long, and its greatest width 
is 7.10 m. It appears to have originally run some distance further to 


the westward. It is cut by grooves 0.11 m. wide and 0.08 m. deep, 
which are represented in the plan (PLATE xiv). These grooves may 
have been used in fastening on an upper course of stones, or, more 
probably, they may have served merely to let the water run off when 
the waves dashed over the platform, as must have occurred if the plat- 
form was originally of its present height. 2 The wall c shows no trace of 
further extension toward the east, but apparently ran some distance fur- 
ther toward the west. The length of the existing portion of the wall 
is 26.25 m. It is built of regular, well-squared blocks of poros. The 
wall d is 0.40 m. higher, and runs parallel to c. Its eastern portion 
is very regular. Toward the west, although it is firmly built and 
averages over a metre in breadth, the edges are very irregular. There 
is no trace of a continuation of this wall further to the west. Its total 
length is 50 m. The wall e is parallel to c and d until it reaches a 
point just beyond the end of d, when it bends sharply. It greatly re- 
sembles d in every respect ; like d it is regular and even at the eastern 
end, but it soon grows irregular at the edges and is more irregular 
than d. Its total length is 47 m. These two walls are crossed at 
right angles by a third, , which corresponds in all respects to d and 
e. Where it intersects d and e it is regular and even, but it soon be- 
comes ragged at the edges, and is the most irregular of the three walls. 
This irregularity may perhaps be explained by the nature of the mate- 
rial, which is soft and friable, but, at and near the junction of d, e, and 
e, the walls, though of the same material, are as regular and even as 
if built of marble. From e is built a slightly sloping, regular foun- 
dation of blocks a little over a metre in width. It appears to be the 
foundation of a sloping entrance into the structure. It is flanked by 
two blocks of limestone about 0.80 m. square, on which are marks 
of columns about 0.50 m. in diameter. Directly across the end of this 
entrance run the remains of a wall /, which was probably a support- 
ing wall, not rising much above its present level. The length of this 
wall, as it now exists, is 11 m. 

All the walls so far described are very much alike, and seem to have 
belonged, with the platform, to a single structure. What this struc- 
ture was it is difficult to say. It certainly was not a temple. Now 
the only building not a temple which our literary authorities speak of, 

2 Mr. Schultz believes that the platform was originally much higher, reaching the 
level of the foundations. 


unless the enigmatic Leap of Glaukos was a building, is the double 
stoa around the agora mentioned by the pseudo-Dikaiarchos ; and the 
long parallel walls d and e might very well belong to such a structure. 
The agora in a town of fishermen and mariners would naturally be 
situated near the port, around which the town evidently clustered. 
All that Leake says (1. c.) about the supposed temple might apply 
equally well to the agora. The entrance, if it be an entrance, de- 
scends to the port, as would be expected. 3 

Of the other walls, the next in order, m, is probably Greek. From 
the fact that it does not run parallel to d and e, and because it is of 
poorer and rougher construction, it probably belonged to a different 
structure. The dressed stones of the plan are of blue limestone and 
stand on the outer (southern) edge of the wall m: when uncovered they 
appeared in shape like the top of a stele, formed of a large central stone 
and two smaller ones at the sides. Between the central and the eastern 
stone was a bit of a Doric column of poros, showing channels. 

The small structure between this wall and e is of extraordinary 
irregularity. The blocks composing the walls are good, and the foun- 
dation is firm and broad, but the edges are very irregular, hardly any 
two blocks being of the same width. A small and narrow wall of very 
poor construction connects it with m. Through the western wall is 
carried a v-shaped water-trough, formed of grooved lengths of stone. 
This comes abruptly to an end after running a short distance. 

The walls n seem to form the foundation of a Roman building. 
The curved portion of this wall, which rests upon , contains mortar. 
At the western end are considerable remains of a Roman mosaic pave- 
ment. The greater part of this was covered with a thin layer of plas- 
ter, which revealed the individual stones composing the mosaic but hid 
the pattern. To the west is a rectangular flooring, with remains of a 
similar mosaic pavement. This flooring seems to have been surrounded 
by a foundation- wall, of which there are but scanty remains. At the 
northern end of this rectangle are some exceedingly irregular walls. 
All these walls are built of blocks of poros, and we found no traces 
of mortar anywhere except at the curved part of the wall n. It is 
quite possible that these foundations extend still further toward the 

3 Mr. Schultz is of the opinion that the end of the walls d and e has not been reached, 
though, as has been said, there is no trace of their further extension. It may be men- 
tioned as a curiosity that there is a tradition, among the villagers of Loukisi, of a 
palace of Alexander in that neighborhood. 


south and west, but there is no trace of a continuation of any of the 
walls represented in the PLAN, and the general results were not such 
as to lead me to excavate at this point more than was necessary to 
make a complete piece of work. 


I have ventured to call this building a temple, from its general 
form and because its position seems to correspond with that of the 
temple of Dionysos, as Pausanias describes it. It is very small, its 
extreme length being only 10.47 m., and its breadth, 6.05 m. ; but, 
according to the pseudo-Dikaiarchos, Anthedon was in his time only 
a small fishing- village. The walls are certainly Greek, and of a good 
period. 4 The walls of the pronaos are the best and most regular, those 
at the back are rougher. The walls within (B and the wall at right 
angles to it) I cannot understand (PLATE xiv). There appears to be 
no reason for considering them earlier or later than the other walls. 
It will be noticed that the building faces almost exactly east. It lies 
on a slight slope, the eastern end being somewhat higher than the 
western. To the west there is a stream, dry while I was at Anthedon, 
whose banks at this point are strengthened by regular masonry. The 
building lies very near the road from Anthedon to Thebes, as is indi- 
cated by the line of opened graves. Absolutely nothing was found 
by which the building could be identified. The bronze implements 
were found less than a hundred feet away. 


These implements comprise the following objects (PLATE xv) : 
I. Double-edged axe-head, with a hole for inserting a handle. 
Length, 0.225 m. ; width at edges, 0.08 m. ; width at middle, 0.04 
m. ; greatest thickness, 0.025 m. The edges of the sides are beveled 
toward the hole in the centre, which is 0.038 by 0.017 m. It shows 
no signs of use. 

II. Another axe-head of the same general shape, but smaller, and 
broader in proportion to its length. It shows evident marks of use 

4 Mr. Schultz agrees with me in this opinion. 

5 1 am indebted to Mr. W. J. Stillman for the excellent photograph from which 
PLATE xv is made. The photograph was taken after I left Athens, and, as all of 
the objects could not be represented, some of those to which I wished to call special 
attention happen to be omitted. 


in the nicked edges. Length, 0.135 m. ; width at edges, 0.066 m. ; 
width at middle, 0.038 m. ; greatest thickness, 0.024 m. ; hole in the 
middle, 0.035 by 0.02 m. 

Ill, IV. Fragments of similar tools. Length of first, 0.076 m. ; 
width at edges, 0.062 m. ; width at break, 0.037 m. ; greatest thick- 
ness, 0.024 m. Length of second, 0.08 m. ; width at edges, 0.052 m. ; 
width at break, 0.04 m. ; greatest thickness, 0.027 m. The break in 
each is through the hole in the middle, but the two fragments evi- 
dently do not belong to the same axe-head. 

Axe-heads very like all these have been found in the excavations 
on the acropolis at Athens, at a depth of 14 m. 

V. Implement consisting of a tube, apparently for inserting a 
wooden handle, and a short blade beveled to a sharp edge from the 
under side. Total length, 0.145 m. ; length of tube, 0.055 m. ; 
diameter of tube, ' 0.056 m. Similar objects were found with the 
axe-heads in the excavations on the acropolis at Athens, but their 
use has not been satisfactorily explained. A bit of sheet bronze is 
fastened to the under side of our specimen, which led to the sugges- 
tion that a bronze plate had been soldered on, forming a shovel. This 
view is hardly tenable, and it seems clear, especially from the sharp 
beveled edge, that the instrument is complete as it is. It may have 
been used for grubbing roots, or as a kind of gouge. Our specimen 
is slightly heavier, and rather more carefully made, than the one from 
the Athenian acropolis. 

VI. End of the blade of a similar instrument (not represented in 
the PLATE). Length, 0.05 m. 

VII. Piece of bronze resembling a hollow horn. It appears to 
have been part of some ornament, rather than of an implement of any 
kind. A bit of sheet bronze is attached to this near the end. 

VIII. Fragment of a narrow, slightly curved band, with raised 
edges, ornamented with the figure of a stag in repoussS. There are 
traces of the hind legs of a similar animal going in the opposite direc- 
tion. The stag's head is thrown back almost upon its haunches, while 
the horns project in front. 

IX. Drill resembling those now used in working stone. Length 
0.13 m. ; width at large end, 0.025 m. ; at small end, 0.011 m. 

X. Smaller tool somewhat like an awl, with four flat sides, and 
with a tang for inserting into a wooden handle. Total length, 0.095 m. ; 


without handle, 0.057 m. ; width, 0.07 m. It is barely possible that 
these two implements may have been used in cutting stone. 6 

XI. Chisel, with a flaring edge, consisting, in one piece, of two 
parts, the chisel proper, and the part to be inserted in a wooden handle. 
These are separated by a projection on each side. Total length, 0.21 
m. ; length of chisel proper, 0.12 m. ; of handle, 0.075 m. ; width of 
edge, 0.042 m. It shows no signs of use. 

XII. Sickle, ornamented with lines, the edge beveled on one side. 
Length of arc, 0.31 m. ; greatest width of blade, 0.035 m. It is broken 
across the middle. It has a tang to be inserted in a wooden handle, 
pierced with a hole for receiving a rivet. It appears to have been used, 
for the edge is nicked and the point blunted. 

XIII-XXVI. Blades and fragments of blades, mostly of knives 
of various shapes and sizes, the longest of which measures 0.19 m. 
Nearly all of these show signs of long use, some being nearly worn 
through by constant whetting and wear ; one is bent nearly double ; 
many of them still bear the rivets by which they were fastened to the 
handles. One blade (not represented in the PLATE) appears to be ser- 
rated, but it may be that it is only nicked, although the nicks are re- 
markably regular. 

XXVII. Fragment resembling a bundle of reeds or rods. Length, 
0.068 m. ; circumference, 0.073 m. ; width of each reed, 0.010 m. 

XXVIII. Handle of a large vase or caldron with a fragment of 
the side (not represented in the PLATE). 

XXIX-XXXI. Three smaller handles. 

XXXII. Fragment, apparently of a lance-head, consisting of a 
thick central shaft, with a thinner blade. Length, 0.05 m. ; greatest 
width, 0.04 m. This is not represented in the PLATE. 

XXXIII. Oval piece of bronze, with indistinguishable ornament 
in relief. 

XXXIV. Ring of bronze wire (perhaps a bracelet), 0.056 m. in 

XXXV. Two fragments of a flat-sided bronze rod. 

Besides these were found a great quantity of sheet bronze, and large 
masses of bronze slag, some fragments apparently of the vessel to which 
the large handle belonged (XXVIII), and a number of small objects. 

As has been said, these implements were not deposited in a tomb. 

6 Mr. Stillman says, decidedly, that they could not have been used for that purpose. 


The character of the collection including implements of various kinds, 
some new and some bearing marks of long use, fragments of ornaments, 
together with the presence of masses of bronze slag (thirty or forty 
pounds, at least) suggests that we may have come upon the shop or 
stand of a maker of bronze tools, and that the old implements and 
fragments were collected to be worked over, while the apparently un- 
used ones may or may not be products of his skill. This theory would 
account for what seems to be the case, that we have, in the collection, 
objects of different epochs. It seems more than doubtful that the 
axe-heads and the object described under No. V can belong to the 
same time as the ornament with the stag in relief. 


American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens. 



The following inscriptions were found at Plataia in April 1889. Those 
to which R or Tis prefixed are edited on the basis of Mr. Rolfe's or Mr. 
TarbelPs copies alone. 

I. Marble stele with akroterion and two rosettes, found in the foun- 
dation-walls of the ruined church f/ Ayto9 Nt/coXao?, outside the city- 
walls, to the east. Height, including acroterium, 0.88 m. ; breadth, 
0.53 m.; thickness, 0.17 m.; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

A I T Y P N Aiyvpov 

The name occurs, with the regular Boiotian spelling, at Tanagra, 
and there also, as it happens, in the accusative (A.iyovpov : COLLITZ, 
1053). For examples of the simple accusative on gravestones, see this 
Journal for 1889, p. 458, at the top. 

Just below the AIFYPON a second inscription is carelessly cut by 
another hand, and probably at a considerably later date. The letters 
are about 0.02 m. in height. 


Repeated examination of the stone and of a squeeze has convinced 
us that this reading is certain in every letter. That there were other 
letters at the beginning or end of the last line is not impossible, but 
no distinct traces of any can be seen. This line should give a proper 
name, but is wholly unintelligible to us. 

II. R. Slab of coarse marble, found in same church. Height, 
0.64 m. ; breadth, 0.51 m. ; thickness, 0.25 m. ; height of letters, 
0.05 m. 


III. Marble block, found in the most western of the ruined churches 
within the walls of Plataia. Height, 0.335 m. ; length, 0.94m.; thick- 
ness, 0.525 m. ; height of letters, 0.0475 m. The block had been hol- 


lowed out into a trough on the reverse side. On one of the narrow 
sides is a builder's mark, I. 


" The city (erected this statue of the) heroine (i. e., demi-deified 
lady) Moscheina, (daughter) of Aristion." 

IV. R. Part of marble block, hollowed out into a trough on the 
inscribed side ; found in same church. Height, 0.53 m. ; length, 0.77 m. ; 
thickness, 0.7 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

A N A P avSp- 

EA eX- 

TYME Tv/*09)[o- 

K C /co- 

Fragment of sepulchral distichs. 

V. T. Block of white marble, found in central apse of same church. 
The upper right-hand corner and the lower end are gone. The front 
is ornamented with a simple panel. The inscription is at the top. 
Height, 1.16 m.; breadth, 0.4 m.; thickness, 0.16 m. 

YC TONIC 'T9 rbv [ra>v 

KANKEAACONKOL tcavKe\\(0v *o[>- 

M N 

" For the adornment of the screen." 

The first two letters are twice as high as the rest. The spelling v? for 
et? would point to a date not earlier than the ninth century A. D. 1 

VI. R. Marble slab, found in pavement of same church. 

E 'E|>1 

K A A A I KaXXt- 

VII. T. Fragment of white marble, found in a heap of stones 
near this church ; complete at top, surface chipped away to the extent 
of three or four letters at left, broken off at right and below ; letters 
very indistinct. Height, 0.26 m. ; breadth at top, 0.26 m. ; thickness, 
0.06 m. 

1 BLASS, Aussprache d. griech.W, p. 42, Note 108 a . 


K I M Yo 2 

uncut] A A I X C 
uncut] T 


Apparently a list of victors in gymnastic contests. The word in 
the sixth line, therefore, was probably TrdXtjv, Tray/cpdnov, or 

VIII. T. Fragment of white marble, found near same church ; 
complete at left only. Height, 0.14 m. ; breadth, 0.145 m. ; thick- 
ness, 0.06 m. 

TT I E Q 'E>i 2o>- 


IX. Marble block, found face uppermost in the apse of the ruined 
church "Ayios AI^T/CHO?, just outside the city- wall on the east, near 
the upper (southern) end ; broken off at the left. Height, 0.58 m. ; 
length, 1.45 m. ; thickness, 0.19 m. 

ATYNAIKOON -a yvvaucwv 

AAMAIETTOEIOE Tra]\d/jiai,s irbcrios 

"EPAEAIIONCOMErA.AIPIC 7 ]^a 9 a&ov, $ 

XONEYPAMENH - X ov evpap&q 

ZCOEAN9E.NIAAEKONTO -? fa &v 0e[b~\v 

TEAAMNAVIENHN re Safivapfanv 

NTTANTF.EINOAEITAIE -v irdvr^a^iv 6 Seirav: 

EKAEIEEv,^PAC ticteure \ff\6pa*. 

These are the ends of sepulchral distichs. Professor F. D. ALLEN 
has kindly furnished the following, as a suggestion of the general sense 
of the original : 

;, Bt]a yvvcuKtov, 
eipyaa-Tcu /ceSvov rat? 7ra]\ayLiU9 Trocrto?. 
el/cova Kea-Trja-e 



yap tre ffporol Qwcrav 0e[o]v l\d<TKOvro, 
vvv Be (re/Bowl voaw Ktjpi] re 


X. T. Marble block, found in same position as No. ix ; broken 
off at the right. Height, 0.51 m. ; length, 0.51 m. ; thickness, 0.13 m. 




The beginnings of distichs, similar to the foregoing. 

XI. Marble stele, with anthemion and rosettes ; found in same 
church. Height of letters, 0.35-40 m., and, in fourth line, 0.25-30 m. 

Above the rosettes: 

ETTI "Earl 


below the rosettes: 


" Over Aphrodisia, (daughter) of Dionysios." 
The name Athanicha was added subsequently. 

XII. T. Marble fragment, found in same church. 



American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens. 



Between March 18 and 21, I made a trip to Kakosia, the work of 
laying bare the foundations by the sea, at Anthedon, being meanwhile 
superintended by Mr. Buck. The village of Kakosia lies between two 
peaks of Mt. Helikon, not far from the sea. On the hills which 
immediately surround it, and in the village itself, are well-preserved 
remains of the walls of an ancient town, built of regular blocks of 
bluish limestone and strengthened by numerous towers. The walls 
are of Leake's " fourth order," consisting of a double line of well-cut, 
regular blocks, the interval between them being filled in with loose 
stones. In the village are clear traces of one of the gates, and just 
outside it, in a wheat field, traces of the foundations of a large build- 
ing. There are also the remains of a mole (now serving as a road) 
across a marshy plain to the southward, evidently to protect the plain 
from inundation. It seems to be certain that this village stands directly 
on the site of ancient Thisbe, as was concluded by Leake and others 
(from Strabo, Geog., 41 1, and Pausanias, ix. 32. 3). The only building 
which Pausanias mentions in Thisbe is a temple of Herakles, with a 
standing statue of the god. Judging from the great number of churches 
(twenty-three in all, I was told), Thisbe must have been an important 
place in Byzantine times. Since the modern village stands directly 
on the ancient site, extensive excavations must involve considerable 
expense. I found, however, a great number of Byzantine churches 
in ruins, and I judged that a few days of work in and around these 
might yield good results. I returned to Anthedon, finished the exca- 
vations by the harbor and cleared off the walls, and on March 27 
began work at Thisbe with fifteen men, a number which was after- 
ward increased to twenty. Trenches were first dug in and around the 
church "Go-to? Aou/eas, within the limits of Kakosia, but just outside 
the ancient walls. In front of the church we found a Byzantine 
pillar of fine white marble, apparently for supporting a screen or cur- 
tain. It is ornamented in front with a conventional design in relief, 
and has a smooth, pear-shaped 'top, separated from the main shaft by 


a narrow neck. The dimensions are as follows: height, 1.77 m. ; 
breadth, 0.20 m. ; thickness, 0.135 m. The top is 0.17 m.high and 
0.47 m. in circumference. In the pavement of the church we found 
six inscribed tombstones. An examination of the walls of the church, 
with as little damage as possible, yielded no inscriptions. 

In the pavement of the church ' A<yia T/ota?, which was next exam- 
ined, were found three inscribed tombstones. As the walls of this 
church were mainly composed of rough masses of stone, and were 
without architectural or artistic interest, and as they evidently con- 
tained inscriptions, I felt justified in tearing down a part of them. 
Four fragments of inscriptions were found here. The arched entrance 
was left standing, but was afterward thrown down by the boys of the 
village. In a third church (^Ayta Kvpia/cr} or f 'Ayi,os 'HXt'a?), of which 
nothing but the foundations remained, four inscribed bases and tomb- 
stones were found. Two of the former, though we found them under 
ground, prove to have been published. 

At this point, the Directors of the School, Dr. Waldstein and Pro- 
fessor Tarbell, arrived at Kakosia, and decided to concentrate all our 
energies at Plataia. 



The following inscriptions were found by Mr. Rolfe at Thisbe 
(Kakosia) in March, 1889. Those to which R is prefixed are edited 
on the basis of Mr. Rolfe's copies alone ; to him also the measure- 
ments are chiefly due. 

I. R. Marble slab, used in the pavement of the ruined church 
' Ayia T/om?. Height, 0.77 m. ; breadth, 0.45 m. ; thickness, 0.30 m ; 
height of letters, 0.03 m. In the upper surface there is a round hole 
with a diameter of 0.14 m. 


II. Marble slab in pavement of same church. Height, 0.765 m ; 
breadth, 0.525 m. ; thickness, 0.28 m. ; height of letters, 0.023 m. 

F I 3 . A A o 3 Ft<r[o]\ao9 

The letters have the forms characteristic of the Hellenistic period. 
They are regularly, though very widely, spaced. A rectangular cut 



has removed a single letter, the fourth. Fo-oXao?, of which the 
Attic equivalent would be 'I<roXe<9, is a new name, comparable to 


III. R. Stone slab in pavement of same church. Height, 0.78 m. ; 
breadth, 0.49 m.; thickness, 0.19 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

IV ,_R. Slab of red stone in the wall of the same church. The 
height could not be exactly ascertained, as the stone was not taken 
from the wall ; it was apparently about 0.75 m. Breadth, 0.44 m. ; 
thickness, 0.34 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

The first letter must have been erroneously copied. The name 
occurs at Orchomenos and Lebadeia in the form 2av/jLei\,o<;, and the 
same contraction is found in other Boiotian proper names beginning 
with the same element j 1 but, in view of the Boiotian retention of ao 
in compounds of Xao? and in some other words, SaoaetXo? seems a 
possible local form. 

Y. R. Fragment of limestone, complete at the left, in the wall 
of the same church. Height, 0.33 m. ; breadth, 0.28 m. ; thickness, 
0.28 m. ; height of letters, 0.05 m. 

K A A Y L K\av%\Lav o avrjp (?) 

K A I H Y I /calr) 


" This statue of Claudia (?) was erected by her husband (?) and 
daughter. The sculptor was Dion." 

YI. Four fragments of limestone (.A, J3, C, D), apparently belong- 
ing together, taken from the walls of same church. Fragment A is 
complete at the top and at the left ; the others are broken on all sides. 
Dimensions of B ; height, 0.30 m. ; breadth, 0.33 m. : of C; height, 
0.19 m. ; breadth, 0.18 m. : of D ; height, 0.23 m. ; breadth, 0.49 m. 
The thickness of each is about 0.175 m. ; height of letters, 0.01 m. 
and (in the last five lines of D) .01 6 m. There are numerous ligatures, 
and the inscribed surface is defaced in spots, so that the decipherment 
of the text is difficult, and the results in some places uncertain. Frag- 
ment A, the inscribed face of which was always visible, was published 

1 MEISTEB, Die griechischen Dialekte, i, p. 246. 


by PiTTAKESas No. 3061 in the 'E^^ept? ' Apxaio\oyt,Kri and by YON 
VELSEN in the Archdologischer Anzeiger, xrv (1856), p. 288 ; by both, 
as we now see, most inaccurately. Unfortunately, we took no squeeze 
of this fragment, and are not able to give a thoroughly trustworthy 
text of it. What is given below in majuscules, as A, is simply Von 
Velsen's text, with some corrections and additions introduced from 
Mr. TarbelPs hastily made copy. 

Fragment A. 




)N K - - IM6NTIC 
GIT ---- TH6KK 


Fragment E. 


5 A TO [uncut] 


Fragment C. 

NT- - OI6KA 

Fragment D. 







O j3ov\o/jivo<; 
---- rSi\v CTT e/jiov yecopryovfjuevcov 
ftifiXiov 7/3[<^> - -~\v avr - - o 7ro[L]rj 
\cu. tov VTrep e/cd&rov 7r\eOpov 
e ..... <rovra TO 

eir - - - - 



-ov /cal 




-TOV 7rpdj;ov(7iv Trap* avrov r^? 
al~iov TOV (fropov royv Trevre er^wv 
rb %ci)piov TroXetTT? Kal TO dpyov /ca[l TO ire 
(f)VTVfjievov ela-KOfjiio-Orjvai Trj TTO[\(, 
eviavTov OGOV Te\ecrOi7j /cal 6 TrpoTepo- 
-o TOV (fropov T?)? Trei^raerta? VTrep 
-Trjs e/cacrro? /jirj 7T\eov Tr\e6po[y 

Kal (e)/c TOVTOV 




-ov % ocrov r- 
7r]apa r^? 7roA-6a)[9 
-tft) Kal TO, a\\a Ka- 

-ofjuevov TOV <f)6pov 
TTO\ ^eiTy SaveicTTfj a)? 


7TOO-OI/(?) 7) 07T- 


TO T6 

el Se rt9 6fa7raT77(7a[9 TOV ?] 6(f>ei\ov[Ta 


----- rj 7roXt9 o Be Saveia-rris o %evo<; etc rcov aXX[ow ----- - 

--- e'zm>9 rrjv et(nrpat;w TroteicrOco rov 6cf>ei,\ofjLe[vov. el Be rt? 
Bia0iJK~]cu<; KaraXiTTOi %evq> <TVV<yevei rj <tXa> rovriov rt, rcov [^copicov, a/cvpo? 
ea-rco ro]vrov f) Scoped, eVrw Be rrjs 7roXea)9 TO ^copiov. el S[e T49 W Kara\i>~ 
TTCOV Bia]0tfica<; T\evTr)(rcu, co fj,rf elcnv VO/JLL/JLOI K\ijpov6fjLOi, TT[ ---- tear 


<l>Xa ? 
cn Kal~\rrj jBovKfj KOI ra5 BrjfjLO) %aipei,v. r l/cavbv 

-- - Kvpia ra Bogavra vpelv Trepl r^9 Trpore^pas 

----- -- ryeryevr)/j,evr)<; /ecu TO[U]TOI; ? a%iov -- 

----------- TOV eTTL^COpLOV KOL ----- 

The document seems to consist of a series of enactments relating to the 
public lands, followed by the ratification of the proconsul, Modestus. 

VII. Fragment of limestone, found in same church ; complete at 
the left only. Height, 0.19 in. ; breadth, 0.27 m. ; height of letters, 
0.014 m. and (in the last line) 0.036 m. 

N Y N A 6 vvv Be 

TOICTTPOAOIA rofr 7jy>oSofa[< 

CT6 IAAT6 BG BAIO o-ret'Xare /3e/3ato[ - ___ /9e- 

BOYAGYMeNAKAIA ^ov\evfieva teal B\_6% avra 

,IC<t>OYCKONTeiMH . . 9 

. . 'KArCOTTPOCeiTIK . . . K djoi) 
v H * I C M 

VIII. Marble slab, used in the pavement of the ruined church 
r/ Oo-fc09 Aou/ca9. Height, 0.83 m. ; breadth, 0.49 m. ; thickness, 0.37 m. ; 
height of letters, 0.04 m. 

IX. Marble slab in same position. Height, 0.98 m. ; breadth, 
0.52 m. ; thickness, 0.34 m. ; height of letters, 0.04 m. 


The name occurs in the same form at Hyettos (COLLITZ, Sammlung 
der griech. Dialekt-Inschriften, 537); in the form KX^ere*, at 
Tanagra (COLLITZ, 950). It is the Boiotian equivalent of the Attic 


X. Marble slab in same position. Height, 0.82 m. ; breadth, 
0.475 m. ; thickness, 0.33 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

AP.AAoAQPoI ' A7r[o]XXoSo>/309 

XI. Marble slab in same position. Height, 0.87 m. ; breadth, 
0.5 m. ; thickness, 0.34 m. ; height of letters, 0.04 m. 

The name is new, though the corresponding masculine name (Attic 
<H)eo<az/779) is common. The Attic equivalent would be eo<f>dvei,a 
(MEISTER, Die griech. Dialekte, I, p. 229), like 'Apio-To^dveia, etc. 

XII. Marble slab in same position. Height, 0.8 m. ; breadth, 
0.45 m. ; thickness, 0.34 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 


XIII. Basis of blue limestone, in the ruined church 
Kvpiafcr) (or r/ Ayto9 'HXtas, as the name was given by some). At 
the top there is a cornice, on which the inscription is cut. The upper 
right-hand corner has been broken off, but the breadth can be easily 
obtained from the back. Height of basis, 1 m. ; original breadth at 
top, 0.455 m. ; height of letters, 0.03 m. 

AEYEIAIAZKA Aeufta? 'A<ric\[a7riv tcrj 

Y T I H Ovyirj 

" Deuxias to Asklepios and Hygieia." 

Although this stone was found lying on its face under a considerable 
accumulation of rubbish, it had been seen a few years before, and a 
squeeze of the inscription had been submitted to M. FOTJCART. See 
the Bulletin de correspondence helttnique, vm (1884), p. 401, No. 2. 
M. Foucart's reading and note are as follows : 

Y T I H 

La pierre est brisee a droite; a gauche V inscription par ait com- 
plete, les deux premieres lettres ne sont pas tres-distinctes. Ae^ft'a? 
'A<7AcXa[7rto3o)/9a)] Qvyi'rj. Dedicace d la deesse Hygia. Les lettres qui 
terminent la premiere ligne se preteraient a la restitution 'Acr/eXa^a)]. 
Asklepios est souvent associe a Hygia, mais dans ce cos les noms des 
deux divinites seraient rapproches. Ovyir) etant isole ct la seconde ligne, 
je croisplutot que*KcrK\a est le commencement du nom dup&re de celui qui 


a fait la consecration. On this MEISTEE remarks (CoLLiTZ, Sammlung, 
747 a ) : Aetf ta?, mir unverstdndlich ; etwa [M]tf ta? oder Aef ia? ? 

Our reading of the first name may be taken as certain, although 
we found the third and fourth letters not easy to make out, owing 
partly to the presence in their places of accidental marks which bear 
a delusive resemblance to the letters QA. Aei^'a? is the regular 
Boiotian equivalent of Zeuf ta?. 

As for the restitution of the first line, five letters following A (at 
the edge of which the break at present begins) would leave as much 
uncut space at the end of the line as at the beginning, while seven 
letters would extend to the edge. M. Foucart's restoration gives eight 
letters. A shorter name might be substituted, as 'A<7/eXa7rt%ft> or 
' Ao-tfXa7TG>z>o9. But, considering the extreme rarity of dedications to 
Hygieia alone 2 and the frequency with which, in joint dedications, the 
names of the two divinities stand in different lines, 3 we have preferred 
without hesitation the restoration given above. 

XIV. R. Stone slab in same church. Height, 0.9 m ; breadth, 
0.49 m. ; thickness, 0.21 m. ; height of letters, 0.04 m. 



XV. R. Rough stone basis with rectangular hole in the top ; 
found in same church. ' Height, 0.99 m ; breadth, 0.44 m. ; thickness, 
0.24 m ; height of letters, 0.025 m. 

01 ATPO 

The stone is badly defaced, and only so much could be made out. 
It is perhaps a dedication to Artemis. Two dedications to that 
goddess, published by M. FOUCART in the Bulletin (vm, 1884, pp. 
401-2, Nos. 3, 4), are in this same church. 



American School of Classical Studies 

at Athens. 

* We can cite only CIA, in, 185, and BAUNACK, Studien, I, 1, Inschriften aus Epi- 
dauros, No. 40. 

8 See, for example, CIO, in, 2390, 2396, 2428, 2429 b; CIA, 11, 1504; HI. 132 b, 
c, d, e, f, i, 181 a, 183. 



The tombstone which is described below was shown me by a peasant 
of the village of Charadra's, on the road from Thebes to Thisbe. He 
had found it near the village, and removed it to his house ; the inscrip- 
tion, he said, had not been copied. 

The stone, which is of marble, is of a peculiar shape, consisting in 
one piece of a base 0.23 m. high, and 0.28 wide, surmounted by a circu- 
lar stele, with a rounded top, 0.34 m. high, and 0.495 in circumference, 
as here represented. 

The inscription, in letters 0.02 m. high, 
is cut on the stele as follows : 



The name occurs frequently in Attic inscriptions (OZA, in, 712a, 
2891, 2986a, 2897, 2898), and in a list of names found at Hermione 
(CIG, 1211). 

Rounded steles are very common. Of these Ross (Arch. Aufsdtze, 
I, p. 26) says : Vielleicht Andeutung des Phallos f Die bootischen Grab- 
Sidney in Form viereckige Altdre, sind haufig mit einem Phallos gekront, 
z.b. in Thisbe undLebadeia. I saw nothing of the kind at Thisbe, 
and I have been able to find no representations or descriptions of tomb- 
stones like this one. Professor Merriam has called my attention to a 
vase-painting represented in Schreiber's Bilderatlas (PL. xciv, 6), but, 
as he remarks, the round-topped base, on which a stele shaped like 
ours stands, is evidently a mound on which the stele was placed. 

American School of Classical JOHN C. ROLFE. 






It seems proper to put on record in this Journal that the Board 
of Commissioners of Public Parks of New York City on the 15th of 
April 18 90 altered the Greek and Latin Inscriptions upon the repro- 
duced bronze crabs beneath the obelisk in Central Park, to make 
them conform to the readings of the original crab now in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art (see The Greek and Latin Inscriptions on the 
Obelisk-Crab, A. C. Merriam, Harper and Brothers, 1883). The 
form in which these were inscribed at the erection of the obelisk in 
Central Park was this, s. E. corner, right claw : 

Outside Inside 






They now read : 





The crab at the N. E. corner, outside, had this inscription : 
" Removed to Alexandria Egypt and erected there B. c. 22 by the 
Romans." In this the date has been changed to "B. c. 12." 

The work has been done quite satisfactorily, considering the limi- 
tations of space and the desire to alter as little as possible and yet 
secure correctness of fact in the result. No attempt is made in the 
inscriptions to reproduce the original with epigraphic exactness. 




GIZEH MUSEUM. The removal of the national Egyptian Museum from 
its confined limits at Bulaq on the east 'or city-side of the Nile to the un- 
occupied and spacious Khedivial palace at Gizeh on the western bank was 
begun in the early summer of 1889. The task was completed in January 
of the present year, and the Gizeh Museum was then opened to the public. 
It is about three and a half miles from the central quarter of Cairo, iso- 
lated in a vast acreage of partially wooded fields, and immediately sur- 
rounded by artificial gardens, which were admirably laid out, but have 
been much neglected. The transfer of the collection, which includes many 
heavy stones, was effected with comparative ease by laying a portable rail- 
way to and from a service of flat-boats on the river. 

The general classification followed by Professor Maspero is retained. 
Statues, inscribed or painted stones, and many smaller objects are grouped 
as belonging to the Old Empire, to the Middle, or to the New. Tombs, 
coffins, painted mummy-cases, and the royal mummies, constitute a separ- 
ate department, as do ornaments in gold and silver, plate, jewels, and objects 
of high artistic value ; and the collection of objects found at De v r-el-Bahari 
in 1881 is kept apart. A public sales-room provides for the disposal of 
casts, of duplicates, and to suit all tastes of " modern antiques," when 
properly asked for. The Museum, however, possesses much that nobody 
may see. A department for monuments of Greek or of Roman origin was 
indeed instituted at Bulaq, though it is not yet open to the public ; but 
there are large collections of coins and astraka, of Egyptian papyri and Kop- 
tic manuscripts, and of Kufic objects, which have never been exhibited, and 
which are quite unavailable to students or other persons who might wish to 
use them. 

No catalogue is in prospect ; nor is labelling of any kind ; and the ex- 
cellent " Guide " for visitors prepared by Professor Maspero cannot now be 
used. It is expected that some change in the management of the Museum 
will soon be made. 

This Society has offered its funds to increase an appropriation sought from 
the Egyptian Government, upon the condition, however, that certain arch- 
aeologists shall be appointed members of a special local committee. The 
present Commission for Antiquities leaves what it holds to be archaeological 



questions entirely to the Director of the Museum. The new per capita 
tax upon visitors to the monuments of Upper Egypt, which, between No- 
vember 1888 and June 1889 yielded nearly $5500, has been nearly all 
expended, according to the Director's report, for the preservation of monu- 
ments. The Director is of opinion that with this fund to draw upon fewer 
than ten years will be required to complete the works now contemplated. 
He reports the following improvements ( Contribution des Touristes en 1888- 

LUQSOR. The temple of Amon has been freed from the corroding action 
of the soil which still partly covered it : 18,000 cub. met. were removed. 
Open joints have been closed with cement, and the columns and bases in 
the chief court have been repaired with the help of temporary shoring. In 
a new inscription found here Amenophis III of the xvm dynasty, the sup- 
posed founder of the temple, states that he reconstructed it entire. A table 
of offerings bearing the name of Usertesen of the xn dynasty had been 
found here in 1888, and now two architraves of Sebekhotep of the xni 
dynasty have appeared in further confirmation of that statement. Silver 
plates bearing the bishop's name Bichamon have also been found here. 

MEDINET HABO. The first temple-court and its surroundings have 
been thoroughly cleared of rubbish, which was undermining the walls. 
A jar of demotic ostraka was found here, also a statue of Amenophis III, 
and the base of some other statue. 

QURNAH. A broken column in the Ramesseum has been repaired ; 
and protecting doors have been placed before the tomb of Rechmara, and 
before another of the xvm dynasty lately discovered. 

DER-EL-BAHARI. The clearing of a terrace revealed a number of ap- 
parently very ancient implements, and a number of Koptic inscriptions. 

BIBAN-EL-MOLUK. The tombs of Rameses VI and of Rameses IX 
have been cleared away and protected with doors. A valuable collection 
was made here of stone fragments left in the tombs and bearing rapidly 
executed fanciful designs not related to the tomb sculptures. 

DER-EL-MEDlNET. The temple has been protected by restoring the 
old enclosure wall ; and at Abydos the smaller temple has been enclosed, 
and the work of excavation begun about the larger temple. 

FAYUM. Mr. Petrie has finished his excavations in the Fayum, and 
has transmitted sixty-two cases to the Gizeh Museum for inspection. The 
chief result of this season's work has been, he says, the collection of dupli- 
cates of objects previously reported. 

OLD CAIRO. An extensive Kufic cemetery has been persistently plun- 
dered for many months by a few Arab peasants. The tombs lie just be- 
low the surface, which was lately an unbroken stretch of sand. They are 
rudely opened from the top or at one side in the hope of finding inscribed 


stones ; and they are at once partially or wholly concealed again by the 
workmen, who knowing the sacrilege which they do to their own Faith, 
make off when anyone approaches. No " unbeliever " may meddle with 
such sites, and it is seldom that one can get a glimpse of the tomb-structure. 
The walls, which are rectangular, seem to be about 35 centim. thick, sur- 
mounted by a low arch the whole strongly built up of small unburnt 
bricks made apparently of Nile-mud mixed with bits of limestone. The 
inside is whitewashed, and a shallow niche is left at one end, in which per- 
haps the inscribed tablet was placed. 1 The bodies of the dead were wrap- 
ped in very coarse cloth or matting, and a few fragments of wood are to 
be seen scattered about. The tablets are commonly 4 to 6 cent, thick : the 
other dimensions vary greatly, the maximum hardly exceeding 60 cent. 
White marble occasionally mottled or black is of more frequent occur- 
rence than coarser limestones. The letters are sometimes incised, and some- 
times brought into relief by shallow incisions between them. The style of 
letters varies greatly, being more or less ornamental. A few stones are 
bordered with excellent designs. The inscription consists of the usual for- 
mula of invocation followed by the name and date, which varies from 240 
to 270 of the Hegira. 

The management of the Gizeh Museum have taken no action in the 
matter except to buy the tablets, of which several hundred have been 

The rubbish heaps of Old Cairo have lately been examined by Count 
d'Hulst, in behalf of the British Museum, for what can be learned from 
them about old Arab pottery ; but the results are not yet reported. A 
contract has also just been signed giving to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
for three years the right to excavate the site of Herakleopolis (modern 
Ahnas-el-Medineh), the capital of the ix and x dynasty kings near the 
entrance to the Fayum and also its necropolis, the modern Sedment, in 
the border of the desert. The Committee of the Fund was at the last 
moment induced by various considerations not to excavate during th.e 
present season. 


Cairo, Egypt, 

March 25, 1890. 

1 A statement by one of the fellahin, that the tablets are found lying in a horizontal 
position above and outside of the tombs does not accord with the facts that the tombs 
are commonly broken into, and that no objects of value are found except the tablets. 


1888-89. With Appendices on the recent progress of archeology 
DELIER. 8vo, pp. 108. Cambridge, 1889 ; John Wilson and Son. 
While the Institute had considerably increased its membership during 
1888-89 and the separate societies into which it is divided had shown 
unusual activity, there was not very much material for a report, owing to 
delay in the publications of Messrs. Clarke and Bandelier and the fact 
that the Institute is at present reserving its funds for some future excava- 
tions. The salient feature of the report is the first paper in the appendix 
on Recent Progress in Classical Archaeology, by Alfred Emerson, Professor 
of Greek in Lake Forest University. It covers the last ten years, begin- 
ning with Olympia and closing with the Athenian akropolis. It is only 
when all the facts are thus grouped by a skilled and familiar hand that 
their collective importance can be grasped. Pergamon, Myrina, Assos, 
the exploration of Asia Minor, Cyprus and Crete, and the unexpected 
Greek finds in Egypt, are all taken up in turn. The share in carrying 
on and illustrating all this work taken by the German, French, Italian, 
English, and American Schools and Academies and archseological reviews, 
is set forth. The picture is an interesting one. The climax is reached on 
Greek soil in the excavations of Epidauros, Eleusis, Mykenai, Delos and 
Athens. A more concise account of corresponding work in American 
archaeology is given by Professor Henry W. Haynes. It is largely devoted 
to an enumeration of the works that have been published during the past 
few years : the work of Messrs. Bandelier, Putnam, Powell and his asso- 
ciates in the Bureau of Ethnology, especially Professor Cyrus Thomas. 
Mr. A. F. Bandelier then contributes a short account of archaeological 
work in Arizona and New Mexico during 1888-89. A. L. F., JR. 

WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR. A History of Art for classes, art-students, 
and tourists in Europe. Second Edition, 1889. A. S. Barnes & 
Co., New York and Chicago. 

This brief history is intended to be an elementary guide to the subject. 
If brevity were always the soul of wit, it should be rated very high. Of 
its 352 pages more than half are occupied by illustrations; in the remain- 
ing hundred and fifty odd pages of text a cursory glance' is taken at the 


architecture, sculpture, and painting, of all countries from Egypt to mod- 
ern times. The sketch is tolerably accurate and well suited to students in 
schools, academies, and perhaps colleges. The division of the text into 
numerous sections with headings makes it easy of consultation. Many of 
the illustrations are fairly good, although the brilliant red and brown tints 
in which they are often printed are repulsive. Where so little space was 
at his disposal, the writer should have confined himself to a clear and 
systematic exposition of his subject. He seems to fail in ability to analyze 
styles and state condensely, to cast away the superfluous and hold on to 
the essential. We have historical and social excursus and disquisitions on 
side issues. There is not a sufficient enumeration of special works to illus- 
trate general remarks, or specification of differences of styles, or explana- 
tion of historic development. The use of the word " Byzantine " to include 
all Early-Christian art is an inaccurate and misleading innovation, made 
all the more confusing, because, forgetful of his innovation, he uses the 
term at times, in the usual acceptance, to designate the art of the Byzantine 
Empire. A. L. F., JR. 

LECOY DE LA MARCHE. Les Soeaux. 8vo, pp. 320. Paris, 1889 ; 

This volume is a very creditable addition to the Bibliotheque de I'en- 
seignement des Beaux-Arts. From his connection with the historical sec- 
tion of the Archives nationales de France, M. de la Marche has had abun- 
dant opportunity to acquaint himself with the richest collection of historical 
seals, and he has improved his opportunity so as to present to us in this little 
volume a thoroughly comprehensive and interesting account of the history 
'of seals from the earliest Egyptian and Babylonian engraved stones to the 
decadence of the art in modern times. Several of the chapters of the vol- 
ume are descriptive and historical in character, and, with the aid of pro- 
cess reproductions, bring to our notice a series of seals of sovereigns, then 
of knights, then of civil officials, and finally of ecclesiastics. Other chap- 
ters are designed to inform us in regard to the character of the art and 
treat of the various kinds of matrices and impressions, of the inscriptions 
on seals, and of the laws which have regulated their use. By no means 
the least valuable is the chapter on collections of seals, which indicates 
the ease with which collections may be formed of fac-similes and photo- 
graphic reproductions. By this means sigillography ceases to be of inter- 
est merely to the antiquarian and amateur, and becomes an important 
and fruitful branch of archaeology. A. M. 



J. DE MOEGAN. Mission Scientifique au Caucase. Etudes archeolo- 
giques et historiques. Tome Premier. Les premiers ages des metaux 
dans VArmenie Russe: pp. 231, pi. vn, fig. 215. Tome Deuxi&ne. 
Recherches sur les origines des peuples du Caucase: pp. 305, pi. xvi, 
fig. 46. 8vo, Paris, 1889 ; Leroux. 

The French Ministry of Public Instruction sent M. J. de Morgan on an 
expedition to the Caucasus with the object of making archaeological inves- 
tigations and of securing by excavation collections for the French museums. 
Three years spent in constant work in this region have resulted in the for- 
mation of important collections and in the present report in which are 
formulated the results of the author's work and studies. They turn largely 
upon prehistoric archaeology and the origin of metals. 

In this field the Caucasus, and especially Armenia French archaeolo- 
gists have been the active rivals of the Eussians. MM. Chantre and Ger- 
main Bapst were M. de Morgan's predecessors, but his work appears to 
have been more comprehensive. His report is divided into two parts. The 
first volume gives a careful account of the author's excavations in the early 
necropoli and a consequent study on the arts and industries, arms, dress, 
ornaments, instruments and implements, agriculture and ceramics of the 
people they represent. This people, he concludes, was of the Turanian 
race, settled in this region from the earliest ages, who made of it, in the 
progress of history, their last stronghold against the increasing power of 
Shemites and Aryans. Their early necropoli, which cannot be later than 
3000 or 2500 B. c., show them to have been at that time familiar with the 
use of iron and bronze ; the former being obtained from local mines, the 
latter being of foreign importation from further east. Assyria, Baby- 
lonia, Egypt had no mines from which to draw these metals except the 
copper mines of the Sinaitic peninsula, and the next nearest source was 
the mountains of Armenia: the conclusion is, that the earliest historic 
empires Egypt and Babylonia were probably indebted for their knowl- 
edge and use of metals to the Turanians of the Caucasus. The author's 
attempt to formulate the pre-history of this region leads him to the 
following results. (1) There is no proof of the paleolithic state in 
Transcaucasia : (2) The neolithic (or polished stone) and bronze states, if 
they existed at all in Little Caucasus, were of short duration : (3) The 
Swastika, rather abundant in the Caucasus, appears to have been intro- 
duced by a migration previous to that of the metals : (4) The peoples of 
the Caucasus certainly received from the East the knowledge of bronze, but 
probably invented iron : (5) The necropoli of Redkine-lager and Djalall- 
oghle belong to the first period of the use of iron, whose discovery in the 
Caucasus is certainly anterior to 2000 B. c. : (6) This iron stage was of 


long duration and, though probably of Turanian origin, felt the Aryan 
and then the Shemitic influence, and ended when the Aryans invaded the 
country : (7) Assyrian influence was felt in Russian Armenia from the ix to 
the vni cent. B. c. : (8) The most recent tombs of the necropoli of the Lelwar 
region date between the vni and v cent. B. c. : (8) In the latest tombs of 
Russian Armenia, native art gradually disappears and is replaced by Iranian 
forms, probably introduced into the Caucasus by the Ossethians : (9) Inhu- 
mation was practised in the iron state, and was followed by incineration. 

If, as seems probable, the Caucasians employed bronze and iron before 
these or other metals were known to the early Babylonians and Egyptians, 
the date of the earliest Caucasian civilization represented by the tombs of 
the first group is certainly not exaggerated by M. de Morgan. On the 
contrary, if he had possessed a more detailed acquaintance with Egyptian 
and Babylonian antiquities and literature, and such works as the sceptre 
of Pepi I (vi dynasty) and the figures of Tello, he would have been able 
to assert that the inhabitants of the lower Euphrates and Nile valleys 
already employed metals between 3500 and 4000 B. c. In 1883, Professor 
Reyer published in the Arehiv fur Anthropologie (vol. xiv) a good sum- 
mary of what was known of the use of bronze in antiquity. 

The author divides Caucasian industry into four periods : the first, rep- 
resented by the necropoli of Redkine-lager and Djalall-oghle, begins in 
2500-3000 B. c. ; the third shows Assyrian influence, and dates between 
ix and vn cent. ; the second comes at an indeterminate date between them ; 
the fourth presents special characteristics which show that it represents 
the Iranian invaders of the vn cent. B. c., called the Irons or Ossethians, 
lasting up to the v cent. B. c. A large part of the volume is devoted to 
-historic and ethnographic considerations which are very instructive for the 
elucidation of the very obscure problems involved in the study of this 
almost unknown region. It is to be hoped that before long a sufficient 
number of correlated facts will be grouped to bring this region into or- 
ganic connection with the great civilizations of the East. 

An attempt at such a treatment from the historic point is made in the 
the second volume of this work, 2 in which the development of the peoples 
that inhabited this region is traced from the earliest prehistoric periods to 

2 The following are the titles of its chapters: ch. i. Origins; n. Chaldceo-Egyptian 
period; in. The Argonauts; iv. Assyrian period ; V. Kingdom of Ourartou; VI. Inva- 
sions of the VII century ; vn. Persian period; VJii. Alexander the Great and the Seleu- 
cidae; ix. Ethnography of the Inhabitants of the Caucasus in the 1st cent. A.D.; x. From 
the first century to the great invasions of the Barbarians in the West ; xi. Invasions of 
Barbarians in the West. Conquests of the Arabs; xn. Georgian independence; xin. 
Turkish invasions Seldjukides and Mongols; xiv. Modern times; Turkish and Persian 
domination ; Russian conquest ; xv. Conclusions. 


the present day. It is based on two sources literature and discoveries 
both of which are insufficient in quantity. For the early period' the author 
makes an interesting study of the emigration of metals, illustrated by maps 
and by comparative tables of the mines of copper and tin on the globe and 
of the names of the various metals in different languages, from which he 
draws interesting deductions. Hebrew and Greek traditions regarding 
the knowledge and use of metals refer mostly to the Caucasus. The author/ 
adopts the Turanian theory of Hittite ethnography and consequently re- 
lates the Hittites to the Caucasus and gives in its place a sketch of the 
history of this newly discovered people whose contests typify, according to 
him, the contest between the Turanians and the other great branches of 
the human race. The Assyrian annals are laid under heavy contribution 
for a sketch of the various " Turanian " states situated to the north and west 
of Assyria. During the ix century, there arose on the ruins of the Turanian 
confederacy, the powerful kingdom of Ourartou, which included the greater 
part of Armenia and perhaps of Little Caucasus. Its kings, according to 
Assyrian annals, were the most formidable northern adversaries of Assyria 
for nearly two centuries, and they embodied the last effort made by the 
Turanians to play a preponderant part in Western Asia. At this time 
they were attacked also by the hordes of the North, who expelled the 
Turanians from Armenia and Asia Minor. Before this, the Toubal and 
Moushkou were independent Turanian peoples, as were also the inhabitants 
of Khoummouk and Nairi. There had been a slow Aryan immigration 
into Caucasus, Armenia, and Kurdistan, when Cimmerian and Scythian 
invaders came down from the North. From this time forward there are 
more data on which to base historic and ethnographic judgments concern- 
ing the vicissitudes of this region under the Persians, Greeks, Byzantines, 
and Mohammedans, and, as these phases are better known, they require 
no special comment. 

The picture given in these volumes is one not to be found elsewhere. 
Its novelty excuses a certain amount of repetition and defective arrange- 


JOHN M. CEOW. The Athenian Pnyx. With a Survey and Notes by 
JOSEPH THACHER CLARKE. Reprinted from the Papers of the 
American School of Classical Studies at Athens, vol. iv, pp. 207-60. 
This pamphlet embodies the results of a careful study of the whole Pnyx 
question, made during the author's residence in Athens at the American 
School. It is a clear and concise summary of the subject, comprising an 
examination of the passages in ancient authors where the Pnyx is men- 
tioned ; a minute description of the site known as the Pynx, illustrated 
by several cuts and a map ; and a detailed review of the objections to what 


may be called the Chandler hypothesis. The whole is a piece of intelli- 
gent work which is most creditable to American scholarship. 

More than one hundred years ago, the English traveller Richard Chand- 
ler identified as the long-neglected Pnyx a semicircular excavation on the 
northeast slope of a hill between the Museum Hill and the Hill of the 
Nymphs. These ruins if that word can be used of remains so scanty 
had previously been known under several different names. Stuart and 
Revett had described them under the name of the Odeum of Regilla. Since 
Chandler's time, the site has been visited by all travellers in Greece who 
have any interest *in antiquity, and has been described by not a few. 
Until the middle of the century, there was little or no question as to the 
identity of the remains. 3 In 1852, Welcker, following out hints dropped 
by Ulrichs, published a thesis* to prove that the site had really been a 
place sacred to Zeus, that the so-called Tribune of Demosthenes had been 
in fact an altar. Gottling 5 had previously maintained that the ruins were 
those of a Pelasgic fort which had been afterwards altered as a place for 
the public assembly. The literature which these novel views called forth 
is neither meagre (as can be seen from Professor Crow's bibliography) nor 

When Ernst Curtius took hold of the subject in 1862, he felt justified 
in calling it die brennendste Frage der inneren Topographic von Athen. 
In order to come to some certain conclusion, he made excavations on the 
site, and the results of his work were published in No. I of his Attische 
Studien. It is apparent from the tone of this essay that he felt he had 
extinguished a great part of the conflagration : he believed that this site 
could not have been the Pnyx, although where the Pnyx really had been 
-he could not discover. It is not easy to agree with Bursian 6 and Hicks 7 
that even on Curtius' presentation of the facts we can still believe in the 
Chandler theory. Some scholars have preferred to have no opinion on 
the subject; others 8 have accepted Curtius' conclusion, that the site was a 
sacred one, an ayopa Oew. The result of Professor Crow's work is to show 
that on several points Curtius was mistaken in his observations, if they 
were really his. 9 

3 BOTTIGER and SCHOMANN had expressed suspicion early in the century ; 
CHRISTENSEN, Athens Pnyx : Copenhagen, 1875. 

* Der Felsaltar des hb'chsten Zeus oder das Pelasgikon zu Athen, bisher genannt die 
Pnyx: Berlin, 1852. 

5 Das Pelasgtkon in Athen: Halle, 1851. Das Pelasgikon und die Pnyx in Athen: 
Jena, 1853. 

6 Lit. Centralblatt, July 23, 1863. 7 Ency. Britt., s. v. Athens. 

8 E. g., GUHL and KONER, Life of the Greeks and Romans. 

9 CHRISTENSEN, I. c., says that Curtius had excavations made under the direction 
of a German architect. 


(1) The area of the enclosure is more than twice that assigned by Cur- 
tius. Indeed when the data given in the Attische Studien are used, it is 
easy to see that in some inexplicable fashion a mistake was made in cal- 
culating the area. 

(2) The surface of the rocky hillside is not everywhere sauber bearbeitet, 
as Curtius concluded from its condition where his excavations were made. 
In general it is too rough and uneven to 'have served as a floor, even if we 
can suppose that a sloping floor could be used. It is much more probable 
that, as Chandler thought, the whole enclosure was filled up even with the 
upper edge where the bema or tribune stands. 

(3) In two places indicated on his chart Curtius reports the smooth 
rock surface at the base of the rear wall to be 4.3 and 3.5 meters respec- 
tively below the level of the foot of the bema. Professor Crow says that 
at these points the rock surface is on a level with the foot of the bema. 
This mistake was so obvious on first entering the enclosure, that it led 
Professor Crow to make a new examination of the whole site. 

(4) About two-thirds of the distance from the bema to the Cyclopean 
wall forming the arc of the semicircle Curtius discovered, at a point six 
meters below the present surface, a structure of which he writes as follows : 
Es war also keine Treppe, sondern offenbar ein gleiehartiger Bau, wie das 
Bema oben in der Mitte der Ruckwand, mit dem er in einer Linie liegt und 
so doss dis Stufen parallel laufen. Es ist also durehaus wahrscheinlich, 
doss auch hier wie oben uber den Stufen ein vier-eckiger Felswurfel sich erhob. 
Die Ansdtze desselben sind sichtbar, aber er ist bis auf die Grundfldehe ab- 
gearbeitet, was zu dem Zwecke geschehen ist, ein spdteres Gebdude daruber 
aufzufuhren (op. cit., p. 79). Elsewhere (p. 97) he mentions das mittelal- 
terliche gemduer found here, and concludes that it was the remains of a 
Byzantine chapel. Bursian bravely asserted that this structure must have 
been a second bema, used, perhaps, when the wind blew so strongly that 
a speaker on the upper and larger tribune could not be heard. Or pos- 
sibly it would explain the story preserved by Plutarch, that the Thirty 
Tyrants had turned the bema so that it faced away from the sea ; this 
lower structure might then be looked upon as the older tribune. But 
Professor Crow found here nothing but three steps cut into the hillside, 
apparently of the same date as other cuttings in the rocky hills of this 
locality. Both Professor Crow and Mr. Clark consider that these steps 
are of much older date than the construction of the Pnyx ; not a hint is 
given of any remains of a building over them. 

(5) According to Mr. Clarke's survey, even the outline of the Pnyx given 
in the chart accompanying the Attische Studien is incorrect. Welcker's 
chart published in 1852 gives a more accurate idea of the real shape of 
the enclosure. 


Professor Crow's studies, then, result in putting the question about where 
it was before Curtius began his work on it. The latter has succeeded in 
calling attention more fully to the connection of the Pnyx with the pre- 
historic remains in its vicinity. In other respects he has only confused 
the problem which he thought to solve. Professor Crow does not claim 
to have pronounced the last word. Yet, after reading his discussion of 
the objections to the Chandler theory, one is tempted to frame a stronger 
statement than his conclusion, that, While we cannot say with absolute cer- 
tainty that the so-called Pnyx is the real Pnyx, the evidence taken collectively 
is strongly in favor of this conclusion. G. M. WHICHER. 

K. DUMON. Le Thedtre de Polyclete. Reconstruction d'apres un 
module. Folio, pp. 51, 3 plates. Paris, 1889. 

In this short essay the author puts forth a new method of reconstructing 
the ancient theatre. He claims to have found a modulus (of about 11 feet) 
whose multiples and fractions were used in building Polykleitos' theatre 
at Epidauros, and, presumably, the other ancient theatres. The ground- 
plan given on one of the plates seems to have been carried out with great 
care and conscientiousness. The only objection is that the method is too arti- 
ficial, especially when it is found that it operates with four different systems 
of measurement. The author considers himself at decided variance with 
Vitruvius, though his independence is perhaps in some instances only fan- 
cied. And this, for one who is convinced of the high value of Vitruvius' 
sources, where he treats of the Greek theatre, is not to be lamented. The 
radial construction of the theatre does not seem sufficiently valued in the 
-essay under consideration. The elder Polykleitos (not the younger) is 
regarded as the builder of the theatre at Epidauros, and a better notion 
in regard to its "harmony" is arrived at. G. OEMICHEN, in Woch.f. 
klass. Philol., 1890, No. 12. 

IMHOOF-BLUMER und O. KELLER. Tier-und Pflanzenbilder auf 
Milnzen und Gemmen der klassischen AUertums. 4to, pp. 168, 26 
phototype plates. Leipzig, 1889. 

This work of the two authors is a worthy successor of Imhoof 's Portraits 
on coins of the Roman Republic and Empire (1879), and of his Portraits 
of Hellenic and Hellenized peoples (1885), as well as of Keller's Tiere des 
klassischen Altertums. 13 plates are given to the coins, and as many more 
to gems. They are then arranged in their natural order of subject : mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, and plants. For the purely archseolog- 
ical reader some plates of fabulous and compound animals are subjoined. 
The phototypes from various public and private collections are chosen 
usually because they are successful and interesting representations and 


afford a good general survey of the field. The whole of the material is not 
presented, but rather such a selection as bears repeated testimony to the 
skill and taste of the editors. The common assertion, that the ancients 
lacked the ability to observe nature closely is repeatedly contradicted by 
these coins and gems. The general impression of each animal is truly 
given just as it would appear to one who had been used to seeing it from 
his youth but had not paid especial attention to its separate members. 
The identification of many of the forms is, hence, often uncertain, as the 
slight differences of species are omitted or indistinctly shown. A valuable 
part of the work is the lists of types that occur but are not shown in the 
book itself. A. PFEIFFER, in Woch.f. Mass. Philol., 1889, No. 46. 

R. GRUNDMANN. Uber 98 in Attika gefundene Henkelinschriften auf 
griechischen Thongefdssen. Leipzig, 1889 ; Teubner. 
The author publishes here for the first time a collection of inscriptions 
on vase-handles at present in the Japanese Palace at Dresden. Of these, 
82 belong to vases of Knidian manufacture, 14 come from Rhodos, and a 
few from Paros and Thasos. In the first part is given an illustrated list 
of the inscriptions, together with a careful restoration and commentary of 
them by the aid of cognate material. In the next section advantage is 
taken of previous work by Stephani, Becker and Dumont. Rhodos, Kni- 
dos, Thasos, and Olbia are the main centres of the manufacture and export. 
In regard to the names stamped on the vases, the writer believes the first 
to be that of a state official, the second that of the /cepa/xcvs or potter : the 
first identification is made probable by the analogy of coins. It is at times 
difficult to make a distinction between official and private marks, the latter 
names being often found by the side of the former. The names are not 
always on one handle, but are sometimes divided between them, so that on 
one appears the main stamp of the officials sometimes with title and pro- 
venience, on the other, the subsidiary stamp of the maker or makers. 
R. HIRSCH, in Woch.f. Mass. Philol, 1890, No. 16. 

V. LALOUX. U Architecture Grecque. 8vo, pp. 304. Paris, 1888 ; 

It is unfortunate that tke Bibliothbque de I' Enseignement des Beaux- Arts 
should not be represented by a stronger book on Greek architecture. One 
needs merely to glance at page 9 of this little volume and read the author's 
list of the most important publications on Greek architecture, to obtain a 
fair sample of the inadequacy, inaccuracy, and lack of discrimination which 
characterize the remainder of the volume. M. Laloux evidently belongs 
to that class of Frenchmen whose patriotism permits them to mention a 
few German and English sources of information, provided he makes little 


or no use of them and cites their titles inaccurately. The book is written 
by a practical architect, and we might well disregard its bibliographic and 
archseologic deficiencies (though it is rather sad to see the most antiquated 
information still treated as the most important) if only the author would 
supply in its place information of practical importance. But even here 
the book is sadly lacking. The illustrations are numerous, but poor and 
misleading ; the definitions and descriptions show also a confusion of 
thought, which is most unfortunate, as an elementary treatise should at 
least state clearly the fundamental notions of the subject. 

The instances of inaccuracies in this volume are too numerous to receive 
serious treatment. But sometimes the author's lack of knowledge seems 
to be deliberate. Thus, in speaking of Tiryns, he tells us, with perfect 
confidence, that the walls were built about the xiv century and that the 
galleries there afford us the most ancient (!) experiment in vaulted (!) con- 
struction such information had been sanctioned by centuries of ignorance. 
But, though he knows of a French translation of Schliemann's Tiryns, the 
excavations have " no special interest from an architectural point of view." 
So, he republishes the vacant old plan of the acropolis made before the 
excavations had been undertaken. Again, since Hittorf and Zanth, Ar- 
chitecture antique de la Sidle, is one of the few French works cited in the 
list, he might have consulted the work to advantage : on p. 79 he refers to 
" the old temple " and to " the more recent temple." of Selinous, as if ac- 
quainted with only two ; though on p. 188 he says " there are six temples 
known at Selinous, of which it is difficult to distinguish the plans in the 
great mass of ruins which cover the ground." Had he referred to Hittorf, 
'he might have found seven of the temples of Selinous carefully distin- 
guished and described. 

Several of the more important volumes of this series have already been 
translated into English, and we believe the demand for a good handbook 
on Greek architecture strong enough to have found for this, also, a trans- 
lator. But the contents of the volume do not merit it. A. M. 

JULES MARTHA. L' Art fitrusque. IllustrS de 4 planches en cou- 
leurs et de 400 gravures dans le texte, d'aprs les originaux ou d'apres 
les documents les plus authentiques.- 8vo, pp. 635. Paris, 1889 ; 

This work was written in view of the subject proposed by the French 
Academic des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres: "Critical study of the extant 
works of Etruscan art ; origins of this art ; its influence on Roman art." 
It was crowned by the Academy in November, 1887, and was in some points 
remodelled before publication. The author had already published a hand- 
book on the subject, Manuel d'Archeologie Etrusque et Romaine; in which 


his treatment of Etruscan archeology did not lead one to expect so good 
a book as the present certainly is. The scheme is excellent ; the treat- 
ment full, clear and systematic; the illustrations numerous; the material 
well grasped ; the literature of the subject mastered. To these virtues is 
added another, also found more frequently among French than other Con- 
tinental writers, an interesting and good style. The thoroughly scientific 
standpoint is shown even in matters that may appear trivial but are very 
indicative, such as the use of the ancient proper names instead of modern 

Ch. i, on Etruria and the Etruscans, treats of the countries inhabited 
by the Etruscans, the Etruscan race, and its migration. Ch. n is devoted 
to the earliest Etruscan burials, the tombe a pozzo, and contains a thesis in 
favor of their ascription to the Etruscans instead of to an Italic race. In 
ch. in, entitled " The first Etruscan civilization," the earliest works of 
ceramics and metallurgy are described. The Etruscans who settled to the 
north of the Apennines are the subject of ch. iv, and the more advanced 
art of the Etruscans south of the Apennines follows, in ch. v. Here the 
first part of the book closes, with the end of a general sketch of the history 
of Etruscan art from its beginning to the second cent. B. c., when Grseco- 
Roman art began to predominate in Italy. Before proceeding any further, 
the author's views on Etruscan 'ethnology, history, and art may be briefly 

The author finds Etruscans everywhere in Italy, and believes, with Cato, 
that nearly the whole of Italy belonged to them. He states the various 
ancient hypotheses regarding the race to which the Etruscans belong: 
that of Hellanikos that they were a branch of the Pelasgians, and dis- 
embarked at the mouth of the Po ; that of Herodotos that they were 
Lydians who came from Smyrna to Umbria ; that of Dionysios of Halikar- 
nassos that they were autochthonous. M. Martha concludes that the 
" Etruscans" were probably Pelasgians, but may be a term to designate a 
mixed population and without ethnic meaning. He declares himself 
against an immigration by sea and adopts the general terms of the con- 
clusions of Helbig and Undset that they came into Italy from the north 
by land, probably in the eleventh century B. c. As a consequence, the 
tombe a pozzo which represent burial by cremation are said to belong to 
the early Etruscan civilization , in the same way as the tombe a camera with 
their buried bodies represent a later stage of the same culture. Neither 
Celts, Gauls, nor Umbrians, nor any other non-Etruscan tribes are allowed 
to claim any archaeological remains. The early "Etruscans" are a semi- 
barbarous people, without arts or even industries, without a capacity to 
develop them without outside help; a people purely imitative and without 
imagination. M. Martha does not face the dilemma which he makes for 


himself in trying to explain why the Etruscans north of the Apennines 
remained barbarous while their Tuscan brethren advanced to a compara- 
tively high stage of culture, which they must have reached by contact 
with a more highly civilized pre-existing civilization. What was this 
civilization higher than the Etruscan ? Can it possibly have disappeared 
without leaving a trace ? This is certainly the crux of the Etruscophiles, 
for they are unwilling to grant that tradition is correct as interpreted by 
the majority of modern writers that this pre-existent population was a 
branch of the Pelasgians, whoever these may have been. Analogies to 
early Greek works in pottery, architecture, painting, early figures, etc., are 
also difficult to explain on the exclusive Etruscan hypothesis. In fact, 
the weakest point in the book may be said to be comparative archaeology. 
It is true that not much has been written on the subject, but its very 
novelty makes it tempting, and the omission much diminishes the value 
of the work as a critical study of the origins and history of Etruscan art. 

The author gives the following stages or periods in the development of 
the Etruscans south of the Apennines: (1) tombe a pozzo ; (2) tombe a 
fossa, end vm, beg. vn cent. ; (3) period of Oriental, especially Phoenician, 
influence, or of the tombe a camera, which begins with the second half of the 
vn cent., and includes the famous treasures of the Regulini-Oalassi tomb 
(Caere), the Grotto of Isis (Vulci), of the Tomba del duce (Vetulonia), and 
the finds of Palestrina ; (4) predominance of Hellenism, beginning with 
the v century, with Athenian predominance ; although the Chalkidians, 
Phokaians and Corinthians had imported Greek works long before that 
date. The latest Greek influence was from Magna Grsecia. Thus the 
career of Etruscan art was mainly determined by commerce. 

After the general historical sketch comes the second or descriptive part of 
the book, in which each of the arts is taken up in turn, and the principal 
monuments described in order. In architecture after preliminary remarks 
on the materials, the cutting of rocks, free construction, the vault, wooden 
construction, general forms, the columns, and sculptured and painted details 
we find chapters on (1) sepulchral, (2) military, and (3) religious archi- 
tecture. They are very complete summaries of the present knowledge 
regarding this subject. Sculpture (ch. xn) and Painting (ch. xm) are 
treated after the same manner ; the general remarks on historic develop- 
ment, technique, and method being followed by a description of the mon- 
uments classified under appropriate heads. Greece and Asia are credited 
with being the inspiring sources of the arts of design among the Etruscans, 
whose poverty of invention as well as of execution led them, as soon as 
they were able, to adopt both the technique and the subjects of Greek art. 
With them art fell to the level of an industry. The treatment of painting 
is fuller and more systematic than that of sculpture, its monuments being 


more numerous and varied in date, and susceptible of classification into 
schools and epochs : its styles are treated in ch. xv, and it is shown to 
have had a regular and progressive development contrary to the sporadic, 
inorganic use of sculpture. It shows a peculiar mixture of the native 
realism with an idealistic conventionalism borrowed from Greece. Ch. 
xvi treats of Ceramics ; ch. xvn of Metallurgy ; ch. xvm of Jewelry ; 
ch. xix of Glyptics and Numismatics. Here a fundamental difficulty is 
forever coming to the front. What of the tens of thousands of vases, 
bronzes, gold jewelry, cut stones and other objects, found in Etruscan 
tombs : are they in reality of Etruscan workmanship ? Apparently a small 
proportion in the fifth and fourth centuries B. c., a larger number in the 
sixth and seventh. The vases in black ware or bucchero nero are treated 
with especial fullness, as they constitute the typical Etruscan style. Nine- 
tenths of the painted vases found in museums and other collections come 
from Etruscan tombs : they were imported from Greece, and are here dis- 
cussed only in order to explain their presence. A Greek origin is also 
ascribed to the engraved stones and the well-known gold jewelry ; in the 
metal-work (the mirrors, for example), the workmanship is usually Etrus- 
can but the type Greek. 

The author occupies a peculiar position in regard to the country south 
and east of Etruria, such as Latium, Sabina, and the neighboring regions 
inhabited by the Latins, the Volsci, Hernici, Aequicoli, and other cognate 
tribes, whose early cities preserve their ruins to an even greater extent 
than do the Etruscan cities. M. Martha, mainly through similarity of the 
names of many of these cities to others in Etruscan territory, regards them 
also as Etruscan cities : such are Fidenae, Crustumina, Tusculum, Velitrae, 
Artena, Fregellae, Ferentinum, Cora, Terracina. If these coincidences 
prove that a population of the same race and language once inhabited 
Etruria, Latium and theVolscian territory, the weight of tradition and 
monumental evidence is surely in favor of this being not an Etruscan but 
a Grseco-Italic population. In harmony with this theory of the author is 
the claim that the Etruscans occupied the greater part of Southern Italy. 
But M. Martha has not studied the Pelasgic cities of Latium, Sabina, and 
its neighborhood. After claiming them for the Etruscans, he makes no 
use of them. His account of military architecture, of sanctuaries, of poly- 
gonal structures, of the use of vaulting and other architectural features, 
would have been far more complete if he had done so. As a consequence, 
we find a further and stranger claim that the Etruscans used polygonal 
masonry very extensively and everywhere, and that all the constructions 
of this kind in Italy were built by them. In this ignoring of all other 
early Italiac races and calling all their remains Etruscan, M. Martha, I 
believe, stands quite alone among writers. 


As a classification of monuments into series, as a convenient book for 
reference, as, in fact, the first book of a general character that has been 
written on this difficult subject, this work will render great service to both 
the archaeologist and the learned public, even though it contain certain 
general opinions of very doubtful exactitude. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

I WAN VON MULLER. Handbuch der klassischen Altertums- Wissen- 
schaft. Fiinfter Band, 3 Abteilung. Die griechischen Sakral- 
alterthumer und das Buhnenwesen der Griechen und Homer. 8vo, 
pp. xi ? 304. Munchen, 1890. 

This portion of the fifth volume of Dr. Iwan von Muller's encyclopaedic 
handbook of classical antiquities contains two treatises ; one by Dr. Paul 
Stengel on Greek Ceremonial Antiquities, the other by Dr. Gustav Oerni- 
chen on the Greek and Roman Theatre. Dr. STENGEL'S work will be a 
most helpful guide to students, as it is clear, condensed, and thorough. 
After a brief introduction, defining the subject, mentioning the chief 
sources of information and the fundamental characteristics of the Greek 
religion, the special topics are treated in the following order : (1) Sacred 
places, altars, the temenos and the temple; (2) The officials, the priests, their 
assistants, the seers, divination and the oracle ; (3) Sacred practices, prayer, 
hymns, the oath, dedicatory offerings, sacrijices, purifications and the myste- 
ries ; (4) Sacred occasions, national festivals, the Olympian, Pythian, Isth- 
mian and Nemean games, local festivals including the Athenian, Peloponne- 
sianand other festivals. The literature of each special topic is given under 
its appropriate section, the foot-notes being reserved as proof-texts. 

' Dr. OEMICHEN'S work on the Theatre of the Greeks and Romans is 
rather dryer in treatment. After a perfunctory introduction, he treats 
first of the politico-social conditions of the Attic theatre, the time, place, 
and regulation of the plays, then of the personnel, and of the financial and 
legal arrangements. After a similar treatment for the Roman theatre, he 
considers the external means, the building, the paraphernalia, the actors' 
outfit, and, finally, the representation, the circumstances under which it 
was given, the various forms of representation, and the corresponding 
arts. A. M. 

Milyas und Kibyratis. pp. 248, 40 plates. Wien, 1889. 

The first volume of explorations in this series of " Travels in South- 
western Asia Minor" was undertaken in 1881 at the expense of the 
Austrian Government. The present volume forms the second in the 
series, and contains the results of an expedition of 1882 (made possible 


by the contributions of certain generous patrons) and of an independent 
journey of Von Luschan in 1883-84. A third volume will treat of 

The heliotype plates are from photographs taken by F. von Luschan, 
and the volume is accompanied by a very complete index to the two that 
have already appeared. In beauty of execution these volumes leave noth- 
ing to be desired. In the realm of topography many sites have been 
identified more carefully than before. Especially is this true of the posi- 
tion of the ancient towns Karmylessos, Trysa, Istlada, Aperlai, Podalia, 
the capital of the district of Antiphellos, etc., and there is added a careful 
description of the volcanic district of Chimaira. Archaeology is enriched 
with careful descriptions of a relief from a very ancient sepulchral monu- 
ment in Trysa, and of the frieze belonging to the heroon on the same site. 
The theatre at Myra, the granarium of Hadrian, and the Doric monu- 
ment of Antiphellos are treated, and finally the walls of Balbura, which, 
though very late, nevertheless appear "Cyclopean" in their type of 

The inscriptions in the present volume are especially important. The 
oracle at Patara is shown to have begun its activity again in the second 
century A. D. Many of the formulas by which the disturber of a tomb is 
cursed were found. In one rather unusual formula the entire property is 
devoted to the treasury. Of the Roman period there is an inscription in 
honor of M. Agrippa, but by far the most important is one from Rhodi- 
opolis in honor of a certain Opramoas. It comprises twenty columns ar- 
ranged on the four sides of an heroon. 64 separate testimonials of merit 
are contained in it, some granted by the emperor, others by procurators, 
but most of them by the Lykian League (KOM/OV). We are made acquainted 
with an officer termed dpxi</>v'Aa who seems to have had charge of raising 
the imperial tribute and even of paying in a certain amount out of his own 
purse in case the taxes had not as yet been all brought up to the required 
sum. Another inscription shows that the lykiarch and chief-priest of the 
Augusti (dpxiepev's TWV Sej&xCT-Twi/) we re usually separate offices. The Ly- 
kian League was composed of a KOLVYJ dpxatpia^ and a KOLV^ /JcnAij, and the 
latter seems to have had the right of passing honorary decrees. Separate 
committees in the League were the apxoa-rdrai, (electors) and the /JovAevreu, 
probably fewer in number, and finally the ap X ovr 5. Opramoas seems to 
have brought to the aid of the State 350,000 denarii, besides constructing 
many buildings and instituting festivals. He was especially benevolent at 
the time of the earthquake that wrought such havoc throughout Asia 
Minor in the interval between 141 and 143 A. D. 

The anthropologic part of the book is from the pen of Von Luschan. 
It gives many illustrations of heads, and, beside the material collected, is 


an example of well considered method. The chief part of the present pop- 
ulation of Lykia consists of Turks. Among them there is, however, a 
very peculiar race called the Tachtadschy, who live in the higher moun- 
tainous tracts and follow the business of wood-cutters. Though officially 
reckoned to Islam, they have their own strange superstitions and separate 
priests. Von L. suggests, from craniological considerations, a pre-Greek 
origin for these people. The other inhabitants fall under two types. One 
of these evidently goes back to an Hellenic race, the other to some Shem- 
itic people. The existence of this latter race in Lykia and Pamphylia 
the author believes (with Petersen) can be proved by philologic methods 
also. O. TREUBER, in Woch.f. Mass. PhiloL, 1889, Nos. 47-8. 

EMIL REISCH. Crriechisohe Weihgeschenke. 8vo, pp. vn 153. Wien, 
1890; F. Tempsky. 

This is the eighth of the series of treatises published by the archaeologi- 
cal and epigraphical seminary of the University of Vienna under the direc- 
tion of Benndorf and Bormann. ^It is the work of a young and ambitious 
student, exhibiting the results or no small amount of industry and care- 
ful handling of a large mass of material. This material has not been so 
thoroughly treated before. The work is divided into four sections: (1) 
The origin, meaning and types of votive offerings ; (2) Agonal votive offer- 
ings ; (3) The prize tripods in musical contests ; (4) Votive offerings con- 
nected with the drama. The origin of votive offerings is found in the 
practice of making presents to the dead, though no attempt is made to 
show how far the customs connected with votive offerings were derived 
from this source. The assumption upon which votive offerings are made 
is, that the divinity has feelings and wants similar to those of men. Such 
offerings are of various kinds : some are valuable in themselves, others 
for the ideas connected with them ; some are symbolic in character, while 
others have no meaning beyond themselves. The best mode of classifica- 
tion is an objective one, by means of which they fall into three classes : 
(a) representations of gods, heroes and personifications ; (6) representa- 
tions from human life ; (e) objects of human possession. 

Agonal votive offerings are then treated under the headings : images of 
festival-divinities, representations of the victorious athletes, charioteers, 
musicians, etc., and the offering of the prizes and of the implements of vic- 
tory. The section devoted to tripods is an enlargement of the author's 
Dissertationsschrift, and treats of the character, form, and history of tri- 
pods, of their pedestals and decoration, and of the buildings in which they 
stood. Under votive offerings connected with the drama are treated : 
images of Dionysos and his train ; representations from the drama itself; 
offerings of the theatrical properties and prizes. A. M. 


Eighth Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1888-89. With the Reports of 
Director. 8vo, pp. 53. Cambridge, 1889 ; Wilson. 
The Report shows the presence of eight students during the year 1888-89. 
The School was opened early in October and closed about April 1 , when 
the students dispersed to travel through various parts of Greece. The 
director in charge for the entire year was Professor Tarbell ; Dr. Wald- 
stein also directed the work during his stay in December, January, and 
March. Professor Tarbell held three exercises a week on the architecture 
of Athens, on inscriptions, and in Greek literature ; Dr. Waldstein deliv- 
ered five lectures a week on Greek art during the period of his stay ; and 
Mr. Gardner of the British School lectured on Greek vases. Dr. Wald- 
stein has resigned the Directorship of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cam- 
bridge in order to reside in Athens a part of every year as permanent 
Director. Short reports are made on the excavations and researches of 
the School at Ikaria, Stamata, Anthedon, Thisbe, and Plataia carried on 
respectively by Messrs. Buck, Washington, and Rolfe; full accounts of 
which have been published in the JOURNAL. 

The variety and inspiring quality of the work thrown open to students 
who attend the School at Athens is vividly shown by this Report. To read 
the Greek poets and orators under their native skies, to stand on the very 
spot where Demosthenes spoke and where Sophokles and Aristophanes 
were acted, to listen to such eminent European teachers as Dr. Dorpfeld 
and Mr. Gardner expounding the history of Greek art these must do as 
much to shape the interests of a student as an entire college course. Semi- 
public meetings also were held for the presentation of papers, which were 
attended by a considerable number of archaeologists living in Athens. Five 
of such meetings were held and papers were read by Dr. Waldstein, Pro- 
fessor Tarbell, Mr. Buck, Dr. Rolfe, Mr. Lodge, Mr. Quinn, and Mr. W. J. 
Stillman. The students have also submitted theses, several of which will 
be published. A. L. F., JR., 

WALZ. Abhandlung uber die Erkldrung der Eckfiguren am Ostgiebel 
des olympischen Zeustempels und am Westgiebel des Parthenon. 4to, 
pp. 39. Tubingen, 1887. 

In these pieces of reclining statuary Walz sees, not river-gods (as they 
have been usually explained since Pausanias' time), but spectators. The 
two men in the corner of the gable at Olympia are shown to be quite un- 
like the nature of the two rivers of the locality ; and the same with regard 
to the two corner figures of the western gable of the Parthenon. The 


type of the reclining river-god is not older than the third century B. c., 
and in all probability was created by Euty chides, the scholar of Lysippos, 
and was first used in his much praised statue of the river Eurotas. J. 
BOHLAU, in Woch.f. klass. Philol, 1890, No. 4. 

A. WINKLEK. Die Darstellungen der Unterwelt auf unteritalischen 
Vasen. 8vo, pp. 92, one plate. Breslau,.1888. 
This is, in reality, a much extended commentary on plates 1-6 of series 
E of the Wiener Vorlegeblatter. In scenes from the nether-world the prin- 
cipal persons represented are such heroes as afterward returned to the 
light Orpheus, Herakles, Theseus. Erinnys in company with Herakles 
he considers to be rather Hekate, and in proof of this cites some unsatis- 
factory differences in the manner of wearing the hair. A figure he calls 
Protesilaos is rather, with Winnefeld, to be identified with Triptolemos. 
In some directions the essay of Winkler is also lacking in completeness. 
J. BOHLAU, in Woeh.f. klass. Philol., 1890, No. 9. 


Gio. BATT. DE Rossi. La Capsella Argentea Africana offerta al 
Sommo Pontefice Leone XIII, etc. Folio, pp. 33, pi. 3. Roma, 
1889; Cuggiani. 

In 1884, the remains of a Christian basilica were unearthed, 8 kilome- 
tres -from Ain-Beida, on the new road to Tebessa in Tunisia. The build- 
ing was a small quadrangular structure with three naves, and its ruins 
were so complete that it was proposed to rebuild the church. The mono- 
gram of Christ, the peacocks, vine, foliage, and other characteristic signs 
indicate the close of the fifth or the early-sixth century as the date. Among 
its rude reliefs, that representing a centaur is interesting as being the 
earliest-known example in Christian art of this figure borrowed from 
classic art. Fragments of a monumental inscription, partly restored, in- 
dicate that the saints especially venerated in this church were Paul, Peter, 
Laurentius, Hippolytus, and others whose names cannot be determined. 
The author decides that this Paul and Peter must not be considered to be 
the apostles, but some unknown saints of the name, because Paul is named 
first. The connection with Laurentius and Hippolytus, among the great- 
est of Roman martyrs, and their position at the beginning of the inscrip- 
tion would appear to militate against this somewhat forced conclusion. 
In the glass portraits of the apostles found in the catacombs, S. Peter is 
given the place of honor on the right in the majority of cases, but in many 
cases this is reserved for S. Paul: as well try to prove that whenever Paul 
has the place of honor the heads are not those of the apostles. Some other 
reason would seem necessary. 


A stone block 38 by 33 cent., excavated within the church, was found 
to contain, in a cavity, the silver casket here illustrated. It was purchased 
by Cardinal Lavigerie and presented to Pope Leo XIII on the occasion 
of his Jubilee. Its extreme rarity and the style and character of the re- 
liefs upon it make it one of the most interesting pieces of early-Christian 
metal-work. It is oval in shape of a very long oval and has a bulging 
cover. The entire surface is covered with reliefs : two compositions are on 
the outer rim, one on the cover. The first scene on the rim represents the 
mystic rock : on it rises the signum Christi or monogram ; from it flow the 
four rivers of living water from which drink a deer and a doe, while a 
palm-tree encloses the composition at either end. On the opposite side, 
the Lamb stands in the centre, and eight sheep approach, from either side, 
starting from two aedicula, symbols of the Jews and Gentiles, of Jerusalem 
and Bethlehem. Both scenes are reductions of the compositions in mosaic 
or fresco in the apses of the basilicas. The placing of the monogram on the 
mount in the place of the lamb, the figure of Christ, or the cross, is unique, 
according to the author. I would call his attention, however, to Garrucci, 
pi. 352, where the cross with the monogram is placed on the rock. These two 
compositions, if placed one beneath the other, reproduce a customary apsi- 
dal subject. On the cover is a single figure, that of a martyr, according 
to De Rossi, holding in both hands a crown of laurel ; above his head the 
Divine hand appears holding a crown. He is robed in tunic and pallium, 
and stands on a rock from which flow the four rivers of paradise ; on either 
side is a candlestick holding a lighted torch. Comm. de Rossi recognizes 
that there is no example of a mere human figure usurping the place of the 
Divine Christ upon the sacred mount, and he also refers to the unusual 
occurrence of the candlesticks on either side of a defunct person. There 
seem to me, although the learned author does not appear to admit it, some 
reasons to believe that this m ay be no martyr, but Christ himself. The hand 
appearing out of the heavens, the living waters, the candlesticks, are all 
frequently found with figures of Christ : the type of the features confirms 
this attribution. Examples of the candlesticks in this connection are seen 
in Garrucci, plates 337, 392, 425. The main difficulty is the crown which 
the figure holds, and which is what makes De Rossi consider it that of a 
martyr. In Garrucci, pi. 455, Christ on the mount lays hands on two 
crowns; in pi. 345, he has given crowns or wreaths to SS. Peter and Paul. 
The monogram of Christ is very often surrounded by a crown, and this is 
sometimes placed on the cross, as a symbol of Christ, on the mount. There 
is, however, one example of Christ holding the crown in his hand : this is 
in the apse-mosaic of San Vitale at Ravenna, slightly posterior in date to 
the silver capsella. Here, Christ is about to deliver the crown to S. Vitale. 
Carrying out De Rossi's admirable idea, that these reliefs on the reliquary 


are but the reduction of a large apsidal composition, we may imagine that 
the principal group, in the upper part, was formed of Christ, standing on 
the mount and surrounded by a number of figures representing the saints 
venerated in the church, perhaps the very ones mentioned in the inscrip- 
tion. To the titulary saint, as at San Vitale, he is about to present the 
crown. Below are the two secondary scenes the lamb and the sheep, 
and the deer drinking of the waters of life. The artist of the capsella, 
being limited in space, could retain only the central figure of the main 
composition ; and, as there was no martyr present to whom the crown 
could be given, the outstretched arm of Christ was drawn back, and only 
the idea of the action remained. If the artist had not intended this for 
Christ, he would not have placed him on the mount, for the mount was 
already fully represented on the rim. 

The text of this monograph is a very thorough piece of work, careful 
and scholarly, as are all the writer's productions. He shows, as usual, a 
surprising range of acquaintance with monuments. The discussion of this 
single work leads him to marshal forth a long array of general facts and 
conclusions, in the domain of early-Christian archaeology, connected with 
the subject. The phototype plates of the capsella and details of the church 
are excellent. A. L. F., JR. 

CHARLES HERBERT MOORE. Development and character of Gothic 
Architecture. 8vo, pp. xix, 333 ; 191 illustrations. London and 
New York, 1890 ; Macmillan and Co. 

Mr. Moore's treatment of Gothic architecture, though in most parts 
but a summary of current knowledge, differs in form from the usual 
standard. This is intentional. He deprecates the customary predomi- 
nance given to aesthetic considerations, to accessories, to forms not log- 
ically consequent from true Gothic ideas. He tells us that he is forced 
to exclude from the sphere of genuine Gothic (p. v) the greater part of 
what has usually been called Gothic architecture, because of its failure to ex- 
hibit those qualties of design and construction which are distinctive. In fact, 
his assertion is, that Gothic architecture (p. vi) was never practised else- 
where than in France. The method of this book is thus briefly defined 
(p. vi). The French origin of Gothic is, indeed, now pretty generally ad- 
mitted on the continent of Europe; but the exclusive claim of the architec- 
ture of France, in the Middle Ages, to be called Gothic has not thus far, so 
far as I know, been advanced. This being the case, nothing short of a close 
analysis and comparison of the different pointed styles of Europe a work 
which, strange as it may seem, appears not before to have been undertaken 
could be expected to establish a vieiu so different from that which commonly 


According to Mr. Moore, every country claims to have as good a Gothic 
and sometimes as early a Gothic style as France, and the French have 
perhaps made no greater claim than either the English or the Germans to its 
original authorship (p. vn). For one familiar with the relative literature, 
this assertion is strange. On this supposition, the contents of the book 
are arranged in eleven chapters. In ch. I is given a Definition of Gothic, 
preceded by a sketch of the study of the style by previous writers : the 
philosophy of the style is discussed, and certain principles are established 
as lying at its bases. As a summary, we will quote the following (p. 30) : 
In fine, then, Gothic architecture may be shortly defined as a system of con- 
struction in which vaulting on an independent system of ribs is sustained by 
piers and buttresses whose equilibrium is maintained by the opposing action 
of thrust and counter-thrust. This system is adorned by sculpture whose 
motives are drawn from organic nature, conventionalized in obedience to 
architectural conditions, and governed by the appropriate forms established by 
ancient art, supplemented by color design on opaque ground and more largely 
in glass. It is a popular church architecture, the product of secular crafts- 
men working under the stimulus of national and municipal aspiration and 
inspired by religious faith. 

The principles being established, and it being shown that the develop- 
ment of vaulting so as to concentrate the thrust on given points constitutes 
the essence of Gothic, the next step is to study the history of Gothic Con- 
struction in France (ch. n). The church of Morienval is given as antici- 
pating some of the innovations carried out in the abbey church of St. 
Denis (1137-41), where there is a full system of sustaining ribs in the 
vaults, of which the transverse and longitudinal ones are pointed, and 
where the rib system for the first time wholly determines the forms and 
constitutes the strength of the vaults. Then follow, during the third quar- 
ter of the twelfth century, parts of the cathedrals of Senlis and Noyon, in 
which the Norman sexpartite vaulting was adopted ; and, later in the 
century, Notre Dame of Paris, Mantes and Laon. The advances and the 
differences in all these buildings are carefully and minutely discussed from 
the point of the construction of the vaults, the consequent grouping of the 
piers and supporting shafts, the method of counteracting the vault-thrusts, etc. 
Then follows an examination of the vaulting systems of the more advanced 
Gothic of the first half of the thirteenth century, in which the continuity 
of members, from the pavement upward, becomes an unvarying principle : 
S. Leu d'Esserent, Chartres, Reims, Amiens, St. Denis. The development 
of the flying buttress is then analyzed ; finally, other features, such as win- 
dows, choirs, fa9ades, towers, and, in general, the external features. 

Chapter in treats of Pointed Construction in England. The usual and 
well-known buildings are described, and it is shown in what particulars 


they approach, in what they differ from, true (= French) Gothic. The 
author's conclusion is (p. 169), that the early pointed architecture of the Mid- 
dle Ages in England is, with few exceptions, totally different in its nature 
from that of the same period in France ; and that in constructive principle it 
differs little, if at all, from the Norman-Romanesque. It is even easier to 
deliver a similar judgment on Pointed Construction in Germany, Italy, 
and Spain (ch. iv), at least with respect to the first two countries. This 
chapter is put together in even sketchier fashion than the preceding, partly, 
no doubt, because the author judges mainly, not from personal inspection, 
but from photographs and drawings. A few of the well-known buildings 
are spoken of in so far as they are more or less related to Gothic by their 
vaulting system. They are all condemned as un-Gothic. The only ex- 
ception is made in the case of some of the Spanish cathedrals which ap- 
proach more closely to the pure French types than any buildings erected 
outside of France. 

Chapters v to x are subsidiary, and deal with Gothic profiles in France 
and " pointed " profiles elsewhere ; with sculpture, both decorative and 
figured ; and with the other arts of painting and glass then subordinated 
to architecture and required in order to assure its complete effect. 

This analysis has been somewhat long ; but it was required to show the 
scope of the work. Mr. Moore brings to his task several qualifications. 
He is a clear and easy writer and unites a pleasing style to systematic 
thought. He is an excellent and ready draughtsman, and his sketches and 
copies from photographs, freely and artistically yet accurately made, are 
a welcome commentary to his text. An aesthetic appreciation of the works 
he describes is united to a quick perception of stylistic characters and dis- 
tinctions and a clear understanding of the constructive laws applied by 
Gothic architects with ever increasing ability as they came to realize their 
full possibilities. The result is an excellent work which cannot fail to 
give the average reader a clearer perception of the actual facts of the devel : 
opment and character of Gothic construction. Mr. Moore is quite right in 
thinking that such a book was sorely needed, and that nowhere else is 
the subject treated in exactly this manner. Perhaps it seems hardly fair 
that the great work done by French students should be overlooked, as it 
appears to be. Viollet-le-Duc, the fetish of foreign (I mean non-French) 
students of French architecture, receives due homage, but another and a 
greater than he, Quicherat, appears to be unknown. And yet Quicherat 
was, thirty years and more ago, the founder and until his death the leader 
of a large school of French artists and archaeologists who appreciate their 
own architecture in just the way Mr. Moore says that it should be, but is 
not, appreciated. Viollet-le-Duc's geographical division of French schools 
was shattered by Quicherat, who substituted his famous classification into 


classes, genera, species, and families, according to the system of vaulting 
employed. Mr. Moore would have derived much assistance, in determin- 
ing the genesis of the ribbed pointed cross-vault, from a perusal of the 
treatise on L' Architecture Romane in Quicherat's Melanges d' Archeologie 
et d'Histoire, edited by M. de Lasteyrie. Intricate points in the earliest 
phases of transitional vaulting have been ably discussed, in view of exam- 
ples that appear to be unknown to Mr. Moore, by Kobert de Lasteyrie 
and Eugene Lefevre-Pontalis (e. g., Bib. cole des Chartes, 1885 and 1886) 
both able pupils of Quicherat. 

It is apparent that, from confining his attention almost exclusively to 
Gothic structures, Mr. Moore has an imperfect acquaintance with Roman- 
esque monuments. He would not otherwise have asserted (p. 16) that 
Romanesque builders rarely vaulted their naves, or have supposed (and 
marvelled at it) that semi-tunnel vaults over aisles were brought into use 
to support cross- vaults over the nave (p. 12) ; whereas, as a matter of fact, 
they were first used, in Provence, to sustain the thrust of the tunnel- vaults 
of the nave, thus explaining their raison-d'etre. This lack of familiarity 
prevents his noticing the possibility of the Rhenish (instead of the Nor- 
man) origin of the ribs, in support of which Quicherat gives quite a list 
of monuments. The most admirable part of the book is chapter u, on 
Gothic Construction in France, in which the writer deals with monuments 
thoroughly familiar to him : it is sufficiently detailed to be of permanent 
value. A suspicion may be felt that the dates are slightly anticipatory : 
a hasty comparison I have made shows that Mr. Moore usually dates his 
transitional buildings earlier than is done by French writers. 

Two points were announced as necessary to be proved. (1) Gothic 
architecture originated in France : (2) It was never practised outside of 
France. The first point is superfluous, being granted on all hands. Has 
Mr. Moore proved the second ? It being conceded that Gothic is of French 
origin, when we find it in other countries it must be (a) either purely 
French or (6) modified by local artists or styles : no other categories are 
possible. Therefore, when Mr. Moore declines to call any English or 
Spanish buildings Gothic, because they are either purely French and there- 
fore do not belong to the country, or because they have received local 
modifications and are therefore not purely French, it seems as if he were 
guilty of logical inconsequence. Canterbury and Westminster are French, 
and therefore there is no English Gothic ; Salisbury and Wells are Angli- 
cized, and therefore there is no pure Gothic in England. Even Mr. Moore 
is forced to grant that some of the Spanish cathedrals (such as Burgos, 
Toledo, and Leon) are quite pure in style, and all who have studied them 
will agree with him and not deny them a place, because, for example, the 
flying buttresses at Burgos are headed directly against the wall instead of 


being received by a pier. One cannot fail to see that Mr. Moore is inclined 
to magnify divergences, and sometimes even to indulge in what resembles 
sophistry. He fully endorses a link in transitional Gothic, such as Laon 
or Noyon or Senlis, where the wall-space, for example, is still largely pre- 
served, and the windows have not yet occupied the entire space between 
the wall-ribs ; but he would deny the Gothicity of such an arrangement in 
a Spanish or English building erected ten or twenty years later, because 
in the meantime French architecture had reached a more advanced stage. 

So much for general conclusions. I shall not enter into details except 
in one case the discussion of Gothic in Italy. As, in the few pages here 
devoted to this most interesting subject, there are many grave errors, it 
seems hardly right to let them pass unchallenged. The first sentences are 
(p. 181) : During the twelfth century Gothic architecture ha(l no marked in- 
fluence upon Italy. The church ofS. Andrea of Vercelli, which is said to have 
been begun in 1219, gives evidence, in its Gothic vaulting system, of transal- 
pine influence; but it is an exceptional instance, and it was not before the mid- 
dle of the thirteenth century that Italy began really to yield, in some measure, 
to the taste for pointed design. Three assertions are here made, and each 
one is directly contrary to the facts. A considerable number of churches 
in Italy begun before or shortly after 1200 have cross-vaults, domed, with 
pointed transverse and wall ribs, both sexpartite and quadripartite on an 
oblong plan. Some of these churches are summarily described in Mothes' 
Die BauJcunstdes Mitielalters inltalien. S. Andrea at Vercelli, instead of 
standing as a solitary instance, is but one in a long series which begins in 
about 1170. It is a fact though none of the hand-books and text-books 
appear to have embodied it for the information of travellers that Italy 
contains a larger number of transitional buildings built at an earlier date 
and in a purer style than any to be found in either England or Germany. 
And yet we are continually being told by writers who, with their eyes shut, 
receive it as a tradition, one from another, that there was no pointed archi- 
tecture worth mentioning in Italy until the middle of the xin century. 

The next step taken by Mr. Moore in his investigations of the Italian 
style leads him to speak of San Francesco of Assisi ; then follows the stereo- 
typed series of Sta. Maria Novella, Sta. Croce, and Sta. Maria del Fiore, 
at Florence ; San Petronio at Bologna ; etc. As an example of the care- 
lessness and lack of investigation shown in this chapter, we cite the fol- 
lowing (p. 186) : Of these cathedrals Siena and Orvieto are among the 
most important and characteristic. They differ little, however, from other 
vaulted pointed buildings in Italy except in general proportions, etc. Now, 
Siena is not pointed and Orvieto is not vaulted, and both differ thoroughly 
from the buildings of Florence, Bologna, etc., in what ways it would be 
too long to state here. One more statement in this chapter (p. 191) 


remains to be noticed : The apsidal aisle never occurs, and the apse is never 
provided with really Gothic buttresses. It is true that both of these features 
are rare in Italian buildings, but they do occur. Flying buttresses are 
used in San Francesco of Bologna (1236-45), in Sta. Chiara of Assisi 
(1258), in San Francesco of Assisi (1232-53), and, I believe, in Sta. Corona 
of Vicenza. Side-aisles around the choir are used at San Francesco of 
Bologna (1236-45) and in two great churches more or less dependent in 
style upon it, Sant' Antonio at Padua and San Petronio at Bologna 
(projected). Other examples are : San Francesco of Piacenza (xm cent.) ; 
Sta. Sophia of Padova ; the abbey-church of Sta. Trinita at Venosa ; and 
the cathedral of Acerenza. The last two churches are in Southern Italy. 
Therefore, though the Italians clung tenaciously to the simple basilical 
apse, they were not without representatives of the richer type of the North. 

EUGENE MUNTZ. Les Archives des Arts. Receuil de documents in- 
edits ou peu connus. Premiere Se*rie (Bib. Int. de PArt). 8vo, 
pp. 196. Paris, 1890 ; Librairie de FArt. 

M. Mu'ntz is a most indefatigable searcher of archives, and appears to 
have an inexhaustible supply of documents relating to the history of art 
copied by him or for him. It is his usual habit to publish them in r-elated 
series, as, for example, those on the Vatican Archives, the Medici Collec- 
tions, the Arts at the Papal Court, etc. In the present instance, however, 
he gives us a miscellaneous collection, extending over a period of more 
than five centuries and related to nearly every country in Europe. Me- 
diaeval documents are published under the headings : Giottino at Rome 
(1369); Notes on Tapestry in the Middle Ages. To the Renaissance be- 
long : Accounts of the Ghiberti Gates ; A new MS. of the Treatise on Per- 
spective by Piero delta Francesca ; The Annunciation by Bernardo Eosel- 
lino at Empoli; Four letters of the medallist Melioli; Preface to the treatise 
on Arithmetic of Luca Pacioli ; The atelier of tapestries of Milan in the xv 
century; The tapestries of Westminster under Henry VIII; Letters of Titian 
and of Giulio Clovio to the Duchess of Parma. Nearly one-half of the vol- 
ume is occupied with the text of letters of artists, archaeologists or patrons 
and friends of art. Of these the most important series consists of Mariette's 
correspondence with the famous Venetian architect and writer Temanza 
(b. 1705, d. 1789). They date from 1766 to 1772 and relate almost en- 
tirely to works of art : they are of considerable interest as referring to 
many sales of collections and single works and as containing artistic judg- 
ments of value. Of less interest is the more personal correspondence of 
Millin with Nibby from 1813 to 1817. 


The most interesting chapters are at the beginning of the volume : those 
on the tapestries of the xiu and xiv centuries, and on the manufacturies of 
Urbino and Milan, are valuable contributions. If a number of volumes 
of a similar description are to follow, it might not be amiss to arrange their 
contents in a more orderly manner so as to facilitate consultation. 

A. L. F., JR. 

J. J. TIKKANEN. Die Genesismosaiken in Venedig und die Cottonbibel 

4to, pp. 153, 16 pis. Helsingfors, 1889. 

A translation of the full title is : " The mosaics of the Book of Genesis 
at San Marco in Venice, and their relation to the miniatures of the Cotton 
Bible ; together with an inquiry into the origin of the mediaeval represen- 
tations from the book of Genesis, especially in Byzantine and Italian Art." 
A part of this monograph had already been published in the Archivio Storico 
dell'Arte, 1888. A general enumeration of the iconographic material 
is first given, including early-Christian, early-Byzantine, Carlo vingian, 
Anglo-Saxon, and other Western monuments, late-Byzantine, Italian, and 
Kenaissance, works. The mosaics representing scenes from Genesis are in 
the porch of San Marco. They have been published in full by Ongania, 
La Basilica di San Marco. Their peculiar style has led to the most diverse 
judgments regarding their date and school, different authorities varying 
300 or 400 years, from the x to the xiu century. The compositions are 
grouped under the following heads : (1) The first Creation-semes; (2) 
Landscape; (3) Creation of man ; (4) Fall; (5) Cain and Abel; (6) Flood; 
(7) Life of Noah; (8) Tower of Babel ; (9) History oj 'Abraham ; (^His- 
tory of Joseph; (11) Life of Moses. 

This is followed by an aesthetic and critical commentary, and then by a 
careful and detailed comparison of these mosaics of San Marco with the 
miniatures of the Cotton Bible, in which each subject is examined in turn 
and is further elucidated by reference to other early monuments, especially 
manuscripts. The Carlovingian Bibles, Caedmon's " Paraphrase," the No- 
ailles Bible, Aelfric's Heptateuch, an English psalter (xn cent.), a French 
Bible (xn cent.), are all brought under contribution as showing parallel 
subjects. Examples are given in which early-Christian or Byzantine pro- 
totypes are copied and reproduced in late-Byzantine and Western Art. 
As the illustrated Bible, for the instruction of the people through artistic 
representations, became popular (beginning in the fifth century), several 
types of such illustrated series are to be found, under each of which a series 
of monuments may be grouped. Such are: (1) The Carlovingian minia- 
tures ; (2) Late-Byzantine works depending on the Florentine Bible and 
the Vatican Octateuch ; (3) The Venetian mosaics ; (4) The Mount Athos 
Guide ; (5) An Italian School of early origin. The differences between 


the cycles of the Cotton Bible and the Vienna Bible are pointed out, the 
former being characteristically a monument of the transitional period from 
classic to early-Christian art. At San Marco these compositions of the v 
or vi century are translated into the artistic language of the xin century. 
This is the author's conclusion. It is interesting and should not surprise 
us. Every day we are learning more of the traditional and enduring char- 
acter of Christian art, of the reverential reproduction of earlier types. Thus 
is the diversity of judgments of the different authorities explained. The 
types, the composition, were of the early-Christian period ; the execution, 
of the late Middle Ages. 

The illustrations are numerous, and, though sketchy, serve to show the 
details of the various compositions and to make the comparison with other 
works clearer. As a study in Christian iconography the work will be of 
great value to students. The author's acquaintance with the monuments 
is fairly wide. A. L. F., JR. 


DANIEL G. BRINTON. Essays of an Americanist. I. Ethnologic and 
Archceologic. II. Mythology and Folk- Lore. III. Graphic Systems 
and Literature. IV. Linguistic. 8vo., pp. xn, 489. Philadel- 
phia, 1890; Porter and Coates. 

The author's activity and the wide field over which his energies are 
displayed are very characteristically shown by these essays and by the 
four various headings under which they are grouped. Most of them 
had already appeared in print in some form. Their object is thus stated : 
In a number of points, as for example in the antiquity of man upon this 
continent, in the specific distinction of an American race, in the generic sim- 
ilarity of its languages, in recognizing its mythology as often abstract and 
symbolic, in the phonetic character of some of its graphic methods, in believing 
that its tribes possessed considerable poetic feeling, in maintaining the abso- 
lute autochthony of their culture in these and in many other points referred 
to in the following pages lam at variance with most modern anthropologists; 
and these essays are to show more fully and connectedly than could their sep- 
arate publication, what are my grounds for such opinions. Under the title 
ETHNOLOGIC and ARCH^EOLOGIC are grouped the following essays : (1) 
Review of the data for the study of the pre-historic chronology of America; 
(2) On palceoliths, American and other; (3) On the alleged Mongolian 
affinities of the American race ; (4) The probable nationality of the "Mound- 
Builders;" (5) The Toltecs and their fabulous Empire. Under MYTHOL- 
OGY and FOLK-LORE are treated : (1) The sacred names in Quiche myth- 
ology; (2) The Hero-god of the Algonkins as a Cheat and Liar; (3) 
The Journey of the Soul; (4) The Sacred Symbols in America; (5) The 


Folk-Lore of Yucatan; (6) Folk-Lore of the modern Lenape. Under 
GRAPHIC SYSTEMS and LITERATURE the titles are : (1) The phonetic ele- 
ments in the graphic systems of the Mayas and Mexicans; (2) The ikono- 
matic method of phonetic writing ; (3) The writing and records of the an- 
cient Mayas; (4) The books of Chilan Balam; (5) On the "Stone of the 
Giants;" (6) Native American poetry. The last series is the LINGUISTIC, 
and comprises essays on : (1) American languages and why we should study 
them; (2) Wilhelm von Humboldt's researches in American Languages; (3) 
Some characteristics of American languages; (4) The earliest form of human 
speech as revealed by American tongues ; (5) The conception of love in some 
American languages; (6) The lineal measures of the semi-civilized nations 
of Mexico and Central America; (7) The curious hoax of the Taensa 

There is a considerable variety in the quality and style of these essays : 
some are popular, others scientific. The material available to a man who, 
like Dr. Brinton, relies mainly on the data furnished by others, is used to 
very good purpose in attempts to prove various theories. To the uninitiated 
this volume may prove of unusual interest. The language is lucid ; little 
is left to the fancy ; the arrangement is unusually clear ; the range of 
topics varied. In certain papers the specialist also may find new light 
cast upon old fields. It can be recommended as a contribution to the pop- 
ularization of American antiquities. A. L. F., JR. 






ASIA MINOR, . . 186, 197 
BELGIUM, .... 



GREECE, 198 


ITALY, 217 

180 | JAVA 175 

247 KYPROS, 190 


EGYPT, 157 



MALTA, , 172 

MONTENEGRO, . . . 250 

NORWAY, ...... 251 



PHOENICIA, . . . . .185 


SWEDEN, 250 

SYRIA, 180 




The extent and variety of the material here presented in the department 
of excavation and investigation seem to require some preliminary remarks 
calling attention to the more important items of news and pointing out 
their bearing. 

Unusual activity has prevailed of late in Africa and Asia, even though 
no discovery of paramount importance has taken place. In EGYPT the 
very useful work of clearing and repairing the principal monuments of 
Upper Egypt has been well begun with the aid of the travellers tax (see 
Correspondence, pp. 123-4), and the hope that this will be carried on so as to 
preserve from ruin the most precious works of Egyptian art makes us the 
less regret the fact that the Egypt Exploration Fund, after securing the per- 
mission to excavate at Ahnes-el-Medineh, the ancient Heliopolis, decided 
to do no work in the field this season. On the other hand, Professor 
Sayce's periodical trip has proved, apparently, the most important of those 
he has yet made, as is shown by his full letters. The vandalism he reports 
goes far to neutralize the official account of the increased efficiency of pro- 
tective measures. Mr. Flinders Petrie resumed work on the sites opened 
by him last year in the Fayum, at Kahun, Illahun and Gurob, and has 
added further data to those already found by him concerning the Aegean 
culture during the xn dynasty and the Mykenaian culture during the 
xvin dynasty. We await the publication of the results of his excavations 
with the greatest interest, as they may change our present conception 
of the age and origin of the alphabet and the relations between Egypt and 
the nations of the Mediterranean coast and islands. A number of sites in 


ALGERIA and TUNISIA have been explored and excavated by French an- 
tiquarians without leading to remarkable discoveries, but M. Durighello, 
another French explorer, claims to have discovered in PHOENICIA, at Ach- 
Zib, an untouched early Pho3nician necropolis of considerable extent and 
with valuable contents. Such a discovery would be the first of its kind : 
archaeologists had begun to despair of ever finding in Phoenicia any 
necropolis earlier than the Roman period. The Far East has yielded 
results of considerable importance in a variety of fields. Dr. Forchhammer 
reports on the monuments of BURMAH -, M. Hamy on those of JAVA ; Dr. 
Fuhrer on the excavations at MATHURA which are so valuable for the 
history of the religions of India ; and M. Senart on Grseco-Indian sculp- 
tures in AFGHANISTAN. The American expedition under Dr. Peters has 
been at work in BABYLONIA on the sites of Ur and Nippur with good results 
in the way of inscribed tablets and cylinders. In PALESTINE, we are 
promised interesting results from excavations at Eglon by Mr. Flinders 
Petrie under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Fund. There is 
little to report from ASIA MINOR beyond the fact that Dr. Schliemann 
after having obtained, on the site itself, a retraction by Capt. Botticher, of 
his opinion that Hissarlik was not a city but a crematory mound has 
again begun excavations there with Mr. Dorpfeld with the intention of 
working for two years and bringing to light all the remains of the lowest 
stratum, representing the earliest city of Troy. The work of the Cyprus 
Exploration Fund has been more successful this year than last. It has 
been concentrated on the site of SALAMIS which proved to contain an inex- 
haustible supply of monuments, though the greater part are of late date. 
In GREECE there has been a lull. After terminating the work on the 
Akropolis, the Greek Archaeological Society has remained undecided as 
to the next theatre of its operations, and is terminating some excavations 
already in hand, such as that of the Athenian Olympieion. The German 
School has not undertaken anything new. The French School has finally 
decided, at the close of the season, to work at Tegea. The British School, 
although starting very late in its excavations at Megalopolis, has already 
been so fortunate as to make several discoveries, the most important being 
that of the plan and details of the theatre, which seems to equal in interest 
any of those yet known in Greece. The American School renewed work 
at Plataia under Dr. Waldstein, but as yet the three important temples 
of the city have not been discovered. At Bourba some primitive tombs 
were found interesting, as they are supposed to be earlier than the Myke- 
naian period. The work at Lykosoura has been continued with success, 
and the importance of the colossal group of statuary by Damophon 
becomes very apparent, as it shows, from his chef-d'oeuvre, the style of one 
of the great masters of the fourth century, hitherto known only by name. 


From many sources there have been made great additions to the Central 
Museum in Athens, and we are glad also to announce the opening of a 
Museum of Greek Christian Antiquities. In connection with this we cannot 
pass over in silence the admirable undertaking of some members of the 
British School to reproduce all the Byzantine monuments of Greece, many 
of which are disappearing from day to day, as they are without the pro- 
tection so liberally accorded classic monuments. 

In ITALY, a few discoveries stand out in bold relief. The great Ionic tern - 
pie at Gerace in Southern Italy, on the site of the city of the Locrians, is 
found to have risen on the ruins of an archaic temple. Being the first 
Ionic Greek temple thus far discovered in Italy, it is exciting great interest, 
and has been visited from Athens by Dr. Dorpfeld and from Rome by Dr. 
Petersen, Secretaries of the German Institute. A complete Etruscan city 
of the fifth century is revealed to us at Marzabotto, near Bologna, under 
Brizio's magic touch, and for the first time we can form an idea of the 
arrangement of the Etruscan streets and houses, their sanitary dispositions, 
and the life of their inhabitants. It shows that the Romans borrowed from 
the Etruscans on all these points. No special mention need be made of 
the various excavations in the field of Italian prehistoric antiquities in the 
terremare of Castellazzo, in the archaic Villanova necropolis at Bologna, 
except in so far as they bear upon the important question of ethnology 
of the ethnic relation between Etruscans, Umbrians and other Italiots. In 
this connection it is interesting to note that the indefatigable Orsi has 
opened up, in the necropoli of Sicily, a relatively new field of prehistoric 
antiquities, important especially because Sicily seems to hold out one hand 
eastward to the islands such as Krete, Kypros, Rhodes and the Mykenai 
culture, while the other is extended northward to the regions of Upper 
Italy. In Rome, a relic of the early city has been found in a part of the 
tufa viaduct built in the early-Republican period across the Tiber to span 
the marshy land and to establish communication between the Palatine, Ces- 
tian, and Janiculan bridges. From Pompeii comes the news of a discovery 
which may put an end to the controversy as to whether the eruption that 
destroyed the city took place in August or in November of 79. It consists 
of the impress and remains of a laurel-tree with its fruit, which is known 
not to ripen until November, thus showing this to be the period of the 

In FRANCE, excavations are continued in several Merovingian cemeteries > 
In AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a very extensive necropolis of early date has been 
excavated at Lengyel. In GREAT BRITAIN, the Celtic cemetery at Aylesford 
suggests to Mr. Evans the existence of early and close relations between 
Gaul and England comparable to those that existed later between England 
and Normandy. 




of the Society of Biblical Archeology (March 4, 1890), Dr. J. H. Gladstone 
publishes some results of an examination and analysis which he had made 
of the copper and bronze tools found by Mr. Flinders Petrie in Egypt 
during the past year, as well as of other Egyptian, Babylonian, and As- 
syrian metal objects. The tools of the xn dynasty, found at Kahun and 
dating from about 2500 B. c. were examined with great care and curiosity 
to ascertain the important question of the presence or absence of tin. A 
hatchet was found to contain: copper 93*26; arsenic 3*90; tin 0'52; 
antimony 0'16 ; iron 0'21 : total, 98*05. The analysis of a round chisel 
resulted in : copper 96'35 ; arsenic 0'36 ; and tin 2'16 : total, 98'87. These 
are a good sample of the whole. In none of them was any zinc detected. 
It is evident, therefore, that these earlier alloys have no right to be called 
brass ; and probably they should be designated as imperfectly purified 
copper, rather than as bronze. It is difficult to fancy that such small 
quantities of tin were purposely added ; it is, however, easy to suppose 
that the ancient Egyptians found certain ores of copper more suited to 
their purpose than others. It was declared by Professor Roberts- Austen 
that either two per cent, of tin or three per cent, would have great influence 
in hardening copper, which in a pure state would not be suitable for cut- 
ting-utensils. As time progresses, the percentage of tin increases ; thus, 
in tools and figures of the New Empire the percentage of copper is only 
from 87 to 89 while that of tin has risen to 6 and 7 per cent. Passing 
from this date, 1200 or 1300 B. c., to the ninth century, we find that the 
Balawat gates of Shalmaneser II (859-25) contain in the band less than 
74 per cent, of copper and over 9 per cent, of tin ; in the bolt, 70' 7 of 
copper and 7'15 of tin. These proportions resemble those usually found 
in ancient bronze, and those of modern gun-metal. The use of bronze had 
become very widespread, and was the principal metal used by the early 
Israelites, even when iron and steel would have been far more suitable. 
It would appear that in the latter part of the stone age there was what 
has been termed a pre-bronze age, in which copper ores were smelted and 
the metal used for implements. A careful and detailed study would show 
how the stone implements were gradually replaced by those of copper, and 
how, by increasing the amount of tin, this was changed into the more 
valuable alloy of bronze. 

LETTERS FROM A. H. SAYCE- Professor Sayce writes from Egypt (Feb. 
9, 23, March 12) : 



a society was formed for the protection of Egyptian antiquities, the only 
practical result of which has been the imposition of a tax of 100 piastres 
upon every person who wishes to visit the great monuments of Upper 
Egypt. The temples of Denderah, Abydos, Esneh, and Edfu are neither 
better nor worse protected than they were before ; the newly-cleared ruins 
of Luxor are allowed to become the refuse-heap of the villagers ; no at- 
tempt has been made to enclose Karnak. More havoc has been wrought 
among the monuments during the last three months than during the 
whole of the last half-century. The famous tombs of Beni-Hassan have 
been hopelessly mutilated, the curious basreliefs of Tel el-Amarna have 
been hewn from the walls, and the cartouches have been cut out of the 
tombs of the vi dynasty at El-Bersheh. In the well-known "Tomb of 
the Colossus," and its immediate neighborhood, the hand of the destroyer 
has been most ruthless. The floor of the tomb is strewn with the frag- 
ments of the paintings and hieroglyphs with which its walls were once 
adorned. The hunting-scene, carved in delicate relief on a stone at its 
entrance, and interesting on account of certain figures in it being drawn 
according to the modern rules of perspective, has been wantonly smashed 
to atoms. Just below the Tomb of the Colossus was another and smaller 
tomb of the xn dynasty, the walls of which were covered with inscrip- 
tions in a perfect state of preservation. It is pitiable to enter it now. Of 
a large part of the text nothing remains but a hasty copy made by myself 
four years ago. Even the tablet of Thothmes III, at the entrance of the 
quarries near the tombs, has been defaced beyond recognition. The work 
of destruction has been carried out in order to provide the dealers of 
Ekhmim and Luxor with fragments of inscribed stone which they may 
sell to tourists. But it is not only the dealers who are thus allowed to 
destroy tombs like those of Beni-Hassan which are supposed to be under 
the charge of salaried " guardians ; " the work of blasting the historical 
rocks of Assiout still goes on merrily, and a tomb which was discovered 
there when I last visited the place is already partially quarried away. 
The vl-dynasty tomb at Qasr-el-Syad, with its important paintings and 
texts, described by me in the Academy some years ago, has fallen a victim 
to the quarry-men ; and the old quarries of the Gebel el-Tiik, with their 
curious Greek and demotic inscriptions, are now in their hands. The 
Ptolemaic temple of Toud, eight miles only south of Luxor, with its un- 
copied texts, is fast disappearing, Mr. Insinger tells me. When I saw it 
eight years ago it was in a comparatively perfect condition. It is evident 
that whatever inscriptions there are above ground in Egypt must be copied 
at once if they are to be copied at all. 

DISCOVERIES. So far I have not myself done much in the way of hunt- 
ing out or copying new texts. At the northern end of the GEBEL ABU-FEDA, 


however, I found some Greek tombs, besides another with the name Pha-i-ya 
above it in Cypriote letters, and a short Karian text. At TEL EL-AMARNA 
we came across some potsherds with hieratic inscriptions upon them, as 
well as fragments of pottery of the same color and make as the fragments 
discovered by Mr. Petrie at Tel el-Gorob and inscribed with the same 
characters or marks. The discovery confirms Mr. Petrie's belief that the 
characters would be found at Tel el-Amarna if the mounds there were 
properly searched. It also confirms my belief that the origin of the char- 
acters is to be sought in the hieratic forms of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. 
A little to the north of Negadeh, we stopped at the village of NEYLET 
TOKH, as I had been told that antiquities were to be met with in the 
neighborhood. About two miles inland, and beyond the cultivated land, 
we found a site of an old city, with four early rock-cut tombs above it, and 
the ruins of a Coptic monastery to the north. The tombs, which had once 
been painted, had lost all traces of ornamentation ; but my companion, Mr. 
Robertson, picked up a terracotta stamp on the site of a fortress which 
overlooked the old town. The stamp bears the cartouche of Ast-m-kheb 
the consort of Ra-men-kheper, who was high-priest of Amen in the age of 
the xxi dynasty. Two and a half miles to the south is the site of another 
town strown with Roman and Coptic pottery. I was shown there a large 
stone sarcophagus of the Roman period which has lately been disinterred 
by the fellahin. 

Since leaving Luxor, in company with Mr. Wilbour, we have visited 
some quarries near DEBBABIEH and opposite Gebelen, which were discov- 
ered by M. Daressy last year. He found in them an inscription of a king 
who calls himself Nesi-Ba-(n)-tatni, the Smendes of Manetho, who headed 
the xxi dynasty. The inscription sheds a welcome light on an obscure 
period of Egyptian history. It was recopied by Mr. Wilbour, while I 
recopied another hieroglyphic text on a tablet in a neighboring quarry. I 
also copied some Greek inscriptions which had been noticed but not copied 
by M. Daressy. They are dated in the reigns of Alexander and Antoni- 
nus Severus, and give us the names of some local deities as well as of the 
place in which the quarries are situated. To the south of Debbabieh are 
a number of tombs which M. Grebaut has excavated ; south of these again 
is a tomb of the xn dynasty, where I copied what remains of the paint- 
ings and text. Our only new discovery, however, has been an isolated 
sandstone rock, south of EL-QAB, which was quarried in old times and is 
adorned with some curious sculptures, among them that of the god Bes, in 
a new form. Both at ABYDOS and QURNAH, vases have lately been found 
like those discovered by Mr. Petrie at Tel el-Gorob, which in form, orna- 
mentation, and color, are identical with the so-called Mykenaean vases of 


the first style. At Abydos they are found along with vases which resem- 
ble those found in the prehistoric tombs of Cyprus. 

I paid a visit to the ISLAND OF SEHL, midway between Assuan and Philae, 
where Mr. Wilbour was employed in copying two inscriptions of consider- 
able historical importance. The southern end of this island, as is well 
known, is a perfect treasure-house of hieroglyphic texts, incised upon the 
granite rocks and boulders. The island was, from early times, the sanc- 
tuary of the deities of the Cataract, before its holiness and fame were super- 
seded by the later attractions of Philae. Most of the inscriptions face a 
ravine in the southwestern part of the island ; and, led by this clue, we 
discovered the site of the ancient shrine, the central object of pilgrimage 
to the pious Egyptian of Pharaonic days. Fragments of the sandstone 
naos are still lying on the ground among the debris of the old sanctuary. 
By the side of them is a stele of the age of Thothmes III, still perfect ; and 
at what was once the back of the chapel is a long inscription, accompanied 
by sculptures, apparently of the Ptolemaic period. In the neighboring vil- 
lage of Sehel, I found stones which had dome from the ruined sanctuary, 
and bore the cartouches of Ptolemy Philopator, showing that the shrine 
had been repaired or enlarged in his reign. I also copied a stele of the 
same epoch, which had been built into the wall of a native house. 

North of Sehel, on the western bank of the river, I discovered the site 
of another sanctuary. It is marked by a large boulder of granite, which 
commands an extensive view, and is close to a modern Sheikh's tomb. The 
latter is about a couple of miles south of the Qubbet el-Hawa, underneath 
which Sir Francis Grenfell disinterred a series of ancient tombs. The rock 
is covered with hieroglyphic invocations to Khnum, Sati, and 'Anq, the 
deities of the Cataract ; and the remains of a chapel of sandstone lie round 
about it. Among these are a broken stele, which mentions " the land of 
ebony," and a seated statue in a barbaric style of art, which has on the 
back an inscription in unknown characters. An old road leads westward 
from the sanctuary to some quarries, where I found the remains of tombs 
of the Roman period. The dead were buried under the shelter of the rock 
in rectangular coffins of terracotta, which resemble troughs with lids. A 
cairn of loose stones was piled over them, surrounded with a circle of stones. 
In some instances I found the name of the defunct cut in the rock above 
the tomb. Almost all the names are Greek or Latin, like Sokrates and 
Marius, though the names of the fathers are Egyptian. One of the pil- 
grims to the sanctuary was a certain scribe and captain of the archers, 
named Thoth-m-hib. The same individual has left a memorial of himself 
in Sehe'l ; and I discovered another very curious record of him on a rock 
in the western desert, about three miles to the north of Assuan. Here he 
describes himself as " divine prophet of the temple of Pa-Khnum." The 


inscription is accompanied by a drawing of five magnificently equipped 
dahabiahs, and a sort of small boat below them. Five men are rowing 
the foremost dahabiah, above which Thoth-m-hib is represented as walk- 
ing with a crooked stick in his hand, an Assyrian cap on his head, and a 
strange kind of cape over his shoulders, while a naked slave follows with 
an umbrella, and a dog runs by his side. A giraffe is standing in one of 
the dahabiahs. Two hippopotamus are depicted on one side of the inscrip- 
tion, and two ostriches on the other, a long-horned gazelle being above them. 
The position of the ostriches seems to indicate that they were found in the 
locality at the time, though the giraffe was being imported from some dis- 
trict further south. 

Unfortunately it is impossible to fix the date of Thoth-m-hib ; but, on 
the summit of a cliff on the western bank of the river a little to the north 
of Kom Ombo, we found a similar graffito in honor of the prefect Rekh- 
ma-Ra, whose tomb at Thebes is familiar to Egyptian tourists. Here the 
inscription is accompanied by the delineation of a donkey, of a dog pursu- 
ing a long-horned gazelle, of another dog facing a gazelle, of a man lead- 
ing a horse, and of a boat or dahabiah. Opposite the cliff are some quarries, 
where we discovered the cartouches of Apries carved in large size on the 
rocky wall. Not far off is a tablet with a Coptic inscription in fifteen lines 
with a Kufic text underneath, the letters of which are in relief. There are 
a few hieroglyphic graffiti in the neighborhood, and the words " Alkimios, 
the twelfth year," in Greek characters. 

Mr. Greville Chester had informed me that inscriptions were to be found 
on a line of rocks on the western bank south of HESHAN, and about four or 
five miles north of Silsilis. We accordingly spent a day examining them. 
They were especially plentiful at the corner of a wadi, which seems to be 
nameless. Besides hieroglyphic and hieratic graffiti, I copied a large 
number of Greek inscriptions, some dated in the reign of " Ptolemy, the 
son of Ptolemy, and Queen BerenikeV' while a few belonged to a pre- 
Alexandrian age. As the writers describe themselves as paying " a vow," 
it would appear that the place was accounted sacred. One of the inscrip- 
tions, dated in "the second year," states that Artapates whose name 
reveals his Persian origin had been appointed strategos or general. The 
most important part of my discovery, however, consisted of six Phoenician 
inscriptions, the authors of which offered their prayers to Isis, Horus, and 
Khnum. One of the names occurring in them is Abed-Nebo, the proto- 
type of the Abed-Nego of the book of Daniel. The rarity of Phoenician 
inscriptions in Egypt adds an interest to this discovery. Besides the 
Phoenician inscriptions, I also came across a short Karian graffito, and a 
twice-repeated Kypriote text. On one occasion the latter was accompanied 
by what loo>k like Hittite hieroglyphs. Can it be a bilingual? The 


inscriptions are accompanied by multitudes of animals and birds, some of 
which are drawn with considerable skill. Men and boats also occur fre- 
quently ; and the drawings are found not only on the rocks near the river, 
but also inland in the wadis. The drawings are of all ages. As we have 
seen, the inscription of Rekh-ma-Ra shows that some must belong to the 
time of the xvm dynasty, while others are evidently of very recent origin. 
But I have convinced myself that Mr. Petrie is right in holding that many 
of them go back to a prehistoric epoch before the introduction of writing. 
The weathering they have undergone would alone show this. On the 
famous inscribed rock of El Qab, for instance, there are drawings of ani- 
mals by the side of which the accompanying hieroglyphic texts of the vi 
dynasty look quite modern. Above Heshan, again, the animals most 
commonly represented are the giraffe, long-horned gazelle, and ostrich, 
the hippopotamus, elephant, and ox occurring more rarely. Though the 
gazelle is still found in the neighborhood, the presence of the giraffe implies 
wooded plains in place of the arid desert which during the historical epoch 
has extended almost to the water's edge from Edfu southwards, while the 
absence of the ostrich from the hieroglyphic syllabary indicates that it had 
become extinct in Egypt when the latter was formed. The earlier draw- 
ings have reminded me forcibly of the Bushman paintings on rocks now 
in the possession of Miss Lloyd. The animals are drawn with the same 
degree of spirit and in similar attitudes, the delineation of the human figure 
being in both cases immeasurably inferior. It is well known that the Bush- 
man race once extended further to the north than is now the case, while 
history shows us the Egyptians pushing the native races further and fur- 
ther towards the south. The drawings on the rocks seem to be connected 
with the cairns and circles of stones which cover the summits of the cliffs 
from the neighborhood of Heshan southward. These " rude stone monu- 
ments " deserve a careful examination. Major Ross has found worked 
flints in the great desert behind Kom Ombo at the foot of the moun- 
tains, and Mr. Petrie picked up a water-rolled palaeolith on the hills be- 
hind Edfu. 

At ESN EH I found the base of a granite column with the cartouche of 
Ramses II, now used for mooring purposes. As it has come from one of 
the two temples which once stood at Esneh, we may see in it an evidence 
that Ramses II was a builder here as in other places in Egypt. 

By way of a conclusion to my letter I must draw attention to an ostra- 
kon from KARNAK which I have acquired, and which is unlike any other I 
have ever seen. The text upon it runs as follows : " O my lord Isidores, 
come and bring me the commentaries (Xc&is) on the first book of the Iliad 
for which I have asked you." The potsherd has survived, but where is the 
manuscript to which it refers ? 


I have made a discovery of too great an importance for Egyptian archae- 
ology not to be made public at once. The tomb and mummy of Ameno- 
phis IV, the " Heretic King " of Egyptian history, have been found at TELL 
EL-AMARNA. It is from thence that the cuneiform tablets about which so 
much has lately been written have really come, not from the place falsely 
indicated to me and others as the locality in which they were found. The 
tomb has proved a second pit of Dr el-Bahari to the antiquity-dealers of 
Ekhmim, by whom it has been worked. Now that it has been despoiled 
of the precious objects it once contained, they have condescended to inform 
us of its exact position. On my way down the Nile I hope to visit it, and 
see if the inscriptions upon its walls are still serviceable for science. The 
mummy of the king has been torn to pieces. The fragments of a royal 
mummy which were offered for sale at Luxor two years ago were derived, 
not from the opposite cliffs of Thebes, but from the capital of the Heretic 
King. The beautiful objects of ivory and alabaster which have lately been 
in the market of" antikas," the bronze rings and enamelled porcelain which 
bear the cartouches of Amenophis IV and the solar disk, the delicate glass 
and bracelets of solid gold which have been offered for sale to travellers, 
have all come from the desecrated sepulchre. The discovery, unfortunately, 
took place at a time when an attempt was again being made to put in force 
the law against the sale and exportation of antiquities with the inevita- 
ble result that the discovery was concealed, the objects found were dissi- 
pated, broken, or hidden away, and information invaluable to the historical 
student irretrievably lost. More than one mummy has been found, and the 
discovery of the royal tomb has, I am told, led to the discovery of others. 
LUXOR. Collection of Rev. C. Murch. One of the attractions presented 
by Luxor to the archaeologist is the collection of Egyptian antiquities 
formed by the Rev. C. Murch, of the American Mission. His collection 
of scarabs is one of the finest in the world, and the numerous royal names 
it contains makes it particularly interesting. Among them is the name of 
" Ahmes, the chief wife of the king " and what Mr. Petrie reads as " prince 
of the mountains, Khian." Many of them record the names of private 
persons, more especially of the " feudal chiefs " who lived under the xn 
and xin dynasties. There are also three scarabs of the age of the xm 
dynasty, which belonged to certain " captains of the king's thirty " a 
title which we found among the graffiti on the rocks north of Silsilis. 
Mr. Murch also possesses one of the large "hunting scarabs" of Amen- 
ophis III, describing the number of lions slain by the king in his tenth 
year, as well as numerous rings of blue and green porcelain inscribed with 
the cartouches of the monarchs of the xvm and xix dynasties. Mr. 
Murch's collection is particularly rich in small objects bearing the name 
of Khu-n-Aten, which have probably come from the tomb of " the Heretic 


King," about which I have already written to the Academy. He has also 
a terracotta stopper of a vase from Tel-el- Amarna, which gives us the hith- 
erto unknown cartouche of one of Khu-n-Aten's immediate successors, and 
seems to read Toui-uaz-n-hib-m-Aten-mes-Aten (Mr. Wilbour has a similar 
stopper with the same cartouche). Another unknown cartouche is found 
on a large blue porcelain stamp, but the period to which it belongs is late. 
The gem of the collection is a large cylinder of creamy semi-opaque glass, 
which forms the outer coating of a cylinder of porcelain, and on which are 
incised the name and titles of Nofer-ka-ra. As the titles show that this 
must be the Nofer-ka-ra of the vi dynasty, we may see in the cylinder the 
oldest piece of dated glass in the world. Among other noteworthy things 
in the collection may be mentioned glass beads of the most variegated and 
beautiful patterns some of which are as early as the time of the xvm 
dynasty small objects of gold (one of them representing a human figure 
with a serpent's head), a large stone heart with a human face inscribed 
with a chapter from the Book of the Dead, and several strange figures of 
the god Bes of the Koman epoch. One, for example, of blue porcelain 
represents the god on the top of the uaz sceptre, with Horus in one hand, 
an apple in the other, and a monkey below. Another places him on the 
back of two crocodiles, with Horus standing behind, and Isis on either 
side. Mr. Murch possesses two chevron beads of enormous size one no 
less than six inches in circumference, of the class about which Miss Buck- 
land raised a discussion before the Anthropological Section of the British 
Association at Bath. My companion, Mr. Robertson, bought a bead of 
the same kind at Qeneh, which had been found in a tomb at Denderah, 
and is, therefore, presumably of the Greece-Roman age. 

"When at Ekhmim I was enabled, through the kindness of M. Frenay, 
to carry out a long-projected excursion to the WAoi SHEKH SHEHON, some 
miles to the southeast of the town. The Wadi is mentioned by Pocoke, 
who describes it as containing a natural spring of water and a few Coptic 
chapels, and was re-discovered by Prof. Maspero. Its length and rugged- 
ness, the height of the precipices which rise up sheer on either side, the 
cascades of stone over which the water has once made its way, and the 
unexpected verdure which springs up like an oasis where the water still 
gushes forth from the rock, combine to render the scenery not only unique 
in Egypt, but hardly to be matched elsewhere in the world. About a mile 
from the entrance of the gorge is a huge boulder covered with the names 
of travellers. The inscriptions are mostly Coptic, but one is in Nabathaean 
characters, and is dated in the third year of Malchas ; while there are some 
curious Greek texts which inform us of the existence of a club of hunts- 
men at Panopolis or Ekhmim. At the head of the club was an 
or " chief huntsman ; " and its members were called 


KOL Kvvrjyol 7rt TTJV Oypdv. A little to the south of the entrance of the Wadi 
have been found the small tablets of wood which bear Greek and demotic 
mortuary inscriptions. South of the Gebel Shekh Heridi, where the cliffs 
are known as Gebel^n, I discovered some quarries with some curious rep- 
resentations in black paint of scenes from the Iliad. The warriors are in 
Greek costume, and are accompanied by demotic inscriptions, too much 
injured, however, for one who is unacquainted with demotic to attempt to 
copy them. By the side of the Homeric pictures are representations of the 
god Min, of Horus, and other purely Egyptian figures, though the delin- 
eation shows that the artist must have been the same in'each case. On the 
rocks above the well-known quarries of the Gebel She'kh Heridi itself my 
companion and I found the cartouches of Apries, which do not seem to 
have been noticed before ; and near the northern extremity of the cliffs, a 
little to the right of some large quarries, he discovered the cartouches and 
titles of Ramses III carved on the face of the cliff. Between the car- 
touches the king is standing bareheaded, with the solar orb and the symbols 
of life above him. His hands are held by Horus on the right and Amon-Ra 
on the left, and the symbol of life is held towards his face by the two gods. 
The whole tableau is twenty feet in height and forty feet eight inches in 
length, the figure of the king being sixteen feet high, while the cartouches 
at the side are each twelve feet high and four-and-a-quarter feet broad. 
The sculpture is similar to that near the ancient necropolis of Nineveh, 
discovered by myself some years ago, and afterwards described by Mr. 
Oliphant. It is evident that the quarries were worked by Ramses III, and 
we may, perhaps, infer that he built in the neighboring city of Antaeopolis. 
Prof. Maspero asked me to examine the tombs in the GABEL SELIN (or 
Sala-eddin) on the eastern bank of the river, about fifteen miles south of 
Siut, which were reputed to belong to the age of the v and vi dynasties. 
I have spent a long day among them, carefully examining the cliffs from 
behind Der el-Tasseh, northward to El-Khowaleh. There are many an- 
cient quarries in the cliffs, most of which are being blasted away by modern 
quarrymen, and an immense number of tombs. None of the tombs which 
are accessible, however, contain any vestige of inscription or ornament, 
save only a solitary Greek graffito; and there is absolutely nothing about 
them to indicate their age. But, besides the tombs which are accessible, 
there is a large number which are inacessible. These are cut high up 
on the cliff, which has weathered away below them ; so that for untold 
centuries they must have remained unapproached by man. They may be 
among the oldest tombs now existing in Egypt. Most of them are provided 
with a small square window ; in some cases there is a window cut in the 
rock on either side of the entrance. Unlike the tombs below them, they 
show no traces of any attempt to represent the posts or lintel of a door. The 


only place in which I found any inscriptions were in some large quarries 
behind El-Khowaleh, where I came across a good many demotic inscrip- 
tions in red paint, the figure of a Greek mercenary brandishing a sword, 
and the fa9ade of a temple. The Copts had turned one of the quarries into 
a church, and had covered the walls with paintings and texts. About a 
quarter of a mile to the south of the quarries an enormous altar has been 
cut out of the rock ; on the top of it are two hollow basins, and a path has 
been excavated around it. 

I believe that in my last letter I forgot to say that we discovered the site 
of the ancient necropolis of KOM OMBOS when on our way from Assuan to 
Luxor. The present village of Shotb, southeast of the ruined temple, stands 
on a portion of it. The diggers of Qurnah have already been busy there ; 
from one of the tombs they have opened Mr. Wilbour extracted the frag- 
ments of a mummy-case of the Greek period. The character of the necro- 
polis resembles that of Tell es-Semaineh (or rather Kom Mehras). Both 
alike consist of vaulted tombs of crude brick slightly sunk in a plateau of 
loose soil, which rises just above the level of the cultivated land. Academy, 
March 1, 15, 29. 

HIERATIC PAPYRUS. At a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries (London, 
Jan. 30) Mr. E. A.W. Budge read a paper on a hieratic papyrus in the 
British Museum inscribed with (1) the Festival Songs oflsis andNephthys, 
composed for the service which was celebrated in the temple of Amen-Ra 
at Thebes ; (2) the additional Litanies ofSeker, which also were sung at this 
festival ; and (3) the Book of the Overthrow ofApepi, the enemy of Ra, and 
the Book of the Becomings or Evolutions of Ed. It was discovered at Thebes 
by Mr. Rhind in the year 1862. It is written in a fine small hieratic hand, 
but some of the characters have forms which, with very slight modification, 
become those we are acquainted with in Demotic. According to one of the 
colophons the papyrus was written in the twelfth year of the reign of Alex- 
ander, the son of Alexander (B. c. 305). As Alexander II began to reign 
B. c. 317, but was murdered in B. c. 311, it is clear that the writer has added 
the years of the interregnum to those of the reign of Alexander II. The 
colophon was probably added to the papyrus some years after the other 
parts of it were written. The papyrus was written for Nesi-Amsu, the son 
of Peta-Amen-suten-taiu, a "prophet" who held various dignities in nearly 
all the temples of Thebes. The date in the colophon does not indicate the 
antiquity of the compositions, for in the course of the work we more than 
once find the words " otherwise said," so the works are sufficiently old for 
several copies of them to have been made and for variant readings to arise. 
The first two compositions were written by the same hand, the third by 
another. The strips of papyri were then joined together, and formed part 
of the stock-in-trade of an ancient Egyptian who made it his business to 


supply such works to friends of dead people, who bought them to bury in 
the tombs. Between the first and second compositions in the papyrus is 
written a series of curses which, it is hoped by the writer, may fall upon 
the person who ventures to look upon it or carry it away. The Festival 
Songs oflsis andNephthys and the Litanies ofSeker were sung in the tem- 
ple of Amen by two young women intended to represent Isis, the wife of 
Osiris, and Nephthys, his sister. They were to be ceremonially pure, they 
had their heads bound with woollen tiaras, and their songs were accom- 
panied by the music of the tambourine. The songs were led off by the 
precentor, and the women took it in turns to address pathetic appeals to 
the Sun-god to return to his temple and to his "widows" who pined for 
him. There is no rhyme, but there is a rhythm which, though occasionally 
monotonous, is not unpleasing. The unity of the Sun-god is unequivocally 
declared, and the various parts that he performs in the government of the 
material and spiritual worlds are described. For comparative mythology 
these songs are of value, and the new words they contain will be a gain to 
the Egyptian dictionary. The author is not named, and it is not possible 
to say exactly when they were composed ; they are, in many respects, simi- 
lar to the Lamentations oflsis, which are found in a Berlin papyrus. The 
third and last work contains a full account of the defeat and slaughter by 
Ra, or the Sun-god, of Apepi his enemy. The rubrics say that the chap- 
ters of this work were recited so many times a day in the temple of Amen- 
Ra, and that certain acts had to be performed while the priest recited these 
chapters. A wax figure of Apepi was made, and upon it his name was 
written in green ink ; this figure was placed in a papyrus case upon which 
Apepi's name had been written in green ink. At a certain time of the day 
this case, with the figure in it, was put in a grass fire and slowly burnt. 
The prayers for the slaughter of Apepi by Horus being said at the same 
time, it was believed that the powers of the mist, darkness, and cloud would 
be overcome by the piercing rays of Ra. This custom is, no doubt, the 
origin of the old practice of attempting to cause harm to people by burn- 
ing wax figures of them. It obtained in Egypt as early as 1300 B. c. It 
calls to mind the tradition about Nectanebus, the last king of Egypt, who 
maintained his hold upon Egypt by being able to destroy the armies of hos- 
tile kings by means of his magic worked with wax figures and a bowl of 
water. Toward the middle of the Book of the Overthrow of Apepi there is 
inserted a remarkable work describing the origin of gods, men, and things. 
In it the " universal god " in the form of Chepera, the self-begotten, is rep- 
resented as speaking. He describes the waste and void condition of the 
earth and the non-existence of anything. There was not even a spot for 
him to stand upon, and he was quite alone. He by himself planned every- 
thing, and gods, men, and things came into existence from his evolvings. 


He was a husband to himself, his shadow was his wife. Shu and Tefiiut 
were the gods that were first born, and the god says, " Thus from one god 
I became three gods." The great god Chepera weeps, and men and women 
spring into existence from the tears which fall from his eyes. Shu and Tef- 
nut then gave birth to Seb, Sut, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and the other gods 
at one birth, and " their children multiply upon the earth." The text of 
this cosmogony exists in the papyrus in duplicate, and what one version 
lacks is supplied by the other. At the end of the work is a hymn to the 
Sun-god, who is described as having utterly overthrown Apepi, followed 
by several rubrics containing prescriptions for magical procedure. 
Athenaeum, Feb. 8. 

THE TELL EL-AMARNA TABLETS. According to a paragraph in the Athe- 
naeum of Nov. 2, M. Eenan has lately expressed doubts with regard to 
the genuineness of the Tell el-Amarna tablets. May I, therefore, submit 
one or two arguments in support of the opposite view, drawn from the in- 
ternal evidence of the documents themselves ? 

The forms of character in which the letters are written are not identical 
with any cuneiform script hitherto known. Nevertheless they can often 
be shown to have their proper place in the natural course of development 
from 'the most archaic to the latest forms, which had already been traced 
in the inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia from the times of Gudea to 
the seventh and sixth centuries B. c., and is well illustrated in the Tableau 
Compare des Eeritures Babylonienne et Assyrienne Archa'iques et Modernes, 
by Amiaud and Mechineau. This development is a process of decay in 
which certain of the wedges composing the characters fall off, and others 
are combined in recognized forms. Now the characters in the Tell el- 
Amarna tablets have generally reached that stage of decay which might 
be expected in the fifteenth century B. c., and retain more of their archaic 
completeness than the writing on the cylinders of Tiglath-Pileser I, which 
belongs to the twelfth century. While the preceding remarks hold true of 
the collection in general, there is a considerable variety of character to be 
observed among the particular tablets according to the place of their ori- 
gin, and also sometimes according to the peculiar handwriting of the dif- 
ferent scribes. Thus, the letters from Mitanni and the letters from Alasiya 
show different forms, and both classes again vary from the Phoenician and 
Canaanite letters. This is in agreement with the laws of palaeography, and 
at the same time would greatly complicate the work of a forger. 

It cannot be supposed that the Babylonian language was in use in 
Phoenicia or Canaan at this time. It must have been a foreign language, 
used only in official correspondence. The script, too, was doubtless foreign. 
Accordingly, we find that mistakes are made, such as the combination of 
the first person plural with the first person singular. The letters are not 


only written in general after the simplest phonetic method, with very few 
ideograms, but some scribes, notably those of Mitanni and Alasiya, are 
very careful even to express the vowels where an Assyrian would not. 
There is one scribe who employs ideograms, but subjoins the phonetic 
spelling, a peculiarity which may indicate a want of familiarity with their 
use. Besides this, there are modes of writing words which are unknown 
or very rare in the inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia. The hieratic 
dockets form another proof of genuineness. As for the matter of the let- 
ters, which refer chiefly to the appointment of governors for the subject 
towns, to occasional rebellions, and to alliances between Egypt and the 
neighboring kings, it consists of nothing which might suggest that the 
documents are spurious. The external appearance of the tablets is such 
as to satisfy every one accustomed to such relics of antiquity. Nor would 
the slightest uncertainty have arisen in the minds of those who are not 
specialists, if it had not been that the discovery of the influence of Baby- 
lonian culture throughout Western Asia at this almost unknown period of 
history is, at first sight, rather startling. On the other hand, all that was 
known from Egyptian sources of this period is illustrated and confirmed 
by the tablets from Tell el- Amaru a. B. T. A. EVETTS. 

EXCAVATIONS IN THE FAYOM. W. M. Flinders Petrie writes to the Acad- 
emy (April 5) : Last October I resumed work on Kahun, the town of the 
xn dynasty from which I had obtained the things exhibited during the 
summer in London (JOURNAL, v, 480) ; and in November my friend Mr. 
Hughes-Hughes took up the work at Gurob, the town of the xvin-xix 

ILLAHUN. During my absence in England, Mr. Fraser, who kindly 
took charge of the place, had succeeded in entering the pyramid of Illa- 
hun, by a well which I had partly opened before I left. The arrangement 
of the pyramid is quite different to that of any other known. A shaft over 
forty feet deep descended from beneath the pavement near the southeast 
corner ; thence a gently sloping passage led up in the rock to two cham- 
bers, not under the centre of the pyramid, but nearer to the shrine on the 
east side. The first chamber was lined with limestone, of which much had 
been removed, probably in Ramesside times ; the inner chamber was lined 
with red granite in the same way as the sepulchre of Menkaura at Gizeh. 
It contains a red-granite sarcophagus, without a trace of lid or contents. 
The form is strange, having a large rectangular lip or brim around the top. 
The sides are exquisitely flat and smooth, being dull-ground, but not pol- 
ished. Their equality and regularity is astonishing, the errors of work 
being mostly one or two hundredths of an inch ; and all the dimensions 
are in exact numbers of cubits and palms. It is the most brilliant piece 
of mechanical work yet known in Egypt, or perhaps in any other country. 


In front of it was the alabaster table of offerings for Usertesen II, whose 
name I had previously found in the temple of this pyramid. A small 
pyramid, of which I discovered the base to the northeast of the large pyra- 
mid, I have now carefully cleared all around; but no trace of an entrance 
can be found. The occupant is, however, known from fragments of the 
external shrine, which bears the name of a Princess Atmu . . . (?), prob- 
ably a daughter of Usertesen II. 

TELL KAHUN. At Kahun the remainder of the town was cleared, and 
all the houses planned. We now possess the complete design for a town 
as laid out by an architect of the xn dynasty. The larger houses have an 
atrium, with a small tank in the midst, at a little way from which are the 
surrounding columns, usually four on each side. These columns were of 
wood or stone ; and a part of a wooden capital shows the palm type, which 
was as yet quite unknown to us at so early a date. The principal objects 
found are a basalt statuette of Si-sebek, an official ; a seated figure in lime- 
stone ; a most naturalistic ivory carving of an ape seated ; a large wooden 
door with traces of cartouches and a scene of Usarkon II (probably 
brought from some tomb in later times) ; a wooden stamp of Apepi ; a large 
number of flint implements, wooden and bronze tools, weights, and many 
more of the apparently alphabetic marks on pottery. Outside of the town 
the rubbish heaps of the xn dynasty were found ; beneath and mixed with 
the pottery of that age were pieces of Aegean pottery, with rude decora- 
tion which, though barbaric in its style, is clearly the earliest step toward 
the Greek decoration. We thus appear to have reached the elements of 
the Aegean culture in 2500 B. c. 

GUROB. At Gurob the age of the Mykenae geometrical pottery is now 
completely settled, ranging from 1400-1200 B. c. Beneath the floors of 
many of the houses were found holes full of personal property, all burnt. 
Clothing, chairs, necklaces, mirrors, combs, pins, knives, alabaster cups, 
blue glazed bowls and kohl tubes, and the false-necked vases of Mykenae, 
are all found together, and the amulets and ornaments are of Tutankha- 
men and Ramessu II. These burnings are quite un-Egyptian in their nature, 
and probably are analogous to the Greek funeral pyre, thus maintained after 
the foreigners here had adopted burial in Egyptian fashion. The next 
period, the introduction of plant-design, is shown by an Aegean vase with 
ivy sprigs, found in a tomb at Kahun, which may be dated 1100 B. c. 

A remarkable point of history is given on a small altar dedicated to the 
royal Tea of Amenhotep III ; it appears to be one of a series made by Queen 
Thii for "her brother, her beloved, the good god Ra-ma-neb." This is 
the first real evidence as to the parentage of this celebrated queen, and 
shows that she was a sister-wife, like most of the queens of that age. luaa 
and Tuaa must therefore be the familiar names of Tahutmes IV and 


Mutemua. The name of the Mesopotamian daughter of Dushratta is yet 
unknown ; but she cannot have been the same as Thii. A great number of 
minor objects have also been found, which illustrate the manufactures of 
these periods, and are invaluable for dating the styles of the xu, xix and 
xxin dynasties. 

These sites are now nearly exhausted ; and I have closed my work in 
Egypt for this year, and I hope to soon begin excavations for the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund on a Canaanite and Israelite town near Gaza. 


ROMAN TOWNS IN THE SAHARA. Captain Vaissiere presented (Oct. 6) to 
the Aeademie d'Hippone a topographic map which he had drawn up of the 
territory of the tribe of the Ouled-Reshaish, indicating the sites of its Roman 
cities and towns and the Roman roads that connected them. He identifies 
the Limes Montensis of the Notitia Dignitatum with the important ruins 
near Medila with the strong rectangular entrenched camp. He also finds 
at Djemina the Petra Geminiana of Prokopios. 

MECHTA DAMOUS. ROCK-CUT RELIEF. M. Rene Bernelle communi- 
cated to the Aeademie d'Hippone, on June 30, 1889, his discovery of a 
rock-cut composition, near Mechta Damons in the douar of the Ouled-Daoud. 
The immense rock is called Kef Masioner. On a smooth surface, about 
four metres square, is a carved relief. A powerful lion holds under one 
of his front paws a boar which he has struck down ; by the side of the 
boar a lioness crouches gazing at it ; below are two lion-whelps. Further 
down, on the right, is another lion who seems afraid to approach the first ; 
another lion corresponds to this one, on the left ; on either side are jackals. 
Further to the right, on another space, are a stag and two ostriches, not so 
well given. On account of these compositions, the rock is supposed to 
be haunted and is shunned by the natives. Acad. d'Hippone : Comptes 
fiendus. Bull. 24, 1889, pp. XLVII, LXXII. 


Acad. des Inscriptions (March 27) M. Heuzey read a paper on a Cartha- 
ginian god who was represented by Grseco-Roman art under the form of 
Zeus Sarapis or rather of Asklepios with a headdress formed of the body 
of a cock. After enumerating all the divinities having an animal or a 
bird for headdress, M. Heuzey sees the origin of the idea in the Egyptian 
goddess Maut, whose head is covered with a vulture. But the cock as an 
emblem does not belong to primitive Chaldsean or Egyptian art, having 
apparently been introduced by the Persians in the sixth contury. Its 
earliest representations are upon two neo-Babylonian seals, of about that 


date. The cock was then considered as the symbol of the god Nergal, the 
Assyrian Mars, and, in general, as a bird whose morning-song triumphs 
over the evil spirits of the night : this double symbolism is found among 
the Greeks, who connect him with both Ares and Apollon. But he was 
also consecrated to Asklepios. In M. Heuzey's opinion, the Carthaginian 
figure is that of the god Eshmun, the Phoenician Asklepios, to whom the 
principal temple of Carthage was dedicated : this is justified by the inti- 
mate connection between medicine and magic in the East. Chronique 
des Arts, 1890, No. 16. 

MACTAR. M. Philippe Berger communicated, on Jan. 24, to the Acad. 
des Inscriptions a series of neo-Punic inscriptions found at Mactar by 
MM. Bordier and Delherbe. They are remarkable especially for the 
symbols they bear, among which are fish and dolphins. With the assist- 
ance of M. Cagnat, M. Berger was able to recognize that the names given 
on these inscriptions were disguised Roman names. The symbols noted 
were similar to those in use at the time of St. Augustine. Chron. des 
Arts, 1890, No. 5. 


EXPLORATIONS BY M. DE LA MARTINIERE(C/.VO!. v,p.203). The explorer 
communicated to the Academie des Inscriptions (March 7, 14) his researches 
and excavations made, during the past summer, on the site of the ancient 
city of Lixos in Tingitana. He brings from this first campaign various 
documents, such as photographs, plans of the acropolis and of the Phoeni- 
cian walls, objects collected on the site, the plans and topographic levels of 
the city, and photographs of its different enceintes from antiquity to the 
Byzantine epoch. Among the objects exhibited were some lamps of hard 
calcareous stone and of a type hitherto unknown, the head of a statue of 
archaic character, Phoenician ornaments analogous to the designs on the 
Carthaginian stelai. He also showed a large photograph of the basilica 
of VOLUBILIS, another ancient city where he collected a great number of 
Roman inscriptions. Revue Critique, Nos. 11, 12; Chronique des Arts, 
Nos. 11, 12; 1890. 


CARUANA, Director of Education at Malta, writes as follows : A very in- 
teresting cluster of ancient Tomb-caves, extending in a N.N.W. direction, 
was, on January 17, discovered at Rabato of Notabile, near the church 
TarSan-Bastian, on the road Tal- Virtu (where new buildings are in course 
of construction) in the suburb of the old Greek city Melita. The site is in 
proximity to the main gate which stood near Il-tribuna, where the Hos- 
pital Saura is now erected. Both the gate and the ancient lines were 


demolished by the Arabs in the ix century, when the extent of the ancient 
city of Melita was reduced to the present limits of Notabile. This locality 
appears to have been the burial-ground of the higher and well-to-do classes 
of the inhabitants of the old city ; an opinion corroborated by the discovery 
of numerous marble, lead and earthenware sarcophagi, vases and lamps, 
glass vessels, polished Greek and Roman pottery, and other objects still 
generally found in the tomb-caves in that neighborhood. 

Under this vast area, numerous pagan hypogea extend in all directions 
towards Tal-Virtu, San Dumincu and St.Agata; and the early Christian 
cemeteries and crypts of San Paolo, St.Agata, San Catald, Sta. Venera and 
Tal- Virtu, which were excavated in the subterranean Melita. 

The present discovery consists of two family-tombs or vaults. When I 
reached the site, one of the two vaults was already open and the objects 
found in it had been removed. They have since been bought by the Gov- 
ernment, and are in the Notabile Museum. The other vault was appar- 
ently still sealed up and intact, and, as the afternoon was somewhat ad- 
vanced, I oifered the tenant some remuneration in order that he might 
delay the opening of it until next morning and thus enable me to super- 
vise that operation. Unfortunately, during the ensuing night, the ignorant 
tenant and his wife broke open the tomb and took away its contents, so 
that, when I reached the place next morning, I found the tomb in a rifled 
condition, and the floor literally covered with a confused mass of fragments 
of cremated bones, of broken terracotta vases and glass vessels. 

This cluster of tombs, which is excavated entirely in the rock and not 
much below the surface of the road, is formed of a long horizontal rectan- 
gular shaft connecting the tombs lying at its extremities. This shaft is 8 
ft. 7 in. long, 2 ft. 6. in. wide, and about 8 ft. 3 in. deep, having at each 
extremity a rectangular opening 2 ft. wide, and 3 ft. 2 in. high, with a sill 
rising 4 in. above the bottom of the shaft. Each of these apertures, giv- 
ing access to the tombs, was sealed up by a stone slab, 2 ft. 6 in. broad, 3 
ft. 8 in. high, and 7 in. thick. The shaft represents the vestibulum, or ante- 
chamber, in the ancient tombs, which in those of the Phoenician type had 
the form and size of a true chamber dug out in the rock, where the corpses 
were washed and dressed before being laid in the troughs. This vestibulum 
was, later on, superseded, in the early Christian cemeteries, by the ambu- 
lacrum. The two tombs at the extremities of this shaft, which were evidently 
two family-vaults, are alike in every respect. They are of a rectangular 
form 8 ft. 4 in. long, 5 ft. 10 in. wide, and 5 ft. 2 in. high, covered with a 
flat ceiling. A sort of a bench, cut out also from the rock, rising 1 ft. 8 in. 
above the floor and 2 ft. wide, runs along three sides of each vault. On 
the bench or shelf of the first-mentioned vault were laid the cinerary urns 
containing the ashes of ten members of the family. In the other vault 


there were twelve urns for as many members of the same family. From 
the large quantity of fictile and glass vases and vessels of elegant forms, and 
other objects in brass to be presently described, it may be readily inferred 
that these tombs were the property of a wealthy and distinguished family. 

Nothing in these vaults is to be found displaying the Phoenician charac- 
teristic in the shape of the loculi or troughs, wherein the corpses were de- 
posited, with a semi-lunar cavity on a raised sill for the head to rest upon, 
and, at times, also another one for the feet. Moreover, the rectangular 
shape of these vaults with a flat ceiling differs materially from that of the 
Phoenician tombs met with in these islands, which are invariably of a round, 
semicircular or elliptical shape with a vaulted ceiling in keeping with the 
plan of the tomb. The bench or shelf cut out in the rock and running 
along three sides of each vault, destined for the cinerary urns which 
were lying on it, proves that these vaults belonged to a race which 
practised cremation. Neither could this race have been Roman ; for 
the arrangement of the Roman columbaria, like those to be seen in Malta 
and in Rome, shows small vaulted niches, formed on the four faces of the 
walls of the sepulchre, each adapted for the reception of a pair of jars (ollce, 
ossuarice) containing the ashes of the deceased. It is beyond doubt, that 
the two vaults I am describing belonged to the old Greeji race which set- 
tled in these islands 700 B. c., and with which cremation was a custom. 
This is further proved by the numerous terracotta vases, glass vessels and 
other objects found therein, all of which are decidedly of Greek type and 
fabric. The Greek elegance and beauty of the vases and other objects 
hereunder enumerated indicate the epoch of the flourishing artistic state 
of Melita shortly before and after the beginning of the Christian Era. 

The terracotta objects recovered from these vaults are: 22 stamnoi (olios, 
ossuarice), filled with cremated bones and covered with a lid, .besides frag- 
ments of others ; 2 large amphorce, with an elongated and tapering body, 
long neck and Rhodian handles attached to it; 4 smaller amphorae; 4 
lagencK, one bearing four letters in blackish color, probably the potter's 
mark; 7 serice; 5 diotce; 1 ampulla; fS5 aryballoi of different sizes, with 
one handle ; 20 polished red unguentaria of a pear shape, with a long 
neck ; 7 pocula ; 22 patella of different sizes ; 38 bilychnis, or two-nozzle 
lamps ; 6 red polished terracotta monolyehnis, or one-nozzle lamps ; 1 
bilychnis with a biga and Tyche in relief on top, and the potter's mark on 
bottom ; 1 large patera with complete handle. 

The objects in glass are: 65 iridescent scent-bottles of the unguentaria, 
guttus and phallovitroboli kind, of different sizes, all with a narrow and 
long neck, some with a swelling and rounded body, others with a flat one, 
others pear-shaped; 1 large one-handled urn, broken, which can be re- 
paired, and fragments of others ; 1 poculum; 1 large ampulla. 


The objects in metal are : Fragments of a rectangular leaden sarcopha- - 
gus, measuring about 4 feet in length, secured at its four angles by angle 
brass-plates fixed by brass nails ; brass strigilis ; brass guttus (both the 
strigilis and the guttus were found in the same vault) ; broken circular 
speculum, measuring 6* in. in diameter, of a white very brittle metal made 
of copper with a good admixture of zinc. 

MOSAIC-PAVEMENT AND DAMP-COURSE. Dr. A. A. Caruana reports the 
discovery of another mosaic pavement at Notabile, near the Roman Sena- 
torial Palace discovered in 1881. The mosaic, which is of a reddish color 
spotted with white marble fragments, is of the pattern of the old Roman 
pavimenta testacea. It measures 11x18 ft., and doubtless formed the pave- 
ment of a Roman cubiculum. The discovery is still further very interest- 
ing on account of a damp-course underlying the whole pavement, like those 
mentioned by Vitruvius. This damp-course is formed of a great number 
of amphorce of Greek fabric, lying imbedded in a mass of red soil. The 
spaces between the long necks and handles of these jars are filled with 
broken tiles and terracotta fragments to increase the impermeability of the 
floor. This is the first discovery in Malta of so-well-arranged a damp- 
course. The jars and mosaic pavement are being removed to the Museum. 
Dr. Caruana intends to submit to Government a project for clearing the 
foundations of the Senatorial Palace, and for preparing a plan of the 
same, with a view to the erection of a National Museum of the antiqui- 
ties of Malta. Malta Standard. 


M. Hamy called the attention of the Academic des Inscriptions (March 7) 
to the great works recently undertaken for the uncovering of some of the 
most important ruins of the centre of Java. These monuments of an 
architecture at once elegant and bizarre, derived from India and dating 
perhaps from the fifth century A. D., had been but very incompletely 
studied, being overgrown by a heavy vegetation and in part overthrown 
by earthquakes. They are now cleared and photographs of them made, 
which were exhibited. Some of the ruins, especially those called Tchandi, 
Savi and Tchandi Kali Bening are magnificent. Statues discovered at 
Tchandi Flaossan are especially remarkable for delicacy of workmanship 
and beauty of types. Chronique des Arts audEevue Critique, 1890, No. 11. 


respondent of Indian Engineering, Dr. Forchhammer has just completed 


two large volumes of his archselogical researches in Upper Burmah and the 
Arracan Division. The chief centre of his surveys was confined to Pagan, 
the ancient capital of the Tagaung dynasty, situated in the Pokoko district. 
The survey of the ruins of this ancient city was begun in December, 1888, 
and, from inscriptions found in the Pegu district, it was proved that rem- 
nants of the ancient city will be found on the hills east of Shweyzigon and 
Ananda Pagodas. From these interesting volumes, we learn that Pagan 
contains a number of curiously constructed shrines built against the steep 
sides of ravines, and an interminable labyrinth of artificial caves perfor- 
ating all the sides of the hills for miles and extending to the banks of the 
Irrawaddy, apparently constructed for the accommodation of Buddhist 
monks. Fac-similes of the inscriptions (some on slabs six feet high) have 
been copied. The inscriptions are engraved in Burmese, Talaing and Pali 
characters. The dates extend from 1059 A. D., to the close of the last cen- 
tury. Some of the huge granite pillars are traced to have been originally 
brought from Thaton after the overthrow of the Talaing dynasty. Some 
clay tablets bearing Nageri inscriptions have also been copied. The walls 
around the town are said to have been constructed by Indian masons ; also 
a number of Hindu temples which exist in this locality. Most of the 
structures are built of brick, though many contain stone slabs to en- 
sure stability. The main styles of the buildings are classified as follows : 
(1) A pyramid, octagonal or circular at base, solid brickwork throughout, 
no interior, often with lateral flights of stairs to the top. (2) Temples with 
well-developed interior and central chamber, over which rises a spire. (3) 
Temples with interior galleries and ante-chambers on four sides with en- 
trances from without, the hall being a massive square. (4) Massive circular 
bell-shaped structures, similar to shrines in Ceylon. (5) Subterranean 
monasteries with intricate passages and caves constructed some fifty feet 
below ground-level. The report concludes with specimen drawings of orna- 
mental carving in stone and wood combined with beautiful variegated tiles. 
The painting and other decorative art exhibited on these temples disclose 
an art now lost by the Burmese. Amer. Architect, May 3. 


dated Mathura, March 11, 1890, informs me that a liberal grant by the 
government of the Northwest Provinces has enabled him to resume the 
excavation of the S'vetambara temple under the Kankali Tila, and that 
the results of the working season of 1890 considerably surpass those of 
1889. In a little more than two months Dr. Fuhrer obtained a large 
number of inscriptions, seventeen of which, according to the impressions 
accompanying his letter, undoubtedly belong to the Indo-Scythic period, 


and furnish most important information regarding the history of the Jaina 
sect. He, moreover, discovered to the east of the S'vetambara temple a 
brick Stupa, and to the west another large Jaina temple which in his 
opinion belonged to the Digambara sect. The excavations on these sites 
yielded 80 images, 120 railing pillars and bars, as well as a considerable 
number of Toranas and other architectural pieces, all of which are adorned 
with exquisite sculptures. He was thus enabled to forward to the museum 
at Lucknow about a ton and a quarter of archaeological specimens. Dr. 
Fuhrer will, in due time, himself describe his archaeological treasures, and 
make them known by illustrations. But the inscriptions which he has 
kindly placed at my disposal are, I think, well worthy of immediate notice. 
They all belong to the class of short donative inscriptions, found on pil- 
lars, images, Toranas, and other sculptures, and closely resemble those dis- 
covered at Mathura in former years by Sir A. Cunningham, Dr. Burgess, 
Mr. Growse, and Dr. Fuhrer himself. Their dates range between the year 
5 of Devaputra Kanishka and the year 86 of the Indo-Scythic era, or as- 
suming the latter to be identical with the S'aka era, between 83 and 164 
A. D. The name of the second Indo-Scythic king Huvishka occurs twice. 
It is both times misspelt, being given in the one case as Huvashka, and in 
the other as Huviksha. Huvishka's dates are the years 40 and 44. Eleven 
inscriptions give names of various subdivisions of the Jaina monks men- 
tioned in the Kalpasutra The inscriptions mention also distinctly 

two sambhogas, or " district communities," the S'irika and the S'riguha, or, 
as perhaps it must be read, S'rigriha, which are both known from the in- 
scriptions noticed formerly. In one case there is a mutilated name which 
looks like sdrina sambho\^ga}. If we omit the latter, the new inscriptions 
prove the correctness of the Jaina tradition with respect to the early exist- 
ence of six divisions of monks, not traced before, and they confirm some 
of the results obtained in former years. 

In addition, they settle another very important question. According 
to the SVetambara scriptures, women are allowed to become ascetics. But 
we have hitherto had no proof that this doctrine was really ancient. Dr. 
Fiihrer's new finds leave no doubt that it was. Most of the Mathura in- 
scriptions mention in the preamble the name of the donor's spiritual direc- 
tor, at whose request (nirvartana) the donation was made. Usually this 
person is characterized as an ascetic by the titles ganin or vdchaka, or by 
the epithet aryya, "the venerable." The inscriptions found in former 
years show in this position invariably male names. Most of the new doc- 
uments resemble them in this respect. But some mention females e. g., 
Aryya-SangamiM, "the venerable Sangamikd;" Aryya-Sdmd, "the vener- 
able Sydmd;" and Aryya- Vasuld, "the venerable Vasuld" as the persons 
at whose request the images or other sculptures were dedicated. The 


position in which these female names occur, as well as the epithet aryya, 
proves that we have to deal with Jaina nuns who were active in the inter- 
est of their faith. This discovery makes it very probable that the Jainas, 
as the S'vetambara tradition asserts, from the first allowed women to enter 
on the road to salvation, and that the suggestion of some orientalists, ac- 
cording to which the S'vetambaras copied the Bauddhas in this practice, 
must be rejected as erroneous. 

A closer examination of Dr. Fiihrer's new inscriptions may possibly 
reveal other points of interest. But what I have been able to bring for- 
ward on a first inspection certainly justifies the assertion that they really 
are most valuable, and that Dr. Fiihrer has again laid the students of the 
history of the religions of India under deep obligation. 

I may add that, in my opinion, more may be yet expected from the 
Kankali Tila, for the large temples which Dr. Fiihrer has discovered 
must, I think, have contained longer inscriptions, recording the dates 
when, and the circumstances under which, they were built. I trust that 
the government of the Northwest Provinces will enable Dr. Fiihrer to re- 
sume his operations next year, and to institute a careful search for these 
documents. Should the exploration of the Kankali Tila, however, be 
complete, then the Chaubara mound ought to be attacked, because it un- 
doubtedly hides the ruins of an ancient Vaishnava temple, and will yield 
documents elucidating the history of the hitherto much underrated Bhag- 
avatas a sect which is older than the Bauddhas, and even than the Jainas. 
G. BUHLER, in Academy, April 19. 

GUPTA SEAL-INSCRIPTION. In a late number of the Journal of the Ben- 
gal Asiatic Society, Mr. Vincent Smith and Dr. Hoernle describe an 
ancient seal found at Bithari, in Ghazipur district of the Northwestern 
Provinces, well known for its stone pillar with an inscription of Skanda 
Gupta. This seal bears on the upper part, in relief, a representation of 
Garuda, the human-faced bird-monster which was the emblem of the Gupta 
dynasty. Below is an inscription giving the genealogy of the Gupta kings 
(with their queens) for nine generations, ending with Kumara Gupta II, 
the owner of the seal. Hitherto, only seven Gupta kings were known, from 
coins and inscriptions ; but the dynasty is now carried down to about A. D. 
550. Academy, March 22. 

VINUKONDA (Madras). Roman Aurei. In the last part of the Nu- 
mismatic Chronicle for last year, Mr. E. Thurston describes fifteen Roman 
aurei lately discovered at Vinukonda, in Madras. They date from Ti- 
berius to Caracalla; and, as with previous finds, they are in good preser- 
vation. Academy, March 22. 



cently published work (through the Societe Asiatique) on the Popular Songs 
of the Afghans, reaches the conclusion, that Pushtu (the language of the 
Afghans) is not as has been commonly thought intermediate between 
India and Persia, but purely and exclusively Iranian, being derived from 
the Zend of Arachosia. As regards history, M. Darmesteter traces the 
origin of the Afghans back to the time of Alexander ; and he also describes 
the organization of their schools of popular poetry. 

paper (Feb. 27.) before the Aeademie des Inscriptions upon the great Per- 
sian inscription at Kandahar, so often mentioned by travellers but never 
before copied. M. Darmesteter obtained his copy of it, through Lieut. 
William Archer, from the native letter-writer to the Indian Government 
at Kandahar. The inscription is in two parts. The first part is dated 1522 
A. D., having been engraved by the Emperor Baber to commemorate his 
capture of the city on his way to the invasion of India. The second part, 
which" was written in 1598, contains a history of the city from the time of 
Baber to that of Akbar, and also a list of the provinces and chief towns of 
the Mughal empire. Academy, March 22 ; Revue Critique, 1890, p. 200. 

GR/ECO-INDIAN STATUES. At a meeting (Feb. 21) of the Aeademie des 
Inscriptions, M. Senart exhibited reproductions of some Grseco-Indian 
statues discovered by Capt. Deane in the course of excavations at Sikri, 
in the valley of the Kabul river. One of them represents an absolutely 
new type of Buddha, emaciated by the austerities to which he subjected 
himself before attaining perfect knowledge. M. Senart also referred to 
an inscription published in the Indian Antiquary of September, 1889, 
which was found'on a sculptured fragment of Grseco-Indian style. Owing 
to the inadequacy of the fac-simile, he was unable to regard the date as cer- 
tain. M. Senart proceeded to make some general remarks upon the influ- 
ence which classical art exercised upon India. In his opinion, Mr. James 
Fergusson has brought too low the date of many of the Grseco-Indian 
monuments in the northwest of India. M. Senart maintained that the 
chief intermediary was the Hellenism of the Arsacides ; and that the period 
when Western influence upon Indian art was most marked was the first 
and second century A. D., during the reign of Kanishka (Kanerkes) and 
his successors. Academy, March 22 : cf. Revue Critique, 1890, p. 179. 


UNIQUE PARTHIAN TETRADRACHM. At the Dec. 19 meeting of the Nu- 
mismatic Society (London), Dr. B. V. Head exhibited, on behalf of Mr. 
W. H. Penney, a new and unpublished tetradrachm of one of the early 


kings of Parthia; obv. bust of king to left, wearing royal diadem, the 
string of which forms a large loop behind the head, and a winged tiara 
somewhat resembling those worn by some of the later Sassanian kings ; 
rev. BA3IAEQ3 AP3AKOY, Nike standing to the right, holding a palm 
in her extended right hand, and a sceptre terminating in a star over her 
left shoulder. In field r. a monogram composed of the letters ATT (?) ; 
weight 245 grs. Dr. Head remarked concerning this curious and unique 
coin that the king's portrait bore strong resemblance to that on the 
drachms of Phrahapates I (Arsaces IV), 196-181 B. c., but that the head- 
dress and the reverse type were entirely new to the Parthian series. From 
the simplicity of the title, as compared with the pompous inscriptions on 
all but the very earliest Parthian coins, he drew the inference that it was 
minted in some Greek city, the name of which was concealed in the mon- 
ogram. Prof. Gardner concurred in the main with Dr. Head, though he 
was inclined to attribute the coin to a rather later date, probably to the 
reign of Mithridates I, 174-136 B. c. Athenceum, Jan. 4. 


THE AMERICAN EXPEDITION. The Americans excavating at NIFFER (the 
ancient NIPPUR) have laid bare the temple of Bell and have found inscribed 
tablets which date back to 3750 B. c. They have discovered at UR, in the 
great temple-library, many inscribed tablets, cylinders, and bricks of first- 
rate religious and historic importance. N. Y. Evening Post, in Amer. 
Architect, March 9. 


M. G. MARMIER, Commandant of Engineers, made a communication 
to the Academic des Inscriptions (Jan. 10) on the ancient geography of 
Syria. This work bears on three principal points : (1) The situation of 
the country of ARAM-NAHARAIM of Genesis, the residence of Abraham : M. 
Marmier rejects the opinion which identifies this country with Mesopota- 
mia, and looks for the site in the north of the land of Canaan. (2) The 
situation of the city of KEDESH, celebrated in the Egyptian annals of the 
xvin and xix dynasties : it is, says M. Marmier, the Kadytis of Herodo- 
tos ; it was situated at the foot of Carmel and not far from the city of 
Arados, mentioned in the Periploos of Skylax. (3) The situation of the 
country of NEHARINA : M. Marmier, in accordance with Egyptian texts, 
recognizes it as identical with Aram-Naharaim. M. Marmier added, that 
these geographic deductions may throw some light on the history of the 
Khetas, in getting rid of the legend of a pretended invasion of Middle 
Syria, by this people, between the reigns of Thothmes IV and Rameses II. 
Revue Critique, 1890, p. 60. 


THE ARABIC LIBRARY AT DAMASCUS. A Greek judge in Cyprus, M. Chri. 
Papadopulos, has printed, as the forerunner of a treatise by him on the 
Arabic Library at Damascus and its MSS. that has long lain unpublished, 
an interesting short account of them in a Greek theological magazine 
called ^oyrrjp. From it are extracted the following passages : 

The library was founded by the Ommayads. The building is situated 
near the stately Djami which bears their name. It has a great stone 
vault supported upon four columns, and is ornamented with mosaics. 
There is no proper catalogue of this library, nor is it arranged. Several 
of the manuscripts are motheaten and much injured by damp. Still, 
there exist in it valuable papyri as well as manuscripts on parchment 
and paper. Among them, according to M. Papadopulos, a conspicuous 
place is due to a history of Damascus in nineteen large volumes. A great 
deal that is new is to be found in them regarding the city and its walls as 
well as the fine arts in Damascus. This codex is a jewel of Arabic liter- 
ature and an inexhaustible source for the whole annals of the city. 

The collection of old Arabic papyri is rich. There are several that throw 
light on obscure periods of Arabic history and poetry, or deal with the 
general history of Arabs and their literature. Some of these papyri are as 
late as the fifteenth century, and may be considered, says M. Papadopulos, 
as copies of monuments in stone. On papyrus rolls are to be found collec- 
tions of poems by celebrated Arab authors, of whom Ibn Khaldoun is 
the most notable ; others contain decrees of the Emirs of Damascus. 

M. Papadopulos mentions also a history on parchment of the Tartars 
by Abulghazi Bahadur, and a history and geography of Damascus and 
Palmyra by Abulfeda. Although M. Papadopulos gives no details regard- 
ing these writings, one can identify the history of Abulghazi as that which 
was discovered by Swedish officers in captivity after the battle of Pultowa, 
1709, and translated into German, and subsequently (1726) into French, 
and published in two volumes under the title of Histoire genealogique des 
Tatars. Kegarding the work of Abulfeda one cannot, from the brief notice 
that M. Papadopulos supplies, come to any certain conclusion, whether it 
be a portion of the Annales Moslemici or an unpublished production of the 
celebrated Mohammedan prince and polyhistor. 

Among the other treasures of the library are a treatise of Abul-Hassan, 
the Arabian astronomer of the thirteenth century ; a roll of Abumazar, 
the astronomer (circa 855), on the observatories at Bagdad and Damascus ; 
a medical treatise of the teacher of Avicenna, Abu-Sahaal ; a meteoro- 
logical bulletin relating to Damascus by Abul-Chaiz ; papyrus rolls con- 
taining the Pentateuch, the Psalter, and the Gospels in Kufic characters; 
papyrus rolls and others, consisting of Plato's " Laws " in Arabic, the 
"Organon" of Aristotle, the work of Hippocrates "De Ae're, Aquis, et 


Locis," and one containing some portions of the " Birds " of Aristophanes 
(in Arabic ?), with variants, and the Bible in Syriac. 

But the great prize of the library, so far as one can judge from the in- 
adequate description given of it, is a Greek manuscript of the Old and 
New Testament, comprising the Epistle of Barnabas and a portion of the 
Shepherd of Hermas. As the discovery of it is highly interesting, I give 
an exact translation of the passage referring to it : " One of the most im- 
portant of the so-called uncial manuscripts which contain the whole of the 
New Testament complete is as follows : 

" The manuscript is written on well-prepared parchment and is 12 inches 
wide and 131 inches high. It consists of 380? leaves, of which 200 contain 
the Old Testament (in the Septuagint version) incomplete ; but 180, the 
whole of the New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas, and a large portion 
of the Shepherd of Hermas. The manuscript is divided into four columns, 
and in each column there are fifty lines. This MS. may be regarded as 
similar to the Codex Sinaiticus, and consequently is worthy of a searching 
inquiry and investigation. The discovery of this gem is due to us." 

Every reader will see that it is really a gem. Not only is the mere an- 
tiquity of the manuscript a point of importance, but also the fact that it 
contains a portion, and a considerable portion, of the Shepherd of Hermas, 
which has lately been seen in a new light, thanks to the researches and 
criticisms of scholars like Hilgenfeld and Harnack. It is well known that 
Hilgerfeld maintained that he had found the Greek conclusion, still missing, 
of Hermas, in a London publication of the well-known forger Constantin 
Simonides (Nutt, 1859). This supposed conclusion after the appear- 
ance, simultaneously with Prof. Hilgenfeld's conjecture, of the collation 
of the Athos Codex by Lambros accompanied by an introduction by Mr. 
Armitage Kobinson was utterly rejected by Prof. Harnack and declared 
to be a pure forgery of Simonides, an opinion in which I con cur i Now 
comes the ancient MS. from Damascus as a new document. Does it con- 
tain the conclusion of the Shepherd? Unfortunately the meagre notice 
supplied by M. Papadopulos neither throws light on this point nor affords 
us sufficient information, nor does it allow us to form any certain opinion 
on- the whole question of the importance of the Damascene Codex and its 
similarity to the Sinaitic, which also contains, besides the Testament, a 
small portion of the Shepherd. I hope, however to be soon in a position to 
give further intelligence on this important discovery. SPYR. P. LAMBROS, 
in Athenceum, Feb. 1. 


PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. The committee announce that they have 
obtained a firman granting permission to excavate at KHURBET 'AJLAN, the 
EQLON of Joshua. It is understood that all objects, except duplicates, found 


in the course of the excavations shall be forwarded to the Museum of Con- 
stantinople, but that the committee's agents shall have the right to make 
squeezes, sketches, models, photographs, and copies of all such objects. 
The committee have secured the services of Mr. Flinders Petrie, who is 
now in Palestine making arrangements to start the excavations. Pal. 
Explor. Fund, April, 1890. 

OESAREA. Mr. Schick reports the discovery of an obelisk, here, and 
sends a drawing of it. It is believed that this is the first obelisk discov- 
ered in the Holy Land. 

GALILEE. Mr. Schumacher reports the discovery of a large cave at 
NAZERETH ; ancient and elaborate rock-tombs at HAIFA and SHEFA 'AMR ; 
exploration of the caves of JESSAS; the discovery of various inscriptions, 
and of the rock-hewn apse of a church. 

JERUSALEM. Pool of Bethesda (see JOURNAL, vol. iv,.pp. 482-3). 
The clearance of the Pool has been continued, and Mr. Schick reports de- 
tails and gives section-plans. It is now quite clear that the original church 
stood immediately over the Pool, i. e., the top of the Pool formed the floor 
of the church, and that the five small chambers or porches over the Pool 
(which are connected by an open arch) did not belong to the original struc- 
ture but were afterwards introduced, perhaps by the Crusaders. On the 
wall of the church has been discovered a fresco representing an angel troub- 
ling the waters ; and in other parts of the church are visible small pieces of 
fresco, indicating that the walls of the ancient church were covered with 

Ancient City-wall. Further portions of the ancient wall of Jerusalem 
have been exposed on the northern side and at the northwestern corner. 

Discovery of a large Cistern. A very large cistern has been discovered 
near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, apparently under the spot where 
stood the mediaeval church of Sta. Maria Latina. 

Hock-levels in Jerusalem. Mr. Schick communicates further observations 
on the rock-levels of the city, confirming the supposition, that east of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre there is a rock-terrace nearly surrounded 
by scarps of considerable height. PEF, January, 1890. 

Mount of Olives. Very interesting discoveries have been made includ- 
ing a Christian burial-place, an extensive series of catacombs, which had 
been used by Roman soldiers of the tenth legion, a number of Roman tiles, 
and other antiquities of various periods. In the course of the excavations 
for building, the workmen came across the remains of a group of tombs. 
Several shafts and capitals of columns, ornamented with acanthus leaves, 
in the Roman-Greek manner, were dug up, and the plinths on which they 
rested were found. Between the plinths was a mosaic pavement, contain- 
ing a Greek inscription in black on a white ground ; and under the mosaic 


were found stone slabs, which formed the covers of the tombs. So far, 
fifteen of these tombs have been opened. They appear to have been made 
partly by Jews and partly by Christians, those attributed to the latter 
being situated in a group a little apart from the others. PEF, Jan. ; 
Amer. Architect. 

Excavations on the eastern brow of'Zion" About last July, excava- 
tions were commenced on a piece of ground on the eastern slope of the 
western hill of Jerusalem (generally called Zion) about half-way down 
between the buildings of Neby Daud and the Pool of Siloam. The prop- 
erty had been bought by a Frenchman, Count Piello, and the work was 
overseen by a Roman Catholic monk. Mr. Schick was allowed to make 
plans (which are published) and to see the discoveries, such as " masonry, 
rockscarps, well-mouths, and many hewn and sculptured stones ; also pave- 
ments, mosaics, etc." It is found that there were in ancient times caves and 
dwellings excavated in the roclc, which excavations were in later times con- 
verted into cisterns. Here are, nearly throughout, two stories of excava- 
tions ; the upper ones certainly were originally used for human dwellings, 
or as cellars, magazines, stables, etc." On a terrace (12 ft. high) were found 
a large piece of mosaic pavement and three bases of columns, the largest, 
one in situ. PEF, January, 1890. 

rock-cut Tombs. Mr. Schick reports, on his examination of the Domini- 
can property northwest of " Jeremiah's Grotto," that he has discovered 
indications of a second church (older and larger than that previously 
known) a basilica with wide nave and narrow side-aisles, thought to be 
the original church of St. Stephen. There are mosaic pavements in the 
eastern part of the two aisles of the church. Under the church were 
found two rock-cut tombs, similar to those discovered several years ago. 
Access to these tombs was by steps leading down from beneath the pave- 
ment of the church. The entrance to the first tomb was below a very 
large flagstone, on which was a Greek inscription. Over the stone en- 
trance-door of this tomb was a second Greek inscription cut in the rock. 
This tomb was approached by a passage on the right and left of which are 
loculi (containing bones and mould), each loculus covered with three slabs 
on one of which is an inscription. A little to the west of this tomb was 
found a similar one, but without any inscription; and, instead of a door, 
it had a round stone to be rolled before the opening. It was like that at 
the Tombs of the Kings, only thinner and smaller. Mr. Schick gives 
section and ground plans of the tombs, and fac-similes of the Greek in- 

Two rock-cut Cisterns near "Jeremiah's Grotto." Mr. Schick examined 
and describes these cisterns and gives plans of the larger one, which has 


circular ends and is covered with a pavement of large flagstones. It 
measures 66 x 30 feet, and is 45 feet deep. The rock-cut sides converge, 
and the roof is constructed of hewn stones in the form of a very pointed 
vault. Mr. S. says : " This remarkable cistern is certainly not of Moham- 
medan or Christian origin, but apparently Canaanite, its form being like 
so many made by Canaanites in the rock, but I have never before seen 
one so large. The arching, and the slab with two iron rings [in the pave- 
ment], is very like Crusading [work]." 

Cistern No. 2 is about 24 feet square and 15 feet high. It is entirely 
hewn in the rock, " and before it was made into a cistern was rock-cut 
Jewish tombs. This cistern proves that there were rock-cut tombs be- 
tween the present town-wall and the scarp of Jeremiah's Grotto on the 
north, as in the Jeremiah-Grotto hill itself." PEF, Jan., April, 1890. 

SARfs. In a cave, here, have been found human figures sculptured on 
the walls, resembling the " proto-Phcenician " rock-sculptures near Tyre ; 
and an inscription, believed by Professor Sayce to be evidently old-Phoe- 
nician. An inscription which had escaped the observation of previous 
travellers has been noted by Mr. Hanauer at Beit el-Khulil. PEF, 
January, April, 1890. 

SILWAN. Rock-hewn Chapels. Mr. C. Schick reports the discovery, 
beneath the village of Silwan, of four rock-cut chapels, of which he gives 
the external view, ground-plan, and section. Two of these could not be 
examined, the other two were examined and measured : they contain two 
chambers, and terminate in an eastern apse ; the semidome being made like 
a Mohammedan mihrab. In one of the apses, just below the semidome, was 
found a Greek inscription in two lines, of which Mr. S. gives a fac-simile. 
It appears that these rock-cut chambers were once used by Christians as 
chapels. PEF, January, 1890. 


the Courier de I' Art (of Jan. 31, 1890) concerning his archaeological re- 
searches in Galilee : " I made my first stop at El-Zib (ancient Ach-Zib), 
which is a rather important village, three hours from Sain t-Jean-d' Acre. 
I passed two days there in studying the ancient burial-places upon which 
are built the houses of the present village. These burial vaults are con- 
structed of beautiful freestone, of calcareous breccia cut with the greatest 
care and skill. I chose a spot which seemed to me the most promising, and 
came at once upon a quadrangular well, cut in the living rock and con- 
ducting to a tomb hermetically sealed with a single block of stone. The form 
of the tomb was that adopted by the Phoenicians after the first conquest 


of Phoenicia by the kings of Egypt, and it had not been opened since the 
Phoenician period. On removing the monolith which closed the vault, I 
found in the interior three tombs of masonry, one in the bottom and the 
two others against the lateral walls of the vault. These tombs were con- 
structed of sandstone and lined inside with slabs in the form of a cover, 
sustained by projecting masonry. Toward the head of each skeleton were 
placed three or four terracotta statuettes, Egypto-Phcenician, like those 
discovered at Cyprus, and of which I have only seen rare specimens else- 
where. Toward the middle of the body began a row of vases and dishes 
of terracotta of all forms and sizes. But, without counting the jewels, 
amulets, and scarabs, what appeared to me to be of great archaeological 
value were the terracotta groups of personages, of very primitive work- 
manship, representing, in my opinion, handicrafts ; it would appear that 
there still existed among the Zibiotes of that period the habit of interring, 
with their dead, figurines recalling the habits and craft of each one. 
During more than two months I followed up my excavations upon this 
vast site, but with frequent interruptions, owing to the interference of the 
authorities. Nevertheless, I succeeded in clearing out more than a hun- 
dred of these intact vaults, and in making an extremely interesting col- 
lection of these trade-groups, of which, so far as I know, there is nothing 
analogous in any Museum. I did not attack the richest part of this ne- 
cropolis, which I reserved to excavate under better conditions." 

SA'l'DA. " On my return to Saida, I found that admirable necropolis 
from which were taken those magnificent sarcophagi which the Museum 
of Constantinople removed from Saida three years ago, to have been 
annihilated! For the rock in which were these beautiful sepulchral 
vaults worthy of the archseologic marvels which they contained, the entire 
rock, had been brutally torn up and transformed into stupid masonry ! 
And there, where reposed the ashes of King Tabnit, there is only an empty 
pit. That grandiose subterranean Museum, which earthquakes and the 
devastations of conquerors and centuries of barbarism had respected, has 
been effaced by the criminal stupidity of a miserable gardener of Saida." 


OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. The recent excavations conducted here by Drs. 
Bohn and Shuchardt (the excavators of Pergamon) are discussed by them 
with minute detail and numerous illustrations in the second Erganzung- 
shefl of the Jahrbuch d. k. deut. archdol. Instituts. The excavations revealed 
three temples, a theatre, a stadion, several large stoai, a covered market- 
place, well-preserved city- walls, and numerous inscriptions. 


TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS. Mr. George Aitchison, Professor of Architecture at 
the Royal Academy of Arts, writes to the London Times, under date of 
April 19, on the occasion of the death of Mr. J. T. Wood, the discoverer 
and excavator of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos : " It is not generally 
known that the drawings and memoranda necessary for a trustworthy 
restoration of the temple have never been published, and, without them, 
no proper comprehension of the facts can be arrived at. The book which 
Mr. Wood published in 1877 was only a popular account, and he intended 
publishing a larger and more complete work on the subject, but did not 
live to execute it. These drawings and documents, in Mr. Wood's posses- 
sion at his death, will run the chances of loss or destruction unless they are 
at once arranged and digested by a scholar, a classical antiquarian." 

tributes to the October number of the Journal of Hellenic Studies a paper 
in which he illustrates some fragments of the archaic temple at Ephesos 
found by Mr. Wood built into the construction of the later temple. Mr. 
Murray has put most of them together again in such a way as to show that 
they belong to the cornice of the old temple and that in this cornice the 
spaces between the lion-heads used as water-spouts are occupied not by 
floral ornaments, as in the usual temple, but by groups of figures sculptured 
with extraordinary minuteness and delicacy. Hardly any two of the frag- 
ments fit together : there is here a foot or hand, there a head or piece of 
drapery. These sculptures either formed a continuous subject, separated 
into groups by the lion-heads, or a series of separate subjects, in the manner 
of metopes. The period assigned to the work is c. 550 B. c. 

Other fragments are used to reproduce the capital, shaft, and base of 
both an ordinary column and of a sculptured column or columna coelata. 
The figure used to demonstrate the existence of co'lumnae coelatae in the 
old temple is one that is said by Mr. Murray to answer fairly to a Hermes 
on an archaic vase from Corinth in the British Museum. The figure 
stands on a flat band, which begins the base ; then comes a torus-moulding 
and the rest, in a style that was imitated in the new temple. " The 
sculpture of the archaic columns, so far as I can judge, is of the same 
period as the cornice. The forms are of course larger and more simply 
treated. But the workmanship is of the same delicate archaic kind. On 
the column the remains of color are slighter than on the cornice, where in 
some parts they are quite brilliant in reds and blues." 

We know, from Herodotos, that Kroisos bore the expense of most of the 
columns of the early temple, and a fragmentary inscription on these frag- 
ments is restored : Ba[(nAevs] Kp[oros] avt[6r}K\ev. The architect of the 
old temple was Chersiphron. It is suggested that the sculptor was Bupalos, 


son of Archermos who worked in Asia Minor. The date of all these frag- 
ments and of the old temple appears, therefore, to be that of Kroisos. 
[The capital, however, as restored, appears not to belong to so early a date, 
but to be not earlier than the fifth century. ED.] 

HISSARLIK. Dr. SCHLIEMANN has not, as was reported, left the Troad, 
but still remains there, and he has just obtained from the Sultan a new 
firman, allowing him to make fresh excavations at Hissarlik. His atten- 
tion is now directed, it is thought, to a thorough exploration of the lowest 
strata, occupied by the earliest inhabitants of the supposed site of Troy. 

Dr. DORPFELD, finding he could not undertake any excavations at 
Idalion, in Kypros, for the German Government, has gone to join Dr. 
Schliemann at Hissarlik, where operations have commenced outside the 
walls of the burnt city. They will continue their excavations there for two 
years, as they intend to bring to light the greater part, if not the whole, 
of the ancient city. The present campaign will last till the end of June 
and will be resumed in the autumn. Athenaeum, March 8, 22, May 10. 

in the district known formerly as Kilikia Tracheiotis, I have been able to 
identify several important sites. On the high land which rises above the 
sea between Mersina and Selefkeh (Seleucia) are the remains of several 
Greek cities. One of these was OLBA, which Strabo tells us was ruled over 
by priest-kings, most of them bearing the name of Teukros or Aias. On 
a polygonal fortress I found one inscription, a dedication to the Olbian 
Zeus by the priest Teukros Tarkyarios, and another stating that the build- 
ing was erected under the superintendence of Pleistarchos of Olba ; thus 
the site of this ancient city is clearly established. A large tomb built on 
the slope of the hill contains an inscription with the name of Aba, a woman, 
Strabo tells us, who married into the ruling family, and was recognized by 
Antony and Cleopatra as the ruler of this part of Cilicia. From the site 
of another town, called in an inscription EABBATIA, we learned the names 
of two other priest-kings, namely, Hermokrates and Lucius. This town 
contained two temples of Hermes one was in a deep gorge where three 
caves are walled in with polygonal masonry, and before it once stood a 
handsome propylaion erected at the expense of two noble ladies, who are 
depicted on the pediment with their spindles. The other temple of Hermes 
was in the town itself, and yielded several interesting inscriptions. 

" With regard to the question of the Corycian cave, I am inclined to be- 
lieve that explorers have not yet identified the situation. Strabo tells us 
that it was twenty stadia behind Corycus. Now Olba is about that dis- 
tance, and in the centre of the ruins of Olba, just beneath the above-men- 
tioned fortress, is exactly such a hole as Strabo describes. It is about 
three-quarters of a mile round and two hundred feet deep, with precipi- 


tous cliffs around it, in which are carved several funereal basreliefs ; it 
was approached by two roads one a tunnel cut in the rock, descending 
from the spot where presumably the temple of the Olbian Zeus stood, and 
the other an open staircase cut in the rock. 

" These towns on the hill-slopes are mostly built on precipitous rocks, 
and are protected by fortresses of polygonal masonry. Most of them have 
distinguishing marks on the outer stones; that of Olba has a triskele, 
Eabbatia has a hunting horn, and another fortress town, the name of 
which I was unable to identify, has a club for its symbol." J. THEODORE 
BENT, in Athenceum, April 5. Cf. Classical Review, 1890, pp. 185-86, 
where Cecil Smith questions the identification of Olba. 

KORAZA. TEMPLES. M. Paul Foucart, in the Bull, de corr. hellen., has 
identified certain ruins which he visited between Stratonikeia and Mylasa 
with Koraza, a deme of Stratonikeia. An inscription found there decrees 
certain recompenses to benefactors to be inscribed on the antae of the 
temple of Artemis. There are here the ruins of a number of sanctuaries. 
From the analogy of inscriptions at the neighboring Lagina and Panamara 
and especially in the sanctuary of the Karian Zeus, M. Foucart sees, in 
these ruins, those of the sanctuary of Artemis Kwpa^wv and the temples of 
Apollon and Latona, and, in the site, that of the deme of Koraza. 

cated to the Academic des Inscriptions (March 14, 23) a study on this 
colossal work of Grseco-Ronian art, esteemed by some ancient writers one 
of the seven wonders of the world. The edifice was destroyed by earth- 
quake as late as 1063 and is now entirely in ruins, but, in the xv century, 
Cyriacus of Ancona saw a part of it standing, and took exact measurements. 
His notes, discovered by Comm. J. B. de Rossi, and communicated to M. 
Reinach by M. Georges Perrot, have furnished all the material needed for 
the restoration of the ground-plan and of the elevation of the monument. 
The columns, sixty-two in number, were monoliths 21 metres high, the 
largest known to exist. The pediment was ornamented with a series of 
statues and a colossal bust of Hadrian. Cyriacus himself copied an in- 
scription which mentions the hitherto unknown name of the architect, 
Aristenethes. M. Reinach has interpreted the indications given by Cyri- 
acus, and restored the text of the inscription in Greek verses, of which he 
gives the following translation: "He who, at the expense of all Asia, 
caused me to rise from the ground with the help of much labor, is the 
divine Aristenethes." We have, here, another confirmation of the fact, 
that the temples dedicated to the Emperors were raised, for the most part, 
on the initiative and at the expense of the provinces. Revue Critique 
and Chronique des Arts, 1890, Nos. 12, 13. 



GOLGOI. On his return from Lokroiin S. Italy, Dr. Dorpfeld stopped in 
Kypros to take charge of the excavations undertaken by the German Archse- 
ological Institute on the site of Golgoi. Chronique des Arts, 1890, No. 6. 

LEUKOSIA. Near Leukosia, at the foot of the mound of the Prodro- 
mes where formerly stood the ancient temple of Apollo, Herr Kichter 
has found several tombs, in two of which were discovered some statuettes 
and other objects, some being of gold. A colossal stone lion was dis- 
covered at the same time. Athenaeum, Jan. 25. 

Munro writes, Feb. 1, 1890 : " Work was begun January 16 at the famous 
granite columns noticed by almost all writers since Pococke. Intersecting 
trenches were run across the site from north to south and east to west. 
After about a yard of fairly easy soil the excavation became very slow, 
and resembled hacking through bricks and mortar : 5 or 6 ft. lower the 
earth was again looser and less mixed with rubble, until the virgin soil 
was reached at a depth of 10i to 13 J ft. in the centre of the site. Nu- 
merous ancient remains were encountered almost from the surface down- 
wards. They were chiefly flimsily built walls, though partly constructed 
of large squared blocks, with frequent water-channels and pipes running 
here and there. Miserable graves were met with in abundance from about 
2 to 5 ft. down. To the east, bordering on the north trench, was found a 
nest of large blocks, which seemed to represent the foundation of a small 
octagonal building surrounded by a water-course. Among the blocks 
were fragments of plain white marble columns and pieces of cornice, etc., 
of very poor late style. In the western trench, at about 6 to 8 ft., lay a 
number of fragments of fluted limestone columns with stucco coating, a 
capital and base, and other pieces, dating, perhaps, from the Ptolemaic 
period. Under them is what looks like a solid wall, but further investi- 
gation is here necessary. At the extreme south, a well-built wall, with 
topmost course of very large blocks, has been followed down to the virgin 
soil, and there is possibly a corresponding wall at the north end. We have 
probably here to recognize the wall which supported the great granite 
columns. The antiquities found are of little interest, and include nothing 
that need be dated further back than Hellenistic times. Nearest the 
bottom were a certain number of potsherds of a familiar Cypriote style. 
On the whole, this site may be condemned as scarcely likely to repay the 
immense labor of excavating it. Whatever earlier buildings there may 
have been seem to have been turned upside down by later operations. 

Second Site. " Meanwhile, another site had been started in the sand- 
hills at the extreme northeast of the ancient city, close by the forest-guard's 


house. A couple of Corinthian capitals had been turned out here some 
years ago in the search for water, and the spot seemed to offer opportunity 
of testing the quality of the contents of the sand-hills. We have now laid 
bare the greater part of a wall, probably of a temple, running northeast 
and southwest. Upon it are a number of marble bases of various diam- 
eters set at different levels, and by them lie plain marble shafts and 
Corinthian capitals, just as they fell. The shafts vary in dimensions no 
less than the bases, and we have no doubt to recognize a late building 
constructed of materials from several earlier temples. But, at each end 
of the wall and underneath one or two of the marble bases, are others of 
superior workmanship in limestone, which Dr. Dorpfeld, who saw them 
this morning, has pronounced to be probably of the fifth or fourth century. 
Working in sand is difficult, and little can be done until our wheelbarrows 
arrive, but we now know roughly the position and dimensions of the building. 
In a trench to the southeast, a new set of columns have appeared, of large 
diameter with late fluting : they seem to have fallen from another building 
occupying the site where the house now stands. A small marble torso of 
Eros, with remains of wings on the back, and a small figure of a river-god, 
also of marble, are the principal objects so far found on this site. The 
promise of the place lies largely in the fact that all seems to remain in situ, 
but little injured or disturbed. 

Third Site. " Two days ago, we started on a third site, a long depres- 
sion extending some two hundred yards southwards from the late build- 
ing known as the Aowpoi/. This is a site which no explorer of Salamis 
can afford to overlook. It is very large, occupies a central position, and 
was apparently flanked by huge colonnades with great limestone columns, 
the drums and capitals of which lie in series along the sides. At the south 
end rises a hillock, which may have borne a small temple. Fragments of 
blue " inscription stone " are very plentiful, and we no sooner began to 
turn them over than we found five pieces with letters. One of these is an 
interesting and perhaps important Latin inscription : 

...J]uli nepoti Aug. [filio 
...tribunic]ise potestatis... 

...Sala]minomm [senatus 
...ponen]dam curavit ide[mque... 
...C. Lucretio Kufo... 

" So far our results on this site are as follows. The interval between 
the colonnades is paved with stone blocks, and within each is a mosaic 
pavement. Behind the western colonnade has been found a small square 
foundation of late date, with water-channel around, formed largely of mar- 
ble blocks and bases of statues. One of the blocks bears an inscription 


of Ptolemaic date. On the slope of the hillock are several marble blocks, 
which might be taken for steps, but are possibly remains of walls. Near 
the foot of the rise, close to the surface, lay an enormous marble capital, 
extraordinary in its decoration no less than its size. It measures roughly 
3 ft. in diameter at the base and 4? ft. at the top. From one side projects 
a colossal bull-head and neck, with wings springing from the shoulders 
and forming, as it were, volutes. On the other is a Caryatid, on a very 
much smaller scale, passing at the waist into a floral ornament. The re- 
maining sides are broken away, but no doubt repeated these. The bull- 
head and wings are of strong, effective style, while the other side is rather 
decorative than forcible. There can be little doubt that this site was an 
important centre of civic life." J. A. R. MUNRO, Athenceum, Feb. 22. 

H. A. TUBES writes, Feb. 15, 1890 : " Since our last report the excava- 
tions here have progressed favorably. Practically our efforts have been 
confined this fortnight to our third site, that close to the most conspicuous 
ruin of Salamis, the building known to the villagers as the Aovrpov. The 
site is a long depression, 750 ft. by 205 ft., and is terminated at the north- 
ern end by the Loutron, at the southern by a hillock which, as our exca- 
vations seem to show, is composed almost entirely of loose earth and 
debris, and represents but a slight natural rise in the ground. This de- 
pression is occupied by a double colonnade of large limestone columns 
marking out a parallelogram, so far as we have yet excavated, of 680 ft. 
by 110 ft. The columns are plain, of Roman work, probably about the 
time of Hadrian, with a pedestal of 3 ft. 6 in. upper diameter, and a cap- 
ital 2 ft. 4 in. high, 4 ft. 9 in. in diameter, and 6 ft. 9 in. in diagonal 
measurement. The style is Roman Corinthian, the device folia relieved 
by bunches of grapes, and with high volutes at the corner. The height 
of the columns we have not as yet been able to determine, but their base 
diameter is 3 ft. Beyond the row of columns there was probably an 
outer wall, forming a closed colonnade. This wall is as yet not deter- 
mined. On either side of the columns there would seem to have been a 
tessellated marble pavement, several sections of which we have already 
opened. The mosaics referred to in our last report and we have now 
found a third were probably later additions when the colonnade wall 
began to be used by later builders as a foundation for private houses and 
similar erections. The eastern colonnade wall has been laid open for 
almost its entire length, the western for half that distance. Many bases 
and podia have been found, and the intercolumniation is fairly fixed at 
16 ft. The southeast, northeast, and northwest angles are also, in all 
probability, ascertained ; but the southwest presents a difficulty, as the 
colonnade seems here to continue beyond its natural limit. This, with 
many other problems, remains to be solved by further excavation. At 


the north end there may have been a front of a double row of columns ; 
all indications so far point that way. The question remains what was 
this site, which above ground is at once the largest and the finest in Sala- 
mis. We have found portions of an inscription which seems to throw a 
much-needed light on the point. This inscription and there is a second 
of the same character is not graven in the stone, but was formed of huge 
bronze letters (no longer, of course, remaining) soldered on to large marble 
blocks. From the traces still left, in the shape of socket-holes and shallow 
grooves, the word Fonum may, almost with certainty, be read, together 
with probably the title PHOPRcetore of the restorer of this fine site, which 
was therefore, at least in Roman times, the Agora of Salamis. A most 
interesting point arising out of our work on the Agora site is that of the 
intention of the large building of late Roman times already referred to, 
the so-called Loutron. We have opened now three large subterranean 
water-channels, which may render possible the settlement of the vexed 
question, how far the Loutron deserves its name. 

"As regards our two other sites previously mentioned, the first may now 
be considered as definitely abandoned. The second site that of a temple 
buried in the sand has been idle, pending the arrival of . wheelbarrows, 
which have just reached us. The two days' work which, during this fort- 
night, the temple site has received, resulted in the discovery, among other 
things, of a statue of Hades seated, with the triple-headed snake-entwined 
Cerberus by his side. The statue is in dark blue marble, the flesh surfaces 
being given in white, a combination which recalls in some degree the 
famous Sarapis of Bryaxis. Of other finds I may mention a series of five 
inscribed statue-bases which were found in a cement floor, apparently of an 
olive-press, on the outside of the Agora site. One of these formerly carried 
a statue of the Empress Livia. Many fragments of other inscriptions have 
been found, but these five are the most important." Aihen., March 15. 

Messrs. TUBES and MUNRO write under dates of March 15, 31 ; April 12 : 
" Having opened up the Agora throughout its length, two problems were 
left us : the hillock at the southern, the Loutron at the northern end. The 
hillock proves to contain an open court, perhaps enclosing an altar, but 
certainly representing the arafoci of the later city. Here were grouped 
the dedicatory statues and public inscriptions, a few of which we have re- 
covered. One of these apparently bears record to a victory gained by 
Ptolemy Philometor, presumably over his brother Physkon. With this 
inscription may, perhaps, be connected the remains of a colossal marble 
trophy (?) found near by, of which no more than the stump and one thigh 
now remains. A second inscription from the same spot deals, it would 
seem, with fines inflicted for trespass on the lands of Zeus Olympics, and 
is of special interest. Not far from the hillock, and near the southeastern 


end of the colonnade, we came upon a marble head (female) of more than 
life-size. Though of very fair work, it was much mutilated, and we have 
failed to find the remainder of the statue. 

" The Loutron itself, between which and the colonnade intervenes the 
wall of the later city, built upon the north front of the outer colonnade 
wall of the Agora, proves to have a length of 198 ft. and breadth of 75 ft., 
a proportion as nearly as possible of 3 : 8. The southern side was strength- 
ened by piers having engaged columns at each angle : of these we have 
opened four, but, rather singularly, they are at irregular intervals. The 
west end had in front of this wall, itself 12 ft. thick, a second wall some 
7 ft. 6 in. through, and standing 10 ft. away. The interior was vaulted, 
and apparently there were four arches to the width, as we have found a 
triple line of pedestals for the springs. The flooring was of cement, and 
was extraordinarily strong ; in two days' work we only succeeded in cut- 
ting through 2 ft. 6 in. of it, and even then had not reached its limit. This 
agrees with other indications in confirming the traditional name of the site 
as the reservoir of Roman Salamis. Probably the piers, which are of im- 
mense strength, served as well to carry the aqueduct as to support the 
building itself against the lateral pressure of the water within. 

" On our second site, that of the later shrine, near the forest-guard's 
house, much progress has been made in clearing away the upper sand 
layer. The inner western wall has been laid bare, and has a length of 
130 ft., with an intercolumniation varying around 8 ft. 6 in. Though 
poorly built it is in a remarkably sound condition, the lower courses un- 
broken, seven columns complete without a fracture, and almost every base 
in position. The columns are, according to late Roman practice, uneven 
in length, and the bases lie at different levels. The outer wall is 17 ft. 
6 in. and 16 ft. 7 in. distant respectively, according as the measure is taken 
on the west end or the south side. 

Fourth Site. About March 4, work having begun on a fresh site, a slope 
" where the last billow of rising ground merges itself in the flat land of 
the ancient mouth of the Pedaios, we have within the last few days come 
for the first time upon a really ancient layer. Fragments of pottery are 
numerous upon the surface, and a few feet below there have come to light 
pieces of red-figured ware, of Cypriote vases of the older class, of Klein- 
meister black figures (one such fragment inscribed), of earlier rude black 
figures with incised lines, and finally two portions of an amphora of early 
Rhodian work representing part of a zone of deer grazing. As yet we 
have fragments only, the sole objects moderately complete being heads in 
terracotta, one or two semi-Phoenician in style, the others probably fourth- 
century, and certainly under the influence of developed Greek art. Thus 
we seem to have hit a corner of Salamis as it was long before the era of 


Evagoras. Interesting terracottas of excellent archaic and developed style 
continue to turn up, with specimens of the early Greek pottery of various 
types. The latter included a fragment of vase, probably Khodian, with a 
large beast upon it painted in red, the head only outlined ; a bit of Klein- 
meister kylix with a female head of the well-known type ; and a piece 
of red-figured Attic ware of the best fifth-century style ; also fragments 
resembling the early Corinthian makes. The neck of one black glazed 
vessel bears the scratched inscription ^QTHPO^. There being no sign 
of tombs, the supposition of a neighboring early temple-site was natural. 

Fifth Site. Another venture has been made on the highest point in the 
ancient city. There are the lowest drums of two large limestone columns 
still in position ; but the ground is heavily choked with late accumula- 
tions, and not much progress has yet been made. A Roman portrait-head 
and fragments of a marble statuette of Aphrodite are all that the site has 
hitherto yielded. It seems to have been occupied by a large Roman house 
or small palace, and had an older layer beneath, which also was produc- 
tive of little beyond debris. The results not justifying further work on 
this site, it was closed. 

The Sixth Site we are now also probing lies between the Agora and the 
granite columns where we first started. It is littered with the debris of a 
very large building, including numerous fragments of marble and blue 
blocks, and the drums and capitals of enormous columns of the same type 
as those of the Agora colonnades, but even larger. Two bases have been 
discovered in situ. 

The Seventh Site (Cypriote Shrine) " is an outlying one, a rocky rise be- 
tween the two branches of the river. Along the base of the rock we are 
finding numerous fragments of terracotta figures, ranging from a few inches 
in height to colossal size. Most of the figures are male and bearded, and 
adorned with color, chiefly red and black. One, about two and a half 
feet high, is almost perfect. They are well executed, and seem to be of 
genuinely archaic style. With them we find scarabs, Cypriote pottery, 
and odds and ends. Certain terracotta fragments are extremely interest- 
ing. They are decorated with elaborate patterns in red and black on 
light ground, and with human and animal figures of the very earliest type. 
We have here a Cypriote shrine, plundered, indeed, but of a good epoch. 
We have found several small objects, chiefly scarabs and porcelains, and 
in particular a seal with strange characters, which might be called ' Hit- 
tite.' Besides various terracotta and limestone figurines, more or less com- 
plete, there are also large pieces of terracotta, perhaps from colossal statues, 
with elaborate and striking ornamentation in black and red, and in some 
cases with figures of men and animals almost ' Tirynthian ' in character." 

Second Site. "During the fortnight (March 17-31) good progress was 
made with the sand-site. The west wall is sufficiently cleared, and great 


part of the north wall. The work was transferred to the east side, and the 
principal object aimed at is the finding of the east wall, especially the cor- 
ners. The site now seems to be an open court with stoa all around, rather 
than a covered temple. This site gained in importance. April began 
with the discovery of three marble statues one life-size, one just above 
ordinary stature, and the third a colossal figure. The first two are prac- 
tically complete but for the heads, and are Koman ' drapery ' figures ; the 
third, a female statue, preserved from the girdle down, is of far finer work. 
It may have been a divinity. By the side of the large statue was a lime- 
stone column standing upright ; but a subsequent fall of sand has pre- 
vented our ascertaining whether it was in position. Not many feet away 
southwest is another limestone base-drum, apparently in place ; and as we 
have opened a third limestone column (prostrate) at the corresponding 
southeast end it would seem that there was a series, to which also a corner 
base (reused) at the southwest will belong. Thus we have a first older 
line than 'the marble columns which occupy the existing wall. A second 
series is that of large marble columns, fluted in later shallow fashion, 
which lie prostrate all along the line of the east end, and to which proba- 
bly belong three capitals of delicate work and large size. The height of 
the columns (shaft only) is 21 ft. 9 in., and their top diameter 2 ft. 4f in. 
The base end is in no case sufficiently cleared to enable its measure to be 
taken. Whether in these columns we have a more imposing sea frontage, 
the supports of a new building perhaps at right angles with the temple, 
or the remains of a slightly older temple on the same site, has yet to be 
seen. These columns have suffered greatly in an attempt to cut them up 
and move them, perhaps at the time when Famagosta was being built. 
One series of the limestone columns (and an additional base seems to indi- 
cate that there were two series) has almost certainly belonged to an older 
temple, whose debris has been used for the later erection. A fragment of 
marble plaque has turned up, containing portions of twelve lines of an in- 
scription, which indicates the shrine as that of Zeus ; the portion containing 
the epithet, if there were one, is not to hand ; so that it is impossible to say 
with entire certainty that we have found the temple of Zeus Salaminios." 
TOMASSOS- Excavations have recently been conducted at Tomassos 
in Cyprus, on behalf of the Royal Museum at Berlin, by Mr. Max Ohne- 
falsch-Bichter, who for ten years past has been active in archaeological 
work in the island. A large number of graves have been opened belong- 
ing to the transition period from the bronze to the iron age. Most of the 
vases found in these graves are hand-made, though some of the same size 
and form were turned on the potter's wheel. A mass of helmets, coats of 
mail, swords, lances, daggers, axes, knives, candelabra, kettles, buckles, 
etc., have been dug out. Among the iron swords are several gigantic speci- 


mens, whose hilts are adorned with ivory, and with bronze nails tipped 
with amber or silver heads. Golden armlets also have been found, simi- 
lar to those discovered by Dr. Schliemann at Troy. Colossal iron spears, 
with hooks and wooden shafts, had been placed in the left corner of a 
grave, so as to form a pyramid. Evidence was obtained of horse and dog 
burial, which seems to point to a northern custom. 

At a recent sitting of the Archaeological Society at Berlin, Mr. Furt- 
wangler made a further communication referring to the most recent re- 
sults of the researches of Mr. Ohnefalsch-Richter. On the site of two 
sanctuaries a series of votive gifts were unearthed among them, a qua- 
driga, with its charioteer of half-life-size, done in chalk ; a colossal statue ; 
and two archaic bronze statuettes. Graves dating back to the bronze age 
were opened, in which no iron whatever was found, and all the pottery 
was hand-made. Richer results were obtained in the burial places of the 
subsequent Grseco-Phcenician period, with their splendid stone architec- 
ture. In two of them, which probably belong to the first half of the sixth 
century B. c., parts of the architecture imitate a wooden structure of very 
archaic type. A grave-chamber has dark doors, with an imitation of 
wooden locks. This points to a more ancient architecture in timber- 
work, as was argued by the late James Fergusson, in connection with 
some parts of the Lion Gate at Mykenai. Among other curious finds 
may be noted a helmet with a very complicated visor in hinges. 

In a paper on The Pre-Babylonian and Babylonian Influences in Cyprus, 
as well as in more recent writings, Mr. Max Ohnefalsch-Richter has ex- 
pressed his belief that the oldest stratum of Cyprian culture was Phrygo- 
Thrakian, kindred to that of ancient Troy. Academy, May 17. 



committee of the Asia Minor Exploration Fund appeal once more for aid 
toward the important work which Professor W. M. Ramsay has carried 
on for the last eight years with brilliant success. Professor Ramsay's 
travels and researches have hitherto been for the most part confined to 
Phrygia and Galatia. The great importance of the results which he has 
obtained has been universally recognized both in Great Britain and abroad. 
Apart from the wealth of fresh material in the shape of inscriptions and 
monuments which he has placed at the disposal of scholars, his topograph- 
ical studies have thrown a flood of light upon the history of the country, 
from the prehistoric times of the old Phrygian kingdom down to the 
declining days of the Roman Empire, and have made possible an accurate 


map of these little-known regions. A full account of his explorations is 
given in the lengthy report which he has this year presented to the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

Professor Ramsay now proposes to break fresh ground further to the east. 
The chief objects of the expedition projected for the ensuing summer are: 

(1) To complete Mr. Sterrett's Pisidian explorations, which still leave 
uncertain the situation of a number of cities. 

(2) To construct the ancient map of Cilicia Tracheia and Isauria. A 
small number of cities have been determined, but the majority have yet to 
be discovered. 

(3) To explore the eastern parts of Kappadokia and the borders of 
Lesser Armenia, for the double purpose of examining all the Syro-Kap- 
padokian monuments, commonly known as " Hittite," and of determin- 
ing the system of military roads by which the Romans defended this part 
of the eastern frontier of the Empire. 

The route proposed for the expedition is as follows : To start from 
Kelainai-Apameia, the present terminus of the Ottoman Railway, and 
work eastward, taking up in order the different points which await deter- 
mination in Pisidia and Isauria. The explorers would then proceed north- 
east into the region of the Anti-Taurus, and, after traversing it on various 
lines, would either make for a Black Sea port or, if time permitted, return 
to Smyrna, selecting an untrodden route through the northern provinces. 

Professor Ramsay will be accompanied by Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Fellow 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, whose fitness for such work has been proved 
both in Asia Minor and in Cyprus. London Times. 


School (Feb. 14), Mr. Ernest A. Gardner read a paper on the technical pro- 
cesses in Greek sculpture, with special reference to a number of unfinished 
statues found in various degrees of progress, and now collected in the Cen- 
tral Museum at Athens. Mr. Gardner principally concerned himself with 
the methods of fourth-century sculptors, most of the examples being of that 
period, but he first noticed a specimen of the early straight-limbed Apollo 
type, which was found in the quarries at Naxos. This was in the first stage 
of progress, the figure having been merely roughed out. He showed how 
this had been done, much as a beginner would proceed to work at the present 
time, the sculptor first tracing the lines of the figure on the face and sides 


of the block and then proceeding to rough out the limbs by cutting off the 
marble in planes parallel to the face and sides. The surface clearly indi- 
cated that this had been done with a pointed punch. In this connection 
Mr. Gardner said that the squareness of the early statues need not neces- 
sarily be traced to a wood tradition, and he was not inclined to accept the 
theory that most of the early xoana were of that material ; he showed that 
the meaning of the word did not imply this, and mentioned several which 
were known to have been of marble. He argued that roundness rather 
than squareness of section was characteristic of wood, and he thought that 
the square appearance of early marble figures might more naturally pro- 
ceed from the material itself, the rectangular block of marble on which the 
sculptor set to work. He then proceeded to trace the processes of execution 
in the fourth century, and the nature of the tools employed, basing his 
remarks principally on a statue from Kheneia, which showed different 
degrees of progress on the various portions of the figure, but referring also 
to the others as he went on. Beginning with the rough marble block, he 
showed how they first roughly shaped out the figure with a punch driven 
with a hammer, and not with a pointed axe or hammer, as had sometimes 
been assumed ; how they afterwards dressed down the lines more carefully 
with a similar but smaller and sharper instrument, and how, when they 
had got the figure thus blocked out, they proceeded to model the limbs by 
cutting down the surface gradually with a curved chisel ; and he pointed 
out on the statue small flat cup-shaped sinkings showing the beginning of 
this process. The general surface was then finely worked over in detail 
with a claw-shaped chisel, the form of the limbs being carefully worked up, 
and the folds of the drapery were drilled out with the running bore. He 
mentioned, as an instance of a different treatment, an early archaic figure 
from Delos, where the use of the saw could be distinctly traced in the 
narrow sunk lines of the parallel folds of the straight hanging drapery. 
He went on to show how the forms of the muscles were afterwards accu- 
rately mapped out or outlined, and how the whole figure was again gone 
over with a finer claw chisel, and finally finished off with a flat one. He 
had come to the conclusion, from a careful study of these statues, that the 
sculptor did not work from a finished model, although he may have had a 
rough study beside him, but rather that he worked quite freely, developing 
his ideas as he proceeded. Builder, March 1. 

in the Builder of March 22, on some investigations made by Mr. K. W. 
Schultz, a member of the British School at Athens, which have led him to 
peculiar conclusions regarding the age of the large doorway in the north 
portico of the Erechtheion, called by the Greeks C H wpcu'a WAiy, "the 
beautiful door." It has generally been accepted as contemporary with the 


rest of the building. A careful study of the mouldings of all the build- 
ings on the Akropolis led Mr. Schultz to contend : (1) that none of the 
door now in situ is part of the original work ; (2) that the present jambs 
belong to a period not far removed from the time of the building ; (3) 
that the lintel, cornice, and brackets are still later additions ; (4) that they 
belong, however, to late-Greek and not to Roman times. He thought 
that a curious rebated stone west of the present lintel belonged to the 
original lintel, and he concluded (1) that the first north door consisted of 
a lintel built in with the walls, having mouldings worked on it, and of 
thin jamb linings having a projection of about 2 in. from the wall face, 
and with bronze linings inside; (2) that the lintel, having been damaged, 
was cut out, leaving the ends in, and heavier jambs were inserted to 
take the whole weight of the new lintel, their return face being dressed 
and the bronze linings done away with ; (3) that the present lintel is ap- 
parently still a third one, a copy of the second, inserted about the second 
century B. c., when the brackets also were added. As further evidence of 
the later insertion of the lintel and cornice, he instanced the holes cut on 
the underside of the stones for the purpose of needling up the wall during 
the alteration, and the way in which the stones have been wedged up after- 
wards. The variety of proof with which Mr. Schultz supports his opinion 
will be seen when his paper is published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
THE GAME OF HARPASTON. In the Classical Review for April, 1890, Mr. 
E. G. Marindin undertakes to explain the obscure Greek game called 
harpaston (dpTraorov), which was played with ball. It is spoken of by 
Martial (iv. 19 ; vm. 32 ; xiv. 48), Athenaios (i. p. 15), Eustathios (on Od. 
ix. S76), Pollux (ix. 32), Sidonius (v. 17), and especially Galen (Trepl rfc 
<r/ujcpas o-<aipas). Against Marquardt's idea, that there were three separate 
games, eTrio-Kvpos, <enVSa and dpTrao-Tov, the writer shows them to be but 
two games. Pheninda was the old name for harpaston, and this was iden- 
tified with /UK/SO, o-<t>alpa. The players were divided into two opposite 
groups on a square or oblong field, each having a base line or goal. In 
the centre was a medicurrens or 6 f^era^v who was placed on a middle line. 
The main object, apparently, was to throw the ball so that it should 
finally drop beyond the opponent's base line, thereby scoring a point. It 
was probably started from one or other base line and thrown from one 
player to another, the opposite side thwarting whenever they got an op- 
portunity, and throwing it back in the contrary direction. The duty of 
the medicurrens was to catch it as it went past, and throw it either over 
the opponent's line or to some unguarded point, or pass it to one of his 
own side advantageously posted. The ball could be taken at the volley or 
on first bound, but was " dead " on second bound. Of the main body, 
some guarded the base line and made long throws to the centre ; others 


played nearer the centre and passed the ball backward or forward in 
attack or defence. They were not stationary, like those at the base, but 
circulated according to certain strategic rules ; the strongest being placed 
nearest the centre to grapple with the enemy's rushers or with the medi- 
currens. The game was so varied as to give the widest range of practice 
in running, throwing, wrestling, jumping, dodging, etc., as well as in strat- 
egy and general head-work. It is not like any modern game, but has 
elements of foot-ball, lacrosse, and tennis. 

AIGILIA (Island of). There having been found a statue on the island 
anciently called Aigilia, B. Staes was sent out by the authorities in Athens 
to investigate, and, if necessary, to excavate on the ground. Aigilia, now 
called Antikythera, lies about midway between Krete and Kythera. At 
present it contains about 80 families, though only a small part of it can be 
cultivated. The ancient city lay upon a high cliff whose summit, strength- 
ened by several towers, served as a stronghold for the lower town. The 
wall of the so-called isodomic structure is preserved in many places to the 
height of 3 or 4 metres, and can be traced throughout its whole extent. 
The wall probably was built by enemies of Lakedaimon, possibly by 
Athenians during the Peloponnesian war (when the same was the case in 
Kythera). The statue was found in a field, and, when excavations were 
made on this spot, there was found a mosaic pavement formed of squares 
and circles fastened with lead. This evidently belonged to some Roman 
house. Then came to light a square base bearing a dedicatory inscription 
to Apollon Aigileus made jointly by a Thessalian and an Athenian. The 
form of the letters shows that the inscription belongs to the fourth or at 
least the third century B. c., and probably was under the statue previously 
found here. The statue itself belongs to the same period : it represents a 
man clad in the long chiton, and girded high up on the chest. He rests 
lightly on the left foot, the right leg being relaxed. The head is wanting, as 
well as the right hand and the left as far up as the elbow. The person 
represented was undoubtedly Apollon, holding the lyre in the left hand, 
the plektron in the right. The statue and its inscription have been trans- 
ferred to the National Museum at Athens. A search for the shrine itself 
led to the discovery of a foundation wall, 12 meters long, made of squared 
stones (taken from the locality) which were fastened firmly together with 
clamps. Remains of two cross-walls, also, were uncovered, but no 'archi- 
tectural member. In the ancient city itself was found a prehistoric rock-cut 
tomb. It is entered by a square doorway which leads into a large four- 
sided chamber. Opposite to the entrance and on the right hand of it were 
two other doorways leading into smaller rooms. This tomb has long been 
emptied of whatever remains it had, and has been used in recent times as 
a place of concealment during revolutionary disorders. ' 
November, 1889. 


ATHENS. RECENT EXCAVATIONS. Akropolis. After the Akropolis 
itself had been entirely uncovered, the part between the Propylaia and the 
Beule entrance was excavated. In one part, where the deposit of debris 
was of considerable depth, the torso of an undraped youth was found. It 
was of about natural size and of fourth-century workmanship. An inves- 
tigation of the rampart supporting the temple of Nike Apteros was begun, 
but, as the materials of which the rampart is composed seemed not very 
firm, it was feared that, if rain-water penetrated it, some damage might be 
done to the temple itself: the excavations were therefore postponed till a 
more favorable season of the year. 

The Olympieion. The Archaeological Society has made some diggings 
near the peribolos of the temple of Zeus Olympics, which brought to 
light the foundations of a large Roman building, probably a gymnasium 
(AcXrtov). According to the writer in the Mitiheilungen (1889, iv, p. 414), 
it is a Greek construction of breccia blocks and contains remains of much 
earlier polygonal walls of limestone. The Society expects soon to uncover 
the entire space within the circuit of the temple of Zeus, and to make there 
some fruitful discoveries. 

Altar. North of the polygonal wall which runs about along the axis of 
the Propylaia of Perikles, the rock has been uncovered several meters lower 
than to the south of this wall. On this site, a few meters from the Beule* 
gate, an altar was found in situ, known as such from the side volutes. It 
probably belonged to the altars erected in the Pelargikon and against 
whose increase Lampon's motion was directed (CT4, iv. 27. b). It was 
first thrown down, probably, in the early-Roman period, on the erection of 
the great open staircase. 

Dipylon. At the Dipylon, it has finally been possible to remove the 
earthen rampart that traversed the site where the excavations are being 
carried on, which had rendered the search for the foundations of the gate 
and wall very difficult. The conduit of the main street of the city, which 
lay in the earthen mound, has been removed. It is now possible better to 
survey the fortifications and the foundations of their gate in which it has 
been customary to recognize the Upa TTV\T). It is now evident that there is 
no ordinary gateway, as the necessary projections from the wall, which exist 
in the Dipylon gate, are not there and seem never to have existed. It is 
more likely to suppose that here was the opening in the city-wall through 
which flowed the Eridanos, according to Dorpfeld's hypothesis. 

By the side of the river-bed there appears to have been a narrow pathway. 
The ancient bridge over the Eridanos, built of horizontal slabs, is now to be 
recognized at the west end of the field of excavations, but the excavations 
have been made only deep enough to disclose the upper layers of stone of the 
bridge. It would be necessary to excavate down to the original river-bed. 
'Ap X . AeXrtbv, Nov.-Dec., 1889 ; Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1889, iv, pp. 413-15. 


INSCRIPTIONS FROM THE AKROPOLIS. Dr. Lolling, who has charge of the 
inscriptions, publishes the following finds. (1) The chief one consists in 
part of a slab of Pentelic marble ornamented at the top with a relief. 
This relief is in a much damaged condition, but there is still distinguish- 
able the figure of a woman with a horseman on either side of her and 
standing in front view. The inscription itself is also much mutilated. It 
belongs to the year 386/5 B. c., just after the peace of Antalkidas, and 
makes us acquainted with a king Ebrytelmis of the powerful Thracian 
tribe Odrysai. History records that another king of the tribe had about 
this time been a valuable ally of the Athenians, and this new king is prob- 
ably his successor. The inscription relates to the renewal of friendship 
with the Athenians, and forms an addition to a group of several already 
published that relate to the affairs of Athens and Thrace. (2) Another 
inscription found on the Akropolis belongs in the year 287/6, and relates 
to the gift of proxeny to certain benefactors residing in the islands. (3) 
A third inscription relates to Androtion and Tirnokrates, and shows them 
to have had charge of the treasures of Athena at that time. They are both 
well known from the speeches of Demosthenes. The inscription has lost 
its date, but probably belongs soon after 376. The chief point of interest 
about it is that it is the same inscription as that in CIA, n, 74", and evi- 
dently the older copy, as the present inscription is somewhat effaced at the 
right-upper corner. In making the second copy, a larger slab of stone 
was used and greater care was taken in inscribing it, although the matter 
itself is slightly altered in some unimportant particulars. The copy evi- 
dently shows that the inscription was regarded as one of some importance. 
A statue is mentioned in it, which in all probability is the famous Athena 
of Pheidias. (4) A fourth inscription 'is upon the curved face of one of 
several stones used in forming the circular base of some votive monument. 
Other pieces of the same base have also been found, some of them inscribed 
and others not. Demetrios, the artist, is already known by several other 
inscriptions. The monument belongs to the first half of the fourth century 
B. c., and was erected by a certain Kephisodotos. 

clearing some ground near the church of St. Andrew ("Aytos 'Ai/Speas), 
the lower part of a white marble stele was found by M. Lampakis. It 
contained the close of a o-roix^SoV inscription of which sixteen lines remain 
in tolerable preservation. It mentions Kallikrates the architect of the 
Parthenon and of the long walls. Thus it would seem that the inscrip- 
tion relates to some construction of 440-430 B. c., probably the completion 
of the walls of the Akropolis. The construction mentioned in this inscrip- 
tion, as to be finished in sixty days, is specified in the lost lines. M. Fou- 
cart suggests that it was a guard-house at the entrance of the Akropolis, 


for its purpose seems to have been to prevent fugitive slaves and sneak- 
thieves from seeking refuge in the Akropolis, where the altar of Athena 
Polias was a recognized asylum. The duty of watching this barrier was 
confided to three guardians : the text reads : " there will be as guards three 
archers taken from the tribe charged with the prytaneia" The inscription 
reads : [T]T)V TTO\IV . . o . . . . | [o]t/co[8]o/A^o-at O[TTOS] | av SpcwreV^s JMJ e\_cri]\r]L 
/o/Se AoorroStrr^ls] . ravra Se ^wyp[aj|i^at /x,v KaXA,iKp[a]|T/7(V) OTTWS apioTa 
Kaj[t] evreAeoraTa (TK^c] [vajVJaiv^Tjo, ju,icr0a)(ra[i] 8e TOVS TrwX^ras ofVJws av 
eiros e^[/c]ovra ^/xcpwv 7n,ovc[]va<7$>7i, <f>v\aKa<s Se | [eljvai rpcis ^\v TO^o|[r]as 
CK rfjs <f>v\f)<; r^s | jVJpvTavevovtn/s. 

The decree orders Kallikrates to draw up the plans and lays down two 
conditions : good work for the lowest price possible, conditions that are to 
influence him in the plan, the choice of materials, and the method of con- 
struction. The plans are to be awarded by the poletai, a college of ten 
annual magistrates charged with the awarding of public contracts. Sixty 
days are given to the contractors to finish the work. In describing how 
the gate should be guarded, there is certainly an omission : police- work in 
the fifth century was done not by citizens but by public slaves and espe- 
cially by Scythian archers. Probably it is three of these archers that are 
intended, who may have been under the orders of one or more of the pry- 
taneis. The form of the letters indicates a few years after 450 B. c. as a 
date for this construction but slightly anterior to the construction of the 
Propylaia in 437-432. Bull, de Corr. hellen., 1890, pp. 177-80. 

ARCHAIC POROS GABLE-SCULPTURE. Herr Bruckner has published, in the 
Athenisehe Mittheilungen (xiv, pis. n, in), a restoration of the very early 
poros gable-group whose subject has been recognized to be Zeus fighting 
Typhon, and Herakles fighting Echidna (see JOURNAL, v, pp. 95-6 and 
passim). The remaining parts of the gable are only the head of Zeus and 
portions of his thunderbolt, the body of Herakles and a part of the serpent, 
as well as the whole of Typhon with trifling exceptions : the rest is con- 
jectural restoration founded on such sources as the Munich vase repre- 
senting the combat of Zeus and Typhon. Cf. Revue Arch., 1890, p. 258. 

DISCOVERY OF SUBTERRANEAN PASSAGES. In the excavations around the 
Metropolis in the ancient monastery of St. Philothea, two subterranean pas- 
sages have been found like those of the catacombs, to which leads a mar- 
ble stairway. Athenceum, Jan. 4. 

lishes, in the Athen. Mittheil. (xiv, pp. 270-96), an interesting paper (Die 
Akropolis in altbyzantiniscker Zeif) on the Akropolis during the early By- 
zantine period. Many fragments of Byzantine architecture and sculpture 
have been found during the excavations, but nothing has been done to 
classify them, or establish their dates : many belong to the fifth and sixth 
centuries. Herr Strzygowski gives drawings of them, and compares them 


to capitals, etc., of the churches of Chalkis, Prevesa, the Akrokorinthos, 
and Argos. In the author's opinion, the Parthenon was transformed into 
a church in about 435 under the title of Sta. Sophia. Cf. Revue Arch., 
1890, p. 259. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. Additions. During October 1889, there were 
brought in some 10 painted vases found in the recent excavations at 
ERETRIA. The larger part of them consist of white lekythoi, some very 
beautiful ones ; and one seems to represent the myth of Boreas and Orei- 
thyia. Besides these vases, the objects found by the French School at 
THESPIAI were also brought to the Museum. They consist of some painted 
vases, pieces of a colossal bronze statue, and fragments of smaller bronzes : 
among them a small Corinthian capital of bronze, a gilded spear-point, 
and several bases of small columns. The head of a small marble statue 
of Asklepios was the only addition of this material made to the Museum. 
A number of vases and figurines seized in PARIS were also added. One of 
the vases represents Theseus standing with his knee on the Minotaur, and 
another seems to show Athena overcoming the giant Enkelados. The 
terracottas are mostly draped women and girls in various poses. There 
are also, in this collection, a few men and boys, and they generally wear 
the petasos on the head and a short chiton over the shoulders. One of 
the terracottas represents an ape. 

During November some 40 more vases from ERETRIA were brought in. 
White lekythoi were the prevailing sort, although black lekythoi, and 
lekythoi with red and with black figures, were also present in several ex- 
amples. One of the figures is that of a young man carrying a peplos, 
which may be a reminiscence of a similar figure from the frieze of the 
Parthenon. Another vase shows a date-palm with a negress bound to its 
trunk by the feet and hands. Other vases figure Amazons and Centaurs. 

Classification of Antiquities. In the Museum on the Akropolis the classi- 
fication and arrangement of the antiquities has been finished and at the 
same time similar work was begun on the National Museum. Fr. Wiese- 
ler, on the fiftieth anniversary of his activity as a teacher, presented to 
the General Office (Ephoreia) of Antiquities a copy of all his archaeologi- 
cal writings. Several important gifts of coins and vases have been also re- 
ceived from other private individuals. 'Apx- AeArtbv, Oct., Nov., Dec., 1889. 

first floor of the offices of the Ecclesiastical Synod of Athens has been 
formed the .nucleus of a museum of Greek Christian Antiquities. At 
present, it includes a series of objects connected with the architecture and 
ritual of the Greek Church, also a number of plans, drawings, and photo- 
graphs of churches, mosaics, and frescos, old church-service books, and 
reproductions of illuminated MSS. The architectural fragments consist 


principally of sculptured slabs, ceramic ornaments, fragments of mosaics 
and frescos, portions of details of internal fittings, such as the Ikonostasis, 
pieces of pavement and of constructional detail. Relating to the ritual, 
are a large number of vestments, some of them beautifully embroidered, 
crosiers, flagons, chalices, and pattens (many of them of pewter), rich altar- 
crosses of silver filagree-work, often inlaid or picked out with gold and 
usually enclosing intricate and minute figure-subjects cut in olive-wood ; 
also, several sacred-oil bottles, made of cast lead with ornamental borders 
and quaint figure panels, ceramic plaques for stamping the sacred bread, 
Christian lamps (hand and other), and large flagons for storing the lamp- 
oil. There are many stamped impressions of Christian inscriptions, and a 
number of old paintings of Christ and the Virgin, of saints and prophets, 
and a collection of about 800 Byzantine coins. Builder, April 12. 

trates, in the Classical Review for February, an engraved gem recently 
acquired by the British Museum. It is of sard and in the form of a scaraboid 
mounted on a silver ring. It was found in Cyprus, and, from the style of 
the engraving, belongs to a date shortly after 400 B. c. The subject con- 
sists of a figure of Athena standing to the front, wearing her helmet and 
aegis. At her left side are the shield and spear, the shield resting on the 
ground ; at her right is the serpent associated with her worship on the 
Akropolis. But, whereas the Parthenos held out a figure of Nike in her 
right hand, the Athena on tfoe gem holds the akrostolion or ornament on 
the stem of a ship, the recognized emblem of a naval victory. That it relates 
to some naval victory in which Athens aided one of the Cypriote towns 
seems confirmed by the analogy of the silver Cypriote coin attributed to 
Demonikos (400-368 B. c.) king of Kition on which is a figure of Athena 
of very much the same type as on the gem, though she is seated on the prow 
of a ship. 

It has become generally recognized that the Parthenon frieze and metopes, 
although probably planned and designed by Pheidias were not executed 
by him. But Dr. Puchstein has recently sought to prove that the 
pediments and frieze were not due even to Pheidias' influence, but were 
executed at a slightly later date, perhaps by the hand of Kallimachos. 
His paper was read on Dec. 9 at the Winekelmannsfest in Berlin, and is soon 
to be published in the Jahrbuch. He relies for his proof of a later date on 
the use in the pediments and frieze of the running-borer invented by Kal- 
limachos (according to Pausanias, i. 26) and first used between 437 and 
430. His conclusions are as follows : " Of the art of Pheidias (whose works 
have entirely perished) the student is obliged to form his conception from 
a study of the closer copies of the Athena Parthenos, and by a comparison 


of these with other works of the fifth century B. c. This leads to the con- 
clusion that a peculiar characteristic of the original of the Parthenos was 
the markedly strong and simple treatment of the drapery, a style not 
adopted by Pheidias in the representation of the goddess in view of the 
Doric architecture of the Parthenon, but only the natural result of the 
stage his own artistic development had reached : for the Parthenos, de- 
signed before 447 B. c., belongs to the same epoch as, e. g., the Hippodameia 
of the east pediment at Olympia, or the Giustiniani Hestia. There is, 
therefore, no justification either for the attribution to the original Parthenos 
of the full freedom of style seen in the pediment sculptures and frieze of the 
Parthenon, or for the ascription to Pheidias or his workshop of this new 
and, especially in the treatment of drapery, more highly-developed style. 
Furthermore, the composition of the pediments and the frieze do not origi- 
nate with Pheidias : for the one composition known to us in detail which 
is with certainty attributable to Pheidias the recently-discovered Birth 
of Pandora on the Pergamene copy of the Parthenos agrees entirely in 
style with the central group of the east pediment at Olympia. On the true 
author of the Parthenon sculptures (with the exception of the metopes) it 
seems possible to lay a tolerably sure hand by means of certain technical 
evidence. The pediment figures and the frieze are the oldest sculptures 
in which the so-called running-borer was used. These sculptures and the 
reliefs of the Nike balustrade differ from other contemporary and later 
sculptures precisely in such effects as are producible by this instrument, 
effects which are absent in these other sculptures the Parthenon metopes, 
the frieze of the Theseion, the greater part of the frieze of the Nike tem- 
ple, the Nike* of Paionios and others all of which are executed without 
the running -borer. According to Pausanias, Kallimachos, the inventor 
of the Corinthian capital, was the first who worked marble with this borer. 
That this discovery was made just at the time when the Parthenon pedi- 
ments were set up (434 B. c.) is evident from the fact that the borer was 
not used in the Ionic capital of the Propylaia (which was begun in 437 B. c.), 
but was already manifestly in use in the capital of the Nike temple (about 
430 B. c.). Hence, it is not unlikely that the discoverer of this new tech- 
nique, Kallimachos himself, was the very man who executed the Parthenon 
pediments, and that in them we may recognize instances of the elegantia 
et subtilitas artis marmorariae for which he was famous." Berl.phil. Woch., 
1890, No. 3. 

FRAGMENT OF A STATUE OF ATHENA. The pieces of sculpture found 
during the recent clearances around the Parthenon have been the object 
of the study of Dr. Sauer, of the German School, and he thinks he has 
discovered amongst them a fragment belonging to one of the two pediment 
statues of Athena. Athenaeum, March 15. 


THE SCULPTOR PHILISTIDES. M. P. Foucart publishes, in the Bull, de 
Corr. hellen. for March- April, some inscriptions found on various sites in 
Karia. On the site supposed by Judeich (Mitth. Athen., xn, 331-46) to 
be that of Pedasa, at Kara-Kharup, six hours from Halikarnassos, was an 
inscription with the name of an unknown sculptor, Philistides of Athens. 
It reads: <NAISTIAH3A0HNAIOS | ETOIH^EN. It is on a base, and 
the letters indicate a good period, perhaps the second half of the fourth 
century B. c. The sculptor Philistides may have formed one of the group 
of artists called to Halikarnassos by Mausolus and his successors. 

ATTIKA. At the request of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, the Prus- 
sian Minister of Public Instruction has placed at the disposal of the Ger- 
man Archaeological Institute the funds required to extend to the whole of 
Attika the cartographic work begun in 1881. Consequently, Reimer's 
publishing house will publish the maps of Salamis and the coast opposite 
to it, of Eleusis, of Phyle, of Oropos and of Rhamnos. Those of Mara- 
thon and Dekeleia are engraved and will soon appear. Revue Arch., 
1890, p. 266. 

BOURBA (Attika). Pre-Mykencean Tombs. An ancient tomb exca- 
vated here, in September, presented some curious features. It had been 
dug one meter deep in the old earth, and filled with wood on which 
the corpse had evidently been placed to be burned, after which it must 
have been covered with earth. A considerable quantity of charcoal was 
taken out of the tomb, and it was observed that the lowest layer was of 
vine branches, while the remainder consisted of large pieces of wood, some 
of them 25 centim. in diameter. Beneath the pyre there was an aperture 
for the purpose of ventilation. It is believed that this tomb is more an- 
cient than the Mykenaian era, since another tomb for inhumation, which 
clearly belonged, from the style of its vases, to the Mykenaian era, was 
found above it. 

Continued excavations in this locality brought to light more tombs for 
incineration, like those previously found here. In the mound which covers 
several graves were found archaic black-figured vases and an inscribed 
base belonging to the sepulchral monument. A piece of the plinth on 
which the statue itself stood was also found bearing traces of the feet. An 
inscription on the lower block bore the name of the artist, Phaidimos. 
One of the graves was circular and walled with stone, like the tomb of 
Menekrates in Korkyra. After the investigation of these graves had been 
completed, a sepulchral mound some few miles distant in a place named 
Petreza, on the road to Marathon, was undertaken. 'Apx- AcXrtov, Oct., 
Nov., 1889. 

CHAIRONEIA-The Greek Minister of Public Instruction has decided 
that the fragments of the Cheronsean Lion are to be put together upon the 
original base. Athenceum, Jan. 25. 


ELEUSIS. A large Koman bath has been discovered similar to that 
found at Athens near the Olympieion. New expropriations will have to 
be made for its excavation. Athenaeum, May 3. 

ERETRIA. Investigation of the burying-ground discovered near the 
shore has been continued. The tombs are mostly older than the fifth cen- 
tury and are constructed of large flat tiles, with the exception of a few 
made with curved tiles. There is no use of poros stone or marble in these 
tombs. The objects found were mostly lekythia, figurines, and various 
sorts of vases, which were usually placed within the grave near the feet of 
the corpse. In another part of the town was found a double row of tombs, 
but all of them had been pillaged. One of these tombs was a marble sarco- 
phagus : a plain mirror placed on the left side of the head and some smaller 
objects including an alabaster pyxis placed near the right hand of the 
corpse were its chief contents. All the smaller objects were taken to the 
National Museum at Athens, while the marbles and sepulchral inscriptions 
were left in Eretria. 'Ap^. AeXrcov, October, 1889. 

KYME (Euboia). PREHISTORIC TOMB. At Kyme in Euboia a prehis- 
toric tomb of quite original form was found. Some peasants, in making 
lime, came, at a great depth of soil, upon an empty tomb, 2 met. long and 
70 centim. wide. The bottom was formed of a double series of fire-baked 
bricks, and the four walls of bricks laid thin end upwards. Inside were 
found two lekythoi with traces of black coloring. Athenceum, Feb. 8 ; 
Chron. des Arts, 1890, No. 7. 

LAKEDAIMON. Excavations of the Archaeological Society have un- 
covered a small arched tomb. Its contents, however, were found to be 
quite insignificant. 'Ap^. AcXrtbv, Nov., 1889. 

491). The temple was found on the north side of the ridge known as Tcpfj, 
about 100 metres to the west of the ruins of a chapel of S. Athanasios. 
The ground-plan of the temple has been clearly made out, and it is seen to 
be a Doric hexastyle-prostyle, twenty metres long by ten broad, the cella 
being thirteen metres long. In the walls of the cella, the lower courses are 
of masonry of local stone, the upper courses are of unburnt brick. The 
temple was oriented from east to west, and had a marble portico at the 
entrance, which seems to have been filled with votive offerings, the bases 
of which are extant. Berl.phil. Woch., December 21, 1889. 

from Athens to the Athenceum (of March 22) under date of Feb. 28 : 

" The peculiar and exceptional value of the Lykosoura statues is that 

they are beyond a doubt the statues described by Pausanias (vm. 38) as 

being in the temple of Despoina, the works of the artist Damophon of 

Messene. Now of this artist no work is extant, and this was to be 



regretted the more as he certainly was one of the most interesting figures 
in the fourth century B. c. He was a contemporary of Skopas, Praxi- 
teles, and Lysippos probably older than Lysippos. He was peculiarly 
interesting, as he differed in spirit from his contemporaries in choosing 
exclusively for representation in his art the gods and higher religious types 
of Greece. He appears to have maintained the great spirit of the fifth 
century to a higher degree than his contemporaries, as in technique also 
his temple statues bridged over the gold and ivory work of Pheidias and 
Polykleitos and the marble sculpture of Skopas and Praxiteles. When 
the great gold and ivory marvel of Pheidias, the statue of Zeus atOlympia, 
was falling to pieces in the fourth century, it was Damophon who restored 
it to the entire satisfaction of the Eleans. Many of his statues were 
akrolithic, which is the next stage to gold and ivory, and a substitute for 
it, marble taking the place of the ivory, and wood, gilt and painted, 
the place of the sheets of chiselled gold. But, like his famous contem- 
poraries, the material he used with preference was marble, while not a 
single work of bronze is mentioned. To have come into possession of an 
original work by this artist, and at the same time of a temple statue 
(aXay/xa), is an unprecedented piece of good fortune. 

*' The excavations undertaken by the Greek Government were begun 
last July, and ended in November. The temple of Despoina has been 
cleared, and the bathron, or base, of the sacred statue can be distinctly 
seen at the east end of the cella, which it almost fills up. The cella is 10 
m. wide. Of the statues which stood on this base most of the fragments 
have been discovered, besides sculptures which decorated either the base 
or the thrones upon which the goddesses were seated. There are about a 
hundred fragments in all. There were four figures on the base, all of 
them over life-size, two of them colossal. One of the heads belonging 
to the larger figures is now here, and the two heads of the other figures. 
One torso and five pieces of drapery were so large that, the roads being 
bad, they could not as yet be transported here. The fragments that I 
have been able to examine, though they manifest in the heads greater 
individuality than is possessed by works belonging to the fifth century, 
are large in style. The most striking were some pieces of drapery belong- 
ing to colossal figures, the folding perfect in its indication of texture, while 
they are adorned with figures in low relief of most exquisite workmanship. 
Some had figures of Nike and Tritons, with curious hybrid beings, or per- 
haps a scene of metamorphosis, running figures changed into animals. M. 
Kabbadias thinks this has some bearing on the worship of Derneter. A 
larger piece of drapery is adorned with flowers in low relief. Doubtless 
we have in this work a reminiscence of the gold drapery adorned in re- 
pousse and enamel. There are small figures with fish-tails carrying circular 


baskets on their heads, similar to the object on the head of the colossal 
fragment from Eleusis now at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. This 
is probably connected with the worship of Derneter. But I cannot tell 
whether these figures decorated the throne or the base." 

Gardner, who superintends the excavations by the British School, writes 
from Athens under date of March 26 and April 28 : " The site of Mega- 
lopolis has at last been selected as the field of this season's excavations in 
Greece by the British School, and work has now been actually begun. 
Our party reached Sinanou, the modern village, half a mile from the 
ancient site, on Sunday, March 16. 

" The site of the ancient town lies upon the two banks of the broad 
stony bed of the Helisson ; and the description of Pausanias, which is 
remarkably explicit, enables us to fix approximately the position of the 
various buildings. These are grouped by him around the Agora on the 
northern bank, and the theatre on the southern bank of the river. Many 
vestiges of ancient walls and columns are scattered over the site ; but only 
a few are in their original position, and none, except the theatre, could 
be identified with certainty before excavation. The site of the Agora 
seemed to be indicated by a level space strewn and surrounded with frag- 
ments of stone and columns. 

First site (Stoa Agora). "We began excavations (March 18) upon a 
line of columns running north and south, near the northwestern corner 
of what we supposed to be the Agora. We found that these were upon a 
base, but one of later period than the columns themselves, having an Ionic 
architrave built into it. This line of columns and another parallel to it 
ran out from a wall of much better construction preserved for about six 
courses. This great wall was one of the enclosing walls of an enormous 
triple portico running east and west across the north of the Agora ; we 
followed the northern enclosing wall for about four hundred feet, and most 
of the column bases were in situ ; we also found one or two entrances from 
the north. We conjectured that this building, which apparently had one 
row of Ionic, one of Doric columns, and to which belong most of the drums 
scattered over the site, was the same seen by Leake in part ; but its posi- 
tion corresponds to that of the Stoa Philippeios rather than to a portion 
of the gymnasium. We were, however, unable to finish our work either 
on this building or on another in a small enclosure near the river, at the 
southeastern corner of the Agora (perhaps the temple of Zeus Soter), owing 
to difficulties raised by the occupiers as to compensation for their crops, 
and a misunderstanding with the Government upon this point. We shall 
be able to continue our work here when the crops are got in. Numerous 
column bases, at various levels in the stoa, offer difficult and complicated 


problems that cannot yet be solved ; but it seems clear that at least a part 
of it must have been roofed over. 

Second Site (Theatre). " We made trial of the other side of the river 
near the theatre, where the ground was lying fallow. Here a great trench 
cut the stage buildings of the theatre, and further down a plain column 
in situ. The stage buildings, which are in some places as much as nine 
feet below the soil, are of fourth-century construction, and show no traces 
of later alterations, though they have been partially destroyed. The plan 
seems to be complete, and also to differ from that found at Epidauros, 
Oropos and elsewhere. The theatre seems likely to equal, if not to surpass, 
in interest any that has hitherto been excavated ; but the soil will have to 
be removed to a depth of about 13 ft. in the orchestra before the stage 
building and seats can be properly cleared. This great accumulation is 
due to the nature of the embankment of the cavea, which is partly artifi- 
cial and consists of a mound of earth held in by retaining walls ; naturally, 
a large amount of this earth has been carried down into the level ground 
below. In front of the front wall of the stage building is a step descend- 
ing towards the orchestra ; but as the orchestra is still some four or five 
feet lower, it will be most interesting to see what more is to be found here. 
At present wherever the trenches approach this level they are filled with 
water, and consequently great delay has been caused ; but a drain has now 
been dug through to the river, and we hope this difficulty will soon be 
removed. The same cause has prevented the front row of seats from being 
completely cleared, and only the top of it shows above the water at present. 
It consists not of a row of chairs, as at Athens, but of continuous benches, 
with arms only at the ends. The most interesting point is that the back 
of these benches, wherever as yet visible, contains inscriptions, and has 
evidently served as a record for the history of the theatre and other mat- 
ters ; we have thus only to clear the whole row to get a rich harvest of 
inscriptions. Whether there are also inscriptions on the lower part of the 
seats, as at Athens, cannot be discovered until the water is drained off. 

Altars. "Two altars also have been found, one to the east, one to the 
west of the theatre ; that to the west is of considerable length and is orna- 
mented with metopes, thus confirming a theory of Dr. Dorpfeld as to the 
altar of Zeus at Olympia. Pausanias mentions two altars in this region, one 
to Herakles and and one to Ares ; but, as yet, there is no evidence to justify 
an identification. 

Burial Mound. " A trench was dug into a tumulus on the north bank 
of the Helisson (probably the same as that described by Pausanias as the 
tomb of Aristodemos) to which local tradition ascribes fabulous hidden 
treasures. Only a few inches below the surface was found a cylindrical 
marble urn containing bones (bearing marks of fire) and a gold diadem 


and disc, which on close examination were found to be not prehistoric, as 
was at first supposed. The ornament on the diadem is not distinctive, but 
may very well be late-Greek ; and the disc, which is hollow, seems to be 
made by pressing a thin plate of gold against the two sides of a coin, 
which are thus very faintly reproduced ; on one side the type of an eagle 
on a thunderbolt can be recognized, with an indistinct inscription under- 
neath. A little deeper in than the marble urn was found a curved wall, 
which looked at first like the retaining wall for a heaped-up tumulus ; but 
it proved to be of much smaller diameter, and only to occupy a small 
portion of the mound : it apparently was the remnant of a circular vaulted 
tomb ; but the stones were small and bedded in lime mortar. Inside, 
nothing was found but a lamp of later Greek shape, an iron strigil, and 
some rough vases. It is, of course, possible that earlier tombs may lie 
deeper, or on the other side, and so we are still continuing our work. In 
later times numerous burials took place here, as is shown by many rough 
tile-coffins and bones." Athenceum, April 19, May 10. 

Messrs. Loring and Woodhouse, members of the School, write under date 
of May 12 on the continuation of excavations at the theatre (second site) : 
" (1) The drainage of the Theatre has been completed. (2) The digging 
of a magnificent horseshoe trench has laid bare the entire outer edge of 
the orchestra with the lowest line of seats. These seats are of a kind supe- 
rior to the rest. They are long benches, nine in number, one correspond- 
ing to each KpKis, or wedge, of the auditorium. Each is provided with an 
arm at either end, and they have high backs, slightly curved, and fitting 
most comfortably to the back. These benches are separated by eight gang- 
ways, leading to the KXt/xa/ces above, and there is also a xXt/xa^ at either end ; 
thus (below the 8iaw//,a, at any rate) the number of KXi/xa/ces is ten. Be- 
low these benches (Opovoi) is an o^eros, or channel to carry off the water f 
and beyond that a raised stone border bounding the orchestra. All these 
are in almost perfect preservation. The stone border reminds one of that 
at Epidauros, but, while that at Epidauros is circular, the circle at Mega- 
lopolis is incomplete, extending only so far as the horns of the auditorium 
on either side. 

" The greatest interest, however, attaches to the Opovoi at the bottom, all 
of which are inscribed, (a) On the easternmost is the inscription 'Ai/no^o? 
dy(i>vo0T>7cras ave6r)K TOVS Opovovs TraWas /cat rov O^CTOV (the O^CTOS mentioned 
above), in characters which may well belong to the beginning of the third 
or even to the end of the fourth century. The first three words of this 
inscription are repeated on the central and westernmost seats. (6) The 
five central seats are inscribed with the names of Arcadian tribes to which 
they were appropriated, in very large letters. The names, read from east 
to west, are MatvaXtW, Av/cactTcoj' (cf. Paus. VIII. 27. 4. Av/caiarat), TLappa- 


<rtW, TlaviaTcov, 'ATToXXwfvtaJTwv. These names are in very late characters ; 
but the inscription 'Avrtbxos dywvo^cT^o-as dv^r/K on the central seat, in 
comparatively early characters, in combination with the late inscription 
<f>v\rj<s Ilappao-tW, proves that the latter was an addition made since the 
seats were placed in situ. All these inscriptions are on the front of the 
seat-backs, facing the orchestra, (c) On the hinder side of the seat-backs 
are further inscriptions, apparently of intermediate date. Some of these 
we have not yet transcribed, as they are only partially cleared. That on 
the back of the seat inscribed Havidrw is Ilavias; but the same corres- 
pondence does not prevail throughout. 

" We propose next to dig a trench right through the orchestra from the 
central bench to the centre of the stage buildings. This will give us a 
complete section of the orchestra, and will expose the Ov^eXrj if that remains 
in situ. Probably we shall also extend this trench upwards, so as to ob- 
tain a perpendicular section of the auditorium." Athenaeum, May 31. 

MEGARA. The Archaeological Society have recently been making 
excavations on the site of a small shrine a few miles to the west of Me- 
gara. 'Apx- AeXrtov, Nov. 1889. 

Tubbs takes occasion of Dorpfeld's notes in reference to the late discovery 
at Mykenai that the walls are constructed with a balk of timber in be- 
tween the courses of squared stone (Berl. phil. Woch., Nov. 2, 1889) to 
contribute some remarks to the Classical Review of February, 1890. He 
calls attention to the fact that Pliny (NH, xvi. 79) states that the cedar- 
beams in the walls of the Apollo temple at Utica had lasted down to his 
own time. He states that in Africa and Palestine the use of wood-beams 
in alternation with stone was an introduction of the Phoenicians, who may 
also have influenced Greece and Lykia. He infers that, when the Talmud 
alludes to a distinctive Phoenician style of architecture, the main distinc- 
tive element may be the employment of cedar-beams. 

OLYMPIA. Restoration of the eastern gable of the temple of Zeus. We 
will here simply call attention to the thorough and important work on 
the eastern gable of the temple of Zeus published in the Journal of 
Hellenic Studies, 1889, pp. 96-116, pi. vi. A summary of it will be found 
under the summaries of periodicals. He attributes the gable not to the 
Athenian Alkamenes who executed the Nike, but to the elder Alkamenes 
of Lemnos who is the author of the western pediment and probably 
sculptured the eastern between 480 and 457. This new restoration by 
Six is approved by Ke"kule* and partly antagonized by Treu. Cf. Revue 
Arch., 1890, pp. 266-7. 

PATRAI. Near Patras a richly-sculptured sarcophagus has just been dis- 
covered. The basrelief represents a wild-boar hunt, in which are seen the 


huntsmen divided in two groups, seven of them being without beard and 
one bearded. This last is in the act of stopping a boar, running at full 
speed, and has his left foot on the snout. The rest are pressing forward to 
slay the animal with hatchets and arrows. Another boar is seen making 
his escape in the opposite direction. On the sides of the sarcophagus are 
basreliefs representing on one side two prostrate bodies and a dog, and 
on the other a bull with an owl on its back. The work is highly finished 
and of the Roman period, but very probably copied from an original of 
Hellenic workmanship. Inside the sarcophagus was found a skeleton. 
Athenaeum, Feb. 22. 

ished his excavating work at Plataia in the second half of March. The 
members of the Archaeological School at Athens who assisted him there 
were W. J. Hunt, H. S. and C. M. Washington, Shelley, H. T. Hale, and 
J. F. Gray. Their first object was to make an accurate map of the ancient 
city of Plataia, so far as it is now visible. The site has been thoroughly 
surveyed ; the walls, which are over two and a half miles in circumference, 
have been measured ; and the publication of the results will place them 
at the service of all classes of students. A careful paper on the topography 
of the battle-field of Plataia has also been prepared by Mr. Hunt, and 
will be illustrated by a new map drawn by Messrs. Hunt and Hale. 
Dr. Waldstein carried on other excavations at several points within and 
without the city-walls, but without discovering, as yet, one of the three 
important temples (Athena, Hera, Demeter). In the course of the exca- 
vations some interesting inscriptions were encountered. Last year, Dr. 
Waldstein found at Plataia fifty-four lines of the Latin preamble to the 
famous Edict of Diocletian, De Pretiis Rerum Venalium. About half a 
mile from the scene of this find was discovered another slab, of about the 
same dimensions and in the same form, of the body of the edict in the 
Greek text, and it appears to be likely that the preamble was given in the 
Latin originally, whereas for the use of the people the text itself was pub- 
lished in Greek. The portion of the price-list contained in this tablet is 
the one dealing with the price of textiles. A part of it is published and 
known from other fragments, but there are interesting variations even in 
this part. A column and a half of the prices here given has hitherto been 
unknown, and supplies the beginning of the eighteenth chapter in Wadding- 
ton's edition, hitherto wanting. Another inscription records dedications 
on the part of women to a goddess, probably Artemis or Demeter, and con- 
tains a large number of interesting feminine names. Dr. Waldstein intends 
to complete his excavations at Plataia next season. N. Y. Nation, May 8. 

last number of the JOURNAL (v, 4, p. 493) an archaic statue of tufa 


was referred to as having been found at Tegea. It is illustrated in the 
Bulletin de Corresp. hellenique for March-April (pp. 382-4) by M. 
Be"rard. Pausanias (vm. 54. 5) says that, on the road leading from Tegea 
to Argos, there existed in a sacred oak-grove a temple of Demeter / 
KopvOevo-i, and, not far off, the hieron of Dionysos Mystes. These two 
sanctuaries were found by M. Berard east of Hagiorgitika, near the 
church of Hagia Trias. There remain two small square basements 
ruined down to the ground, with foundations of large blue calcareous 
stones. One measures 3.50 by 4 met., the other 5 by 6 met. The larger 
is the temple of Demeter. Here was discovered the archaic statue, illus- 
trated on pi. xi of the Bulletin, now in the Central Museum at Athens. 
The face is completely gone : the hair, tightly bound near the top of the 
head, descends in three masses on the shoulders and back on each 
shoulder are four bands, while eight fall down the back. The bust is 
very wide at the shoulders and very narrow at the waist, forming a tri- 
angular shape. The hands rest on the knees, the statue being seated, the 
arms are uncovered and detached from the body. The drapery consists 
of a long tight tunic over which a mantle is thrown. The statue was 
painted, but has been washed by the rain. Another statue of the same 
type had been already found not far from Tegea, on the road to Megalo- 
polis, at the Khani of Franko-Vrysi ('E<. 'Apx-> 1874, pi. 71 ; Cat. of 
Cent. Mus., Athens, No. 6). The latter is a simple xoanon, of common 
marble, hardly sketched out, while the statue of Hagiorgitika, though 
still retaining certain conventionalities of the most archaic art as, for 
example, a horizontal plane for the thighs and a vertical plane for the 
legs shows an advanced art in the bust, especially in the detaching of 
the arms from the body. The essential characteristic of the statue is its 
Egyptian style, shown especially in the arrangement of the hair and the 
form of the bust. Herodotos mentions a tradition according to which the 
worship of Demeter was brought from Egypt to Argolis and from Argolis 
to Arkadia. It seems admissible that the statue of Hagiorgitika is not 
the work of a native school, but of the early school of Argos, and was 
imported thence to Arkadia. 

TROEZEN. The French School have commenced excavations on the 
site of Troezen, in Argolis, opposite the island of Poros. Builder, April 12. 

TRIKKALA. A sepulchral stele has been found here. Its inscription 
shows several verses in elegiac metre. 'Ap^. AcXrtov. 

VOLO. THE BYZANTINE CHURCH (c/. vol. v, p. 495). -The 250 Byzan- 
tine coins discovered in the foundations were of Alexios Komnenos (xn 
century). The altar has been uncovered, and as much of the church as 
serves to show that it had a width of about 25 met. and a length of about 50. 
Debris to a depth of 2 m. cover most of the foundation, so that a complete 


excavation can not be made without much time and expense. Interest, of 
course, centers in the great size of the church and not in the few details 
that remain of its artistic decoration. The walls that remain are made up 
of rather large stones, and between these are often placed layers of tiles. 
Two tombs have been opened within the building, but were found to con- 
tain only the skeletons. Other tombs are at present in sight, some made 
of brick and others of stone slabs. The work of excavation is being very 
carefully conducted, and such is the interest in it that the municipal board 
has voted 3000 drs. as aid toward a complete uncovering of the church. 
'Ap X . AcXrtov, Oct.-Nov., 1889. 



CAPRARA PROPERTY. Professor E. Brizio publishes in the Notizie degli Seam 
(1889, pp. 288-333) a very full Report on the excavations carried on 
near Bologna during 1887 and 1888 in the archaic necropolis on the 
Benacci property, now Caprara. His introductory sentences are worth 
quoting : " The necropoli of the Villanova type, although studied during 
the last few years under new aspects and from a broad comparative stand- 
point, are not yet sufficiently known in all their details. Especially is 
it a fact, that the questions regarding the people who made them, still 
await a solution. They were at first attributed to the Etruscans ; then to 
the Umbrians or Italics ; then again to the Etruscans ; and, finally, again 
to the Umbrians. The latter opinion was reached through excavations 
carried on in 1883 in the Arnoaldi property near Bologna, where it was 
found that the really Etruscan tombs of the Certosa type were distinct from 
the Italic tombs, not only archseologically, that is by containing a totally 
different apparatus, but also topographically, there being between the two 
series an area 56 met. wide in which there was no trace of burials. The 
Italic necropolis was, besides, limited on the west by a ditch 2.50 met. 
wide. Now all conscientious students admit that at least in the region of 
Bologna the necropoli of the Villanova type belong to the Umbrian or 
Italic population. 

" But now another question raised during the past ten years is being 
debated: whether this Italic population to whom we owe the tombs of the 
Villanova type is or is not the same which at a preceding time had oc- 
cupied the terremare. Very evident differences, topographic as well as 
archseologic, between the two types seemed to render the supposed ethno- 
graphic affinity extremely doubtful. To give but a single fact in the 
vast region comprised between the Panaro and the Trebbia, a region very 


rich in terremare, not a single necropolis of the Villanova type has ap- 
peared, while they abound in the Bolognese province where there are 
relatively few terremare. But, on the other hand, it was rightly observed, 
that the most archaic tombs of the Villanova necropoli near Bologna had 
still to be examined, and that, until they had been, any judgment would 
be premature." 

If the population of the terremare are but an earlier stage of that whose 
necropoli are of the Villanova type, there must be a phase that should act 
as a progressive missing link, a bond of union otherwise the populations 
must be different. Apparently, it was with the view of solving this most 
important among the ethnographic questions relating to early Italian 
civilization that senator Gozzadini initiated the excavations of the Benacci = 
Caprara necropolis, where it was thought that the most archaic tombs 
existed. The excavations were begun in May 1887 : in the same month 
Gozzadini died. Professor Brizio then took his place, and his report has 
been delayed by the necessity of first restoring and recomposing the ma- 
terial. The following peculiarities of position were noticed. (1) From the 
present level to a depth of between 1.50 and 3 met., were remains of Roman 
habitations almost everywhere. (2) At the depth of between 3 and 4 met., 
were remains of Gallic tombs extending from Strada S. Isaia thirty metres 
toward the interior. (3) From the point where the Gallic tombs ceased up 
to the end of the cut, at a depth of between 3 and 5 met., were Italic 
cinerary tombs, sometimes with skeletons, though these are usually in 
the upper part of the stratum. 

The most important fact noted in connection with the Gallic tombs was 
the presence in one of them of four vases exactly like others found in 
Italic tombs of a late period in the Benacci as well as in the De Lucca 
property. They seem to have been originally placed there, and this is 
the first instance of vases peculiar to Italic tombs being found with others 
of the Gallic period. In connection with this fact is another of equal 
importance regarding the Italic necropolis which immediately followed 
and almost dovetailed into the Gallic. During the excavation no division 
or line of separation was noticed between the two sepulchral fields, and 
even the eleventh section, in which was the Gallic tomb last described, 
contained also several Italic tombs at about the same depth. Sixty Italic 
tombs are described in the Report, but no general conclusions are drawn: 
these are reserved until a further Report on the closing excavations. 
So far as can be judged from a description of the objects thus far found, 

(1) they present no support whatever to the theory of the unity of race; 

(2) all the types are those of the Villanova period, in their early forms. 
A description of Tomb xxxix, the richest of all, will give a good idea 

of the better class of these tombs. It was at a depth of 4.40 met., was 


surrounded by many river-pebbles and surmounted by a large stone 
used as a stele, 80 by 57 cent. It was square, measuring 2.30 met. each 
way, and contained numerous and varied objects in terracotta, bronze, 
iron, bone, wood, and amber. (1) A bronze ossuary, Villanova type, in 
small fragments, 54 cent, high, 40 cent, in diameter, with two handles 
resting on a conical foot. The cover nailed to the top after the insertion 
of the ashes was not the original cover of the vase, which lay by its side. 
This ossuary is interesting for its technique. It consists of three parts : the 
upper cone, the lower cone, and the foot. The two cones overlap and are 
joined by nails with conical heads. The foot, also conical in shape, is 
soldered to the base. These cones are not of trapezoidal sheets whose 
oblique sides are overlapped and hammered down and nailed, but they 
are made of sheets produced by firing. This process in monuments of so early 
a date is surprising, as the situlae found in the same tomb, though much 
smaller and of easier technique, not only consist of trapezoidal sheets 
nailed down but have a bottom of a separate piece also nailed. (2) An 
almost spherical cup, with a large opening and a conical foot, formed of 
two spherical sections nailed together, and with two handles from which 
hang pendants. (3-4) Two situlae with a double semicircular handle, 
mentioned above. (5) A spherical bronze cup, formed of two hemispheri- 
cal caps, with a decoration of two bird-heads on the sides, a cover sur- 
mounted by a double bird-head, and a conical base. (6-7) Two 
capedunculae, each formed of a hemispherical cap of bronze to which a 
strong handle is nailed. (8) Fragments of bronze belonging to a couple of 
bronze cups decorated with incised mseanders and triangles. (9) Frag- 
ment of a situla. (10) A large presentatoio, sustained by a conical foot 
with a circular basin in the centre, decorated over the entire surface with 
raised dots and with chains hanging from the edges. (11-16) Fragments 
of six slightly-concave circular disks, decorated with concentric circles 
hammered in relief. (17-20) Fragments of four horse-bits, two with 
smooth bar and two with twisted bar, and all with the same type of deco- 
ration as one published on pi. 1-2 by Gozzadini, De quelques mors de 
eheval italiques. (21-40) Twenty massive bronze rings which appear to 
belong to horses' harness. (41-46) Six bronze rings with a central cross- 
bar. (47-48) Two slightly-concave circular bronze plates, decorated with 
double serpentine lines and with concentric semicircles. (49) Beautiful 
bronze sword, the best preserved and of the earliest type of any yet found 
in the Bolognese necropolis: on the shape of the antennce joined by cross- 
pieces, ef. Soranzo, Este, tav. vi, and Mortillet, Musee Prehist., pi. 81. It 
had a bronze scabbard. Then follow fibulae, pins, bone and ivory orna- 
ments, bronze paalstabs, knives, razors, buttons, cups, skyphoi, and other 
small vases. 


ETRUSCAN STELA. The Nuova Antologia of April 1 announces the dis- 
covery in the Margherita Garden, near Bologna, of an Etruscan stela, 
remarkable for some subjects represented on it not hitherto found on mon- 
uments of this kind : " The stela is sculptured on three sides. On the two 
principal faces occur, on the one the usual representation of the soul of the 
deceased borne to the under-world in a biga ; on the other, the figure of a 
draped woman. The broad or transverse side of the stela is occupied by 
six carvings, five of which are subjects from Greek mythology. The first 
represents the monster Skylla with his legs terminating in the tail of a fish, 
and with a dagger in each of his uplifted hands. In the second, the witch 
Kirke, with a cup in each hand, has on one side a pig and on the other a 
man with a pig's head. In the third, a Nereid is seated on a Dolphin. In 
the fourth, a woman is seen rushing forward violently and grasping in her 
right hand a sword, perhaps Kanake. In the fifth is a woman with flowers 
in her hands, to whom it is difficult to assign a name. But the most inter- 
esting subject is that of the sixth compartment, where is seen a youth in 
sleeved tunic and with wings on his shoulders, in the act of flying. In his 
right hand he holds a hammer and an instrument like a carpenter's square ; 
in his left hand he holds a strangely shaped saw." Athenceum, May 3. 

CAPRANICA. ROMAN SARCOPHAGUS. Near the road from Capranica to 
Vetralla, along a Roman road, an ancient tomb was demolished and within 
it was discovered a fine marble sarcophagus intact, with its cover : nothing 
was found inside it. The reliefs with which the entire surface is covered 
are in the best style of Roman art. The principal scenes represent the 
myth of Theseus and Ariadne. In the first scene, Ariadne is giving to 
Theseus the clew of thread to help him from the labyrinth ; the central 
composition shows Theseus seizing the Minotaur by a horn and striking 
him ; finally Ariadne is shown calmly asleep, while Theseus, fleeing, turns 
to look at her. On the sides and front are genii supporting garlands ; on 
the cover are represented the games, in which winged genii drive in bigas 
to which are harnessed different animals dogs, lions, bulls, boars all 
aiming for the goal, and followed by a genius on a lion and one on a goat. 
The work is highly finished and the composition good. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, 
pp. 358-60. 

The excavations of Castellazzo were referred to in vol. v, pp. 496-7. A 
full Report on them has been published by Professor Pigorini in the new 
Monumenti Antiehi (vol. i, No. 1) published by the Accad. dei Lincei under 
the title: La Terramara Castellazzo di Fontanellato nella provincia di Parma. 
He has also given a short note in the Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 355-6. 

The main object of the excavations was to ascertain whether this terra- 
mara had the characteristics of the other primitive Italic stations in the 


Po valley ; that is, whether it contained, within, the palafitta or foundation 
of piles enclosed by a rampart raised above the surrounding level, and 
around which was a ditch. It has been found to have the palafitta encir- 
cled by an embankment about 15 metres wide at the base, around which 
is a ditch having a constant width of 27 metres and a greatest depth, in 
the centre, of about 1.40 met. The station occupies a surface of 187,891 
square metres, in the form of a trapeze with parallel eastern and western 
sides. Its greatest length is 641 met., its lesser length 537, and its 
width 319. 

The number of objects found was small, as is usual in such stations ; but 
there were a number of deer-horn, bone, terracotta and bronze articles, 
nearly all of which are illustrated in the publication of the Lincei. They 
confirm the opinion, already expressed by Professor Pigorini, that the arts 
and industries of the primitive Italiots present the same characteristics in 
all the terremare of the Po valley, and that the antiquities found in the 
terremare are exactly the same as those found in the lake-dwellings of the 
Venetian province, while they differ notably from those found in the lake- 
dwellings of Lombardy and Piedmont. 

ince of Parma (two kilom. from S. Secondo, along the bank of the Taro), 
countrymen had found for several years numbers of terracotta vases. Pro- 
fessor L. Pigorini was supplied by the Ministry of Public Instruction with 
funds to undertake excavations, which were commenced in August 1889. 
Their result was important, for they disclosed an extensive primitive Italic 
necropolis, or, to speak in the language of palethnography, a necropolis 
of the bronze age and of the people of the terremare. This necropolis 
of Copezzato has the same peculiarities that characterize the other few 
necropoli of a similar type found up to the present in Upper Italy, that 
is, those of Monte Lonato near Cavriana, and of Pietole Vecchio in the 
province of Mantova, of Bovolone in that of Verona, of Casinalbo in that 
of Modena, and finally of Crespellano near Bazzano in that of Bologna 
(Bull, dipalet., vi, pp. 182-92 ; vn, pp. 138-43). The earthern ossuaries, 
hand- made, baked but little or not at all, do not differ in the least (either 
in form or in technic) from those of the terremare of Emilia or of the sub- 
Alpine palafitte of the east. They lie in the earth, near one another, and 
contain burnt human bones, above which, in the ossuary, a small vase is 
usually placed. 

An examination was made, along the left bank of the Taro, to find the 
station of the inhabitants of the terremare who executed the tombs. But the 
search was fruitless. Professor Pigorini thinks it must exist on the right 
bank, which he expects to examine during the coming summer. Not. d. 
Scavi, 1889, pp. 287-8. 


Professor Helbig reports the continuation of the excavations the begin- 
ning of which, in the Monterozzi region, was noted in vol. v, p. 383. A 
few tombs were opened in May 1889. The most interesting was a tomba 
a camera, found intact, placed 100 met. s. w. of the tomba delle bighe. Its 
sarcophagus contained the remains of an unburnt skeleton, without any or- 
naments, and on its cover was the usual reclining figure, representing a 
man of about thirty, on which are still visible the remains of the original 
polychromatic decoration. Another body was placed on a bench, and 
around it were grouped many objects, such as three bronze plates ; a 
bronze orcio and three thymiateria ; some painted terracotta masks, one of 
which is decidedly comic, a second representing a Seilenos type ; a num- 
ber of pieces of common Etrusco-Campanian ware ; etc. 

At a distance of about 20 metres was a tomb with a roof a sehiena, 
which had been excavated at a recent date. In the earth was found a fine 
scarab (oriental onyx) engraved with great delicacy. The figure repre- 
sented is that of a nude bearded man, whose head is covered with a 
pileum, leaning with his left hand on a stick, and with the pincers which 
he holds in his right raising from the ground an oblong object. The 
inscription reads Sethlans (or Vulcan), and it is interesting as giving the 
word in a more archaic form than usual. 

In a third tomb of similar character, also devastated, were found the 
fragments of a black-figured Attic amphora of sufficiently good design. 
Not. d. Seavi, 1889, pp. 335-7 ; cf. 1890, pp. 28-9. 

GERACE=LOKROI EPIZEPHYRIOI Further reports have come to hand 
concerning these excavations (see v, p. 497). Dr. Dorpfeld visited the site 
from Athens, and, on his return, gave an account of the excavations to the 
German School. Dr. Petersen also reported on them twice before the Ger- 
man Institute in Rome. The most important recent addition is the un- 
covering of the foundations of an archaic temple over which the Ionic 
temple was built. 

THE IONIC TEMPLE. In Dr. Petersen 's first report, in December, he says : 
" The excavations, commenced early in November, gave the following re- 
sults. The Ionic temple, erected on the customary three steps, was hexa- 
style, with seventeen columns on the long sides, with a pronaos and an 
opisthodomos in antis, and measuring, on the upper step, 17.34 met. in 
width and a little more than 43 and a half meters in length. The solid 
and exact construction of the western stereobate and stylobate, which alone 
remain in situ, indicates the best Greek period. The columns, of which 
only scanty fragments were found, seem to have been composed each of 
four drums of nearly equal height, and resemble, in the form of their 
bases, those of the temple of Hera at Sarnos, in the anthemion under the 


capital, the columns of the Erechtheion at Athens, but even more certain 
fragments of the archaic temple of Naukratis ; and the Lokrian capital, 
also, in two characteristics cannot be paralleled by any other so well as by 
a capital at Samos. The base of the column with a round plinth and a 
torus, of proportionate measurements, respectively 0.350 and 0.175 met. 
high, seems to give the key to the metrologic system, and thus the width 
is the centuple of the first measure and the cinquantuple of the second. 

"Almost nothing was found of the frieze and cornice, some fragments of 
the eaves and roof-tiles, a few of which bear mason's marks, the only writ- 
ten signs yet discovered. The group of sculpture found before the west 
front represents a triton who appears to have brought from the sea a youth- 
ful hero and his horse. The workmanship appears hardly earlier than 400 
B. c. The opinion that this was not an akroterion but a pedimental group 
was sustained by the further discovery, to the right, of a few fragments of 
a corresponding group moving toward the left, while the first group faced 
to the right. Nothing has been found of the sculptures that must have 
decorated the east gable." 

A second report was made by Dr. Petersen to the Institute on Jan. 10. 
He had visited Gerace in the meantime, where he was joined by Dorpfeld. 
Their joint labors, with those of Orsi, brought the excavations to a close. 
In regard to the metrologic question, Dorpfeld found that it was necessary 
to unite the two parts of the base of the column, which, together measur- 
ing 525 or 528 millim., gave the exact difference between the axis of the 
side and front columns, the centres of the former being 3.17 met. apart, 
those of the latter 2.64 met ; this last measure being the quintuple, as the 
former is the sextuple, of the same measure. This unit of measurement he 
found to be the Samian cubit compared by Herodotos to the Egyptian 
cubit, calculated by Lepsius at 0.525 met. Of these Samian cubits, ac- 
cording to Dorpfeld, the Ionic temple of the Lokrians measured therefore 36 
in width (lower step), 86 in length, 30 and 80 between the axes of the angle 
columns, 18 in the width of the naos. 9 in the width of the side porticos, etc. 

THE ARCHAIC TEMPLE. There came to light remains of a very archaic 
temple, predecessor of the Ionic, of a slightly different orientation, of sim- 
ilar dimensions, that is of nearly the same width but of a lesser length. 
This also was in antis, hexastyle and peristyle, though a certain difference 
in construction and material raised the question whether the peristyle 
were not a later addition. Two pieces of the drums of columns and two 
fragments of terracotta slabs with painted decoration appear to belong to 
this earlier temple. 

In his second report, Dr. Petersen says : " Some additional remains of 
the archaic temple were found ; a part of the foundation of the west peri- 
style, the distance of which from the front of the naos is only about the 


half of the corresponding distance on the opposite side (this west end being 
without propylaia in antis) ; then, also, a part of the east wall of the cella. 
Finally, at the southwest corner of this cella was found a basement which, 
from its position, seems to have supported the altar of the new cella, while 
another, not far distant, may have served as a base to the statue of the 
archaic cella." 

After Dr. Petersen's departure, Dr. Orsi made a last effort to find the 
northwest corner of the peristyle which might be supposed to lie buried 
beyond the area of the new temple. He was successful. The west row, 
however, projects 3.86 met. beyond the fragment already found. This would 
indicate a double colonnade on the fagades. Bull. 1st. arch, germ., vol. iv, 4. 

TERRACOTTAS. DR. ORSI has now terminated his work by the thorough 
examination of the heaps of broken terracottas, which appear to be as old 
as the original prehistoric temple. Two distinct groups of them were 
found outside the ancient city, and in part heaped against its walls, at the 
distance of about 300 met. from the Hellenic temple. The first heap oc- 
cupied an area of about 50 by 35 met., and herein were found small vases 
(for the most part rude), some paterce, some small skyphoi (decorated 
simply with black bands and with triglyphs round the rim), and some 
moderate-sized hydriai, but of rude construction. Some moulded archi- 
tectural ornaments were also found, some having their reliefs touched with 
color, and a large number of votive figurini, which crumbled into clay 
from long exposure to the moisture. When entire, some of the latter may 
have been nearly two feet high, and the character they present is alto- 
gether archaic, based on hieratic motives. The greater part are figures 
of women with the chiton poderes, while figures, standing or seated, have 
symbols of Aphrodite, the dove and the pomegranate. Dr. Orsi thinks 
that these eidola, amongst which some probably represented the divinities 
of the catachthonic triad or of the cycle of Persephone, are anterior to the 
new temple, which he supposes built in the fifth or fourth century B. c. 
The second heap of remains consists of large rectangular trenches, faced 
with tiles, within which thousands of skyphoi were placed in rows, one 
inside the other. Perhaps some ritual character must be given to this 
strange occurrence. This part of the ground was closed on the east by an 
Hellenic wall of good construction. On the north was found a well with 
the rim made of bricks, probably sacred, and in this well, which was not 
very deep, were found some fifty coins of the Roman Empire, dating from 
the first to the third century, the oldest being at the bottom. Athen., May 24. 

INTRODACQUA. PELASGIC WALLS. In his researches concerning the 
stations of primitive populations in the Abruzzi, Professor De Nino 
found some very early walls on a hill east of Introdacqua. The hill is 
almost circular in shape at the summit, and is surrounded with a primitive 


" Cyclopean " wall. The diameter of this circular eminence is 74.24 met. 
Around it is an earthen platform, 8 feet wide, in the shape of a perfectly 
circular crown ; within it there is a slightly convex space. An entrance 
can be still traced at the south : its width is 1.80 met. To the north of 
this hillock, at a distance of 52 met., are remains of other constructions 
also arranged in circular form and parallel to the upper wall. A piece 
36.50 met. long has been uncovered. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 45-6. 

LOGRONO. ROMAN VILLA. Col. M. de Echarri has recently unearthed, 
in the neighborhood of Logrono, the remains of a rich Roman villa. The 
first excavations brought to light two fine circular mosaics, six metres in 
diameter, in which figures of meii and animals are charmingly designed. 
Two more mosaics were afterward found, and the excavations are continu- 
ing. The buildings show traces of destruction by fire. Revue Arch., Jan.- 
Feb., 1890, pp. 131-2. 

MARZABOTTO. AN ETRUSCAN POMPEII. Reference was made in the 
last number (vol. v, p. 497) to Professor E. Brizio's excavations at Mar- 
zabotto to prove that it was not a necropolis but an Etruscan city. Since 
then, Professor Brizio has published a popular account of the results of 
his work in the Nuova Antologia (Jan. 1) and a scientific and full report 
in the new archseolqgical publication of the Accad. deiLineei (vol. I, fasc. 1). 

PLAN OF THE CITY. It was already known that the Etruscan city whose 
ruins remain at Plan di Misano near Marzabotto in the province of Bo- 
logna was exactly divided into four quarters by two great straight roads, one 
running from east to west, the other from south to north, crossing one 
another at right angles in the centre of the city. The point of contact of 
these two streets no longer remains, because the long and violent action of 
the river Reno, on which the city is placed, has removed more than half 
the ground originally covered by the dwelling-places. The recent dis- 
coveries have disclosed a secbnd street running from east to west, exactly 
parallel to that already known and situated 165 metres to its right. It 
seems, therefore, probable that there was a third street running in the 
same direction on the left of the centre, and that it has been destroyed by 
the waters of the Reno. There appear, then, to have been three great 
decuman streets, as they were termed, intersected by the one cardinal 
street, from north to south, thus dividing the city not into four but into 
eight regions. No other broad cardinal street was found beside that just 
mentioned: only a large number of narrow streets running parallel with 
it. The broad cardinal and decuman streets are each fifteen metres (50 
ft.) wide, while the smaller streets measure hardly five metres, one only 
reaching a width of six metres. 

The minor streets and the great cardinal road, intersecting the decuman, 
formed the insulae or blocks, eleven of which were traced during the 


recent excavations. Although none have been entirely excavated, enough 
is known to disclose their form and extent. It was found that all the 
insulae or blocks comprised between the central and right-hand decuman 
streets were 165 metres long with a width sometimes of 35 sometimes of 40 
metres : there are four of the former and two of the latter. One block 
measures 165 by 68 metres and appears to be a double block. All are 
quite regular and perfectly rectangular. This regularity of streets and 
blocks in the Etruscan city is certainly surprising, but this characteristic 
is found also in some of the Roman colonies whose plans are known, such 
as Aosta (Augusta Praetoria Salassorum), Concordia Sagittaria, and Turin 
(Colonia Julia Augusta Taurinorum). This same regularity in the Roman 
colonies is a convincing proof that the Etruscan city near Marzabotto was 
a real colony, built at one time, on a preestablished plan, and according 
to the norms prescribed by the Etruscan ritual-books for the formation of 
colonies, which norms were afterwards adopted and followed by the Ro- 
mans. Although writers have admitted that the Romans borrowed from 
the Etruscans their rules for founding colonies, no monumental archaeo- 
logical proofs of the fact had been discovered, as the Etruscan cities and 
colonies whose plans were known had suffered radically from successive 
transformations. But the Etruscan colony near Marzabotto, having been 
for some reason abandoned by the Romans, has preserved its Tuscan type 
unaltered. It enables us to obtain a clearer view of the advanced civiliza- 
tion reached by the Etruscans when in the fifth century B. c. they colonized 
the region of the Po. For there can be no doubt that this city of a 
name still unknown is one of the colonies which the Etruscans, as Livy 
tells us, sent into the valley of the Po after having founded and extended 
their dominion along the Mediterranean. This date is confirmed by the 
study of the objects found, especially the Greek painted vases taken from 
the tombs, which show that the city existed in the second half of the fifth 
century B. c. 

Of the fifteen metres that formed the total width of the main streets, 
five were given up to vehicles and the rest divided equally between the 
two sidewalks. At the street-corners, and sometimes in the middle of the 
blocks, rows of high large stones, smoothed on top, were placed across the 
street in order to make it possible to cross it dry shod in time of rain. 
A similar arrangement has been found at Pompeii. The carriage-way 
was paved entirely with large and small pebbles strengthened here and 
there with larger stones, according, in fact, to the system that was later 
perfected by the Romans. Between the sidewalks and the buildings were 
large ditches for surface-drainage, 80 cent, wide and of varying depth ; 
according to the level, varying from 60 centim. to two metres and 30 
centim. The differences of level found in all the streets, both large and 


small, prove that the drainage ran to the west on one side, and to the 
south on the other, the water being collected so as to drain into a large 
cloaca to the west of the city. All this attests a very complete system, 
such as the Romans also applied. The walls of these uncovered drains are 
built of pebbles without cement strengthened at times with great blocks of 
tufa and travertine where the pressure was greatest. Such pressure as was 
provided for must have been caused by heavy stone walls. There are strong 
arguments in favor of a belief that the Etruscans used, in their private 
dwellings, walls formed of parallelepiped blocks of travertine or tufa. 

ETRUSCAN HOUSES. The most notable result of the recent excavations 
has been the discovery of some Etruscan houses which correspond so 
admirably in plan to the Roman houses that we are forced to conclude 
that the Romans derived from the Etruscans the type of their dwellings. 
The Etruscan house was usually surrounded by shops, remarkable for 
their size and regularity, facing on the principal streets, and which we 
may fancy to have been filled with attractive works of art and industry. 
In the richer houses these shops communicated with one another and 
formed an integral part of the house, as at Pompeii, and in these cases it 
is probable that the owner used them for the sale of his own property or 
produce. Some houses are simple and modest, others larger and more 
sumptuous : the latter have been so transformed as often to render difficult 
the reconstruction of the primitive plan, which is best shown in the simpler 

One of the houses discovered includes an entire block or insula: its 
length is not yet determined, but its width is 35 metres. It fronts on the 
central decuman road and is built with great accuracy. All its founda- 
tion-walls are strengthened at the corners with a large travertine block. 
The entrance surrounded on both sides by large shops, back shops and 
storehouses consists of an imposing vestibule 4 metres wide and 17 long, 
paved with minute pebbles, and leading into a grandiose atrium 27 met. 
long by 10 wide. This atrium was uncovered and also paved with minute 
pebbles, crossed diagonally by a little gutter to carry off the rain-water. 
At one corner was dug a well from which were recovered many objects, 
including a slab with an Etruscan inscription which showed that the name 
of the owner was Lautumnio. A terracotta puteal surrounded the mouth 
of the well : it was decorated in relief with a row of fishes playing in the 
water : within were numerous ridges made by the friction of the rope in 
drawing up the full bucket. This puteal is the earliest that has been found. 

This atrium or court is surrounded on the west by three large rooms, 
each measuring 6.80 metres square : they must be bedchambers (cubicula), 
for such were the rooms occupying a similar position in Roman houses. 
The three bedchambers are followed by another large hall which is remark- 


able for being open, that is, for having no front wall. It reminds of the 
alae in the houses of Pompeii, also in this position, which were the place 
for the images of the ancestors. North of the court, facing the entrance, 
is another room, also open and flanked by a corridor. It corresponds 
exactly to the tablinum of the houses of Pompeii, where the family archives 
were kept. This constitutes the front of the house. But other rooms and 
walls flanking the tablinum have been brought to light, as well as a second 
uncovered court placed immediately behind the tablinum. All this must 
have formed the rear of the house, a sort of peristyle, the invention of 
which, according to Diodoros Sikelos, is due to the Etruscans. It was a 
place of retirement from the noises of the street. 

ORVIETO. NORTHERN NECROPOLIS. The excavations in the northern 
necropolis have yielded but little material. Traces of some tombs of the 
vn cent, were found. Sept. 2-8, was opened, at a depth of 4.10 met., a 
tomb with one chamber, which had been more than once despoiled. But 
its style and construction, which differ from the known types of the 
necropolis, give it a peculiar interest. It is in the form of a truncated 
cone, and is in part cut out of the mass of tufa and in part built of large 
blocks of the same material without cement. It is closed at the top by 
two large blocks, placed horizontally, each 1.55 met. long and 0.54 met. 
wide. Its measurements are 2.30X2.05X1.52. It contained a large and 
a small bench : of interest is a small tufa cushion slightly inclined, in 
which are cut two small semicircular hollows for the heads of the deceased. 
The tomb is protected by a surrounding circular wall of great masses of 
tufa. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 358-9. 

PARMA (province of). PREHISTORIC REMAINS. Dr. Strobel sums up 
his recent investigations concerning the prehistoric remains in the prov- 
ince of Parma, belonging to the period of the terremare. They are 
interesting as changing somewhat the current ideas in regard to the classi- 
fication of the terremare, and they prove that the terramaricoli, or inhabi- 
tants of the terremare left in the province of Parma remains of villages, 
camps, and cemeteries. Bull. Palet. Ital., 1889, Nos. 9-11. 

POMPEII. DATE OF THE ERUPTION. On account of the discrepancies in 
the manuscripts of Pliny and other writers, the exact date of the eruption 
that destroyed the city has been a disputed question, some holding it to 
have taken place on August 24, others on November 23, of 79 A. D. 
The question appears to have been unexpectedly decided by a recent dis- 
covery. Outside the Porta Stabiana, in October, there was found the 
impress, in the ashes, of three human bodies and of a tree : of these a suc- 
cessful impression in plaster was taken. Of the tree there remained the 
impress not only of the trunk but of the leaves and fruit, some remains of 
which were still in place. The tree was found to be a kind of laurel, the 


laurus nobilis, of the variety with circular fruit which ripens only in 
November. Professor Pasquale has made a very accurate study of these 
interesting remnants, and proves, beyond a doubt, not only the identity of 
the tree but the ripeness of the fruit at the time of the catastrophe. This 
appears to settle the question in favor of November as the date of the erup- 
tion. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 407-10. 

AND THEIR SANCTUARY. The excavations on the Coelian in what was the 
rear part of the Villa Casali, now occupied by the great buildings of the 
new military hospital, have led to a discovery of unusual importance which 
it is hoped will be soon completed. They have brought to light, appar- 
ently, the ruins of the residence of the Roman Dendrophori (or 8evS/>o- 
<f>6poi). Of this band of worshippers, bearers of trees in the sacred pomps 
of the Phrygian worship, almost no memory has been preserved among 
the monuments of Rome, though the worship, which was so wide-spread, 
had become established in Rome with all its festivals and mystic cere- 
monies at least as early as the times of Claudius and Otho, and maintained 
itself there vigorously up to the fall of paganism, as is shown by numerous 
epigraphic monuments, among which are the Vatican altars. 

The part hitherto discovered consists of a rectangular hall, as yet only 
half excavated, 3 met. by 2.50 met., whose walls are poorly built of brick 
and whose pavement consists of a mosaic of black and white cubes. This 
mosaic includes a number of figures of animals and birds, while one side 
is occupied by an inscription, also in mosaic, which reads: INTRAN- 
Hence it appears that this hall served as a passageway to the basilica 
called Hilariana. Placed against the left wall, still in place, was a large 
marble base with this inscription : M-POBLICIO HILARO | MARGARI- 
PONERETVR. This base is 1.28 met. high and 96 cent. wide. The 
fourth and fifth lines read : Matris Deum Magnae Ideae et Attis, quinquen- 
nali perpetuo. The good style of letters and language, and the form Pobli- 
cius in place of Publicius, show that this monument is not later than 
Hadrian, and might be even earlier were it not that the head of the statue 
that surmounted it is bearded. This inscription leads to the belief that 
another, found long ago, came from the same building : it is a dedication 
to Silvanus by the same Poblicius, and reads (GIL, vi, 641): Sylvano- 
Dendrophoro sacrum \ M. Poblicius Hilarus margar qq pp cum liberis \ 
Magno et Harmoniano Dendrophoris M D M de suo fecit. This second 
inscription was doubtless placed in a niche containing a statue of Silvanus, 
who, as a forest-god, would be a natural prototype of the dendrophori. 


Publicius Hilarianus was, evidently, the principal benefactor of the 
society : he built the basilica attached to its residence, and perhaps the 
entire building, and adorned it with sculpture. To him, in gratitude, the 
dendrophori erected a statue. Of this statue only the head has yet been 
found. It represents a man of about forty with short and curly beard and 
hair, heavy overhanging brows, and large eyes full of intelligence. As a 
work of art, it is good, and as a portrait strikingly true to nature. Oppo- 
site the base of this statue stood a small substructure which appears to 
have sustained the graceful figure of a youthful satyr, holding a lizard, 
seated on a rock which served to decorate a fountain (see below). On 
the door-sill are marked, more in graffito than hollowed out, four foot- 
prints, two turned forward and two backward. Such foot-prints have 
been found on several stones but never before in situ. They seem to 
indicate the way of going and of returning, the itus reditus. 

The mosaic-pavement is of peculiar interest. It contains a group of 
symbolic animals and birds, grouped in a circle around a centre formed 
of a lance stuck through a wreath on which is perched an owl, which 
appears to be a symbol of Kybele. The surrounding animals are : two 
lions (or rather lionesses), a bull, a scorpion, a he-goat, a deer, a serpent, 
a crow, and a dove resting on a laurel-branch. All these must have a 
significant place in Phrygian symbolism, though this meaning is known 
only for some of them, such as the scorpion, lion, crow, bull. 

The excavations were again taken up early in the spring, and resulted 
at once in the discovery of a staircase of twelve steps at the east end of the 
ante-room, which evidently led to the basilica Hilariana. A part of the 
basilica itself was then uncovered, with a portion of its pavement contain- 
ing geometric figures in mosaic. Ancient devastations and modern exca- 
vations had ruined it. Bull. Comm. arch., 1890, pp. 18-25, 112, etc. 

WORKS OF ART DISCOVERED IN 1889. As usual, the December number of 
iheSullettino della Commissione archeologiea comunale contains a complete 
list of the works of ancient art discovered during 1889 by the archseo- 
logical commission. The greater part of the large works that present 
a special interest have been already enumerated in the JOURNAL. 
Among those that should be added are, however, the following. (1) Ele- 
gant headless statuette of a youthful satyr, seated on a rock that served to 
decorate a fountain : it has lost both arms and the right leg, but the left 
hand remains, holding a lizard. (2) Female bust, life-size, representing a 
Koman, matron ; of good sculpture though of late date. (3) Head of an 
old man, larger than life, perhaps of the time of the Antonines. (4) Front 
of a sarcophagus representing a Bacchic triumph. Bacchus and Ariadne 
are embracing each other on a biga drawn by two centaurs and preceded 
by a winged genius on a lion. (5) A series of bronzes, including two 


statuettes and a vase (orciuolo) with reliefs. (6) Several fine terracotta 
antefixes and parts of friezes. 

ROMAN TOPOGRAPHY. In a recent number of the Bull. 1st. arch, germ. 
(vol. iv, No. 3) Ch. Hu'lsen contributes a long paper covering 65 pages giv- 
ing the results of new discoveries and investigations relating to the topo- 
graphy of Rome made during the years 1887-89. Beginning with ancient, 
mediaeval and Renaissance sources, he passes to publications which he 
divides into appropriate classes, and finally takes us on a topographische 
Rundschau or topographical tour through the city (beginning with the 
forum), in which literature and notes on excavations are blended. The sum- 
mary is made all the more useful by numerous illustrations through the text. 

ARCHITECTURE. Via Labieana : an ancient building. In the Vigna 
Marolda, along the Via Labieana, have come to light remains of a build- 
ing composed of two distinct parts. The most ancient is built with masses 
of tufa with a double facing ; the more recent, of walls of excellent reti- 
culated brick covered with stucco painted in very bright colors. There 
are crypts, and subterranean vaults illuminated by loop-holes; fragments 
of monochromatic and polychromatic mosaics of enamel cubes ; marble 
incrustations, and other decorations suited to a noble suburban residence. 
Not. d. Scam, 1889, p. 341. 

The Cloaca Maxima. The excavations in the Forum of Augustus 
favored the collection of standing water in that low section to such an 
extent that a plan for drainage was entrusted to the well-known engineer 
Pietro Narducci. He started in his investigations at the point mentioned 
by Salvestro Peruzzi, on the east side of the Forum Transitorium at the 
corner of the Via Tor de' Conti and the little church of SS. Quirico e 
Giulitta: hue conftuebant aquae de vieinis montibus, s Viminalis, Quiri- 
nalis et Esquiliis hie est magna cloaca quae vadit ad fontem S. Georgii 
usque. The section of the cloaca maxima that led to the Forum of 
Augustus was found and cleared, and became a discovery of the highest 
importance, for it is open to students along a length of about two hundred 
metres. Narducci writes on the newly discovered section : " This section 
has a certain historical interest, and this in connection with the church of 
S. Maria in Macellum Martirum, in the centre of which is a well of water 
that was drunk as holy because it was thought that in it had been washed 
the knives used to execute Christian martyrs. The writer has always been 
of the opinion that this well was a means of access to the cloaca maxima t 
and served, perhaps, to conceal the bodies of martyrs with the view of giving 
them honorable burial. This was supported by the clearing of the cloaca 
whose well remained dry : it was found that this well was constructed as a 
means of access, not at the primitive period but at the time of restorations 
under the Empire." This restoration is proved by the use of bricks over 


a length of 60 metres, the original construction being of large blocks of 
pietra gabbina laid without cement. The cloaca passes on beyond the 
Forum of Augustus to the Suburra, but is there filled up. 

The entire system of ancient drainage of Rome has been made the sub- 
ject of careful study by Cav. Narducci, as is shown by the following works : 
Fognatura della citta di Roma sulla sinistra del Tevere, 1884 : Sulla fogna- 
tura della citta di Roma, 1889 : Pianta delle principali fogne sulla sinistra 
e destra del Tevere, etc.: Roma Sotterranea, illustrazione della Cloaca massima, 
1889. There are, besides, some interesting articles just published : OTTO 
RICHTER, Cloaca Maxima in Rom, in the Antike Denkmdler for 1889 : 
LANCIANI, La Cloaca Massima, in the Bull. Comm. arch, for April, 1890. 
Both are fully illustrated with plans and elevations. 

Ancient Constructions in the Piazza di S. Crisogono. The diggings in the 
Piazza di S. Crisogono in Trastevere, made for the construction of a water- 
reservoir, led to the uncovering of a section of ancient construction under 
the Via Lungaretta. It forms part of the ancient suspended road or 
viaduct constructed, after the fashion of the bridges, in large blocks of 
stone. It was built of large blocks of travertine in a style similar to that 
of the Servian Wall, and undoubtedly belongs to the early times of the 
Republic. It traversed the valley called by the Romans Campus Codeta- 
nus whose marshy ground filled with water-courses had to be passed to 
gain the declivities of the Janiculum ; and it kept open the communica- 
tions with the right bank of the Tiber. It is an interesting document for 
the ancient topography of the Trastevere. Such viaducts are very rare in 
ancient architecture. 

The present one, after proceeding to the top of the arx of the Janiculum, 
probably joined the very ancient road to Maritime Etruria, afterwards 
called Aurelia. It also served as means of communication between the 
Palatine and Janiculan bridges. It may also have served as a means of 
defense for this zone of the city, as its course seems to correspond with 
that of the northern side of the Servian wall. It formed part of a vast 
triangular entrenched camp at whose summit rose the fortress of the Ja- 
niculum, and reached out on one side to the Porta Flumentana and on the 
other to the Porta Trigemina. It is conjectured that the viaduct was not 
only protected below, but on top by a second series of internal arcades 
forming a covered passage. 

The part discovered, at a depth of six metres, consists of two massive 
arcades of square tufa, measuring 2.85 met., resting on a pier or base 
measuring 2.35 by 6 met. The arcades are 50 cent, wide, and are formed 
of eleven wedges of volcanic tufa. Over the arcades ran a row of blocks 
which supported the parapet. Bull. Comm. arch., 1890, pp. 6,sqq, 57-65 ; 
Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 362-3. 


A piece of the Servian Wall. On the crest of the Capitoline rock, over 
the Via di Marforio, at a height of 26.50 met. above the level of the Piazza 
di Venezia, has been found a sufficiently important fragment of the Servian 
wall which protected the hill on the west. Four courses are left. In 
arrangement, quality of stone, and, finally, in the quarry-marks, it is iden- 
tical with other well-known pieces of the wall of Servius Tullius. It had 
been somewhat injured by the work for the foundations of the Convent of 
Ara-Coeli. Not. di Scavi, 1889, p. 361. 

Discovery of the Portieus Maximae. On the northern side of the Piazza 
del Pianto, have come to light some ruins of an ancient colonnade run- 
ning parallel to the porticos of Octavia. Five travertine, peperino, or 
marble blocks were found in place : they served to support the bases of 
as many columns, one of which, of granite, was found, together with its 
marble Corinthian base. The distance between each block was 3.40 met. 
This colonnade cannot have belonged to the porticos of Octavia, whose 
intercolumniation is only 3 met. ; but might it not be a remnant of the 
portico of Philip, which was joined to them on the west ? The marble plan 
of the Capitol and the base of a statue found in 1868 near S. Ambrogio 
show that the portico of Philip did not extend nearly as far. The columns 
therefore belong to another portico, on the same line as and joined to those 
just mentioned. This must be one of the transverse arms of the portions 
maximae, with which in the fourth century the various porticos of the 
Campus Martius were united, forming a continuous series of colonnades 
from the Aelian bridge to the Ostian gate. The section discovered was a 
part of that joining the porticos of Pompey to those of Philip and Octavia. 
The portions maximae are mentioned in the inscription of the triumphal 
arch erected in front of the Aelian bridge by the Emperors Gratian, 
Valentinian, and Theodosius. Bull. Comm. arch., 1890, pp. 66-8; Not. d. 
Scavi, 1890, pp. 31-2. 

SCULPTURE. Sarcophagi. Outside the Porta San Lorenzo, in digging 
the foundations of a new house, were uncovered, two interesting marble 
sarcophagi, which are illustrated from photographs in the Builder of 
April 12. The relief on the first represents the story of Medeia dramatic- 
ally told : the figures are broad but graceful in the style of the second 
century. The second sarcophagus is more scantily carved with figures. 
The front is strigillated : the centre is occupied by a bust of the deceased 
in a medallion supported by a group of the three graces. Heads of lions 
devouring figures occupied the angles, but only one remains. The head- 
dress indicates the time of Alexander Severus (222-35 A. D.). 

Lately discovered sculptures. The April number of the Bullettino men- 
tions some sculptures found in the Vigna Torlonia, near the Campo Verano. 
A headless marble statue, without legs or fore-arms. It represents an old 


countryman robed in the exomis, across which is a goat-skin. The treat- 
ment is extremely realistic, and the work is good. Many fragments of 
terracotta friezes of fine style, on which are figures in relief, such as sea- 
tigers mounted by genii, winged children carrying festoons, bust of Ariadne 
or a bacchante giving drink to two panthers, bust rising from a spray of 
acanthus leaves. 

INSCRIPTIONS. Archaic inscriptions. On the banks of the Tiber was 
found a small circular base with an inscription in archaic letters, perhaps 
of the beginning of the sixth century : . . . onius >q-f\ Numisio Martio \ 
donom . dedit \ meretod. Two other later archaic inscriptions came to light on 
bases intended for votive gifts. The first reads : M-C-rOMrHO-NOI 
DEDRON F | HERCOl'E: M(arcus) (ef) C(aius) Pomp(i)lius No(vii) 
f(ilii) dederunt Herculi. It is on a travertine base. The grammatical and 
epigraphic forms indicate the fifth century : the form dedron is new and to 
be added to dedrot and dedro. 

Not so ancient is the other inscription, on calcareous stone, which is 
lapio dono[m] L(ucius) Albanius K(aesonis) f(ilius) dedit. The form 
Aiscolapius occurs here for the first time. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 10, 33. 

Votive inscription to Septimius Severus, Caracalla, etc. On the Via Appia 
was found a fragment of a votive inscription which is another example 
of the erasure of Geta's name from all public monuments after his death. 
It is dedicated by M. Saxius Primus to Septimius Severus, Caracalla, 
Geta, and Julia Domna. Bull. Comm. arch., 1890, pp. 15-17. 

Inscription of L. Plotius Sabinus. At the eleventh kilom. on the Via 
Tiburtina, Professor Tomassetti found an inscription recording the cursus 
honorum of a consulate personage, L. Plotius Sabinus, which is sufficiently 
interesting to reproduce : Diis Genitoribus - 1 L- Plotio - C-F- Pol - Sabino \ 
praetori sodali titiali \ aedili - cur - seviro eq - r \ quaestori urb - trib 
laticl -lleg-i- miner -p-f-X' vir -\stl- indie habenti quoq - \ salutation secun- 
dam | imp - \ Antonini Aug Pii I Sabinus praetor - magna res - Formis 
periit. This inscription was adossed to an inscriptionless sarcophagus still 
containing the body of the deceased. Among the novelties contained in 
the inscription are the following : the term diis genitoribus, which appears 
only on a coin of Pertinax, and seems related to the rare diis parentibus ; 
the title Sodalis Titialis, which is almost unique. It is said that habuit 
salutationem secundam imp. Antonini Aug. Pii, and had it while simple 
praetor, a fact so unusual as to lead some to believe it to be not a personal 
salutatio but one to be transmitted to the Emperor. The place of his 
death, Formis, may be Formiae on the Volsco-Latin coast or a Formae 
in Africa. Bull. Comm. arch., April, 1890 ; Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 35-6. 


Sossi publishes in the Riv. Ital. di Numismatica (1890, No. 1) a commu- 
nication describing the coins contained in an amphora found in the territory 
of Asti. The find consisted entirely of small copper coins : many were lost 
or dispersed. The writer examined over three hundred which belonged to 
the close of the third and beginning of the fourth century A. D., the earliest 
being of Gallienus and the latest of Maximianus Hercules. Those of 
Aurelian, Probus and Diocletian are especially numerous. The greater 
part are in good preservation. Among them are two new types and many 
variants. The collection appears to be not a hidden treasure but part of 
a military chest for the payment of some legion or cohort, perhaps hidden 
by the quaestor militaris in a time of danger. 

SARDINIA. On the promontory of Monte Alvo, in Sardinia, Signer 
Tamponi has discovered a number of human skeletons in one of the 
so-called tombs of the giants, thus confirming a tradition to that effect pre- 
served by Lamarmora, which had hitherto been deemed improbable. 
Athenaeum, March 29. 

A natural cavern, formed of three great granite rocks, was first found, 
containing two skeletons and some fragments of very early black ware. 
The tomb of the giants, found afterwards, was in remarkably good preser- 
vation. Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 413-14. 

TOIRANO. PREHISTORIC CAVES. Sig. Morelli makes a report in the 
Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana (Jan.-Feb. 1890) on his exploration of 
two caverns at the foot of Monte Calvo, province of Geneva, near the 
village of Toirano. The territory is abundant in such caves, as it is formed 
of a cavernous dolomitic calcareous rock. The caves explored were 
those called Tana del Colombo and Tana della Basua. The former 
yielded some fossil bones of mammifers and birds, and paleolithic imple- 
ments of stone and bone. It evidently served as a dwelling to the primi- 
tive Ligurians, at a time when a great bear still roamed the hills and 
before the knowledge of pottery. In the second cave were found parts of 
nine skeletons and two kinds of terracotta vases, showing it to have been 
used not as a habitation but as a tomb. 

VITERBO (near). In the district of Colleno, has been discovered a 
chambered tomb with a vestibule adorned by two columns. The cell con- 
tained two sarcophagi of travertine, in which were found a golden ring 
and some gold thread, remnants of the rich clothing of the deceased. 
Athenceum, March 22. 


Professor Melani calls attention, in the Courrier de I' Art (1890, No. 16), 
to the manner in which the dates of the death of two famous Italian 


painters have recently been discovered. Signer Zonghi has found that 
Gentile da Fabriano did not die in about 1450, as had been supposed, 
but much earlier, as is shown by a notary's deed relating that the painter 
died in Kome in 1428 or at the end of 1427. It is therefore clear that 
he could not have been a pupil of Fra Angelico, and that, when Roger 
van der Weyden expressed in 1450 his famous praise of Gentile (that he 
was the greatest Italian painter), he was speaking from tradition. 

A document published in the Archivio Storico Lombardo (xv, p. 193) 
shows that Gaudenzio Ferrari, who was known to have been born in 1481, 
died, in Milan, Jan. 31, 1546. 

FIRENZE. SANTA TRINITA. Discovery of the ancient Mosaic-pavement, 
Crypt, and Facade. During certain repairs made at this church by order 
of the Government, the twelfth-century crypt has been discovered. While 
digging in the central nave to relay the pavement (which was greatly out 
of repair), down at the level of the thirteenth-century church, the crypt 
was discovered. It is built of pietra forte, and has three semicircular 
apses : it was found to have suffered considerable damage when the church 
was rebuilt in the xvi cent., and when graves were dug in it at a later 
period. The pavement of the crypt has been partially uncovered : it is 
composed of a reddish cement, and before the altar of the chapel is a por- 
tion of a mosaic-pavement formed of cubes of white and black marble : 
in the centre, on a background of white, are two figures of dragons (in 
black) facing each other ; around this central portion is a border consisting 
of white foliage on a black ground. These fragments, as well as the re- 
mains of very ancient construction in pietra forte, must have belonged to 
the church of 801 A. D. The continuation of excavations led to the dis- 
covery of the ancient doorway and of four steps of the stairway leading to 
the crypt. Between the modern and ancient pavement was found a large 
marble sepulchral slab on which was sculptured a recumbent figure (much 
worn) representing (as we learn from the inscription) Roggero Buondel- 
monti, General of the Order of Vallambrosa, who died in 1319. Further 
researches led to the discovery of some remains of the original fresco- 
decoration on the wall of the nave, covered with a thick layer of modern 
plaster. The beautiful marble door belonging to the chapel of B. Ber- 
nardo degli Uberti has likewise been found ; and, behind the modern facade, 
was discovered the ancient Gothic fayade of Nicola Pisano : it has alter- 
nate stripes of white and verde di Prato marble, in the same manner as 
in many churches of Pisa, Pistoia, etc. Builder, Jan. 11. 

LODI. RESTORATION OF SAN LORENZO. When new Lodi was founded 
during the early Lombard wars, after the destruction of the old city, the 
basilica of San Lorenzo was founded by bishop Lanfranco between 1154 
(when the foundation-stone of the new city was laid by Emperor Frederick) 


and 1158 (the date of the bishop's death). It had been so barbarously 
disfigured as to leave hardly any traces of the primitive building. A 
restoration of the interior has been carried out. The material was brick, 
very carefully laid ; the capitals of the columns are of terracotta and of 
varied decoration. A fine Roman column was found within a pier in the 
presbytery. Archivio storico dell' Arte, Nov-Dec., 1889. 

letta is a painting of the Virgin and Child on a gold ground, which is held 
in great veneration. It was carried in procession to meet the famous thir- 
teen Italian champions in the Sfida di Barletta of 1503. The inscription 
on the picture contains the following : Paulus filius magistri Seraphini de 
Serafini \pictoris de Mutina pinxit. A Paolo da Modena of the xiv cent, was 
already known, but it is uncertain whether he is identical with the painter 
of the Barletta painting whose father Seraphino Serafini has left works in 
the cathedrals of Modena and Ferrara. Arch.stor.d. Jrte,1889,Nov.-Dec. 

d. k. k. oest. Museums (1890, No. 3) the following account of an interesting 
mosaic : " One of the most famous of the monuments of Italian art of the 
xiv century has lately come into the possession of a Roman antiquarian : 
it is the great mosaic by the famous Florentine Andrea Orcagna repre- 
senting the birth of the Virgin, which once adorned the central gable of 
the front of the cathedral of Orvieto. It had been entirely lost sight of 
and only a copy made at the beginning of this century remained. The 
original was in many pieces which have been put together at the Vatican 
workshop, and it is now in the hands of the dealer Pio Marinangeli. It 
is in the strong, simple and broad Giottesque style, of monumental value ; 
but its tones are unfortunately damaged by the new coat of varnish." 

ROMA. FRESCO OF THE WISE VIRGINS. It was customary, in the early 
Christian period, to pronounce over the bodies of deceased women, the 
parable of the virgins. A similar idea is expressed in a catacomb fresco 
recently examined by Mgr. Wilpert. In the centre is an orante above 
whom is her epitaph ; at her right are the five wise virgins with lighted 
torches ; on her left, four of these are represented seated at the celestial 
banquet, the fifth place being reserved for the defunct. This is a novelty, 
and an artistic representation of the prayer of St. Gelasius : transeat in 
numerum sapientium puellarum. Revue Critique, 1890, No. 9. 

MINO DA FIESOLE IN ROME. The multitude of works of sculpture, be- 
longing to the early Renaissance, that still exist in Rome have never been 
studied. Even Vasari ignored them. The names of their artists, their 
dates and the circumstances of their execution, are generally entirely 
wanting. Only lately have a few critics undertaken to bring a little order 
out of chaos. Such are Schmarsow and Von Tschudi who have made 


known respectively the artists Andrea da Milano and Giovanni Dalmata. 
But most of the sculptors that worked in Rome in the quattrocento and 
early cinquecento were Tuscans. In a paper in the Archivio the well- 
known critic Domenico Gnoli shows that Rome was the principal field 
for the activity of the famous sculptor Mino da Fiesole. He describes the 
bust of Nicola Strozzi (1454), the pulpit of Pius II, the ciborium of 
Sixtus IV and other works, and at the same time brings in his contem- 
poraries and rivals Paolo Romano and Isaia da Pisa. Arehivio storico 
dell'Arte, 1889, Nov.-Dec. 

ART IN ROME UNDER INNOCENT VIII. M. Eugene Muntz contributes to 
the Archivio storieo dell'Arte (Nov.-Dec., 1889) a number of documents 
relating to the condition and history of the Fine-arts in Rome under the 
pontificate of Innocent VIII (1484-92). Although these years are not 
looked upon as artistically brilliant, they are interesting as sealing the 
triumph of the Renaissance. Perugino and Antonazzo Aquilio worked in 
1484 and 1485, and the latter continued his labors up to 1494. Pier 
Matteo d' Amelia is shown to be a more important artist than was sup- 
posed ; documents of 1485, 1486, 1488, and 1492 are given, recording orders 
and payments. He worked with Antonazzo. Mantegna executed, be- 
tween 1488 and 1490, the frescos of a chapel in the Vatican, which was 
destroyed by Pius VI ; the hitherto unnoticed but detailed descriptions of 
them given by Taj a and Chattard are reprinted. Filippino Lippi, Nardo, 
Gian Giacomo di Andrea are also mentioned. Among painters on glass 
are Filippo da Pesaro and Giuliano Romano ; among miniaturists, Gioac- 
chino, Gregorio and Antonio. 

SARTIRANA. A DISCOVERY OF COINS. In November, a workman found, 
in the bottom of a pot buried in the earth, a mass of silver coins wrapped in 
cloth and badly oxidized by the water in which they were standing. About 
a half were melted down. Of those that were saved the greater part were 
coins of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Gio. Maria Visconti ; and, from the 
few remaining of Filippo Maria Visconti, it may be argued that the 
treasure was hidden under his dukedom. The cities represented are Avig- 
non, Bologna, Casale, Genova, Milano, Pavia, Piacenza, Savoja, Verona. 
A number of the Milanese coins are new varieties. Riv. Ital Num., 1890, 1. 

important place is held in the history of Veronese painting, and, in fact, 
in that of Italian painting in general, by the ancient frescos of the chapel 
or grotto of San Nazaro in Verona, which help to span the gulf between the 
frescos of the catacombs and of the Giottesque revival. Maffei had justly 
noted two layers of frescoed plaster, the older of which was seen where the 
later one had fallen. Dionisi had eight plates executed of the frescos 
then existing, which remained unpublished ; Orti illustrated them inac- 


curately in 1841. The dates attributed to them were the vi, vn and vm 
centuries. In 1881, Signer Cipolla proposed that the frescos of the upper 
coating (which he attributed to the x or the xi century) should be removed 
to save them from ruin. This has since been done, leading to the uncov- 
ering of the earlier frescos beneath. The latter were in a very bad condi- 
tion, made worse by the removal of the upper layer, which led to the fall 
of a large part of the plaster and laid the rock bare. 

The church consisted of three chambers excavated in the rock. The 
outer one has lost the few frescos it had. The second has a series of angels 
within intersecting circles arranged all over the walls ; they belong to the 
earlier work and were never covered by a second plastering. A great arch 
leads thence into the third hall which constitutes the church proper, whence 
the frescos of the xi cent, have been removed. It is curious that these 
were in general mere repetitions of the early ones. The older frescos, now 
uncovered, are as follows. On the ceiling is a large figure of Christ, seated 
and amply draped, his head encircled by a cruciform nimbus. His right 
arm is raised, apparently in blessing ; in his left he holds an open book 
on which was an inscription, now effaced. The head of Christ is of a 
severe type, with long beard and hair. The entire figure is imposing : 
it is enclosed in an oval aureole upheld by two figures on rt. and It., while 
the four angles of the vault were occupied by the symbols of the four evan- 
gelists, of which only the lion and angel remain with their appropriate 
inscriptions. The frescos on the end wall are interesting. In the central 
niche there probably stood a figure of S. Michael, as in the later series. 
Above*, within a circle, is the Virgin nimbed, on either side of whom is 
an angel with great wings folded in front. On either side of the central 
niche were two circles that originally contained busts. Two of these, still 
remaining, are shown by inscriptions to be SS. Nazarius and Celsus. In 
the left wall was cut an arcosolium with decorative paintings. On the 
right is a bust of Sta. Juliana with its inscription. The church, as is 
known, was dedicated to the three saints just mentioned. 

On the left side of the vault, next to the entrance and outside of the 
aureole surrounding the figure of Christ, we read the_following inscrip- 
tion painted in white letters on a green ground : -fANN-AB INCARNC 
eJNl NRl I IV XPl | DCCCCXCVI IN DIG X. Under them, in white let- 
ters on a yellow ground, was an inscription of at least three lines, of which 
it was possible tojead only : ET I AGO B 1 1 

SCI SMI The importance of the first in- 

scription is evident, because, as its letters are identical in form with those 
used in the paintings, it gives their date as 996 ; or, more exactly, it shows 
that they were finished between September and December 996, as this is 
indicated by the X indiction which then began. CIPOLLA, in Arehivio 
Veneto, fasc. 76, 1889. 



Umberto Rossi publishes in the Arehivio storico dell'Arte (1890, Genn.- 
Febb.) some documents relating to the lives and works of Zaccaria and 
Giovanni Zacchi. Zaccaria was born at Arezzo in 1473, his father being 
from Volterra. He studied in Florence and in Rome, worked in Bologna 
at San Petronio as early as 1516, and established himself in that city. 
Giovanni was the son of Zaccaria, and it is to him that most of the docu- 
ments relate. He not only executed statues in bronze, like that of Paul 
III at Bologna, but also a number of bronze medals. He was in the 
service of the Farnese family for some time. 


the Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana (1889, Nos. 9-12) two papers of great 
interest on the early archaeology of Sicily. He prefixes them with the true 
words : " The monuments, archaeological remains, and the forms of the 
pre-Hellenic culture of Sicily may be said to be almost completely unex- 
plored." He aims at opening up this new field. A fitting summary of 
his conclusions and of the material on which they are based will be given 
in the next number of the JOURNAL. It may here be said that he believes 
this early culture of the Siculi and Sicani to have come from the East, and 
finds a series of vases and other objects of a decided Mykenaian character. 

AKRAI = PALAZZOLO. In past years, the ancient necropolis of Akrai 
has yielded from its rectangular sarcophagi, opened in the rock, many 
Corinthian vases. Of late, Sig. Orsi was so fortunate as to find in one of 
them a part of the cover on which were inscribed two lines of a boustro- 
phedon inscription reading : Epax^a dpi The angular is new in Syra- 
cuse, and apparently in Sicily. The x is characteristic of Euboia and the 
Chalkidian colonies. Akrai was founded in 664 by the Corinthian Syra- 
cuse, and yet this seems to be the tomb of a Chalkidian. The inscription 
is laconic and of rare form : " I am Brachidas." It belongs to the first 
century of the city ; it also demonstrates the Greek as opposed to the Phoe- 
nician character of the necropolis. Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 387-9. 

SYRACUSE. WELLS OF THE ANCIENT CITY. Signor Orsi has been con- 
ducting a very active exploration of various parts of the ancient city. 
In the Cathedral on Ortygia, the site of the temple of Athena, was found 
an archaic dedication to Apollon by Alkiades. 

The most extensive work consisted in clearing out a large number of 
ancient circular wells dug in the rock at many points, which had never 
been scientifically investigated. Beside leading to some interesting his- 
torical deductions, they were found to contain numerous objects belonging 
to the fourth and third centuries B. c., including vases of many varieties 


of shape and manufacture, coins, lamps, terracotta figurines, etc. Their 
latest date coincides with the period of the fall of the city before the Ro- 
mans in 212. Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 369-87. 


HISTORICAL MONUMENTS. The Boletin de la R. Acad. de la Historia 
(Jan.-Feb., 1890) has published a complete list of the monuments of Spain 
declared to be of national importance, monumentos deelarados nationals. 
The first is the monastery of la Rabida (Huelva), declared so by a royal 
decree of February 23, 1856; the last is the ex-monastery of Santa Maria 
La Real de Najera (Rioja) Logrono, of the date of Oct. 17, 1889. They 
number in all fifty-five, a very small number if compared to this class of 
monuments in Italy and France. Of these, one is prehistoric, in the 
Balearic Isles, two are Moorish, one is a Jewish synagogue, and the rest 
are Christian, ten being civil monuments, about fourteen monasteries, and 
twenty-eight churches. 

was found an Arabic tombstone with an inscription in seven lines, saying : 

This is the grave of Motarrif ben Mohadjir, who died in . . the year 

329. The date corresponds to June 28, 941 A. D. A second inscription, 
found near Pechina reads : This is the tomb of Abu Hamema, ben Ashats, 

el Omavi, who died in the year 239. The date corresponds to 

April 16, 854 A. v.Bol. R. Acad. de la Historia, Jan.-Feb., 1890. 

has published in the Boletin R. Acad. de la Historia (March, 1890) a paper 
on La-primitiva basilica de Santa Maria del rey Casto de Oviedo y su real 
panteon. This was an early church in the basilical style built under the 
early Goths, in contrast to the Byzantine style used in San Miguel de 
Linio, and to the Oriental style of some other Visigothic constructions. 
The author takes occasion to study the intricate and little-known subject 
of early-Christian Spanish art, and also to give interesting information 
regarding the royal tombs in the basilica of Oviedo. 

the Boletin de la Historia (Jan.-Feb., 1890) communicates to it two im- 
portant documents of the year 1266, the originals of which are in the 
Cathedral of Santiago. They relate to the construction of the beautiful 
church of the monastery of Santa Fe of Toledo. One is an inedited bull 
of Clement IV (Jan. 3, 1266), the other is a letter of Fray Lorenzo, 
bishop of Ceuta, dated June 3, 1266, which makes known for the first 
time a bishop of Ceuta in 1266. A passage in the papal bull says : Cum 
itaque dilecti filii Prior et Conventus monasterii Sancte Fidis Calatravensis 


Toletani, Cisterdensis ordinis, sicut iidem nobis significare curarunt, ec- 
clesiam ipsius monasterii de now edifieare ceperint opere sumptuoso, et ad 
consummationem ejusdem operis proprie sibi non suppetant facultates, Uni- 
versitatem vestram rogamus, etc. This appeal of Pope Clement is addressed 
to the dioceses of Toledo, Sigiienza, and Cuenca, and accords them indul- 
gences for their gifts toward the building of the church. On the other 
hand, the similar appeal of the bishop of Ceuta speaks not of the construc- 
tion but of the repairing of the church : Gum igitur ecclesia sancte fidis 
apud Toletum, ordinis Calatravensis, reparatione indigeat, et non possit sine 
fidelium helemosinis eonsumari, etc. 

This monastery of Santa Fe occupies the site of the Alcazar of King 
Wamba and the palaces of Galiana. In 1202, King Alfonzo VIII gave 
the chapel of Santa Fe, founded by Alfonzo VI, together with a part of 
the adjoining palaces, to the military order of Calatrava for the foundation 
of a priory. It was later given to the community of the Comendadoras of 
Santiago, who occupied it in 1502. 

The exterior chapel, or Capilla vieja, is remarkable for the beauty of the 
exterior of its apse. The interior chapel of Belen contains an epitaph of 
1252 (or 1280). Recent reparations have uncovered the beautiful roof 
of the xvi century. 

VISIGOTHIO INSCRIPTION. Sr. Fita communicates to the Acad. de la His- 
toria (Boletin, March 1890) a photograph and reading of a much-damaged 
but inedited and interesting Visigothic inscription of the year 579, in the 
provincial museum of Toledo. It is an epitaph. He reads it : + Imma 
Frita \ >R Imafrita vic\sit annos plus minus x\xxv, requievit in pace \ 
sub die sexto id(u)s no\venbri in era DCXVII. \ Datum est pro lo\cello ipso 
in auro I soledos m. The name is purely Visigothic. 


FRENCH PAINTERS OF THE xiv CENTURY. The Archives historiques publish 
some documents interesting for the history of French painting during the 
xiv century: the painters mentioned are Guiot of Meaux (1331-32); 
Othinel of Meaux (1331-32) ; and Jean Petitclerc of Rebais (1336-64). 
The latter two are glass-painters. We take from the accounts of the 
dowry of Queen Jeanne d'Evreux, preserved in the Archives nationales, 
interesting information concerning the works executed by various artists 
at the chateaux of Crecy-en-Brie and Chateau-Thierry. The first extract 
is taken from the account of 1331-32 and relates to Crecy-en-Brie : Pour 
salaire de GUIOT LE POINTRE, de Miaux, et de JEHANNOT, son compaignon, 
a fair e certain ouvrage de pointure en ladicte garde robe et en la chapelle, et 
y furent pour xv jours amdeux ensamble Item, pour fair e tant en 


ladicte garde robe eomme en la chambre de mes jueunes dames L. piez de 


According to the account of 1336-37, JEHAN LE VERRIER, DE RESBEY 
made certains ouvrages de verrerie in the same chateau of Cre*cy, placing 
LXXVII feet of glass at xxxn deniers per foot. Doubtless he is the same 
as JEHAN PETITCLERC, DE RESBES, VOIRIER, who struck a bargain with 
the dowager queen in 1362 to place in good condition all the glass of her 
chateaux : mettre en ban estat tons les voirrez et verrieres des chastiaux et 
maisons de Chastiau- Thierry, Jaugonne, Nully-St.-Front, Ygny le Jard, 

Coulommiers, Crecy et Creveeuer . . . et de les soustenir et retenir 

d'ores en avant . . . a la volente et vie de mad. dame et vie dud. Jehan. 

The accounts of 136S-64 show how he placed new painted-glass win- 
dows in the chapel and apartments of the chateau of Chateau-Thierry, 
representing the crucifixion, annunciation, and coronation ; and an image 
of Ste. Thecla. Ghron. des Arts., 1890, No. 11. 

A GLASS PAINTER OF 1160. Only a few glass-painters anterior to the xm 
century are known by name. The cartulary of the Burgundian Abbey of 
Molme, preserved in the departmental archives of the Cote-d'Or, gives the 
name of one of these artists, who lived in about 1100: Walterius vitri 
artifex. He figures, by the side of Rainbaldus, mayor of Moleme, as wit- 
ness of a donation made to the monks by a neighboring lord at the end 
of the xi or beginning of the xn cent. It is probable that, as the mon- 
astery was being built at this time, this artist was at work on some win- 
dows for the abbey-churches. No trace of or document concerning any 
such ancient windows remain. Archives historiques, vol. I, No. 1. 

CASTELNAU-LE-LEZ. At this small village near Montpellier, situated 
on the site of the Roman city of Substantion near the Domitian road 
from the Rhone to Spain, a prehistoric necropolis has been found, belong- 
ing apparently to the neolithic age. The anthropologist Delaponze has 
examined the cranium of a man killed by a stone arrow, the head of which 
still remained in his fractured jaw. Most curious is a humerus with broken 
bones, which, if human, belongs to a body at least 3.50 met. high. To- 
gether with the skeletons were found knives, arrow-heads, and a small 
slab of undetermined use, all of flint. Nuova Antologia, March 16, 1890. 

HAUTE-BORNE. In the excavations for uncovering the Roman acque- 
duct of the Haute-Borne and on the site of the ancient Gallic citadel, vestiges 
of which still exist in the vicinity, among other curious objects were 
found a Roman lamp, an iron axe, five bronze fibulae, jewels and toilette 
articles, a stiletto, an iron knife for sacrifice, and numerous medals and 
coins.-^Omr. de rArt, 1890, No. 2. 

JARNAC (near). MEROVINGIAN CEMETERY. An archaeological discov- 
ery of the greatest interest has just been made by M. Philippe Delamain, 


of Jarnac, in the excavation of a Merovingian cemetery discovered by 
him in 1887 and excavated since that time. About three hundred tombs 
have been thus far opened, all of them situated on two sides of an ancient 
Roman road, paved and concreted, leading, apparently, from Jarnac to 
Beauvais-sous-Matha, and crossing at right angles the broad Roman road 
from Saintes to Limoges. These tombs contained many objects : jewels, 
arms, vases and glasses, of which the most curious specimens have been 
sent to the archaeological society of the department. Many among them, 
notably two gold rings, have a real artistic interest, and show how the 
Franks of this time possessed the art of working in metal and of making 
use of garnets and enamel as means of ornamentation. The earthen vases 
and the glasses of various forms are equally curious ; the arms consist of 
battle-axes (francisques'), axes and pikes; there are also clasps, metal 
buckles and glass beads. These articles are attributed to the vi cent., and 
greatly resemble objects of the same kind previously found in the depart- 
ments of the Aisne and the Somme. It is judged to be the most important 
discovery ever made in the department. Cour. de I' Art, 1890, No. 15. 

first number of the Archives historiques is published a notice which dis- 
closes the name of a new sculpter of the Gothic period, Regnaud de 
Cambrai. We read : Regnaud de Cambray, tumbler, living in Paris, gives 
a receipt on April 28, 1380, for the sum of seven livres (112 sols) due 
him for the tomb (pour la tumbe) of Jean de Neuchatel, canon of St. 
Merry, made by him, delivered and placed at his place of burial (par 
lui faicte, livree et assize sur le lieu de sa sepulture). Jean de Neuchatel 
died March 30, 1380 : he was a counsellor of the Due de Bourbon and 
an .ecclesiastic beneficiary of several churches : he owned a remarkable 
collection of about a hundred manuscripts, the best of which were, at his 
death, appropriated by Charles V for the royal library. 

M. PIOT'S GIFTS. One of the greatest of French amateurs and collectors 
of works of act, M. Eugene Piot, has recently died, leaving to the Institute 
his personal property and the product of tire sale of his collections ; giving 
to the Louvre and the Cabinet des Estampes some pieces that are regarded 
as among the finest he possessed. He leaves to the Academy of Inscrip- 
tions, his universal legatee, the free disposal of the income of his fortune, 
which is valued, including works of art and books, at about a million 
francs. He was a precursor in the love for collecting works of the Italian 
Renaissance as well as the Tanagra figurines, and brought to France the 
first Kypriote vases and statuettes seen. He was ever in the van, and a 
most omnivorous collector, and yet not a single false or even suspected 
piece is said to have been purchased by him. 
Among the pieces given to the Louvre the following are famous : (1) 


bronze bust of Michelangelo ; (2) head of St. Elizabeth, by Raphael ; (3) 
large terracotta medallion, by Donatello. He thus expresses his legacy 
to the Academy of Inscriptions : " The legacy is made with the object of 
adding to the independence and liberty of action of the illustrious society, 
to be employed in any expeditions, missions, travels, excavations or pub- 
lications that it may wish to make in the interest of historical or archaeo- 
logical science," etc. Chron. des Arts, 1890, No. 5. 

LOUVRE. Rearrangement of Antiquities. The halls including the an- 
tiquities of the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Modern period are being 
remodelled. The first one is on the 2nd floor, after passing the gallery of 
drawings and the hall of pastels. It once contained part of the ivories ; 
now it is reserved for the glass-ware, which is thus well exhibited. The next 
room formerly contained objects of all kinds in terracotta, carved wood, 
wax, coffers, stone vases, etc : it is now filled with the ivories, which thus 
form a magnificent collection. The statuettes, boxes, coffers, powder-horns, 
oliphants, carved handles, etc., are placed in two large upright cases, while 
the flat objects, such as diptyths, book-covers, etc., are enclosed in low cases. 
The stone vases occupy the next small room that serves as a passageway 
to the Thiers collection and to the halls of faiences. 

All the halls, which have hitherto borne no names, or names but little 
known, have been numbered according to the sections. Other changes will 
be noticed when they are completed. Chron. des Arts, 1890, Nos. 4, 9. 

APPOINTMENT OF M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. On the proposition of the 
Ministry of Instruction and Fine Arts, M. Clermont-Ganneau, associate- 
director of studies at the Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes, for Oriental 
archaeology, has been appointed professor of Shemitic epigraphy and an- 
tiquities at the College de France. Chronique des Arts, 1890, No. 13. 

PERIGUEUX. A Roman Mosaic has just been discovered in the house of 
M. Brouilland, rue Condillac : it is decorated with arabesques, flowers, and 
geometric designs in black, white, yellow and red. Its condition is quite 
dilapidated. Cow. de I' Art, 1889, No. 50. 

March 1889, a peasant, while digging under a rock, came upon a broken 
vase, around which were lying coins and jewelry. These pieces are few 
in number but of remarkable interest. The coins are Roman, and belong 
to the second half of the third century A. D., and this also gives the date 
of the jewelry a rare advantage. The find is one of the most remarkable 
of its kind ever made. There are nine coins, belonging to the period 
when a real Gallic empire flourished, to end only through the submission 
of Tetricus to Aurelian. (1) Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus (267) with the 
inscription IMP C LAELIANVS P F AVG. (2) Pius AvoniusVictorinus 
(265-67) with the inscription IMP VICTORINVS P F AVG, with the 


unique reverse GAVDIA PVBLICA: this coin is inedited and is interest- 
ing for the four female figures (of Fortunes ?) on the reverse. (3) Also 
of Victorinus with the reverse LEG III GALLICA P F. This coin is 
not only new but is the only numismatic piece commemorating the in 
Gallic Legion. This legion was famous and the list of its glorious vic- 
tories is long : they are succinctly referred to in the article in the Revue 
Numismatique. It is the only fact that comes to suggest that a part of this 
legion was detached from the main body for the defence of Gaul, while 
the rest remained in the East. (4) Tetricus the Elder (267-74) with the 
inscription IMP TETRICVS PIVS AVG. This is apparently the only 
existing example of this coin, struck in 270. (5) Tetricus father and son ; 
with inscription IMPPTETRICI Pll AVGG. This also is inedited. (6,7) 
Aurelian (270-75). The inscription reads IMPCLDOMAVRELIANVS 
P F AVG. (8) Diocletian, and (9) Maximianus both quite rare. 

The jewelry is composed of three gold rings, two of which have in- 
taglios; two symmetrical bracelets, also of gold; a long gold chain; 
fragment of a necklace of sapphires mounted in gold ; an amulet com- 
posed of a small animal resembling a bear or an elephant; a medallion 
enclosing the coin of the Emperor Victorinus ; two finely worked oblong 
objects of unknown purport, both of them gold prisms with rich decor- 
ation. Revue Numismatique, 1889, No. 4, pp. 514-38. 

RENNES. GALLO-ROMAN MILESTONES. There has been discovered, in 
the foundations of a house situated at Porte-Saint-Michel, a series of mile- 
stones of the Gallo-Roman period. The inscriptions are, for the most part, 
very well preserved, and are of interest for the history of Rennes. M. 
Decombe, the director of the archaeological museum has ordered excava- 
tions to be made on the spot. Cour. de I' Art, 1890, No. 15. 

the following from the Archives historiques as quoted in the Chron. des 
Arts, 1890, No. 12 : " The present church of Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, begun 
in about 1075, was finished only toward 1218. The monk Gallebert was 
probably its first architect ; at least he directed the work in about 1080. 
A document of the cartulary of Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire makes known the 
name of another maitre de I'ceuvre of this church in the following century : 
he is a monk of the abbey named Giraud, who figures among the witnesses 
to a charter of the year 1160 : Ego Macharius abbas adfui et subseripsi, 
residentibus nobiscum in capitulo nostro Lancelino prior e, Dagoberto sub- 
priore, Berengerio praeposito, Gaufredo thesaurario, GIKAUDO MAGISTRO 
OPERIS, etc. This architect is not mentioned in the repertories of A. 
Lance and Ch. Bauchal." 

SAINT-PAHU. A remarkable find has just taken place at St.-Pahu, Fin- 
istere. On removing a granite block to the southwest of the village, a 


Roman flanged tile was observed, which had, apparently, served as a cover 
to a box of wood now fallen into decay. Inside were found over 10,000 
small plated Roman coins, the greater part of which had been minted at 
Augusta Trevirorum (mod. Troves). The coins were of Valerian, Diocle- 
tian, Constantius, Maximus, Lucinius, Constantine the Great, and Con- 
stantinus II. They are all well-preserved, and date from 260 to 360. 
On digging further, there were found two silver cups, and the remains of a 
patera highly ornamented in repousse work, the rest of it being destroyed 
by oxidation. Athenaeum, Dec. 21, 1889. 

SAINT-VAAST. Near Saint- Vaast is the site of an ancient fortress which 
long resisted the English invasion of the xiv cent. Taken and burnt after 
a bloody resistance, its ruins were for a long time used in repairing or build- 
ing houses in the neighborhood. Excavations made during the last four 
years have given an unexpected result. Little by little, passing from one 
foundation to another, the plan of the fortress has been entirely recon- 
structed, and the double wall, the postern, the dungeon, its two wells, the 
annexes, etc., all can be recognized. All the objects antedate 1356, the date 
of the siege : they comprise remains of armor, harness, bits, spurs, parti- 
sans, arrow-heads, lances, axes, numerous bronze and silver coins, as well 
as paving-slabs of terracotta, and some curious sculptures. 

But the main interest lies in a most unexpected discovery through which 
the entire heroic tragedy is made clear. Reduced to the last extremity 
the garrison attempted a sortie. Before carrying it out, everything was pre- 
pared to blow up the castle in case of failure. There have been found in 
situ the copper tubes containing a part of the semi-carbonized slow-matches, 
The sortie failed and the besieged blew themselves up in the inner enceinte, 
and their bodies, crowded within a narrow space, were covered by the fall- 
ing walls of the ramparts and dungeon. There were found their bones 
mingled with arms and armor and horses' equipments. Chron. des Arts, 
1890, No. 5. 


General Wauwermans communicates to the Academie d'Archeologie deBel- 
gique (Bulletin, xvm, 1889) a memoir oiiLa Tour noire, des anciennes forti- 
fications de Bruxelles. It shows the following facts. The demolition of the 
houses expropriated by the city for the transformation of the quarter of 
the Vierge noire have brought to light the remains of a tower which formed 
a part of the earliest fortifications of Brussels built, according to Gramaye, 
in 1040, but more probably in about 1100. It has been dubbed la tour 
noire. It is still possible to trace the level of the rez-de-chaussee, the stair- 
case leading to the chemin de ronde, the place and form of the loop-holes, 


the arcades under the chemin de ronde, etc. In a plan of 1748 the entire 
tower is still given. The fortified enceinte, built in 1040 by Lambert II, 
was formed of crenellated walls strengthened in the interior by arcades (an 
example of which remains in a court of the new Athenee) and divided at 
intervals by semicircular towers pierced with loop-holes. The aspect of 
these towers was the same throughout, and is given in numbers of draw- 
ings and paintings. This first enceinte became too small and was replaced 
by a wider one in the second half of the xiv century, but it continued to 
exist down to the time of Philip II. 


GUTENBERG. PREHISTORIC CAVES. Some excavations carried on by 
MM. Heppinger and Gussmann in the cave called Heppenloch, in the 
neighborhood of Gutenberg, in Wurtemberg, have led to the discovery of 
galleries and grottoes that surpass in extent and beauty anything of the 
kind hitherto known. They appear to belong to the tertiary period and 
the objects found support this early date. Chron. des Arts, 1890, No. 4. 

MAINZ. A GALLIC ALTAR. At a meeting of the French Acad. des In- 
scriptions, M. Flouest read a note relating to an altar discovered at Mainz 
which is very instructive for the study of Gallic mythology. His atten- 
tion was called to it by Professor Conze. Especially interesting is the 
representation of the Gallic divinity called the god with the hammer, in 
whom M. Flouest inclined to see the Deus Pater of the Druids, the father 
of the race. The corresponding female divinity placed on one of the 
other faces of the altar is represented in the guise of Diana Venatrix. He 
connected this myth with the traditions of the primitive religions of Asia, 
which came directly to Gaul without Grseco-Roman intervention. 
Chron. des Arts, 1890, No. 13. See article in Revue Arch., 1889, March- 


BREGENZ = BRIGANTIUM. ROMAN TEMPLE. There have been found 
at Bregenz the foundations of a small and simple Roman temple, in which 
one can identify the circuit of the cella, the square niche for the statue of 
the divinity, and the square platform opposite to it. In front of the steps 
is the basement for the altar, and beyond are three steps that lead into 
the temple-court. The mosaic-pavement is of good style, and so is the 
masonry. A silver denarius of Julia, daughter of Titus, is the only other 
object found. A Roman dwelling-house was discovered in the neighbor- 
hood. Mitth. d. k. Jc. oester. Museums, 1890, No. 3. 

emy of Sciences of Cracow (Bulletin, 1890, pp. 97-100) held March 7/90, 


M. G. Ossowski made a report on the palethnologic researches undertaken 
by him during 1889. The country was found to divide itself into three 
distinct and well-defined palethnographic territories : (1) the West from 
Cracow to the San ; (2) the Central East or territory of Leopol, including 
the districts of the Centre and Northeast ; (3) the Southeast or territory 
of Pokucia-Podolia. These divisions are both geographical and monu- 
mental. The first region is characterized by crematory cemeteries with 
isolated urns ; the second, by kourhans which begin east of the San and 
become most numerous towards the east frontier and then pass northward 
into Volhynia and Ukraine ; the third, by tombs composed of stone-slabs 
and other monuments usually accompanied by painted ceramics. Besides 
visiting a large part of the grottos in the second division, the explorer 
undertook excavations in a number of crematory kourhans, each of which 
contained a number of funerary urns, usually much damaged. The exca- 
vations were carried on especially at Tenetniki, Chorostkow, Zablotce (iron 
age), Uwisla (stone age). The most remarkable of the crematory ceme- 
teries is that of Wasylkowce, where a new form of burial is practised ; for, 
though each tomb contains a number of painted vases, none of these hold 
any ashes or burned bones. Prehistoric stations were found at Zablotce, 
Hucisko-Brodzkie, Labince and Wysock. 

INCRUSTION OF METALS. In a report made by M. Lepszy to the Academy 
of Cracow, he proves that the art of incrusting arms was introduced into 
Poland long before the date when it passed from India to Western Europe. 
Benvenuto Cellini claimed, about 1520, to be the first to do this, but such 
incrusted arms were made in Poland in the xiv century. Four swords 
of Polish manufacture, now preserved in private collections, are incrusted 
in the most remarkable manner, and bear the dates of 1342, 1406, 1414, 
1415. Great privileges had been accorded, as early as the xiv century, 
to the armorers of Lemberg and Cracow : the importation of arms from 
Turkey was strictly forbidden. It is conjectured that the art of incrust- 
ing was introduced by Armenians, who sought refuge in Poland in great 
numbers, fleeing from Mohammedan persecution. Chron. des Arts, 1890, 
No. 8. 

MEDI/EVAL MONUMENTS AT ZAMOW. M. Luszozkiewicz, who has been 
charged by the Academy of Sciences of Cracow with drawing up a cata- 
logue of the interesting architectural monuments of the country, was 
especially struck by the remains which he found at the little town of 
Zamow. Here there were, a hillock surrounded by ramparts and ditch, 
the ancient basement of a little wooden castle of the Middle Ages, and an 
early parish-church in stone, on the front of which was a large tower. These 
two monuments date from the xn century, and have great artistic value, 
especially the church, which retains its western front almost intact. The 


Romanesque tower has a stone winding-staircase leading from the interior 
of the church to a balcony whose capitals are decorated with figures taken 
from the bestiaries. The primitive apse was replaced in 1510 by a remark- 
able Gothic choir showing the influence of the Cistercian monks. Chron. 
des Arts, 1890, No. 8. 

LENGYEL. M. de Nadaillac made a communication to the Academic 
des Inscriptions (Jan. 10) on the last discoveries made at Lengyel, in 
Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube. Many habitations in the 
form of a bee-hive and two cemeteries have been recognized and excavated : 
the cemeteries show no traces of cremation. There were found not less 
than 12,036 objects, divided as follows : knives, rakes, various utensils, 
4,680 ; axes of polished stone, 812 ; instruments of bone or horn, 833 ; 
various terracottas, 3,933 ; ornaments in shell-work, 957 ; objects in bronze, 
amulets, 241. It is quite difficult to fix exactly the date to which these 
discoveries go back, but the colors and ornaments of the terracottas ap- 
proach sufficiently the colors and ornaments of Greek vases. Nevertheless, 
the forms are ruder, the patina is less fine, the baking is mediocre. The 
sepulchral vases have many resemblances to those found at Hissarlik, in 
the Caucasus, and even in Egypt. One may then suppose that the terra- 
cottas of Lengyel come from some Greek colony or at least from an Asiatic 
colony having had relations with Greece. As to the date to which these 
objects should be assigned, M. de Nadaillac thinks that they might be 
placed in the last period of the stone age. Cour. de I' Art, 1890, No. 5 ; 
cf. Revue Oritique, 1890, p. 60. 

LITTITZ. ANCIENT TOMBS. On the left bank of the Radbusa, not far 
from Littitz (near Pilsen), eight ancient graves were opened. In them 
were found two* small and one large vessel about a half-metre in diameter, 
as well as a large number of gold, iron and bronze ornaments and arms, 
all of which have been sent to the museum of Pilsen. Mitth. d. k. k. oest. 
Museums, 1890, No. 3. 


PODGORITZA. REMAINS OF DIOCLEA. It is reported from Cettinje that 
excavations near Podgoritza, organized by Prince Nicholas in order to give 
employment to destitute laborers, have already brought to light the remains 
of the Basilica and the city- walls of Dioclea, the birth-place of Diocletian. 
Many important and interesting inscriptions also have been disclosed. 
N. Y. Evening Post. 


MANUFACTORY OF STONE IMPLEMENTS. At Igelsta Bay, near Sodertelge, 
has been discovered a place which is declared by Professor Hildebrand to 
have been a manufactory of stone implements during the stone age. This is 
the northernmost place in Sweden where flint implements have been found. 


RUNIC INSCRIPTION. A little south of the Gota canal, in the province of 
Skaraborg, has lain for years a Runic stone (10 feet high), which has been 
raised. The front bears an engraved cross somewhat like a Maltese cross, 
below which is the following Runic inscription : Duar, Hatjlcr, Saruadr, 
Eajstu, Stain, Ifljr, Kunar, Fadur, Sin : " They, Hating and Harvard, 
raised (this) stone after [in memory of] Gunas their father." On the 
back are cut the figures of a lion, a dog, and an undistinguishable ani- 
mal. Am. Architect, Jan. 25, from London Globe. 


GLOPPEN. A burial chamber of the early iron age has been discovered 
at Gloppen on the west coast. It contained the remains of a large man, 
who, judging from hair and claws beside him, had lain on a bear-skin. 
There were also traces of woollen clothes, and the lining of the neck, 
woven with ornaments of animals, was well preserved. The most inter- 
esting find was the remains of a green and blue glass beaker, with fluted 
ornamentation. The man had worn a leather belt with two red stones of 
quartzite set in bronze, in which had hung a pair of scissors in a carved 
wooden sheath. Between the two belt-stones lay a curious object consist- 
ing of three pieces of wood linked together, like the modern "mind- 
puzzle." The latter, the beaker, and the ornamented dress-lining, are 
unique. All the objects are now in the Bergen museum. 

Dr. A. LORANGE, of the Bergen museum, has just published a work on 
The swords of the later iron age. Dr. L., having cleaned these swords in 
the Bergen museum, found upon them Latin letters and certain marks : 
one of the commonest names upon them is that of Ulf berht. Dr. L. 
concludes that these swords were not, as hitherto supposed, made in Nor- 
way, but were imported from the Franks on the northwest coast of France. 
Am. Architect, Jan. 25, from London Globe. 


SAXON AND NORMAN DECORATION. At meetings of the Archaeological 
Institute on March 6 and May 1, Mr. J. Park Harrison communicated a 
paper On Anglo-Norman Ornament compared with Designs in Anglo- 
Saxon Manuscripts. He said that Mr. Thomas Wright, in the first num- 
ber of the Archaeological Journal, drew attention to the importance of 
studying architectural details in early illuminated manuscripts for the 
purpose of identifying Saxon remains. Examples derived from the Cot- 
toman MS., Claudius, B. IV, in the British Museum, and Csedmon's 
Paraphrase in the Bodleian Library, both dating from about the end of 
the tenth century, were shown by the above Saxon scholar to resemble 


very closely work in early churches like Deerhurst and Stopham. Mr. 
Harrison had carefully reexamined the above and other Saxon manu- 
scripts, illustrated with architectural designs, in the two libraries, as well 
as the admirable reproductions of pre-Norman illuminations and pictures 
in Prof. Westwood's great work, derived from sources less accessible. 
Numerous details were mentioned showing that there certainly were 
buildings of a type superior to the majority of the churches now styled 
Saxon. The result, in fact, supported the later views of Mr. John Henry 
Parker regarding Saxon architecture, namely, that it was more ornamented 
and advanced than Norman was at the time of the Conquest. The 
absence of ornament which characterized the new work appears to have 
been for many years enforced, though in time the native love of ornament 
reasserted itself, and combining with grander proportions produced the 
style which French archaeologists rightly designate "Anglo-Norman." 
The paper was illustrated by diagrams and numerous sketches, showing 
that English churches in pre-Norman times possessed many features which 
archaeologists in Normandy admit were not introduced into the two abbey- 
churches at Caen, or into Normandy much before the middle of the twelfth 
century, and then apparently from England. An accurate drawing of a 
capital in the choir of Oxford Cathedral, by Mr. H. G. W. Drinkwater, 
was exhibited by Mr. Harrison. There were features in it that are met 
with in illuminated manuscripts of the tenth century, and it may, there- 
fore, possibly have formed part of Ethelred's church. Photographs were 
exhibited of Saxon churches which showed similar features. He be- 
lieved that Britton's view, that the Normans, when rebuilding English 
churches on a larger scale, adhered, both from policy and choice, to the 
severe style of architecture they brought with them, was generally cor- 
rect. Whilst, however, Remigius built the three great portals at Lincoln 
in identically the same style as the Conqueror's church at Caen, the nar- 
row arches on either side, if of contemporary date, afford an early instance 
of the adoption of roll mouldings and ornamented labels such as occur at 
Stow, as well as in the picture of " Dunstan " in the Cottonian MS., 
Claudius A 3, the date of which is c. 1000. Numerous features derived 
from Csedmon's Paraphrase and other illuminated MSS. of the same period 
were shown to correspond with details in Anglo-Norman churches. In 
Oxford Cathedral this was especially the case. And as the weathering of 
the majority of the choir capitals contrasts with the sharper lines of the 
carving believed to be of twelfth century date, this, Mr. Harrison said, 
would appear to afford sufficient proof that the interlacing stalks and 
other peculiarities in four of them, and the acanthus foliage in two, a 
revival of which, according to Prof. Westwood, took place in the tenth 
century, belong to the period which documentary evidence would lead 


one to select for them, viz., the beginning of the eleventh century. The 
" break of joint " which has been detected in the eastern half of the cathe- 
dral, and the fact that vaulting ribs were not contemplated when the choir 
aisles were built, point to the same conclusion. Athen., March 15, May 10. 
AYLESFORD. LATE-CELTIC CEMETERY. At the March 27-meeting of 
the Society of Antiquaries (London), Mr. A. J. EVANS read a paper On 
a Late- Celtic Cemetery at Aylesford, Kent. This cemetery is of great inter- 
est as presenting a stage in sepulchral practice not hitherto noticed among 
the ancient Britons, as well as from the new class of native earthenware and 
imported bronze vessels brought to light. The graves were small pits in 
the flat earth, arranged in family circles, and each containing a group of 
cineraries and accessory vessels. Mr. Evans showed that the form of inter- 
ment answered to that prevalent in a large part of Gaul at the time of the 
Roman invasions, and in a previous paper (see JOURNAL, iv, pp. 514-15) 
had already traced certain situla-shaped cinerary vases, through interme- 
diary examples in Belgic Gaul and the Rhine district, to the Illyro-Italic 
or Old Venetian province round the head of the Adriatic. The bronze ves- 
sels which he now described included a patella and oenocho'e of Italo-Greek 
work, the first authentic instance of the discovery of such imported vessels 
in a British cemetery, though Mr. Evans showed that the custom of asso- 
ciating Greek and Etruscan bronzes with their sepulchral deposits was 
very widely spread among the Gallic tribes on both sides of the Alps. 
Among the bronzes of indigenous Celtic fabric discovered was a beautiful 
plated pail surrounded with a zone of animals and foliated ornaments in 
repousse work, presenting the closest resemblance to the decorative work 
found in the Helvetian station of La Tne, in Switzerland. The fabulous 
animals depicted were, on the other hand, almost identical with those 
found on the coins of the Remi, from which Mr. Evans drew the conclu- 
sion that this situla had been manufactured in the Rheims district and 
imported into Britain. Two British gold coins were also discovered in 
the cemetery, of uninscribed types which occur indiscriminately on either 
side of the Channel, and which were, therefore, to be referred to some 
Belgic prince who reigned in parts of both Gaul and Britain. No single 
object of Roman origin was found in the cemetery, and from a general 
survey of the evidence Mr. Evans considered that the sepulchral deposits 
found must be ascribed to the century immediately preceding Caesar's 
invasion, and referred to the same Belgic invaders who seem at about the 
same date to have introduced the ancient British coinage. On the other 
hand, the presence of some ruder urns in the traditional British style, and 
of skeleton interments in cists on the outskirts of the cemetery, seemed to 
indicate the partial survival of the earlier inhabitants on this Kentish site. 
Altogether the conditions brought to light by these discoveries, and the 


close connection that they presupposed between Britain and the Belgic 
parts of Gaul, suggested a comparison with that which subsisted between 
England and Normandy in the period that immediately succeeded the 
Norman Conquest. Athenaeum, April 5 ; Academy, April 12. 

BRUMBY. BRONZE SHIELDS. Brumby is a hamlet in the parish of Frod- 
ingham, in the wapentake of Manley, Lincolnshire. In November, the 
workmen engaged in baring the iron-stone (which lies very near the sur- 
face) discovered the bronze coating of an ancient shield, probably Celtic. 
Very few of these shields have ever been found in Britain, and I believe 
that they are almost unknown on the Continent. Mr. Evans's Ancient 
Bronze Implements contains an account of all that were known when his 
book was published. The Brumby example is not quite like any of 
those described by him. Unhappily the workmen injured it with their 
picks, but it is still a very fine specimen. It is 2 ft. 2 in. in diameter, 
and is ornamented with 63 concentric circles, about three-sixteenths of an 
inch wide. The bronze is very thin. It is quite certain that it must have 
been mounted on something. The older antiquaries were of opinion that 
these thin sheets of ornamental metal-work were intended to be affixed 
upon a wooden foundation. It seems, however, more probable that a 
thick circle of ox hide was the material employed. It may be well to 
note that a few days after the discovery of the shield a large bronze spear- 
head of late-Celtic type was found near the same place. 

In 1843 one of these bronze shields was found in Burringham moors, 
three or four miles from the spot where the Brumby shield was discovered. 
It had only 19 concentric circles, which were ornamented by many small 
knobs or studs. EDWARD PEACOCK, in Athenceum, March 15. 

BUXTON. At the Feb. 6-meeting of the Arch. Institute (London), Dr. 
J. Cox exhibited some Celtic pottery, Samian and pseudo-Samian ware, 
flint flakes, bronze bangle and Roman fibula, lately found in Deep Dale 
Cavern, near Buxton, in Derbyshire. Academy, Feb. 15. 

The tomb in the south wall of Trinity Chapel (at the east end of the 
cathedral) was recently opened. Its ridged roof (with marble heads in 
high relief) was lifted off, and underneath was found a stone coffin, and, 
on raising the coffin-lid, was disclosed the undisturbed remains of an arch- 
bishop, fully vested. The vestments were quite sound, excepting the 
woollen pallium, which had almost perished. With the body were the fol- 
lowing objects: a beautiful chalice and paten, silver parcel gilt; a gold 
ring with an engraved emerald; the pastoral staff of cedar- wood, with 
three engraved gems in the knob ; and some beautiful embroidery on the 
vestments. The body was left undisturbed; the objects of value were 
removed to the treasury in the Chapel Library. The body is thought to 


be that of Cardinal Stephen Langton (t 1228), or possibly that of Arch- 
bishop Hubert Walter (f 1205). London Times. 

CORNWALL. At the Feb. 5-meeting of the Brit. Arch. Assoc., the Rev. 
W. S. Lach-Szyrma read notes on the recent discovery of a menhir, found 
built up as old material in the wall of Gulval church, Cornwall. It has 
a key pattern and two letters in Roman character worked in the granite 
of the country. Athencewn, Feb. 15. 

ELY. At the Feb. 3-meeting of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
Archdeacon Chapman read a communication and exhibited documents on 
the purchase of the manor and advowson of Mepal in the xiv century by 
the prior and convent of Ely, as witnessed by a series of parchments which 
are preserved in the muniment-room of the cathedral. The document of 
chief interest which he exhibited was a Computus Roll of a certain monk, 
William of Wysbech by name, presented to the chapter in the year 1361, 
which contained a detailed account of moneys which he had received and 
expended for the convent, in the purchase and mortification of the manor 
and church. By this account it was shown that only a small portion of 
the necessary funds were provided from the treasury of the house, the 
greater part having been voluntarily subscribed by the monks themselves 
and their friends in the neighborhood. The names of all the donors are 
set out at length with the sums which they gave ; and special gifts are 
recorded of silver vessels, forks, cups, and mazer-bowls. Other documents, 
to the number of twenty-four, were also shown and described, by which 
were illustrated the several legal processes which had to be gone through, 
and the various transfers which had to be effected, before the requirements 
of the mortmain-acts of that time could be satisfied, and the property 
legally conveyed to the "dead hand" of the church. Academy, Feb. 15. 

LINCOLN. At the Feb. 5-meeting of the Brit. Arch. Assoc., Mr. M. 
Drury read a paper on a supposed Roman causeway at Lincoln. This 
consists of a deep concrete mass which has been traced beneath the 
course of the Roman road which still forms the southern approach to 
Lincoln. The positions of a vast number of Roman discoveries were 
indicated on a large map, and the finds were described at length. 
Athenceum, Feb. 15. 

LONDON. ROMAN COINS- At the April 17-meeting of the Numismatic 
Society, Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley communicated a paper on coins found at 
Caerwent and Caerleon ( Venta Silurum and Isca of the Romans), rang- 
ing in date from the reign of Claudius to that of Arcadius. The writer 
remarked that perhaps the most noteworthy fact in connection with the 
coins found in many thousands in that part of the country was the total 
absence from among them of any of Diocletian, their place being sup- 
plied by large numbers of those of the usurper Carausius. Dr. Evans 


read a paper on a small hoard of Koman coins found at Amiens, ranging 
in date from Gordian III to Allectus. The principal features of interest 
in this find consisted first in the presence -in it of one of the extremely 
rare coins of Pacatianus, and, secondly, in the preponderance of coins of 
the British usurpers Carausius and Allectus in a hoard found in French 
soil. Athenaeum, April 26. 

THE HOWARD VASE. The British Museum has acquired a Greek vase 
long reckoned among the art treasures of Castle Howard. Though be- 
longing to the decadence of Greek vase painting, it is interesting because 
of its bearing the signature of the artist, Python (TlvOw eypa^c), and be- 
cause of the subject, which presents one of the Greek legends in a light 
till now unknown in the Greek literature which we possess. It is the 
story of Alkmena. Her husband Amphitryon has returned from the war : 
she has fled to an altar for protection : meantime Amphitryon and Ante- 
nor have piled up in front of the altar a pyre of wood and are proceeding 
to light it : Alkmena raises her hands and implores Zeus to help her. In 
the upper part of the vase appears Zeus ; he first hurls his thunderbolts 
at Amphitryon and Antenor, and next sends a tempest of rain to put out 
the fire. The rain is indicated directly by a great rainbow enclosing a 
space thickly dotted with drops of rain, and indirectly by two Hyades above 
the rainbow, who pour down water from vases. Beside one of the Hyades 
is a figure of Dawn ('Hws). The names of the various persons, except the 
Hyades, are inscribed on the vase. The vase belongs to a time when it 
was not uncommon for vase-painters to take their subjects from the dramas 
of Euripides, and it is thought that the source of this design was a lost drama 
of his entitled Alkmena, several fragments of which have been handed 
down by grammarians. In Plautus a storm is called an "Alkmena of 
Euripides." A similar scene was enacted in the case of Kroisos when 
Cyrus, having taken him prisoner, set him on a pyre to be burnt alive. 
Kroisos appealed to Apollo, to whose temples he had made so many valu- 
able presents, and Apollo responded by a violent shower of rain, which 
had the effect of releasing Kroisos. That scene also occurs on a vase. 
The work in the Museum is unique as comprising a representation of rain. 
Most curiously, the garments of the Hyades, which are distinctly crimson, 
are spotted in white lines of dots, which, beyond a doubt, indicate drops 
of rain. The rainbow is banded in different colors. Athenaeum, March 8. 

solved to raise a research fund, the interest of which shall from time to 
time be applied towards the expense of excavations such as those for- 
merly carried on at Silchester and Wroxeter or in such other modes of 
advancing knowledge as the council may think fit. A total capital sum 
of 3000 is asked for, of which 1750 have already been promised. 
Academy, March 15. 


OLD MALTON PRIORY. At the Feb. 6-meeting of the Arch. Institute 
(London), the Kev. Dr. J. Cox exhibited a vesica-shaped private seal of 
amber, mounted in a plain rim of silver, with a suspending loop attached. 
It was found in a stone coffin at Old Malton Priory. The lettering, some- 
what rude Lombardic, shows it to be of the thirteenth century. The em- 
blems engraved on the seal are a fish, a tree, a bird, and a lion. The legend 
runs thus : Secretum signum fons piscis avis leo lignum. The material of 
the seal (amber) makes this specimen of an ecclesiastical seal of peculiar 
interest, and it is at present believed to be unique. Athenaeum, Feb. 15. 

ing of the Society of Antiquaries (London), was read a paper by Messrs. 
G. E. Fox and "W. H. St. John Hope on the desirability of the complete 
and systematic excavation of the site of Silchester. After a brief descrip- 
tion of the site, and of the results of previous excavations under the direc- 
tion of the late Rev. Mr. Joyce, the writers pointed out the very small 
portion of the hundred acres forming the area within the walls which had 
been excavated, and the immense additions to our knowledge of a Romano- 
British city, its public and private buildings, and its inhabitants, which 
would be gained by a thorough and systematic excavation, by sections, of 
the whole of the site. A scheme for doing this by subscription, under the 
direction of the Society of Antiquaries, had been drawn up by the writers, 
and submitted by General Pitt-Rivers to the owner, the Duke of Welling- 
ton, who had been pleased to express his entire approval of it. The man- 
ner in which the excavations should be carried on was fully described, 
and it was suggested that the most desirable thing to do first was the 
entire excavation of one of the squares into which the city is known to 
be divided by lines of streets intersecting at right angles. Owing to the 
destructive effects of frost and rain, it was not proposed to leave anything 
permanently exposed after excavation, unless of a very special character, 
and then it would be roofed in. The owner and the tenant having already 
consented to the work, there is no reason why the excavations should not 
be resumed this summer. It was ultimately unanimously resolved, on 
the proposal of Professor Middleton, " That a systematic and complete 
examination of the site of the Roman city at Silchester is desirable, and 
that the Council be requested to consider the steps necessary for continu- 
ing excavations upon the spot." Athenceum, March 8. 

of the Soc. of Antiq. (London), Rev. W. Green well communicated the re- 
sults of his most recent excavations of barrows in East Yorkshire. These 
had confirmed his previous theory that bodies were always buried with the 
face toward the sun, and he had also found examples of inhumation and 
cremation in the same barrow. In one case the central burial was encir- 


cled by a ring of stones within the mound. In one barrow a set of twenty 
conical jet buttons, probably for ornament only, were found lying down 
the front of the body ; in another, four bronze axes of a make and condi- 
tion far finer than any of this period yet discovered. But the most remark- 
able find was that of three round objects of carved chalk, found with the 
bones of a child of about six years old, and a drinking-cup of the usual 
type. Each object is covered with a series of patterns carved and incised, 
and has on one side a plain panel containing a very rudimentary represen- 
tation of a human face. The tops are carved in imitation of lids, with cir- 
cies and other devices. The meaning of these strange and perfectly uni- 
que objects has not yet been discovered. Pottery with the same rude face 
has been found at Hissarlik, and at Antiparos and other Greek islands, 
and it has been suggested that some objects exported from there were copied 
on these chalk things. Possibly, too, the face may have some unknown 
religious meaning. These and the other objects found by Mr. Greenwell 
clearly belonged to the early bronze period. Athenaeum, Feb. 1. 


stitute was held in New York, May 10, at Columbia College. 

Increase of membership. Professor Charles Eliot Norton presented the 
report for the past year, showing the largest increase in membership made 
since the formation of the Institute; the addition amounted to about three 
hundred members, chiefly in the West, but many also in New York. 
New branch societies had been organized at Chicago, Detroit, and in Wis- 
consin (at Madison), and a fourth was about to be formed at Cincinnati. 

Publications. Mr. Bandelier's volume treating of the archaeology of 
the Southwest had been distributed, and Mr. Clarke's second volume on 
Assos was promised during the summer, as well as a pamphlet by Professor 
A. C. Merriam on Telegraphy among the Ancients, and the eleventh An- 
nual Report. 

Election of Officers. Hon. Seth Low, President of Columbia College, 
was elected president, and has since accepted ; Mr. Wm. C. Lawton, 
agent of the Institute, was named Secretary, with a salary of $1500, on 
account of the increase in the duties and labor of the secretaryship. Pro- 
fessor C. E. Norton was elected Vice-President and Mr. Percival Lowell 
remained Treasurer. 

The Excavation of Delphoi. The main subject before the Council of 
the Institute was the proposed excavation of Delphoi. During the winter 


and spring, an attempt had been made to raise the fund of $80,000 re- 
quired to purchase and demolish the modern village of Kastri, built on 
the site of Delphoi. This sum once secured it would be possible to carry 
on the excavations from year to year, with the annual fund of somewhat 
less than $5000, which the Institute has pledged itself to contribute. 
Up to the present, the sum of between $25,000 and $30,000 had been 
subscribed in Boston and Cambridge ; but, New York, Philadelphia, and 
the West had contributed nothing. The excavation of Delphoi should 
become as much an object of national pride and energy to us as that of 
Olympia was to the Germans. The Greek government has distinctly 
shown that it favors America by deferring the term for the raising of the 
fund from last January until June, and, now, by putting it off indefinitely, 
seeing that we have proved at least the seriousness of our endeavors by the 
amount we have already raised. 

Museum was opened in March. The collections in every department have 
been greatly increased, and now compare favorably with those of museums 
of art abroad as well as in America. In the number of casts of classical 
sculpture, the museum now stands hird, the Berlin Museum easily leading 
the list with 2271, while that of Strasburg has 819, as compared with 777 
in the Boston Museum. The Japanese collection is unrivalled and is likely 
to remain so, as a similar collection could scarcely be made in Japan, so 
depleted has it become of the best w r orks of Japanese Art. The collection 
of glass, pottery and porcelain, while not large, is exceptionally fine, and the 
art galleries have now in their midst a room devoted to the Barbizon School, 
which has examples of the very highest merit. But, apart from the quan- 
tity of works exhibited, there are two things to be especially noticed in the 
Boston Museum under the new order of things, the fact that there has been 
exceptional discrimination shown in choice of material, and that the mate- 
rial has been extremely well arranged. This is especially manifest in the 
arrangement of the casts of classical sculpture, which is made chronologi- 
cal, and at the same time produces an increased artistic effect, as each room 
has a character of its own The casts have cards upon their pedestals, stat- 
ing not only the subject, but the date, the locality where found, the name 
of the sculptor, and the present locality of the original. 

The additions to the building, begun by Mr. John H. Sturgis and com- 
pleted by his successors Sturgis and Cabot, have been carried around three 
sides of a rectangular court of which the older building forms the north 
side and the additions the two ends and the south side. The walls of the 
court, which are in buff brick, reflect much light, and all the rooms are 
excellently lighted. 


The entire first floor with the exception of the two rooms, one for Egyp- 
tian antiquities and one for Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities has 
been devoted to casts of sculpture, arranged, with the exception of the 
Renaissance rooms and the Egyptian rooms, by Mr. Edward Robinson, 
curator of Classical Antiquities. Amer. Architect, March 22. 

NEW YORK. Professor A. C. MERRIAM, of Columbia College, whose 
epigraphic work, mainly published in this Journal, has made him widely 
known and appreciated by American and European scholars, has been 
appointed to a chair of classical epigraphy and archaeology in the same 






THE JOURNAL is the official organ of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTI- 
STUDIES AT ATHENS, and it will aim to further the interests for which 
the Institute and the School were founded. It treats of all branches of 
Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, Early Christian, Mediaeval, and 
American, and is intended to supply a record of the important work done 
in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories: 1. Original 
Articles ; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists ; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and 
investigations in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Sum- 
maries of the contents of the principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY is published quarterly, 
and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 pages royal 8vo, illus- 
trated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous figures. 
The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings or marks, post-paid. Vol. I, unbound or 
bound in cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be 
sent post-paid on receipt of $4 : Vol. II, tontaining 521 pages, 14 plates 
and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, unbound for $4.50 : Vol. Ill, containing 
531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures ; Vol. IV, 550 pages, 20 plates, and 
19 figures; and Vol. V, 534 pages, 13 plates, and 55 figures; bound for 
$5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, 
Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. : 
all business communications, to the Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 

The Journal can be obtained from the following firms, as well as from 
the publishers in Boston, New York, and Chicago : 

Baltimore, J. Murphy & Co., 44 W. Baltimore St. 
Boston, W. B. Clarke & Co., 340 Washington St. 
Damrell & Upham, 283 Washington St. 

Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 117-121 Wabash Ave. 
Cincinnati, Eobert Clarke & Co., 61-65 West 4th St. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 West 23d St. 
B. Westermann & Co., 838 Broadway. 
Philadelphia, Kobert M. Lindsay, 1028 Walnut St. 


Berlin, Mayer & Miiller, Franzosische Strasse 38-39. 
London, Triibner & Co., 57-59 Ludgate Hill. 
Paris, E. Leroux, 28 rue Bonaparte. 
Turin, Ermanno Loescher, 19 via di Po. 
Florence, Loescher & Seeber, 20 via Tornabuoni. 
Rome, E. Loescher & Co., via del Corso. 


It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving 
a survey of the whole field of Archaeology, should be international in 
character, by affording to the leading archaeologists of all countries a 
common medium for the publication of the results of their labors. This 
object has been in great part attained, as is shown by the list of eminent 
foreign and American contributors to the five volumes already issued, 
and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only 
have important contributions to the advance of the science been made in 
the original articles, but the present condition of research has been brought 
before our readers in the departments of correspondence, and reviews of 
the more important recent books. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) 
the Record of Discoveries, and *(2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the 
former, a detailed account is given of all discoveries and excavations in 
every portion of the civilized world, from India to America, especial 
attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order to ensure thorough- 
ness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are consulted, 
and material is secured from special correspondents. 

In order that readers may know of everything important that appears 
in periodical literature, a considerable space is given to careful sum- 
maries of the papers contained in the principal periodicals that treat 
of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, all impor- 
tant work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 

Among the original articles will appear the following : 
Dr. WILLIAM HAYES WARD, of New York ; 
i. Hiitite Sculptures. 
n. Oriental Antiquities. 

Professor WILLIAM M. KAMSAY, of Aberdeen, Scotland ; 

Antiquities of Phrygia. 
SALOMON REINACH, of Museum of Saint-Germain, France ; 

Terracottas in American Collections. 
Professor ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton ; 

Reminiscences of Egypt in Doric Architecture. 
Professor ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of Strassburg ; 

Three heads of Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, of the Hellenistic period. 
A. S. MURRAY, of the British Museum ; 

A Vase of the Mykenai type in New York. 
Professor F. B. TARBELL, of Harvard University, and 
Dr. JOHN C. ROLFE, of Columbia College ; 

Excavations and Discoveries made by the American School of Athens 
at Anthedon and Thisbe, in Boiotia. 

Dr. GEORGE B. HUSSEY, of Princeton ; 

i. Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown-Inscriptions. 
II. Distribution of Hellenic Temples. 

Professor MARQUAND and Dr. HUSSEY ; 

Norms in Greek Architecture. 
Padre GERMANO, of the order of Passionists ; 

The early Christian Palace recently discovered under the church of 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, at Rome. 

EUGENE MUNTZ, of the Beaux- Arts, Paris; 

The Lost Mosaics of Rome from the IV to the IX century (n). 
Professor A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., of Princeton ; 

i. Cistercian Monuments as the earliest Gothic constructions in Italy. 
ii. Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. 
in. Christian Mosaics. 
iv. Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo. 
v. Early- Christian and Medieval Monuments in Italy. 


London Athenaeum. We h'ave no hesitation in saying that no other periodical 
in the English language is so well fitted to keep the student who lacks time or 
opportunity to read all the foreign journals abreast of the latest discoveries in every 
branch of archaeology. 

Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. No comprehensive account of the most recent 
discoveries exists, and the new American Journal can do most meritorious work and 
fill a deficiency which, since the time of Gerhard's death, has been often deplored by 
every archaeologist who had not the good fortune to be at the fountain-heads. 

Philologische Rundschau. We may expect that the American Journal of Archae- 
ology will take an honorable position by the side of those already existing in Europe. 

Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des Charles. As we think it (the American Journal 
of Archaeology) is called upon to render real service, not only in the United States, but 
in Europe and in France, we take pleasure in announcing it here. The plan is vast 
and well conceived. 

Archivio di Letteratura Biblica ed Orientale (Turin). Periodicals are divisi- 
ble into three categories : some have no pretensions to be classed as learned ; some 
pretend to be but are not so in reality ; others, finally, pretend to be and really are. 
The periodical which we announce (The American Journal of Archceology) belongs to 
the last category. 

New York Evening Post. The American Journal of Archaeology will not dis- 
appoint the hopes of the friends of the science in America. If not well supported, 
it will be because there is little real interest in America in classical and mediaeval 

Chicago Evening Journal. The American Journal of Archaeology is alike credit- 
able to the country and to the earnest and scholarly gentlemen who have it in charge, 
and we are pleased to know that it has already achieved an enviable reputation in 

London Academy. Mr. J. S. Cotton, at the annual meeting of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund (London, Dec. 22, 1887), referred to the American Journal of Archce- 
ology and the American Journal of Philology, which he defined as being of a higher 
order of merit than any publications bearing similar titles in Great Britain. 

GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston, New York, and Chicago. 


Vol. VI. SEPTEMBER, I 890. No. 3. 





Of the many Christian monuments discovered during this century, 
especially in Rome, one of the most notable and precious, in the opin- 
ion of specialists, is the house, on the Coelian, of the saints John and 
Paul who suffered martyrdom under Julian the Apostate. It is now 
over three years since it began to come to light, through excavations 
made under my supervision, and since then its fame has been published 
everywhere. 1 This fame is not surprising, for the house of John and 
Paul, made sacred through their martyrdom and from the confessio 
erected there a few years after their death, is a monument unique both 
in Rome and elsewhere. In other cases, the early work has been more 
or less obliterated by mediaeval restoration or decoration. But this 
monument preserves its original style and is, even now, almost as 
entire in its lower part as when the two martyrs lived in it and enter- 
tained devout pilgrims at the close of the fourth century. 

* Translated from the Italian MS. by A. L. Frothingham, Jr. 

1 GATTi, Bullettino dellu Oomm. arch. com. di Roma, 1887, pp. 151 sqq., 321 sqq.; DE 
Rossi, Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana, 1888-89, pp. 68 sqq., 89 sqg.; ARMELLINI, 
Oronachetta, Dec., Feb., 1888, April, May, June, 1889 ; LE BLANT, Revue Archeo- 
logique, 1889, p. 16, and Acad. des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Dec., 1887, pp. 466-71 ; 
ALLARD, La science catholique, Feb., 1888, pp. 177-90; BARING-GOULD, Newbeiry 
House Magazine, Aug. and Sept., 1889, pp. 165-76, 287-92 ; Am. Journal of Archceology, 
vol. in, pp. 481-2 ; iv, pp. 115, 455-6. There have also been notices in the Bulletin 
Critique, the Civttta Cattolica, the Rb'mische Quartalschrift, the Bulletin of the University 
of Innsbruck, etc., etc. : not to mention numerous paragraphs in daily newspapers. 



This discovery having therefore excited so much interest, it appears 
as if the time had come for me to give a full and detailed description 
of what has hitherto been discovered, thus completing the fragmentary 
notices I have from time to time published in various periodicals, and 
answering the expectation of many who have been eagerly awaiting 
the publication of the monument. 


The Coelian hill of the Eternal City, though now a desert, was 
in Roman times closely peopled, and was called by Frontinus (De 
Acquaeduct., II. 87) a famous hill : Coelius et Aventinus celeberrimi 
Golles. When Augustus divided the city into fourteen regiones, the 
second was comprised in the Coelian, and on it, from the beginning, 
the most select portion of the Roman patricians had come to dwell. 
As I am about to describe a large and magnificent house in this 
regiOj it may be well to first take a glance at the entire hill and its 
principal monuments and thus become better able to estimate what 
place among them was held by the house of John and Paul. It 
happens that no part of Rome has been so little studied or explored. 
Yet, there is no lack of records regarding it : there are enough of 
them in the classics, in the regional catalogues, and in monuments 
dispersed here and there, to furnish the basis of a successful study. 

The hill extends from west to east in a long sinuous line between 
the Esquiline, the Palatine, the false Aventine, and the walls, with a 
circuit of between 1200 and 1300 feet. Nearly all the present streets 
of its inhabited section follow the lines of the ancient streets. They 
branch off from two main trunks, the street now called Via del 88. 
Giovanni e Paolo and San Stefano, and the Via dei 88. Quattro Coro- 
nati. They cross the regio from end to end and converge before the 
Lateran hospital, where the ancient line of the Servian wall passed, 
and where, in the opinion of many, was situated the Porta Coelimon- 
tana mentioned by Cicero and Livy. 2 The street of SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo, which skirts the south wall of the house of these martyrs, was 
called, by S. Gregory, Clivus Scauri* No ancient writer mentions such 
a street, but we know of this Scaurus M. Aemilius from Cicero, 4 and 
from Asconius, 5 who says that he had a house on the Palatine. He 

2 CICERO, in Pison., ch. xxm ; LIVIUS, Histor., lib. xxxiv. ch. 9 ; JORDAN, Topograf., 
II ; PRELLER, Die Region. *Epist. XIII, Candida Ab., lib. vii. 

* Oral, pro M. Aem. Scauro. 5 Comm. in oral. dt. ; MAZOIS, Le palais de Scaurus. 


may have paved the street which then took its name from him. On the 
left side of the street, one of the fapades of the house of the martyrs 
still stands almost intact with its portico and two stories of windows. 

In the topographic catalogues we find distinct mention, on the Coe- 
lian, of the Caput Africae, the Antrum Cyclopis, the Arbor Sancta, 
the Lupanarii and the Tabernola: 6 all these are certainly names of 
quarters or vid, but we are unable to identify them. 7 In the Caput 
Africae, near the house of John and Paul, was situated the Paeda- 
gogium puerorum Caesaris, famous in many inscriptions, 8 in which 
the imperial pages were educated for the various offices they were 
to hold. 9 

In the greater part of the higher streets of the Coelian, the rubbish 
from public and private buildings has but little raised the level of the 
soil, at least since the third century. Around the house of the martyrs 
the level is about the same as it was then, especially on the western side 
in the present botanical garden, where I have discovered, at a depth 
of only two decimeters, an external brick-pavement a spina and 
another internal mosaic-pavement, and, at a depth of 1.50 met., the 
virgin tufa. 

The smiling slopes of the Coelian were adorned with many a rich 
temple and sacred shrine : such were the temple of Jupiter 10 distin- 
guished by the epithet Ooelimontanus ; n that of Minerva Capita ; 12 

6 UBLICHS, Codex Urbis topographicus, p. 2 sqq. 

7 In regard to the Caput Africae, the excellent dissertation of Professor GATTI should 
be consulted in the Annali dell' Istituto, 1882, p. 192 sqq.; for the Vicus ab Cydopis, 
consult GRUTER, p. DCXXI, No. 1. 

*CIL, vi, 5354, 5563, 7767, 8968, 8977, 8981, 8984, 8987, etc. 

9 DE Rossi, Roma Sotterranea, ill, p. 292. 

If Professor Gatti be not mistaken in finding the exact site of the Paedagogium in 
the present field of the Passionists, it is quite possible that we have the design of 
this important building in one of the fragments of the Capitoline plan. Long study 
and careful comparison have convinced me that the fragment on which is drawn the 
Neronian acqueduct with the title AQ V E D VCTI V M ( JORDAN, Forma UrbisRomae, 
tav. x, No. 45) belongs to this part of the Coelian. Now, between the now-destroyed 
street of the Navicella and this acqueduct, where Gatti places the Paedagogium and 
where in fact was found the large base (now in the Capitol), with the dedication to 
Caracalla by the pedagogues of the Caput Africae (CIL, vi, 1052; FABRETTI, Inscr., 
p. 296, No. 257 ; GATTI, loc. cit.), we see drawn a group of buildings which do not 
resemble either private houses or public monuments, but seem, on the other hand, to 
be well suited to a gymnasium such as was the Paedagogium on the Coelian (see PL. xvi). 

10 MARTIALIS, Epigr., lib. vii. 15. . 

"GATTI, Bull Comm. arch., 1887, p. 314. "OviDius, Fast., lib. in, v. 857. 


that of Hercules Victor ; 13 that of Isis, 14 of the goddess Carna who 
presided over the guarding of the city-gates ; 15 the shrine of Diana in 
the Coeliolus, 16 called by Cicero maximum et sanctissimum^ and many 
others, among which the temple of Claudius stands preeminent for 
position, size, and magnificence. 

The secular rivalled the sacred buildings in number and splendor : 
such were the stadia for the circus and other games, of which the most 
noted were the ludus matutinus } the gallicus and the dacicus ; 18 the 
martial field for the feast of the equiria ; 19 the mica aurea for great 
banquets ; ^ the thermae ; 21 the tholus Caesareus 22 or market of Au- 
gustus, one of the two great market-places founded in Rome as early 
as the first century, 23 and many other similar buildings that it would 
be useless to enumerate. We have not retained a record of all the 
private houses on the Coelian, which are said to have numbered a 
hundred and twenty-seven, 24 without counting the far larger number 
that were joined together so as to form distinct groups or insulae. 25 
Nevertheless, we can still, from the little we know, form an idea of 
the wealth of this hill in this respect. Julius Capitolinus is authority 
for the fact, that here was the palace of Verus, where Marcus Aurelius 
was born and educated. 26 This prince so loved the Coelian that he 
would playfully call it " my hill : " Mons meus Coelius. 27 Next to 
this palace were the aedes Laterani 28 of the Plautius Lateranus who 
on his election to the consulate became an accomplice in the famous 
Pisonian conspiracy against Nero. 29 Perhaps the Lateran basilica 
afterward rose on the site of this house. 30 

13 MARINI, Arvali, i, tav. 3, p. 30. u TREBELLIUS POLLIO, in Tetricojun., cap. 24. 

15 MACROBIUS, Saturnal., lib. i, c. 12. 

16 CICERO, Oral, pro Arusp. respons., cap. 11. ^Ibidem. 

18 MuRATORi, Inifcript., p. DCXX, No. 2, p. CCCLVIH; GRUTER, p. cccxxxv; 
ORELLI, p. 2554 ; SUETONIUS, in Domitiano, c. in. 

19 PAULUS, in Festo, lib. xi; OVIDIUS, Fast., lib. in, v. 519 sqq.; CATULLUS, LV. 3; 
FESTUS, in Equiria. 80 MARTIALIS, Epiyr., lib. in. 55. 

21 CiAMPiNi, Cod. Vat., 7849; DE Kossi, Bullettino,v, p. 60; LANCIANI, Icommen- 
tari di Frontino, p. 159 ; VACCA, Memorie, 22. 22 MARTIALIS, loc. cit. 

23 DION CASSIUS, lib. LXI, c. 18 ; ECKEL, Doctrina num. vet.., No. vi, p. 373. 

**Curiosum Urbis; Notitia; ULRICHS, op. cit., p. 2, sqq. 85 Ibidem. 

26 In M. Antonino, cap. i. 27 Epist. I Frontoni, 1. 2. 88 JULIUS CAPITOL., loc. cit. 

29 TACITUS, Annal, lib. vi, cc. 49, 60 ; AURELIUS VICTOR, Epist., c. 20. 

30 For the remains of the Aedes Laterani, consult VACCA, Memorie, $120; BLONDI, 
Roma ristaur., lib. i, No. 85 ; NIBBY-NARDINI, i, p. 210; VENUTI, Roma antica, lib. i, 

8 ; and the reports on the recent excavations made during the reconstruction of 
the apse of the Lateran Basilica. 


The emperor Philip also resided on the Coelian, whom Eusebios 
asserts to have been converted to the true faith by his wife Martia 
Oracilia Severa, who openly professed Christianity. 31 Pliny speaks 
of a Mamurra, a Roman eques and prefect of the blacksmiths of C. 
Caesar in Gaul, who dwelt in Coelimonte and, following Cornelius 
Nepos, he makes a minute description of his palace, saying that all its 
walls were covered with marbles, and that it was ornamented with heavy 
columns of finest marble ; and he adds that this was the first Roman 
house in which such marble incrustations were used. 32 A leaden pipe 
belonging to this house was found not long since with the inscription : 
VILL. MAM.VRRANAE. Cicero and Valerius speak of the aedes of 
one Claudius Centimalis on the Coelian. 33 That of Junius Senator is 
mentioned by Tacitus, who says that, when the regio was burned, 
only a statue of Tiberius which was within this building remained 
uninjured. 34 Lampridius and Julius Capitolinus refer to the aedes 
Vectilianae ad Coelium montem, in which the unfortunate Emperor 
Commodus sought refuge and was killed by Narcissus at the instiga- 
tion of Martia. 35 Most notable for its historic associations was the 
house of the Tetrici, called by Trebellius Pollio a domus pulcherrima. 35 
It was situated in monte Coelio inter duos lucos, opposite the temple 
of Isis. 37 The story of the two Tetrici, C. Pesuvius and his son, was 
represented, says the above historian, in a beautiful painting which, 
in his time, was still to be seen in the house. C. Pesuvius was one 
of the thirty tyrants who arose in the reign of Gallienus. 38 In the 
regiones of Panvinio 39 we find, registered on the Coelian, the house 
of the Parthians, domus septem Parthorum, perhaps the dwelling of 
those princes that were sent from Parthia to Rome as hostages, accord- 
ing to Tacitus. The exact location of all these houses is quite unknown 
to us. So it is with the house of the poet Stella, of Caesar, of the hymn- 
writer Claudius Cliptus (all mentioned by Panvinio), with that of the 
prefect Symmachus, of which he himself speaks in a letter, 40 and with 
the many others whose names have not come down to us. 

31 Hist. Eccles., lib. xv, c. 26. 38 PLINIUS, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxvi, c. 6. 

33 CICERO, Offic., in ; VALER., lib. vni. 2. 3 * TACITUS, Annal, lib. iv. 
33 LAMPRIDIUS, in Commodo, cap. xvi ; JULIUS CAPITOL., in Pertinace, cap. v. 
36 In Tetrico jun., cap. xxiv. 87 Ibidem. 

^AURELIUS VICTOR, De Caesar., 35; VOPISCUS, Aurelianus, 31; TREBELLIUS, 
Trig, tyran., 23. 
39 NARDINI, Roma ant., I, p. 186. * Epist. xvm, lib. vn. 


Better determined and more worthy of notice are the records of a 
number of notable Christians who dwelt on the Coelian : (1) the 
house of St. Clement, where this illustrious disciple and successor of 
St. Peter held the meetings of the first converts in times of persecu- 
tion, and where, in the earliest years of the peace of the Church, was 
built the great Clementine basilica which was again brought to light 
not long since by Father Mullooly; 41 (2) perhaps the house of the 
four martyrs called SS. Quattro Coronati, over which Pope Miltiades 
built in honor of these saints, early in the fourth century, the beauti- 
ful church which still remains; 42 (3) the house of St. Faustus and 
that of St. Gregory, of which I will speak later ; and ,(4) the house 
of the Valerii, contemporaries of SS. John and Paul. They were 
the descendents of the ancient Valerii Poplicoli, famous in the third 
century for nobility and greatness. About the middle of the fourth 
century, this illustrious family became Christian and left notable mem- 
orials of itself in the annals of church history. To it belonged Valerius 
Severus prefect of Rome in 382, a portrait of whom is the fine bronze 
found on the Coelian three years past with the inscription, 43 DOMINVS 
LEGEM DAT VALERIC SEVERO ; also the sainted couple Pinianus and 
Melania junior, and several others, up to the fifth century. 44 In this 
house of the Valerii, there were built, at a later date, a free hospital, 
xenodochium Valerii or a Valeriis, 45 and the monastery of Sant' Eras- 

41 MULLOOLY, Saint Clement and his basilica in Rome, Rome, 1873 ; DE Rossi, Bul- 
lettino, 1863, p. 25 sqq. ; ARMELLINI, Le Chiese di Roma, p. 191. 

42 ARMELLINI, op. cit, p. 571. It is DE Rossi's opinion (Bull., 1863, p. 27), that 
the houses in which the faithful gathered in times of persecution, when they were, 
after Constantine, changed to basilicas preserved the name of their former owner. 
In case this owner had received, after death, the honor of saintship, the basilica was 
consecrated to his or her honor and cult. In the early years of the peace, no church 
was dedicated in the name of a saint unless it contained the tomb or some other 
record of the history of the saint. 

This observation may help others as it helped me in my discovery of the house of 
SS. John and Paul. In fact, the basilica of the SS. Quattro Coronati on the Coelian 
rises over the ruins of a Roman building which it would be well to explore. 

43 GARRucci, Storia delV arte cristiana, tav. 469, 1, tome vi, p. 104; DE Rossi, 
BuLlettino, 1867, p. 27. 

44 DE Rossi, Bull, 1865, p. 45, 1873, p. 93, 1876, pp. 14, 54, etc.; Inscript. Christ. I, 
p. 150, No. 340; Roma Sott., in, p. 720; La casa dei Valeri, 1886; TILLEMONT, Me- 
moires, x, pp. 592, 603, 823, xiv, p. 233. 

45 BiANCHiNi, Vitae Pont., in Leonem III, sect. 408 from Cod. Vat. Pal., 1811; 
DUCHESNE, Lib. Pont., I, pp. 456, 482. 


mus near the basilica of San Stefano, built under Pope Simplicius in 
the fifth century. 46 


In the midst of all these classic and Christian edifices, the house of 
Saints John and Paul stood out finely on one of the pleasantest sites 
of the hill. Turning from the triumphal way at the foot of the Pala- 
tine, it is reached after climbing, for about a hundred metres, the steep 
ascent of the Coelian. It forms of itself a block or insula, and is sur- 
rounded by three streets : one along the northern front, in the lower 
garden of the Passionists ; another on the east, leading from the present 
square of the basilica toward the Colosseum ; the third is still open, 
under the name of Via del 88. Giovanni e Paolo. The names of the 
first two are not known, but their existence is undeniable since the in- 
vestigations I have made ; the third is the already-mentioned Clivus 

As soon as Nero had brought the Acqua Claudia as far as the 
neighborhood of the garden of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, as Frontinus 
relates, 47 this portion of the Coelian became one of the most notable 
parts of Rome. Innumerable buildings arose around the famous 
nymphaeum which this prince had erected to exhibit the waters, and 
to afford to the Romans a new and more accessible pleasure resort. 48 
Through a hundred mouths, pipes, and canals, arranged in order on 
the surrounding walls, the waters fell most effectively 49 from the 
heights of the artificial hill which is in front of the Colosseum, rising 
to a height of a hundred and twenty-five feet from the natural level, 
where at present stands the large garden of the ritiro of SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo. Fountains placed below them received the waters and sent 
them up again in showers and streams, whence they were carried off 
through subterranean pipes to the Neronian pool near by, ubi amphi- 
theatri erigitur moles. 50 When the Flavii. destroyed the useless works 
of Nero, restoring Rome to herself and her citizens, as Martial says, 
the nymphaeum was not entirely abolished, and the charming play of 

46 DE Kossi, La basilica di S. Stefano e il monastero di S. Erasmo : Koma, 1886. 

47 De Acquaeduct., I, 20 ; u, 76 ; LANCIANI, Icommentari di Frontino, p. 153 sgq. 

48 CANINA, Indice topografico, p. 73. 

49 NIBBY, Roma net 1838, i, pp. 6, 58 ; CANINA, loc. cit. ; LANCIANI, op. cit., p. 153. 

50 MARTIALIS, De Spectac., Ep. n. The last remains of these fountains were exca- 
vated, on the site mentioned, in the time of Pius IV : see VACCA, Memorie, 22. 


the Acqua Claudia continued, at least in part, in front of the house 
of our martyrs. The same may be said of the buildings which, 
restored to nobler use, continued to adorn the declivity around the 
house within the entire radius now occupied by gardens and vine- 
yards. 51 The Flavian amphitheatre was erected in the place formerly 
occupied by the pool, and, on the heights of the hill, Vespasian erected 
the temple of Claudius already begun by Agrippina and destroyed by 
Nero. 52 In this way, the house of SS. John and Paul found itself in 
front of and almost contiguous to one of the greatest temples of pagan 
Rome, the Claudium, which with its cella and porticoes 53 occupied a 
rectangular area of three hundred and eighty-five square feet. 54 

The grotto of the Neronian arches which discharged the Acqua 
Claudia was lengthened under Septimius Severus and Caracalla by 
another series of arches going from the Claudium to the Palatine. 55 
These new arches were built along the road that passed by the north 
side of the house of the martyrs, in front of which they formed a new 
magnificent fa9ade opposite its main entrance. They begin on the 
front of a grandiose monument which there extends from south to 
north on the right bank of the street that leads to the Colosseum. It 
consists of two superposed rows of arches built of large masses of 
travertine of a rich design in bosses, with cornices and friezes which 
are purposely left rough in their outlines and finish. The lower row 
is now entirely buried, through the raising of the level at that point 
where the hill falls abruptly toward the plain; eight arches remain 
above ground, two of which are half destroyed and covered up by 
modern constructions. Each has an opening of about three and a half 
metres and a height of nine metres from the ground to the upper mould- 
ing of the cornice (PL. xvn). 56 Several opinions, more or less arbitrary, 

M That what is here stated is true, has been proved by several excavations which 
I have here made. This may be deduced from the following inscription (CIL, VI, 


52 SUETONIUS, in Vespasiano, cap. x. 53 MARTIALIS, loc. cit. 

5 *AuRELius VICTOR, De Ccesar., cap. ix; CANINA, NIBBY, loc. cit.; JORDAN, 
Topograf.; PRELLER, Die Region.; etc. A portion of the plan of this temple is 
designed on one of the fragments of the Capitoline plan (JORDAN, Forma urbis Romae, 
tav. x, No. 45. 55 L,ANCiANi, op. cit., p. 160. 

56 NIBBY, in his Roma net 1838 (i, 658), refers to a third row of arches placed above 
these two. I cannot say whence he derived such information. It is certain that no 
trace remains of another story in this monument, which may be regarded as complete 
as it stands, for its two tiers of arches are architecturally symmetrical. 


have been held by archaeologists regarding this monument. 57 In my 
opinion, it is nothing else than the terminus of the Neronian arches 
mentioned above. As this aqueduct was the only one built above 
ground within the city, there was every reason for giving it such a 
fa9ade at the place where its waters were discharged. 58 

Nothing can be said of the buildings that adjoined the house of SS. 
John and Paul on the side facing the Palatine, both because there is 
no mention made of them in classic writers and because the remains 
which I have uncovered there are too fragmentary to serve as a basis for 
conjecture. Such, however, is not the case with the side by which the 
Clivus Scauri passes. There was the paternal home of St. Gregory. 
It is well known that this descendent of the Anici, despising the van- 
ities of the world, retired in the flower of his years to live a solitary 
life in a monastery built by him in his own house, of which records 
and remains still exist. 59 Somewhat further up and immediately oppo- 
site the house of John and Paul are still standing notable remains 
of a public building which all architects agree in considering the 
Mansiones Albanae or the barracks of the soldiers that formed the 
regular garrison of the Alban mount. 61 The building extended, on 
one side, to the Servian wall, on the other, up to the house of St. 
Gregory and above up to the square of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. To it 
belong, apparently, the arched niches, eight or more of which are still 
to be seen on the square itself, similar to those frequently found in 
large Roman constructions like the Palace of the Caesars and in several 
places on the Coelian itself. The house of the martyrs was joined 
to the above building of the Mansiones Albanae by means of high 
galleries with a double arch like those found in the recent excavations 
of the Roman Forum on the via nova under the Palatine. Two of these 
flying galleries still remain in part (PL. xvn), the other intermediate 
ones that now exist have been several times repaired and made over 

57 For example, in the cited works of NARDINI, NIBBY, and CANINA, whose con- 
jectures have passed as certainties in the greater part of modern guide-books of Rome. 

58 The specchi which I found above these vaults and the adjoining tanks or piscine, 
the direction of the Neronian arches toward this monument on one side and that of 
the Severian arches on the other, come in support of this assertion, which agrees 
with what FRONTINUS says, De Acquaeduct, i. 20 ; n. 74. 

69 JOHANNES DIACONUS, Vita S. Gregorii, lib. i ; S. PETRUS DAMIANUS, Opusc. xix ; 
GIBELLI, Memorie storiche della chiesa dei SS. Andrea e Gregorio : Siena, 1888, 1. 

60 ULRICHS, op. tit., p 35. 

61 NIBBY-NARDINI, op. til. i, p. 202 ; CANINA, op. tit., p. 50. 


in the Middle Ages. A second military station, also contiguous to the 
house of the martyrs, existed next to the one just described in the 
grounds of the present Villa Celimontana. Its real site was shown 
by the two important bases found there in 1820. It was the station 
of the fifth cohort of the Vigili, which was placed there to defend the 
Coelian and the neighboring region of Porta Capena. 62 

For the sake of brevity, I shall abstain from any further consider- 
ations, for enough has been said to serve the purpose of showing what 
were the surroundings of the house of SS. John and Paul. Although 
this house was not situated on one of the highest points of the hill, 
its unusual size and isolation made it command the surrounding build- 
ings. Its height, of about 15 metres above the street, gave an enchant- 
ing view. Below, rose the palace of the Caesars as a second miniature 
city on the little Palatine mount ; to the right, a part of the Forum 
with its majestic temples and splendid porticoes ; the Capitol, the 
Colosseum, the baths of Titus and of Trajan, and the numberless 
buildings of the Esquiline, on the north. Eastward was the temple 
of Claudius, high up on the hill, surrounded by a forest of columns, 
the buildings of the Caput Africae, the circuses, the shrines, and the 
military stations. Then, southward, as the hill slopes down to the 
valley between the Esquiline and the Aventine, the eye wandered 
over houses and palaces, over the walls of Aurelian, along a broad ho- 
rizon limited by the Latin hills ; the Ostian, Appian, and Latin ways, 
rich with gorgeous tombs, lined the valley below, filled with number- 
less patrician villas in the midst of beautiful gardens and parks. But, 
of all this, nothing now remains but ruins and a desert and some 
modern structures. Alone, the house of SS. John and Paul still stands 
as a remnant of the by-gone splendors of the Coelian. 


Historic and archseologic documents unanimously inform us that 
John and Paul lived in the middle of the fourth century from the 
reign of the great Constantine to that of Julian the Apostate. Their 
gens is unknown, for their birth-names have not been preserved, but 
only their Christian name or agnomen which, according to custom, 
they probably received at the time of their baptism. 63 It is certain 

68 OIL, vi, 1057. KELLERMANN, Vigilum roman. latercula duo codimontana : Roma, 

63 THEODORETOS, Serm. Vlllin fine; ETJSEBIOS, Hist. Eccles., c. xxv; CHRYSOSTO- 
MOS, Horn. XXI in Genes., Horn, de S. MeleL, Con. Nicen., can. xxx. 


that they were persons of much importance and high repute at the 
imperial court in the time of the Constantines. It would seem that 
they at first followed a military career, in which they were very suc- 
cessful, and were then admitted to the imperial court as high officers : 
olim romulei servantes moenia regni, Barbaricos strarunt saepe mucrone 
globos, as Florus of Lugdunum 64 writes ; and as we read in an anti- 
phony of the ancient liturgy : sub Constantino Augusto militantes,fidem 
Christi suscipere meruerunt. 65 In the paintings that were made of 
them in various times and places, they are always represented in mili- 
tary garb, and hence came the usual opinion of the vulgar, that they 
were never anything but soldiers. However, in a fresco found in their 
house, they are dressed in the palatine robes of officers of the palace, 
such as were worn in the Byzantine period. 66 When, in 330, the im- 
perial court was transferred to Byzantium, it is to be supposed that 
the two illustrious courtiers followed their prince to the new capital 
and remained there more or less regularly at their post up to the 
accession of Julian. This opinion is made almost a certainty from 
the sum of the facts recounted in the Acts of these martyrs, and be- 
cause we know that Julian, after having been saluted emperor, never 
again set foot in Rome. Among the many amphorae for private use 
found in the house on the Coelian, there is one of singular importance 
for the signs upon it, which show that it contained wine from Greece and 
that the sender was a Christian. Comm. De Rossi, in illustrating this 
object before the Academy of Christian Archaeology, asserted among 
other things that the fact, that this wine came from Hellenic lands and 
from Christian property, would lead to the belief that the two saints 
owned landed property in the East : 67 this is a further argument in 
favor of their establishment in the East. 

However this may be, it is certain that, after Julian became em- 
peror, Paul and John retired to private life in their house on the 
Coelian. l It is not known how they came to own it, or when they 
first began to live there. To judge from its position, so near to the 
Palace of the Caesars, it is to be conjectured that their position at the 
imperial court obliged them to choose a dwelling in this vicinity, and 
that this happened while the court was still in Rome. Nor is it 

. MABiLLON,.4wafecta, 1. 1, p. 402. 

65 Of. MAZOCCHI, Calend. NeapotiL, t. in, p. 725, No. 499. 

66 DE Eossi, JRoma Sott. : II Cimitero di Generosa, p. 659 ; Sullettino, 1869, p. 7. 

67 DE Kossi, Bullettino, 1888; Conferenze, Feb. 1889. 


improbable that this house belonged to the Palace, as did all this part 
of the Coelian in the time of Nero and his Domus aurea. Or, judg- 
ing from the great size of the building, it may have been the private 
palace of the princess Constantia, to whose special service John and 
Paul were attached ; and she may have left it by will to these faith- 
ful ministers as a reward for their services. The house itself, as I 
shall shortly demonstrate, was of ancient plan, modified and restored 
several times during the third and fourth centuries. The religious 
paintings with which it was decorated in about the middle of the 
fourth century show that already at that time it was inhabited by 
Christians, that is, by our martyrs. This is a proof all the more 
beautiful that it is so rare (not to say unique) to find a private Roman 
house adorned, like a church, with religious compositions. 

It is not my intention to discuss in this place the intricate question, 
so much disputed, of the Constantia named in the Acts of SS. John 
and Paul, in order to decide who this princess was. I will only say, 
with Comm. De Rossi, 68 that she is not the Constantina of the basilica 
of Sant' Agnese on the Via Nomentana, nor is she one of the daughters 
of the emperor Constantine, but is one of his descendants, probably 
a niece on the side of Hannibalianus or Gallus, the successive husbands 
of his daughter Constantina. In support of the truthfulness of the 
above-mentioned Acts that speak of Constantia, a fact should here be 
adduced from one of the paintings in the house on the Coelian. It is 
a fresco, of the close of the fourth century, which represents a com- 
position with six figures. Of these the principal are two young men 
standing on either side of a noble damsel, richly robed and of noble 
presence : De Rossi recognizes in them John and Paul and the princess 
Constantia : cum quibus Augusto radiat Constantia serto as sang Wan- 
delbert, a writer of the ninth century. 70 

Neither is it my intention to enter into an examination of our 
present text of the Acts of SS. John and Paul, either for the purpose 
of extracting historic information or for deciding on their value from 
the critical standpoint. They include, however, a side that must be 
touched upon, as it is connected with what forms the greatest inter- 

68 DE Eossi, Mosaici : II Mausoleo di S. Costanza. 

69 Martyrolog. ad diem 26 Jun. 

70 DE Rossi, though previously prejudiced against the authenticity of the Acts in 
so far as they refer to Constantia, as soon as he saw this painting was converted to 
the above interpretation. 


est of these discoveries on the Coelian. We have found in the house 
of John and Paul not only an archseologic monument of the first 
order but a luminous proof of the truth of Christian traditions and 
historic reminiscences. According to Tillemont and his followers, 
these Acts are a tissue of fables, a contemptible legend of Byzantine 
times. Such criticism is now shown to be false. The monuments, 
discovered after more than fourteen centuries of oblivion, correspond 
perfectly and in every detail to the description in the document. Fur- 
thermore, surprising as it may seem, it was possible, by following the 
indications of this document, to conduct the excavations by a priori 
knowledge, in search (1) of the aedes on which we read that the titulus 
Pammachii was erected ; (2) of the cella in which the confessors of Christ 
were surrounded at night by the soldiers of Terentianus and put to 
death ; (3) of the ditch in which their bodies were carefully hidden by 
their butchers ; (4) of the confessio made on the site by Byzantius ; finally, 
of the tomb and the traces of the three contemporary martyrs, Crispus, 
Crispinianus, and Benedicta. With this document as a guide, I suc- 
ceeded in finding, one by one, all these precious remains spoken of in it : 
a document held to be worthy of little faith if not totally spurious. And 
so the discovery of the house on the Coelian may truly be called a tri- 
umph of historic truth and of the traditions of the Roman Church 

It would be out of place in this article to attempt to show minutely 
the correspondences between the Acts and the monuments discovered. 
Thus, in the Acts, it is said, that secrecy having been enjoined regard- 
ing the place where the bodies of John and Paul had been placed, 
Crispus, Crispinianus, and Benedicta sought for them diligently and 
in anguish of spirit, and when they had found them intra parietes 
aedium, they would come to venerate them and pray at the tomb. 
Now, in the monument itself, there are three paintings, dating from 
the close of the fourth century, placed next to one another on three 
separate walls, which reproduce this story with singular naturalness. 
In the Acts it is added that the satellites of Julian, having heard of 
the fact, ordered the capture of the three bold Christians who were 
caught in flagrante on the spot, and were condemned to pay the 
penalty with their heads. In the monuments, by the side of the three 
above-mentioned frescoes, are two others, painted at the same time, 
which represent to the life this arrest and this martyrdom in its most 
minute details. One of these details is, that the bodies of the martyrs 
are ignominiously cast to the dogs. This also is represented by the 


Christian painter a century before the Acts were written. This pass- 
ing mention is sufficient for the present purpose, and a minute descrip- 
tion of the paintings will be given in its place when the confessio in 
aedibus, to which they belong, is spoken of. 

A few words may now be said of the way in which the discovery 
of the house of SS. John and Paul took place. It was not made by 
chance, as is usually the case. It was my intention to write some his- 
torico-archseological memoirs on the martyrs of the Coelian and their 
basilica. A study of the subject at once showed me that the saints 
inhabited this declivity of the hill, and that the basilica rose over their 
house. At first, it was my opinion that little or nothing could have 
remained of the building, as is unfortunately the case with all the other 
memoriae known to have been erected in aedibus sanctorum. I wished, 
however, to be certain of the facts, and, having noticed that the level 
of the street was in great part lower than that of the interior of the 
basilica, I began to hope that in this difference I might find some re- 
mains of the house. In March 1877, I let myself down into one of 
the tombs made below the pavement of the basilica near the high altar, 
dug around in the earth and bones, and found traces of paintings that 
had all the characteristics of the art of the fourth century. Being 
encouraged by Comm. De Rossi, to whom I communicated my dis- 
covery, I proceeded to transport the bones to another spot in the 
church, and cleared the tomb of earth, demolishing all the modern 
additions made to convert it to such use. After a month's labor, I 
had opened up an entire chamber, covered on three walls with fres- 
coes of the period mentioned. From this chamber I passed, by a 
passage which I discovered, into another, then into a third and so on. 

JT O * * 

All the rooms that are placed on the main axis of the domus were 
filled with well-trodden earth up to the top and on their crushed 
vaults rested the mosaic-pavement of the basilica. This made it a 
matter of great difficulty to empty them without injuring the church 
above. But this was finally accomplished, and now more than one- 
half of the aedes which was enclosed within the perimeter of the 
basilica is unearthed and accessible. This part of the monument is 
what will be described in this and successive papers. The excava- 
tions are still continuing, and new discoveries are being made, but 
the main and historic part of the building is already opened up, and 
future additions cannot change the archaeological data which will here 
be given. 



Two main classes of houses were distinguished by the Romans : 
the domus privata, that served as a dwelling for the owner or for a 
family ; and the insula, which was either several houses joined together 
or several apartments suited to the use of several tenants. The noble 
and well-to-do classes usually lived in a private house or palace, while 
the common people, on the other hand, used to a life entirely in the 
open air, rented some rooms in an insula and were satisfied with very 
modest accommodations. The Coelian house inhabited by SS. John 
and Paul, who were illustrious and wealthy, was a domus owned by 
them, though from its size and from being surrounded on all sides by 
streets it looked like an insula. 

Although differing in dimensions, in the number and arrangement 
of the rooms, according to the wealth of the owner or the conditions 
of the ground, Roman houses were usually modelled on a similar plan 
determined by architectural prescriptions and special laws then in 
vogue. The proihyrum or entrance-hall led from the street to a large 
rectangular atrium, covered only along its sides by a roof supported by 
columns or piers : this was the compluvium, in whose centre was a 
marble basin, the impluvium, to receive rain-water. To the right and 
left of the portico were arranged a number of cubicula or rooms for 
various domestic uses. At the end was the tablinum, the principal 
room in every Roman house, which served as a reception-hall. It 
was open at both ends, so that it was possible, from the street, to see 
through the whole house from one end to the other, across the ta- 
blinum. Behind this hall was a second atrium, always present in houses 
in the least comfortable (even when the first was wanting), called the 
peristylium, from the colonnade that encircled it. This constituted the 
internal portion of the house. Along its covered sides were arranged 
the chambers in which the family lived : the bed-chambers, cubicula 
nocturna et diurna ; the triclinium or dining-room ; the pinacotheca 
or picture-gallery ; the conclavi or halls reserved for the especial use 
of the owner, etc. Fountains and gardens usually adorned the 
peristyle, which was considered the pleasantest part of the house. 
Such a model is followed in nearly all the houses of Pompeii. It is 
followed in the house on the Coelian, although its plan was several 
times modified during more than a century, and especially during 
the time of the martyrs. The Romans had this peculiarity, that, 


unless it were impossible to do otherwise, they never demolished the 
old when they built the new, but left it and sought to unite the two. 
It is astonishing to see so often, in Rome as in the province, several 
kinds of construction in the same building, the different periods of 
which are evident. Three such periods are manifest in our Coelian 
house : that of the end of the second century ; one of the third and 
fourth centuries ; and one even of the fifth and sixth, after the house 
had been changed into a basilica. These modifications affected the 
original plan considerably, which also remains, in part, uncertain, 
owing to the incompleteness of the excavations. 

The main entrance, on the outside, the ostium, prothyrum, and com- 
pluvium with the annexed buildings, are where at present stands the 
lower field of the Passionist ritiro, in the space between the municipal 
palestra and the new chapel of San Paolo della Croce. I have already 
said that two streets passed at this point, one along the west side 
of the Claudium toward the Flavian ampitheatre, the other, from the 
Claudium to the Palatine, along the line of the Severian aqueduct. The 
entrance of the house opens on the latter street. I have not uncovered 
but have merely investigated this front half of the building, the whole 
of which is outside the perimeter of the basilica. Only a few vestiges 
of it remain, disturbed by the work undertaken here during the last 
fifty years. Some beautiful polychromatic mosaics were found here, 
some of which were destroyed, others were again covered over. More 
than one-half of the peristyle, also, is lost, that part outside the basilica. 
The columns of both atria are probably the same that were used in 
the construction of the basilica, and still stand where Pammachius 
placed them. They are of black granite, a little over four metres in 
height, with a diameter of 50 centimetres. For a large basilica with 
three naves, at least twenty metres high, columns of such small dimen- 
sions must have appeared out of all proportion, as they certainly are ; but 
the pious founder, in erecting the church within the dwelling of the 
martyrs, may have preferred to pass over architectural proportions in 
order to put to such use the columns that were associated with the 
place. A similar use was made of all the other decorative marbles of 
the house. 

The remaining part of the peristyle is to be found within the area 
limited by the altar of S. Saturninus and that of S. Pammachius, under 
the left nave of the church. Investigations on this spot have made 


this certain, but the site is still filled with rubbish. Consequently, 
of the entire house only the inner chambers have been preserved in 
good condition, those which are situated behind the peristyle. Fortu-. 
nately, this was, so to speak, the heart of the house, the part in which 
the owners dwelt. This is clear from the arrangement of the rooms 
mentioned above as on the axis of the building, and from their rich 
decoration of mosaics and frescoes ; whereas all the others of which 
there is any trace are not only without decoration but are of an inferior 
quality. The same may be said of the other adjacent rooms on the 
same floor, which will be described in another place. 

That part of the house which I term the parte nobile, and which is in 
the rear of the peristyle, consists of five parallel rows oi two chambers. 
In the third and central row is the tablinum, about six metres long by 
five in width. A large arched opening leads from it into the inter- 
nal atrium, and another similar archway on the opposite side opens 
into a second smaller chamber or passageway. From this second 
room, which was open on the side facing the street, the tablinum re- 
ceived light and air. Two doors in the side-walls led into adjoining 
rooms. However the use of the tablinum may have varied, in suc- 
cessive periods, from its original purpose of containing the family 
archives, it was an indispensable part of every Eoman house. In 
this case, instead of being placed in front of the peristylium, it is be- 
hind it, perhaps for topographic reasons. 

Of the other rows of rooms one only has not yet been freed from 
earth. Thick partition-walls separate these rooms, which communi- 
cate by means of wide passages opened in the walls. Two of these 
rows have a simple archway instead of this division- wall. A glance at 
the plan on PLATE xvi will show the details of the entire arrangement. 

The rhomboidal shape given to all these rooms of the parte nobile 
may appear strange, especially as the street itself is at right angles 
with the axis of the building, and therefore could not be the cause of 
this angular deviation. A careful examination of the PLAN will show 
that this deviation increases gradually from south to north. The first 
zone of the building near the Clivus Scauri is perfectly rectangular; the 
second is almost so on one side, while on the other it deviates slightly 
from the regular plan, from one end to the other; and, finally, the third 
bends so much at the atrium and in turning becomes so narrow as to 
violate all rules and proportions. The only explanation of this is, that, 


before the house was reduced to its present condition, a second street 
passed along that side, obliging the builder to follow its line. 71 

The cryptoporticus or corridor that flanks the oblique side of the 
court is still paved with those polygons of lava which the Romans used 
for their public roads. This extends over a surface of two metres, 
which is the width of an ordinary street : beyond that point the pave- 
ment is of a different kind. 

When the street was abandoned and the house was enlarged on that 
side,' various modifications of the structure became necessary. There 
are still evident proofs of this fact. In the middle of the front wall 
of the old building, where is now the great opening which joins the 
tablinum to the court, there used to be a simple exit of small size. 
This was one of the outer doors of the house : the enlargement both in 
height and breadth dates from the fourth century. Besides this door 
there were no others that opened on to the street, from the tablinum 
onward at least ; nor were there any in the opposite wall. It there- 
fore became necessary, in order to establish communication between the 
first building and the new additions, to open two doorways, one in each 
wall. As these were found to be sufficiently strong, it was deemed not 
necessary to place over them architraves or arches, and this is enough 
to show them to belong to a date later than the building. 

At about the same time, several other adjoining constructions were 
added to the house : of this there are still visible traces in the joinings 
which belong to the fourth century, whereas all the added parts belong 
to the third or even perhaps to the second century. It is easy to iden- 
tify these additions, on the PLAN, as they all are built on an axis differ- 
ent from that of the house proper, just described ; and, besides, their 
irregularity shows that they have nothing to do with the original plan 
of the house. The additions are distinguished on the PLAN by a 
lighter tint. 

Back of the five rows of rooms that composed the appartamento 
nobile is a rectangular space four and a half metres wide and twenty- 
five metres long the exact width of the fa9ade of the house on that 
side. Within this enclosed space, which has been only partially exca- 
vated, six doors open onto the street often mentioned, the Clivus Scauri, 

71 Pompeii offers, among a hundred others, an instance quite like this in the sub- 
urban villa of M. Arrius Diomedes. The so-called Street of Tombs, on which it 
is situated, runs obliquely to the axis of the building, which led to the adoption of the 
triangular form in which it is built : OVERBECK, Pompe}i, 4th ed., p. 369. 


each one of which corresponds to one row of rooms or to one of the 
passageways that lead to them. In the fourth century, division-walls 
were placed there at different points, in order to prevent passing through 
these doors. At first, however, this entire gallery was open, and looked 
like a long vestibule with doors that communicated with the inner 
rooms. Was this, then, the prothyrum, and therefore the place of the 
main entrance to the original house? If it were so, we should be 
obliged to regard it as of very small dimensions, as without peristyle 
or atrium, on account of the streets that circumscribed it. Any opinion 
would be but a mere conjecture. It can only be asserted, with safety, 
that at the time of SS. John and Paul the domus coelimontana had no 
entrance on that side, and the six doors, interrupted by walls, served 
but to give light and air. I was hence led to seek for the main en- 
trance to the house of the fourth century at the point where I found 
it, namely, beyond the tablinum, outside the perimeter of the basilica. 
The house therefore received light from the street on the south side, 
and on the north received it from other doors and windows which 
opened onto the inner court. After the works of the fifth century, 
however, all these openings were closed or were covered by two walls 
which were then built within the house itself, along its two sides, in 
order to place upon them the twenty-four columns of the church. 
Thus was the ancient building left within the perimeter of the new, 
and was cut into three parts, following the line of the three naves of 
the basilica : not only the light but all communication between the 
sections was cut off. These walls are given on the PLAN. 


The house had two stories, or three including the ground-floor. 
To the ancient habit of preserving the old in raising new constructions 
we owe the preservation of the fapade of these three stories at the 
time of the construction, in the fifth century, of the basilica in domo 
sanctorum. This fa9ade is still visible on the left side of the street of 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and comprises the entire south side of the church. 
To the ground-floor belong the six great arched doors symmetrically 
arranged in a row as a peristerus or inner portico. Above them are 
two rows of windows, indicating the lines of the two upper stories. 
When these stories were destroyed in order to make way for the basilica, 
their outer wall was retained to become that of the church. The 
windows of the first story were closed, and those of the second story 


were used as the clerestory of the basilica. Their tops only were 
destroyed in order to lengthen them and adapt them to their new use. 
This example of a three-storied fa9ade of an ancient house may be 
said to be the only one known. In Herculaneum something of the 
kind is seen in a small one-storied building ; 71a and recently at Pom- 
peii has been uncovered, on a hill-side, a house which appears to have 
had several stories ; but such examples may be termed ruins or vestiges 
that have nothing comparable to the grandiose fa9ade of our domus 
coelimontana. There were, of course, both in Rome and in the pro- 
vinces, many higher and more magnificent buildings. We know that 
special laws were passed to keep within bounds the mania to raise 
houses to a great height. 72 Partly from the too-rapid increase of the 
population, partly through private vanity, this abuse had become 
quite general, and Petronius wrote of it, aedificant auro, sedesque 
ad sidera tollunt 73 and the rhetor Aristides could say, that all Italy 
could not hold the buildings of the immense city, if they were reduced 
to a single floor. 74 But all such buildings have been destroyed, and 
this one would certainly have suffered a like fate had it not been incor- 
porated in the constructions of the basilica. 

The height of the house from the street-level is about fifteen metres ; 
six of which belong to the ground-floor and four to each of the upper 
stories. This height is in perfect architectural relation to the length 
of the building, which is about thirty metres. Without being at 
all rich in the display of marbles and decoration, the great fayade 
on the Clivus Scauri is singularly fine in the arrangement of its parts 
and for its elegance, even since it was deprived of all ornament and 
reduced to the bare wall. In the drawing reproduced in PLATE xvn, I 
have confined myself to copying present facts, except in so far as I have 
left out certain arches built, during the Middle Ages, to support that 
side of the basilica, as well as some repairs executed from time to time. 
Neither is the fayade continued in the drawing : it originally stretched 
eleven metres further along the same line up to the portico of the 
basilica, beyond the five rows of chambers which form the main sec- 
tion of the house. It is of different design and period. The win- 
dows in this part of the wall which, like the others, were closed in the 

71a CoMrARETTi e DE PETRA, La Villa Ercolanese di Pisoni. The Casa del balcone 
pensile at Pompeii is an example of a two-storied building. 

72 CICERO, De lege agraria, u. 35. 7S PETRONIUS ARE., Satyricon. 

74 JUVENALIS, Sat. xiv ; TACITUS, Ann., viu. 3. 


fifth century, are of a single story and do not correspond in either 
form or level with the preceding ; and, besides, there is no exit of any 
sort on the ground-floor. It is easy to see that this outer wall belongs 
to the building which I mentioned above as having been added to the 
primitive building during the fourth century. That it is so, is shown 
by the plan on PLATE xvi. 

The illustration of this fa9ade will render a more minute descrip- 
tion unnecessary. One further remark it is interesting to make : all 
the windows that remain intact, as are those on the first floor, had a 
wooden architrave under the brick arch or rather archivolt, and this 
wood still remains in place, in good preservation. This is not so re- 
markable, considering the great care taken by the ancients in their 
choice of wood for construction, and in their selection of the season 
for cutting it. 75 FlaminioVacca relates, in the time of Pius V, that, 
in demolishing some walls of the Republican period 76 in the forum 
of Nerva at the so-called Arco dei Pantani, there were found dove- 
tailed wooden cross-bars used to bind together the large stone 
blocks. 77 In the Neronian port at Anzio, the beams of the founda- 
tions of the moles still remain, of extremely hard oak, 78 and just as 
well preserved was the wood extracted from the lake of Nemi known 
under the name of nave di Tiberio, which also belonged to founda- 
tions. 79 On the west side of our house on the Coelian, there remains 
of the fapade all that part which serves as the end- wall of the basilica 
on either side of the apse, above the botanical garden. In the next 
chapter, I shall describe this side. The other two fronts have been 
either demolished or hidden by the ancient and modern constructions 
of the church. 

Several staircases joined together the different apartments of the 
building. The main staircase was placed in the inner court at the 
entrance to the tablinum, on the left. There remains only a portion 
of it, consisting of fifteen steps, reaching as far as the level on which 
was built, at the close of the fourth century, the confessio of the 
eponymous martyrs. The traces of other steps on the two side-walls 
show that they continued in the same direction for some distance, in 
fact, as far as the story above, which was placed at least a metre above 
the level of the present pavement of the church ; so that there must 
have been at least twenty steps. They were made of stone from the 

75 VITRUVJUS, n. 9. 10. 76 NIBBY, JBowa nel 1838, i, p. 235. 

77 PACCA, Memorie, $ 89. 78 NIBBY, loc. cit. 79 NIBBY, ibid., p. 236. 


Tivoli quarries (pietra tiburtina), and rested on a tunnel-vault con- 
structed between two walls, with an almost uniform width of 1.70 
met. Of these I have found only some vestiges, according to which 
I have sought to readjust the stairway in order to make it passable. 
Before the house was abandoned and filled with earth, pilgrims used 
it in coming to the martyrium of the saints John and Paul. 

Another small stairway, under the preceding one, led from the 
ground-floor to the rooms added at a later date, near the peristyle. 
These being on a lower level, it was necessary to place some steps at 
the opening made at the point of communication. A third staircase, 
not more than a metre wide, led to another lower story yet to be 
described, and still another led by a different way to the upper stories. 
The two latter stories, not having yet even been excavated, are not 
represented on the PLAN. 

A few words are now in order regarding the construction of the 
building and its different parts. As in the great part of constructions 
of the imperial period, 80 nothing but bricks are employed, sometimes 
red, sometimes yellow. The facing of the walls is good, and varied 
according to the various periods of construction and the requirements 
of the site. Nearly everywhere triangular bricks are used, with which 
are mingled, after a certain number of courses, the usual courses of 
square bricks commonly called goloni, which served to unite more 
firmly the facing with the inner mass of the wall. 81 In the earlier 
walls of the second and third centuries, the facing is interrupted at 
regular intervals by rectangles of reticulated work made of small 
pieces of tufa cut in cubes and fitted together like wedges, giving a 
design resembling a network. 82 This method of construction is known 
to have been introduced into Italy during the last times of the Re- 
public, and to have ended with the early Empire. But, although these 
walls of the second and third centuries are of fine material and pre- 
cise workmanship, almost all those of the fourth are of the worst kind 
of construction. In both, however, there is this peculiarity, contrary 
to general custom, that the facing begins, not at the pavement of the 
rooms but at the lowest foundations. The same artistic difference is 
noticeable in the arches : among those of a good period there are sev- 
eral of such fine construction as to equal the finest Neronian brick- 

80 NlBBY, IOC. dt. 81 NlBBY, loc. tit. 

82 VITRUVIUS, ii. 8 ; PLINIUS, Hist. Nat, xxxvi. 51. 


work, while others, of later date, are astonishingly irregular and 
carelessly built. 

The inner and outer doorways are of varying shapes and sizes. 
Some were topped with a round arch, others, I infer, with a low arch 
erected over a marble architrave. This inference is based on the sockets 
I have found in all of them, with evident marks of the chisel used to 
extract the marble when the house was abandoned. The thresholds 
also were of marble, as may be seen from a few that still remain in 
place. The form of the ceilings varies according to the different shape 
of the rooms : some are a vela, others have cross-vaults or barrel- 
vaults, the latter form being used in nearly all the halls that varied 
much from a square plan. With a few exceptions, all were covered 
with stucco, without any cornices or other decoration in relief or in- 
cavo ; this flat surface being covered in the finest rooms with a frescoed 
decoration. The height of their imposts was in proper proportion to 
the size of the walls. Their height in the centre is, in all the rooms of 
the parte nobile, five and a half metres : in the rooms of lesser import- 
ance, there is a medium height of three metres. 

In one place only have I found any indication of the flat ceiling, 
which is, nevertheless, of such frequent use in Roman architecture 
under the names of coelum (Vitruvius, vn. 3. 3) or lacunar (Cicero, 
Tusc., v. 21. ; Vitr., vn. 2. 2). I am not able to say how the build- 
ing was covered, as no part of the roof remains. The common custom, 
we know, was to cover the most costly buildings with marble tiles and 
slabs, while the inferior houses had brick tiles, tegulae and imbrices. 83 
In the heap in which were buried all the remains of the destroyed parts 
of the house, have been found a great quantity of marble fragments 
belonging to the first kind of roofing and none belonging to the 
second, though terracotta fragments of other descriptions have come 
to light in considerable quantity. This would lead to the belief, that 
the roof was certainly of marble. The Romans sometimes used ter- 
races instead of roofs, as is now often done in Italy, in order to secure 
places for taking the air without leaving the house. 84 In our house, 
I have found traces of this custom, also, over a chamber which is now 
in great part destroyed, to which I shall refer later. 

As already noticed, the use of marble decoration in private houses 
was introduced on the Coelian by Mamurra, who was the first to carry 

83 PLAUTUS, Mil., ii. vi. 2; TERENTIUS, Eun., in. v. 40. 
84 SUETONIUS, Nero, xvi ; PLAUTUS, op. cit., n. iv. 25. 


out this form of adornment in his own house. It was therefore to be 
expected that, in the noble house of SS. John and Paul, this custom 
should be followed. Traces of marble incrustations, friezes, and 
ornaments of all descriptions have been found here in great quantities, 
giving us a high opinion of the beauty of the interior decoration of 
the rooms. Unfortunately, these are but minute fragments of what 
was destroyed by ruthless hands. Slabs of all kinds, cornices, bas- 
reliefs, friezes, bands, squares, colonnettes, capitals, bases, etc., all 
worked in the finest style, have been collected in great number on all 
the points where excavations were carried on carystium, granite, ala- 
baster, black and verd antique, coralaticus, fugitivus, porphyry, and a 
great variety of other kinds of rare marbles, known and used in Rome 
and mentioned by Vitruvius and Pliny, were used in tinting the 
rooms with their varied colors. 

The majority and the best of the flat marbles were placed in the 
pavements. Among the Romans, the commoner floors were covered 
with broad slabs of well-polished terracotta or with bricks bound 
together with fine mortar and arranged like a fish-bone ; it was called 
opus spicatum from its resemblance to an ear of corn. A second kind 
consisted of a simple layer of pebbles (astraco) and potsherds well 
pounded, called opus signinum. All three of these ordinary kinds 
were used in the house in certain crypts and cells for domestic pur- 
poses. In the next place came the slabs of marble, almost square in 
shape and of a single color, used in the simplest form of luxurious 
pavements. More than one hall in this house was paved in this 
fashion, as is shown by the regular imprints on the astraco left after 
the removal of the marbles. Elsewhere, use was made of a mosaic 
of pure white without decoration, called by Vitruvius opus tessella- 
tum, from its rectangular cubes. The work of this description in our 
Coelian house is extremely careless and irregular in the arrangement 
of the cubes, showing it to have been executed in the fourth century. 
The porticoes around the peristyle, which have been only partially 
explored, were paved in this manner. 

There were also in the building far richer pavements. Such were 
those of fine mosaic of geometric design in white and black, or in yellow, 
red and green, cubes ; the opus sectile made of larger pieces of marble 
of various colors, cut in varied shapes. Serpentine, palombino, por- 
phyry, white and yellow marbles, are the dominant kinds used in this 
house, as at Pompeii and elsewhere. The extraordinary number of 


dispersed erustae or of more or less fragmentary groups of them, which 
have been found in the excavations, shows that there were many rooms 
paved in this fashion. Of the opus vermiculatum, or musivum properly 
so called, which depicted figured compositions, I have found no cer- 
tain traces. I say that there has been no certain indication of such 
work, for, of the many pieces of this opus picked up among the ruins, 
and forming parts of figures on a ground of gold or of blue lapis lazuli, 
I am not able to decide whether they belong to the house of the third 
and fourth centuries or to the basilica of the fifth century. 

This is sufficient to show that, in this respect also, the Domus eoeli- 
montana was not inferior to the richest Roman houses of the day. 


Convent of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Roma. 





This basrelief, now in the possession of the Metropolitan Museum 
of New York, was found in the mound of Geog-tepe, near the city 
and lake of Urumia, both of which were well known to the Assyrian 
kings, and were the scene of their campaigns. For a description of 
the mound and chamber in which the basrelief was found, I am in- 
debted to Mr. E. C. Shedd, son of the Rev. J. H. Shedd, D. D., 
missionary among the Nestorians of Persia. Mr. Shedd was a teacher 
at Urumia at the time of the discovery of the cylinder, and visited 
the chamber in which it was found. I give his account. 

" Over the entire plain of Urumia are scattered ash-hills of various 
sizes, to the number, at least, of twenty-five or thirty, and others are 
found on the plain of Sulduz, south of Urumia, but none to the north, 
in Salmas. These hills are, in some cases, composed entirely of ashes ; 
in others the ashes have been added to a small natural eminence. In 
fact, there is scarcely an eminence on the plain that has not been in- 
creased, usually to a very large extent, by this means. 

"Since the beginning of this century, the inhabitants have used these 
ashes to fertilize their fields, and a very large amount of broken pot- 
tery, and some brick and stone walls, have been continually uncovered, 
the stone being removed and sold. So far as we know, no cut stone 
has been found. 

" The two largest hills are those of Degala and Geog-tepe. Degala 
Hill is composed entirely of ashes : it is about 100 feet high and 1000 
feet long. At a point near the bottom of this hill a foundation-wall 
of burnt brick was discovered ; the bricks measuring at least six inches 
thick by eighteen to twenty-four inches long. 

" Unbroken earthenware dishes are also frequently discovered. The 

variety of style in the earthenware is not great. The most common 

forms are a round pot, with a small handle and large spout, and a 

round stand, open at both ends, and usually with long rectangular 



openings in the sides, like large slits. A few specimens have some 
ornamentation ; in one case, men on horseback are represented in an 
exceedingly crude manner, the horses led by footmen. The discoveries 
being made by ignorant workmen, it was impossible to learn at what 
depth the various specimens were found. 

" Graves, also, have come to light. In a grave found at a depth ol 
about fifteen feet, half-way down the hill, was a skeleton near whose 
shoulders stood two jars, exactly alike. A roughly executed orna- 
mentation, consisting chiefly of a number of goats or rams, all intended 
to be exactly alike, extended around the centre of each jar. We have 
heard that skeletons have been found buried in large earthen jars, 
such as are yet used in Persia for storage. 

"But, interesting as Degala Hill is, Geog-tepe Hill is, in some 
respects, yet more so. Copper rings and bracelets have here been 
found arranged around the skeletons in the graves. 

" I may here remark that all these remains show signs of consider- 
able antiquity. The surfaces of the burnt bricks crumbled very readily, 
and, of the skeletons, usually not more than a few pieces of bone remain. 
In the spring of 1888 the inhabitants of Geog-tepe commenced building 
a new church on the hill. Needing water for building purposes, they 
started a well. After digging down some distance they struck the 
room in which the cylinder was found. The floor of this room is on 
the surface of the earth proper, under a deposit of ashes nearly 27 feet 
deep. Its dimensions were as follows: length, 19 ft. 3 ins. ; width 
at floor, 7 ft. 3 ins. ; width at ceiling, 4 ft. 3 ins. ; height, 7 ft. 2 ins. 
The walls were very rudely built of uncut sandstone, quarried into 
rough oblong blocks. This sandstone is the common building-stone 
of the country, and there is a quarry of it, about three-quarters of a 
mile distant, from which these blocks might have come. The blocks 
were about 1 ft. high, and 2J-3 \ ft. long. There was no noticeable 
mark of any cutting-instrument on the blocks. The floor was paved 
with common sandstone flags. Some small fragments of bones were 
found under this, but so exceedingly rotten that it was impossible to 
make anything out of them. 

" The vault was formed in the following manner : about four ft. 
above the floor, a course of stones projected slightly beyond that on 
which it rested, and from that point upward every succeeding course 
had a similar projection until the room at the ceiling was three feet 
narrower than at the floor. The remaining space was covered by huge 


flat stones, one of which measured nine ft. in length. There was no 
doorway, but on one side, in about the centre of the room, was a hole 
in the wall, about one foot square, that extended a considerable dis- 
tance. No mortar was used in the construction, and no attempt was 
made to smooth the projecting corners of the stones or to make them 
fit closely together." 

Mr. Shedd informs me that quite a number of the earthenware ves- 
sels found in these mounds have been collected in the museum of the 
Missionary College at Urumia. 1 I cannot believe that the mounds 
are, as Mr. Shedd fancies, composed wholly of ashes : they are rather 
of clay which has become mixed with ashes and saturated with the 
nitrous salts of organic decomposition. One of the oldest known works 
of Babylonian sculpture gives us the design of a burial-mound in the 
process of making, the men carrying up baskets of earth and empty- 
ing them over the corpses of the slain. 2 

It will be observed that the chamber in which the cylinder was 
found was constructed on archaic principles of architecture, remind- 
ing one of certain prehistoric Greek and Italic chambers, and especially 
of some Etruscan tombs, for example, those of the archaic necropolis 
of Orvieto which date from the vn cent. B. c. The corbelled 
vault was formed by courses of stones projecting one over another. 
In this case, the inner face of the vault was not cut so as to form a 
continuous line, but the stone courses were left in the form of inverted 
steps. The space between these converging courses at the top meas- 
ures four feet, and is covered by flat slabs, a peculiarity which places 
this chamber in a category totally different from the early domical 
Greek tholoi, and one which seems to belong to a more primitive 
stage of architectural development. This appears not to have been the 
usual method of making the Assyrian vaults, but was found by Taylor 
in the older Babylonian constructions of Mugheir (Ur), in brick, of 
course. If we may draw any conclusion from the construction of this 
chamber on the ground-level of the hill of Geog-tepe, we should be 
carried back to a period indefinitely earlier than 800 B. c. 

The cylinder (PLATE xvin-1) is of translucent alabaster, the sur- 
face being rendered somewhat opaque by exposure. It is 94 milli- 

1 1 may add that in the library of the college is a considerable collection of Syriac 
manuscripts, gathered from old monasteries and churches, and that skilful copyists 
furnish, at a cheap rate, copies for European or American scholars. 

2 This is a relief found at Tel-loh : DE SARZEC, Decouvertes, pi. in, c ; PERROT et 
CHIPIEZ, Chaldee et Assyrie, fig. 383. 


meters long, and 59 mm. in diameter ; the walls are about 6 mm. 
thick. The lower edge is ornamented with the lines of alternating 
rectangles used to designate hills : the upper edge is ornamented with 
a line of rectangles, of which the alternate ones are deeply cut. The 
designs appear to be archaic Babylonian. Two doors swing outward 
on their posts, and are held by bearded porters, who wear only a low, 
two-horned cap and a short fringed garment or skin, hanging from a 
girdle at the waist. Between the two gates is the sun-god, Shamash, 
in his ordinary conventional form. He has the low, two-horned cap, 
and wears a long garment hanging down behind, and open in front to 
expose his advanced left leg. This foot is lifted on a low hill, but the 
leg is not properly drawn, so as to show the bent knee, but is made 
shorter than the other. In his right hand he carries a club with a 
knob near the top, resting on his shoulder ; in his left hand, which is 
partly extended forward, he holds a weapon which has a blade, but 
which is not notched as this weapon generally is on the cylinders. 
Behind the left-hand porter stands Ea-bani between two upright 
standards : his face is in front view, as usual, but he steps toward the 
god. The front standard he holds in his two hands : it has, at the 
top, a conical object over three ring-like protuberances. The stan- 
dard behind Ea-bani has, at the top, an ornament like a monkey 
seated with its bent knees close up to its body, and several waving 
lines rising from the top of its head. Ea-bani has a twisted curl on 
each side of his head, and his tail is carefully curled. The phallic 
organ is pronounced, as on the cylinders, but is differently drawn. 
Behind the right-hand porter three figures in procession approach 
the god. The first figure may be a man : his headdress has been lost ; 
one hand is raised, and the other, laid across his waist, comes out from 
under his garment, which hangs unbelted over his shoulders, and 
reaches to the knee of the front leg and nearly to the ankle behind. 
The next figure is the common representation of what I regard to be 
the goddess Aa, wife of Shamash, with a long flounced garment and 
both hands lifted before her ; she has the same low, two-horned cap 
that is worn by all, unless it be the figure last described, whose head- 
dress has been lost ; she has five rings about her neck, bracelets (as had 
the previous figure), and her usual long pigtail which curls over at the 
end. Behind her is a bearded divine figure, with the right arm bare, 
and a long garment which reaches to the feet, hanging from the other 
shoulder and covering all the left arm except the hand : his hands are 


clasped across his waist, somewhat as in the Tel-loh sculptures, except 
that the fingers of the outer hand fall over, instead of rising from under, 
the other hand. All the figures are barefooted ; they have large noses 
and prominent eyes ; and they wear their hair turned up in a large roll 
behind, except the two porters, whose hair hangs down behind over 
their shoulders. The relief of the figures is as much as 2 or 2 J mil- 
limeters. The lower edge is square and rather thick, as if the cylin- 
der was meant to stand on it, while the upper part is reduced to a thin 
edge. The right-hand gate has been partly corroded away by water, 
as also a portion of the male head near it. Two small pieces near the 
top were broken off long ago, but what is missing is of no special im- 
portance. The inner surface shows the tool-marks, which rim longi- 
tudinally, proving that it was not turned out on a wheel. The entire 
surface without and within was coated with black paint, or bitumen, 
of which considerable patches remain : it must have considerably 
marred the finish of the work, which was quite good. 

This object has a very special value in the study of Babylonian 
mythology. In this JOURNAL (vol. in, pp. 50-56), I published a 
paper on The Rising Sun on Babylonian Cylinders, in which I showed 
that the scenes in which George Smith thought he saw the building 
of the tower of Babel are really representations of the sun-god coming 
out of the gates of the morning, and either stepping up over a mountain 
or lifting himself by his two hands placed on mountains on each side 
of him. I then quoted from Babylonian hymns to show that this 
scene is abundantly described. I also expressed the opinion, which it 
was impossible to prove, that we have a conventional later form of 
the sun-god on those common hematite cylinders of a little later period 
which give us a bearded deity in a long robe, with one bare leg ex- 
tended and the foot resting on a stool, and generally carrying a weapon 
like a notched sword. We here have full proof that this conjecture 
was correct. Here we find this common form of the god with the foot 
raised, and connected for the first time with the two gates and the 
porters. There can be no question of the identification ; and I am the 
more convinced that the flounced goddess who here, as so often on the 
seal-cylinders, accompanies him is his wife Aa, though I admit that 
the various goddesses were not much differentiated in art, and that 
this same form was probably employed to represent Sala, the wife of 
Ramman, and perhaps the wives of other gods. 

There are no sure means of settling the age of this cylindrical ob- 
ject; but the archseologic indications, in my mind, point to a very 


early date. Hitherto, the gates with the sun-god have been found 
only in the archaic Babylonian period ; but here we have what ap- 
pears to be a transition from this to the later form which is found 
on the cylinders which date, according to Pinches (The Babylonian 
and Assyrian Cylinder Seals, pp. 7, 8) from 1500 to 2500 B. c. There 
is nothing in the art of the relief under discussion which would forbid 
us dating it from this early period of about 2000 to 2500 B. c. ; indeed, 
the peculiar style of chevelure, or, rather the two styles one that of 
the porters, in which the hair hangs down the neck, and the other, that 
in which it is arranged in a large fold or knot, behind are, I think, 
characteristic of a period which approaches the archaic. I confess 
that I am inclined to make this object, on archseologic grounds, as 
old as two thousand or more years B. c. I regard it as a purely Baby- 
lonian product, which was conveyed, probably in some conquest of a 
very early period, to this distant land of the Minni. 


The conflict between Bel-Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very 
frequently figured on the Assyrian seals, but not, so far as present 
knowledge goes, on the Babylonian seals. The typical Assyrian form 
is that which appears in Smith's Chaldean Genesis, p. 114, which 
represents the god armed with his scimitar and pursuing, at full speed, 
the composite monster, who, when escape is impossible, rises upright 
on her hind feet, apparently halting and turning about to resist the 
attack. Tiamat appears, as in the larger and more elaborate repre- 
resentations on the palace-wall of Nimrud, in her conventional form, 
with the head, front legs and feet of a lion, short square wings, the 
body covered with feathers, a short fan-shaped tail, and the hind legs 
and claws of a bird of prey. This type of griffin, or rather chimera, is 
very marked and characteristic. On one cylinder, however, belonging 
to Mr. F. W. Williams of New Haven, the dragon becomes a real serpent 
(PL. xvin-2). In the later cylinders of Assyria, or still later in the 
time of the second Babylonian Empire, or the Persian Empire, we 
find that Tiamat is replaced by various human-headed sphinx-like 
figures, or even by birds. Indeed, there are so many transitional forms, 
before we come to the characteristic Persian representation of the 
divine hero fighting a lion, that it seems as if there resulted a confu- 
sion between the idea of Bel-Merodach fighting the dragon, and the 
conflict of Gisdubar and Ea-bani with the lion and the buffalo. 


There is, in some of these representations, a feature that needs a 
consideration which it has not received ; that is, the smaller griffin, 
or chimera, which appears between the legs of Merodach, also swiftly 
pursuing Tiamat. It appears in its most perfect form on an Assyrian 
serpentine cylinder belonging to me, which is the finest representation 
of this scene, in its original form, that is known to me (PL. xvm 3). 
Another extremely fine specimen, belonging to Mr. R. S. Williams 
(of Utica, N. Y.), figured in this JOUKNAL (u, PLATE v-8), is cut 
in chalcedony, but, being wrought in part with the wheel, is less 
defined in some of the outlines. Other good specimens are found in 
Lajard, Culte de Mithra, xxxm-4, xxxvn-4. It is evident that 
this smaller dragon is one of the allies of Merodach, not of Tiamat. It 
is evidently running at full speed, with the legs thrown forward and 
the back at full length, the mouth open and the tongue thrust out, as 
in the case of the larger dragon. It is not lying prostrate, as appears 
by comparison of this and the Williams cylinder. It is to be explained 
from the story of the conflict between Merodach and Tiamat found in 
the fourth tablet of the creation-series. After the description of the 
arming of Merodach, which I will quote later, we read : 

" He created the evil wind, the hostile wind, the storm, the tempest, 
the four winds, the seven winds, the whirlwind, the unending wind ; 
he caused the winds he had created to issue forth, seven in all, 
confounding the dragon Tiamat, as they swept after him." 

Later, when the conflict was joined, we read : 

" The evil wind that seizeth from behind he sent before him ; 
Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow it ; 

he made the evil wind to enter so that she could not close her lips. 
The violence of the wind tortured her stomach, and 
her heart was prostrated and her mouth was twisted." 3 

Here we have a troop of evil winds created to accompany Merodach 
and aid in his attack. In the story of the attack, the wind becomes 
singular : " He made the evil wind to enter." In reducing the story 
to a design for a cylinder, all the evil winds could no more be pictured 
than all the weapons with which the god armed himself. Only one 
weapon is usually given, the straight-handled scimitar, or sickle, the 
" weapon unrivalled " of the poem. We may, with considerable confi- 
dence, conjecture that the horrible composite monster who accompanies 
Merodach is this " evil wind " similar in race to the evil Tiamat, and 
represented in the same fashion. A well-known winged statuette 

3 SAYCE, Hibbert Lectures, pp. 381, 382. 


representing the evil southwest wind (Perrot et Chipiez, n, p. 496) 
mingles human with animal and bird characteristics, and belongs to 
another type. A similar form for an evil spirit is used also for the 
death-demon on the back of the bronze funeral-tablet described by 
Clermont-Ganneau (Perrot et Chipiez, n, pp. 363-4). 

I have remarked that the representation of the fight between Me- 
rodach and Tiamat does not emerge in art until the Assyrian period, 
and I have been sometimes inclined to believe that the myth, as told 
in the fourth creation-tablet, was of a comparatively late origin. 
Nevertheless, it is to be remembered that the dragon is not unknown 
to Babylonian art : perhaps a dozen or more cylinders are known in 
which it appears, in an upright position, and in no special relation to 
other figures on the cylinder, unless its open mouth sometimes seems 
to threaten a human figure before it, or, as in one or two cases, it is 
in an attitude of conflict with another figure. 4 The dragon-form is 
perfectly distinct and marked : the lion-head, the wings, and the 
feathered hind-legs, and eagle-claws. There can be no mistake about 
its being the same form of dragon as Tiamat in the representation of 
her conflict with Merodach. Nevertheless, as we have already seen 
that the evil wind may be represented under the same griffin-form, the 
evidence, that it is really Tiamat, is less complete than we might desire. 
We can only say that these cylinders make it probable that Tiamat is 
a factor in the Babylonian as well as in the later Assyrian art. 

But we now come to another cylinder (PL. xvm 4), an impression 
of which has lately come into my possession, and which is the im- 
mediate occasion of this paper. It is a large cylinder of shell, 33 
millimeters in length and about 20 mm. in diameter. On it is a 
very spirited design, so far as I know, quite unique in Babylonian or 
Assyrian art. It represents a god, standing in a four-wheeled chariot 
and holding the reins in his left hand, while the body is bent back- 
ward and the raised right hand holds, in the air, a whip with which 
he is about to strike. He is clad in a long, flowing garment, which 
plainly covers his body from the waist down, but it is not clear that he 
wears any garment on his arms or the upper part of his body. His 
beard falls on his breast, and he wears the low, two-horned cap, or 
turban, worn generally by the gods. The pole of the chariot rises 

4 A characteristic example is given in MEN ANT, Recherches sur la Glyptique orientate, 
fig. 96 ; see also my article, " Human Sacrifices " on Babylonian Cylinders, JOURNAL, 
vol. v, p. 35, fig. 8. 



almost vertically from the axletree, and then gently descends till it 
reaches the neck of the creature drawing it. On the left of the pole is a 
chimera or dragon, the possible mate to it on the right not being drawn. 
It is similar to the regular conventional form of Tiamat, familiar in 
Assyrian art, and very much better drawn, with more life and feeling, 
than the Babylonian forms of the dragon on the hematite cylinders. 
It is walking forward, an attitude not appearing elsewhere. It has 
the head, body, front legs and feet of a lion ; two wings, short and 
square, arising from its shoulders ; a short, fan-shaped tail, feathered 
hind-legs, and the feet of a bird of prey, with the claws reaching for- 
ward and back. The head, somewhat depressed, with the mouth wide 
open, and with what looks like a long forked tongue or a double stream 
reaching from the mouth to the ground, gives the monster an attitude 
of unwilling subjection. We have here another remarkable example, 
showing how much better the artists drew the animal than the human 
figure. Between the wings of the dragon rises a female figure, who 
might be standing on the front part of the pole of the chariot or on 
the animal's neck. She is nude, with the body in side view, except 
the breast. On her head is the low, two-horned cap, and her long hair 
falls behind her shoulders as far as her elbow. Her two hands are 
raised, and each holds by the middle an object consisting of three wav- 
ing lines, doubtless meant to represent the forces of nature light- 
ning and storm. Directly in front of these divine figures which I 
have described, and facing them, is a human worshipper, pouring 
out a libation by an altar. His head is bare ; he wears a simple robe 
reaching to his ankles, holds his right hand across his waist, while the 
extended left hand holds a vase, out of which a slender stream falls 
to the ground between the altar and the monster drawing the chariot. 
The altar is rectangular, with a height nearly double its breadth, and 
the upper-front corner cut out so as to make a step or shelf. On the 
altar are two lines, apparently representing thin loaves of bread. 
The whip of the god in the chariot extends back so as to be over the 
head of the worshipper. 

This extraordinary cylinder has no parallel, to my knowledge, and it 
is important to learn its period and its meaning. The material of the 
cylinder is shell, the central cone of one of the helix shells of the Per- 
sian Gulf. So far as I know, this material was never used except in 
the more archaic period. From it are made large thick cylinders of 
the same size and shape as the archaic Babylonian cylinders of serpen- 


tine or other harder stone. The material and shape are almost con- 
clusive that this cylinder also is archaic, that is, of a period of from 
2500 to 4000 B. c. With this agrees the form of the altar, which I 
have never seen except on an archaic cylinder. It is to be found on 
a seal figured in Me"nant, Glyptique Orientale (i, p. 163), and on an- 
other cylinder now belonging to the Metropolitan Museum, figured by 
me in a paper on A Babylonian god of Agriculture, in this JOURNAL 
(vol. II, p. 263). Besides this old form of altar, the figures of the god 
in the chariot and of the worshipper are characteristically archaic. 

But we must turn to those elements which are unfamiliar and new. 
On a number of other cylinders we have chariots drawn by animals, 
but none of them, apparently, are archaic Babylonian. Such,cases are 
found in M&iant, Pierres Gravtes, n, pp. 75, 82, 120, 166; Lajard, 
Culte de Mithra, XLI, 3 ; LIV, B, 10 ; Culliinore, Oriental Cylinders, 
No. 6 ; and De Clercq, Catalogue Raisonnee, Nos. 284, 286, 287, 310 
(some of which are duplicated). All these are as late as the Assyrian 
or even the Persian period, and not one has a four-wheeled chariot 
of this shape. In Assyrian art, the chariot is two-wheeled and the 
wheels are spoked, while these are evidently solid. Both the body and 
pole of the chariot are peculiar, and, so far as I know, unlike those of 
any later chariot that has been figured. 

The nude female deity, rising between the wings of the monster 
drawing the chariot, is also unique. The fact that she is nude sug- 
gests antiquity, as we know that at a quite early period even Gisdubar, 
who is nude in the more archaic cylinders, becomes decently clothed. 
The only known form of a nude goddess is that of the goddess whom 
Lenormant calls Zarpanit, and Me"nant calls Beltis, represented with 
arms across her breast, and in front view. This, if the same deity, is 
in an entirely different attitude. I have already said that her head- 
dress is of an ancient type. She holds in each hand the object already 
described as formed of three waving lines, which is evidently a rep- 
resentation of lightning. Its identification with the lightning can be 
proved by a glance at the figures of Ramanu, the god of the atmos- 
phere, who holds in one of his hands a symbol of lightning similar in 
shape : beside the many seal-cylinders with this representation, the most 
important example is perhaps that in the Malthai' relief (Perrot et C., 
op. eit., fig. 313) in which the forks are distinctly wavy. That it is a 
weapon, would be suggested by comparison with the famous great figure 
of Bel fighting the dragon, from Nimrud, figured in Lajard, Monu- 


ments (second series, pi . v) . In that figure, the god's sword and scimitar 
hang by his side, and he holds in each hand (as this goddess does) a 
double trident consisting of three waved prongs, just like this we are 
considering, except that in the middle, where the hand grasps them, the 
three as held by Merodach are reduced to a single connecting rod or 
handle. We can hardly go astray in supposing the weapon to be the 
same, but the simpler form on our cylinder suggests greater antiquity. 

We now come to the monster drawing the chariot. It is as fully 
developed as on the Nimrud sculpture just mentioned. I confess that I 
am startled to find it in this form, especially as I had come to think 
it was to be found, in Babylonian art, only in the upright, crabbed, 
conventional form on the hematite cylinders. But, even here, it must 
be considered that these hematite cylinders are among the older of the 
class, and that there must have been a free unconventional prototype 
for the established conventional form. Perhaps some of the best illus- 
trations of the conventional upright dragon on the hematite cylinders 
are found in De Clercq, op. cit., figs. 73, 74, 75, 76. -In figs. 73 and 
75, the dragon is attacking a cowering kneeling human figure; in fig. 
74 it is fighting with a lion ; and, in fig. 76, it is fighting with Ea- 
bani. These are among the freer ones of this form, and they are all 
on the short, thick hematite cylinders which are the oldest of this mate- 
rial, and form the connecting link between the slender hematites of the 
second period and the thick shell, serpentine and jasper cylinders of 
the earliest period. The very freedom and strength with which the 
design is drawn on the cylinder now under consideration is evidence 
of its archaic character. It is well known that the oldest cylinders are 
drawn with the most liberty and vigor : they far excel the later Baby- 
lonian ones in composition and attitude. On this cylinder, the god 
holding the whip, the goddess with the weapon in her hand, and the 
monster drawing the chariot are all drawn with a freedom which allies 
them, in artistic style, with archaic examples of the art ; and this only 
confirms, what seemed proved by the material and shape of this cyl- 
inder, that we have here a precious example and a very ancient illus- 
tration of a mythologic scene from Southern Babylonia. 

What, then, does it represent ? It is a god, in a chariot drawn by 
a composite monster of the Tiamat type, and accompanied by a god- 
dess carrying weapons of conflict. This is the mythologic group 
before which the worshipper pours his libation. I venture to see in 
this group the god Bel-Merodach going forth to conflict, or possibly 


returning from it. Now let me quote the passage from the fourth 
tablet of the creation-series describing the arming of Merodach : 

" They [the gods] gave him a weapon unrivalled, consuming the hostile : 

' Go (they said) and cut off the life of Tiamat ; 

let the winds carry her blood to secret places.' 

They showed his path and they bade him listen and take the road. 

There, too, was the bow, his weapon (which) he used ; 

he made the club swing, he freed its seat ; 

then he lifted up his weapon (which) he caused his right hand to hold ; 

the bow and the quiver he hung at his side ; 

he set the lightning before him ; 

with a glance of swiftness he filled his body. 

He made also a snare to enclose the dragon of the sea. 

He seized the four winds that they might not issue forth from her, 

the south wind, the north wind, the east wind (and) the west wind. 

His hand brought the snare near unto the bow of his father Anu. 

Then Bel lifted up the hurricane, his mighty weapon. 

He rode in a chariot of destiny that fears no rival. 

He stood firm and hung the four reins at its side." 5 

Our cylinder seems to give us Bel-Merodach in his chariot, riding 
forth armed to the conflict. He is drawn by a monster like that which 
on later cylinders accompanies him, and which I have identified with 
the evil wind. " He set the lightning before him " says the poem : 
and here the goddess, who precedes him, is armed with the lightnings, 
which in other figures the god himself hurls ; and, indeed, on some 
cylinders (PL. xvm-3) the arrow with which he shoots Tiamat is 
pointed with a trident, identifying the arrow with the lightning. This 
triple-waved line is the chief element in the trident-weapon generally 
carried by a god who often leads a bull by a rope, but sometimes leads 
a winged dragon of the form now under discussion, as in Lajard, op. 
tit., xxxvn, 1 ; see, also, my article on " Human Sacrifices " on Baby- 
lonian Cylinders, JOURNAL, vol. v, fig. 19. 

If our deity in the chariot be Merodach, the goddess who accom- 
panies him is his wife, Zarpanit. She is also known under an old ' 
name Gasmu, and may be a form of Belit. I have said that the fre- 
quently-appearing nude goddess, with arms akimbo and in front view, 
is identified by Lenormant with Zarpanit, and by M6nant as one of the 
confused forms of Belit-Ishtar. I can hardly doubt that we have here 
one of the early, free forms of Zarpanit, wife of Bel-Merodach, which 
later were conventionalized and fossilized into the front-view, nude 

*SAYCE, Hibbert Lectures, pp. 380-1. 


goddess, with arms across the breast, which so often appears on the 

We have, then, in this cylinder, one of those precious early exam- 
ples of Babylonian art, when mythologic designs were in the forma- 
tive period, when full pictures were made and the artist's originality 
had not yet been reduced to the reproduction of conventional symbols 
and hints. It is these early cylinders that will bring us most fruit for 
our study ; and this one gives, apparently, an episode in the story of 
the beneficent demiurgic Bel-Merodach, and shows him to us riding out 
to conflict with the powers of darkness and disorder, and accompanied 
by his wife Zarpanit, carrying his weapons, and by the monsters of 
the air which he tamed to his service. 







HISTORY OF THE MONASTERY. On one of the ridges of the classic 
Mons Ciminus, about eight miles from Viterbo, stood a monastery 
founded by the Benedictines at an early date. 1 It was then connected 
with the important monastery on Monte Amiata, 2 and more than one 
document in the archives of Orvieto attest this fact. Little is known 
of its early history : 3 its interest for us commences when it was handed 
over to the Cistercian order in such a state of ruin and desertion as to be 
uninhabitable. The order appears to have demurred at the idea of 
maintaining its languid existence, for it was at a time when the attempt 
was being made (in 1151) to curb the injudicious, almost intemperate, 
spread of the order by the foundation of a great number of unnecessary 
monastic establishments. 4 In this, as in many other cases, Papal in- 
sistence finally prevailed, and in 1206, according to Ughelli, the mon- 
astery was occupied by Cistercian monks from Pontigny. A few words 
regarding this fact, well known in monastic annals, will give a good 
basis for a judgment on the date and origin of the buildings whose 
description is to follow : it is condensed from Ughelli, Italia Sacra, t. 

1 A page is devoted to the monastery, by Cav. K. OJETTI, in the Mostra della Citta 
di Roma (1884), pp. 153-4. These remarks are, however, founded on nothing but 
drawings of the fa?ade and apse, the two parts of the church that do not belong to 
the original structure. 

8 JANAUSCHEK, Orig. Oisterc. torn. I, p. 231. 

3 " From a parchment of 1066 and another of 1044 from the archives of S. Marlino 
in Montibus or al Cimino, now transferred to the archives of the Vatican, as is noted 
by GARAMPI (It&r Viterbien. advers., vol. in, No. 135, MSS. Arch. Vat.), we find that 
the Benedictines of S. Martino al Cimino had at that time jurisdiction over the church 
of S. Pellegrino, around which were some possessions of that Abbey and of S. Gio- 
vanni in Cocciola or Ciocola : " CRISTOFORI, Le tombe del Papi in Viterbo, p. 6. 

* DOHME, Die Kirchen des Cistercienserordens in Deutschland, etc., p. 18. 



I, c. 1403-4, 5 with reference also to Janauschek (Orig. Cist., t. i, p. 
124), 6 and the authorities which he there quotes. 

It was in 1150 that Pope Eugenius III gave the monastery to the 
Cistercian order, by which it was placed under the jurisdiction of St. 
Sulpice in Savoy, one of the main oifshoots of Pontigny. This con- 
nection with St. Sulpice lasted for over a half-century without pro- 
ducing any improvement in the condition of San Martino. The 
general chapter of the order consequently determined to cut off all 
connection with it. It was then that Innocent III came to its aid. 
From his letter, published by Ughelli, we learn that the monastery 
was in abject poverty and contained but three monks. The Pope, 

5 Hoc tempestate [time of bishop Gensonius of Viterbo, 1149-79] ac Petro Praeside 
vetus monasterium S. Martini Ord. S. Benedicti in montibus Ciminis octavo ab hac urbe 
lapide, alieno aere oppressum, et fere ad nihUum redactum, Eugenius III monachis Oister- 
ciensibus reformandum et incolendum tradidit. Verum cum sub Innocentio III ad exlre- 
mam paupertatem redactum esset, generate capitulum Cisterciense (ut MANRIQUEZ scribit 
in Annal. Cist. Ord, torn. 3) atque Innocentius ipse zelo inter se religionis decertarunt : 
illud, dum penitus deserere statuit, quod non poterat in observantia conservare, hie cum con- 
ventum de now illuc adducit ; et liberandis oppignoratisfundis mille libras argenti, augmento 
dotis ecclesiam integram donat; ex quorum fructibus ibidem substentarentur. Covstat 
utrumque ex ejusdem Papae litteris expedites anno 1206 ad Petrum abbatem, fratresque, qui 
tune recens venissent ex Pontiniaco Galliae ejusdem ordinis coenobio, in hunc modum ex 
Reg. Vatic. NicolailVubilnnocentii litterae confirmantur. 

6 Illustre illud asceterium in cacumine montis Cimini, terra Viterbiensi et patrimonio S. 
Petri situm nullique dipecesi subjectum, perantiqua familiae Benedictinae sedes erat, cujus 
restaurator jam Gregorius VHfuisse traditur. Quum autem saeculo XII aere alieno red- 
dendo impar el fere ad nihilum redactum esset, ab Eugenio III P. M. a. 1150 monachis Cis- 
terciensibus e S. Sulpitio (de tinea Pontiniaci) advocatis reformandum traditum est (Bi. Pa. 
Ha. M. Du. V. Vi. N. W. Bl; 1149 : A. R. E. EM. L. La.). De antiquioribus abba- 
tibus nil constat; unius sine nomine memoria in statuto Xlcapituli generalis a. 1193 occurrit. 

Verum quum enormia quibus ilia abbatia laborabat damna a Sulpitiensibus omnem 
industriam adhibentibus per L annos reparari non potuissent et capitulum generale earn 
deserendam esse constituisset, ex Innocentii Illimperio Pontiniaco resignata est, quo facto 
novus conventus Petro abbate duce inde emissus S. Martinum occupavit eumque liberalissimis 
donis a dicto pontiftce Gal. Febr. 1207 (perp. 1206) collatis adjutus ecclesiae et ordini Ois- 
terciensi conservavit; ubi silentio praeterire non licet, Eainerium Capocium, cardinalem 
nostrum, de monasterii aedibus rursus aediftcandis egregiepromerilum esse. Quod ad tempus 
quo Pontiniacenses advenerint attinet, Moronus (quo teste nescimus) pro a. 1199 contendit t 
Jongelinus (JO. St. JC, Ve. Bo.), Historia Pontiniacensis, Chaittou pro 1200, Bl pro 
1203, Na. Fpro 1216 (olio loco, ubi S. Martinus perperam filia Vallis-Ecdesiarum vocatur, 
pro 1206) ; sed tamen considerantes matris mutationem a capitulo generali a. 1207 appro- 
batam esse, porro Ughellum ex codice S. Salvatoris Montis-Amiatae referre, conventum a 
1207 advenisse, Innocentium III denique laudatas literas eodem illo anno 1207 " ad Petrum 
abbatem et fratres qui tune recens venerant " dedisse, eos initio a. 1207 S. Martinum 
ingressos esse rede asseritur. 


however, promised many gifts if the parent monastery of Pontigny 
would consent to send there a colony, and if the general chapter would 
rescind its resolution to separate from it. Early in the year 1207, 
the colony from Pontigny, under abbot Peter, entered San Martino. 
Innocent III paid all its debts and endowed it, as Ughelli relates, and 
within a few years Card. Rainerius Capocci gave many gifts and en- 
abled the monks, under his supervision, to rebuild the entire monas- 
tery. So generous was he toward it that he, rather than Innocent III, 
is regarded as the real founder. I will here repeat two extracts given 
by Ughelli from codices of the monastery of Monte Amiata that are 
almost contemporary with the event. A chronicon of the monastery 
says : Anno 1199 Innoeentius Illsedit an. 18 m. 4 d. 22. Hie multa 
bona fecit. Hie renovavit monasterium 8. Martini de Monte Viterbii et 
anno 1207 de Pontiniaco fecit conventum ibi venire. Another codex, 
after reporting the facts mentioned above, adds : Raynerius cardinalis 
noster non multo post tempore fere totum monasterium reaedificavit et 
bonis multis locupletavit. 

Cardinal Capocci belonged to the Cistercian order, and when he 
became one of the leading ecclesiastics of his day never ceased to 
advance its interests with a strong and generous hand, until later in 
his life he transferred his favors largely to the new and more popular 
Dominican order, a fact which seems to have taken place before 1220. 
It was mainly through his influence and example that Viterbo became 
perhaps the greatest monastic centre in Italy during the first half of 
the thirteenth century. The construction of the buildings of S. Mar- 
tino was one of his earliest undertakings, and we are led, without regard 
to the style of the construction, to date them between 1207 and about 
1225 : before the later date we find him erecting in Viterbo itself the 
monasteries of S. Maria della Quercia, S. Maria di Gradi, S. Maria 
della Verita, and others ; some of which were intended for the Cister- 
cians, but all were finally handed over to the Dominican order, under 
the influence of his changed affections. 

The old connection with the great monastery of S. Salvatore di 
Monte Amiata appears to have been retained, especially after it joined 
the reform, in 1228, and had brought under its sway a number of 
churches in Viterbo and its vicinity. 7 

MONASTIC BUILDINGS. The buildings that remain from the old 
monastery date back to the time of Innocent III and Cardinal Capocci, 

7 JANAUSCHEK, op. cit., p. 231 j CRISTOFORI, op. cit., pp. 5, 7, 9, etc. 


and show it to have been an establishment of considerable size and 
importance ; almost a rival to the more southern colonies of Casamari 
and Fossanova. All but the church and chapter-house are in a ruinous 
condition, owing principally to the construction, on the site, of the 
great Pamphili palace. In 1564, the monastery had become extinct, 
and the property passed into the possession of the Vatican chapter. 
Toward the middle of the xvn century, it became the property of the 
Doria family, who are still its owners. Donna Olimpia Pamphily, 
sister-in-law of Innocent X, who died in 1657, made the site her 
favorite residence. She built a great palace within the former pre- 
cincts of the ruined monastery, restored the church in the barocco taste 
of the time, and was buried there, as is shown by two inscriptions, one 
placed over the door of entrance, the other in the pavement in front of 
the high altar. 

The area of the monastery not occupied by the palace is mainly filled 
with humble dwellings, built partly among the mediaeval ruins, and, 
in some cases, leaving the old structures intact : some are even attached 
to the walls of the side-aisles of the church. 

CHURCH. Contrary to the usual Cistercian custom, the church is 
placed to the right of the monastic buildings. The fa9ade is badly 
restored. Its general design can still be discerned in the central por- 
tion, especially in the portal, but the restorations have been so radical 
as to obliterate nearly all traces of the original work. It is divided 
vertically into three sections. In the centre is a round-headed portal 
surmounted by a gable, with a single column on either side ; above it 
is a large false pointed arch reaching up to the gable, in the summit 
of which is a modern rose- window. Above this gable is a part of the 
ancient fa9ade, with a round-headed window and a false horizontal 
termination. On either side, over the aisles, rises a tower in three 
stories, only the upper one being provided with windows. These 
towers are of late work, and the church did not originally possess any. 

The interior (PLATE xix) has remained practically unchanged in 
its lower portion. A few barocco altars were set up in the side-aisles 
by Donna Olimpia, thus closing their windows, and the beautiful tone 
of the peperino stone was covered with a coat of whitewash. The apse 
was disfigured by a coat-of-arms and some pallid decoration in fresco. 

It is interesting to compare this interior with that of Fossanova and 
also with the French transitional interiors. Some twenty years or more 
intervene between Fossanova and San Martino; and the changes that 
had taken place in France during this time are clearly reflected in the 


latter of these two buildings. The Cistercians of Pontigny had been 
influenced by the transitional buildings of the Ile-de-France erected 
shortly before 1200 ; and in this case they carried out what was per- 
haps the favorite type, that in which piers alternate with columns 
along the nave. This church of San Martino is as truly built by 
French architects and in an unadulterated French style as is Fossa- 
nova ; but the style is less severe ; it is less Cistercian, and conforms 
more to the type of the Ile-de-France ; the prototype is not Clairvaux 
but Pontigny for each of the four main foundations of Citeaux seems 
to have possessed a variation of the general architectural type. 8 

San Martino is lighter in its proportions, and yet, instead of show- 
ing increased height, we find that its main nave is broader in relation 
to its height, and this must have been still more marked before the 
vaults were raised. A consequence is the omission of the row of 
small windows between the arcades of the nave and the clerestory, 
and a consequent diminution in the slant of the roof of the side-aisles. 
There is also a diminution in the verticality of lines, owing to the sys- 
tem of vaulting. The alternation in the supports was intended, of 
course, to provide for the sexpartite vaulting, as at Notre Dame, the 
choir of Senlis, and the cathedrals of Mantes and Laon ; but this origi- 
nal intention was here either lost sight of during the construction, as 
in the naves of the cathedrals of Senlis and Noyon, or a quadripartite 
vaulting, like the present one, was a later substitution. 9 Thus, we find, 
at present, an engaged colonnette rising only from the heavy piers. 
The result of this is to make the present vaulting of the nave nearly 
square and of proportions similar to those of the aisles. There is 
hardly any domical character to the vaults, through the lightness and 
circular form of the transverse arches. The supposition that it was the 
original intention to use sexpartite vaulting is confirmed by the size 
of the windows and by a couple of the original intermediate vaulting- 
shafts which were left on either side in the further bay of the nave. 
Of the present windows, those over each column were evidently cut 
at the time of some restoration of the church, and involved the closing 
of the two original windows placed on either side of these columns over 
the point of each arcade and the demolition of the buttresses on the 
exterior that corresponded to the intermediate column. This probably 

8 See ground-plans in ViOLLET-LE-Duc, Dictionnaire, vol. I, under Architecture 

9 In most transitional churches in France the supports and the present vaulting do 
not correspond, on account of the substitution of quadripartite for sexpartite vaults, 
or vice-versa. 


coincided with the raising and rebuilding of the vaults and changing 
them from the sexpartite to the quadripartite form. On account of the 
transept, the new windows in the furthest bay were opened not in the 
centre but to one side of the new vaults, and this led to the preser- 
vation of the vaulting-shafts which were removed in every other case. 
Traces of the early windows that have been closed can yet be seen, and 
the late date of the present vaults is proved, not only by the character 
of their mouldings but by the additional height given to the wall, 
which is so noticeable on the exterior. In some cases, however, sev- 
eral courses of the original vaulting-mouldings have been sufficiently 
preserved to show that the wall or longitudinal ribs sprang from a 
greater height than the diagonal and transverse ribs, and that both 
the latter are nevertheless much stilted. There is a lack of structural 
logic and continuity in this system of San Martino as it originally 
existed. The vaulting-shafts do not spring from the ground, in the 
case of the main piers, or from the capitals of the intermediate columns, 
but from the clerestory cornice. They here rest upon a single shaft 10 
of the same size as that engaged in the pier. This shaft ended in a 
typical Cistercian consol over each column and directly on the capital 
over each pier, without the intervention of any base. 

The mouldings of the main arches and its supports are original, and 
are far in advance of those used in the other Cistercian buildings of 
the time in the Roman province, being analogous to the mouldings 
of the transitional buildings of the Ile-de-France. The same cannot 
be said of the foliage of the lower capitals, which is lacking in delicacy. 
The capitals of the intermediate shafts are slightly more advanced ; 
they are triple, and thus form a somewhat awkward transition from 
the quintuple vaulting-mouldings above to the single shaft below. 

The ground-plan (PL. xx) shows eight bays in the aisles and four 
double bays in the nave ; a transept with two square chapels on either 
side; and a pentagonal apse instead of the usual square end. The 
side-aisles are square, measuring 4.15 met. between the axes; the 
width of the nave is 8.75 met. ; the total length is about 57 met. in 
the interior. The dimensions are thus a trifle less than those of Fos- 
sanova ; the walls are not as thick, nor the supports as heavy, but the 
span of the arches is slightly greater, thus producing greater height 

10 The wall is coated with a thick layer of plaster : it is possible that a slender shaft 
once existed on either side of the main one, corresponding to the smallfcapitals under 
the cornice, and that it has been covered by the plaster. I did not thinkt o examine 
this point when on the spot. 


and lightness of the side-aisles. The simple ribbed cross-vaults of 
the aisles appear to be original, and are supported along the wall by 
a half-column engaged in a pier. The aisle-windows are now closed. 
The five-sided choir is of later date than the rest of the church, and 
may have taken the place of an original square end. Its construction 
is assigned by Signor Ojetti to the xiv century, without any proof. 
It was probably built at the same time that the vaulting and windows 
were remodelled. An examination of the exterior is not conclusive, 
but it proves (1) the raising of the vaults of the nave ; (2) the partial 
rebuilding of the side-chapels and of a part of the transept, at the time 
of the reconstruction of the apse ; (3) that the vaults of the transept 
are the only original high vaults that remain. 

A comparison of the capitals and mouldings with those of French 
churches shows them to belong to the time when the transitional forms 
were passing into those of developed early Gothic. The outlines of 
the bases are very similar, for example, to those of Senlis, but they 
are much higher and heavier in relation to their shafts than those of 
any French church with which I am acquainted. They are of unequal 
height ; those near the door being lower than the rest, as may be seen 
in the foreground of PLATE xix. 

CLOISTERS. The arrangement of the monastery is somewhat pecu- 
liar, probably being influenced by that of the earlier Benedictine struc- 
tures. The Pamphili palace has absorbed the front section with its 
dormitories and one side of the main cloister, whose foundations are 
still visible in the cellar of the palace. A sketch in PLATE xx gives all 
that could be ascertained, by a cursory examination, of the general plan. 
The main walls are almost everywhere preserved, but the details of 
exterior and interior have been ruthlessly made over : the monastic 
halls have been turned into shops and peasants' dwellings and store- 
rooms. At many points, the original round-headed windows remain ; 
most of them are single, some double with a dividing shaft. There 
appear to have been two cloisters, both now destroyed. The north 
arm of the monastery, projecting from the transept of the church, is 
fairly well preserved. A corridor with cross- vaults has on either side 
one or more early rooms, those nearest the church being probably the 
treasury and sacristy. Then comes a section at right angles and par- 
allel to the church, which formed, apparently, the division between 
the two courts or cloisters. At the corner of the second court, on the 
east side, is the chapter-house, which is locally termed the refectory, 
still in fair preservation. 


CHAPTER-HOUSE. The chapter-house corresponds in style to the 
church. It is even lighter and more graceful in comparison with 
the corresponding chapter-houses of Fossanova and Casamari, and it 
approaches far more the style of some French refectories and other 
halls of the xin century. It measures 20 by 9 metres, and is divided 
into two aisles by three central piers. These piers are of the same 
general plan as those of Fossanova and Casamari, a central cylinder 
or octagon around which are grouped eight shafts, upon whose cap- 
itals rest the mouldings of the vaults. But the aesthetic effect is here 
made quite different by the greater slenderness of the pier and delicacy 
of the mouldings, as well as by the wider spacing of the supports. 
The consols that support the arches against the walls are of a charm- 
ing acorn-shape design, and the mouldings of the arches are quite 
advanced in style. A round-headed window was originally placed in 
each bay, but, of these eight, nearly all are closed. A stone bench 
encircles the entire interior. The plan and view of the interior 
(PL. xx) will make a long description unnecessary. 

Although this is, according to tradition, the refectory, it appears to 
me, for various reasons, to be the chapter-house : first, its position in 
the arm of the monastery, that is, at right angles with the transept of 
the church the usual place for the chapter-house in Cistercian estab- 
lishments; seeond, the analogy of form and construction to many other 
chapter-houses of the order, and its dissimilarity to the majority of the 
refectories of the order ; third, the row of stone seats which surrounds 
the hall, as in all chapter-houses. 

The monastery of San Martino does not present the diversity of style 
which we find at Fossanova and Casamari. It was built d'un seuljet, 
within the space of not many years. The date of 1207 is the earliest 
we can assign to the plan and foundations : the presence of round- 
headed windows everywhere forbids our giving a long terminus ad 
quern. Probably the construction was finished in about 1225. 11 Any 
earlier date than this would be in contradiction with the extremely 
rich mouldings of the ribs and cornices of the church, which corres- 
pond with those of French buildings usually dated from 1210 to 1230. 
This advantage, however, is more than counterbalanced by the fearful 
mutilations which it has suffered. 


U CRISTOFOBI (op. cit., p. 9) gives the date 1228 as connected with the church, but 
without any indication of what it applies to. 




During the summer of 1889, 1 spent several weeks in exploring the 
Roman province for the study of its inedited monuments. Although 
expecting to publish, before long, a study on the subject of the mediae- 
val artists of this region, I will here describe the works of some archi- 
tects whose names, so far as I know, are new. 


This Martinus is an architect of the twelfth century, and, judging 
from the style of his work, he may be considered to have been one of 
the best. His inscription is on the porch of the church of Sant' Erasmo 
at Veroli, the ancient Verulae. This city of the Hernici, like its neigh- 
bors Anagni (Anagnia), Alatri ( Aletrium), and Ferentino (Ferentinum), 
was among the cities of Campania that remained throughout the Mid- 
dle Ages under the direct control of the Popes. The art of these cities 
is strictly Roman, except in cases of some strong local influence like 
that of the great neighboring monasteries of Casamari and Fossanova. 
At Segni, Anagni, and Ferentino are still records of the activity of the 
Roman families of artists in the xn and xm centuries, the Cosmati, the 
Vassallecti, and the school of Paulus. To these should now be added 
Martinus. Some years ago, I had a photograph taken of the Romanesque 
porch of the church of SANT' ERASMO AT VEROLI (PL. xxi). Again, 
last summer (1889), I passed through this mountain village, and, while 
resting the horses, sat on the parapet in front of the porch admiring 
its strength and simplicity, the harmony of its proportions and tone. 
The sun was shining at such an angle that I noticed, for the first time, 
some letters cut in the second row of stones under the cornice, between 
and above the left-hand and middle arches of the porch. The charac- 
ters were large and carefully cut in the pure classic style of about the 
middle of the xn century, and read: 6ST MANIBVS FACTVS MAR- 
TINI QVEM PROBAT ARCVS. Two facts are evident: (1) Martin 



was proud of his work the porch, which he calls areus, he evidently 
regards as a good example of his style ; (2) he considered that he had 
a style of construction peculiar to himself, for he says that this work 
can be recognized as his by its style. 

The porch consists of three round arches of unequal span and height, 
corresponding to the three aisles of the church. Of the church itself 
I need not speak, as it is quite modernized ; and I will omit the 
tower also, which, though mediaeval, seems to be by another architect. 
A second story, with three round-headed windows, was added to the 
porch at the time of the restoration of the church. A flight of steps 
leads from the street to a platform from which one enters the porch 
by four steps ; three more lead into the church. The dimensions of 
the porch are approximately as follows : length, 31 ft. ; width, 14 ft. ; 
height, 26 ft. The interior consists of three simple unribbed cross- 
vaults on a square plan, separated by rather heavy arcs-doubleaux 
which rest upon engaged columns with composite capitals attached 
to the outer piers, and upon simple pilasters. The central arch, cor- 
responding to the nave, has of course a greater span than the side arches, 
but these, also, are unequal in size, that on the left being much the 
lower and narrower. The cause of this seems to have been the lack 
of space on that side. 

Two points of detail are especially to be noticed : (1) the profiles of 
cornice and mouldings, and (2) the style of the decorative sculpture. 
The use of a retreating arch in interiors was common with architects of 
the Roman School, and it is also to be observed in the buildings erected 
in this region by the Cistercian order between about 1175 and 1225. 
Here we see it. One naturally turns for comparison to the few porches 
of the kind in the province at Casamari, Casauria, and Piperno. But 
here the profile is different, the two planes being connected by the soft 
flowing line of a concave moulding or scotia, instead of forming right 
angles. But in earlier buildings, slightly anterior, in fact, to the porch 
of S. Erasmo, we find the use of the double angular arch ; for exam- 
ple, in the doors of the neighboring cathedral of Ferentino (end XI cent.), 
and in the windows of the cathedral at Anagni (middle xi cent.). In 
interiors, the same device was used to break the monotony of the blank 
walls. Earliest of all is the basilica of S. Elia, near Nepi, a work of 
the x or early xi century, where the arches are supported on columns. 
In the xii century, the columns are replaced by clustered piers, as in 
the cathedral of S. Maria di Castello at Corneto. There is nothing 


remarkable about the heavy capitals or the profiles of the rather clumsy 
bases of the columns or those of the bases of the piers : of greater ele- 
gance is the cornice that frames the upper part of the porch. The 
taste of the artist shows itself in the form and decoration of the archi- 
volts that frame the arcade. They are the key-note to the entire porch ; 
they give to it dignity and peculiar style, add breadth to the arches, 
help in the play of light and shade, and delight by the delicacy of 
their sculpture. The details of this decoration in the central archway 
is as follows. First, a row of trefoils connected by stems, every other 
one being reversed : a similar decoration, but more advanced and with- 
out reversal, is found in the main doorway of the cathedral of Civita 
Castellana executed, in about 1180, by the Roman artists Laurentius 
and his son Jacobus. Next comes the familiar classic egg-and-dart 
moulding; then, the equally familiar and classic pearl ornament ; and, 
finally, the row of cubes placed at intervals which on a somewhat larger 
scale was so popular an appendix to the under part of cornices, during 
this and the following century. A similar but less elaborate decora- 
tion encircles the other arches. All the elements are classic ; and the 
execution itself is worthy of an artist of the best period of the empire. 
With Martinus, as with the earlier Cosmati and the Vassallecti, the 
classic tradition was supreme ; and this is but another proof that it 
entered into the smallest details of their work. After examining 
these archivolts, it is safe to say that the engaged columns below are 
by another hand than that of Martinus. . 

The porch of Sant 7 Erasmo is, in my experience, the finest in Cen- 
tral Italy. With the exception of the numerous architrave porches of 
the Roman school with their Ionic columns and classic details, porches 
extending the entire width of the church are quite unusual throughout 
Italy, whereas in France, for instance, they are quite common. Italian 
architects were either satisfied with none, or confined themselves, after 
the fashion of earlier examples in Rome (Santa Prassede, etc.), to build- 
ing out the central portal, as at Verona, Modena, Trento, etc. One has 
to roam over Lombardy and Tuscany quite generally before finding 
wide porches : perhaps the finest example is that of the Cathedral of 
Lucca added to the church in 1204. Monastic churches, however, 
were more likely to have porches : in France the closed porches of 
the Clunisian churches are almost as large as the body of the church. 
The Cistercian and Benedictine porches were more modest. Those of 
the second half of the xn century and the beginning of the xnr built 


in this region are similar in general form to this one of Veroli, but all 
unite to differ in one respect : their central arch alone is round-headed, 
those on either side are pointed, being thus enabled to keep the same 
height while having a smaller span, corresponding to the narrower 
side-aisles. The Cistercian monastery of Casamari has a porch which 
dates from about 1203, if not earlier : the corresponding earlier porch 
at the monastery of Fossanova has been destroyed ; but we can con- 
ceive what it was from a study of the porch of the cathedral of the 
neighboring Piperno, constructed, probably in imitation of it, by the 
architect Antonio di Rabatto, shortly after 1180. A few years earlier, 
a similar porch was built before the Benedictine church of S. Clemente 
di Casauria in the Roman Abruzzi. All of these are lacking in the 
peculiar qualities that form the charm of the chef-d'oeuvre of Martinus, 
as it would be easy to show, were this the place to do so. 


Crypts were even more important adjuncts to churches than porches, 
in this part of Italy, especially during the Romanesque period : this 
was partly on account of their frequency, partly by reason of their 
extent. In my study of the architecture of the xi and xn centuries 
in the Roman province, I found that the crypts were often the only 
part that remained of a church that had been torn down or remodelled 
by the vandals of the xvm century. Though, at first sight, there 
is an apparent monotony in these crypts, a careful study cannot fail to 
reveal the individuality of each one. One of the largest and most 
interesting is that of the cathedral of Sutri. This church was the work 
of Roman architects, for the town is only about forty miles to the 
north of the Eternal city, 1 and the building still bears traces of their 
handiwork. An inscription of 1170 informs us that Nicolaus de 
Angelo, with his son, executed the high altar, probably, after the usual 
fashion of the Roman artists, with a beautiful decoration of mosaic- 
work. It is now destroyed : but a cornice with a xn-century inscrip- 
tion, mentioning the name of bishop Petrus, which I disinterred from 
the neighboring yard, may belong to it. At all events, the central 
doorway, with its mosaic-work, fragments of the old pavement, the 
campanile, and parts of old frescos, still remain of the xu-century 
work, after the usual process of destruction had been indulged in dur- 
ing the xvm century. Fortunately, the crypt, though blocked up, 

1 See my article, An early rock-cut church at Sutri, JOURNAL, v, pp. 320-30. 


was left untouched, and, as it was being re-opened at the time of 
my visit during the summer of 1889, 1 was among the first to descend 
into its depths. The only change it had suffered was the removal, at 
the demolition in 1743, of four of the columns to be placed in a chapel 
of the church above. I read the name of the architect upon the cap- 
ital of the first column opposite the flight of steps that leads down 
from the left aisle : *f GPMVHALDV | PRB<i ACCOL'A, Grimuhaldus 
presbyter accolyta. 

We do not meet with monk-artists nearly so often in Italy as in the 
rest of Europe, during the twelfth century ; and the lay-artists had 
almost a monopoly, especially in this province, where they were formed 

FIG. I. Ground-plan of the Orypt of the Cathedral at Sutri. 

into regular schools. But here is an exception. A priest of the cathe- 
dral was also the architect of its crypt at the time when the entire 
edifice was made over about the middle of the twelfth century. This 
construction is so unusual in its form, is planned on a scale so large and 
sumptuous, and carried out with such care in its details, as to make it 
worthy of being placed in the front rank of Italian crypts (Figure 1). 
The vaults are supported by twenty-two columns, seven for each of the 
three rows that divide the crypt into four aisles, and one opposite the 
centre of the apse. Each aisle ends, not against a flat wall but in a 
small apse or semicircular niche. Four of these niches form the apse, 
and sixteen others surround the rest of the construction. This entire 


arrangement of niches is singular and original : I do not remember 
to have met it elsewhere. The quadri-apsidal choir is also strange in a 
country which so staunchly retained the small and simple semicircular 
apse of the basilica, vaulted with its semi-dome. But this is not the 
only peculiarity. While all the rest of the spaces between the columns 
are covered with plain unribbed cross- vaults, the two opposite to the 
choir have tripartite ribbed vaults that join the quadripartite vault of 
the choir, which is also ribbed. This is an example of comparatively 
elaborate vaulting interesting for the time and region, as ribs were not 
used in this province, barring exceptions, until the latter part of the 
century. The vaults are all separated by transverse arches, and the 
columns are not waifs and strays from the ruins of older buildings, as 
is so often the case at this period : they are monoliths of good propor- 
tions and with fairly-carved capitals, of equal size, quarried for the 


The third architect on my list of inedited names is a native of the 
city of Piperno, the ancient Privernum, situated in the Monti Lepini 
in a region which before the Italian occupation was a centre of brig- 
andage in the Papal States. 2 Only a few miles away, down in the 
marshy swamps of the valley below, was the largest and most famous 
of the Cistercian monasteries of Italy, Fossanova. Against the oppo- 
site range of hills are dotted several hamlets. Principal among these 
is the town of San Lorenzo, now called Amaseno. When Pope Inno- 
cent III, in 1208, visited Fossanova and the towns and monasteries 
on the opposite line of Sabine hills, Anagni, Alatri, Ferentino,Veroli, 
and Casamari, he also stopped for a night at San Lorenzo. Then, the 
present church was not built : this took place more than a half-century 
later. When the work was commenced we do not know, but it was 
finished in 1291 on the fourth of April, according to an inscription 
on the pulpit. The architects, as the inscription tells us, were Petrus 
Gulimari of Piperno and his two sons Morisu and Jacobus. The 
copy of the inscription, made for me by Sig. Ettore Maldura, reads 
in this way, but there seem to be some mistakes in the reading, several 
of which I have corrected, though I remain in doubt as to the read- 
ing of the artist's name. The entire inscription reads : IN NOMINE 


2 See my article on The Monastery of Fossanova, pp. 14-46. 



The church is a simple three-aisled construction, with pointed arches 
and windows, unribbed cross- vaults, and simple square piers with en- 
gaged columns. It is the clearest possible imitation, on a reduced 
scale, of the great Cistercian churches of Fossanova and Casamari, 
and doubtless the architects took the former for their model. In 
fact, it is probable that they graduated from the Cistercian school of 
architecture, which spread over this entire region during the last years 
of the twelfth and the entire course of the thirteenth century. I shall 
not describe the church any further, in order not to forestall the details 
which will be in place in the volume on Cistercian architecture in 
Italy on which I am at present engaged. 

Princeton College. 



I desire to offer a few comments on Professor TarbelPs study of 
the Dekeleian Phratry-Decree, which appeared in the number of this 
Journal for June, 1889 (pp. 135-53). It should be pointed out that 
Kohler's restoration of the last two lines of A gives 31 and 29 letters 
in each, respectively, instead of 30, and is therefore possibly wrong. 
Pantazidis restores 30 letters to the last line by reading o lep\ev<; rov 
Ae/ceXeto)!/ OIKOV. rc3 Au rc3 'Ep/ceto) and o lepevs T&V Arj/jLOTicoviScov 
would give the right number. I only mention this as a possibility. 

B51. papTVpS) (ov el&dryei, eavrw vov) elvai TOVTOV K. r. X. The 
words bracketed are not part of the oath, but a parenthetical explana- 
tion. The "his lawful son" is wrong. "I swear that this child (the 
child whom he is presenting as his son) is born in lawful wedlock." 
The oath may apply to the introduction of adopted children also : see 
Isaios, VII. 16 : <TTL 8* avrols VOJJLOS 6 avros, edv re riva <f>va-ei, jejovora 
elcrdyrj 779 edv re TTOI^TOV^ eTTiTiOevai, TTIO-TIV Kara rcov lepwv r) fjurjv ef 
d(7rf)<i eladryeiv Kal <y6<yovora opOws. 

The weak point in Mr. TarbelFs comment is his explanation of A, 
line 30 the appeal to the Demotionidai. No one who reads through 
the document without prejudice, and in happy ignorance of the theo- 
ries of German scholars, can possibly believe that the Demotionidai 
are identical with the phrateres that the court of appeal is identical 
with the court from the decision of which appeal is made. Mr. Tar- 
bell says (p. 152), "the years that have elapsed since he was on trial 
before disguise a little the inappropriateness of the word efayfju " but 
I am sure that, when I take the privilege, which I think he is wrong 
in conceding to other suitors, and appeal from himself to himself, he 
will reverse his decision. 

This inscription, one other, and the texts of the orators, are the 
authorities on which we should base our view as to the constitution 
of the Attic phratries. In such matters we should begin by shut- 
ting our eyes to lexicographers, new and old, and be especially shy 
of hand-books. 


A word, now, as to Mr. TarbelPs correct remark, that the laws of 
different phratries differed. At least three passages of Isaios confirm 
this : (1) in. 76, from which it appears that not all phratries enforced 
the enrolment of daughters (Mr. TarbelPs remark on p. 153 should 
be therefore corrected) ; (2) vn. 16 (already referred to), from which 
we may conclude that not all phratries required the legitimacy of 
adopted sons to be proved ; (3) vin. 18 (see Reiske's note). Not all 
phratries required ^a^^lav elafyepew on the marriage of a member. 

There is no difficulty in the parts of this document which relate to 
the elo-ay&ytf or dvdtcpicris, which was contemporaneous, and indeed 
identical, with the sacrifice of the Kovpelov (in Isaios, vi. 22, dir^ve^Or] 
TO Kovpelov is equivalent to "the child was rejected"). We learn, from 
B-13-21, that the thiasoi, from which the three witnesses at the dvd- 
icpicris were drawn, were very small bodies : they must have comprised 
only the immediate relatives of the applicant. In the case of another 
phratry (Isaios, ibid.), it was in the power of the applicant's only son 
to prohibit the elcraycoytf . In the present case, if one son were the 
only other member of the applicant's thiasos, his opposition could be 
made ineffectual both at the dvd/cpHn,? and at the SiaSi/cacria. 

It seems to me to be established by the texts from the orators 
quoted by Sauppe (De Phratriis, p. 8) that the yewfjrai, were a more 
extensive body than the cfrpdrepes. The speaker in Demosthenes LVII. 
21 f., to prove that his father was an Athenian citizen, summons first 
his relations (a-vy<yevei<i), then his fypdrepes, then his yevvfjrai,, and 
then his ^rj^orai,. In the peroration of the same speech (67) we have 
the same order. 1 In Isaios VII. 16, the cfrpdrepes and yevviJTcu are 

1 1 doubt if the passage be right as it stands. The speaker is recapitulating the 
evidence ; to make his recapitulation additionally effective he examines himself by 
the formula used in the anakrisis of the nine archons. Two slightly divergent ver- 
sions of this formula have reached us ( POLLUX, vin. 85, and Lex. Cantab., p. 670, 
both quoted in full by SAUPPE, Ibid.). It consisted of a series of questions, proba- 
bly as follows: (1) Who was your father ? (2) Were your ancestors on both sides, 
for three generations, Athenians? (3) What is your deme ? (4) Have you altars 
of Zeus Herkeios and Apollo Patroos? etc. The speaker here asks himself and 
answers question (1) ; he then goes on, not to ask directly, but to answer implicitly, 
the other questions, with regard, however, not to himself but to his father, in order 
to adapt himself to the form in which the evidence was actually taken (see sections 
20 f). oi/ce?ot rives <e?J'ot> fj-aprvpovffiv ctuTcp ; (sc. Sri iro\iri}S $v). TTO.VV ye irpurov 
pev ye rerrapes avetyioi, elr' avefyiaSovs, eW ol ras ttve^las \a.&6vres avrtp: SO far he 18 
answering question (2). etvat must, I think, be expunged, for it will be seen that, 
if it be retained, ravrrjs rives oiite'ioi ftaprvpovfftv in the corresponding question relat- 


mentioned as acting together, and having the same laws 2 and a KOIVOV 
jpa/jifjiaretov. It would be difficult to tell from this passage alone if 
the (ppdrepes or the yevvrjrat, were most extensive, did not Demos- 
thenes enlighten us. 3 If the yevvTjrai, were a wider and less intimate 
association than the fypdrepes, and if their laws were binding on the 
latter, it is not only natural, but necessary, to suppose that the A^yuo- 
TicoviSai, here are yevvfjrat,. 

For the SiaSi/cao-ia, of which A treats, the passage of Isaios (vn. 16) 
is so important that it must be quoted in full : eart, cT avrois VO/JLOS 6 
avros, edv re <rmi> fyvaei, <ye<yovoTa elcrdyrj rt? edv re TTOMJTOV, ZTTITI- 
Oevat, TTia-TiV Kara TCOV lepcov rj jjurjv ef dcrTrjs ela-dyeiv /cal <yeyovora 
opd&S, teal rbv VTrdpftovra fyva-ei /cal rbv TTOLIJTOV TroirjcravTOs Be rov 
elardryovro? ravra /jirjSev rjrrov Sia^lr^i^eaOai, /cal T0t>9 aXXou?* /edv 

f ?7, TOT et9 TO KOIVOV ypajjL/jLarelov eyypdfaiv, TTporepov e fjur) rot av- 
pifteias e%et ra Su/caia rd Trap' avrols. The first and in some 
cases the only step a father had to take in order to get his son admitted 
to a phratry was the elo-aya)^, accompanied by the sacrifice of the KOV- 
pelov. In the case of this phratry, the father had to swear that the son 
was born in lawful wedlock, and it is to be assumed that, if he swore 
this, he was allowed to offer the icovpelov and the elcraycoytj was accom- 
plished. But, in order that it should be ratified by registration in the 
common books of the ryevvrjrai and (frpdrepes, it was necessary that the 
votes of the members should be taken. We do not learn if the vote 
here was taken on the day of the Kovpewns (as ap. Demosth. XLIII. 14) 
or after any interval of time. This was regarded as a stringent law, and 

ing to his mother (68) must be taken in the same sense, and then Qpdrepes r&v 
oiKetwv ravra (or ravra ?) /j.e/j.aprvp-fiKao'i means Qpdrepes r5>v oiKeicov jj.efjiaprvp'f) Kaffir 
o*/ce?ot eli/ai, which is nonsense. It is evident that, in the concluding clause in 67, 
6?0'ot STJ^TOJ, K. T. A.., there is, if not actually an answer, at least an allusion to 
question (3). It follows, that the intervening words must contain an answer to 
question (4). The phrase 'AirfaXwos irarpyov ical Atbs epKeiov yevviirai is, I think, 
an impossible one. The sense requires e?ra (ppdrepes <C?T'> 'ATntoAwpos irarpyov 
[Koivwvovvres"] /cal Aibs cpiceiov ycvvrjrat ? I think some such alteration is supported 
by the fact, that the order in which the two gods are usually mentioned is here 

* This is quite evident from the passage. Anyone consulting it hastily might think 
that the conclusion was drawn from a mistaken interpretation of v6p.os 6 avrAs (see 
Tarbell, p. 146 at the foot). 

3 In this speech of Isaios (27), yfvvrjras should be substituted for a-vyyev^s. The 
ffvyyfvfis had no register. It is impossible that the terms should be here used 


evidently, in the case of some phratries, the father's word on oath, and a 
compliance with the necessary ceremonies, was all that was required ; 
there was no Siatyrffacrw. The law of the Demotionidai was still more 
stringent. Not only had the father's oath at the elcrayaiyr) to be sup- 
ported by three witnesses, but the Sta^^ter^ or, as it is here called, 
SiaSitcaa-ia took place a year after the sacrifice of the /covpelov, so that 
the opposition had plenty of time to prepare their case. If we once 
recognize that the Demotionidai are yevvfjrcu, and not ^parepe?, there 
is nothing unintelligible in A, though there are many points in regard to 
which we desire further information. The term o Ae/eeXetW oltco? cer- 
tainly awaits illustration. It is in so far synonymous with the phratry 
that the priest of Zeus Phratrios, who is elsewhere spoken of as o lepevs 
simply, is, in line 41, called lepevs rov Ae/eeXetW OL/COV, to distinguish 
him, probably, not so much from the priest of the Demotionidai, who, 
if he existed, was not a priest of Zeus Phratrios, as from the priest or 
priests of other phratries which were comprised in the Demotionidai, 
and whose members took part in the voting on this occasion. 4 A 
really difficult question is : Why is he alone, and not the phratri- 
arch also, responsible for the fine? This is certainly significant 
and not fortuitous. An answer is demanded. I do not know if I 
am right in suggesting the following. The responsibility for the fine 
was a check on malpractices. The phratriarch is made responsible for 
the other fines because it was his duty to give the votes (SiSovcu TOU? 
i/r?7<oi>9). In this case, it was not the phratriarch, but an officer of 
the Demotionidai, who put the question. No responsibility therefore 
attached to the phratriarch on this account. The priest is made re- 
sponsible because he did influence the decision in so far as the appoint- 
ment of the five avvrjyopot,, no doubt, rested largely with him. The 
fact that the phratriarch is exempted shows that he had no voice in 
their appointment and that the Ae/eeXetW ol/cos was a religious not a 
civil body, representative of, or governing, this phratry. 

The information which we derive from this inscription and the 
authorities I have mentioned is, that the yevvrjrai were a body more 
widely removed from the individual, and more authorative than the 
(frpdrepes, and therefore presumably having several fyparplai subject 
to them. There seems to me to be nothing in the texts, which have 
been quoted and requoted from the lexicographers, to disprove this. 

*T6ppfer's statement contradicting this (Attische Gen., p. 16 nt) is quite arbitrary, 
he does not give his reasons. 


I do not wish here to undertake the difficult task of discussing these 
statements. 5 I would only protest against Mr. Tarbell's identifica- 
tion of 6py(ov<? and Qia<r&Tai, which I think not justifiable, and 
against the apparently universal assumption, that in the passage of 
Philochoros, which he quotes (p. 148), the words rovs opye&vas K. T. \. 
must be the object of the verb Se^eo-Bai. 

I have not been able to consult Szanto's article on this inscription. 
My only desire has been to point out that there has been too much 
theorizing in this matter and too little confession of ignorance, and that 
our only hope lies in adherence to the plain sense of inscribed texts. 

Aberdeen, Scotland. 

P. S. I have not attempted to discuss the question, whether all 
the (frpdrepes were, ipso facto, ryevvfjTai. Those who take the view, 
that they were not, might thus explain the Ae/eeXetW oZ/co?. The 
Demotionidai had several phratries subject to them : these phratries 
were localized in different denies or groups of demes : in each of these 
localities, the Demotionidai had a religious sub-centre which was called 
oZ/eo?. In this case, the priest of the Ae/ceXetW ot/co? is perhaps not 
the same as the priest of the phratry. 

ScholPs essay, Die Kieisthenische Phratrien (Sitzungsber. der Bayr. 
Ak., 1889, n) is very interesting. His explanation of the appeal is 
much the same as Mr. TarbelPs. 


The important point raised by Mr. Paton in the foregoing contri- 
bution concerns the relation of gens and phratry. That there was 
some sort of intimate connection between the two is abundantly evi- 
dent. The question is, did the phratry include the gens, or was the 
phratry (or a part of it) included by the gens ? Mr. Paton pronounces 
for the latter alternative. Apart from the inscription under discus- 
sion, the evidence for this view reduces itself, on examination, to the 
order in which the witnesses are called in Demosthenes LVII. The 

6 No one should cite such authorities, without giving some account of their sources. 
American and English scholars shun Quellen-Kritik for a bad and a good reason. It 
introduces a new difficulty, it opens a new door for arbitrary conjecture. 


force of this evidence appears to me to be weakened I will not say 
destroyed by two considerations. (1) The order of mention of the 
successive classes is not constant. In 24 we have a-vyyevwv KOI 
epcov KOI SrjfjLorwv KOL ryevvTjT&v, and (frpdrepa-t, (rvyyeve&i Srjfjio- 
yevvtfrcus, both orders varying from the order of citation. (2) 
After the four classes enumerated, a fifth class are called to establish 
the same point ( 28). These are those kinsmen who share with the 
speaker's family a common place of burial, and who are therefore his 
fyevvfjTcu, or rather, as I think, a section of them (ef. 67). The order 
of citation is therefore not an order of steady progression from nar- 
rower to wider bodies. 

Of positive evidence against Mr. Paton's view I must own that I 
do not think there is much. But the fact that the names of phratries, 
so far as known, are gentile in form is not so easily reconcilable with 
the theory which divides a gens between several phratries as it is with 
the contrary theory. 

I therefore " confess ignorance " on this subject. But I must pro- 
test, again, that Isaios vn. 16 does not prove that fypdrepes and yevvrjrai, 
had the same laws. They had one law in common, requiring legiti- 
macy of birth as a condition of membership. More than that cannot 
be inferred from the passage. Least of all can it be inferred that the 
gens had any authority over the phratry. 

The following points are taken up in Mr. Paton's order. I touch 
only on such as affect my previous paper. 

B-51. Nothing whatever is gained by treating the words ov elcrdyei, 
eavTai vov as parenthetical. The wording of the oath remains as un- 
grammatical as before. But Mr. Paton is quite right in correcting 
"his lawful son." 

Mr. Paton's inference from Isaios in. 76 appears to me unwarrant- 
able. The speaker is arguing that the father of a certain girl, by failing 
to present her for admission to his phratry, confessed her illegitimacy. 
This is treated in 75 as a matter of course, and the implication, so 
far, is that the registration of daughters was the universal rule. In 
the next section he adds, teal ravra vopov 6Wo9 avrols (i. e., rot? <f>pd- 
repa-i rofr eiceivov). I take this to be a somewhat superfluous insist- 
ence upon a well-known obligation, rather than an implication that 
the statutes of other phratries differed. This view receives confirma- 
tion from the language of Isaios in. 16, from which Mr. Paton infers 
that " not all phratries required the legitimacy of adopted sons to be 


proved." But, as I pointed out in my article, the conditions of mem- 
bership in a phratry were identical with the conditions of Athenian 
citizenship, and these were fixed by general Athenian law. Nothing 
is more likely than that different phratries differed in the strictness 
with which they administered the law, but that any phratry confessedly 
admitted illegitimate children, when adopted, is out of the question. 
In my view, the language of Isaios vin. 18 (rot? fyparepcn yafjujXiav 
eicrrjveyice Kara TOU? e/ceivcw vopovs) should be disposed of in the same 
way. Keiske, whom Mr. Paton ought not to have appealed to, ex- 
plains the passage differently. His note is : unde colligitur, non omni- 
bus phratriis eosdem ritus fuisse nuptiarum eelebrandarum, sed cuique 
suos proprios. 

Finally, we have no evidence that the thiasoi " comprised only the 
immediate relatives of the applicant." And, in the case recorded in 
Isaios vi. 22, it was not " in the power of the applicant's only son to 
prohibit the elcraycoyrj." The son protested and the phratry sustained 
his protest : oW 6 vto9 avrw ^i^oKTjjfjLcov o-vve^oopet ov@* ol fypdrepes 

TO icovpeiov. 






ARABIA, 332 




CENTRAL ASIA, . . .331 


EGYPT 324 



FRANCE, 389 


GREECE, 359 


ITALY 372 


MONTENEGRO, . . .397 










SICILY, 383 

SPAIN 388 

TURKEY, 398 

WALES, 398 



From EGYPT, owing to the decision of the Egypt Exploration Fund not 
to excavate during the past season, and to the transference of Mr. Petrie's 
activity to Palestine, there is nothing to report ; but an interesting question 
is opened up in connection with some reliefs, now in the Louvre and British 
Museum, which were found at Abydos. M. Heuzey believes them to reveal 
the existence of an early Mesopotamian or Syrian school of sculpture de- 
pendent on Babylonian art, while Professor Sayce, and perhaps also M. 
Maspero, is of the opinion that they are examples of an Ethiopic school 
almost wholly independent of Egypt. In PERSIA, M. de Morgan is con- 
tinuing his important excavations in early cemeteries, and the Academie 
des Inscriptions carries forward its good work by sending out M. Guiffrey, to 
study the early Christian monuments of the ORIENT, M. Benedite, for 
inscriptions in the SINAITIC PENINSULA, and M. Dutreuil du Rhin, to explore 
in CENTRAL ASIA. The Christian monuments of the ORIENT are beginning to 
excite a little of the attention they deserve. MM. Ramsay and Bent have 
studied a number in Asia Minor: we have referred to M. Guiffrey's mission, 
and are pleased to add that a history of the ancient churches of the East, 
especially of Syria, Persia, and India, is being written by Rev. J. J. Nouri. 
There is a revived interest in the Holy Land. Both the German and the 
English societies for the exploration of PALESTINE are issuing maps that 
are far superior to anything yet published. Mr. Petrie's few weeks of 
excavation on the site of the ancient Laehish inaugurate a new era in our 
acquaintance with the arts and manufactures, the history, commerce and 



cult of the early tribes of the land both before and during Hebrew dominion. 
Henceforth a criterion is established by which to date the remains of the 
ancient towns of Palestine. 

The summer's harvest from ASIA MINOR is rich and varied. Mr. Bent's 
minute examination of the small tract of Kilikia Tracheiotis proved in 
its way as fruitful in discoveries especially that of Olba as Professor 
Ramsay's extended trip through Pisidia, Isauria and Kappadokia. The 
examination of the ruins of the Pisidian hill-fortress of Adada appears to 
have been, up to the present, Mr. Ramsay's most interesting single piece 
of investigation. MM. Schliemann and Dorpfeld have a most interesting 
report to make of their excavations million = Troy, the main object of which 
was to complete the plan of the city of the second or Homeric period. There 
is no doubt that their campaign has cleared up many doubtful points- in 
the chronology of Troy and given a firmer basis for believing that the city 
lay at Hissarlik. The ramp leading up to the citadel, part of the Homeric 
royal palace, and some interesting early pottery, are the more prominent 
of the single discoveries. Austria shows her intention of continuing, under 
Prince Liechtenstein's patronage, the researches so auspiciously begun a 
few years ago. 

From KYPROS, we learn of the successful termination of the excavations 
at Salamis. In GREECE, aside from the discovery of part of the royal palace 
in the acropolis of Mykenai, the main interest is centred in the sepulchral 
tumuli of Attika. Following up the phenomenal success at Vaphio, the 
Government continued excavations in the prehistoric tumulus at Bourba ; 
in that of Belanideza, which contains tombs of the prehistoric, the archaic- 
Hellenic, and the Roman periods ; and the Hellenic tumulus of Petreza. 
Tombs of the prehistoric period were found not far from Sparta, at Slavo- 
chori, near Argos, and at other places. All these discoveries are valuable 
for early-Greek civilization, but perhaps the most exciting of all is the 
discovery, in the mound called Soros, of the graves of the 192 Athenians, 
who fell at Marathon. The British School has closed its very successful 
season's excavations at Megalopolis, after having excavated the principal 
part of a pure Greek theatre of great size which settles the recent contro- 
versy in favor of those who held that the Greek actors were placed upon 
a stage raised above the chorus in the orchestra. 

The study of the prehistoric antiquities of Italy has been of late stim- 
ulated by the contributions of Signor Orsi, who did excellent service 
in the archaeology of Northern Italy before he was transferred to SICILY. 
His latest contributions draw attention to two points : (1) a possible iden- 
tity of date in the Italian civilization of the terremare and the Greek 
civilization of Mykenai ; (2) the intimate relations between the early 
archaeology of Sicily and that of the Mykenaian culture, proving the influ- 
ence of the East on the West at that early period of the Pelasgic civilization. 


In view of the great interest of the unique prehistoric monuments of Sicily, 
which Signer Orsi for the first time describes, it may be said that Sicily will 
take rank among the most important archaeological fields. In ITALY, pre- 
historic investigations have been carried on at Brembate Sotto and Fonta- 
nella, as well as in Sardinia where several tombs and caves of the "giants " 
have been found. From Arezzo comes the news of the discovery of a potter's 
establishment conducted on the cooperative system by Greek artisans 
from Southern Italy. Some remarkable frescoes have come to light at 
Pompeii, and at Rome the arrangement of the banks of the Tiber at the 
time of Augustus has been partially ascertained by finding in situ a 
number of terminal posts (cippi). The only important piece of sculp- 
ture discovered appears to be a fine archaic metope of one of the temples 
of Selinous. Finally, an inscription found at Florence, furnishes the first 
epigraphic evidence that Florentia was a Roman colony. 

SPAIN, thanks to M. Heuzey, appears as the centre of a school of archaic 
sculpture in which early Greek art has reacted upon the Phoenicians, in 
one of whose Spanish colonies these interesting works may have been 


vist of the National Archives, is charged with a mission in the East (Tur- 
key, Greece, Syria, and Egypt) with the object of studying the earliest 
monuments of Christian civilization. Chron. desArts, 1890, No. 24. 

A comprehensive history of the ancient Christian churches still existing 
in Syria, Persia, and India has at length been undertaken by a dignitary 
of that Romanized branch of the Nestorian Church known as the Chaldean 
Church. The author, the Rev. J. J. Nouri, who is Archdeacon of Baby- 
lon, has been spending some weeks in Southern India, visiting the centres 
of both the Uniat and the Jacobite Syrian churches in Travancore, Ban- 
galore, etc., and making copious extracts from records in those seats of 
early Indian Christianity, some of which are said to date back to the fifth 
century. One portion of the Archdeacon's work is to comprise a complete 
series of annals of the Chaldean race from the most ancient to the most 
modern times. Athenaeum, July 12. 

ORIENTAL CERAMICS. Mr. HENRY WALLIS, R.W.S., is still busily en- 
gaged in contributing to our knowledge of early Eastern and Moslem 
Pottery. Having exhausted, in his Ear ly Persian Ceramic Art, nearly if 
not all the known specimens of Persian pottery which may fairly be attri- 
buted to dates anterior to the thirteenth century, he is now engaged upon 
a larger work, illustrated like its forerunners with careful drawings by 
himself. This will deal with a notable collection hitherto unknown, and 
with the history of Persian lustreware. Pending the arrangements neces- 


sary to complete this work for publication, he is preparing a monograph 
upon Persian art since the Sassanian period. This will be mainly devoted 
to that almost-unknown class of pottery more or less influenced by Byzan- 
tine motives, of which he has been fortunate enough to secure some exam- 
ples from the East. Specimens of contemporary pottery from Egypt and 
Asia Minor, some found by himself, others from the British Museum and 
the excavations of Count d'Hulst at Cairo last winter, will also be illus- 
trated and commented upon. Academy, Aug. 9. 


Two articles by M. HEUZEY in the Revue archeologique have called atten- 
tion to some very remarkable reliefs, of which one is in the Louvre, another 
at least in private hands, and three are in the British Museum. 

In the Rev. arch., 1890, I, pp. 145-52, M. Heuzey describes the relief in 
the Louvre. It must have formed part of an oblong platter of hard schist, 
of dark green color ; in the centre of which was left a large circular rim 
with raised edges. There remains over a third part, on which is a series 
of figures in very low relief representing a band of warriors marching, and, 
in the field, several animals. In the figures, the Asiatic character of the 
types is very striking: the only garment is a short skirt in vertical folds 
held by a heavy plated belt from which hangs a jackal-skin and tail, an 
emblem of honor. The arms are especially curious and varied. Some 
warriors brandish in their right hand a mace terminating in a spherical 
mass probably of stone, similar to the national arm of Babylonia and Assy- 
ria. Others raise such weapons as harpoons, boomerangs, and perhaps an 
axe with curved handle and triangular edge. In their left they hold a 
lance or, more generally, a bow. One holds in his right a bundle of cut- 
ting-arrows, which ended not in a point but in a blade of stone-agate or 
silex. The subject seems to be a hunting-scene, for a hare and two gazelles 
are seen, given in the vigorous style of Chaldseo- Assyrian art. There are 
striking analogies to the paintings of the xn dynasty at Beni-Hassan, and 
this leads M. Heuzey to select quite an early date for this relief: "The 
warriors are not properly Chaldseans or Assyrians ; but the work and style 
point to a group of populations placed quite early under the influence of 
Chaldsean culture, like those that established themselves between the Eu- 
phrates, the coast of Syria, and the Red Sea." 

A letter by M. MASPERO on this relief is published in the Rev. arch., 
1890, i, pp. 334-7, accompanied by M. HEUZEY'S further comments. M. 
Maspero says, that he saw, in Egypt, this relief as well as another of the 
same style and material, now in a private collection. It was said to come 
from Saqqarah or Abydos, and was offered to him in company with several 


small objects found in the Aramaic and Persian necropolis of Saqqarah, 
among which were a cylinder of Egyptian style with a cuneiform inscription, 
and a checker in artificial lapis-lazuli bearing four Aramaic letters. The 
relief belongs apparently to a table for offerings and, in M. Maspero's opin- 
ion, had two rims and consequently two concentric bands of reliefs forming 
one procession. In the technique of the hair, in the skirt, in the animal- 
skin, and in the arms, M. Maspero discovers a purely Egyptian character. 
The two standards are Egyptian, one the flag of the West, the other of the 
East ; so also are the animals. In the opinion of M. the style of workman- 
ship is also Egyptian, of the ruder type, by an unskilled artist. However, 
in his opinion, it may be a Libyan or possibly Asiatic work, but in any 
case under direct Egyptian influence. At all events, the tribe represented 
on the relief, whether it be Libyan or Asiatic, is marching qnder Egyp- 
tian standards, and is therefore an ally not an enemy. M. Heuzey, not- 
withstanding M. Maspero's remarks, keeps to his theory, that the warriors 
are Syrians. 

Three other reliefs belonging to the same class have found their way to 
the British Museum. They are not published, as that of the Louvre has 
been in a good heliotype but are merely described, as follows, by E. A. 
W. BUDGE, in the Classical Review (July, 1890, pp. 322-3) : " Some years 
ago the Trustees of the British Museum acquired three pieces of green 
schist with sculptures of a similar nature, and among them is the large frag- 
ment of which that described by M. Heuzey forms a completing portion. 

"No. 20791. Rectangular fragment 11x71 ins., on which is repre- 
sented in relief a scene after a battle. A number of woolly-headed, bearded, 
circumcized men are lying dead or dying on the ground ; one of these has 
his arms tied together above the elbows. In the upper part of the scene 
is a lion, one of whose paws is firmly planted on the leg and another on 
the arm of one of these prostrate figures. In the lower part of the scene 
a number of vultures and carrion-crows are picking out the eyes of the 
dead (who are naked) and devouring their flesh. Above, to the right, are 
two figures, the heads and shoulders of which are wanting; one is an 
officer or overseer, and the other a captive with arms tied together be- 
hind him, and a heavy weight suspended from his neck. On the back of 
this fragment is part of a scene in which two giraffes are cropping the 
leaves of a palm-tree. 

" No. 20790. Fragment of irregular shape, 12x6 ins., which joins that 
published by M. Heuzey. On it are represented in relief (1) a house with a 
domed roof and two towers, on the left hand is the door ; a bull with two 
heads, one of which faces to the right, the other to the left : (2) a lion fol- 
lowed by a lioness, rushing on to seize a hunter who is armed with a bow and 
another weapon ; head of the lion is transfixed with two arrows, as appears 


from the Louvre fragment : (3) behind the lions are two hunters, both 
wearing feathers on their heads. The first carries a double-bladed axe in 
the right hand and, in the left, a sceptre on the top of which is a bird 
(eagle?) ; over his shoulder hangs a bag. Each man wears a short tunic, 
with folds, fastened around his waist, from which hangs a tail. The second 
hunter draws toward him a gazelle which he has caught with a lasso. 
Close by runs a dog or jackal. 

" No. 20792. Fragment of irregular shape ; its greatest measurements 
being 14x8i ins. It appears to join the Louvre fragment, and, to- 
gether with the British-Museum fragment No. 20790, to have formed part of 
the libation (?)-slab of which very little is now missing. This fragment 
proves beyond all doubt that a hunting-scene is represented. The first 
hunter holds part of the rope which has been used to lasso the gazelle ; 
the second is armed with a spear and a boomerang ; the third with a bow 
and a double-bladed hatchet ; and the fourth with two spears and a boom- 
erang. Each man wears feathers, a tunic, and a tail. Beneath this row 
of figures are an oryx, an ostrich, an oryx, a stag (?) with branching antlers, 
and an animal like a jackal, the tail of which is very much like that hang- 
ing from the waist behind each man. At the tapering end of this fragment 
is a lion, the head of which is transfixed with five arrows ; an arrow shot 
well into one of his thighs makes him lash his tail. The three hunters on 
the other side of the animals are armed and dressed like their companions ; 
each, however, carries a bag (?) apparently slung over his shoulder. 

" These fragments though found in Egypt are not of Egyptian work- 
manship, and were brought thither from some foreign Eastern land either 
as gifts or articles of tribute. The lions are like those on the Assyrian 
sculptures, the birds are identical with those found on the Babylonian 
landmarks, and the features of the men are Shemitic. They were most 
probably made by Mesopotamian sculptors about 1550 B. c., and sent by 
his Mesopotamian allies to Amenophis III, to whom, on account of the lion- 
hunting expeditions sculptured on them, they would be an acceptable gift." 

A. H. SAYCE writes to the Academy (of Aug. 9) : " Since I wrote on this 
subject in the Academy of July 26, 1 have read Mr. Budge's article in the 
Classical Review, and see that it contains evidence against his conjecture 
that the slabs which he describes came from Mesopotamia. One of them, 
he states, has upon it the representation of two giraffes browsing on a palm- 
tree. Now the giraffe has been confined to the Ethiopian region of the 
world during the historical period, and was consequently unknown to the 
inhabitants of Asia. The stones, therefore, on which it is depicted could 
not have come from Mesopotamia, but must have been brought from the 
districts of the Soudan south of Egypt. The dress of the huntsmen repre- 
sented on the slabs bears out this conclusion. It is the same as that of 


the people of Kesh or Kush whose portraits are met with on the Egyptian 
monuments. The feathered head-dress worn by Asiatics like the Zakkur or 
Merodach-nadin-akhi of Babylonia is quite different, consisting of a fringe 
of feathers which runs round the top of a square cap. On the other hand, 
the one or two tall feathers stuck in the hair of the huntsmen on the slabs 
exactly resemble the mode in which, according to the Egyptian artists, cer- 
tain Kushites and Libyans decorated their heads. We must, accordingly, 
see in the slabs an example of early Kushite or Ethiopian art. The sculp- 
tors probably belonged to the same race as the prehistoric people who have 
covered the sandstone rocks of Upper Egypt with their rude designs. Here, 
too, we have figures of huntsmen armed with bows and arrows, of giraffes, 
ostriches, and other animals, in the same style of art as that of the slabs. 
Both Mr. Petrie and myself have pointed out the evidence there is for the 
great antiquity of these drawings, which imply that, at the time they were 
made, the district south of Silsilis was a well- wooded and, therefore, well- 
watered land, where herds of giraffes browsed on the foliage of the shrubs 
a physical condition of the country very unlike that which has prevailed 
there in historical times. Similar prehistoric drawings on the rocks have 
been found in various parts of northern Africa, in southern Morocco by 
Lenz (Timbuktu, n, pp. 10, 367), in the district between Tripoli and Gha- 
dames by Rohlfs (Quer durchAfrika, I, p. 52), in the country of the Tibbu 
by Nachtigal (Sahara und Sudan, I, p. 307) and in Kordofan by Lejean 
(Hartmann, Nigritier, I, p. 41). Dr. Bonnet has recently discovered them 
in southern Oran, along with the stone implements by means of which they 
were engraved (Revue d' Ethnographie, vin). As I have before remarked 
in the Academy (March 15, 1890), they remind us of the Bushman paint- 
ings on the rocks of southern Africa. I may add that the museum of Con- 
stantinople contains some curious sculptured stones from Darfur which in 
many points present a strong resemblance to those which are the subject 
of this letter." 

THE BENI-HASSAN CARTOUCHES. Mr. C. Murch writes from Ramleh 
(Egypt) under date of July 29 : " Soon after the mutilation of the cele- 
brated Khnum Hotep tomb at Beni-Hassan became known, it was sug- 
gested that, if the cartouches could be found, it would be worth while to 
replace them in their former positions in the tomb. On January 24, 1 
learned that two cartouches I had purchased from a native dealer belonged 
to those that had been stolen from the Beni-Hassan tomb ; and I hastened, 
on the same day, to acquaint the Egyptian government with the fact, at 
the same time accompanying my statement by the following words : ' I am 
ready to tell you at any time the facts as to where I got the pieces. I feel 
satisfied that with this information you will be able to work back to the 
guilty parties/ I supposed that the authorities would hasten to ask ine 


where and from whom I purchased the pieces. In this I was mistaken. 
Some days later I had an opportunity of seeing the dealer from whom I 
made the purchase, and I succeeded in getting a third cartouche. On 
February 25, 1 informed the Egyptian government of this third cartouche ; 
but to this day the authorities have never asked me anything about where 
I got either the first two or the third of the cartouches. 

" The Egyptian government will never be able to offer a reasonable excuse 
for having permitted conditions to exist which admitted of the possibility 
of such wholesale destruction of tombs as was carried on during the summer 
and fall of 1889 within a radius of fifteen miles, including Beni-Hassan. 
I saw myself scarcely less than one hundred of these pieces. 

" The man from whom I purchased the cartouches has told me, repeatedly, 
that he sold to the Bulaq Museum thirty-eight or thirty-nine pieces, every 
one of which came from the neighborhood of either Beni-Hassan or Tel- 

" Some time ago the Egyptian authorities, through the American Con- 
sul-General, requested me to return the cartouches I had purchased, as 
they had been stolen from the tomb. I proposed to return the cartouches 
on the condition that the government should make a vigorous effort to 
recover the remaining cartouches ; that they should agree to restore the 
cartouches to their places in the tomb ; and that the tomb should be thor- 
oughly secured against further depredations by a strong iron door. In 
reply to a further unconditional offer, I am told that the Archaeological 
Department will be very glad to get them, and that it may be possible to 
replace them in their former position ; but no positive agreement to do so 
is made, nor is any intimation given that any effort will ever be under- 
taken to secure the remaining cartouches or discover the perpetrators of 
the deed." 

"JOSEPH IN EGYPT." Under this title, Dr. H. BRUGSCH contributes an 
article to the Deutsche Rundschau for May. At its close, Dr. Brugsch 
announces the discovery of an inscribed stone found last winter by an 
American, Mr. Charles E. Wilbour. The tablet contains 32 lines, more 
or less defaced. At its head is the name and title of a hitherto unknown 
king, Chit-het, who, in the fourteenth year of his reign, speaks of " the 
very great misfortune of having no overflow of the Nile for seven years." 
Certain peculiarities in the style of writing and in the grouping of hiero- 
glyphs assign this stone to the fourth century B. c. Evidently somebody 
had taken an old story of a seven-years' famine, and clothed it in modern 
dress for the purpose of exciting respect for some fourth-century divinity. 
In the reign of this ancient king, the seven years of famine had closed with 
the fourteenth year of his reign. The seven " fat years " had preceded 
them. The throne-name of this king, different from his family name, has 


been found once on an inscription over a door in the great pyramid of 
Saqqarah, from which it appears that the king belonged to the first Egyp- 
tian dynasty, at least 1500 years before the time of Joseph. This old 
story, with the name of the old king, was again circulated in the xxn 
dynasty. Dr. Brugsch believes in the real historic character of this newly- 
found stone, and calls Chit-het " the longest forgotten king of any epoch ; " 
and he says that the stone will be prized through all time as an important 
piece of evidence for the actual occurrence of a seven-years' famine in the 
time of Joseph. L. DICKERMANN, in Zion's Herald. 

CAIRO. FRENCH SCHOOL. The work of the French School of Archae- 
ology at Cairo progresses apace. It is the self-imposed law of this studious 
and learned body, that each member of the school shall annually make a 
full and complete copy of some one monument of ancient Egypt, small or 
large, temple or tomb. In certain cases, where the task is too great for the 
limit of time, two or more years may be devoted to it. The school pro- 
poses this year to attack the multitudinous texts of the Great Temple of 
Edfu a gigantic undertaking, and one which will surely give employment 
to more than one student for at least some years. In the meanwhile, M. 
Bene*dite has transcribed all the texts and copied all the basreliefs at 
Philae, and it is hoped that his Memoire may be ready for publication in 
1892. M. Bouriant is progressing fast with Medinet Habu, where he has 
been at work for the last two years. The forthcoming numbers of the 
Memoires of the school will contain, inter alia, the end of M. Ravaisse's 
monograph on the old palace of the Fatimite Kaliphs at Cairo, some im- 
portant Coptic texts, and transcripts of several historic tombs at Thebes, 
including that of Queen Titi, with illustrations in chromolithography. 

ery has been made on the site of the ancient Mendes which may be of more 
than mere Egyptologic importance. A building has been partly unearthed, 
consisting of some fourteen rooms containing what was apparently a library 
of the Ptolemaic period. More than five hundred rolls of papyrus have 
been found in a carbonized condition, the building having evidently been 
burned. These papyri are written in (Greek, and, so far as can be seen, 
are of the Ptolemaic or Roman age, and not Byzantine. There is a chance, 
therefore, of finding some works of value. But it will be necessary to spend 
several hundred pounds in excavation, and the Museum is just now with- 
out funds. Then comes the slow work of unrolling and deciphering, for 
which it will be necessary to employ one of the experts at Naples. N. Y. 
E. Post, July 7 ; Cour. de I' Art, 1890, No. 27. 

THEBES. From Thebes there comes intelligence of the discovery, this 
spring, of a headless statue of Seti II of heroic size and archaic style. It 
was found at a depth of two feet below the surface level of the mud 


deposit which covers the floor of the great Hypostyle Hall. Greeks and 
Europeans, meanwhile, are carrying on an extensive system of plunder at 
Ekhmim and other places. AMELIA B. EDWARDS, in Academy, July 26. 


chell, opposite the present cemetery, two Koman wells and two sepulchral 
chambers were found last year, containing a large number of stone sar- 
cophagi. Among other contents that escaped destruction was the front 
of the cover of a Christian sarcophagus of the fourth or fifth century. It 
is covered with figures in relief. In the centre is an unfinished circular 
medallion supported by two genii. On the left is the Adoration of the Magi 
accompanied by their camels, while Joseph rests on the back of the Vir- 
gin's chair. On the right are the three children in the fiery furnace. 
Revue arch., 1890, i, pp. 214-16. 


INDO-SASSANIAN COINS. Recent numbers of the Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal contain reports on old coins, acquired by the 
government as treasure-trove, by Dr. Hoernle, the philological secretary. 
.The most important find here recorded is that of 175 silver pieces of the 
class called Indo-Sassanian, which were discovered in Marwara. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Hoernle, they resemble the genuine Sassanian type more closely 
than any hitherto known. They belong to two series : one imitating the 
coins of the Sassanian king Firuz (459-86 A. D.) in minute details, though 
of rude execution ; the other substituting a barbaric head for that of Firuz. 
On none is there any legend. It is known from history that about 470 
A. D. the White Huns, under their leader Toramana, annexed the eastern 
provinces of the Sassanian kingdom, and passed on to the invasion of 
India. It is further known that Toramana imitated the contemporary 
Gupta coinage, as well as that of Kashmir, putting his name on them. 
Dr. Hoernle, therefore, argues that these Indo-Sassanian coins also belong 
to Toramana, at an earlier period of his conquests. In this connection it 
is interesting to note that the barbaric head with its thick lips and large 
nose is not unlike that on the gold coins of the Indo-Scythian king Kad- 
phises. Academy, June 14. 

INDIAN PHILOLOGY. Part IV of Epigraphia Indica the official record 
of the inscriptions collected in the course of the Archaeological Survey of 
India consists, like former parts, of texts and translations which have 


been prepared by German scholars from the impressions made by Dr. 
James Burgess and his assistants. Perhaps the most important paper is 
that by Prof. Kielhorn, of Gottingen, upon the Siyadoni inscription, which 
' has enabled him to reconstruct the order of four kings of Kanauj in the 
ninth and tenth centuries. This inscription records the gifts of traders to 
Vishnu ; and many of the gifts are valued in terms of drammas, which is 
evidently a coin or monetary denomination of some sort. Another inscrip- 
tion, from Peheva in the Karnal district of the Punjab edited by Prof. 
Bu'hler, of Vienna similarly records the voluntary taxation for religious 
purposes imposed upon themselves by certain horse-dealers. Academy, 
June 21. 


GR/ECO-INDIAN STATUES. M. Senart has published, in the Journal Asia- 
tique (1890, Feb.-March), a paper in which he describes very fully the re- 
markable sculptures found at Sikri and already referred to on p. 179 of this 
volume. His paper is accompanied by good plates. A full summary of 
it will be found in our summary of the Journal Asiatique. 


EXCAVATIONS BY M. DE MORGAN. The excavations undertaken by M. 
de Morgan at the request of the Ministry of Public Instruction in Lin- 
koran (Northern Persia, on the banks of the Caspian) have been eminently 
successful. His encampment has been at an elevation of 1745 met. at Aspa 
Hiz, six kilom. from the frontier. He has found a large number of dol- 
mens, which, instead of containing, like those of Scandinavian lands, sepul- 
chral furniture of polished stone, belong, on the contrary, to the bronze or 
the iron age. The country appears to have been unoccupied when these 
dolmen-builders (which he believes to have been Aryans) established them- 
selves in it : the stone age is unknown in the province of Linkoran. M. 
de Morgan has collected more than 1300 objects from about 200 tombs. 
The collection is on its way to Paris. Cour. de I' Art, 1890, Nos. 27, 30. 


The Academic des Inscriptions has allotted 15,000 frs., from the Gamier 
Fund, to M. Dutreuil du Rhin, who is charged with a mission of explora- 
tion in Central Asia. 


A COLLECTION OF BABYLONIAN TABLETS. A very interesting collection 
of clay-tablets found in the ruins of Sippara was sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Co. on July 4. The catalogue contains about two hundred and fifty 
lots, the majority dating from the early period of the First Babylonian 
Empire. These are generally contracts for the sale of lands, fields, houses, 


grain, slaves, etc., and attest the great commercial activity of the metropolis 
of the rising empire. A marriage contract of the time of Khammurabi 
(No. 217) claims special attention, as it is unique among the documents 
of this epoch. The remainder of the collection consists of tablets of the 
Second Babylonian Empire, and of the Persian, Greek, and Parthian 
periods. Two are especially interesting from the social point of view. 
One is the summing up and judgment in a lawsuit of the thirteenth year 
of Nabonidos. A farmer named Iddin-Marduk had sent by boat to Baby- 
lon 480 measures of fruit. Kurgal-natan, who had undertaken the trans- 
port, lost part of his cargo on the way, and, having admitted that there 
had been neglect on his part, agreed to make restitution. When Iddin- 
Marduk came to claim the amount, Kurgal-natan avoided him, so that the 
former was compelled to bring the case before the court. The boat-owner, 
when summoned, acknowledged the charge, and was condemned to pay 
the value of the lost fruit. The decision is attested by the seals of five 
judges. This curious case shows that, in Babylonia, carriage practically 
included insurance. There are a great many contracts of sales and loans. 
An interesting one (No. 205) shows that slaves as well as lands, houses, 
and personal property were mortgaged. It also comprises lists of various 
kinds of tithes due to the temple of Esagil, of animals brought to Babylon 
for sale, and of other personal property. No doubt it was an inventory 
made before a mortgage, or a bill of sale. 

The tablets of the Greek and Parthian periods are, as usual, mostly 
astronomical. The latest is of 91 B. c. The collection also includes a few 
Akkadian texts. The most important (No. 215) consists of 216 lines, and 
appears to be agricultural. Academy, June 21. 

TABLETS FROM NIFFER. Professor Robert Harper of Yale College 
brought back from the University of Pennsylvania's expedition to Baby- 
lonia three tablets. They belong to the so-called class of loan-tablets, and 
were unearthed at Niffer. They are dated in the years two and four of 
Ashur-itilli-ilani, King of Assyria. The dates are of chronological value. 
They show that the Babylonian empire existed, if only in name, for four 
years after the death of Assurbanipal. Biblia, Sept., 1890. 


MISSION TO MT. SINAI. Marquis de Vogue" communicated to the Aca- 
demie des Inscriptions a letter from M. Bene"dite, whose epigraphic researches 
in the Sinaitic peninsula have already been partially reported (vol. v, 
pp. 88, 486). It is dated from the wady Feiran, May 17, 1890. M. 
Bene*dite has copied more than a thousand inscriptions between the wady 
Nasb, the region of Magharat, the Mogatteb and the Feiran wadys. The 


explorer believes that the region which he is now about to explore will 
not prove as fruitful. Paris Temps, June 14. 


NEW MAPS OF PALESTINE. Dr. HANS FISCHER of Leipzig assisted by 
Prof. H. GUTHE has executed a fine new map of Palestine which is published, 
accompanied by an explanatory article of Dr. Fischer, in the Zeitschrift 
d. deut. Palastina-Vereins, xin (1890), 1. Dr. Fischer remarks: "The 
geographic and especially the topographic exploration of Palestine has 
made extraordinary progress during the last decades. But this has not 
been made use of chartographically in the way required by the present 
condition of geography. The above new map of Palestina, on a scale of 
1:700000 (pi. 2) is planned to meet this want, and we have considered our 
main problem to be, to give a clear and correct statement of the orohydro- 
graphic relations of this region. The nomenclature and especially the his- 
torical names are due to Professor H. Guthe." The most important source 
for this map was the great map published in 1880 by the English Palestine 
Exploration Fund, on the scale of 1:63360, in 26 sheets. Help has also been 
derived from Captain Conder's survey of a portion of Eastern Palestine in 
1881 ; from Mr. Schumacher's survey of Dscholan, West Hauran, Ad- 
schlun, etc.; from Lieut. Mantell's maps of the coast of Syria ; and from the 
maps of the French Expedition of 1860-1. A further list of sources is 
given by Dr. Fischer, involving an historic account of the successive inves- 
tigations in the various provinces included in this map. 

The Palestine Exploration Fund has now ready for issue the new map 
of Palestine, upon which Mr. GEORGE ARMSTRONG, the assistant secretary, 
has long been engaged. It is on the scale of three-eighths of an inch to 
the mile; and it takes in both sides of the Jordan, extending to Baalbek 
and Damascus in the north, and to Kadesh Barnea in the south. All 
modern names are in black ; over these are printed Old-Testament and 
Apocrypha names in red, and New-Testament, Joseph us, and Talmudic 
names in blue, thus showing at a glance all the identifications of sites that 
have been ascertained. A companion map, showing the elevations by 
raised contour-lines, is also approaching completion. Academy, Aug. 2. 

AN EARLY HEBREW INSCRIPTION. Prof. SAYCE has communicated to me 
the following inscription on a small weight found on the site of Samaria, 
and purchased by Dr. Chaplin last spring : face 1, ^t^JD") I face 2, 
jyjjD*! I which seems to read M) yy\ *?& JD*J, " a quarter of a quarter 
of a $$}" Mr. Flinders Petrie, to whom Prof. Sayce communicated this 
interpretation, writes that he has discovered, from other sources, that the 
standard weight of Northern Syria amounted to 640 grains, of which the 
quarter of a quarter would be 40 grains, that is, exactly the value of the 


Samaritan weight in the possession of Dr. Chaplin. Whether $} is 
derived from the root W cannot be decided yet, but the use of *?& is 
important at the probable date of the eighth century B. c., which the 
forms of the characters indicate, and in the northern kingdom. *?&, which 
is a contraction of ^ > *? *WX, is found in Canticles, which is consid- 
ered a production of the Samaritan kingdom, in Jonah, and in JEcclesiastes. 
The early use of *7^ might perhaps help to bridge over the gulf which 
Prof. Margoliouth has found between classical Hebrew and that of Sirach. 
A. NEUBAUER, in Athenceum, Aug. 2. 

in date can at last be assigned to the few pre-exilic Hebrew inscriptions 
which are at present known to us. Mr. Clark, of Jerusalem, possesses a 
seal which bears upon it the following inscription : *Y7jlf I ^yiEC^'TN 1 ? ', 
" Belonging to Elishama' the son of the king." Now this Elishama' is evi- 
dently the Jewish prince who is mentioned, in Jer. xli. 1, as of "the seed 
royal " and grandfather of Ishmael, the contemporary of Zedekiah. He 
would, therefore, have flourished about 650 B. c., and the forms of the 
characters used in his inscription become a subject of epigraphic interest. 
Three of them are specially distinctive Aleph, Mem, and KapJi. Of these, 
Aleph and Mem have precisely the same forms as in the Siloam inscription. 
On the other hand, the Kaph is less archaic than in the Siloam text. The 
latter must consequently be somewhat older than the seal of Elishama' ; 
and the general opinion is thus justified which refers the tunnel and in- 
scription of Siloam to the reign of either Ahaz or Hezekiah. A. H. SAYCE, 
in Academy, Aug. 2. 

Dr. SCHUMACHER dated from Haifa to Professor Guthe gives information 
of the discovery, six kilom. N. w. of Caesarea, of ruins of buildings, and of 
a granite column with an inscription reading : M(arcwm) FL(awwm) AGRIP- 
PAM PONTiF(icem) | n viRAL(ew) | cOL(omae) I (primae) FL(aviae) AUG(US- 
tae) CAESAREAE ORAJTOREM EX DEc(tmomtra) DEc(refo) PEc(wma) PUB- 
L(tca). The letters are in the form that would be given by the reed or 
brush as used in judicial acts. It is important as the first inscription found 
on this site, and certainly the first in which the full name of this colony of 
Vespasian is given, which was, as Tacitus says, Caesarea Judaeae caput, the 
.capital city both for native kings and Roman governors. Many coins, from 
Domitian down, bear the name of the city. The Roman colony was placed 
here very shortly after the end of the Jewish war. Its title of first colony, 
colonia prima, shows it to have been the first colony in the Roman Empire 
founded by Vespasian. The site where the inscription was found is inter- 
esting as showing that the territory of the colony extended as far as this 
point. The Agrippa mentioned in the inscription is conjectured to be the 


son of Josephus, and the date to be before 100 A. D. Prof. ZANGEMEIS- 
TER, in the Zeitschrift d. deut. Pal'dstina-Vereins, xin (1890), 1, pp. 25-30. 

report of the general committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, the fol- 
lowing account by Mr. Petrie of his recent excavations on the site of Lachish. 

After lengthy delays, officially, I was able to begin excavation for the 
Palestine Exploration Fund in the middle of April. Nothing was known 
of the history of pottery in Syria, and therefore nothing had been done in 
past surveys and explorations towards dating the various tells and khurbehs. 
It had been necessary, therefore, on applying for a site to trust to the iden- 
tification by names ; and there seemed little risk in expecting that Umm 
Lakis and 'Ajlan one or other, if not both would prove to be Amorite 
towns, Lachish and Eglon. Some other ruins were included in the legal 
limit of area of 9 square kilometres for the permission. Among them, 
most happily, was Tell Hesy. I left Egypt for Syria, arriving at Jaffa 
on March 9. Although the permission was signed, it did not reach Jeru- 
salem till March 29. For nearly three weeks, therefore, I was unable to 
forward the business. Meantime I was able to examine and discuss the 
various buildings and remains of masonry with Professor Hayter Lewis and 
Dr. Chaplin ; and thus I learnt something about the antiquities, but I found 
how provokingly little is positively known and in what a vast uncertainty 
almost every question still remains. It was not until April 14 that I 
could begin work. I had already visited the various sites included in the 
area of permission, but found that all but one were of Roman age and unim- 
portant. The only prominent place was Tell Hesy, in the Arab country, 
six miles from the village of Burer, where we had to settle to begin with. 
But as Umm Lakis had been supposed to be Lachish, and it was the 
nearest site to the village, three miles off, I determined to examine it. My 
expectations of it were quite confirmed. We trenched about all over the 
ground down to the undisturbed native red clay ; but there were only six 
or eight feet of earth, and pottery of Roman age was continually found in 
it; while, most decisively, a worn coin of Maximian Hercules (circa 300 
A. D.) was found within two feet of native clay. Khurbet ' Ajlan appeared 
far less promising than Umm Lakis ; there is very little extent of artificial 
soil, very little pottery about it, and what there is shows Roman age. 

We then moved and established ourselves at Tell Hesy, which appeared 
to me to be a very important city of early date. We will first notice what 
reasons there are for believing this to be Lachish, and then we shall see 
how valuable the literary notices of its history become in understanding 
the site. Lachish was one of the five strongholds of the Amorites, with 
Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth and Eglon (Jos. x. 5). And it continued to 
be one of the strongest places in the country down to the invasions of Sen- 


nacherib and Nebuchadnezzar, to both of whom it was a special object 
of attack. It must, therefore, have had some natural advantages, and 
from various other notices (especially Eusebius) it certainly lay in the low 
country in this district. Now at Tell Hesy is the only spring for miles 
around, a brackish brook trickles down from Tell Nejileh, where in ancient 
times it was confined by a massive dam ; and at Tell Hesy it is joined by 
a fine fresh spring, while the whole of the water is swallowed in the stony 
wady within a few hundred yards lower, and never reappears. It is cer- 
tain, then, that Tell Hesy and subordinately Tell Nejileh must have been 
positions of first-rate importance from the time of the earliest settlements. 
They would thus agree to the character of Lachish and Eglon. The his- 
tory of Tell Hesy begins about 1500 B. c., and ends about 500 B. c. ; while 
Tell Nejileh, as far as can be seen on the surface, is of the same age, or 
ruined even earlier. The absolute point of date is the position in Tell 
Hesy at half to three-quarters of the height up the mound of the thin 
black Phoenician pottery which is known in Egypt to date from about 1100 
B. c. While the close of its history is fixed by the fragments of good 
Greek pottery on the top of it, and the total absence of Seleucidan and 
Roman objects. There are then no sites in the country around so suited 
to the importance of Lachish and Eglon as these two Tells ; and con- 
versely there are no recorded places of such primary value as these must 
have been, except the two Amorite capitals of the low country, which we 
know to have been near together. The transference of the names in late 
times to settlements a few miles off is probably due to the returning Jews not 
being strong enough to wrest the springs from the Bedawin sheep-masters. 
The actual remains of Tell Hesy consist of a mound which is formed of 
successive towns, one on the ruins of another, and an enclosure taking in 
an area to the south and west of it. This enclosure is nearly a quarter of 
a mile across in each direction, and is bounded by a clay rampart still 
seven feet high in parts, and in one place by a brick wall. This area of 
about 30 acres would suffice to take in a large quantity of cattle in case 
of a sudden invasion ; and such was probably its purpose, as no buildings 
are found in it, and there is but little depth of soil. The city mound is 
about 200 feet square ; its natural ground is 45 to 58 feet above the stream 
in the wady below, and on that the mass of dust and ruins of brick walls 
rises 60 feet. The whole of the east side of the town is destroyed by the 
encroachments of the valley, which here makes a great bend that has 
enabled the winter torrents to eat away this side. But for this fact we 
should have been unable to reach anything much of the earlier ages here ; 
but in the section cut away in a steep slope above the wady every period is 
equally exposed. We can thus see the succession of the walls of the town 
and trace its history. 


The earliest town here, on a knoll close to the spring, was of great 
strength and importance ; the lowest wall of all being 28 feet 8 inches 
thick, of clay bricks, unburnt ; and over this are two successive patchings 
of later rebuilding, altogether 21 feet of height remaining. Such massive 
work was certainly not that of the oppressed Israelites during the time of 
the Judges ; it cannot be as late as the Kings, since the pottery of about 
1100 B. c. is found above its level. It must, therefore, be the Amorite city ; 
and agrees with the account that " the cities are walled and very great " 
(Num., xin. 28), " great and walled up to heaven " (Deut., 1. 28), and also 
with the sculpture of the conquests of Ramessu II, at Karnak, where the 
Amorite cities are all massively fortified. So far as a scale of accumulation 
can be estimated, the foundation of the city wall would have been about 
1500 B. c., and thus agrees to the time of the great Egyptian conquests of 
the land, beginning under Tahutmes I, at that date. The need of a defence 
against such a well-organized foe probably gave the great start to fortify- 
ing in Syria. On both outside and inside of this wall is a great quantity of 
burnt dust and ashes, with fragments of pottery ; and we can now exactly 
know the character of the Amorite pottery. 

This fort, after repairs which still exist as solid brickwork over 20 feet 
high, fell into complete ruin. No more bricks were made ; rude houses of 
stones from the stream were all that were erected ; and for long years the 
alkali burner used the deserted hill, attracted by the water-supply to wash 
his ashes with. This corresponds to the barbaric Hebrew period under 
the Judges. This period is marked by a stratum of 5 feet of dust and 
rolled stones out of the valley below, lying in confusion on the ruins of the 
great Amorite wall. These remains clearly show a barbaric period, when 
rude huts of the nearest materials were piled up only to fall soon into ruin. 
Then, again, the town was walled. Phoenician pottery begins to appear, 
and some good masonry evidently of the age of the early Jewish kings. 
This period of wall-building and fortifying goes on with intermissions and 
various destructions until the end of the history. Successive fortifications 
were built as the ruins rose higher and the older walls were destroyed ; 
Cypriote influence comes in, and later on Greek influence, from about 700 
B. c. and onwards. The great ruin of the town was that by Nebuchadnezzar, 
in about 600 B. c. ; and some slight remains of Greek pottery, down to 
about 400 B. c., show the last stage of its history. Happily the indications 
can be interpreted by our literary records, otherwise we could have dis- 
covered little about a place in which not a single inscription or dated 
object has been found. The first of these walls is the most solid, being 13 
feet thick, and this probably belongs to Rehoboam's fortification of Lachish 
(II Chron., xi. 9) ; for, though David and Solomon doubtless did some 
building ( II Chron., viu. 2-6), probably this was more in the outlying 


parts of the kingdom. Probably to this fortifying of Rehoboam we must 
attribute the wall which I have traced along the north and west of the 
town, forming a tower at the northwest corner. The four rebuildings 
which may be traced on the east-face section must belong to some of 
the fortifying mentioned as having been done under Asa, Jehoshaphat, 
Uzziah, Jotham and Manasseh. That the main building here does not 
belong to later times than Nebuchadnezzar's destruction is shown by the 
scanty remains of post-exilic times found on the very top of the mound, 
a Persian coin and pieces of Greek pottery of the fifth century. On the 
south side a different character of walls is found ; one of the later being a 
massive brick wall 25 feet thick, and still of a considerable height. Proba- 
bly this belongs to Manasseh's work, about 650 B. c. This was built over 
a great glacis slope, formed of blocks of stone faced with plaster, which can 
be traced for forty feet height of slope ; perhaps this may be attributed to 
the hasty defences by Hezekiah at the time of Sennacherib's invasion in 
713 B. c. A. flight of steps of rather rough stones led us to an ascent of 
the glacis, which has now perished in the valley, and there is the gateway 
of a building at the foot of the steps, the rest of which has likewise been 
washed away. As this building may be attributed to about 700 B. c., or 
earlier, its character is important in the question of stone-working. There 
is the system of drafted stones, with a smooth edge, and a rough lump on 
the middle of the face ; but there is no trace of the " claw tool," or rather 
comb-pick, as it may be more intelligibly described. On the masonry at 
Jerusalem this is a constant feature, and we will notice later on the import- 
ance of this matter. This glacis slope overlies the earth, which is piled 10 
feet deep around a large building, the line of which I have traced on the 
east side. This building is 85 feet long, with walls of clay brick over four feet 
thick. It must be considerably earlier than the glacis to allow of ten feet of 
accumulation ; and as the glacis is not likely to be earlier than Hezekiah, 
the building can hardly be of Ahaz ; but it rather belongs to the long and 
flourishing time of Uzziah. Indeed, on a regular scale of accumulation of 
deposits, we should need to date it back to Jehoash ; but we can hardly be too 
early in dating it to 800 B. c. Then ten feet below this is another clay-brick 
building, which we should accordingly have to date back to 900 B. c., or 
earlier perhaps 1000 B. c. It has, moreover, been ruined and burnt and 
then constructed out of the old materials very rudely. Though of clay- 
brick, it had doorways of fine, white limestone, and some precious slabs of 
these yet remain, turned upside down in the reconstruction. Four of these 
show us a curious form of decoration by a shallow half-pilaster, a very slop- 
ing shaft, resting on a low cushion or quarter-round base, and with a volute 
at the top, projecting, without any separate capital or line, across the shaft. 


We are here face to face at last with work of the earlier Jewish kings, 
probably executed by the same school of masons who built and adorned 
the temple of Solomon. We see decoration which we must suppose to 
be closely akin to that of Solomon's time if not, indeed, as early as that 
itself. We learn that the Ionic volute, which the Greeks borrowed from 
Asia, goes back to the tenth century in Asiatic art ; and we can hardly fail 
to see its origin from a ram's horn, thus leading us to a pointed suggestion 
as to the form of the " horns of the altar." Besides these wall-slabs there 
are fragments of a cavetto moulding from the lintels of the door, exactly 
like that of the early Jewish monolith shrine at Siloam. Three of these 
pilasters have been found, and, though not thought worth removal by the 
Turkish officials, not one of them can come to England. I have taken 
casts and photographs of them, and carefully reburied them in known spots. 
Besides these, one of the slabs had a graffito on it representing a lion (?) 
walking; and as it was upside down it must have been scratched in the 
time of the first building. Unfortunately the remainder of this building 
is beneath 30 feet of earth, and the small prospect of there being anything 
else of importance in it makes it scarcely worth while to undertake such a 
weighty clearance. No small objects have been found in the ashes so far. 
Another matter of importance in itself, and of inestimable value for 
future exploration, is the fixing of a scale of dated pottery. Poor as Tell 
Hesy is in some respects, it is full of potsherds ; and the chance of such a 
grand section as that of the east face from top to bottom gives us at one stroke 
a series of all the varieties of pottery during over a thousand years. We 
now know for certain the characteristics of Amorite, of earlier-Jewish 
and of later-Jewish pottery influenced by Greek trade, and we can trace 
the importation and the influence of Phoenician pottery. In future all the 
tells and ruins of the country will at once reveal their age by the potsherds 
which cover them. Without entering on details, we may distinguish the 
Amorite by the very peculiar comb-streaking on the surface, wavy ledges 
for handles, and polished red-faced bowls, decorated by burnished cross- 
lines. These date from about 1500 to 1100 B. c., and deteriorate down to 
disappearance about 900. The Phoenician is a thin hard black or brown 
ware ; bottles with long necks, elegant bowls, and white juglets with pointed 
bottoms. Beginning about 1100, it flourishes till about 800 B. c. It de- 
velops into the Cypriote bowls, with V-handles, painted in bistre ladder 
patterns, which range from about 950 to 750 B. c. Due also to Phoenician 
influence seem to be the lamps from about 900 to 750 B. c., formed by open 
bowls pinched in at the edge to form a wick-spout. These were succeeded 
in the time of Greek influence, from 750 B. c., by the same pinched type, 
but of Greek ware, and with a flat brim. The Greek influence is also seen 
in the massive bowls of drab pottery, like those of early Naukratis, and the 


huge loop-handles, such as belong to both Naukratis and Defenneh before 
600 B. c. All these approximate dates are solely derived from the levels 
of the walls and the thickness of the deposits ; but they agree well with 
what is otherwise known. 

The methods of stone-working are another great key to the age of work. 
In the Haram wall at Jerusalem all the stones are dressed with the comb- 
pick (or " claw-tool ") down to the very base, as Professor Lewis states. 
This tool in Egypt is characteristic of Greek work, and it was used in pre- 
Persian work in Greece, pointing to its being of Greek introduction. Now 
in the masonry of the period of the kings here we have a strong test of the 
question ; and in no part either of the gateway, steps or pilaster-slabs is 
any trace of comb-pick to be seen. The evidence, therefore, is strong that 
the tool is a sign of Herodian and later ages ; and we must ascribe the whole 
of the Haram wall to Herod. This also strengthens the view that Ramet- 
el-Khallil is an early building, as no trace of comb-picking is seen on the 
massive blocks there, but only on the later relining of the building. 

As the Turkish Government claims everything, all the perfect pottery 
has been taken by the officials, and the stone-work is left to be destroyed 
by the Bedawin. Casts, photographs, and potsherds (such as any visitor 
can pick up here) are all that may be brought to England. These will be 
exhibited this summer in London, probably along with my Egyptian col- 
lections of this season. Academy, July 26 : c/. A. H. SAYCE, in N. Y. Inde- 
pendent, August 28 ; and Biblia for September. 


FURTHER DISCOVERIES NEAR SIDON. As nearly as can be ascertained 
from reliable sources, the facts concerning the recent archaeological discov- 
eries near Sidon appear to be as follows : In a cave near the foot of Mount 
Lebanon, about 2 miles distant from the Sidon seashore, five stone sarco- 
phagi, with various finely carved figures upon them, have recently been 
discovered; but, as the inscriptions upon them have not yet been de- 
ciphered, and the sarcophagi, as well as the photographs taken thereof, 
are jealously guarded from intrusive eyes, nothing positive as to the period 
of classic art to which they belong can be stated with any degree of accu- 
racy. At some later date it may be possible to give fuller details. The 
cave itself is 27 feet long, 2 ft. wide, and 1\ ft. high. On the upper side- 
wall of the cave, opposite to the entrance door, there is a mosaic of most 
exquisite workmanship. It represents the colored figure of a woman in 
most delicate mosaic, belonging, doubtless, to some distinguished old Greek 
family. Judging from the Greek inscription, the mosaic would not seem 
to be of very remote antiquity ; but, owing to its incomparable beauty and 
perfection, it will prove a most valuable addition to the collection of the 


Imperial Ottoman Museum at Constantinople. Another authority claims 
that there are two figures of women in mosaic, one in green, the other in 
blue, both being pronounced to be Phoenician remains. 

Other objects, found in another site, are columns, figures, statuettes, and 
various ornaments of Greek workmanship, of all of which photographs have 
been made and sent to the Museum at Constantinople, where the originals 
are soon to follow. ( U. S. Consular Reports) E. BISSINGER, United States 
Consulate, Beirut, January 27, 1890: of. Athenaeum, June 21. 

A SIDONIAN CIPPUS. M.RENAN presented to the Aead. des Inscr. a re- 
production of a dppus from Sidon with a Phoenician inscription which he 
thus translates : " This offering was given by Abd-Miskar, son of Abd- 
Lesept, second magistrate, son of Baal-Sillekh, to his lord Salman ; let 
him bless." The god Salman is of Assyrian origin, and enters into the 
name of Salmaneser and that of the Palmyrene goddess Selamanis. The 
offering mentioned was the anathema placed on the eippus. Paris Temps, 
April 29. 




G. HOGARTH write to the Athenceum (of July 26 and Aug. 16) : " During 
twelve days spent in the Pisidian mountains we have completed the first 
instalment of our task this year, namely, to supplement and connect pre- 
vious surveys of the geographical and archaeological features of the country 
about the great lakes. We left Smyrna on June 14, and travelled up the 
railway to its new terminus at Dinari (Kelainai-Apameia). The extension, 
lately completed by the energy of Mr. Purser, from Seraikeny to the head 
of the Maiandros, is the greatest step in the development of Anatolia 
which has been taken for centuries. For the tourist the line does much : 
Hierapolis, Laodikeia, and Kolossai are now within two or three miles of 
railway stations, and can be visited with ease and comfort. At Dinari, 
we copied half a dozen new inscriptions, two, one Latin and one Greek, 
being of unusual interest ; and we left it on June 16. In the course of 
the next two days, we visited the sites ofKonana and Seleukeia Sidera, and 
obtained inscriptions of little interest. The third evening found us at 
Egerdir, and we took the opportunity of visiting the ancient monastery 
which has survived on the island of Nisi in the lake. It possesses a MS. 
lectionarium of the fifteenth century. Hence, we struck into the wildest 
part of Pisidian Tauros. We first crossed into the valley of the Upper 
Eurymedon, and found at Tofalas, near the site of Timbrias, a number of 
curious Pisidian epitaphs. A very long ride, during which we had to cross 
country of terrible difficulty, brought us to Kara Bavlo, the site of Adada, 
discovered by Schonborn, and since visited by Professor Sterrett. 


" The situation of ADADA is certainly striking. In a country that con- 
sists chiefly of impassable mountains it is a really important road-centre ; 
amid a wilderness of rocks it commands a large extent of most fertile ter- 
ritory. We had great difficulty in finding it, and still greater difficulty 
in leaving it ; and our experience was the best proof that the country can 
hardly be traversed except along a few routes, almost all of which pass 
through Adada. We found no road that is not indicated in Kiepert's 
most recent map, but we learned that some of his lines indicate routes 
which could never be made passable, except by unlimited tunnelling and 
bridging, while others, though poor enough at present, might easily be put 
in a very fair condition. The latter pass through Adada. This knowl- 
edge, which could not be got from previous travellers, introduces order 
into the topography of this whole district. Prof. Sterrett has very briefly 
described the ruins of Adada, whose name he did not know, and has copied 
the inscriptions with great diligence and accuracy. We had only about 
six hours of daylight available for work at Adada, and most of this was 
taken up in making a rough survey of the extensive and remarkably 
well-preserved ruins. The city, as Mr. Headlam first observed, occupied 
originally a small hill (called by Sterrett the acropolis), and a larger 
double-peaked hill to the southwest of it. The lines of fortification of this 
earlier city, partly natural and partly artificial, lay high above us on the 
right, wall above wall, as we approached by the road from Perga. This 
Pisidian hill-fortress, under the prosperity and peaceful government of the 
Roman Empire, was extended to the north so as to fill great part of a 
valley shut in by hills of no great height. This larger city whose extreme 
length was about 700 yards, with a breadth of about 200, was not fortified. 
The Agora lies partly inside and partly to the north of the earlier city, 
whose walls were destroyed in part to allow of the extension. It extended 
probably up to a building of peculiar shape, in fair preservation, about 180 
yards north ; but great part of it is a heap of confused ruins. Our survey 
indicates roughly the situation and shape of all the buildings which can 
be distinguished with certainty, but necessarily -leaves out the great ma- 
jority. 200 yards further north there are three small temples, in two of 
which the walls are practically complete. Inscriptions show that the city 
contained temples of Aphrodite, of Serapis, and of the Fatherland, and 
that the cultus of the emperors was associated with and put before each of 
the other cults ; but there are difficulties, which need not be here men- 
tioned, in assigning the names to particular buildings, owing to the fact 
that Prof. Sterrett is not quite so accurate in stating the locality of his 
inscriptions as in copying the text. Of his thirty-four inscriptions we saw 
only fourteen, besides one which he had not observed ; a few we copied 
more completely, but in most we only confirmed his text. With little 


trouble and no great expense the mass of ruins might be sorted and thor- 
oughly examined, the whole plan of the city discovered, and a great deal 
of information obtained about its condition under the Empire. For a 
picture of society, as it was formed by Grseco-Roman civilization in an 
Asiatic people, there is, perhaps, no place where the expenditure of a few 
hundreds would produce such results. Those who hold the opinion that 
the most important and interesting part of ancient history is the study of 
the evolution of society during the long conflict between Christianity and 
paganism will not easily find a work more interesting and fruitful at the 
price than the excavation of Adada. The modern name, Bavlo, is undoubt- 
edly the Turkish pronunciation of IlavXos. Numerous examples occur 
where the modern name is that of the patron saint of the church in the 
ancient city. Adada then was under the protection of the apostle. A 
mile south of the city, by the road to Perga, stands a little church, appa- 
rently of fairly early character, with the separating wall between the place 
for penitents and the body of the church, and with triple apsidal termina- 
tion. This church might probably repay examination. 

" The difficulty of getting through the mountains to the southern end of 
the Beysheher Lake can hardly be exaggerated. Three days of contin- 
uous riding brought us to Kashaktu at the southwestern corner of the 
lake ; three-quarters of an hour to the east, on a spur of the hills, is a 
walled site, which there can be little doubt must be identified with the 
Roman colony Parlais ; and the identification is supported by the presence 
of Latin inscriptions in neighboring villages. The ruins are situated pre- 
cisely in the position assigned on general grounds to Parlais in the forth- 
coming Historical Geography of Asia Minor. 

" From Beysheher to Konia we took the horse road by Fassiler, thence, 
southward to visit the sites of Lystra and Derbe, and to make a tour in 
Kilikia Tracheia. 

" We spent July in the Isaurian Tauros and Southwestern Kappadokia. 
Our route, on leaving Konia, lay due south to the site of Lystra (Khatyn 
Serai). Here we copied a few new inscriptions and verified old ones, among 
the latter the milestone in the graveyard of Kavak, of which we obtained 
a more accurate copy, which establishes the line of the Roman road from 
Laranda and Derbe to Lystra. Some miles to the southeast we found an- 
other inscribed milestone upon the same road, standing, probably in situ, 
upon a bridge over the Tcharshembi Su. With the exception of Dorla, 
which is full of late epitaphs, the villages in this district contained nothing 
of interest, and we passed on rapidly by the site of Derbe (which should 
be placed at Gudelissin rather than at Losta) to Karaman. It should be 
mentioned that we visited Dinorla, where Prof. Sterrett placed Nea Isaura, 


and were convinced from an inspection of the ruins that the identification 
is impossible. 

" From Karaman we elected to travel over Tauros by the easternmost 
of the two roads to Mut, that passing by Kestel, where we expected to find 
traces of Koropissos. Nor were we disappointed, for immediately below 
the village, ten hours from Karaman, we found a ruined city, occupying 
a strong position above the Tchiri Su. Of the earliest foundation Koro- 
pissos little remains. The imposing structures which make the site re- 
markable belong to the later Christian city, renamed (as we learn from the 
Notitice) Hierapolis, while the fine acropolis whose towers crown the south- 
ern extremity of the plateau is later still, and almost certainly represents 
the Armenian fortress Si vilia, passed by Frederick Barbarossa on his march 
to Seleukeia. Inscriptions we looked for in vain, but had a hard day's work 
photographing and planning the site. Of a fine early church we made a 
detailed plan, and traced successfully the disposition of streets and build- 
ings over the rest of the city area. 

VI-Gentury Monastery. " We next attempted to find the ruins at Kodja 
Kalessi: we found a guide at Mut, and the ruins four hours to the north- 
west. They proved to be those of a great monastery : the church, a very 
fine specimen of sixth-century architecture, is wonderfully complete, and 
no agencies but those of nature have contributed to its overthrow. The 
plan of the other 'buildings is easily traced. From the evident importance 
of this lonely monastery, and from the character of its architecture and 
elaborate ornamentation, it seems very probable that Kodja Kalessi rep- 
resents the monastery of Apadua, built, according to Prokopios, by Jus- 
tinian in Isauria. We made plans of the whole group of buildings and 
drawings of the church, took several photographs, and copied some rock 
inscriptions. One of the latter will give us a date : it was evidently cut 
by a monk in his own lifetime ; for after recording that he was Trpeo-ftvTc- 
pos and TrapafjiovdpLos of the monastery from the consulship of Gadamippus 
(Gapus] ? Damippus), he left a Wank space for the date of his death, which, 
alas ! no one has been found to fill. 

" Near Mut we discovered the remains of a city, probably Dalisandos ; 
the ruins are of late character, but abound in inscribed sarcophagi. In 
Mut itself we were fortunate enough to find two new inscriptions of con- 
siderable interest : one is a dedication to Zeus Proasteios ; the other con- 
tains the name Claudiopolis, thus confirming, at last, Leake's conjecture as 
to the identity of the site. 

" The rest of our time in the Kalykadnos valley was spent in the vain 
endeavor to find Diokaisareia. In the course of the quest we discovered a 
solitary temple of the Roman period in very good preservation, and a fort. 
The ruins about the former were not considerable enough to warrant our 


identifying the site as Diokaisareia, but it appears certain that that city 
must have been somewhere not far away. But no one appeared to know 
of any other ruins ; so we gave it up, and struck the Ermenek road at Inai- 
bazaar, and descended to Selef keh. 

Visit to Olba and Korykos. " On our way from Selef keh to the north 
we visited some of Mr. Bent's brilliant discoveries of this year. We went 
first to Olba, the ruins of which are among the most interesting in Asia 
Minor, and fully justify Mr. Bent's description in theAthenceum of June 
7 (see pp. 351-4) ; but the temple, though imposing to a distant view, is a great 
disappointment, being coarse and bad in style without any trace of archaic 
character. We must express our high admiration of the care and thorough- 
ness with which Mr. Bent examined this and other places that we visited. 
The way in which he concentrated his work on a small district may be recom- 
mended to all archaeological travellers, and his splendid discoveries in a 
country recently visited by such explorers as Langlois, Duchesne, Sterrett, 
etc., prove that this method is the one most likely to be successful. 

" From Olba we made an excursion to the coast to see the great Kory- 
kian inscription discovered by Mr. Bent. We, of course, concede to Mr. 
Bent the task and the honor of publishing his discoveries ; but, as our ex- 
perience has always been that a first visit cannot exhaust the possible dis- 
coveries on any site, we considered that the plan of our journey required 
us to visit these important remains, and after we have seen them the best 
way seems to us to place all our results at Mr. Bent's disposal in publish- 
ing his account of his journey. 

" The city of Olba, like that of Tyana, consisted of two parts, the forti- 
fied polis and the hieron with the town that grew up around it. The lat- 
ter is about two and a half miles west-southwest of the former, and it was 
wholly undefended until about the time of Augustus, when the tower de- 
scribed by Mr. Bent was built under the priest Teukros, father of the Ajax 
who struck a well-known series of coins between 11 and 15 A. D. This 
tower has originated the modern name Uzunja Burdj, 'the Long Tower,' 
while the city proper still bears its old name under the form Oura. The 
hieron had a better situation than the polis, and almost all the finer build- 
ings and the architectural features of the city during the Roman period 
were placed beside it; but the polis was still inhabited, and about 200-210 
A. D. an aqueduct was built to supply it with water. This aqueduct bears 
a dedication, justly described by Mr. Bent as ' dreadfully obliterated,' in 
honor of Septimius Severus, Caracalla (Geta erased), and Julia Domna. 
But, like Komana, the site of Olba is, on the whole, a great disappoint- 
ment: the inscriptions are few and uninteresting (except those just men- 
tioned and a Christian epitaph with the name Sandansaka), and about the 
priest-kings of this historically interesting city we learn nothing. 


" Mr. Bent's great inscription at Korykos cannot be taken as a list of 
the priest-kings of Olba. In the first place, it does not contain the name 
of any of the known priests of Olba. In the second place, it is engraved 
on the temple at Korykos, and we cannot agree with Mr. Bent in assign- 
ing to Olba any authority over such cities as Korykos or Sebaste, any 
more than we can accept the statement that it was ever metropolis of 
Isauria in Christian times. Sebaste in particular was a much more impor- 
tant place than Olba, moreover, the position of the inscription and the char- 
acter of the names suggest a different explanation. The inscription was 
discovered by Mr. Bent in the wall of a Christian church, which is obviously 
of no very early date. This church was made by utilizing the temple 
which stood beside the brink of the Korykian cave. The walls of the eella 
were raised higher, and an apse was built on at the eastern end : the addi- 
tions are of coarse work, and can be detected at a glance. We made a 
plan, showing the relation of the two buildings and indicating the peribolos- 
wall of fine polygonal masonry that surrounded the temple. The southern 
anta of the temple has disappeared ; the northern still stands, wanting only 
the uppermost course of stones. The great inscription covers the whole of 
the front of the anta; but the loss of the top stone has deprived us of the 
preamble. The rest consists of an enumeration of citizens, probably of 
Korykos, and may fairly be taken as the list of those who subscribed to 
build the temple, probably about the beginning of the first century after 
Christ. The inscription was engraved on the stones before they were put 
into their places in the wall, and by an error of the builders two of the 
stones were turned upside down as they were placed in position. Our copy, 
which is almost complete, and the plans of the temple, of the two cities at 
Olba, and of some other places (several done by Mr. Headlam), have already 
been offered to Mr. Bent to make use of in his account of the work. 

" The Roman road from Laranda, by Koropissos and Olba, to Sebaste was 
traced by us at various points of its course, partly by cuttings and levels, 
partly by the pavement and the milestones. We had never travelled along 
a Roman road with the original pavement unaltered, except by time and 
weather, and with the milestones still in their original position, until we 
traversed the last fifteen miles to Sebaste. Most of the stones were either 
illegible or uninscribed, but we obtained several inscriptions, showing that 
the road was constructed under Septimius Severus. 

Visit to the Hittite Rock-relief at Jorcez. " From Uzunja Burdj we crossed 
the mountains to Eregli, and thence made a detour to Jorcez. Our object 
was to obtain impressions of two of the inscriptions near the great ' Hittite ' 
rock-relief, but we succeeded only with the lower one. However, we made 
careful copies of all the texts, redrew certain parts of the figures which have 
been inadequately represented, and took several photographs of the whole 


relief. In almost all points we find that the drawing published in the Archar 
ologische Zeitung, 1885, was a great improvement on that of Davis, repro- 
duced in Wright's Empire of the Hittites. The water of the millstream 
which flows at the foot of the ' written rock ' was low, and we were able 
to copy several new symbols in the lowest inscription. Of the whole monu- 
ment we must say that it yields to no rock-relief in the world in impressive 

Purchase of the Hittite Inscription atSor. "Two days later we reached 
Bor and set about finding the celebrated incised Hittite inscription, dis- 
covered there in 1882. Its owner, as before, would allow no squeeze or 
copy to be made. So we succeeded in buying the stone outright. We con- 
veyed the stone forthwith to Nigde*, lodged it in the care of the governor, 
and wrote to Constantinople offering it to the Imperial Museum. We hope 
to convey it thither after our tour in the Anti-Tauros. 

" Still more fortunate was our discovery on the next day of a second 
incised stone, so far similar to the first that it must be a part of the same 
series of reliefs. It is more than probable that others of the series exist, 
above or below ground, and all come unquestionably from Kiz Hissar 
(Tyana). The second stone has been cut into a round shape in modern 
times, and many of its symbols lost ; but a bearded head remains and a 
large part of the inscription. The characters are, perhaps, somewhat 
more elaborate than those of the first stone, but their essential character 
is the same." 

AUSTRIAN EXPLORATION. Prince John of Liechtenstein has offered to 
the Academy of Wien an annual subvention of 5000 florins for five years, 
to carry on the archseologic researches commenced by the Austrian expe- 
dition in Asia Minor. Revue des etudes grecques, 1890, p. 101. 

lin, we receive the first four out of fifteen sheets of a map, by Dr. Heinrich 
Kiepert, of Western Asia Minor on a scale of 1 : 250,000. In this work 
the veteran cartographer, now just completing his seventy-second year, 
returns in part to an early task. Half a century ago, as he relates, Moltke 
and other Prussian officers, on coming home from the Turkish service, 
intrusted to him the geographic data amassed in their official military 
journeys in Asia Minor, to which he added his own recent observations in 
the western portion of the peninsula, and, availing himself of all extant 
literary sources, produced in 1844 a map of Asia Minor on a much smaller 
scale than the present fragment (1 : 1,000,000). This map, repeatedly 
copied, and which has been of the greatest utility to travellers, has hith- 
erto not been superseded, though the Russians have for political purposes 
within twenty years constructed a larger one (1 : 840,000). Dr. Kiepert 
has now used a great deal of unpublished material, and has received much 


aid from the labors of archaeologists like Profs. Ramsay and Sterrett (who 
repay their debt to him), especially in the identification of places; all 
which he acknowledges most conscientiously and in detail. It is needless to 
add more to this account of Kiepert's always authoritative work. He has 
supplied the Turkish and the classical names, using for the former the 
transliteration recommended by a committee of the Paris Geographical 
Society. French and English equivalents are often annexed. N. Y. E. 
Post, July 7. 

mann writes in the Neue Freie Presse of June 11 : " The excavations 
which I commenced at Ilion with the help of Dr. Dorpfeld on Nov. 1 of 
last year and broke off in the middle of December, on account of the 
winter, were again taken up at the close of February. I had set for myself 
the main task of uncovering the continuation of the three gate-streets in 
the lower city, and of bringing to light as much as possible to the south 
and west of the Pergamos. But great difficulties lay here in our way : the 
mass of rubbish had a depth of over sixteen metres and consisted of the 
ruins of the walls of houses erected here by successive settlements in the 
course of ages ; these it was first necessary to carefully excavate and clear, 
in order to photograph before tearing them down. My work was outside 
the great enclosing wall of the second city, which was destroyed by some 
frightful catastrophe; the Romans had destroyed, in the centre of the 
acropolis, the walls of the houses that form the debris lying directly above 
this layer, in order to raise a plateau ; while here, near the walls of the 
citadel of the Roman city, the house-walls with their foundations are pre- 
served, on the average, to a height of about one metre. They point to 
four settlements which succeeded one another, in the course of centuries, 
after the fall of the fifth prehistoric city. By far the most important of 
these is the Roman, whose buildings often have foundations descending to 
a depth of five metres. Above this comes the Greek, then the archaic Greek, 
and, still further below, an earlier settlement which may be contemporary in 
date with the palaces of Mykenai and Tiryns. It is true that the walls of 
these different periods have, as a rule, no characteristic marks by which 
they can be distinguished ; for they all consist of stones bound with clay- 
mortar and only very seldom is the Roman lime-mortar used. But the 
pottery found in great quantities in the houses can leave no doubt as to 
the age of their construction. More interesting than the Roman and 
Greek pottery of the classic period are the archaic terracottas of the fifth 
and sixth centuries, which are often very artistically painted, and were 
doubtless imported from Greece. It is doubtful, however, whether the 
theory of importation can be sustained with regard to the vases with 
geometric patterns of the so-called Dipylon style, or for the terracottas of 


the Mykenaian and Tirynthian types among which the Bugel-Kanne is 
especially remarkable. For in Hellas the culture which produced these 
types came to an end, without leaving a trace, toward the beginning of the 
twelfth century B. c. through the migration of the Dorians or the so-called 
return of the Herakleidai : this, in its turn, called forth the Aiolic migra- 
tion to Asia Minor and especially to the Troad ; and so it appears to me 
more probable that a great deal of pottery belongs to it (Aiolian), and that 
its art became naturalized in Ilion. This conjecture appears to us all the 
better grounded that in the fourth settlement mentioned above as contem- 
porary with the prehistoric Hellenic type of colossal masses there appears 
a kind of monochromatic grey pottery of entirely different form and mode 
of manufacture, which I had previously held to be Lydian and described 
in detail in my work Ilios, in treating of the sixth city, but which I now 
must regard as decidedly of native manufacture. For, since writing that 
book I have as may be seen in the Trojan collection in the Ethnological 
Museum in Berlin come across similar pottery in my excavations in 
Kebrene, Kurschunlu-Tepe (the ancient Skepsis and Dardania), in the 
earliest period of the small settlement on the Bali-Dagh behind Burar- 
baschi, in Eski-Hissarlik, on the Fuln-Dagh, and in the tumuli which are 
ascribed by tradition to Achilleus, Patroklos and Priamos. The house- 
walls to which this gray ware belongs were cleared away by the Romans 
in the centre of the city ; . . . but, nearer the city-walls are left, . . . and 
among them are several fortification-walls which may with probability be 
ascribed to this settlement. Rude hammers, fine axe-heads of cut diorite, 
corn-crushers, oval hand-mills, knives of silex, etc., are often found in the 
debris of this settlement; while at the same time there also appear long 
needles with globular or spiral heads which before the invention of the 
fibula served for fastening the hair or clothes. 

" Underneath these ruins we came (as before in the excavations of the 
city proper) upon house- walls of three prehistoric settlements before reach- 
ing the level of the second or burnt city which must have existed for a 
number of centuries. Beside the earlier fortified wall b and the later c, 
Dr. Dorpfeld's sagacity led to the discovery of an even older encircling 
wall of the second city, which, with its towers, is strongly scarped and well 
preserved ; here also the superadded construction is of crude-bricks. We 
found in the house-walls of the second city three kinds of rebuilding. To 
the city of the third and last reconstruction, which perished in some great 
catastrophe, belonged only six or seven large buildings which were all par- 
allel and ran from s. E. to N. w. The walls, 0.85 to 1.45 met. thick, were 
provided with par astadoi, and consisted, below, of stones joined by clay and, 
above, of sun-dried bricks. The largest building [perhaps a royal palace 
D\ (A on plan vn in my Trcja) contained a hall 20 met. long by 10 met. 


wide ; the remaining houses are somewhat smaller, but it can be assumed 
with certainty that a citadel adorned with such stately buildings must have 
had a proportionately large lower city. We have for a long time been occu- 
pied with bringing to light the foundations of the buildings of the two earlier 
periods, in order to draw up a plan of them. All are constructed in the 
same manner, as is attested by the masses of crude brick that lie between 
the house- walls and in front of the fortifications. In the first epoch of the 
second city we still find a brilliant monochrome black pottery, which seems 
remarkably like that of the first city, and which little by little becomes im- 
proved until it approaches the terracottas as they appear in the third epoch 
of the second city. On the southern and eastern sides we have uncovered 
the citadel walls of the third epoch of the second city with its towers, along 
almost its entire length ; and the many signs of powerful heat, which appear 
on both sides of them, leave no doubt that they were provided with a cov- 
ered gallery of wood, like that which is referred to as existing on the encir- 
cling wall of Athens. 

" The walk marked scon plan vii [on the N. E. side of the citadel], which 
we had conjectured to be a wall belonging to the lower city, has been with 
great difficulty excavated from a stony mass of rubbish sixteen meters high. 
It proves to be a ramp by which the citadel was reached, as at Tiryns. 
Most interesting are the steps by which this ramp was once ascended. 
Similar but even more primitive steps were uncovered on the south side 
of the citadel before the s. E. gate. At the s, E. end of the Roman acropolis 
we excavated a small theatre which may have served as an Odeion, but its 
covering is fallen and destroyed. The theatre is preserved up to the upper 
row of seats, which rested upon the surrounding walls formed of great 
blocks of stone, but are now wanting. The material is a hard limestone ; 
only the lower row of seats is of marble. Two life-size marble statues 
were found in it, one of which apparently represents the Emperor Clau- 
dius I. In any case, the theatre belongs to the first imperial period, as 
two marble blocks were found bearing inscriptions one of which was of 
the time of Tiberius." Berl phil. Woch., 1890, No. 26. 

Dr. DORPFELD, on his side, summarizes the campaign in a contribution 
to the Athen. Mittheil., xv, 2, pp. 226-9. He says : " Our main object was : 
(1) to determine the surrounding walls of the Pergamos at the different pe- 
riods ; (2) to complete the plan of the second city, the Homeric Pergamos ; 
(3) to study separately, at a spot where this is still possible, the ground- 
plans of the upper settlements ; (4) to uncover a portion of the lower city ; 
and (5) to search for the early tombs. A part of this was accomplished 
in the middle of June." Dr. Dorpfeld's report gives a number of archi- 
tectural facts more fully than Dr. Schliemann's. An important discovery 
was that of two more parastadoi or portions of piers belonging to build- 


ing c. This had been, until now, only conjectured to be a propylaion : 
now, this identification is certain, and so further evidence is gained for the 
close relation between the constructions of Tiryns and Troy. West of 
the s. w. gate a large section was excavated which lay outside the acropolis 
of the second city : later, it was enclosed within its limits, and contained 
houses and other buildings belonging to the upper cities. Each stratum 
was here freed, surveyed, and photographed. In this way, a ground-plan 
was obtained of all the buildings which were erected over the ruins of 
the second city. " As soon as we have reached, on this site, the lowest 
strata, we hope to settle the question whether on this side a lower city was 
annexed to the Pergamos of the Homeric Ilion. Perhaps even the royal 
tombs lay directly in front of this gate : we have been, until now, as un- 
successful in our search for them, as at Tiryns." The declivities of the 
citadel, where these tombs would be sought for, are covered up with old and 
recent debris to such an extent as to make research extremely expensive. 

The excavation of a part of the lower city will be deferred until next 
year. Only one building belonging to it, s. w. of the citadel, has been 
uncovered, namely, the theatre. On account of the liberal attitude of the 
Turkish Government, it will be possible to accompany the results of these 
excavations with far more numerous plans than in the book Troja. 

Athenaeum (of June 7) : " In my letter to theAthenceum of April 5 (JOUR- 
NAL, p. 188) I notified our discovery of two inscriptions giving us the name 
of Olba. Not satisfied that this was actually the site of the capital of this 
ancient kingdom, and being unable owing to the season to prosecute our 
researches more inland, we waited until the spring, and then traversed the 
whole of the district from the coast to the Karamanian mountains, which 
in ancient times would seem to have constituted the toparchia of Olba, a 
part of Kilikia Tracheiotis. From an inscription on a tomb at the spot 
where we found the above-mentioned inscriptions we read that those who 
opened it were to pay so much to Sebaste, and so much to the deme of the 
Kanygelli, giving us the Sebaste-Eleousa of Ptolemy, which is down by the 
coast and mentioned by him after Korykos, and the name of one of its demes. 
From these premises we could safely argue that the rule of Olba extended 
over Sebaste, and that the priest-kings who are styled on coins ' dynasts of 
Olba and toparchs of Kennatis and Lalassis ' must have had their capital 
at some other point which had yet to be found. 

" From Lamas to the plain of Seleukeia the coast line is thickly covered 
with ruins, including the towns of Sebaste-Eleousa, Korykos, and Korasios ; 
these ruins are, however, almost all of a very late Roman date, and an in- 
scription at Chok Oren (many. ruins), not far from the plain of Seleukeia, 
gives in a few words what is probably the history of most of them. It tells 


us that during the reign of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, the governor 
of Isauria rebuilt from the foundations ' the spot which is called Korasios, 
which had become desolate and void of houses.' Whether this is the Kora- 
kesion of Strabo or not is uncertain, but the name Korasios is very clear 
in my squeeze ; at all events, it confirms Strabo's description of the devas- 
tation of this coast by pirates, accounts for the lateness of the coast-line 
ruins, and explains why the older inhabitants of Kilikia Tracheia preferred 
to live in fortified towns up on the slopes of the Tauros. The mountains 
in this portion of Kilikia Tracheia come right down to the sea. A second 
line of towns occupied the slopes more immediately above the sea level, 
the names of two of which we were enabled to recover from inscriptions 
namely, Eabbasis and Reorbasis each with strong polygonal fortresses and 
walls, and each celebrated for the worship of Hermes. Besides these there 
were several the names of which we were unable to find, but only the signs 
which were invariably put up on a corner of the towers. Here I may inci- 
dentally mention that at eight different sites we discovered the sign of the 
club, which eventually proved to be the sign of Olba, and, together with 
the triskelis which surmounted our Olbian inscriptions at Sebaste, is found 
on Olbian coins (Head, Hist. Numorum). This would give us as the least 
possible area of this kingdom a boundary on the east beyond the Lamas 
river, and on the west the valley of the Kalykadnos. 

" On proceeding further inland, at about seven hours from the coast at 
Lamas, we halted for some days at extensive ruins now known as Jam- 
beslu, about from 3,000 to 4,000 ft. above the sea level, containing fine 
herod, a sarcophagus, the lid of which is carved into the figure of a lion 
with its paw on a vase, the characteristic rock-carvings, several forts, the 
ruins of a temple, and a large early-Christian basilica. We found only 
three poor inscriptions here, and were unable to recover the name, but on 
gateways the sign of the club occurs. The same experience awaited us at 
the next place, Yiennilii, the fortress of which had over the door the club 
between two triangles. Our next headquarters were at a small village of 
Yourouks known as Uzenjaburgh, over 4,000 ft. above the sea level, situ- 
ated amongst very extensive ruins, which proved to be the capital of Olba. 
First of all, we examined the ruins of an extensive town down in a valley 
about three miles below Uzenjaburgh. These ruins crown a wooded height 
surrounded on two sides by narrow gorges crowded with rock-carvings and 
rock-cut tombs, and on the third side by a little fertile plain. This spot the 
nomads now call Oura. Prof. Ramsay previous to this imagined that the 
original name of Olba was Ourwa, Hellenized to suggest a meaning in 
connection with oA./3os. In ancient times, water was conveyed to this town 
by a fine aqueduct from the Lamas river ;- and on the arches which span 
one of the gorges is a long inscription, dreadfully obliterated, but from 


which we were able, with a considerable amount of personal risk, to get a 
squeeze of the words OA B Eft N HTTOA IZ, and read the name of M. Aure- 
lius Caesar. Oura also had a small theatre, a curious fountain, and yielded 
one or two minor inscriptions. It is connected with the ruins around 
Uzenjaburgh by an ancient paved road, on either side of which are numer- 
ous rock-cut tombs and other ruins, and the name of Olba again occurred 
on a fallen column. It would appear that in ancient times the two towns 
practically joined, and formed the capital of the kingdom of Olba. 

" A very large tower, four stories high, with five chambers on each floor, 
commands the ruins of the upper town ; it is 50 ft. 10 in. by 40 ft. 9 in. ; 
and on this fortress are four separate inscriptions, and a very neatly carved 
club in a frame. The most important of these inscriptions has almost 
the same formula of dedication as that to the Olbian Jove at Sebaste ; 
again the same strange name Tarlcuarios follows that of the priest-king 
Teukros in the list of names referred to below we found TA P K Y M Bl OY, 
possibly Tarkyarios for life (fura fiiov), and we know of king Tarkondi- 
motos of Kilikia, so perhaps the prefix Tark has some royal significance 
then follows a long Kilikian name, and the inscription closes with TO 
OPBAAHZHTAOABEQI, probably giving us the name of this fortress- 
town which was above the town of Olba. Amongst these ruins the most 
conspicuous are those of a very large temple with twelve Corinthian col- 
umns, 40 ft. high, on either side two to the front and four to the back, 
each with twenty-three flutings; the building is 127 ft. long, and the 
proaulion-vroll which encircles it, and which is covered with marks and 
letters, is 222 ft. by 209 ft. This temple is wonderfully well preserved, 
having been a Christian church when Olba was metropolis of Isauria. 
There can be no doubt that this was the great temple of Zeus to which 
Strabo alludes, the priest-kings of which he tells us ruled over the whole 
of the Tracheiotis at one time, so that even in Strabo's time the terms 
were in use ' the country of Teukros ' and ' the priesthood of Teukros ' 
(Strabo, xn. 1). 

" There are two theatres on this site, a late Roman arch, a very elegant 
fa9ade of a temple of Tyche, with a long inscription which identifies it, 
and from another inscription we found that Dionysos also was worshipped 
here ; and there must have been a plentiful vintage in ancient times, 
judging from the number of wine-presses and the vats for storing wine. 
The general appearance of these ruins is very striking. There must also 
have been a colonnade like that at Pompeiopolis, and public buildings of 
a large extent cover the whole of the hill-slope. The largest of the 
theatres, however, is very small, being only 291 ft. on its outer semicircle ; 
behind stood a colonnade of magnificent columns ; but there is a second 
and smaller theatre, and another at Oura. There are no traces of city 


walls ; but from its position on the highest ground of the immediate dis- 
trict, with gorges of magnificent rockiness running down to right and 
left as from a water-shed, and with its strong castle, the position of Olba 
must have ensured absolute immunity from attack. The upper town was 
furnished with a separate aqueduct, and drew its water supply from the 
sources of the Lamas beyond Mara. 

LAMAS GORGE. "Our next work was to investigate the Lamas gorge 
from its mouth by the sea to its source in the mountains of Karamania. 
It is quite one of the finest works of nature I have ever seen, being never 
more than half a mile wide, and the precipitous cliffs on either side offer- 
ing, except at rare intervals, two continuous walls of 1,0.00 ft. in height. 
At a distance of every two or three miles we came across the ruins of 
castles and towns on either side, and abundant evidence of the rule of 
Olba from the oft recurring sign of the club. But only in one case did 
our inscriptions give us the name of the town, namely, BEMISOS, which 
from the magnitude of its ruins must have been nearly as large and im- 
portant as Olba itself, and had its own particular sign, the shield and 
spear, which appeared side by side with the club. 

" The features of this district are the rock-cut reliefs of men in armor 
with lance and spear there are several of them in the Lamas gorge 
and the sanctity of caves dedicated to Hermes and walled up with poly- 
gonal masonry. We found three of these caves in the toparchia of Olba ; 
one near Eabbasis, three stories in height, with several inscriptions ; an- 
other near Bemisos, in the Lamas gorge ; and a third, also with an 
inscription, in a gorge near Maidan, or Reorbasis, as the town was pre- 
sumably called in ancient times. On coins of Korykos, Hermes figures 
largely, and in this district we found many caducei carved over gateways 
or on the rocks. 

THE KORYKIAN CAVE. "Of course the great caves or natural holes on 
the plateau near the sea constitute the most familiar feature of the district, 
for one of them is the far-famed Korykian cave, the abode of the giant 
Typhon (Find., Pyth., I. 31). By stopping several days in a ruin near 
the edge of the Korykian cave, we were able to study it closely and sup- 
plement considerably the information given by previous travellers. At 
the entrance to the hole itself, which penetrates the bowels of the earth 
for over 200 ft., we unearthed a quaint four-versed epic cut on the rock ; 
it is in hexameter and pentameter, and breathes the spirit of the divine 
mystery which here uttered the frenzied oracles. Much in the same strain 
is* a Christian inscription over the door of a Byzantine church which 
blocks up the entrance to the hole. 

Ruins of a Christian Church. " Immediately above the cave stand the 
ruins of a Christian church, built with stones from a temple of Zeus, the 


remains of which crown an eminence about a mile above the cave. At one 
edge of this church we accidentally discovered that stones inscribed with 
a list of 162 names, some with and some without patronymics, were walled 
up. The earliest of these show many curious Kilikian names, which run 
gradually into Greek names, which in their turn become mixed with Roman 
names. On carefully studying this long list, I am inclined to think that they 
form a list of the priest-kings who, Strabo tells us, ruled over the Trachei- 
otis, for the following reasons : firstly, we have the name Teukros frequently 
repeated ; secondly, the name Polemon occurs, which we find on coins as 
dynast of Olba ; thirdly, Hermokrates, a priest whose name occurs in an 
inscription at Eabbasis ; fourthly, there are several of the name of Zeno- 
phanes, one of whom Strabo tells us was the father of Aba and one of the 
tyrants of Olba ; and, fifthly, the last of the names is Archelaos, and Strabo 
tells us how this portion of Kilikia Tracheia was handed over by Augustus 
to Archelaos, king of Kappadokia, and he ruled over the whole district, 
except Seleukeia, until his death, when Kilikia Tracheia became a Roman 
province. The temple of Zeus, on the hill above, was built of similar stones, 
and very little of it is left standing. Hence the presumption is that this 
list of names was cut on the walls of the former temple, and brought 
down for building purposes by later inhabitants. Close to the temple we 
found a dedication to the Korykian Zeus in similar phraseology to that 
of the Olbian Zeus, and a scribbling on the wall invoking the deity." 

MYTILENE= LESBOS. C. Cichorius has communicated to the Academy 
of Berlin (Nov. 7, 1889) some important inscriptions discovered by him now 
placed in the temple of Asklepios at Mytilene where the epigraphic arch- 
ives of the city were collected. He found them in the Turkish fortress 
which had already furnished several texts of the kind (Revue arch., 1889, 
II, p. 119). Among the new documents there are fragments of senatus- 
consulti and imperial letters emanating from Augustus. Some lines of a 
letter of Julius Caesar are the first authentic specimens we have of his 
Greek Style. It reads: [Fatos 'lovAios Kala-ap auTOKparjwp SiKTarwp T[O 
rjptrov Ka$e[crTa//,vos MvTiA^vaicov ap^ovcn /3ov]X|} Srjfjuo ^aijoetv KCU ppawr0ai 
KOL [vyiaiWiv. 'ETret at /?ovA.o//,ai] vepyeTU> r)i> TroXtv KCU ov fj,6[vov <f>v\a.T- 
TLv TO, <f>iXdv@p(i)7ra, a 8i7rpa]a<r$e Si rjfi^v, dAAa /cat cn>vav]aj/etv avra . . . 
rrjv ^ye/xovtav <Aia5 8oy[/w,aros T v/uv oruy/cc^wp^/xevov 8i]a7re7ro//,<a 
v/xas TO d[vTiypa</>ov]. The date of this fragment is October-December 
709. It is badly mutilated. Revue arch., 1890, I, p. 283. 

of the great sarcophagus, whose discovery was mentioned on p. 90 of vol. 
v, have been described by M. Kontoleon in ihQAthen. MittheiL, xiv, p. 129. 
Among the forty-two objects are a finely-engraved agate with a bust of 
Hera, gold jewelry, a gold bracelet adorned with gems, a gold ring with 


bezel engraved with a head of Athena, another with a standing figure of 
Athena, glassware, an ivory plaque with an Eros in relief, six balls (of 
which three are crystal, one electrum, and two sardonyx), a small silver 
basrelief representing a Centaur and an Eros, another with Aphrodite and 
Erotes, a tortoise, grasshoppers and votive clubs in electrum, an egg of jas- 
per, a small onyx vase, a coin of a Roman emperor, another of Pergamon (?), 
a tessera with a male bust and on the other side the inscription XIIII|(M)6N- 
A N A PO(Z) | A. All these objects have been carried to Constantinople. 
Revue arch., 1890, I, p. 290. 

SMYRNA. Dr. HUMANN reports that in the neighborhood of Smyrna 
he has excavated five marble lions of gigantic size. Athenaeum, May 24. 


details (Revue arch., 1890, I, p. 286) regarding the discoveries made by 
M. de Castillon at Kourion (1886-7). They include, especially, some 
fine bracelets adorned with animal heads ; a magnificent gold ring with 
an engraving representing a vessel ; a large Panathenaic vase with an 
inscription and the representation of a chariot race, in admirable preser- 
vation ; numerous jewels in gold and silver ; etc. The contents of the 
tombs were exclusively Hellenic, though it is said that the excavation ne- 
glected the common pottery. These discoveries should be placed in the 
Louvre without delay. 

190-96). Messrs. MUNRO and TUBES write from Salamis under dates of 
April 26, May 10, and June 1 : April 26. " Of the sites working imme- 
diately after Easter two are practically done with. The large building 
with massive limestone columns did not yield encouraging results, and it 
has been, for the present, abandoned. TOV/ATTO, ran dry two days ago. The 
main trench is exhausted, and we are now filling in the holes. The finds 
continued to the end to be of the same interesting character as before 
scarabs, little porcelain figures, and statuettes of terracotta or limestone, 
with fragments of colossal statues in painted drapery. On the other hand, 
the Agora has been taken up again on a small scale, with the view of set- 
tling some dubious points. It has given us a pretty little head from a 
marble statuette. 

Second Site. " There remains the sand-site by the house, on which our 
main forces have been concentrated. Progress has been slow, owing to 
the enormous depth of sand, fully twenty feet, with which we -now have 
to contend. The east wall, with the great fluted marble columns, is gradu- 
ally being cleared, and several of the bases have been found, one of them 
supporting a large standing fragment of column. On the east side of the 


wall is a tessellated marble pavement, apparently well preserved, and a 
fragment of dark-blue marble column with twisted fluting has just been 
uncovered. Finds of fragments of marble statues of the Roman period 
have been fairly frequent, and one female head, slightly under life-size, is 
an admirable example of the best work of the time. It is a hopeful sign 
that the east side is the productive side of the site, and that heads are to 
be found there but little damaged. 

May 10. " One main site is now in work, that of the supposed Zeus 
temple in the sand. The east front wall is being thoroughly cleared down 
to the level of the soil. That much still remains to be done will be suffi- 
ciently apparent from the fact that the centre of the parallelogram is as 
yet all but untouched, that the south wall is opened only at its two eastern 
and western corners, that the remains beyond the limits of the colonnade 
wall northeast and southeast are necessarily left on one side ; and even the 
section of the east wall, which has been so prolific of statuary, has as yet 
only been worked to the sand level, and the soil beneath, in which, to 
judge from previous digging a few weeks back, there is still plenty of 
spoil, has been left untouched. Thus confined as our operations neces- 
sarily are for want of funds, we have little that is new from an architec- 
tural point 'of view. That the large fluted columns which I described in 
my last report did form the east front of the temple seems now practically 
certain; beyond them we have just tapped, and tapped only, a mass of 
later constructions high up in the sand, and beneath them there are, no 
doubt, older remains. Of actual finds more may be said. The fortnight 
opened with the uncovering of a colossal nude male torso, of late but good 
work, to which, apparently, belong some lower portions of a similar figure 
found a few days before. Since then there has been added to the list a 
marble statue, under life-size, of the aegis-bearing Athena, in the usual 
pose, but wanting head and arms. The work is Roman, as is also that of 
another female statue now nearly complete in three fragments, but with 
the head wanting. Thus at one time or another in the course of the ex- 
cavations quite a line of statuary has been found following the direction, 
but by. no means preserving the limits, of the east wall. 

Tombs. " We had resolved to make some trial of the tombs ; but vir- 
tually the only tomb worked is a large Roman sepulchre not far from the 
monastery of St. Barnabas. The villagers had already attempted to rifle 
it, for the shaft had fallen in, but had somehow been frightened off. The 
tomb is finely made cut in the rocks with a triple arrangement of 
couches on which were placed sarcophagi of terracotta. The contents, 
which are undamaged, are characteristically Roman earrings, terracotta 
lamps and vases, glass. 


Junel. " The season's work at Salamis was brought to a close on May 
24. On the 28th, the antiquities were divided with the Government, and two 
days hence the excavators' share will sail for Larnaca on its way to Eng- 
land. Of the last fortnight of work the first week was a very active one. 
With the second came the beginning of the wheat harvest and the news further funds were forthcoming. The site south of the Enkomi 
road, TOV/ATTO, TOV Mi^a^A.?;, led to no tangible results beyond a quantity of 
fragments of inscriptions. The rock lies within a few feet of the surface, 
and any buildings that may have existed upon it have totally disappeared. 
A fresh try was made for tombs in a large field to the north of the same 
road. Tombs were found in abundance, which, though small, were of good 
construction, and of fairly early date. But all had been systematically rob- 
bed, the robbers tunnelling from one to another through the thin dividing 
walls. From May 16 onward, the work was confined to the sand-site. 

" The progress made may be briefly summarized. The east wall, with 
the great marble columns, has been laid bare from end to end: the marble 
pavement to the east of the wall has been cleared as far as was practicable, 
and followed eastward in one place up to the limestone wall, which seems 
to bound it in that direction : at this easternmost point an admirably con- 
structed limestone wall was discovered, extending some feet downward be- 
low the level of the pavement, and serving as a foundation for inferior late 
building : at the north and south ends of the marble pavement two steps, 
similarly paved, lead upward, and beyond them there is, at least at the 
south end, a marble pavement at a lower level again. All along the eas- 
tern extremity of the excavation there seem to be remains of extensive lime- 
stone building, large squared blocks, architectural fragments, and walls. 
These remains, together with the enormous depth of sand, hindered progress 
not a little. During the course of these developments, besides a number 
of fragments, two more headless marble statues were found, a small marble 
head, and the upper part, without the head, of the colossal female marble 
statue. With the last was a hand holding a snake, of the same scale, which 
seems to prove that the statue represents a goddess. Another point which 
was investigated during the last week of work was the centre of the site. 
Nothing, however, came to light but a remnant of poor wall. It must be 
sufficiently obvious that the sand-site is far from finished, lack of money 
alone stopped the work. The limestone remains at the eastern extremity 
of the site are of great interest, and it may be that they only commence 
the really important part of the building. It is noteworthy, although per- 
haps accounted for by the greater depth of sand, that only the east end of 
the site has been at all fertile in antiquities ; and it must be remembered 
that the level of the pavement has not been passed, except in the single 
cutting made to investigate the above-mentioned limestone wall. Another 


season's work is urgently called for, and it is to be hoped that, after so much 
has been done, funds will not be lacking to complete the excavation. We 
commend both this site and the great field offered for further operations 
by the ruins of Salamis to the liberality of the subscribers to the fund." 
Athenceum, June 14, July 5. 


ODYSSEUS' FEAT OF ARCHERY. A solution is offered, in the Berl. phil. 
Wochenschrift (1890, No. 23), of the vexed question as to